1MA40_0e_test_pow_amplifiers_for_3G_bs

1MA40_0e_test_pow_amplifiers_for_3G_bs
Preliminary
Products: SMIQ, FSP, FSU, FSQ, NRP, ZVR
Testing Power Amplifiers
for 3G Base Stations
This application note describes essential tests, test setups and test procedures for 3GPP power amplifiers
especially for production lines.
Subject to change – Roland Minihold 09/2002 – 1MA40_2E
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Contents
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1MA40_0E
Introduction ............................................................................................. 3
Overview ................................................................................................. 3
Suggested Test Setups........................................................................... 4
Test Procedures...................................................................................... 6
Power and Gain ................................................................................. 6
Input Return Loss / Input VSWR........................................................ 6
Output Return Loss/Output VSWR .................................................... 7
Phase, Group Delay (of S21)............................................................. 7
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) ......................................... 7
ACLR Measurement On Multi-Carrier Base Station PA .................... 9
Single Signal Generator SMIQ03HD and SMIQ-B60 ................... 9
Maximum ACLR Dynamic with SMIQ03HD and SMIQ-B57....... 11
Meas. high ACLR on 3G multicarrier signals with FSU/FSQ ..... 13
Example: ALCR Measurement on 4-carrier 3GPP Base Station
Signal .......................................................................................... 14
Spectrum Emission Mask ................................................................ 16
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement.................................... 17
Creating a User Defined Spectrum Emission Mask ................... 18
Spurious Emissions ......................................................................... 19
Harmonics................................................................................... 21
Transmit Intermodulation ................................................................. 21
Crest Factor / CCDF ........................................................................ 22
Example: CCDF measurement on 4 Carrier 3GPP Base Station
signal........................................................................................... 24
Modulation Quality ........................................................................... 25
EVM Measurements ................................................................... 27
Peak Code Domain Error................................................................. 28
Peak Code Domain Error Measurements .................................. 29
AM-AM, AM-PM Conversion............................................................ 30
Determining Pre-Distortion Parameters (Complex IQ data)....... 30
DC Parameters ................................................................................ 31
Block Diagrams for Universal 3G Base Station PA Test Systems ....... 32
Literature ............................................................................................... 35
Additional Information ........................................................................... 36
Ordering information ............................................................................. 36
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
1 Introduction
Testing 3G base station power amplifiers and especially multi-carrier amplifiers is a challenge for the measuring equipment used. The signal generator used to stimulate the power amplifier must not only have ideal
modulation capability to produce an undistorted in-band signal, but also
superior signal to noise ratio and intermodulation performance to avoid
generating signal components outside the wanted signal. The analyzer
used to measure the output signal characteristic of the power amplifier
must also have the best available dynamic range to meet the stringent test
requirements for 3GPP base station power amplifiers. The R&S
SMIQ03HD signal generator offers the ideal solution for stimulating the
power amplifier, while the R&S spectrum analyzers FSU or especially FSQ
have the accuracy, dynamic range, and bandwidth to meet current and future requirements in 3GPP power amplifier testing. The R&S NRP power
meter is ideally suited for highly accurate power measurements at the
highest available dynamic range. The extreme flexible configurations supported by the network analyzers of the R&S ZVR family provide precise
measurements of complex S-parameters, phase and group delay, as well
as measurement of nonlinear parameters.
2 Overview
Section 3 describes typical test setups. Section 4 describes the different
tests necessary for 3G power amplifiers and gives instructions for instrument settings. Block diagrams for a universal power amplifier test system
are presented in section 5.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
3 Suggested Test Setups
The test setup shown in figure 1 is appropriate for most of the following
measurements. A SMIQ03HD serves as a signal source. A bi-directional
coupler is used to couple out the forward and reflected signals at the power
amplifier's (DUT) input. The power meter attached to sensor 3 ensures that
the power amplifier's output power can be measured with the maximum
achievable accuracy . Although the absolute power measurement accuracy
of an FSU or FSQ is excellent for a spectrum analyzer (0.3 dB absolute accuracy) the accuracy of a power meter, especially that of the NRP power
meter, will always be better.
Optionally the power meter can be used with an additional sensor (sensor
1) to measure the input level of the power amplifier and further increase the
accuracy for gain measurement. Optionally sensor 2 measures the amplifier's reflected input power in order to measure the input VSWR (Voltage
Standing Wave Ratio) of the amplifier.
NRP
4 Channel Power
Meter
Sensor 3
Sensor 1
SMIQ0B/
SMIQ03HD
Sensor 2
Power Attenuator (> 20 dB)
Attenuator
DUT
FSU
Fig. 1 Typical test setup for a 3GPP base station power amplifier (1 input)
There are also 3G power amplifiers which use 2 separate inputs to combine two 3G-transmitter signals without the need for an external combiner.
A modified setup is thus necessary. An adittional generator is necessary to
deliver an appropriate second input signal. Additional couplers, sensors
and a second power meter are also necessary to measure gain and input
VSWR (see figure 2).
By using NRP-Z11 sensors the power meters can be omitted since these
sensors can be used as standalone measuring instruments and be connected directly via NRP-Z4 USB-Adapters to a controller.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
NRP
4 Channel Power
Meter 1
Sensor 1
Sensor 3
Sensor 2
Attenuator
SMIQ0B/
SMIQ03HD
Power Attenuator (> 20 dB)
DUT
FSU
SMIQ0B/
SMIQ03HD
NRP
4 Channel Power
Meter 2
Figure 2: Test setup for a 2-input power amplifier
A vector network analyzer is the appropriate instrument to measure complex S-parameters S11, S21, phase or group delay on a power amplifier.
The power level can be handled with a test setup shown in figure 3. The
R&S ZVR is ideally suited to carry out these measurements, see [10] for
details.
Figure 3: Test setup for measuring S11 and S21 for a power amplifier with a vector network
analyzer
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
4 Test Procedures
Power and Gain
Accurate power measurement at the output of the amplifier is most important. It must be guaranteed that the amplifier delivers the nominal power
and in addition meets the specifications at exactly that power, for example
ACLR. Although state of the art spectrum R&S analyzers like FSP, FSU or
FSQ show extraordinary good absolute power measurement accuracy (0.3
dB) a power meter will always be the first choice for best accuracy. Ideally
suited especially for the measurement on 3GPP signals is the NRP with
sensor NRP-Z11. Up to 4 sensors can be connected to the power meter.
