ANEXO 14 - AERODROMES

ANEXO 14 - AERODROMES
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
AERODROMES
ANNEX 14
TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
VOLUME I
AERODROME DESIGN AND OPERATIONS
THIRD EDITION — JULY 1999
This edition incorporates all amendments to Annex 14, Volume I,
adopted by the Council prior to 6 March 1999 and
supersedes on 4 November 1999 all previous editions
of Annex 14, Volume I.
For information regarding the applicability of the Standards and
Recommended Practices, see Chapter 1, 1.2 and Foreword.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION
AMENDMENTS
The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the
monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual
Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below
is provided to keep a record of such amendments.
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA
AMENDMENTS
No.
Date
applicable
1-3
4
Date
entered
CORRIGENDA
Entered
by
No.
Incorporated in this edition
1/11/01
(ii)
Date
of issue
Date
entered
Entered
by
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Abbreviations and symbols; manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page
(v)
4.3
4.4
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(vii)
CHAPTER 1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Certification of aerodromes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Reference code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
5
6
6
CHAPTER 2. Aerodrome data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 Aeronautical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Aerodrome reference point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Aerodrome and runway elevations . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Aerodrome reference temperature . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Aerodrome dimensions and related
information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Strength of pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Pre-flight altimeter check location . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 Declared distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 Condition of the movement area and related
facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 Disabled aircraft removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11 Rescue and fire fighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.12 Visual approach slope indicator systems . . . . .
2.13 Coordination between aeronautical
information services and aerodrome
authorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
7
7
8
8
10
11
12
12
12
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CHAPTER 4. Obstacle restriction and removal . . . . .
4.1 Obstacle limitation surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Obstacle limitation requirements . . . . . . . . . . .
32
32
36
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
CHAPTER 5. Visual aids for navigation . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 Indicators and signalling devices . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Wind direction indicators . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 Landing direction indicator . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 Signalling lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.4 Signal panels and signal area . . . . . . .
5.2 Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Runway designation marking . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Runway centre line marking . . . . . . . .
5.2.4 Threshold marking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5 Aiming point marking . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.6 Touchdown zone marking . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.7 Runway side stripe marking . . . . . . . .
5.2.8 Taxiway centre line marking. . . . . . . .
5.2.9 Runway-holding position marking . . .
5.2.10 Intermediate holding position
marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.11 VOR aerodrome check-point
marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.12 Aircraft stand markings . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.13 Apron safety lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.14 Road-holding position marking. . . . . .
5.2.15 Mandatory instruction marking . . . . . .
5.2.16 Information marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 Emergency lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3 Aeronautical beacons. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4 Approach lighting systems . . . . . . . . .
5.3.5 Visual approach slope indicator
systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.6 Circling guidance lights. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.7 Runway lead-in lighting systems . . . .
5.3.8 Runway threshold identification
lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.9 Runway edge lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.10 Runway threshold and wing bar
lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.11 Runway end lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.12 Runway centre line lights . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.13 Runway touchdown zone lights . . . . .
5.3.14 Stopway lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.15 Taxiway centre line lights . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.16 Taxiway edge lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.17 Stop bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.18 Intermediate holding position lights . .
8
8
10
10
CHAPTER 3. Physical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Runways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Runway shoulders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Runway strips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Runway end safety areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Clearways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Stopways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Radio altimeter operating area . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8 Taxiways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9 Taxiway shoulders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10 Taxiway strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11 Holding bays, runway-holding positions,
intermediate holding positions and
road-holding positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12 Aprons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.13 Isolated aircraft parking position . . . . . . . . . . .
3.14 De-icing/anti-icing facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Objects outside the obstacle limitation
surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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(iii)
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5.3.19
5.3.20
5.3.21
5.3.22
5.3.23
De-icing/anti-icing facility exit lights
Runway guard lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apron floodlighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual docking guidance system . . . .
Aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance
lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.24 Road-holding position light . . . . . . . .
Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Mandatory instruction signs . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Information signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 VOR aerodrome check-point sign . . .
5.4.5 Aerodrome identification sign . . . . . .
5.4.6 Aircraft stand identification signs . . .
5.4.7 Road-holding position sign. . . . . . . . .
Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2 Unpaved runway edge markers . . . . .
5.5.3 Stopway edge markers . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.4 Edge markers for snow-covered
runways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.5 Taxiway edge markers . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.6 Taxiway centre line markers . . . . . . .
5.5.7 Unpaved taxiway edge markers . . . . .
5.5.8 Boundary markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
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87
87
CHAPTER 6. Visual aids for denoting obstacles . . . .
6.1 Objects to be marked and/or lighted . . . . . . . .
6.2 Marking of objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Lighting of objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100
100
101
104
5.4
5.5
CHAPTER 7. Visual aids for denoting restricted
use areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1 Closed runways and taxiways, or parts
thereof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Non-load-bearing surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Pre-threshold area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 Unserviceable areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bird hazard reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Apron management service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ground servicing of aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
122
125
126
126
88
89
89
89
90
94
96
97
97
97
97
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98
APPENDIX 1. Colours for aeronautical ground lights,
markings, signs and panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Colours for aeronautical ground lights . . . . . . . .
3. Colours for markings, signs and panels . . . . . . .
127
127
127
128
APPENDIX 2. Aeronautical ground light
characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
134
APPENDIX 3. Mandatory instruction markings and
information markings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
158
APPENDIX 4. Requirements concerning design of
taxiing guidance signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
164
98
98
98
99
99
APPENDIX 5. Aeronautical data quality requirements .
175
APPENDIX 6.
178
CHAPTER 9. Emergency and other services . . . . . . .
9.1 Aerodrome emergency planning . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 Rescue and fire fighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 Disabled aircraft removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
117
117
118
122
Location of lights on obstacles. . . . . . .
ATTACHMENT A. Guidance material supplementary
to Annex 14, Volume I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. Number, siting and orientation of runways. . . . .
2. Clearways and stopways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Calculation of declared distances . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Slopes on a runway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Runway surface evenness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Determining and expressing the friction
characteristics of snow- and ice-covered
paved surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Determination of friction characteristics of
wet paved runways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. Runway end safety areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. Location of threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Approach lighting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. Priority of installation of visual approach slope
indicator systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13. Lighting of unserviceable areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14. Intensity control of approach and
runway lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15. Signal area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16. Rescue and fire fighting services . . . . . . . . . . . .
17. Operators of vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18. The ACN-PCN method of reporting pavement
strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
108
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No. 4
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
108
CHAPTER 8. Equipment and installations . . . . . . . . .
8.1 Secondary power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2 Electrical systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4 Fencing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5 Security lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6 Airport design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7 Siting and construction of equipment and
installations on operational areas . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8 Aerodrome vehicle operations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9 Surface movement guidance and control
systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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ATTACHMENT B.
(iv)
187
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201
202
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204
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Obstacle limitation surfaces. . . . .
206
LIMITED INDEX OF SIGNIFICANT SUBJECTS
INCLUDED IN ANNEX 14, VOLUME I . . . . . . . . . . .
207
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
(used in Annex 14, Volume I)
Abbreviations
ACN
aprx
ASDA
ATS
cd
C
CBR
CIE
cm
DME
ft
ILS
IMC
K
kg
km
km/h
kt
L
LDA
m
max
mm
mnm
MN
Abbreviations
Aircraft classification number
Approximately
Accelerate-stop distance available
Air traffic services
Candela
Degree Celsius
California bearing ratio
Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage
Centimetre
Distance measuring equipment
Foot
Instrument landing system
Instrument meteorological conditions
Degree Kelvin
Kilogram
Kilometre
Kilometre per hour
Knot
Litre
Landing distance available
Metre
Maximum
Millimetre
Minimum
Meganewton
MPa
NM
NU
OCA/H
OFZ
PCN
RESA
RVR
TODA
TORA
VMC
VOR
Megapascal
Nautical mile
Not usable
Obstacle clearance altitude/height
Obstacle free zone
Pavement classification number
Runway end safety area
Runway visual range
Take-off distance available
Take-off run available
Visual meteorological conditions
Very high frequency omnidirectional
radio range
Symbols
°
=
′
µ
>
<
%
±
Degree
Equals
Minute of arc
Friction coefficient
Greater than
Less than
Percentage
Plus or minus
MANUALS
(related to the specifications of this Annex)
Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157)
Part 1 — Runways
Part 2 — Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays
Part 3 — Pavements
Part 4 — Visual Aids
Part 5 — Electrical Systems
Part 6 — Frangibility (in preparation)
Part
Part
Part
Part
6
7
8
9
—
—
—
—
Control of Obstacles
Airport Emergency Planning
Airport Operational Services
Airport Maintenance Practices
Heliport Manual (Doc 9261)
Stolport Manual (Doc 9150)
Airport Planning Manual (Doc 9184)
Part 1 — Master Planning
Part 2 — Land Use and Environmental Control
Part 3 — Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Services
Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS)
(Doc 9332)
Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems
(SMGCS) (Doc 9476)
Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137)
Part 1 — Rescue and Fire Fighting
Part 2 — Pavement Surface Conditions
Part 3 — Bird Control and Reduction
Part 4 — Fog Dispersal (withdrawn)
Part 5 — Removal of Disabled Aircraft
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
Manual on Certification of Aerodromes (Doc 9774)
Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683)
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FOREWORD
Historical background
Status of Annex components
Standards and Recommended Practices for Aerodromes were
first adopted by the Council on 29 May 1951 pursuant to the
provisions of Article 37 of the Convention on International
Civil Aviation (Chicago 1944) and designated as Annex 14 to
the Convention. The Standards and Recommended Practices
were based on recommendations of the Aerodromes, Air
Routes and Ground Aids Division at its third session in
September 1947 and at its fourth session in November 1949.
An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not
all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex;
they have the status indicated:
1.— Material comprising the Annex proper:
a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by
the Council under the provisions of the Convention.
They are defined as follows:
Table A shows the origin of subsequent amendments
together with a list of the principal subjects involved and the
dates on which the Annex and the amendments were adopted
by the Council, when they became effective and when they
became applicable.
Standard: Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of
which is recognized as necessary for the safety or
regularity of international air navigation and to which
Contracting States will conform in accordance with
the Convention; in the event of impossibility of
compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38.
Action by Contracting States
Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting States
is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the
Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify
the Organization of any differences between their national
regulations and practices and the International Standards
contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto.
Contracting States are invited to extend such notification to
any differences from the Recommended Practices contained in
this Annex and any amendments thereto, when the notification
of such differences is important for the safety of air
navigation. Further, Contracting States are invited to keep the
Organization currently informed of any differences which may
subsequently occur, or of the withdrawal of any differences
previously notified. A specified request for notification of
differences will be sent to Contracting States immediately after
the adoption of each amendment to this Annex.
Recommended Practice: Any specification for
physical characteristics, configuration, matériel,
performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform
application of which is recognized as desirable in the
interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting
States will endeavour to conform in accordance with
the Convention.
b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately
for convenience but forming part of the Standards
and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council.
c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and
Recommended Practices which are not selfexplanatory in that they do not have accepted
dictionary meanings. A definition does not have
independent status but is an essential part of each
Standard and Recommended Practice in which the
term is used, since a change in the meaning of the
term would affect the specification.
The attention of States is also drawn to the provisions of
Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between
their national regulations and practices and the related ICAO
Standards and Recommended Practices through the Aeronautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation of
States under Article 38 of the Convention.
Promulgation of information. The establishment and withdrawal of and changes to facilities, services and procedures
affecting aircraft operations provided in accordance with the
Standards and Recommended Practices specified in this Annex
should be notified and take effect in accordance with the
provisions of Annex 15.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
d) Tables and
Standard or
referred to
Standard or
same status.
(vii)
Figures which add to or illustrate a
Recommended Practice and which are
therein, form part of the associated
Recommended Practice and have the
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
2.— Material approved by the Council for publication in
association with the Standards and Recommended Practices:
the Convention, either through direct use or through
translation into its own national language, and to notify the
Organization accordingly.
a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory
material based on the action of the Council and
including an explanation of the obligations of States
with regard to the application of the Standards and
Recommended Practices ensuing from the Convention and the Resolution of Adoption.
Editorial practices
The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate
at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been
printed in light face roman; Recommended Practices have
been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by
the prefix Recommendation; Notes have been printed in light
face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note.
b) Introductions comprising explanatory material introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or sections
of the Annex to assist in the understanding of the
application of the text.
c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give
factual information or references bearing on the
Standards or Recommended Practices in question,
but not constituting part of the Standards or Recommended Practices.
The following editorial practice has been followed in the
writing of specifications: for Standards the operative verb
“shall” is used, and for Recommended Practices the operative
verb “should” is used.
The units of measurement used in this document are in
accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as
specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative
units these are shown in parentheses following the basic units.
Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that
the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may,
however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is
achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.
d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to
the Standards and Recommended Practices, or
included as a guide to their application.
Selection of language
This Annex has been adopted in five languages — English,
Arabic, French, Russian and Spanish. Each Contracting State
is requested to select one of those texts for the purpose of
national implementation and for other effects provided for in
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Any reference to a portion of this document, which is
identified by a number and/or title, includes all subdivisions of
that portion.
(viii)
Foreword
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Table A.
Amendments to Annex 14, Volume I
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
Amendment
Source(s)
Subject(s)
1st Edition
Third and Fourth
Sessions of the
Aerodromes, Air
Routes and Ground
Aids Division
—
29 May 1951
1 November 1951
1 June 1952*
1 June 1954
1 to 6
Fifth Session of the
Aerodromes, Air
Routes and Ground
Aids Division
Physical characteristics of runways, strips, clearways, stopways, taxiways and
aprons; physical characteristics of channels, turning basins, taxi channels and
mooring areas; approach areas; clearing and restriction of obstructions;
obstruction marking; marking of unserviceable portions of the movement area;
secondary power supply; aerodrome beacon; runway markings; stopway
markers;
approach, lead-in and runway lighting.
20 May 1953
1 September 1953
1 April 1954*
1 January 1955
7 to 13
Sixth Session of the
Aerodromes, Air
Routes and Ground
Aids Division
Physical characteristics of runways, strips, taxiways and aprons; approach and
take-off areas and surfaces; clearing and restriction of obstructions; obstruction
markings; runway markings; stopway markers; taxiway markings; approach,
runway and taxiway lighting; circling guidance lights; rescue and fire fighting
services.
12 May 1958
1 September 1958
1 December 1958
14
Correspondence
Precision approach lighting system.
7 May 1959
1 October 1959
1 October 1959
15
Vertical Separation
Panel
Pre-flight altimeter check-point.
15 May 1959
1 October 1959
1 October 1959
16
Correspondence
Extinguishing agents.
2 December 1960
2 December 1960
2 December 1960
17
Correspondence
Pre-flight altimeter check-point.
2 December 1960
2 December 1960
2 December 1960
18
First Meeting of the
ANC Visual Aids
Panel
VASIS
9 June 1961
1 October 1961
1 October 1961
19
Seventh Session of
the Aerodromes, Air
Routes and Ground
Aids Division
Physical characteristics of runways, clearways, stopways, taxiways and aprons;
take-off and approach areas; clearing and restriction of obstructions; obstruction
markings; wind direction indicator; landing direction indicator; aerodrome beacon;
runway markings; approach lighting system; runway alignment indicator; runway
centre line; touchdown zone and taxiway lighting; rescue and fire fighting
services.
23 March 1964
1 August 1964
1 November 1964
20
Second Meeting of
the ANC Visual
Aids Panel
Visual aids for use in operational performance category II conditions.
13 December 1965
13 April 1966
25 August 1966
* Two applicability dates approved.
(ix)
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Amendment
Volume I
Source(s)
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
21
Fourth Air
Navigation
Conference and
Fourth Meeting of
the ANC Visual
Aids Panel
Emergency lighting; threshold marking; fixed distance marking; approach light
beacons; taxiway centre line lighting; secondary power supply; maintenance of
aerodrome lighting and marking aids; monitoring of visual aids.
28 June 1967
28 October 1967
8 February 1968
22
Correspondence and
ANC Visual Aids
Panel
VOR aerodrome check-point marking and sign.
28 June 1968
28 October 1968
18 September
1969
23
Fifth Air Navigation
Conference
Declared distances; strength of pavements; information on aerodrome conditions;
reference code letters; runway length correction for slope; runway strips; taxiway
clearances; holding bays; taxi-holding position markings; approach lighting
systems; visual approach slope indicator systems; secondary power supply; rescue
and fire fighting services; bird hazard reduction services.
23 January 1969
23 May 1969
18 September
1969
24
Fifth Meeting of the
ANC Visual Aids
Panel and First
Meeting of the ANC
Rescue and Fire
Fighting Panel
Marking of unusable or unserviceable portions of the movement area;
touchdown
zone markings; category II holding position marking and sign; T-VASIS and
AT-VASIS; runway edge lighting; exit taxiway centre line lighting; stop bars
and
clearance bars; emergency access roads; colour specifications for lights.
31 March 1971
6 September 1971
6 January 1972
25
ANC Visual Aids
Panel
Visual approach slope guidance for long-bodied aircraft.
26 May 1971
26 September
1971
6 January 1972
26
Seventeenth Session
of the Assembly and
Middle East/South
East Asia Regional
Air Navigation
Meeting
Aerodrome security; water rescue vehicles.
15 December 1971
15 April 1972
7 December 1971
27
ANC Visual Aids
Panel and Middle
East/South East Asia
Regional Air
Navigation Meeting
Runway centre line light colour coding; maintenance services.
20 March 1972
20 July 1972
7 December 1972
28
Secretariat and Sixth
Meeting of the ANC
Visual Aids Panel
Definition for snow on the ground; frangibility of light fixtures; runway centre
line
marking; taxiway centre line lighting; colour specifications for lights.
11 December 1972
11 April 1973
16 August 1973
29
Council action in
pursuance of
Assembly
Resolutions A17-10
and A18-10
Aerodrome security.
7 December 1973
7 April 1974
23 May 1974
30
Eighth Air
Navigation
Conference and
editorial revision of
the Annex
Runway shoulders and strips; runway end safety areas; aerodrome reference
temperature; clearways; holding bays; physical characteristics of taxiways;
taxiway shoulders and strips; pavement strength; runway transverse slopes;
runway braking action; obstacle limitation surfaces; category III runway lighting
and marking; taxiway lighting; stop bars; rescue and fire fighting services;
disabled aircraft removal.
3 February 1976
3 June 1976
30 December 1976
4/11/99
(x)
Foreword
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Amendment
Source(s)
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
31
Seventh Meeting of
the ANC Visual
Aids Panel and Fifth
Meeting of the ANC
Obstacle Clearance
Panel
Obstacle limitation surfaces; light intensity control; inset light temperatures;
taxiway centre line lights; apron floodlighting; visual docking guidance systems;
signs; maintenance of visual aids.
13 December 1976
13 April 1977
6 October 1977
32
Correspondence and
ANC Visual Aids
Panel
Definition of frangibility; siting and construction of equipment and installations on
operational areas; colour specifications for lights and markings.
14 December 1977
14 April 1978
10 August 1978
33
Correspondence and
Secretariat
Reporting of information on visual approach slope indicator systems; runway,
taxiway and taxi-holding position markings; approach lighting for displaced
thresholds; runway edge and centre line lights; aerodrome emergency planning.
26 March 1979
26 July 1979
29 November 1979
34
Eighth Meeting of
the ANC Visual
Aids Panel
Apron markings; precision approach lighting systems; visual approach slope
indicator systems; circling guidance lights; runway lead-in lighting systems; stop
bars; visual docking guidance system; aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance
lights;
aircraft stand identification signs; marking and lighting of obstacles.
30 November 1979
30 March 1980
27 November 1980
35
Secretariat and the
ANC Visual Aids
Panel
Reporting of pavement strength; visual approach slope indicator systems;
approach lighting systems; maintenance of lighting.
23 March 1981
23 July 1981
26 November 1981
36
Aerodromes, Air
Routes and Ground
Aids Divisional
Meeting (1981),
Ninth Meeting of the
ANC Visual Aids
Panel and Secretariat
Aerodrome reference code; runway friction characteristics; runway end safety
areas; taxiway separation distances; rapid exit taxiways; taxiways on bridges;
holding bays; obstacle limitation surfaces; PAPI; taxi-holding position marking
and lights; runway centre line guidance; visual ground signals; rescue and fire
fighting; apron management service; declared distances; ground servicing of
aircraft; units of measure.
22 November 1982
23 March 1983
24 November 1983
37
Secretariat
Fuelling.
29 March 1983
29 July 1983
24 November 1983
38
Secretariat and the
ANC Visual Aids
Panel
Aerodrome data; APAPI; colour coding of exit taxiway centre line lights; stop
bars; taxi-holding position lights; taxiway edge markers; markers for overhead
wires; obstacle lighting of lighthouses; maintenance of taxiway centre line
lights;
surface marking colours.
17 March 1986
27 July 1986
20 November 1986
39
(Annex 14,
Volume I,
1st Edition)
Secretariat and the
ANC Visual Aids
Panel
1. Annex to be issued in two volumes as follows: Volume I — Aerodrome
Design and Operations (incorporating provisions in the eighth edition of
Annex 14 as amended by Amendment 39) and Volume II — Heliports.
9 March 1990
30 July 1990
15 November 1990
2. Take-off runways; aerodrome reference code; reporting of pavement
strength;
runway friction characteristics; conditions of movement area; separation of
parallel runways; taxiway minimum separation distances; taxi-holding position
marking; installation tolerances for PAPI; obstacle protection surface; stop bars;
signs; taxiway centre line markers; aerodrome security; surface movement
guidance and control; aerodrome emergency planning; rescue and fire fighting;
maintenance; runway pavement overlay; bird hazard reduction; apron
management service; colours for transilluminated signs and panels; aeronautical
ground light characteristics.
(xi)
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
Amendment
Source(s)
Subject(s)
1
(Annex 14,
Volume I,
2nd Edition)
Twelfth Meeting of
the ANC Visual
Aids Panel and
Secretariat
Definitions of frangible object, precision approach runways, road, road-holding
position, runway guard lights, and taxi-holding position; standard geodetic
reference system; radio altimeter operating area, minimum distance between
parallel runways; frangibility; runway and taxiway markings, aeronautical
beacons, lighting aids for MLS operations, deletion of specifications on VASIS
(AVASIS) and 3-BAR VASIS (3-BAR AVASIS), stop bars, runway guard lights,
visual docking guidance system, taxiing guidance signs; obstacle lighting; visual
aids for denoting restricted use areas; secondary power supply, electrical systems,
monitoring, airport design, surface movement guidance and control systems;
rescue and fire fighting, maintenance of visual aids; aeronautical ground light
characteristics; form and proportions of information marking; design of taxiing
guidance signs; friction characteristics of wet runways.
13 March 1995
24 July 1995
9 November 1995
Air Navigation
Commission
Aeronautical data bases and vertical component of the World Geodetic
System — 1984 (WGS-84).
20 March 1997
21 July 1997
6 November 1997
3
(Annex 14,
Volume I,
3rd Edition)
Thirteenth Meeting
of the ANC Visual
Aids Panel and
Secretariat
Definitions of aerodrome traffic density, de/anti-icing facility, de/anti-icing pad,
holdover time, Human Factors principles, human performance, intermediate
holding position, runway-holding position, signs, switch-over time; new
aerodrome reference code letter F in Table1-1; runways, taxiways and taxiway
minimum separation distances related to code letter F aeroplane operations, sight
distance, runway strips, runway end safety areas, clearways, stopways, taxiways
on bridges, holding bays, runway-holding positions, intermediate holding
positions and road holding positions, de/anti-icing facilities; obstacle-free zone
width for code letter F; runway-holding position marking, intermediate holding
position marking, mandatory instruction marking, marking of de/anti-icing
facilities, approach lighting systems, runway and taxiway centre line lights, stop
bars, intermediate holding position lights, lighting of de/anti-icing facilities,
runway guard lights, variable message signs, intersection take-off signs; visual
aids for denoting obstacles; secondary power supply switch-over time, security
measures in airport design, frangibility of non-visual aids on operational areas;
Human Factors principles applied to aerodrome emergency planning, rescue and
fire fighting, and maintenance, system of preventive maintenance for precision
approach runways, categories II and III; colour measurement of aeronautical
ground lights; isocandela diagrams for high-intensity taxiway centre line lights
and runway guard lights; measurement of the average luminance of a sign,
Table 4.1 of Appendix 4; Appendix 6.
5 March 1999
19 July 1999
4 November 1999
4
Secretariat and the
Twelfth Meeting of
the ANC Obstacle
Clearance Panel
Definitions of aerodrome certificate, certified aerodrome, safety management
system; certification of aerodromes; obstacle limitation surfaces; specifications
concerning aerodrome emergency planning; rescue and fire fighting.
12 March 2001
16 July 2001
1 November 2001
2
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No. 4
(xii)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
CHAPTER 1.
Introductory Note.— This Annex contains Standards and
Recommended Practices (specifications) that prescribe the
physical characteristics and obstacle limitation surfaces to be
provided for at aerodromes, and certain facilities and technical services normally provided at an aerodrome. It is not
intended that these specifications limit or regulate the
operation of an aircraft.
1.1 Definitions
When the following terms are used in this Annex they have the
following meanings:
Accuracy. A degree of conformance between the estimated or
measured value and the true value.
Note.— For measured positional data, the accuracy is
normally expressed in terms of a distance from a stated
position within which there is a defined confidence of the true
position falling.
To a great extent, the specifications for individual facilities
detailed in Annex 14, Volume I, have been interrelated by a
reference code system, described in this chapter, and by the
designation of the type of runway for which they are to be
provided, as specified in the definitions. This not only
simplifies the reading of Volume I of this Annex, but in most
cases, provides for efficiently proportioned aerodromes when
the specifications are followed.
Aerodrome. A defined area on land or water (including any
buildings, installations, and equipment) intended to be used
either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and
surface movement of aircraft.
This document sets forth the minimum aerodrome specifications for aircraft which have the characteristics of those
which are currently operating or for similar aircraft that are
planned for introduction. Accordingly, any additional safeguards that might be considered appropriate to provide for
more demanding aircraft are not taken into account. Such
matters are left to appropriate authorities to evaluate and take
into account as necessary for each particular aerodrome.
Guidance on some possible effects of future aircraft on these
specifications is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual,
Part 2.
Aerodrome beacon. Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the
location of an aerodrome from the air.
Aerodrome certificate. A certificate issued by the appropriate
authority under applicable regulations for the operation of
an aerodrome.
Aerodrome elevation. The elevation of the highest point of the
landing area.
Aerodrome identification sign. A sign placed on an aerodrome to aid in identifying the aerodrome from the air.
It is to be noted that the specifications for precision approach
runways categories II and III are only applicable to runways
intended to be used by aeroplanes in code numbers 3 and 4.
Aerodrome reference point. The designated geographical
location of an aerodrome.
Annex 14, Volume I, does not include specifications
relating to the overall planning of aerodromes (such as
separation between adjacent aerodromes or capacity of
individual aerodromes) or to economic and other nontechnical factors that need to be considered in the
development of an aerodrome. Information on these subjects is
included in the Airport Planning Manual, Part 1.
Aerodrome traffic density.
a) Light. Where the number of movements in the mean
busy hour is not greater than 15 per runway or typically
less than 20 total aerodrome movements.
b) Medium. Where the number of movements in the mean
busy hour is of the order of 16 to 25 per runway or
typically between 20 to 35 total aerodrome movements.
Aviation security is an integral part of aerodrome planning
and operations. Annex 14, Volume I, contains several
specifications aimed at enhancing the level of security at
aerodromes. Specifications on other facilities related to
security are given in Annex 17 and detailed guidance on the
subject is contained in the ICAO Security Manual.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
GENERAL
c) Heavy. Where the number of movements in the mean
busy hour is of the order of 26 or more per runway or
typically more than 35 total aerodrome movements.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Note 1.— The number of movements in the mean busy hour
is the arithmetic mean over the year of the number of
movements in the daily busiest hour.
discharge of electricity at high voltage through a gas
enclosed in a tube.
Certified aerodrome. An aerodrome whose operator has been
granted an aerodrome certificate.
Note 2.— Either a take-off or a landing constitutes a
movement.
Aeronautical beacon. An aeronautical ground light visible
at all azimuths, either continuously or intermittently, to
designate a particular point on the surface of the earth.
Clearway. A defined rectangular area on the ground or water
under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or
prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may
make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.
Aeronautical ground light. Any light specially provided as an
aid to air navigation, other than a light displayed on an
aircraft.
Cyclic redundancy check (CRC). A mathematical algorithm
applied to the digital expression of data that provides a
level of assurance against loss or alteration of data.
Aeroplane reference field length. The minimum field length
required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off
mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air
and zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate
aeroplane flight manual prescribed by the certificating
authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer. Field length means balanced field length for
aeroplanes, if applicable, or take-off distance in other cases.
Data quality. A degree or level of confidence that the data
provided meet the requirements of the data user in terms of
accuracy, resolution and integrity.
De-icing/anti-icing facility. A facility where frost, ice or snow
is removed (de-icing) from the aeroplane to provide clean
surfaces, and/or where clean surfaces of the aeroplane
receive protection (anti-icing) against the formation of frost
or ice and accumulation of snow or slush for a limited
period of time.
Note.— Attachment A, Section 2 provides information on
the concept of balanced field length and the Airworthiness
Manual (Doc 9760) contains detailed guidance on matters
related to take-off distance.
Note.— Further guidance is given in the Manual of Aircraft
Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations (Doc 9640).
De-icing/anti-icing pad. An area comprising an inner area for
the parking of an aeroplane to receive de-icing/anti-icing
treatment and an outer area for the manoeuvring of two or
more mobile de-icing/anti-icing equipment.
Aircraft classification number (ACN). A number expressing
the relative effect of an aircraft on a pavement for a
specified standard subgrade category.
Note.— The aircraft classification number is calculated
with respect to the center of gravity (CG) position which yields
the critical loading on the critical gear. Normally the aftmost
CG position appropriate to the maximum gross apron (ramp)
mass is used to calculate the ACN. In exceptional cases the
forwardmost CG position may result in the nose gear loading
being more critical.
Declared distances.
a) Take-off run available (TORA). The length of runway
declared available and suitable for the ground run of an
aeroplane taking off.
b) Take-off distance available (TODA). The length of the
take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if
provided.
Aircraft stand. A designated area on an apron intended to be
used for parking an aircraft.
c) Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA). The length
of the take-off run available plus the length of the
stopway, if provided.
Apron. A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to
accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading
passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance.
d) Landing distance available (LDA). The length of
runway which is declared available and suitable for the
ground run of an aeroplane landing.
Apron management service. A service provided to regulate
the activities and the movement of aircraft and vehicles on
an apron.
Barrette. Three or more aeronautical ground lights closely
spaced in a transverse line so that from a distance they
appear as a short bar of light.
Dependent parallel approaches. Simultaneous approaches to
parallel or near-parallel instrument runways where radar
separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended
runway centre lines are prescribed.
Capacitor discharge light. A lamp in which high-intensity
flashes of extremely short duration are produced by the
Displaced threshold. A threshold not located at the extremity
of a runway.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Effective intensity. The effective intensity of a flashing light is
equal to the intensity of a fixed light of the same colour
which will produce the same visual range under identical
conditions of observation.
maintenance and which seek safe interface between the
human and other system components by proper consideration to human performance.
Human performance. Human capabilities and limitations
which have an impact on the safety and efficiency of
aeronautical operations.
Ellipsoid height (Geodetic height). The height related to the
reference ellipsoid, measured along the ellipsoidal outer
normal through the point in question.
Identification beacon. An aeronautical beacon emitting a
coded signal by means of which a particular point of
reference can be identified.
Fixed light. A light having constant luminous intensity when
observed from a fixed point.
Independent parallel approaches. Simultaneous approaches to
parallel or near-parallel instrument runways where radar
separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended
runway centre lines are not prescribed.
Frangible object. An object of low mass designed to break,
distort or yield on impact so as to present the minimum
hazard to aircraft.
Note.— Guidance on design for frangibility is contained in
the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 6 (in preparation).
Independent parallel departures. Simultaneous departures
from parallel or near-parallel instrument runways.
Geodetic datum. A minimum set of parameters required to
define location and orientation of the local reference system
with respect to the global reference system/frame.
Instrument runway. One of the following types of runways
intended for the operation of aircraft using instrument
approach procedures:
Geoid. The equipotential surface in the gravity field of the
Earth which coincides with the undisturbed mean sea level
(MSL) extended continuously through the continents.
a) Non-precision approach runway. An instrument runway
served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at
least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in
approach.
Note.— The geoid is irregular in shape because of local
gravitational disturbances (wind tides, salinity, current, etc.)
and the direction of gravity is perpendicular to the geoid at
every point.
b) Precision approach runway, category I. An instrument
runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids
intended for operations with a decision height not lower
than 60 m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than
800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m.
Geoid undulation. The distance of the geoid above (positive)
or below (negative) the mathematical reference ellipsoid.
c) Precision approach runway, category II. An instrument
runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids
intended for operations with a decision height lower
than 60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and
a runway visual range not less than 350 m.
Note.— In respect to the World Geodetic System — 1984
(WGS-84) defined ellipsoid, the difference between the WGS84 ellipsoidal height and orthometric height represents
WGS-84 geoid undulation.
Hazard beacon. An aeronautical beacon used to designate a
danger to air navigation.
d) Precision approach runway, category III. An instrument
runway served by ILS and/or MLS to and along the
surface of the runway and:
Heliport. An aerodrome or a defined area on a structure
intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival,
departure and surface movement of helicopters.
A — intended for operations with a decision height
lower than 30 m (100 ft), or no decision height
and a runway visual range not less than 200 m.
Holding bay. A defined area where aircraft can be held, or
bypassed, to facilitate efficient surface movement of
aircraft.
B — intended for operations with a decision height
lower than 15 m (50 ft), or no decision height and
a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less
than 50 m.
Holdover time. The estimated time the anti-icing fluid
(treatment) will prevent the formation of ice and frost and
the accumulation of snow on the protected (treated)
surfaces of an aeroplane.
C — intended for operations with no decision height
and no runway visual range limitations.
Human Factors principles. Principles which apply to
aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and
Note 1.— See Annex 10, Volume I, Part I, for related ILS
and/or MLS specifications.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Note 2.— Visual aids need not necessarily be matched to
the scale of non-visual aids provided. The criterion for the
selection of visual aids is the conditions in which operations
are intended to be conducted.
Orthometric height. Height of a point related to the geoid,
generally presented as an MSL elevation.
Pavement classification number (PCN). A number expressing
the bearing strength of a pavement for unrestricted
operations.
Integrity (aeronautical data). A degree of assurance that an
aeronautical data and its value has not been lost nor altered
since the data origination or authorized amendment.
Precision approach runway, see Instrument runway.
Primary runway(s). Runway(s) used in preference to others
whenever conditions permit.
Intermediate holding position. A designated position intended
for traffic control at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles
shall stop and hold until further cleared to proceed, when so
instructed by the aerodrome control tower.
Road. An established surface route on the movement area
meant for the exclusive use of vehicles.
Landing area. That part of a movement area intended for the
landing or take-off of aircraft.
Road-holding position. A designated position at which
vehicles may be required to hold.
Landing direction indicator. A device to indicate visually the
direction currently designated for landing and for take-off.
Runway. A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome
prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft.
Lighting system reliability. The probability that the complete
installation operates within the specified tolerances and that
the system is operationally usable.
Runway end safety area (RESA). An area symmetrical about
the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of
the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to
an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway.
Manoeuvring area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for
the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding
aprons.
Runway guard lights. A light system intended to caution
pilots or vehicle drivers that they are about to enter an
active runway.
Marker. An object displayed above ground level in order to
indicate an obstacle or delineate a boundary.
Runway-holding position. A designated position intended to
protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS/
MLS critical/sensitive area at which taxiing aircraft and
vehicles shall stop and hold, unless otherwise authorized by
the aerodrome control tower.
Marking. A symbol or group of symbols displayed on the
surface of the movement area in order to convey aeronautical information.
Movement area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the
take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the
manoeuvring area and the apron(s).
Runway strip. A defined area including the runway and
stopway, if provided, intended:
a) to reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a
runway; and
Near-parallel runways. Non-intersecting runways whose
extended centre lines have an angle of convergence/
divergence of 15 degrees or less.
b) to protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or
landing operations.
Non-instrument runway. A runway intended for the operation
of aircraft using visual approach procedures.
Runway visual range (RVR). The range over which the pilot
of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the
runway surface markings or the lights delineating the
runway or identifying its centre line.
Obstacle. All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and
mobile objects, or parts thereof, that are located on an area
intended for the surface movement of aircraft or that extend
above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in
flight.
Safety management system. A system for the management of
safety at aerodromes, including the organizational structure,
responsibilities, procedures, processes and provisions for
the implementation of aerodrome safety policies by an
aerodrome operator, which provides for control of safety at,
and the safe use of, the aerodrome.
Obstacle free zone (OFZ). The airspace above the inner
approach surface, inner transitional surfaces, and balked
landing surface and that portion of the strip bounded by
these surfaces, which is not penetrated by any fixed
obstacle other than a low-mass and frangibly mounted one
required for air navigation purposes.
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Segregated parallel operations. Simultaneous operations on
parallel or near-parallel instrument runways in which one
4
Chapter 1
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
runway is used exclusively for approaches and the other
runway is used exclusively for departures.
Taxiway. A defined path on a land aerodrome established for
the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link
between one part of the aerodrome and another, including:
Shoulder. An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so
prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement
and the adjacent surface.
a) Aircraft stand taxilane. A portion of an apron designated
as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft
stands only.
Sign.
b) Apron taxiway. A portion of a taxiway system located
on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route
across the apron.
a) Fixed message sign. A sign presenting only one message.
b) Variable message sign. A sign capable of presenting several
pre-determined messages or no message, as applicable.
c) Rapid exit taxiway. A taxiway connected to a runway at
an acute angle and designed to allow landing aeroplanes
to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other
exit taxiways thereby minimizing runway occupancy
times.
Signal area. An area on an aerodrome used for the display of
ground signals.
Slush. Water-saturated snow which with a heel-and-toe slapdown motion against the ground will be displaced with a
splatter; specific gravity: 0.5 up to 0.8.
Taxiway intersection. A junction of two or more taxiways.
Taxiway strip. An area including a taxiway intended to protect
an aircraft operating on the taxiway and to reduce the risk
of damage to an aircraft accidentally running off the
taxiway.
Note.— Combinations of ice, snow and/or standing water
may, especially when rain, rain and snow, or snow is falling,
produce substances with specific gravities in excess of 0.8.
These substances, due to their high water/ice content, will
have a transparent rather than a cloudy appearance and, at
the higher specific gravities, will be readily distinguishable
from slush.
Threshold. The beginning of that portion of the runway usable
for landing.
Touchdown zone. The portion of a runway, beyond the
threshold, where it is intended landing aeroplanes first
contact the runway.
Snow (on the ground).
a) Dry snow. Snow which can be blown if loose or, if
compacted by hand, will fall apart again upon release;
specific gravity: up to but not including 0.35.
Usability factor. The percentage of time during which the use
of a runway or system of runways is not restricted because
of the cross-wind component.
b) Wet snow. Snow which, if compacted by hand, will stick
together and tend to or form a snowball; specific
gravity: 0.35 up to but not including 0.5.
Note.— Cross-wind component means the surface wind
component at right angles to the runway centre line.
c) Compacted snow. Snow which has been compressed
into a solid mass that resists further compression and
will hold together or break up into lumps if picked up;
specific gravity: 0.5 and over.
1.2
Applicability
1.2.1 The interpretation of some of the specifications in
the Annex expressly requires the exercising of discretion, the
taking of a decision or the performance of a function by the
appropriate authority. In other specifications, the expression
appropriate authority does not actually appear although its
inclusion is implied. In both cases, the responsibility for whatever determination or action is necessary shall rest with the
State having jurisdiction over the aerodrome.
Station declination. An alignment variation between the zero
degree radial of a VOR and true north, determined at the
time the VOR station is calibrated.
Stopway. A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of
take-off run available prepared as a suitable area in which an
aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off.
Switch-over time (light). The time required for the actual
intensity of a light measured in a given direction to fall
from 50 per cent and recover to 50 per cent during a power
supply changeover, when the light is being operated at
intensities of 25 per cent or above.
1.2.2 The specifications, unless otherwise indicated in a
particular context, shall apply to all aerodromes open to public
use in accordance with the requirements of Article 15 of the
Convention. The specifications of Annex 14, Volume I,
Chapter 3 shall apply only to land aerodromes. The specifications in this volume shall apply, where appropriate, to
heliports but shall not apply to stolports.
Take-off runway. A runway intended for take-off only.
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Note.— Although there are at present no specifications
relating to stolports, it is intended that specifications for these
aerodromes will be included as they are developed. In the
interim, guidance material on stolports is given in the Stolport
Manual.
1.3.6 As of 24 November 2005, a certified aerodrome
shall have in operation a safety management system.
1.4
1.2.3 Wherever a colour is referred to in this Annex, the
specifications for that colour given in Appendix 1 shall apply.
1.3
Introductory Note.— The intent of the reference code is to
provide a simple method for interrelating the numerous
specifications concerning the characteristics of aerodromes so
as to provide a series of aerodrome facilities that are suitable
for the aeroplanes that are intended to operate at the aerodrome. The code is not intended to be used for determining
runway length or pavement strength requirements. The code is
composed of two elements which are related to the aeroplane
performance characteristics and dimensions. Element 1 is a
number based on the aeroplane reference field length and
element 2 is a letter based on the aeroplane wing span and
outer main gear wheel span. A particular specification is
related to the more appropriate of the two elements of the code
or to an appropriate combination of the two code elements. The
code letter or number within an element selected for design
purposes is related to the critical aeroplane characteristics for
which the facility is provided. When applying Annex 14,
Volume I, the aeroplanes which the aerodrome is intended to
serve are first identified and then the two elements of the code.
Certification of Aerodromes
Note.— The intent of these specifications is to ensure the
establishment of a regulatory regime so that compliance with
the specifications in this Annex can be effectively enforced. It
is recognized that the methods of ownership, operation and
surveillance of aerodromes differ among States. The most
effective and transparent means of ensuring compliance with
applicable specifications is the availability of a separate safety
oversight entity and a well-defined safety oversight mechanism
with support of appropriate legislation to be able to carry out
the function of safety regulation of aerodromes.
1.3.1 As of 27 November 2003, States shall certify
aerodromes used for international operations in accordance
with the specifications contained in this Annex as well as other
relevant ICAO specifications through an appropriate regulatory
framework.
1.4.1 An aerodrome reference code — code number and
letter — which is selected for aerodrome planning purposes
shall be determined in accordance with the characteristics of
the aeroplane for which an aerodrome facility is intended.
1.3.2 Recommendation.— States should certify aerodromes open to public use in accordance with these
specifications as well as other relevant ICAO specifications
through an appropriate regulatory framework.
1.4.2 The aerodrome reference code numbers and letters
shall have the meanings assigned to them in Table 1-1.
1.3.3 The regulatory framework shall include the
establishment of criteria for the certification of aerodromes.
1.4.3 The code number for element 1 shall be determined
from Table 1-1, column 1, selecting the code number
corresponding to the highest value of the aeroplane reference
field lengths of the aeroplanes for which the runway is
intended.
Note.— Guidance on a regulatory framework is given in the
Manual on Certification of Aerodromes.
1.3.4 Recommendation.— A certified aerodrome should
have in operation a safety management system.
Note.— The determination of the aeroplane reference field
length is solely for the selection of a code number and is not
intended to influence the actual runway length provided.
Note.— The intent of a safety management system is to have
in place an organized and orderly approach in the
management of aerodrome safety by the aerodrome operator.
Guidance on an aerodrome safety management system is given
in the Manual on Certification of Aerodromes.
1.4.4 The code letter for element 2 shall be determined
from Table 1-1, column 3, by selecting the code letter which
corresponds to the greatest wing span, or the greatest outer
main gear wheel span, whichever gives the more demanding
code letter of the aeroplanes for which the facility is
intended.
1.3.5 Recommendation.— As part of the certification
process, States should ensure that an aerodrome manual which
will include all pertinent information on the aerodrome site,
facilities, services, equipment, operating procedures,
organization and management including a safety management
system, is submitted by the applicant for approval/acceptance
prior to granting the aerodrome certificate.
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Reference code
Note.— Guidance to assist the appropriate authority in
determining the aerodrome reference code is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Parts 1 and 2.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Table 1-1. Aerodrome reference code
(see 1.4.2 to 1.4.4)
Code element 1
Code element 2
Code
number
(1)
Aeroplane reference
field length
(2)
Code
letter
(3)
Wing span
(4)
Outer main gear
wheel spana
(5)
1
Less than 800 m
A
Up to but not
including 15 m
Up to but not
including 4.5 m
2
800 m up to but not
including 1 200 m
B
15 m up to but not
including 24 m
4.5 m up to but not
including 6 m
3
1 200 m up to but not
including 1 800 m
C
24 m up to but not
including 36 m
6 m up to but not
including 9 m
4
1 800 m and over
D
36 m up to but not
including 52 m
9 m up to but not
including 14 m
E
52 m up to but not
including 65 m
9 m up to but not
including 14 m
F
65 m up to but not
including 80 m
14 m up to but not
including 16 m
a. Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels.
Note.— Guidance on planning for aeroplanes with wing spans greater than 80 m is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual,
Parts 1 and 2.
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8
CHAPTER 2.
2.1
AERODROME DATA
Aeronautical data
Note.— Guidance material on the aeronautical data quality
requirements (accuracy, resolution, integrity, protection and
traceability) is contained in the World Geodetic System —
1984 (WGS-84) Manual (Doc 9674). Supporting material in
respect of the provisions of Appendix 5 related to accuracy
and integrity of aeronautical data, is contained in RTCA
Document DO-201A and European Organization for Civil
Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) Document ED-77, entitled
Industry Requirements for Aeronautical Information.
2.1.1 Determination and reporting of aerodrome related
aeronautical data shall be in accordance with the accuracy and
integrity requirements set forth in Tables 1 to 5 contained in
Appendix 5 while taking into account the established quality
system procedures. Accuracy requirements for aeronautical
data are based upon a 95 per cent confidence level and in that
respect, three types of positional data shall be identified:
surveyed points (e.g. runway threshold), calculated points
(mathematical calculations from the known surveyed points of
points in space, fixes) and declared points (e.g. flight
information region boundary points).
2.1.5 Geographical coordinates indicating latitude and
longitude shall be determined and reported to the aeronautical
information services authority in terms of the World Geodetic
System — 1984 (WGS-84) geodetic reference datum, identifying those geographical coordinates which have been
transformed into WGS-84 coordinates by mathematical means
and whose accuracy of original field work does not meet the
requirements in Appendix 5, Table 1.
Note.— Specifications governing the quality system are
given in Annex 15, Chapter 3.
2.1.2 Contracting States shall ensure that integrity of
aeronautical data is maintained throughout the data process
from survey/origin to the next intended user. Aeronautical data
integrity requirements shall be based upon the potential risk
resulting from the corruption of data and upon the use to
which the data item is put. Consequently, the following
classification and data integrity level shall apply:
2.1.6 The order of accuracy of the field work shall be such
that the resulting operational navigation data for the phases of
flight will be within the maximum deviations, with respect to an
appropriate reference frame, as indicated in tables contained in
Appendix 5.
a) critical data, integrity level 1 × 10-8: there is a high
probability when using corrupted critical data that the
continued safe flight and landing of an aircraft would be
severely at risk with the potential for catastrophe;
2.1.7 In addition to the elevation (referenced to mean sea
level) of the specific surveyed ground positions at aerodromes,
geoid undulation (referenced to the WGS-84 ellipsoid) for
those positions as indicated in Appendix 5, shall be determined
and reported to the aeronautical information services authority.
b) essential data, integrity level 1 × 10-5: there is a low
probability when using corrupted essential data that
the continued safe flight and landing of an aircraft
would be severely at risk with the potential for
catastrophe; and
Note 1.— An appropriate reference frame is that which
enables WGS-84 to be realized on a given aerodrome and with
respect to which all coordinate data are related.
Note 2.— Specifications governing the publication of
WGS-84 coordinates are given in Annex 4, Chapter 2 and
Annex 15, Chapter 3.
c) routine data, integrity level 1 × 10 there is a very low
probability when using corrupted routine data that the
continued safe flight and landing of an aircraft would be
severely at risk with the potential for catastrophe.
-3:
2.2
Aerodrome reference point
2.1.3 Protection of electronic aeronautical data while
stored or in transit shall be totally monitored by the cyclic
redundancy check (CRC). To achieve protection of the
integrity level of critical and essential aeronautical data as
classified in 2.1.2 above, a 32 or 24 bit CRC algorithm shall
apply respectively.
2.2.1 An aerodrome reference point shall be established
for an aerodrome.
2.1.4 Recommendation. — To achieve protection of the
integrity level of routine aeronautical data as classified in
2.1.2 above, a 16 bit CRC algorithm should apply.
2.2.3 The position of the aerodrome reference point shall
be measured and reported to the aeronautical information
services authority in degrees, minutes and seconds.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
2.2.2 The aerodrome reference point shall be located near
the initial or planned geometric centre of the aerodrome and
shall normally remain where first established.
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2.3
Volume I
Aerodrome and runway elevations
d) apron — surface type, aircraft stands;
2.3.1 The aerodrome elevation and geoid undulation at the
aerodrome elevation position shall be measured to the accuracy
of one-half metre or foot and reported to the aeronautical
information services authority.
e) the boundaries of the air traffic control service;
2.3.2 For an aerodrome used by international civil aviation
for non-precision approaches, the elevation and geoid undulation of each threshold, the elevation of the runway end and
any significant high and low intermediate points along the
runway shall be measured to the accuracy of one-half metre or
foot and reported to the aeronautical information services
authority.
g) visual aids for approach procedures, marking and lighting
of runways, taxiways and aprons, other visual guidance
and control aids on taxiways and aprons, including taxiholding positions and stopbars, and location and type of
visual docking guidance systems;
f) clearway — length to the nearest metre or foot, ground
profile;
h) location and radio frequency of any VOR aerodrome
check-point;
2.3.3 For precision approach runway, the elevation and
geoid undulation of the threshold, the elevation of the runway
end and the highest elevation of the touchdown zone shall be
measured to the accuracy of one-quarter metre or foot and
reported to the aeronautical information services authority.
i) location and designation of standard taxi-routes; and
j) distances to the nearest metre or foot of localizer and
glide path elements comprising an instrument landing
system (ILS) or azimuth and elevation antenna of
microwave landing system (MLS) in relation to the
associated runway extremities.
Note.— Geoid undulation must be measured in accordance
with the appropriate system of coordinates.
2.4
2.5.2 The geographical coordinates of each threshold shall
be measured and reported to the aeronautical information
services authority in degrees, minutes, seconds and hundredths
of seconds.
Aerodrome reference temperature
2.4.1 An aerodrome reference temperature shall be determined for an aerodrome in degrees Celsius.
2.5.3 The geographical coordinates of appropriate taxiway
centre line points shall be measured and reported to the
aeronautical information services authority in degrees, minutes,
seconds and hundredths of seconds.
2.4.2 Recommendation.— The aerodrome reference temperature should be the monthly mean of the daily maximum
temperatures for the hottest month of the year (the hottest month
being that which has the highest monthly mean temperature).
This temperature should be averaged over a period of years.
2.5
2.5.4 The geographical coordinates of each aircraft stand
shall be measured and reported to the aeronautical information
services authority in degrees, minutes, seconds and hundredths
of seconds.
Aerodrome dimensions and
related information
2.5.5 The geographical coordinates of significant obstacles
in the approach and take-off areas, in the circling area and in the
vicinity of an aerodrome shall be measured and reported to the
aeronautical information services authority in degrees, minutes,
seconds and tenths of seconds. In addition, the top elevation
rounded up to the nearest metre or foot, type, marking and
lighting (if any) of the significant obstacles shall be reported to
the aeronautical information services authority.
2.5.1 The following data shall be measured or described,
as appropriate, for each facility provided on an aerodrome:
a) runway — true bearing to one-hundredth of a degree,
designation number, length, width, displaced threshold
location to the nearest metre or foot, slope, surface type,
type of runway and, for a precision approach runway
category I, the existence of an obstacle free zone when
provided;
b) strip
runway end safety area
stopway
Note.— This information may best be shown in the form of
charts such as those required for the preparation of aeronautical publications as specified in Annexes 4 and 15.
length, width to the nearest
metre or foot, surface type;
2.6
2.6.1 The bearing strength of a pavement shall be
determined.
c) taxiway — designation, width, surface type;
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Strength of pavements
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2.6.2 The bearing strength of a pavement intended for
aircraft of apron (ramp) mass greater than 5 700 kg shall be
made available using the aircraft classification number —
pavement classification number (ACN-PCN) method by
reporting all of the following information:
b) Subgrade strength category:
Code
High strength: characterized by K =
150 MN/m3 and representing all K values
above 120 MN/m3 for rigid pavements, and
by CBR = 15 and representing all CBR
values above 13 for flexible pavements.
A
Medium strength: characterized by K =
80 MN/m3 and representing a range in K of
60 to 120 MN/m3 for rigid pavements, and
by CBR = 10 and representing a range in
CBR of 8 to 13 for flexible pavements.
B
C
Note.— If necessary, PCNs may be published to an accuracy
of one-tenth of a whole number.
Low strength: characterized by K =
40 MN/m3 and representing a range in K of
25 to 60 MN/m3 for rigid pavements, and
by CBR = 6 and representing a range in
CBR of 4 to 8 for flexible pavements.
2.6.3 The pavement classification number (PCN) reported
shall indicate that an aircraft with an aircraft classification
number (ACN) equal to or less than the reported PCN can
operate on the pavement subject to any limitation on the tire
pressure, or aircraft all-up mass for specified aircraft type(s).
Ultra low strength: characterized by K =
20 MN/m3 and representing all K values
below 25 MN/m3 for rigid pavements, and
by CBR = 3 and representing all CBR
values below 4 for flexible pavements.
D
Note.— Different PCNs may be reported if the strength of the
pavement is subject to significant seasonal variation.
c) Maximum allowable tire pressure category:
a) the pavement classification number (PCN);
b) pavement type for ACN-PCN determination;
c) subgrade strength category;
d) maximum allowable tire pressure category or maximum
allowable tire pressure value; and
e) evaluation method.
Code
2.6.4 The ACN of an aircraft shall be determined in
accordance with the standard procedures associated with the
ACN-PCN method.
High: no pressure limit
W
Medium: pressure limited to 1.50 MPa
X
Note.— The standard procedures for determining the ACN
of an aircraft are given in the Aerodrome Design Manual,
Part 3. For convenience several aircraft types currently in use
have been evaluated on rigid and flexible pavements founded on
the four subgrade categories in 2.6.6 b) below and the results
tabulated in that manual.
Low: pressure limited to 1.00 MPa
Y
Very low: pressure limited to 0.50 MPa
Z
d) Evaluation method:
Code
2.6.5 For the purposes of determining the ACN, the
behaviour of a pavement shall be classified as equivalent to a
rigid or flexible construction.
2.6.6 Information on pavement type for ACN-PCN
determination, subgrade strength category, maximum allowable
tire pressure category and evaluation method shall be reported
using the following codes:
a) Pavement type for ACN-PCN determination:
T
Using aircraft experience: representing a
knowledge of the specific type and mass of
aircraft satisfactorily being supported under
regular use.
U
Note.— The following examples illustrate how pavement
strength data are reported under the ACN-PCN method.
Code
Rigid pavement
Flexible pavement
Technical evaluation: representing a specific study of the pavement characteristics
and application of pavement behaviour
technology.
Example 1.— If the bearing strength of a rigid pavement,
resting on a medium strength subgrade, has been assessed by
technical evaluation to be PCN 80 and there is no tire pressure
limitation, then the reported information would be:
R
F
Note.— If the actual construction is composite or nonstandard, include a note to that effect (see example 2
below).
PCN 80 / R / B / W / T
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Example 2.— If the bearing strength of a composite
pavement, behaving like a flexible pavement and resting on a
high strength subgrade, has been assessed by using aircraft
experience to be PCN 50 and the maximum tire pressure
allowable is 1.00 MPa, then the reported information would be:
Note 2.— Normally an entire apron can serve as a
satisfactory altimeter check location.
2.7.3 The elevation of a pre-flight altimeter check location
shall be given as the average elevation, rounded to the nearest
metre or foot, of the area on which it is located. The elevation of
any portion of a pre-flight altimeter check location shall be
within 3 m (10 ft) of the average elevation for that location.
PCN 50 / F / A / Y / U
Note.— Composite construction.
Example 3.— If the bearing strength of a flexible pavement,
resting on a medium strength subgrade, has been assessed by
technical evaluation to be PCN 40 and the maximum allowable
tire pressure is 0.80 MPa, then the reported information would be:
2.8
The following distances shall be calculated to the nearest metre
or foot for a runway intended for use by international
commercial air transport:
PCN 40 / F / B / 0.80 MPa /T
Example 4.— If a pavement is subject to a B747-400 all-up
mass limitation of 390 000 kg, then the reported information
would include the following note.
a) take-off run available;
b) take-off distance available;
Note.— The reported PCN is subject to a B747-400 all-up
mass limitation of 390 000 kg.
c) accelerate-stop distance available; and
d) landing distance available.
2.6.7 Recommendation.— Criteria should be established
to regulate the use of a pavement by an aircraft with an ACN
higher than the PCN reported for that pavement in accordance
with 2.6.2 and 2.6.3.
Note.— Guidance on calculation of declared distances is
given in Attachment A, Section 3.
Note.— Attachment A, Section 18 details a simple method for
regulating overload operations while the Aerodrome Design
Manual, Part 3 includes the descriptions of more detailed
procedures for evaluation of pavements and their suitability for
restricted overload operations.
2.9 Condition of the movement area and
related facilities
2.9.1 Information on the condition of the movement area
and the operational status of related facilities shall be provided
to the appropriate aeronautical information service units, and
similar information of operational significance to the air traffic
services units, to enable those units to provide the necessary
information to arriving and departing aircraft. The information
shall be kept up to date and changes in conditions reported
without delay.
2.6.8 The bearing strength of a pavement intended for
aircraft of apron (ramp) mass equal to or less than 5 700 kg shall
be made available by reporting the following information:
a) maximum allowable aircraft mass; and
b) maximum allowable tire pressure.
Example: 4 000 kg/0.50 MPa.
2.7
Declared distances
2.9.2 The condition of the movement area and the operational status of related facilities shall be monitored and reports
on matters of operational significance or affecting aircraft
performance given, particularly in respect of the following:
Pre-flight altimeter
check location
a) construction or maintenance work;
2.7.1 One or more pre-flight altimeter check locations
shall be established for an aerodrome.
b) rough or broken surfaces on a runway, a taxiway or an
apron;
2.7.2 Recommendation.— A pre-flight check location
should be located on an apron.
c) snow, slush or ice on a runway, a taxiway or an apron;
Note 1.— Locating a pre-flight altimeter check location on
an apron enables an altimeter check to be made prior to
obtaining taxi clearance and eliminates the need for stopping
for that purpose after leaving the apron.
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d) water on a runway, a taxiway or an apron;
e) snow banks or drifts adjacent to a runway, a taxiway or an
apron;
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
f) anti-icing or de-icing liquid chemicals on a runway or a
taxiway;
Snow, slush or ice on a runway
Note 1.— The intent of these specifications is to satisfy the
SNOWTAM and NOTAM promulgation requirements contained
in Annex 15.
g) other temporary hazards, including parked aircraft;
h) failure or irregular operation of part or all of the
aerodrome visual aids; and
Note 2.— Runway surface condition sensors may be used to
detect and continuously display current or predicted information on surface conditions such as the presence of moisture,
or imminent formation of ice on pavements.
i) failure of the normal or secondary power supply.
2.9.3 Recommendation.— To facilitate compliance with
2.9.1 and 2.9.2 inspections of the movement area should be
carried out each day at least once where the code number is 1
or 2 and at least twice where the code number is 3 or 4.
2.9.9 Recommendation.— Whenever a runway is affected
by snow, slush or ice, and it has not been possible to clear the
precipitant fully, the condition of the runway should be
assessed, and the friction coefficient measured.
Note.— Guidance on carrying out daily inspections of the
movement area is given in the Airport Services Manual, Part 8
and in the Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control
Systems (SMGCS).
Note.— Guidance on determining and expressing the friction
characteristics of snow- and ice-covered paved surfaces is
provided in Attachment A, Section 6.
Water on a runway
2.9.10 Recommendation.— The readings of the friction
measuring device on snow-, slush-, or ice-covered surfaces
should adequately correlate with the readings of one other such
device.
2.9.4 Recommendation.— Whenever water is present on
a runway, a description of the runway surface conditions on the
centre half of the width of the runway, including the possible
assessment of water depth, where applicable, should be made
available using the following terms:
Note.— The principal aim is to measure surface friction in a
manner that is relevant to the friction experienced by an aircraft
tire, thereby providing correlation between the friction
measuring device and aircraft braking performance.
DAMP — the surface shows a change of colour due to
moisture.
WET — the surface is soaked but there is no standing water.
WATER PATCHES — significant patches of standing water
are visible.
FLOODED — extensive standing water is visible.
2.9.11 Recommendation.— Whenever dry snow, wet
snow or slush is present on a runway, an assessment of the mean
depth over each third of the runway should be made to an
accuracy of approximately 2 cm for dry snow, 1 cm for wet snow
and 0.3 cm for slush.
2.9.5 Information that a runway or portion thereof may be
slippery when wet shall be made available.
2.9.6 A runway or portion thereof shall be determined as
being slippery when wet when the measurements specified in
9.4.5 show that the runway surface friction characteristics as
measured by a continuous friction measuring device are below
the minimum friction level specified by the State.
2.10
Disabled aircraft removal
Note.— See 9.3 for information on disabled aircraft removal
services.
2.10.1 Recommendation.— The telephone/telex number(s)
of the office of the aerodrome coordinator of operations for
the removal of an aircraft disabled on or adjacent to the
movement area should be made available, on request, to aircraft
operators.
Note.— Guidance on determining and expressing the
minimum friction level is provided in Attachment A, Section 7.
2.9.7 Information on the minimum friction level specified
by the State for reporting slippery runway conditions and the
type of friction measuring device used shall be made available.
2.10.2 Recommendation.— Information concerning the
capability to remove an aircraft disabled on or adjacent to the
movement area should be made available.
2.9.8 Recommendation.— When it is suspected that a
runway may become slippery under unusual conditions, then
additional measurements should be made when such conditions
occur, and information on the runway surface friction characteristics made available when these additional measurements
show that the runway or a portion thereof has become slippery.
Note.— The capability to remove a disabled aircraft may be
expressed in terms of the largest type of aircraft which the
aerodrome is equipped to remove.
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Rescue and fire fighting
e) minimum eye height(s) over the threshold of the on-slope
signal(s). For a T-VASIS or an AT-VASIS this shall be
the lowest height at which only the wing bar(s) are
visible; however, the additional heights at which the wing
bar(s) plus one, two or three fly down light units come
into view may also be reported if such information would
be of benefit to aircraft using the approach. For a PAPI
this shall be the setting angle of the third unit from the
runway minus 2′, i.e. angle B minus 2′, and for an APAPI
this shall be the setting angle of the unit farther from the
runway minus 2′, i.e. angle A minus 2′.
Note.— See 9.2 for information on rescue and fire fighting
services.
2.11.1 Information concerning the level of protection
provided at an aerodrome for aircraft rescue and fire fighting
purposes shall be made available.
2.11.2 Recommendation.— The level of protection
normally available at an aerodrome should be expressed in
terms of the category of the rescue and fire fighting services as
described in 9.2 and in accordance with the types and amounts
of extinguishing agents normally available at the aerodrome.
2.13 Coordination between aeronautical information
services and aerodrome authorities
2.11.3 Significant changes in the level of protection
normally available at an aerodrome for rescue and fire fighting
shall be notified to the appropriate air traffic services units and
aeronautical information units to enable those units to provide
the necessary information to arriving and departing aircraft.
When such a change has been corrected, the above units shall be
advised accordingly.
2.13.1 To ensure that aeronautical information services
units obtain information to enable them to provide up-to-date
pre-flight information and to meet the need for in-flight
information, arrangements shall be made between aeronautical
information services and aerodrome authorities responsible for
aerodrome services to report to the responsible aeronautical
information services unit, with a minimum of delay:
Note.— A significant change in the level of protection is
considered to be a change in the category of the rescue and fire
fighting service from the category normally available at the
aerodrome, resulting from a change in availability of
extinguishing agents, equipment to deliver the agents or
personnel to operate the equipment, etc.
a) information on aerodrome conditions (ref. 2.9, 2.10, 2.11
and 2.12 above);
b) the operational status of associated facilities, services and
navigation aids within their area of responsibility;
2.11.4 Recommendation.— A significant change should
be expressed in terms of the new category of the rescue and fire
fighting service available at the aerodrome.
c) any other information considered to be of operational
significance.
2.13.2 Before introducing changes to the air navigation
system, due account shall be taken by the services responsible
for such changes of the time needed by the aeronautical
information service for the preparation, production and issue
of relevant material for promulgation. To ensure timely
provision of the information to the aeronautical information
service, close coordination between those services concerned
is therefore required.
2.12 Visual approach slope
indicator systems
The following information concerning a visual approach slope
indicator system installation shall be made available:
a) associated runway designation number;
b) type of system according to 5.3.5.2. For an AT-VASIS,
PAPI or APAPI installation, the side of the runway on
which the lights are installed, i.e. left or right, shall be
given;
2.13.3 Of a particular importance are changes to
aeronautical information that affect charts and/or computerbased navigation systems which qualify to be notified by the
aeronautical information regulation and control (AIRAC)
system, as specified in Annex 15, Chapter 6 and Appendix 4.
The predetermined, internationally agreed AIRAC effective
dates in addition to 14 days postage time shall be observed by
the responsible aerodrome services when submitting the raw
information/data to aeronautical information services.
c) where the axis of the system is not parallel to the runway
centre line, the angle of displacement and the direction of
displacement, i.e. left or right shall be indicated;
d) nominal approach slope angle(s). For a T-VASIS or an
AT-VASIS this shall be angle θ according to the formula
in Figure 5-14 and for a PAPI and an APAPI this shall be
angle (B + C) ÷ 2 and (A + B) ÷ 2, respectively as in
Figure 5-16; and
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2.13.4 The aerodrome services responsible for the
provision of raw aeronautical information/data to the
aeronautical information services shall do that while taking
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
into account accuracy and integrity requirements for
aeronautical data as specified in Appendix 5 to this Annex.
objective of reaching recipients at least 28 days in advance of
the effective date.
Note 1.— Specifications for the issue of a NOTAM and
SNOWTAM are contained in Annex 15, Chapter 5, Appendices
6 and 2 respectively.
Note 3.— The schedule of the predetermined internationally
agreed AIRAC common effective dates at intervals of 28 days,
including 6 November 1997 and guidance for the AIRAC use
are contained in the Aeronautical Information Services Manual
(Doc 8126, Chapter 3, 3.1.1 and Chapter 4, 4.4).
Note 2.— AIRAC information is distributed by the AIS at
least 42 days in advance of the AIRAC effective dates with the
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CHAPTER 3. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
3.1
Runways
Note.— In Attachment A, Section 1, guidance is given on
factors affecting the calculation of the estimate of the usability
factor and allowances which may have to be made to take
account of the effect of unusual circumstances.
Number and orientation
of runways
Introductory Note.— Many factors affect the determination
of the orientation, siting and number of runways.
3.1.3
Data to be used
Recommendation.— The selection of data to be used for
the calculation of the usability factor should be based on
reliable wind distribution statistics that extend over as long a
period as possible, preferably of not less than five years. The
observations used should be made at least eight times daily
and spaced at equal intervals of time.
One important factor is the usability factor, as determined
by the wind distribution, which is specified hereunder. Another
important factor is the alignment of the runway to facilitate the
provision of approaches conforming to the approach surface
specifications of Chapter 4. In Attachment A, Section 1, information is given concerning these and other factors.
Note.— These winds are mean winds. Reference to the need
for some allowance for gusty conditions is made in Attachment A,
Section 1.
When a new instrument runway is being located, particular
attention needs to be given to areas over which aeroplanes
will be required to fly when following instrument approach
and missed approach procedures, so as to ensure that
obstacles in these areas or other factors will not restrict the
operation of the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended.
Location of threshold
3.1.4 Recommendation.— A threshold should normally
be located at the extremity of a runway unless operational
considerations justify the choice of another location.
3.1.1 Recommendation.— The number and orientation
of runways at an aerodrome should be such that the usability
factor of the aerodrome is not less than 95 per cent for the
aeroplanes that the aerodrome is intended to serve.
Note.— Guidance on the siting of the threshold is given in
Attachment A, Section 10.
3.1.5 Recommendation.— When it is necessary to
displace a threshold, either permanently or temporarily, from
its normal location, account should be taken of the various
factors which may have a bearing on the location of the
threshold. Where this displacement is due to an unserviceable
runway condition, a cleared and graded area of at least 60 m
in length should be available between the unserviceable area
and the displaced threshold. Additional distance should also
be provided to meet the requirements of the runway end safety
area as appropriate.
3.1.2 Choice of maximum permissible
cross-wind components
Recommendation.— In the application of 3.1.1 it should
be assumed that landing or take-off of aeroplanes is, in normal
circumstances, precluded when the cross-wind component
exceeds:
— 37 km/h (20 kt) in the case of aeroplanes whose reference field length is 1 500 m or over, except that when
poor runway braking action owing to an insufficient
longitudinal coefficient of friction is experienced with
some frequency, a cross-wind component not exceeding
24 km/h (13 kt) should be assumed;
Note.— Guidance on factors which may be considered in
the determination of the location of a displaced threshold is
given in Attachment A, Section 10.
Actual length of runways
— 24 km/h (13 kt) in the case of aeroplanes whose reference field length is 1 200 m or up to but not including
1 500 m; and
3.1.6
— 19 km/h (10 kt) in the case of aeroplanes whose reference field length is less than 1 200 m.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
Primary runway
Recommendation.— Except as provided in 3.1.8, the
actual runway length to be provided for a primary runway
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should be adequate to meet the operational requirements of
the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended and should be
not less than the longest length determined by applying the
corrections for local conditions to the operations and
performance characteristics of the relevant aeroplanes.
Code letter
Note 1.— This specification does not necessarily mean
providing for operations by the critical aeroplane at its
maximum mass.
Note 2.— Both take-off and landing requirements need to
be considered when determining the length of runway to be
provided and the need for operations to be conducted in both
directions of the runway.
B
1a
2a
3
4
18 m
23 m
30 m
–
18 m
23 m
30 m
–
C
23
30
30
45
m
m
m
m
D
E
F
–
–
45 m
45 m
–
–
–
45 m
–
–
–
60 m
Note 1.— The combinations of code numbers and letters for
which widths are specified have been developed for typical
aeroplane characteristics.
Note 2.— Factors affecting runway width are given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 1.
Note 4.— When performance data on aeroplanes for which
the runway is intended are not known, guidance on the determination of the actual length of a primary runway by application of general correction factors is given in the Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 1.
Minimum distance between
parallel runways
3.1.10 Recommendation.— Where parallel non-instrument runways are intended for simultaneous use, the minimum
distance between their centre lines should be:
Secondary runway
Recommendation.— The length of a secondary runway
should be determined similarly to primary runways except that
it needs only to be adequate for those aeroplanes which
require to use that secondary runway in addition to the other
runway or runways in order to obtain a usability factor of at
least 95 per cent.
3.1.8
A
a. The width of a precision approach runway should be not
less than 30 m where the code number is 1 or 2.
Note 3.— Local conditions that may need to be considered
include elevation, temperature, runway slope, humidity and
the runway surface characteristics.
3.1.7
Code
number
— 210 m where the higher code number is 3 or 4;
— 150 m where the higher code number is 2; and
— 120 m where the higher code number is 1.
Note.— Procedures for wake turbulence categorization of
aircraft and wake turbulence separation minima are contained
in the Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic
Management (PANS-ATM), Doc 4444, Part V, Section 16.
Runways with stopways
or clearways
3.1.11 Recommendation.— Where parallel instrument
runways are intended for simultaneous use subject to
conditions specified in the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) and the
PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I, the minimum distance
between their centre lines should be:
Recommendation.— Where a runway is associated with a
stopway or clearway, an actual runway length less than that
resulting from application of 3.1.6 or 3.1.7, as appropriate,
may be considered satisfactory, but in such a case any
combination of runway, stopway and clearway provided
should permit compliance with the operational requirements
for take-off and landing of the aeroplanes the runway is
intended to serve.
— 1 035 m for independent parallel approaches;
— 915 m for dependent parallel approaches;
Note.— Guidance on use of stopways and clearways is
given in Attachment A, Section 2.
— 760 m for independent parallel departures;
— 760 m for segregated parallel operations;
Width of runways
except that:
3.1.9 Recommendation.— The width of a runway should
be not less than the appropriate dimension specified in the
following tabulation:
a) for segregated parallel
minimum distance:
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1) may be decreased by 30 m for each 150 m that the
arrival runway is staggered toward the arriving
aircraft, to a minimum of 300 m; and
— 1.5 per cent where the code number is 3 or 4; and
— 2 per cent where the code number is 1 or 2.
2) should be increased by 30 m for each 150 m that the
arrival runway is staggered away from the arriving
aircraft;
Note.— Guidance on slope changes before a runway is
given in Attachment A, Section 4.
3.1.15 Recommendation.— The transition from one
slope to another should be accomplished by a curved surface
with a rate of change not exceeding:
b) for independent parallel approaches, combinations of
minimum distances and associated conditions other than
those specified in the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) may be
applied when it is determined that such combinations
would not adversely affect the safety of aircraft
operations.
— 0.1 per cent per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of
30 000 m) where the code number is 4;
— 0.2 per cent per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of
15 000 m) where the code number is 3; and
Note.— Procedures and facilities requirements for
simultaneous operations on parallel or near-parallel instrument runways are contained in the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444),
Part IV and the PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I, Part VII
and Volume II, Parts II and III and relevant guidance is
contained in the Manual of Simultaneous Operations on
Parallel or Near-Parallel Instrument Runways (Doc 9643).
— 0.4 per cent per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of
7 500 m) where the code number is 1 or 2.
3.1.16 Sight distance
Recommendation.— Where slope changes cannot be
avoided, they should be such that there will be an
unobstructed line of sight from:
Slopes on runways
3.1.12 Longitudinal slopes
— any point 3 m above a runway to all other points 3 m above
Recommendation.— The slope computed by dividing the
difference between the maximum and minimum elevation
along the runway centre line by the runway length should not
exceed:
the runway within a distance of at least half the length of
the runway where the code letter is C, D, E or F.
— any point 2 m above a runway to all other points 2 m above
the runway within a distance of at least half the length of
the runway where the code letter is B; and
— 1 per cent where the code number is 3 or 4; and
— 2 per cent where the code number is 1 or 2.
— any point 1.5 m above a runway to all other points 1.5 m
above the runway within a distance of at least half the
length of the runway where the code letter is A.
3.1.13 Recommendation.— Along no portion of a
runway should the longitudinal slope exceed:
Note.— Consideration will have to be given to providing an
unobstructed line of sight over the entire length of a single
runway where a full-length parallel taxiway is not available.
Where an aerodrome has intersecting runways, additional
criteria on the line of sight of the intersection area would need
to be considered for operational safety. See the Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 1.
— 1.25 per cent where the code number is 4, except that
for the first and last quarter of the length of the runway
the longitudinal slope should not exceed 0.8 per cent;
— 1.5 per cent where the code number is 3, except that for
the first and last quarter of the length of a precision
approach runway category II or III the longitudinal
slope should not exceed 0.8 per cent; and
3.1.17
Distance between slope changes
— 2 per cent where the code number is 1 or 2.
Recommendation.— Undulations or appreciable changes
in slopes located close together along a runway should be
avoided. The distance between the points of intersection of two
successive curves should not be less than:
3.1.14 Longitudinal slope changes
a) the sum of the absolute numerical values of the corresponding slope changes multiplied by the appropriate
value as follows:
Recommendation.— Where slope changes cannot be
avoided, a slope change between two consecutive slopes
should not exceed:
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— 30 000 m where the code number is 4;
characteristics or otherwise adversely affect the take-off or
landing of an aeroplane.
— 15 000 m where the code number is 3; and
Note 1.— Surface irregularities may adversely affect the
take-off or landing of an aeroplane by causing excessive
bouncing, pitching, vibration, or other difficulties in the
control of an aeroplane.
— 5 000 m where the code number is 1 or 2; or
b) 45 m;
whichever is greater.
Note 2.— Guidance on design tolerances and other
information is given in Attachment A, Section 5. Additional
guidance is included in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 3.
Note.— Guidance on implementing this specification is
given in Attachment A, Section 4.
3.1.18
3.1.22 The surface of a paved runway shall be so
constructed as to provide good friction characteristics when
the runway is wet.
Transverse slopes
Recommendation.— To promote the most rapid drainage of
water, the runway surface should, if practicable, be cambered
except where a single crossfall from high to low in the direction
of the wind most frequently associated with rain would ensure
rapid drainage. The transverse slope should ideally be:
3.1.23 Recommendation.— Measurements of the
friction characteristics of a new or resurfaced runway should
be made with a continuous friction measuring device using
self-wetting features in order to assure that the design
objectives with respect to its friction characteristics have been
achieved.
— 1.5 per cent where the code letter is C, D, E or F; and
Note.— Guidance on friction characteristics of new runway
surfaces is given in Attachment A, Section 7. Additional
guidance is included in the Airport Services Manual, Part 2.
— 2 per cent where the code letter is A or B;
but in any event should not exceed 1.5 per cent or 2 per cent,
as applicable, nor be less than 1 per cent except at runway or
taxiway intersections where flatter slopes may be necessary.
3.1.24 Recommendation.— The average surface texture
depth of a new surface should be not less than 1.0 mm.
For a cambered surface the transverse slope on each side of
the centre line should be symmetrical.
Note 1.— This normally requires some form of special
surface treatment.
Note.— On wet runways with cross-wind conditions the
problem of aquaplaning from poor drainage is apt to be
accentuated. In Attachment A, Section 7, information is given
concerning this problem and other relevant factors.
Note 2.— Guidance on methods used to measure surface
texture is given in the Airport Services Manual, Part 2.
3.1.25 Recommendation.— When the surface is grooved
or scored, the grooves or scorings should be either perpendicular to the runway centre line or parallel to nonperpendicular transverse joints, where applicable.
3.1.19 Recommendation.— The transverse slope should
be substantially the same throughout the length of a runway
except at an intersection with another runway or a taxiway
where an even transition should be provided taking account of
the need for adequate drainage.
Note.— Guidance on methods for improving the runway
surface texture is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual,
Part 3.
Note.— Guidance on transverse slope is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 3.
3.2
Runway shoulders
Strength of runways
3.1.20 Recommendation.— A runway should be capable
of withstanding the traffic of aeroplanes the runway is
intended to serve.
General
Note.— Guidance on characteristics and treatment of
runway shoulders is given in Attachment A, Section 8, and in
the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 1.
Surface of runways
3.2.1 Recommendation.— Runway shoulders should be
provided for a runway where the code letter is D or E, and the
runway width is less than 60 m.
3.1.21 The surface of a runway shall be constructed
without irregularities that would result in loss in friction
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3.2.2 Recommendation.— Runway shoulders should be
provided for a runway where the code letter is F.
Width of runway strips
3.3.3 A strip including a precision approach runway shall,
wherever practicable, extend laterally to a distance of at least:
Width of runway shoulders
— 150 m where the code number is 3 or 4; and
3.2.3 Recommendation.— The runway shoulders should
extend symmetrically on each side of the runway so that the
overall width of the runway and its shoulders is not less than:
— 75 m where the code number is 1 or 2;
on each side of the centre line of the runway and its extended
centre line throughout the length of the strip.
— 60 m where the code letter is D or E; and
3.3.4 Recommendation.— A strip including a nonprecision approach runway should extend laterally to a
distance of at least:
— 75 m where the code letter is F.
Slopes on runway shoulders
— 150 m where the code number is 3 or 4; and
3.2.4 Recommendation.— The surface of the shoulder
that abuts the runway should be flush with the surface of the
runway and its transverse slope should not exceed 2.5 per
cent.
— 75 m where the code number is 1 or 2;
on each side of the centre line of the runway and its extended
centre line throughout the length of the strip.
3.3.5 Recommendation.— A strip including a noninstrument runway should extend on each side of the centre
line of the runway and its extended centre line throughout the
length of the strip, to a distance of at least:
Strength of runway shoulders
3.2.5 Recommendation.— A runway shoulder should be
prepared or constructed so as to be capable, in the event of an
aeroplane running off the runway, of supporting the aeroplane
without inducing structural damage to the aeroplane and of
supporting ground vehicles which may operate on the
shoulder.
— 75 m where the code number is 3 or 4;
— 40 m where the code number is 2; and
— 30 m where the code number is 1.
Note.— Guidance on strength of runway shoulders is given
in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 1.
Objects on runway strips
3.3
Note.— See 8.7 for information regarding siting and
construction of equipment and installations on runway strips.
Runway strips
3.3.6 Recommendation.— An object situated on a runway
strip which may endanger aeroplanes should be regarded as
an obstacle and should, as far as practicable, be removed.
General
3.3.1 A runway and any associated stopways shall be
included in a strip.
3.3.7 No fixed object, other than visual aids required for
air navigation purposes and satisfying the relevant frangibility
requirement in Chapter 5, shall be permitted on a runway strip:
Length of runway strips
a) within 77.5 m of the runway centre line of a precision
approach runway category I, II or III where the code
number is 4 and the code letter is F; or
3.3.2 A strip shall extend before the threshold and beyond
the end of the runway or stopway for a distance of at least:
— 60 m where the code number is 2, 3 or 4;
b) within 60 m of the runway centre line of a precision
approach runway category I, II or III where the code
number is 3 or 4; or
— 60 m where the code number is 1 and the runway is an
instrument one; and
c) within 45 m of the runway centre line of a precision
approach runway category I where the code number is 1
or 2.
— 30 m where the code number is 1 and the runway is a
non-instrument one.
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No mobile object shall be permitted on this part of the runway
strip during the use of the runway for landing or take-off.
3.3.13 Longitudinal slope changes
Recommendation.— Slope changes on that portion of a
strip to be graded should be as gradual as practicable and
abrupt changes or sudden reversals of slopes avoided.
Grading of runway strips
3.3.8 Recommendation.— That portion of a strip of an
instrument runway within a distance of at least:
3.3.14
Transverse slopes
Recommendation.— Transverse slopes on that portion of
a strip to be graded should be adequate to prevent the accumulation of water on the surface but should not exceed:
— 75 m where the code number is 3 or 4; and
— 40 m where the code number is 1 or 2;
— 2.5 per cent where the code number is 3 or 4; and
from the centre line of the runway and its extended centre line
should provide a graded area for aeroplanes which the runway is intended to serve in the event of an aeroplane running
off the runway.
— 3 per cent where the code number is 1 or 2;
except that to facilitate drainage the slope for the first 3 m
outward from the runway, shoulder or stopway edge should be
negative as measured in the direction away from the runway
and may be as great as 5 per cent.
Note.— Guidance on grading of a greater area of a strip
including a precision approach runway where the code
number is 3 or 4 is given in Attachment A, Section 8.
3.3.15 Recommendation.— The transverse slopes of any
portion of a strip beyond that to be graded should not exceed
an upward slope of 5 per cent as measured in the direction
away from the runway.
3.3.9 Recommendation.— That portion of a strip of a
non-instrument runway within a distance of at least:
— 75 m where the code number is 3 or 4;
— 40 m where the code number is 2; and
Strength of runway strips
— 30 m where the code number is 1;
3.3.16 Recommendation.— That portion of a strip of an
instrument runway within a distance of at least:
from the centre line of the runway and its extended centre line
should provide a graded area for aeroplanes which the runway is intended to serve in the event of an aeroplane running
off the runway.
— 75 m where the code number is 3 or 4; and
— 40 m where the code number is 1 or 2;
3.3.10 The surface of that portion of a strip that abuts a
runway, shoulder or stopway shall be flush with the surface of
the runway, shoulder or stopway.
from the centre line of the runway and its extended centre line
should be so prepared or constructed as to minimize hazards
arising from differences in load bearing capacity to aeroplanes which the runway is intended to serve in the event of an
aeroplane running off the runway.
3.3.11 Recommendation.— That portion of a strip to at
least 30 m before a threshold should be prepared against blast
erosion in order to protect a landing aeroplane from the
danger of an exposed edge.
