MAG PRO II Magnetic Gradiometer Instruction Manual

MAG PRO II Magnetic Gradiometer Instruction Manual
MAG PRO II
Magnetic Gradiometer
Instruction Manual
DUNHAM & MORROW, INC.
43676 Trade Center Place, Suite 145
Dulles, VA 20166
Tel: 703-661-2144 / Fax: 703-661-2375
Email: [email protected]
www.magneticlocator.com
i
QUICK START INSTRUCTIONS
1.
Make yourself magnetically clean
2.
HOLD the instrument by the comfortable pistol grip
positioned just below the Electronics Box, on the top of the
instrument Sensor Tube.
3.
Turn the Volume Switch clockwise to activate the
instrument and set the volume to a comfortable level.
4.
Set the Range Switch to 200 milligauss.
5.
Sweep the unit back and forth in front of you as you walk
along and search the area. With no magnetic (ferrous) targets
present, the unit will idle at approximately 20 hertz. As you
approach a ferrous target, the frequency will increase and peak
directly over the target.
6.
For strong or shallow targets, raise the unit about a foot
above the ground or select the 2000 milligauss range. Conversely,
for weak or deep targets you may wish to increase the instrument
sensitivity by selecting either the 20 milligauss or the 2.0
milligauss full-scale range.
7.
If you intend to make a magnetic anomalies survey map of a
target area, we suggest you procure a GPS unit and record both
the magnitude and location of your magnetic peaks.
Always remember that the MAG PRO II is a precision instrument
and should be treated accordingly.
ii
Table of Contents
QUICK START INSTRUCTIONS............................................................................................................ II
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...........................................................................................................................III
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 4
FIELD OPERATION................................................................................................................................... 4
ARCHEOLOGICAL USES FOR THE MAG PRO II:............................................................................. 5
METEORITE DETECTOR:....................................................................................................................... 6
HYDROLOGIST AND OIL COMPANIES: ............................................................................................. 6
CSI & EPA:................................................................................................................................................... 6
THEORY OF OPERATION ....................................................................................................................... 7
MAGNETIC CLEANLINESS............................................................................................................................. 7
RANGE SETTINGS ......................................................................................................................................... 8
AUDIO OUTPUT ............................................................................................................................................ 8
PINPOINTING YOUR TARGET ........................................................................................................................ 8
PANEL METER .............................................................................................................................................. 8
MAG PRO II - TARGET DEPTH INFORMATION ............................................................................... 8
MAGNETIC FIELD CONVERSION FACTORS: ................................................................................. 11
MAGNETIC SIGNATURES OF COMMON BURIED OBJECTS ...................................................... 15
HISTORICAL NOTES:............................................................................................................................. 18
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................................... 19
WARRANTY .............................................................................................................................................. 19
CALIBRATION ......................................................................................................................................... 20
SERVICE .................................................................................................................................................... 20
Table of Figures
Figure 1, Sensor Location..................................................................................................7
Figure 2, Instrument Controls ..........................................................................................8
Figure 3, Panel Meter ........................................................................................................8
Figure 4, Sensor Location................................................................................................12
Figure 5, Survey Marker or Well Casing ......................................................................15
Figure 6, Chain-Link or “Cyclone” Fences ...................................................................15
Figure 7, Horizontal Pipe ................................................................................................16
Figure 8, Service Connections and Valve boxes............................................................16
Figure 9, Septic Tank.......................................................................................................17
Figure 10, Manhole Cover...............................................................................................17
iii
Introduction
Not only is the Mag Pro II a laboratory quality instrument designed for field use, but it is
unequaled as a magnetic locator where it can be used to pinpoint buried iron or steel pipe, survey
markers, water valves, water meters, unexploded ordinance, and any other ferrous object covered
by dirt, asphalt, water, snow or ice.