The NRP-Z11(-Z21) sensors show a very high dynamic range of 90 dB.
Modulation-dependent errors can be ignored.
Gain must be measured as well at nominal output power (nominal gain) for
amplifying one or more 3GPP signals. Measurements with a network analyzer using low level sine signals may deliver misleading results. Best accuracy is achieved by using high performance directional couplers in combination with a power meter (see figure 1 or 2).
The gain is calculated with following formula (valid for test setup 1):
Gain/dB = Power IndicationSensor 3/dBm – Power IndicationSensor 1/dBm
Note: This is just the basic formula. Variable coupling losses, insertion
losses of couplers, and the attenuator in front of sensor 3 have to be taken
into account additionally. The easiest way to calibrate the test setup is to
connect the couplers without the DUT at a sufficient high SMIQ level, for
example 10 dBm in CW mode.
Besides the nominal gain, the gain variation within transmit band and out of
band gain must also be measured. Both can also be measured with test
setup on figure 1 or 2.
Input Return Loss / Input VSWR
The magnitude of the input return loss can be measured either with a
power meter with 2 sensors and a bi-directional coupler (see test setup 1,
sensor 1 and 2) or with a network analyzer (see test setup in figure 3). A
vector network analyzer can measure magnitude and phase while ensuring
the highest possible measurement accuracy.
Especially in production it may be sufficient to check the magnitude only,
and the more economic solution without a vector network analyzer will be
preferred. A bi-directional coupler with high directivity (e.g. NARDA Model
3022) in combination with the R&S high-dynamic power sensors NRPZ11/Z21 ensures sufficiently low measurement uncertainties.
Example:
Assuming a coupler-directivity of 30 dB and a specified return loss value of
the amplifier of 18 dB a measurement uncertainty of –1.95 dB and + 2.51
dB can be derived. To be able to guarantee the 18 dB return loss for the
amplifier, a value of 18 dB + 1,95 dB = 19,95 dB has to be measured.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
(Other small error contributions like measurement errors of power sensors
are neglected).
The return loss is calculated with following formula (valid for test setup 1):
Return Lossinput/dB
= Power IndicationSensor 2/dBm – Power IndicationSensor 1/dBm
Output Return Loss/Output VSWR
Output return loss measurement normally requires a vector network analyzer. Especially for power amplifiers there may be a significant difference
in the behaviour between output impedance measured at small signal levels (the vector network analyzer ) or measured at the nominal power ("hot
S22 measurement"). However, 3GPP base station power amplifiers typically use an isolator circuit in front of the output connector circuit. When
measuring S22 only the isolator's passive load resistor can be measured,
with an impedance which is the same at small signals or nominal power. In
production lines the measurement of output return loss is often skipped.
Phase, Group Delay (of S21)
Phase and or Group Delay measurement is a task that requires a vector
network analyzer like the ZVR of R&S. (see test setup at figure 3). More
information regarding the measurement with the Vector Network Analyzer
ZVR can be found in [10]
Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR)
For WCDMA base stations, the 3G specifications demand an ACLR performance of 45 dB in the adjacent channel and 48 dB in the alternate
channel. The manufacturers of base stations add some headroom so that
their products typically have an ACLR of around 50 dB. The power amplifier needs to have an even better ACLR, to fulfill the overall specifications.
That means the ACLR of the amplifier must be in the range of 60 dB to 70
dB. If the combined ACLR of the signal generator and spectrum analyzer
were in the same range (0 dB margin), the additional error of the ACLR
measurement would be about 3 dB (see curve below).
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Fig. 4 ACLR measurement error as a function of margin
In order to decrease the additional error to less than 1 dB, the margin must
be greater than 6 dB. For errors of less than 0.5 dB the margin must be at
least 9 dB. This is why the ACLR of both signal generator and spectrum
analyzer have to be one order of magnitude higher than that of the components be tested (e.g. the power amplifier).
The best available ACLR performance for measuring power amplifiers is
achieved by using a SMIQ03HD with option SMIQ-B57 High ACLR as a
signal generator and FSU or FSQ as a spectrum analyzer.
SMIQ-B57 enhances the spectral quality of a single WCDMA carrier (3GPP
test model 1, 64) measured by FSU or FSQ significantly to an ACLR value
of typically 79 dB (71 dB without option B57) in the adjacent channel and
typically 82 dB (74 dB without option B57) ACLR in the alternate channel,
as shown in Fig. 5.
Ref
5 dBm
* Att
* RBW 30 kHz
* VBW 300 kHz
* SWT 5 s
25 dB
0
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-10.00 dB
2.139754808 GHz
1
-10
A
-20
1 RM *
CLRWR
-30
SGL
cl2
cl2
cl1
-40
-50
cl1
C0
C0
-60
cu1
-70
NOR
cu1
cu2
-80
cu2
-90
Center 2.14 GHz
2.55 MHz/
Span 25.5 MHz
Tx Channel
Bandwidth
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
3.84 MHz
Power
Adjacent Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
5 MHz
Lower
Upper
-79.03 dB
-79.43 dB
Alternate Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
10 MHz
Lower
Upper
-82.62 dB
-82.37 dB
EXT
9.78 dBm
Fig. 5 If the SMIQ03HD is fitted with the High ACLR option SMIQ-B57 the ACLR performance
improves significantly.
Note that the FSU's or FSQ's unique noise compensation function is used
to measure that performance.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
If cost plays the key role e.g. as is often the case in a production test system, an FSP7 in combination with an SMIQ03HD might be sufficient. The
typical ACLR performance in the adjacent and alternate channel for this
combination is about 61/62 dB compared to 79/82 dB of the upper combination SMIQ03HD with high ACLR option and FSU3/7, see figure 6 below.
Fig. 6 Typical achievable dynamic range with a combination of SMIQ03B + FSP (Noise Corr
ON)
ACLR Measurement On Multi-Carrier Base Station
PA
Two setups are possible depending on the accuracy required, either a single generator plus ARB (Arbitrary Waveform Generator) or several generators.