Note.— Guidance on preparation of runway strips is given
in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 1.
3.3.17 Recommendation.— That portion of a strip
containing a non-instrument runway within a distance of at
least:
Slopes on runway strips
— 75 m where the code number is 3 or 4;
3.3.12 Longitudinal slopes
— 40 m where the code number is 2; and
Recommendation.— A longitudinal slope along that
portion of a strip to be graded should not exceed:
— 30 m where the code number is 1;
— 1.5 per cent where the code number is 4;
from the centre line of the runway and its extended centre line
should be so prepared or constructed as to minimize hazards
arising from differences in load bearing capacity to aeroplanes which the runway is intended to serve in the event of an
aeroplane running off the runway.
— 1.75 per cent where the code number is 3; and
— 2 per cent where the code number is 1 or 2.
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3.4 Runway end safety areas
Note.— The surface of the ground in the runway end safety
area does not need to be prepared to the same quality as the
runway strip. See, however, 3.4.11.
General
3.4.1 A runway end safety area shall be provided at each
end of a runway strip where:
Slopes on runway end safety areas
— the code number is 3 or 4; and
3.4.8 General
— the code number is 1 or 2 and the runway is an
instrument one.
Recommendation.— The slopes of a runway end safety
area should be such that no part of the runway end safety area
penetrates the approach or take-off climb surface.
Note.— Guidance on runway end safety areas is given in
Attachment A, Section 9.
3.4.9 Longitudinal slopes
Dimensions of runway end safety areas
Recommendation.— The longitudinal slopes of a runway
end safety area should not exceed a downward slope of 5 per
cent. Longitudinal slope changes should be as gradual as
practicable and abrupt changes or sudden reversals of slopes
avoided.
3.4.2 A runway end safety area shall extend from the end
of a runway strip to a distance of at least 90 m.
3.4.3 Recommendation.— A runway end safety area
should, as far as practicable, extend from the end of a runway
strip to a distance of at least:
3.4.10
— 240 m where the code number is 3 or 4; and
Transverse slopes
Recommendation.— The transverse slopes of a runway
end safety area should not exceed an upward or downward
slope of 5 per cent. Transitions between differing slopes
should be as gradual as practicable.
— 120 m where the code number is 1 or 2.
3.4.4 The width of a runway end safety area shall be at
least twice that of the associated runway.
Strength of runway end safety areas
3.4.5 Recommendation.— The width of a runway end
safety area should, wherever practicable, be equal to that of
the graded portion of the associated runway strip.
3.4.11 Recommendation.— A runway end safety area
should be so prepared or constructed as to reduce the risk of
damage to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the
runway, enhance aeroplane deceleration and facilitate the
movement of rescue and fire fighting vehicles as required in
9.2.26 to 9.2.28.
Objects on runway end safety areas
Note.— See 8.7 for information regarding siting and
construction of equipment and installations on runway end
safety areas.
Note.— Guidance on strength of a runway end safety area
is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 1.
3.4.6 Recommendation.— An object situated on a
runway end safety area which may endanger aeroplanes
should be regarded as an obstacle and should, as far as
practicable, be removed.
3.5
Note.— The inclusion of detailed specifications for
clearways in this section is not intended to imply that a
clearway has to be provided. Attachment A, Section 2 provides
information on the use of clearways.
Clearing and grading of
runway end safety areas
3.4.7 Recommendation.— A runway end safety area
should provide a cleared and graded area for aeroplanes
which the runway is intended to serve in the event of an
aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway.
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No. 4
Clearways
Location of clearways
3.5.1 Recommendation.— The origin of a clearway
should be at the end of the take-off run available.
20
Chapter 3
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Length of clearways
3.6
3.5.2 Recommendation.— The length of a clearway
should not exceed half the length of the take-off run available.
Stopways
Note.— The inclusion of detailed specifications for stopways in this section is not intended to imply that a stopway has
to be provided. Attachment A, Section 2 provides information
on the use of stopways.
Width of clearways
3.5.3 Recommendation.— A clearway should extend
laterally to a distance of at least 75 m on each side of the
extended centre line of the runway.
Width of stopways
3.6.1 A stopway shall have the same width as the runway
with which it is associated.
Slopes on clearways
Slopes on stopways
3.5.4 Recommendation.— The ground in a clearway
should not project above a plane having an upward slope of
1.25 per cent, the lower limit of this plane being a horizontal
line which:
3.6.2 Recommendation.— Slopes and changes in slope
on a stopway, and the transition from a runway to a stopway,
should comply with the specifications of 3.1.12 to 3.1.18 for
the runway with which the stopway is associated except that:
a) is perpendicular to the vertical plane containing the
runway centre line; and
a) the limitation in 3.1.13 of a 0.8 per cent slope for the
first and last quarter of the length of a runway need not
be applied to the stopway; and
b) passes through a point located on the runway centre line
at the end of the take-off run available.
b) at the junction of the stopway and runway and along the
stopway the maximum rate of slope change may be
0.3 per cent per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of
10 000 m) for a runway where the code number is 3 or 4.
Note.— Because of transverse or longitudinal slopes on a
runway, shoulder or strip, in certain cases the lower limit of
the clearway plane specified above may be below the corresponding elevation of the runway, shoulder or strip. It is not
intended that these surfaces be graded to conform with the
lower limit of the clearway plane nor is it intended that terrain
or objects which are above the clearway plane beyond the end
of the strip but below the level of the strip be removed unless
it is considered they may endanger aeroplanes.
Strength of stopways
3.6.3 Recommendation.— A stopway should be prepared or constructed so as to be capable, in the event of an
abandoned take-off, of supporting the aeroplane which the
stopway is intended to serve without inducing structural
damage to the aeroplane.
3.5.5 Recommendation.— Abrupt upward changes in
slope should be avoided when the slope on the ground in a
clearway is relatively small or when the mean slope is upward.
In such situations, in that portion of the clearway within a
distance of 22.5 m or half the runway width whichever is
greater on each side of the extended centre line, the slopes,
slope changes and the transition from runway to clearway
should generally conform with those of the runway with which
the clearway is associated.
Note.— Attachment A, Section 2 presents guidance relative
to the support capability of a stopway.
Surface of stopways
Note.— See 8.7 for information regarding siting and
construction of equipment and installations on clearways.
3.6.4 Recommendation.— The surface of a paved
stopway should be so constructed as to provide a good
coefficient of friction to be compatible with that of the
associated runway when the stopway is wet.
3.5.6 Recommendation.— An object situated on a clearway which may endanger aeroplanes in the air should be
regarded as an obstacle and should be removed.
3.6.5 Recommendation.— The friction characteristics of
an unpaved stopway should not be substantially less than that
of the runway with which the stopway is associated.
Objects on clearways
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Volume I
3.7 Radio altimeter operating area
3.8.2 Recommendation.— Sufficient entrance and exit
taxiways for a runway should be provided to expedite the
movement of aeroplanes to and from the runway and provision
of rapid exit taxiways considered when traffic volumes are high.
3.7.1 Recommendation.— A radio altimeter operating
area should be established in the pre-threshold area of a
precision approach runway.
Note.— Where the end of a runway is not served by a
taxiway, it may be necessary to provide additional pavement at
the end of the runway for the turning of aeroplanes. Such
areas may also be useful along the runway to reduce taxiing
time and distance for some aeroplanes.
General
Length of the area
3.8.3 Recommendation.— The design of a taxiway
should be such that, when the cockpit of the aeroplane for
which the taxiway is intended remains over the taxiway centre
line markings, the clearance distance between the outer main
wheel of the aeroplane and the edge of the taxiway should be
not less than that given by the following tabulation:
3.7.2 Recommendation.— A radio altimeter operating
area should extend before the threshold for a distance of at
least 300 m.
Width of the area
Code letter
3.7.3 Recommendation.— A radio altimeter operating
area should extend laterally, on each side of the extended
centre line of the runway, to a distance of 60 m, except that,
when special circumstances so warrant, the distance may be
reduced to no less than 30 m if an aeronautical study indicates
that such reduction would not affect the safety of operations of
aircraft.
Clearance
A
1.5 m
B
2.25 m
C
3 m if the taxiway is intended to be
used by aeroplanes with a wheel
base less than 18 m;
Longitudinal slope changes
4.5 m if the taxiway is intended to be
used by aeroplanes with a wheel
base equal to or greater than 18 m.
3.7.4 Recommendation.— On a radio altimeter operating area, slope changes should be avoided or kept to a
minimum. Where slope changes cannot be avoided, the slope
changes should be as gradual as practicable and abrupt
changes or sudden reversals of slopes avoided. The rate of
change between two consecutive slopes should not exceed
2 per cent per 30 m.
Note.— Guidance on radio altimeter operating area is
given in Attachment A, Section 4.3 and in the Manual of AllWeather Operations, (Doc 9365), Section 5.2. Guidance on the
use of radio altimeter is given in the PANS-OPS, Volume II,
Part III, Chapter 21.
D
4.5 m
E
4.5 m
F
4.5 m
Note 1.— Wheel base means the distance from the nose
gear to the geometric centre of the main gear.
Note 2.— Where the code letter is F and the traffic density
is high, a wheel-to-edge clearance greater than 4.5 m may be
provided to permit higher taxiing speeds.
3.8 Taxiways
Width of taxiways
Note.— Unless otherwise indicated the requirements in this
section are applicable to all types of taxiways.
3.8.4 Recommendation.— A straight portion of a taxiway should have a width of not less than that given by the
following tabulation:
General
Code letter
3.8.1 Recommendation.— Taxiways should be provided
to permit the safe and expeditious surface movement of aircraft.
Note.— Guidance on layout of taxiways is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
4/11/99
22
Taxiway width
A
7.5 m
B
10.5 m
Chapter 3
C
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
15 m if the taxiway is intended to
be used by aeroplanes with a wheel
base less than 18 m;
Taxiway curves
3.8.5 Recommendation.— Changes in direction of
taxiways should be as few and small as possible. The radii of
the curves should be compatible with the manoeuvring
capability and normal taxiing speeds of the aeroplanes for
which the taxiway is intended. The design of the curve should
be such that, when the cockpit of the aeroplane remains over
the taxiway centre line markings, the clearance distance
between the outer main wheels of the aeroplane and the edge
of the taxiway should not be less than those specified in 3.8.3.
18 m if the taxiway is intended to
be used by aeroplanes with a wheel
base equal to or greater than 18 m.
D
18 m if the taxiway is intended to
be used by aeroplanes with an
outer main gear wheel span of less
than 9 m;
Note 1.— An example of widening taxiways to achieve the
wheel clearance specified is illustrated in Figure 3-1.
Guidance on the values of suitable dimensions is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
23 m if the taxiway is intended to
be used by aeroplanes with an
outer main gear wheel span equal
to or greater than 9 m.
E
23 m
F
25 m
Note 2.— The location of taxiway centre line markings and
lights is specified in 5.2.8.4 and 5.3.15.10.
Note.— Guidance on width of taxiways is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
Note 3.— Compound curves may reduce or eliminate the
need for extra taxiway width.
Location of taxiway centre
line markings (see 5.2.8.4)
Location of taxiway centre
line lights (see 5.3.15.10)
Taxiway
width
(see 3.8.4)
Minimum wheel
clearance (see 3.8.5)
Extra
taxiway
width
TAXIWAY
The figure shows an example of taxiway widening to achieve
the specified wheel clearances on taxiway curves (see 3.8.5).
Guidance material on suitable dimensions is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
Figure 3-1.
Taxiway curve
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Table 3-1.
Taxiway minimum separation distances
Distance between taxiway centre line
and runway centre line (metres)
Taxiway,
other than
aircraft stand
taxilane,
centre line
to object
(metres)
Aircraft stand
taxilane
centre line
to object
(metres)
Code
letter
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Taxiway
centre line
to taxiway
centre line
(metres)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
–
–
–
–
23.75
16.25
12
Non-instrument runways
Instrument runways
A
Code number
Code number
82.5 82.5
37.5 47.5
B
87
87
–
–
42
52
–
–
33.5
21.5
16.5
C
–
–
168
–
–
–
93
–
44
26
24.5
D
–
–
176
176
–
–
101
101
66.5
40.5
36
E
–
–
–
182.5
–
–
–
107.5
80
47.5
42.5
F
–
–
–
190
–
–
–
115
97.5
57.5
50.5
Note 1.— The separation distances shown in columns (2) to (9) represent ordinary combinations of runways and taxiways. The
basis for development of these distances is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
Note 2.— The distances in columns (2) to (9) do not guarantee sufficient clearance behind a holding aeroplane to permit the
passing of another aeroplane on a parallel taxiway. See the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
Junctions and intersections
Note 1.— Guidance on factors which may be considered in
the aeronautical study is given in the Aerodrome Design
Manual, Part 2.
3.8.6 Recommendation.— To facilitate the movement of
aeroplanes, fillets should be provided at junctions and
intersections of taxiways with runways, aprons and other
taxiways. The design of the fillets should ensure that the
minimum wheel clearances specified in 3.8.3 are maintained
when aeroplanes are manoeuvring through the junctions or
intersections.
Note 2.— ILS and MLS installations may also influence the
location of taxiways due to interferences to ILS and MLS
signals by a taxiing or stopped aircraft. Information on critical
and sensitive areas surrounding ILS and MLS installations is
contained in Annex 10, Volume I, Attachments C and G
(respectively) to Part I.
Note.— Consideration will have to be given to the
aeroplane datum length when designing fillets. Guidance on
the design of fillets and the definition of the term aeroplane
datum length are given in the Aerodrome Design Manual,
Part 2.
Note 3.— The separation distances of Table 3-1,
column 10, do not necessarily provide the capability of
making a normal turn from one taxiway to another parallel
taxiway. Guidance for this condition is given in the Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 2.
Note 4.— The separation distance between the centre line
of an aircraft stand taxilane and an object shown in Table 3-1,
column 12, may need to be increased when jet exhaust wake
velocity may cause hazardous conditions for ground servicing.
Taxiway minimum separation distances
3.8.7 Recommendation.— The separation distance
between the centre line of a taxiway and the centre line of a
runway, the centre line of a parallel taxiway or an object
should not be less than the appropriate dimension specified in
Table 3-1, except that it may be permissible to operate with
lower separation distances at an existing aerodrome if an
aeronautical study indicates that such lower separation
distances would not adversely affect the safety or significantly
affect the regularity of operations of aeroplanes.
4/11/99
Slopes on taxiways
3.8.8 Longitudinal slopes
Recommendation.— The longitudinal slope of a taxiway
should not exceed:
24
Chapter 3
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
— 1.5 per cent where the code letter is C, D, E or F; and
moving and stationary aeroplanes, to higher stresses than the
runway it serves.
— 3 per cent where the code letter is A or B.
3.8.9
Note.— Guidance on the relation of the strength of taxiways to the strength of runways is given in the Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 3.
Longitudinal slope changes
Recommendation.— Where slope changes on a taxiway
cannot be avoided, the transition from one slope to another
slope should be accomplished by a curved surface with a rate
of change not exceeding:
Surface of taxiways
3.8.13 Recommendation.— The surface of a taxiway
should not have irregularities that cause damage to aeroplane
structures.
— 1 per cent per 30 m (minimum radius of curvature of
3 000 m) where the code letter is C, D, E or F; and
3.8.14 Recommendation.— The surface of a paved
taxiway should be so constructed as to provide good friction
characteristics when the taxiway is wet.
— 1 per cent per 25 m (minimum radius of curvature of
2 500 m) where the code letter is A or B.
3.8.10 Sight distance
Rapid exit taxiways
Recommendation.— Where a change in slope on a taxiway cannot be avoided, the change should be such that, from
any point:
Note.— The following specifications detail requirements
particular to rapid exit taxiways. See Figure 3-2. General
requirements for taxiways also apply to this type of taxiway.
Guidance on the provision, location and design of rapid exit
taxiways is included in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
— 3 m above the taxiway, it will be possible to see the
whole surface of the taxiway for a distance of at least
300 m from that point, where the code letter is C, D, E
or F;
3.8.15 Recommendation.— A rapid exit taxiway should
be designed with a radius of turn-off curve of at least:
— 2 m above the taxiway, it will be possible to see the
whole surface of the taxiway for a distance of at least
200 m from that point, where the code letter is B; and
— 550 m where the code number is 3 or 4; and
— 275 m where the code number is 1 or 2;
— 1.5 m above the taxiway, it will be possible to see the
whole surface of the taxiway for a distance of at least
150 m from that point, where the code letter is A.
to enable exit speeds under wet conditions of:
— 93 km/h where the code number is 3 or 4; and
— 65 km/h where the code number is 1 or 2.
3.8.11
Transverse slopes
Note.— The locations of rapid exit taxiways along a
runway are based on several criteria described in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2, in addition to different
speed criteria.
Recommendation.— The transverse slopes of a taxiway
should be sufficient to prevent the accumulation of water on
the surface of the taxiway but should not exceed:
— 1.5 per cent where the code letter is C, D, E or F; and
3.8.16 Recommendation.— The radius of the fillet on
the inside of the curve at a rapid exit taxiway should be
sufficient to provide a widened taxiway throat in order to
facilitate early recognition of the entrance and turn-off onto
the taxiway.
— 2 per cent where the code letter is A or B.
Note.— See 3.12.4 regarding transverse slopes on an
aircraft stand taxilane.
3.8.17 Recommendation.— A rapid exit taxiway should
include a straight distance after the turn-off curve sufficient
for an exiting aircraft to come to a full stop clear of any
intersecting taxiway.
Strength of taxiways
3.8.12 Recommendation.— The strength of a taxiway
should be at least equal to that of the runway it serves, due
consideration being given to the fact that a taxiway will be
subjected to a greater density of traffic and, as a result of slow
3.8.18 Recommendation.— The intersection angle of a
rapid exit taxiway with the runway should not be greater than
45° nor less than 25° and preferably should be 30°.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
TAXIWAY
Ra
Radius of
turn-off
curve
pid
t ta
ex i
a
Str
x iw
i gh
ay
t
ta
d is
nc e
RUNWAY
Intersection angle
Figure 3-2. Rapid exit taxiway
Taxiways on bridges
3.9.1 Recommendation.— Straight portions of a taxiway
where the code letter is C, D, E or F should be provided with
shoulders which extend symmetrically on each side of the
taxiway so that the overall width of the taxiway and its
shoulders on straight portions is not less than:
3.8.19 The width of that portion of a taxiway bridge
capable of supporting aeroplanes, as measured perpendicularly
to the taxiway centre line, shall not be less than the width of
the graded area of the strip provided for that taxiway, unless a
proven method of lateral restraint is provided which shall not
be hazardous for aeroplanes for which the taxiway is intended.
— 60 m where the code letter is F;
— 44 m where the code letter is E;
3.8.20 Recommendation.— Access should be provided
to allow rescue and fire fighting vehicles to intervene in both
directions within the specified response time to the largest
aeroplane for which the taxiway bridge is intended.
— 38 m where the code letter is D; and
— 25 m where the code letter is C.
On taxiway curves and on junctions or intersections where
increased pavement is provided, the shoulder width should be
not less than that on the adjacent straight portions of the
taxiway.
Note.— If aeroplane engines overhang the bridge structure,
protection of adjacent areas below the bridge from engine
blast may be required.
3.8.21 Recommendation.— A bridge should be constructed on a straight section of the taxiway with a straight
section on both ends of the bridge to facilitate the alignment
of aeroplanes approaching the bridge.
3.9.2 Recommendation.— When a taxiway is intended
to be used by turbine-engined aeroplanes, the surface of the
taxiway shoulder should be so prepared as to resist erosion
and the ingestion of the surface material by aeroplane engines.
3.9 Taxiway shoulders
3.10 Taxiway strips
Note.— Guidance on characteristics of taxiway shoulders
and on shoulder treatment is given in the Aerodrome Design
Manual, Part 2.
4/11/99
Note.— Guidance on characteristics of taxiway strips is
given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
26
Chapter 3
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
the upward slope being measured with reference to the
transverse slope of the adjacent taxiway surface and not the
horizontal. The downward transverse slope should not exceed
5 per cent measured with reference to the horizontal.
General
3.10.1 A taxiway, other than an aircraft stand taxilane,
shall be included in a strip.
3.10.6 Recommendation.— The transverse slopes on
any portion of a taxiway strip beyond that to be graded should
not exceed an upward or downward slope of 5 per cent as
measured in the direction away from the taxiway.
Width of taxiway strips
3.10.2 Recommendation.— A taxiway strip should
extend symmetrically on each side of the centre line of the
taxiway throughout the length of the taxiway to at least the
distance from the centre line given in Table 3-1, column 11.
3.11 Holding bays, runway-holding positions,
intermediate holding positions
and road-holding positions
Objects on taxiway strips
Note.— See 8.7 for information regarding siting and
construction of equipment and installations on taxiway strips.
General
3.11.1 Recommendation.— Holding bay(s) should be
provided when the traffic density is medium or heavy.
3.10.3 Recommendation.— The taxiway strip should
provide an area clear of objects which may endanger taxiing
aeroplanes.
3.11.2 A runway-holding position or positions shall be
established:
Note.— Consideration will have to be given to the location
and design of drains on a taxiway strip to prevent damage to
an aeroplane accidentally running off a taxiway. Suitably
designed drain covers may be required.
a) on the taxiway, at the intersection of a taxiway and a
runway; and
b) at an intersection of a runway with another runway when
the former runway is part of a standard taxi-route.
Grading of taxiway strips
3.11.3 A runway-holding position shall be established on
a taxiway if the location or alignment of the taxiway is such
that a taxiing aircraft or vehicle can infringe an obstacle
limitation surface or interfere with the operation of radio
navigation aids.
3.10.4 Recommendation.— The centre portion of a
taxiway strip should provide a graded area to a distance from
the centre line of the taxiway of at least:
— 11 m where the code letter is A;
3.11.4 Recommendation.— An intermediate holding
position should be established on a taxiway at any point other
than a runway-holding position where it is desirable to define
a specific holding limit.
— 12.5 m where the code letter is B or C;
— 19 m where the code letter is D;
3.11.5 A road-holding position shall be established at an
intersection of a road with a runway.
— 22 m where the code letter is E; and
— 30 m where the code letter is F.
Location
Slopes on taxiway strips
3.11.6 The distance between a holding bay,
runway-holding position established at a taxiway/runway
intersection or road-holding position and the centre line of a
runway shall be in accordance with Table 3-2 and, in the case
of a precision approach runway, such that a holding aircraft or
vehicle will not interfere with the operation of radio navigation
aids.
3.10.5 Recommendation.— The surface of the strip
should be flush at the edge of the taxiway or shoulder, if
provided, and the graded portion should not have an upward
transverse slope exceeding:
— 2.5 per cent for strips where the code letter is C, D, E
or F; and
3.11.7 Recommendation.— At elevations greater than
700 m (2 300 ft) the distance of 90 m specified in Table 3-2 for
a precision approach runway code number 4 should be
increased as follows:
— 3 per cent for strips of taxiways where the code letter is
A or B;
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Table 3-2. Minimum distance from the runway centre line
to a holding bay, runway-holding position or road-holding position
Code number
Type of runway
1
2
3
4
Non-instrument
30 m
40 m
75 m
75 m
Non-precision approach
40 m
40 m
75 m
75 m
mb
mb
90 ma,b
90 ma,b,c
–
–
90 ma,b
90 ma,b,c
30 m
40 m
75 m
75 m
Precision approach category I
Precision approach categories II
and III
Take-off runway
60
60
a. If a holding bay, runway-holding position or road-holding position is at a lower elevation compared to the threshold, the distance may be decreased
5 m for every metre the bay or holding position is lower than the threshold, contingent upon not infringing the inner transitional surface.
b. This distance may need to be increased to avoid interference with radio navigation aids, particularly the glide path and localizer facilities. Information
on critical and sensitive areas of ILS and MLS is contained in Annex 10, Volume I, Attachments C and G to Part I, respectively (see also 3.11.6).
Note 1.— The distance of 90 m for code number 3 or 4 is based on an aircraft with a tail height of 20 m, a distance from the nose to the highest
part of the tail of 52.7 m and a nose height of 10 m holding at an angle of 45° or more with respect to the runway centre line, being clear of the
obstacle free zone and not accountable for the calculation of OCA/H.
Note 2.— The distance of 60 m for code number 2 is based on an aircraft with a tail height of 8 m, a distance from the nose to the highest part
of the tail of 24.6 m and a nose height of 5.2 m holding at an angle of 45° or more with respect to the runway centre line, bein g clear of the obstacle
free zone.
c. Where the code letter is F, this distance should be 107.5 m.
Note.— The distance of 107.5 m for code number 4 where the code letter is F is based on an aircraft with a tail height of 24 m, a distance from
the nose to the highest part of the tail of 62.2 m and a nose height of 10 m holding at an angle of 45° or more with respect to the runway centre
line, being clear of the obstacle free zone.
a) up to an elevation of 2 000 m (6 600 ft); 1 m for every
100 m (330 ft) in excess of 700 m (2 300 ft);
zone, approach surface, take-off climb surface or ILS/MLS
critical/sensitive area or interfere with the operation of radio
navigation aids.
b) elevation in excess of 2 000 m (6 600 ft) and up to
4 000 m (13 320 ft); 13 m plus 1.5 m for every 100 m
(330 ft) in excess of 2 000 m (6 600 ft); and
3.12
c) elevation in excess of 4 000 m (13 320 ft) and up to
5 000 m (16 650 ft); 43 m plus 2 m for every 100 m
(330 ft) in excess of 4 000 m (13 320 ft).
Aprons
General
3.11.8 Recommendation.— If a holding bay, runwayholding position or road-holding position for a precision
approach runway code number 4 is at a greater elevation
compared to the threshold, the distance of 90 m or 107.5 m, as
appropriate, specified in Table 3-2 should be further increased
5 m for every metre the bay or position is higher than the
threshold.
3.12.1 Recommendation.— Aprons should be provided
where necessary to permit the on- and off-loading of passengers, cargo or mail as well as the servicing of aircraft
without interfering with the aerodrome traffic.
3.11.9 The location of a runway-holding position
established in accordance with 3.11.3 shall be such that a
holding aircraft or vehicle will not infringe the obstacle free
3.12.2 Recommendation.— The total apron area should
be adequate to permit expeditious handling of the aerodrome
traffic at its maximum anticipated density.
4/11/99
Size of aprons
28
Chapter 3
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Strength of aprons
an area or areas suitable for the parking of an aircraft which is
known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference,
or which for other reasons needs isolation from normal
aerodrome activities.
3.12.3 Recommendation.— Each part of an apron
should be capable of withstanding the traffic of the aircraft it
is intended to serve, due consideration being given to the fact
that some portions of the apron will be subjected to a higher
density of traffic and, as a result of slow moving or stationary
aircraft, to higher stresses than a runway.
3.13.2 Recommendation.— The isolated aircraft
parking position should be located at the maximum distance
practicable and in any case never less than 100 m from other
parking positions, buildings or public areas, etc. Care should
be taken to ensure that the position is not located over
underground utilities such as gas and aviation fuel and, to the
extent feasible, electrical or communication cables.
Slopes on aprons
3.12.4 Recommendation.— Slopes on an apron,
including those on an aircraft stand taxilane, should be
sufficient to prevent accumulation of water on the surface of
the apron but should be kept as level as drainage requirements
permit.
3.14 De-icing/anti-icing facilities
Note.— Safe and efficient aeroplane operations are of
primary importance in the development of an aeroplane deicing/anti-icing facility. For further guidance, see the Manual
on Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations (Doc
9640).
3.12.5 Recommendation.— On an aircraft stand the
maximum slope should not exceed 1 per cent.
Clearance distances on aircraft stands
3.12.6 Recommendation.— An aircraft stand should
provide the following minimum clearances between an aircraft
using the stand and any adjacent building, aircraft on another
stand and other objects:
Code letter
Clearance
A
B
C
D
E
F
3m
3m
4.5 m
7.5 m
7.5 m
7.5 m
General
3.14.1 Recommendation.— Aeroplane de-icing/antiicing facilities should be provided at an aerodrome where icing
conditions are expected to occur.
Location
3.14.2 Recommendation.— De-icing/anti-icing facilities
should be provided either at aircraft stands or at specified
remote areas along the taxiway leading to the runway meant
for take-off, provided that adequate drainage arrangements for
the collection and safe disposal of excess de-icing/anti-icing
fluids are available to prevent ground water contamination.
The effect of volume of traffic and departure flow rates should
also be considered.
When special circumstances so warrant, these clearances may
be reduced at a nose-in aircraft stand, where the code letter is
D, E or F:
a) between the terminal, including any fixed passenger
bridge, and the nose of an aircraft; and
b) over any portion of the stand provided with azimuth
guidance by a visual docking guidance system.
Note 1.— One of the primary factors influencing the
location of a de-icing/anti-icing facility is to ensure that the
holdover time of the anti-icing treatment is still in effect at the
end of taxiing and when take-off clearance of the treated
aeroplane is given.
Note.— On aprons, consideration also has to be given to
the provision of service roads and to manoeuvring and storage
area for ground equipment (see the Aerodrome Design
Manual, Part 2, for guidance on storage of ground equipment).
Note 2.— Remote facilities compensate for changing
weather conditions when icing conditions or blowing snow are
expected to occur along the taxi route taken by the aeroplane
to the runway meant for take-off.
3.14.3 Recommendation.— The remote de-icing/antiicing facility should be located to be clear of the obstacle
limitation surfaces specified in Chapter 4, not cause
interference to the radio navigation aids and be clearly visible
from the air traffic control tower for clearing the treated
aeroplane.
3.13 Isolated aircraft parking position
3.13.1 An isolated aircraft parking position shall be
designated or the aerodrome control tower shall be advised of
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3.14.4 Recommendation.— The remote de-icing/antiicing facility should be so located as to provide for an
expeditious traffic flow, perhaps with a bypass configuration,
and not require unusual taxiing manoeuvre into and out of the
pads.
de-icing/anti-icing fluid running off an aeroplane. The
maximum longitudinal slope should be as little as practicable
and the transverse slope should not exceed 1 per cent.
Note. — The jet blast effects caused by a moving aeroplane
on other aeroplanes receiving the anti-icing treatment or
taxiing behind will have to be taken into account to prevent
degradation of the treatment.
Strength of de-icing/anti-icing pads
3.14.8 Recommendation.— The de-icing/anti-icing pad
should be capable of withstanding the traffic of the aircraft it
is intended to serve, due consideration being given to the fact
that the de-icing/anti-icing pad (like an apron) will be
subjected to a higher density of traffic and, as a result of slowmoving or stationary aircraft, to higher stresses than a
runway.
Size and number of de-icing/anti-icing pads
Note.— An aeroplane de-icing/anti-icing pad consists of
a) an inner area for parking of an aeroplane to be treated, and
b) an outer area for movement of two or more mobile de-icing/
anti-icing equipment.
Clearance distances on
a de-icing/anti-icing pad
3.14.5 Recommendation.— The size of a de-icing/antiicing pad should be equal to the parking area required by the
most demanding aeroplane in a given category with at least
3.8 m clear paved area all round the aeroplane for the
movement of the de-icing/anti-icing vehicles.
3.14.9 Recommendation.— A de-icing/anti-icing pad
should provide the minimum clearances specified in 3.12.6 for
aircraft stands. If the pad layout is such as to include bypass
configuration, the minimum separation distances specified in
Table 3-1, column 12, should be provided.
Note.— Where more than one de-icing/anti-icing pad is
provided, consideration will have to be given to providing deicing/anti-icing vehicle movement areas of adjacent pads that
do not overlap, but are exclusive for each pad. Consideration
will also need to be given to bypassing of the area by other
aeroplanes with the clearances specified in 3.14.9 and 3.14.10.
3.14.10 Recommendation.— Where the de-icing/antiicing facility is located adjoining a regular taxiway, the
taxiway minimum separation distance specified in Table 3-1,
column 11, should be provided. (See Figure 3-3.)
3.14.6 Recommendation.— The number of de-icing/antiicing pads required should be determined based on the
meteorological conditions, the type of aeroplanes to be treated,
the method of application of de-icing/anti-icing fluid, the type
and capacity of the dispensing equipment used, and the
departure flow rates.
Environmental considerations
Note.— The excess de-icing/anti-icing fluid running off an
aeroplane poses the risk of contamination of ground water in
addition to affecting the pavement surface friction
characteristics.
Note.— See the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
Slopes on de-icing/anti-icing pads
3.14.11 Recommendation.— Where de-icing/anti-icing
activities are carried out, the surface drainage should be planned
to collect the run-off separately, preventing its mixing with the
normal surface run-off so that it does not pollute the ground
water.
3.14.7 Recommendation.— The de-icing/anti-icing pads
should be provided with suitable slopes to ensure satisfactory
drainage of the area and to permit collection of all excess
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Chapter 3
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Taxiway
Minimum separation
distance (see 3.14.10 and
Table 3-1, column 11)
Intermediate holding
position marking
De-icing/anti-icing
facility
Figure 3.3. Minimum separation distance on a de-icing/anti-icing facility
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CHAPTER 4.
OBSTACLE RESTRICTION AND REMOVAL
Note 1.— The objectives of the specifications in this chapter
are to define the airspace around aerodromes to be maintained
free from obstacles so as to permit the intended aeroplane
operations at the aerodromes to be conducted safely and to
prevent the aerodromes from becoming unusable by the growth
of obstacles around the aerodromes. This is achieved by
establishing a series of obstacle limitation surfaces that define
the limits to which objects may project into the airspace.
Inner horizontal surface
Note 2.— Objects which penetrate the obstacle limitation
surfaces contained in this chapter may in certain circumstances
cause an increase in the obstacle clearance altitude/height for
an instrument approach procedure or any associated visual
circling procedure. Criteria for evaluating obstacles are
contained in Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Aircraft
Operations (PANS-OPS) (Doc 8168).
Note.— The shape of the inner horizontal surface need not
necessarily be circular. Guidance on determining the extent of
the inner horizontal surface is contained in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 6.
Note 3.— The establishment of, and requirements for, an
obstacle protection surface for visual approach slope indicator
systems are specified in 5.3.5.41 to 5.3.5.45.
Note.— Guidance on determining the elevation datum is
contained in the Airport Services Manual, Part 6.
4.1.4 Description.— Inner horizontal surface. A surface
located in a horizontal plane above an aerodrome and its environs.
4.1.5 Characteristics.— The radius or outer limits of the
inner horizontal surface shall be measured from a reference
point or points established for such purpose.
4.1.6 The height of the inner horizontal surface shall be
measured above an elevation datum established for such purpose.
Approach surface
4.1
Obstacle limitation surfaces
4.1.7 Description.— Approach surface. An inclined plane
or combination of planes preceding the threshold.
Note.— See Figure 4-1.
4.1.8 Characteristics.— The limits of the approach surface
shall comprise:
Outer horizontal surface
Note.— Guidance on the need to provide an outer horizontal
surface and its characteristics is contained in the Airport
Services Manual, Part 6.
a) an inner edge of specified length, horizontal and perpendicular to the extended centre line of the runway and
located at a specified distance before the threshold;
Conical surface
b) two sides originating at the ends of the inner edge and
diverging uniformly at a specified rate from the extended
centre line of the runway; and
4.1.1 Description.— Conical surface. A surface sloping
upwards and outwards from the periphery of the inner horizontal surface.
c) an outer edge parallel to the inner edge.
The above surfaces shall be varied when lateral offset, offset or
curved approaches are utilized, specifically, two sides
originating at the ends of the inner edge and diverging
uniformly at a specified rate from the extended centre line of the
lateral offset, offset or curved ground track.
4.1.2 Characteristics.— The limits of the conical surface
shall comprise:
a) a lower edge coincident with the periphery of the inner
horizontal surface; and
4.1.9 The elevation of the inner edge shall be equal to the
elevation of the mid-point of the threshold.
b) an upper edge located at a specified height above the
inner horizontal surface.
4.1.10 The slope(s) of the approach surface shall be
measured in the vertical plane containing the centre line of the
runway and shall continue containing the centre line of any
lateral offset or curved ground track.
4.1.3 The slope of the conical surface shall be measured in
a vertical plane perpendicular to the periphery of the inner
horizontal surface.
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ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
Annex 14 -
Chapter 4
Aerodromes
Transitional
Take-off climb
Inner horizonta
Approach
Take-off climb
Section A-A
Transitional
Inner horizontal
-Inner
approach
Section B-B
See Figure 4-2 for inner transitional and balked landing obstacle limitation
Attachment B for a three-dimensional view
Figure 4- 1.
surfaces and
Obstacle limitation surfaces
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
B
A
Balked
landing
Inner approach
A
Inner transitional
B
Balked
landing
Inner transitional
Section A-A
Inner transitional
Inner horizontal
Balked
landing
Section B-B
Figure 4-2.
Inner approach, inner transitional and balked landing obstacle limitation surfaces
Inner approach surface
c) an outer edge parallel to the inner edge.
4.1.11 Description.— Inner approach surface. A rectangular portion of the approach surface immediately preceding the
threshold.
Transitional surface
4.1.13 Description.— Transitional surface. A complex
surface along the side of the strip and part of the side of the
approach surface, that slopes upwards and outwards to the inner
horizontal surface.
4.1.12 Characteristics.— The limits of the inner approach
surface shall comprise:
a) an inner edge coincident with the location of the inner
edge of the approach surface but of its own specified
length;
4.1.14 Characteristics.— The limits of a transitional
surface shall comprise:
b) two sides originating at the ends of the inner edge and
extending parallel to the vertical plane containing the
centre line of the runway; and
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a) a lower edge beginning at the intersection of the side of
the approach surface with the inner horizontal surface and
34
Chapter 4
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
extending down the side of the approach surface to the
inner edge of the approach surface and from there along
the length of the strip parallel to the runway centre line;
and
b) along the strip — equal to the elevation of the nearest
point on the centre line of the runway or its extension.
Note.— As a result of b) the inner transitional surface along
the strip will be curved if the runway profile is curved or a plane
if the runway profile is a straight line. The intersection of the
inner transitional surface with the inner horizontal surface will
also be a curved or straight line depending on the runway profile.
b) an upper edge located in the plane of the inner horizontal
surface.
4.1.15
The elevation of a point on the lower edge shall be:
a) along the side of the approach surface — equal to the
elevation of the approach surface at that point; and
4.1.20 The slope of the inner transitional surface shall be
measured in a vertical plane at right angles to the centre line of
the runway.
b) along the strip — equal to the elevation of the nearest
point on the centre line of the runway or its extension.
Balked landing surface
4.1.21 Description.— Balked landing surface. An inclined
plane located at a specified distance after the threshold,
extending between the inner transitional surface.
Note.— As a result of b) the transitional surface along the
strip will be curved if the runway profile is curved, or a plane if
the runway profile is a straight line. The intersection of the
transitional surface with the inner horizontal surface will also
be a curved or a straight line depending on the runway profile.
4.1.22 Characteristics.— The limits of the balked landing
surface shall comprise:
4.1.16 The slope of the transitional surface shall be
measured in a vertical plane at right angles to the centre line of
the runway.
a) an inner edge horizontal and perpendicular to the centre
line of the runway and located at a specified distance after
the threshold;
b) two sides originating at the ends of the inner edge and
diverging uniformly at a specified rate from the vertical
plane containing the centre line of the runway; and
Inner transitional surface
Note.— It is intended that the inner transitional surface be
the controlling obstacle limitation surface for navigation aids,
aircraft and other vehicles that must be near the runway and
which is not to be penetrated except for frangible objects. The
transitional surface described in 4.1.13 is intended to remain as
the controlling obstacle limitation surface for buildings, etc.
c) an outer edge parallel to the inner edge and located in the
plane of the inner horizontal surface.
4.1.23 The elevation of the inner edge shall be equal to the
elevation of the runway centre line at the location of the inner
edge.
4.1.17 Description.— Inner transitional surface. A surface
similar to the transitional surface but closer to the runway.
4.1.24 The slope of the balked landing surface shall be
measured in the vertical plane containing the centre line of the
runway.
4.1.18 Characteristics.— The limits of an inner transitional surface shall comprise:
Take-off climb surface
a) a lower edge beginning at the end of the inner approach
surface and extending down the side of the inner
approach surface to the inner edge of that surface, from
there along the strip parallel to the runway centre line to
the inner edge of the balked landing surface and from
there up the side of the balked landing surface to the point
where the side intersects the inner horizontal surface; and
4.1.25 Description.— Take-off climb surface. An inclined
plane or other specified surface beyond the end of a runway or
clearway.
4.1.26 Characteristics.— The limits of the take-off climb
surface shall comprise:
b) an upper edge located in the plane of the inner horizontal
surface.
4.1.19
a) an inner edge horizontal and perpendicular to the centre
line of the runway and located either at a specified
distance beyond the end of the runway or at the end of the
clearway when such is provided and its length exceeds
the specified distance;
The elevation of a point on the lower edge shall be:
a) along the side of the inner approach surface and balked
landing surface — equal to the elevation of the particular
surface at that point; and
b) two sides originating at the ends of the inner edge,
diverging uniformly at a specified rate from the take-off
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track to a specified final width and continuing thereafter
at that width for the remainder of the length of the takeoff climb surface; and
4.2.4 Recommendation.— New objects or extensions of
existing objects should not be permitted above the conical
surface or inner horizontal surface except when, in the opinion
of the appropriate authority, the object would be shielded by an
existing immovable object, or after aeronautical study it is
determined that the object would not adversely affect the safety
or significantly affect the regularity of operations of aeroplanes.
c) an outer edge horizontal and perpendicular to the
specified take-off track.
4.1.27 The elevation of the inner edge shall be equal to the
highest point on the extended runway centre line between the
end of the runway and the inner edge, except that when a
clearway is provided the elevation shall be equal to the highest
point on the ground on the centre line of the clearway.
4.2.5 Recommendation.— Existing objects above any of
the surfaces required by 4.2.1 should as far as practicable be
removed except when, in the opinion of the appropriate
authority, the object is shielded by an existing immovable
object, or after aeronautical study it is determined that the
object would not adversely affect the safety or significantly
affect the regularity of operations of aeroplanes.
4.1.28 In the case of a straight take-off flight path, the
slope of the take-off climb surface shall be measured in the
vertical plane containing the centre line of the runway.
4.1.29 In the case of a take-off flight path involving a turn,
the take-off climb surface shall be a complex surface containing
the horizontal normals to its centre line, and the slope of the
centre line shall be the same as that for a straight take-off flight
path.
4.2
Note.— Because of transverse or longitudinal slopes on a
strip, in certain cases the inner edge or portions of the inner
edge of the approach surface may be below the corresponding
elevation of the strip. It is not intended that the strip be graded
to conform with the inner edge of the approach surface, nor is
it intended that terrain or objects which are above the approach
surface beyond the end of the strip, but below the level of the
strip, be removed unless it is considered they may endanger
aeroplanes.
Obstacle limitation requirements
Note.— The requirements for obstacle limitation surfaces are
specified on the basis of the intended use of a runway, i.e. take-off
or landing and type of approach, and are intended to be applied
when such use is made of the runway. In cases where operations
are conducted to or from both directions of a runway, then the
function of certain surfaces may be nullified because of more
stringent requirements of another lower surface.
4.2.6 Recommendation.— In considering proposed
construction, account should be taken of the possible future
development of an instrument runway and consequent
requirement for more stringent obstacle limitation surfaces.
Non-precision approach runways
4.2.7 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall be
established for a non-precision approach runway:
Non-instrument runways
4.2.1 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall be
established for a non-instrument runway:
— conical surface;
— inner horizontal surface;
— approach surface; and
— transitional surfaces.
— conical surface;
— inner horizontal surface;
— approach surface; and
— transitional surfaces.
4.2.8 The heights and slopes of the surfaces shall not be
greater than, and their other dimensions not less than, those
specified in Table 4-1, except in the case of the horizontal
section of the approach surface (see 4.2.9).
4.2.2 The heights and slopes of the surfaces shall not be
greater than, and their other dimensions not less than, those
specified in Table 4-1.
4.2.9 The approach surface shall be horizontal beyond the
point at which the 2.5 per cent slope intersects:
4.2.3 New objects or extensions of existing objects shall
not be permitted above an approach or transitional surface
except when, in the opinion of the appropriate authority, the
new object or extension would be shielded by an existing
immovable object.
a) a horizontal plane 150 m above the threshold elevation; or
b) the horizontal plane passing through the top of any object
that governs the obstacle clearance altitude/height
(OCA/H);
Note.— Circumstances in which the shielding principle may
reasonably be applied are described in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 6.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Table 4-1.
Dimensions and slopes of obstacle limitation surfaces —Approach runways
APPROACH RUNWAYS
RUNWAY CLASSIFICATION
Non-instrument
Surface and dimensionsa
1
(1)
(2)
Code number
2
3
(3)
(4)
Precision approach category
I
II or III
Non-precision approach
4
1,2
Code number
3
4
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Code number
1,2
3,4
(9)
Code number
3,4
(10)
(11)
CONICAL
Slope
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
5%
Height
35 m
55 m
75 m
100 m
60 m
75 m
100 m
60 m
100 m
100 m
INNER HORIZONTAL
Height
45 m
45 m
45 m
45 m
45 m
45 m
45 m
45 m
45 m
45 m
Radius
2 000 m
2 500 m
4 000 m
4 000 m
3 500 m
4 000 m
4 000 m
3 500 m
4 000 m
4 000 m
Width
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
90 m
120 me
120 me
Distance from threshold
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
60 m
60 m
60 m
Length
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
900 m
900 m
900 m
2.5%
2%
2%
INNER APPROACH
Slope
APPROACH
Length of inner edge
60 m
80 m
150 m
150 m
150 m
300 m
300 m
150 m
300 m
300 m
Distance from threshold
30 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
Divergence (each side)
10%
10%
10%
10%
15%
15%
15%
15%
15%
15%
Length
1 600 m
2 500 m
3 000 m
3 000 m
2 500 m
3 000 m
3 000 m
3 000 m
3 000 m
3 000 m
Slope
5%
4%
3.33%
2.5%
3.33%
2%
2%
2.5%
2%
2%
Length
—
—
—
—
—
Slope
—
—
—
—
—
Length
—
—
—
—
—
8 400 mb 8 400 mb
Total length
—
—
—
—
—
15 000 m 15 000 m
20%
20%
14.3%
14.3%
20%
14.3%
14.3%
14.3%
14.3%
14.3%
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
40%
33.3%
33.3%
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
90 m
120 me
First section
Second section
3 600 mb 3 600 mb
2.5%
2.5%
12 000 m 3 600 mb
3 600 mb
3%
2.5%
2.5%
—
8 400 mb
8 400 mb
15 000 m 15 000 m
15 000 m
Horizontal section
TRANSITIONAL
Slope
INNER TRANSITIONAL
Slope
BALKED LANDING SURFACE
Length of inner edge
120 me
Distance from threshold
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
c
Divergence (each side)
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
10%
10%
10%
Slope
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
4%
3.33%
3.33%
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
1 800 m
d
1 800 md
All dimensions are measured horizontally unless specified otherwise.
Variable length (see 4.2.9 or 4.2.17).
Distance to the end of strip.
Or end of runway whichever is less.
Where the code letter is F (Column (3) of Table 1-1), the width is increased to 155 m.
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4.2.10 New objects or extensions of existing objects shall
not be permitted above an approach surface within 3 000 m of
the inner edge or above a transitional surface except when, in
the opinion of the appropriate authority, the new object or
extension would be shielded by an existing immovable object.
— inner approach surface;
— inner transitional surfaces; and
— balked landing surface.
4.2.15 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall be
established for a precision approach runway category II or III:
Note.— Circumstances in which the shielding principle may
reasonably be applied are described in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 6.
— conical surface;
— inner horizontal surface;
— approach surface and inner approach surface;
— transitional surfaces;
— inner transitional surfaces; and
— balked landing surface.
4.2.11 Recommendation.— New objects or extensions of
existing objects should not be permitted above the approach
surface beyond 3 000 m from the inner edge, the conical surface
or inner horizontal surface except when, in the opinion of the
appropriate authority, the object would be shielded by an existing
immovable object, or after aeronautical study it is determined
that the object would not adversely affect the safety or
significantly affect the regularity of operations of aeroplanes.
4.2.16 The heights and slopes of the surfaces shall not be
greater than, and their other dimensions not less than, those
specified in Table 4-1, except in the case of the horizontal
section of the approach surface (see 4.2.17).
4.2.12 Recommendation.— Existing objects above any of
the surfaces required by 4.2.7 should as far as practicable be
removed except when, in the opinion of the appropriate
authority, the object is shielded by an existing immovable
object, or after aeronautical study it is determined that the
object would not adversely affect the safety or significantly
affect the regularity of operations of aeroplanes.
4.2.17 The approach surface shall be horizontal beyond the
point at which the 2.5 per cent slope intersects:
Note.— Because of transverse or longitudinal slopes on a
strip, in certain cases the inner edge or portions of the inner
edge of the approach surface may be below the corresponding
elevation of the strip. It is not intended that the strip be graded
to conform with the inner edge of the approach surface, nor is
it intended that terrain or objects which are above the approach
surface beyond the end of the strip, but below the level of the
strip, be removed unless it is considered they may endanger
aeroplanes.
whichever is the higher.
a) a horizontal plane 150 m above the threshold elevation; or
b) the horizontal plane passing through the top of any object
that governs the obstacle clearance limit;
4.2.18 Fixed objects shall not be permitted above the inner
approach surface, the inner transitional surface or the balked
landing surface, except for frangible objects which because of
their function must be located on the strip. Mobile objects shall
not be permitted above these surfaces during the use of the
runway for landing.
4.2.19 New objects or extensions of existing objects shall
not be permitted above an approach surface or a transitional
surface except when, in the opinion of the appropriate authority,
the new object or extension would be shielded by an existing
immovable object.
Precision approach runways
Note 1.— See 8.7 for information regarding siting and
construction of equipment and installations on operational
areas.
Note.— Circumstances in which the shielding principle may
reasonably be applied are described in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 6.
Note 2.— Guidance on obstacle limitation surfaces for
precision approach runways is given in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 6.
4.2.20 Recommendation.— New objects or extensions of
existing objects should not be permitted above the conical
surface and the inner horizontal surface except when, in the
opinion of the appropriate authority, an object would be
shielded by an existing immovable object, or after aeronautical
study it is determined that the object would not adversely affect
the safety or significantly affect the regularity of operations of
aeroplanes.
4.2.13 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall be
established for a precision approach runway category I:
— conical surface;
— inner horizontal surface;
— approach surface; and
— transitional surfaces.
4.2.21 Recommendation.— Existing objects above an
approach surface, a transitional surface, the conical surface
and inner horizontal surface should as far as practicable be
removed except when, in the opinion of the appropriate
4.2.14 Recommendation.— The following obstacle limitation surfaces should be established for a precision approach
runway category I:
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Chapter 4
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
authority, an object is shielded by an existing immovable object,
or after aeronautical study it is determined that the object would
not adversely affect the safety or significantly affect the
regularity of operations of aeroplanes.
4.2.24 Recommendation.— The operational characteristics of aeroplanes for which the runway is intended should be
examined to see if it is desirable to reduce the slope specified in
Table 4-2 when critical operating conditions are to be catered
to. If the specified slope is reduced, corresponding adjustment
in the length of take-off climb surface should be made so as to
provide protection to a height of 300 m.
Note.— Because of transverse or longitudinal slopes on a
strip, in certain cases the inner edge or portions of the inner
edge of the approach surface may be below the corresponding
elevation of the strip. It is not intended that the strip be graded
to conform with the inner edge of the approach surface, nor is
it intended that terrain or objects which are above the approach
surface beyond the end of the strip, but below the level of the
strip, be removed unless it is considered they may endanger
aeroplanes.
Note.— When local conditions differ widely from sea level
standard atmospheric conditions, it may be advisable for the
slope specified in Table 4-2 to be reduced. The degree of this
reduction depends on the divergence between local conditions
and sea level standard atmospheric conditions, and on the
performance characteristics and operational requirements of
the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended.
4.2.25 New objects or extensions of existing objects shall
not be permitted above a take-off climb surface except when, in
the opinion of the appropriate authority, the new object or
extension would be shielded by an existing immovable object.
Runways meant for take-off
4.2.22 The following obstacle limitation surface shall be
established for a runway meant for take-off:
Note.— Circumstances in which the shielding principle may
reasonably be applied are described in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 6.
— take-off climb surface.
4.2.23 The dimensions of the surface shall be not less than
the dimensions specified in Table 4-2, except that a lesser length
may be adopted for the take-off climb surface where such lesser
length would be consistent with procedural measures adopted to
govern the outward flight of aeroplanes.
Table 4-2.
4.2.26 Recommendation.— If no object reaches the 2 per
cent (1:50) take-off climb surface, new objects should be limited
to preserve the existing obstacle free surface or a surface down
to a slope of 1.6 per cent (1:62.5).
Dimensions and slopes of obstacle limitation surfaces
RUNWAYS MEANT FOR TAKE-OFF
Code number
Surface and dimensions
a
1
2
3 or 4
(2)
(3)
(4)
Length of inner edge
60 m
80 m
180 m
Distance from runway endb
30 m
60 m
60 m
Divergence (each side)
10%
10%
12.5%
380 m
580 m
1 200 m
1 800 mc
Length
1 600 m
2 500 m
15 000 m
Slope
5%
4%
2%d
(1)
TAKE-OFF CLIMB
Final width
a. All dimensions are measured horizontally unless specified otherwise.
b. The take-off climb surface starts at the end of the clearway if the clearway length exceeds the specified distance.
c. 1 800 m when the intended track includes changes of heading greater than 15° for operations conducted in IMC, VMC
by night.
d. See 4.2.24 and 4.2.26.
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4.2.27 Recommendation.— Existing objects that extend
above a take-off climb surface should as far as practicable be
removed except when, in the opinion of the appropriate
authority, an object is shielded by an existing immovable object,
or after aeronautical study it is determined that the object would
not adversely affect the safety or significantly affect the
regularity of operations of aeroplanes.
4.3.2 Recommendation.— In areas beyond the limits of the
obstacle limitation surfaces, at least those objects which extend to
a height of 150 m or more above ground elevation should be
regarded as obstacles, unless a special aeronautical study
indicates that they do not constitute a hazard to aeroplanes.
Note.— This study may have regard to the nature of
operations concerned and may distinguish between day and
night operations.
Note.— Because of transverse slopes on a strip or clearway,
in certain cases portions of the inner edge of the take-off climb
surface may be below the corresponding elevation of the strip
or clearway. It is not intended that the strip or clearway be
graded to conform with the inner edge of the take-off climb
surface, nor is it intended that terrain or objects which are
above the take-off climb surface beyond the end of the strip or
clearway, but below the level of the strip or clearway, be
removed unless it is considered they may endanger aeroplanes.
Similar considerations apply at the junction of a clearway and
strip where differences in transverse slopes exist.
4.3
4.4 Other objects
4.4.1 Recommendation.— Objects which do not project
through the approach surface but which would nevertheless
adversely affect the optimum siting or performance of visual or
non-visual aids should, as far as practicable, be removed.
4.4.2 Recommendation.— Anything which may, in the
opinion of the appropriate authority after aeronautical study,
endanger aeroplanes on the movement area or in the air within
the limits of the inner horizontal and conical surfaces should be
regarded as an obstacle and should be removed in so far as
practicable.
Objects outside the obstacle limitation surfaces
4.3.1 Recommendation.— Arrangements should be made
to enable the appropriate authority to be consulted concerning
proposed construction beyond the limits of the obstacle
limitation surfaces that extend above a height established by
that authority, in order to permit an aeronautical study of the
effect of such construction on the operation of aeroplanes.
4/11/99
Note.— In certain circumstances, objects that do not project
above any of the surfaces enumerated in 4.1 may constitute a
hazard to aeroplanes as, for example, where there are one or
more isolated objects in the vicinity of an aerodrome.
40
CHAPTER 5. VISUAL AIDS FOR NAVIGATION
5.1 Indicators and signalling devices
5.1.2
Landing direction indicator
Location
5.1.1 Wind direction indicators
5.1.2.1 Where provided, a landing direction indicator
shall be located in a conspicuous place on the aerodrome.
Application
5.1.1.1 An aerodrome shall be equipped with at least one
wind direction indicator.
Characteristics
5.1.2.2 Recommendation.— The landing direction indicator should be in the form of a “T”.
5.1.2.3 The shape and minimum dimensions of a landing
“T” shall be as shown in Figure 5-1. The colour of the landing
“T” shall be either white or orange, the choice being
dependent on the colour that contrasts best with the background against which the indicator will be viewed. Where
required for use at night the landing “T” shall either be illuminated or outlined by white lights.
Location
5.1.1.2 A wind direction indicator shall be located so as
to be visible from aircraft in flight or on the movement area
and in such a way as to be free from the effects of air
disturbances caused by nearby objects.
5.1.3
Signalling lamp
Characteristics
Application
5.1.1.3 Recommendation.— The wind direction indicator should be in the form of a truncated cone made of fabric
and should have a length of not less than 3.6 m and a
diameter, at the larger end, of not less than 0.9 m. It should
be constructed so that it gives a clear indication of the
direction of the surface wind and a general indication of the
wind speed. The colour or colours should be so selected as to
make the wind direction indicator clearly visible and
understandable from a height of at least 300 m, having regard
to background. Where practicable, a single colour, preferably
white or orange, should be used. Where a combination of two
colours is required to give adequate conspicuity against
changing backgrounds, they should preferably be orange and
white, red and white, or black and white, and should be
arranged in five alternate bands, the first and last bands being
the darker colour.
5.1.3.1 A signalling lamp shall be provided at a controlled aerodrome in the aerodrome control tower.
Characteristics
4m
0.4 m
5.1.3.2 Recommendation.— A signalling lamp should be
capable of producing red, green and white signals, and of:
5.1.1.4 Recommendation.— The location of at least one
wind direction indicator should be marked by a circular band
15 m in diameter and 1.2 m wide. The band should be centred
about the wind direction indicator support and should be in a
colour chosen to give adequate conspicuity, preferably white.
0.4 m
5.1.1.5 Recommendation.— Provision should be made
for illuminating at least one wind indicator at an aerodrome
intended for use at night.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
4m
Figure 5-1. Landing direction indicator
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a) being aimed manually at any target as required;
b) giving a signal in any one colour followed by a signal in
either of the two other colours; and
side stripe marking, shall be displayed and the markings of the
other runway(s) shall be interrupted. The runway side stripe
marking of the more important runway may be either
continued across the intersection or interrupted.
c) transmitting a message in any one of the three colours by
Morse Code up to a speed of at least four words per
minute.
5.2.1.2 Recommendation.— The order of importance of
runways for the display of runway markings should be as
follows:
When selecting the green light, use should be made of the
restricted boundary of green as specified in Appendix 1, 2.1.2.
1st — precision approach runway;
2nd — non-precision approach runway; and
5.1.3.3 Recommendation.— The beam spread should be
not less than 1° nor greater than 3°, with negligible light
beyond 3°. When the signalling lamp is intended for use in the
daytime the intensity of the coloured light should be not less
than 6 000 cd.
5.1.4
3rd — non-instrument runway.
5.2.1.3 At an intersection of a runway and taxiway the
markings of the runway shall be displayed and the markings of
the taxiway interrupted, except that runway side stripe
markings may be interrupted.
Signal panels and signal area
Note.— The inclusion of detailed specifications for a signal
area in this section is not intended to imply that one has to be
provided. Attachment A, Section 15 provides guidance on the
need to provide ground signals. Annex 2, Appendix 1 specifies
the shape, colour and use of visual ground signals. The
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4 provides guidance on their
design.
Note.— See 5.2.8.5 regarding the manner of connecting
runway and taxiway centre line markings.
Colour and conspicuity
5.2.1.4
Runway markings shall be white.
Location of signal area
Note 1.— It has been found that, on runway surfaces of
light colour, the conspicuity of white markings can be
improved by outlining them in black.
5.1.4.1 Recommendation.— The signal area should be
located so as to be visible for all angles of azimuth above an
angle of 10° above the horizontal when viewed from a height
of 300 m.
Note 2.— It is preferable that the risk of uneven friction
characteristics on markings be reduced in so far as practicable by the use of a suitable kind of paint.
Characteristics of signal area
5.1.4.2 The signal area shall be an even horizontal surface
at least 9 m square.
Note 3.— Markings may consist of solid areas or a series
of longitudinal stripes providing an effect equivalent to the
solid areas.
5.1.4.3 Recommendation.— The colour of the signal
area should be chosen to contrast with the colours of the
signal panels used, and it should be surrounded by a white
border not less than 0.3 m wide.
5.2.1.5 Taxiway markings and aircraft stand markings
shall be yellow.
5.2
5.2.1.6 Apron safety lines shall be of a conspicuous
colour which shall contrast with that used for aircraft stand
markings.
Markings
Interruption of runway markings
5.2.1.7 Recommendation.— At aerodromes where
operations take place at night, pavement markings should be
made with reflective materials designed to enhance the
visibility of the markings.
5.2.1.1 At an intersection of two (or more) runways the
markings of the more important runway, except for the runway
Note.— Guidance on reflective materials is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
5.2.1 General
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Unpaved taxiways
Note.— If the runway threshold is displaced from the
extremity of the runway, a sign showing the designation of the
runway may be provided for aeroplanes taking off.
5.2.1.8 Recommendation.— An unpaved taxiway should
be provided, so far as practicable, with the markings
prescribed for paved taxiways.
Characteristics
5.2.2 Runway designation marking
5.2.2.4 A runway designation marking shall consist of a
two-digit number and on parallel runways shall be supplemented with a letter. On a single runway, dual parallel
runways and triple parallel runways the two-digit number shall
be the whole number nearest the one-tenth of the magnetic
North when viewed from the direction of approach. On four or
more parellel runways, one set of adjacent runways shall be
numbered to the nearest one-tenth magnetic azimuth and the
other set of adjacent runways numbered to the next nearest
one-tenth of the magnetic azimuth. When the above rule would
give a single digit number, it shall be preceded by a zero.
Application
5.2.2.1 A runway designation marking shall be provided
at the thresholds of a paved runway.
5.2.2.2 Recommendation.— A runway designation
marking should be provided, so far as practicable, at the
thresholds of an unpaved runway.
Location
5.2.2.5 In the case of parallel runways, each runway
designation number shall be supplemented by a letter as
follows, in the order shown from left to right when viewed
from the direction of approach:
5.2.2.3 A runway designation marking shall be located at
a threshold as shown in Figure 5-2 as appropriate.
Figure 5-2.
Runway designation, centre line and threshold markings
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Note.— All units are expressed in metres.
Figure 5-3.
Form and proportions of numbers and letters
for runway designation markings
— for two parallel runways: “L” “R”;
less than those shown in Figure 5-3, but where the numbers are
incorporated in the threshold marking, larger dimensions shall
be used in order to fill adequately the gap between the stripes
of the threshold marking.
— for three parallel runways: “L” “C” “R”;
— for four parallel runways: “L” “R” “L” “R”;
— for five parallel runways: “L” “C” “R” “L” “R” or “L”
“R” “L” “C” “R”; and
5.2.3
— for six parallel runways: “L” “C” “R” “L” “C” “R”.
Application
5.2.2.6 The numbers and letters shall be in the form and
proportion shown in Figure 5-3. The dimensions shall be not
4/11/99
Runway centre line marking
5.2.3.1 A runway centre line marking shall be provided
on a paved runway.
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Location
Characteristics
5.2.3.2 A runway centre line marking shall be located
along the centre line of the runway between the runway
designation markings as shown in Figure 5-2, except when
interrupted in compliance with 5.2.1.1.
5.2.4.5 A runway threshold marking shall consist of a
pattern of longitudinal stripes of uniform dimensions disposed
symmetrically about the centre line of a runway as shown in
Figure 5-2 (A) and (B) for a runway width of 45 m. The
number of stripes shall be in accordance with the runway
width as follows:
Characteristics
5.2.3.3 A runway centre line marking shall consist of a
line of uniformly spaced stripes and gaps. The length of a
stripe plus a gap shall be not less than 50 m or more than 7 5m.
The length of each stripe shall be at least equal to the length
of the gap or 30 m, whichever is greater.
5.2.3.4
Runway width
18
23
30
45
60
The width of the stripes shall be not less than:
— 0.90 m on precision approach category II and III
runways;
4
6
8
12
16
except that on non-precision approach and non-instrument
runways 45 m or greater in width, they may be as shown in
Figure 5-2 (C).
— 0.45 m on non-precision approach runways where the
code number is 3 or 4, and precision approach category I
runways; and
5.2.4.6 The stripes shall extend laterally to within 3 m of
the edge of a runway or to a distance of 27 m on either side
of a runway centre line, whichever results in the smaller lateral
distance. Where a runway designation marking is placed
within a threshold marking there shall be a minimum of three
stripes on each side of the centre line of the runway. Where a
runway designation marking is placed above a threshold
marking, the stripes shall be continued across the runway. The
stripes shall be at least 30 m long and approximately 1.80 m
wide with spacings of approximately 1.80 m between them
except that, where the stripes are continued across a runway,
a double spacing shall be used to separate the two stripes
nearest the centre line of the runway, and in the case where the
designation marking is included within the threshold marking
this spacing shall be 22.5 m.
— 0.30 m on non-precision approach runways where the
code number is 1 or 2, and on non-instrument runways.
5.2.4
m
m
m
m
m
Number of
stripes
Threshold marking
Application
5.2.4.1 A threshold marking shall be provided at the
threshold of a paved instrument runway, and of a paved noninstrument runway where the code number is 3 or 4 and the
runway is intended for use by international commercial air
transport.
5.2.4.2 Recommendation.— A threshold marking should
be provided at the threshold of a paved non-instrument
runway where the code number is 3 or 4 and the runway is
intended for use by other than international commercial air
transport.
Transverse stripe
5.2.4.7 Recommendation.— Where a threshold is displaced from the extremity of a runway or where the extremity
of a runway is not square with the runway centre line, a
transverse stripe as shown in Figure 5-4 (B) should be added
to the threshold marking.
5.2.4.3 Recommendation.— A threshold marking should
be provided, so far as practicable, at the thresholds of an
unpaved runway.
5.2.4.8
wide.
Note.— The Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4, shows a
form of marking which has been found satisfactory for the
marking of downward slopes immediately before the threshold.
A transverse stripe shall be not less than 1.80 m
Arrows
Location
5.2.4.9 Where a runway threshold is permanently displaced, arrows conforming to Figure 5-4 (B) shall be provided
on the portion of the runway before the displaced threshold.
5.2.4.4 The stripes of the threshold marking shall commence 6 m from the threshold.
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Figure 5-4.
Displaced threshold markings
5.2.4.10 When a runway threshold is temporarily displaced from the normal position, it shall be marked as shown
in Figure 5-4 (A) or 5-4 (B) and all markings prior to the
displaced threshold shall be obscured except the runway centre
line marking, which shall be converted to arrows.
5.2.5.2 An aiming point marking shall be provided at
each approach end of a paved instrument runway where the
code number is 2, 3 or 4.
5.2.5.3 Recommendation.— An aiming point marking
should be provided at each approach end of:
Note 1.— In the case where a threshold is temporarily
displaced for only a short period of time, it has been found
satisfactory to use markers in the form and colour of a
displaced threshold marking rather than attempting to paint
this marking on the runway.
a) a paved non-instrument runway where the code number
is 3 or 4,
b) a paved instrument runway where the code number is 1,
Note 2.— When the runway before a displaced threshold is
unfit for the surface movement of aircraft, closed markings, as
described in 7.1.4, are required to be provided.
when additional conspicuity of the aiming point is desirable.
Location
5.2.5 Aiming point marking
5.2.5.4 The aiming point marking shall commence no
closer to the threshold than the distance indicated in the
appropriate column of Table 5-1, except that, on a runway
equipped with a visual approach slope indicator system, the
beginning of the marking shall be coincident with the visual
approach slope origin.
Application
5.2.5.1 The provisions of Sections 5.2.5 and 5.2.6 shall
not require the replacement of existing markings before
1 January 2005.
4/11/99
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Table 5-1.
Location and dimensions of aiming point marking
Landing distance available
Location and
dimensions
(1)
Less than 800 m
(2)
800 m up to but not
including 1 200 m
(3)
1 200 m up to but not
including 2 400 m
(4)
2 400 m and above
(5)
150 m
250 m
300 m
400 m
30-45 m
30-45 m
45-60 m
45-60 m
Width of stripe
4m
6m
6-10 mb
6-10 mb
Lateral spacing between inner
sides of stripes
6 mc
9 mc
18-22.5 m
18-22.5 m
Distance from threshold to
beginning of marking
Length of stripea
a. The greater dimensions of the specified ranges are intended to be used where increased conspicuity is required.
b. The lateral spacing may be varied within these limits to minimize the contamination of the marking by rubber deposits.
c. These figures were deduced by reference to the outer main gear wheel span which is element 2 of the aerodrome reference code at Chapter 1, Table 1-1.
5.2.5.5 An aiming point marking shall consist of two conspicuous stripes. The dimensions of the stripes and the lateral
spacing between their inner sides shall be in accordance with
the provisions of the appropriate column of Table 5-1. Where
a touchdown zone marking is provided, the lateral spacing
between the markings shall be the same as that of the touchdown zone marking.
Landing distance available
or the distance between
thresholds
5.2.6 Touchdown zone marking
Application
5.2.6.1 A touchdown zone marking shall be provided in
the touchdown zone of a paved precision approach runway
where the code number is 2, 3 or 4.
5.2.6.2 Recommendation.— A touchdown zone marking
should be provided in the touchdown zone of a paved nonprecision approach or non-instrument runway where the code
number is 3 or 4 and additional conspicuity of the touchdown
zone is desirable.
Pair(s) of
markings
less than 900 m
1
900 m up to but not
including 1 200 m
2
1 200 m up to but not
including 1 500 m
3
1 500 m up to but not
including 2 400 m
4
2 400 m or more
6
5.2.6.4 A touchdown zone marking shall conform to
either of the two patterns shown in Figure 5-5. For the pattern
shown in Figure 5-5 (A), the markings shall be not less than
22.5 m long and 3 m wide. For the pattern shown in Figure 5-5 (B), each stripe of each marking shall be not less than
22.5 m long and 1.8 m wide with a spacing of 1.5 m between
adjacent stripes. The lateral spacing between the inner sides of
the rectangles shall be equal to that of the aiming point
marking where provided. Where an aiming point marking is
not provided, the lateral spacing between the inner sides of the
rectangles shall correspond to the lateral spacing specified for
the aiming point marking in Table 5-1 (columns 2, 3, 4 or 5,
as appropriate). The pairs of markings shall be provided at
longitudinal spacings of 150 m beginning from the threshold
Location and characteristics
5.2.6.3 A touchdown zone marking shall consist of pairs
of rectangular markings symmetrically disposed about the
runway centre line with the number of such pairs related to the
landing distance available and, where the marking is to be
displayed at both the approach directions of a runway, the
distance between the thresholds, as follows:
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Figure 5-5. Aiming point and touchdown zone markings
(illustrated for a runway with a length of 2 400 m or more)
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
except that pairs of touchdown zone markings coincident with
or located within 50 m of an aiming point marking shall be
deleted from the pattern.
5.2.8.3 Taxiway centre line marking shall be provided on
a paved runway when the runway is part of a standard taxiroute and:
a) there is no runway centre line marking; or
5.2.6.5 Recommendation.— On a non-precision approach runway where the code number is 2, an additional pair
of touchdown zone marking stripes should be provided 150 m
beyond the beginning of the aiming point marking.
b) where the taxiway centre line is not coincident with the
runway centre line.
Location
5.2.7 Runway side stripe marking
5.2.8.4 Recommendation.— On a straight section of a
taxiway the taxiway centre line marking should be located
along the taxiway centre line. On a taxiway curve the marking
should continue from the straight portion of the taxiway at a
constant distance from the outside edge of the curve.
Application
5.2.7.1 A runway side stripe marking shall be provided
between the thresholds of a paved runway where there is a
lack of contrast between the runway edges and the shoulders
or the surrounding terrain.
Note.— See 3.8.5 and Figure 3-1.
5.2.8.5 Recommendation.— At an intersection of a taxiway with a runway where the taxiway serves as an exit from
the runway, the taxiway centre line marking should be curved
into the runway centre line marking as shown in Figures 5-6
and 5-21. The taxiway centre line marking should be extended
parallel to the runway centre line marking for a distance of at
least 60 m beyond the point of tangency where the code
number is 3 or 4, and for a distance of at least 30 m where the
code number is 1 or 2.
5.2.7.2 Recommendation.— A runway side stripe
marking should be provided on a precision approach runway
irrespective of the contrast between the runway edges and the
shoulders or the surrounding terrain.
Location
5.2.7.3 Recommendation.— A runway side stripe
marking should consist of two stripes, one placed along each
edge of the runway with the outer edge of each stripe
approximately on the edge of the runway, except that, where
the runway is greater than 60 m in width, the stripes should be
located 30 m from the runway centre line.
5.2.8.6 Recommendation.— Where taxiway centre line
marking is provided on a runway in accordance with 5.2.8.3,
the marking should be located on the centre line of the
designated taxiway.
Characteristics
Characteristics
5.2.8.7 A taxiway centre line marking shall be at least
15 cm in width and continuous in length except where it
intersects with a runway-holding position marking or an
intermediate holding position marking as shown in Figure 5-6.
5.2.7.4 Recommendation.— A runway side stripe should
have an overall width of at least 0.9 m on runways 30 m or
more in width and at least 0.45 m on narrower runways.
5.2.9 Runway-holding position marking
5.2.8 Taxiway centre line marking
Application
Application and location
5.2.8.1 Taxiway centre line marking shall be provided on
a paved taxiway, de-icing/anti-icing facility and apron where
the code number is 3 or 4 in such a way as to provide
continuous guidance between the runway centre line and
aircraft stands.
5.2.9.1 A runway-holding position marking shall be
displayed along a runway-holding position.
Note.— See 5.4.2 concerning the provision of signs at
runway-holding positions.
5.2.8.2 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line marking
should be provided on a paved taxiway, de-icing/anti-icing
facility and apron where the code number is 1 or 2 in such a
way as to provide continuous guidance between the runway
centre line and aircraft stands.
Characteristics
5.2.9.2 At an intersection of a taxiway and a noninstrument, non-precision approach or take-off runway, the
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Aerodromes
RUNWAY-HOLDING
POSITION
MARKING
I
PATTERN A:
4 lines and
3 spaces at
0.15 m each
PATTERN 6:
2 lines at
0.3 m each
1 space at
0.6 m
see 5.2.9.1
I+---
and 3.11.2
\
\
\6’
\
\\
\’
\\
\\
\’
\’
I\
\\
\’
\ L
\
I’
\\
’
\
I ’
\ ’
’
‘1
’\ ‘1
\ \\
\ \
\ ‘*
’\
INTERMEDIATE
HOLDING
POSITION
MARKING
\
I
\
Figure 5-6. Taxiway markings
(shown with basic nrnway markings)
50
\
\’
‘1
\\ \ 1
\
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
runway-holding position marking shall be as shown in
Figure 5-6, pattern A.
appropriate should be marked on the surface at the ends of the
runway-holding position marking and at equal intervals of
45 m maximum between successive marks. The letters should
be not less than 1.8 m high and should be placed not more
than 0.9 m beyond the holding position marking.
5.2.9.3 Where a single runway-holding position is
provided at an intersection of a taxiway and a precision
approach category I, II or III runway, the runway-holding
position marking shall be as shown in Figure 5-6, pattern A.
Where two or three runway-holding positions are provided at
such an intersection, the runway-holding position marking
closer (closest) to the runway shall be as shown in Figure 5-6,
pattern A and the markings farther from the runway shall be as
shown in Figure 5-6, pattern B.
5.2.9.7 The runway-holding position marking displayed at
a runway/runway intersection shall be perpendicular to the
centre line of the runway forming part of the standard
taxi-route. The pattern of the marking shall be as shown in
Figure 5-7, pattern A.
5.2.9.4 The runway-holding position marking displayed at
a runway-holding position established in accordance with
3.11.3 shall be as shown in Figure 5-6, pattern A.
5.2.10
Intermediate holding position marking
Application and location
5.2.9.5 Recommendation.— Where increased conspicuity
of the runway-holding position is required, the runway-holding
position marking should be as shown in Figure 5-7, pattern A or
pattern B, as appropriate.
5.2.10.1 Recommendation.— An intermediate holding
position marking should be displayed along an intermediate
holding position.
5.2.9.6 Recommendation.— Where a pattern B runwayholding position marking is located on an area where it would
exceed 60 m in length, the term “CAT II” or “CAT III” as
5.2.10.2 Recommendation.— An intermediate holding
position marking should be displayed at the exit boundary of
a remote de-icing/anti-icing facility adjoining a taxiway.
PATTERN A:
PATTERN B:
4 lines and
3 spaces at
0.3 m each
2 lines at
0.3 m each
1 space at 1.5 m
2.10 m
1.50 m
0.3 m
0.15 m
0.15 m
0.9 m
0.9 m
3.0 m
0.9 m
0.9 m
0.9 m
0.9 m
0.3 m
0.3 m 0.3 m
Figure 5-7.
Runway-holding position markings
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5.2.10.3 Where an intermediate holding position marking
is displayed at an intersection of two paved taxiways, it shall
be located across the taxiway at sufficient distance from the
near edge of the intersecting taxiway to ensure safe clearance
between taxiing aircraft. It shall be coincident with a stop bar
or intermediate holding position lights, where provided.
Location
5.2.10.4 The
position marking
anti-icing facility
shall not be less
column 11.
Characteristics
5.2.11.3 A VOR aerodrome check-point marking shall be
centred on the spot at which an aircraft is to be parked to
receive the correct VOR signal.
distance between an intermediate holding
at the exit boundary of a remote de-icing/
and the centre line of the adjoining taxiway
than the dimension specified in Table 3-1,
5.2.11.4 A VOR aerodrome check-point marking shall
consist of a circle 6 m in diameter and have a line width of
15 cm (see Figure 5-8 (A)).
5.2.11.5 Recommendation.— When it is preferable for
an aircraft to be aligned in a specific direction, a line should
be provided that passes through the centre of the circle on
the desired azimuth. The line should extend 6 m outside
the circle in the desired direction of heading and terminate
in an arrowhead. The width of the line should be 15 cm
(see Figure 5-8 (B)).
Characteristics
5.2.10.5 An intermediate holding position marking shall
consist of a single broken line as shown in Figure 5-6.
5.2.11
VOR aerodrome check-point marking
Application
5.2.11.6 Recommendation.— A VOR aerodrome checkpoint marking should preferably be white in colour but should
differ from the colour used for the taxiway markings.
5.2.11.1 When a VOR aerodrome check-point is established, it shall be indicated by a VOR aerodrome check-point
marking and sign.
Note.— To provide contrast, markings may be bordered
with black.
Note.— See 5.4.4 for VOR aerodrome check-point sign.
5.2.11.2
Site selection
5.2.12 Aircraft stand markings
Note.— Guidance on the selection of sites for VOR aerodrome check-points is given in Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment E to Part I.
Note.— Guidance on the layout of aircraft stand markings
is contained in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
A. – WITHOUT DIRECTION LINE
B. – WITH DIRECTION LINE
Note.— A direction line need only be provided when an aircraft must be
aligned in a specific direction.
Figure 5-8. VOR aerodrome check-point marking
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Application
5.2.12.9 Recommendation.— A turn bar should be
located at right angles to the lead-in line, abeam the left pilot
position at the point of initiation of any intended turn. It
should have a length and width of not less than 6 m and 15 cm,
respectively, and include an arrowhead to indicate the
direction of turn.
5.2.12.1 Recommendation.— Aircraft stand markings
should be provided for designated parking positions on a
paved apron and on a de-icing/anti-icing facility.
Location
Note.— The distances to be maintained between the turn
bar and the lead-in line may vary according to different
aircraft types, taking into account the pilot’s field of view.
5.2.12.2 Recommendation.— Aircraft stand markings on
a paved apron and on a de-icing/anti-icing facility should be
located so as to provide the clearances specified in 3.12.6 and
in 3.14.9 respectively, when the nose wheel follows the stand
marking.
5.2.12.10 Recommendation.— If more than one turn bar
and/or stop line is required, they should be coded.
5.2.12.11 Recommendation.— An alignment bar should
be placed so as to be coincident with the extended centre line
of the aircraft in the specified parking position and visible to
the pilot during the final part of the parking manoeuvre. It
should have a width of not less than 15 cm.
Characteristics
5.2.12.3 Recommendation.— Aircraft stand markings
should include such elements as stand identification, lead-in
line, turn bar, turning line, alignment bar, stop line and leadout line, as are required by the parking configuration and to
complement other parking aids.
5.2.12.12 Recommendation.— A stop line should be
located at right angles to the alignment bar, abeam the left
pilot position at the intended point of stop. It should have a
length and width of not less than 6 m and 15 cm, respectively.
Note.— The distances to be maintained between the stop
line and the lead-in line may vary according to different
aircraft types, taking into account the pilot’s field of view.
5.2.12.4 Recommendation.— An aircraft stand identification (letter and/or number) should be included in the leadin line a short distance after the beginning of the lead-in line.
The height of the identification should be adequate to be
readable from the cockpit of aircraft using the stand.
5.2.13
5.2.12.5 Recommendation.— Where two sets of aircraft
stand markings are superimposed on each other in order to
permit more flexible use of the apron and it is difficult to
identify which stand marking should be followed, or safety
would be impaired if the wrong marking was followed, then
identification of the aircraft for which each set of markings is
intended should be added to the stand identification.
Apron safety lines
Note.— Guidance on apron safety lines is contained in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
Application
5.2.13.1 Recommendation.— Apron safety lines should
be provided on a paved apron as required by the parking
configurations and ground facilities.
Note.— Example: 2A-B747, 2B-F28.
5.2.12.6 Recommendation.— Lead-in, turning and leadout lines should normally be continuous in length and have a
width of not less than 15 cm. Where one or more sets of stand
markings are superimposed on a stand marking, the lines
should be continuous for the most demanding aircraft and
broken for other aircraft.
Location
5.2.13.2 Apron safety lines shall be located so as to
define the areas intended for use by ground vehicles and other
aircraft servicing equipment, etc., to provide safe separation
from aircraft.
5.2.12.7 Recommendation.— The curved portions of
lead-in, turning and lead-out lines should have radii appropriate to the most demanding aircraft type for which the
markings are intended.
Characteristics
5.2.12.8 Recommendation.— Where it is intended that
an aircraft proceed in one direction only, arrows pointing in
the direction to be followed should be added as part of the
lead-in and lead-out lines.
5.2.13.3 Recommendation.— Apron safety lines should
include such elements as wing tip clearance lines and service
road boundary lines as required by the parking configurations
and ground facilities.
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5.2.13.4 Recommendation.— An apron safety line should
be continuous in length and at least 10 cm in width.
5.2.14
5.2.15.2 Recommendation.—
Where
operationally
required, such as on taxiways exceeding 60 m in width, a
mandatory instruction sign should be supplemented by a
mandatory instruction marking.
Road-holding position marking
Application
Location
5.2.14.1 A road-holding position marking shall be
provided at all road entrances to a runway.
5.2.15.3 The mandatory instruction marking shall be
located on the left-hand side of the taxiway centre line
marking and on the holding side of the runway-holding
position marking as shown in Figure 5-9. The distance
between the nearest edge of the marking and the runwayholding position marking or the taxiway centre line marking
shall be not less than 1 m.
Location
5.2.14.2 The road-holding position marking shall be
located across the road at the holding position.
5.2.15.4 Recommendation.— Except where operationally required, a mandatory instruction marking should
not be located on a runway.
Characteristics
5.2.14.3 The road-holding position marking shall be in
accordance with the local road traffic regulations.
5.2.15
Characteristics
5.2.15.5 A mandatory instruction marking shall consist of
an inscription in white on a red background. Except for a NO
ENTRY marking, the inscription shall provide information
identical to that of the associated mandatory instruction sign.
Mandatory instruction marking
Note.— Guidance on mandatory instruction marking is
given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
Application
5.2.15.6 A NO ENTRY marking shall consist of an
inscription in white reading NO ENTRY on a red background.
5.2.15.1 Where it is impracticable to install a mandatory
instruction sign in accordance with 5.4.2.1, a mandatory
instruction marking shall be provided on the surface of the
pavement.
5.2.15.7 Where there is insufficient contrast between the
marking and the pavement surface, the mandatory instruction
marking shall include an appropriate border, preferably white
or black.
To runway '09'
1 m mnm
1 m mnm
Figure 5-9.
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Mandatory instruction marking
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5.2.15.8 Recommendation.— The character height
should be 4 m. The inscriptions should be in the form and
proportions shown in Appendix 3.