The Mag Pro II has four full-scale operating ranges and they are: 2000 milligauss, 200 milligauss,
20 milligauss and 2 milligauss. Normal surveys are conducted using the 200 milligauss range. The
instrument audio output idles at a nominal 20 Hz when no magnetic objects are present and
increases whenever the Mag Pro II approaches a ferromagnetic anomaly.
The state-of-the-art Mag Pro II Magnetic Gradiometer packs all of its sophisticated electronics in
an incredibly light 2 pound package. The instrument is waterproof from the base of the
electronics to the tip of the sensor, while the electronics housing is water resistant. When you wish
to record the peak signal for a magnetic anomaly, rotate the instrument to the vertical position
and use an “X” or crossing pattern to pinpoint the maximum vertical field.
If you hear a warble output from the instrument, BEWARE! A strong warble output from the
instrument means you are probably over an energized power line, whereas a weak warble output
often indicates the presence of a telephone or communications cable. The capabilities of this
instrument are limitless and an experienced operator will find many uses for the Mag Pro II.
There is no need to worry about the instrument battery level since a built-in Low Battery indicator
begins flashing whenever the operator has 2 to 3 hours of normal operation remaining. Typically
the Mag Pro II will provide in excess of 40 hours of normal operation from a set of standard
alkaline batteries.
The instrument of choice for any serious magnetic search is the Dunham & Morrow Mag
Pro II. The first units were introduced in August of 2010. This latest update of the Mag Pro
II design, adds a new range of 2 milligauss full scale.
Field Operation
For best results, begin by using your Mag Pro II on known targets; targets exactly like the
ones you will be searching for in the field. Then once you have become comfortable with the
Mag Pro II performance with known targets, you are ready for field work. During this initial
stage, you may wish to note the magnitude of the target’s magnetic field strength at several
different depths. The presence of dirt, asphalt, water, snow and ice does not affect the
magnetic field strength. It may even be helpful to make a chart of the target’s magnetic field
strength versus distance. Then once you go into the field, you can use this chart to estimate
the target’s depth.
Remember: It is not only inadvisable but in most areas illegal, to dig a hole without
first contacting your local “Miss Utilities” contractor. They have trained individuals
who can survey your area of interest and identify and mark all of your underground
utilities before you dig.
4
When operating in the field, always remember that the depth of any target is a function of
that target’s magnetic field orientation, the presence of any nearby magnetic anomalies and
how long the target has been buried. The Mag Pro II is unique in its ability to measure the
DC magnetic gradient of any ferrous target but it also has another unique ability; the ability
to measure low frequency, AC magnetic fields.
One of our customers sent the following picture:
“This is the shell I found with your locator.
It is a seven inch Harding and weighs fifty
pounds. It was made in Charleston during
the civil war and only used in this
area…..Gary
--The last time I checked with Gary, he had
found five more shells all smaller.
Archeological uses for the Mag Pro II:
For years Archeologists have been using precision magnetic gradiometers like the Mag Pro
II, to survey historical sites. By performing magnetic surveys of a historical area you can
usually identify the location of old walls, fire pits and trash dumps. All of these produce low
level surface magnetic anomalies that offer an insight into the area’s past usage, and they are
relatively easy to locate. The heat of the fire leaves its mark on the magnetic field of the
surrounding material. Decaying walls can be outlined from the small iron targets that were
once part of the wall or wall surface that after the wall decayed are now imbedded in the soil
directly beneath. Similarly, the village trash dump frequently has a mixture of discarded
magnetic material that remains and helps pinpoint the location. One other target that should
not be overlooked is the magnetic field anomaly that man has created simply by digging
holes in the Earth. At any specific location on the Earth, with the Mag Pro II you can usually
detect an overall background magnetic field. At first you think this is an instrument
calibration problem and your solution is to recalibrate the instrument. However, if you allow
for the possibility that your search area has an overall magnetic offset or anomaly, then the
World opens up for you. When man digs a hole he randomly distributes the minute magnetic
particles that are part of the soil. This is done shovelful by shovelful. By holding your Mag
Pro II in the vertical position, set on the most sensitive range and just walking around the
area, you can detect these magnetic anomalies, these “magnetic holes”, that were created by
man even centuries ago. This is one way archeologist are able to locate entrances to tombs,
water wells, caves, root cellars and other similar structures of antiquity.