Single Signal Generator SMIQ03HD and SMIQ-B60
-7 dBm/carrier
(-4 dBm total
power)
Fig. 7 Generating a 4-carrier 3GPP signal with a single SMIQ
The simplest way to obtain a 3GPP test signal with four modulated physical
carriers is to use a single SMIQ03HD with ARB. The baseband signal is
generated in the ARB Option SMIQ-B60 and used to modulate the RF output of the Signal Generator SMIQ.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
A multi-carrier waveform (4 x 3GPP Test Model 1, 64 with 64 DPCH logical
carriers with 5 MHz spacing, as supplied with this application note in the
file: 4x3GPPMulticarrier_OS1_SCV.wv) is downloaded into the Signal
Generator SMIQ. The carriers are de-correlated using different scrambling
codes (0, 1, 2 and 3). Each carrier is given an offset of 1/5 of a
WCDMA/3GPP slot. The crest factor of the 4-carrier signal is calculated
with the R&S simulation software WinIQSIMTM as 11.32 dB. The SMIQ sets
the correct PEP (Peak Envelope Power) according to the calculation automatically. The 10 MHz IQ filter is switched on within the Vector Mode menu
to suppress baseband noise outside the wanted spectrum. Further the
SMIQ should be set to LOW-NOISE within the Level menu. This function
suppresses further existing broadband noise in the generator. The overall
peak power of the SMIQ should not exceed +8 dBm to avoid excessive
generation of adjacent channel power due to intermodulation in the SMIQ
signal path. This limits the available overall power to about –4 dBm and the
channel power per channel to about –10 dBm.
Note: The warning in the SMIQ display that occurs when switching on the
10 MHz IQ filter can be ignored. The 4 carrier spectrum fits well in the filter
bandwidth.
Ref -9 dBm
* Att
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-30.73 dB
2.140000000 GHz
* RBW 30 kHz
* VBW 300 kHz
* SWT 25 s
15 dB
-10
-20
1
-30
1 RM * -40
CLRWR -50
A
cl2
cl2
cl1
cl1
-60
cu1
-70
cu1
cu2
-80
NOR
cu2
-90
C0
C0
-100
Center 2.125 GHz
3.5 MHz/
Span 35 MHz
Tx Channel
Bandwidth
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
3.84 MHz
Power
-10.16 dBm
Adjacent Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
5 MHz
Lower
Upper
-62.38 dB
-0.09 dB
Alternate Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
10 MHz
Lower
Upper
-64.68 dB
-0.09 dB
Fig. 8 ACLR measurement results, lower adjacent and 1st alternate channel
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Ref -9 dBm
* Att
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-30.92 dB
2.140000000 GHz
* RBW 30 kHz
* VBW 300 kHz
* SWT 25 s
15 dB
-10
-20
1
A
-30
1 RM * -40
CLRWR -50
cl2
cl2
cl1
cl1
-60
cu1
-70
cu1
cu2
-80
NOR
cu2
-90
C0
C0
-100
Center 2.14 GHz
3.5 MHz/
Span 35 MHz
Tx Channel
Bandwidth
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
3.84 MHz
Power
-10.20 dBm
Adjacent Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
5 MHz
Lower
Upper
-0.09 dB
-61.92 dB
Alternate Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
10 MHz
Lower
Upper
-0.01 dB
-64.50 dB
Fig. 9 ACLR measurement results, upper adjacent and 1st alternate channel
Maximum ACLR Dynamic with SMIQ03HD and SMIQ-B57
Using High-ACLR option SMIQ-B57 only one 3GPP Signal can be produced with one SMIQ03HD (The reason is the limited bandwidth of the IF
filter used with Option SMIQ-B57). The solution to generate multi-carrier
signals with the highest possible performance is therefore to combine several SMIQ03HDs each with the SMIQ-B57 option using an external combining circuit. The exact number of SMIQ03HD's will depend on the number of 3GPP carriers needed. A dramatical increase in performance can be
achieved, e.g. instead of –62 dBc with the 1-generator solution, –74 dBc is
the typical performance with the 4 generator solution. Another advantage is
the higher possible output level using the SMIQ-B57 which provides up to +
30 dBm Peak Envelope Power (PEP). This means about +12 dBm output
power/Channel or +18 dBm total power using test model 1, 64 within each
SMIQ, assuming a 7 dB loss within the external combiner.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
25 s
* Att
Marker 1 [T1 ]
-98.26 dB
2.116306090 GHz
* RBW 30 kHz
* VBW 300 kHz
* SWT 25 s
SWEEP TIME
Ref -0.5 dBm
20 dB
-10
A
-20
SGL
-30
1 RM *
CLRWR
cu2
cu2
cu1
-40
-50
cu1
C0
-60
C0
-70
cl1
-80
-90
NOR
cl1
cl2
cl2
1
Center 2.125 GHz
3.5 MHz/
Span 35 MHz
Tx Channel
Bandwidth
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
3.84 MHz
Power
Adjacent Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
5 MHz
Lower
Upper
-74.02 dB
-0.41 dB
Alternate Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
10 MHz
Lower
Upper
-75.73 dB
-0.25 dB
-0.18 dBm
Fig 10 The lower adjacent channel and the lower alternate channel ACLR performance of 4
SMIQ03HD each generating a separate WCDMA/3GPP signal with option
SMIQB57.
Date:
7.MAR.2002
* RBW 30 kHz
* VBW 300 kHz
* SWT 25 s
10:17:47
Ref -0.5 dBm
* Att
20 dB
-10
1 RM *
CLRWR
-20
A
-30
SGL
cu2
cu2
cu1
-40
-50
cu1
C0
-60
C0
-70
cl1
-90
NOR
cl1
cl2
-80
cl2
Center 2.14 GHz
3.5 MHz/
Span 35 MHz
Tx Channel
Bandwidth
3.84 MHz
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
Power
Adjacent Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
5 MHz
Lower
Upper
-0.31 dB
-74.44 dB
Alternate Channel
Bandwidth
Spacing
3.84 MHz
10 MHz
Lower
Upper
-0.39 dB
-76.13 dB
-0.14 dBm
Fig. 11 The upper adjacent channel and the upper alternate channel ACLR performance of 4
SMIQ03HD each generating a separate WCDMA/3GPP signal with option
SMIQB57.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Meas. high ACLR on 3G multicarrier signals with FSU/FSQ
Several parameters of the spectrum analyzer influence its inherent dynamic range:
• the load capability of the signal path without distorting the WCDMA signal
• the thermal noise floor of the spectrum analyzer
• the phase noise of the internal local oscillators.
As these requirements go to the limit of the dynamic capabilities of a spectrum analyzer, it has to be set up very carefully in order to attain optimum
dynamic range.
The firmware function Noise Correction (NOISE CORR ON) compensates
for the thermal noise floor by switching off the input signal and making a
sweep to calculate the inherent power. This information used later in signal
processing stages for noise compensation. A remarkable increase in dynamic range of about 7 dB is achieved.
The reference level of the analyzer and the attenuator should be set independently for best matching (select the function RF ATTEN MANUAL).
Setting Reference Level
To minimize the effects of IF noise, the reference level should be set as low
as possible (i.e. the gain in the IF stage of the analyzer should be as high
as possible) while taking care to avoid overloading.
To achieve this, reduce the reference level in 1-dB steps until the overload
limit is reached (observe the IFOVL warning at the left-hand side of the
screen). Then increase the reference level until the overload warning
switches off.
Automatic Configuration Routine for Maximum Dynamic Range
The FSU/FSQ and FSP all provide an automatic setting routine which
achieves optimum dynamic range. In most cases the automatic setting routine is the right choice.
Switch ON Noise Correction
To achieve the maximum dynamic range with the FSU (FSQ or FSP)
switch on the noise correction function (NOISE CORR ON) after setting of
the attenuation and the reference level. Note that the best results with
noise compensation are achieved with a lower mixer level signal as compared to the normal ACLR measurement. This is because the compensation works only for the input noise and not for the inherent intermodulation
products generated by the FSU. The change to the mixer level is done
automatically through a 5 dB increase in the input attenuation, when the
noise compensation is switched on.
Frequency Setting
The center frequency of the FSU(FSQ) has to be set either to the lowest
carrier for measuring lower adjacent and alternate channels, or to the highest carrier for measuring the upper channels.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Example: ALCR Measurement on 4-carrier 3GPP Base Station Signal
Level x dBm, with carrier frequencies 2125, 2130, 2135, 2140 MHz, generated by one SMIQ03HD with SMIQ-B60 ARB option.
WinIQSIMTM settings/waveform transm. to SMIQ03HD
Start WinIQSIMTM and download the supplied waveform file
4x3GPPMulticarrier_OS1_SCV.wv to SMIQ03HD using SMIQ Transmission (see fig. 12).
TM
Fig. 12 WinIQSIM menu for transmitting waveform files to the SMIQ (e.g.
4x3GPPMulticarrier_OS1_SCV.wv).
SMIQ03HD Setting
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQUENCY: 2132.5 MHz] Set frequency to 2132.5 MHz (center frequency of output spectrum).
[RETURN]
[ARB:SELECT WAVEFORM:WAVEFORM 4x3GPP]
[RETURN:ARB ON]
[Level]: x dB Set overall SMIQ level to the required value (Note: keep below – 4 dBm to keep below +8 dBm peak power )
Output Mode: Low Noise] Set Low Noise mode in level menu
[RETURN:RETURN:RETURN]
[VECTOR MOD: IQ Filter 10 MHz] Switch on 10 MHz IQ filter. Note: The
warning in the SMIQ display that occurs when switching on the 10 MHz IQ
filter can be ignored.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
FSQ/FSU/FSP Settings (same as FSP)
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQ: CENTER: 2110 MHz] Set center frequency to 2110 MHz (center
frequency of lowest carrier.
[AMPT: x+10 dBm] Set reference level 10 dB above the level of an x dBm
average power signal.
[MEAS:CHAN PWR ACP:CP/ACP STANDARD W-CDMA 3GPP FWD]
Switch on ACP measurement to 3GPP Standard
[SPAN 35 MHz] Increase span suitable for a 4 carrier signal with 5 MHz
spacing
[MEAS:CHAN PWR ACP:ADJUST REF LEVEL] The analyzer's level setting is automatically adjusted for optimum dynamic performance
[SWEEP: SWEEPTIME MANUAL 25s] Increase the sweep time to get stable readings (depending on your needs a shorter sweeptime may be suffiecient)
[MEAS: CHAN PWR ACP: NOISE CORR ON] Switch on the noise compensation function.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Spectrum Emission Mask
The spectrum emission mask covers unwanted emissions from 2.515 MHz
beside the carrier(s) up to either 12.5 MHz above or below the carrier or to
the edge of the transmit band whichever is greater.
Close to the carrier a 30 kHz measurement bandwidth is used whereas far
off the carrier a 1 MHz bandwidth is used. Test model 1 is specified in
TS25.141 for the measurement. Figure 13 shows the limits and the associated measurement bandwidths dependent on the frequency offset from the
transmit channel:
Figure 13: Limits for spectrum emission mask measurement depending on max. output power
The test limits are dependent on the output power of the base station. With
most spectrum analyzers, using 4- or 5-pole Resolution Bandwidth (RBW)
filters the selectivity of the 1-MHz RBW filter causes leakage of the transmit
signal close to the carrier at 3.5 MHz offset. Using a 1-MHz resolution
bandwidth, leakage power due to the filter characteristic is measured rather
than leakage power due to the signal itself. The standard TS25.141 allows
simulation of the 1-MHz measurement bandwidth using a narrow resolution
bandwidth and integration over 1 MHz. This so-called Integrated Bandwidth
method (IBW) gives true results for the average power in the 1 MHz bandwidth. The peak power due to transients can however not be measured
correctly. The tester also has the option to define which power class limits
to test against, or even to define the limits.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement
Configure SMIQ03HD at Frequency 2117.5 MHz
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQUENCY: 2117.5 MHz] Set frequency to 2117.5 MHz (center frequency of output spectrum).
[Digital Standard:WCDMA/3GPP:Test Model 1_64]
[...................................................:State ON
[Vector Modulation: IQ Filter 2.5 MHz] Switch On 2.5 MHz IQ Lowpass
[Level]: x dB
output level
Set overall SMIQ level to achieve wanted power amplifier
Configure FSU/FSQ at Frequency 2117.5 MHz
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQ: CENTER: 2117.5 MHz] Set center frequency to 2117.5 MHz
(center frequency of output spectrum).
[AMPT: x + 5 dBm] Set reference level 5 dB above to average power x of
input signal.
[3GPP FDD BS] Switch on 3 GPP BTS Measurement personality
[MEAS: SPECTRUM EM MASK]
measurement
Switch on spectrum emission mask
[ADJUST REF LEVEL] Adjust attenuator and level setting for max. dynamic range
[SWEEP: SWEEPTIME 500 ms]
Fig. 14 Dynamic range of spectrum emission mask measurement with SMIQ03HD and
FSU/FSQ
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Fig. 15 Dynamic range of spectrum emission mask measurement with SMIQ03HD and FSP7
Creating a User Defined Spectrum Emission Mask
A custom spectrum emission mask limit line can be defined. The simplest
way to achieve this is to modify a standard emission mask limit line and to
save it under a different name. Limit lines are accessable via the LINES
button of FSU/FSQ or FSP.
Fig. 16 Emission Mask Limit Line for base station power > 43 dBm
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Spurious Emissions
Spurious emissions at the output of a power amplifier used in a 3G base
station are caused by harmonic emissions and especially in the case of a
Multi-carrier power amplifier by intermodulation products. Depending on
the concept of the power amplifier additional spurious emissions may be
caused by digital signals and internal oscillators used, for example in some
feed forward concepts. In addition excessive noise produced by the power
amplifier outside the transmit band may lead to violations of the spurious
emission limits. Spurious emission is defined as transmission outside the
frequency band 12.5 MHz below the first carrier and 12.5 MHz above the
last carrier transmitted by a base station or in this case emitted at the output of the power amplifier.
The frequency range for spurious emission measurement is specified from
9 kHz to 12.75 GHz. TS25.141 states two categories of limits to be fulfilled
by the base station. Category A applies in general and specifies relaxed
limits compared to category B, which applies only for Europe. All limits are
specified as absolute values in dBm. This results in requirements harder to
meet with high power base station. The power of any spurious emission
shall not exceed the values shown in the following graphics:
Fig. 17 Limits for spurious emission up to 3 GHz
In a base station there is always a passive high frequency selective network called a diplexer after the power amplifier. It separates the transmit
from the receive band and cuts off frequencies outside the transmit band.
The requirements necessary for the power amplifier generally are therefore
much less critical than the requirements for the whole base station, to be
measured at the antenna connector. Above all, the spurious emissions
near the transmit band, where the frequency selection has less suppression may be critical and have to be tested. These near transmit band limits
may be even more stringent than the limits for the whole base station as
stated in TS25.141.
For the spurious emission measurements test model 1, 64 shall be used.
Use any of the test setups suggested in section 3 for spurious testing.
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
MARKER 1
2. 12 01 2 GH z
Ref 50 dBm
50
Offset
* RBW 1 MHz
VBW 10 MHz
* Att
* SWT 10 s
15 dB
31.6 dB
1
40
1 RM *
CLRWR
30
20
Marker 1 [T1 ]
39.37 dBm
2.120120000 GHz
Marker 2 [T1 ]
-14.99
2.092600000
Marker 3 [T1 ]
-19.58
2.065679487
Delta 4 [T1 ]
-63.72
57.371794872
dBm
GHz
A
SGL
dBm
GHz
LVL
dB
MHz
10
0
-10
CATB
2
3
-20
4
-30
-40
-50
Start 2 GHz
20 MHz/
Stop 2.2 GHz
Fig. 18 Spurious measurement from 2 to 2.2 GHz on a prototype 3G power amplifier at
transmit frequency 2120 MHz with limit line CAT B (according to BS mandatory
spurious emission limits)
Fig. 19 Example for a limit line for spurious emissions category B at 2120 MHz center frequency
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Harmonics
Harmonics created by the power amplifier fall into the spurious frequency
region and must therefore meet the –36 dBm limit measured with 1 MHz
RBW at the base station output. The amplifier itself must only meet a much
less stringent limit (depending on the actual suppression of the diplexer)
because the diplexer connected after the power amplifier's output suppresses frequencies outside the transmit band,. The SMIQ03HD used to
stimulate the amplifier has a specification of < - 30 dBc harmonic content
and a typical performance of about –40 dBc (with active option HIGH ACLR
< - 40 dBc and a typical performance of about –50 dBc). A lowpass filter
must be placed after the signal generator, if this does not give enough
margin. It should have small ripple and good VSWR not to adulterate other
power amplifier measurements like VSWR, gain variation within transmission band etc. Otherwise it should be used only for the harmonics/spurious
measurement and removed for all other tests.
Sensor 1
Sensor 2
Harmonics Filter
SMIQ0B/
SMIQ03HD
DUT
Fig. 20 Lowpass filter placed after the signal generator to suppress it's own harmonics
Transmit Intermodulation
Transmit intermodulation can be caused by the presence of the wanted
signal and an interfering signal reaching the amplifier's output via the antenna output. It is measured by introducing a WCDMA modulated interference signal into the amplifier's output with a level –30 dB below the wanted
signal at signal offsets 5, 10 and 15 MHz from the carrier. For multi-carrier
signals, the offsets must be applied below the lowest and above the highest carrier.
The basic test setup is shown in figure 21. The interfering signal is produced by an additional SMIQ03B. To deliver sufficient level an amplifier
may be necessary (depending on the DUT max. power) for example a Mini
Circuits ZHL-42.
A circulator (e.g. Narda SCC-01A-2023) is used to feed the interference
signal to the DUT's output and to decouple the amplifier output from DUT's
power. Depending on the circulator's isolation, an additional isolator (e.g.
Narda SIH-01A-2023) may be necessary to prevent the creation of intermodulation products at the amplifier's output.