5.3 Lights
5.3.1
5.2.15.9 Recommendation.— The background should be
rectangular and extend a minimum of 0.5 m laterally and
vertically beyond the extremities of the inscription.
5.2.16
General
Lights which may endanger
the safety of aircraft
5.3.1.1 A non-aeronautical ground light near an aerodrome which might endanger the safety of aircraft shall be
extinguished, screened or otherwise modified so as to eliminate the source of danger.
Information marking
Note.— Guidance on information marking is contained in
the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
Lights which may cause confusion
Application
5.3.1.2 Recommendation.— A non-aeronautical ground
light which, by reason of its intensity, configuration or colour,
might prevent, or cause confusion in, the clear interpretation
of aeronautical ground lights should be extinguished, screened
or otherwise modified so as to eliminate such a possibility. In
particular, attention should be directed to a non-aeronautical
ground light visible from the air within the areas described
hereunder:
5.2.16.1 Where an information sign would normally be
installed and it is physically impossible to install a sign, an
information marking shall be displayed on the surface of the
pavement.
5.2.16.2 Recommendation.— Where operationally required an information sign should be supplemented by an
information marking.
a) Instrument runway — code number 4:
within the areas before the threshold and beyond the end
of the runway extending at least 4 500 m in length from
the threshold and runway end and 750 m either side of the
extended runway centre line in width.
Location
5.2.16.3 Recommendation.— The information marking
should be displayed across the surface of the taxiway or apron
where necessary and positioned so as to be legible from the
cockpit of an approaching aircraft.
b) Instrument runway — code number 2 or 3:
as in a), except that the length should be at least 3 000 m.
Characteristics
5.2.16.4
c) Instrument runway — code number 1;
and non-instrument runway:
An information marking shall consist of:
within the approach area.
a) an inscription in yellow, when it replaces or supplements
a location sign; and
Aeronautical ground lights which may cause
confusion to mariners
b) an inscription in black, when it replaces or supplements a
direction or destination sign.
Note.— In the case of aeronautical ground lights near
navigable waters, consideration needs to be given to ensuring
that the lights do not cause confusion to mariners.
5.2.16.5 Where there is insufficient contrast between the
marking and the pavement surface, the marking shall include:
a) a black background where the inscriptions are in yellow;
and
Light fixtures and supporting structures
b) a yellow background where the inscriptions are in black.
Note.— See 8.7 for information regarding siting and
construction of equipment and installations on operational
areas, and the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 6 (in
preparation) for guidance on frangibility of light fixtures and
supporting structures.
5.2.16.6 Recommendation.— The character height
should be 4 m. The inscriptions should be in the form and
proportions shown in Appendix 3.
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Elevated approach lights
5.3.1.9 The intensity of runway lighting shall be adequate
for the minimum conditions of visibility and ambient light in
which use of the runway is intended, and compatible with that
of the nearest section of the approach lighting system when
provided.
5.3.1.3 Elevated approach lights and their supporting
structures shall be frangible except that, in that portion of the
approach lighting system beyond 300 m from the threshold:
a) where the height of a supporting structure exceeds 12 m,
the frangibility requirement shall apply to the top
12 m only; and
Note.— While the lights of an approach lighting system
may be of higher intensity than the runway lighting, it is good
practice to avoid abrupt changes in intensity as these could
give a pilot a false impression that the visibility is changing
during approach.
b) where a supporting structure is surrounded by nonfrangible objects, only that part of the structure that
extends above the surrounding objects shall be frangible.
5.3.1.10 Where a high-intensity lighting system is
provided, a suitable intensity control shall be incorporated to
allow for adjustment of the light intensity to meet the prevailing conditions. Separate intensity controls or other suitable
methods shall be provided to ensure that the following
systems, when installed, can be operated at compatible
intensities:
5.3.1.4 The provisions of 5.3.1.3 shall not require the
replacement of existing installations before 1 January 2005.
5.3.1.5 When an approach light fixture or supporting
structure is not in itself sufficiently conspicuous, it shall be
suitably marked.
— approach lighting system;
Elevated lights
— runway edge lights;
5.3.1.6 Elevated runway, stopway and taxiway lights shall
be frangible. Their height shall be sufficiently low to preserve
clearance for propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft.
— runway threshold lights;
— runway end lights;
— runway centre line lights;
Surface lights
— runway touchdown zone lights; and
5.3.1.7 Light fixtures inset in the surface of runways,
stopways, taxiways and aprons shall be so designed and fitted
as to withstand being run over by the wheels of an aircraft
without damage either to the aircraft or to the lights themselves.
— taxiway centre line lights.
5.3.1.11 On the perimeter of and within the ellipse
defining the main beam in Appendix 2, Figures 2.1 to 2.10, the
maximum light intensity value shall not be greater than three
times the minimum light intensity value measured in accordance with Appendix 2, collective notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11,
Note 2.
5.3.1.8 Recommendation.— The temperature produced
by conduction or radiation at the interface between an
installed inset light and an aircraft tire should not exceed
160°C during a 10-minute period of exposure.
Note.— Guidance on measuring the temperature of inset
lights is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
5.3.1.12 On the perimeter of and within the rectangle
defining the main beam in Appendix 2, Figures 2.12 to 2.20,
the maximum light intensity value shall not be greater than
three times the minimum light intensity value measured in
accordance with Appendix 2, collective notes for Figures 2.12
to 2.21, Note 2.
Light intensity and control
Note.— In dusk or poor visibility conditions by day,
lighting can be more effective than marking. For lights to be
effective in such conditions or in poor visibility by night, they
must be of adequate intensity. To obtain the required intensity,
it will usually be necessary to make the light directional, in
which case the arcs over which the light shows will have to be
adequate and so orientated as to meet the operational
requirements. The runway lighting system will have to be
considered as a whole, to ensure that the relative light
intensities are suitably matched to the same end. (See
Attachment A, Section 14, and the Aerodrome Design Manual,
Part 4.)
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5.3.2
Emergency lighting
Application
5.3.2.1 Recommendation.— At an aerodrome provided
with runway lighting and without a secondary power supply,
sufficient emergency lights should be conveniently available
for installation on at least the primary runway in the event of
failure of the normal lighting system.
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Note.— Emergency lighting may also be useful to mark
obstacles or delineate taxiways and apron areas.
Characteristics
5.3.3.6 The aerodrome beacon shall show either coloured
flashes alternating with white flashes, or white flashes only.
The frequency of total flashes shall be from 20 to 30 per
minute. Where used, the coloured flashes emitted by beacons
at land aerodromes shall be green and coloured flashes emitted
by beacons at water aerodromes shall be yellow. In the case of
a combined water and land aerodrome, coloured flashes, if
used, shall have the colour characteristics of whichever section
of the aerodrome is designated as the principal facility.
Location
5.3.2.2 Recommendation.— When installed on a runway
the emergency lights should, as a minimum, conform to the
configuration required for a non-instrument runway.
Characteristics
5.3.3.7 The light from the beacon shall show at all angles
of azimuth. The vertical light distribution shall extend upwards
from an elevation of not more than 1° to an elevation determined by the appropriate authority to be sufficient to provide
guidance at the maximum elevation at which the beacon is
intended to be used and the effective intensity of the flash shall
be not less than 2 000 cd.
5.3.2.3 Recommendation.— The colour of the emergency
lights should conform to the colour requirements for runway
lighting, except that, where the provision of coloured lights at
the threshold and the runway end is not practicable, all lights
may be variable white or as close to variable white as
practicable.
5.3.3
Note.— At locations where a high ambient background
lighting level cannot be avoided, the effective intensity of the
flash may be required to be increased by a factor up to a value
of 10.
Aeronautical beacons
Application
5.3.3.1 Where operationally necessary an aerodrome
beacon or an identification beacon shall be provided at each
aerodrome intended for use at night.
Identification beacon
5.3.3.2 The operational requirement shall be determined
having regard to the requirements of the air traffic using the
aerodrome, the conspicuity of the aerodrome features in
relation to its surroundings and the installation of other visual
and non-visual aids useful in locating the aerodrome.
Application
5.3.3.8 An identification beacon shall be provided at an
aerodrome which is intended for use at night and cannot be
easily identified from the air by other means.
Aerodrome beacon
5.3.3.3 An aerodrome beacon shall be provided at an
aerodrome intended for use at night if one or more of the
following conditions exist:
Location
5.3.3.9 The identification beacon shall be located on the
aerodrome in an area of low ambient background lighting.
a) aircraft navigate predominantly by visual means;
b) reduced visibilities are frequent; or
5.3.3.10 Recommendation.— The location of the beacon
should be such that the beacon is not shielded by objects in
significant directions and does not dazzle a pilot approaching
to land.
c) it is difficult to locate the aerodrome from the air due to
surrounding lights or terrain.
Location
Characteristics
5.3.3.4 The aerodrome beacon shall be located on or
adjacent to the aerodrome in an area of low ambient background lighting.
5.3.3.11 An identification beacon at a land aerodrome
shall show at all angles of azimuth. The vertical light distribution shall extend upwards from an elevation of not more
than 1° to an elevation determined by the appropriate authority
to be sufficient to provide guidance at the maximum elevation
at which the beacon is intended to be used and the effective
intensity of the flash shall be not less than 2 000 cd.
5.3.3.5 Recommendation.— The location of the beacon
should be such that the beacon is not shielded by objects in
significant directions and does not dazzle a pilot approaching
to land.
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Note.— At locations where a high ambient background
lighting level cannot be avoided, the effective intensity of the
flash may be required to be increased by a factor up to a value
of 10.
D.— Precision approach runway categories II and III
A precision approach category II and III lighting system as
specified in 5.3.4.22 to 5.3.4.39 shall be provided to serve a
precision approach runway category II or III.
5.3.3.12 An identification beacon shall show flashinggreen at a land aerodrome and flashing-yellow at a water
aerodrome.
Simple approach lighting system
5.3.3.13 The identification characters shall be transmitted
in the International Morse Code.
Location
5.3.3.14 Recommendation.— The speed of transmission
should be between six and eight words per minute, the corresponding range of duration of the Morse dots being from 0.15
to 0.2 seconds per dot.
5.3.4
5.3.4.2 A simple approach lighting system shall consist of
a row of lights on the extended centre line of the runway
extending, whenever possible, over a distance of not less than
420 m from the threshold with a row of lights forming a
crossbar 18 m or 30 m in length at a distance of 300 m from
the threshold.
Approach lighting systems
Note.— It is intended that existing lighting systems not
conforming to the specifications in 5.3.4.21, 5.3.4.39, 5.3.9.10,
5.3.10.10, 5.3.10.11, 5.3.11.5, 5.3.12.8, 5.3.13.6 and 5.3.15.8
be replaced not later than 1 January 2005.
5.3.4.3 The lights forming the crossbar shall be as nearly
as practicable in a horizontal straight line at right angles to,
and bisected by, the line of the centre line lights. The lights of
the crossbar shall be spaced so as to produce a linear effect,
except that, when a crossbar of 30 m is used, gaps may be left
on each side of the centre line. These gaps shall be kept to a
minimum to meet local requirements and each shall not exceed
6 m.
Application
5.3.4.1
Application
A.— Non-instrument runway
Note 1.— Spacings for the crossbar lights between 1 m and
4 m are in use. Gaps on each side of the centre line may
improve directional guidance when approaches are made with
a lateral error, and facilitate the movement of rescue and fire
fighting vehicles.
Recommendation.— Where physically practicable, a
simple approach lighting system as specified in 5.3.4.2 to
5.3.4.9 should be provided to serve a non-instrument runway
where the code number is 3 or 4 and intended for use at night,
except when the runway is used only in conditions of good
visibility, and sufficient guidance is provided by other visual
aids.
Note 2.— See Attachment A, Section 11 for guidance on
installation tolerances.
Note.— A simple approach lighting system can also
provide visual guidance by day.
5.3.4.4 The lights forming the centre line shall be placed
at longitudinal intervals of 60 m, except that, when it is desired
to improve the guidance, an interval of 30 m may be used. The
innermost light shall be located either 60 m or 30 m from the
threshold, depending on the longitudinal interval selected for
the centre line lights.
B.— Non-precision approach runway
Where physically practicable, a simple approach lighting
system as specified in 5.3.4.2 to 5.3.4.9 shall be provided to
serve a non-precision approach runway, except when the
runway is used only in conditions of good visibility or
sufficient guidance is provided by other visual aids.
5.3.4.5 Recommendation.— If it is not physically possible to provide a centre line extending for a distance of 420 m
from the threshold, it should be extended to 300 m so as to
include the crossbar. If this is not possible, the centre line
lights should be extended as far as practicable, and each
centre line light should then consist of a barrette at least 3 m
in length. Subject to the approach system having a crossbar at
300 m from the threshold, an additional crossbar may be
provided at 150 m from the threshold.
Note.— It is advisable to give consideration to the
installation of a precision approach category I lighting system
or to the addition of a runway lead-in lighting system.
C.— Precision approach runway category I
Where physically practicable, a precision approach category I lighting system as specified in 5.3.4.10 to 5.3.4.21 shall
be provided to serve a precision approach runway category I.
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5.3.4.6 The system shall lie as nearly as practicable in the
horizontal plane passing through the threshold, provided that:
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a) no object other than an ILS or MLS azimuth antenna
shall protrude through the plane of the approach lights
within a distance of 60 m from the centre line of the
system; and
Precision approach category I lighting system
b) no light other than a light located within the central part
of a crossbar or a centre line barrette (not their
extremities) shall be screened from an approaching
aircraft.
5.3.4.10 A precision approach category I lighting system
shall consist of a row of lights on the extended centre line of
the runway extending, wherever possible, over a distance of
900 m from the runway threshold with a row of lights forming
a crossbar 30 m in length at a distance of 300 m from the
runway threshold.
Location
Any ILS or MLS azimuth antenna protruding through the
plane of the lights shall be treated as an obstacle and marked
and lighted accordingly.
Note.— The installation of an approach lighting system of
less than 900 m in length may result in operational limitations
on the use of the runway. See Attachment A, Section 11.
5.3.4.11 The lights forming the crossbar shall be as nearly
as practicable in a horizontal straight line at right angles to,
and bisected by, the line of the centre line lights. The lights of
the crossbar shall be spaced so as to produce a linear effect,
except that gaps may be left on each side of the centre line.
These gaps shall be kept to a minimum to meet local requirements and each shall not exceed 6 m.
Characteristics
5.3.4.7 The lights of a simple approach lighting system
shall be fixed lights and the colour of the lights shall be such
as to ensure that the system is readily distinguishable from
other aeronautical ground lights, and from extraneous lighting
if present. Each centre line light shall consist of either:
Note 1.— Spacings for the crossbar lights between 1 m and
4 m are in use. Gaps on each side of the centre line may
improve directional guidance when approaches are made with
a lateral error, and facilitate the movement of rescue and fire
fighting vehicles.
a) a single source; or
b) a barrette at least 3 m in length.
Note 1.— When the barrette as in b) is composed of lights
approximating to point sources, a spacing of 1.5 m between
adjacent lights in the barrette has been found satisfactory.
Note 2.— See Attachment A, Section 11 for guidance on
installation tolerances.
5.3.4.12 The lights forming the centre line shall be placed
at longitudinal intervals of 30 m with the innermost light
located 30 m from the threshold.
Note 2.— It may be advisable to use barrettes 4 m in length
if it is anticipated that the simple approach lighting system will
be developed into a precision approach lighting system.
5.3.4.13 The system shall lie as nearly as practicable in the
horizontal plane passing through the threshold, provided that:
Note 3.— At locations where identification of the simple
approach lighting system is difficult at night due to surrounding lights, sequence flashing lights installed in the outer
portion of the system may resolve this problem.
a) no object other than an ILS or MLS azimuth antenna shall
protrude through the plane of the approach lights within a
distance of 60 m from the centre line of the system; and
5.3.4.8 Recommendation.— Where provided for a noninstrument runway, the lights should show at all angles in
azimuth necessary to a pilot on base leg and final approach.
The intensity of the lights should be adequate for all conditions
of visibility and ambient light for which the system has been
provided.
b) no light other than a light located within the central part of
a crossbar or a centre line barrette (not their extremities)
shall be screened from an approaching aircraft.
Any ILS or MLS azimuth antenna protruding through the
plane of the lights shall be treated as an obstacle and marked
and lighted accordingly.
5.3.4.9 Recommendation.— Where provided for a nonprecision approach runway, the lights should show at all
angles in azimuth necessary to the pilot of an aircraft which
on final approach does not deviate by an abnormal amount
from the path defined by the non-visual aid. The lights should
be designed to provide guidance during both day and night in
the most adverse conditions of visibility and ambient light for
which it is intended that the system should remain usable.
Characteristics
5.3.4.14 The centre line and crossbar lights of a precision
approach category I lighting system shall be fixed lights
showing variable white. Each centre line light position shall
consist of either:
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a) a single light source in the innermost 300 m of the
centre line, two light sources in the central 300 m of the
centre line and three light sources in the outer 300 m of
the centre line to provide distance information; or
Note.— The flight path envelopes used in the design of
these lights are given in Attachment A, Figure A-4.
b) a barrette.
Precision approach category II and III lighting system
5.3.4.15 Where the serviceability level of the approach
lights specified as a maintenance objective in 9.4.29 can be
demonstrated, each centre line light position may consist of
either:
Location
5.3.4.22 The approach lighting system shall consist of a
row of lights on the extended centre line of the runway,
extending, wherever possible, over a distance of 900 m from
the runway threshold. In addition, the system shall have two
side rows of lights, extending 270 m from the threshold, and
two crossbars, one at 150 m and one at 300 m from the
threshold, all as shown in Figure 5-10. Where the
serviceability level of the approach lights specified as
maintenance objectives in 9.4.26 can be demonstrated, the
system may have two side rows of lights, extending 240 m
from the threshold, and two crossbars, one at 150 m and one
at 300 m from the threshold, all as shown in Figure 5-11.
a) a single light source; or
b) a barrette.
5.3.4.16 The barrettes shall be at least 4 m in length.
When barrettes are composed of lights approximating to point
sources, the lights shall be uniformly spaced at intervals of not
more than 1.5 m.
5.3.4.17 Recommendation.— If the centre line consists
of barrettes as described in 5.3.4.14 b) or 5.3.4.15 b), each
barrette should be supplemented by a capacitor discharge
light, except where such lighting is considered unnecessary
taking into account the characteristics of the system and the
nature of the meteorological conditions.
Note.— The length of 900 m is based on providing guidance
for operations under category I, II and III conditions. Reduced
lengths may support category II and III operations but may
impose limitations on category I operations. See Attachment A,
Section 11.
5.3.4.18 Each capacitor discharge light as described in
5.3.4.17 shall be flashed twice a second in sequence,
beginning with the outermost light and progressing toward the
threshold to the innermost light of the system. The design of
the electrical circuit shall be such that these lights can be
operated independently of the other lights of the approach
lighting system.
5.3.4.23 The lights forming the centre line shall be placed
at longitudinal intervals of 30 m with the innermost lights
located 30 m from the threshold.
5.3.4.24 The lights forming the side rows shall be placed
on each side of the centre line, at a longitudinal spacing equal
to that of the centre line lights and with the first light located
30 m from the threshold. Where the serviceability level of the
approach lights specified as maintenance objectives in 9.4.26
can be demonstrated, lights forming the side rows may be
placed on each side of the centre line, at a longitudinal spacing
of 60 m with the first light located 60 m from the threshold.
The lateral spacing (or gauge) between the innermost lights of
the side rows shall be not less than 18 m nor more than 22. 5m,
and preferably 18 m, but in any event shall be equal to that of
the touchdown zone lights.
5.3.4.19 If the centre line consists of lights as described in
5.3.4.14 a) or 5.3.4.15 a), additional crossbars of lights to the
crossbar provided at 300 m from the threshold shall be
provided at 150 m, 450 m, 600 m and 750 m from the
threshold. The lights forming each crossbar shall be as nearly
as practicable in a horizontal straight line at right angles to,
and bisected by, the line of the centre line lights. The lights
shall be spaced so as to produce a linear effect, except that
gaps may be left on each side of the centre line. These gaps
shall be kept to a minimum to meet local requirements and
each shall not exceed 6 m.
5.3.4.25 The crossbar provided at 150 m from the
threshold shall fill in the gaps between the centre line and side
row lights.
Note.— See Attachment A, Section 11 for detailed configuration.
5.3.4.26 The crossbar provided at 300 m from the
threshold shall extend on both sides of the centre line lights to
a distance of 15 m from the centre line.
5.3.4.20 Where the additional crossbars described in
5.3.4.19 are incorporated in the system, the outer ends of the
crossbars shall lie on two straight lines that either are parallel
to the line of the centre line lights or converge to meet the
runway centre line 300 m from threshold.
5.3.4.27 If the centre line beyond a distance of 300 m
from the threshold consists of lights as described in 5.3.4.31 b)
or 5.3.4.32 b), additional crossbars of lights shall be provided
at 450 m, 600 m and 750 m from the threshold.
5.3.4.21 The lights shall be in accordance with the specifications of Appendix 2, Figure 2.1.
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5.3.4.28 Where the additional crossbars described in
5.3.4.27 are incorporated in the system, the outer ends of these
crossbars shall lie on two straight lines that either are parallel
to the centre line or converge to meet the runway centre line
300 m from the threshold.
5.3.4.32 Where the serviceability level of the approach
lights specified as maintenance objectives in 9.4.26 can be
demonstrated, beyond 300 m from the threshold each centre
line light position may consist of either:
a) a barrette; or
5.3.4.29 The system shall lie as nearly as practicable in the
horizontal plane passing through the threshold, provided that:
b) a single light source;
a) no object other than an ILS or MLS azimuth antenna shall
protrude through the plane of the approach lights within a
distance of 60 m from the centre line of the system; and
all of which shall show variable white.
5.3.4.33 The barrettes shall be at least 4 m in length.
When barrettes are composed of lights approximating to point
sources, the lights shall be uniformly spaced at intervals of not
more than 1.5 m.
b) no light other than a light located within the central part of
a crossbar or a centre line barrette (not their extremities)
shall be screened from an approaching aircraft.
5.3.4.34 Recommendation.— If the centre line beyond
300 m from the threshold consists of barrettes as described in
5.3.4.31 a) or 5.3.4.32 a), each barrette beyond 300 m should
be supplemented by a capacitor discharge light, except where
such lighting is considered unnecessary taking into account
the characteristics of the system and the nature of the
meteorological conditions.
Any ILS or MLS azimuth antenna protruding through the
plane of the lights shall be treated as an obstacle and marked
and lighted accordingly.
Characteristics
5.3.4.30 The centre line of a precision approach
category II and III lighting system for the first 300 m from the
threshold shall consist of barrettes showing variable white,
except that, where the threshold is displaced 300 m or more,
the centre line may consist of single light sources showing
variable white. Where the serviceability level of the approach
lights specified as maintenance objectives in 9.4.26 can be
demonstrated, the centre line of a precision approach category
II and III lighting system for the first 300 m from the threshold
may consist of either:
5.3.4.35 Each capacitor discharge light shall be flashed
twice a second in sequence, beginning with the outermost light
and progressing toward the threshold to the innermost light of
the system. The design of the electrical circuit shall be such
that these lights can be operated independently of the other
lights of the approach lighting system.
5.3.4.36 The side row shall consist of barrettes showing
red. The length of a side row barrette and the spacing of its
lights shall be equal to those of the touchdown zone light
barrettes.
a) barrettes, where the centre line beyond 300 m from the
threshold consists of barrettes as described in
5.3.4.32 a); or
5.3.4.37 The lights forming the crossbars shall be fixed
lights showing variable white. The lights shall be uniformly
spaced at intervals of not more than 2.7 m.
b) alternate single light sources and barrettes, where the
centre line beyond 300 m from the threshold consists of
single light sources as described in 5.3.4.32 b), with the
innermost single light source located 30 m and the
innermost barrette located 60 m from the threshold; or
5.3.4.38 The intensity of the red lights shall be compatible with the intensity of the white lights.
5.3.4.39 The lights shall be in accordance with the specifications of Appendix 2, Figures 2.1 and 2.2.
c) single light sources where the threshold is displaced
300 m or more;
Note.— The flight path envelopes used in the design of
these lights are given in Attachment A, Figure A-4.
all of which shall show variable white.
5.3.4.31 Beyond 300 m from the threshold each centre
line light position shall consist of either:
5.3.5
Visual approach slope indicator systems
a) a barrette as used on the inner 300 m; or
Application
b) two light sources in the central 300 m of the centre line
and three light sources in the outer 300 m of the centre
line;
5.3.5.1 A visual approach slope indicator system shall be
provided to serve the approach to a runway whether or not the
runway is served by other visual approach aids or by nonvisual aids, where one or more of the following conditions
exist:
all of which shall show variable white.
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Volume I
18 m – 22.5 m
18 m preferable
30 m or 60 m
3.0 m – 4.5 m
15 m
Runway edge light
Runway centre line light
Runway touchdown zone light (TDZ)
60 m max
Threshold
Threshold lights
spacing 3.0 m max
Centre line barrette
Side row barrette
150 m
Equal to that of ‘TDZ’
4 m mnm
Crossbar
300 m
30 m
Crossbar
30 m
Figure 5-10. Inner 300 m approach and runway lighting
for precision approach runways categories II and III
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
18 m – 22.5 m
18 m preferable
30 m or 60 m
3.0 m – 4.5 m
30 m
15 m in visibilities below
350 m RVR
Runway edge light
Runway touchdown zone light (TDZ)
Runway centre line light
60 m max
Threshold
Threshold lights
spacing 3.0 m max
4 m mnm
Side row barrette
150 m
Equal to that of ‘TDZ’
Crossbar
300 m
Either single light source or,
where the centre line beyond
300 m from the threshold consists
of barrettes, centre line barrette
60 m
Centre line barrette
Crossbar
30 m
Figure 5-11. Inner 300 m approach and runway lighting for precision approach runways categories II and III
where the serviceability levels of the lights specified as maintenance objectives in Section 9.4 can be demonstrated
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a) the runway is used by turbojet or other aeroplanes with
similar approach guidance requirements;
a) T-VASIS and AT-VASIS conforming to the specifications contained in 5.3.5.6 to 5.3.5.22 inclusive;
b) the pilot of any type of aeroplane may have difficulty in
judging the approach due to:
b) PAPI and APAPI systems conforming to the specifications contained in 5.3.5.23 to 5.3.5.40 inclusive;
1) inadequate visual guidance such as is experienced
during an approach over water or featureless terrain
by day or in the absence of sufficient extraneous
lights in the approach area by night, or
as shown in Figure 5-12.
5.3.5.3 PAPI, T-VASIS or AT-VASIS shall be provided
where the code number is 3 or 4 when one or more of the
conditions specified in 5.3.5.1 exist.
2) misleading information such as is produced by
deceptive surrounding terrain or runway slopes;
5.3.5.4 PAPI or APAPI shall be provided where the code
number is 1 or 2 when one or more of the conditions specified
in 5.3.5.1 exist.
c) the presence of objects in the approach area may involve
serious hazard if an aeroplane descends below the normal
approach path, particularly if there are no non-visual or
other visual aids to give warning of such objects;
5.3.5.5 Recommendation.— Where a runway threshold
is temporarily displaced from the normal position and one or
more of the conditions specified in 5.3.5.1 exist, a PAPI should
be provided except that where the code number is 1 or 2 an
APAPI may be provided.
d) physical conditions at either end of the runway present a
serious hazard in the event of an aeroplane undershooting
or overrunning the runway; and
e) terrain or prevalent meteorological conditions are such
that the aeroplane may be subjected to unusual turbulence
during approach.
T-VASIS and AT-VASIS
Note.— Guidance on the priority of installation of visual
approach slope indicator systems is contained in Attachment A, Section 12.
Description
5.3.5.6 The T-VASIS shall consist of twenty light units
symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line in the
form of two wing bars of four light units each, with bisecting
longitudinal lines of six lights, as shown in Figure 5-13.
5.3.5.2 The standard visual approach slope indicator
systems shall consist of the following:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
T-VASIS
AT-VASIS
PAPI
APAPI
Figure 5-12.
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Annex 14 -
Chapter 5
Aerodromes
INSTALLATION TOLERANCES
The appropriate authority may:
vary the nominal eye height over the threshold of the onslope signal between the limits of 12 m and 16 m, except
in cases where a standard ILS glide path and/or MLS
minimum glide path is available; the height over
threshold should be varied to avoid any conflict between
the visual approach slope indications and the usable
portion of the ILS glide path and/or MLS minimum glide
path indications;
vary the longitudinal distance between individual light
units or the overall length of the system by not more
than IO per cent;
vary the lateral displacement of the system from the
runway edge by not more than + 3 m;
Note.- The system must be symmetrically
about the runway centre line.
displaced
d) where there is a longitudinal slope of the ground, adjust
the longitudinal distance of a light unit to compensate
for its difference in level from that of the threshold; and
e) where there is a transverse slope in the ground, adjust
the longitudinal distance of two light units or two wing
bars to compensate for the [email protected] in level between
them as necessary to meet the requirements of 5.3.5.16.
The distance between the wing bar and the threshold is
based on an approach slope of 3” to a level runway with a
nominal eye height over the threshold of 15 m. In practice,
the threshold to wing bar distance is determined by:
a) the selected approach slope;
b) the longitudinal slope of the runway; and
c) the selected nominal eye height over the threshold.
Figure 5-13.
Siting of light units for T-VASE
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5.3.5.7 The AT-VASIS shall consist of ten light units
arranged on one side of the runway in the form of a single
wing bar of four light units with a bisecting longitudinal line
of six lights.
in the approach direction. The wing bar light units shall
produce a beam of white light from 1°54′ vertical angle up to
6° vertical angle and a beam of red light from 0° to 1°54′
vertical angle. The fly-down light units shall produce a white
beam extending from an elevation of 6° down to approximately the approach slope, where it shall have a sharp cut-off.
The fly-up light units shall produce a white beam from
approximately the approach slope down to 1°54′ vertical angle
and a red beam below a 1°54′ vertical angle. The angle of the
top of the red beam in the wing bar units and fly-up units may
be increased to comply with 5.3.5.21.
5.3.5.8 The light units shall be constructed and arranged
in such a manner that the pilot of an aeroplane during an
approach will:
a) when above the approach slope, see the wing bar(s)
white, and one, two or three fly-down lights, the more flydown lights being visible the higher the pilot is above the
approach slope;
5.3.5.12 The light intensity distribution of the fly-down,
wing bar and fly-up light units shall be as shown in Appendix 2, Figure 2-22.
b) when on the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) white;
and
5.3.5.13 The colour transition from red to white in the
vertical plane shall be such as to appear to an observer, at a
distance of not less than 300 m, to occur over a vertical angle
of not more than 15′.
c) when below the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) and
one, two or three fly-up lights white, the more fly-up
lights being visible the lower the pilot is below the
approach slope; and when well below the approach slope,
see the wing bar(s) and the three fly-up lights red.
5.3.5.14 At full intensity the red light shall have a Y
coordinate not exceeding 0.320.
When on or above the approach slope, no light shall be visible
from the fly-up light units; when on or below the approach
slope, no light shall be visible from the fly-down light units.
5.3.5.15 A suitable intensity control shall be provided to
allow adjustments to meet the prevailing conditions and to
avoid dazzling the pilot during approach and landing.
Siting
5.3.5.16 The light units forming the wing bars, or the
light units forming a fly-down or a fly-up matched pair, shall
be mounted so as to appear to the pilot of an approaching
aeroplane to be substantially in a horizontal line. The light
units shall be mounted as low as possible and shall be
frangible.
5.3.5.9 The light units shall be located as shown in
Figure 5-13, subject to the installation tolerances given therein.
Note.— The siting of T-VASIS will provide, for a 3° slope
and a nominal eye height over the threshold of 15 m (see
5.3.5.6 and 5.3.5.19), a pilot’s eye height over threshold of
13 m to 17 m when only the wing bar lights are visible. If
increased eye height at the threshold is required (to provide
adequate wheel clearance), then the approaches may be flown
with one or more fly-down lights visible. The pilot’s eye height
over the threshold is then of the following order:
Wing bar lights and one
fly-down light visible
17 m to 22 m
Wing bar lights and two
fly-down lights visible
22 m to 28 m
Wing bar lights and three
fly-down lights visible
5.3.5.17 The light units shall be so designed that deposits
of condensation, dirt, etc., on optically transmitting or reflecting surfaces shall interfere to the least possible extent with the
light signals and shall in no way affect the elevation of the
beams or the contrast between the red and white signals. The
construction of the light units shall be such as to minimize the
probability of the slots being wholly or partially blocked by
snow or ice where these conditions are likely to be
encountered.
Approach slope and elevation setting
of light beams
28 m to 54 m
5.3.5.18 The approach slope shall be appropriate for use
by the aeroplanes using the approach.
Characteristics of the light units
5.3.5.19 When the runway on which a T-VASIS is
provided is equipped with an ILS and/or MLS, the siting and
elevations of the light units shall be such that the visual
approach slope conforms as closely as possible with the glide
path of the ILS and/or the minimum glide path of the MLS, as
appropriate.
5.3.5.10 The systems shall be suitable for both day and
night operations.
5.3.5.11 The light distribution of the beam of each light
unit shall be of fan shape showing over a wide arc in azimuth
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Annex I4 - Aerodromes
Chapter 5
FLY-DOWN LIGHT UNITS
Figure 5-14.
WiNG BAR
LIGHT UNITS
FLY-UP LIGHT UNITS
Light beams and elevation settings of T-VASE
equally spaced. The system shall be located on the left side of
the runway unless it is physically impracticable to do so.
53.520
The elevation of the beams of the wing bar light
units on both sides of the runway shall be the same. The
elevation of the top of the beam of the fly-up light unit nearest
to each wing bar, and that of the bottom of the beam of the flydown light unit nearest to each wing bar, shall be equal and
shall correspond to the approach slope. The cut-off angle of
the top of the beams of successive fly-up light units shall
decrease by 5’ of arc in angle of elevation at each successive
unit away from the wing bar. The cut-in angle of the bottom
of the beam of the fly-down light units shall increase by 7’
of arc at each successive unit away from the wing bar (see
Figure 5-14).
Note.Where a runway is used by aircraft requiring
visual roll guidance which is not provided by other external
means, then a second wing bar may be provided on the
opposite side of the runway.
5.3.5.24
The APAPI system shall consist of a wing bar of
2 sharp transition multi-lamp (or paired single lamp) units. The
system shall be located on the left side of the runway unless it
is physically impracticable to do so.
5.3.5.21 The elevation setting of the top of the red light
beams of the wing bar and fly-up light units shall be such that,
during an approach, the pilot of an aeroplane to whom the
wing bar and three fly-up light units are visible would clear all
objects in the approach area by a safe margin if any such light
did not appear red.
Note.Where a runway is used by aircrafr requiring
visual roll guidance which is not provided by other external
means, then a second wing bar may be provided on the
opposite side of the runway.
5.3.5.25
The wing bar of a PAP1 shall be constructed and
arranged in such a manner that a pilot making an approach
will:
5.3.5.22 The azimuth spread of the light beam shall be
suitably restricted where an object located outside the obstacle
protection surface of the system, but within the lateral limits of
its light beam, is found to extend above the plane of the
obstacle protection surface and an aeronautical study indicates
that the object could adversely affect the safety of operations.
The extent of the restriction shall be such that the object
remains outside the confines of the light beam.
Note.See 5.3.5.41 to X3.5.45
obstacle protection sur$ace.
concerning
and AT-VASIS
a) when on or close to the approach slope, see the two units
nearest the runway as red and the two units farthest from
the runway as white;
b) when above the approach slope, see the one unit nearest
the runway as red and the three units farthest from the
runway as white; and when further above the approach
slope, see all the units as white; and
the related
c) when below the approach slope, see the three units
nearest the runway as red and the unit farthest from the
runway as white; and when further below the approach
slope, see all the units as red.
PAPI and APAPl
Description
5.3.5.26 The wing bar of an APAPI shall be constructed
and arranged in such a manner that a pilot making an approach
will:
5.3.5.23 The PAP1 system shall consist of a wing bar of
4 sharp transition multi-lamp (or paired single lamp) units
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Approach slope and elevation setting
of light units
a) when on or close to the approach slope, see the unit nearer
the runway as red and the unit farther from the runway as
white;
5.3.5.35 The approach slope as defined in Figure 5-16
shall be appropriate for use by the aeroplanes using the
approach.
b) when above the approach slope, see both the units as
white; and
5.3.5.36 When the runway is equipped with an ILS and/or
MLS, the siting and the angle of elevation of the light units
shall be such that the visual approach slope conforms as
closely as possible with the glide path of the ILS and/or the
minimum glide path of the MLS, as appropriate.
c) when below the approach slope, see both the units as red.
Siting
5.3.5.27 The light units shall be located as in the basic
configuration illustrated in Figure 5-15, subject to the installation tolerances given therein. The units forming a wing bar
shall be mounted so as to appear to the pilot of an approaching
aeroplane to be substantially in a horizontal line. The light
units shall be mounted as low as possible and shall be
frangible.
5.3.5.37 The angle of elevation settings of the light units
in a PAP1 wing bar shall be such that, during an approach, the
pilot of an aeroplane observing a signal of one white and three
reds will clear all objects in the approach area by a safe
margin.
5.3.5.38 The angle of elevation settings of the light units
in an APAPI wing bar shall be such that, during an approach,
the pilot of an aeroplane observing the lowest onslope signal,
i.e. one white and one red, will clear all objects in the
approach area by a safe margin.
Characteristics of the light units
5.3.5.28 The system shall be suitable for both day and
night operations.
5.3.5.39 The azimuth spread of the light beam shall be
suitably restricted where an object located outside the obstacle
protection surface of the PAP1 or APAPI system, but within
the lateral limits of its light beam, is found to extend above the
plane of the obstacle protection surface and an aeronautical
study indicates that the object could adversely affect the safety
of operations. The extent of the restriction shall be such that
the object remains outside the confines of the light beam.
5.3.5.29 The colour transition from red to white in the
vertical plane shall be such as to appear to an observer, at a
distance of not less than 300 m, to occur within a vertical
angle of not more than 3’.
5.3.5.30 At full intensity the red light shall have a Y
coordinate not exceeding 0.320.
Note.See 5.3.5.41 to 5.3.5.45 concerning
obstacle protection surface.
5.3.5.31 The light intensity distribution of the light units
shall be as shown in Appendix 2, Figure 2.23.
the related
Note.See the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4 for
additional guidance on the characteristics of light units.
5.3.5.40 Where wing bars are installed on each side of the
runway to provide roll guidance, corresponding units shall be
set at the same angle so that the signals of each wing bar
change symmetrically at the same time.
5.3.5.32 Suitable intensity control shall be provided so as
to allow adjustment to meet the prevailing conditions and to
avoid dazzling the pilot during approach and landing.
Obstacle protection surface
Note.The following specifications
AT-VASIS, PAPI and APAPI.
5.3.5.33 Each light unit shall be capable of adjustment in
elevation so that the lower limit of the white part of the beam
may be fixed at any desired angle of elevation between l”30’
and at least 4”30’ above the horizontal.
5.3.5.41 An obstacle protection surface shall be established when it is intended to provide a visual approach slope
indicator system.
5.3.5.34 The light units shall be so designed that deposits
of condensation, snow, ice, dirt, etc., on optically transmitting
or reflecting surfaces shall interfere to the least possible extent
with the light signals and shall not affect the contrast between
the red and white signals and the elevation of the transition
sector.
411l/99
apply to T-VASIS,
5.3.5.42 The characteristics of the obstacle protection
surface, i.e. origin, divergence, length and slope shall correspond to those specified in the relevant column of Table 5-3
and in Figure 5-17.
68
Annex 14 -
Chupter 5
RUNWAY
Aerodromes
P
Y
RUNWAY
z
\
(2
15m
1 m)
‘
TYPICAL
PAPI
WING
TYPICAL
BAR
INSTALLATION
APAPI
WING
BAR
TOLERANCES
Where a PAPI or APAPI is installed on a runway not equipped
with an ILS or MLS, the distance Dt shall be calculated to
ensure that the lowest height at which a pilot will see a correct
approach path indication (Figure 5-16, angle B for a PAPI
and angle A for an APAPI) provides the wheel clearance over
the threshold specified in Table 5-2 for the most demanding
amongst aeroplanes regularly using the runway.
4 If a wheel clearance, greater than that specified in a) above is
Where a PAPI or APAPI is installed on a runway equipped
with an ILS and/or MLS, the distance Dr shall be calculated to
provide the optimum compatibility between the visual and nonvisual aids for the range of eye-to-antenna heights of the
aeroplanes regularly using the runway. The distance shall be
equal to that between the threshold and the effective origin of
the ILS glide path or MLS minimum glide path, as appropriate,
plus a correction factor for the variation of eye-to-antenna
heights of the aeroplanes concerned. The correction factor is
obtained by multiplying the average eye-to-antenna height of
those aeroplanes by the cotangent of the approach angle.
However, the distance shall be such that in no case will the
wheel clearance over the threshold be lower than that specified
in column (3) of Table 5-2.
4
required for specific
increasing Dt.
aircraft,
this can be achieved
by
4 Distance D, shall be adjusted to compensate for differences in
elevation between the lens centres of the light units and the
threshold.
To ensure that units are mounted as low as possible and to
allow for any transverse slope, small height adjustments of up
to 5 cm between units are acceptable. A lateral gradient not
greater that 1.25 per cent can be accepted provided it is
uniformly applied across the units.
f9 A spacing of 6 m (iI m) between PAPI units should be used
on code numbers I and 2. In such an event, the inner PAPI unit
shall be located not less than IO m (21 m) from the runway
edge.
Note.- Reducing the spacing between light units results in a
reduction in usable range of the system.
g) The lateral spacing between APAPI units may be increased to
9 m (*I m) if greater range is required or later conversion to
a fill PAPI is anticipated. In the latter case, the inner APAPI
unit shall be located 15 m (*I m) from the runway edge.
Note.- See Section 5.2.5 for specifications on aiming point
marking. Guidance on the harmonization of PAPI, ILS and/or MLS
signals is contained in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
J
Figure 5-1.5
Siting of PAP1 and APAPI
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Volume I
Aerodromes
THRESHOLD
PAPI WiNG BAR
The height of the pilots eye above the aircraft’s ILS glide path/MLS antenna varies with the type
of aeroplane and approach attitude. Harmonization of the PAPI signal and ILS glide path and/or
MLS minimum glide path to a point closer to the threshold may be achieved by increasing the
on-course sector from 20’ to 30’. The setting angles for a 3” glide slope would then be 2”25’,
2”45’. 375 and 3”35’.
A -
B -
4/l l/99
PAPI ILLUSTRATED
THRESHOLD
APAPI WING BAR
Figure 5-16.
3”
3” APAPI ILLUSTRATED
Light beams and angle of elevation setting of PAP1 and APAPI
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Chapter 5
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Table 5-2.
Wheel clearance over threshold for PAPI and APAPI
Eye-to-wheel height of aeroplane
in the approach configurationa
Desired wheel clearance
(metres)b,c
Minimum wheel clearance
(metres)d
(1)
(2)
(3)
up to but not including 3 m
6
3e
3 m up to but not including 5 m
9
4
5 m up to but not including 8 m
9
5
8 m up to but not including 14 m
9
6
a. In selecting the eye-to-wheel height group, only aeroplanes meant to use the system on a regular basis shall be considered. The most
demanding amongst such aeroplanes shall determine the eye-to-wheel height group.
b. Where practicable the desired wheel clearances shown in column (2) shall be provided.
c. The wheel clearances in column (2) may be reduced to no less than those in column (3) where an aeronautical study indicates that such
reduced wheel clearances are acceptable.
d. When a reduced wheel clearance is provided at a displaced threshold it shall be ensured that the corresponding desired wheel clearance
specified in column (2) will be available when an aeroplane at the top end of the eye-to-wheel height group chosen overflies the extremity
of the runway.
e. This wheel clearance may be reduced to 1.5 m on runways used mainly by light-weight non-turbo-jet aeroplanes.
Table 5-3. Dimensions and slopes of the obstacle protection surface
Runway type/code number
Surface dimensions
1
Non-instrument
Instrument
Code number
Code number
2
a
3
4
1
2
3
4
150 m
150 m
150 m
150 m
300 m
300 m
Length of inner edge
60 m
80 m
Distance from threshold
30 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
60 m
Divergence (each side)
10%
10%
10%
10%
15%
15%
15%
15%
Total length
7 500 m 7 500 mb 15 000 m 15 000 m
7 500 m 7 500 mb 15 000 m 15 000 m
Slope
a) T-VASIS and
AT-VASIS
–c
1.9°
1.9°
1.9°
–
1.9°
1.9°
1.9°
b) PAPId
–
A–0.57°
A–0.57°
A–0.57°
A–0.57°
A–0.57°
A–0.57°
A–0.57°
A–0.9°
A–0.9°
–
–
A–0.9°
A–0.9°
–
–
c) APAPId
a.
b.
c.
d.
This length is to be increased to 150 m for a T-VASIS or AT-VASIS.
This length is to be increased to 15 000 m for a T-VASIS or AT-VASIS.
No slope has been specified if a system is unlikely to be used on runway type/code number indicated.
Angles as indicated in Figure 5-16.
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Aerodromes
Volume I
Obstacle protection surface
-------_
Approach surface inner edge
I
I
I
I
I
I
/
Threshold
‘\
Approach surface inner edge
Section A-A
Figure 5-17. Obstacle protection surface for visual
approach slope indicator systems
5.3.5.45 Where an aeronautical study indicates that an
existing object extending above an obstacle protection surface
could adversely affect the safety of operations of aeroplanes
one or more of the following measures shall be taken:
5.3.5.43 New objects or extensions of existing objects
shall not be permitted above an obstacle protection surface
except when, in the opinion of the appropriate authority, the
new object or extension would be shielded by an existing
immovable object.
a) suitably raise the approach slope of the system;
Note.Circumstances in which the shielding principle
may reasonably be applied are described in the Airport
Services Manual, Part 6.
b) reduce the azimuth spread of the system so that the object
is outside the confines of the beam;
5.3.5.44
Existing objects above an obstacle protection
surface shall be removed except when, in the opinion of the
appropriate authority, the object is shielded by an existing
immovable object, or after aeronautical study it is determined
that the object would not adversely affect the safety of
operations of aeroplanes.
4/l l/99
c> displace the axis of the system and its associated obstacle
protection surface by no more than 5”;
d) suitably displace the threshold; and
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Chapter 5
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
e) where d) is found to be impracticable, suitably displace
the system upwind of the threshold to provide an increase
in threshold crossing height equal to the height of the
object penetration.
light in which it is intended to make visual circling
approaches. The flashing lights should be white, and the
steady lights either white or gaseous discharge lights.
5.3.6.5 Recommendation.— The lights should be
designed and be installed in such a manner that they will not
dazzle or confuse a pilot when approaching to land, taking off
or taxiing.
Note.— Guidance on this issue is contained in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
5.3.6
Circling guidance lights
5.3.7
Runway lead-in lighting systems
Application
Application
5.3.6.1 Recommendation.— Circling guidance lights
should be provided when existing approach and runway
lighting systems do not satisfactorily permit identification of
the runway and/or approach area to a circling aircraft in the
conditions for which it is intended the runway be used for
circling approaches.
5.3.7.1 Recommendation.— A runway lead-in lighting
system should be provided where it is desired to provide visual
guidance along a specific approach path, for reasons such as
avoiding hazardous terrain or for purposes of noise
abatement.
Location
Note.— Guidance on providing lead-in lighting systems is
given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
5.3.6.2 Recommendation.— The location and number of
circling guidance lights should be adequate to enable a pilot,
as appropriate, to:
Location
5.3.7.2 Recommendation.— A runway lead-in lighting
system should consist of groups of lights positioned so as to
define the desired approach path and so that one group may
be sighted from the preceding group. The interval between
adjacent groups should not exceed approximately 1 600 m.
a) join the downwind leg or align and adjust the aircraft’s
track to the runway at a required distance from it and to
distinguish the threshold in passing; and
b) keep in sight the runway threshold and/or other features
which will make it possible to judge the turn on to base
leg and final approach, taking into account the guidance
provided by other visual aids.
Note.— Runway lead-in lighting systems may be curved,
straight or a combination thereof.
5.3.7.3 Recommendation.— A runway lead-in lighting
system should extend from a point as determined by the
appropriate authority, up to a point where the approach
lighting system, if provided, or the runway or the runway
lighting system is in view.
5.3.6.3 Recommendation.— Circling guidance lights
should consist of:
a) lights indicating the extended centre line of the runway
and/or parts of any approach lighting system; or
b) lights indicating the position of the runway threshold; or
Characteristics
c) lights indicating the direction or location of the runway;
5.3.7.4 Recommendation.— Each group of lights of a
runway lead-in lighting system should consist of at least three
flashing lights in a linear or cluster configuration. The system
may be augmented by steady burning lights where such lights
would assist in identifying the system.
or a combination of such lights as is appropriate to the
runway under consideration.
Note.— Guidance on installation of circling guidance lights
is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
Characteristics
5.3.7.5 Recommendation.— The flashing lights should
be white, and the steady burning lights gaseous discharge
lights.
5.3.6.4 Recommendation.— Circling guidance lights
should be fixed or flashing lights of an intensity and beam
spread adequate for the conditions of visibility and ambient
5.3.7.6 Recommendation.— Where practicable, the
flashing lights in each group should flash in sequence towards
the runway.
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5.3.8
Volume I
Runway threshold identification lights
5.3.9.5 Recommendation.— Where the width of the area
which could be declared as runway exceeds 60 m, the distance
between the rows of lights should be determined taking into
account the nature of the operations, the light distribution
characteristics of the runway edge lights, and other visual aids
serving the runway.
Application
5.3.8.1 Recommendation.— Runway threshold identification lights should be installed:
a) at the threshold of a non-precision approach runway
when additional threshold conspicuity is necessary or
where it is not practicable to provide other approach
lighting aids; and
5.3.9.6 The lights shall be uniformly spaced in rows at
intervals of not more than 60 m for an instrument runway, and
at intervals of not more than 100 m for a non-instrument
runway. The lights on opposite sides of the runway axis shall
be on lines at right angles to that axis. At intersections of
runways, lights may be spaced irregularly or omitted, provided
that adequate guidance remains available to the pilot.
b) where a runway threshold is permanently displaced from
the runway extremity or temporarily displaced from the
normal position and additional threshold conspicuity is
necessary.
Characteristics
Location
5.3.9.7 Runway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing
variable white, except that:
5.3.8.2 Runway threshold identification lights shall be
located symmetrically about the runway centre line, in line
with the threshold and approximately 10 m outside each line
of runway edge lights.
a) in the case of a displaced threshold, the lights between the
beginning of the runway and the displaced threshold shall
show red in the approach direction; and
b) a section of the lights 600 m or one-third of the runway
length, whichever is the less, at the remote end of the
runway from the end at which the take-off run is started,
may show yellow.
Characteristics
5.3.8.3 Recommendation.— Runway threshold identification lights should be flashing white lights with a flash
frequency between 60 and 120 per minute.
5.3.9.8 The runway edge lights shall show at all angles in
azimuth necessary to provide guidance to a pilot landing or
taking off in either direction. When the runway edge lights are
intended to provide circling guidance, they shall show at all
angles in azimuth (see 5.3.6.1).
5.3.8.4 The lights shall be visible only in the direction of
approach to the runway.
5.3.9
Runway edge lights
5.3.9.9 In all angles of azimuth required in 5.3.9.8,
runway edge lights shall show at angles up to 15° above the
horizontal with an intensity adequate for the conditions of
visibility and ambient light in which use of the runway for
take-off or landing is intended. In any case, the intensity shall
be at least 50 cd except that at an aerodrome without
extraneous lighting the intensity of the lights may be reduced
to not less than 25 cd to avoid dazzling the pilot.
Application
5.3.9.1 Runway edge lights shall be provided for a
runway intended for use at night or for a precision approach
runway intended for use by day or night.
5.3.9.2 Recommendation.— Runway edge lights should
be provided on a runway intended for take-off with an
operating minimum below an RVR of the order of 800 m by
day.
5.3.9.10 Runway edge lights on a precision approach
runway shall be in accordance with the specifications of
Appendix 2, Figure 2-9 or 2-10.
Location
5.3.10
5.3.9.3 Runway edge lights shall be placed along the full
length of the runway and shall be in two parallel rows equidistant from the centre line.
Application of runway threshold lights
5.3.10.1 Runway threshold lights shall be provided for a
runway equipped with runway edge lights except on a noninstrument or non-precision approach runway where the
threshold is displaced and wing bar lights are provided.
5.3.9.4 Runway edge lights shall be placed along the
edges of the area declared for use as the runway or outside the
edges of the area at a distance of not more than 3 m.
4/11/99
Runway threshold and wing bar lights
(see Figure 5-18)
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Location of runway threshold lights
Characteristics of runway threshold
and wing bar lights
5.3.10.2 When a threshold is at the extremity of a
runway, the threshold lights shall be placed in a row at right
angles to the runway axis as near to the extremity of the
runway as possible and, in any case, not more than 3 m outside
the extremity.
5.3.10.9 Runway threshold and wing bar lights shall be
fixed unidirectional lights showing green in the direction of
approach to the runway. The intensity and beam spread of the
lights shall be adequate for the conditions of visibility and
ambient light in which use of the runway is intended.
5.3.10.3 When a threshold is displaced from the extremity
of a runway, threshold lights shall be placed in a row at right
angles to the runway axis at the displaced threshold.
5.3.10.4
5.3.10.10 Runway threshold lights on a precision approach runway shall be in accordance with the specifications
of Appendix 2, Figure 2.3.
Threshold lighting shall consist of:
a) on a non-instrument or non-precision approach runway,
at least six lights;
5.3.10.11 Threshold wing bar lights on a precision approach runway shall be in accordance with the specifications
of Appendix 2, Figure 2.4.
b) on a precision approach runway category I, at least the
number of lights that would be required if the lights were
uniformly spaced at intervals of 3 m between the rows of
runway edge lights; and
5.3.11 Runway end lights
(see Figure 5-18)
Application
c) on a precision approach runway category II or III, lights
uniformly spaced between the rows of runway edge lights
at intervals of not more than 3 m.
5.3.11.1 Runway end lights shall be provided for a runway equipped with runway edge lights.
5.3.10.5 Recommendation.— The lights prescribed in
5.3.10.4 a) and b) should be either:
Note.— When the threshold is at the runway extremity,
fittings serving as threshold lights may be used as runway end
lights.
a) equally spaced between the rows of runway edge lights,
or
Location
b) symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line in
two groups, with the lights uniformly spaced in each
group and with a gap between the groups equal to the
gauge of the touchdown zone marking or lighting, where
such is provided, or otherwise not more than half the
distance between the rows of runway edge lights.
5.3.11.2 Runway end lights shall be placed on a line at
right angles to the runway axis as near to the end of the
runway as possible and, in any case, not more than 3 m outside
the end.
5.3.11.3 Recommendation.— Runway end lighting
should consist of at least six lights. The lights should be either:
Application of wing bar lights
a) equally spaced between the rows of runway edge lights,
or
5.3.10.6 Recommendation.— Wing bar lights should be
provided on a precision approach runway when additional
conspicuity is considered desirable.
b) symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line in
two groups with the lights uniformly spaced in each
group and with a gap between the groups of not more
than half the distance between the rows of runway edge
lights.
5.3.10.7 Wing bar lights shall be provided on a noninstrument or non-precision approach runway where the
threshold is displaced and runway threshold lights are
required, but are not provided.
For a precision approach runway category III, the spacing
between runway end lights, except between the two innermost
lights if a gap is used, should not exceed 6 m.
Location of wing bar lights
5.3.10.8 Wing bar lights shall be symmetrically disposed
about the runway centre line at the threshold in two groups, i.e.
wing bars. Each wing bar shall be formed by at least five lights
extending at least 10 m outward from, and at right angles to,
the line of the runway edge lights, with the innermost light of
each wing bar in the line of the runway edge lights.
4/11/99
Characteristics
5.3.11.4 Runway end lights shall be fixed unidirectional
lights showing red in the direction of the runway. The intensity
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Chapter 5
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
and beam spread of the lights shall be adequate for the
conditions of visibility and ambient light in which use of the
runway is intended.
a) an approach lighting system if its characteristics and
intensity settings afford the guidance required during
take-off and it does not dazzle the pilot of an aircraft
taking off; or
5.3.11.5 Runway end lights on a precision approach runway shall be in accordance with the specifications of Appendix 2, Figure 2-8.
b) runway centre line lights; or
c) barrettes of at least 3 m length and spaced at uniform
intervals of 30 m, as shown in Figure 5-19, designed so
that their photometric characteristics and intensity
setting afford the guidance required during take-off
without dazzling the pilot of an aircraft taking off.
5.3.12 Runway centre line lights
Where necessary, provision should be made to extinguish
those centre line lights specified in b) or reset the intensity of
the approach lighting system or barrettes when the runway is
being used for landing. In no case should only the single
source runway centre line lights show from the beginning of
the runway to a displaced threshold when the runway is being
used for landing.
Application
5.3.12.1 Runway centre line lights shall be provided on a
precision approach runway category II or III.
5.3.12.2 Recommendation.— Runway centre line lights
should be provided on a precision approach runway category
I, particularly when the runway is used by aircraft with high
landing speeds or where the width between the runway edge
lights is greater than 50 m.
Characteristics
5.3.12.7 Runway centre line lights shall be fixed lights
showing variable white from the threshold to the point 900 m
from the runway end; alternate red and variable white from
900 m to 300 m from the runway end; and red from 300 m to
the runway end, except that for runways less than 1 800 m in
length, the alternate red and variable white lights shall extend
from the mid-point of the runway usable for landing to 300 m
from the runway end.
5.3.12.3 Runway centre line lights shall be provided on a
runway intended to be used for take-off with an operating
minimum below an RVR of the order of 400 m.
5.3.12.4 Recommendation.— Runway centre line lights
should be provided on a runway intended to be used for
take-off with an operating minimum of an RVR of the order of
400 m or higher when used by aeroplanes with a very high
take-off speed, particularly where the width between the
runway edge lights is greater than 50 m.
Note.— Care is required in the design of the electrical
system to ensure that failure of part of the electrical system
will not result in a false indication of the runway distance
remaining.
Location
5.3.12.8 Runway centre line lights shall be in accordance
with the specifications of Appendix 2, Figure 2.6 or 2.7.
5.3.12.5 Runway centre line lights shall be located along
the centre line of the runway, except that the lights may be
uniformly offset to the same side of the runway centre line by
not more than 60 cm where it is not practicable to locate them
along the centre line. The lights shall be located from the
threshold to the end at longitudinal spacing of approximately
15 m. Where the serviceability level of the runway centre line
lights specified as maintenance objectives in 9.4.26 or 9.4.30,
as appropriate, can be demonstrated and the runway is
intended for use in runway visual range conditions of 350 m
or greater, the longitudinal spacing may be approximately
30 m.
5.3.13
Runway touchdown zone lights
Application
5.3.13.1 Touchdown zone lights shall be provided in the
touchdown zone of a precision approach runway category II
or III.
Location
Note.— Existing centre line lighting where lights are spaced
at 7.5 m need not be replaced.
5.3.13.2 Touchdown zone lights shall extend from the
threshold for a longitudinal distance of 900 m, except that,
on runways less than 1 800 m in length, the system shall be
shortened so that it does not extend beyond the midpoint of the
runway. The pattern shall be formed by pairs of barrettes
symmetrically located about the runway centre line. The
5.3.12.6 Recommendation.— Centre line guidance for
take-off from the beginning of a runway to a displaced
threshold should be provided by:
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
lateral spacing between the innermost lights of a pair of
barrettes shall be equal to the lateral spacing selected for the
touchdown zone marking. The longitudinal spacing between
pairs of barrettes shall be either 30 m or 60 m.
value of 350 m in such a manner as to provide continuous
guidance between the runway centre line and aircraft stands,
except that these lights need not be provided where the traffic
density is light and taxiway edge lights and centre line
marking provide adequate guidance.
Note.— To allow for operations at lower visibility minima,
it may be advisable to use a 30 m longitudinal spacing
between barrettes.
5.3.15.2 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line lights
should be provided on a taxiway intended for use at night in
runway visual range conditions of 350 m or greater, and
particularly on complex taxiway intersections and exit
taxiways, except that these lights need not be provided where
the traffic density is light and taxiway edge lights and centre
line marking provide adequate guidance.
Characteristics
5.3.13.3 A barrette shall be composed of at least three
lights with a spacing between the lights of not more than
1.5 m.
Note.— Where there may be a need to delineate the edges
of a taxiway, e.g. on a rapid exit taxiway, narrow taxiway or
in snow conditions, this may be done with taxiway edge lights
or markers.
5.3.13.4 Recommendation.— A barrette should be not
less than 3 m nor more than 4.5 m in length.
5.3.15.3 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line lights
should be provided on an exit taxiway, taxiway, de-icing/antiicing facility and apron in all visibility conditions where
specified as components of an advanced surface movement
guidance and control system in such a manner as to provide
continuous guidance between the runway centre line and
aircraft stands.
5.3.13.5 Touchdown zone lights shall be fixed unidirectional lights showing variable white.
5.3.13.6 Touchdown zone lights shall be in accordance
with the specifications of Appendix 2, Figure 2.5.
5.3.14
Stopway lights
5.3.14.1 Stopway lights shall be provided for a stopway
intended for use at night.
5.3.15.4 Taxiway centre line lights shall be provided on a
runway forming part of a standard taxi-route and intended for
taxiing in runway visual range conditions less than a value of
350 m, except that these lights need not be provided where the
traffic density is light and taxiway edge lights and centre line
marking provide adequate guidance.
Location
Note.— See 8.2.3 for provisions concerning the interlocking
of runway and taxiway lighting systems.
Application
5.3.14.2 Stopway lights shall be placed along the full
length of the stopway and shall be in two parallel rows that are
equidistant from the centre line and coincident with the rows
of the runway edge lights. Stopway lights shall also be provided across the end of a stopway on a line at right angles to
the stopway axis as near to the end of the stopway as possible
and, in any case, not more than 3 m outside the end.
5.3.15.5 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line lights
should be provided in all visibility conditions on a runway
forming part of a standard taxi-route where specified as
components of an advanced surface movement guidance and
control system.
Characteristics
Characteristics
5.3.15.6 Taxiway centre line lights on a taxiway other
than an exit taxiway and on a runway forming part of a
standard taxi-route shall be fixed lights showing green with
beam dimensions such that the light is visible only from
aeroplanes on or in the vicinity of the taxiway.
5.3.14.3 Stopway lights shall be fixed unidirectional
lights showing red in the direction of the runway.
5.3.15 Taxiway centre line lights
5.3.15.7 Taxiway centre line lights on an exit taxiway
shall be fixed lights. Alternate taxiway centre line lights shall
show green and yellow from their beginning near the runway
centre line to the perimeter of the ILS/MLS critical/sensitive
area or the lower edge of the inner transitional surface,
whichever is farthest from the runway; and thereafter all lights
shall show green (Figure 5-20). The light nearest to the
perimeter shall always show yellow. Where aircraft may
Application
5.3.15.1 Taxiway centre line lights shall be provided on
an exit taxiway, taxiway, de-icing/anti-icing facility and apron
intended for use in runway visual range conditions less than a
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0
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TAXIWAY
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0
0
0
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M
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0
“OTHER” EXIT TAXIWAY
*,
0
0
0
l oo.0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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0
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STRAIGHT
TAXIWAY
-
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LEGEND
0
a:
0
centre line
runway
light
and runway edge light
0
Taxiway edge light
0
Taxiway
centre line light
Exit taxiway
0
Stop bar light
R
Stop bar light
(unidirectional)
centre line lights
0
+f
7-O
E
0
’
0
E
E
8
O
0
-
Intermediate holding position light
0
(unidirectional)
Figure S-20.
Taxiway lighting
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Chapter 5
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
follow the same centre line in both directions, all the centre
line lights shall show green to aircraft approaching the runway.
b) intervals less than 30 m should be provided on short
straight sections; and
Note 1.— Care is necessary to limit the light distribution of
green lights on or near a runway so as to avoid possible
confusion with threshold lights.
c) on a taxiway intended for use in RVR conditions of less
than a value of 350 m, the longitudinal spacing should not
exceed 15 m.
Note 2.— For yellow filter characteristics see Appendix 1,
2.2.
5.3.15.12 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line lights
on a taxiway curve should continue from the straight portion of
the taxiway at a constant distance from the outside edge of the
taxiway curve. The lights should be spaced at intervals such that
a clear indication of the curve is provided.
Note 3.— The size of the ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area
depends on the characteristics of the associated ILS/MLS and
other factors. Guidance is provided in Annex 10, Volume I,
Attachments C and G to Part I.
5.3.15.13 Recommendation.— On a taxiway intended
for use in RVR conditions of less than a value of 350 m, the
lights on a curve should not exceed a spacing of 15 m and on
a curve of less than 400 m radius the lights should be spaced
at intervals of not greater than 7.5 m. This spacing should
extend for 60 m before and after the curve.
Note 4.— See 5.4.3 for specifications on runway vacated
signs.
5.3.15.8 Taxiway centre line lights shall be in accordance
with the specifications of:
Note 1.— Spacings on curves that have been found suitable
for a taxiway intended for use in RVR conditions of 350 m or
greater are:
a) Appendix 2, Figure 2-12, 2-13, or 2-14 for taxiways
intended for use in runway visual range conditions of
less than a value of 350 m; and
Curve radius
Light spacing
b) Appendix 2, Figure 2-15 or 2-16 for other taxiways.
up to 400 m
401 m to 899 m
900 m or greater
5.3.15.9 Recommendation.— Where taxiway centre line
lights are specified as components of an advanced surface
movement guidance and control system and where, from an
operational point of view, higher intensities are required to
maintain ground movements at a certain speed in very low
visibilities or in bright daytime conditions, taxiway centre line
lights should be in accordance with the specifications of
Appendix 2, Figure 2-17, 2-18 or 2-19.
7.5 m
15 m
30 m
Note 2.— See 3.8.5 and Figure 3-1.
Taxiway centre line lights on rapid exit taxiways
Location
Note.— High-intensity centre line lights should only be
used in case of an absolute necessity and following a specific
study.
5.3.15.14 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line lights
on a rapid exit taxiway should commence at a point at least
60 m before the beginning of the taxiway centre line curve and
continue beyond the end of the curve to a point on the centre
line of the taxiway where an aeroplane can be expected to
reach normal taxiing speed. The lights on that portion parallel
to the runway centre line should always be at least 60 cm from
any row of runway centre line lights, as shown in Figure 5-21.
Location
5.3.15.10 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line lights
should normally be located on the taxiway centre line marking,
except that they may be offset by not more than 30 cm where it
is not practicable to locate them on the marking.
5.3.15.15 Recommendation.— The lights should be
spaced at longitudinal intervals of not more than 15 m, except
that, where runway centre line lights are not provided, a
greater interval not exceeding 30 m may be used.
Taxiway centre line lights on taxiways
Location
Taxiway centre line lights on other exit taxiways
5.3.15.11 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line lights
on a straight section of a taxiway should be spaced at longitudinal intervals of not more than 30 m, except that:
Location
a) larger intervals not exceeding 60 m may be used where,
because of the prevailing meteorological conditions,
adequate guidance is provided by such spacing;
5.3.15.16 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line
lights on exit taxiways other than rapid exit taxiways should
commence at the point where the taxiway centre line marking
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Tolerances for offset runway centre line lights and
taxiway centre line lights to maintain 60 cm separation.
Figure 5-21.
Offset runway and taxiway centre line lights
begins to curve from the runway centre line, and follow the
curved taxiway centre line marking at least to the point where
the marking leaves the runway. The first light should be at
least 60 cm from any row of runway centre line lights, as
shown in Figure 5-21.
5.3.16
Taxiway edge lights
Application
5.3.16.1 Taxiway edge lights shall be provided at the
edges of a holding bay, de-icing/anti-icing facility, apron, etc.
intended for use at night and on a taxiway not provided with
taxiway centre line lights and intended for use at night, except
that taxiway edge lights need not be provided where,
considering the nature of the operations, adequate guidance
can be achieved by surface illumination or other means.
5.3.15.17 Recommendation.— The lights should be
spaced at longitudinal intervals of not more than 7.5 m.
Taxiway centre line lights on runways
Note.— See 5.5.5 for taxiway edge markers.
Location
5.3.16.2 Taxiway edge lights shall be provided on a
runway forming part of a standard taxi-route and intended for
taxiing at night where the runway is not provided with taxiway
centre line lights.
5.3.15.18 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line lights
on a runway forming part of a standard taxi-route and intended
for taxiing in runway visual range conditions less than a value
of 350 m should be spaced at longitudinal intervals not
exceeding 15 m.
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Note.— See 8.2.3 for provisions concerning
inter-locking of runway and taxiway lighting systems.
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Location
5.3.17.2 A stop bar shall be provided at every runwayholding position, serving a runway when it is intended that the
runway will be used in runway visual range conditions of
values between 350 m and 550 m, except where:
5.3.16.3 Recommendation.— Taxiway edge lights on a
straight section of a taxiway and on a runway forming part of
a standard taxi-route should be spaced at uniform longitudinal
intervals of not more than 60 m. The lights on a curve should
be spaced at intervals less than 60m so that a clear indication
of the curve is provided.
a) appropriate aids and procedures are available to assist in
preventing inadvertent incursions of aircraft and vehicles
onto the runway; or
b) operational procedures exist to limit, in runway visual
range conditions less than a value of 550 m, the number
of:
5.3.16.4 Recommendation.— Taxiway edge lights on a
holding bay, de-icing/anti-icing facility, apron, etc. should be
spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals of not more than
60 m.
1) aircraft on the manoeuvring area to one at a time;
and
5.3.16.5 Recommendation.— The lights should be located
as near as practicable to the edges of the taxiway, holding bay,
de-icing/anti-icing facility, apron or runway, etc. or outside the
edges at a distance of not more than 3 m.
2) vehicles on the manoeuvring area to the essential
minimum.
5.3.17.3 Recommendation.— A stop bar should be
provided at an intermediate holding position when it is desired
to supplement markings with lights and to provide traffic
control by visual means.
Characteristics
5.3.16.6 Taxiway edge lights shall be fixed lights
showing blue. The lights shall show up to at least 30° above
the horizontal and at all angles in azimuth necessary to provide
guidance to a pilot taxiing in either direction. At an intersection, exit or curve the lights shall be shielded as far as
practicable so that they cannot be seen in angles of azimuth in
which they may be confused with other lights.
5.3.17
5.3.17.4 Recommendation.— Where the normal stop
bar lights might be obscured (from a pilot’s view), for
example, by snow or rain, or where a pilot may be required
to stop the aircraft in a position so close to the lights that they
are blocked from view by the structure of the aircraft, then a
pair of elevated lights should be added to each end of the
stop bar.
Stop bars
Location
Application
5.3.17.5 Stop bars shall be located across the taxiway at
the point where it is desired that traffic stop. Where the
additional lights specified in 5.3.17.4 are provided, these lights
shall be located not less than 3 m from the taxiway edge.
Note.— The provision of stop bars requires their control
either manually or automatically by air traffic services.
5.3.17.1 A stop bar shall be provided at every
runway-holding position serving a runway when it is intended
that the runway will be used in runway visual range conditions
less than a value of 350 m, except where:
Characteristics
a) appropriate aids and procedures are available to assist in
preventing inadvertent incursions of aircraft and vehicles
onto the runway; or
5.3.17.6 Stop bars shall consist of lights spaced at
intervals of 3 m across the taxiway, showing red in the
intended direction(s) of approach to the intersection or
runway-holding position.
b) operational procedures exist to limit, in runway visual
range conditions less than a value of 550 m, the number
of:
5.3.17.7 Stop bars installed at a runway-holding position
shall be unidirectional and shall show red in the direction of
approach to the runway.
1) aircraft on the manoeuvring area to one at a time; and
5.3.17.8 Where the additional lights specified in 5.3.17.4
are provided, these lights shall have the same characteristics as
the lights in the stop bar, but shall be visible to approaching
aircraft up to the stop bar position.
2) vehicles on the manoeuvring area to the essential
minimum.
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5.3.17.9 Selectively switchable stop bars shall be installed
in conjunction with at least three taxiway centre line lights
(extending for a distance of at least 90 m from the stop bar) in
the direction that it is intended for an aircraft to proceed from
the stop bar.
Application
5.3.18.1 Except where a stop bar has been installed,
intermediate holding position lights shall be provided at an
intermediate holding position intended for use in runway
visual range conditions less than a value of 350 m.
Note.— See 5.3.15.11 for provisions concerning the spacing
of taxiway centre line lights.
5.3.18.2 Recommendation.— Intermediate holding
position lights should be provided at an intermediate holding
position where there is no need for stop-and-go signals as
provided by a stop bar.
5.3.17.10 The intensity in red light and beam spreads of
stop bar lights shall be in accordance with the specifications in
Appendix 2, Figures 2-12 through 2-16, as appropriate.
5.3.17.11 Recommendation.— Where stop bars are
specified as components of an advanced surface movement
guidance and control system and where, from an operational
point of view, higher intensities are required to maintain
ground movements at a certain speed in very low visibilities or
in bright daytime conditions, the intensity in red light and
beam spreads of stop bar lights should be in accordance with
the specifications of Appendix 2, Figure 2-17, 2-18 or 2-19.
Location
5.3.18.3 Intermediate holding position lights shall be
located along the intermediate holding position marking at a
distance of 0.3 m prior to the marking.
Characteristics
Note.— High-intensity stop bars should only be used in
case of an absolute necessity and following a specific study.
5.3.18.4 Intermediate holding position lights shall consist
of three fixed unidirectional lights showing yellow in the
direction of approach to the intermediate holding position with
a light distribution similar to taxiway centre line lights if
provided. The lights shall be disposed symmetrically about and
at right angle to the taxiway centre line, with individual lights
spaced 1.5 m apart.
5.3.17.12 Recommendation.— Where a wide beam
fixture is required, the intensity in red light and beam spreads
of stop bar lights should be in accordance with the
specifications of Appendix 2, Figure 2-17 or 2-19.
5.3.17.13
The lighting circuit shall be designed so that:
a) stop bars located across entrance taxiways are selectively
switchable;
5.3.19
b) stop bars located across taxiways intended to be used only
as exit taxiways are switchable selectively or in groups;
Application
c) when a stop bar is illuminated, any taxiway centre line
lights installed beyond the stop bar shall be extinguished
for a distance of at least 90 m; and
5.3.19.1 Recommendation.— De-icing/anti-icing facility
exit lights should be provided at the exit boundary of a remote
de-icing/anti-icing facility adjoining a taxiway.
d) stop bars shall be interlocked with the taxiway centre line
lights so that when the centre line lights beyond the stop
bar are illuminated the stop bar is extinguished and vice
versa.
Location
5.3.19.2 De-icing/anti-icing facility exit lights shall be
located 0.3 m inward of the intermediate holding position
marking displayed at the exit boundary of a remote de-icing/
anti-icing facility.
Note 1.— A stop bar is switched on to indicate that traffic
stop and switched off to indicate that traffic proceed.
Note 2.— Care is required in the design of the electrical
system to ensure that all of the lights of a stop bar will not fail
at the same time. Guidance on this issue is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 5.
5.3.18
Characteristics
5.3.19.3 De-icing/anti-icing facility exit lights shall
consist of in-pavement fixed unidirectional lights spaced at
intervals of 6 m showing yellow in the direction of the
approach to the exit boundary with a light distribution similar
to taxiway centre line lights (see Figure 5-22).
Intermediate holding position lights
Note.— See 5.2.10 for specifications on intermediate
holding position marking.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Taxiway
Minimum separation
distance (see 3.14.10 and
Table 3-1, column 11)
Intermediate holding
position marking
De-icing/anti-icing
facility exit light
Figure 5-22. Typical remote de-icing/anti-icing facility
5.3.20
Runway guard lights
Location
Note.— There are two standard configurations of runway
guard lights as illustrated in Figure 5-23.
5.3.20.4 Runway guard lights, Configuration A, shall be
located at each side of the taxiway at a distance from the
runway centre line not less than that specified for a take-off
runway in Table 3-2.
Application
5.3.20.5 Runway guard lights, Configuration B, shall be
located across the taxiway at a distance from the runway
centre line not less than that specified for a take-off runway in
Table 3-2.
5.3.20.1 Runway guard lights, Configuration A, shall be
provided at each taxiway/runway intersection associated with
a runway intended for use in:
a) runway visual range conditions less than a value of
550 m where a stop bar is not installed; and
Characteristics
b) runway visual range conditions of values between 550 m
and 1 200 m where the traffic density is heavy.
5.3.20.6 Runway guard lights, Configuration A, shall
consist of two pairs of yellow lights.
5.3.20.7 Recommendation.— Where there is a need to
enhance the contrast between the on and off state of runway
guard lights, Configuration A, intended for use during the day,
a visor of sufficient size to prevent sunlight from entering the
lens without interfering with the function of the fixture should
be located above each lamp.
5.3.20.2 Recommendation.— Runway guard lights,
Configuration A, should be provided at each taxiway/runway
intersection associated with a runway intended for use in:
a) runway visual range conditions of values less than a
value of 550 m where a stop bar is installed; and
Note.— Some other device or design, e.g. specially designed
optics, may be used in lieu of the visor.
b) runway visual range conditions of values between 55 0m
and 1 200 m where the traffic density is medium or light.
5.3.20.8 Runway guard lights, Configuration B, shall
consist of yellow lights spaced at intervals of 3 m across the
taxiway.
5.3.20.3 Recommendation.— Runway guard lights,
Configuration A or Configuration B or both, should be provided at each taxiway/runway intersection where enhanced
conspicuity of the taxiway/runway intersection is needed, such
as on a wide-throat taxiway, except that Configuration B
should not be collocated with a stop bar.
5.3.20.9 The light beam shall be unidirectional and
aligned so as to be visible to the pilot of an aeroplane taxiing
to the holding position.
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should be in accordancewith the specificationsin Appendix2,
Figure 2-20.
5.3.20.10 Recommendation.The intensity in yellow
light and beamspreadsof lights of ConfigurationA shouldhe
in accordance with the specijcations in Appendix 2,
Figure 2-24.
5.3.20.15 Recommendation.Where runway guard
lights are specified as componentsof an advanced surface
movementguidance and control system where higher light
intensitiesare required,the intensity in yellow light and beam
spreadsof lights of ConfigurationB should be in accordance
with the specificationsin Appendix2, Figure 2-20.
5.3.20.1 I Recommendation.Where runway guard
lights are intendedfor use during the day, the intensity in
yellow light and beam spreadsof lights of ConfigurationA
shouldbe in accordancewith the specificationsin Appendix2,
Figure 2-25.
5.3.20.16 The lights in eachunit of ConfigurationA shall
be illuminated alternately.
Where runway guard
lights are specified as componentsof an advancedsurface
movementguidance and control system where higher light
intensitiesare required,the intensityin yellow light and beam
spreadsof lights of ConfigurationA should be in accordance
with the specificationsin Appendix2, Figure 2-2.5.
Recommendation.-
5.3.20.17 For ConfigurationB, adjacent lights shall be
alternately illuminated and alternative lights shall be
illuminated in unison.
5.3.20.18 The lights shall be illuminated between30 and
60 cycles per minute and the light suppression and
illumination periodsshall be equal and oppositein eachlight.
Note.- Higher light intensitiesmay be requiredto maintain
groundmovementat a certain speedin low visibilitics.
5.3.20.13 Recommendation.The intensity in yellow
light and beamspreadsof lights of ConfigurationB should be
in accordance with the specifications in Appendi.x 2,
Figure 2-12.
Note.- Theoptimumflash rate is dependenton the rise and
full times of the lamps used. Runway guard lights,
ConfigurationA, installed on 6.6 ampereseries circuits have
beenfound to look best whenoperatedat 45 to 50,flashesper
minute per lamp. Runway guard lights, Configuration B,
installedon 6.6 ampereseriescircuits have beenfound to look
best whenoperutedat 30 to 32 flashes per minuteper lamp.
5.3.20.14 Recommendation.Where runwuy guard
lights ure intendedfor use during the dup the intensity in
yellow ltght and beam spreadsof lights of Configuration B
See 5.3.20.4
and 5.3.20.5
-7
c-----x
%.
A pair of unidirectional,
flashingyellowlights
ConfigurationB
ConfigurationA
Figure S-23. Runwayguard lights
4/l l/9’,
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Unidirectionalflashing
yellowlights spacedat
intervalsof 3 m
Chapter 5
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
5.3.21 Apron floodlighting
(see also 5.3.15.1 and 5.3.16.1)
5.3.22
Visual docking guidance system
Application
Application
5.3.21.1 Recommendation.— Apron floodlighting should
be provided on an apron, on a de-icing/anti-icing facility and
on a designated isolated aircraft parking position intended to
be used at night.
5.3.22.1 A visual docking guidance system shall be provided when it is intended to indicate, by a visual aid, the
precise positioning of an aircraft on an aircraft stand and other
alternative means, such as marshallers, are not practicable.
Note 1. — Where a de-icing/anti-icing facility is located in
close proximity to the runway and permanent floodlighting
could be confusing to pilots, other means of illumination of the
facility may be required.
Note.— The factors to be considered in evaluating the need
for a visual docking guidance system are in particular: the
number and type(s) of aircraft using the aircraft stand,
weather conditions, space available on the apron and the
precision required for manoeuvring into the parking position
due to aircraft servicing installation, passenger loading
bridges, etc. See the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4 —
Visual Aids for guidance on the selection of suitable systems.
Note 2. — The designation of an isolated aircraft parking
position is specified in 3.13.
Note 3. — Guidance on apron floodlighting is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
5.3.22.2 The provisions of 5.3.22.3 to 5.3.22.7, 5.3.22.9,
5.3.22.10, 5.3.22.12 to 5.3.22.15, 5.3.22.17, 5.3.22.18 and
5.3.22.20 shall not require the replacement of existing installations before 1 January 2005.
Location
Characteristics
5.3.21.2 Recommendation.— Apron floodlights should
be located so as to provide adequate illumination on all apron
service areas, with a minimum of glare to pilots of aircraft in
flight and on the ground, aerodrome and apron controllers,
and personnel on the apron. The arrangement and aiming of
floodlights should be such that an aircraft stand receives light
from two or more directions to minimize shadows.
5.3.22.3 The system shall provide both azimuth and
stopping guidance.
5.3.22.4 The azimuth guidance unit and the stopping
position indicator shall be adequate for use in all weather,
visibility, background lighting and pavement conditions for
which the system is intended both by day and night, but shall
not dazzle the pilot.
Characteristics
Note.— Care is required in both the design and on-site
installation of the system to ensure that reflection of sunlight,
or other light in the vicinity, does not degrade the clarity and
conspicuity of the visual cues provided by the system.
5.3.21.3 The spectral distribution of apron floodlights
shall be such that the colours used for aircraft marking
connected with routine servicing, and for surface and obstacle
marking, can be correctly identified.
5.3.22.5 The azimuth guidance unit and the stopping
position indicator shall be of a design such that:
5.3.21.4 Recommendation.— The average illuminance
should be at least the following:
a) a clear indication of malfunction of either or both is
available to the pilot; and
Aircraft stand:
b) they can be turned off.
— horizontal illuminance — 20 lux with a uniformity ratio
(average to minimum) of not more than 4 to 1; and
Other apron areas:
5.3.22.6 The azimuth guidance unit and the stopping
position indicator shall be located in such a way that there is
continuity of guidance between the aircraft stand markings, the
aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance lights, if present, and the
visual docking guidance system.
— horizontal illuminance — 50 per cent of the average
illuminance on the aircraft stands with a uniformity ratio
(average to minimum) of not more than 4 to 1.
5.3.22.7 The accuracy of the system shall be adequate for
the type of loading bridge and fixed aircraft servicing
installations with which it is to be used.
— vertical illuminance — 20 lux at a height of 2 m above
the apron in relevant directions.
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5.3.22.8 Recommendation.— The system should be
usable by all types of aircraft for which the aircraft stand is
intended, preferably without selective operation.
5.3.22.18 The stopping position indicator shall show the
stopping position for the aircraft for which guidance is being
provided, and shall provide closing rate information to enable
the pilot to gradually decelerate the aircraft to a full stop at the
intended stopping position.
5.3.22.9 If selective operation is required to prepare the
system for use by a particular type of aircraft, then the system
shall provide an identification of the selected aircraft type to
both the pilot and the system operator as a means of ensuring
that the system has been set properly.
5.3.22.19 Recommendation.— The stopping position
indicator should provide closing rate information over a
distance of at least 10 m.
5.3.22.20 When stopping guidance is indicated by colour
change, green shall be used to show that the aircraft can
proceed and red to show that the stop point has been reached
except that for a short distance prior to the stop point a third
colour may be used to warn that the stopping point is close.