5
Meteorite Detector:
Meteorites can be divided into three categories: Chondrites, Achondrites and Iron meteorites. The
Iron meteorites make-up only 6% of all meteorites, however they are readily detectable by the
Mag Pro II and they can be quite valuable. So grab your Mag Pro II and go searching. Have some
fun and maybe make a few dollars while you are at it. Meteorites can be found all over the world.
Central Canada and the high plateaus of our Western States are prime search areas because the
meteorites impact the Earth before being entirely consumed while entering the Earth’s
atmosphere. Africa and Antarctica are also prime areas to search. Creek beds are also an area of
interest, just watch your step and don’t submerge the electronics
Hydrologist and Oil Companies:
The Mag Pro II has unequalled sensitivity for detection of deep wells. Both old water wells and
abandoned or “Capped” oil wells. Old wells that are now recognized as potentially valuable
resources should be mapped and recorded for possible future resurrection.
CSI & EPA:
It may not be the most glamorous task, but since the Mag Pro II can be used to easily pinpoint
discarded guns or knives, it can also be used to pinpoint illegally buried waste material.
6
Theory of Operation
The primary sensing elements used by the Mag Pro II Magnetic Gradiometer are fluxgate
magnetometers. Fluxgate magnetometers are vector magnetic field sensors that measure the
average magnetic field component along their sensitive axis, i.e. the magnetic field component
along the longitudinal axis of the sensor tube.
OPEN
Y
Zt
19.5"
Zt
X
Figure 1, Sensor Location
For the magnetic gradiometer to work properly, the magnetometer sensors are aligned opposing
so that the magnetic field measured by one sensor is the negative of the magnetic field measured
by the other. The instrument then electrically sums the output of the two sensors. By summing
the two output signals, you cancel any field common to both sensors, such as the Earth’s
Magnetic Field, and leave only the differential magnetic field. The differential magnetic field (the
magnetic field detected by one sensor and not the other) is the magnetic field of interest and
hopefully represents the magnetic field of your target and not the field of your pocketknife, your
watch or the magnetic field of the steel toe protector in your shoes.
Magnetic Cleanliness
The importance of the operator’s magnetic cleanliness prior to beginning a search cannot be overemphasized. Some of the more common sources of local magnetic field interference are watches,
the steel arch supports or toe protectors in shoes, key chains, belt buckles, pocketknives and cell
phones.
Turn the gradiometer ON and set the Volume Control to a comfortable setting. Then select the
20 Milligauss Range on the Range Control Switch.
7
Figure 2, Instrument Controls
Range Settings
Most search operations work well with the Range Switch set to 200 milligauss full scale. For small
and relatively weak magnetic targets, the 20 milligauss or even the 2 milligauss range may be more
desirable. Conversely when the operator is searching for large, relatively strong magnetic targets,
the 2,000 milligauss range may be desirable.
Audio Output
The instrument’s audio output idles at approximately 20 Hertz when no magnetic objects are
present. The speaker output tone then increases in frequency whenever the Mag Pro II
approaches a magnetic object.
Pinpointing your Target
You may hold the instrument at an angle and swing it back and forth as you walk along to
maximize your search area; however when you want to pinpoint your target’s location, it is
advisable to hold the gradiometer vertically and use an “X” or crossing pattern.
Panel Meter
The Mag Pro II magnetic gradiometer has an easily readable Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
panel meter. The 3½ digit (0 to ± 1999) Digital Panel Meter provides a resolution of 0.1
Nanotesla or 0.001 milligauss on the 2 milligauss range. The digital display provides an exact
numeric readout of the local magnetic field gradient, and with a sensor separation of nearly
20 inches, the displayed field represents, in many cases, the total field of the target.