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
SMIQ03B
V=20 dB
+ 20 dBm
optional isolator
SMIQ03B/
SMIQ03HD
(opt. with SMIQ-B57)
DUT
FSU/FSQ or FSP
circulator
30 dB/100W
Fig. 21 Test setup for transmit intermodulation measurement
Crest Factor / CCDF
Digitally modulated signals like 3GPP signals appear similar to white noise
within the transmit channel, but are actually different in their amplitude distribution. In order to transmit the modulated signal without distortion all amplitudes of the signal have to be transmitted linearly from the output power
amplifier whereby the peak amplitude values are the most critical. Degradation in transmit quality caused by a power amplifier is dependent on the
amplitude of the peak values as well as on their probability.
The Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF Function) of
the FSU/FSQ is an important measurement function for 3GPP signals and
shows the probability of an amplitude exceeding a specific value, the x-axis
is scaled relative to the MEAN POWER measured. It also delivers the
Crest factor of the signal which is ratio of peak power to average power of
the signal. CCDF and Crest factor measurements are useful for both, to
check the input signal and the output signal of the power amplifier under
test to look for its influence on the signal.
While the CCDF function of the FSU with its maximum video bandwidth of
about 7 MHz is well suited for a single 3GPP carrier, the wider video bandwidth of the FSQ (about 30 MHz) provides precise measurement of CCDF
and Crest factor for 3GPP multi-carrier signals with 4 and more carriers
with 5 MHz spacing.
Figure 22 records measurements on 2 different 4-Carrier 3GPP signals
(each modulated with test model 1, 64) The first one has a theoretical Crest
factor of 11.13 dB and the second one of 15.4 dB, see figure 23 for the calculation results of WinIQSIMTM. The difference arises because the 4 3GPP
carriers have zero timing offset at signal No. 2 , whereas signal No. 1 has
timing offsets of 1/5 slot.
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Fig. 22 CCDF and Crest factor of 2 different 4-carrier 3GPP signals measured by an FSQ. The
measured crest factors of 10.96 dB and 15.59 dB match well with the calculated
values of 11.13 dB and 15.5 dB.
TM
Fig. 23 Calculated CCDF/Crest factor of 2 different 4-carrier 3GPP signals with WinIQSIM
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Example: CCDF measurement on 4 Carrier 3GPP Base
Station signal
Level x dBm, carrier frequencies 2110, 2115, 2120, 2125 MHz
WinIQSIMTM settings / waveform transmission to SMIQ03HD
Start WinIQSIMTM Software on controller and download the supplied
waveform file 4x3GPPMulticarrier_OS1_SCV.wv to SMIQ03HD (using
SMIQ Transmission, see Figure 24)
TM
Fig. 24 WinIQSIM menu for Transmitting waveform files to the SMIQ (e.g.
4x3GPPMulticarrier_OS1_SCV.wv).
SMIQ03HD Setting
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQUENCY: 2117.5 MHz] Set frequency to 2117.5 MHz (center frequency of output spectrum).
[RETURN]
[ARB:SELECT WAVEFORM:WAVEFORM 4x3GPP] Select 4x3GPP wave
form previously transmitted
[RETURN:ARB ON] Switch on ARB function of SMIQ
[Level]: x dB Set overall SMIQ level to wanted value (Note: keep below – 4
dBm to keep below +8 dBm peak power )
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
FSQ Settings
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQ: CENTER: 2117.5 MHz] Set center frequency to 2117.5 MHz (center frequency of output spectrum).
[AMPT: x+18 dBm] Set reference level 18 db above the level of an x dBm
average power signal.
[BW: 50 MHz] Set resolution bandwidth to 50 MHz (resolution bandwidth
shall be wider than signal bandwidth 25 MHz to have the complete signal
within the resolution bandwidth).
[MEAS] Call the menu for measurement functions.
[SIGNAL STATISTIC] Call the menu for signal statistics measurement.
[CCDF ON /OFF] Switch on measurement of the complementary cumulative distribution function. The FSQ switches to zero span mode. The power
of the signal and the CCDF is calculated for the number of samples selected. With the CCDF function sample detector and video bandwidth are
set automatically.
[NO OF SAMPLES: 100 000 000] Set the number of measurement samples to 100 000 000 to give reproducible numbers.
[SINGLE MEAS] Start the measurement sequence. At the end the resulting
trace will display the CCDF for the measured 100 000 000 samples as
shown in figure 22.
Modulation Quality
The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) is defined as the difference between
themeasured waveform and the theoretical modulated waveform. An error
vector is calculated from the difference of both waveforms for each chip of
the modulation. From the error vectors the Mean Error Vector Power
(MEVP) is calculated for a complete timeslot. The MEVP is related to the
Mean Reference Signal Power (MRSP) within the same slot. From these
two power values the EVM is calculated as follows:
EVM/% =
MEVP
MRSP
Test model 4 using the Paging Indication Channel (PICH) and theSynchronization Channels (SCH), only is applied. While the measurement interval
is specified to be one timeslot, the EVM result is one numbered value per
timeslot. The specification of the EVM is valid over the total ower dynamic
range.
A power amplifier may significantly distort the waveform signal and therefore worsen the EVM performance, mostly due to compression effects but
also to excessive in-band noise as well.
Figure 25 shows the typical EVM performance of about 1.5% for an SMIQ
signal generator and FSU spectrum analyzer connected directly to each
other. Figure 26 show the influence of a prototype 3G power amplifier. The
measured EVM increases by about 4%.
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
han Slot 0
-7
Slot
-14
0
-21
SR 15 ksps
Chan Code 0
C
A
SGL
-28
-35
-42
-49
-56
-63
Start Ch 0
64 Ch/
Composite EVM
CF 2.1175 GHz
CPICH Slot
Stop Ch 511
SR 15 ksps
Chan Code 0
Chan Slot 0
0
Marker 1 [T1 ]
1.486 %
Slot
8
18
Ref
-11.1
dBm
Att*
0 dB
B
16
14
12
10
8
6
1
CLRWR
4
1
2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Fig. 25 EVM measurement with SMIQ03HD and FSU directly connected: typical EVM value of
1.5%
Code Power Relative
CF 2.17 GHz
CPICH Slot
0
SR 15 ksps
Chan Code 0
Chan Slot 0
-7
Ref
53.0
dBm
Att*
35 dB
A
SGL
-14
-21
-28
-35
LVL
-42
-49
1
CLRWR -56
-63
Start Ch 0
Composite EVM
CF 2.17 GHz
CPICH Slot
0
64 Ch/
SR 15 ksps
Chan Code 0
Chan Slot 0
Stop Ch 511
Marker 1 [T1 ]
EXT
5.291 %
Slot 12
18
Ref
53.0
dBm
Att*
35 dB
B
16
14
12
10
8
1
6
1
CLRWR 4
2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Fig. 26 Influence of prototype 3G BS power amplifier. The measured EVM worsens to about
5.3%
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
EVM Measurements
Configure SMIQ03HD at Frequency 2117.5 MHz
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQUENCY: 2117.5 MHz] Set frequency to 2117.5 MHz (center frequency of output spectrum).