Azimuth guidance unit
Location
5.3.22.10 The azimuth guidance unit shall be located on
or close to the extension of the stand centre line ahead of the
aircraft so that its signals are visible from the cockpit of an
aircraft throughout the docking manoeuvre and aligned for use
at least by the pilot occupying the left seat.
5.3.23
Aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance lights
Application
5.3.22.11 Recommendation.— The azimuth guidance
unit should be aligned for use by the pilots occupying both the
left and right seats.
5.3.23.1 Recommendation.— Aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance lights should be provided to facilitate the
positioning of an aircraft on an aircraft stand on a paved
apron or on a de-icing/anti-icing facility intended for use in
poor visibility conditions, unless adequate guidance is
provided by other means.
Characteristics
5.3.22.12 The azimuth guidance unit shall provide
unambiguous left/right guidance which enables the pilot to
acquire and maintain the lead-in line without overcontrolling.
Location
5.3.22.13 When azimuth guidance is indicated by colour
change, green shall be used to identify the centre line and red
for deviations from the centre line.
5.3.23.2 Aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance lights shall
be collocated with the aircraft stand markings.
Stopping position indicator
Characteristics
5.3.23.3 Aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance lights,
other than those indicating a stop position, shall be fixed
yellow lights, visible throughout the segments within which
they are intended to provide guidance.
Location
5.3.22.14 The stopping position indicator shall be located
in conjunction with, or sufficiently close to, the azimuth
guidance unit so that a pilot can observe both the azimuth and
stop signals without turning the head.
5.3.23.4 Recommendation.— The lights used to delineate lead-in, turning and lead-out lines should be spaced at
intervals of not more than 7.5 m on curves and 15 m on
straight sections.
5.3.22.15 The stopping position indicator shall be usable
at least by the pilot occupying the left seat.
5.3.23.5 The lights indicating a stop position shall be
fixed, unidirectional lights, showing red.
5.3.22.16 Recommendation.— The stopping position
indicator should be usable by the pilots occupying both the left
and right seats.
Characteristics
5.3.23.6 Recommendation.— The intensity of the lights
should be adequate for the condition of visibility and ambient
light in which the use of the aircraft stand is intended.
5.3.22.17 The stopping position information provided by
the indicator for a particular aircraft type shall account for the
anticipated range of variations in pilot eye height and/or
viewing angle.
5.3.23.7 Recommendation.— The lighting circuit should
be designed so that the lights may be switched on to indicate
that an aircraft stand is to be used and switched off to indicate
that it is not to be used.
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5.3.24
Road-holding position light
5.4
Signs
Application
5.4.1 General
5.3.24.1 A road-holding position light shall be provided
at each road-holding position serving a runway when it is
intended that the runway will be used in runway visual range
conditions less than a value of 350 m.
Note.— Signs shall be either fixed message signs or
variable message signs. Guidance on signs is contained in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
5.3.24.2 Recommendation.— A road-holding position
light should be provided at each road-holding position serving
a runway when it is intended that the runway will be used in
runway visual range conditions of values between 350 m and
550 m.
Application
5.4.1.1 Signs shall be provided to convey a mandatory
instruction, information on a specific location or destination on
a movement area or to provide other information to meet the
requirements of 8.9.1.
Note.— See 5.2.16 for specifications on information
marking.
Location
5.3.24.3 A road-holding position light shall be located
adjacent to the holding position marking 1.5 m (± 0.5 m) from
one edge of the road, i.e. left or right as appropriate to the local
traffic regulations.
5.4.1.2 Recommendation.— A variable message sign
should be provided where:
a) the instruction or information displayed on the sign is
relevant only during a certain period of time; and/or
Note.— See 8.7 for the mass and height limitations and
frangibility requirements of navigation aids located on runway
strips.
b) there is a need for variable pre-determined information
to be displayed on the sign to meet the requirements of
8.9.1.
Characteristics
5.3.24.4
Characteristics
The road-holding position light shall comprise:
5.4.1.3 Signs shall be frangible. Those located near a
runway or taxiway shall be sufficiently low to preserve
clearance for propellers and the engine pods of jet aircraft. The
installed height of the sign shall not exceed the dimension
shown in the appropriate column of Table 5-4.
a) a controllable red (stop)/green (go) traffic light; or
b) a flashing-red light.
Note.— It is intended that the lights specified in subparagraph a) be controlled by the air traffic services.
5.4.1.4 Signs shall be rectangular, as shown
Figures 5-24 and 5-25 with the longer side horizontal.
in
5.4.1.5 The only signs on the movement area utilizing red
shall be mandatory instruction signs.
5.3.24.5 The road-holding position light beam shall be
unidirectional and aligned so as to be visible to the driver of a
vehicle approaching the holding position.
5.4.1.6 The inscriptions on a sign shall be in accordance
with the provisions of Appendix 4.
5.3.24.6 The intensity of the light beam shall be adequate
for the conditions of visibility and ambient light in which the
use of the holding position is intended, but shall not dazzle the
driver.
5.4.1.7 Signs shall be illuminated in accordance with the
provisions of Appendix 4 when intended for use:
a) in runway visual range conditions less than a value of
800 m; or
Note.— The commonly used traffic lights are likely to meet
the requirements in 5.3.24.5 and 5.3.24.6.
b) at night in association with instrument runways; or
5.3.24.7 The flash frequency of the flashing-red light
shall be between 30 and 60 per minute.
c) at night in association with non-instrument runways
where the code number is 3 or 4.
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5.4.2 Mandatory instruction signs
5.4.1.8 Signs shall be retroreflective and/or illuminated in
accordancewith the provisions of Appendix 4 when intended
for use at night in associationwith non-instrumentrunways
where the code number is 1 or 2.
Note.- See Figure 5-24 for pictorial representation of
mandatory instruction signs and Figure 5-26 for examplesof
locating signs at taxiway/runwayintersections.
5.4.1.9 A variable messagesign shall show a blank face
when not in use.
Application
5.4.1.10 In case of failure, a variable messagesign shall
not provide information that could lead to unsafeaction from
a pilot or a vehicle driver.
5.4.1.11
Recommendation.-
The
time
interval
5.4.2.1 A mandatoryinstruction sign shall be provided to
identify a location beyond which an aircraft taxiing or vehicle
shall not proceedunless authorized by the aerodromecontrol
tower.
to
chungefrom one messageto another on a variable message
sign should be as short as practicable and should not exceed
5 seconds.
5.4.2.2 Mandatory instruction signs shall include runway
designationsigns, categoryI, II or III holding position signs,
RIGHT SIDE
LEFT SIDE
LOCATION/RUNWAY
RUNWAY-HOLDING
LOCATION/RUNWAY
DESIGNATION
RUNWAY DESIGNATION/LOCATION
POSITION
RUNWAY DESIGNATION/
CATEGORY II HOLDING POSITION
RUNWAY DESIGNATION/LOCATION
DESIGNATION
NO ENTRY
Figure 5-24.
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Mandatory instruction signs
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RIGHT SIDE
LEFT SIDE
DlRECTlON/LOCATlON/DlRECTlON
LOCATION/DIRECTION
LOCATION/RUNWAY
DESTINATION
RUNWAY VACATED/LOCATION
VACATED
RUNWAY EXIT
RUNWAY EXIT
LOCATION
DlRECTlON/LOCATlON/DlRECTlON/DlRECTlON
DlRECTlON/DlRECTlON/DIRECTION/LOCATION/DlRECTlON/DlRECTlON/DlRECTlON
c
7
c
INTERSECTION
Figure 5-25.
I
TAKE-OFF
Information signs
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48’4L’4l,b
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750 m
VolumeI
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
NON-INSTRUMENT,NON-PRECISION,TAKE-OFFRUNWAYS
PRECISIONAPPROACHRUNWAYS
CATEGORY11
CATEGORYIll
Note: DistanceX is estabhshed
in accordance
Gth ‘fable3-2. DistanceY IS establishedat theedgeof the ILWMLS critical/sensitivearea
Figure S-26. Examplesof sign positionsat taxiwaykunway intersections
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Table 5-4.
Location distances for taxiing guidance signs including runway exit signs
Sign height (mm)
Code
number
Legend
Face
(min.)
Installed
(max.)
Perpendicular
distance from
defined taxiway
pavement edge to
near side of sign
1 or 2
200
400
700
5-11 m
3-10 m
1 or 2
300
600
900
5-11 m
3-10 m
3 or 4
300
600
900
11-21 m
8-15 m
3 or 4
400
800
1 100
11-21 m
8-15 m
runway-holding position signs, road-holding position signs
and NO ENTRY signs.
Perpendicular
distance from
defined runway
pavement edge to
near side of sign
5.4.2.9 A category I, II or III holding position sign shall
be located on each side of the runway-holding position
marking facing the direction of the approach to the critical
area.
Note.— See 5.4.7 for specifications on road-holding
position signs.
5.4.2.10 A NO ENTRY sign shall be located at the
beginning of the area to which entrance is prohibited on each
side of the taxiway as viewed by the pilot.
5.4.2.3 A pattern “A” runway-holding position marking
shall be supplemented at a taxiway/runway intersection or a
runway/runway intersection with a runway designation sign.
5.4.2.4 A pattern “B” runway-holding position marking
shall be supplemented with a category I, II or III holding
position sign.
5.4.2.11 A runway-holding position sign shall be located
on each side of the runway-holding position established in
accordance with 3.11.3, facing the approach to the obstacle
limitation surface or ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area, as
appropriate.
5.4.2.5 A pattern “A” runway-holding position marking at
a runway-holding position established in accordance with
3.11.3 shall be supplemented with a runway-holding position
sign.
Characteristics
5.4.2.12 A mandatory instruction sign shall consist of an
inscription in white on a red background.
Note.— See 5.2.9 for specifications on runway-holding
position marking.
5.4.2.13 The inscription on a runway designation sign
shall consist of the runway designations of the intersecting
runway properly oriented with respect to the viewing position
of the sign, except that a runway designation sign installed in
the vicinity of a runway extremity may show the runway
designation of the concerned runway extremity only.
5.4.2.6 Recommendation.— A runway designation sign
at a taxiway/runway intersection should be supplemented with
a location sign in the outboard (farthest from the taxiway)
position, as appropriate.
Note.— See 5.4.3 for characteristics of location signs.
5.4.2.7 A NO ENTRY sign shall be provided when entry
into an area is prohibited.
5.4.2.14 The inscription on a category I, II, III or joint
II/III holding position sign shall consist of the runway
designator followed by CAT I, CAT II, CAT III or CAT II/III,
as appropriate.
Location
5.4.2.15 The inscription on a NO ENTRY sign shall be in
accordance with Figure 5-24.
5.4.2.8 A runway designation sign at a taxiway/runway
intersection or a runway/runway intersection shall be located
on each side of the runway-holding position marking facing
the direction of approach to the runway.
5.4.2.16 The inscription on a runway-holding position
sign at a runway-holding position established in accordance
with 3.11.3 shall consist of the taxiway designation and a
number.
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5.4.2.17 Where appropriate, the following inscriptions/
symbol shall be used:
Inscription/
symbol
Use
Runway
designation of
a runway
extremity
To indicate a runway-holding
position at a runway extremity
5.4.3.3 A runway exit sign shall be provided where there
is an operational need to identify a runway exit.
5.4.3.4 A runway vacated sign shall be provided where
the exit taxiway is not provided with taxiway centre line lights
and there is a need to indicate to a pilot leaving a runway the
perimeter of the ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area or the lower
edge of the inner transitional surface whichever is farther from
the runway centre line.
Note.— See 5.3.15 for specifications on colour coding
taxiway centre line lights.
OR
Runway
designation of
both extremities
of a runway
To indicate a runway-holding
position located at other
taxiway/runway intersections or
runway/runway intersections
5.4.3.5 Recommendation.— An intersection take-off sign
should be provided when there is an operational need to
indicate the remaining take-off run available (TORA) for
intersection take-offs.
25 CAT I
(Example)
To indicate a category I runwayholding position at the threshold
of runway 25
5.4.3.6 Recommendation.— Where necessary, a destination sign should be provided to indicate the direction to a
specific destination on the aerodrome, such as cargo area,
general aviation, etc.
25 CAT II
(Example)
To indicate a category II runwayholding position at the threshold
of runway 25
25 CAT III
(Example)
To indicate a category III runwayholding position at the threshold
of runway 25
25 CAT II/III
(Example)
To indicate a joint
category II/III runway-holding
position at the threshold
of runway 25
NO ENTRY
symbol
To indicate that entry to an area
is prohibited
B2
(Example)
To indicate a runway-holding
position established in accordance
with 3.11.3
5.4.3.7 A combined location and direction sign shall be
provided when it is intended to indicate routing information
prior to a taxiway intersection.
5.4.3.8 A direction sign shall be provided when there is
an operational need to identify the designation and direction of
taxiways at an intersection.
5.4.3.9 Recommendation.— A location sign should be
provided at an intermediate holding position.
5.4.3.10 A location sign shall be provided in conjunction
with a runway designation sign except at a runway/runway
intersection.
5.4.3.11 A location sign shall be provided in conjunction
with a direction sign, except that it may be omitted where an
aeronautical study indicates that it is not needed.
5.4.3.12 Recommendation.— Where necessary, a location
sign should be provided to identify taxiways exiting an apron or
taxiways beyond an intersection.
5.4.3 Information signs
5.4.3.13 Recommendation.— Where a taxiway ends at
an intersection such as a ‘‘T’’ and it is necessary to identify
this, a barricade, direction sign and/or other appropriate
visual aid should be used.
Note.— See Figure 5-25 for pictorial representations of
information signs.
Application
Location
5.4.3.1 An information sign shall be provided where there
is an operational need to identify by a sign, a specific location,
or routing (direction or destination) information.
5.4.3.14 Except as specified in 5.4.3.16 and 5.4.3.24
information signs shall, wherever practicable, be located on the
left-hand side of the taxiway in accordance with Table 5-4.
5.4.3.2 Information signs shall include: direction signs,
location signs, destination signs, runway exit signs, runway
vacated signs and intersection take-off signs.
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5.4.3.15 At a taxiway intersection, information signs
shall be located prior to the intersection and in line with the
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Chapter 5
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
taxiway intersection marking. Where there is no taxiway
intersection marking, the signs shall be installed at least
60 m from the centre line of the intersecting taxiway where
the code number is 3 or 4 and at least 40 m where the code
number is 1 or 2.
5.4.3.26 A location sign shall consist of an inscription in
yellow on a black background and where it is a stand-alone
sign shall have a yellow border.
5.4.3.27 The inscription on a runway exit sign shall
consist of the designator of the exit taxiway and an arrow
indicating the direction to follow.
Note.— A location sign installed beyond a taxiway
intersection may be installed on either side of a taxiway.
5.4.3.28 The inscription on a runway vacated sign shall
depict the pattern A runway-holding position marking as
shown in Figure 5-25.
5.4.3.16 A runway exit sign shall be located on the same
side of the runway as the exit is located (i.e. left or right) and
positioned in accordance with Table 5-4.
5.4.3.17 A runway exit sign shall be located prior to the
runway exit point in line with a position at least 60 m prior to
the point of tangency where the code number is 3 or 4, and at
least 30 m where the code number is 1 or 2.
5.4.3.29 The inscription on an intersection take-off sign
shall consist of a numerical message indicating the remaining
take-off run available in metres plus an arrow, appropriately
located and oriented, indicating the direction of the take-off as
shown in Figure 5-25.
5.4.3.18 A runway vacated sign shall be located at least
on one side of the taxiway. The distance between the sign and
the centre line of a runway shall be not less than the greater of
the following:
5.4.3.30 The inscription on a destination sign shall
comprise an alpha, alphanumerical or numerical message
identifying the destination plus an arrow indicating the
direction to proceed as shown in Figure 5-25.
a) the distance between the centre line of the runway and
the perimeter of the ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area; or
5.4.3.31 The inscription on a direction sign shall comprise
an alpha or alphanumerical message identifying the taxiway(s)
plus an arrow or arrows appropriately oriented as shown in
Figure 5-25.
b) the distance between the centre line of the runway and
the lower edge of the inner transitional surface.
5.4.3.19 Where provided in conjunction with a runway
vacated sign, the taxiway location sign shall be positioned
outboard of the runway vacated sign.
5.4.3.32 The inscription on a location sign shall comprise
the designation of the location taxiway, runway or other
pavement the aircraft is on or is entering and shall not contain
arrows.
5.4.3.20 An intersection take-off sign shall be located at
the left-hand side of the entry taxiway. The distance between
the sign and the centre line of the runway shall be not less than
60 m where the code number is 3 or 4 and not less than 45 m
where the code number is 1 or 2.
5.4.3.33 Recommendation.— Where it is necessary to
identify each of a series of intermediate holding positions on
the same taxiway, the location sign should consist of the
taxiway designation and a number.
5.4.3.34 Where a location sign and direction signs are
used in combination:
5.4.3.21 A taxiway location sign installed in conjunction
with a runway designation sign shall be positioned outboard of
the runway designation sign.
a) all direction signs related to left turns shall be placed on
the left side of the location sign and all direction signs
related to right turns shall be placed on the right side of
the location sign, except that where the junction consists
of one intersecting taxiway, the location sign may
alternatively be placed on the left hand side;
5.4.3.22 Recommendation.— A destination sign should
not normally be collocated with a location or direction sign.
5.4.3.23 An information sign other than a location sign
shall not be collocated with a mandatory instruction sign.
b) the direction signs shall be placed such that the direction
of the arrows departs increasingly from the vertical with
increasing deviation of the corresponding taxiway;
5.4.3.24 Recommendation.— A direction sign, barricade
and/or other appropriate visual aid used to identify a ‘‘T’’
intersection should be located on the opposite side of the
intersection facing the taxiway.
Characteristics
c) an appropriate direction sign shall be placed next to the
location sign where the direction of the location taxiway
changes significantly beyond the intersection; and
5.4.3.25 An information sign other than a location sign
shall consist of an inscription in black on a yellow background.
d) adjacent direction signs shall be delineated by a vertical
black line as shown in Figure 5-25.
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5.4.3.35 A taxiway shall be identified by a designator
comprising a letter, letters or a combination of a letter or letters
followed by a number.
inscriptions are visible from the cockpit of an aircraft properly
positioned on the VOR aerodrome check-point marking.
5.4.3.36 Recommendation.— When designating taxiways,
the use of the letters I, O or X and the use of words such as inner
and outer should be avoided wherever possible to avoid
confusion with the numerals 1, 0 and closed marking.
Characteristics
5.4.4.3 A VOR aerodrome check-point sign shall consist
of an inscription in black on a yellow background.
5.4.4.4 Recommendation.— The inscriptions on a VOR
check-point sign should be in accordance with one of the
alternatives shown in Figure 5-27 in which:
5.4.3.37 The use of numbers alone on the manoeuvring
area shall be reserved for the designation of runways.
VOR
is an abbreviation identifying this as a VOR
check-point;
116.3
is an example of the radio frequency of the VOR
concerned;
5.4.4.1 When a VOR aerodrome check-point is established, it shall be indicated by a VOR aerodrome check-point
marking and sign.
147°
is an example of the VOR bearing, to the nearest
degree, which should be indicated at the VOR
check-point; and
Note.— See 5.2.11 for VOR aerodrome check-point
marking.
4.3 NM
is an example of the distance in nautical miles to
a DME collocated with the VOR concerned.
5.4.4 VOR aerodrome check-point sign
Application
Note.— Tolerances for the bearing value shown on the sign
are given in Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment E to Part I. It
will be noted that a check-point can only be used operationally
when periodic checks show it to be consistently within
± 2 degrees of the stated bearing.
Location
5.4.4.2 A VOR aerodrome check-point sign shall be
located as near as possible to the check-point and so that the
Where no DME is collocated with the VOR
Where a DME is collocated with the VOR
Figure 5-27.
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Chapter 5
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
5.4.5
Location
Aerodrome identification sign
5.4.7.2 The road-holding position sign shall be located
1.5 m from one edge of the road (left or right as appropriate
to the local traffic regulations) at the holding position.
Application
5.4.5.1 Recommendation.— An aerodrome identification sign should be provided at an aerodrome where there
is insufficient alternative means of visual identification.
Characteristics
Location
5.4.7.3 A road-holding position sign shall consist of an
inscription in white on a red background.
5.4.5.2 Recommendation.— The aerodrome identification sign should be placed on the aerodrome so as to be
legible, in so far as is practicable, at all angles above the
horizontal.
5.4.7.4 The inscription on a road-holding position sign
shall be in the national language, be in conformity with the
local traffic regulations and include the following:
a) a requirement to stop; and
Characteristics
b) where appropriate:
5.4.5.3 The aerodrome identification sign shall consist of
the name of the aerodrome.
1) a requirement to obtain ATC clearance; and
5.4.5.4 Recommendation.— The colour selected for the
sign should give adequate conspicuity when viewed against its
background.
2) location designator.
Note.— Examples of road-holding position signs are contained in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
5.4.5.5 Recommendation.— The characters should have
a height of not less than 3 m.
5.4.7.5 A road-holding position sign intended for night
use shall be retroreflective or illuminated.
5.4.6
Aircraft stand identification signs
Application
5.5
5.4.6.1 Recommendation.— An aircraft stand identification marking should be supplemented with an aircraft stand
identification sign where feasible.
5.5.1
Markers
General
Markers shall be frangible. Those located near a runway or
taxiway shall be sufficiently low to preserve clearance for
propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft.
Location
5.4.6.2 Recommendation.— An aircraft stand identification sign should be located so as to be clearly visible from
the cockpit of an aircraft prior to entering the aircraft stand.
Note 1.— Anchors or chains, to prevent markers which
have broken from their mounting from blowing away, are
sometimes used.
Characteristics
Note 2.— Guidance on frangibility of markers is given in
the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 6 (in preparation).
5.4.6.3 Recommendation.— An aircraft stand identification sign should consist of an inscription in black on a
yellow background.
5.5.2
Unpaved runway edge markers
Application
5.4.7
Road-holding position sign
5.5.2.1 Recommendation.— Markers should be provided when the extent of an unpaved runway is not clearly
indicated by the appearance of its surface compared with that
of the surrounding ground.
5.4.7.1 A road-holding position sign shall be provided at
all road entrances to a runway.
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Location
Characteristics
5.5.2.2 Recommendation.— Where runway lights are
provided, the markers should be incorporated in the light
fixtures. Where there are no lights, markers of flat rectangular
or conical shape should be placed so as to delimit the runway
clearly.
5.5.4.3 Recommendation.— Edge markers for snowcovered runways should consist of conspicuous objects such as
evergreen trees about 1.5 m high, or light-weight markers.
5.5.5
Taxiway edge markers
Characteristics
Application
5.5.2.3 Recommendation.— The flat rectangular markers
should have a minimum size of 1 m by 3 m and should be placed
with their long dimension parallel to the runway centre line. The
conical markers should have a height not exceeding 50 cm.
5.5.5.1 Recommendation.— Taxiway edge markers should
be provided on a taxiway where the code number is 1 or 2 and
taxiway centre line or edge lights or taxiway centre line markers
are not provided.
Location
5.5.3 Stopway edge markers
5.5.5.2 Recommendation.— Taxiway edge markers
should be installed at least at the same locations as would the
taxiway edge lights had they been used.
Application
5.5.3.1 Recommendation.— Stopway edge markers should
be provided when the extent of a stopway is not clearly indicated
by its appearance compared with that of the surrounding ground.
Characteristics
5.5.5.3
blue.
Characteristics
5.5.3.2 The stopway edge markers shall be sufficiently
different from any runway edge markers used to ensure that
the two types of markers cannot be confused.
5.5.5.4 Recommendation.— The marked surface as
viewed by the pilot should be a rectangle and should have a
minimum viewing area of 150 cm2.
Note.— Markers consisting of small vertical boards
camouflaged on the reverse side, as viewed from the runway,
have proved operationally acceptable.
5.5.4
A taxiway edge marker shall be retroreflective
5.5.5.5 Taxiway edge markers shall be frangible. Their
height shall be sufficiently low to preserve clearance for
propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft.
5.5.6 Taxiway centre line markers
Edge markers for snow-covered runways
Application
Application
5.5.4.1 Recommendation.— Edge markers for snowcovered runways should be used to indicate the usable limits
of a snow-covered runway when the limits are not otherwise
indicated.
5.5.6.1 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line markers
should be provided on a taxiway where the code number is 1 or
2 and taxiway centre line or edge lights or taxiway edge
markers are not provided.
Note.— Runway lights could be used to indicate the limits.
5.5.6.2 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line markers
should be provided on a taxiway where the code number is 3 or
4 and taxiway centre line lights are not provided if there is a
need to improve the guidance provided by the taxiway centre
line marking.
Location
5.5.4.2 Recommendation.— Edge markers for snowcovered runways should be placed along the sides of the
runway at intervals of not more than 100 m, and should be
located symmetrically about the runway centre line at such a
distance from the centre line that there is adequate clearance
for wing tips and power plants. Sufficient markers should be
placed across the threshold and end of the runway.
4/11/99
Location
5.5.6.3 Recommendation.— Taxiway centre line markers
should be installed at least at the same location as would
taxiway centre line lights had they been used.
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Location
Note.- See5.3.I5. II for the spacingof taxiway centreline
lights.
5.5.7.2 Recommendation.Where taxiway lights are
provided, the markers should be incorporated in the light
fixtures. Wherethere are no lights, markers of conical shape
should be placed so as to delimit the taxiwayclearly.
5.5.6.4 Recommendation.- Taxiwaycentreline markers
shouldnormally be locatedon the taxiwaycentreline marking
exceptthat they may be offsetby not more than 30 cm whereit
is not practicable to locate themon the marking.
5.5.8 Boundarymarkers
Apphzlion
Characteristics
5.5.8.1 Boundary markers shall be provided at an aerodrome wherethe landing areahas no runway.
5.5.6.5 A taxiway centre line marker shall be retroreflective green.
Location
The marked surface as
viewed by the pilot should be a rectangleand should have a
minimum viewing area of 20 cm2.
5.5.6.6
Recommendation.-
5.5.8.2 Boundary markers shall be spaced along the
boundary of the landing area at intervals of not more than
200 m, if the type shown in Figure 5-28 is used,or approximately 90 m, if the conical type is usedwith a marker at any
comer.
5.5.6.7 Taxiway centreline markersshall be so designed
and fitted as to withstandbeing run over by the wheelsof an
aircraft without damageeither to the aircraft or to the markers
themselves.
Characteristics
5.5.8.3 Recommendation.Boundary markers should
be of a form similar to that shown in Figure 5-28, or in the
form of a cone not less than 50 cm high and not less than
7.5 cm in diameter at the base. The markers should be
colouredto contrast with the backgroundagainst which they
will be seen.A single colour, orangeor red, or two contrasting
colours, orange and white or alternatively red and white,
should be used, except where such colours merge with the
background.
5.5.7 Unpaved taxiway edgemarkers
Applhtion
5.5.7.1 Recommendation.Where the extent of an
unpavedtaxiway is not clearly indicated by its appearance
compared with that of the surrounding ground, markers
should be provided.
Figure 5-28. Boundarymarkers
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CHAPTER 6.
6.1
VISUAL AIDS FOR DENOTING OBSTACLES
Objects to be marked
and/or lighted
a) such marking and lighting may be omitted when the
obstacle is shielded by another fixed obstacle;
b) the marking may be omitted when the obstacle is lighted
by medium-intensity obstacle lights, Type A, by day and
its height above the level of the surrounding ground does
not exceed 150 m;
Note.— The marking and/or lighting of obstacles is
intended to reduce hazards to aircraft by indicating the
presence of the obstacles. It does not necessarily reduce
operating limitations which may be imposed by an obstacle.
c) the marking may be omitted when the obstacle is lighted
by high-intensity obstacle lights by day; and
6.1.1 Recommendation.— A fixed obstacle that extends
above a take-off climb surface within 3 000 m of the inner edge
of the take-off climb surface should be marked and, if the
runway is used at night, lighted, except that:
d) the lighting may be omitted where the obstacle is a
lighthouse and an aeronautical study indicates the
lighthouse light to be sufficient.
a) such marking and lighting may be omitted when the
obstacle is shielded by another fixed obstacle;
6.1.4 Recommendation.— A fixed obstacle above a
horizontal surface should be marked and, if the aerodrome is
used at night, lighted except that:
b) the marking may be omitted when the obstacle is lighted
by medium-intensity obstacle lights, Type A, by day and
its height above the level of the surrounding ground does
not exceed 150 m;
a) such marking and lighting may be omitted when:
1) the obstacle is shielded by another fixed obstacle; or
c) the marking may be omitted when the obstacle is lighted
by high-intensity obstacle lights by day; and
2) for a circuit extensively obstructed by immovable
objects or terrain, procedures have been established
to ensure safe vertical clearance below prescribed
flight paths; or
d) the lighting may be omitted where the obstacle is a
lighthouse and an aeronautical study indicates the
lighthouse light to be sufficient.
3) an aeronautical study shows the obstacle not to be of
operational significance;
b) the marking may be omitted when the obstacle is lighted
by medium-intensity obstacle lights, Type A, by day and
its height above the level of the surrounding ground does
not exceed 150 m;
6.1.2 Recommendation.— A fixed object, other than an
obstacle, adjacent to a take-off climb surface should be
marked and, if the runway is used at night, lighted if such
marking and lighting is considered necessary to ensure its
avoidance, except that the marking may be omitted when:
c) the marking may be omitted when the obstacle is lighted
by high-intensity obstacle lights by day; and
a) the object is lighted by medium-intensity obstacle lights,
Type A, by day and its height above the level of the
surrounding ground does not exceed 150 m; or
d) the lighting may be omitted where the obstacle is a
lighthouse and an aeronautical study indicates the
lighthouse light to be sufficient.
b) the object is lighted by high-intensity obstacle lights by
day.
6.1.5 A fixed object that extends above an obstacle
protection surface shall be marked and, if the runway is used
at night, lighted.
6.1.3 A fixed obstacle that extends above an approach or
transitional surface within 3 000 m of the inner edge of the
approach surface shall be marked and, if the runway is used at
night, lighted, except that:
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Note.— See 5.3.5 for information on the obstacle protection
surface.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
White
Orange or red
Figure 6-1.
Basic marking patterns
6.1.6 Vehicles and other mobile objects, excluding
aircraft, on the movement area of an aerodrome are obstacles
and shall be marked and, if the vehicles and aerodrome are
used at night or in conditions of low visibility, lighted, except
that aircraft servicing equipment and vehicles used only on
aprons may be exempt.
6.2 Marking of objects
General
6.2.1 All fixed objects to be marked shall, whenever
practicable, be coloured, but if this is not practicable, markers
or flags shall be displayed on or above them, except that
objects that are sufficiently conspicuous by their shape, size or
colour need not be otherwise marked.
6.1.7 Elevated aeronautical ground lights within the
movement area shall be marked so as to be conspicuous by
day. Obstacle lights shall not be installed on elevated ground
lights or signs in the movement area.
6.2.2 All mobile objects to be marked shall be coloured or
display flags.
6.1.8 All obstacles within the distance specified in
Table 3-1, column 11 or 12, from the centre line of a taxiway,
an apron taxiway or aircraft stand taxilane shall be marked
and, if the taxiway, apron taxiway or aircraft stand taxilane is
used at night, lighted.
Use of colours
6.2.3 Recommendation.— An object should be coloured
to show a chequered pattern if it has essentially unbroken
surfaces and its projection on any vertical plane equals or
exceeds 4.5 m in both dimensions. The pattern should consist
of rectangles of not less than 1.5 m and not more than 3 m on
a side, the corners being of the darker colour. The colours of
the pattern should contrast each with the other and with the
background against which they will be seen. Orange and white
or alternatively red and white should be used, except where
such colours merge with the background. (See Figure 6-1.)
6.1.9 Recommendation.— Obstacles in accordance with
4.3.2 should be marked and lighted, except that the marking
may be omitted when the obstacle is lighted by high-intensity
obstacle lights by day.
6.1.10 Recommendation.— Overhead wires, cables, etc.,
crossing a river, valley or highway should be marked and their
supporting towers marked and lighted if an aeronautical study
indicates that the wires or cables could constitute a hazard to
aircraft, except that the marking of the supporting towers may
be omitted when they are lighted by high-intensity obstacle
lights by day.
6.2.4 Recommendation.— An object should be coloured
to show alternating contrasting bands if:
6.1.11 Recommendation.— When it has been determined that an overhead wire, cable, etc., needs to be marked
but it is not practicable to install markers on the wire, cable,
etc., then high-intensity obstacle lights, Type B, should be
provided on their supporting towers.
a) it has essentially unbroken surfaces and has one
dimension, horizontal or vertical, greater than 1.5 m, and
the other dimension, horizontal or vertical, less than
4.5 m; or
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
b) it is of skeletal type with either a vertical or a horizontal
dimension greater than 1.5 m.
approach the object. The shape of markers shall be distinctive
to the extent necessary to ensure that they are not mistaken for
markers employed to convey other information, and they shall
be such that the hazard presented by the object they mark is
not increased.
The bands should be perpendicular to the longest dimension
and have a width approximately 1/7 of the longest dimension
or 30 m, whichever is less. The colours of the bands should
contrast with the background against which they will be seen.
Orange and white should be used, except where such colours
are not conspicuous when viewed against the background. The
bands on the extremities of the object should be of the darker
colour. (See Figures 6-1 and 6-2.)
6.2.8 Recommendation.— A marker displayed on an
overhead wire, cable, etc., should be spherical and have a
diameter of not less than 60 cm.
6.2.9 Recommendation.— The spacing between two
consecutive markers or between a marker and a supporting
tower should be appropriate to the diameter of the marker, but
in no case should the spacing exceed:
Note.— Table 6-1 shows a formula for determining band
widths and for having an odd number of bands, thus
permitting both the top and bottom bands to be of the darker
colour.
a) 30 m where the marker diameter is 60 cm progressively
increasing with the diameter of the marker to
6.2.5 Recommendation.— An object should be coloured
in a single conspicuous colour if its projection on any vertical
plane has both dimensions less than 1.5 m. Orange or red
should be used, except where such colours merge with the
background.
b) 35 m where the marker diameter is 80 cm and further
progressively increasing to a maximum of
c) 40 m where the marker diameter is of at least 130 cm.
Note.— Against some backgrounds it may be found necessary to use a different colour from orange or red to obtain
sufficient contrast.
Where multiple wires, cables, etc. are involved, a marker
should be located not lower than the level of the highest wire
at the point marked.
6.2.6 Recommendation.— When mobile objects are
marked by colour, a single conspicuous colour, preferably red
or yellowish green for emergency vehicles and yellow for
service vehicles should be used.
6.2.10 Recommendation.— A marker should be of one
colour. When installed, white and red, or white and orange
markers should be displayed alternately. The colour selected
should contrast with the background against which it will be
seen.
Table 6-1.
Marking band widths
Longest dimension
Greater
Not
than
exceeding
1.5 m
210 m
270 m
330 m
390 m
450 m
510 m
570 m
210
270
330
390
450
510
570
630
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Use of flags
6.2.11 Flags used to mark objects shall be displayed
around, on top of, or around the highest edge of, the object.
When flags are used to mark extensive objects or groups of
closely spaced objects, they shall be displayed at least every
15 m. Flags shall not increase the hazard presented by the
object they mark.
Band width
1/7 of longest dimension
1/9 ’’
’’
’’
1/11 ’’
’’
’’
1/13 ’’
’’
’’
1/15 ’’
’’
’’
1/17 ’’
’’
’’
1/19 ’’
’’
’’
1/21 ’’
’’
’’
6.2.12 Flags used to mark fixed objects shall not be less
than 0.6 m square and flags used to mark mobile objects, not
less than 0.9 m square.
Use of markers
6.2.13 Recommendation.— Flags used to mark fixed
objects should be orange in colour or a combination of two
triangular sections, one orange and the other white, or one red
and the other white, except that where such colours merge with
the background, other conspicuous colours should be used.
6.2.7 Markers displayed on or adjacent to objects shall be
located in conspicuous positions so as to retain the general
definition of the object and shall be recognizable in clear
weather from a distance of at least 1 000 m for an object to be
viewed from the air and 300 m for an object to be viewed from
the ground in all directions in which an aircraft is likely to
6.2.14 Flags used to mark mobile objects shall consist of
a chequered pattern, each square having sides of not less than
0.3 m. The colours of the pattern shall contrast each with the
other and with the background against which they will be seen.
Orange and white or alternatively red and white shall be used,
except where such colours merge with the background.
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A Roof top pattern
A’ Plain roof pattern
B Curved surface
C Skeleton structure
:.::::::.
:.~,..~.~.~~.~.~,~
.,:
;..::::.
;:.~...~.~,~.~.~.~.~.~i~.~.~
Note.H is less the 45 m for the examples shown above.
For greater heights intermediate lights musf be added as shown below.
Number of lights
Light spacing
= N = 7)
= X = 4
5 45 m
Figure 6-2. Examplesof marking and lighting of tall structures
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
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6.3 Lighting of objects
a) an aeronautical study indicates such lights to be
essential for the recognition of the presence of wires,
cables, etc.; or
Use of obstacle lights
b) it has not been found practicable to install markers on
the wires, cables, etc.
6.3.1 The presence of objects which must be lighted, as
specified in 6.1, shall be indicated by low-, medium- or
high-intensity obstacle lights, or a combination of such lights.
6.3.10 Recommendation.— Where, in the opinion of the
appropriate authority, the use of high-intensity obstacle lights,
Type A or B, or medium-intensity obstacle lights, Type A, at
night may dazzle pilots in the vicinity of an aerodrome (within
approximately 10 000 m radius) or cause significant
environmental concerns, a dual obstacle lighting system
should be provided. This system should be composed of
high-intensity obstacle lights, Type A or B, or mediumintensity obstacle lights, Type A, as appropriate, for daytime
and twilight use and medium-intensity obstacle lights, Type B
or C, for night-time use.
Note.— High-intensity obstacle lights are intended for day
use as well as night use. Care is needed to ensure that these
lights do not create disconcerting dazzle. Guidance on the
design, location and operation of high-intensity obstacle lights
is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
6.3.2 Recommendation.— Low-intensity obstacle lights,
Type A or B, should be used where the object is a less
extensive one and its height above the surrounding ground is
less than 45 m.
Location of obstacle lights
6.3.3 Recommendation.— Where the use of low-intensity
obstacle lights, Type A or B, would be inadequate or an early
special warning is required, then medium- or high-intensity
obstacle lights should be used.
Note.— Recommendations on how a combination of low-,
medium-, and/or high-intensity lights on obstacles should be
displayed are given in Appendix 6.
6.3.4 Low-intensity obstacle lights, Type C, shall be
displayed on vehicles and other mobile objects excluding
aircraft.
6.3.11 One or more low-, medium- or high-intensity
obstacle lights shall be located as close as practicable to the
top of the object. The top lights shall be so arranged as to at
least indicate the points or edges of the object highest in
relation to the obstacle limitation surface.
6.3.5 Low-intensity obstacle lights, Type D, shall be
displayed on follow-me vehicles.
6.3.12 Recommendation.— In the case of chimney or
other structure of like function, the top lights should be placed
sufficiently below the top so as to minimize contamination by
smoke etc. (see Figures 6-2 and 6-3).
6.3.6 Recommendation.— Low-intensity obstacle lights,
Type B, should be used either alone or in combination with
medium-intensity obstacle lights, Type B, in accordance with
6.3.7.
6.3.13 In the case of a tower or antenna structure
indicated by high-intensity obstacle lights by day with an
appurtenance, such as a rod or an antenna, greater than 12 m
where it is not practicable to locate a high-intensity obstacle
light on the top of the appurtenance, such a light shall be
located at the highest practicable point and, if practicable, a
medium-intensity obstacle light, Type A, mounted on the top.
6.3.7 Recommendation.— Medium-intensity obstacle
lights, Type A, B or C, should be used where the object is an
extensive one or its height above the level of the surrounding
ground is greater than 45 m. Medium-intensity obstacle lights,
Types A and C, should be used alone, whereas mediumintensity obstacle lights, Type B, should be used either alone
or in combination with low-intensity obstacle lights, Type B.
6.3.14 In the case of an extensive object or of a group of
closely spaced objects, top lights shall be displayed at least on
the points or edges of the objects highest in relation to the
obstacle limitation surface, so as to indicate the general
definition and the extent of the objects. If two or more edges
are of the same height, the edge nearest the landing area shall
be marked. Where low-intensity lights are used, they shall be
spaced at longitudinal intervals not exceeding 45 m. Where
medium-intensity lights are used, they shall be spaced at
longitudinal intervals not exceeding 900 m.
Note.— A group of trees or buildings is regarded as an
extensive object.
6.3.8 Recommendation.— High-intensity obstacle lights,
Type A, should be used to indicate the presence of an object if
its height above the level of the surrounding ground exceeds
150 m and an aeronautical study indicates such lights to be
essential for the recognition of the object by day.
6.3.9 Recommendation.— High-intensity obstacle lights,
Type B, should be used to indicate the presence of a tower
supporting overhead wires, cables, etc., where:
4/11/99
6.3.15 Recommendation.— When the obstacle limitation
surface concerned is sloping and the highest point above the
104
Chapter 6
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
obstacle limitation surface is not the highest point of the
object, additional obstacle lights should be placed on the
highest point of the object.
lights shall be spaced as equally as practicable, between the
top lights and ground level or the level of tops of nearby
buildings, as appropriate, with the spacing not exceeding 52 m.
6.3.16 Where an object is indicated by medium-intensity
obstacle lights, Type A, and the top of the object is more than
105 m above the level of the surrounding ground or the
elevation of tops of nearby buildings (when the object to be
marked is surrounded by buildings), additional lights shall be
provided at intermediate levels. These additional intermediate
lights shall be spaced as equally as practicable, between the
top lights and ground level or the level of tops of nearby
buildings, as appropriate, with the spacing not exceeding
105 m (see 6.3.7).
6.3.19 Where high-intensity obstacle lights, Type A, are
used, they shall be spaced at uniform intervals not exceeding
105 m between the ground level and the top light(s) specified
in 6.3.11 except that where an object to be marked is
surrounded by buildings, the elevation of the tops of the
buildings may be used as the equivalent of the ground level
when determining the number of light levels.
6.3.17 Where an object is indicated by medium-intensity
obstacle lights, Type B, and the top of the object is more than
45 m above the level of the surrounding ground or the
elevation of tops of nearby buildings (when the object to be
marked is surrounded by buildings), additional lights shall be
provided at intermediate levels. These additional intermediate
lights shall be alternately low-intensity obstacle lights, Type B,
and medium-intensity obstacle lights, Type B, and shall be
spaced as equally as practicable between the top lights and
ground level or the level of tops of nearby buildings, as
appropriate, with the spacing not exceeding 52 m.
— at the top of the tower;
— at the lowest level of the catenary of the wires or cables;
Note.— In some cases, this may require locating the lights
off the tower.
6.3.18 Where an object is indicated by medium-intensity
obstacle lights, Type C, and the top of the object is more than
45 m above the level of the surrounding ground or the
elevation of tops of nearby buildings (when the object to be
marked is surrounded by buildings), additional lights shall be
provided at intermediate levels. These additional intermediate
6.3.22 The number and arrangement of low-, medium- or
high-intensity obstacle lights at each level to be marked shall
be such that the object is indicated from every angle in
azimuth. Where a light is shielded in any direction by another
part of the object, or by an adjacent object, additional lights
shall be provided on that object in such a way as to retain the
6.3.20 Where high-intensity obstacle lights, Type B, are
used, they shall be located at three levels:
and
— at approximately midway between these two levels.
6.3.21 Recommendation.— The installation setting angles
for high-intensity obstacle lights, Types A and B, should be in
accordance with Table 6-2.
B
A
D
E
A
C
A, B = 45m - 90m
C , D , E, <45 m
Figure 6-3.
Lighting of buildings
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
general definition of the object to be lighted. If the shielded
light does not contribute to the definition of the object to be
lighted, it may be omitted.
Note.— See Annex 2 for lights to be displayed by aircraft.
6.3.29 Low-intensity obstacle lights on objects with
limited mobility shall as a minimum be in accordance with the
specifications for low-intensity obstacle lights, Type A, in
Table 6-3.
Table 6-2. Installation setting angles for
high-intensity obstacle lights
Height of light unit
above terrain
Angle of the peak
of the beam above
the horizontal
greater than 151 m AGL
0°
122 m to 151 m AGL
1°
92 m to 122 m AGL
2°
less than 92 m AGL
3°
Medium-intensity obstacle light — Characteristics
6.3.30 Medium-intensity obstacle lights, Type A, shall be
flashing-white lights, Type B shall be flashing-red lights and
Type C shall be fixed-red lights.
6.3.31 Medium-intensity obstacle lights, Types A, B and
C, shall be in accordance with the specifications in Table 6-3.
6.3.32 Medium-intensity obstacle lights, Types A and B,
located on an object shall flash simultaneously.
Low-intensity obstacle light — Characteristics
High-intensity obstacle light — Characteristics
6.3.23 Low-intensity obstacle lights on fixed objects,
Types A and B, shall be fixed-red lights.
6.3.33 High-intensity obstacle lights, Types A and B,
shall be flashing-white lights.
6.3.24 Low-intensity obstacle lights, Types A and B, shall
be in accordance with the specifications in Table 6-3.
6.3.34 High-intensity obstacle lights, Types A and B,
shall be in accordance with the specifications in Table 6-3.
6.3.25 Low-intensity obstacle lights, Type C, displayed on
vehicles associated with emergency or security shall be
flashing-blue and those displayed on other vehicles shall be
flashing-yellow.
6.3.35 High-intensity obstacle lights, Type A, located on
an object shall flash simultaneously.
6.3.36 Recommendation.— High-intensity obstacle
lights, Type B, indicating the presence of a tower supporting
overhead wires, cables, etc., should flash sequentially; first the
middle light, second the top light and last, the bottom light.
The intervals between flashes of the lights should approximate
the following ratios:
6.3.26 Low-intensity obstacle lights, Type D, displayed
on follow-me vehicles shall be flashing-yellow.
6.3.27 Low-intensity obstacle lights, Types C and D, shall
be in accordance with the specifications in Table 6-3.
6.3.28 Low-intensity obstacle lights on objects with
limited mobility such as aerobridges shall be fixed-red. The
intensity of the lights shall be sufficient to ensure conspicuity
considering the intensity of the adjacent lights and the general
levels of illumination against which they would normally be
viewed.
4/11/99
106
Flash interval between
Ratio of cycle time
middle and top light
top and bottom light
bottom and middle light
1/13
2/13
10/13.
107
White
White
High-intensity,
Type A
High-intensity,
Type B
Flashing
(40-60 fpm)
Flashing
(40-60 fpm)
Fixed
Flashing
(20-60 fpm)
5
6
100 000 (b)
± 25%
200 000 (b)
± 25%
N/A
N/A
20 000 (b)
± 25%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Above
500 cd/m2
2 000 (b)
± 25%
2 000 (b)
± 25%
2 000 (b)
± 25%
N/A
20 000 (b)
± 25%
20 000 (b)
± 25%
2 000 (b)
± 25%
2 000 (b)
± 25%
20 000 (b)
± 25%
N/A
200 mnm (b)
400 max
40 mnm (b)
400 max
32 mnm
10 mnm
Below
50 cd/m2
200 mnm (b)
400 max
40 mnm (b)
400 max
32 mnm
10 mnm
50-500 cd/m2
Peak intensity (cd) at given Background
Luminance
4
3°-7°
3°-7°
3% max
3% max
—
—
3° mnm
3° mnm
3% max
—
—
—
—
9
10
11
—
—
—
—
±0° (f)
50% mnm 100% mnm
75% max
50% mnm 100% mnm
75% max
50% mnm 100% mnm
75% max
50% mnm 100% mnm
75% max
50% mnm 100% mnm
75% max
—
—
—
—
–1° (f)
+10°
12
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
32 mnm 32 mnm
(g)
(g)
10 mnm 10 mnm
(g)
(g)
+6°
Intensity (cd) at given Elevation Angles
when the light unit is levelled (d)
–10° (e)
8
3° mnm
12° (i)
12° (h)
10°
10°
Vertical
Beam
Spread
(c)
7
Characteristics of obstacle lights
a) See 6.3.25
b) Effective intensity, as determined in accordance with the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
c) Beam spread is defined as the angle between two directions in a plane for which the intensity is equal to 50% of the lower tolerance value of the intensity shown in columns
4, 5 and 6. The beam pattern is not necessarily symmetrical about the elevation angle at which the peak intensity occurs.
d) Elevation (vertical) angles are referenced to the horizontal.
e) Intensity at any specified horizontal radial as a percentage of the actual peak intensity at the same radial when operated at each of the intensities shown in columns 4, 5
and 6.
f) Intensity at any specified horizontal radial as a percentage of the lower tolerance value of the intensity shown in columns 4, 5 and 6.
g) In addition to specified values, lights shall have sufficient intensity to ensure conspicuity at elevation angles between ± 0° and 50°.
h) Peak intensity should be located at approximately 2.5° vertical.
i) Peak intensity should be located at approximately 17° vertical.
fpm — flashes per minute; N/A — not applicable
Note.— This table does not include recommended horizontal beam spreads. 6.3.22 requires 360° coverage around an obstacle. Therefore, the number of lights needed to
meet this requirement will depend on the horizontal beam spreads of each light as well as the shape of the obstacle. Thus, with narrower beam spreads, more lights will be
required.
Red
Red
Medium-intensity,
Type B
Medium-intensity,
Type C
White
Medium-intensity,
Type A
Flashing
(20-60 fpm)
Flashing
(60-90 fpm)
Fixed
Yellow
Red
Low-intensity, Type B
(fixed obstacle)
Fixed
Low-intensity, Type D
Follow-me Vehicle
Red
Low-intensity, Type A
(fixed obstacle)
Signal type/
(flash rate)
Flashing
(60-90 fpm)
Colour
Light Type
3
Low-intensity, Type C Yellow/Blue
(mobile obstacle)
(a)
2
1
Table 6-3.
Chapter 6
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
4/11/99
CHAPTER 7. VISUAL AIDS FOR DENOTING
RESTRICTED USE AREAS
7.1
Closed runways and taxiways,
or parts thereof
7.2
Non-load-bearing surfaces
Application
Application
7.1.1 A closed marking shall be displayed on a runway or
taxiway, or portion thereof, which is permanently closed to the
use of all aircraft.
7.2.1 Shoulders for taxiways, holding bays and aprons
and other non-load-bearing surfaces which cannot readily be
distinguished from load-bearing surfaces and which, if used by
aircraft, might result in damage to the aircraft shall have the
boundary between such areas and the load-bearing surface
marked by a taxi side stripe marking.
7.1.2 Recommendation.— A closed marking should be
displayed on a temporarily closed runway or taxiway or
portion thereof, except that such marking may be omitted when
the closing is of short duration and adequate warning by air
traffic services is provided.
Note.— The marking of runway sides is specified in 5.2.7.
Location
Location
7.2.2 Recommendation.— A taxi side stripe marking
should be placed along the edge of the load-bearing pavement,
with the outer edge of the marking approximately on the edge
of the load-bearing pavement.
7.1.3 On a runway a closed marking shall be placed at
each end of the runway, or portion thereof, declared closed,
and additional markings shall be so placed that the maximum
interval between markings does not exceed 300 m. On a
taxiway a closed marking shall be placed at least at each end
of the taxiway or portion thereof closed.
Characteristics
7.2.3 Recommendation.— A taxi side stripe marking
should consist of a pair of solid lines, each 15 cm wide and
spaced 15 cm apart and the same colour as the taxiway centre
line marking.
Characteristics
7.1.4 The closed marking shall be of the form and proportions as detailed in Figure 7-1, Illustration a), when displayed
on a runway, and shall be of the form and proportions as
detailed in Figure 7-1, Illustration b), when displayed on a
taxiway. The marking shall be white when displayed on a
runway and shall be yellow when displayed on a taxiway.
Note.— Guidance on providing additional transverse
stripes at an intersection or a small area on the apron is given
in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
Note.— When an area is temporarily closed, frangible
barriers or markings utilizing materials other than paint or
other suitable means may be used to identify the closed area.
7.3
7.1.5 When a runway or taxiway or portion thereof is
permanently closed, all normal runway and taxiway markings
shall be obliterated.
Application
7.3.1 Recommendation.— When the surface before a
threshold is paved and exceeds 60 m in length and is not
suitable for normal use by aircraft, the entire length before the
threshold should be marked with a chevron marking.
7.1.6 Lighting on a closed runway or taxiway or portion
thereof shall not be operated, except as required for maintenance purposes.
7.1.7 In addition to closed markings, when the runway or
taxiway or portion thereof closed is intercepted by a usable
runway or taxiway which is used at night, unserviceability
lights shall be placed across the entrance to the closed area at
intervals not exceeding 3 m (see 7.4.4).
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
Pre-threshold area
Location
7.3.2 Recommendation.— A chevron marking should
point in the direction of the runway and be placed as shown
in Figure 7-2.
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h-
Taxiway centre line
Runway centre line
Illustration b) Closed taxiway marking
Illustration a) Closed runway marking
Figure 7-l.
t
Closed runway and taxiway markings
THRESHOLD
.
PRE-THRESHOLD AREA
f
C
c
,f
E3
--RUNWAY CENTRE LINE
_I
I
t
7.5 m
maX
3Om
I _
30m
_ _
3Om
cJ
3Om
15m
_
7.5 m
_ _
3Om
-
Figure 7-2. Pre-thresholdmarking
109
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Characteristics
Characteristics of unserviceability markers
7.3.3 Recommendation.— A chevron marking should be
of conspicuous colour and contrast with the colour used for
the runway markings; it should preferably be yellow. It should
have an over-all width of at least 0.9 m.
7.4.3 Unserviceability markers shall consist of conspicuous upstanding devices such as flags, cones or marker boards.
Characteristics of unserviceability lights
7.4
7.4.4 An unserviceability light shall consist of a red fixed
light. The light shall have an intensity sufficient to ensure
conspicuity considering the intensity of the adjacent lights and
the general level of illumination against which it would
normally be viewed. In no case shall the intensity be less than
10 cd of red light.
Unserviceable areas
Application
7.4.1 Unserviceability markers shall be displayed wherever any portion of a taxiway, apron or holding bay is unfit for
the movement of aircraft but it is still possible for aircraft to
bypass the area safely. On a movement area used at night,
unserviceability lights shall be used.
Characteristics of unserviceability cones
7.4.5 Recommendation.— An unserviceability cone
should be at least 0.5 m in height and red, orange or yellow
or any one of these colours in combination with white.
Note.— Unserviceability markers and lights are used for
such purposes as warning pilots of a hole in a taxiway or
apron pavement or outlining a portion of pavement, such as on
an apron, that is under repair. They are not suitable for use
when a portion of a runway becomes unserviceable, nor on a
taxiway when a major portion of the width becomes unserviceable. In such instances, the runway or taxiway is normally
closed.
Characteristics of unserviceability flags
7.4.6 Recommendation.— An unserviceability flag
should be at least 0.5 m square and red, orange or yellow or
any one of these colours in combination with white.
Location
7.4.2 Unserviceability markers and lights shall be
placed at intervals sufficiently close so as to delineate the
unserviceable area.
Characteristics of unserviceability marker boards
7.4.7 Recommendation.— An unserviceability marker
board should be at least 0.5 m in height and 0.9 m in length,
with alternate red and white or orange and white vertical
stripes.
Note.— Guidance on the location of unserviceability lights
is given in Attachment A, Section 13.
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CHAPTER 8. EQUIPMENT AND INSTALLATIONS
8.1
Secondary power supply
restoration of the services required by 8.1.1 should be as short
as practicable and should not exceed two minutes, except that
for visual aids associated with non-precision, precision
approach or take-off runways the requirements of Table 8-1 for
maximum switch-over times should apply.
General
Application
Note 1.— In certain cases, less than thirty seconds has been
found to be attainable.
8.1.1 Recommendation.— A secondary power supply
should be provided, capable of supplying the power requirements of at least the aerodrome facilities listed below:
Note 2.— A definition of switch-over time is given in
Chapter 1.
a) the signalling lamp and the minimum lighting necessary
to enable air traffic services personnel to carry out their
duties;
8.1.4 The provision of a definition of switch-over time
shall not require the replacement of an existing secondary
power supply before 1 January 2010. However, for a secondary
power supply installed after 4 November 1999, the electric
power supply connections to those facilities for which
secondary power is required shall be so arranged that the
facilities are capable of meeting the requirements of Table 8-1
for maximum switch-over times as defined in Chapter 1.
Note.— The requirement for minimum lighting may
be met by other than electrical means.
b) all obstacle lights which, in the opinion of the appropriate authority, are essential to ensure the safe operation of aircraft;
8.1.5 Recommendation.— Requirements for a secondary
power supply should be met by either of the following:
c) approach, runway and taxiway lighting as specified in
8.1.6 to 8.1.9;
— independent public power, which is a source of power
supplying the aerodrome service from a substation other
than the normal substation through a transmission line
following a route different from the normal power supply
route and such that the possibility of a simultaneous
failure of the normal and independent public power
supplies is extremely remote; or
d) meteorological equipment;
e) essential security lighting, if provided in accordance with
8.5;
f) essential equipment and facilities for the aerodrome
responding emergency agencies; and
g) floodlighting on a designated isolated aircraft parking
position if provided in accordance with 5.3.21.1.
— standby power unit(s), which are engine generators,
batteries, etc., from which electric power can be
obtained.
Note.— Specifications for secondary power supply for
radio navigation aids and ground elements of communications
systems are given in Annex 10, Volume I, Part I, Chapter 2.
Note.— Guidance on secondary power supply is given in
the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 5.
Visual aids
Characteristics
Application
8.1.2 Recommendation.— Electric power supply
connections to those facilities for which secondary power is
required should be so arranged that the facilities are
automatically connected to the secondary power supply on
failure of the normal source of power.
8.1.6 Recommendation.— At an aerodrome where the
primary runway is a non-instrument runway, a secondary
power supply capable of meeting the requirements of 8.1.3
should be provided, except that a secondary power supply for
visual aids need not be provided when an emergency lighting
system in accordance with the specification of 5.3.2 is
provided and capable of being deployed in 15 minutes.
8.1.3 Recommendation.— The time interval between
failure of the normal source of power and the complete
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Table 8-1.
Secondary power supply requirements
(see 8.1.3)
Maximum
switch-over time
Runway
Lighting aids requiring power
Non-instrument
Visual approach slope indicatorsa
Runway edgeb
Runway thresholdb
Runway endb
Obstaclea
Non-precision approach
Approach lighting system
Visual approach slope indicatorsa, d
Runway edged
Runway thresholdd
Runway end
Obstaclea
15
15
15
15
15
15
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
Precision approach category I
Approach lighting system
Runway edged
Visual approach slope indicatorsa, d
Runway thresholdd
Runway end
Essential taxiwaya
Obstaclea
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
Precision approach category II/III
Approach lighting system
Supplementary approach lighting barrettes
Obstaclea
Runway edge
Runway threshold
Runway end
Runway centre line
Runway touchdown zone
All stop bars
Essential taxiway
15 seconds
1 second
15 seconds
15 seconds
1 second
1 second
1 second
1 second
1 second
15 seconds
Runway meant for take-off in runway visual
range conditions less than a value of 800 m.
Runway edge
Runway end
Runway centre line
All stop bars
Essential taxiwaya
Obstaclea
15 secondsc
1 second
1 second
1 second
15 seconds
15 seconds
a.
b.
c.
d.
Supplied with secondary power when their operation is essential to the safety of flight operation.
See Chapter 5, 5.3.2 regarding the use of emergency lighting.
One second where no runway centre line lights are provided.
One second where approaches are over hazardous or precipitous terrain.
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See
8.1.3 and
8.1.6
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Note.— Guidance on means of achieving the specified
secondary power supply switch-over times, etc., is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 5.
8.3
Note.— Guidance on this subject is given in the Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 5.
8.1.7 Recommendation.— At an aerodrome where the
primary runway is a non-precision approach runway, a
secondary power supply capable of meeting the requirements
of Table 8-1 should be provided except that a secondary power
supply for visual aids need not be provided for more than one
non-precision approach runway.
8.3.1 Recommendation.— A system of monitoring visual
aids should be employed to ensure lighting system reliability.
8.3.2 Where lighting systems are used for aircraft control
purposes, such systems shall be monitored automatically so as
to provide an immediate indication of any fault which may
affect the control functions. This information shall be automatically relayed to the air traffic service unit.
8.1.8 For a precision approach runway, a secondary
power supply capable of meeting the requirements of
Table 8-1 for the appropriate category of precision approach
runway shall be provided. Electric power supply connections
to those facilities for which secondary power is required shall
be so arranged that the facilities are automatically connected to
the secondary power supply on failure of the normal source of
power.
8.3.3 Recommendation.— For a runway meant for use
in runway visual range conditions less than a value of 550 m,
the lighting systems detailed in Table 8-1 should be monitored
so as to provide an immediate indication when the serviceability level of any element falls below the minimum
serviceability level specified in 9.4.26 to 9.4.30, as appropriate. This information should be immediately relayed to the
maintenance crew.
8.1.9 For a runway meant for take-off in runway visual
range conditions less than a value of 800 m, a secondary
power supply capable of meeting the relevant requirements of
Table 8-1 shall be provided.
8.3.4 Recommendation.— For a runway meant for use
in runway visual range conditions less than a value of 550 m,
the lighting systems detailed in Table 8-1 should be monitored
automatically to provide an immediate indication when the
serviceability level of any element falls below the minimum
level specified by the appropriate authority below which
operations should not continue. This information should be
automatically relayed to the air traffic services unit and
displayed in a prominent position.
Note.— Guidance on electrical systems is included in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 5.
8.2
Monitoring
Electrical systems
Note.— Guidance on air traffic control interface and visual
aids monitoring is included in the Aerodrome Design Manual,
Part 5.
8.2.1 For a runway meant for use in runway visual range
conditions less than a value of 550 m, the electrical systems
for the power supply, lighting and control of the lighting
systems included in Table 8-1 shall be so designed that an
equipment failure will not leave the pilot with inadequate
visual guidance or misleading information.
8.4
Fencing
Application
Note.— Guidance on means of providing this protection is
given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 5.
8.4.1 Recommendation.— A fence or other suitable
barrier should be provided on an aerodrome to prevent the
entrance to the movement area of animals large enough to be
a hazard to aircraft.
8.2.2 Where the secondary power supply of an aerodrome
is provided by the use of duplicate feeders, such supplies shall
be physically and electrically separate so as to ensure the
required level of availability and independence.
8.4.2 Recommendation.— A fence or other suitable
barrier should be provided on an aerodrome to deter the
inadvertent or premeditated access of an unauthorized person
onto a non-public area of the aerodrome.
Note.— Guidance on acceptable power source arrangements for the use of duplicate feeders for a secondary power
supply is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 5.
Note 1.— This is intended to include the barring of sewers,
ducts, tunnels, etc., where necessary to prevent access.
8.2.3 Where a runway forming part of a standard taxiroute is provided with runway lighting and taxiway lighting,
the lighting systems shall be interlocked to preclude the possibility of simultaneous operation of both forms of lighting.
Note 2.— Special measures may be required to prevent the
access of an unauthorized person to runways or taxiways
which overpass public roads.
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8.4.3 Recommendation.— Suitable means of protection
should be provided to deter the inadvertent or premeditated
access of unauthorized persons into ground installations and
facilities essential for the safety of civil aviation located off the
aerodrome.
non-visual aids for navigation is given in the Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 6 (in preparation).
8.7.1 Unless its function requires it to be there for air
navigation purposes, no equipment or installation shall be:
a) on a runway strip, a runway end safety area, a taxiway
strip or within the distances specified in Table 3-1,
column 11, if it would endanger an aircraft; or
Location
8.4.4 Recommendation.— The fence or barrier should
be located so as to separate the movement area and other
facilities or zones on the aerodrome vital to the safe operation
of aircraft from areas open to public access.
b) on a clearway if it would endanger an aircraft in the air.
8.7.2 Any equipment or installation required for air
navigation purposes which must be located:
8.4.5 Recommendation.— When greater security is
thought necessary, a cleared area should be provided on both
sides of the fence or barrier to facilitate the work of patrols
and to make trespassing more difficult. Consideration should
be given to the provision of a perimeter road inside the
aerodrome fencing for the use of both maintenance personnel
and security patrols.
8.5
a) on that portion of a runway strip within:
1) 75 m of the runway centre line where the code
number is 3 or 4; or
2) 45 m of the runway centre line where the code
number is 1 or 2; or
b) on a runway end safety area, a taxiway strip or within
the distances specified in Table 3-1; or
Security lighting
Recommendation.— At an aerodrome where it is deemed
desirable for security reasons, a fence or other barrier provided for the protection of international civil aviation and its
facilities should be illuminated at a minimum essential level.
Consideration should be given to locating lights so that the
ground area on both sides of the fence or barrier, particularly
at access points, is illuminated.
8.6
c) on a clearway and which would endanger an aircraft in
the air;
shall be frangible and mounted as low as possible.
8.7.3 Existing non-visual aids need not meet the
requirement of 8.7.2 until 1 January 2010.
8.7.4 Recommendation.— Any equipment or installation
required for air navigation purposes which must be located on
the non-graded portion of a runway strip should be regarded
as an obstacle and should be frangible and mounted as low as
possible.
Airport design
8.6.1 Architectural and infrastructure-related requirements for the optimum implementation of international civil
aviation security measures shall be integrated into the design
and construction of new facilities and alterations to existing
facilities at an aerodrome.
Note.— Guidance on the siting of navigation aids is
contained in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 6 (in
preparation).
Note.— Guidance on all aspects of the planning of
aerodromes including security considerations is contained in
the Airport Planning Manual, Part 1.
8.7
8.7.5 Unless its function requires it to be there for air
navigation purposes, no equipment or installation shall be
located within 240 m from the end of the strip and within:
a) 60 m of the extended centre line where the code number
is 3 or 4; or
Siting and construction of equipment and
installations on operational areas
b) 45 m of the extended centre line where the code number
is 1 or 2;
Note 1.— Requirements for obstacle limitation surfaces are
specified in 4.2.
of a precision approach runway category I, II or III.
Note 2.— The design of light fixtures and their supporting
structures, light units of visual approach slope indicators,
signs, and markers, is specified in 5.3.1, 5.3.5, 5.4.1 and 5.5.1,
respectively. Guidance on the frangible design of visual and
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8.7.6 Any equipment or installation required for air
navigation purposes which must be located on or near a strip
of a precision approach runway category I, II or III and which:
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a) is situated on that portion of the strip within 77.5 m of
the runway centre line where the code number is 4 and
the code letter is F; or
b) the appropriate designated authority when on the apron.
8.8.3 The driver of a vehicle on the movement area shall
comply with all mandatory instructions conveyed by lights.
b) is situated within 240 m from the end of the strip and
within:
8.8.4 The driver of a vehicle on the movement area shall
be appropriately trained for the tasks to be performed and shall
comply with the instructions issued by:
1) 60 m of the extended runway centre line where the
code number is 3 or 4; or
a) the aerodrome control tower, when on the manoeuvring
area; and
2) 45 m of the extended runway centre line where the
code number is 1 or 2; or
b) the appropriate designated authority, when on the apron.
c) penetrates the inner approach surface, the inner
transitional surface or the balked landing surface;
8.8.5 The driver of a radio-equipped vehicle shall establish satisfactory two-way radio communication with the aerodrome control tower before entering the manoeuvring area and
with the appropriate designated authority before entering the
apron. The driver shall maintain a continuous listening watch
on the assigned frequency when on the movement area.
shall be frangible and mounted as low as possible.
8.7.7 Existing non-visual aids need not meet the
requirement of 8.7.6 b) until 1 January 2010.
Note.— See 5.3.1.4 for the protection date for existing
elevated approach lights.
8.9
8.7.8 Recommendation.— Any equipment or installation
required for air navigation purposes which is an obstacle of
operational significance in accordance with 4.2.4, 4.2.11,
4.2.20 or 4.2.27 should be frangible and mounted as low as
possible.
Surface movement guidance and
control systems
Application
8.9.1 A surface movement guidance and control system
shall be provided at an aerodrome.
8.8 Aerodrome vehicle operations
Note.— Guidance on surface movement guidance and
control systems is contained in the Manual of Surface
Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS).
Note 1.— Guidance on aerodrome vehicle operations is
contained in Attachment A, Section 17 and on traffic rules and
regulations for vehicles is contained in the Manual of Surface
Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS).
Characteristics
Note 2.— It is intended that roads located on the movement
area be restricted to the exclusive use of aerodrome personnel
and other authorized persons, and that access to the public
buildings by an unauthorized person will not require use of
such roads.
8.8.1
8.9.2 Recommendation.— The design of a surface movement guidance and control system should take into account:
a) the density of air traffic;
A vehicle shall be operated:
b) the visibility conditions under which operations are
intended;
a) on a manoeuvring area only as authorized by the aerodrome control tower; and
c) the need for pilot orientation;
b) on an apron only as authorized by the appropriate
designated authority.
d) the complexity of the aerodrome layout; and
e) movements of vehicles.
8.8.2 The driver of a vehicle on the movement area shall
comply with all mandatory instructions conveyed by markings
and signs unless otherwise authorized by:
8.9.3 Recommendation.— The visual aid components of
a surface movement guidance and control system, i.e.
markings, lights and signs should be designed to conform with
the relevant specifications in 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4, respectively.
a) the aerodrome control tower when on the manoeuvring
area; or
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8.9.4 Recommendation.— A surface movement guidance and control system should be designed to assist in the
prevention of inadvertent incursions of aircraft and vehicles
onto an active runway.
c) the taxiway centre line lights are activated ahead of an
aircraft when the stop bar is suppressed.
Note 1.— See Sections 5.3.15 and 5.3.17 for specifications
on taxiway centre line lights and stop bars, respectively.
8.9.5 Recommendation.— The system should be
designed to assist in the prevention of collisions between
aircraft, and between aircraft and vehicles or objects, on any
part of the movement area.
Note 2.— Guidance on installation of stop bars and
taxiway centre line lights in surface movement guidance and
control systems is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual,
Part 4.
Note.— Guidance on control of stop bars through induction
loops and on a visual taxiing guidance and control system is
contained in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
8.9.7 Recommendation.— Surface movement radar for
the manoeuvring area should be provided at an aerodrome
intended for use in runway visual range conditions less than a
value of 350 m.
8.9.6 Where a surface movement guidance and control
system is provided by selective switching of stop bars and
taxiway centre line lights, the following requirements shall be
met:
a) taxiway routes which are indicated by illuminated
taxiway centre line lights shall be capable of being
terminated by an illuminated stop bar;
8.9.8 Recommendation.— Surface movement radar for
the manoeuvring area should be provided at an aerodrome
other than that in 8.9.7 when traffic density and operating conditions are such that regularity of traffic flow cannot be
maintained by alternative procedures and facilities.
b) the control circuits shall be so arranged that when a stop
bar located ahead of an aircraft is illuminated the
appropriate section of taxiway centre line lights beyond it
is suppressed; and
Note.— Guidance on the use of surface movement radar is
given in the Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and
Control Systems (SMGCS) and in the Air Traffic Services
Planning Manual (Doc 9426).
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CHAPTER 9.
9.1
EMERGENCY AND OTHER SERVICES
Aerodrome emergency planning
9.1.5 Recommendation.— The aerodrome emergency
plan document should include at least the following:
General
a) types of emergencies planned for;
Introductory Note.— Aerodrome emergency planning is the
process of preparing an aerodrome to cope with an emergency
occurring at the aerodrome or in its vicinity. The objective of
aerodrome emergency planning is to minimize the effects of an
emergency, particularly in respect of saving lives and maintaining aircraft operations. The aerodrome emergency plan
sets forth the procedures for coordinating the response of
different aerodrome agencies (or services) and of those
agencies in the surrounding community that could be of assistance in responding to the emergency. Guidance material to
assist the appropriate authority in establishing aerodrome
emergency planning is given in the Airport Services Manual,
Part 7.
b) agencies involved in the plan;
c) responsibility and role of each agency, the emergency
operations centre and the command post, for each type
of emergency;
d) information on names and telephone numbers of offices
or people to be contacted in the case of a particular
emergency; and
e) a grid map of the aerodrome and its immediate vicinity.
9.1.6 The plan shall observe Human Factors principles to
ensure optimum response by all existing agencies participating
in emergency operations.
9.1.1 An aerodrome emergency plan shall be established
at an aerodrome, commensurate with the aircraft operations
and other activities conducted at the aerodrome.
Note.— Guidance material on Human Factors principles
can be found in the Human Factors Training Manual.
9.1.2 The aerodrome emergency plan shall provide for the
coordination of the actions to be taken in an emergency
occurring at an aerodrome or in its vicinity.
Emergency operations centre and command post
9.1.7 Recommendation.— A fixed emergency operations
centre and a mobile command post should be available for use
during an emergency.
Note.— Examples of emergencies are: aircraft emergencies, sabotage including bomb threats, unlawfully seized
aircraft, dangerous goods occurrences, building fires and
natural disasters.
9.1.8 Recommendation.— The emergency operations
centre should be a part of the aerodrome facilities and should
be responsible for the overall coordination and general
direction of the response to an emergency.
9.1.3 The plan shall coordinate the response or participation of all existing agencies which, in the opinion of the
appropriate authority, could be of assistance in responding to
an emergency.
9.1.9 Recommendation.— The command post should be
a facility capable of being moved rapidly to the site of an
emergency, when required, and should undertake the local
coordination of those agencies responding to the emergency.
Note.— Examples of agencies are:
— on the aerodrome: air traffic control unit, rescue and fire
fighting services, aerodrome administration, medical and
ambulance services, aircraft operators, security services,
and police;
9.1.10 Recommendation.— A person should be assigned
to assume control of the emergency operations centre and,
when appropriate, another person the command post.
— off the aerodrome: fire departments, police, medical and
ambulance services, hospitals, military, and harbour
patrol or coast guard.
Communication system
9.1.11 Recommendation.— Adequate communication
systems linking the command post and the emergency operations centre with each other and with the participating
agencies should be provided in accordance with the plan and
consistent with the particular requirements of the aerodrome.
9.1.4 Recommendation.— The plan should provide for
cooperation and coordination with the rescue coordination
centre, as necessary.
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Aerodrome emergency exercise
for, extinguishing a fire which may occur either immediately
following an aircraft accident or incident, or at any time
during rescue operations.
9.1.12 The plan shall contain procedures for periodic
testing of the adequacy of the plan and for reviewing the
results in order to improve its effectiveness.
The most important factors bearing on effective rescue in a
survivable aircraft accident are: the training received, the
effectiveness of the equipment and the speed with which
personnel and equipment designated for rescue and fire
fighting purposes can be put into use.
Note.— The plan includes all participating agencies and
associated equipment.
9.1.13
The plan shall be tested by conducting:
Requirements to combat building and fuel farm fires, or to
deal with foaming of runways, are not taken into account.
a) a full-scale aerodrome emergency exercise at intervals
not exceeding two years; and
Application
b) partial emergency exercises in the intervening year to
ensure that any deficiencies found during the full-scale
aerodrome emergency exercise have been corrected; and
9.2.1 Rescue and fire fighting equipment and services
shall be provided at an aerodrome.
reviewed thereafter, or after an actual emergency, so as to
correct any deficiency found during such exercises or actual
emergency.
Note.— Public or private organizations, suitably located
and equipped, may be designated to provide the rescue and
fire fighting service. It is intended that the fire station housing
these organizations be normally located on the aerodrome,
although an off-aerodrome location is not precluded provided
the response time can be met.
Note.— The purpose of a full-scale exercise is to ensure the
adequacy of the plan to cope with different types of
emergencies. The purpose of a partial exercise is to ensure the
adequacy of the response to individual participating agencies
and components of the plan, such as the communications
system.
9.2.2 Where an aerodrome is located close to
water/swampy areas, or difficult terrain, and where a
significant portion of approach or departure operations takes
place over these areas, specialist rescue services and fire
fighting equipment appropriate to the hazard and risk shall be
available.
Emergencies in difficult environments
9.1.14 The plan shall include the ready availability of and
coordination with appropriate specialist rescue services to be
able to respond to emergencies where an aerodrome is located
close to water and/or swampy areas and where a significant
portion of approach or departure operations takes place over
these areas.
Note 1.— Special fire fighting equipment need not be
provided for water areas; this does not prevent the provision of
such equipment if it would be of practical use, such as when
the areas concerned include reefs or islands.
Note 2.— The objective is to plan and deploy the necessary
life-saving flotation equipment as expeditiously as possible in
a number commensurate with the largest aeroplane normally
using the aerodrome.
9.1.15 Recommendation.— At those aerodromes located
close to water and/or swampy areas, or difficult terrain, the
aerodrome emergency plan should include the establishment,
testing and assessment at regular intervals of a pre-determined
response for the specialist rescue services.
Note 3.— Additional guidance is available in Chapter 13 of
the Airport Services Manual, Part 1.
Level of protection to be provided
9.2
Rescue and fire fighting
9.2.3 The level of protection provided at an aerodrome for
rescue and fire fighting shall be appropriate to the aerodrome
category determined using the principles in 9.2.5 and 9.2.6,
except that, where the number of movements of the aeroplanes
in the highest category normally using the aerodrome is less
than 700 in the busiest consecutive three months, the level of
protection provided shall be not less than one category below
the determined category.
General
Introductory Note.— The principal objective of a rescue
and fire fighting service is to save lives. For this reason, the
provision of means of dealing with an aircraft accident or
incident occurring at, or in the immediate vicinity of, an
aerodrome assumes primary importance because it is within
this area that there are the greatest opportunities of saving
lives. This must assume at all times the possibility of, and need
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9.2.4 Recommendation.— From 1 January 2005, the
level of protection provided at an aerodrome for rescue and
fire fighting should be equal to the aerodrome category
determined using the principles in 9.2.5 and 9.2.6.
Extinguishing agents
9.2.8 Recommendation.— Both principal and complementary agents should normally be provided at an
aerodrome.
9.2.5 The aerodrome category shall be determined from
Table 9-1 and shall be based on the longest aeroplanes
normally using the aerodrome and their fuselage width.
Note.— Descriptions of the agents may be found in the
Airport Services Manual, Part 1.
Note.— To categorize the aeroplanes using the aerodrome,
first evaluate their overall length and second, their fuselage
width.
9.2.9 Recommendation.— The principal extinguishing
agent should be:
a) a foam meeting the minimum performance level A; or
9.2.6 If, after selecting the category appropriate to the
longest aeroplane’s overall length, that aeroplane’s fuselage
width is greater than the maximum width in Table 9-1,
column 3 for that category, then the category for that
aeroplane shall actually be one category higher.
b) a foam meeting the minimum performance level B; or
c) a combination of these agents;
except that the principal extinguishing agent for aerodromes
in categories 1 to 3 should preferably meet the minimum
performance level B.
Note.— Guidance on categorizing aerodromes for rescue
and fire fighting purposes and on providing rescue and fire
fighting equipment and services is given in Attachment A,
Section 16 and in the Airport Services Manual, Part 1.
Table 9-1.
Note.— Information on the required physical properties
and fire extinguishing performance criteria needed for a foam
to achieve an acceptable performance level A or B rating is
given in the Airport Services Manual, Part 1.
Aerodrome category for rescue
and fire fighting
Aerodrome
category
(1)
Aeroplane overall length
(2)
Maximum
fuselage
width
(3)
1
0 m up to but not including 9 m
2m
2
9 m up to but not including 12 m
2m
3
12 m up to but not including 18 m
3m
4
18 m up to but not including 24 m
4m
5
24 m up to but not including 28 m
4m
6
28 m up to but not including 39 m
5m
7
39 m up to but not including 49 m
5m
8
49 m up to but not including 61 m
7m
9
61 m up to but not including 76 m
7m
10
76 m up to but not including 90 m
8m
9.2.10 Recommendation.— The complementary extinguishing agent should be a dry chemical powder suitable
for extinguishing hydrocarbon fires.
Note 1.— When selecting dry chemical powders for use
with foam, care must be exercised to ensure compatibility.
Note 2.— Alternate complementary agents having
equivalent fire fighting capability may be utilized. Additional
information on extinguishing agents is given in the Airport
Services Manual, Part 1.
9.2.11 The amounts of water for foam production and the
complementary agents to be provided on the rescue and fire
fighting vehicles shall be in accordance with the aerodrome
category determined under 9.2.3, 9.2.4, 9.2.5, 9.2.6 and
Table 9-2, except that these amounts may be modified as
follows:
a) for aerodrome categories 1 and 2 up to 100 per cent of
the water may be replaced by complementary agent; or
b) for aerodrome categories 3 to 10 when a foam meeting
performance level A is used, up to 30 per cent of the
water may be replaced by complementary agent.
9.2.7 During anticipated periods of reduced activity, the
level of protection available shall be no less than that needed for
the highest category of aeroplane planned to use the aerodrome
during that time irrespective of the number of movements.
For the purpose of agent substitution, the following equivalents
shall be used:
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Table 9-2.
Minimum usable amounts of extinguishing agents
Foam meeting performance level A
Foam meeting performance level B
Complementary agents
Aerodrome
category
Water1
(L)
Discharge rate
foam solution/ minute
(L)
Water1
(L)
Discharge rate
foam solution/ minute
(L)
Dry2
chemical powders
(kg)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
350
1 000
1 800
3 600
8 100
11 800
18 200
27 300
36 400
48 200
350
800
1 300
2 600
4 500
6 000
7 900
10 800
13 500
16 600
230
670
1 200
2 400
5 400
7 900
12 100
18 200
24 300
32 300
230
550
900
1 800
3 000
4 000
5 300
7 200
9 000
11 200
45
90
135
135
180
225
225
450
450
450
Note 1.— The quantities of water shown in columns 2 and 4 are based on the average overall length of aeroplanes in a given category. Where
operations of an aeroplane larger than the average size are expected, the quantities of water would need to be recalculated. See the Airport
Services Manual, Part 1 for additional guidance.
Note 2.— Any other complementary agent having equivalent fire fighting capability may be used.
foam production should first be based on the quantity which
would be required if only a foam meeting performance level A
were used, and then reduced by 3 L for each 2 L of water
provided for the foam meeting performance level B.
1 kg
= 1.0 L water for production of a foam
complementary agent
meeting performance level A
1 kg
= 0.66 L water for production of a
complementary agent
foam meeting performance level B
9.2.16 The discharge rate of the foam solution shall not
be less than the rates shown in Table 9-2.
Note 1.— The amounts of water specified for foam
production are predicated on an application rate of
8.2 L/min/m2 for a foam meeting performance level A, and
5.5 L/min/m2 for a foam meeting performance level B.
9.2.17 Recommendation.— The complementary agents
should comply with the appropriate specifications of the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO).*
Note 2.— When any other complementary agent is used, the
substitution ratios need to be checked.
9.2.18 Recommendation.— The discharge rate of complementary agents should be selected for optimum effectiveness
of the agent.
9.2.12 The quantity of foam concentrates separately
provided on vehicles for foam production shall be in proportion to the quantity of water provided and the foam
concentrate selected.
9.2.19 Recommendation.— A reserve supply of foam
concentrate and complementary agent, equivalent to 200 per
cent of the quantities of these agents to be provided in the
rescue and fire fighting vehicles, should be maintained on the
aerodrome for vehicle replenishment purposes. Where a major
delay in the replenishment of this supply is anticipated, the
amount of reserve supply should be increased.
9.2.13 Recommendation.— The amount of foam concentrate provided on a vehicle should be sufficient to produce at
least two loads of foam solution.
9.2.14 Recommendation.—
Supplementary
water
supplies, for the expeditious replenishment of rescue and fire
fighting vehicles at the scene of an aircraft accident, should be
provided.
9.2.15 Recommendation.— When both a foam meeting
performance level A and a foam meeting performance level B
are to be used, the total amount of water to be provided for
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* See ISO Publications 5923 (Carbon Dioxide), 7201 (Halogenated
Hydrocarbons) and 7202 (Powder).
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Rescue equipment
Emergency access roads
9.2.20 Recommendation.— Rescue equipment commensurate with the level of aircraft operations should be provided
on the rescue and fire fighting vehicle(s).
9.2.26 Recommendation.— Emergency access roads
should be provided on an aerodrome where terrain conditions
permit their construction, so as to facilitate achieving
minimum response times. Particular attention should be given
to the provision of ready access to approach areas up to
1 000 m from the threshold, or at least within the aerodrome
boundary. Where a fence is provided, the need for convenient
access to outside areas should be taken into account.
Note.— Guidance on the rescue equipment to be provided
at an aerodrome is given in the Airport Services Manual,
Part 1.