1318
Figure 3, Panel Meter
The highly-visible LCD panel meter is also helpful if high background noise begins to overwhelm
the speaker. At that time, the operator can frequently continue his search operation simply by
referring to the LCD display. The LCD panel meter displays the strength of the local magnetic
field while the audio output varies according to the output signal strength making it easy to
precisely locate the source of this magnetic anomaly. If the polarity of the meter display is not
what you prefer, there is a polarity select jumper inside the unit that can be repositioned to reverse
the meter polarity.
MAG PRO II - Target Depth Information
The instrument of choice for any serious magnetic search is the Dunham & Morrow, Mag Pro II
Gradiometer.
8
The Mag Pro II Gradiometer has four full-scale output ranges: 2,000 milligauss, 200 mG, 20 mG
and 2 milligauss. The Mag Pro II output meter is a 3½ digit LCD panel meter. The corresponding
instrument resolution for each range is therefore: 1mG, .1mG, .01mG and .001mG.
The best advice I can give you is to use your Mag Pro II gradiometer on known targets first. Once
you are comfortable with how the instrument performs, then you can search for similar targets
where the depth is unknown. Operating the Mag Pro II near ground level is inadvisable because
of all the unknown magnetic anomalies that may be present. To avoid this problem we
recommend that you hold the Mag Pro II so that the tip of the sensor probe is approximately 12
inches (1 foot) above ground level. You can then swing the gradiometer back and forth in front of
you as you walk along. Then when you hear a change in the audio output, move the gradiometer
into a vertical position to locate the peak magnetic field and measure that peak on the instrument
meter.
Target depth determination has nothing to do with the soil content, or whether the target is
buried under asphalt, water, ice or snow. The best way to determine the depth of any target is to
locate or prepare a magnetic field strength chart for the type of target you are dealing with. Use
the Mag Pro II gradiometer to measure the local magnetic field strength and then locate that same
magnetic field strength on your chart. If your chart is a nomogram, then move your finger
horizontally until it intersects with the graph of your target’s magnetic field strength and then look
down to note the depth.
On the next page is a nomogram copied from the 1973 Geometrics, Applications Manual for
Portable Magnetometers”.
9
10
MAGNETIC FIELD CONVERSION FACTORS:
The Local magnetic field for the Washington DC area is 513 milligauss at an angle of 67.6°. A
single axis magnetometer with its sensor aligned along the axis of the Earth’s magnetic field would
therefore read 513 milligauss on the 2,000 milligauss range.
1 gamma (γ)
= 1 nanotesla (nT)
0.01 milligauss (mG) = 1 gamma (γ)
= 1 nanotesla (nT)
To convert from gamma or nanotesla to milligauss, divide by 100.
For example 10 gamma = 0.10 milligauss
Conversely to convert from milligauss to gamma multiply by 100
For example 10 milligauss = 1000 gamma
Therefore the local magnetic field for the Washington DC area which is 513 mG at an angle of
67.6° can also be characterized as: 51,300 gamma or 51,300 nT at 67.6°.
ALWAYS REMEMBER:
It is not only inadvisable but in most areas illegal to dig a hole without first contacting
your local “Miss Utilities” contractor. They have properly trained individuals who can
survey your area of interest and properly identify and mark all of your underground
utilities before you dig.
11
Figure 4, Sensor Location
12
The magnetic field test bench is oriented East → West, perpendicular to the Earth’s magnetic
field. With this test bench orientation, I can take any unknown ferrous target and plot the
magnetic field strength of that target.