[Digital Standard:WCDMA/3GPP:Test Model 4]
[...................................................:State ON]
[Level]: x dB
put level
Set overall SMIQ level to achieve the desired amplifier out-
Configure FSU/FSQ at Frequency 2117.5 MHz
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQ: CENTER: 2117.5 MHz] Set center frequency to 2117.5 MHz (center frequency of output spectrum).
[AMPT: x + 11 dBm] Set reference level 11 dB above the average power x
of input signal.
[3GPP FDD BS] Switch on 3 GPP BS Measurement personality
[CHAN CONF: CODE CHAN PREDEFINED 3GB_4]
[SCREEN B]
[RESULTS: COMPOSITE EVM] Switch on Composite EVM measurement
at screen B
[MKR-->: Peak] Set marker to time slot with maximum EVM (read marker 1
value)
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Peak Code Domain Error
The peak code domain error is computed by projecting the error vector
power onto the code domain at the spreading factor 256.
The error vector for each power code is defined as the ratio to the mean
power of the reference waveform expressed in dB. The peak code domain
error is defined as the maximum value for the code domain error. The
measurement interval is one power control group (timeslot) in duration.
Test model 3_16 must be used for Peak Code Domain Error measurements.
Influence of a prototype 3G power amplifier on the peak code domain error:
While the direct measurement with SMIQ03HD and FSU without an amplifier shows a typical peak code domain error of – 54 dB, the insertion of the
power amplifier increases the error to – 44 dB.
Fig. 27 Peak code domain error measurement at the output of a sample 3G base station amplifier at its nominal output power of +44 dBm (See marker 1 indication of screen
B –44.01 dB)
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Peak Code Domain Error Measurements
Configure SMIQ03HD at Frequency 2117.5 MHz
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQUENCY: 2117.5 MHz] Set frequency to 2117.5 MHz (center frequency of output spectrum).
[Digital Standard:WCDMA/3GPP:Test Model 4]
[...................................................:State ON]
[Level]: x dB
Set
overall
SMIQ
level
wanted power amplifier output level
to
achieve
Configure FSU/FSQ at Frequency 2117.5 MHz
[PRESET] Switch on preset settings.
[FREQ: CENTER: 2117.5 MHz] Set center frequency to 2117.5 MHz (center frequency of output spectrum).
[AMPT: x + 11 dBm] Set reference level 11 dB above the average power x
of input signal.
[3GPP FDD BS] Switch on 3 GPP BS Measurement personality
[CHAN CONF: CODE CHAN PREDEFINED 3GB_3_16]
[SCREEN B]
[RESULTS: Peak Code Domain Err] Switch on Code Domain Error Measurement at screen B
[MKR-->: Peak] Set Marker to time slot with max. Peak Code Domain Error
(readout Marker 1 value)
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
AM-AM, AM-PM Conversion
Determining Pre-Distortion Parameters (Complex IQ data)
State of the art 3G power amplifiers, especially multi-carrier amplifiers often
use pre-distortion techniques: The input signal for the power amplifier is
distorted in such a way that it's output signal is nearly distortion free. The
complex amplitude-to-amplitude and also the amplitude-to-phase transfer
function (AM-AM conversion, AM-PM conversion) of the amplifier has to be
measured.
AM-AM and AM-PM conversion measurement is a conventional measurement task for a vector network analyzer like the ZVR. The vector network
analyzer performs a power sweep at a fixed frequency and measures output-amplitude and –phase over input level.
However, the measurement results obtained by that measurement may
differ significantly from the amplifier's behaviour when fed with a real world
WCDMA signal.
Another method to determine AM/AM and AM/PM conversion is to feed the
power amplifier with a suitable input signal such as a WCDMA signal or a
band limited noise signal and measure complex IQ Data at the power amplifier output and do some tricky calculations afterwards. See [5], [6] for
more information.
Fig. 28 Red and green traces show varying AM-AM got by a conventional vector network
analyzer results depending on the sweep parameters. Magenta trace AM-AM
results were obtained by stimulation with a WCDMA signal.
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Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
The extreme wide bandwidth of the FSQ (60 MHz) in combination with its
very high dynamic range guaranties meaningful measurement results.
As recommended test setup, the standard test setup of figure 1 or 2 may
be used. The output power of the power amplifier has to be set carefully to
obtain the desired results. The absolute power accuracy is achieved by
using a power meter.
The correct tool for getting IQ data out from the FSQ( or FSP/FSU) is IQWizard [10]. IQ-Wizard is an R&S application program which can be
downloaded from the R&S Home Page. It transfers IQ data from FSIQ (with
B70 option), FSP, FSU or FSQ analyzer The IQ data may be stored in
various file formats for further processing with signal analysis, simulation
and generation tools such as MATHCAD, MATLAB and ADS.
Fig. 29 IQWizard (IQ Signal measurement and Conversion) User interface
DC Parameters
An important parameter for 3G base station power-amplifier is the efficiency which is the quotient of available RF power and the DC Power
(supply current multiplied by the supply voltage).
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
5 Block Diagrams for Universal 3G Base Station PA Test Systems
In the following two block diagrams of complete 3G base station testers
covering all the measurements discussed in this application note are presented. Figure 30 shows a test setup for a 1-input power amplifier whereas
figure 31 shows that for a 2-input amplifier.
The vector network analyzer can be used to measure complex S11 and
S21 parameters (including group delay) at nominal power (but with a CW
signal). In addition PORT 1 and 2 are connected to the amplifier inputs and
output to measure S22 and S12 parameters of the amplifier.
Caution: The power amplifier may easily destroy the analyzer's input.
Depending on the necessary measurements, parts of the setup may be
skipped.
1MA40_0E
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Rohde & Schwarz
B2
B1
Port 2
Port 1
A1
Driver
Amp
Harmonics filter
1MA40_0E
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Fig. 30 Block diagram of a universal 3G power amplifier test system
IF Ref
ZVR/E/C
Optional generators
and optional combiner for
highest dynamic MC signal
path for complex s11, s22
SMIQ03B/
SMIQ03HD
(opt. with SMIQ-B57)
opt. SMIQ03HD
(with SMIQ-B57)
opt. SMIQ03HD
(with SMIQ-B57)
opt. SMIQ03HD
(with SMIQ-B57)
Att.
Sensor 1
NRP
4 Channel Power
Meter
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Combiner
Att.
Att.
Att.
Rohde & Schwarz
DUT
Sensor 2
Sensor 3
V=20 dB
Path for S22 meas.
FSU/FSQ or FSP
Path for Transmit
Intermodulation
30 dB/100W
+ 20 dBm
SMIQ03B
B2
B1
Port 2
Port 1
A1
Driver
Amp
path for complex s11, s22
Harmonics filter
NRP
4 Channel Power
Meter 2
Sensor 1
1MA40_0E
34
Fig. 31 Block diagram of a universal 3G base station power amplifier tester (2 input amplifier)
IF Ref
ZVR/E/C
SMIQ0B/
SMIQ03HD
SMIQ0B/
SMIQ03HD
Harmonics filter
NRP
4 Channel Power
Meter 1
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
Attenuator
Rohde & Schwarz
DUT
Sensor 2
Sensor 3
V=20 dB
FSU/FSQ or FSP
path for S22 meas.
Power Attenuator (> 30 dB)
+ 20 dBm
SMIQ03B
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
6 Literature
1MA40_0E
(1)
Dr. Markus Banerjee / Dr. Rene Desquiotz "Generating Multicarrier
Signals for Amplifier Tests with SMIQ03HD and WinIQSIMTM"
(2)
D. Picken / R. Minihold "Generating and Analyzing 3GPP Multicarrier
Signals with High Dynamic Range", R&S application note 1MA48
(3)
Josef Wolf "3GPP Base Station Transmitter Tests" R&S application
note 1EF44
(4)
Kay Uwe Sander/Josef Wolf/ "Spurious Emission Measurement on
3GPP Base Station Transmitters" R&S application note 1EF45
(5)
"Measuring the Dynamic Characteristic of High-Frequency Amplifiers
with Real Signals", European Wireless 2000
(6)
Martin Weiß "Amp Tune Software for Measuring Amplifier Nonlinearity
in Realistic Conditions" R&S application note 1MA27
(7)
Detlev Liebl "Tests on 3G-Base Station to TS25.141 with FSIQ and
SMIQ" R&S application note 1MA38
(8)
Dr. René Desquiotz "WCDMA Signal Generator Solutions" R&S application note 1GP39
(9)
Dr. René Desquiotz "3GPP BS Tests with SMIQ" R&S application note
1GP41
(10)
Ottmar Gerlach "IQ Wizard - IQ Signal Measurement & Conversion"
R&S application note 1MA28
(11)
Getting Started with ZVR, Part II, ZVR-CD ROM
(12)
Josef Wolf " Measurement of Adjacent Channel Power on Wideband
CDMA Signals" R&S application note 1EF40
(13)
Josef Wolf "Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on
3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP" R&S application note 1EF41
35
Rohde & Schwarz
Testing 3G-Base Station Power Amplifiers
7 Additional Information
Please contact [email protected] for comments
and further suggestions.
8 Ordering information
Vector Signal Generator
Name of instrument
SMIQ03B
SMIQ03HD
Options:
R&S SMIQB11
R&S SMIQB20
R&S SMIQB45
R&S SMIQ-B57
R&S SMIQ-B60
Spectrum Analyzer
Name of instrument
FSU3
FSU8
FSU26
FSQ3
FSQ8
FSQ26
Options:
R&S FS-K72
Vector Network Analyzer
Name of instrument
ZVR
Power Meter
NRP
Options
NRP-B2
NRP-B5
NRP-Z11
Ordering number
1125.5555.03
1125.5555.33
Data Generator
Modulation Coder
Digital Standard 3GPP
High ACLR for WCDMA 3GPP
(2110 MHz to 2170 MHz)
Arbitrary Waveform Generator
TM
incl. WinIQSIM
1085.4502.04
1125.5190.02
1104.8232.02
1105.1831.02
range
20 Hz to 3.6 GHz
20 Hz to 8 GHz
20 Hz to 26 GHz
20 Hz to 3.6 GHz
20 Hz to 8 GHz
20 Hz to 26 GHz
Ordering number
1129.9003.03
1129.9003.08
1129.9003.26
1155.5001.03
1155.5001.09
1155.5001.26
WCDMA 3GPP Application
Firmware BTS Code Domain
Power Measurements for FSU
1154.7000.02
range
9 kHz to 4 GHz
Ordering number
1127.8551.61
1136.4390.02
1143.8500.02
nd
NRP-Z4
Recommend accessories
R&S RDL 50
.
range
300 kHz to 3.3 GHz
300 kHz to 3.3 GHz
.
2 sensor input
rd
th
3 and 4 sensor input
Power sensor 10 MHz to 8
GHz
USB adapter (passive)
1146.8801.02
1146.9608.02
1138.3004.02
High Power Attenuator 20dB,
50 W, 0 to 6 GHz
1035.1700.52
.
1146.8001.02
.
ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG Mühldorfstraße 15 D-81671 München P.O.B 80 14 69 D-81614 München
.
.
Telephone +49 89 4129 -0 Fax +49 89 4129 - 13777 Internet: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com
.
This application note and the supplied programs may only be used subject to the conditions of use set forth in the download
area of the Rohde & Schwarz website.
1MA40_0E
36
Rohde & Schwarz
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