Note.— Aerodrome service roads may serve as emergency
access roads when they are suitably located and constructed.
Response time
9.2.27 Recommendation.— Emergency access roads
should be capable of supporting the heaviest vehicles which
will use them, and be usable in all weather conditions. Roads
within 90 m of a runway should be surfaced to prevent surface
erosion and the transfer of debris to the runway. Sufficient
vertical clearance should be provided from overhead obstructions for the largest vehicles.
9.2.21 The operational objective of the rescue and fire
fighting service shall be to achieve a response time not
exceeding three minutes to any point of each operational
runway, in optimum visibility and surface conditions.
9.2.22 Recommendation.— The operational objective of
the rescue and fire fighting service should be to achieve a
response time not exceeding two minutes to any point of each
operational runway, in optimum visibility and surface
conditions.
9.2.28 Recommendation.— When the surface of the
road is indistinguishable from the surrounding area, or in
areas where snow may obscure the location of the roads, edge
markers should be placed at intervals of about 10 m.
9.2.23 Recommendation.— The operational objective of
the rescue and fire fighting service should be to achieve a
response time not exceeding three minutes to any other part of
the movement area in optimum visibility and surface
conditions.
Fire stations
9.2.29 Recommendation.— All rescue and fire fighting
vehicles should normally be housed in a fire station. Satellite
fire stations should be provided whenever the response time
cannot be achieved from a single fire station.
Note 1.— Response time is considered to be the time
between the initial call to the rescue and fire fighting service,
and the time when the first responding vehicle(s) is (are) in
position to apply foam at a rate of at least 50 per cent of the
discharge rate specified in Table 9-2.
9.2.30 Recommendation.— The fire station should be
located so that the access for rescue and fire fighting vehicles
into the runway area is direct and clear, requiring a minimum
number of turns.
Note 2.— To meet the operational objective as nearly as
possible in less than optimum conditions of visibility, it may be
necessary to provide suitable guidance and/or procedures for
rescue and fire fighting vehicles.
Communication and alerting systems
9.2.31 Recommendation.— A discrete communication
system should be provided linking a fire station with the
control tower, any other fire station on the aerodrome and
the rescue and fire fighting vehicles.
Note 3.— Optimum visibility and surface conditions are
defined as daytime, good visibility, no precipitation with
normal response route free of surface contamination e.g.
water, ice or snow.
9.2.32 Recommendation.— An alerting system for
rescue and fire fighting personnel, capable of being operated
from that station, should be provided at a fire station, any
other fire station on the aerodrome and the aerodrome control
tower.
9.2.24 Recommendation.— Any other vehicles required
to deliver the amounts of extinguishing agents specified in
Table 9-2 should arrive no more than one minute after the first
responding vehicle(s) so as to provide continuous agent
application.
Number of rescue and fire fighting vehicles
9.2.25 Recommendation.— A system of preventive
maintenance of rescue and fire fighting vehicles should be
employed to ensure effectiveness of the equipment and
compliance with the specified response time throughout the
life of the vehicle.
9.2.33 Recommendation.— The minimum number of
rescue and fire fighting vehicles provided at an aerodrome
should be in accordance with the following tabulation:
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Aerodrome
category
Rescue and fire
fighting vehicles
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
3
9.2.38 All responding rescue and fire fighting personnel
shall be provided with protective clothing and respiratory
equipment to enable them to perform their duties in an
effective manner.
9.3
Disabled aircraft removal
Note.— Guidance on removal of a disabled aircraft,
including recovery equipment, is given in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 5. See also Annex 13 concerning protection of
evidence, custody and removal of aircraft.
Note.— Guidance on minimum characteristics of rescue
and fire fighting vehicles is given in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 1.
9.3.1 Recommendation.— A plan for the removal of an
aircraft disabled on, or adjacent to, the movement area should
be established for an aerodrome, and a coordinator designated to implement the plan, when necessary.
Personnel
9.3.2 Recommendation.— The disabled aircraft removal
plan should be based on the characteristics of the aircraft that
may normally be expected to operate at the aerodrome, and
include among other things:
9.2.34 All rescue and fire fighting personnel shall be
properly trained to perform their duties in an efficient manner
and shall participate in live fire drills commensurate with the
types of aircraft and type of rescue and fire fighting equipment
in use at the aerodrome, including pressure-fed fuel fires.
a) a list of equipment and personnel on, or in the vicinity
of, the aerodrome which would be available for such
purpose; and
Note 1.— Guidance to assist the appropriate authority in
providing proper training is given in Attachment A, Section 16
of this volume of Annex 14; Airport Services Manual, Part 1;
and Training Manual, Part E-2.
b) arrangements for the rapid receipt of aircraft recovery
equipment kits available from other aerodromes.
Note 2.— Fires associated with fuel discharged under very
high pressure from a ruptured fuel tank are known as
“pressure-fed fuel fires”.
9.4 Maintenance
9.2.35 The rescue and fire fighting personnel training
programme shall include training in human performance,
including team coordination.
General
Note.— Guidance material to design training programmes
on human performance and team coordination can be found in
the Human Factors Training Manual.
9.4.1 Recommendation.— A maintenance programme,
including preventive maintenance where appropriate, should
be established at an aerodrome to maintain facilities in a
condition which does not impair the safety, regularity or
efficiency of air navigation.
9.2.36 Recommendation.— During flight operations,
sufficient trained personnel should be detailed and be readily
available to ride the rescue and fire fighting vehicles and to
operate the equipment at maximum capacity. These trained
personnel should be deployed in a way that ensures that
minimum response times can be achieved and that continuous
agent application at the appropriate rate can be fully
maintained. Consideration should also be given for personnel
to use hand lines, ladders and other rescue and fire fighting
equipment normally associated with aircraft rescue and fire
fighting operations.
Note 1.— Preventive maintenance is programmed maintenance work done in order to prevent a failure or degradation
of facilities.
Note 2.— “Facilities” are intended to include such items as
pavements, visual aids, fencing, drainage systems and
buildings.
9.4.2 Recommendation.— The design and application of
the maintenance programme should observe Human Factors
principles.
9.2.37 Recommendation.— In determining the number
of personnel required to provide for rescue, consideration
should be given to the types of aircraft using the aerodrome.
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Note.— Guidance material on Human Factors principles
can be found in the Human Factors Training Manual.
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Pavements
low rolling resistance. Snow, slush, ice, standing water, mud,
dust, sand, oil, rubber deposits and other contaminants shall be
removed as rapidly and completely as possible to minimize
accumulation.
9.4.3 Recommendation.— The surface of pavements
(runways, taxiways, aprons, etc.) should be kept clear of any
loose stones or other objects that might cause damage to
aircraft structures or engines, or impair the operation of
aircraft systems.
Note.— Guidance on precautions to be taken in regard to
the surface of shoulders is given in Attachment A, Section 8,
and the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2.
Note.— Guidance on determining and expressing the
friction characteristics when conditions of snow or ice cannot
be avoided is given in Attachment A, Section 6. The Airport
Services Manual, Part 2, contains further information on this
subject, on improving friction characteristics and on clearing
of runways.
9.4.4 Recommendation.— The surface of a runway
should be maintained in a condition such as to preclude
formation of harmful irregularities.
9.4.11 Recommendation.— A taxiway should be kept
clear of snow, slush, ice, etc., to the extent necessary to enable
aircraft to be taxied to and from an operational runway.
Note.— See Attachment A, Section 5.
9.4.12 Recommendation.— Aprons should be kept clear
of snow, slush, ice, etc., to the extent necessary to enable
aircraft to manoeuvre safely or, where appropriate, to be
towed or pushed.
9.4.5 Measurements of the friction characteristics of a
runway surface shall be made periodically with a continuous
friction measuring device using self-wetting features.
9.4.13 Recommendation.— Whenever the clearance of
snow, slush, ice, etc., from the various parts of the movement
area cannot be carried out simultaneously, the order of
priority should be as follows but may be altered following, as
necessary, consultation with the aerodrome users:
Note.— Guidance on evaluating the friction characteristics
of a runway is provided in Attachment A, Section 7. Additional
guidance is included in the Airport Services Manual, Part 2.
9.4.6 Corrective maintenance action shall be taken when
the friction characteristics for either the entire runway or a
portion thereof are below a minimum friction level specified
by the State.
1st — runway(s) in use;
2nd — taxiways serving runway(s) in use;
Note.— A portion of runway in the order of 100 m long
may be considered significant for maintenance or reporting
action.
3rd — apron(s);
4th — holding bays; and
9.4.7 Recommendation.— Corrective maintenance
action should be considered when the friction characteristics
for either the entire runway or a portion thereof are below a
maintenance planning level specified by the State.
5th — other areas.
9.4.14 Recommendation.— Chemicals to remove or to
prevent the formation of ice and frost on aerodrome
pavements should be used when conditions indicate their use
could be effective. Caution should be exercised in the application of the chemicals so as not to create a more slippery
condition.
9.4.8 Recommendation.— When there is reason to
believe that the drainage characteristics of a runway, or
portions thereof, are poor due to slopes or depressions, then
the runway friction characteristics should be assessed under
natural or simulated conditions that are representative of local
rain and corrective maintenance action should be taken as
necessary.
Note.— Guidance on the use of chemicals for aerodrome
pavements is given in the Airport Services Manual, Part 2.
9.4.9 Recommendation.— When a taxiway is used by
turbine-engined aeroplanes, the surface of the taxiway
shoulders should be maintained so as to be free of any loose
stones or other objects that could be ingested by the aeroplane
engines.
9.4.15 Chemicals which may have harmful effects on
aircraft or pavements, or chemicals which may have toxic
effects on the aerodrome environment, shall not be used.
Runway pavement overlays
Note.— Guidance on this subject is given in the Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 2.
Note.— The following specifications are intended for
runway pavement overlay projects when the runway is to be
returned to an operational status before overlay of the entire
runway is complete thus normally necessitating a temporary
9.4.10 The surface of a paved runway shall be maintained
in a condition so as to provide good friction characteristics and
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ramp between the new and old runway surfaces. Guidance on
overlaying pavements and assessing their operational status is
given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 3.
b) control and measurement of the electrical characteristics of each circuitry included in the approach and
runway lighting systems; and
9.4.16 The longitudinal slope of the temporary ramp,
measured with reference to the existing runway surface or
previous overlay course, shall be:
c) control of the correct functioning of light intensity
settings used by air traffic control.
9.4.23 Recommendation.— In-field measurement of
intensity, beam spread and orientation of lights included in
approach and runway lighting systems for a precision
approach runway category II or III should be undertaken by
measuring all lights, as far as practicable, to ensure
conformance with the applicable specification of Appendix 2.
a) 0.5 to 1.0 per cent for overlays up to and including 5 cm
in thickness; and
b) not more than 0.5 per cent for overlays more than 5 cm
in thickness.
9.4.24 Recommendation.— Measurement of intensity,
beam spread and orientation of lights included in approach
and runway lighting systems for a precision approach runway
category II or III should be undertaken using a mobile
measuring unit of sufficient accuracy to analyze the
characteristics of the individual lights.
9.4.17 Recommendation.— Overlaying should proceed
from one end of the runway toward the other end so that based
on runway utilization most aircraft operations will experience
a down ramp.
9.4.18 Recommendation.— The entire width of the
runway should be overlaid during each work session.
9.4.25 Recommendation.— The frequency of measurement of lights for a precision approach runway category II or
III should be based on traffic density, the local pollution level,
the reliability of the installed lighting equipment and the
continuous assessment of the results of the in-field
measurements but in any event should not be less than twice a
year for in-pavement lights and not less than once a year for
other lights.
9.4.19 Before a runway being overlaid is returned to a
temporary operational status, a runway centre line marking
conforming to the specifications in Section 5.2.3 shall be
provided. Additionally, the location of any temporary threshold shall be identified by a 3.6 m wide transverse stripe.
9.4.26 The system of preventive maintenance employed
for a precision approach runway category II or III shall have
as its objective that, during any period of category II or III
operations, all approach and runway lights are serviceable, and
that in any event at least:
Visual aids
Note.— These specifications are intended to define the
maintenance performance level objectives. They are not
intended to define whether the lighting system is operationally
out of service.
a) 95 per cent of the lights are serviceable in each of the
following particular significant elements:
9.4.20 A light shall be deemed to be unserviceable when
the main beam average intensity is less than 50 per cent of the
value specified in the appropriate figure in Appendix 2. For
light units where the designed main beam average intensity is
above the value shown in Appendix 2, the 50 per cent value
shall be related to that design value.
1) precision approach category II and III lighting
system, the inner 450 m;
2) runway centre line lights;
3) runway threshold lights; and
9.4.21 A system of preventive maintenance of visual aids
shall be employed to ensure lighting and marking system
reliability.
4) runway edge lights;
b) 90 per cent of the lights are serviceable in the
touchdown zone lights;
Note.— Guidance on preventive maintenance of visual aids
is given in the Airport Services Manual, Part 9.
c) 85 per cent of the lights are serviceable in the approach
lighting system beyond 450 m; and
9.4.22 Recommendation.— The system of preventive
maintenance employed for a precision approach runway
category II or III should include at least the following checks:
d) 75 per cent of the lights are serviceable in the runway
end lights.
a) visual inspection and in-field measurement of the
intensity, beam spread and orientation of lights included
in the approach and runway lighting systems;
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In order to provide continuity of guidance, the allowable
percentage of unserviceable lights shall not be permitted in
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
such a way as to alter the basic pattern of the lighting system.
Additionally, an unserviceable light shall not be permitted
adjacent to another unserviceable light, except in a barrette or
a crossbar where two adjacent unserviceable lights may be
permitted.
a) at least 95 per cent of the lights are serviceable in the
runway centre line lights (where provided) and in the
runway edge lights; and
b) at least 75 per cent of the lights are serviceable in the
runway end lights.
Note.— With respect to barrettes, crossbars and runway
edge lights, lights are considered to be adjacent if located
consecutively and:
In order to provide continuity of guidance, an unserviceable
light shall not be permitted adjacent to another unserviceable
light.
— laterally: in the same barrette or crossbar; or
9.4.31 The system of preventive maintenance employed
for a runway meant for take-off in runway visual range conditions of a value of 550 m or greater shall have as its
objective that, during any period of operations, all runway
lights are serviceable and that, in any event, at least 85 per cent
of the lights are serviceable in the runway edge lights and
runway end lights. In order to provide continuity of guidance,
an unserviceable light shall not be permitted adjacent to
another unserviceable light.
— longitudinally: in the same row of edge lights or
barrettes.
9.4.27 The system of preventive maintenance employed
for a stop bar provided at a runway-holding position used in
conjunction with a runway intended for operations in runway
visual range conditions less than a value of 350 m shall have
the following objectives:
a) no more than two lights will remain unserviceable; and
9.4.32 Recommendation.— During low visibility procedures the appropriate authority should restrict construction
or maintenance activities in the proximity of aerodrome
electrical systems.
b) two adjacent lights will not remain unserviceable unless
the light spacing is significantly less than that specified.
9.4.28 The system of preventive maintenance employed
for a taxiway intended for use in runway visual range conditions less than a value of 350 m shall have as its objective that
no two adjacent taxiway centre line lights be unserviceable.
9.5
9.4.29 The system of preventive maintenance employed
for a precision approach runway category I shall have as its
objective that, during any period of category I operations, all
approach and runway lights are serviceable, and that in any
event at least 85 per cent of the lights are serviceable in each
of the following:
Bird hazard reduction
9.5.1 Recommendation.— The bird strike hazard on, or
in the vicinity of, an aerodrome should be assessed through:
a) the establishment of a national procedure for recording
and reporting bird strikes to aircraft; and
b) the collection of information from aircraft operators,
airport personnel, etc. on the presence of birds on or
around the aerodrome.
a) precision approach category I lighting system;
b) runway threshold lights;
Note.— The ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS) is
designed to collect and disseminate information on bird strikes
to aircraft. Information on the system is included in the
Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS).
c) runway edge lights; and
d) runway end lights.
In order to provide continuity of guidance an unserviceable
light shall not be permitted adjacent to another unserviceable
light unless the light spacing is significantly less than that
specified.
Note.— In barrettes and crossbars, guidance is not lost by
having two adjacent unserviceable lights.
9.5.2 Recommendation.— When a bird strike hazard is
identified at an aerodrome, the appropriate authority should
take action to decrease the number of birds constituting a
potential hazard to aircraft operations by adopting measures
for discouraging their presence on, or in the vicinity of, an
aerodrome.
9.4.30 The system of preventive maintenance employed
for a runway meant for take-off in runway visual range
conditions less than a value of 550 m shall have as its objective that, during any period of operations, all runway lights are
serviceable and that in any event:
Note.— Guidance on effective measures for establishing
whether or not birds, on or near an aerodrome, constitute a
potential hazard to aircraft operations, and on methods for
discouraging their presence, is given in the Airport Services
Manual, Part 3.
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9.5.3 Recommendation.— Garbage disposal dumps or
any such other source attracting bird activity on, or in the
vicinity of, an aerodrome should be eliminated or their
establishment prevented, unless an appropriate study indicates
that they are unlikely to create conditions conducive to a bird
hazard problem.
9.6.4 Where low visibility procedures are in effect,
persons and vehicles operating on an apron shall be restricted
to the essential minimum.
Note.— Guidance on related special procedures is given in
the Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control
Systems (SMGCS).
9.6.5 An emergency vehicle responding to an emergency
shall be given priority over all other surface movement traffic.
9.6 Apron management service
9.6.6 A vehicle operating on an apron shall:
9.6.1 Recommendation.— When warranted by the
volume of traffic and operating conditions, an appropriate
apron management service should be provided on an apron by
an aerodrome ATS unit, by another aerodrome operating
authority, or by a cooperative combination of these, in order
to:
a) give way to an emergency vehicle; an aircraft taxiing,
about to taxi, or being pushed or towed; and
b) give way to other vehicles in accordance with local
regulations.
a) regulate movement with the objective of preventing
collisions between aircraft, and between aircraft and
obstacles;
9.6.7 An aircraft stand shall be visually monitored to
ensure that the recommended clearance distances are provided
to an aircraft using the stand.
b) regulate entry of aircraft into, and coordinate exit of
aircraft from, the apron with the aerodrome control
tower; and
9.7 Ground servicing of aircraft
c) ensure safe and expeditious movement of vehicles and
appropriate regulation of other activities.
9.7.1 Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for at least
initial intervention in the event of a fuel fire and personnel
trained in its use shall be readily available during the ground
servicing of an aircraft, and there shall be a means of quickly
summoning the rescue and fire fighting service in the event of
a fire or major fuel spill.
9.6.2 Recommendation.— When the aerodrome control
tower does not participate in the apron management service,
procedures should be established to facilitate the orderly
transition of aircraft between the apron management unit and
the aerodrome control tower.
9.7.2 When aircraft refuelling operations take place while
passengers are embarking, on board or disembarking, ground
equipment shall be positioned so as to allow:
Note.— Guidance on an apron management service is
given in the Airport Services Manual, Part 8 and in the
Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems
(SMGCS).
a) the use of a sufficient number of exits for expeditious
evacuation; and
9.6.3 An apron management service shall be provided
with radiotelephony communications facilities.
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b) a ready escape route from each of the exits to be used
in an emergency.
126
APPENDIX 1.
COLOURS FOR AERONAUTICAL GROUND LIGHTS,
MARKINGS, SIGNS AND PANELS
1. General
d) Blue
Green boundary
White boundary
Purple boundary
Introductory Note.— The following specifications define the
chromaticity limits of colours to be used for aeronautical
ground lights, markings, signs and panels. The specifications
are in accord with the 1983 specifications of the International
Commission on Illumination (CIE).
e) White
Yellow boundary
Blue boundary
Green boundary
It is not possible to establish specifications for colours such
that there is no possibility of confusion. For reasonably certain
recognition, it is important that the eye illumination be well
above the threshold of perception, that the colour not be greatly
modified by selective atmospheric attenuations and that the
observer’s colour vision be adequate. There is also a risk of
confusion of colour at an extremely high level of eye
illumination such as may be obtained from a high-intensity
source at very close range. Experience indicates that
satisfactory recognition can be achieved if due attention is
given to these factors.
Purple boundary
f) Variable white
Yellow boundary
Blue boundary
Green boundary
The chromaticities are expressed in terms of the standard
observer and coordinate system adopted by the International
Commission on Illumination (CIE) at its Eighth Session at
Cambridge, England, in 1931.*
2.
Purple boundary
2.1.1 The chromaticities of aeronautical ground lights shall
be within the following boundaries:
Yellow boundary
White boundary
Blue boundary
CIE Equations (see Figure 1.1):
y = 0.980 – x
y = 0.335
b) Yellow
Red boundary
White boundary
Green boundary
y = 0.382
y = 0.790 – 0.667x
y = x – 0.120
c) Green
Yellow boundary
White boundary
Blue boundary
x = 0.360 – 0.080y
x = 0.650y
y = 0.390 – 0.171x
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
x = 0.255 + 0.750y
and x = 1.185 – 1.500 y
x = 0.285
y = 0.440
and y = 0.150 + 0.640x
y = 0.050 + 0.750x
and y = 0.382
2.1.2 Recommendation.— Where dimming is not
required, or where observers with defective colour vision must
be able to determine the colour of the light, green signals should
be within the following boundaries:
Chromaticities
a) Red
Purple boundary
Yellow boundary
x = 0.500
x = 0.285
y = 0.440
and y = 0.150 + 0.640x
y = 0.050 + 0.750x
and y = 0.382
Note.— Guidance on chromaticity changes resulting from
the effect of temperature on filtering elements is given in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
Colours for aeronautical ground lights
2.1
y = 0.805x + 0.065
y = 0.400 – x
x = 0.600y + 0.133
y = 0.726 – 0.726x
x = 0.650y
y = 0.390 – 0.171x
2.1.3 Recommendation.— Where increased certainty of
recognition is more important than maximum visual range,
green signals should be within the following boundaries:
Yellow boundary
White boundary
Blue boundary
y = 0.726 – 0.726x
x = 0.625y – 0.041
y = 0.390 – 0.171x
* See CIE Publication No. 15, Colorimetry (1971).
127
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
2.2
Volume I
Discrimination between lights
2.2.5 In the case of visual approach slope indicators and
other light units having a colour transition sector, the colour
shall be measured at points in accordance with 2.2.4, except
that the colour areas shall be treated separately and no point
shall be within 0.5 degrees of the transition sector.
2.2.1 Recommendation.— If there is a requirement to
discriminate yellow and white from each other, they should be
displayed in close proximity of time or space as, for example, by
being flashed successively from the same beacon.
2.2.2 Recommendation.— If there is a requirement to
discriminate yellow from green and/or white, as for example on
exit taxiway centre line lights, the y coordinates of the yellow
light should not exceed a value of 0.40.
3.
Colours for markings,
signs and panels
Note 1.— The specifications of surface colours given below
apply only to freshly coloured surfaces. Colours used for
markings, signs and panels usually change with time and
therefore require renewal.
Note.— The limits of white have been based on the
assumption that they will be used in situations in which the
characteristics (colour temperature) of the light source will be
substantially constant.
Note 2.— Guidance on surface colours is contained in the
CIE document entitled Recommendations for Surface Colours
for Visual Signalling — Publication No. 39-2 (TC-106) 1983.
2.2.3 Recommendation.— The colour variable white is
intended to be used only for lights that are to be varied in
intensity, e.g. to avoid dazzling. If this colour is to be
discriminated from yellow, the lights should be so designed and
operated that:
Note 3.— The specifications recommended in 3.4 below
for transilluminated panels are interim in nature and are
based on the CIE specifications for transilluminated signs. It
is intended that these specifications will be reviewed and
updated as and when CIE develops specifications for
transilluminated panels.
a) the x coordinate of the yellow is at least 0.050 greater
than the x coordinate of the white; and
b) the disposition of the lights will be such that the yellow
lights are displayed simultaneously and in close
proximity to the white lights.
3.1 The chromaticities and luminance factors of ordinary
colours, colours of retro-reflective materials and colours of
transilluminated (internally illuminated) signs and panels shall
be determined under the following standard conditions:
2.2.4 The colour of aeronautical ground lights shall be
verified as being within the boundaries specified in Figure
1.1 by measurement at five points within the area limited by
the innermost isocandela curve (isocandela diagrams in
Appendix 2 refer), with operation at rated current or voltage.
In the case of elliptical or circular isocandela curves, the
colour measurements shall be taken at the centre and at the
horizontal and vertical limits. In the case of rectangular
isocandela curves, the colour measurements shall be taken at
the centre and the limits of the diagonals (corners). In
addition, the colour of the light shall be checked at the
outermost isocandela curve to ensure that there is no colour
shift that might cause signal confusion to the pilot.
a) angle of illumination: 45°;
b) direction of view: perpendicular to surface; and
c) illuminant: CIE standard illuminant D65.
3.2 Recommendation.— The chromaticity and luminance
factors of ordinary colours for markings and externally
illuminated signs and panels should be within the following
boundaries when determined under standard conditions.
CIE Equations (see Figure 1.2):
Note 1.— For the outermost isocandela curve, a measurement of colour coordinates should be made and recorded for
review and judgement of acceptability by the appropriate
authority.
Note 2.— Certain light units may have application so that
they may be viewed and used by pilots from directions beyond
that of the outermost isocandela curve (e.g. stop bar lights at
significantly wide runway-holding positions). In such instances, the appropriate authority should assess the actual
application and if necessary require a check of colour shift at
angular ranges beyond the outermost curve.
4/11/99
128
a) Red
Purple boundary
White boundary
Orange boundary
Luminance factor
y = 0.345 – 0.051x
y = 0.910 – x
y = 0.314 + 0.047x
ß = 0.07 (mnm)
b) Orange
Red boundary
White boundary
Yellow boundary
Luminance factor
y = 0.265 + 0.205x
y = 0.910 – x
y = 0.207 + 0.390x
ß = 0.20 (mnm)
Appendix 1
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
c) Yellow
Orange boundary
White boundary
Green boundary
Luminance factor
y = 0.108 + 0.707x
y = 0.910 – x
y = 1.35x – 0.093
ß = 0.45 (mnm)
d) White
Purple boundary
Blue boundary
Green boundary
Yellow boundary
Luminance factor
y = 0.010 + x
y = 0.610 – x
y = 0.030 + x
y = 0.710 – x
ß = 0.75 (mnm)
e) Black
Purple boundary
Blue boundary
Green boundary
Yellow boundary
Luminance factor
f) Yellowish green
Green boundary
White boundary
Yellow boundary
b) Yellow
Orange boundary
White boundary
Green boundary
Luminance factor
(day condition)
Relative luminance
to white (night
condition)
3.3 Recommendation.— The chromaticity and luminance
factors of colours of retro-reflective materials for markings,
signs and panels should be within the following boundaries
when determined under standard conditions.
CIE Equations (see Figure 1.3):
y = 0.265 + 0.205x
y = 0.910 – x
y = 0.207 + 0.390x
ß = 0.14 (mnm)
c) Yellow
Orange boundary
White boundary
Green boundary
Luminance factor
y = 0.160 + 0.540x
y = 0.910 – x
y = 1.35x – 0.093
ß = 0.16 (mnm)
d) White
Purple boundary
Blue boundary
Green boundary
Yellow boundary
Luminance factor
y=x
y = 0.610 – x
y = 0.040 + x
y = 0.710 – x
ß = 0.27 (mnm)
y = 0.711 – 1.22x
y = 0.243 + 0.670x
y = 0.405 – 0.243x
ß = 0.03 (mnm)
a) Red
Purple boundary
White boundary
Orange boundary
Luminance factor
(day condition)
Relative luminance
to white (night
condition)
Note.— The small separation between surface red and
surface orange is not sufficient to ensure the distinction of these
colours when seen separately.
b) Orange
Red boundary
White boundary
Yellow boundary
Luminance factor
f) Green
Yellow boundary
White boundary
Blue boundary
Luminance factor
CIE Equations (see Figure 1.4):
y = 1.317x + 0.4
y = 0.910 – x
y = 0.867x + 0.4
y = 0.345 – 0.051x
y = 0.910 – x
y = 0.314 + 0.047x
ß = 0.03 (mnm)
y = 0.118 + 0.675x
y = 0.370 – x
y = 1.65x – 0.187
ß = 0.01 (mnm)
3.4 Recommendation.— The chromaticity and luminance
factors of colours for transilluminated (internally illuminated)
signs and panels should be within the following boundaries
when determined under standard conditions.
y = x – 0.030
y = 0.570 – x
y = 0.050 + x
y = 0.740 – x
ß = 0.03 (max)
a) Red
Purple boundary
White boundary
Orange boundary
Luminance factor
e) Blue
Green boundary
White boundary
Purple boundary
Luminance factor
c) White
Purple boundary
Blue boundary
Green boundary
Yellow boundary
Luminance factor
(day condition)
Relative luminance
to white (night
condition)
d) Black
Purple boundary
Blue boundary
Green boundary
Yellow boundary
Luminance factor
(day condition)
Relative luminance
to white (night
condition)
129
y = 0.345 – 0.051x
y = 0.910 – x
y = 0.314 + 0.047x
ß = 0.07 (mnm)
5% (mnm)
20% (max)
y = 0.108 + 0.707x
y = 0.910 – x
y = 1.35x – 0.093
ß = 0.45 (mnm)
30% (mnm)
80% (max)
y = 0.010 + x
y = 0.610 – x
y = 0.030 + x
y = 0.710 – x
ß = 0.75 (mnm)
100%
y = x – 0.030
y = 0.570 – x
y = 0.050 + x
y = 0.740 – x
ß = 0.03 (max)
0% (mnm)
2% (max)
4/11/99
STD.ICAO
ANNEX 1’4 VOL I-ENGL
I,797
II
‘404L’ilb
lll,O9Oi?3
lb2
-
Volume I
Annex I4 - Aerodromes
X
0.10
0.00
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.60
0.70
0.60
lll~llllr
oso
520
0.80
--
0.00
r
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0.70
0.70
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0.60
0.50
Y
Y
YELLOW
/
0.40
0.40
600
h
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0.30
T
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RED
0.20
0.20
0.10
0.10
Jlllllll
0
0.10
3m0.20
0.30
0.40
0.60
X
Figure 1.1 Colours for aeronauticalground lights
4/11/99
130
0.60
0.70
I
0.80
Appendix 1
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Figure 1.2
Ordinary colours for markings and externally illuminated signs and panels
131
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Figure 1.3
4/11/99
Volume I
Colours of retro-reflective materials for markings, signs and panels
132
STD.ICAO
ANNEX I9
VOL I-ENGL
I,999
-
48’fLlllb
OZ0902b
971
Appendix I
-
Annex I4 - Aerodromes
X
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.90
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0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
1 I I I 1 I I I L
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+ Indicates CIE standard illuminant
D,js
0.80
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0.30
0.80
540
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WHITE
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-
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.O
0.30
k 640
190-760
1
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0.20
0.20
0.10
0.10
ii
0
Figure 1.4 Colours of transilluminated(internally illuminated) signs and panels
133
4/l l/99
STD.ICAO
ANNEX l,L( VOL I-ENGL
APPENDIX
AERONAUTIC&L
2.
1979
m
rl8lllllrlnb
GROUND LIGHT
0307ll27
808
m
CHARACTERISTICS
Degrees
vertical
16.5
2.5
1.5
0
-20
-15
-14
-10
-5
0
5
10
14
15
20
X
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. Vertical setting angles of the lights shall be such that the following
of the main beam will be met:
distance
from threshold
threshold to 315 m
316 m to 475 m
476 m to 640 m
641 m and beyond
vertical coverage
vertical main beam coverage
00 0.50 1.50 2.5O -
110
Il.50
12.50
13.5O (as illustrated
above)
3. Lights in crossbars beyond 22.5 m from the centre line shall be toed-in 2 degrees.
All other lights shall be aligned parallel to the centre line of the runway.
4. See collective
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11.
Figure 2. I
411 l/99
Isocandela diagram for approach ccntrc line light
and crossbars (white light)
134
ANNEX
I4
~ VOLlJME I
STD=ICAO ANNEX Llr VOL I-ENGL I,999 -
'+il'dl,qLb OlO=iO28 7'4'4 M
Appendix 2
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
Minimum
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. Toe-in 2 degrees
3. Vertical setting angles of the lights shall be such that the following
of the main beam will be met:
distance from threshold
threshold to 115 m
116 m to 215 m
216 m and beyond
4. See collective
vertical coverage
vertical main beam coverage
0.50
10
l.!Y
-
10.50
110
11.5O (as illustrated
above)
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11.
Figure 2.2 Isocandeladiagramfor approachside row light (red light)
135
4/l 1199
STD.ICAO
ANNEX Lq
VOL I-ENGL
l,‘=l=l=l U
‘i8’4lrlLb
030702=l
b8O W
Volume Z
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
Y
!
-
I I I I I i I I I I i I I i I I I I ttA+t
11.5
10
5
1
0
-15
-5.
-10 -9
IL
-7.5
-5.5
-5
0
5 5.5
7.5
9 10
15
X
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. Toe-in 3.5 degrees
3. See collective
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11.
Figure 2.3 Isocandeladiagram for threshold light (green light)
4/l l/99
136
STD.ICAO
ANNEX I,4
VOL I-ENGL
lt=l=l=l W
‘48LIla~Lh
01107030
Appendix 2
3T2 -
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
I
Yt
m
I,
15
,dR
Minimum
a-1nnnrt-4
-tEl
T
13.5
minimum
11.5
10.5
5 000 cd
Ill,,
, /
I
I
5
7
10 11 .5
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. Toe-in 2 degrees
3. See collective
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11
Figure 2.4 Isocandeladiagram for threshold wing bar light (green light)
137
4/11/99
STD.ICAO ANNEX l1’4 VOL I-ENGL
I,777
m
4811L4Lb
lll,OqO3l,
239
m
Volume1
Annex 14 -
Degrees
vertical
-10
-8.5
-7
-5
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. Toe-in 4 degrees
3. See collective
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11.
Figure 2.5 Isocandeladiagramfor touchdownzone light (white light)
4/11/99
138
STD~ICAO
ANNEX III
vow
I-ENGL
L999
m
48wu
nwh03z
175
m
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Appendix 2
Degrees
vertical
Yfl I I I I I I I I I I I I /Minimum
I ”
II
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
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/
iii
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1
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I I I I I II
I
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p
I
I
I
10
9.5
7
-lb
-8.5
0
-f
;
a.5
10
x
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. For red light multiply values by 0.15
3. See collective
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11.
Figure 2.6 Isocandeladiagram for runway centre line light
with 30 m longitudinal spacing(white light)
139
4/l 1199
STD.ICA~
ANNEX 14
voL
I-ENGL
L777
m
48uub
0307033
001 m
Volume Z
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
13
10
1 250 cd for Cat. I
125 cd for Cat. I
t i
I
I
I
I
iO0 cd for Cat. III
,cn ..A z-- e-1 I
.t
I II
5.
’
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/
0
-10
I
1
-8.5
iii (
Y
s
I
-7
;
-5
8.5
10
X
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. For red light multiply values by 0.15
3. See collective
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11
Figure 2.7 Isocandeladiagram for runway centre line light
with 15 m longitudinal spacing(white light)
4/l l/99
140
STD.ICAO ANNEX In4 VOL I;ENGL I,999 m 98lrLIILb fJl,O=lO3'4T’IB m
Appendix 2
Annex I4 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
0.25
-10
-9
-7.5
-6
-5
0
5
6
7.5
9
10
X
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
2. See collective
on formula
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11.
Figure 2.8 Isocandeladiagramfor runway end light (red light)
141
4/l 1199
STD.ICAO
ANNEX 14
voL
I-ENGL
I2777
m
w3wu
0307035
78q
Volume I
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
12
10'
w
i
7.5
9
10
X
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. Toe-in 3.5 degrees
3. For yellow light multiply values by 0.4
4. See collective
notes for Figures 2.1 to
2.11.
Figure 2.9 Isocandeladiagram for runway edge light
where width of runway is 45 m (white light)
4/l 1199
m
142
STD.ICAO ANNEX It4 VOL I-ENGL
I,999
W
‘4B~la’iLb
OLll=lll3b
Appendix 2
ttL0 M
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
A
I
/l-I’
Main beam
mum
3 cd
/
-- -- :A=~
I
7--
5---
i
I-YTt
0 L!i
-815
4.5
-i
6
i.5
1
s .5
io-
>
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Curves calculated
on formula
2. Toe-in 4.5 degrees
3. For yellow light multiply values by 0.4
4. See collective
notes for Figures 2.1 to 2.11.
Figure 2.10 Isocandeladiagramfor runway edge light
where width of runway is 60 m (white light)
143
4/11/99
STD.ICAO
ANNEX LL( VOL I-ENGL
1999
-
484L'dlb
0309037
757
D
Volume I
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
Yf
8
7I -- I
I
I
I
6
/
\
AH
5
/'
4
/
3
(
\
2
1
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- 6
-5
-4
-3
-2
I
1
+
7
- 10123456
x
Degrees
horizontal
Figure 2.11
4/l l/99
Grid points to be used for the calculation
intensity of approach and runway lights
144
of average
Appendix 2
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Collective notes to Figures 2.1 to 2.11
1.
The ellipses in each figure are symmetrical about the common vertical and horizontal axes.
2. Figures 2.1 to 2.10 show the minimum allowable light intensities. The average intensity of the main beam is calculated by
establishing grid points as shown in Figure 2.11 and using the intensity values measures at all grid points located within and on the
perimeter of the ellipse representing the main beam. The average value is the arithmetic average of light intensities measured at all
considered grid points.
3.
No deviations are acceptable in the main beam pattern when the lighting fixture is properly aimed.
4. Average intensity ratio. The ratio between the average intensity within the ellipse defining the main beam of a typical new light
and the average light intensity of the main beam of a new runway edge light shall be as follows:
Figure 2.1
Approach centre line and crossbars
1.5 to 2.0 (white light)
Figure 2.2
Approach side row
0.5 to 1.0 (red light)
Figure 2.3
Threshold
1.0 to 1.5 (green light)
Figure 2.4
Threshold wing bar
1.0 to 1.5 (green light)
Figure 2.5
Touchdown zone
0.5 to 1.0 (white light)
Figure 2.6
Runway centre line (longitudinal spacing 30 m)
0.5 to 1.0 (white light)
Figure 2.7
Runway centre line (longitudinal spacing 15 m)
0.5 to 1.0 for CAT III
(white light)
0.25 to 0.5 for CAT I, II
(white light)
Figure 2.8
Runway end
0.25 to 0.5 (red light)
Figure 2.9
Runway edge (45 m runway width)
1.0 (white light)
Figure 2.10
Runway edge (60 m runway width)
1.0 (white light)
5. The beam coverages in the figures provide the necessary guidance for approaches down to an RVR of the order of 150 m and
take-offs down to an RVR of the order of 100 m.
6. Horizontal angles are measured with respect to the vertical plane through the runway centre line. For lights other than centre
line lights, the direction towards the runway centre line is considered positive. Vertical angles are measured with respect to the
horizontal plane.
7. Where, for approach centre line lights and crossbars and for approach side row lights, inset lights are used in lieu of elevated
lights, e.g. on a runway with a displaced threshold, the intensity requirements can be met by installing two or three fittings (lower
intensity) at each position.
8. The importance of adequate maintenance cannot be over-emphasized. The average intensity should never fall to a value less
than 50 per cent of the value shown in the figures and it should be the aim of airport authorities to maintain a level of light output close
to the specified minimum average intensity.
9.
The light unit shall be installed so that the main beam is aligned within one-half degree of the specified requirement.
145
4/11/99
STD.ICAO
ANNEX l1’4 VOL I-ENGL
I,779
-
q8’4l14Lb
0309039
52T D
Volume I
Annex I4 - Aerodromes
Degrees Y
vertical
A
!
j
,
i
+ I
i
minimum
15
i
10(),--j
:
;j””
13
10
0
5
0
20
-16
-io
-5
5
0
16
10
20
x
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. These beam coverages allow for displacement of the cockpit from the centre line up to distances of
the order of 12 m and are intended for use before and after curves.
2. See collective notes for Figures 2.12 to 2.21.
Figure 2.12. Isocandeladiagram for taxiway centre line (15 m spacing)
and stop bar lights in straight sectionsintended for use
in runway visual range conditions of less than a value of 350 m
where large offsets can occur and for low-intensity runway guard lights, Configuration B
-10
-4.5
-3.5
0
3 5
4.5
10
X
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. These beam coverages are generally satisfactory and cater for a normal displacement of the cockpit
from the centre line of approximately 3 m.
2. See collective notes for Figures 2.12 to 2.21.
Figure 2.13 Isocandeladiagram for taxiway centre line (15 m spacing) and
stop bar lights in straight sectionsintended for use in
runway visual range conditions of less than a value of 350 m
4/l 1199
146
STD.ICAO
ANNEX 14
VOL I-ENGL
1977
m
48qLL(lb
0l,070’40
24L
Annex I4 - Aerodromes
Appendix 2
Degrees
vertical
a
Y
1
15
-21.25
-19.25
-15
-5
-10
0
IO
5
15
19.25
21.25
Degrees
horizontal
-
Jotes:
1. Lights on curves to be toed-in 15.75 degrees with respect to the tangent of the curve.
2. See collective
notes for Figures .2.12 to 2.21.
Figure 2.14 Isocandeladiagram for taxiway centre line (7.5 m spacing) and
stop bar lights in curved sectionsintended for use in
runway visual range conditions of less than a value of 350 m
Degrees
vertical
‘tl I I I I / I / I I
I l I I I i I I I / III
I 111111lIllil
~~~~IIIllIIlllilll~~~~~~~~~
I I ) I I I
~ ill1
1
VII,
Minimum averaoe
20 cd
I I I I I I I I I
horizontal
Notes:
1. At locations where high background luminance is usual and where deterioration of light
output resulting from dust, snow and local contamination is a significant factor, the cdvalues should be multiplied by 2.5.
2. Where omnidirectional
lights
requirements in this figure.
3. See collective
notes for Figures
are used they shall
comply
with the vertical
beam
2.12 to 2.21
Figure 2.15 Isocandeladiagram for taxiway centre line (30 m, 60 m spacing) and
stop bar lights in straight sectionsintended for use in
runway visual range conditions of 350 m or greater
147
4/l l/99
STDmICAO
ANNEX LL( VOL I-ENGL
L=l=l=l -
LJBL(/L(Lb lll,O9Cl~l,
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Annex I4 - Aerodromes
0.54-l
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Volume I
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7
Notes:
1. Lights on curves to be toed-in 15.75 degrees with respect to the tangent of the curve.
2. At locations where high background luminance is usual and where deterioration of light
output resulting from dust, snow and local contamination is a significant factor, the cdvalues should be multiplied by 2.5.
3. These beam coverages allow for displacement of the cockpit from the centre line up to
distances of the order of 12 m as could occur at the end of curves.
4. See collective
notes for Figures
2.12 to 2.21.
Figure 2.16 Isocandeladiagram for taxiway centre line (7.5 m, 1.5m, 30 m spacing)and
stop bar lights in curved sectionsintendedfor use in
runway visual range conditions of 350 m or greater
4/l 1199
148
Degrees
horizontal
Appendix 2
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Notes:
1. These beam coverages allow for displacement of the cockpit from the centre line up to distances of
the order of 12 m and are intended for use before and after curves.
2. See collective notes for Figures 2.12 to 2.21.
Figure 2.17. Isocandela diagram for high-intensity taxiway centre line (15 m spacing)
and stop bar lights in straight sections intended for use in an advanced
surface movement guidance and control system where higher light intensities are required
and where large offsets can occur
149
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Notes:
1. These beam coverages are generally satisfactory and cater for a normal displacement of the cockpit
corresponding to the outer main gear wheel on the taxiway edge.
2. See collective notes for Figures 2.12 to 2.21.
Figure 2.18. Isocandela diagram for high-intensity taxiway centre line (15 m spacing)
and stop bar lights in straight sections intended for use in an advanced
surface movement guidance and control system where higher light intensities are required
4/11/99
150
Appendix 2
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Notes:
1. Lights on curves to be toed-in 17 degrees with respect to the tangent of the curve.
2. See collective notes for Figures 2.12 to 2.21.
Figure 2.19. Isocandela diagram for high-intensity taxiway centre line (7.5 m spacing)
and stop bar lights in curved sections intended for use in an advanced
surface movement guidance and control system where higher light intensities are required
151
4/11/99
STDmICAO
ANNEX I,9
VOL I-ENGL
I,997
II
qBLiltYl,b
OLlJ=lO45 823
M
Volume I
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Degrees
vertical
y
T
15
13
IO
5
Degrees
horizontal
Notes:
1. Although the lights flash in normal operation, the light intensity is specified as if the lights were fixed
for incandescent lamps.
2. See collective notes for Figures 2.12 to 2.21.
Figure 2.20. Isocandeladiagram for high-intensity runway guard lights, Configuration B
Degrees
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 2.21 Grid points to be used for calculation of averageintensity
of taxiway centre line and stop bar lights
4/l l/99
152
X
Degrees
horizontal
Appendix 2
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Collective notes to Figures 2.12 to 2.21
1. The intensities specified in Figures 2.12 to 2.20 are in green and yellow light for taxiway centre line lights, yellow light for
runway guard lights and red light for stop bar lights.
2. Figures 2.12 to 2.20 show the minimum allowable light intensities. The average intensity of the main beam is calculated by
establishing grid points as shown in Figure 2.21 and using the intensity values measured at all grid points located within and on
the perimeter of the rectangle representing the main beam. The average value is the arithmetic average of the light intensities
measured at all considered grid points.
3. No deviations are acceptable in the main beam or in the innermost beam, as applicable, when the lighting fixture is properly
aimed.
4. Horizontal angles are measured with respect to the vertical plane through the taxiway centre line except on curves where
they are measured with respect to the tangent to the curve.
5.
Vertical angles are measured from the longitudinal slope of the taxiway surface.
6. The importance of adequate maintenance cannot be over-emphasized. The intensity, either average where applicable or as
specified on the corresponding isocandela curves, should never fall to a value less than 50 per cent of the value shown in the f igures
and it should be the aim of airport authorities to maintain a level of light output close to the specified minimum average intensity.
7. The light unit shall be installed so that the main beam or the innermost beam, as applicable, is aligned within one-half degree
of the specified requirement.
153
4/11/99
STD.ICAO
ANNEX I,4
VOL I-ENGL
I,999
.-._. .----
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OLll=lO’l7
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STDmICAO
ANNEX l,Ll VOL I-ENGL
l,=l=l=l B
qdql,ql,b
~l,nqO’iij
532
m
Annex 14 - Aerodromes
Appendix 2
Degrees in
elevation
I
I
I
4.5
4
3.5
3
I
-
I
1
K.”
White
0
-15
Red
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14 15
Degrees in azimuth
Note 1.-
These curves are for minimum intensities in red light.
Note 2.- The intensity value in the white sector of the beam is no less
than 2 and may be as high as 6.5 times the corresponding intensity in the
red sector.
Note 3.-
The intensity values shown in brackets are for APAPI.
Figure 2.23 Light intensity distribution of PAP1 and APMI
155
4/l 1199
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Notes:
1. Although the lights flash in normal operation, the light intensity is specified as if the lights were fixed
for incandescent lamps.
2. The intensities specified are in yellow light.
Figure 2.24
4/11/99
Isocandela diagram for each light in low-intensity runway guard lights,
Configuration A
156
Appendix 2
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Notes:
1. Although the lights flash in normal operation, the light intensity is specified as if the lights were fixed
for incandescent lamps.
2. The intensities specified are in yellow light.
Figure 2.25.
Isocandela diagram for each light in high-intensity runway guard lights,
Configuration A
157
4/11/99
APPENDIX 3.
MANDATORY INSTRUCTION MARKINGS AND
INFORMATION MARKINGS
Note 1.— See Chapter 5, Sections 5.2.15 and 5.2.16 for
specifications on the application, location and characteristics
of mandatory instruction markings and information markings.
Note 2.— This appendix details the form and proportions of
the letters, numbers and symbols of mandatory instruction
markings and information markings on a 20 cm grid.
4/11/99
158
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
Appendix 3
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
159
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
4/11/99
Volume I
160
Appendix 3
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
161
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
4/11/99
Volume I
162
Appendix 3
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
163
4/11/99
APPENDIX 4.
REQUIREMENTS CONCERNING DESIGN OF
TAXIING GUIDANCE SIGNS
b) Where operations are conducted in accordance with
5.4.1.7 b) and c) and 5.4.1.8, average sign luminance
shall be at least:
Note.— See Chapter 5, Section 5.4 for specifications on the
application, location and characteristics of signs.
Red
Yellow
White
1. Inscription heights shall conform to the following
tabulation.
10 cd/m2
50 cd/m2
100 cd/m2
Minimum character height
Note.— In runway visual range conditions less than a value
of 400 m, there will be some degradation in the performance
of signs.
Information sign
Runway code
number
Mandatory
instruction
sign
Runway exit
and runway
vacated signs
Other signs
1 or 2
300 mm
300 mm
200 mm
3 or 4
400 mm
400 mm
300 mm
5. The luminance ratio between red and white elements of
a mandatory sign shall be between 1:5 and 1:10.
6. The average luminance of the sign is calculated by
establishing grid points as shown in Figure 4.1 and using the
luminance values measured at all grid points located within the
rectangle representing the sign.
Note.— Where a taxiway location sign is installed in
conjunction with a runway designation sign (see 5.4.3.22), the
character size shall be that specified for mandatory instruction
signs.
2.
3.
4.
7. The average value is the arithmetic average of the
luminance values measured at all considered grid points.
Arrow dimensions shall be as follows:
Legend height
Stroke
200 mm
300 mm
400 mm
32 mm
48 mm
64 mm
Note.— Guidance on measuring the average luminance of
a sign is contained in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
8. The ratio between luminance values of adjacent grid
points shall not exceed 1.5:1. For areas on the sign face where
the grid spacing is 7.5 cm, the ratio between luminance values
of adjacent grid points shall not exceed 1.25:1. The ratio
between the maximum and minimum luminance value over the
whole sign face shall not exceed 5:1.
Stroke width for single letter shall be as follows:
Legend height
Stroke
200 mm
300 mm
400 mm
32 mm
48 mm
64 mm
9. The forms of characters, i.e. letters, numbers, arrows
and symbols, shall conform to those shown in Figure 4.2. The
width of characters and the space between individual
characters shall be determined as indicated in Table 4.1.
Sign luminance shall be as follows:
a) Where operations are conducted in runway visual range
conditions less than a value of 800 m, average sign
luminance shall be at least:
Red
Yellow
White
4/11/99
10.
30 cd/m2
150 cd/m2
300 cd/m2
164
The face height of signs shall be as follows:
Legend height
Face height (min)
200 mm
300 mm
400 mm
400 mm
600 mm
800 mm
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
Appendix 4
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
11. The face width of signs shall be determined using
Figure 4.3 except that, where a mandatory instruction sign is
provided on one side of a taxiway only, the face width shall
not be less than:
12.
Borders
a) The black vertical delineator between adjacent direction
signs should have a width of approximately 0.7 of the
stroke width.
a) 1.94 m where the code number is 3 or 4; and
b) The yellow border on a stand-alone location sign should
be approximately 0.5 stroke width.
b) 1.46 m where the code number is 1 or 2.
Note.— Additional guidance on determining the face width
of a sign is contained in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
13. The colours of signs shall be in accordance with the
appropriate specifications in Appendix 1.
165
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Note 1.— The average luminance of a sign is calculated by establishing grid points on a sign face showing typical inscriptions
and a background of the appropriate colour (red for mandatory instruction signs and yellow for direction and destination signs)
as follows:
a) Starting at the top left corner of the sign face, establish a reference grid point at 7.5 cm from the left edge and the top of the
sign face.
b) Create a grid of 15 cm spacing horizontally and vertically from the reference grid point. Grid points within 7.5 cm of the
edge of the sign face shall be excluded.
c) Where the last point in a row/column of grid points is located between 22.5 cm and 15 cm from the edge of the sign face
(but not inclusive), an additional point shall be added 7.5 cm from this point.
d) Where a grid point falls on the boundary of a character and the background, the grid point shall be slightly shifted to be
completely outside the character.
Note 2.— Additional grid points may be required to ensure that each character includes at least five evenly spaced grid points.
Note 3.— Where one unit includes two types of signs, a separate grid shall be established for each type.
Figure 4.1
4/11/99
Grid points for calculating average luminance
of a sign
166
Appendix 4
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Figure 4.2
Forms of characters
167
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Figure 4.2
4/11/99
168
(cont.)
Appendix 4
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Figure 4.2
169
(cont.)
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Figure 4.2
4/11/99
170
(cont.)
Appendix 4
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Figure 4.2
171
(cont.)
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Note 1.— The arrow stroke width, diameter of the dot, and both
width and length of the dash shall be proportioned to the character
stroke widths.
Note 2.— The dimensions of the arrow shall remain constant for
a particular sign size, regardless of orientation.
Figure 4.2
4/11/99
172
(cont.)
Appendix 4
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Table 4-1.
Letter and numeral widths and space between letters or numerals
d) Width of letter
a) Letter to letter code number
Following Letter
Preceding
Letter
B, D, E, F,
H, I, K, L,
M, N, P, R, U
Letter
C, G, O,
Q, S, X, Z
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
4
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
4
4
3
4
3
170
137
137
137
124
124
137
137
32
127
140
124
157
137
143
137
143
137
137
124
137
152
178
137
171
137
Letter
200
Following number
1, 5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2, 3, 6,
8, 9, 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
4, 7
2
2
2
4
2
2
4
2
2
2
200
1
2
3
4
48
38
25
13
Letter Height (mm)
300
Numeral height (mm)
300
400
50
137
137
149
137
137
137
137
137
143
74
205
205
224
205
205
205
205
205
214
98
274
274
298
274
274
274
274
274
286
1. To determine the proper SPACE between letters or numerals, obtain
the code number from table a or b and enter table c for that code
number to the desired letter or numeral height.
2. The space between words or groups of characters forming an
abbreviation or symbol should be equal to 0.5 to 0.75 of the height
of the characters used except that where an arrow is located with a
single character such as ‘A →‘, the space may be reduced to not
less than one quarter of the character of the height in order to
provide a good visual balance.
3. Where the numeral follows a letter or vice versa use Code 1.
4. Where a hyphen, dot, or diagonal stroke follows a character or vice
versa use Code 1.
400
Space (mm)
71
57
38
19
340
274
274
274
248
248
274
274
64
254
280
248
314
274
286
274
286
274
274
248
274
304
356
274
342
274
INSTRUCTIONS
c) Space between characters
Code No.
255
205
205
205
186
186
205
205
48
190
210
186
236
205
214
205
214
205
205
186
205
229
267
205
257
205
Width (mm)
Code number
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
400
e) Width of numeral
b) Numeral to numeral code number
Preceding
Numeral
Letter height (mm)
300
Width (mm)
A, J, T,
V, W, Y
Code number
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
200
96
76
50
26
173
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Figure 4.3 Sign dimensions
4/11/99
174
APPENDIX 5.
AERONAUTICAL DATA QUALITY REQUIREMENTS
Table 1.
Latitude and longitude
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
Aerodrome reference point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 m
surveyed/calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
NAVAIDS located at the aerodrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3m
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Obstacles in the circling area and
at the aerodrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3m
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Significant obstacles in the approach and
take-off area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3m
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Runway threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1m
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Runway end
(flight path alignment point) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1m
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Runway centre line points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1m
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Taxiway centre line points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Aircraft stand-points/INS check-points. . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m
surveyed
routine
1 × 10-3
Latitude and longitude
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
175
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Table 2.
Elevation/Altitude/Height
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
Aerodrome elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
WGS-84 geoid undulation at aerodrome
elevation position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Runway threshold, non-precision approaches. . . . . . . .
0.5 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
WGS-84 geoid undulation at runway threshold,
non-precision approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Runway threshold, precision approaches . . . . . . . . . . .
0.25 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
WGS-84 geoid undulation at runway threshold,
precision approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.25 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Obstacles in the approach and take-off areas . . . . . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Obstacles in the circling areas and
at the aerodrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Distance measuring equipment/precision
(DME/P). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Elevation/altitude/height
Table 3.
Declination and magnetic variation
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
Aerodrome magnetic variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
ILS localizer antenna magnetic variation . . . . . . . . . . .
1 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
MLS azimuth antenna magnetic variation . . . . . . . . . .
1 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Declination/variation
4/11/99
176
Appendix 5
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Table 4.
Bearing
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
ILS localizer alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1/100 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
MLS zero azimuth alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1/100 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Runway bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1/100 degree
surveyed
routine
1 × 10-3
Bearing
Table 5.
Length/Distance/Dimension
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
Runway length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Stopway length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Landing distance available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
ILS localizer antenna-runway end, distance . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
ILS glide slope antenna-threshold,
distance along centre line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
ILS markers-threshold distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
essential
1 × 10-5
ILS DME antenna-threshold,
distance along centre line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
essential
1 × 10-5
MLS azimuth antenna-runway end, distance . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
MLS elevation antenna-threshold,
distance along centre line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
MLS DME/P antenna-threshold,
distance along centre line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
essential
1 × 10-5
Length/distance/dimension
177
4/11/99
APPENDIX 6.
LOCATION OF LIGHTS ON OBSTACLES
Note.— High-intensity obstacle lighting is recommended on structures with a height of more than 150 m above ground level.
If medium-intensity lighting is used, marking will also be required.
Figure 6.1 Medium-intensity flashing-white obstacle lighting system, Type A
4/11/99
178
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
Appendix 6
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Note.— For night-time use only.
Figure 6.2
Medium-intensity flashing-red obstacle lighting system, Type B
179
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Note.— For night-time use only.
Figure 6.3 Medium-intensity fixed-red obstacle lighting system, Type C
4/11/99
180
Appendix 6
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Note.— High-intensity obstacle lighting is recommended on structures with a height of more than 150 m above ground level.
If medium-intensity lighting is used, marking will also be required.
Figure 6.4
Medium-intensity dual obstacle lighting system, Type A/Type B
181
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
Note.— High-intensity obstacle lighting is recommended on structures with a height of more than 150 m above ground level.
If medium-intensity lighting is used, marking will also be required.
Figure 6.5
4/11/99
Medium-intensity dual obstacle lighting system, Type A/Type C
182
Appendix 6
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Figure 6.6
High-intensity flashing-white obstacle lighting system, Type A
183
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Figure 6.7
4/11/99
Volume I
High-/medium-intensity dual obstacle lighting system, Type A/Type B
184
Appendix 6
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Figure 6.8
High-/medium-intensity dual obstacle lighting system, Type A/Type C
185
4/11/99
ATTACHMENT A. GUIDANCE MATERIAL
SUPPLEMENTARY TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I
1.
Number, siting and orientation of runways
6) the runway surface conditions — water, snow and ice
on the runway materially reduce the allowable crosswind component; and
Siting and orientation of runways
7) the strength of the wind associated with the limiting
cross-wind component.
1.1 Many factors should be taken into account in the
determination of the siting and orientation of runways. Without attempting to provide an exhaustive list of these factors nor
an analysis of their effects, it appears useful to indicate those
which most frequently require study. These factors may be
classified under four headings:
A study should also be made of the occurrence of poor visibility and/or low cloud base. Account should be taken of their
frequency as well as the accompanying wind direction and
speed.
1.1.1 Type of operation. Attention should be paid in
particular to whether the aerodrome is to be used in all
meteorological conditions or only in visual meteorological
conditions, and whether it is intended for use by day and night,
or only by day.
1.1.3 Topography of the aerodrome site, its approaches,
and surroundings, particularly:
a) compliance with the obstacle limitation surfaces;
b) current and future land use. The orientation and layout
should be selected so as to protect as far as possible the
particularly sensitive areas such as residential, school
and hospital zones from the discomfort caused by aircraft noise;
1.1.2 Climatological conditions. A study of the wind
distribution should be made to determine the usability factor.
In this regard, the following comments should be taken into
account:
c) current and future runway lengths to be provided;
a) Wind statistics used for the calculation of the usability
factor are normally available in ranges of speed and
direction, and the accuracy of the results obtained
depends, to a large extent, on the assumed distribution
of observations within these ranges. In the absence of
any sure information as to the true distribution, it is
usual to assume a uniform distribution since, in relation
to the most favourable runway orientations, this
generally results in a slightly conservative figure for the
usability factor.
d) construction costs; and
e) possibility of installing suitable non-visual and visual
aids for approach-to-land.
1.1.4 Air traffic in the vicinity of the aerodrome,
particularly:
a) proximity of other aerodromes or ATS routes;
b) The maximum mean cross-wind components given in
Chapter 3, 3.1.2 refer to normal circumstances. There
are some factors which may require that a reduction of
those maximum values be taken into account at a particular aerodrome. These include:
b) traffic density; and
c) air traffic control and missed approach procedures.
Number of runways in each direction
1) the wide variations which may exist, in handling
characteristics and maximum permissible cross-wind
components, among diverse types of aeroplanes
(including future types) within each of the three
groups given in 3.1.2;
1.2 The number of runways to be provided in each direction depends on the number of aircraft movements to be
catered to.
2) prevalence and nature of gusts;
2.
3) prevalence and nature of turbulence;
2.1 The decision to provide a stopway and/or a clearway
as an alternative to an increased length of runway will depend
on the physical characteristics of the area beyond the runway
4) the availability of a secondary runway;
5) the width of runways;
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
Clearways and stopways
187
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
end, and on the operating performance requirements of the
prospective aeroplanes. The runway, stopway and clearway
lengths to be provided are determined by the aeroplane takeoff performance, but a check should also be made of the
landing distance required by the aeroplanes using the runway
to ensure that adequate runway length is provided for landing.
The length of a clearway, however, cannot exceed half the
length of take-off run available.
balanced field length. The balanced field length can, therefore,
be provided by a runway supplemented by an equal length of
clearway and stopway, instead of wholly as a runway. If the
runway is used for take-off in both directions, an equal length
of clearway and stopway has to be provided at each runway
end. The saving in runway length is, therefore, bought at the
cost of a greater over-all length.
2.6 In case economic considerations preclude the provision of stopway and, as a result, only runway and clearway
are to be provided, the runway length (neglecting landing
requirements) should be equal to the accelerate-stop distance
required or the take-off run required, whichever is the greater.
The take-off distance available will be the length of the
runway plus the length of clearway.
2.2 The aeroplane performance operating limitations
require a length which is enough to ensure that the aeroplane
can, after starting a take-off, either be brought safely to a stop
or complete the take-off safely. For the purpose of discussion
it is supposed that the runway, stopway and clearway lengths
provided at the aerodrome are only just adequate for the
aeroplane requiring the longest take-off and accelerate-stop
distances, taking into account its take-off mass, runway
characteristics and ambient atmospheric conditions. Under
these circumstances there is, for each take-off, a speed, called
the decision speed; below this speed, the take-off must be
abandoned if an engine fails, while above it the take-off must
be completed. A very long take-off run and take-off distance
would be required to complete a take-off when an engine fails
before the decision speed is reached, because of the
insufficient speed and the reduced power available. There
would be no difficulty in stopping in the remaining acceleratestop distance available provided action is taken immediately.
In these circumstances the correct course of action would be to
abandon the take-off.
2.7 The minimum runway length and the maximum stopway or clearway length to be provided may be determined as
follows, from the data in the aeroplane flight manual for the
aeroplane considered to be critical from the viewpoint of
runway length requirements:
a) if a stopway is economically possible, the lengths to be
provided are those for the balanced field length. The
runway length is the take-off run required or the landing
distance required, whichever is the greater. If the
accelerate-stop distance required is greater than the
runway length so determined, the excess may be provided as stopway, usually at each end of the runway. In
addition, a clearway of the same length as the stopway
must also be provided;
On the other hand, if an engine fails after the decision speed
is reached, the aeroplane will have sufficient speed and power
available to complete the take-off safely in the remaining takeoff distance available. However, because of the high speed,
there would be difficulty in stopping the aeroplane in the
remaining accelerate-stop distance available.
b) if a stopway is not to be provided, the runway length is
the landing distance required, or if it is greater, the
accelerate-stop distance required, which corresponds to
the lowest practical value of the decision speed. The
excess of the take-off distance required over the runway
length may be provided as clearway, usually at each end
of the runway.
2.3 The decision speed is not a fixed speed for any
aeroplane, but can be selected by the pilot within limits to suit
the accelerate-stop and take-off distance available, aeroplane
take-off mass, runway characteristics, and ambient atmospheric
conditions at the aerodrome. Normally, a higher decision speed
is selected as the accelerate-stop distance available increases.
2.8 In addition to the above consideration, the concept of
clearways in certain circumstances can be applied to a
situation where the take-off distance required for all engines
operating exceeds that required for the engine failure case.
2.4 A variety of combinations of accelerate-stop distances
required and take-off distances required can be obtained to
accommodate a particular aeroplane, taking into account the
aeroplane take-off mass, runway characteristics, and ambient
atmospheric conditions. Each combination requires its particular length of take-off run.
2.9 The economy of a stopway can be entirely lost if, after
each usage, it must be regraded and compacted. Therefore, it
should be designed to withstand at least a certain number of
loadings of the aeroplane which the stopway is intended to
serve without inducing structural damage to the aeroplane.
2.5 The most familiar case is where the decision speed is
such that the take-off distance required is equal to the
accelerate-stop distance required; this value is known as the
balanced field length. Where stopway and clearway are not
provided, these distances are both equal to the runway length.
However, if landing distance is for the moment ignored,
runway is not essential for the whole of the balanced field
length, as the take-off run required is, of course, less than the
4/11/99
3.
Calculation of declared distances
3.1 The declared distances to be calculated for each
runway direction comprise: the take-off run available (TORA),
take-off distance available (TODA), accelerate-stop distance
available (ASDA), and landing distance available (LDA).
188
Attachment A
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
3.2 Where a runway is not provided with a stopway or
clearway and the threshold is located at the extremity of the
runway, the four declared distances should normally be equal
to the length of the runway, as shown in Figure A-1 (A).
4.2 Consideration of longitudinal and
transverse slopes
When a runway is planned that will combine the extreme
values for the slopes and changes in slope permitted under
Chapter 3, 3.1.12 to 3.1.18, a study should be made to ensure
that the resulting surface profile will not hamper the operation
of aeroplanes.
3.3 Where a runway is provided with a clearway (CWY),
then the TODA will include the length of clearway, as shown
in Figure A-1 (B).
3.4 Where a runway is provided with a stopway (SWY),
then the ASDA will include the length of stopway, as shown
in Figure A-1 (C).
4.3
In order to accommodate aeroplanes making auto-coupled
approaches and automatic landings (irrespective of weather
conditions) it is desirable that slope changes be avoided or
kept to a minimum, on a rectangular area at least 300 m long
before the threshold of a precision approach runway. The area
should be symmetrical about the extended centre line, 120 m
wide. When special circumstances so warrant, the width may
be reduced to no less than 60 m if an aeronautical study
indicates that such reduction would not affect the safety of
operations of aircraft. This is desirable because these aeroplanes are equipped with a radio altimeter for final height and
flare guidance, and when the aeroplane is above the terrain
immediately prior to the threshold, the radio altimeter will
begin to provide information to the automatic pilot for autoflare. Where slope changes cannot be avoided, the rate of
change between two consecutive slopes should not exceed
2 per cent per 30 m.
3.5 Where a runway has a displaced threshold, then the
LDA will be reduced by the distance the threshold is displaced, as shown in Figure A-1 (D). A displaced threshold
affects only the LDA for approaches made to that threshold;
all declared distances for operations in the reciprocal direction
are unaffected.
3.6 Figures A-1 (B) through A-1 (D) illustrate a runway
provided with a clearway or a stopway or having a displaced
threshold. Where more than one of these features exist, then
more than one of the declared distances will be modified —
but the modification will follow the same principle illustrated.
An example showing a situation where all these features exist
is shown in Figure A-1 (E).
3.7 A suggested format for providing information on
declared distances is given in Figure A-1 (F). If a runway direction cannot be used for take-off or landing, or both, because
it is operationally forbidden, then this should be declared and
the words “not usable” or the abbreviation “NU” entered.
5.
4.
Radio altimeter operating area
Runway surface evenness
5.1 In adopting tolerances for runway surface irregularities, the following standard of construction is achievable
for short distances of 3 m and conforms to good engineering
practice:
Slopes on a runway
4.1 Distance between slope changes
The following example illustrates how the distance between
slope changes is to be determined (see Figure A-2):
Except across the crown of a camber or across drainage
channels, the finished surface of the wearing course is to be
of such regularity that, when tested with a 3 m straightedge placed anywhere in any direction on the surface, there
is no deviation greater than 3 mm between the bottom of
the straight-edge and the surface of the pavement anywhere
along the straight edge.
D for a runway where the code number is 3 should be at
least:
15 000 (|x – y| + |y – z|) m
|x – y| being the absolute numerical value of x – y
|y – z| being the absolute numerical value of y – z
5.2 Caution should also be exercised when inserting
runway lights or drainage grilles in runway surfaces to ensure
that adequate smoothness of the surface is maintained.
Assuming x = + 0.01
Assuming y = –0.005
Assuming z = +0.005
then |x – y| = 0.015
then |y – z| = 0.01
5.3 The operation of aircraft and differential settlement of
surface foundations will eventually lead to increases in surface
irregularities. Small deviations in the above tolerances will not
seriously hamper aircraft operations. In general, isolated irregularities of the order of 2.5 cm to 3 cm over a 45 m distance are
tolerable. Exact information of the maximum acceptable deviation cannot be given, as it varies with the type and speed of
an aircraft.
To comply with the specifications, D should be not less
than:
that is, 15 000 (0.015 + 0.01) m,
that is, 15 000 × 0.025 = 375 m
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STD.ICAO
ANNEX I,4
VOL I-ENGL
I,999
-
qB914Lb
OLO9L1i32 7TO E
Volume I
Annex I4 - Aerodromes
D
B
CWY
TORA
e
Note.-
All declared distances are itiustrated for operations from left to right
-s3
RUNWAY
RUNWAY
09
Figure A-l.
4/11/99
f TORA
1 ASDA
In
m
2 000
2 300
/
TODA
m
1
LDA
m
2 580 I 1850
Illustration of declareddistances
1
STD=ICAO ANNEX /II
VOL I-ENGL
I,‘799
E
'484l,4l,b CJl,O=lll83b37 m
AttachmentA
Annex I4 - Aerodromes
Point of
intersection
Figure A-2.
Profile on centreline of runway
5.4 Deformation of the runway with time may also
increasethe possibility of the formation of water pools. Pools
as shallow as approximately3 mm in depth, particularly if
they are located where they are likely to be encounteredat
high speedby landing aeroplanes,can induce aquaplaning,
which can then be sustainedon a wet runway by a much
shallower.depth of water. Improved guidanceregardingthe
significantlength and depthof pools relative to aquaplaningis
the subject of further research.It is, of course, especially
necessaryto prevent pools from forming wheneverthere is a
possibility that they might becomefrozen.
6.
measuringof the maximum friction along the entire runway.
Measuring techniquesand information on limitations of the
various friction measuring devices and precautionsto be
observedare given in the Airport ServicesManual, Part 2.
6.4 A chart, basedon resultsof testsconductedon selected ice- or snow-coveredsurfaces,showing the correlation
betweencertain friction measuringdevices on ice- or snowcoveredsurfacesis presentedin the Airport ServicesManual,
Part 2.
6.5 The friction conditions of a runway should be
expressedas “braking action information” in terms of the
measuredfriction coefficient p or estimatedbraking action.
Specific numerical p values are necessarilyrelated to the
design and constructionof each friction measuringdevice as
well as to the surfacebeing measuredand the speedemployed.
Determining and expressing the friction characteristics
of snow- and ice-covered paved surfaces
6.1 There is an operationalneedfor reliable and uniform
information concerningthe friction characteristicsof ice- and
snow-coveredrunways. Accurate and reliable indications of
surface friction characteristicscan be obtained by friction
measuringdevices;however, further experienceis requiredto
correlatethe resultsobtainedby such equipmentwith aircraft
performance,owing to the many variables involved, such as:
aircraft mass, speed, braking mechanism,tire and undercarriagecharacteristics.
6.6 The table below with associateddescriptivetermswas
developedfrom friction datacollectedonly in compactedsnow
andice and shouldnot thereforebe taken to be absolutevalues
applicablein all conditions.If the surfaceis affectedby snow
or ice and the braking action is reported as “good”, pilots
shouldnot expectto find conditionsas good as on a cleandry
runway (wherethe availablefriction may well be greaterthan
that neededin any case).The value “good” is a comparative
value and is intended to mean that aeroplanesshould not
experience directional control or braking difficulties,
especiallywhen landing.
6.2 The friction coefficient should be measuredif a runway is coveredwholly or partly by snow or ice and repeated
as conditions change.Friction measurementsand/or braking
action assessments
on surfacesother than runwaysshould be
made when an unsatisfactory friction condition can be
expectedon such surfaces.
6.3 The measurementof the friction coefficient provides
the best basis for determiningsurfacefriction conditions.The
value of surfacefriction shouldbe the maximum value which
occurs when a wheel is slipping but still rolling. Various
friction measuring devices may be used. As there is an
operationalneedfor uniformity in the methodof assessingand
reportingrunway friction conditions,the measurements
should
preferablybe madewith equipmentwhich providescontinuous
Measured
coeficient
Estimated
braking
action
0.40 and above
0.39 to 0.36
0.35 to 0.30
0.29 to 0.26
0.25 and below
Good
Medium to good
Medium
Medium to poor
Poor
Code
5
4
3
2
1
6.7 It hasbeenfound necessaryto provide surfacefriction
information for eachthird of a runway. The thirds are called
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
A, B and C. For the purpose of reporting information to
aeronautical service units, section A is always the section
associated with the lower runway designation number. When
giving landing information to a pilot before landing, the
sections are however referred to as first, second or third part
of the runway. The first part always means the first third of the
runway as seen in the direction of landing. Friction measurements are made along two lines parallel to the runway, i.e.
along a line on each side of the centre line approximately 3 m
or that distance from the centre line at which most operations
take place. The objective of the tests is to determine the mean
friction value for sections A, B and C. In cases where a
continuous friction measuring device is used, the mean values
are obtained from the friction values recorded for each section.
The distance between each test point should be approximately
10 per cent of the usable length of the runway. If it is decided
that a single test line on one side of the runway centre line
gives adequate coverage of the runway, then it follows that
each third of the runway should have three tests carried out on
it. Test results and calculated mean friction values are entered
in a special form (see Airport Services Manual, Part 2).
c) determine the effect on friction when drainage characteristics are poor (Chapter 9, 9.4.8); and
d) determine the friction of paved runways that become
slippery under unusual conditions (Chapter 2, 2.9.8).
7.2 Runways should be evaluated when first constructed
or after resurfacing to determine the wet runway surface
friction characteristics. Although it is recognized that friction
reduces with use, this value will represent the friction of the
relatively long central portion of the runway that is uncontaminated by rubber deposits from aircraft operations and is
therefore of operational value. Evaluation tests should be made
on clean surfaces. If it is not possible to clean a surface before
testing, then for purposes of preparing an initial report a test
could be made on a portion of clean surface in the central part
of the runway.
7.3 Friction tests of existing surface conditions should be
taken periodically in order to identify runways with low
friction when wet. A State should define what minimum
friction level it considers acceptable before a runway is
classified as slippery when wet and publish this value in the
State’s aeronautical information publication (AIP). When the
friction of a runway is found to be below this reported value,
then such information should be promulgated by NOTAM.
The State should also establish a maintenance planning level,
below which, appropriate corrective maintenance action
should be initiated to improve the friction. However, when the
friction characteristics for either the entire runway or a portion
thereof are below the minimum friction level, corrective
maintenance action must be taken without delay. Friction
measurements should be taken at intervals that will ensure
identification of runways in need of maintenance or special
surface treatment before the condition becomes serious. The
time interval between measurements will depend on factors
such as: aircraft type and frequency of usage, climatic conditions, pavement type, and pavement service and maintenance
requirements.
Note.— Where applicable, figures for stopway friction
value should also be made available on request.
6.8 A continuous friction measuring device (e.g.
Skiddometer, Surface Friction Tester, Mu-meter, Runway
Friction Tester or Grip Tester), can be used for measuring the
friction values for compacted snow- and ice-covered runways.
A decelerometer (e.g. Tapley Meter or Brakemeter — Dynometer) may be used on certain surface conditions, e.g.
compacted snow, ice and very thin layers of dry snow. Other
friction measuring devices can be used, provided they have
been correlated with at least one of the types mentioned above.
A decelerometer should not be used in loose snow or slush, as
it can give misleading friction values. Other friction measuring
devices can also give misleading friction values under certain
combinations of contaminants and air/pavement temperature.
7.4 For uniformity and to permit comparison with other
runways, friction tests of existing, new or resurfaced runways
should be made with a continuous friction measuring device
provided with a smooth tread tire. The device should have a
capability of using self-wetting features to enable measurements of the friction characteristics of the surface to be made
at a water depth of at least 1 mm.
6.9 The Airport Services Manual, Part 2 provides guidance on the uniform use of test equipment to achieve
compatible test results and other information on removal of
surface contamination and improvement of friction conditions.
7.
7.5 When it is suspected that the friction characteristics of
a runway may be reduced because of poor drainage, owing to
inadequate slopes or depressions, then an additional test
should be made, but this time under natural conditions
representative of a local rain. This test differs from the
previous one in that water depths in the poorly cleared areas
are normally greater in a local rain condition. The test results
are thus more apt to identify problem areas having low friction
values that could induce aquaplaning than the previous test. If
circumstances do not permit tests to be conducted during
natural conditions representative of a rain, then this condition
may be simulated.
Determination of friction characteristics
of wet paved runways
7.1 The friction of a wet paved runway should be
measured to:
a) verify the friction characteristics of new or resurfaced
paved runways when wet (Chapter 3, 3.1.23);
b) assess periodically the slipperiness of paved runways
when wet (Chapter 9, 9.4.5);
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Attachment A
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
7.6 Even when the friction has been found to be above
the level set by the State to define a slippery runway, it may
be known that under unusual conditions, such as after a long
dry period, the runway may have become slippery. When such
a condition is known to exist, then a friction measurement
should be made as soon as it is suspected that the runway may
have become slippery.
a) a maintenance friction level below which corrective
maintenance action should be initiated; and
b) a minimum friction level below which information that
a runway may be slippery when wet should be made
available.
Furthermore, States should establish criteria for the friction
characteristics of new or resurfaced runway surfaces.
Table A-1 provides guidance on establishing the design objective for new runway surfaces and maintenance planning and
minimum friction levels for runway surfaces in use.
7.7 When the results of any of the measurements identified in 7.3 through 7.6 indicate that only a particular portion
of a runway surface is slippery, then action to promulgate this
information and, if appropriate, take corrective action is
equally important.
7.10 The friction values given above are absolute values
and are intended to be applied without any tolerance. These
values were developed from a research study conducted in a
State. The two friction measuring tires mounted on the Mumeter were smooth tread and had a special rubber formulation,
i.e. Type A. The tires were tested at a 15 degree included angle
of alignment along the longitudinal axis of the trailer. The
single friction measuring tires mounted on the Skiddometer,
Surface Friction Tester, Runway Friction Tester and TATRA
were smooth tread and used the same rubber formulation, i.e.
Type B. The GRIPTESTER was tested with a single smooth
tread tire having the same rubber formulation as Type B but
the size was smaller, i.e. Type C. The specifications of these
tires (i.e. Types A, B and C) are contained in the Airport
Services Manual, Part 2. Friction measuring devices using
rubber formulation, tire tread/groove patterns, water depth, tire
pressures, or test speeds different from those used in the
programme described above, cannot be directly equated
with the friction values given in the table. The values in
columns (5), (6) and (7) are averaged values representative of
7.8 When conducting friction tests on wet runways, it is
important to note that, unlike compacted snow and ice
conditions, in which there is very limited variation of the
friction coefficient with speed, a wet runway produces a drop
in friction with an increase in speed. However, as the speed
increases, the rate at which the friction is reduced becomes less.
Among the factors affecting the friction coefficient between the
tire and the runway surface, texture is particularly important. If
the runway has a good macro-texture allowing the water to
escape beneath the tire, then the friction value will be less
affected by speed. Conversely, a low macro-texture surface will
produce a larger drop in friction with increase in speed.
Accordingly, when testing runways to determine their friction
characteristics and whether maintenance action is necessary to
improve it, a speed high enough to reveal these friction/speed
variations should be used.
7.9 Annex 14, Volume I requires States to specify two
friction levels as follows:
Table A-1.
Test tire
Test equipment
Type
(1)
Pressure
(kPa)
(2)
Test speed
(km/h)
Test water
depth
(mm)
Design
objective
for new
surface
Maintenance
planning
level
Minimum
friction
level
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Mu-meter Trailer
A
A
70
70
65
95
1.0
1.0
0.72
0.66
0.52
0.38
0.42
0.26
Skiddometer Trailer
B
B
210
210
65
95
1.0
1.0
0.82
0.74
0.60
0.47
0.50
0.34
Surface Friction
Tester Vehicle
B
B
210
210
65
95
1.0
1.0
0.82
0.74
0.60
0.47
0.50
0.34
Runway Friction
Tester Vehicle
B
B
210
210
65
95
1.0
1.0
0.82
0.74
0.60
0.54
0.50
0.41
TATRA Friction
Tester Vehicle
B
B
210
210
65
95
1.0
1.0
0.76
0.67
0.57
0.52
0.48
0.42
GRIPTESTER
Trailer
C
C
140
140
65
95
1.0
1.0
0.74
0.64
0.53
0.36
0.43
0.24
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4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
the runway or significant portion thereof. It is considered
desirable to test the friction characteristics of a paved runway
at more than one speed.
other objects mounted in the strip or at the intersection with
a taxiway or another runway. In the case of construction, such
as runways or taxiways, where the surface must also be flush
with the strip surface, a vertical face can be eliminated by
chamfering from the top of the construction to not less than
30 cm below the strip surface level. Other objects, the
functions of which do not require them to be at surface level,
should be buried to a depth of not less than 30 cm.
7.11 Other friction measuring devices can be used,
provided they have been correlated with at least one test
equipment mentioned above. The Airport Services Manual,
Part 2 provides guidance on the methodology for determining
the friction values corresponding to the design objective,
maintenance planning level and minimum friction level for a
friction tester not identified in the above table.
8.
8.1
8.3
Grading of a strip for precision
approach runways
Chapter 3, 3.3.8 recommends that the portion of a strip of an
instrument runway within at least 75 m from the centre line
should be graded where the code number is 3 or 4. For a
precision approach runway, it may be desirable to adopt a
greater width where the code number is 3 or 4. Figure A-3
shows the shape and dimensions of a wider strip that may be
considered for such a runway. This strip has been designed
using information on aircraft running off runways. The portion
to be graded extends to a distance of 105 m from the centre
line, except that the distance is gradually reduced to 75 m from
the centre line at both ends of the strip, for a length of 150 m
from the runway end.
Strips
Shoulders
8.1.1 The shoulder of a runway or stopway should be
prepared or constructed so as to minimize any hazard to an
aeroplane running off the runway or stopway. Some guidance
is given in the following paragraphs on certain special problems which may arise, and on the further question of measures
to avoid the ingestion of loose stones or other objects by
turbine engines.
8.1.2 In some cases, the bearing strength of the natural
ground in the strip may be sufficient, without special preparation, to meet the requirements for shoulders. Where special
preparation is necessary, the method used will depend on local
soil conditions and the mass of the aeroplanes the runway is
intended to serve. Soil tests will help in determining the best
method of improvement (e.g. drainage, stabilization, surfacing,
light paving).
9.
Runway end safety areas
9.1 Where a runway end safety area is provided in
accordance with Chapter 3, consideration should be given to
providing an area long enough to contain overruns and
undershoots resulting from a reasonably probable combination
of adverse operational factors. On a precision approach
runway, the ILS localizer is normally the first upstanding
obstacle, and the runway end safety area should extend up to
this facility. In other circumstances and on a non-precision
approach or non-instrument runway, the first upstanding
obstacle may be a road, a railroad or other constructed or
natural feature. In such circumstances, the runway end safety
area should extend as far as the obstacle.
8.1.3 Attention should also be paid when designing
shoulders to prevent the ingestion of stones or other objects by
turbine engines. Similar considerations apply here to those
which are discussed for the margins of taxiways in the
Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 2, both as to the special
measures which may be necessary and as to the distance over
which such special measures, if required, should be taken.
9.2 Where provision of a runway end safety area may
involve encroachment in areas where it would be particularly
prohibitive to implement, and the appropriate authority considers a runway end safety area essential, consideration may
have to be given to reducing some of the declared distances.