Take a typical property survey pin for example. Mount your target on a horizontal platform and
approach the tip end of the Mag Pro II gradiometer. Record the magnitude of the target reading
on the Mag Pro II meter and the distance between the Mag Pro II sensor and your target as you
approach the sensor. Reverse the Property Survey pin on your horizontal platform and repeat
these readings as you slowly back away from the sensor. If you like, you can turn your target 90°
sideways to measure and diagram the horizontal magnetic field of your target. Repeat this type of
test with other similar targets as often as necessary to build-up your numbers and confidence that
you have developed a statistical average.
For large targets such a gas or water pipes, you will need to position a section of pipe horizontally
on a magnetic-free section of ground, remove all potential magnetic anomalies from the
immediate vicinity, then hold your Mag Pro II gradiometer horizontally at the height of your
target and repeat the tests described above.
13
Note: That this chart was generated with the instrument sensitivity switch set on 200 mG.
Range, on the 2.0 mG Range the detection depth becomes more than 15 feet.
14
Magnetic Signatures of common buried objects
Most common underground targets have a predictable magnetic pattern and consequently
produce a predictable output frequency change in the magnetic locator. In the figures that follow,
the bold line above ground indicates the relative output frequency level of the Mag Pro II as it
moves across the indicated target; the higher the line, the higher the instrument output frequency.
OPEN
Ouput Frequency
Idle
Figure 5, Survey Marker or Well Casing
The peaking of the Mag Pro II output frequency normally indicates that you are over the top
center of a vertical dipole (survey marker or well casing).
Figure 6, Chain-Link or “Cyclone” Fences
15
When working around chain-link fences, set the Range Switch to either 200 milligauss or 20
milligauss; whichever works best. Then hold the instrument vertically and walk along parallel to
the fence approximately 8 inches to 1 foot away. You will hear the magnetic field of the fence as
you walk along, including the field from the posts. However; if your target is near to or under the
fence, there will be a dramatic increase in the instrument frequency as you approach the target and
you will have no difficulty distinguishing your target from the fence.
OPEN
Ouput Frequency
Idle
Figure 7, Horizontal Pipe
The peaking of the Mag Pro II output frequency indicates that you are over the end of that pipe
section, which can be either a weld or a “Bell” joint, as shown above; or a pipe discontinuity such
as an elbow, “T” section, meter or valve. When searching for horizontal gas and water lines, look
for a polarity change on the panel meter. A polarity change that occurs when the output
frequency is low means you are nominally over the midpoint of a pipe section; a polarity change
that occurs when the output frequency is high typically indicates a pipe joint or weld.
OPEN
Ouput Frequency
Idle
Figure 8, Service Connections and Valve boxes
16
Frequency peaking occurs over service connections and valve boxes: any place the pipe has been
cut and a service connection or other magnetic anomaly inserted.
OPEN
Ouput Frequency
Idle
Figure 9, Septic Tank
Most concrete septic tanks have a cover with two handles. The handles are inverted U-shaped
pieces of rebar which are highly magnetic. In most cases, the audio output of the Mag Pro II will
reach its peak directly over the handles, which makes it easy for the operator to identify the
correct place to dig. In other cases, the Mag Pro II will detect not only the handles on the cover,
but the magnetic field of the wire mesh or rebar in the concrete. This allows you to not only
pinpoint the location of the cover but to also outline the tank and determine precisely its
orientation.
OPEN
Ouput Frequency
Idle
Figure 10, Manhole Cover
A typical manhole cover is highly magnetized and easily detected by the Mag Pro II magnetic
locator. However, in some cases where the manhole cover has recently been removed and
reinstalled but not in its original orientation, another situation can exist. The magnetic field of a
manhole is a combination of two magnetic fields, the magnetic field of the cover itself and the
magnetic field of the steel support ring. When both fields are aligned, they add and are easy to
detect, this is the most common situation. However, when a manhole cover has been recently
17
removed and the cover reinstalled but rotated 180o, then the two magnetic fields tend to cancel
each other and detection becomes more difficult.