8.1.4 Where shoulders have been treated specially, either
to provide the required bearing strength or to prevent the
presence of stones or debris, difficulties may arise because of
a lack of visual contrast between the runway surface and that
of the adjacent strip. This difficulty can be overcome either by
providing a good visual contrast in the surfacing of the runway
or strip, or by providing a runway side stripe marking.
10. Location of threshold
8.2
Objects on strips
Within the general area of the strip adjacent to the runway,
measures should be taken to prevent an aeroplane’s wheel,
when sinking into the ground, from striking a hard vertical
face. Special problems may arise for runway light fittings or
4/11/99
10.1 General
10.1.1 The threshold is normally located at the extremity
of a runway, if there are no obstacles penetrating above the
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Figure A-3.
Graded portion of a strip including a precision approachrunway
where the code number is 3 or 4
relation to the threshold and extendedcentre line and, in the
case of a precision approachrunway, the significance of the
obstaclesto the determinationof the obstacleclearancelimit.
approachsurface.In some cases,however, due to local conditions it may be desirable to displace the threshold permanently (seebelow). When studying the location of a threshold,
considerationshould also be given to the height of the ILS
reference datum and/or MLS approach reference datum and
the determination of the obstacle clearance limits. (Specifications concerningthe height of the ILS referencedatum and
MLS approach reference datum are given in Annex 10,
Volume I, Part I.)
10.2.4 Notwithstanding the consideration of landing
distance available, the selected position for the threshold
should not be such that the obstacle-freesurfaceto the threshold is steeperthan 3.3 per cent where the code number is 4 or
steeperthan 5 per cent where the code number is 3.
10.2.5 In the event of a thresholdbeing located according
to the criteria for obstacle-freesurfacesin the precedingparagraph, the obstaclemarking requirementsof Chapter 6 should
continue to be met in relation to the displacedthreshold.
10.1.2 In determiningthat no obstaclepenetrateabove the
approachsurface, account should be taken of mobile objects
(vehicles on roads, trains, etc.) at least within that portion of
the approach area within 1 200 m longitudinally from the
thresholdand of an over-all width of not less than 150 m.
10.2 Displaced threshold
11.
10.2.1 If an object extends above the approach surface
and the object cannot be removed, consideration should be
given to displacing the threshold permanently.
Approach lighting systems
11.1 Types and characteristics
11.l.l The specificationsin this volume provide for the
basic characteristicsfor simple and precision approachlighting
systems.For certain aspectsof thesesystems,some latitude is
permitted, for example, in the spacing between centre line
lights and crossbars.The approachlighting patternsthat have
been generally adoptedare shown in Figures A-5 and A-6. A
diagram of the inner 300 m of the precision approachcategory
II and III lighting systemis shown in Figure 5-10.
10.2.2 To meet the obstacle limitation objectives of
Chapter 4, the thresholdshould ideally be displaceddown the
runway for the distancenecessaryto provide that the approach
surfaceis clearedof obstacles.
10.2.3 However, displacementof the threshold from the
runway extremity will inevitably cause reduction of the
landing distance available, and this may be of greater operational significancethan penetration of the approachsurface
by marked and lighted obstacles.A decision to displace the
threshold, and the extent of such displacement, should
therefore have regard to an optimum balance between the
considerationsof clear approachsurfacesand adequatelanding
distance. In deciding this question, account will need to be
taken of the types of aeroplaneswhich the runway is intended
to serve,the limiting visibility and cloud baseconditionsunder
which the runway will be used,the position of the obstaclesin
11.1.2 The approach lighting configuration is to be
provided irrespective of the location of the threshold, i.e.
whether the threshold is at the extremity of the runway or
displaced from the runway extremity. In both cases, the
approach lighting system should extend up to the threshold.
However, in the caseof a displacedthreshold, inset lights are
used from the runway extremity up to the threshold to obtain
the.,specifiedconfiguration. Theseinset lights are designedto
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Volume I
satisfy the structural requirements specified in Chapter 5,
5.3.1.8, and the photometric requirements specified in Appendix 2, Figure 2.1 or 2.2.
undershoot. Beyond the stopway and clearway, it is not so
necessary for the lights to be mounted close to the ground and
therefore undulations in the ground contours can be compensated for by mounting the lights on poles of appropriate height.
11.1.3 Flight path envelopes to be used in designing the
lighting are shown in Figure A-4.
11.2.9 It is desirable that the lights be mounted so that, as
far as possible, no object within a distance of 60 m on each
side of the centre line protrudes through the plane of the
approach lighting system. Where a tall object exists within
60 m of the centre line and within 1 350 m from the threshold
for a precision approach lighting system, or 900 m for a simple
approach lighting system, it may be advisable to install the
lights so that the plane of the outer half of the pattern clears
the top of the object.
11.2 Installation tolerances
Horizontal
11.2.1
ure A-6.
The dimensional tolerances are shown in Fig-
11.2.10 In order to avoid giving a misleading impression
of the plane of the ground, the lights should not be mounted
below a gradient of 1 in 66 downwards from the threshold to
a point 300 m out, and below a gradient of 1 in 40 beyond the
300 m point. For a precision approach category II and III
lighting system, more stringent criteria may be necessary, e.g.
negative slopes not permitted within 450 m of the threshold.
11.2.2 The centre line of an approach lighting system
should be as coincident as possible with the extended centre
line of the runway with a maximum tolerance of ± 15′.
11.2.3 The longitudinal spacing of the centre line lights
should be such that one light (or group of lights) is located in
the centre of each crossbar, and the intervening centre line
lights are spaced as evenly as practicable between two crossbars or a crossbar and a threshold.
11.2.11 Centre line. The gradients of the centre line in
any section (including a stopway or clearway) should be as
small as practicable, and the changes in gradients should be as
few and small as can be arranged and should not exceed 1 in
60. Experience has shown that as one proceeds outwards from
the runway, rising gradients in any section of up to 1 in 66,
and falling gradients of down to 1 in 40, are acceptable.
11.2.4 The crossbars and barrettes should be at right
angles to the centre line of the approach lighting system with
a tolerance of ± 30′, if the pattern in Figure A-6 (A) is adopted
or ± 2°, if Figure A-6 (B) is adopted.
11.2.5 When a crossbar has to be displaced from its
standard position, any adjacent crossbar should, where
possible, be displaced by appropriate amounts in order to
reduce the differences in the crossbar spacing.
11.2.12 Crossbars. The crossbar lights should be so
arranged as to lie on a straight line passing through the
associated centre line lights, and wherever possible this line
should be horizontal. It is permissible, however, to mount the
lights on a transverse gradient not more than 1 in 80, if this
enables crossbar lights within a stopway or clearway to be
mounted nearer to the ground on sites where there is a crossfall.
11.2.6 When a crossbar in the system shown in Figure A-6 (A) is displaced from its standard position, its overall length should be adjusted so that it remains one-twentieth
of the actual distance of the crossbar from the point of origin.
It is not necessary, however, to adjust the standard 2.7 m
spacing between the crossbar lights, but the crossbars should
be kept symmetrical about the centre line of the approach
lighting.
11.3
11.3.1 An area, hereinafter referred to as the light plane,
has been established for obstacle clearance purposes, and all
lights of the system are in this plane. This plane is rectangular
in shape and symmetrically located about the approach
lighting system’s centre line. It starts at the threshold and
extends 60 m beyond the approach end of the system, and is
120 m wide.
Vertical
11.2.7 The ideal arrangement is to mount all the approach
lights in the horizontal plane passing through the threshold
(see Figure A-7), and this should be the general aim as far as
local conditions permit. However, buildings, trees, etc., should
not obscure the lights from the view of a pilot who is assumed
to be 1° below the electronic glide path in the vicinity of the
outer marker.
11.3.2 No objects are permitted to exist within the
boundaries of the light plane which are higher than the light
plane except as designated herein. All roads and highways are
considered as obstacles extending 4.8 m above the crown of
the road, except aerodrome service roads where all vehicular
traffic is under control of the aerodrome authorities and coordinated with the aerodrome traffic control tower. Railroads,
regardless of the amount of traffic, are considered as obstacles
extending 5.4 m above the top of the rails.
11.2.8 Within a stopway or clearway, and within 150 m
of the end of a runway, the lights should be mounted as near
to the ground as local conditions permit in order to minimize
risk of damage to aeroplanes in the event of an overrun or
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Clearance of obstacles
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11.3.3 It is recognized that some components of electronic landing aids systems, such as reflectors, antennas,
monitors, etc., must be installed above the light plane. Every
effort should be made to relocate such components outside the
boundaries of the light plane. In the case of reflectors and
monitors, this can be done in many instances.
may be located so close to the threshold that they cannot be
cleared by the 2 per cent slope. Where such conditions exist
and no alternative is possible, the 2 per cent slope may be
exceeded or a “stair step” resorted to in order to keep the
approach lights above the objects. Such “step” or increased
gradients should be resorted to only when it is impracticable to
follow standard slope criteria, and they should be held to the
absolute minimum. Under this criterion no negative slope is
permitted in the outermost portion of the system.
11.3.4 Where an ILS localizer is installed within the light
plane boundaries, it is recognized that the localizer, or screen
if used, must extend above the light plane. In such cases the
height of these structures should be held to a minimum and
they should be located as far from the threshold as possible. In
general the rule regarding permissible heights is 15 cm for
each 30 m the structure is located from the threshold. As an
example, if the localizer is located 300 m from the threshold,
the screen will be permitted to extend above the plane of the
approach lighting system by 10 × 15 = 150 cm maximum, but
preferably should be kept as low as possible consistent with
proper operation of the ILS.
11.4
Consideration of the effects
of reduced lengths
11.4.1 The need for an adequate approach lighting system
to support precision approaches where the pilot is required to
acquire visual references prior to landing, cannot be stressed
too strongly. The safety and regularity of such operations is
dependent on this visual acquisition. The height above runway
threshold at which the pilot decides there are sufficient visual
cues to continue the precision approach and land will vary,
depending on the type of approach being conducted and other
factors such as meteorological conditions, ground and airborne equipment, etc. The required length of approach lighting
system which will support all the variations of such approaches is 900 m, and this shall always be provided whenever possible.
11.3.5 In locating an MLS azimuth antenna the guidance
contained in Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment G to Part I
should be followed. This material, which also provides
guidance on collocating an MLS azimuth antenna with an ILS
localizer antenna, suggests that the MLS azimuth antenna may
be sited within the light plane boundaries where it is not
possible or practical to locate it beyond the outer end of the
approach lighting for the opposite direction of approach. If the
MLS azimuth antenna is located on the extended centre line of
the runway, it should be as far as possible from the closest
light position to the MLS azimuth antenna in the direction of
the runway end. Furthermore, the MLS azimuth antenna phase
centre should be at least 0.3 m above the light centre of the
light position closest to the MLS azimuth antenna in the
direction of the runway end. (This could be relaxed to 0.15 m
if the site is otherwise free of significant multipath problems.)
Compliance with this requirement, which is intended to ensure
that the MLS signal quality is not affected by the approach
lighting system, could result in the partial obstruction of the
lighting system by the MLS azimuth antenna. To ensure that
the resulting obstruction does not degrade visual guidance
beyond an acceptable level, the MLS azimuth antenna should
not be located closer to the runway end than 300 m and the
preferred location is 25 m beyond the 300 m crossbar (this
would place the antenna 5 m behind the light position 330 m
from the runway end). Where an MLS azimuth antenna is so
located, a central part of the 300 m crossbar of the approach
lighting system would alone be partially obstructed. Nevertheless, it is important to ensure that the unobstructed lights of
the crossbar remain serviceable all the time.
11.4.2 However, there are some runway locations where
it is impossible to provide the 900 m length of approach
lighting system to support precision approaches.
11.4.3 In such cases, every effort should be made to
provide as much approach lighting system as possible. The
appropriate authority may impose restrictions on operations to
runways equipped with reduced lengths of lighting. There are
many factors which determine at what height the pilot must
have decided to continue the approach to land or execute a
missed approach. It must be understood that the pilot does not
make an instantaneous judgement upon reaching a specified
height. The actual decision to continue the approach and
landing sequence is an accumulative process which is only
concluded at the specified height. Unless lights are available
prior to reaching the decision point, the visual assessment
process is impaired and the likelihood of missed approaches
will increase substantially. There are many operational considerations which must be taken into account by the
appropriate authorities in deciding if any restrictions are
necessary to any precision approach and these are detailed in
Annex 6.
11.3.6 Objects existing within the boundaries of the light
plane, requiring the light plane to be raised in order to meet the
criteria contained herein, should be removed, lowered or
relocated where this can be accomplished more economically
than raising the light plane.
12. Priority of installation of visual approach
slope indicator systems
12.1 It has been found impracticable to develop guidance
material that will permit a completely objective analysis to be
made of which runway on an aerodrome should receive first
11.3.7 In some instances objects may exist which cannot
be removed, lowered or relocated economically. These objects
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Volume I
priority for the installation of a visual approach slope indicator
system. However, factors that must be considered when
making such a decision are:
when the area is large or of unusual configuration. At least one
light should be installed for each 7.5 m of peripheral distance
of the area. If the lights are directional, they should be
orientated so that as far as possible their beams are aligned in
the direction from which aircraft or vehicles will approach.
Where aircraft or vehicles will normally approach from several
directions, consideration should be given to adding extra lights
or using omnidirectional lights to show the area from these
directions. Unserviceable area lights should be frangible. Their
height should be sufficiently low to preserve clearance for
propellers and for engine pods of jet aircraft.
a) frequency of use;
b) seriousness of the hazard;
c) presence of other visual and non-visual aids;
d) type of aeroplanes using the runway; and
e) frequency and type of adverse weather conditions under
which the runway will be used.
14.
12.2 With respect to the seriousness of the hazard, the
order given in the application specifications for a visual
approach slope indicator system, 5.3.5.1 b) to e) of Chapter 5
may be used as a general guide. These may be summarized as:
14.1 The conspicuity of a light depends on the impression
received of contrast between the light and its background. If a
light is to be useful to a pilot by day when on approach, it must
have an intensity of at least 2 000 or 3 000 cd, and in the case
of approach lights an intensity of the order of 20 000 cd is
desirable. In conditions of very bright daylight fog it may not
be possible to provide lights of sufficient intensity to be
effective. On the other hand, in clear weather on a dark night,
an intensity of the order of 100 cd for approach lights and
50 cd for the runway edge lights may be found suitable. Even
then, owing to the closer range at which they are viewed,
pilots have sometimes complained that the runway edge lights
seemed unduly bright.
a) inadequate visual guidance because of:
1) approaches over water or featureless terrain, or
absence of sufficient extraneous light in the approach
area by night;
2) deceptive surrounding terrain;
b) serious hazard in approach;
c) serious hazard if aeroplanes undershoot or overrun; and
14.2 In fog the amount of light scattered is high. At night
this scattered light increases the brightness of the fog over the
approach area and runway to the extent that little increase in
the visual range of the lights can be obtained by increasing
their intensity beyond 2 000 or 3 000 cd. In an endeavour to
increase the range at which lights would first be sighted at
night, their intensity must not be raised to an extent that a pilot
might find excessively dazzling at diminished range.
d) unusual turbulence.
12.3 The presence of other visual or non-visual aids is a
very important factor. Runways equipped with ILS or MLS
would generally receive the lowest priority for a visual
approach slope indicator system installation. It must be
remembered, though, that visual approach slope indicator
systems are visual approach aids in their own right and can
supplement electronic aids. When serious hazards exist and/or
a substantial number of aeroplanes not equipped for ILS or
MLS use a runway, priority might be given to installing a
visual approach slope indicator on this runway.
14.3 From the foregoing will be evident the importance
of adjusting the intensity of the lights of an aerodrome lighting
system according to the prevailing conditions, so as to obtain
the best results without excessive dazzle that would disconcert
the pilot. The appropriate intensity setting on any particular
occasion will depend both on the conditions of background
brightness and the visibility. Detailed guidance material on
selecting intensity setting for different conditions is given in
the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 4.
12.4 Priority should be given to runways used by turbojet aeroplanes.
13.
Lighting of unserviceable areas
13.1 Where a temporarily unserviceable area exists, it
may be marked with fixed-red lights. These lights should mark
the most potentially dangerous extremities of the area. A
minimum of four such lights should be used, except where the
area is triangular in shape where a minimum of three lights
may be employed. The number of lights should be increased
4/11/99
Intensity control of approach
and runway lights
15.
Signal area
A signal area need be provided only when it is intended to use
visual ground signals to communicate with aircraft in flight.
Such signals may be needed when the aerodrome does not
have an aerodrome control tower or an aerodrome flight
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Attachment A
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
information service unit, or when the aerodrome is used by
aeroplanes not equipped with radio. Visual ground signals may
also be useful in the case of failure of two-way radio
communication with aircraft. It should be recognized, however, that the type of information which may be conveyed by
visual ground signals should normally be available in AIPs or
NOTAM. The potential need for visual ground signals should
therefore be evaluated before deciding to provide a signal area.
a) airport familiarization;
b) aircraft familiarization;
c) rescue and fire fighting personnel safety;
d) emergency communications systems on the aerodrome,
including aircraft fire related alarms;
e) use of the fire hoses, nozzles, turrets and other appliances required for compliance with Chapter 9, 9.2;
16.
Rescue and fire fighting services
f) application of the types of extinguishing agents required
for compliance with Chapter 9, 9.2;
16.1
Administration
g) emergency aircraft evacuation assistance;
16.1.1 The rescue and fire fighting service at an aerodrome should be under the administrative control of the
aerodrome management, which should also be responsible for
ensuring that the service provided is organized, equipped,
staffed, trained and operated in such a manner as to fulfil its
proper functions.
h) fire fighting operations;
i) adaptation and use of structural rescue and fire fighting
equipment for aircraft rescue and fire fighting;
j) dangerous goods;
16.1.2 In drawing up the detailed plan for the conduct of
search and rescue operations in accordance with 4.2.1 of
Annex 12, the aerodrome management should co-ordinate its
plans with the relevant rescue co-ordination centres to ensure
that the respective limits of their responsibilities for an aircraft
accident within the vicinity of an aerodrome are clearly
delineated.
k) familiarization with fire fighters’ duties under the aerodrome emergency plan; and
l) protective clothing and respiratory protection.
16.3 Level of protection to be provided
16.1.3 Co-ordination between the rescue and fire fighting
service at an aerodrome and public protective agencies, such
as local fire brigade, police force, coast guard and hospitals,
should be achieved by prior agreement for assistance in
dealing with an aircraft accident.
16.3.1 In accordance with Chapter 9, 9.2 aerodromes
should be categorized for rescue and fire fighting purposes and
the level of protection provided should be appropriate to the
aerodrome category.
16.3.2 However, Chapter 9, 9.2.2 permits a lower level of
protection to be provided for a limited period where the
number of movements of the aeroplanes in the highest
category normally using the aerodrome is less than 700 in the
busiest consecutive three months. It is important to note that
the concession included in 9.2.2 a) is applicable only where
there is a wide range of difference between the dimensions of
the aeroplanes included in reaching 700 movements.
16.1.4 A grid map of the aerodrome and its immediate
vicinity should be provided for the use of the aerodrome services concerned. Information concerning topography, access
roads and location of water supplies should be indicated. This
map should be conspicuously posted in the control tower and
fire station, and available on the rescue and fire fighting
vehicles and such other supporting vehicles required to
respond to an aircraft accident or incident. Copies should also
be distributed to public protective agencies as desirable.
16.4 Rescue equipment for difficult environments
16.1.5 Co-ordinated instructions should be drawn up
detailing the responsibilities of all concerned and the action to
be taken in dealing with emergencies. The appropriate authority should ensure that such instructions are promulgated and
observed.
16.2 Training
16.4.1 Suitable rescue equipment and services should be
available at an aerodrome where the area to be covered by the
service includes water, swampy areas or other difficult
environment that cannot be fully served by conventional
wheeled vehicles. This is particularly important where a significant portion of approach/departure operations takes place
over these areas.
The training curriculum should include initial and recurrent
instruction in at least the following areas:
16.4.2 The rescue equipment should be carried on boats
or other vehicles such as helicopters and amphibious or air
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Volume I
cushion vehicles, capable of operating in the area concerned.
The vehicles should be so located that they can be brought into
action quickly to respond to the areas covered by the service.
16.5.2 The availability of ambulance and medical
facilities for the removal and after-care of casualties arising
from an aircraft accident should receive the careful consideration of the appropriate authority and should form part of the
over-all emergency plan established to deal with such
emergencies.
16.4.3 At an aerodrome bordering the water, the boats or
other vehicles should preferably be located on the aerodrome,
and convenient launching or docking sites provided. If these
vehicles are located off the aerodrome, they should preferably
be under the control of the aerodrome rescue and fire fighting
service or, if this is not practicable, under the control of
another competent public or private organization working in
close co-ordination with the aerodrome rescue and fire fighting
service (such as police, military services, harbour patrol or
coast guard).
17.
Operators of vehicles
17.1 The authorities responsible for the operation of
vehicles on the movement area should ensure that the operators are properly qualified. This may include, as appropriate
to the driver’s function, knowledge of:
16.4.4 Boats or other vehicles should have as high a
speed as practicable so as to reach an accident site in minimum
time. To reduce the possibility of injury during rescue operations, water jet-driven boats are preferred to water propellerdriven boats unless the propellers of the latter boats are ducted.
Should the water areas to be covered by the service be frozen
for a signficant period of the year, the equipment should be
selected accordingly. Vehicles used in this service should be
equipped with life rafts and life preservers related to the
requirements of the larger aircraft normally using the
aerodrome, with two-way radio communication, and with
floodlights for night operations. If aircraft operations during
periods of low visibility are expected, it may be necessary to
provide guidance for the responding emergency vehicles.
a) the geography of the aerodrome;
b) aerodrome signs, markings and lights;
c) radiotelephone operating procedures;
d) terms and phrases used in aerodrome control including
the ICAO spelling alphabet;
e) rules of air traffic services as they relate to ground
operations;
f) airport rules and procedures; and
16.4.5 The personnel designated to operate the equipment
should be adequately trained and drilled for rescue services in
the appropriate environment.
g) specialist functions as required, for example, in rescue
and fire fighting.
17.2 The operator should be able to demonstrate competency, as appropriate, in:
16.5
Facilities
a) the operation or use of vehicle transmit/receive
equipment;
16.5.1 The provision of special telephone, two-way radio
communication and general alarm systems for the rescue and
fire fighting service is desirable to ensure the dependable
transmission of essential emergency and routine information.
Consistent with the individual requirements of each aerodrome, these facilities serve the following purposes:
b) understanding and complying with air traffic control and
local procedures;
c) vehicle navigation on the aerodrome; and
a) direct communication between the activating authority
and the aerodrome fire station in order to ensure the
prompt alerting and dispatch of rescue and fire fighting
vehicles and personnel in the event of an aircraft
accident or incident;
d) special skills required for the particular function.
In addition, as required for any specialist function, the operator
should be the holder of a State driver’s licence, a State radio
operator’s licence or other licences.
b) emergency signals to ensure the immediate summoning
of designated personnel not on standby duty;
c) as necessary, summoning essential related services on or
off the aerodrome; and
17.3 The above should be applied as is appropriate to
the function to be performed by the operator and it is not
necessary that all operators be trained to the same level, for
example, operators whose functions are restricted to the
apron.
d) maintaining communication by means of two-way radio
with the rescue and fire fighting vehicles in attendance
at an aircraft accident or incident.
17.4 If special procedures apply for operations in low
visibility conditions, it is desirable to verify an operator’s
knowledge of the procedures through periodic checks.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
The ACN-PCN method of reporting
pavement strength
18.1
not exceeding 5 per cent above the reported PCN should
not adversely affect the pavement;
c) if the pavement structure is unknown, the 5 per cent
limitation should apply; and
Overload operations
18.1.1 Overloading of pavements can result either from
loads too large, or from a substantially increased application
rate, or both. Loads larger than the defined (design or
evaluation) load shorten the design life, whilst smaller loads
extend it. With the exception of massive overloading,
pavements in their structural behaviour are not subject to a
particular limiting load above which they suddenly or
catastrophically fail. Behaviour is such that a pavement can
sustain a definable load for an expected number of repetitions
during its design life. As a result, occasional minor overloading is acceptable, when expedient, with only limited loss
in pavement life expectancy and relatively small acceleration
of pavement deterioration. For those operations in which
magnitude of overload and/or the frequency of use do not
justify a detailed analysis, the following criteria are suggested:
d) the annual number of overload movements should not
exceed approximately 5 per cent of the total annual
aircraft movements.
18.1.2 Such overload movements should not normally be
permitted on pavements exhibiting signs of distress or failure.
Furthermore, overloading should be avoided during any
periods of thaw following frost penetration, or when the
strength of the pavement or its subgrade could be weakened by
water. Where overload operations are conducted, the appropriate authority should review the relevant pavement condition
regularly, and should also review the criteria for overload
operations periodically since excessive repetition of overloads
can cause severe shortening of pavement life or require major
rehabilitation of pavement.
a) for flexible pavements, occasional movements by
aircraft with ACN not exceeding 10 per cent above the
reported PCN should not adversely affect the pavement;
18.2
ACNs for several aircraft types
For convenience, several aircraft types currently in use have
been evaluated on rigid and flexible pavements founded on the
four subgrade strength categories in Chapter 2, 2.6.6 b) and the
results tabulated in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 3.
b) for rigid or composite pavements, in which a rigid
pavement layer provides a primary element of the
structure, occasional movements by aircraft with ACN
205
4/11/99
‘STP.ICAO
ANNEX I,4
ATTACHMENT
VOL I-ENGL
B.
l,SY=l Hi
‘iP14L41L
OBSTACLE LIMITATION
0107098
Ob8 E
SUFWACES
FigureB-l
4fllf99
206
ANNEX
14 -
VOLUME
I
LIMITED INDEX OF SIGNIFICANT SUBJECTS
INCLUDED IN ANNEX 14, VOLUME I
AERODROME OPERATION*
DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING FACILITY
apron management service 9.6
bird hazard reduction 9.5
denoting closed areas 7.1
denoting unserviceable areas 7.4
disabled aircraft removal 9.3
emergency planning 9.1
ground servicing of aircraft 9.7
light intensity control A-14
lighting of unserviceable areas A-13
maintenance 9.4
marking of vehicles or mobile objects 6.1.6;
6.2.2; 6.2.14
measuring runway braking action/friction A-6; A-7
mobile obstacles on runway strips 3.3.7
monitoring visual aids 8.3
overload operations A-18.1
reporting aerodrome data 2
rescue and fire fighting 9.2; A-16
secondary power supply 8.1
definition 1.1
lighting 5.3.19
location 3.14.2
marking 5.2.10.2
DECLARED DISTANCES
calculation A-3
definition 1.1
reporting requirements
2.8
DISABLED AIRCRAFT REMOVAL
capability 9.3
reporting requirements
2.10
DISPLACED THRESHOLD
APRON
definition 1.1
lights 5.3.10.1; 5.3.10.3
location A-10.2
marking 5.2.4.9; 5.2.4.10
clearance of debris 9.4.3
clearance of snow, ice, etc. 9.4.11; 9.4.12
definition 1.1
physical characteristics 3.12
isolated aircraft parking position 3.13
lighting 5.3.21
reporting requirements 2.5.1 d)
safety lines 5.2.13
FRANGIBILITY
definition of frangible object 1.1
elevated approach lights 5.3.1.3.; 5.3.1.4
markers 5.5.1
objects on operational areas 8.7
objects on runway strips 3.3.7
other elevated lights 5.3.1.6
PAPI and APAPI 5.3.5.27
signs 5.4.1.3
T-VASIS and AT-VASIS 5.3.5.16
APRON MANAGEMENT SERVICE
definition 1.1
provision 9.6
CLEARWAY
GRADING
accountability as runway length
definition 1.1
frangibility 8.7.1 b); 8.7.2 c)
general A-2
physical characteristics 3.5
reporting requirements 2.5.1 f)
3.1.8
radio altimeter operating area 3.7.4
runway end safety areas 3.4.5
runway strips 3.3.8-3.3.11
strip for precision approach runways A-8.3
taxiway strips 3.10.4
HELIPORT
definition 1.1
specifications See Annex 14, Volume II
*Those specifications which relate to the daily operation of an aerodrome as
compared with those which relate to its design or facilities to be provided.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I
207
1/11/01
4/11/99
No. 4
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
NON-INSTRUMENT RUNWAY
HOLDING BAY
definition 1.1
physical characteristics
approach lighting system 5.3.4.1-5.3.4.9
definition 1.1
holding bays 3.11.6
obstacle limitation requirements 4.2.1-4.2.6
runway-holding position marking 5.2.9.2
secondary power supply Table 8-1
threshold lights 5.3.10.1; 5.3.10.4 a)
3.11
INTERMEDIATE HOLDING POSITION
definition 1.1
lighting 5.3.18
location 3.11.4
marking 5.2.10
signs 5.4.3.8A
NON-PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY
approach lighting system 5.3.4.1-5.3.4.9
definition 1.1
holding bays 3.11.6
obstacle limitation requirements 4.2.7-4.2.12
runway threshold identification lights 5.3.8
runway-holding position marking 5.2.9.2
secondary power supply Table 8-1
threshold lights 5.3.10.1; 5.3.10.4 a)
LIGHTING
approach lighting systems 5.3.4; A-11; Appendix 2
colour specifications Appendix 1
definitions for lights, etc. 1.1
electrical systems 8.2
intensity control 5.3.1.10; 5.3.1.11; A-14
lights 5.3
lighting of unserviceable areas A-13
maintenance 9.4
monitoring 8.3
obstacle lighting 6.3; Appendix 6
photometric characteristics Appendix 2
priority of installation of visual approach slope
indicator systems A-12
reporting requirements 2.9.2 h); 2.12
secondary power supply 8.1
security lighting 8.5
OBSTACLE/OBJECT
clearance of obstacles A-11.3
definition of obstacle and obstacle free zone 1.1
lighting 6.3; Appendix 6
limitation requirements 4.2
limitation surfaces 4.1
marking 6.2
objects to be marked and/or lighted 6.1
on clearways 3.5.6
on runway end safety areas 3.4.6
on runway strips 3.3.6; 3.3.7
on taxiway strips 3.10.3; 8.7
other objects 4.4
outside the obstacle limitation surfaces 4.3
protection surface 5.3.5.41-5.3.5.45
reporting of obstacles and obstacle free zone 2.5
secondary power supply 8.1
MAINTENANCE
clearance of debris 9.4.3; 9.4.9
clearance of snow, ice, etc. 9.4.10-9.4.13
general 9.4.1
pavement overlays 9.4.16-9.4.19
runway evenness 9.4.4; A-5.4
visual aids 9.4.20-9.4.32
PAVEMENT STRENGTH
ACNs for aircraft A-18.2
aprons 3.12.3
overload operations A-18.1
reporting requirements 2.6
runways 3.1.20
shoulders A-8.1
stopways 3.6.3; A-2.9
taxiways 3.8.12
MARKER
definition 1.1
marker aids 5.5
MARKING
colour specifications 5.2; Appendix 1
definition 1.1
marking of objects 6.2
surface marking patterns 5.2
PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY CATEGORY I
approach lighting system 5.3.4.10-5.3.4.21
centre line lights 5.3.12.2; 5.3.12.5
definition 1.1
flight path envelope Figure A-4
frangibility 8.7
holding bays 3.11.6-3.11.9
holding position signs 5.4.2.3; 5.4.2.4; 5.4.2.5; 5.4.2.7; 5.4.2.8;
5.4.2.10; 5.4.2.12; 5.4.2.13; 5.4.2.15; 5.4.2.16
MONITORING
condition of the movement area and related
facilities 2.9.1-2.9.3
visual aids 8.3
4/11/99
208
Index
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
shoulders 3.2
slopes 3.1.12-3.1.19; A-4
strips 2.5.1 b); 3.3; 8.7.1 a); 8.7.4; 8.7.6
maintenance of visual aids 9.4.20; 9.4.29
objects on strips 3.3.7
obstacle limitation requirements 4.2.13; 4.2.14;
4.2.16-4.2.21
runway light characteristics Appendix 2
runway-holding position marking 5.2.9.3
secondary power supply Table 8-1
threshold lights 5.3.10.4 b)
RUNWAY END SAFETY AREA
definition 1.1
frangibility 8.7.1 a); 8.7.2 b)
general A-9
physical characteristics 3.4
reporting requirements 2.5.1 b)
PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAYS
CATEGORIES II AND III
approach lighting system 5.3.4.22-5.3.4.39
definition 1.1
flight path envelopes Figure A-4
frangibility 8.7
holding bays 3.11.6-3.11.9
holding position signs 5.4.2.3; 5.4.2.4; 5.4.2.5; 5.4.2.7; 5.4.2.8;
5.4.2.10; 5.4.2.12; 5.4.2.13; 5.4.2.15; 5.4.2.16
maintenance of visual aids 9.4.20-9.4.26
objects on strips 3.3.7
obstacle limitation requirements 4.2.15-4.2.21
runway centre line lights 5.3.12.1; 5.3.12.5
runway end lights 5.3.11.3
runway light characteristics Appendix 2
runway-holding position marking 5.2.9.3
secondary power supply Table 8-1
stop bars 5.3.17
taxiway centre line lights 5.3.15
taxiway light characteristics Appendix 2
threshold lights 5.3.10.4 c)
touchdown zone lights 5.3.13.1
RUNWAY-HOLDING POSITION
definition 1.1
location 3.11.2; 3.11.3; 3.11.9
marking 5.2.9
runway guard lights 5.3.19
signs 5.4.2.2-5.4.2.5; 5.4.2.7; 5.4.2.8;
5.4.2.10; 5.4.2.12; 5.4.2.13; 5.4.2.15;
5.4.2.16
stop bars 5.3.17
RUNWAY MEANT FOR TAKE-OFF
climb surface 4.1.25-4.1.29
frangibility 8.7
maintenance of visual aids 9.4.20; 9.4.30; 9.4.31
obstacle limitation requirements 4.2.22-4.2.27
runway lighting 5.3.9.2; 5.3.12.3; 5.3.12.4
secondary power supply Table 8-1
taxiway lighting 5.3.15; 5.3.16
RESCUE AND FIRE FIGHTING
RUNWAY SURFACE FRICTION CHARACTERISTICS
communication and alerting system 9.2.27; 9.2.28
emergency access roads 9.2.22-9.2.24
extinguishing agents 9.2.7-9.2.17
fire stations 9.2.25; 9.2.26
general 9.2 (Introductory Note)
level of protection 9.2.2-9.2.6; A-16.3
personnel 9.2.31; 9.2.32
reporting requirements 2.11
rescue equipment 9.2.18; 9.2.29
response time 9.2.19-9.2.21
vehicles 9.2.29
maintenance 9.4.3-9.4.7; 9.4.9; 9.4.12
reporting requirements 2.9
runway design 3.1.22
runway surface friction 2.9.6; 2.9.9
snow- and ice-covered paved surfaces – general
wet runways – general A-7
A-6
SECURITY
aerodrome emergency planning 9.1.2 (Note)
airport design 8.6
fencing 8.4
isolated aircraft parking position 3.13
lighting 8.5
RUNWAY
clearance of debris 9.4.3
clearance of snow, ice, etc. 9.4.10; A-6
closed runway marking 7.1
definition 1.1
lights 5.3.7-5.3.13; Appendix 2
markers 5.5.2; 5.5.4
marking 5.2.2.-5.2.7
number, siting and orientation A-1
pavement overlays 9.4.16-9.4.19
physical characteristics 3.1
reporting requirements 2.3.2; 2.5.1. a); 2.8;
2.9.2; 2.9.4-2.9.11; A-6; A-7
runway surface evenness A-5
STOPWAY
accountability as runway length 3.1.8
definition 1.1
general A-2
lights 5.3.14; Appendix 2
markers 5.5.3
physical characteristics 3.6
reporting requirements 2.5.1. b)
209
4/11/99
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I
shoulders 3.9
strips 3.10; 8.7.1 a); 8.7.4
TAXIWAY
closed taxiway marking 7.1
definition 1.1
lights 5.3.15; 5.3.16; Appendix 2
markers 5.5.5; 5.5.6; 5.5.7
marking 5.2.8; 5.2.10; 7.2
physical characteristics 3.8
removal of contaminants 9.4.9; 9.4.11; 9.4.13
reporting requirements 2.5.1 c)
VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR SYSTEMS
characteristics 5.3.5
priority of installation A-12
reporting requirements 2.12
secondary power supply 8.1
— END —
4/11/99
210
8/9/00
Transmittal Note
SUPPLEMENT TO
ANNEX 14, VOLUME I —
AERODROME DESIGN AND OPERATIONS
(Third Edition)
attached Supplement supersedes all previous Supplements to Annex 14, Volume I, and includes
differences notified by Contracting States up to 11 August 2000.
1.
The
2.
This Supplement should be inserted at the end of Annex 14, Volume I, Third Edition. Additional
differences and revised comments received from Contracting States will be issued at intervals as
amendments to this Supplement.
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I — THIRD EDITION
AERODROME DESIGN AND OPERATIONS
Differences between the national regulations and practices of States and the
corresponding International Standards contained in Annex 14, Volume I, as
notified to ICAO in accordance with Article 38 of the Convention on
International Civil Aviation and the Council’s resolution of 21 November 1950.
SEPTEMBER 2000
INTERNATIONAL
CIVIL
AVIATION
ORGANIZATION
(ii)
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
No.
Date
Entered by
No.
Date
Entered by
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
No.
8/9/00
Date of
adoption or
approval
Date
applicable
No.
Date of
adoption or
approval
Date applicable
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
(iii)
1. Contracting States which have notified ICAO of differences
The Contracting States listed below have notified ICAO of differences which exist between their national regulations and
practices and the International Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 14, Volume I, Third Edition, or have
commented on implementation.
The page numbers shown for each State and the dates of publication of those pages correspond to the actual pages in this
Supplement.
State
Pages in
Supplement
Date of
publication
1
1-2
1-2
1-2
1
1-3
1-6
1
1
1
1
1-2
1
1
1-2
1
1
1
1
1
1-6
1-13
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
8/9/00
Austria
Belgium
Canada
China (Hong Kong SAR)
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Japan
Kyrgyzstan
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Portugal
Russian Federation
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Uganda
United Kingdom
United States
2. Contracting States which have notified ICAO that no differences exist
Colombia
Egypt
Georgia
Ghana
Ireland
Malaysia
Monaco
Namibia
Peru
Sri Lanka
United Republic of Tanzania
8/9/00
(iv)
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
3. Contracting States from which no information has been received
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People’s Republic of
Korea
Democratic Republic of
the Congo
Djibouti
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
8/9/00
Ethiopia
Fiji
Gabon
Gambia
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Madagascar
Malawi
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Nauru
Nepal
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Philippines
Poland
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
(v)
4. Paragraphs with respect to which differences have been notified
Paragraph
Table 1-1
1.1
1.2.1
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
2.1.3
2.1.5
2.1.6
2.1.7
2.2.1
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.6
2.6.2
2.6.5
2.6.6
2.6.8
2.7
2.9.6
2.9.7
2.9.9
2.11.3
2.11.4
2.12
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
3.1.2
3.1.9
3.1.11
3.1.12
3.1.13
3.1.14
Differences
notified by
New Zealand
Austria
China (Hong Kong SAR)
France
South Africa
United Kingdom
United States
United States
Belgium
France
Russian Federation
United States
United States
United States
United States
Netherlands
Germany
Germany
Netherlands
United States
Netherlands
Netherlands
Netherlands
Netherlands
Netherlands
Canada
Uganda
Netherlands
Netherlands
Netherlands
Netherlands
Canada
Norway
United States
United States
Spain
United States
France
United States
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
Russian Federation
United States
Belgium
United States
Spain
Canada
United States
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Paragraph
3.1.15
3.1.16
3.1.18
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.7
3.3.9
3.3.12
3.3.14
3.3.15
3.3.17
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.9
3.5.4
3.6.4
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.7.3
3.7.4
3.8.3
Differences
notified by
France
Russian Federation
United States
United States
Belgium
Russian Federation
United States
United States
Kyrgyzstan
New Zealand
Spain
United States
United States
United States
Belgium
New Zealand
Russian Federation
United States
United States
United Kingdom
United States
United States
United States
France
Russian Federation
Canada
Denmark
New Zealand
Norway
Portugal
Austria
Japan
New Zealand
Portugal
United States
New Zealand
Portugal
Spain
United Kingdom
Finland
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Russian Federation
United States
Russian Federation
Spain
France
United States
United States
France
France
Belgium
United States
8/9/00
(vi)
Paragraph
3.8.4
3.8.5
3.8.7
3.8.8
3.8.10
3.8.11
3.8.20
3.8.21
3.9
3.9.1
3.10
3.10.5
3.11
3.11.4
3.11.5
3.11.6
3.11.7
3.14
3.14.4
3.14.9
3.14.10
Table 4-1
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
Differences
notified by
Belgium
Russian Federation
United States
United States
Belgium
Russian Federation
United Kingdom
United States
United States
United States
United States
Russian Federation
China (Hong Kong SAR)
Belgium
Russian Federation
United States
Russian Federation
United States
France
Russian Federation
France
Belgium
France
United States
France
New Zealand
Russian Federation
United States
United States
United States
4.2.1
4.2.9
4.2.17
Canada
New Zealand
United Kingdom
United States
United States
Canada
France
France
France
France
France
United States
Canada
Austria
United States
France
Austria
Russian Federation
United States
France
France
France
Chapter 5
Figure 5-12
New Zealand
Canada
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.9
4.1.13
4.1.14
4.1.15
4.1.16
4.1.21
4.1.22
4.1.25
4.1.27
4.2
8/9/00
Paragraph
5.1.1.4
5.1.2
5.1.4
5.2.1.4
5.2.1.5
5.2.1.8
5.2.2.2
5.2.2.4
5.2.3.3
5.2.3.4
5.2.4.2
5.2.4.3
5.2.4.5
5.2.4.6
5.2.4.10
5.2.5
5.2.5.2
5.2.5.3
5.2.5.4
5.2.5.5
5.2.6
5.2.6.3
5.2.6.4
5.2.6.5
5.2.7.1
5.2.7.2
5.2.7.4
5.2.8.1
5.2.8.2
5.2.8.3
5.2.8.7
5.2.9
5.2.9.3
5.2.9.6
5.2.9.7
5.2.10
5.2.10.1
5.2.11
5.2.11.4
5.2.11.5
5.2.11.6
5.2.12
5.2.13.1
Differences
notified by
Canada
Canada
Canada
Norway
Austria
France
United States
United States
Canada
United States
France
France
United States
United Kingdom
United States
France
United States
United States
United States
Russian Federation
Sweden
France
United States
United States
United States
France
United Kingdom
Sweden
United States
United States
United States
Russian Federation
Canada
France
United States
United Kingdom
Canada
United States
Canada
Canada
South Africa
Russian Federation
United States
Russian Federation
United States
Canada
China (Hong Kong SAR)
Russian Federation
France
Canada
Russian Federation
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
Paragraph
5.2.14
5.2.14.1
5.2.15
5.2.16.1
5.3.1.1
5.3.1.2
5.3.1.3
5.3.1.4
5.3.2.1
5.3.2.2
5.3.2.3
5.3.3
5.3.3.1
5.3.3.3
5.3.3.6
5.3.3.8
5.3.3.12
5.3.4.1
5.3.4.2
5.3.4.10
5.3.4.11
5.3.4.12
5.3.4.13
5.3.4.14
5.3.4.15
5.3.4.16
5.3.4.17
5.3.4.18
5.3.4.19
5.3.4.22
5.3.4.23
5.3.4.24
5.3.4.30
5.3.4.32
5.3.4.33
5.3.4.35
5.3.5
5.3.5.1
5.3.5.2
5.3.5.3
5.3.5.4
Differences
notified by
Russian Federation
United States
Spain
United Kingdom
Sweden
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
Canada
United States
Finland
United States
United States
United States
France
Finland
France
United States
Canada
United States
Belgium
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
Canada
United Kingdom
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
Belgium
United Kingdom
United States
Belgium
Belgium
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
Spain
Switzerland
Canada
Finland
France
United States
United States
United States
United States
(vii)
Paragraph
5.3.5.27
5.3.5.42
5.3.6
5.3.7
5.3.8
5.3.8.4
5.3.9.7
5.3.10.1
5.3.10.3
5.3.12.2
5.3.12.3
5.3.12.4
5.3.13.2
5.3.14
5.3.14.3
5.3.15.1
5.3.15.2
5.3.15.3
5.3.15.4
5.3.15.7
5.3.15.10
5.3.15.11
5.3.15.13
5.3.15.17
5.3.15.18
5.3.16.2
5.3.16.6
5.3.17.1
5.3.17.2
5.3.17.3
5.3.17.4
5.3.17.5
5.3.17.6
5.3.17.9
5.3.17.10
5.3.17.14
5.3.18
5.3.18.1
5.3.18.2
5.3.19
5.3.20.1
Differences
notified by
United States
Japan
United Kingdom
United States
Canada
Canada
Canada
United States
Canada
Norway
Canada
United Kingdom
France
United Kingdom
United States
Japan
United States
Canada
France
United Kingdom
United States
France
United States
France
United States
United Kingdom
United States
United States
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
France
United States
United Kingdom
France
United States
France
United States
France
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
Austria
Spain
United States
Belgium
France
France
Finland
United States
United States
United Kingdom
Finland
8/9/00
(viii)
Paragraph
5.3.20.2
5.3.20.4
5.3.20.5
5.3.20.17
5.3.21
5.3.22
5.3.22.11
5.3.22.14
5.3.22.16
5.3.24
5.3.24.1
5.4
5.4.1.3
5.4.1.6
5.4.1.7
5.4.1.8
5.4.1.9
5.4.2
5.4.2.2
5.4.2.4
5.4.2.5
5.4.2.7
5.4.2.8
5.4.2.9
5.4.2.10
5.4.2.11
5.4.2.14
5.4.2.15
5.4.2.18
5.4.3.3
5.4.3.5
5.4.3.6
5.4.3.7
5.4.3.10
5.4.3.14
5.4.3.15
5.4.3.17
5.4.3.21
5.4.3.25
5.4.3.26
5.4.3.27
5.4.3.29
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
Differences
notified by
France
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
Spain
United States
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Austria
United States
Belgium
Spain
United States
France
United States
Finland
United States
Finland
United Kingdom
France
United States
United States
France
United States
France
United Kingdom
Canada
United States
France
United States
United States
France
United States
United States
United States
France
France
United Kingdom
Austria
France
France
United Kingdom
United States
United Kingdom
United States
France
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
United States
Paragraph
5.4.3.30
5.4.3.34
5.4.4.4
5.4.5
5.4.5.1
5.4.6.1
5.4.7.2
5.5.2.2
5.5.3
5.5.3.1
5.5.3.2
5.5.7.1
Chapter 6
Table 6-2
Table 6-3
6.1
6.1.3
6.1.5
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.6
6.2.8
6.2.9
6.2.12
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.3.9
6.3.16
6.3.17
6.3.18
6.3.21
6.3.22
6.3.25
6.3.26
7.1
7.1.2
7.1.4
7.1.5
7.1.7
7.2.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.4.4
Differences
notified by
China (Hong Kong SAR)
France
United Kingdom
United States
United States
Canada
United States
United States
United States
United States
United States
Canada
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
Sweden
New Zealand
Finland
New Zealand
United States
United States
Finland
Norway
United States
Russian Federation
Canada
United Kingdom
Switzerland
Austria
Switzerland
Belgium
Belgium
Norway
Spain
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
United States
Japan
Finland
Russian Federation
United States
Finland
United Kingdom
United States
United States
United States
Canada
United Kingdom
Russian Federation
France
United States
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
Paragraph
Chapter 8
Table 8-1
8.1.5
8.1.6
8.1.7
8.1.8
8.2.1
8.2.3
8.3.4
8.6.1
8.7.2
8.7.3
8.7.4
8.7.5
8.7.6
8.9.7
Chapter 9
9.1.1
9.1.6
9.1.12
9.2.1
9.2.2
9.2.3
9.2.4
9.2.5
9.2.6
9.2.7
9.2.8
9.2.9
9.2.10
Differences
notified by
New Zealand
Finland
United States
United States
United States
Finland
United States
United States
United States
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Norway
United States
United States
United States
Finland
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
France
United States
New Zealand
United States
Belgium
Finland
United States
United States
Finland
France
Finland
France
United States
Finland
United States
Finland
United States
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
France
United Kingdom
(ix)
Paragraph
9.2.11
9.2.12
9.2.13
9.2.14
9.2.15
9.2.16
9.2.17
9.2.18
9.2.19
9.2.20
9.2.21
9.2.22
9.2.23
9.2.24
9.2.25
9.2.26
9.2.27
9.2.28
9.2.29
9.2.30
9.2.31
9.2.32
9.2.33
9.2.34
9.3
9.4.4
9.4.5
9.4.16
9.4.19
9.4.20
Appendix 4
Appendix 5
Differences
notified by
United States
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
United States
Finland
United States
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
United States
Finland
Belgium
Finland
Finland
Finland
Finland
France
France
Norway
Norway
United States
United States
Finland
Finland
United Kingdom
United States
United Kingdom
Germany
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
AUSTRIA 1
CHAPTER 1
1.1
The Austrian regulations distinguish between aerodrome elevation according to ICAO Annex 14 for
operational purposes and aerodrome reference elevation for determining obstruction restrictions.
The aerodrome reference elevation is the elevation of the aerodrome reference point above mean sea level
in terms of the nearest metre.
CHAPTER 3
3.4.2
Although the regulations of Austria provide a runway end safety area of at least 300 m where the code
number is 3 or 4, at some aerodromes the surrounding terrain does not allow to provide the full length as
stated in 3.4.2.
CHAPTER 4
4.1.25
The term “take-off climb surface” is not used and is therefore not defined.
4.2
The specifications concerning approach surfaces are applicable for take-off areas and take-off surfaces as
well.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.1.5
Additional markings are on aprons, i.e. white for service roads (passenger and service vehicles) and red for
parking areas of service vehicles and ramp equipment, orange for limit of apron control competence.
5.3.17.10
Exemption may be provided in cases where switched-off taxiway centre lights lead to deterioration of taxi
guidance.
5.3.24
For the present, road-holding position lights will not be provided. Reason: on the way to runways most
vehicles use taxiways with ATC clearances.
5.4.3.6
The indication “TORA (RWY)” is added to intersection take-off signs.
CHAPTER 6
6.2.12
Flags used to mark obstructions are 0.5 m square and are coloured in either red or yellow.
Comment on implementation:
Chapter 6 will be adopted in accordance with Annex 14 as soon as possible.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
BELGIUM 1
CHAPTER 1
1.3
Code letter F is not applicable to Brussels/National Airport.
Remark: The present general infrastructure is not suited to code letter F.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.9*
Runways 07L/25R and 07R/25L are 45 m wide. Runway 02/20 is 50 m wide. The runway width required
for code letter F is 60 m.
3.2.3*
The width of shoulders for runways 07L/25R, 07R/25L and 02/20 is 60 m and not 75 m, as required by code
letter F.
3.3.7
Obstacle clearance limits are 60 m, not 77.5 m as required for code letter F.
3.8.3*
The clearance distance between the outer main wheel of the aeroplane and the edge of the taxiway of 4.5 m
was planned for code letter E aircraft and not code letter F.
3.8.4*
Taxiways serving runway 02/20 are 20 m wide and not 25 m, as required by code letter F.
3.8.7*
The separation distances between: a runway centre line and a taxiway centre line, a taxiway centre line and
another taxiway centre line, a taxiway centre line and an object, and a taxilane and an object, throughout
the airport, meet code letter E specifications and not those of code F. Taxilane to taxilane distances are 40 m
and not 42.5 m as recommended by Annex 14, Volume I, for code letter E.
Remark: The design of the taxiways serving runway 25R/07L allows no further widening. The taxiways
serving runways 07R/25L and 02/20 could, if necessary, be adapted through considerable investment which
is not planned at this time.
3.9
Taxiway shoulders meet code letter E specifications and not those of code letter F, with, however, 50 m
clearance instead of 44 m for code letter E and 60 m for code letter F.
3.11.6
Cat. I stop bars are located at 90 m (code letter E) and they cannot be used by code letter F aircraft
(minimum distance 107.5 m). However, the existing Cat. II stop bars meet this requirement.
CHAPTER 5
5.3.4.10
The precision approach category I lighting system for runway 20 extends over a distance of 540 m rather
than 900 m.
Remark: The length will be increased to 630 m in September 2000.
5.3.4.22
5.3.4.23
5.3.4.24
The precision approach category II lighting system for runway 25R extends over a distance of 600 m rather
than 900 m.
The precision approach category II lighting system for runway 02 has two fewer centre line barrettes
because of the presence of a building at 330 m and a railway line at 570 m.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
2 BELGIUM
5.3.17.14
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
The present lighting circuit does not allow selective switching of stop bars. In addition, when a stop bar is
illuminated, the taxiway centre line lights installed beyond the stop bar are not extinguished for a distance
of at least 90 m. The present level of switching does not allow this.
Comment on implementation: Compliance is planned progressively, and it should be achieved completely
by the end of 2001.
5.4
The present mandatory instruction and information signs are no longer compliant with respect to colour,
location and information.
Comment on implementation: Compliance is planned for 1 January 2001.
CHAPTER 6
6.3.4
The low intensity obstacle lights, Type C (mobile obstacle), displayed on vehicles are presently orange/blue
instead of yellow/blue.
Comment on implementation: They will be replaced in the course of 2000.
6.3.5
The low intensity obstacle lights, Type D, displayed on follow-me vehicles are presently orange instead of
yellow.
Comment on implementation: They will be replaced in the course of 2000.
CHAPTER 9
9.1.6
The present emergency plan does not contain Human Factors information. It is to be provided henceforth
in the emergency operations.
Comment on implementation: Must be developed in the course of 2000.
9.2.31
The present personnel training programme does not, at this time, contain information on Human Factors
performance.
Comment on implementation: Must be developed in the course of 2000.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
CANADA 1
CHAPTER 2
2.6
Canada prepares and distributes pavement evaluation charts for specific aircraft relative to specific airports
upon receipt of a request from an operator. Information required from the operator is: the type of aircraft,
the maximum gross weight to be used and the main wheel tire pressure.
2.7
Canada does not provide pre-flight altimeter check locations.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.12*
Canada computes runway longitudinal slopes by dividing the difference between the maximum and
minimum runway end elevation by the runway length.
3.4.1
Canada does not provide runway end safety areas but does provide a 60 m graded strip beyond the runway
end.
CHAPTER 4
4.1.1
Canada does not establish a conical surface per se but takes into consideration areas outside the horizontal
surface for obstructions that require marking or removal in order to protect aircraft in the vicinity of an
aerodrome.
4.1.22
Table 4-1
Comment on implementation: Length of inner edge of balked landing surface. Canada cannot always meet
this requirement during the winter months because of snow accumulation.
CHAPTER 5
5.1.1.4*
Canada does not require that the location of wind direction indicators be marked by a circular band 15 m
in diameter but does require that their location be indicated in appropriate aeronautical publications.
5.1.2
Landing direction indicators are not used at Canadian aerodromes.
5.1.4
Signal areas are not used at Canadian aerodromes.
5.2.2.4
Runways within the Canadian Northern Domestic Airspace are designated with reference to true azimuth
rather than magnetic azimuth as used in other areas.
5.2.7.2*
Canada does not provide runway side stripe markings on precision approach runways except where there
is a lack of contrast between runway edges and the shoulder or surrounding terrain.
5.2.8.2*
Canada does not provide taxiway centre line markings on runways where the code number is 1 or 2.
5.2.8.7
Canada permits taxiway centre line markings on straight portions of taxiways to be marked with broken
longitudinal stripes 3 m in length with 3 m gaps between stripes.
5.2.9
Canada does not provide a specific taxiway holding position marking for category II.
5.2.10
Canada does not provide taxiway-to-taxiway intersection markings.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
2 CANADA
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
5.2.11
VOR aerodrome check-point markings are not used at Canadian aerodromes.
5.3.3
Identification beacons are not used in Canada.
5.3.4.2
Canada does not provide a crossbar in simple approach lighting systems.
5.3.4.15
Canada does not use capacitor discharge lights to supplement high-intensity approach lighting systems.
5.3.5.1
It is not Canada’s policy to provide a visual approach slope indicator system where a runway is served by
an electronic precision approach system.
Remark: The Canadian standard for visual approach slope indicator systems consists of four light units in
the configuration shown for AVASIS for Figure 5-9(D), Annex 14, Volume I, First Edition.
Figure 5-12 a)
Canada provides 9 m wheel clearance for aircraft with eye-to-wheel distance of 13.5 m; 4.5 m wheel
clearance for aircraft with eye-to-wheel distance of 7.5 m; and 3 m for aircraft with eye-to-wheel distance
of 3 m.
5.3.6
Circling guidance lights are not used in Canada.
5.3.7
Runway lead-in lighting systems are not used in Canada.
5.3.8
Canada refers to this type of lighting as runway identification lights and sites the units 30 m in front of the
threshold and 12 m from the edge.
5.3.9.7 a)
Canada uses blue lights to delineate this area.
5.3.10.3
In the case of a displaced threshold, Canada requires wing bar lights consisting of bidirectional threshold
and runway end lights for both precision and non-precision approach runways.
5.3.14.3
Canada uses blue edge lights in stopways.
5.4.2.9
Canada provides only one HOLD sign for category I runway unless the taxiway is more than 45 m in width.
5.4.5
Canada does not use aerodrome identification signs.
5.5.3.1*
Canada does not provide stopway edge markers.
CHAPTER 6
6.2.6*
In Canada emergency vehicles may be painted either yellow or red.
CHAPTER 7
7.2.2*
Canada does not use taxiway side stripe markings.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
CHINA (HONG KONG SAR) 1
CHAPTER 1
1.1
“Aerodrome” means any area of land or water designed, equipped, set apart or commonly used for affording
facilities for the landing and taking-off of aircraft and includes:
a)
any area or space, whether on the ground, on the roof of a building, or elsewhere, which is designed,
equipped or set apart for affording facilities for the landing and taking-off of aircraft capable of
descending or climbing vertically; and
b)
any such area of land or water or any such area or space, the management of which is vested in the
Government or in the Chief Executive,
but does not include any area the use of which for affording facilities for the landing and taking-off of
aircraft has been abandoned and has not been resumed.
Comment on implementation: This definition is in line with local legislation. Therefore, withdrawal of the
difference is not considered for the time being.
CHAPTER 3
3.8.21*
Straight sections at both ends of the bridges on Taxiway W, Taxiway V and Taxiway V4 are not available
at the following locations:
Taxiway W to H and vice versa
Taxiway W to V4 and vice versa
Taxiway W to W2 and vice versa
Taxiway V to V4 and vice versa
Taxiway V to H and vice versa
Comment on implementation: This is compensated by the widened bridges (from the required 44 m to 60 m)
to overcome possible oversteering. Therefore, withdrawal of the difference is not considered for the time
being.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.10
Upon the commissioning of the second runway of the Hong Kong International Airport, taxi-holding
position markings at the following locations consist of one solid line and one broken line:
Junction of Taxiway A and Taxiway N
Junction of Taxiway B and Taxiway N
Junction of Taxiway A and Taxiway A4
Junction of Taxiway A and Taxiway A5
Junction of Taxiway A and Taxiway A6
Junction of Taxiway A and Taxiway V
Junction of Taxiway A and Taxiway W
Junction of Taxiway B and Taxiway V
Junction of Taxiway B and Taxiway W
Junction of Taxiway A8 and Taxiway A
Junction of Taxiway H and Taxiway V
Junction of Taxiway H and Taxiway W
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
2 CHINA (HONG KONG SAR)
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
Comment on implementation: More positive visual information at the critical taxiing intersection is used
in order to provide an enhancement of the markings. Therefore, withdrawal of the difference is not
considered for the time being.
5.4.3.30
The TORA sign script on TWY A3, A10, J2 and J8 does not show the arrow as specified.
Remark: The specified taxiways intersect the two runways close to the ends of each runway. It is highly
unlikely for the pilots to take-off in the wrong direction because if the wrong direction is taken, only a
100 m length of runway would be available for take-off. Therefore, withdrawal of the difference is not
considered for the time being.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
DENMARK 1
CHAPTER 3
3.4.1
Runway end safety areas are not provided at all airports in Greenland.
Remark: Difficult due to terrain.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
FINLAND 1
CHAPTER 3
3.4.4
The following text will be substituted for this Standard:
The width of a runway end safety area shall be at least twice that of the associated runway. However, a
width of 90 m is considered sufficient in all cases.
CHAPTER 5
5.3.3.3
This Standard will be implemented as a recommendation only.
Comment on implementation: Standards 5.3.3.1 and 5.3.3.2 are considered to be adequate in determining
the operational requirement in Finland. Operational need for an aerodrome beacon or an identification
beacon, in Finland, is negligible.
5.3.4.1 C
A number of precision approach category I runways in Finland are provided with a high intensity simple
approach lighting system with an additional crossbar located 600 m from the threshold.
Remark: For high intensity simple approach lighting systems, see the ICAO Manual of All-Weather
Operations (Doc 9365), paragraph 6.3.7.
5.3.5.1 c)
Comment on implementation: Date of applicability: 1 January 2005.
5.3.18.1
Comment on implementation: This Standard will be implemented in Finland by 1 January 2005.
5.3.20.1
Finland complies with this Standard but with the following addition:
For runways intended to be used for take-offs only, in runway visual range conditions of less than 550 m,
runway guard lights are not required if operational procedures exist to limit the number of:
5.4.1.7
1)
aircraft on the manoeuvring area to one at a time; and
2)
vehicles on the manoeuvring area to the essential minimum.
The following text will be substituted for this Standard:
1)
2)
5.4.1.8
Signs shall be illuminated, either internally or externally, when intended for use:
a)
in runway visual range conditions less than 800 m; or
b)
at night in association with instrument runways; or
c)
at night in association with runways where the code number is 3 or 4.
Signs shall be illuminated in accordance with the provisions of Appendix 4 when the runway is
intended for landings with runway visual range less than 500 m.
The following text will be substituted for this Standard:
Signs shall be retroreflective and/or illuminated when intended for use at night in association with noninstrument runways where the code number is 1 or 2.
8/9/00
2 FINLAND
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
CHAPTER 6
6.1.3
6.3.26
Table 6-3
Finland complies with this Standard with the following additions:
a)
the marking may be omitted in the case of tree tops forming an obstacle;
b)
the marking may be omitted in the case of terrain forming an obstacle not extending above an obstaclefree zone;
c)
the marking may be omitted in the case of tree tops forming an obstacle not extending above an
obstacle-free zone;
d)
the marking may be omitted in the case of tree tops forming an obstacle not considered to constitute
a hazard to aeroplanes.
Low intensity obstacle lights displayed in vehicles, including follow-me vehicles, differ from those
specified in Table 6-3 as to the flash frequency, maximum allowable intensity and vertical beam spread.
Remark: The low intensity obstacle lights used on vehicles (special warning lamps for motor vehicles) are
in accordance with the United Nations Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Conditions of
Approval and Reciprocal Recognition of Approval for Motor Vehicle Equipment and Parts, Regulation
No. 65, Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Special Warning Lamps for Motor Vehicles.
CHAPTER 7
7.1.4
Finland complies with this Standard with the follow addition:
When the closed marking is used on a temporarily closed runway, it shall be of the form and proportions
as detailed in Figure 7-1, illustration a) or b).
CHAPTER 8
8.1.8
For a runway meant for take-off in runway visual range conditions of less than 550 m, a secondary power
supply capable of meeting the relevant requirements of Table 8-1 shall be provided.
Table 8-1
In Table 8-1, 550 m is substituted for 800 m.
8.7.5
It is not mandatory for a driver of a radio-equipped vehicle, before entering the apron, to establish radio
communication with ATC or the apron management service.
CHAPTER 9
9.1.12
The intervals between full-scale aerodrome emergency exercises will exceed two years.
Remark: A full-scale exercise may cause expenditure of human resources for outside organizations, such
as hospitals.
9.2.2 to
9.2.34
8/9/00
Rescue and fire fighting services specified in these Standards and Recommended Practices are required only
at those aerodromes having a permanent air traffic service. Military aerodromes open to civil aircraft but
not serving scheduled air carrier operations do not meet all of these Standards.
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
FINLAND 3
Aerodrome rescue and fire fighting categories 1 and 2 are not applied in Finland, i.e. the aerodrome
category shall be at 3.
9.2.6
Finland complies with this Standard with the following addition:
If, during anticipated periods of reduced activity, the highest category of aeroplane planned to use the
aerodrome is 1 or 2, protection shall be provided for these operations if the total annual number of
operations at the aerodrome is less than 50 000.
9.2.10
Complementary agents are not required at all airports in Finland.
Comment on implementation: Date of applicability: 1 January 2003.
9.4.19
Provision of a temporary threshold marking and early provision of the runway centre line marking are
required only when practicable. If a temporary threshold marking is not provided, a temporary threshold
shall be indicated with runway threshold identification lights in addition to runway threshold lights and/or
wing bar lights. All these shall be high-intensity lights, if applicable.
9.4.20
A light shall be deemed to be unserviceable when the main beam is less than 50 per cent of the value
specified in the appropriate figure in Appendix 2.
General comment on implementation: The Standards of Amendment 3 will be implemented in Finland by
7 September 2000.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
FRANCE 1
CHAPTER 1
1.1
In France, the runway-holding position is known as the runway stop position. The intermediate holding
position is known as the intermediate stop position.
1.3
The aerodrome classification system adopted in France is a functional one, based on the characteristics of
the aviation activities for which the aerodrome is intended, namely:
Category A: Aerodromes intended for long-haul services normally provided under all circumstances.
Category B: Aerodromes intended for medium-haul services normally provided under all circumstances
and for some long-haul services provided under the same conditions but which do not involve
a long stage on departure from these aerodromes.
Category C: Aerodromes intended for:
1—
Short-haul, some medium-haul and even long-haul services which only involve short
stages on departure from these aerodromes; and
2—
International tourism.
Category D: Aerodromes intended for aeronautical training, recreational flying and tourism or for certain
short-haul services.
There is therefore no direct correspondence between the above classification and the aerodrome reference
code in Annex 14, Volume I; the following is an approximate table of correspondence.
Category
Reference code
A
B
C
D
4E
4D
3 B to 4 C
1 A to 3 C
As a result, it is difficult to make a point-by-point notification of differences, in particular regarding the
limitation and removal of obstacles; be that as it may, in this latter field, the applicable specifications
guarantee “safety conditions at least equivalent to those provided for in the Standards and Recommended
Practices of the International Civil Aviation Organization” (Code of Civil Aviation, Article R.241-3).
CHAPTER 2
2.11.4*
The French regulations do not include special provisions to express unavailability of rescue and fire fighting
service facilities for periods which are expected to be less than 12 hours.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.15*
Minimum radii of curvature are 20 000 m for the runways of Category A aerodromes, 15 000 m for
Category B and 5 000 m for Categories C and D.
.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
2 FRANCE
3.4
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
The application of the new Standard will be studied and it can only be implemented progressively.
Remark: There may be obstacles (vegetation) or differences in height after the strip, in the corresponding
area in particular on code number 1 and 2 runways. Verification is therefore necessary.
3.7.1*
A radio altimeter operating area is only established for Category II or III precision approach runways.
3.7.3*
The width of the radio altimeter operating area for Category II or III precision approaches is 60 m (30 m
on each side of the centre line).
3.7.4*
The characteristics are as follows:
— average longitudinal slope of less than 2 per cent in absolute value
— no local slopes in excess of 5 per cent in absolute value
— no local differences in height of more than one metre
In some cases, when the terrain does not correspond to the average slope characteristics and slope changes,
an artificial plane may be used.
3.11
The taxi-holding position is known as the runway-stop position.
3.11.5
3.11.6
3.11.7*
The French Administration takes the following rules into account in determining the stop position:
a)
Runways used under VFR conditions
The distance is determined in relation to the runway edge and is at least equal to:
— 30 m for a paved runway less than 1 000 m long, or an unpaved runway; and
— 50 m for a paved runway 1 000 m long or more.
b)
Runways used under IFR conditions
— With non-precision approach: the distance is 75 m from the runway centre line.
— With precision approach: the distance is at least 150 m from the runway centre line.
However, in Category I, if markings or signs cannot be located 150 m from the runway centre line, a
different distance may be adopted. It must not be less than:
— 90 m if the runway is used by Category D and E aircraft.
— 75 m if the runway is used by Category A, B or C aircraft.
CHAPTER 4
4.1.9
The inner edge of the approach surface is situated at the same elevation as the extended centre line of the
runway at right angles to the inner edge.
4.1.13 to
4.1.16
The transitional surfaces are known as lateral surfaces.
4.1.27
The inner edge of the take-off climb surface is situated at the same elevation as the extended centre line of
the runway at right angles to the inner edge.
4.2.1
Some Category D aerodromes do not have a conical surface.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
4.2.9
FRANCE 3
The runway approach surfaces at aerodromes in Categories A, B and C are horizontal above the higher of
the following two levels:
— 150 m above the inner edge; and
— 100 m above the terrain.
4.2.17
The runway approach surfaces at aerodromes in Categories A, B and C are horizontal above the higher of
the following two levels:
— 150 m above the inner edge; and
— 100 m above the terrain.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.1.5
The taxiway markings are yellow except when a taxiway centre line splits, in which case one of the split
centre lines is blue and the other orange.
5.2.3.3
5.2.3.4
5.2.4.5
For blacktop runways used in VFR conditions or in IFR conditions (excluding precision approaches), and
for concrete runways used solely in VFR conditions, the French Administration authorizes the use of a
simplified marking.
5.2.5.2
The aiming point markings are put on all runways 1 500 m in length or longer.
5.2.5.5
For blacktop runways used in VFR conditions or in IFR conditions (excluding precision approaches), and
for concrete runways used solely in VFR conditions, the French Administration authorizes the use of a
simplified marking.
5.2.7.2*
French regulations do not require the systematic provision of runway side stripe markings on precision
approach runways.
5.2.10.1*
When a precise holding limit has to be defined, an intermediate stop position marking will be used.
5.3.3.12
In France, identification beacons may show flashing-white rather than flashing-green.
5.3.4.1 B
The French regulations do no require the regular provision of approach lighting systems for non-precision
approach runways.
C
The French regulations do not require the regular provision of approach lighting systems for Category I
precision approach runways.
D
The French regulations do not require the regular provision of approach lighting systems for Category III
precision approach runways if they are not also used for Category II precision approaches.
5.3.5.1 a)
The French regulations do not require the regular provision of visual approach slope indicators to serve a
runway used by turbojet or other aeroplanes with similar approach guidance requirements.
5.3.12.3
Runway centre line lights are mandatory for take-off in low visibility when the runway visual range (RVR)
is lower than 250 m for aircraft of Categories A, B and C and 300 m for aircraft of Category D.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
4 FRANCE
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
5.3.15.1 and
5.3.15.2*
Taxiway centre line lights are systematically provided only on taxiways with an RVR of less than 150 m.
5.3.15.3*
The French Administration applies this provision only in the case of taxiing on an inactive runway and with
an RVR of less than 150 m.
5.3.16.2
The French Administration does not apply this provision.
5.3.17.1
5.3.17.2*
5.3.17.3
The French Administration only requires the provision of stop bars for Category II and III precision
approach runways except on aerodromes with light traffic (Categories II and III) where taxiing in the
manoeuvring area is limited to one aircraft at a time.
Remark: In view of the lower RVR limits mentioned, 350 m and 550 m, and the take-off minima authorized
by European regulations, this Standard would require the installation of stop bars on most runways. This
in unfeasible. This is why only Category II and III runways have been considered.
5.3.17.14 c)
The centre line lights will not be visible from the entry side.
5.3.18
The French Administration has no plans to provide taxiway intersection lights.
5.3.20.1
The runway guard lights (Configuration A, Figure 5-23) are installed in France at all the runway-stop
positions on Category II and III precision approach runways in the absence of stop bars. Their installation
is recommended at aerodromes with high traffic density.
Remark: In view of the RVR limits mentioned, 550 m and 1 200 m, and the take-off minima authorized by
European regulations, this Standard would require the installation of runway guard lights on almost all
runways. This is unfeasible.
5.4.1.6
The French Administration does not fully apply the provisions of Appendix 4. Sign inscription heights may
be lower than the ones mentioned in that Appendix.
5.4.2
The French Administration has established an installation schedule that should end on 31 December 2000.
Remark: Upgrading all French airfields to the Standards requires very considerable investment and work.
5.4.2.5
The French Administration only provides for the installation of the mandatory instruction signs specified
in 5.4.2.8 (runway designation signs) and/or 5.4.2.9 (category I, II or III stop-position signs) at the runwaystop positions.
Remark: Upgrading all French airfields to the Standards requires very considerable investment and work.
5.4.2.8
In France, the signs specified in 5.4.2.8 are installed at least on the left side of the runway.
Remark: Upgrading all French airfields to the Standards requires very considerable investment and work.
Consultation is necessary before adopting this Standard.
5.4.2.10
In France, it is not intended to require the installation of the runway-stop position sign (example “B2”) at
runway-stop positions.
Remark: It can be understood that there is sometimes a need to use this type of sign in the case of multiple
stop positions, but it should not be required systematically. Runway designation signs are already often
complemented by a location sign (example “B”).
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
5.4.2.14
The Cat. II or Cat. III inscription is always placed closest to the taxiway and the runway designation is on
the outside.
20-02 Cat. III
left-side sign
5.4.3.3
FRANCE 5
Cat. III 20-02
right-side sign
Information signs also include special signs and frequency reminder signs.
Frequency reminder signs:
When passing from one area of responsibility to another, it may be useful to remind pilots or drivers of
vehicles of the frequency associated with the area that they are entering; it is therefore that frequency which
is displayed on the sign.
5.4.3.5
Runway vacated signs are only provided for Category II and III precision approach runways.
5.4.3.7*
At some complex intersections, signs displaying a combination of different types of information may be
used where required.
5.4.3.10*
Signs of the same type as the runway-stop position signs (example “B2”) will be installed at the intermediate stop positions at least on the left side of the taxiway.
5.4.3.21
In France, the intersection take-off signs will be installed at least on one side of the taxiway, right or left.
5.4.3.30
In France, the inscriptions on these signs will indicate the value of the distance remaining to the end of the
runway (TORA) expressed in metres, but the letter “m” of the unit will not be displayed. The runway
designation may also be mentioned.
Remark: The fact of not specifying the unit “m” does not jeopardize safety since confusion with units in
feet would give a shorter distance which would alert the pilot.
CHAPTER 7
7.3.1*
The French Administration establishes 100 m as the minimum length beyond which a paved pre-threshold
area not suitable for normal use must be marked with a chevron marking.
CHAPTER 8
8.9.7*
The French regulations do not provide for the systematic use of surface movement radar for the
manoeuvring area.
CHAPTER 9
9.2.2
9.2.3*
The French Administration will not be in a position to apply this Standard in January 2000. The French
Administration makes a distinction between flights planned with sufficient time in advance and other
flights.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
6 FRANCE
9.2.10
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
The French regulations for aerodrome Categories I and II require the following amounts of extinguishing
agents:
Category I
50 kg powder or halons
Category II
250 kg powder or halons
9.2.34
The French regulations provide for the use of respiratory equipment only at aerodrome Category IV or
higher.
9.3
The French Administration does not apply the provisions of this paragraph.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
GERMANY 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1.5
2.1.6
Publishing of the aerodrome reference points in WGS-84 will be an ongoing task for some time after the
date of applicability of Amendment 2.
Appendix 5
Table 1
Table 2
Table 2
In Germany the description of obstacles differs as follows from what is given in these tables.
a)
Obstacles in the circling area for non-precision and turning departures and at the aerodrome.
b)
Significant obstacles in the precision approach and straight departure area.
The WGS-84 geoid undulation at aerodrome elevation position will not be published in Germany.
Remark: This item need not be published because for non-precision approaches the MDH is referred to the
threshold position at all German IFR aerodromes.
Table 1
Table 5
2.1.5
2.1.6
Threshold, runway end: for a few IFR aerodromes these positions cannot be published as from the date of
applicability.
Remark: Some more time is needed because these positions must be brought into conformity with the
declared distances specified in the aerodrome licensing document (a formal act of approval by the National
administration).
Comment on implementation:
Annex provision
Proposed date of implementation
Appendix 5
Table 1
Table 2
It is not intended to comply with this provision.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
JAPAN 1
CHAPTER 3
3.4.2
A runway end safety area is 40 m.
Comment on implementation: No amendment to the current regulation is intended.
CHAPTER 5
5.3.5.42
The length of the obstacle protection surface is 7 400 m.
Comment on implementation: It is difficult to establish the obstacle protection surface of 15 000 m in length
because of mountainous terrain. No amendment to the current regulation is intended.
5.3.14
No provision.
CHAPTER 6
6.3.25
The colour of low intensity obstacle lights displayed on vehicles associated with emergency or security is
flashing red.
Date of implementation: March 2005 (provisional).
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
KYRGYZSTAN 1
CHAPTER 3
3.3.2
In the regulations applied in Kyrgyzstan, this segment is reinforced (with pavement) and is 50 m in size
with a reduction down to 2/3 of its width at the end of the reinforced segment where the code number is 4.
Remark: The implementation of reinforced segments of this size was based on the previous regulatory
document “Standards of operational serviceability of the civil aerodromes in the USSR”.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
NETHERLANDS 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1.3
The Netherlands is not making use of CRC to protect the integrity level of critical and essential electronic
aeronautical data.
2.1.7
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
In the Netherlands the geoid undulation at the aerodrome elevation position and the geoid undulation of
the threshold will not be published.
2.5.3
In the Netherlands it is not yet considered necessary to determine the geographical coordinates of the
taxiway centre line points in terms of the World Geodetic System — 1984 (WGS-84) geodetic reference
datum.
2.5.4
In the Netherlands it is not yet considered necessary to determine the geographical coordinates of the
aircraft stands in terms of the World Geodetic System – 1984 (WGS-84) geodetic reference datum.
2.6.2 a)
For pavements intended for aircraft of apron (ramp) mass greater than 6 000 kg, the pavement classification
number (PCN) shall be reported.
2.6.5
2.6.6 a)
The behaviour of a pavement may be classified as rigid (R), flexible (F), special-rigid (SR) or specialflexible (SF).
When classified as special, the standard procedures for determining the ACN-value of an aircraft as given
in the Aerodrome Design Manual, Part 3, are not applicable, and therefore, the reported PCN-value is only
of indicative value for the present fleet of aircraft.
2.6.8
For pavements intended for aircraft of apron (ramp) mass equal to or less than 6 000 kg and for unpaved
airfields in general, the bearing strength shall be reported by the method described in this paragraph.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
NEW ZEALAND 1
General Comment: New Zealand’s Civil Aviation Rules (CAR) Part 139: Aerodromes — Certification,
Operation and Use, is currently being reviewed. More comprehensive advice regarding New Zealand’s
differences to Annex 14, Volume I, will be provided following issuance of CAR Part 139, which is
expected late in 2000.
CHAPTER 1
General
Table 1-1
New code letter F for aeroplanes with a wing span of 65 m up to but not including 80 m and an outer main
gear span of 14 m up to but not including 16 m.
Remark: This requirement will be included in the review of the Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Comment on implementation: On issuance of the revised Civil Aviation Rules Part 139, due late 2000.
CHAPTER 3
General
3.3.2
3.3.7 a)
Provisions related to code letter F aeroplanes.
Length of runway strips.
Objects on runway strips.
Remark: These requirements will be included in the review of the Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Comment on implementation: On issuance of the revised Civil Aviation Rules Part 139, due late 2000.
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3*
General
Dimensions of runway end safety area (RESA).
Remark: The requirement for RESA is under consideration, and it will be some months before some
resolution is finalized.
Comment on implementation: Under consideration.
3.14
New specifications on de/anti-icing facilities.
Remark: These requirements will be included in the review of the Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Comment on implementation: On issuance of the revised Civil Aviation Rules Part 139, due late 2000.
CHAPTER 4
Table 4-1
Requirements for code letter F aeroplanes.
Remark: This requirement will be included in the review of the Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Comment on implementation: On issuance of the revised Civil Aviation Rules Part 139, due late 2000.
CHAPTER 5
Revised specifications on runway-holding position marking, intermediate holding position marking, runway
centre line lights, taxiway centre line lights, stop bars, intermediate holding position lights and runway guard
lights.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
2 NEW ZEALAND
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
Specifications on mandatory instruction markings, marking and lighting of de/anti-icing facilities, alternative
approach and runway lighting for precision approach runways where the serviceability levels of lights can
be demonstrated and intersection take-off signs.
Remark: These requirements will be included in the review of the Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Comment on implementation: On issuance of the revised Civil Aviation Rules Part 139, due late 2000.
CHAPTER 6
Table 6-2
Table 6-3
Revised specifications on lighting of obstacles, characteristics of obstacle lights and installation setting
angles for high-intensity obstacle lights.
Remark: These requirements will be included in the review of the Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Comment on implementation: On issuance of the revised Civil Aviation Rules Part 139, due late 2000.
CHAPTER 8
Requirements for switch-over times for precision approach runways, Category I, where approaches are over
hazardous or precipitous terrain and revised requirements for switch-over times for runways meant for takeoff in runway visual range conditions between 550 m and 800 m.
Revised provisions concerning frangibility of non-visual aids on operational areas.
Remark: These requirements will be included in the review of the Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Comment on implementation: On issuance of the revised Civil Aviation Rules Part 139, due late 2000.
CHAPTER 9
Provisions concerning a system of preventive maintenance to be employed for precision approach
runways, Categories II and III, as well as provisions concerning Human Factors issues.
Remark: These requirements will be included in the review of the Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Comment on implementation: On issuance of the revised Civil Aviation Rules Part 139, due late 2000.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
NORWAY 1
CHAPTER 2
2.9.6
Norway does not use the method described for continuous friction measuring devices.
Remark: We regard the measured information concerning slippery runway conditions in Norway to be
too inaccurate to be published for official use.
CHAPTER 3
3.4.1
A runway end safety area is not provided at the end of a runway strip where the code number is 1 or 2 and
the runway is an instrument one. It is physically difficult, in some cases impossible, to establish a runway
end safety area at the end of the runway strip at Norwegian aerodromes where the code number is 1 or 2.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.1.4
Runway markings shall be yellow.
Remark: The reason for using yellow markings is due to the need for improved visual references during the
winter season when runways are covered with ice and snow.
5.3.10.1
Runway threshold lights are provided with use of wing bars only on precision approach runways, Cat I.
Remark: In Norway, most precision approach runways have displaced thresholds. When thresholds are
displaced, the threshold lights must be inset into the pavement. During the winter season, difficulties have
been experienced in keeping inset lights clear of ice and snow. Norway regards the use of wing bars as
threshold lights sufficient for satisfying the needs of Cat I operations.
CHAPTER 6
6.1.5
When the terrain is regarded as an obstacle, above an obstacle protection surface, obstacles of this type are
normally not marked and lighted, even if the runway is used at night.
6.3.9*
When the terrain is regarded as an obstacle, above an obstacle protection surface, obstacles of this type are
usually not displayed with top lights.
CHAPTER 8
8.7.2 b)
Some of the equipment required for air navigation purposes, penetrating the inner approach surface and
the inner transitional surface, are not frangible.
Remark: The reason for using non-frangible equipment is due to climactic conditions in Norway.
CHAPTER 9
9.4.4*
9.4.5
Norway does not regard the method described, for using a continuous friction measuring device, as
satisfactory in order to be able to publish necessary information concerning slippery conditions.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
PORTUGAL 1
CHAPTER 3
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3*
Runway end safety areas, as specified in Amendment 3 to Annex 14, Volume I, cannot be implemented at
the following international airports:
Lisboa (LPPT) — Runway 17
Funchal (LPFU)
Faro (LPFR)
Joáo Paulo II (LPPD)
Horta (LPHR)
Flores (LPFL)
Remark: The differences reported herein result from physical or environmental constraints. The individual
constraints are as follows:
Lisboa, Runway 17: A road is located at the end of runway 17.
Funchal: A complete renewal project is in progress.
Joáo Paulo II and Horta: The runways are located in the periphery of islands. The compliance process
is dependent on a change in the declared distances and a corresponding runway lighting system
modification.
Faro: The airport is located in an environmentally protected area. Any modification of the land use is
dependent on an environmental impact evaluation.
Comment on implementation:
Existing infrastructures:
Porto (LPPR): will comply by 4 November 1999
Santa Maria (LPAZ): will comply by 4 November 1999
Porto Santo (LPPS): will comply by 4 November 1999
Lisboa (LPPT) runways, 03, 21, 35: will comply by 4 November 1999
Funchal (LPFU): will comply after 31 December 2000
Flores (LPFL): will comply after 31 December 2000
Joáo Paulo II (LPPD): will comply after 2001.
The compliance date after 4 November 1999 will be notified for each airport through the specific
Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP, NOTAM CIA). The precise compliance date is subordinated
to the planning of the corresponding correction project and the result of an in-depth evaluation of the
operational and safety consequences.
New infrastructures:
Will comply with the provisions of Annex 14, Volume I, including all amendments up to and including
Amendment 3.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 1
CHAPTER 1
1.3
The basic aerodrome classification is the length of the paved runway. Aerodromes are subdivided into six
classes. In standardizing the taxiway requirements, aeroplanes are subdivided into six groups (index
numbers) depending on wing span and wheel span. For the largest (index number 6) aeroplanes, a wing
span of up to 65 m and a wheel span of up to 14 m are used. The requirements for index number 6
aeroplanes also apply to aeroplanes with a wing span of up to 75 m and a wheel span of up to 10.5 m.
Remark: The national use of a wing span value of 75 m is due to the operation of An-124 type aeroplanes,
with a wing span of 73.3 m, at aerodromes. Larger aeroplanes are not currently being used at the country’s
aerodromes.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.2*
The value of the maximum permissible cross-wind component varies from 6 to 12 m/s (from 21.6 to
43.2 km/h) as a function of the aerodrome category.
3.1.16*
The requirement to provide a line of sight over the entire length of the runway, where a parallel (main)
taxiway is not available, is not used. There is a general requirement for a line of sight of not less than half
the runway length from a height of 3 m, regardless of the availability of a main taxiway.
3.2.3*
Shoulders are not provided with a runway width of 60 m or more.
3.3.7
The width of the obstacle-free part of the runway strip is taken to be 60 m from the runway centre line for
all aerodrome categories.
3.4
Runway end safety areas are not used. Their functions are performed by sections of the runway strip located
beyond the runway ends.
3.6.4*
The requirement to provide a stopway coefficient of friction equal to that of the adjacent runway is not used.
3.7
The requirements for the radio altimeter operating area are not used.
3.8.4*
The taxiway width is from 7 to 22.5 m as a function of the aeroplane code (group).
3.8.7*
As a function of the aeroplane code (group), the distance between parallel taxiway centre lines is from 38
to 95 m; the distance between a taxiway centre line and an object is from 22 to 55 m; the distance between
an aircraft stand taxilane centre line and an object is from 16 to 45 m.
3.8.20*
The requirement to provide access for rescue and fire fighting vehicles to aeroplanes on a taxiway bridge
is not used.
3.9.1*
The overall width of the taxiway with two shoulders is from 27 to 40.5 m as a function of the aeroplane
code.
3.10
The requirements for taxiway strips are not used.
3.11.4*
The requirement for an intermediate holding position on a taxiway is not used.
3.14
The requirements for de/anti-icing facilities are not used.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
2 RUSSIAN FEDERATION
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
CHAPTER 4
4.2
Insignificant differences relate to the dimensions and slopes of the obstacle limitation surfaces. The
obstacle limitation surfaces are differentiated according to the runway (aerodrome) categories and to the
extent to which the runway is equipped with landing aids.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.5
The aiming point is not used. Its functions are performed by the fixed distance area (300 m from the
threshold).
5.2.7.1
The requirement for a runway side stripe marking, where there is a lack of contrast between the pavement
and the adjacent area of the runway strip, is not used. There is a requirement for a side stripe marking for
a precision approach runway.
5.2.9.3
Marking of additional runway-holding positions is not used.
5.2.9.7
The runway-holding position marking at a runway/runway intersection is not used.
5.2.10
The intermediate holding position marking at taxiway intersections is not used. The taxiway intersection
positions are designated by taxiway signs.
5.2.11
The VOR aerodrome check in marking is not used.
5.2.14
The road-holding position marking is not used.
CHAPTER 6
6.2.4*
Alternating horizontal bands 0.5 to 6 m wide are used to mark an object up to 100 m high. Not less than
1/3 of the height of the object is marked.
CHAPTER 7
7.1
Marking of closed runways and taxiways or parts thereof is not used.
7.3
Different markings in terms of shape, dimensions and colour are used to designate the runway displaced
threshold.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
SOUTH AFRICA 1
CHAPTER 1
1.1
South Africa will retain the use of the wording “Taxi-Holding Position” and “Taxi-Holding Position
Marking”.
Remark: To avoid confusion when such markings are used on taxiway crossings.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.9
South Africa will retain the use of the wording “Taxi-Holding Position” and “Taxi-Holding Position
Marking”.
Remark: To avoid confusion when such markings are used on taxiway crossings.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
SPAIN 1
CHAPTER 2
2.9.9*
Given the climate of our country, the proposed Recommendation is not applied.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.11*
The minimum distance between parallel runways intended for independent parallel approaches is 1 310 m.
3.3.2
It is considered that not all of the airports will have been adapted to the Standard concerning the length of
runway strips by 1 January 2009.
3.4.3*
This Recommended Practice is not complied with in Spain.
3.7
The Recommendation to establish radio altimeter operating areas is applied at those airports requiring
category II/III precision approaches.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.15
In Spain, the character height for information markings is normally 2 m.
5.3.5
On 31 December 1999, the seven thresholds of four runways at which VASIS systems still operate at the
present time will have operational PAPI systems.
5.3.17.10
The current facilities are not adapted to this Standard.
5.3.22
By 31 December 1999, all visual docking guidance systems will comply with the specifications.
5.4
Adaptation to the corresponding provisions will be completed during 2001.
CHAPTER 6
6.3.16
This provision is not applied, as ICAO requirements differ from those in our Traffic Code.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
SWEDEN 1
CHAPTER 5
5.2.5
1 January 2005.
Remark: Swedish regulations contain requirement only for code 4.
5.2.6
1 January 2005.
Remark: Swedish regulations contain requirement only for code 4.
5.2.16.1
Swedish regulations contain no requirement.
Remark: Information markings are deemed to have limited use, given the winter conditions. Signs are
required to the extent necessary.
CHAPTER 6
General comment: Swedish regulations do not fully correspond with Annex 14. National requirements will
be reviewed within the next three years.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
SWITZERLAND 1
CHAPTER 5
5.3.5
In general, we do not install a visual approach slope indicator system on a precision approach runway.
CHAPTER 6
6.2.9*
The spacing between two markers, where the marker diameter is 60 cm, may be increased to a 40 m
maximum.
Remark: For reasons of uniformity, it is not possible to change given the large number of marked
installations in our country.
6.3.3*
3 × 80 cd occulting lights may also be used instead of medium-intensity lights.
Remark: Proven practice, high reliability of the lights and good visibility from all angles.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UGANDA 1
CHAPTER 2
2.6
PCN for pavements has not been determined. LCN method still in use.
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UNITED KINGDOM 1
CHAPTER 1
1.1
Aerodrome traffic density; Runway holding point; Intermediate holding point — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.13*
UK uses 2.5 per cent where the code is 2; 3 per cent where the code is 1.
Remark: These criteria have been in use for many years; no evidence to suggest they are inadequate.
3.1.14*
UK uses 3 per cent where the code is 1.
Remark: These criteria have been in use for many years; no evidence to suggest they are inadequate.
3.3.12*
UK uses 2 per cent where the code is 3; 2.5 per cent where the code is 2; 3 per cent where the code is 1.
Remark: These criteria have been in use for many years; no evidence to suggest they are inadequate.
3.4.3
UK uses 30 m for code 1 and 2 instrument runway.
No provision for code 1 and 2 visual runway.
Remark: These criteria have been in use for many years; no evidence to suggest they are inadequate.
3.4.9*
UK allows up to 10 per cent down slope.
Remark: Only permitted after aeronautical study determines acceptability.
3.5.4*
UK allows 2 per cent up slope where the codes are 1 and 2.
Remark: Only permitted after aeronautical study determines acceptability.
3.8.7*
Table 3-1
Column
Code A
Code B
(10)
21.0
31.5
(11)
13.5
19.5
Remark: The distances used are adequate for the operation involved.
Table 3-2
Code 4 precision approach categories I, II, III, note ‘c’ — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
CHAPTER 4
Table 4-1
Balked landing surface, inner edge, note ‘e’— currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
2 UNITED KINGDOM
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
CHAPTER 5
5.2.4.3*
Not required in UK.
Remark: The use of grass runways for public transport operations in the UK is limited and the use of nonpaved runway markings is an over provision.
5.2.5.5
The UK uses a different style of aiming point marking, as illustrated below.
Remark: The UK considers that the ICAO standard aiming point marking is insufficiently conspicuous.
Touchdown Zone Markings
B
B
C
A
A
15m
15m
15m
22.5m
Aiming Point Markers
Runway width
(m)
45
30
23
18
5.2.8.1
Distance A
runway C/L to marker (m)
9
3
5
3
Marker width
B (m)
5.5
5
2.5
2.5
Marker width
C (m)
3
3
1.5
1.5
Taxiway centre line marking from de/anti-icing facility and apron between runway centre line and aircraft
stands — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.2.15
Mandatory instruction marking — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.3.4.15
Composition of approach centre line lights where serviceability level of lights can meet maintenance
objective in 9.4.29 — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
5.3.4.22
UNITED KINGDOM 3
Composition of approach lights where serviceability level of lights can meet maintenance objective in
9.4.26 — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.3.4.24
Composition of approach lights (side rows) where serviceability of lights can meet maintenance objective
in 9.4.26 — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.3.4.30
Composition of Cat II/III centre line approach lighting where serviceability of lights can meet maintenance
objective in 9.4.26 — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.3.4.32
5.3.4.33
Composition of approach lights where serviceability can meet maintenance objective in 9.4.26 — currently
not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.3.5.42
UK uses a plane 1E below lower boundary of on slope signal originating 90 m from units where LDA
1 200 m or greater, 60 m where LDA 800 m – 1 199 m and 30 m where LDA <800 m, diverging at 15E from
runway edge out to 15 NM.
Remark: This practise has been in existence since PAPI was originally designed; no safety related incidents
to justify introducing more penalizing criteria.
5.3.12.2*
Not required in UK.
Remark: No demonstrated safety benefit. Markings and HI edge lights considered sufficient.
5.3.12.4*
Not required in UK.
Remark: No demonstrated safety benefit. Markings and HI edge lights considered sufficient.
5.3.15.1
Provision of continuous taxiway lights between runway and stands in RVR less than 350 m — currently
not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.3.15.7
UK uses amber/green both ways within OFZ.
Remark: The pattern is intended to remind pilots when they are within OFZ/ILS protected areas.
5.3.15.11 c)*
UK uses 30 m spacing for taxiways used in RVR 200 m and above, 15 m spacing when used in RVR
<200 m.
Remark: Tests and practical experience confirm that spacing is sufficient.
5.3.15.13*
UK uses 15 m spacing for taxiways used in RVR 200 m and above, 7.5 m where used in RVR <200 m.
Remark: Tests and practical experience confirm that spacing is sufficient.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
4 UNITED KINGDOM
5.3.15.17*
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UK uses 15 m spacing for exits used in RVR 200 m and above, 7.5 m where used in RVR <200 m.
Remark: Tests and practical experience confirm that spacing is sufficient.
5.3.15.18*
UK uses 30 m spacing for taxiways used in RVR 200 m and above, 15 m spacing where used in RVR
<200 m.
Remark: Tests and practical experience confirm that spacing is sufficient.
5.3.16.6
UK also uses omni-directional taxiway edge lights. Use of omni-directional edge lights is gradually being
phased out.
5.3.19
De/anti-icing facility exit lights — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.3.22.11*
UK uses systems not aligned for use by both pilots.
Remark: Many of these systems were in use before guidance material was produced. They are gradually
being replaced with compliant units.
5.3.22.14
UK uses systems where pilot has to turn head.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.3.22.16*
UK uses systems not aligned for use by both pilots.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.4.1.9
Blank face on variable message sign — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.4.2.8
Runway designation sign location — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.4.3.5
Not used in UK.
Remark: UK uses a location sign.
5.4.3.14*
UK uses taxiway ending sign but not just at ‘T’ junctions.
Remark: UK uses a taxiway ending sign which is a location sign with a yellow diagonal.
5.4.3.17
Not all runway exit signs on same side of runway as exit.
Remark: Location is on same side where possible.
5.4.3.21
Location of intersection take-off sign — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
5.4.3.25*
UNITED KINGDOM 5
Taxiway ending sign at ‘T’ junctions not always located as specified.
Remark: Taxiway ending signs should be located well before end of taxiway.
5.4.3.26
Not used in UK.
5.4.3.27
All UK location signs have yellow border.
5.4.3.30
Inscription on intersection take-off sign — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
5.5.3.1*
Not used in UK.
Remark: When standard marking agreed, UK will implement.
5.5.3.2
Not used in UK.
Remark: When standard marking agreed, UK will implement.
CHAPTER 6
6.2.8*
Not required in UK.
6.3.16
6.3.17
6.3.18
Provision of medium-intensity obstacle lights Type A/B/C — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
CHAPTER 7
7.1.4
UK uses elongated legs 0.9 m wide as illustrated:
0.9m
3m
Taxiway C/L
6m
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
6 UNITED KINGDOM
7.2.2*
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
Inner edge marks outer edge of load-bearing surface.
CHAPTER 8
8.3.4*
Not used in UK.
Remark: UK is working on minimum acceptable levels of lighting.
8.6.1
Design and construction of new facilities to incorporate security measures — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
8.7.5
Location of equipment or installation with reference to runway strip and extended centre line — currently
not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
8.7.6
Frangibility and mounting of equipment or installations located on or near Cat. I/II/III precision approach
runways — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
CHAPTER 9
9.2.10
At all aerodromes, up to 50 per cent of the complimentary media may be replaced by water for foam
production to performance level B.
9.4.20
Serviceability requirements for lights in visual aids — currently not adopted.
Remark: Pending internal assessment and external consultation.
Appendix 4
paragraph 11
8/9/00
Not specified in UK.
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UNITED STATES 1
CHAPTER 1
1.1
De/anti-icing facility definition was revised to include slush as another form of contamination to be
removed. Holdover time definition revised to include commencement of holdover time for one-step
procedures.
1.2.1
Airports in the United States are for the most part owned and operated by local governments and quasigovernmental organizations formed to operate transportation facilities. The Federal government provides
air traffic control, operates and maintains navaids, provides financial assistance for airport development,
certificates major airports and issues standards and guidance for airport planning, design and operational
safety.
There is general conformance with the Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 14, Volume I.
At airports with scheduled passenger service using aircraft having more than nine seats, compliance with
Standards is enforced through regulation and certification. At other airports, compliance is achieved
through the agreements with individual airports under which federal development funds were granted;
or, through voluntary actions.
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
In the United States the Airport Reference Code is a two-component indicator relating the standards used
in the airport’s design to a combination of dimensional and operating characteristics of the largest
aircraft expected to use the airport. The first element, Aircraft Approach Category, corresponds to the
ICAO PANS-OPS approach speed groupings. The second, Airplane Design Group (ADG), corresponds
to the wingspan groupings of code element 2 of the Annex 14, Aerodrome Reference Code. See below:
Airport Reference Code (ARC)
Aircraft Approach
Category
Approximate
Annex 14
Code Number
A
1
Airport designed
B
2
for B747-400
C
3
ARC D-V
D
4
E
—
Airplane Design
Group
Corresponding
Annex 14 Code
Letter
I
A
II
B
III
C
IV
D
V
E
VI
F (proposed)
CHAPTER 2
2.2.1
Comment on implementation: The aerodrome reference point is recomputed when the ultimate planned
development of the aerodrome is changed.
8/9/00
2 UNITED STATES
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
2.9.6
2.9.7
Minimum friction values have not been established to indicate that runways are “slippery when wet”.
However, United States guidance recommends that pavements be maintained to the same levels
indicated in the ICAO Airport Services Manual.
2.11.3
If an inoperative piece of fire fighting apparatus cannot be replaced immediately, a Notice to Airmen
must be issued. If the apparatus is not restored to service within 48 hours, operations shall be limited
to those compatible with the lower Index corresponding to operative apparatus.
2.12 e)
Where the original VASI is still installed, the threshold crossing height is reported as the centre of the
on-course signal, not the top of the red signal from the downwind bar.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.2*
The cross-wind component is based on the Airport Reference Code (ARC): 10.5 kt for AI and BI; 13 kt
for AII and BII; 16 kt for AIII, BIII and CI through DIII; 20 kts for AIV through DVI.
3.1.9*
The runway widths (metres) used in design are below:
Width of runway (metres)
Aircraft
Approach
Category
Airplane Design Group
I
II
1
A
18
B
181
C
D
30
30
III
IV
V
VI
1
–
–
45
60
231
–
–
45
60
30
2
45
45
60
30
2
45
45
60
23
30
30
1
The width of a precision (lower than 1 200 m approach visibility minimums) runway is 23 m for a
runway which is to accommodate only small (less than 5 700 kg) aeroplanes and 30 m for runways
accommodating larger aeroplanes.
2
For aeroplanes with a maximum certificated take-off mass greater than 68 000 kg, the standard runway
width is 45 m.
3.1.12*
Longitudinal runway slopes of up to 1.5 per cent are permitted for aircraft approach Categories C and D,
except for the first and last quarter of the runway where the maximum slope is 0.8 per cent.
3.1.16*
Runway profiles permit any two points five feet (1.5 m) above the runway centre line to be mutually
visible for the entire runway length. However, if the runway has a full length parallel taxiway, the
runway profile may be such that an unobstructed line of sight will exist from any point five feet (1.5 m)
above the runway centre line for one-half the runway length. Regarding the Note, the 1.5 m as compared
to 3 m height difference is additionally required for the runway visibility zone contained in the
Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 1, Runways.
3.1.18*
Minimum and maximum transverse runway slopes are based on aircraft approach categories as follows:
For Categories A and B: 1.0-2.0 per cent
For Categories C and D: 1.0-1.5 per cent
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UNITED STATES 3
3.2.3*
The United States does not require that the minimum combined runway and shoulder widths equal 60 m.
The widths of shoulders are determined independently.
3.2.4*
The transverse slope on the innermost portion of the shoulders can be as high as 5 per cent.
3.3.3
3.3.4*
3.3.5*
A strip width of 120 m is used for code 3 and 4 runways for precision, non-precision and noninstrumented operations. For code 1 and 2 precision runways, the width is 120 m. For nonprecision/visual runways, widths vary from 37.5 m up to 120 m.
3.3.7
The frangibility and object removal requirement are applicable only to the FAA runway safety area
(RSA) and the obstacle free zone (OFZ). The RSA functions similarly to the ICAO “graded portion” of
the runway strip. The difference is less than 1.3 m; that is, the FAA Standard measure 76.2 m as
compared to 77.5 m under Annex 14. However, the area beyond the RSA, the runway object free area,
measures 120 m and requires object removal, but not frangibility for permitted objects.
3.3.9*
Airports used exclusively by small aircraft (U.S. Airplane Design Group I) may be graded to distances
as little as 18 m from the runway centre line.
3.3.14*
The maximum transverse slope of the graded portion of the strip can be 3 per cent for Aircraft Approach
Categories C and D and 5 per cent for Aircraft Approach Categories A and B.
3.3.15*
The United States does not have standards for the maximum transverse grade on portions of the runway
strip falling beyond the area that is normally graded.
3.3.17*
Runways designed for use by smaller aircraft under non-instrument conditions may be graded to
distances as little as 18 m from the runway centre line (U.S. Airplane Design Groups I and II).
3.4.2
For certain code 1 runways the runway end safety areas may be only 72 m.
3.6.4*
Pavement friction measurements are taken for only the runway with full strength pavement and not for
the surface of stopways.
3.7.1*
3.7.2*
The United States does not provide Standards or Recommended Practices for radio altimeter operating
areas.
3.8.3*
The United States specifies a 6 m clearance for Design Group VI aeroplanes.
3.8.4*
The taxiway width for Design Group VI aircraft is 30 m.
3.8.5*
The United States also permits designing taxiway turns and intersections using the judgmental
oversteering method.
3.8.7*
Minimum separations between runway and taxiway centre lines are shown in Table 1. Minimum
separations between taxiways and taxilanes and between taxiway/taxilanes and fixed/moveable objects
are shown in Table 2. Generally, United States separations are larger for non-instrumented runways, and
smaller for instrumented runways, than in the Annex. Values are also provided for aircraft with
wingspans up to 80 m. For Code F, separations in all cases equal 180 m.
3.8.8*
Longitudinal grades (slopes) for taxiways are based on approach category (code number) rather than
wing span (code letter). However, values are: Code 1 and 2 = 3.0 per cent; Code 3 and 4 = 1.5 per cent.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
4 UNITED STATES
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
3.8.10*
Line-of-sight standards for taxiways are not provided in United States practice, but there is a requirement
that the sight distance along a runway, from an intersecting taxiway, must be sufficient to allow a taxiing
aircraft to safely enter or cross the runway.
3.8.11*
Transverse slopes of taxiways are based on aircraft approach categories. For Categories C and D slopes
are 1.0-1.5 percent; for A and B 1.0-2.0 per cent.
3.9.1*
The overall width of the taxiway plus shoulders is 54 m as compared to 60 m for the Annex.
Remark: For Code F aircraft the emphasis is on wider full strength pavement rather than shoulders. The
United States requires 30 m taxiway widths as compared to the 25 m width under 3.8.4.
3.10.5*
Grading of runway strips are downward and are based on aircraft approach categories, that is code
numbers. Furthermore, we recommend a downward slope from the horizontal for the first three metres
beyond the taxiway or shoulders followed by a downward range of 1.5-3.0 per cent for the remainder
of the strip.
3.11.6
Table 3-2 c.
Regarding Table 3-2, FAA runway centre line to taxi-holding position, etc., a separation for code 1 is
38 m for non-precision operations and 53 m for precision. Code 3 and 4 precision operations require a
separation of 75 m, except for “wide bodies”, which require 85 m. There is no standard clearance for
Code F aircraft at this time.
3.14.4*
The ability to bypass de-icing facilities is a standard and not a recommendation.
3.14.9*
Only Code D and E clearances are shorter; that is, 2 m and 0.5 m, respectively.
3.14.10*
Only Codes A, B and D are shorter; that is, 2.75 m, 1.5 m and 1.0 m, respectively.
CHAPTER 4
4.1
Obstacle limitation surfaces similar to those described in 4.1-4.20 are found in Federal Aviation
Regulation Part 77.
4.1.21
A balked landing surface is not used.
4.1.25
The United States does not establish take-off climb obstacle limitation areas and surfaces per se but does
specify protective surfaces for each end of the runway based on the type of approach procedures
available or planned. The dimensions and slopes for these surfaces and areas are listed in Table 3.
4.2
Table 4-1
For Code C, D and F aircraft, the width of the OFZ inner approach equals 120 m.
Remark: Research and development for the width measurement for Code F are ongoing. Flight Standards
will issue, upon completion of the R & D simulation, an FAA document with results and possible new
recommendations.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.1.8*
The United States does not require unpaved taxiways to be marked.
5.2.2.2*
The United States does not require a runway designator marking for unpaved runways.
* Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UNITED STATES 5
5.2.2.4
Zeros are not used to precede single digit runway markings. An optional configuration of the numeral 1
is available to designate a Runway 1 and to prevent confusion with the runway centre line.
5.2.4.2*
5.2.4.3*
Threshold markings are not required, but sometimes provided, for non-instrument runways that do not
serve international operations.
5.2.4.5
The current United States standard for threshold designation is eight stripes, except that more than eight
stripes may be used on runways wider than 45 m. After 1 January 2008, the United States standard will
comply with Annex 14.
5.2.4.6
The width and spacing of threshold stripes will comply with Annex 14 after 1 January 2008.
5.2.4.10
When a threshold is temporarily displaced, there is no requirement that runway or taxiway edge
markings, prior to the displaced threshold, be obscured. These markings are removed only if the area is
unsuitable for the movement of aircraft.
5.2.5.2
5.2.5.3*
Aiming point markings are required on precision instrument runways and code 3 and 4 runways used
by jet aircraft.
5.2.5.4
The aiming point marking commences 306 m from the threshold at all runways.
5.2.6.3
The United States pattern for touchdown zone markings, when installed on both runway ends, is only
applicable to runways longer than 4 990 feet. On shorter runways, the three pairs of markings closest
to the runway midpoint are eliminated.
5.2.6.4
The United States standard places the aiming point marking 306 m from the threshold where it replaces
one of the pairs of three-stripe threshold markings. The 306 m location is used regardless of runway
length.
5.2.6.5*
Touchdown zone markings are not required at a non-precision approach runway, though they may be
provided.
5.2.7.4*
Runway side stripe markings on a non-instrument runway may have an overall width of 0.3 m.
5.2.8.3
Taxiway centre line markings are never installed longitudinally on a runway even if the runway is part
of a standard taxi-route.
5.2.9.6*
The term “ILS” is used instead of CAT I, CAT II, CAT III.
5.2.9.7
Runway-holding position markings at runway/runway intersections are as shown in Figure 5-6,
Pattern A.
5.2.11.4
5.2.11.5*
5.2.11.6*
Check-point markings are provided, but the circle is 3 m in diameter and the directional line may be of
varying width and length. The color is the yellow used for taxiway markings.
5.2.12
Standards for aircraft stand markings are not provided.
5.2.13.1*
Apron safety lines are not required although many aerodromes have installed them. The United States
does not set marking standards for aprons, finding it more effective to let airports and airlines manage
activities related to aircraft parking.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
6 UNITED STATES
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
5.2.14.1
The United States does not have standards for holding position markings on roadways that cross
runways. Local traffic control practices are used.
5.3.1.1
5.3.1.2*
The United States does not have regulations to prevent the establishment of non-aviation ground lights
that might interfere with airport operations.
5.3.1.3
5.3.1.4
New approach lighting installations will meet the frangibility requirements. Some existing non-frangible
systems may not be replaced before 1 January 2005.
5.3.2.1*
5.3.2.2*
5.3.2.3*
There is no requirement for an airport to have emergency runway lighting available if it does not have
a secondary power source. Some airports do have these systems, and there is an FAA specification for
these lights.
5.3.3.1
5.3.3.3
Only airports served by aircraft having more than 30 seats are required to have a beacon, though they
are available at many others.
5.3.3.6
Although the present United States standard for beacons calls for 24-30 flashes per minute, some older
beacons may have flash rates as low as 12 flashes per minute.
5.3.3.8
Coded identification beacons are not required and are not commonly installed. Typically, airport beacons
conforming to 5.3.3.6 are installed at locations served by aircraft having more than 30 seats.
5.3.4.1
While the United States has installed an approach light system conforming to the specifications in
5.3.4.10 to 5.3.4.19, it also provides for a lower cost system consisting of medium intensity approach
lighting and sequenced flashing lights (MALSF) at some locations.
5.3.4.2
In addition to the system described in 5.3.4.1, a system consisting of omnidirectional strobe lights
(ODALS) located at 90 m intervals extending out to 450 m from the runway threshold is used at some
locations.
5.3.4.10 to
5.3.4.19
The United States standard for a precision approach Category I lighting system is medium intensity
approach lighting system with runway alignment indicator lights (MALSR). This system consists of
3 m barrettes at 60 m intervals out to 420 m from the threshold and sequenced flashing lights at 60 m
intervals from 480 m to 900 m. A crossbar 20 m in length is provided 300 m from the threshold. The
total length of this system is dependent upon the ILS glide slope path angle. For angles 2.75E and higher,
the length is 720 m.
5.3.4.18
The capacitor discharge lights can be switched on or off when the steady-burning lights of the approach
lighting system are operating. However, they cannot be operated when the other lights are not in
operation.
5.3.4.22
The United States standard for a precision approach Category II and III lighting system has a total length
dependent upon the ILS glide path angle. For angles 2.75E and higher, the length is 720 m.
5.3.4.35
The capacitor discharge lights can be switched on or off when the steady-burning lights of the approach
lighting system are operating. However, they cannot be operated when the other lights are not in
operation.
5.3.5.1
Visual approach slope indicator systems are not required for all runways used by turbojets except
runways involved with land and hold short operations that do not have an electronic glideslope system.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UNITED STATES 7
5.3.5.2
In addition to PAPI and APAPI systems, VASI and AVASI type systems remain in service at United
States airports with commercial service. Smaller general aviation airports may have various other
approach slope indicators including tri-color and pulsating visual approach slope indicators.
5.3.5.3
5.3.5.4
Visual approach slope indicator systems are not required for all runways used by turbojets except
runways involved with land and hold short operations that do not have an electronic glideslope system.
5.3.5.27
The United States standard for PAPI allows for the distance between the edge of the runway and the first
light unit to be reduced to 9 m for code 1 runways used by non-jet aircraft.
5.3.5.42
The PAPI obstacle protection surface used is as follows: The surface begins 90 m in front of the PAPI
system (toward to the threshold) and proceeds outward into the approach zone at an angle 1E less than
the aiming angle of the third light unit from the runway. The surface flares 10E on either side of the
extended runway centre line and extends four statute miles from its point of origin.
5.3.8.4
The United States permits the use of omnidirectional runway threshold identification lights.
5.3.13.2
The United States does not require the lateral spacing of touchdown zone lights to be equal to that of
touchdown zone marking when runways are less than 45 m wide.
5.3.14
The United States has no provision for stopway lights.
5.3.15.1
5.3.15.2*
Taxiway centre line lights are required only below 183 m runway visual range (RVR) on designated taxi
routes. However, they are generally recommended whenever a taxiing problem exists.
5.3.15.4
Taxiway centre line lights are not provided on runways forming part of a standard taxi route even for
low visibility operations. Under these conditions, the taxi path is coincident with the runway centre line
and the runway lights are illuminated.
5.3.15.7
Comment on Implementation: The United States standard for taxiway centre line lights on exit taxiways
was brought into compliance with this Annex 14 provision on 1 September 1998. However, United
States airports are still in the process of implementing the Standard.
5.3.15.10*
The United States permits an offset of up to 60 cm.
5.3.16.2
Taxiway edge lights are not provided on runways forming part of a standard taxi route.
5.3.17.1
5.3.17.2*
5.3.17.3
5.3.17.4*
5.3.17.5*
Stop bars are required only for RVR conditions less than a value of 183 m at taxiway/runway
intersections where the taxiway is lighted during low visibility operations. Once installed, controlled
stop bars are operated at RVR conditions less than a value of 350 m.
5.3.17.6
Elevated stop bar lights are normally installed longitudinally in line with taxiway edge lights. Where
edge lights are not installed, the stop bar lights are installed not more than 3 m from the taxiway edge.
5.3.17.9
The beamspread of elevated stop bar lights differs from the in-pavement lights. The inner isocandela
curve for the elevated lights is ±7 hor. and ±4 vert.
5.3.17.10
The United States standard for stop bars, which are switchable in groups, does not require the taxiway
centre line lights beyond the stop bars to be extinguished when the stop bars are illuminated. The
taxiway centre line lights which extend beyond selectively switchable stop bars are grouped into two
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
8 UNITED STATES
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
segments of approximately 45 m each. A sensor at the end of the first segment re-illuminates the stop
bar and extinguishes the first segment of centre line lights. A sensor at the end of the second segment
extinguishes that segment of centre line lights.
5.3.18.1
Taxiway intersection lights are also used at other hold locations on taxiways such as low visibility
holding points.
5.3.18.2*
Taxiway intersection lights are collocated with the taxiway intersection marking. The marking is located
at the following distances from the centre line of the intersecting taxiway:
Aeroplane Design Group
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Distance (m)
13.5
20
28.5
39
48.5
59
5.3.20.1
5.3.20.2*
Runway guard lights are required only for RVR conditions less than a value of 350 m.
5.3.20.4
5.3.20.5
Runway guard lights are placed at the same distance from the runway centre line as the aircraft holding
distance, or within a few feet of this location.
5.3.20.17
The new United States standard for in-pavement runway guard lights complies with Annex 14. However,
there may be some existing systems that do not flash.
5.3.21
The United States does not set aviation standards for floodlighting aprons.
5.3.22
The United States does not provide standards for visual docking guidance systems.
5.3.24.1
The United States does not have a requirement for providing road-holding position lights during RVR
conditions less than a value of 350 m.
5.4.1.3
Signs are often installed a few centimetres taller than specified in Annex 14, Volume 1, Table 5-4.
5.4.1.6
Sign inscriptions are slightly larger, and margins around the sign slightly smaller, than indicated in
Annex 14, Volume 1, Appendix 4.
5.4.1.7
The sign luminance requirements are not as high as specified in Appendix 4. The United States does not
specify a night-time color requirement in terms of chromaticity.
5.4.2.2
5.4.2.4
All signs used to denote precision approach holding positions have the legend “ILS”.
5.4.2.7
United States practice uses the NO ENTRY sign to prohibit entry by aircraft only.
5.4.2.9
The second mandatory instruction sign is usually not installed unless added guidance is necessary.
5.4.2.10
All signs used to denote precision approach holding positions have the legend “ILS”.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UNITED STATES 9
5.4.2.11
The second mandatory instruction sign is usually not installed unless added guidance is necessary.
5.4.2.14
All signs used to denote precision approach holding positions have the legend “ILS”.
5.4.2.15
Signs for holding aircraft and vehicles from entering areas where they would infringe on obstacle
limitation surfaces or interfere with navaids are inscribed with the designator of the approach, followed
by the letters “APCH”. For example: “15-APCH”.
5.4.2.18
All signs used to denote precision approach holding positions have the legend “ILS”.
5.4.3.15
United States practice is to install signs about 3 to 5 m closer to the taxiway/runway (See Annex 14,
Table 5-4).
5.4.3.17
The United States does not have standards for the location of runway exit signs.
5.4.3.27
A yellow border is used on all location signs, regardless of whether they are stand-alone or collocated
with other signs.
5.4.3.29
United States practice is to use Pattern A on runway vacated signs, except that Pattern B is used to
indicate that an ILS critical area has been cleared.
5.4.3.34*
The United States does not have standards for signs used to indicate a series of taxi-holding positions
on the same taxiway.
5.4.4.4*
The inscription “VOR Check Course” is placed on the sign in addition to the VOR and DME data.
5.4.5.1*
The United States does not have requirements for aerodrome identification signs, though they are usually
installed.
5.4.6.1*
Standards are not provided for signs used to identify aircraft stands.
5.4.7.2
The distance from the edge of road to the road-holding position sign conforms to local highway practice.
5.5.2.2*
Boundary markers may be used to denote the edges of an unpaved runway.
5.5.3
There is no provision for stopway edge markers.
5.5.7.1*
Boundary markers may be used to denote the edges of an unpaved runway.
CHAPTER 6
6.1
The FAA does not exercise regulatory authority over the marking and lighting of obstacles. However,
it reviews proposed construction of tall objects in the vicinity of airports and recommends the minimum
marking and lighting consistent with aviation safety.
6.2.3*
The maximum dimension of the rectangles in a chequered pattern is 6 m on a side.
6.3.21*
6.3.22
The effective intensity, for daylight-luminance background, of Type A high-intensity obstacle lights is
270 000 cd ±25 per cent. The effective intensity, for daylight-luminance background, of Type B highintensity obstacle lights is 140 000 cd ±25 per cent. A higher intensity improves conspicuity.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
10 UNITED STATES
Table 6-3
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
United States standards do not require 75 per cent maximum intensity at !1E, as shown in Column 9 for
medium- and high-intensity obstacle lights.
CHAPTER 7
7.1.2*
Closed markings are not used with partially closed runways. See 5.2.4.10 above.
7.1.4
Closed markings with shapes similar to Figure 7.1b are used to indicate closed runways and taxiways.
The “X” for denoting a closed runway is yellow.
7.1.5
In the United States, when a runway is permanently closed, only the threshold marking, runway
designation marking, and touchdown zone marking need be obliterated. Permanently closed taxiways
need not have the markings obliterated.
7.1.7
The United States does not require unserviceability lights across the entrance to a closed runway or
taxiway when it is intersected by a night-use runway or taxiway.
7.4.4
Flashing yellow lights are used as unserviceability lights. The intensity is such as to be adequate to
delineate a hazardous area.
CHAPTER 8
8.1.5*
8.1.6*
8.1.7*
8.1.8
A secondary power supply for non-precision instrument and non-instrument approach runways is not
required, nor is it required for all precision approach runways.
8.2.1
Remark: There is no requirement in the United States to interleave lights as described in the Aerodrome
Design Manual, Part 5.
8.2.3
See 5.3.15.4 and 5.3.16.2.
8.7.2
8.7.3
8.7.4*
Glide slope facilities and certain other installations located within the runway strip, or which penetrate
obstacle limitation surfaces, may not be frangibly mounted.
8.9.7*
A Surface Movement Surveillance System is recommended from 350 m RVR down to 183 m. Below
183 m RVR, a surface movement radar or alternative technology is generally required.
CHAPTER 9
9.1.1
Emergency plans such as those specified in this section are required only at airports serving scheduled
air carriers using aircraft having more than 30 seats. These airports are certificated under Part 139 of the
United States Federal Aviation Regulations. In practice, other airports also prepare emergency plans.
9.1.12
Full-scale aerodrome emergency exercises are conducted at intervals, not to exceed three years, at
airports with scheduled passenger service using aircraft with more than 30 seats.
Remark: Three years has been found to be an interval that provides for an efficient allocation of airport
resources.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UNITED STATES 11
9.2.1
Rescue and fire fighting equipment and services such as those specified in this section are required only
at airports serving scheduled air carriers with aircraft having more than 30 seats. Such airports generally
equate to ICAO categories 4 through 9.
9.2.3*
There is no plan to eliminate, after 1 January 2005, the current practice of permitting a reduction of one
category in the Index when the largest aircraft has fewer than an average of five scheduled departures
a day. The reduction in category is a rudimentary cost/benefit consideration and also facilitates the
introduction of large aircraft into scheduled service by not making the air carrier’s planning contingent
on the airport’s immediate acquisition of additional equipment.
9.2.4
9.2.5
The level of protection at United States airports is derived from the length of the largest aircraft serving
the airport. This is similar to the Annex 14 procedure, except that maximum fuselage width is not used.
Remark: United States indices A-E are close equivalents of the Annex’s categories 5-9. The United
States does not have an equivalent to Category 10. The United States will consider the requirements of
Category 10 when it adopts a new index for very large aircraft. Further harmonization with the Annex
will be considered in the future.
9.2.10
The required fire fighting equipment and agents by index are shown in Table 4.
The substitution equivalencies between complementary agents and foam meeting performance level A
are also used for protein and fluoroprotein foam. Equivalencies for foam meeting performance level B
are used only for aqueous film forming foams.
9.2.18*
9.2.19*
At least one apparatus must arrive and apply foam within 3 minutes, with all other required vehicles
arriving within 4 minutes. Response time is measured from the alarm at the equipment’s customary
assigned post, to the commencement of the application of foam at the mid-point of the farthest runway.
Remark: The United States values a rapid response and the presence of professional fire fighters at the
earliest possible time to deal with incipient conditions.
9.2.29*
For ICAO Category 6 (U.S. index B) the United States allows one vehicle.
9.4.5
At the present time, there is no requirement to perform tests using a continuous friction measuring
device with self-wetting features. Some United States airports own these devices, while others use less
formal methods to monitor build-up of rubber deposits and the deterioration of friction characteristics.
Remark: The United States is working toward making these devices a requirement, at least at larger
airports.
9.4.16
The standard grade for temporary ramps is 15 feet longitudinal per 1 inch of height (0.56 per cent slope)
maximum, regardless of overlay depth.
9.4.20
There is no United States standard for declaring a light unserviceable if its intensity is less than 50 per
cent of the specified or design value of the main beam average intensity.
*Recommended Practice
8/9/00
12 UNITED STATES
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
Table 1. Minimum separations between runway centre line and parallel taxiway/taxilane centre line
Aircraft
approach
category
Operation
Aeroplane design group
I1
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Visual runways and runways with
not lower than ¾-statute mile
(1 200 m) approach visibility
minimums
A&B
150 ft
45 m
225 ft 240 ft
67.5 m 72 m
300 ft
90 m
400 ft
120 m
–
–
Runways with lower than ¾-statute
mile (1 200 m) approach visibility
minimums
A&B
200 ft
60 m
250 ft
75 m
300 ft
90 m
350 ft 400 ft
105 m 120 m
–
–
Visual runways and runways with
not lower than ¾-statute mile
(1 200 m) approach visibility
minimums
C&D
–
300 ft
90 m
300 ft
90 m
400 ft 400 ft 4002 ft 600 ft
120 m 120 m 1202 m 180 m
Runways with lower than ¾-statute
mile (1 200 m) approach visibility
minimums
C&D
–
400 ft
120 m
400 ft
120 m
400 ft 400 ft 4002 ft 600 ft
120 m 120 m 1202 m 180 m
1
Pertains to small (less than 5 700 kg) aeroplanes.
2
Corrections are made for altitude: 120 m separation for airports at or below 410 m; 135 m for altitudes between 410 m
and 2 000 m; and 150 m for altitudes above 2 000 m.
Table 2. Minimum taxiway and taxilane separations
Aeroplane design group
Taxiway centre line to:
Parallel taxiway/
taxilane centre line
Fixed or movable object
Taxiway centre line to:
Parallel taxilane centre line
Fixed or movable object
8/9/00
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
69 ft
21 m
44.5 ft
13.5 m
105 ft
32 m
65.5 ft
20 m
152 ft
46.5 m
93 ft
28.5 m
215 ft
65.5 m
129.5 ft
39.5 m
267 ft
81 m
160 ft
48 m
324 ft
99 m
193 ft
59 m
64 ft
19.5 m
39.5 ft
12 m
97 ft
29.5 m
57.5 ft
17.5 m
140 ft
42.5 m
81 ft
24.5 m
198 ft
60 m
112.5 ft
24.5 m
245 ft
74.5 m
138 ft
42 m
298 ft
91 m
167 ft
51 m
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME I (THIRD EDITION)
UNITED STATES 13
Table 3. Dimensions and slopes for protective areas and surfaces
Type of
approach
procedure
Precision
approach
All runwaysa
Runways other
than utilityb
Utility
runwaysd
Runways other
than utility
Utility
runways
305 m
305 m
152 m
152 m
152 m
76 mc
15 per cent
15 per cent
15 per cent
15 per cent
10 per cent
10 per cent
c
381 mc
475 m
3 048 mc
1 524 mc
1 524 mc
1 524 mc
2.94 per centc
5 per centc
5 per centc
5 per centc
4 877 m
1 219 m
1 067 m
Length
15 240 m
3 048 mc
Slope: inner
3 049 m
2 per cent
2.94 per centc
a
c
610 m
Final width
Slope: beyond
3 048m
Visual runway
All runways
Width of inner
edge
Divergency
(each side)
Non-precision instrument approach
2.5 per centc
With visibility minimum as low as 1.2 km.
With visibility minimum greater than 1.2 km.
Criteria less demanding than Table 4-1 dimensions and slopes.
Utility runways are intended to serve propeller driven aircraft having a maximum take-off mass of 5 670 kg.
b
c
d
Table 4. Fire extinguishing agents and equipment
Index
Aircraft length
More than
A
1
Total minimum quantities of
extinguishing agents
Not more
than
Dry
chemical
Water for
protein foam
Minimum number of
trucks
Discharge
rate 1
27 m
225 kg
0
1
See below
B
27 m
38 m
225 kg
5 700 L
1
See below
C
38 m
48 m
225 kg
5 700 L
2
See below
D
48 m
60 m
225 kg
5 700 L
3
See below
E
60 m
225 kg
11 400 L
3
See below
Truck size
1 900 L but less than 7 600 L:
7 600 L or greater:
Discharge rate (Litres per minute):
at least 1 900 but not more than 3 800.
at least 2 280 but not more than 4 560.
8/9/00
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
AERODROMES
ANNEX 14
TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
VOLUME II
HELIPORTS
SECOND EDITION — JULY 1995
This edition incorporates all amendments to Annex 14, Volume II, adopted
by the Council prior to 14 March 1995 and supersedes on
9 November 1995 all previous editions of Annex 14, Volume II.
For information regarding the applicability of the Standards and
Recommended Practices, see Foreword and the relevant clauses in
each Chapter
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION
AMENDMENTS
The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the
monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual
Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below
is provided to keep a record of such amendments.
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA
AMENDMENTS
No.
Date
applicable
1
2
9/11/95
Date
entered
CORRIGENDA
Entered
by
No.
Incorporated in this edition
Date
of issue
20/10/95
6/11/97
(ii)
Date
entered
Entered
by
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Abbreviations and symbols; manuals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(v)
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(vii)
CHAPTER 1.
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
2
CHAPTER 2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
Heliport data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Aeronautical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heliport reference point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heliport elevation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heliport dimensions and related information . .
Declared distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Co-ordination between aeronautical
information services and heliport authorities . .
3
3
4
4
4
CHAPTER 3.
CHAPTER 4.
Obstacle restriction and removal . . . . .
10
4.1 Obstacle limitation surfaces and sectors . . . . . .
— Approach surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Transitional surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Inner horizontal surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Conical surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Take-off climb surface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Obstacle-free sector/surface — helidecks . . .
— Limited obstacle surface — helidecks . . . . .
10
10
10
11
11
11
12
12
4.2 Obstacle limitation requirements . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Surface level heliports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Elevated heliports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Helidecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Shipboard heliports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
12
13
13
13
CHAPTER 5.
Visual aids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
5.1 Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Wind direction indicators. . . . . . . . . . . .
30
30
5.2 Markings and markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Winching area marking . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Heliport identification marking . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Maximum allowable mass marking. . . .
5.2.4 Final approach and take-off area
marking or marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5 Final approach and take-off area
designation marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.6 Aiming point marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.7 Touchdown and lift-off area marking . .
5.2.8 Touchdown marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.9 Heliport name marking . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.10 Helideck obstacle-free sector marking .
5.2.11 Marking for taxiways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.12 Air taxiway markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.13 Air transit route markers . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
30
30
31
4
Physical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
3.1 Surface-level heliports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Final approach and take-off areas . . . . . . . .
— Helicopter clearways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Touchdown and lift-off areas . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Safety areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Helicopter ground taxiways . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Air taxiways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Air transit route. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Aprons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Location of a final approach and take-off
area in relation to a runway or taxiway . . . .
5
5
5
5
6
6
7
7
7
3.2 Elevated heliports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Final approach and take-off area and
touchdown and lift-off area . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Safety area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
8
5.3 Lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 Heliport beacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3 Approach lighting system . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4 Visual alignment guidance system . . . .
5.3.5 Visual approach slope indicator. . . . . . .
5.3.6 Final approach and take-off area lights.
5.3.7 Aiming point lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.8 Touchdown and lift-off area
lighting system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.9 Winching area floodlighting . . . . . . . . .
8
8
3.3 Helidecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Final approach and take-off area and
touchdown and lift-off area . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
3.4 Shipboard heliports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Final approach and take-off area and
touchdown and lift-off area . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME II
Page
9
9
(iii)
32
32
32
34
35
35
35
35
36
36
38
38
38
39
39
42
45
46
46
47
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume II
Page
5.3.10 Taxiway lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.11 Visual aids for denoting obstacles . . . .
5.3.12 Floodlighting of obstacles . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 6.
47
47
47
Heliport services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
6.1 Rescue and fire fighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
49
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(iv)
— Level of protection to be provided . . . . . . . .
— Extinguishing agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Rescue equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
— Response time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
49
50
50
APPENDIX 1. Aeronautical data
quality requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
(used in Annex 14, Volume II)
Abbreviations
cd
cm
D
FATO
ft
HAPI
Hz
IMC
kg
km/h
kt
L
LDAH
L/min
m
Abbreviations
Candela
Centimeter
Helicopter largest over-all dimension
Final approach and take-off area
Foot
Helicopter approach path indicator
Hertz
Instrument meteorological conditions
Kilogram
Kilometre per hour
Knot
Litre
Landing distance available
Litre per minute
Metre
RD
RTODAH
s
TLOF
TODAH
VMC
Diameter of the largest rotor
Rejected take-off distance available
Second
Touchdown and lift-off area
Take-off distance available
Visual meteorological conditions
Symbols
°
=
%
±
Degree
Equals
Percentage
Plus or minus
MANUALS
(related to the specifications of this Annex)
Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157)
Part 1 — Runways
Part 2 — Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays
Part 3 — Pavements
Part 4 — Visual Aids
Part 5 — Electrical Systems
Part
Part
Part
Part
Part
Part
Airport Planning Manual (Doc 9184)
Part 1 — Master Planning
Part 2 — Land Use and Environmental Control
Part 3 — Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Services
—
—
—
—
—
—
Fog Dispersal (withdrawn)
Removal of Disabled Aircraft
Control of Obstacles
Airport Emergency Planning
Airport Operational Services
Airport Maintenance Practices
Heliport Manual (Doc 9261)
Stolport Manual (Doc 9150)
Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS)
(Doc 9332)
Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137)
Part 1 — Rescue and Fire Fighting
Part 2 — Pavement Surface Conditions
Part 3 — Bird Control and Reduction
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME II
4
5
6
7
8
9
Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems
(SMGCS) (Doc 9476)
(v)
9/11/95
FOREWORD
Historical background
nautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation of
States under Article 38 of the Convention.
Standards and Recommended Practices for aerodromes were
first adopted by the Council on 29 May 1951 pursuant to the
provisions of Article 37 of the Convention on International
Civil Aviation (Chicago 1944) and designated as Annex 14 to
the Convention. The document containing these Standards and
Recommended Practices is now designated as Annex 14,
Volume I to the Convention. In general, Volume I addresses
planning, design and operations of aerodromes but is not
specifically applicable to heliports.
Promulgation of information. The establishment and
withdrawal of and changes to facilities, services and procedures affecting aircraft operations provided in accordance
with the Standards and Recommended Practices specified in
this Annex should be notified and take effect in accordance
with the provisions of Annex 15.
Therefore, Volume II is being introduced as a means of
including provisions for heliports. Proposals for
comprehensive Standards and Recommended Practices
covering all aspects of heliport planning, design and
operations have been developed with the assistance of the
ANC Visual Aids Panel and the ANC Helicopter Operations
Panel.
Status of Annex components
An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not
all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex;
they have the status indicated:
1. — Material comprising the Annex proper:
Table A shows the origin of the provisions in this volume,
together with a list of the principal subjects involved and the
dates on which the Annex was adopted by the Council, when
it became effective and when it became applicable.
a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by
the Council under the provisions of the Convention.
They are defined as follows:
Standard:
Any
specification
for
physical
characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance,
personnel or procedure, the uniform application of
which is recognized as necessary for the safety or
regularity of international air navigation and to which
Contracting States will conform in accordance with
the Convention; in the event of impossibility of
compliance, notification to the Council is
compulsory under Article 38.
Action by Contracting States
Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting States
is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the
Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify
the Organization of any differences between their national
regulations and practices and the International Standards
contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto.
Contracting States are invited to extend such notification to
any differences from Recommended Practices contained in
this Annex and any amendments thereto, when the notification
of such differences is important for the safety of air
navigation. Further, Contracting States are invited to keep the
Organization currently informed of any differences which may
subsequently occur, or of the withdrawal of any differences
previously notified. A specified request for notification of
differences will be sent to Contracting States immediately after
the adoption of each amendment to this Annex.
Recommended Practice: Any specification for
physical characteristics, configuration, matériel,
performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform
application of which is recognized as desirable in the
interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting
States will endeavour to conform in accordance with
the Convention.
b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately
for convenience but forming part of the Standards
and Recommended Practices adopted by the
Council.
The attention of States is also drawn to the provisions of
Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between
their national regulations and practices and the related ICAO
Standards and Recommended Practices through the AeroANNEX 14 — VOLUME II
c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and
Recommended Practices which are not self(vii)
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume II
Selection of language
explanatory in that they do not have accepted
dictionary meanings. A definition does not have
independent status but is an essential part of each
Standard and Recommended Practice in which the
term is used, since a change in the meaning of the
term would affect the specifications.
d) Tables and
Standard or
referred to
Standard or
same status.
This Annex has been adopted in four languages — English,
French, Russian and Spanish. Each Contracting State is
requested to select one of those texts for the purpose of
national implementation and for other effects provided for in
the Convention, either through direct use or through
translation into its own national language, and to notify the
Organization accordingly.
Figures which add to or illustrate a
Recommended Practice and which are
therein, form part of the associated
Recommended Practice and have the
Editorial practices
2.— Material approved by the Council for publication in
association with the Standards and Recommended Practices:
The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate
at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been
printed in light face roman; Recommended Practices have
been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by
the prefix Recommendation; Notes have been printed in light
face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note.
a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory
material based on the action of the Council and
including an explanation of the obligations of States
with regard to the application of the Standards and
Recommended Practices ensuing from the
Convention and the Resolution of Adoption.
The following editorial practice has been followed in the
writing of specifications: for Standards the operative verb
“shall” is used, and for Recommended Practices the operative
verb “should’’ is used.
b) Introductions comprising explanatory material
introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or
sections of the Annex to assist in the understanding
of the application of the text.
c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give
factual information or references bearing on the
Standards or Recommended Practices in question,
but not constituting part of the Standards or
Recommended Practices.
The units of measurement used in this document are in
accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as
specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative
units these are shown in parentheses following the basic units.
Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that
the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may,
however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is
achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.
d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to
the Standards and Recommended Practices, or
included as a guide to their application.
Any reference to a portion of this document, which is
identified by a number and/or title, includes all subdivisions of
that portion.
9/11/95
(viii)
Foreword
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Table A.
Amendment
Source(s)
1st Edition Fourth Meeting of
the ANC Helicopter
Operations Panel;
Eleventh meeting of
the ANC Visual
Aids Panel and
Secretariat
1
Twelfth Meeting of
(2nd Edition) the ANC Visual
Aids Panel and
Secretariat
2
Amendments to Annex 14, Volume II
Air Navigation
Commission
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
Physical characteristics; obstacle limitation surfaces; visual aids for visual
meteorological conditions; rescue and fire fighting services.
9 March 1990
30 July 1900
15 November 1990
Standard geodetic reference system (WGS-84); frangibility; visual aids for
helicopter non-precision approaches; and visual alignment guidance system.
13 March 1995
24 July 1995
9 November 1995
Aeronautical data bases and vertical component of the World Geodetic
System — 1984 (WGS-84).
21 March 1997
21 July 1997
6 November 1997
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No. 2
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
CHAPTER 1.
Introductory Note.— Volume II of this Annex contains
Standards and Recommended Practices (specifications) that
prescribe the physical characteristics and obstacle limitation
surfaces to be provided for at heliports, and certain facilities
and technical services normally provided at a heliport. It is
not intended that these specifications limit or regulate the
operation of an aircraft.
GENERAL
Data quality. A degree or level of confidence that the data
provided meets the requirements of the data user in terms
of accuracy, resolution and integrity.
Declared distances — heliports.
a) Take-off distance available (TODAH). The length of the
final approach and take-off area plus the length of
helicopter clearway (if provided) declared available and
suitable for helicopters to complete the take-off.
The specifications in this volume modify or complement
those in Volume I which, where appropriate, are also
applicable to heliports. In other words, where a particular
issue is a subject of a specification in this volume that
specification will supersede any other specification on that
particular issue in Volume I. Throughout this volume the term
“heliport” is used; however, it is intended that these
specifications also apply to areas for the exclusive use of
helicopters at an aerodrome primarily meant for the use of
aeroplanes.
b) Rejected take-off distance available (RTODAH). The
length of the final approach and take-off area declared
available and suitable for performance class 1
helicopters to complete a rejected take-off.
c) Landing distance available (LDAH). The length of the
final approach and take-off area plus any additional area
declared available and suitable for helicopters to
complete the landing manoeuvre from a defined height.
It is to be noted that provisions for helicopter flight
operations are contained in Annex 6, Part III.
Elevated heliport. A heliport located on a raised structure on
land.
1.1 Definitions
Ellipsoid height (Geodetic height). The height related to the
reference ellipsoid, measured along the ellipsoidal outer
normal through the point in question.
When the following terms are used in this volume they have
the meanings given below. Annex 14, Volume I contains
definitions for those terms which are used in both volumes.
Final approach and take-off area (FATO). A defined area
over which the final phase of the approach manoeuvre to
hover or landing is completed and from which the take-off
manoeuvre is commenced. Where the FATO is to be used
by performance Class 1 helicopters, the defined area
includes the rejected take-off area available.
Accuracy. A degree of conformance between the estimated or
measured value and the true value.
Note.— For measured positional data the accuracy is
normally expressed in terms of a distance from a stated
position within which there is a defined confidence of the true
position falling.
Geodetic datum. A minimum set of parameters required to
define location and orientation of the local reference system
with respect to the global reference system/frame.
Air taxiway. A defined path on the surface established for the
air taxiing of helicopters.
Geoid. The equipotential surface in the gravity field of the
Earth which coincides with the undisturbed mean sea level
(MSL) extended continuously through the continents.
Air transit route. A defined path on the surface established for
the air transitting of helicopters.
Note.— The geoid is irregular in shape because of local
gravitational disturbances (wind tides, salinity, current, etc.)
and the direction of gravity is perpendicular to the geoid at
every point.
Cyclic redundancy check (CRC). A mathematical algorithm
applied to the digital expression of data that provides a
level of assurance against loss or alteration of data.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME II
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Geoid undulation. The distance of the geoid above (positive)
or below (negative) the mathematical reference ellipsoid.
for air navigation purposes, and intended to reduce the risk
of damage to helicopters accidentally diverging from the
FATO.
Note.— In respect to the World Geodetic System — 1984
(WGS-84) defined ellipsoid, the difference between the WGS84 ellipsoidal height and orthometric height represents
WGS-84 geoid undulation.
Station declination. An alignment variation between the zero
degree radial of a VOR and true north, determined at the
time the VOR station is calibrated.
Helicopter ground taxiway. A ground taxiway for use by
helicopters only.
Surface level heliport. A heliport located on the ground or on
the water.
Helicopter clearway. A defined area on the ground or water
under the control of the appropriate authority, selected and/
or prepared as a suitable area over which a performance
class 1 helicopter may accelerate and achieve a specific
height.
Touchdown and lift-off area (TLOF). A load bearing area on
which a helicopter may touch down or lift off.
1.2
Helicopter stand. An aircraft stand which provides for parking
a helicopter and, where air taxiing operations are
contemplated, the helicopter touchdown and lift-off.
1.2.1 The interpretation of some of the specifications in
the Annex expressly requires the exercising of discretion, the
taking of a decision or the performance of a function by the
appropriate authority. In other specifications, the expression
appropriate authority does not actually appear although its
inclusion is implied. In both cases, the responsibility for
whatever determination or action is necessary shall rest with
the State having jurisdiction over the heliport.
Helideck. A heliport located on a floating or fixed off-shore
structure.
Heliport. An aerodrome or a defined area on a structure
intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival,
departure and surface movement of helicopters.
1.2.2 The specifications in Annex 14, Volume II shall
apply to all heliports intended to be used by helicopters in
international civil aviation. The specifications of Annex 14,
Volume I shall apply, where appropriate, to these heliports as
well.
Integrity (aeronautical data). A degree of assurance that an
aeronautical data and its value has not been lost nor altered
since the data origination or authorized amendment.
Orthometric height. Height of a point related to the geoid,
generally presented as an MSL elevation.
1.2.3 Wherever a colour is referred to in this volume,
the specifications for that colour given in Appendix 1 to
Annex 14, Volume I shall apply.
Safety area. A defined area on a heliport surrounding the
FATO which is free of obstacles, other than those required
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Applicability
2
CHAPTER 2.
2.1
HELIPORT DATA
Aeronautical data
Note.— Guidance material on the aeronautical data quality
requirements (accuracy, resolution, integrity, protection and
traceability) is contained in the World Geodetic System —
1984 (WGS-84) Manual (Doc 9674). Supporting material in
respect of the provisions of Appendix 1 related to accuracy
and integrity of aeronautical data, is contained in RTCA
Document DO-201A and European Organization for Civil
Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) Document ED-77, entitled
“Industry Requirements for Aeronautical Information”.
2.1.1
Determination and reporting of heliport related
aeronautical data shall be in accordance with the accuracy and
integrity requirements set forth in Tables 1 to 5 contained in
Appendix 1 while taking into account the established quality
system procedures. Accuracy requirements for aeronautical
data are based upon a 95 per cent confidence level and in that
respect, three types of positional data shall be identified:
surveyed points (e.g. FATO threshold), calculated points
(mathematical calculations from the known surveyed points of
points in space, fixes) and declared points (e.g. flight
information region boundary points).
2.1.5 Geographical coordinates indicating latitude and
longitude shall be determined and reported to the aeronautical
information services authority in terms of the World Geodetic
System — 1984 (WGS-84) geodetic reference datum,
identifying those geographical coordinates which have been
transformed into WGS-84 coordinates by mathematical means
and whose accuracy of original field work does not meet the
requirements in Appendix 1, Table 1.
Note. — Specifications governing the quality system are
given in Annex 15, Chapter 3.
2.1.2
Contracting States shall ensure that integrity of
aeronautical data is maintained throughout the data process
from survey/origin to the next intended user. Aeronautical data
integrity requirements shall be based upon the potential risk
resulting from the corruption of data and upon the use to
which the data item is put. Consequently, the following
classification and data integrity level shall apply:
2.1.6 The order of accuracy of the field work shall be
such that the resulting operational navigation data for the
phases of flight will be within the maximum deviations, with
respect to an appropriate reference frame, as indicated in tables
contained in Appendix 1.
a) critical data, integrity level 1 × 10-8: there is a high
probability when using corrupted critical data that the
continued safe flight and landing of an aircraft would be
severely at risk with the potential for catastrophe;
2.1.7 In addition to the elevation (referenced to mean sea
level) of the specific surveyed ground positions at heliports,
geoid undulation (referenced to the WGS-84 ellipsoid) for
those positions as indicated in Appendix 1, shall be determined
and reported to the aeronautical information services authority.
b) essential data, integrity level 1 × 10-5: there is a low
probability when using corrupted essential data that the
continued safe flight and landing of an aircraft would be
severely at risk with the potential for catastrophe; and
Note 1.— An appropriate reference frame is that which
enables WGS-84 to be realized on a given heliport and with
respect to which all coordinate data are related.
Note 2.— Specifications governing the publication of WGS84 coordinates are given in Annex 4, Chapter 2 and Annex 15,
Chapter 3.
c) routine data, integrity level 1 × 10-3: there is a very low
probability when using corrupted routine data that the
continued safe flight and landing of an aircraft would be
severely at risk with the potential for catastrophe.
2.2 Heliport reference point
2.1.3
Protection of electronic aeronautical data while
stored or in transit shall be totally monitored by the cyclic
redundancy check (CRC). To achieve protection of the
integrity level of critical and essential aeronautical data as
classified in 2.1.2 above, a 32 or 24 bit CRC algorithm shall
apply respectively.
2.2.1 A heliport reference point shall be established for a
heliport not co-located with an aerodrome.
Note.— When the heliport is co-located with an aerodrome,
the established aerodrome reference point serves both
aerodrome and heliport.
2.1.4 Recommendation. — To achieve protection of the
integrity level of routine aeronautical data as classified in 2.1.2
above, a 16 bit CRC algorithm should apply.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME II
2.2.2 The heliport reference point shall be located near
the initial or planned geometric centre of the heliport and shall
normally remain where first established.
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume II
2.2.3 The position of the heliport reference point shall be
measured and reported to the aeronautical information services
authority in degrees, minutes and seconds.
2.3
microwave landing system (MLS) in relation to the
associated TLOF or FATO extremities.
2.4.2 The geographical coordinates of the geometric
centre of the touchdown and lift-off area and/or of each
threshold of the final approach and take-off area (where
appropriate) shall be measured and reported to the aeronautical
information services authority in degrees, minutes, seconds
and hundredths of seconds.
Heliport elevation
2.3.1 The heliport elevation and geoid undulation at the
heliport elevation position shall be measured and reported to
the aeronautical information services authority to the accuracy
of one-half metre or foot.
2.4.3 The geographical coordinates of appropriate centre
line points of helicopter ground taxiways, air taxiways and air
transit routes shall be measured and reported to the
aeronautical information services authority in degrees,
minutes, seconds and hundredths of seconds.
2.3.2 For a heliport used by international civil aviation,
the elevation of the touchdown and lift-off area and/or the
elevation and geoid undulation of each threshold of the final
approach and take-off area (where appropriate) shall be
measured and reported to the aeronautical information services
authority to the accuracy of:
2.4.4 The geographical coordinates of each helicopter
stand shall be measured and reported to the aeronautical
information services authority in degrees, minutes, seconds
and hundredths of seconds.
— one-half metre or foot for non-precision approaches; and
2.4.5 The geographical coordinates of significant
obstacles on and in the vicinity of a heliport shall be measured
and reported to the aeronautical information services authority
in degrees, minutes, seconds and tenths of seconds. In
addition, the top elevation rounded up to the nearest metre or
foot, type, marking and lighting (if any) of the significant
obstacles shall be reported to the aeronautical information
services authority.
— one-quarter metre or foot for precision approaches.
Note.— Geoid undulation must be measured in accordance
with the appropriate system of coordinates.
2.4
Heliport dimensions and related information
2.4.1 The following data shall be measured or described,
as appropriate, for each facility provided on a heliport:
2.5
a) heliport type — surface-level, elevated or helideck;
Declared distances
The following distances to the nearest metre or foot shall be
declared, where relevant, for a heliport:
b) touchdown and lift-off area — dimensions to the nearest
metre or foot, slope, surface type, bearing strength in
tonnes (1 000 kg);
a) take-off distance available;
b) rejected take-off distance available; and
c) final approach and take-off area — type of FATO, true
bearing to one-hundredth of a degree, designation
number (where appropriate), length, width to the nearest
metre or foot, slope, surface type;
c) landing distance available.
2.6 Co-ordination between aeronautical information
services and heliport authorities
d) safety area — length, width and surface type;
e) helicopter ground taxiway, air taxiway and air transit
route — designation, width, surface type;
2.6.1 To ensure that aeronautical information services
units obtain information to enable them to provide up-to-date
pre-flight information and to meet the need for in-flight
information, arrangements shall be made between aeronautical
information services and heliport authorities responsible for
heliport services to report to the responsible aeronautical
information services unit, with a minimum of delay:
f) apron — surface type, helicopter stands;
g) clearway — length, ground profile; and
h) visual aids for approach procedures, marking and
lighting of FATO, TLOF, taxiways and aprons.
a) information on heliport conditions;
i) distances to the nearest metre or foot of localizer and
glide path elements comprising an instrument landing
system (ILS) or azimuth and elevation antenna of
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b) the operational status of associated facilities, services
and navigation aids within their area of responsibility;
4
Chapter 2
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
c) any other information considered to be of operational
significance.
2.6.4 The heliport services responsible for the provision of
raw aeronautical information/data to the aeronautical
information services shall do that while taking into account
accuracy and integrity requirements for aeronautical data as
specified in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
2.6.2 Before introducing changes to the air navigation
system, due account shall be taken by the services responsible
for such changes of the time needed by the aeronautical
information service for the preparation, production and issue
of relevant material for promulgation. To ensure timely
provision of the information to the aeronautical information
service, close co-ordination between those services concerned
is therefore required.
Note 1.— Specifications for the issue of a NOTAM
and SNOWTAM are contained in Annex 15, Chapter 5,
Appendices 6 and 2 respectively.
Note 2.— The AIRAC information is distributed by the AIS
at least 42 days in advance of the AIRAC effective dates with
the objective of reaching recipients at least 28 days in advance
of the effective date.
2.6.3
Of a particular importance are changes to
aeronautical information that affect charts and/or computerbased navigation systems which qualify to be notified by the
aeronautical information regulation and control (AIRAC)
system, as specified in Annex 15, Chapter 6 and Appendix 4.
The predetermined, internationally agreed AIRAC effective
dates in addition to 14 days postage time shall be observed by
the responsible heliport services when submitting the raw
information/data to aeronautical information services.
Note 3.— The schedule of the predetermined internationally agreed AIRAC common effective dates at intervals
of 28 days, including 6 November 1997 and guidance for the
AIRAC use are contained in the Aeronautical Information
Services Manual (Doc 8126, Chapter 3, 3.1.1 and Chapter 4,
4.4).
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CHAPTER 3. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
3.1 Surface-levelheliports
b) 7 per cent where the heliport is intended to be used by
performance class 2 and 3 helicopters.
Note.- The following specifications are for sutface-level
land heliports (except where specijìed).
3.1.4 The surface of the FATO shall:
a) be resistant to the effects of rotor downwash;
Final approach and take-off areas
b) be free of irregularities that would adversely affect the
take-off or landing of helicopters; and
3.1.1 A surface-level heliport shall be provided withat
least one FATO.
c) have bearing strength sufficient to accommodate a
rejected take-off by performance class 1 helicopters.
Note.- A FATO may be located on or near a runway strip
or taxiway strip.
3.1.5 Recommendation,ground effect.
3.1.2 The dimensions of a FATO shall be:
for a heliport intended to be usedby
performance
class 1 helicopters, as prescribed in the helicopter flight
manual except that, in the absence width
of
specifications, the width shall be not less than 1.5 times
the over-all lengtwwidth, whichever is greater, of the
longest/widest helicopter the heliport is intended to
serve;
3.1.6 When
it
is necessary to provide a helicopter
clearway, it shall be located beyond the upwind end of the
rejected take-off area available.
3.1.7 Recommendation.- The width of a helicopter
clearway should not be less than that of rhe associated safety
area.
3.1.8 Recommendation.- The ground in a helicopter
clearway should not project above a plane having an upward
slope of 3 per cent, the lower limit of this plane being a
horizontal line which is located on the periphery of the FATO.
for a heliport intended to beusedby
performance
class 2 and 3 helicopters, of sufficient size and shape to
contain an area within which can be drawn a circle of
diameter not less than 1.5 times the over-all
lengthlwidth, whichever is greater, of the longest/widest
helicopter the heliport is intended to serve; and
3.1.9 Recommendation.- An object situated on a
helicopter clearway which may endanger helicopters in the air
should be regarded as an obstacle and should be removed.
for a water heliport intended to be used by performance
class 2 and 3 helicopters, of sufficient size to contain an
area within which can be drawn a circle of diameter not
less than two times the over-all lengtwwidth, whichever
is greater, of the longestlwidest helicopter the heliport is
intended to serve.
Touchdown and lifr-off areas
3.1.10 At least one touchdown and lift-off area shall be
provided at a heliport.
Note.Local
conditions, such as elevation and
temperature, may need to be considered when determining the
size of a FATO. Guidance is given in the Heliport Manual.
Note.- The touchdown and lift-offarea may or may not be
located within the FATO.
3.1.3 The over-all slope in any direction on the FATO
shall not exceed 3 per cent. No portion of a FATO shall have
a local slope exceeding:
3.1.1 I The touchdown and lift-off area (TLOF) shall be
of sufficient size to contain a circle of diameter 1.5 times the
length or width of the undercarriage, whichever is the greater,
of the largest helicopter the area is intended to serve.
a) 5 per cent where the heliport is intended to be used by
performance class 1 helicopters; and
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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provide
Helicopter cleanvays
for a water heliport intended to be used by performance
class I helicopters, as prescribed in a) above, plus 10 per
cent;
ANNEX 14 - VOLUME II
TheFATOshould
Note.- A touchdown and lift-offarea may be any shape.
5
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Volume I I
3.1.20 The surface of the safety area shall be treated to
prevent flying debris caused by rotor downwash.
3.1.12 Slopes on a touchdown and lift-off area shall be
sufficient to prevent accumulation of water on the surface of
the area, but shall not exceed 2 per cent in any direction.
3.1.2 1 The surface of the safety area abutting the FATO
shall be continuous with the FATO and be capable of
supporting, without structural damage, the helicopters that the
heliport is intended to serve.
3.1.13 A touchdown and lift-off area shall be capable of
withstanding the traffic of helicopters that the area is intended
to serve.
Safety arem
Helicopter ground taxiways
3.1.14 A FATO shall be surrounded by a safety area.
Note.- A helicopter ground taxiway i s intended to permit
the surface movement of a wheeled helicopter under its own
power. The specflcations for taxiways, taxiway shoulders and
taxiway stripsincluded in Annex 14, Volume I are equally
applicable to heliports as modified below. When a taxiway is
intended for use by aeroplanes and helicopters, the provisions
for taxiways and helicopter ground taxiways will be examined
and the more stringent requirements will be applied.
3. l . 15 A safety area surrounding a FATO intended to be
used in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) shall extend
outwards from the periphery of the FATO for a distance of at
least 3 m or 0.25 times the over-all lengthlwidth, whichever is
greater, of the 1ongestJwidesthelicopter the area is intended to
serve.
3.1.16 A safety area surrounding a FATO intended to be
used by helicopter operations in instrument meteorological
conditions (MC) shall extend:
3.1.22 The width of a helicopter ground taxiway shall not
be less than:
a) laterally to a distance of at least 45 m on each side of the
centre line; and
Up tonot
but
b) longitudinally to a distance of at least 60 m beyond the
ends of the FATO.
Note.- See Figure
Helicopter ground
taxiway width
Helicopter main gear span
including 4.5 m
7.5 m
4.5 m up to but not including 6 m
10.5 m
6 m up to but not including 10 m
15 m
10 m and over
20 m
3-1.
3.1.17 No fixed object shall be permitted on a safety area,
except for frangible objects, which, because of their function,
mustbe
located on the area. No mobile object shall be
permitted on a safety area during helicopter operations.
3.1.23 The separation distance between a helicopter
ground taxiway and another helicopter ground taxiway, an air
taxiway, an object or helicopter stand shall not be less than the
appropriate dimension specified in Table 3- l .
3.1.18 Objects whose functions require them to be
located on the safety area shall not exceed a height of 25 cm
whenlocated along the edge of the FATO nor penetrate a
plane originating at a height of 25 cm above the edge of the
FATO and sloping upwards and outwards from the edge of the
FATO at a gradient of 5 per cent.
3.1.24 The longitudinal slope of a helicopter ground
taxiway shall not exceed 3 per cent.
3.1.19 The surface of the safety area shall not exceed an
upward slope of 4 per cent outwards from the edge of the
FATO.
3.1.25 Recommendation.- A helicopter ground taxiway
should be capable of withstanding the trafic of helicopters
that the helicopter ground taxiway is intended to serve.
I
I
Safety area
I
I
"
I 60
-6Om-
m
I
FATO
I
Helicopter
clearway
Rejected
take-off
area
I
I
I
I
I
I
Figure 3-1. Safety area for instrument FATO
9/1U95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
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Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 3
3.1.33 Theseparationdistance
betweenan airtaxiway
and another air taxiway, a helicopterground taxiway, an object
orahelicopter stand shall not be less than theappropriate
dimension in Table 3- 1.
3.1.26 Recommendation.- A helicopter ground taxiway
should be provided with shoulders which extend symmetrically
on each side of the helicopter ground taxiwayfor at least onehalf the greatest over-all width of the helicopters that the
helicopter ground taxiway is intended to serve.
3.1.27 Thehelicoptergroundtaxiway
and its shoulder
shall provide rapid drainage but the helicopter ground taxiway
transverse slope shall not exceed 2 per cent.
Air transit route
Note.- An air transit route is intended to permit the
movement of a helicopter above the sulface, n o m l l y at
heights not above 30 m (100 ft) above ground level and at
ground speeds exceeding 37 km/h (20 kt).
3.1.28 Recommendation.- The sulface of a helicopter
ground taxiway shoulder should be resistant to the effect of
rotor downwash.
3.1.34 The width ofan air transit route shall not be less
than:
Air taxiways
a) 7.0 times RD when the air transit route is intended for
use by day only; and
Note.- An air taxiway is intended to permit the movement
of a helicopter above the sulface at a height normally
associated with ground effect and at groundspeed less than
37 km/h (20 kt).
b) 10.0 times RD when the air transit route is intended for
use at night;
3.1.29 The widthof an air taxiway shall beatleast two
times the greatest over-all width of the helicopters that the air
taxiway is intended to serve.
3.1.30 The surface
when RD is the diameterof the largest rotor of the helicopters
that the air transit route is intended to serve.
3.1.35 Any variation in the direction of the centre line of
an air transit route shall not exceed 120"and be designed so as
not to necessitate a turn of radius less than 270 m.
ofan air taxiway shall:
a) be resistant to the effects of rotor downwash; and
Note.- It is intended that air transit routes be selected so
as to permit autorotative or one-engine-inoperative landings
such that, as a minimum requirement, injury to persons on the
ground or water, or damage to property are minimized.
b) be suitable for emergency landings.
3.1.3 1 Recommendation.The sulface of an air
taxiway should provide ground effect.
3.1.32 Recommendation.- The transverse slope of the
sulface of an air taxiway should not exceed 10 per cent and
the longitudinal slope should not exceed 7 per cent. In any
event, the slopes should
not
exceed the slope landing
limitations of the helicopters the air taxiway is intended to
serve.
Aprons
Note.The specifications for aprons included in
Chapter 3 of Annex 14, Volume I are equally applicable to
heliports as modified below.
Table 3-1. Helicopter ground taxiway and air taxiway separation distances
(expressed in multiples of greatest over-all width of helicopter with rotor turning)
Facility
Helicopter
ground
taxiway
Air
stand
taxiway
Helicopter
ground
taxiway
(between
edges)
(between
centre lines)
1
(edge to
object)
2
(between
edges)
4
4
1 '12
4
(centre line
Helicopter
Object
~~
2
4
Air
(centre(between
(between
centre
taxiway
lines)
centre lines)
7
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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line
edge) to object)
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Annex 14 -Aerodromes
3.1.36 The slope in any direction on a helicopter stand
shall not exceed 2 per cent.
3.2
3.1.37 The minimum clearance between a helicopter
using a helicopter stand and an object orany aircraft on
another stand shall not be less than half
the greatest over-all
width of the helicopters that the stand is intended to serve.
Final approach and take-off area and
touchdown and lift-off area
Note.- On elevated heliports it is presumed that the FATO
and the touchdown and lift-off area will be coincidental.
Note.- Where simultaneous hover operations are to be
provided for, the separation distances specified in Table 3-1
between two air taxiways are to be applied.
3.2.1An
one FATO.
performance
a) for a heliport intended to beusedby
class 1 helicopters, as prescribed in the helicopter flight
manual except that, in the absence of width
specifications, the width shall be not less than 1.5 times
the over-all lengtwwidth, whichever is greater, of the
longestlwidest helicopter the heliport is intended to
serve; and
Location of a final approach and take-off area
in relation to a mnway or taxiway
b) for a heliport intended to be used by performance
class 2 helicopters, of sufficient size and shape to
contain an area within which can be drawn a circle of
diameter notless than 1.5 times the over-all lengtN
width, whichever is greater, of the longestlwidest
helicopter the heliport is intended to serve.
3.1.39 Where a FATO is located near a runway or
taxiway, and simultaneous VMC operations are planned, the
separation distance between the edge of a runway or taxiway
and the edge of a FATO shall not be less than the appropriate
dimension in Table 3-2.
A FATO should
not
be
3.2.3 Recommendation- The slope requirements for
elevated heliports should conform to the requirements for
s u ~ a c elevel heliports specified in 3.1.3.
a) near taxiway intersections or holding points where jet
engine efJlux is likely to cause high turbulence; or
3.2.4 The FATO shall be capable of withstanding the
traffic of helicopters the heliport is intended to serve. Design
considerations shall take into account additional loading
resulting from the presence of personnel, snow, freight,
refuelling, fire fighting equipment, etc.
b) near areas where aeroplane vortex wake generation is
likely to exist.
Note.Guidance on structural design for elevated
heliports is given in the Heliport Manual.
Table 3-2. FATO minimum separation distance
If aeroplane mass and/or
helicopter mass are
elevated heliport shall be provided with at least
3.2.2 The dimensions of the FATO shall be:
3.1.38 A helicopter stand shall be of sufficient size to
contain a circle of diameter of at least the largest over-all
dimension of the largest helicopter the stand is expected to
serve.
3.1.40 Recommendation.located:
Elevated heliports
Distance between
FATO edge and
runway edge or
taxiway edge
up to but not including
2 720 kg
60 m
2 720 kg up to but not
including 5 760 kg
120 m
5 760 kg up to but not
including 1O0 O 0 0 kg
180 m
100 O 0 0 kg and over
250 m
9111/95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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Safety area
3.2.5 The FATO shall be surrounded by a safety area.
3.2.6 The safety area shall extend outwards from the
periphery of the FATO for a distance of at least 3 m or
0.25 times the over-all lengtwwidth, whichever is greater, of
the longestlwidest helicopter intended to use the elevated
heliport.
3.2.7 No fixed object shall be permitted on a safety area,
except for frangible objects, which, because of their function,
must be located on the area. No mobile object shall be
permitted on a safety area during helicopter operations.
8
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 3
3.2.8 Objects whose functionrequire themtobelocated
on the safety area shall not exceed a height of 25 cmwhen
locatedalongthe
edge of theFATO norpenetrate a plane
originating at a height of 25 cm above the edge of the FATO
and sloping upwards andoutwards fromthe edge of the FATO
at a gradient of 5 per cent.
be met, the FATO may be in the form of a rectangle with a
small side not less than 0.75 D and a long side not less than
0.9 D butwithin this rectangle, bi-directional landings only
will be permitted in the direction of the 0.9 D dimension.
3.3.4 No fixed object shall be permitted around the edge
of the FATO except for frangible objects, which, because of
their function. must be located thereon.
3.2.9 Thesurface of the safety areashall not exceed an
upwardslope of 4 per cent outwards from the edge of the
FATO.
3.3.5 Objects whose function require them to be located
on the edge of the FATO shall not exceed a height of 25 cm.
3.2.10 The surface of the safety area abutting the FATO
shall be continuous withthe
FATOand
be capable of
supporting, without structural damage, the helicopters that the
heliport is intended to serve.
3.3.6 The surface of the FATO shallbe skid-resistant to
both helicopters and persons and be sloped to prevent pooling
of liquids. Where the helideck is constructed in the form of a
grating, the underdeck design shall be such that ground effect
is not reduced.
3.3 Helidecks
Note.- Guidance on rendering the surface of the FATO
skid-resistant is contained in the Heliport Manual.
Note.- The following specifications are for helidecks
located on structuresengaged in such activities as mineral
exploitation, research or construction. See 3.4 for shipboard
heliport provisions.
3.4 Shipboardheliports
Final approach and take-off area and
touchdown and lijt-off area
3.4.1 When helicopter operating areas are provided in the
bow or stern of a ship or are purpose-built above the ship’s
structure, they shall be regarded as helidecks and the criteria
given in 3.3 shall apply.
Note.- On helidecks it is presumed that the FATO and the
touchdown and lift-offarea will be coincidental. Guidance on
the effects of airflow direction and turbulence, prevailing wind
velocity and high temperatures from gas turbine exhausts or
flare radiated heat on the location of the FATO is given in the
Heliport Manual.
Final approach and take-off area and
touchdown and lift-off area
Note.- On heliports located in other areas of ships it is
presumed that the FATO and the touchdown and lift-off area
will be coincidental. Guidance on the effects of airflow
direction and turbulence, prevailing wind velocity and high
temperature from gas turbine exhausts or flare radiated heat
on the location of the FATO is given in the Heliport Manual.
3.3.1 A helideck shall be provided with at least one
FATO.
3.3.2 A FATO may beany shape but shall, for a single
main rotor helicopter
or
side-by-side
twin
main rotor
helicopter, be of sufficient size to contain an area within which
can be drawn a circle of diameter not less than 1.0 times D of
the largest helicopter the helideck is intended to serve, where
D is the largest dimension of the helicopterwhen the rotors are
turning.
3.4.2 Shipboard heliports shall be provided withat least
one FATO.
3.4.3 A FATO onashipboard heliport shall be circular
and shall be of sufficient size to contain a diameter not less
than 1.0 times D of the largest helicoptertheheliportis
intended to servewhere D is the largest dimensionofthe
helicopter when the rotors are turning.
3.3.3 Where
omnidirectional
landings
by helicopters
having tandem main rotors are intended, the FATOshall be of
sufficient size to contain an area within which can be drawn a
circle of diameter not less than 0.9 times the distance across
the rotors in a fore and aft line. Where these provisions cannot
3.4.4 The surface ofthe FATO shall be skid-resistant to
both helicopters and persons.
9
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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CHAPTER 4. OBSTACLE RESTRICTION AND REMOVAL
Note.- The objectives of the specijìcations in this chapter
are to define the airspace around heliports to be maintained
free from obstacles so as to permit the intended helicopter
operations at the heliports to beconductedsafetyand
to
prevent the heliports becoming unusable bythe growth of
obstacles around them. This is achievedby establishing a
series of obstacle limitation su$aces that define the limits to
which objects may project into the airspace.
4.1 Obstacle limitation surfaces and sectors
4.1.4 The slope(s) of the approach surface shall be
measured in the vertical plane containing the centre line of the
surface.
Note.- For heliports used by pe$ormance class 2 and 3
helicopters, it is intended that approach paths be selected so
as to permit safe forced landing or one-engine-inoperative
landings such that, as a minimum requirement, injury to
persons on the ground or water or damage to property are
minimized. Provisionsfor forced landing areas are expected to
minimize risk of injury to the occupants of the helicopter. The
most critical helicopter type for which the heliport is intended
and the ambient conditions will be factors in determining the
suitability of such areas.
Approach surface
4.1.1 Description. An inclined plane or a combination of
planes sloping upwards from the end of the safety area and
centred on a line passing through the centre of the FATO.
Note.- See Figure 4-1.
4.1.2 Characteristics. The limits ofan approach surface
shall comprise:
a) an inner edge horizontal and equal in length to the
minimum specified width of the FATO plus the safety
area, perpendicular to the centre line of the approach
surface and located at the outer edge of the safety area;
b) two side edges originating at the ends of the inner edge
and:
1 ) for other than a precision approach FATO, diverging
uniformly at a specified rate from the vertical plane
containing the centre line of the FATO,
2) for a precision approach FATO, diverging uniformly
at a specified rate from the vertical plane containing
the centre line of the FATO, to a specified height
above FATO, and then diverging uniformly at a
specified rate to a specified final width and
continuing thereafter at that width for the remaining
length of the approach surface; and
c) an outer edge horizontal and perpendicular to the centre
line of the approach surface and at a specified height
above the elevation of the FATO.
4.1.3 The elevation of the inner edge shall be the
elevation of the safety area at the point on the inner edge that
is intersected by the centre line of the approach surface.
911 1/95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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Transitional surface
4.1.5 Description. A complex surface along the side of
the safety area and part of the side of the approach surface,
that slopes upwards and outwards to the inner horizontal
surface or a predetermined height.
Note.- See
Figure 4-1.
4.1.6 Characteristics. The limits of a transitional surface
shall comprise:
a) a lower edge beginning at the intersection of the side of
the approach surface with the inner horizontal surface,
or beginning at a specified height above the lower edge
when an inner horizontal surface is not provided, and
extending down the side of the approach surface to the
inner edge of the approach surface and from there along
the length of the side of the safety area parallel to the
centre line of the FATO; and
b) an upper edge located in the plane of the inner
horizontal surface, or at a specified height above the
lower edge when an inner horizontal surface is not
provided.
4.1.7
The elevation of a point on the lower edge shall be:
a) along the side of the approach surface - equal to the
elevation of the approach surface at that point; and
b) along the safety area - equal to the elevation of the
centre line of the FATO opposite that point.
Note.- As a result of 6 ) the transitional su$ace along the
safety area will be curvedif the profile of the FATO is curved,
ANNEX 14 - VOLUME II
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 4
or a plane if the profile is a straight line. The intersection of
the transitional surface with the inner horizontal surface, or
upper edge when an inner horizontal surface is not provided,
will also be a curved or a straight line depending on the
profile of the FATO.
Take-off climb surface
4.1.15 Description. An inclined plane, a combination of
planes or, when a turn is involved, a complex surface sloping
upwards from the end of the safety area and centred on a line
passing through the centre of the FATO.
4.1.8 The slope of the transitional surface shall be
measured in a vertical plane at right angles to the centre line
of the FATO.
Note.- See Figure 4-1.
4.1.16 Characteristics. The limits of a take-off climb
surface shall comprise:
a) an inner edge horizontal and equal in length to the
minimum specified width of the FATO plus the safety
area, perpendicular to the centre line of the take-off
climb surface and located at the outer edge of the safety
area or clearway;
Inner horizontal surface
Note.- The intent of the inner horizontal surface is to
allow safe visual manoeuvring.
4.1.9 Description. A circular surface located in a
horizontal plane above a FATO and its environs.
b) two side edges originating at the ends of the inner edge
and diverging uniformly at a specified rate from the
vertical plane containing the centre line of the FATO;
and
Note.- See Figure 4-1.
4.1.10 Characteristics. The radius of the inner horizontal
surface shall be measured from the mid-point of the FATO.
c) an outer edge horizontal and perpendicular to the centre
line of the take-off climb surface and at a specified
height above the elevation of the FATO.
4.1.1 1 The height of the inner horizontal surface shall be
measured above an elevation datum established for such
purpose.
4. l . 17 The elevation of the inneredge shall be the
elevation of the safety area at the point on the inner edge that
is intersected by the centre line of the take-off climb surface,
except that when a clearway is provided, the elevation shall be
equal to the highest point on the ground on the centre line of
the clearway.
Note.- Guidance on determining the elevation datum is
contained in the Heliport Manual.
4. l . 18 In the case of a straight take-off climb surface, the
slope shall be measured in the vertical plane containing the
centre line of the surface.
Conical surface
4.1.12 Description. A surface sloping upwards and
outwards from the periphery of the inner horizontal surface, or
from the outer limit of the transitional surface if an inner
horizontal surface is not provided.
4.1.19 In the case of a take-off climb surface involving a
turn, the surface shall be a complex surface containing the
horizontal normals to its centre line and the slope of the centre
line shall be the same as that for a straight take-off climb
surface. That portion of the surface between the inner edge and
30 m above the inner edge shall be straight.
Note.- See Figure 4-1.
4. l . 13 Characteristics. The limits of the conical surface
shall comprise:
4.1.20 Any variation in the direction of the centre line of
a take-off climb surface shall be designed so as not to
necessitate a turn of radius less than 270 m.
a) a lower edge coincident with the periphery of the inner
horizontal surface, or outer limit of the transitional
surface if an inner horizontal surface is not provided;
and
Note.- For heliports used by performance class 2 and 3
helicopters, it is intended that departure paths be selected so
as to permit safe forced landings or one-engine-inoperative
landings such that, as a minimum requirement, injury to
persons on the ground or water or damage to property are
minimized. Provisionsfor forced landing areas are expected to
minimize risk of injury to the occupants of the helicopter. The
most critical helicopter type for which the heliport is intended
and the ambient conditions will be factors in determining the
suitability of such areas.
b) an upper edge located at a specified height above the
inner horizontal surface, or above the elevation of the
lowest end of the FATO if an inner horizontal surface is
not provided.
4.1.14 The slope of the conical surface shall be measured
above the horizontal.
11
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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9/11/95
Volume II
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Obstacle-free sector/surface
- helidecks
4.2.2 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall be
established for a non-precision approach FATO:
4.1.21 Description. A complex surface originating at a
reference point on the edge of the FATO of a helideck and
extending to a specified distance.
a) take-off climb surface;
b) approach surface;
4.1.22 Characteristics. An obstacle-free sector/surface
shall subtend an arc of specified angle.
c) transitional surfaces; and
4. I .23 For helidecks the obstacle-free sector shall subtend
an arc of
210"
and extend outwards to a distance compatible
with the one-engine inoperative capability of the most critical
helicopter the helideck is intended toserve. The surface shall
be a horizontal plane level with the elevation of the helideck
except that, over an arc of 180" passing through the centre of
the FATO, the surface shall be at water level, extending
outwards for a distance compatible with the take-off space
required for the most critical helicopter the helideck is
intended to serve (see Figure 4-2).
d) conical surface if an inner horizontal surface is not
provided.
4.2.3 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall be
established for a non-instrument FATO:
a) take-off climb surface; and
b) approach surface.
4.2.4 Recommendation,
The following obstacle
limitation surfaces should be established for a non-precision
approach FATO:
Limited obstacle sudace - helidecks
4.1.24 Description. A complex surface originating at the
reference point for the obstacle-free sector and extending over
the arc not covered by the obstacle-free sector as shown in
Figures 4-3, 4-4 and 4-5 and within which the height of
obstacles above the level of the FATO will be prescribed.
a ) inner horizontal sulface; and
6 ) conical surface.
Note.- An inner horizontal surface may not be required
if a straight-in non-precision approach is provided at both
4.1.25 Characteristics. The limited obstacle surface shall
not subtend an arc greater than a specified angle and shall be
sufficient to include that area not covered by the obstacle-free
sector.
4.2
ends.
4.2.5 The slopes of the surfaces shall not be greater than,
and their other dimensions not less than those specified in
Tables 4-1 to 4-4 and shall be located as shown in Figures 4-6
to 4- 1 O.
Obstaclelimitationrequirements
4.2.6 New objects or extensions of existing objects shall
not be permitted above any of the surfaces in 4.2.1 to 4.2.4
above except when, in the opinion of the appropriate authority,
the new object or extension would be shielded by an existing
immovable object.
Note.- The requirements for obstacle limitation sulfaces
are specified on the basis of the intended use of a FATO, i.e.
approach
manoeuvre
to hover or landing, or take-off
manoeuvreand type of approach, and are intended to be
applied when such use is mude of the FATO. In cases where
operations are conducted to or fromboth directions of a FATO,
then the function of certain sulfaces may be nullified because
of more stringent requirementsof another lower surface.
Note.- Circumstances in which the shielding principle
may reasonably be applied are described in the Airport
Services Manual, Part 6.
Surface level heliports
4.2.1 Recommendation.- Existing objects above any of
the surfaces in 4.2.1 to 4.2.4 above should, as far as
practicable, be removed except when, in the opinion of the
appropriate authority, the object is shielded by an existing
immovable object or afrer aeronautical study it is determined
that the object not
would
adversely affect the safety or
sign$cantly affect the regularity of operations of helicopters.
4.2.1 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall be
established for a precision approach FATO:
a) take-off climb surface:
b) approach surface;
Note.- The application of curved take-off climb surfaces
as specified in 4.1.19 may alleviate the problems created by
objects infringing these sulfaces.
c) transitional surfaces; and
d) conical surface.
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4.2.8 A surface level heliport shall have at least two takeoff climb and approach surfaces, separated bynot less than
150".
the limited obstacle surface rises at a rate of one unit vertically
for each two units horizontally (see Figure 4-3).
4.2.17 For omnidirectional operations by tandem-mainrotor helicopters within the 150" limited obstacle
surfacehector out to a distance of 0.62 D, measured from the
centre of the FATO, there shall be no fixed obstacles. Beyond
that arc, out to an over-all distance of 0.83 D, objects shall not
penetrate a level surface which has a height equivalent to
0.05 D above the FATO (see Figure 4-4).
4.2.9 Recommendation.- The numberandorientation
of take-off climb and approach surfaces should be such that
rhe usability factor of a heliport is not less than 95 per cent for
the helicopters the heliport is intended to serve.
4.2.18 For bi-directional operations by tandem-mainrotor helicopters, within the 0.62 D arc in the 150" limited
obstacle surface/sector, objects shall not penetrate a level
surface which has a height equivalent to 1.1 m above the
FATO (see Figure 4-5).
Elevated heliports
4.2.1 O The obstacle limitation requirements for elevated
heliports shall conform to the requirements for surface level
heliports specified in 4.2.1 to 4.2.7.
4.2.1 1 An elevated heliport shall have atleast two takeoff climb and approach surfaces separated bynotless
than
150".
Shipboard heliports
Amidships location
4.2.19 Forward and aft of the FATO shall be two
symmetrically located sectors, each covering an arc of 150",
with their apexes on the periphery of the FATO D reference
circle. Within the area enclosed by these two sectors, there
shall be no objects rising above the level of the FATO, except
those aids essential for the safe operation of a helicopter and
then only up to a maximum height of 25 cm.
Helidecks
Note.- The following specifcationsare for helidecks
located on a structureandengaged
in such activitiesas
mineral exploitation, research, or construction, but excluding
heliports on ships.
4.2.20 To provide further protection from obstacles fore
and aft of the FATO, rising surfaces with gradients of one unit
vertically to five units horizontally shall extend from the entire
length of the edges of the two 150" sectors. These surfaces
shall extend for a horizontal distance equal to at least the
diameter of the FATO and shall not be penetrated byany
obstacle (see Figure 4-1 1).
4.2.12 A helideck shall havean obstacle-free sector and,
where necessary, a limited obstacle sector.
4.2.13 There shall
be
no
fixed obstacles within the
obstacle-free sector above the obstacle-free surface.
4.2.14 In the
immediate vicinity of the helideck, obstacle
protection for helicopters shall be provided below the heliport
level. This protection shall extend over an arc of at least 180"
with the origin at the centre of the FATO, with a descending
gradient having a ratio of one unit horizontally to five units
vertically from the edges of the FATO within the 180" sector.
Ship's side location
4.2.15 Where a mobile obstacle or combination of
obstacles within the obstacle-free sector is essential for the
operation of the installation, the obstacle(s) shall not subtend
an arc exceeding 30", as measured from the centre of the
FATO.
4.2.21 From the fore and aft mid-points of the D
reference circle, an area shall extend to the ship's rail to a fore
and aft distance of 1.5 times the diameter of the FATO,
located symmetrically about the athwartships bisector of the
reference circle. Within this sector there shall be no objects
rising above the level of the FATO, except those aids essential
to the safe operation of the helicopter and then only up to a
maximum height of 25 cm (see Figure 4-12).
4.2.16 For single-main-rotor and side-by-side twin rotor
helicopters, within the 150" limited obstacle surfacekector out
to a distance of 0.62 D, measured from the centre of the
FATO, objects shall not exceed a height of 0.05 D above the
FATO. Beyond that arc, out to an over-all distance of 0.83 D
4.2.22 A horizontal surface shall be provided, at least
0.25 times the diameter of the D reference circle, which shall
surround the FATO and the obstacle-free sector, at a height of
0.05 times the diameter of the reference circle, which no object
shall penetrate.
13
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Annex 14 -Aerodromes
VolumeII
Take-off
Approach
climb
Approach
Transitional
r
...............
f...........
.............
-~
Inner horizontal
...............
...................
..................
..............
kConical
..................
....................
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
....................................
......
........:' ......
J
.,..s...
FATO
Section B-B
Nofe.- The figure shows the obstacle limitation surfaces at a heliport
with a non-precision approach FATO and a clearway.
Figure 4- l. Obstaclelimitationsurfaces
9/11/95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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14
Annex I4 -Aerodromes
Chapter 4
210° sector
Alternative positions on the
periphery and swinging the whole
sector f 1 5 O from that shown may
PROFILE
Landing area
objects
no
ese
lines
in
No fixed obstacle
between
lines in 180°
sector
Within 210° sector
above this
line
obstacle
No fixed
in 180°
sector
1
I
I
1
Water level
Water level
Figure 4-2. Helideckobstacle-freesector
15
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II
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
15O0 sector (Alternative
positions on the periphery
and swinging the whole
sector f 1 5 O from that shown
may be used in satisfying
requirements)
t
Obstacle free
Obstacles limited
' Obstacles limited
to 0.05 D
D = Helicopter largest over-all dimension
I
Obstacle free
Section AA
Figure 4-3. Helideckobstaclelimitationsectors
Single-main-rotor and side-by-side twin rotor helicopters
9/1y95
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Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 4
150° sector (Alternative
positions on the periphery
and swinging the whole
sector k 1 5 O from that shown
may be used in satisfying
requirements)
I
f
Obstacle free
15O
limited
1
D = Helicopter largest over-all dimension
Obsta e free
15O
0.83
-D
4
0.62-D
.
I
V//A
Section AA
Figure 4-4. Helideck obstacle limitation sectors
Tandem-main-rotor helicopters - Omnidirectional operations
17
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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911Y95
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
II
t
1
0.9 D
\
l
r
Final approach and
take-off area
I
150° sector
(No alternative
position is
Landing direction
ti-
Obstacles limited
to 1.1 m
Landing direction
Obstacle free
I
\
D = Helicopter largest over-all dimension
Figure 4-5. Helideckobstaclelimitation sectors
Tandem-main-rotor helicopters- Bi-directional operations
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Chapter 4
Final approach and
take-off area (FATO
Take-off climb/
approach surface
Shaded area to have same
characteristics as safety area
A.
Circular final approachandtake-offarea
(straight approach-departure)
Take-off climb/
approach
d.
Shaded area to have same
characteristics as safety area
I
Safety
Safety
area
B.
area
Squared final approach and take-off
(straight approach-departure)
area
Final approachltake-off area
1:,11
a,
0
U
"
.-mc
LL
a,
zc
-c
'
P
Safety area
C.
Squared finalapproachandtake-off
(curved approach-departure)
area
Final width
4
Figure 4-6. Take-offclimb/approachsurface(non-instrumentFATO)
19
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911li95
Volume II
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
PLAN
90 m
1
30/o'
-
7
"
Extended centre line
Figure 4-7. Take-offclimbsurfaceforinstrumentFATO
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Chapter 4
A
9(
I
o)
al
'D
al
L
al
c
3
1 800 m
O
Extended centre line
.
I
PROFILE
- 6O approach
Horizontal
Figure 4-8. Approach surface for precision approach FATO
21
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911 1/95
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PLAN
90 m
1
\16%
_.
Extended centre
Figure 4-9. Approachsurfacefornon-precisionapproachFATO
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1f
-line
PROFILE
I
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"
890 m
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r
Conical surface
T
Transitional surface -
Inner horizontal surface
t
100 rn
45 m
1
14100
- ”m
I
O00- m
Non-precision approach (end profiles)
Transitional surface
Conical surface
5% (1%)
Alternative when no inner horizontal surface
is provided
Precision approach (end profiles)
Figure 4-10. Transitional, inner horizontal and
conical obstacle limitation surfaces
23
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9/11/95
Volume Annex I4 -Aerodromes
II
PLAN VIEW
D = Helicopter largest over-all dimension
Section A-A
Figure 4-1 1. Midship non-purpose built heliport obstacle limitation surfaces
9/11/95
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Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 4
1.5 D
Obstacle-free sector
D = Helicopter largest over-all dimension
Figure 4-12. Ships-side non-purpose built heliport
obstacle limitation surfaces
25
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Volume II
Table 4-1. Dimensions and slopes of obstacle limitation surfaces
NON-INSTRUMENT AND NON-PRECISION FATO
Non-instrument
(visual)
Non-precision
(instrument
FATO
approach) classperformance
Helicopter
Surface
APPROACH SURFACE
Width of inner edge
Location of inner edge
First section
Divergence
Length
Outer width
- day
- night
- day
- night
- day
Slope (maximum)
Length
- day
- night
- day
- night
Outer width
- day
- night
Slope (maximum)
Third section
Divergence
Length
Outer width
3
Width of safety area
Boundary
- night
Second section
Divergence
2
1
- day
-night
-day
-night
FATO
Width of safety area
Boundary
10%
10%
10%
15%
15%
15%
245 ma
245 m a
49 mb
73.5 mb
%%a
245 ma
245 ma
49 m b
73.5 mb
245 ma
245 ma
49 m b
73.5 mb
10%
15%
10%
15%
10%
15%
C
C
C
C
C
C
d
d
d
d
d
d
12.5%
12.5%
12.5%
parallel
parallel
parallel
e
e
e
e
e
e
8 %a
16%
2500m
890 m
3.33%
d
d
d
d
d
d
Slope (maximum)
15%
15%
15%
INNER HORIZONTAL
Height
Radius
-
45 m
-
2000m
CONICAL
Slope
Height
-
5%
55 m
TRANSITIONAL
Slope
Height
-
45 m
20%
a. Slope and length enables helicopters to decelerate for landing while observing "avoid" areas.
b. The width of the inner edge shall be added to this dimension.
c. Determined by the distance from the inner edge to the point where the divergence produces a width of7 rotor diameters for day operationsor
1O rotor diameters for night operations.
d. Seven rotor diameters over-all width for day operationsor I O rotor diameters over-all width for night operations.
e. Determined by the distance from inner edge to where the approach surface reaches a heightof 150 m above the elevationof the inner edge.
911 Y95
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Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 4
Table 4-2. Dimensions and slopes of obstacle limitation surfaces
INSTRUMENT (PRECISION APPROACH) FATO
Surface and dimensions
90m
(300ft)
3" approach
6' approach
Height aboveFATO
Height above FATO
30 m
(l00ft)
45 m
(150ft)
60 m
(200ft)
90m
(300ft)
60 m
(2ooft)
45 m
(150 ft)
30 m
(looft)
APPROACH SURFACE
0 m 9 0 m 9 0 m 9 0 m 990m
0m 90m 90m
Length of inner 9edge
Distance from end of FATO
6 06m0 m6 0 m6 0 m
60 m 6 0 m6 0 m
60m
Divergence25%
each 25%
side to25%
height25% 25%
25 %25% 25%
above FATO
Distance to height above FATO
1745m
1 163m
872m
Width at height above FATO
962 m
671 m
Divergence to parallel section
15%
15% 15%
15%
526 m
580 m
380 m
521 m
380111
307.5
15%
15%
2793 m
Width of parallel section
1800m
1800m
1800m
1800m
Distance to outer edge
5 462 m
Width at outer edge
1800m
1800m
1800m
1800m
2.5%
(1:40)
870m
15%
Distance to parallel section
Slope of first section
581 m
3 763 m
5 074 m
2.5%
(1:40)
4246m
4733
m
4733111
4 882m4686
2.5%
(1:40)
m
2.5%
(1:40)
Slope of second section
3%
(1:33.3)
Length of second section
2500m
2500m
2500m
2500m
Total length of surface
l 0 0 0 0 m 10000ml0000m
3%
(1 :33.3)
3%
(1 :33.3)
290m
235m
m
15%
4975m
5217111
1800m
1800m
1800m
1800m
Length of first section
3%
(1:33.3)
4250m
435 m
3380111 3187111
3090m
2993111
1800m
1800m
1800111
1800m
5%
(1:20)
5%
(1:20)
5%
(1:20)
5%
(1:20)
1500m
1500m
1 5 0 01m
500m
6%
6%
6%
6%
(1:16.66) (1:16.66) (1:16.66) (1:16.66)
1 250 m
1 250 m
1 250 m
10000m
8500m
8500m
8 5 0 08m5 0 0 m
5%
1250m
CONICAL
Slope
Height
55 m
5%
55 m
55 m
5%
55 m
55m
5%
55m
5%
55m
5%
55m
TRANSITIONAL
Slope
Height
14.3%
45 m
14.3%
45 m
14.3%
45 m
14.3%
45 m
14.3%
45 m
14.3%
45 m
14.3%
45 m
14.3%
45 m
5%
5%
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Table 4-3. Dimensions and slopes of obstacle limitation surfaces
STRAIGHT TAKE-OFF
Non-instmment (visual)
Helicopter performance class
Surface and dimensions
1
2
3
Instrument
TAKE-OFF CLIMB
Width of inner edge
Location of inner edge
90 m
Boundary or
end of clearway
Width of safety area
Boundary or end of clearway
First section
- day
10%
15%
10%
15%
10%
15%
30%
- night
Length
- day
- night
a
a
245 mb
245 mb
245 mb
245 mb
2 850 m
Outer width
- day
- night
Divergence
Slope (maximum)
1800m
4.5%*
8%b
8%b
3.5%
Second section
Divergence
- day
- night
parallel
parallel
10%
15%
10%
15%
parallel
Length
- day
- night
e
a
a
1 510 m
e
a
a
- day
- night
C
C
C
C
C
C
4.5%*
15%
15%
3.5%*
parallel
parallel
parallel
-day
-night
e
e
e
7 640 m
- day
C
C
-night
C
C
15%
15%
Outer width
Slope (maximum)
1800m
Third section
Divergence
Length
Outer width
Slope (maximum)
e
1800m
2%
a. Determined by the distance from the inner edge to the point where the divergence produces a width
7 rotor
of diameters for day operations
or
10 rotor diameters for night operations.
b. Slope and length provides helicopters with an areato accelerate and climb while observing "avoid" areas.
c. Seven rotor diameters over-all width for day operationsor 10 rotor diameters over-all width for night operations.
d. The width of the inner edge shall be added to this dimension.
e. Determined by the distance from the inner edge to where the surface reaches a heightof 150 m above the elevation of the inner edge.
* This slope exceeds the maximum mass one-engine-inoperative climb gradient of many helicopters which are currently operating.
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Table 4-4. Criteria for curved take-off climb/approach area
NON-INSTRUMENT FINAL APPROACH AND TAKE-OFF
Facility
Requirement
Directional change
As required (1 20"max).
Radius of turn on centreline
Not less than 270 m.
Distance to inner gate*
(a) For performance class 1 helicopters - not
less than 305 m from theend of the safety
area or helicopter clearway.
(b) For performance class 2 and 3 helicopters
- not less than 370 m from the endof the
FATO.
Width of inner gate - day
- night
Width of outer gate - day
- night
Width of the inner edge plus
20%of
distance to innergate.
Width of the inner edge plus30% of
distance to inner gate.
Width of inner edgeplus 20% of distance to
inner gate outto minimum width of 7 rotor diameters.
Width of inner edge plus30% of distance to
inner gate outto a minimum width of 10 rotor
diameters.
Elevation of inner and outer
gates
Determined by the distance from the inner
edge and the designated
gradient(s).
Slopes
As givenin Tables 4- 1 and 4-3.
Divergence
As given in Tables 4-1 and 4-3.
Total length of area
As given in Tables 4-1 and 4-3.
*
This is the minimum distance required prior to initiating a turn after take-off or completing
a turn in the final phase.
Note.- More than one turn may be necessary in the total length of the take-off
climb/approach area. The same criteria will apply for each subsequent turn except that the
widths of the inner and outer gates will normally be the maximum width of the area.
29
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CHAPTER 5. VISUAL AIDS
5.1.1.6 Recommendation.- The colour of the wind
direction indicator should be so selected as to make it clearly
visible and understandable from a height of at least 200 m
(650 j ì ) above the heliport, having regard to background.
Where practicable, a single colour, preferably white or
orange, should be used. Where a combination of two colours
is required to give adequate conspicuity against changing
backgrounds, they should preferably be orange and white, red
and white, or black and white, and should be arranged in five
alternate bands thefirst and last band being the darker colour.
5.1 Indicators
5. l. 1 Wind direction indicators
Application
5.1 . l . 1 A heliport shall be equipped with at least one
wind direction indicator.
5.1.1.7 A wind direction indicator at a heliport intended
for use at night shall be illuminated.
Location
5.1.1.2 A wind direction indicator shall be located so as
to indicate the wind conditions over the final approach and
take-off area and in such a way as to be free from the effects
of aifflow disturbances caused by nearby objects or rotor
downwash. It shall be visible from a helicopter in flight, in a
hover or on the movement area.
5.2 Markings and markers
Note.See
Annex 14, Volume I, 5.2.1.4, Note I ,
concerning improving conspicuity of markings. .
5.1.1.3 Recommendation.- Where a touchdown and
lift-off area may be subject to a disturbed air flow, then
additional wind direction indicators located close tu the area
should be provided to indicate the su$ace wind on the area.
5.2.1 Winching area marking
Application
Note.- Guidance on the location of wind direction
indicators is given in the Heliport Manual.
5.2.1.1 Recommendation.- A winching area marking
should be provided at a winching area.
Characteristics
Location
5.1.1.4 A wind direction indicator shall be constructed so
that it gives a clear indication of the direction of the wind and
a general indication of the wind speed.
5.2.1.2 A winching area marking shall be located so that
its centre coincides with the centre of the clear zone of the
winching area.
5.1.1.5 Recommendation.- An indicator should be a
truncated cone made of lightweightfabric and should have the
following minimum dimensions:
Surface level
heliports
Elevated heliports
and helidecks
Length
2.4 m
1.2 m
Diameter
(larger end)
0.6 m
0.3 m
Diameter
(smaller end)
0.3 m
Characteristics
5.2.1.3 A winching area marking shall consist of a solid
circle of not less than 5 m in diameter and painted yellow.
5.2.2 Heliport identification marking
Application
0.15 m
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5.2.2.1 A heliport identification marking shall be
provided at a heliport.
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Figure 5- l . Heliport identification marking (shown with
hospital cross and orientation with obstacle-free sector)
5.2.2.4 A heliport identification marking for a heliport at
a hospital shall consist of a letter H, red in colour, on a white
cross made of squares adjacent to each of the sides of a square
containing the H as shown in Figure 5- 1.
Location
5.2.2.2 A heliport identification marking shall be located
within the final approach and take-off area, at or near the
centre of the area or when used in conjunction with runway
designation markings at each end of the area.
5.2.2.5 A heliport identification marking shall be oriented
with the cross arm of the H at right angles to the preferred
final approach direction. For a helideck the cross arm shall be
on or parallel to the bisector of the obstacle-free sector as
shown in Figure 5-1.
Characteristics
5.2.2.3 A heliport identification marking, except for a
heliport at a hospital, shall consist of a letter H, white in
colour. The dimensions of the marking shall be no less than
those shown in Figure 5-1 and where the marking is used in
conjunction with the final approach and take-off area
designation marking specified in 5.2.5 its dimensions shall be
increased by a factor of 3.
Application
Note.- On a helideck covered with a rope netting, it m a y
be advantageous to increase the height of the marking to 4 m
and the other dimensions proportionally.
5.2.3.1 Recommendation.- A maximum allowable mass
marking should be displayed at an elevated heliport and at a
helideck.
5.2.3 Maximum allowable mass marking
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Location
5.2.4.5 A final
and approacharea take-off
be white.
marking shall
5.2.3.2 Recommendation.- A maximum allowable m a s s
marking should be located within the touchdown and
lift-off
area and so arranged as to be readable from the preferred
final approach direction.
area take-off and approach
5.2.5 Final
designation marking
Characteristics
Application
5.2.3.3 A maximum allowable mass marking shall consist
of a twodigit numberfollowed by a letter “t” to indicatethe
allowable
helicopter mass
in tonnes (1 O 0 0 kg).
5.2.5.1 Recommendation.- A final approachand takeoff area
designation
marking
should
be
provided
where
it is
necessary to designate the finalapproach and take-off area to
the pilot.
5.2.3.4 Recommendation.- The numbersandthe
letter
of the markingshouldhaveacolourcontrastingwiththe
background and should be in theform and proportion shown
in Figure 5-2.
Location
5.2.5.2 A final approachand take-off areadesignation
marking shall be located at the beginningof the final approach
and take-off area as shown in Figure 5-3.
5.2.4 Final approach and take-off area
marking or marker
Application
Characteristics
5.2.4.1 Final
approach
and
take-off
area
marking
or
markers shall be provided at a surface level heliport on ground
where the extent of the final approach and take-off area is not
self-evident.
5.2.5.3 A final approach and take-offareadesignation
marking shall consist of a runway designationmarking
and
5.2.2.5
described in Annex 14, Volume I, 5.2.2.4
supplemented by an H,specified in 5.2.2 above, and as shown
in Figure 5-3.
Location
5.2.4.2 Finalapproach
and
take-off
area marking or
markers shall be located on the boundary of the final approach
and take-off area.
5.2.6 Aiming point marking
Application
Characteristics
5.2.4.3 Finalapproachand
markers shall be spaced
5.2.6.1 Recommendation.- An aiming point marking
shouldbeprovided
at aheliportwhere
it is necessary for a
pilot to make an approach to a particular point before
proceeding to the touchdown and 113-off area.
take-off area marking or
a) for a square or rectangular areaat equal intervals of not
more than 50 m with at least three markings
- or markers
on each sideincludinga marking or markerat each
corner; and
Location
5.2.6.2 The aiming point marking shall be located within
the final approachand take-off area.
b) for any othershaped area, includinga circular area, at
equal intervals of not more than 10 m with a minimum
number of five markings ormarkers.
5.2.4.4 A final approach andtake-off area marking shall
Characteristics
be a rectangular stripe with a length of 9 m or one-fifth of the
side of the final approachandtake-offarea
whichit defines
5.2.6.3 Theaiming pointmarking shall bean equilateral
and a width of 1 m. Where a marker is used its characteristics
triangle with the bisector of one of the angles aligned with the
shall conform to thosespecified inAnnex14,
Volume I,
preferredapproach direction. Themarking shall consist of
5.5.8.3 except thatthe height of the marker shall not exceed continuous white
lines andthe dimensions ofthemarking shall
above
cm
ground
25
snow
or
level.
conform to those
shown
in Figure 5-4.
911 v95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
32
ICA0 ANNEX*:/4
VOLXII
4841436 0066927 B 1 4
X*
Chapter 5
m
Annex 14
-Aerodromes
40
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Note.-
All units are expressed in centimetres.
Figure 5-2. Form and proportions of numbers and letter for
maximum allowable mass marking
33
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
911 1/95
Volume N
t
c:
c\
Figure 5-3. Final approach and take-off area designation marking
L
9
m
-
I
Figure 5-4. Aiming point marking
5.2.7 Touchdown and lift-off area marking
Location
5.2.7.3 The touchdown and lift-off area marking shall be
located along the perimeter of the touchdown and lift-off area.
Application
5.2.7.1 A touchdown and lift-off area marking shall be
provided on a helideck.
Characteristics
5.2.1.2 Recommendation.- A touchdown andlifr-off
urea marking should be provided on a heliport other than a
helideck if ?he perimeter of the touchdown and lift-off area is
not self-evident.
911Y95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
5.2.7.4 A touchdown and lift-off area marking shall
consist of a continuous white line with a width ofat least
30 cm.
34
Chapter 5
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Characteristics
5.2.8 Touchdown marking
5.2.9.3 A heliport name marking shall consist of the name
alphanumeric
ordesignator
the
used
of theasheliport
in the
IUT communications.
Application
Recommendation.- A touchdown marking
5.2.8.1
should be provided where it is necessary for a helicopter to
touch down in a specijïc position.
5.2.9.4 Recommendatioa- The characters of the
marking should be not less than 3 m in height at surface level
heliports and not less than 1.2 m on elevated heliports and
helidecks. The colour of the marking should contrast with the
background.
Location
5.2.8.2 A touchdown marking shall belocated so that
when helicopter
a
for which
the
marking
is intended
is positioned,
with
the
main
undercarriage
inside
the
markingand the pilot situated overthe marking, all parts
of the helicopter will be clear of any obstacle by a safe
margin.
5.2.9.5 A heliport name
marking
intended
for useat night
or during
conditions of
poor
visibility
shall be illuminated,
either internally or externally.
5.2.10Helideck
obstacle-free
sector marking
5.2.8.3 On a helideck or on an elevated heliport the centre
of the touchdown marking shall be located at the centre of the
touchdown and lift-off area except that the marking may be
offset away from the origin of theobstacle-freesector by no
morethan 0.1 D wherean aeronautical study indicates such
offsetting to be necessary and that a marking so offset would
not adversely affect the safety.
Application
5.2.10.1 Recommendation.- A helideck obstacle-free
sector marking should be provided at a helideck.
Characteristics
Location
5.2.8.4 A touchdown marking shall be a yellow circle and
have
a line width of at least 0.5 m. For helideck
a
the
line
width shall be at least 1 m.
5.2.10.2 A helideck obstacle-free sector marking shall be
located on the touchdown
area
5.2.8.5On
helidecks the innerdiameter of the circle shall
Characteristics
be half the D value of the helideck or 6 m whichever is the
greater.
sectorobstacle-free
helideck
5.2.10.3 The
marking shall
indicate the origin of the obstacle free sector, the directions of
the limits ofthe sector andthe D value of the helideck as
shown in Figure 5-5 for a hexagonal-shaped helideck.
5.2.9
Note.- D is the largest dimension of the helicopter when
the rotors are turning.
Heliport namemarking
Applicution
5.2.10.4 The height of the chevron shall equal the width
of the touchdown and lift-off area marking.
5.2.9.1 Recommendation.- A heliport namemarking
should be provided at a heliport where there is insuficient
alternative means of visual identification.
5.2.10.5 chevron
The
shall be black.
Location
5.2.1 1 Marking for taxiways
5.2.9.2 Recommendation.- The heliporrnamemarking
should be placed on the heliport so as to be visible, as far as
practicable, at ail angies above the hori;ontai. Where an
obstacle sector exists the marking should be located on the
obstacle side of the H identification marking.
com.
20/1W95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
Note.-
The specifications for taxiway centre line marking
and taxi-holding position markings in Annex 14, Volume
I,
5.2.8 and 5.2.9 are equally applicable to taxiways intendedfor
ground taxiing of helicopters.
35
9/11/95
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Volume II
5.2.12 Air taxiway markers
be a rectangle with a height to width ratio of approximately
3 to 1 and shall have a minimum area of 150 cm' as shown in
Figure 5-6.
Application
5.2.12.4 An air taxiway marker shall be divided into three
equal, horizontal bands coloured yellow, green and yellow,
respectively. Ifthe air taxiway is to be used at night, the
markers shall be internally illuminated or retro-reflective.
5.2.12.1 Recommendation.- An air taxiwayshould be
marked with air taxiway markers.
Note.-- Thesemarkers are notmeant
helicopter ground taxiways.
to be used on
5.2.13 Air transit route markers
Location
Application
5.2.12.2Air taxiway markers shall be located along the
centre line of the air taxiway and shall be spaced at intervals
of not more than 30 m on straight sections and 15 m on curves.
air
5.2.13.1 Recommendation.- Whenestablishedan
transit route should be marked with air transit route markers.
Location
Characteristics
5.2.13.2 Air transit route markers shall be located along
the centre line of the air transit route and shall be spaced at
intervals of not more than 60 m on straight sections and 15 m
on curves.
5.2.12.3 An air taxiway marker shall be frangible and
when installed shall not exceed 35 cm above ground or snow
level. The surface of the marker as viewed by the pilot shall
I
I
I
I
r""""
Obstacle sector
Black
White
' " I
I
I
I
I
I
l m
Touchdown and lift-off
area marking
c D value
Figure 5-5. Helideck obstacle-free sector marking
911 1/95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
36
l m
I C A 0 ANNEXbLLt VOLbII b t
m
LtBLtLYLb 0066733 2Y5
m
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 5
approx.
H
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Figure 5-6. Air taxiway marker
Example A
Example B
Figure 5-7.
Airtransitroutemarker
37
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
9/11/95
ICA0 ANNEX+L4 VOLrII
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4 8 4 3 4 3 6 0 0 b b 9 3 2 181
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
m
Volume II
Characteristics
Note 4.- Thefollowing specifications have been developed
for systems intended for use in conjunction with a noninstrument or non-precision final approach and take-off area.
5.2.13.3 An air transit route marker shall be frangible and
when installed shall not exceed 1 m above ground or snow
level. The surface of the marker as viewed by the pilot shall
be a rectangle with a height to width ratio of approximately
1 to 3 and shall have a minimum area of I 500 cm2 as shown
in the examples in Figure 5-7.
5.3.2 Heliport beacon
Application
5.2.13.4 An air transit route marker shall be divided into
three equal, vertical bands coloured yellow, green and yellow,
respectively. If the air transit route is to be used by night, the
marker shall be internally illuminated or retro-reflective.
5.3.2.1 Recommendation.- A heliport beacon should
be provided at a heliport where:
a) long-range visual guidance is considered necessary and
is notprovided by other visual means; or
b) identification of the heliport is dlfJicult due to
surrounding lights.
5.3 Lights
5.3.1
Location
General
Note I.- See Annex 14, Volume I, 5.3.1 concerning
specljìcations on screening of non-aeronautical ground lights.
and design of elevated and inset lights.
5.3.2.2 The heliport beacon shall be located on or
adjacent to the heliport preferably at an elevated position and
so that it does not dazzle a pilot at short range.
Note 2.- In the case of helidecks and heliports located
near navigable waters, consideration needs to be given to
ensuring that aeronautical ground lights do not cause
confusion to mariners.
Note.- Where a heliport beacon is likely to daule pilots at
short range it may be switched offduring the final stages of
the approach and landing.
Note 3.- As helicopters will generally come very close to
extraneous light sources, it is particularly important to ensure
that, unless such lights are navigation lights exhibited in
accordance with international regulations, they are screened
or located so as to avoid direct and reflected glare,
Characteristics
5.3.2.3 The heliport beacon shall emit repeated series of
equispaced short duration white flashes in the format in
Figure 5-8.
-
Flash duration
Intensity
0.5 - 2.0
It
milliseconds
I I 2%
0.8S
1.2s
Figure 5-8. Heliport beacon flash characteristics
9/11/95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
38
I
Annex 14
Chapter 5
5.3.2.4 The light from the beacon shall show at all angles
of azimuth.
-Aerodromes
5.3.3.6 Recommendation.- The light distribution of
steady lights should be as indicated in Figure 5-9, Illustration 2 except that the intensity shouldbe increased by a
factor of 3 for a non-precision final approach and take-off
area.
5.3.2.5 Recommendation.- The effective light intensity
distribution of each flash should be as shown in Figure 5-9,
Illustration 1.
5.3.3.7 Sequenced flashing lights shall be omnidirectional
white lights.
Note.- Where brilliancy control is desired, settings of
IO per cent and 3 per cent have been found to be satisfactory.
In addition, shielding may be necessary to ensure that pilots
are not dazzled during the final stages of the approach and
landing.
5.3.3.8 Recommendation.- The flashing lights should
have a jlash frequency of one per secondand their light
distribution should be as shown in Figure 5-9, Illustration 3.
Thejlash sequence should commence from the outermost light
and progress towards the crossbar.
5.3.3 Approachlightingsystem
5.3.3.9 Recommendation.A suitable brilliancy
control should be incorporated to allow for adjustment of light
intensity to meet the prevailing conditions.
Application
5.3.3.1 Recommendation.An approach lighting
system should be provided at a heliport where it is desirable
and practicable to indicate a preferred approach direction.
Note.suitable:
The following intensity settings have been found
a ) steady Eights - IOOper cent, 30per cent and lOper cent;
and
Location
b) flashing lights - 1O0 per cent, I O per cent and 3 per cent.
5.3.3.2 The approach lighting system shall be located in a
straight line along the preferred direction of approach.
5.3.4 Visualalignmentguidancesystem
Characteristics
Application
5.3.3.3 Recommendation.An approach lighting
system should consist of a row of three lights spaced uniformly
at 30 m intervals and of a crossbar 18 m in length at a
distance of 90 m from the perimeter of the final approach and
rake-off area as shown in Figure 5-10. The lights forming the
crossbar should be as nearly as practicable in a horizontal
straight line at right angles to, and bisected by, the line of the
centre line lights and spaced at 4.5 m intervals. Where there
is the
need
to make the final approach course more
conspicuous additional lights spaced uniformly at 30 m
intervals should be added beyond the crossbar. The lights
beyond the crossbar may be steady or sequenced flashing,
depending upon the environment.
5.3.4.1 Recommendation.A
visual alignment
guidance system should be provided to serve the approach to
a heliport where one or more of the following conditions exist
especially at night:
a} obstacle clearance, noise abatement or trafic control
procedures require a particular direction to beflown;
b) the environment of the heliport provides few visual
s u ~ a c ecues; and
c) it is physically impracticable to install an approach
lighting system.
Note.-Sequenced
flashing lights may be useful where
identification of the approach lighting system is dificult due to
surrounding lights.
Location
5.3.4.2 Thevisualalignmentguidancesystemshallbe
locatedsuchthatahelicopter is guidedalongtheprescribed
track towards the final approach and take-off area.
5.3.3.4 Recommendation.Where an approach
lighting system is provided for a non-precision final approach
and take-off area, the system should not be less than 210 m in
length.
5.3.4.3 Recommendation.The system should be
located at the downwind edge of thefiml approach and takeoffarea and aligned along the preferred approach direction.
5.3.3.5 Thesteadylightsshallbeomnidirectionalwhite
lights.
39
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
9111/95
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Volume II
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9/1 Y95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
40
Chapter 5
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
5.3.4.4 The light units shall be frangible and mounted as
low as possible.
Signal fonnat
5.3.4.7 The signal format of the alignmentguidance
system shall includea minimumof
threediscretesignal
sectors providing “offset to the right”, “on track” and “offset
to the left” signals.
5.3.4.5 Where the lights of the system need to be seen as
discrete sources, light units shall belocated such that at the
extremes of systemcoverage the angle subtendedbetween
units as seen by the pilot shall not be less than 3 minutes of
arc.
5.3.4.8 Thedivergence of the “ontrack’’
system shall be as shown in Figure 5-1 1.
5.3.4.6Theangles
subtendedbetween light units of the
systemandother units of comparableorgreater intensities
shall also be not less than 3 minutes of arc.
sector of the
5.3.4.9 The signal format shall besuch that there is no
possibility of confusion between the system andany associated
visual approach slope indicator or other visual aids.
Note.- Requirements of 5.3.4.5 and 5.3.4.6 can be met for
lights on a line n o m l to the line of sight if the light units are
separated by I metre for every kilometre of viewing range.
5.3.4.10Thesystem
shall avoidthe useof thesame
coding as any associated visual approach slope indicator.
90 m
210 m
Figure 5-10.Approach
lighting system
FATO
1
Example A
Figure 5-1 1.
1
Divergence of the “on track” sector
41
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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Example B
9111/95
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Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Volume II
5.3.4.11 The signal format shall be such that the system
is unique and conspicuous in all operational environments.
a ) obstacle clearance, noise abatement or trafic control
5.3.4.12 The system shall not significantly increase the
pilot workload.
b) the environment of the heliport provides few visual
sugace cues; and
Light distribution
c) the characteristics of the helicopter require a stabilized
approach.
procedures require a particular slope to be flown;
5.3.4.13 The useable coverage of the visual alignment
guidance system shall be equal to or better than that of the
visual approach slope indicator system, with which it is
associated.
5.3.5.2 The standard visual approach slope indicator
systems for helicopter operations shall consist of the
following:
a) PAP1 and APAF’I systems conforming to the
specifications contained in Annex 14, Volume I, 5.3.5.23
to 5.3.5.40 inclusive except that the angular size of the
on-slope sector of the systems shall be increased to
45 minutes; or
5.3.4.14 A suitable intensity control shall be provided so
as to allow adjustment to meet the prevailing conditions and to
avoid dazzling the pilot during approach and landing.
Approach track and azimuth setting
b) helicopter approach path indicator (HAPI) system
conforming to the specifications in 5.3.5.6 to 5.3.5.21
inclusive.
5.3.4.15 A visual alignment guidance system shall be
capable of adjustment in azimuth to within f 5 minutes of arc
of the desired approach path.
Location
5.3.4.16 The angle of azimuth guidance system shall be
such that during an approach the pilot of a helicopter at the
boundary of the “on track” signal will clear all objects in the
approach area by a safe margin.
5.3.5.3 A visual approach slope indicator shal! be located
such that a helicopter is guided to the desired position within
the final approach and take-off area and so as to avoid
dazzling the pilot during final approach and landing.
5.3.4.17 The characteristics of the obstacle protection
surface specified in 5.3.5.23, Table 5-1 and Figure 5-13 shall
equally apply to the system.
5.3.5.4 Recommendation.- A visual approach slope
indicator should be located adjacent to the nominal aiming
point and aligned in azimuth with the preferred approach
direction.
Characteristics of the visual alignment
guidance system
5.3.5.5 The light unit(s) shall be frangible and mounted as
low as possible.
5.3.4.18 In the event of the failure of any component
affecting the signal format the system shall be automatically
switched off.
HAPI signalformat
5.3.4.19 The light units shall be so designed that deposits
of condensation, ice, dirt, etc. on optically transmitting or
reflecting surfaces will interfere to the least possible extent
with the light signal and will not cause spurious or false
signals to be generated.
5.3.5.6 The signal format of the HAPI shall include four
discrete signal sectors, providing an “above slope”, an“on
slope”, a “slightly below” and a “below slope” signal.
5.3.5 Visual approach slope indicator
Note.- Care is required in the design of the unit to
minimize spurious signals between the signal sectors and at
the azimuth coverage limits.
5.3.5.7 The signal format of the HAPI shall be as shown
in Figure 5-12, Illustrations A and B.
Applicalion
5.3.5.8 The signal repetition rate of the flashing sector of
the HAPI shall be at least 2 Hz.
5.3.5.1 Recommendation.- A visual approach slope
indicator should be provided to servethe approach to a
heliport, whether or not the heliport is served by other visual
approach aids or by non-visual aids, where one or more of the
following conditions exist especially at night:
9111/95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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5.3.5.9 Recommendation.The on-to-off ratio of
pulsing signals of the HAPI shouldbe
1 to 1 and the
modulation depth should be at least 80 per cent.
42
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 5
5.3.5.16 A suitable intensity control shall be provided so
as to allow adjustment to meet the prevailing conditions and to
avoid dazzling the pilot during approach and landing.
5.3.5.10 The angular size of the “on-slope” sector of the
HAPI shall be 45 minutes.
5.3.5.11 The angular size of the “slightly below” sector of
the HAPI shall be 15 minutes.
Approach slope and elevation setting
Light distribution
5.3.5.17 A HAPI system shall be capable of adjustment in
elevation at any desired angle between 1 degree and
12 degrees above the horizontal with an accuracy of
+5 minutes of arc.
5.3.5.12 Recommendation.The light
intensity
distribution of the HAPI in red and green colours should be as
shown in Figure 5-9, Illustration 4.
Note.- A larger azimuth coverage canbe
installing the HAPI system on a turntable.
5.3.5.18 The angle of elevation setting of HAPI shall be
such that during an approach, the pilot of a helicopter
observing the upper boundary of the “below slope” signal will
clear all objects in the approach area by a safe margin.
obtained by
5.3.5.13 Colour transition of the HAPI in the vertical
plane shall be such as to appear to an observer at a distance of
not less than 300 m to occur within a vertical angle of not
more than three minutes.
Characteristics of the light unit
5.3.5.19 The system shall be so designed that:
5.3.5.14 The transmission factor of a red or green filter
shall be not less than 15 per cent at the maximum intensity
setting.
a) in the event the vertical misalignment of a unit exceeds
f0.5” (+ 30 minutes), the system will switch off automatically; and
5.3.5.15 At full intensity the redlightof the HAPI shall
have a Y-coordinate not exceeding 0.320 and the green light
shall be within the boundaries specified in Annex 14,
Volume I, Appendix 1, 2.1.3.
b) if the flashing mechanism fails, no light wili be emitted
in the failed flashing sector(s).
Table 5-1. Dimensions and slopes of the obstacle protection surface
SURFACE AND
DIMENSIONS
NON-INSTRUMENT FATO
Length of inner edge Width Width of safety area
NON-PRECISION FATO
of safety area
Distance from end of FATO
3 m minimum
60 m
Divergence
10%
15%
Slope
2 500 m Total length
2 500 m
PAPI
Aa - 0.57’
Aa - 0.57’
HAPI
Ab - 0.65’
Ab - 0.65”
APAPI
A‘ - 0.9”
A’ -0.
go
a. As indicated in Annex 14, Volume I, Figure 5-13.
b. The angle of the upper boundary of the “below slope” signal.
43
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
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9111/95
Annex 14
Format
-Aerodromes
Volume II
Sector
Above
slope On
Flashing
green
Green
Slightly
below
Red
Below
Flashing
red
Illustration
Illustration A
Figure 5- 12. HAP1 signal format
Figure 5-13. Obstacle protection surface
for visual approach slope indicator systems
911 1/95
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44
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Annex 14
5.3.5.20 The light unit of the HAPI shall be so designed
that deposits of condensation, ice, dirt, etc. on optically
transmitting or reflecting surfaces will interfere to the least
possible extent with the light signal and willnot
cause
spurious or false signals to be generated.
d) suitably displace the final approach and take-off area; and
e) install a visual alignment guidance system specified in
5.3.4.
Note.Manual.
5.3.5.21 Recommendation.- A HAPI system intended
for installation on afloating
helideck should afford a
stabilization of the beam to an accuracy of k 1/4" within
f 3" pitch and roll movement of the heliport.
Guidance on this issue is contained in the Heliport
5.3.6 Final approach and take-off area lights
Obshcle protection surface
Application
Note.- The following specifications apply to PAPI, APAPI
and HAPI.
5.3.6.1 Where a final approach and take-off area is
established at a surface level heliport on ground intended for
use at night, final approach and take-off area lights shall be
provided except that they may be omitted where the final
approach and take-off area and the touchdown and lift-off area
are nearly coincidental or the extent of the final approach and
take-off area is self-evident.
5.3.5.22
An
obstacle protection surface shall be
established when it is intended to provide a visual approach
slope indicator system.
5.3.5.23 The characteristics of the obstacle protection
surface, i.e. origin, divergence, length and slope shall
correspond to those specified in the relevant column of
Table 5-1 and in Figure 5-13.
Location
5.3.6.2 Final approach and take-off area lights shall be
placed along the edges of the final approach and take-off area.
The lights shall be uniformly spaced as follows:
5.3.5.24New
objects or extensions of existing objects
shall notbe permitted above an obstacle protection surface
except when, in the opinion of the appropriate authority, the
new object or extension would be shielded by an existing
immovable object.
a) for an area in the form of a square or rectangle, at
intervals of not more than 50 m with a minimum of four
lights on each side including a light at each comer; and
Note.- Circumstances in which the shielding principle
may reasonablybe applied are described in the Airport
Services Manual, Part 6.
b) for any other shaped area, including a circular area, at
intervals of not more than 5 m with a minimum of ten
lights.
5.3.5.25 Existing objects above an obstacle protection
surface shall be removed except when, in the opinion of the
appropriate authority, the object is shielded by an existing
immovable object, or after aeronautical study it is determined
that the object wouldnot
adversely affect the safety of
operations of helicopters.
Characteristics
5.3.6.3 Final approach and take-off area lights shall be
fixed omnidirectional lights showing white. Where the
intensity of the lights is to be varied the lights shall show
variable white.
5.3.5.26 Where an aeronautical study indicates that an
existing object extending above an obstacle protection surface
could adversely affect the safety of operations of helicopters
one or more of the following measures shall be taken:
5.3.6.4 Recommendation.- The light distribution of
final approach and rake-off area lights should be as shown in
Figure 5-9, Illustration 5.
suitably raise the approach slope of the system;
reduce the azimuth spread of the system so that the object
is outside the confines of the beam;
5.3.6.5 Recommendation.The lights shouldnot
exceed a height of 25 cm
and
should
be
inset when a light
extending above the surface
would
endanger helicopter
operations. Where a final approach and take-off area is not
meant for lift-off or touchdown, the lights should
not exceed a
height of 25 cm above ground or snow level.
displace the axis of the system and its associated obstacle
protection surface by no more than 5';
45
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
-Aerodromes
9/11/95
Volume II
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Such cues are provided by using floodlighting or luminescent
panel lighting or a combination of these two forms of lighting,
in addition to perimeter lights.
5.3.7 Aiming point lights
Application
5.3.7.1 Recommendation.- Where an aiming point
marking is provided at a heliport intended for use at night,
aiming point lights should be provided.
5.3.8.4 Recommendation.- Touchdown and 113-off area
floodlighting or luminescent panel lighting should be provided
at a surface-level heliport intended for use at night when
enhanced sulface texture cues are required.
Location
Location
5.3.7.2 Aiming point lights shall be collocated with the
aiming point marking.
5.3.8.5 Touchdown and lift-off area perimeter lights shall
be placed along the edge of the area designated for use as the
touchdown and lift-off area or within a distance of 1.5 m from
the edge. Where the touchdown and lift-off area is a circle the
lights shall be:
Characteristics
a) located on straight lines in a pattern which will provide
information to pilots on drift displacement; and
5.3.7.3 Aiming point lights shall form a pattern of at least
six omnidirectional white lights as shown in Figure 5-4. The
lights shall be inset when a light extending above the surface
could endanger helicopter operations.
b) where a) is not practicable, evenly spaced around the
perimeter of the touchdown and lift-off areaat the
appropriate interval except that over a sector of 45" the
lights shall be spaced at half spacing.
5.3.7.4 Recommendation.- The light distribution of
aiming point lights should be as shown in Figure 5-9,
Illustration 5.
5.3.8.6 Touchdown and lift-off area perimeter lights shall
be unifcrmly spaced at intervals of not more than 3 m for
elevated heliports and helidecks and not more than 5 m for
surface level heliports. There shall be a minimum number of
four lights on each side including a light at each comer. For a
circular touchdown and lift-off area, where lights are installed
in accordance with 5.3.8.5b) there shall be a minimum of
fourteen lights.
5.3.8 Touchdown and lift-off area lighting system
Applicalion
5.3.8.1 A touchdown and lift-off area lighting system
shall be provided at a heliport intended for use at night.
Note.- Guidance on this issue is contained in the Heliport
Manual.
5.3.8.2 The touchdown and lift-off area lighting system
for a surface level heliport shall consist of one or more of the
following:
5.3.8.7 The touchdown and lift-off area perimeter lights
shall be installed at an elevated heliport or fixed helideck such
that the pattern cannot be seen by the pilot from below the
elevation of the touchdown and lift-off area.
a) perimeter lights; or
5.3.8.8 The touchdown and lift-off area perimeter lights
shall be installed at a floating helideck, such that the pattern
cannot be seen by the pilot from below the elevation of the
touchdown and lift-off area when the helideck is level.
b) floodlighting; or
c) luminescent panel lighting when a) and b) are not
practicable and final approach and take-off area lights are
available.
5.3.8.9 On surface level heliports, luminescent panel
lights shall be placed along the marking designating the edge
of the touchdown and lift-off area. Where the touchdown and
lift-off area is a circle the luminescent panels shall be located
on straight lines circumscribing the area.
5.3.8.3 The touchdown and lift-off area lighting system
for an elevated heliport or helideck shall consist of:
a) perimeter lights; and
5.3.8.10On surface level heliports the minimum number
of panels on a touchdown and lift-off area shall be nine. The
total length of luminescent panels in a pattern shall not be less
than 50 per cent of the length of the pattern. There shall be an
odd number with a minimum number of three panels on each
b) floodlighting and/or luminescent panel lighting.
Note.- At elevated heliports and helidecks, surface texture
cues within the touchdown and lift-off area are essential for
helicopter positioning during the final approach and landing.
9111/95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
46
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Chapter 5
side of the touchdownandlift-off
areaincludingapanel
at
each corner. Luminescentpanels shall be uniformlyspaced
with adistance between adjacentpanelends ofnotmore than
5 m on each side of the touchdown and lift-off area.
5.3.8.22The spectral distribution of touchdownand liftoff areafloodlights shall besuch that thesurfaceandobstacle
marking can be correctly identified.
5.3.8.23 Recommendation.- The average horizontal
illuminance of thefloodlighting should be at least 10 lux, with
a uniformity ratio (average to minimum) of not more than 8:1
measured on the surface of the touchdown and lifr-off area.
5.3.8.1 1 Recommendation.- When luminescent panels
are used on an elevated heliport or helideck to enhance
surface texture cues the panels should not be placed adjacent
to the perimeter lights. They should be placed around a
touchdown marking where it is provided or coincident with
heliport identification marking.
5.3.9
Application
5.3.8.12 Touchdown and lift-off area floodlights shall be
located so as to avoid glare to pilots in flight or to personnel
working
on
the area. The
arrangement
and aiming of
floodlights shall be such that shadows are kept to a minimum.
5.3.9.1 Winching area floodlighting shall be provided at a
winching area intended for use at night.
Location
Characteristics
5.3.9.2 Winching area floodlights shall be located so as to
avoid glare topilots in flight or topersonnel workingonthe
area. The arrangement and aiming of floodlights shall be such
that shadows &e kept to a minimum.
5'3'8'13 The touchdown and
area primeter
lights
shall be fixed omnidirectional lights showing yellow.
lift-off
Winchingareafloodlighting
5.3.8.14 At a surface level heliport the luminescent panels
shall emit yellow light when used to define the boundary of
the
andtouchdown
area.
Characteristics
5.3.9.3 The spectral distribution of winching
area
floodlights shall be
such
that the
surface
and
obstacle
markings can be correctly identified.
Note.- In other circumstances, luminescent panels may
emit light of other colours.
5.3.8.15 Recommendation.The chromaticity and
luminance of colours of luminescent panels should conform to
Annex 14, Volume I, Appendix I, 3.4.
5.3.9.4 Recommendation.The average horizontal
illuminance should be at least I O lux, measured on the surface
of the winching area.
5.3.8.16 Aluminescent
panel shall haveminimum
a
width of 6 cm. The panel
housing
shall be the
same
colour
5.3.10
as Taxiway
the marking it defines.
lights
Note.-The
specifications for taxiway centre line lights
and taxiway edge lights in Annex 14, Volume I, 5.3.15 and
5.3.16 are equally applicable to taxiways intended for ground
taxiing of helicopters.
5.3.8.17 Recommendation.The perimeter lights
should not exceed a height of 25 cm and should be inset when
a light extending above the surface could endanger helicopter
operations.
5.3.8.18 Recommendation.- The touchdown and liftoff area floodlights should not exceed a height of 25 cm.
5.3.11 Visual
aids
denoting
for obstacles
Note.- The specifcations for markingand lighting of
obstacles included in Annex 14, Volume I, Chapter 6, are
equally applicable to heliports and winching
5.3.8.19 The luminescent panels shall not extendabove
the surface by more than 2.5 cm.
Floodlighting of obstacles
5.3.8.20 Recommendation.- The light distribution of
the perimeter lights should be as shown in Figure 5-9,
Illustration 6.
Application
5.3.8.21 Recommendation.the luminescent panels shouldbe
Illustration 7.
5.3.12.1 At a heliport intended for use at night, obstacles
shall be floodlighted if it is not possible to display obstacle
lights on them.
5.3.12
The light distribution of
as shown inFigure 5-9,
47
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
9111/95
Volume II
Annex 14 -Aerodromes
Location
Characteristics
5.3.12.2 Obstaclefloodlights shall be arranged so as to
illuminatethe entire obstacle and as far as practicable ina
manner so as not to dazzle the helicopter pilots.
5.3.12.3 Recommendation.Obstacle
floodlighting
shouldbesuch
as to produce a luminance of at least
10 caYm2.
9111/95
COPYRIGHT International Civil Aviation Organization
Licensed by Information Handling Services
48
CHAPTER 6.
6.1
HELIPORT SERVICES
Rescue and fire fighting
Extinguishing agents
6.1.3 Recommendation.— The principal extinguishing
agent should be a foam meeting the minimum performance
level B.
General
Introductory Note.— These specifications apply to surface
level heliports and elevated heliports only. The specifications
complement those in Annex 14, Volume I, 9.2 concerning
rescue and fire fighting requirements at aerodromes.
Note.— Information on the required physical properties
and fire extinguishing performance criteria needed for a foam
to achieve an acceptable performance level B rating is given
in the Airport Services Manual, Part 1.
The principal objective of a rescue and fire fighting service
is to save lives. For this reason, the provision of means of
dealing with a helicopter accident or incident occurring at or
in the immediate vicinity of a heliport assumes primary
importance because it is within this area that there are the
greatest opportunities of saving lives. This must assume at all
times the possibility of, and need for, extinguishing a fire
which may occur either immediately following a helicopter
accident or incident or at any time during rescue operations.
6.1.4 Recommendation.— The amounts of water for
foam production and the complementary agents to be provided
should be in accordance with the heliport fire fighting
category determined under 6.1.1 and Table 6-2 or Table 6-3
as appropriate.
Note.— The amounts of water specified for elevated
heliports do not have to be stored on or adjacent to the
heliport if there is a suitable adjacent pressurized water main
system capable of sustaining the required discharge rate.
The most important factors bearing on effective rescue in a
survivable helicopter accident are the training received, the
effectiveness of the equipment and the speed with which
personnel and equipment designated for rescue and fire
fighting purposes can be put into use.
6.1.5 Recommendation.— At a surface-level heliport it
is permissible to replace all or part of the amount of water for
foam production by complementary agents.
For an elevated heliport, requirements to protect any
building or structure on which the heliport is located are not
taken into account.
6.1.6 Recommendation.— The discharge rate of the
foam solution should not be less than the rates shown in
Table 6-2 or Table 6-3 as appropriate. The discharge rate of
complementary agents should be selected for optimum
effectiveness of the agent used.
Rescue and fire fighting requirements for helidecks may be
found in the Heliport Manual.
6.1.7 Recommendation.— At an elevated heliport, at
least one hose spray line capable of delivering foam in a jet
Level of protection to be provided
6.1.1 Recommendation.— The level of protection to be
provided for rescue and fire fighting should be based on the
over-all length of the longest helicopter normally using the
heliport and in accordance with the heliport fire fighting
category determined from Table 6-1, except at an unattended
heliport with a low movement rate.
Table 6-1.
Note.— Guidance to assist the appropriate authority in
providing rescue and fire fighting equipment and services at
surface-level and elevated heliports is given in the Heliport
Manual.
Category
6.1.2 Recommendation.— During anticipated periods of
operations by smaller helicopters, the heliport fire fighting
category may be reduced to that of the highest category of
helicopter planned to use the heliport during that time.
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME II
Heliport fire fighting category
Helicopter over-all lengtha
H1
up to but not including 15 m
H2
from 15 m up to but not including 24 m
H3
from 24 m up to but not including 35 m
a. Helicopter length, including the tail boom and the rotors.
49
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume II
Table 6-2.
Minimum usable amounts of extinguishing agents
for surface level heliports
Foam meeting performance
level B
Complementary agents
Category
Water
(L)
Discharge rate
foam solution (L/min)
Dry chemical
powders (kg)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
or
Halons
(kg)
or
CO2
(kg)
(6)
H1
500
250
23
23
45
H2
1 000
500
45
45
90
H3
1 600
800
90
90
180
Table 6-3.
Minimum usable amounts of extinguishing agents for
elevated heliports
Foam meeting performance
level B
Complementary agents
Water
(L)
Discharge rate
foam solution (L/min)
Dry chemical
powders (kg)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
H1
2 500
250
45
45
90
H2
5 000
500
45
45
90
H3
8 000
800
45
45
90
spray pattern at 250 L/min should be provided. Additionally at
elevated heliports in categories 2 and 3, at least two monitors
should be provided each having a capability of achieving the
required discharge rate and positioned at different locations
around the heliports so as to ensure the application of foam to
any part of the heliport under any weather condition and to
minimize the possibility of both monitors being impaired by a
helicopter accident.
6.1.9 Recommendation.— At a surface-level heliport,
the operational objective of the rescue and fire fighting service
should be to achieve response times not exceeding two minutes
in optimum conditions of visibility and surface conditions.
Note.— Response time is considered to be the time between
the initial call to the rescue and fire fighting service and the
time when the first responding vehicle(s) (the service) is (are)
in position to apply foam at a rate of at least 50 per cent of
the discharge rate specified in Table 6-2.
6.1.8 Recommendation.— At an elevated heliport rescue
equipment should be stored adjacent to the heliport.
6.1.10 Recommendation.— At an elevated heliport, the
rescue and fire fighting service should be immediately
available on or in the vicinity of the heliport while helicopter
movements are taking place.
Note.— Guidance on the rescue equipment to be provided
at a heliport is given in the Heliport Manual.
No. 2
or
Response time
Rescue equipment
6/11/97
9/11/95
or
Halons
(kg)
CO2
(kg)
Category
50
APPENDIX 1.
AERONAUTICAL DATA QUALITY REQUIREMENTS
Table 1.
Latitude and longitude
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
Heliport reference point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 m
surveyed/calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
NAVAIDS located at the heliport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3m
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Obstacles in the circling area and at the heliport. . . . .
3m
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Significant obstacles in the approach
and take-off area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3m
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Geometric centre of TLOF or FATO thresholds . . . . .
1m
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Ground taxiway centre line points, air taxiways
and transit routes points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m
surveyed/calculated
essential
1 × 10-5
Helicopter stand-points/INS check-points. . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m
surveyed
routine
1 × 10-3
Latitude and longitude
ANNEX 14 — VOLUME II
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Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume II
Table 2.
Elevation/Altitude/Height
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
Heliport elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
WGS-84 geoid undulation at heliport
elevation position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
FATO threshold, non-precision approaches . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
WGS-84 geoid undulation at FATO threshold, TLOF
geometric centre, non-precision approaches . . . . . . . . .
0.5 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
FATO threshold, precision approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.25 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
WGS-84 geoid undulation at FATO threshold,
TLOF geometric centre, precision approaches . . . . . . .
0.25 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Obstacles in the approach and take-off areas . . . . . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Obstacles in the circling areas and at the heliport . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Distance measuring equipment/precision (DME/P) . . .
3 m (10 ft)
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Elevation/altitude/height
Table 3.
Declination and magnetic variation
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
Heliport magnetic variation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
ILS localizer antenna magnetic variation . . . . . . . . . . .
1 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
MLS azimuth antenna magnetic variation . . . . . . . . . .
1 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
Declination/variation
6/11/97
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52
Appendix
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Table 4.
Bearing
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
ILS localizer alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1/100 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
MLS zero azimuth alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1/100 degree
surveyed
essential
1 × 10-5
FATO bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1/100 degree
surveyed
routine
1 × 10-3
Bearing
Table 5.
Length/distance/dimension
Accuracy
Data type
Classification
Integrity
FATO length, TLOF dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
Landing distance available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 m or 1 ft
surveyed
critical
1 × 10-8
ILS localizer antenna-FATO end, distance. . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
ILS glide slope antenna-threshold,
distance along centre line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
ILS markers-threshold distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
essential
1 × 10-5
ILS DME antenna-threshold,
distance along centre line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
essential
1 × 10-5
MLS azimuth antenna-FATO end, distance . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
MLS elevation antenna-threshold,
distance along centre line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
routine
1 × 10-3
MLS DME/P antenna-threshold,
distance along centre line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 m (10 ft)
calculated
essential
1 × 10-5
Length/distance/dimension
— END —
53
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No. 2
21/1/97
Transmittal Note
SUPPLEMENT TO
ANNEX 14 C AERODROMES
VOLUME II C HELIPORTS
(Second Edition)
1.
The attached Supplement supersedes all previous Supplements to Annex 14, Volume II, and includes
differences notified by Contracting States up to 21 January 1997.
2.
This Supplement should be inserted at the end of Annex 14, Volume II, Second Edition. Additional
differences and revised comments received from Contracting States will be issued at intervals as
amendments to this Supplement.
SUPPLEMENT TO
ANNEX 14 — AERODROMES
VOLUME II — HELIPORTS
(Second Edition)
Differences between the national regulations and practices of States and the
corresponding International Standards contained in Annex 14, Volume II, as notified
to ICAO in accordance with Article 38 of the Convention on International Civil
Aviation and the Council’s resolution of 21 November 1950.
JANUARY 1997
INTERNATIONAL
CIVIL
AVIATION
ORGANIZATION
(ii)
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
No.
Date
1
18/2/99
Entered by
No.
Date
Entered by
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II SUBSEQUENT TO
SECOND EDITION ISSUED JULY 1995
No.
21/1/97
Date of
adoption or
approval
Date
applicable
No.
Date of
adoption or
approval
Date applicable
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
(iii)
1. Contracting States which have notified ICAO of differences
The Contracting States listed below have notified ICAO of differences which exist between their national regulations and
practices and the International Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 14, Volume II, Second Edition, or have
commented on implementation.
The page numbers shown for each State and the dates of publication of those pages correspond to the actual pages in this
Supplement.
State
Pages in
Supplement
Date of
publication
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
18/2/99
18/2/99
21/1/97
21/1/97
18/2/99
18/2/99
18/2/99
21/1/97
18/2/99
18/2/99
18/2/99
21/1/97
18/2/99
18/2/99
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Canada
Chile
France
Germany
Greece
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Spain
Sweden
United Arab Emirates
2. Contracting States which have notified ICAO that no differences exist
Bahrain
Barbados
China (Hong Kong SAR)
Finland
Ireland
Jordan
Kyrgyzstan
Namibia
Niger
Oman
Pakistan
Peru
Portugal
Switzerland
Tunisia
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
Uruguay
3. Contracting States from which no information has been received
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d’Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People’s Republic
of Korea
18/2/99
(iv)
Democratic Republic of
the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Ghana
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Nauru
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Philippines
Poland
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United States
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
(v)
4. Paragraphs with respect to which differences have been notified
Paragraph
Differences
notified by
Paragraph
1.2
New Zealand
3.2.2
2.1
Spain
United Arab Emirates
Austria
Germany
Netherlands
Germany
Germany
Germany
Germany
Argentina
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
Argentina
Chile
Argentina
Argentina
Netherlands
Netherlands
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
2.1.7
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.11
3.1.12
3.1.14
3.1.18
3.1.23
3.1.33
3.1.34
3.1.37
3.1.39
3.2.1
Austria
Australia
Austria
Australia
Australia
Australia
Netherlands
Netherlands
Netherlands
Australia
Canada
Netherlands
Canada
Differences
notified by
3.4.1
Austria
Canada
Canada
United Arab Emirates
Canada
United Arab Emirates
Canada
4.2.5
4.2.8
4.2.15
Netherlands
Sweden
United Arab Emirates
5.1.1.2
5.2.2.3
5.2.2.4
5.2.3.3
5.2.4.4
5.3.8.13
United Arab Emirates
Norway
Norway
Canada
Netherlands
Norway
Norway
Norway
Norway
United Arab Emirates
Australia
Australia
Greece
Greece
Australia
Canada
Canada
6.1
France
Appendix 1
Argentina
Germany
Sweden
3.2.5
3.2.7
3.3.2
5.2.7.4
5.2.12.2
5.2.13.2
5.3
5.3.3.2
5.3.3.3
5.3.3.4
5.3.3.6
5.3.6.2
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
ARGENTINA 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1.7
2.3.1
2.3.2
The geoid undulation is not provided.
2.4.1 g)
The ground profile in clearways is not always provided.
Remark: It is not possible to provide it with the required precision.
Remark: It is not possible to provide such information until topographic measurements are made.
APPENDIX 1
Table 1
The geographical coordinates of the obstacles in the circling area and at the heliport are not provided, nor
are those of the significant obstacles in the approach and take-off area.
Remark: It is not possible at present to provide such information.
Table 2
The geoid undulation is not provided at the heliport elevation position, at the FATO threshold and at the
geometric centre of the TLOF for non-precision approaches; at the FATO threshold and at the geometric
centre of the TLOF for precision approaches.
Remark: It is not possible to provide it with the required precision.
The elevation/altitude/height of the distance measuring equipment/precision (DME/P) is not provided.
Remark: It is not possible to provide such information until topographic measurements are made.
The integrity and classification of the aeronautical data are not provided.
Remark: There is no electronic database available.
Comment on implementation:
Annex provision
Proposed date of implementation
Chapter 2
2.1.7
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.4.1 g)
To be confirmed in the second half of 1998.
Appendix 1
Table 1
Table 2
To be confirmed in the second half of 1998.
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
AUSTRALIA 1
CHAPTER 3
3.1.3
The overall slope is not to exceed 7.5 degrees.
3.1.11
The landing and lift-off area (LLA equivalent to TLOF) should have an area equal in size to the
undercarriage contact points plus one metre on all sides.
3.1.12
The overall slope of the LLA, in any direction, should not exceed the slope landing capability of the
helicopter.
3.1.14
Australian guidelines do not require a safety area.
Remark: Australian FATO is 2 times the overall length/width in lieu of 1.5 times the overall length/width
as required by Annex 14, Volume II.
3.1.34
Australian guidelines do not specify the dimensions of an air transit route.
CHAPTER 5
5.3.3.2
5.3.3.3*
The direction of approach should be indicated by at least two omnidirectional green lights or by one white
lead-in light.
5.3.6.2
The edge of the FATO should be defined by omnidirectional white lights spaced not more than eight metres
apart or by a combination of markings and floodlighting. Where this is not practicable, the GEA should be
so defined.
*Recommended Practice
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
AUSTRIA 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1.1
The geographical coordinates are reported in Austria in degrees, minutes, seconds. Geographical
coordinates with accuracy as defined in Annex 14 will be reported with application of the WGS-84 latest
at 1 January 1998.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.2
For designing and classifying heliports no distrinction is made between performance classes of helicopters.
FATOs are divided into three classes by minimum length (diameter) requirement.
3.1.3
For designing and classifying heliports no distrinction is made between performance classes of helicopters.
FATOs are divided into three classes by minimum length (diameter) requirement.
3.2.2
For designing and classifying heliports no distrinction is made between performance classes of helicopters.
FATOs are divided into three classes by minimum length (diameter) requirement.
21/1/97
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
CANADA 1
CHAPTER 3
3.1.37
The minimum clearance between a helicopter stand and an object or other aircraft stand may be reduced
to 3 metres in Canada.
3.2.1
Canada makes provision for performance class 3 helicopter operations at elevated heliports. The
dimensions of the FATO at elevated heliports for performance class 3 helicopters is the same as that used
for performance class 2 helicopters.
3.2.2 b)
Canada makes provision for performance class 3 helicopter operations at elevated heliports. The
dimensions of the FATO at elevated heliports for performance class 3 helicopters is the same as that used
for performance class 2 helicopters.
3.2.5
Canada does not require a safety area around the FATO of elevated heliports.
3.3.2
The FATO for single main rotor helicopters operating on helidecks within the inland waters of Canada shall
be of sufficient size to contain a circle of a diameter not less than the main rotor diameter of the design
helicopter.
3.4.1
The Canadian standards for the size of a FATO located at the bow or stern of a vessel for a single main
rotor helicopter requires the FATO to be of sufficient size to contain a circle with a diameter not less than
the main rotor diameter of the design helicopter.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.3.3
Canada indicates the maximum allowable mass markings in thousands of pounds on the touchdown and
lift-off area of elevated heliports and helidecks.
5.3.6.2 b)
Canada requires a minimum of five lights to mark a circular FATO.
5.3.8.13
Canada permits the use of retro-reflective markers as the minimum lighting requirements at remote
heliports where it is impractical to provide lighting.
21/1/97
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
CHILE 1
CHAPTER 2
2.3.1
The heliport elevation shall be measured and reported to the aeronautical information services authority
to the accuracy of one-half metre or foot.
Remark: Chilean authorities responsible for providing geodetic data have not yet determined WGS-84
vertical reference data sufficient to obtain the geoid undulation. Therefore, once these authorities have
provided that information, we shall be in a position to make the corresponding publications.
Note.C In view of the above, we are still waiting to adopt the Standards in which subjects are
mentioned relating to geoid elevation data, for example, paragraphs 2.1.7, 2.3.2, etc.
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
FRANCE 1
CHAPTER 6
6.1
In France the minimum level of protection is assured at surface level heliports by a quantity of 50 kg of
powder or equivalent and at elevated heliports by a quantity of 250 kg of powder or equivalent.
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
GERMANY 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4*
Full implementation of the quality system can only be achieved by the date indicated.
2.1.5
2.1.6
Publishing of the heliport reference points in WGS-84 will be an ongoing task for some time after the date
of applicability of Amendment 2.
APPENDIX 1
Table 1
Table 2
Table 2
In Germany the description of obstacles differs as follows from what is given in these tables.
a)
Obstacles in the circling area for non-precision and turning departures and at the heliport.
b)
Significant obstacles in the precision approach and straight departure area.
The WGS-84 geoid undulation at heliport elevation position will not be published in Germany.
Remark: This item is not considered to be required for VFR heliports. As concerns potential German IFR
heliports, the WGS-84 geoid undulation would always be published for the FATO threshold, TLOF
geometric centre. This would even apply for non-precision approaches because the MDH is also referred
to this position.
Comment on implementation:
Annex provision
Proposed date of implementation
Chapter 2
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4*
31 December 1998
Appendix 5
Table 1 and
Table 2
It is not intended to comply with this provision.
*Recommended Practice
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
GREECE 1
CHAPTER 5
5.3.3.4*
The approach lighting system provided for a non-precision final approach and take-off area is 90 metres
in length.
5.3.3.6*
The installation of steady lights of the heliports regarding their light distribution and intensity has been
realized in compliance with the previous editions of Annex 14, Volume II.
* Recommended Practice
21/1/97
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
NETHERLANDS 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1.2 b) and c)
2.4.2
2.4.3
In the Netherlands it is not yet considered necessary to determine the geographical coordinates of the
geometric centre of the touchdown and lift-off area, thresholds of the final approach and take-off area,
centre line points of the helicopter ground taxiways, air taxiways and air transit routes and helicopter stands
in terms of the World Geodetic System C 1984 (WGS-84) geodetic reference datum.
CHAPTER 3
3.1.18
The height limitation of 25 cm applies for helidecks and elevated heliports only. For ground level heliports
the maximum height of objects permitted in the safety area shall not exceed 35 cm.
3.1.23
The separation distances between:
C a helicopter-ground-taxiway and object shall not be less than 1x the greatest overall width of a
helicopter with rotor turning (centre line to object);
C a helicopter-ground-taxiway and a helicopter stand shall not be less than 1x the greatest overall width
of a helicopter with rotor turning (centre line to edge).
3.1.33
The separation distance between:
C an air-taxiway and another air-taxiway shall not be less than 3x the greatest width of a helicopter with
rotor turning (between centre lines);
C an air-taxiway and a helicopter-ground-taxiway shall not be less than 3x the greatest width of a
helicopter with rotor turning (between centre lines);
C an air-taxiway and a helicopter stand shall not be less than 1.5x the greatest width of a helicopter with
rotor turning (centre line to edge).
3.1.39
The separation distance between the edge of a runway strip and the edge of a FATO shall not be less than
2x the overall length of the largest helicopter the FATO is intended to serve.
CHAPTER 4
4.2.5
The slopes for visual approach and visual take-off for Class 2 and Class 3 helicopters for the first section
shall be 12.5 per cent.
CHAPTER 5
5.2.4.4
The height of the marker shall not exceed 35 cm above ground or snow level.
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
NEW ZEALAND 1
CHAPTER 1
1.2
New Zealand has no heliports intended to be used by helicopters in international civil aviation.
New Zealand Civil Aviation Rules Part 139 prescribe rules governing the certification and operation of
aerodromes and rules for operators of aircraft using aerodromes.
No person shall operate an aerodrome serving any aeroplane having a certified seating capacity of more
than 30 passengers that is engaged in regular air transport operations except under the authority of, and in
accordance with the provisions of, an aerodrome operating certificate issued for that aerodrome under New
Zealand Civil Aviation Rules Part 139.
Remark: An aerodrome operator who is not required to hold an aerodrome operating certificate may apply
for an aerodrome operating certificate.
New Zealand heliports are not required to be certificated.
Except for a person operating a helicopter on an external load operation, no person operating a helicopter
shall use any place within a populous area as a heliport unless the heliport has physical characteristics,
obstacle limitation surfaces and visual aids commensurate with the characteristics of the helicopter being
operated and the ambient light conditions during operations, and the heliport is clear of all persons, animals,
vehicles or other obstructions during the hover, touchdown or lift-off other than persons and vehicles
essential to the operation, and the selected approach and take-off paths are such that, if the helicopter is not
a performance Class 1 helicopter, an autorotative landing can be conducted without any undue risk to any
person on the ground, and the helicopter can be manoeuvred in the aerodrome traffic circuit clear of any
obstructions, and not in conflict with the aerodrome traffic circuit or instrument approach of any other
aerodrome.
Remark: New Zealand CAA Advisory Circular AC139-08 contains heliport design standards for heliports
in populous areas that are acceptable to the Director.
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
NORWAY 1
CHAPTER 5
5.2.2.3
5.2.2.4
5.2.4.4
5.2.7.4
Markings shall be yellow in colour instead of white in colour.
Remark: Yellow markings are used due to the need for improved visual references during the winter season
when the heliport identifications are covered with ice and snow.
5.2.12.2
5.2.13.2
Air transit route markings are located along the edge of the air transit route only.
Remark: The reason for this is due to the possible damage which markers along the centre line may cause
if the helicopter is forced to a sudden touchdown.
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
SPAIN 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1
At the present time, geographical coordinates indicating latitude and longitude are not expressed in terms
of the WGS-84 system.
21/1/97
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
SWEDEN 1
CHAPTER 4
4.2.8
The separation between the take-off climb surface and the approach surface is required to be 90 degrees
or more, instead of 150 degrees.
APPENDIX 1
Table 1 to
Table 5
Comment on implementation:
For heliports with instrument approach procedures, Appendix 1, Tables 1-5 will be implemented on 23
April 1997, except that obstacles in the circling area and in the outer parts (>3 km) of the approach and
take-off areas will have an accuracy of 30 m in latitude/longitude (Table 1) and 5 m in elevation (Table 2).
Obstacle data not meeting the requirements of Appendix 1 will be identified with effect from 23 April 1998.
For other heliports, the implementation of Appendix 1 is yet to be determined.
18/2/99
SUPPLEMENT TO ANNEX 14, VOLUME II (SECOND EDITION)
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 1
CHAPTER 2
2.1
CRC not yet implemented.
2.1.7
2.3
Geoid undulation information not available.
Comment on implementation:
2.1
2.1.7
2.3
November 2000.
CHAPTER 3
3.2.7
Frangible objects on some older structures do not meet new standards.
3.3.2
Some helidecks on older structures are of non-standard size.
CHAPTER 4
4.2.15
Some helidecks on older structures do not meet requirements for mobile obstacles.
CHAPTER 5
5.1.1.2
Some helidecks are not equipped with standard wind direction indicators.
5.3
Non-standard lighting systems are installed on some older helidecks.
18/2/99
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