The instrument of choice for any serious magnetic search is the Dunham & Morrow Mag
Pro II. The first units were introduced in August of 2010. The Mag Pro II now has four fullscale output ranges: 2,000 milligauss, 200.0 milligauss, 20.00 milligauss, finally 2.000
milligauss. It should be noted that on the 2,000 milligauss range, the maximum measurable
magnetic field is limited to 1,400 milligauss or something just over twice the Earth’s
magnetic field.
Historical Notes:
Some of the earliest work on Fluxgate magnetometer design took place at Bell Labs prior to and
during World War II. Much of that work was later transferred to the Naval Ordinance Laboratory
where they perfected the magnetic torpedo. The magnetometer sensors detected and measured
the magnetic field of a target and detonated the torpedo when the signal polarity changed, just as
it passed under the keel of the boat. The first practical use of two coaxial, fluxgate magnetometers
arranged in the typical magnetic locator design occurred during the Vietnam War where they were
used to detect Vietcong tunnels. Today, fluxgate magnetometers are used to monitor solar flare
activity, control the attitude of satellites and guide cruise missiles to their target. They are also used
in earthquake prediction instruments, in underwater Search & Salvage operations and in solidstate heading sensors on boats, cars and airplanes.
The engineers at Dunham & Morrow have been active in the US Space Program since the early
1970s. In addition, they have produced numerous specialty magnetometers for the US Military
and the US intelligence community. Some of their more notable programs include: Hubble Space
Telescope, the GOES series of weather satellites, the IRAS satellite for the European Space
Administration, and magnetometers for the Italian San Marco series of satellites.
18
General Specifications
Meter:
3½ digit, LCD (0 to ± 1,999)
Ranges (Full Scale):
2000 milligauss
200 milligauss
20 milligauss
2 milligauss
Meter Resolution:
Range
Resolution
Resolution
Full Scale
Milligauss
2000
200
20
2
(LSB)
Milligauss
1.0
0.1
0.01
0.001
(LSB)
NanoTesla
100
10
1.0
0.1
Audio Output:
Variable frequency audio output proportional to the
differential magnetic field
Overall accuracy:
± 1 % of FS
Low Battery Indicator: RED flashing LED
Temperature Range:
(32 – 90)°F, (0 – 33) °C
Weight:
2.0 lbs. (0.9 kg)
Dimensions:
42 ½” x 3 ¾” x 1 ¾, (108 cm x 9.5 cm x 4.4 cm)
Waterproof:
36” (91.4 cm) base of electronics to tip of sensor
Operating time:
40 hrs, 4-AA alkaline batteries
MADE IN THE USA
Warranty
Lifetime Warranty – Your Mag Pro II Magnetic Gradiometer is warranted by Dunham &
Morrow to be free from defects in material and workmanship. This warranty is extended to the
owner of the product and is valid for the lifetime of the product; a period that extends no less
than 25 years from the date of purchase. The batteries and meter are specifically excluded from
this warranty as is exposure of the internal electronics to salt water or battery acid corrosion.
19
Calibration
Your Mag Pro II has been factory calibrated and with proper handling the calibration should
remain unchanged. However, if at anytime re-calibration is required or desired, there will be a
minimum recalibration charge of $250.
Service
If your Mag Pro II ever needs service, please follow these simple procedures:
1. Return the instrument to :
Dunham & Morrow, Inc.
43676 Trade Center Place, Suite 145
Dulles, VA 20166
2. Include a brief description of the defect and a daytime telephone number or email address,
just in case our service technician needs some additional diagnostic information.
3. Warranty repairs will be completed at no charge. For non-warranty repairs, a repair estimate
will be prepared and emailed or faxed to you for approval before any work is initiated.
If the cause of the instrument failure is found to be misuse, abuse, or neglect, the repairs will be
billed at cost upon authorization from the customer. Under no circumstances will Dunham &
Morrow’s liability exceed the cost to repair or replace the defective parts.
20
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement