Research Institute Leiden Observatory
(Onderzoekinstituut Sterrewacht Leiden)
Annual Report 2010
Sterrewacht Leiden
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Leiden University
Niels Bohrweg 2
2333 CA Leiden
Postbus 9513
2330 RA Leiden
The Netherlands
In the Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, the circumstances
in the inter- and circumstellar medium are simulated. In 2010,
water was successfully made on icy dust grains by H-atom
bombardment, understanding was gained how complex
molecules form under the extreme conditions that are typical
for space, and experiments are now ongoing that investigate
under which conditions the building blocks of life form. The
picture shows the lab’s newest setup - MATRI2CES - that has
been constructed with the aim to 'unlock the chemistry of the
An electronic version of this annual report is available on the web at
Production Annual Report 2010:
A. van der Tang, E. Gerstel, F.P. Israel, J. Lub, M. Israel, E. Deul
Sterrewacht Leiden
(Directie Onderzoeksinstituut)
K. Kuijken
Director of Education F.P. Israel
Institute Manager
E. Gerstel
Wetenschappelijk Directeur
Onderwijs Directeur
Supervisory Council
(Raad van advies)
Prof. Dr. Ir. J.A.M. Bleeker (Chair)
Dr. B. Baud
Drs. J.F. van Duyne
Prof. Dr. K. Gaemers
Prof. Dr. C. Waelkens
Part I
Chapter 1
Obituary Adriaan Blaauw
Obituary Jaap Tinbergen
Chapter 2
2.1 Heritage
2.2 Extrasolar planets
2.3 Circumstellar gas and dust
2.4 Chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium
2.5 Stars
2.6 Galaxies of the Local Group
2.7 Nearby galaxies: observations and theory
2.8. Distant galaxies and large-scale structure
2.9. Simulations and theory
2.10 Advanced instrumentation programs
2.11 Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics
Chapter 3
3.1. Education
3.2. Degrees awarded in 2010
3.2.1. Ph.D. degrees
3.2.2. Master’s degrees (Doctoraal diploma’s)
3.2.3. Bachelor’s degrees
3.3. Academic courses and pre-university programmes
3.3.1. Courses taught by Observatory staff
3.3.2. Pre-university programmes
3.3.3. Contact.VWO
3.4. Popularization and media contacts
3.4.1. Public lectures and media interviews
3.5. Universe Awareness programme
3.6. IAU strategic plan: Astronomy for the developing world
3.7. The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F. Kaiser’
3.8. Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
Part II
Observatory staff December 31, 2010
Committee membership
Observatory commitees
Membership of university committees (non-Observatory)
Science policy functions
Workshops, colloquia and lectures
Endowed lectures
Scientific colloquia
Student colloquia
Colloquia given outside Leiden
Observing time
Scientific publications
VII.1 Ph.D. theses
VII.2 Publications in refereed journals
VII.3 Publications in non-refereed journals and conference articles
VII.4 Popular articles
major events
major events
1.1 Foreword
2010 was another busy, successful year at the Sterrewacht. This Annual Report
describes many individual events and achievements, in a slightly updated
I will not repeat the many science highlights described in this booklet. But it is
fitting to remark that most of this work is done by our steadily growing body of
graduate students and postdocs – together now some 100 young astronomers! and maintaining an environment in which fundamental research with the latest
facilities can take place, and attract brilliant minds from all over the world,
remains the top priority for the institute.
As part of the six-yearly cycle of research assessments, Sterrewacht Leiden, our
sister university astronomy departments, and the NOVA federation we all
participate in, were visited in the spring by an international expert committee
chaired by Prof. Frank Shu. The conclusions were clear and very gratifying: our
institute is among the top astronomy research institutes world-wide.
Importantly, also the NOVA programme scored very well, and a high-level
blue-ribbon committee overseeing all sciences ranked it among the very top of
the current 'top-research schools' in the Netherlands, giving it the mark
'exemplary'. Such evaluations are important in these times of government
austerity, and provide key ammunition with which to ensure our future.
Fortunately, they could hardly have been better.
To underscore the success further, a number of significant prizes and grants
were awarded to staff members. Marijn Franx was given a Spinoza award, the
highest honour in Dutch sciences, to continue his studies of the earliest galaxies
with the James Webb Telescope (JWST). Harold Linnartz won a VICI grant for
his Laboratory Astrophysics work, and Huub Röttgering a TOP subsidy to
exploit the scientific potential of LOFAR. At the Netherlands Astronomy
Conference in May, Joop Schaye and Vincent Icke were awarded the threeyearly Pastoor Schmeits Prize and Willem de Graaff Prize respectively.
In 2010 we welcomed two new staff members: Matt Kenworthy, who works on
direct imaging of exoplanets and active optics; and Rychard Bouwens, a
specialist in studying galaxies in the high-redshift universe. Elena Rossi, a
theoretical astrophysicist who specializes in dynamics around black holes was
due to join us at the start of 2011, filling the vacancy left by Yuri Levin who left
in the summer.
Last year saw, for the second year running, an unusually large number of new
undergraduates in our BSc programme. Our Astronomy Masters programme
continues to attract new students from abroad as well as our own BSc graduates.
Also for the second year running, we coordinated the selection of new PhD
students by pooling all project grants and announcing the open positions in one
common call. Competition for these positions is very strong, with over 300
applications for some 15 positions! The final selection was done after a 2-day
visit by the 30 or so top candidates in February, during which potential
supervisors and students can see each other in action. The days of the visits are
very busy, but also very stimulating. It is by now clear that we have managed to
increase the pool of applicants greatly with this coordinated approach, and we
have decided to continue this scheme.
Outreach is the third part of the mission of the institute. While we were
somewhat hampered in organising local activities during 2010 by the continuing
restauration of the ‘Old Observatory’- it will reopen in 2011, 150 years after its
foundation - our programme of public lectures in schools and for the general
public, press releases and media appearances continued unabated. As
astronomers we are privileged to be able to spend our time following our
passion of doing research, but this requires us to give something back to society
as well. Astronomers are well-known for being able to solve problems based on
incomplete and poorly-controlled data, and this skill can certainly come in
handy outside the walls of astronomy institutes and observatories. A beautiful
example of our outreach efforts is the Universe Awareness programme, started
in Leiden by George Miley, which is now supported by the European Union. It
aims to educate young children with an underprivileged background about the
wonders of the universe and our place in it, and is now active in more than 40
We welcomed many distinguished guests in 2010: let me highlight the 2010 Oort
professor, Richard Ellis (Caltech), our Sackler lecturer Linda Tacconi (Max
Planck Inst for Extraterrestrial Physics), and Reinhard Genzel (also from MPE),
in whose honour we held a small symposium on the morning of the Leiden dies
natalis, hours before he was awarded a Leiden University honorary doctorate the first astronomer in living memory to have this title bestowed on him.
A number of social events were ably organized by the Soccom: the Christmas
lunch and a visit by Sinterklaas in December, a summer barbecue for the whole
institute and their families, and a visit to the Omniversum theater in The Hague
to watch the impressive movie about the Hubble Space Telescope.
During 2010 we lost five dear ‘Sterrewachters’. Adriaan Blaauw, professor
emeritus and nestor of Dutch astronomy, died in December. Jaap Tinbergen,
UHD, who moved in 1982 together with the technical staff to Roden (KSW) en
later at ASTRON was the technical conscience op the Optical/IRT group, died in
June. Two oud-sterrewachters who moved to ASTRON after graduating as
Leiden PhDs, passed away as well: Titus Spoelstra (April) and Ernst Raimond
(September). In that same month Annemieke Gloudemans-Boonman, who
graduated in 2003 under Ewine van Dishoeck, left us all far too early. Obituaries
of Adriaan and Jaap are included in this Annual Report.
2011 promises again to be an important year for the institute, with new scientific
opportunities (including first science with LOFAR, ALMA and VLT Survey
Telescope), a newly reopened Old Observatory building with its historic
telescopes restored by the Leiden Instrumentmakers School (LIS), and the
continuing challenge to keep us where we want to be: doing research at the
forefront of modern astronomy.
Koen Kuijken
Scientific Director
Leiden Observatory
1.2 Obituary Adriaan Blaauw
Adriaan Blaauw, 1914-2010
Adriaan Blaauw was the Nestor of Dutch
astronomy, a role he fulfilled with visible relish.
Never short of a story (or the time to tell it), he
loved to talk about astronomy, to anyone. Famous
for his ground- breaking research on OB
associations and runaway OB stars, and for coediting Volume 5 (on galactic structure) of the
'Stars and Stellar Systems' series in 1965, he also
contributed greatly to astronomy as the chair of the group that defined the input
catalogue for the HIPPARCOS mission. His mind was sharp until the end, and
many of us will remember conversations over the years in which a recent
research result was met with a gracious and genuine compliment, accompanied
by a probing question delivered with a twinkle in the eyes. These were always
moments to treasure, and many students of astronomy, young and old, have
enjoyed them. But the fondest memory will be for the warmth of his personality
- it is hard to imagine a kinder man.
Adriaan Blaauw was born in Amsterdam 1914, and after meeting Willem de
Sitter studied in Leiden from 1932 onwards. While still a student he moved to
Groningen as an assistant to van Rhijn, where he obtained his PhD (cum laude)
in 1946 on a study of the Scorpio Centaurus Cluster. In 1945 he joined the staff in
Leiden, before becoming associate professor at Chicago's Yerkes Observatory in
He returned to the Netherlands in 1957 as director of the Kapteyn Institute in
Groningen, where he started to build up the present institute. In the meantime
he was deeply involved in the foundation of ESO, the European Southern
Observatory, initially as its (part-time) scientific director. In 1970 he left
Groningen to become the second Director-General. During his tenure he
oversaw the move of the organization from Hamburg to Geneva, and the
completion of the 'flagship' 3.6m telescope on La Silla. After his term at ESO he
became full professor in Leiden, a position he held until his retirement in 1981.
He served as president of the International Astronomical Union from 1976 to
1979. His talents as a diplomat served him well, as he succeeded into bringing
China back into the IAU.
During his career Adriaan Blaauw saw astronomy change almost out of all
recognition. The expansion of the universe, galaxy evolution, the distance scale,
stellar evolution, stellar populations, quasars, and many other phenomena were
all discovered or eludicated during his lifetime. Space observatories, radio
telescopes and computers appeared over the same period, and continue to grow
more and more powerful, as do optical telescopes including those of ESO.
Earlier this year Adriaan visited Paranal Observatory again, where he could see
the progress for himself - by all accounts the twinkle in his eyes, as he asked the
astronomers about their observations, was as bright as ever.
Adriaan continued to enjoy good health well into his 90's, and he remained a
regular visitor to Leiden. After his retirement he moved back to his historic
farmhouse near Groningen and took an emeritus professor appointment at the
Kapteyn Institute, where he continued to interact with students and staff alike.
In this period he saw the HIPPARCOS satellite deliver spectacular results
(thanks in no small part to his own contributions and encouragement). History
and historical perspective were among his great passions, so not only did he
produce an ´Early History of ESO´ around 1990, but he also became involved in
researches into the history of the Blaauw family from 17th century sources from
the township of Graft in the province of North Holland, where his roots lie. He
also invested much energy in setting up the archives of the IAU, making
frequent trips to Paris in his trusted small Volvo and producing a ´History of the
IAU´ in 1994.
In 2004 Adriaan wrote up some of his reminiscences in the Annual Reviews of
Astronomy and Astrophysics, and they make great reading. The warmth and
humour, the respect and wit, as well as a true historical view, are very inspiring.
We have lost a dear friend, who will be remembered fondly and with
admiration for many years.
May he rest in peace.
Koen Kuijken
Jan Lub
1.3 Obituary Jaap Tinbergen
Jaap Tinbergen 1934-2010
On June 20 our dear friend and colleague Dr. Jaap Tinbergen passed away at the
age of 75.
Jaap was a well-known optical instrumentalist and polarization expert. He was
an active member of IAU Commission 25 for many years. Many will know his
book "Astronomical Polarimetry", published in 1996 by Cambridge University
Press, that witnesses his phenomenal knowledge of the subject.
The main-belt asteroid 10434 Tinbergen (4722 P-L) was named after Jaap in
recognition of his contributions to the role of electromagnetic polarization in
instrumentation of radio and optical astronomy.
As the son of the biologist Niko Tinbergen, who was professor at Oxford
University, Jaap started his academic education in the UK. After a B.A. in
experimental physics at Cambridge University, two and a half years of
ionospheric research on Antarctica and an M.Sc. degree in information
engineering at the University of Birmingham, he moved to the Netherlands in
1960 and took up astronomy at Leiden University, where Oort, Van de Hulst,
Westerhout and Walraven were his inspiring teachers. From the beginning
polarization was a key subject. This started with his work, together with
Westerhout, Brouw, Berkhuijsen and Muller, on the polarization of the Galactic
radio background.
Graduated in 1965, he became staff member of Leiden Observatory. Under the
influence of Theodore Walraven he then moved from radioastronomy to optical
photometry and polarimetry. In 1972 he completed his dissertation "Precision
spectropolarimetry of Starlight" with Walraven as Ph.D. supervisor.
When in 1982 the small optical group of Leiden joined their colleagues at the
Kapteyn Observatory of Groningen University Jaap became an important
member of the new Working Group for Astronomical Instrumentation, the
group that eventually developed into the present NOVA-ASTRON optical
group at Dwingeloo.
During his long career as senior instrumentation scientist Jaap was involved in
the development of many instruments for telescopes in South-Africa, Chile and
on La Palma, but his real domain was precision polarimetry. His papers (19882003) together with G. Können on polarization effects in planet atmospheres are
beautiful applications of the power of polarimetry. Jaap always considered the
polarimetric properties of the complete observing system, i.e. telescope plus
instrument, and thus became the "polarimetry conscience" in the field of optical
astronomical instrumentation. He remained active until the end and made
decisive contributions to the polarimetric design of SPHERE-ZIMPOL, the
"exoplanet-finder" instrument that is presently being built for the VLT. We will
miss Jaap's wise advice, invincible optimism and friendship.
Jan-Willem Pel
Jaap Tinbergen at work with his Multipurpose
Photometer, here on the Kapteyn telescope on La Palma
(Photo courtesy G.P. Können)
2.1 Heritage
History of Dutch Science
The Sterrewacht is host to the History of Science group of the Leiden University
Faculty of Science. Members of the group focus on a variety of topics in national
and international history.
Weiss was able to illustrate the profound changes the term 'museum' underwent
over the course of the nineteenth century and in particular how much these
changes affected the role each individual collection that was housed in 'Teylers
Museum' played within the overarching entity of that museum itself. He also
addressed the more general question in what way 'art' and 'science' were
perceived as being related towards the end of the 18th century by studying all
known collections that were assembled in Haarlem during this period. He
discovered previously unknown source material relating to 'Teylers Museum'
such as travel reports and the archives of a mineral trader in Bonn. Furthermore
he organised a symposium on the public usage of different types of collection in
the nineteenth century and was guest editor of a special edition of the journal
"De Negentiende Eeuw" on the same topic.
Elbers explored how radio astronomy established itself within the Netherlands
and more specifically, why ZWO (now NWO) decided to fund a novel and
uncertain field. A crucial factor was the success of Jan Hendrik Oort (Leiden)
and Marcel Minnaert (Utrecht) in mobilising vital allies. She also examined how
the specific background of Dutch radio astronomers in optical astronomy elsewhere the field was dominated by engineers and physicists with a
background in radar research - influenced the field, e.g. how Dutch radio
astronomers dealt with their lack of technical know-how, and how this different
origin affected research questions. Finally, she focused on the relations between
Dutch and Soviet radio astronomers. It is remarkable that during the heydays of
the Cold War, Oort made considerable efforts to stimulate contacts between
Western and Soviet radio astronomers.
New names for minor planets
In 2010, 59 minor planets discovered by van Houten and van HoutenGroeneveld received a definitive number. The last four of the Trojans (minor
planets in the resonant L4 and L5 points of Jupiter's orbit) discovered by them
were named. Altogether 26 minor planets received a name communicated by
van Houten-Groeneveld. These include:
1971 Mar.25
1971 Mar.26
1971 Mar.26
1971 Mar.26
1973 Sep.29
1973 Sep.29
1973 Sep.29
1973 Sep.29
1977 Oct.16
1973 Sep.29
1973 Sep.30
1977 Oct.16
1977 Oct.16
1960 Oct.24
1960 Sep.24
1973 Sep.30
1973 Sep.29
1960 Sep.24
1960 Sep.24
1960 Sep.24
1960 Sep.24
1960 Oct.17
1977 Oct.16
1977 Oct.16
1977 Oct.16
1977 Oct.16
MPC named gives the number of the Minor Planets Circular containing the
announcement of the name, and a brief description of its meaning.
2.2 Extrasolar planets
A world first: molecular gas in an exoplanet atmosphere
Snellen, de Mooij and collaborators worked on the characterisation of extrasolar
planet atmospheres. First in the world, they detected a molecular gas in the
atmosphere of a hot Jupiter at very high spectral resolution, resulting in a paper
in Nature. During the transit of exoplanet HD209458b, they registered
absorption by carbon monoxide gas, showing a Doppler shift due to the change
in the radial component of the orbital velocity of the planet. With this result,
they could determine the planetary orbit as well as the masses of both the star
and the planet using only Newton's law of gravitation. They attributed
evidence for an additional blue-shift of the carbon monoxide absorption feature
to a global wind blowing from the hot day-side to the cooler night-side of the
Direct imaging of exoplanets
Kenworthy and Hinz (Tucson, Arizona, USA) carried out imaging of the
multiple extrasolar planet system HR 8799 at thermal infrared wavelengths. The
lack of a detection of any of the known planets at 5 microns represents a
significant challenge to current planet atmospheric models. In collaboration with
Mamajek, Kenworthy also imaged a low mass M dwarf around the bright star
Alcor using the adaptive optics and thermal camera system of the Multiple
Mirror Telescope Observatory (MMTO). More in general, his research is based
on the development of techniques for the direct imaging and characterisation of
extrasolar planet systems. A corona-graphic optic (called an apodising phase
plate or APP) is now installed at ESO's Very Large Telescope the VLT and at the
recently commissioned Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Southern Arizona.
The VLT APP has been successfully commissioned during 2010 and is now on
offer to the general community. Kenworthy and collaborators successfully
obtained direct imaging of the planet around Beta Pictoris using the APP. The
results were picked up by many popular news sites and several newspapers.
Figure 1. An image of the extrasolar planet beta Pictoris b, imaged at 4.05 microns on
the VLT in April 2010. The location of the central star is indicated, along with a
hypothetical orbit for the exoplanet (see Quanz et al. 2010 for details).
2.3 Cicumstellar gas and dust
Disks around young stellar objects
The scientific harvest of the Herschel Space Observatory characterised much of
Hogerheijde's activities in 2010. As part of three large teams that successfully
obtained significant amounts of observing time on Herschel, Hogerheijde was
involved in the analysis and reduction of observations of star forming regions,
young stars and their disks and outflows, and debris disks around nearby stars.
He was especially closely involved in the observations of the protoplanetary
disk around the young star DM Tau, searching for emission from cold water
vapor using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI). These data
were in fact some of the deepest integrations obtained with Herschel. In spite of
this fact, no clear emission was detected; at best a tentative signal from one of
the water vapor ground state lines. This, at first glance, disappointing result,
actually places very strong limits on the amount of water vapor in disks.
Although most water is expected to be frozen out onto small dust grains,
ultraviolet radiation from the star releases an appreciable amount back into the
gas phase. The strict upper limit from Herschel/HIFI implies that as much as 95
percent of the ice-carrying grains must have settled to the disk's mid-plane, out
of the reach of the stellar radiation. The corresponding increase in the amount of
icy grains near the mid-plane may aid the growth of planetesimals and
ultimately planets.
Figure 2. Herschel/HIFI observations of the ortho- and para-water ground state
transition toward the disk around the young star DM Tau, as compared to the CO 1-0
emission detected earlier (bottom). At best a very tentative detection of water vapor
emission was found, placing strong limits on the amount of water vapor in the disk and
suggesting that 95% of the ice-covered grains have settled to the disk's mid-plane.
Led by student Salter, Hogerheijde and other collaborators carried out a multiobservatory campaign to monitor the millimeter-wave emission from the close
eccentric binary DQ Tau. This pre-main-sequence binary is surrounded by a
circumbinary disk, from which it is still actively accreting material. However, its
millimeter emission, usually dominated by thermal radiation from the dust in
the disk, every two weeks increases by large amounts. Discovered by Salter in
2009, this was explained by the fact that on closest approach in their two week
orbit, the magnetospheres of the binary members overlap. The resulting
reconnection accelerates electrons to relativistic speeds, giving off intense
millimeter-wave radiation. The multi-observatory campaign confirmed that, as
expected, the events repeat once every orbit on closest passage. The
observations followed the flare of millimeter wave emission as seen from the
French Alps, from the Eastern Sierras in California, and finally from the heights
of Mauna Kea on Hawaii, and even recorded a simultaneous flare of X-ray
emission from space with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.
Figure 3. Repeating millimeter-wave light curves of the DQ Tau binary, followed by
interferometers spanning the globe from the French Alps to Hawaii.
Warm molecular gas in the disk around HD 100546
The HD 100546 disk was observed with Herschel-PACS as part of the DIGIT
program led by Evans. The first results, presented by Sturm, Bouwman,
Henning (Heidelberg, Germany) and Mulders, Dominik, Waters (Amsterdam,
NL) also involved van Dishoeck and Hogerheijde. The 69 micron feature of
crystalline forsterite was detected and analysed in terms of position and shape
to derive the dust temperature and composition. Most likely, it arises from dust
at a temperature of 200 K, at about 13 AU from the star close to the mid-plane, a
suggestion supported by radiative transfer models. The forsterite crystals have
few defects and contain at most a few percent iron by mass. Furthermore, thirtytwo gaseous emission lines from CO, OH, [C II] and [O I} were observed. The
high-J rotational transition lines of CO indicate rotational temperatures of ~300
K for the transitions up to J=22-21 and T ~ 800 K for higher transitions,
consistent with warm surface layers of disks.
Spitzer-IRS survey of protoplanetary disk dust evolution in
Oliveira, van Dishoeck, Pontoppidan (Pasadena, California, USA), Merin
(Madrid, Spain), Olofsson and Augereau (both Grenoble, France) and
collaborators finished their Spitzer-IRS survey of a complete flux-limited sample
of 147 YSO-candidates selected on the basis of their infrared colors in the
Serpens molecular cloud. Background stars, galaxies, and a planetary nebula
amount to twenty-two per cent of contamination, leaving 115 true YSOs. Sources
with rising spectra and ice absorption features, classified as embedded Stage I
protostars, amount to eighteen per cent of the sample, very similar to the
situation found in Taurus. The remaining eighty-two per cent (94) of the disk
sources are analysed in terms of spectral energy distribution shapes, PAHs, and
silicate features. About eight per cent of the disks have 30/13 micron flux ratios
consistent with cold disks with inner holes or gaps, and three per cent of the
disks show PAH emission. Comparison with models indicates that dust grains
in the surface of these disks have sizes of at least a few microns. No significant
difference is found in the distribution of silicate feature shapes between sources
in clusters and in the field, nor with the c2d IRS sample distributed over five
clouds and with a large sample of disks in Taurus. This remarkably similar
distribution in samples with different environment and median ages imply that
the dust population in the disk surface results from an equilibrium between dust
growth and destructive collision processes that are maintained over a few
million years for any YSO population irrespective of environment.
Spitzer c2d legacy survey of disks with inner dust holes
Understanding how disks dissipate is essential to studies of planet formation.
However, determination how exactly dust and gas dissipate is complicated due
to the difficulty of finding objects that are clearly in the transition phase of
losing their surrounding material. Merin (Madrid, Spain), Brown, Herczeg (both
München, Germany), Oliveira, Bottinelli, van Dishoeck and collaborators used
Spitzer-IRS to examine 35 photometrically selected candidate 'cold' disks,
supplemented with optical spectra to determine stellar and accretion properties
and mm photometry to measure disk masses. Based on detailed SED modelling,
fifteen new cold disks are identified. Based on these results, reliable criteria are
determined to identify disks with inner holes from Spitzer photometry, and
examine criteria already in the literature. Applying these criteria to the c2d
surveyed regions gives a frequency of such objects of at least four, and most
likely about twelve per cent of the YSO population. Hole sizes in this sample
are generally smaller than in previously discovered disks and reflect a
distribution in better agreement with exoplanet orbit radii. A correlation
between hole size and both disk and stellar masses is found. Silicate features,
including crystalline features, are present in the overwhelming majority of the
sample, although the 10 micron feature strength above the continuum declines
for holes with radii larger than about seven AU. In contrast, PAHs are only
detected in 2 out of 15 sources. Only a quarter shows no signs of accretion,
making it unlikely that photo-evaporation is the dominant hole-forming
How does matter accrete onto disks?
The ratio of disk mass over stellar mass is for a large part determined by the
angular momentum of the original cloud core from which the system was
formed. Visser and Dullemond (Heidelberg, Germany) used a semi-analytic
model to investigate how the 2D nature of accretion affects the formation and
evolution of the disk in the embedded phase of star formation. A proper
treatment of this problem requires a correction for the sub-Keplerian velocity at
which accretion takes place. The disks produced with this new method are
smaller than those obtained previously, but their mass is mostly unchanged.
The 2D treatment results in material accreting at larger radii, so a smaller
fraction comes close enough to the star for amorphous silicates to be thermally
annealed into crystalline form. The lower crystalline abundances thus predicted
correspond more closely to observed abundances than did earlier model results.
The impact of X-rays on protoplanetary disks
Aresu, Kamp (Kapteyn Astronomical Institute) and Meijerink implemented the
X-ray chemistry from the Meijerink & Spaans XDR code in the chemo-physical
disk code ProDiMo. It was found that neutral molecular species are not much
affected in their abundance and spatial distribution, but charged species such as
N+, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ abundances are enhanced in the disk surface.
Furthermore, the vertical density structure of the disk is changed due to heating
of the surface to temperatures T~8000 K out to distances of 50 AU.
Simulations of water ice photo-desorption
Arasa, van Dishoeck and Cuppen, in collaboration with Kroes (LIC) and
Andersson (SINTEF Norway), simulated the UV photo-dissociation of
amorphous water ice at different ice temperatures up to 90 K using molecular
dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical potentials. The main conclusions are
in agreement with the earlier 10 K results by our group: desorption dominates in
the top layers, while trapping occurs deeper in the ice. The hydrogen atom
photo-desorption probability does not depend on ice temperature, but OH and
H2O photo-desorption probabilities tend to increase slightly (~30%) with ice
temperature. The total photo-desorption probability (OH+H2O) follows the
same trend as the experimental total photo-desorption yield by Öberg et al: in
both cases the probabilities rise smoothly with ice temperature. The
experimental yield is on average 3.8 times larger than our theoretical results,
which can be explained by the different time scales studied and the
approximations in our model.
2.4 Chemistry and
interstellar medium
Grain surface molecule formation
Many simple, but important, interstellar molecules are believed to be formed on
grain surfaces. In 2010, Cuppen's research efforts focused mainly on two of
these molecules, H2 and H2O. She obtained valuable information about the
formation routes of H2O from laboratory experiments. This was achieved
through simultaneous H-atom and O2 deposition under ultra-high vacuum
conditions for astronomically relevant temperatures. Different H/O2 ratios were
used to trace different stages in the hydrogenation network. The chemical
changes in the forming ice were followed by means of reflection absorption
infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). New reaction paths were revealed as compared
to previous experiments. Several reaction steps proved to be much more
efficient (H + O2) or less efficient (H + OH and H2 + OH) than originally
thought. This new extended network will have profound implications for
models that describe the formation of water in space.
She also studied H2 formation in post-shock regions using a recently developed
model for H2 formation on a graphite surface in warm conditions. The H2
formation rate is substantially higher at high gas temperatures as compared to
the original implementation of this rate in shock models, because of the
introduction of H atoms which are chemically bonded to the grain
(chemisorption). H2 plays a key role in the cooling and the increased rate was
found to have a substantial effect on the predicted line fluxes of an important
coolant in dissociative shocks [OI] at 63.2 and 145.5 microns. With the new
model, a better agreement between the model and observations was obtained.
Since one of the goals of Herschel/PACS will be to observe these lines with
higher spatial resolution and sensitivity than the former observations by
Infrared Space Observatory-LWS, this more accurate model is very timely to
help with the interpretation of these future results.
Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)
WISH is a Herschel-HIFI program designed to probe the physical and chemical
structures of young stellar objects using water and related molecules and to
follow the water abundance from collapsing clouds to planet-forming disks led
by van Dishoeck. About 80 sources are targeted, covering a wide range of
luminosities - from low to high-mass - and a wide range of evolutionary stages from cold prestellar cores to warm protostellar envelopes and outflows to disks
around young stars. The Leiden team members focus on low-mass protostars
and protoplanetary disks.
Kristensen, Visser, Yildiz, van Dishoeck and the WISH team used the high
spectral resolution provided by HIFI to observe three deeply embedded
protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several lines of H2O
and CO and their isotopologues. The line profiles are surprisingly complex,
consisting of broad (more than twenty km/s), medium-broad (five to ten km/s),
and narrow (less than five5 km/s) components. In one source, an inverse P
Cygni profile is observed. This is an unmistakable sign of in-fall in the envelope.
From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from
shocks, both on small (a thousand AU) and large scales along outflow cavity
walls (ten thousand AU). The H2O/CO abundance ratios are in the range of one
tenth to unity, corresponding to H2O abundances of ~10-5-10-4 with respect to
H2. Approximately five to ten per cent of the gas is hot enough for all oxygen to
be driven into water in warm post-shock gas, mostly at high velocities.
Yildiz and the WISH team also detected high-J lines (up to J=10) of 12CO, 13CO
and C18O with HIFI toward the same sources. These were combined with low-J
line measurements from the JCMT and radiative transfer models were applied
to constrain the temperature of the broad-line shocked gas to 100-200 K. The
narrow C18O J=9-8 lines probe the warmer part of the quiescent envelope. Their
intensities require a jump in the CO abundance at an evaporation temperature
around 25 K, thus providing new direct evidence for a CO ice evaporation zone
around low-mass protostars.
Figure 4. Herschel-HIFI spectra of the p-H2O 1113 GHz (left) and 988 GHz (right) lines
from the WISH key program. From top to bottom: the high-mass YSO W3 IRS5, the
intermediate-mass YSO NGC 7129 FIRS2 and the low-mass YSO NGC 1333 IRAS2A.
All spectra have been shifted to a central velocity of 0 km/s.
Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars
The WISH key program also uses the PACS 5x5 pixel array receiver to observe
far-infrared lines of H2O, CO, OH, [O I], and [C II] between 55 and 210 micron.
Van Kempen, Kristensen, Herczeg (MPE, Germany), Visser, van Dishoeck and
the WISH team observed the low-mass protostar HH 46 in the Herschel science
demonstration phase. CO emission from levels of 2500 K above ground and
higher is detected at the central position and along the outflow, as is warm H2O
emission, whereas OH emission is concentrated at the source position.
Interestingly, strong [O I] emission is detected from the envelope as well as up
to 170 km/s in both the red- and blue-shifted jets. Detailed modelling by Visser
and Kristensen shows that passive heating of a spherical envelope by the
protostellar luminosity cannot explain the high-excitation molecular gas
detected with the PACS instrument. Instead, the warm CO and H2O emission is
probably produced in the walls of an outflow-carved cavity in the envelope,
heated by UV photons and non-dissociative C-type shocks. The bright OH and
[O I] emission is attributed to J-type shocks in dense gas close to the protostar.
A similar study has been performed by van Kempen, Kristensen, Herczeg, van
Dishoeck, Evans (Texas, USA) in collaboration with the 'Dust, Gas and Ice in
Time' key program (DIGIT) led by Evans for the protostar DK Chamaeleontis,
an intermediate-mass star in transition from an embedded configuration to a
star plus disk stage. A full Herschel-PACS scan has been obtained, showing
about fifty molecular and atomic lines. Nearly the entire ladder of CO from
J=14-13 to J=38-37 (4080 K above ground), water from excitation levels as high as
800 K and OH lines up to 290 K are detected. A similar scenario as found for
HH 46 is invoked, with most of the emission arising from the walls of the
cavities carved by the outflows.
Water vapor in a young disk around a low-mass protostar
Jørgensen (Copenhagen, Denmark) and van Dishoeck published the first
spatially resolved observation of thermal emission of water obtained with the
IRAM PdBI toward the deeply embedded Class 0 protostar NGC 1333-IRAS4B.
The observations of the H218O transition at 203.4 GHz resolve the emission of
water and show an extent of about 25 AU (radius). The water emission has a
velocity gradient perpendicular to the protostellar outflow/jet, consistent with a
disk. The line is narrow, only one km/s, significantly less than would be
expected for emission from an infalling envelope or accretion shock, ruling out
previous models. The water column density suggests that the emitting gas is in
a thin warm layer containing about twenty-five M_Earth of material, or a
thirtieth of the total disk mass traced by continuum observations. The result
featured in an IRAM and NOVA press release.
Jørgensen and van Dishoeck also obtained deep searches for HDO at 225.6 GHz
toward the same source, IRAS4B, using the SMA. The non-detection provides a
direct, model-independent, upper limit to the HDO/H2O abundance ratio of 6 x
10-4 in the warm gas associated with the central protostar. This upper limit
suggests that the HDO/H2O abundance ratio is not significantly enhanced in the
inner 50 AU relative to what is seen in comets and Earth's oceans and does not
support previous suggestions of a generally enhanced HDO/H2O ratio in lowmass protostars. In contrast, the nearby protostar NGC 1333 IRAS2A appears to
have HDO/H2O ratios a factor of a hundred larger on scales of several thousand
AU, as inferred from single-dish Herschel and ground-based data by Liu, Parise
(both Bonn, Germany), Kristensen, Visser and van Dishoeck.
A cold complex chemistry toward the low-mass protostar B1-b
Gas-phase complex organic molecules have been detected toward a range of
high- and low-mass star-forming regions at abundances which cannot be
explained by any known gas-phase chemistry. Recent Leiden laboratory
experiments by Öberg, Linnartz and van Dishoeck show that UV irradiation of
CH3OH-rich ices may be an important mechanism for producing complex
molecules and releasing them into the gas phase. To test this scenario, Öberg
(Harvard), Bottinelli, Jørgensen and van Dishoeck mapped the B1-b dust core
and nearby protostar in CH3OH gas using the IRAM 30m telescope to identify
locations of efficient non-thermal ice desorption. The quiescent CH3OH
abundance peak and one outflow position were subsequently searched for
complex molecules. Narrow HCOOCH3 and CH3CHO lines originating in cold
gas are clearly detected, CH3OCH3 is tentatively detected, and C2H5OH and
HOCH2CHO are undetected, while no complex molecular lines were found
toward the outflow. The core abundances with respect to CH3OH are similar to
the few other low-mass sources surveyed to date. The observed complex
molecule characteristics and the pre-dominance of HCO-bearing species
suggests a cold ice (below the sublimation temperature of CO) formation
pathway followed by non-thermal desorption through, e.g., UV photons
traveling through outflow cavities. Together, the data point to clear evidence of
efficient complex molecule formation in cold interstellar ices.
IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars: gas-phase lines
Lahuis, van Dishoeck and collaborators published their survey of Spitzer-IRS
mid-IR gas-phase emission lines of H2, H2O and various atoms toward a sample
of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions taken as
part of the 'Cores to Disks' (c2d) legacy program. The mid-IR spectral range
hosts a suite of diagnostic lines which can distinguish PDRs, shocks, jets and
circumstellar disks when combined with an optimal extraction method to
separate both spatially unresolved (compact, up to a few hundred AU) and
spatially resolved (extended, thousand AU or more) emission. The results are
compared with the c2d sample of protoplanetary disks and with literature PDR
and shock models to address the physical nature of the sources. Warm (T_ex ~
few hundred K) H2 and [S I] 25 micron emission is observed primarily in the
extended component and likely originates in a PDR along the cavity walls. On
the other hand, hot (T_ex ~ 700 K) H2 and [Ne II] emission is seen mostly in the
spatially unresolved component, together with hot H2O. [Fe II] and [Si II] lines
are observed in both components. The compact emission is likely of mixed
origin, comprised of circumstellar disk and/or jet emission.
2.5 Stars
Hunting for millimeter flares in very young spectroscopic
Recent observations of the eccentric spectroscopic binaries DQ Tau and V773
Tau A have revealed that their radio emission at millimeter wavelengths is
occasionally dominated by non-thermal flares. These are low-mass pre-main
sequence (PMS) binary systems.
The transient activity appears to be
synchrotron emission resulting from powerful magnetic reconnection events.
Such events occur typically near periastron when the separate magnetic
structures of the binary components are briefly capable of interacting and forced
to reorganise.
Are such flares always associated with sources experiencing similar inter-binary
reconnection events? In order to find out, Kóspàl, Salter, Hogerheijde, Moer
(Konkoly Observatory, Hungary), and Blake (Caltech, USA) conducted the first
systematic study of the millimeter variability in a sample of 12 PMS
spectroscopic binaries. This sample consisted entirely of short-period, closeseparation binaries with either a circular or a very eccentric orbit. They used the
MAMBO2 array on the IRAM 30 m telescope to obtain continuous monitoring at
1.25 mm (240 GHz) over a 4-night period, during which all of the higheccentricity binaries passed periastron. They obtained simultaneous optical
measurements in the V, R, and I bands, X-ray bursts suggest a strong link
between stellar reconnection events and optical brightenings. As it turned out,
UZ Tau E was the only source detected at millimeter wavelengths. It exhibited
significant variation and it was also the only source to show strong and
simultaneous optical variability. It had the largest orbital eccentricity in the
sample, an important factor in interbinary reconnection events. With orbital
parameters and variable accretion activity similar to those of DQ Tau, the
millimeter behavior of UZ Tau E fits well into the DQ Tau model for colliding
magneto-spheres, although the observations where insufficient to determine the
periodicity and precise cause of the variability. With UZ Tau E, there are now 3
out of a total of 14 PMS binaries with known millimeter variability. This is not a
conclusive result because important factors in the non-detection of the other
targets are coarse time-sampling and limited millimeter sensitivity. Future
studies should concentrate on nearby objects and should monitor them at
millimeter and optical wavelengths with better temporal resolution.
Figure 5. Optical (top panel) and millimeter (middle panel) light curves of UZ Tau E, as
well as separation distance as a function of time (bottom panel).
Two young eruptive stars in the North America/Pelican Nebula
The sudden optical brightening of two young stellar objects, HBC 722 and VSX
J205126.1+440523, in the North America/Pelican Nebula Complex, was
announced in August 2010. Early photometric and spectroscopic observations of
these objects indicated that they might belong to the FUor or EXor class of
young eruptive stars. The eruptions of FUors and EXors are often explained by
enhanced accretion of material from the circumstellar disk onto the protostar. In
order to determine the true nature of these two objects, Kóspàl and collaborators
started an optical and near-infrared monitoring program complemented by the
extraction of data from archives and literature. These data were used to
construct pre-outburst and outburst spectral energy distributions (SEDs), multifilter light curves, and color-color diagrams.
The quiescent SED of HBC 722 was consistent with that of a slightly reddened
normal T Tauri-type star. This source brightened monotonically over two
months and at maximum brightness the SED was that of a hot, singletemperature black-body. The current fading rate suggests that the star will
return to quiescence in about a year, which questions its classification as a bone
fide FUor. The quiescent SED of VSX J205126.1+440523 appears to be that of a
highly embedded Class I source. The outburst of this source happened more
gradually, but with a much higher amplitude. Its light curves showed a deep
minimum two and a half months after peak intensity, when the object was close
to its pre-outburst optical brightness. Further monitoring indicated that it is still
far from being quiescent.
The shape of the light-curves as well as the bolometric luminosities and
accretion rates suggest that these objects do not fit into the classic FUor group.
Although HBC 722 exhibits all spectral characteristics of a bona-fide FUor, its
luminosity and accretion rate are too low and its timescale is too short compared
with classical FUors. VSX J205126.1+440523 seems to represent a case in which
fast extinction changes modulate the light curve.
Figure 6. Light curves of the newly discovered objects and those of different young
eruptive stars.
Maser emission from newly formed stars
With the same methods previously applied to Cep A data, Torstensson and van
Langevelde continued their work on measuring the large-scale thermal
methanol distribution in high mass star-forming regions with methanol masers.
They used JCMT-HARP at 338 GHz to determine temperatures and column
densities in a small sample of sources. Some of these appeared to be very
complex, but many of the sources could be characterised by very well-confined
(young) outflows, that seem to originate from the same location as the maser
emission. A collaboration with van der Tak (SRON), Vlemmings (Bonn,
Germany) and Kristensen had already determined that in the relatively nearby
source Cep A, this argues for a single location of methanol production in this
object. The detailed geometry of this source, determined with VLBI
measurements, suggests that this could be in the shocked region where the
accretion flow hits the circumstellar material.
Figure 7. Velocity fields of the methanol 7-1  6-1 E type transition in four methanol
maser sources. The crosses define the position of the maser, which is argued to be
associated with the origin of methanol in these high-mass star-forming regions.
Amiri, van Langevelde, and Vlemmings (Bonn, Germany) started a study to use
the SiO masers in evolved stars to measure the effect of magnetic shaping.
While previous SiO maser imaging has focused on Mira variables, the new work
resulted in a beautiful ring image of the classic OH/IR star OH44.8-2.3. Unlike
the predominant tangential linear polarisation morphology previously detected
in Mira variables, the observations appear to show a dipole magnetic field
morphology for the SiO maser region of this star.
Figure 8. The SiO masers around OH44.8 are observed to lie in a 4.75 mas ring,
corresponding to 5.6 AU for a distance of 1.13 kpc.
2.6 Galaxies of the Local Group
Magnetic fields of the Milky Way
Lambrechts and Haverkorn modeled the Faraday rotation imprint of three radio
loops, major polarised features in the radio sky, extending tens of degrees in
both Galactic longitude and latitude and thought to be nearby, old supernova
remnants. Lambrechts showed that some of these loops have a clear signature in
Faraday rotation, rendering straightforward interpretation of large-scale
rotation measure features as regular Galactic magnetic field features difficult.
Haverkorn participated in a study of the vertical component of the Galactic
magnetic field and small-scale structure towards the Galactic poles led by Mao
(Boston, USA). The researchers determined the rotation measures of hundreds
of extragalactic sources towards the Galactic North and South Poles, observed
with the WSRT and ATCA. No consistent vertical magnetic field component
through the Galactic disk at the solar radius was found towards the Galactic
North Pole. However, a weak constant vertical magnetic field component was
found towards the South Pole. This indicates the presence either of a variable
local magneto-ionised medium or a difference in magnetic field structures in
both hemispheres.
Searching for streamers in the Milky Way Halo
Together with Mateu, Bruzual, Hernandez (Merida), Aguilar, Velazquez
(Ensenada, Mexico), Valenzuela, and Carigi (Mexico City, Mexico), Brown
implemented an extension of an existing streamer-finding method that can be
applied to the future Gaia data. The original method looks for streamers along
great circles in the sky, the extension adds the kinematical restriction that
velocity vectors should also be constrained to lie along these great circles, as
seen by a Galactocentric observer. They tested the method by using a mock Gaia
catalogue, which included a realistic Galactic background and observational
errors. Detailed star formation histories were added for the simulated satellites.
The inclusion of the kinematical restriction vastly enhanced the contrast
between a streamer and the background, even in the presence of observational
errors, provided only data with good astrometric quality are used (relative
errors of 30 per cent or better). The global nature of the method diminishes the
erasing effect of phase mixing and permits the recovery of merger events of
reasonable dynamical age. Satellites with a star formation history different to
that of the Galactic background are also better isolated. Satellites in the range of
one hundred million to one billion solar luminosities can be recovered even for
events as old as 10 gigayear. Even satellites with 40 to 50 million solar
luminosities can be recovered for certain combinations of dynamical ages and
Anomalous dust and enhanced C+ emission from the Magellanic
The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are satellites of our own galaxy,
characterized by heavy-element abundances that are lower (LMC) and much
lower (SMC), respectively than those in the Solar Neighborhood. In each of
these galaxies, local radiation field intensities vary by one or two orders of
magnitude. The proximity of the Magellanic Clouds thus presents unique
opportunities for studying star formation and the interstellar medium in
environments very different from our own, with reasonably high spatial
To this end, Israel, Raban, Oonk and collaborators used the COBE-DIRBE and
WMAP databases in an innovative way. From these cosmological surveys, they
extracted maps of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic
Cloud (SMC) in the far-infrared spectral range of 1.25 micron to 240 micron, and
in the millimeter range of 3 - 15 millimeter (23 GHz - 93 GHz) and also
determined spatially integrated (total) flux densities. They complemented the
COBE-DIRBE and WMAP with flux densities at other wavelengths found in an
exhaustive literature search, selected to reliably represent the global emission
from the Clouds. They then used these data to construct the flux density and
energy distributions over the full spectral range from low-frequency radio to
This is the first time that the critical three spectral decades in the sub-millimeter
to centimeter wavelength window (10 GHz - 1 THz) were fully covered. There
are fewer than a dozen galaxies that have SEDs so reliably and completely
Israel and collaborators established that the SMC and the LMC exhibit
significant emission above the expected free-free radio continuum starting at
wavelengths of about 1 cm and extending over millimeter and sub-millimeter
wavelengths into the far-infrared. They ruled out that the excess could be
caused by cold, big dust grains, which would represent an enormous mass of
dust. Instead, the excess is almost certainly caused by a combination of nonthermally emitting dust particles (notably spinning dust) and contamination by
the cosmic background emission. The presence of millimeter excess emission in
Figure 9. The spectral energy distributions of the electromagnetic emission from the
Large Magellanic Cloud (top) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (bottom), ranging from
very low freqency radio wavelengths to the ultraviolet. Open circles mark data from the
published literature, filled circles represent newly derived flux densities. The new data
for the first time completely fill the gap at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths,
and reveal the newly discovered millimeter-centimeter anomalous dust emission.
the Magellanic Clouds is expected to provide new insights into the nature of
interstellar dust. In the meantime it masks any weaker signal by cold dust so
that reliable determination of total dust mass as well as gas-to-dust ratio has
become a virtual impossibility. Combined with the degeneracy of dust model
SEDs in the far-infrared/sub-millimeter range, and the variation in submillimeter dust emissivities (beta) it is now becoming clear that the amount or
even presence of dust colder than about 15 K in any external galaxy is effectively
As a by-product of this research, Israel and colleagues also accurately
determined for the first time the free-free thermal radio continuum emission
from the Magellanic Clouds and the mean visual extinctions.
In a different effort, Israel and Maloney studied the emission in the far-infrared
(157.7 micron) fine-structure line of ionised carbon (C+). They used maps of the
[CII] emission from several bright star-forming complexes including N11 in the
LMC and N66 in the SMC, made with the now defunct Kuiper Airborne
They confirmed an earlier result, that in the LMC the ratio of [CII] to CO line
and [CII] to far-infrared continuum emission is much higher than seen almost
anywhere else, including Milky Way star-forming regions. The high [CII]/CO
ratios reflect the relative constancy of the total C+ column in a UV-photondominated region (PDR) if both the gas-phase carbon abundance and the dustto-gas ratio are varied in the same way, in contrast to decreasing CO column
densities when self-shielding fails. In effect, in a low-metallicity molecular
cloud the size of the CO-emitting core will shrink, so that the PDR will occupy a
larger fraction of the total cloud volume. High [CII]/FIR ratios, implying very
large grain photoelectric heating efficiencies of the order of a few per cent, result
from normal PDR gas densities combined with unusually low ambient UV
photon fluxes. The latter are again caused by the low metallicity and dust
content of the Clouds, which provides UV photons with a relatively long mean
free path length. In such environments, the sphere of influence of a UV photon
source is much larger than in environments with solar metallicities, and the
geometric dilution of the radiation field is correspondingly larger.
Figure 10.Contours of C+ emission from the very bright star-forming complexes N11 in
the Large Magellanic Cloud (previous page) and N66 in the Small Magellanic Cloud
(this page) superposed on a grayscale representation of the CO emission from the
complexex. Ionized carbon is much more widely distributed than CO in both complexes,
but especially in the older and more evolved N66 complex. The morphologies and
intrensity ratios point at an advanced erosion of the molecular cloud gas by the process
of phot-dissociation.
These effects also operate in the SMC but contrary to expectations relative [CII]
intensities in the SMC are no different from those in the LMC, notwithstanding
the SMC's substantially lower metallicity. To explain this, Israel and Maloney
noted that in addition to the low dust abundances, the SMC interstellar medium
is also characterised by very low abundances of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have an opposite effect by diminishing photoelectric
heating rates. Consequently, in low-metallicity environments relative [CII]
strengths are high but exhibit little further dependence on actual metallicity.
Indeed, [CII] data available for the irregular galaxy IC10, with a metallicity inbetween those of the LMC and the SMC show the same relative intensities.
Dust, molecular gas, and star-bursts in M 33
Van der Werf and Israel were part of a team led by Kramer (IRAM, Spain) and
Braine (Bordeaux, France) studying the molecular gas and dust in the Local
Group galaxy M33. The molecular gas was studied using the HEterodyne
Receiver Array (HERA) at the 30 m IRAM telescope in the CO J=2-1 line, at
sufficiently high resolution to resolve individual giant molecular clouds
(GMCs). The azimuthally averaged CO surface brightness decreases
exponentially with a scale length of almost two kilo-parsec whereas the atomic
gas surface density is constant. The star formation rate per unit molecular gas (a
measure for the star formation efficiency, or the rate of transformation of
molecular gas into stars) was traced by the ratio of CO to H\alpha line and farinfrared continuum emission, and was found to be constant with radius. A
morphological comparison of molecular and atomic gas with tracers of star
formation showed good general agreement between these distributions in terms
of both peaks and holes. A few exceptions are noted.
The continuum emission from dust in M33 was studied using the SPIRE camera
on board of the Herschel Space Observatory. With roughly half-solar
abundances, M33 provides a valuable, first step towards the study of young
low-metallicity galaxies where submillimeter emission may be used as an
alternative to CO to measure the H2 content. The dust emission cross-section
was determined using SPIRE on Herschel and recent CO and HI observations; a
variation in cross-section was found from a near-solar neighborhood crosssection to about half-solar with the maximum being south of the nucleus.
Calculation of the total H column density from the measured dust temperature
and cross-section, followed by subtraction of the measured HI column provided
an estimate of the molecular hydrogen as a function of location in M33. This
procedure yielded a morphology similar to that observed in CO. The H2/HI
mass ratio decreases from about unity to well below a tenth and is about a sixth
averaged over the optical disk. The single most important observation to reduce
the potentially large systematic errors is to complete the CO mapping of M 33,
which is presently ongoing.
With a fitting routine that uses Bayesian statistics to calculate model parameter
uncertainties, Martinez-Galarza, Groves and Brandl, together with collaborators
in the US and Australia, have 'calibrated' the star-burst spectral-energy
distribution (SED) models of Groves, Dopita and co=workers by applying them
to the integrated spectrum of the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic
Cloud. 30 Doradus is a nearby, well studied star-burst region in miniature and
therefore an ideal calibrator. The results show that mid-infrared SED fitting can
provide reliable estimations of the physical properties of unresolved starforming systems, such as total stellar mass, mass contribution from an
embedded population (indicative of on-going star formation), and effective ages
of the ionising stellar population. As part of a collaboration with Hunter
(Flagstaff, Arizona, USA), the same routine was applied to the Spitzer-IRS
spectral map of NGC 604, a giant HII region in Messier 33. The results are
consistent with NGC 604 being a more evolved HII region as compared to 30
2.7 Nearby galaxies: observations and
The molecular ISM in active galaxies
Meijerink, Spaans (Groningen, NL), Loenen & van der Werf initiated a
theoretical study to investigate the diagnostic power of the newly discovered
ions OH+ and H2O+ related to water in the ultra-luminous galaxy (ULIRG)
Markarian 231. They found that fine-structure lines of [CII], [CI], and [OI] are
remarkably similar for different mechanical and cosmic-ray heating rates when
they are already exposed to large amounts of UV. The abundances of HCN and
H2O are boosted for very high mechanical heating rates, but ionised species are
relatively unaffected. OH+ and H2O+ are enhanced for very high cosmic ray
fluxes. They concluded that a combination of OH+, OH, H2O+, H2O, and H3O+
traces the cosmic-ray heating rates rather well, and that such a combinations
allows to distinguish between enhanced cosmic rays and X-rays.
Aalto, Costagliola (Gothenburg, Sweden), van der Tak (Groningen, NL) and
Meijerink analysed the H3O+ line emission from from a set of active galaxies in
order to investigate the impact of star-burst and AGN activity on the chemistry
of the molecular interstellar medium. Using the JCMT, they observed the 364
GHz line of p-H3O+ towards the centers of seven active galaxies, and detected it
towards IC 342, NGC 253, NGC 1068, NGC 4418, and NGC 6240. They obtained
only upper limits for IRAS 15250 or Arp 299. Comparison with the PDR and
XDR models of Meijerink showed that in IC 342, a star-burst PDR chemistry is
sifficient to explain the observed H3O+ abundance. In the other galaxies, the
large H3O+ columns are generally consistent with XDR models.
As part of the first results of HEXGAL, Loenen (among others with Leiden team
members Israel, Meijerink and van der Werf) published a paper on HIFI
observations of the starburst galaxy M 82. By combining the HIFI observations
with other available data, several components of the molecular ISM in M 82
could be identified, each with their own physical properties (see Fig. 11). Using
the high spectral resolution provided by HIFI several velocity components were
identified in the spectrum. One of these velocity components could succesfully
be linked to a physical ISM component and to a particular location in the
Figure 11. Excitation of 12CO and 13CO in M82. Squares and circles represent Herschel
data, diamonds are ground based observations. Lines represent modelling results. Three
different ISM components could identified (see legend; n is the gas density in cm -3, G0 is
the UV flux in Habing units), ranging from diffuse, cold (dotted) to very dense, highly
excited gas (dashed).
Water vapour in the star-burst galaxy M 82
In an effort led by Weiss (Bonn, Germany), van der Werf and Israel used HIFI
on te Herschel Space Observatory to obtain the first extragalactic detections of
the rotational ortho-water ground transition, the two lowest para-water
transitions, and the ground transition of ionised ortho-water in the archetypal
and very nearby star-burst galaxy M82. All three water lines show different
spectral line profiles, underlining the need for high spectral resolution in
interpreting line formation processes. Using the line shape of the para-H2O(111000) and ortho-H2O+ 111-000) absorption profile in conjunction with high spatial
resolution CO observations, Weiss and collaborators showed that the (ionised)
water absorption arises from a compact region within the HIFI observing beam
located just off the dynamical centre of the galaxy. This region does not coincide
with any of the known line emission peaks that have been identified in other
molecular tracers, with the exception of HCO. The data suggest that water and
ionised water have high area-covering factors of the underlying continuum. This
indicates that water is not associated with small, dense cores within the ISM of
M 82 but arises from a more widespread diffuse gas component.
ISM heating in the ultra-luminous galaxy Markarian 231
Within the context of the Herschel Comprehensive (U)LIRG Emission Survey
(HerCULES), a team led by van der Werf and also involving Meijerink, Loenen
and Israel, obtained a high-frequency (SPIRE FTS) spectrum of the relatively
nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231 (Fig. 12). At least 25 lines
were detected, including the CO J=5-4 through J=13-12 transitions, 7 rotational
lines of H2O, 3 of OH+ and one line each of H2O+, CH+, and HF. The excitation of
the lower CO rotational levels can be accounted for by the UV radiation from
newly formed luminous stars, but the approximately flat intensity distribution
of the higher CO transitions requires the presence of a separate source of
excitation. The team explored X-ray rather than UV-photon heating by the
accreting super-massive black hole in Markarian 231 as a source of excitation for
these lines, and found that this mechanism can reproduce the observed
intensities. In principle, dense gas immersed in a strong UV radiation field may
also reproduce the observed CO line intensity distribution, but this model
predicts unrealistically high masses of hot dust in the galaxy. In the end, the
team strongly favoured a model that consists of a star-forming disk of radius 560
pc, containing clumps of dense gas exposed to strong UV radiation, dominating
the CO line intensities up to J=8. The X-rays from the accreting super-massive
black hole at the nucleus then dominate the excitation and chemistry of the CO
lines above J=8 in the inner disk out to a radius of 160 pc. This widely cited
result demonstrated the usefulness of the CO ladder to separate star formation
and black hole accretion as power sources for galaxy nuclei, providing a crucial
local benchmark for high redshift observations with ALMA.
The spectrum in Fig. 12 also reveals up to seven rotational lines of water in
emission, including a very high-lying (Eupper = 640 K) line detected in the SPIRE
wavelength range, whereas PACS observations show a single H2O line in
absorption. This result was analysed by a team led by Gonzalez-Alfonso
(Henares, Spain) and including van der Werf, Meijerink, Loenen and Israel. The
absorption/emission dichotomy appeared to be caused by the pumping of the
rotational levels by far-infrared radiation emitted by dust, and subsequent
relaxation through lines at longer wavelengths. This allowed an estimate of the
column density of H2O and the general characteristics of the underlying farinfrared continuum source. Radiative transfer models including both collisional
and radiative excitation were used to calculate the equilibrium level populations
of H2O and the corresponding line fluxes. The highest-lying H2O lines detected
in emission indicate that the source of far-infrared radiation responsible for the
pumping is compact (radius = 110-180 pc) and warm (Tdust ~ 90 K) and
accounts for almost half of the bolometric luminosity. This high column density
nuclear component most probably reflects a violent environment characterised
by shocks, intense cosmic rays, an XDR chemistry, and an undepleted chemistry
where grain mantles are evaporated. A more extended region, presumably the
inner region of the one-kpc disk observed in other molecular species, could
contribute to the flux observed in low-lying H2O lines through dense hot cores,
and/or shocks.
Figure 12. SPIRE FTS spectrum of Markarian 231. Line identifications are given in red
for CO lines, in blue for H2O, in magenta for OH+, in cyan for H2O+, and in green for
the remaining lines.
Ground-based CO rotational ladders of luminous infrared
With Papadopoulos (Bonn, Germany) and Isaak (ESTEC), van der Werf used CO
J=6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies, obtained with the
James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, to construct the first local CO spectral line
energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs in such
galaxies. These CO ladders are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects
many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies) nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions. The team discovered that low CO line excitation
may globally occur even in vigorously star-forming systems. They identified the
first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C
293, where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and they found unusually
highly excited gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. The faintness of
CO J=6-5 lines in Arp 220 and possibly in other (U)LIRGs as well can be
attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths
which also causes the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme
star-bursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios measured in submillimeter galaxies
suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift
star-bursts, with genuinely low excitation of large amounts of non-star-forming
gas being the only other possibility for their often low CO (high-J)/(low-J) line
ratios. The team also presented a statistical method of separating these two
almost degenerate possibilities, and showed that high dust optical depths at
submillimeter wavelengths can impede the diagnostic potential of submillimeter
and far-infrared lines (e.g., star-bursts versus AGNs as gas excitation agents).
The nuclear region of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240
With Engel, Davies, Genzel and Tacconi (Muenchen, Germany), van der Werf
published spatially resolved integral-field spectroscopic (SINFONI) K-band data
at a resolution of only 0.13 arcsec (which corresponds to 60 parsec) and
interferometric CO J=2-1 line observations of the prototype merging system
NGC 6240. Despite a clear rotational signature, the stellar kinematics in the two
nuclei of this system are dominated by dispersion. Jeans modelling was used to
derive the masses and the mass-to-light ratios of the nuclei. Combination of the
luminosities with the spatially resolved Brackett gamma equivalent widths
showed that only a third of the K-band continuum from the nuclei may be
associated with the most recent star forming episode. Less than a third of the
system's bolometric luminosity and only a tenth of its stellar mass is due to this
star-burst. The star formation properties, calculated from typical merger star
formation scenarios, demonstrate the impact of differences in assumptions
about the star formation history. The properties of the nuclei and the existence
of a prominent old stellar population indicate that the nuclei are remnants of the
progenitor galaxies' bulges.
Radio relics in the merging cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301
Figure 13. MHz WSRT image with ROSAT X-ray contours overlaidof the merging
cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 (z=0.19). (right) spectral index map using observations at
1400, 610 and 325 MHz (Van Weeren, Röttgering et al. 2010, Science 330,347).
Galaxy clusters grow by mergers with galaxy groups or other clusters, as well
as through the accretion of gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM). Both these
processes produce shocks in the intercluster medium. It is possible that particles
can be accelerated within these shocks to highly relativistic energies by the
diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. At the periphery of clusters,
large elongated and diffuse structures occur known as cluster relics. Van
Weeren, Röttgering, Brüggen (Bremen), Hoeft (Tautenburg) discovered a
spectacularly long and narrow relic with a size of 2.0 Mpc by 50 kpc (Fig. 13), a
megaparsec away from the center of the merging cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301
(z=0.19). The relic displays highly aligned magnetic fields and a steep gradient
in spectral index due to cooling of the synchrotron-emitting particles in the postshock region. Van Weeren en co-workers consider these observations as
conclusive evidence that shocks in merging clusters produce extremely energetic
cosmic rays. Detailed modelling of the morphology, polarization properties and
variations of the radio spectrum, allowed them to determine the strength of the
magnetic field (5 G) and the Mach number (4.6) of the shock. Their numerical
simulations indicated that the impact parameter of the cluster collision was
about zero and that the mass ratio of the colliding clusters should be 2:1.
The velocity dispersion of extra-galactic young stellar clusters
Many young extra-galactic clusters have a measured velocity dispersion that is
too high for the mass derived from their age and total luminosity, which has led
to the suggestion that they are not in virial equilibrium. Most of these clusters
are confined to a narrow age range centred around 10 million years because of
observational constraints. At this age, the cluster light is dominated by luminous
evolved stars, such as red super-giants, with initial masses of 13-22 solar masses
for which (primordial) binarity is high. Gieles, Sana, and Portegies Zwart
investigated to what extent the observed excess velocity dispersion is the result
of the orbital motions of binaries. They demonstrated that estimates for the
dynamical mass of young star clusters, derived from the observed velocity
dispersion, exceed the photometric mass by up to an order of magnitude and are
consistent with a constant offset in the square of the velocity dispersion. This
can be reproduced by models of virialised star clusters hosting a massive star
population of which about a quarter is in binaries, with typical mass ratios of
about 0.6 and periods of about 1000 days. They concluded that binaries play a
pivotal role in deriving the dynamical masses of young (about 10 million years),
moderately massive (less than than a hundred thousand solar masses) and
compact (typically 1 parsec) star clusters.
Formation of super-massive black holes
Three major mechanisms for the formation of super-massive black hole (SMBH)
seeds in the high-redshift Universe have been proposed in the literature. These
are: 1) collapsing remnants of the first metal-free stars; 2) direct collapse of a
metal-free gas cloud; 3) runaway collisions in a low-metallicity dense stellar
cluster. Each of these possibilities requires specific conditions in order to be
valid. Devecchi focused on understanding in what dark matter halos the
requirements for SMBH formation are fulfilled, depending on the dark matter
halo mass, formation redshift and merger history. She developed a semianalytical code that follows the evolution of baryons within their dark matter
component. It traces gas cooling, star formation and metal enrichment, thus
allowing to verify when and where the conditions for SMBH formation set in.
SMBH seeds from channel 1) are formed with masses of a few hundred solar
masses. These black holes mainly appear at high (z = 15-30) redshift. After z~15
chemical and radiative feed-backs prevent further production of metal-free
stars, and of their remnant black holes. SMBHs from channel 3) start to form
only after metal enrichment allows star formation in the low mass mode. Stellar
clusters dense enough for runaway collision to set in can form at redshift ~6-15
in the centre of massive halos, leading to typical black masses in the range 3001000 solar masses.
Forming and maintaining spiral arms
Spiral arms in pure stellar disks, especially the ones spontaneously formed,
decay in several galactic rotations due to the increase of stellar velocity
dispersions. Therefore, some cooling mechanism, for example dissipational
effects of the interstellar medium, was assumed to be necessary to maintain the
spiral arms. Fujii conducted a series of high-resolution three-dimensional Nbody simulations of pure stellar disks. She showed that stellar disks can
maintain spiral features for more than 10 gigayear without the help of cooling, if
the number of particles is sufficiently large, e.g., three million. There is a selfregulating mechanism that maintains the amplitude of the spiral arms. Spiral
arms increase Toomre's Q of the disk, and the heating rate correlates with the
squared amplitude of the spirals. Since the amplitude itself is limited by Q, this
makes the dynamical heating less effective in the later phase of the evolution.
Using a simple analytical argument, Fujii suggested that the heating is caused
by gravitational scattering of stars by spiral arms, and that the self-regulating
mechanism in pure-stellar disks can effectively maintain spiral arms on a
cosmological timescale.
Evolution of galaxies
Brinchmann participated in an effort to measure the gas content of massive
galaxies in the z<0.2 Universe. The research was carried out within the GASS
consortium and resulted in a quantification of the HI gas fraction in massive
galaxies as a function of mass (led by Catinella, MPA, Germany) and one study,
led by Schiminovich (New York, USA), that found the gas consumption timescale to be a constant as a function of stellar mass. Shirazi and Brinchmann
assembled a sample of 190 rare extremely star forming galaxies with He II 4686
nebular emission over a wide range of metallicity at low redshift universe using
the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7. The presence of the He II line
is a stringent test of models for massive star evolution and normally require
Wolf-Rayet stars. However in the spectra of 30% of the galaxies no Wolf-Rayet
stars were seen. Brinchmann also participated in an effort to quantify outflows
in star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift Universe using absorption lines in
galaxy spectra. The effort, led by Y.-M. Chen (MPA/Wisconsin) was able to
identify outflows in a wide range of galaxies and traced its dependence on
various galaxy parameters such as star formation rate, orientation and stellar
Figure 14. The ratio of HeII/Hβ versus oxygen abundance is shown for star forming
galaxies showing He II nebular emission. Galaxies without Wolf-Rayet features are
plotted as triangles. The distribution of these objects in the BPT diagnostic diagram is
shown inset with the full SDSS shown as a gray-scale histogram. At low metallicities a
significant fraction of these galaxies (30%) do not show Wolf-Rayet features in their
spectra while the high metallicity objects without Wolf-Rayet features all appear to have
sign of AGN activity.
2.8 Distant
Massive galaxies
Taylor, Franx, Brinchmann and collaborators used the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
to show that the dynamical masses of galaxies are nearly linearly related to the
stellar masses, if the differences in galaxy structure are taken into account. The
ratio of stellar mass to dynamical mass is nearly constant as a function of mass
over a wide range in masses. There is no residual correlation with Hα equivalent
width, mean stellar age, or the presence of emission lines.
Szomoru, Franx, and collaborators used the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble
Space Telescope to study a very massive, very compact galaxy at a redshift of
1.91. This galaxy is remarkable as it has a mass of 6 1011 solar masses and a size
of only 0.42 kpc, many times smaller than galaxies in the nearby universe of the
same mass. Szomoru developed a new technique for ultra-deep photometry. He
used the very sensitive images taken on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to show
that this galaxy does not have a faint envelope. For the first time, the
photometry is of comparable depth as photometry on nearby galaxies.
Williams, Quadri, Franx, and collaborators studied the evolution of quiescent
galaxies. The presence of massive, compact, quiescent galaxies at redshifts
greater than two presents a major challenge for theoretical models of galaxy
formation and evolution. Using one of the deepest large public near-IR surveys
to date, Williams investigated in detail the correlations between star formation
and galaxy structural parameters (size, stellar mass, and surface density) from z
= 2 to the present. At all redshifts, massive quiescent galaxies (i.e., those with
little or no star formation) occupy the extreme high end of the surface density
distribution and follow a tight mass-size correlation, while star-forming galaxies
show a broad range of both densities and sizes. Conversely, galaxies with the
highest surface densities comprise a nearly homogeneous population with little
or no ongoing star formation, while less dense galaxies exhibit high star
formation rates and varying levels of dust obscuration. Both the sizes and
surface densities of quiescent galaxies evolve strongly from z = 2-0; Williams
parameterized this evolution for both populations with simple power-law
functions and present best-fit parameters for comparison to future theoretical
models. Higher-mass quiescent galaxies undergo faster structural evolution,
consistent with previous results. Interestingly, star-forming galaxies' sizes and
densities evolve at rates similar to those of quiescent galaxies. It is therefore
possible that the same physical processes drive the structural evolution of both
populations, suggesting that "dry mergers" may not be the sole culprit in this
size evolution.
Proto-cluster studies
Galaxy clusters are unique, high-density regions in the universe and are
therefore important test beds for theories of galaxy formation and evolution.
Miley and Röttgering pioneered the search for the progenitors of nearby clusters
- proto-clusters - associated with high redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), which
are among the most luminous, most massive galaxies known at high redshifts at
almost any wavelength. Over the last five years they have established that radio
galaxies are often located in proto-clusters, the ancestors of local galaxy clusters.
These proto-clusters have sizes of in excess pof three megaparsec, velocity
dispersions of three hundred to a thousand km/s and total masses of more than
1014 M(sun). In 2010, Kuiper, Hatch, Miley and Röttgering and collaborators
completed a population study of several types of galaxies within the massive
protocluster surrounding the radio galaxy MRC 0316-257 at z~3.1. They used
color-selection techniques to identify protocluster candidates that are Lyman
break galaxies (LBG) and Balmer break galaxies (BBGs), in addition to the
known population of Lya emitters and [O III] emitters. TRhey determined
masses and star formation rates of the candidate protocluster galaxies were
determined using spectral energy distribution fitting, and found that these did
not differ significantly from those of field galaxies. The galaxies with the
highest masses and star formation rates are located near the radio galaxy,
indicating that the protocluster environment influences galaxy evolution at z ~
3. They concluded that the protocluster around MRC 0316-257 is still in the early
stages of formation.
Properties of galaxy clusters
Scaling relations between observed properties of clusters of galaxies and the
total mass are an important ingredient for cosmological studies but also provide
important observational constraints on feedback mechanisms. Weak
gravitational lensing provides the most direct way to determine cluster masses,
but low mass systems are difficult to study using ground based data due to the
low density of sources. Using HST imaging, Hoekstra, in collaboration with
Donahue, Voit (Michigan, USA), Concelice (Nottingham, UK) and McNamara
(Waterloo, Canada) extended the range for which such scaling relations have
been determined to lower masses in a regime where feedback might become
relevant. The results are consistent with a single power law describing the full
mass range that was studied.
The precision with which weak lensing cluster masses can be determined is
limited by distant large-scale structure (or cosmic noise). Together with Hartlap,
Hilbert (Bonn, Germany) and Van Uitert, Hoekstra examined whether the
identification of other structures in the observations can be used to correct for
this source of uncertainty. Indeed cosmic noise can be mitigated, albeit only by
a limited amount due to intrinsic variations in the density profiles of intervening
The hierarchical formation of structures in the universe leads to expulsion of
stars during major mergers. In the case of massive clusters of galaxies this can
be observed as intra-cluster light (ICL). Observations, however, are prone to
systematic biases. Another way to examine this is by searching for type Ia
supernovae that are
unhosted. With Sand (Santa Barbara, USA) and
collaborators, Hoekstra completed the first analysis of the search for type Ia
supernovae in
the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey (MENeaCS). This
unique survey has discovered 23 type Ia supernovae, 4 of which are likely
intracluster events. The places a lower limit on the amount of ICL, whereas the
ongoing determination of the SNe rate will establish the role of type Ia SNe on
the enrichment of intra-cluster medium.
Star formation in the early universe
Bouwens, Franx, and collaborators have been making use of the new WFC3/IR
instrument installed on the Hubble Space Telescope to identify substantial
samples of galaxies in the first billion years of the universe and to explore their
properties. By the end of 2010, Bouwens and collaborators had already
identified 130 galaxies with redshifts greater or equal to 6.5 -- a tenfold increase
over what was available just one year earlier. One probable galaxy was even
found in the first 500 million years of the universe -- making it almost certainly
the earliest and most distant galaxy ever seen. The discovery paper of this
galaxy appeared in Nature and made world-wide news.
With these very large samples, Bouwens, Franx, and collaborators have been
quantifying the star-formation rate density of the universe to even earlier times
than had been possible before. The new results supported a hierarchical picture
of galaxy formation, where the star formation rate increased rapidly in the first
two billion years. The Leiden group had also been using these samples to
estimate the ionising flux density coming from galaxies at these early times, and
in particular the contribution from the faintest galaxies. These latter estimates
come by way of the new faint-end slope determinations for galaxies in the first
850 megayears. While still uncertain, current results suggest even steeper faintend slopes than measured at later times -- indicating that very low luminosity
galaxies may be quite capable of reionising the universe.
Figure 15. Optical and near-infrared images of the candidate z =98 10 galaxy, UDFj-3
9546284, Bouwens, Franx, and collaborators identified in the new ultra-deep WFC3/IR
data obtained over the HUDF. The leftmost panel shows the HUDF ACS/optical data;
the next three panels show the similarly deep HUDF09 near-infrared WFC3/IR data;
the=20 last two panels show the longer wavelength Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 micron
observations. Each cutout is 2.4'' =D7 2.4'' on a side, and is orientated with north at
the top. The candidate is detected at 5.4 sigma in the WFC3/IR band, but is entirely
undetected at all bluer wavelengths as expected for a z~10 galaxy. This candidate is not
seen in the redder IRAC data, which is not surprising given the limited depths of the
Spitzer data. This candidate is plausibly the most distant galaxy ever seen.
Figure 16. The luminosity density and star formation rate density in the Universe over
the past 13.2 gigayear. The rest-frame continuum ultraviolet luminosity density (right
axis, blue points), and the star formation rate density (left axis, red points) derived from
the extinction-corrected luminosity density are integrated down to the approximate
magnitude limit of our ultra-deep WFC3/IR data. The upper horizontal axis gives the
time after the Big Bang and the lower axis the redshift. The star formation rate density
estimates at z~7, z~8, and z~10 are from the recent work by Rychard Bouwens, Marijn
Franx, and collaborators. At z~10, an upper limit is also shown given the uncertain
nature of the z~10 candidate. Also included here are the star formation rate
determinations at z~7 and z~8 from recent HUDF09 searches, and from the literature
otherwise. These results show us how quickly the star formation rate density of the
universe increased at early times.
The physics driving the cosmic star formation history
Schaye and collaborators investigated the physics driving the cosmic star
formation (SF) history using the more than 50 large, cosmological,
hydrodynamical simulations that together comprise the OverWhelmingly Large
Simulations (OWLS) project. They found that SF is limited by the build-up of
dark matter halos at high redshift, reaches a broad maximum at intermediate
redshift and then decreases as it is quenched by lower cooling rates in hotter
and lower density gas, gas exhaustion and self-regulated feedback from stars
and black holes. The location and height of the peak in the SF history, and the
steepness of the decline towards the present, depend on the physics and
implementation of stellar and black hole feedback. Mass loss from intermediatemass stars and metal-line cooling both boost the SF rate at late times. Galaxies
form stars in a self-regulated fashion at a rate controlled by the balance between,
on the one hand, feedback from massive stars and black holes and, on the other
hand, gas cooling and accretion. Paradoxically, the SF rate is highly insensitive
to the assumed SF law. This can be understood in terms of self-regulation: if the
SF efficiency is changed, then galaxies adjust their gas fractions so as to achieve
the same rate of production of massive stars. Self-regulated feedback from
accreting black holes is required to match the steep decline in the observed SF
rate below redshift 2, although more extreme feedback from SF, for example in
the form of a top-heavy initial stellar mass function at high gas pressures, can
Figure 17. Zoom into a 1012 solar mass halo at redshift z=2 in the reference OWLS run.
From left to right, the images are 10, 1 and 0.1 co-moving Mpc/h on a side. All slices are
1 co-moving Mpc/h thick. Note that the first image shows only a fraction of the total
simulation volume, which is cubic and 25 co-moving Mpc/h on a side. The colour coding
shows the projected gas density, log10(rho/<rho>), and the colour scale ranges from -1
to 4. The coordinate axes were rotated to show the galaxy face-on. This halo is the tenth
most massive in the simulation. About half of the halos in this mass range host extended
disk galaxies, while the other half have highly disturbed morphologies due to ongoing
Dark matter halos determine the masses of super-massive black
The energy and momentum deposited by the radiation from accretion flows on
to the super-massive black holes (BHs) that reside at the centers of virtually all
galaxies can halt or even reverse gas inflow, providing a natural mechanism for
super-massive BHs to regulate their growth and to couple their properties to
those of their host galaxies. However, it remains unclear whether this selfregulation occurs on the scale at which the BH is gravitationally dominant, on
that of the stellar bulge, the galaxy or that of the entire dark matter halo. To
answer this question, Booth & Schaye used self-consistent simulations of the coevolution of the BH and galaxy populations that reproduce the observed
correlations between the masses of the BHs and the properties of their host
galaxies. They confirmed unambiguously that the BHs regulate their growth: the
amount of energy that the BHs inject into their surroundings remains
unchanged when the fraction of the accreted rest mass energy that is injected is
varied by four orders of magnitude. The BHs simply adjust their masses so as to
inject the same amount of energy. They then used simulations with artificially
reduced star formation rates to demonstrate explicitly that BH mass is not set by
the stellar mass. Instead, they found that it is determined by the mass of the
dark matter halo with a secondary dependence on the halo concentration, of the
form that would be expected if the halo binding energy were the fundamental
property that controls the mass of the BH.
Impact of baryon physics on dark matter structures
The back-reaction of baryons on the dark matter halo density profile is of great
interest, not least because it is an important systematic uncertainty when
attempting to detect the dark matter. Duffy, Schaye, Kay (Manchester, UK) and
collaborators used a large suite of simulations to systematically investigate this
process and its dependence on the baryonic physics associated with galaxy
formation. They found that the inclusion of baryons results in significantly more
concentrated density profiles if radiative cooling is efficient and feedback is
weak. The most significant effects occur in galaxies at high redshift, where there
is a strong anti-correlation between the baryon fraction in the halo centre and
the inner slope of both the total and the dark matter density profiles. If feedback
is weak, isothermal inner profiles form, in agreement with observations of
massive, early-type galaxies. However, they found that AGN feedback, or
extremely efficient feedback from massive stars, is necessary to match observed
stellar fractions in groups and clusters, as well as to keep the maximum circular
velocity similar to the virial velocity as observed for disk galaxies. These strong
feedback models reduce the baryon fraction in galaxies by a factor of 3 relative
to the case with no feedback. This in turn results in inner density profiles which
are typically shallower than isothermal and the halo concentrations tend to be
lower than in the absence of baryons. --- The case for AGN feedback in galaxy
The relatively recent insight that energy input from super-massive black holes
(BHs) can have a substantial effect on the star formation rates (SFRs) of galaxies
motivates McCarthy (Cambridge, UK), Schaye, and collaborators to examine the
effects of BH feedback on the scale of galaxy groups. At present, groups contain
most of the galaxies and a significant fraction of the overall baryon content of
the Universe and, along with massive clusters, they represent the only systems
for which it is possible to measure both the stellar and gaseous baryonic
components directly. To explore the effects of BH feedback on groups, they
analysed two simulations from OWLS project. While both included galactic
winds driven by supernovae, only one of the models included feedback from
accreting BHs. They compared the properties of the simulated galaxy groups to
a wide range of observational data, including the entropy and temperature
profiles of the intragroup medium, hot gas mass fractions, the luminositytemperature and mass-temperature scaling relations, the K-band luminosity of
the group and its central brightest galaxy (CBG), SFRs and ages of the CBG, and
gas- and stellar-phase metallicities. The run without AGN feedback suffered
from the well-known over-cooling problem - the resulting stellar mass fractions
are several times larger than observed and present-day cooling flows operate
uninhibitedly. By contrast, the predictions from the run that includes BH
feedback were in agreement with current observations, thus resolving the longstanding `cooling crisis' of simulations on the scale of groups. Based on the
above, galaxy groups provide a compelling case that feedback fr om supermassive BHs is a crucial ingredient in the formation of massive galaxies.
Metal-line emission from the warm-hot intergalactic medium
Emission lines from metals offer one of the most promising ways to detect the
elusive warm-hot intergalactic medium, which is thought to contain a
substantial fraction of the baryons in the low-redshift Universe. Bertone (Santa
Cruz, USA), Schaye, and collaborators presented predictions for the soft X-ray
and Ultraviolet line emission from the WHIM using simulations from the OWLS
project. They tested the dependence of the predicted emission on a range of
physical prescriptions, such as cosmology, gas cooling and feedback from star
formation and accreting black holes. Provided that metal-line cooling is taken
into account, the models give surprisingly similar results, indicating that the
predictions are robust. The emission traces neither the baryonic nor the metal
mass. In particular, the emission that is potentially detectable with proposed
missions traces over-dense and metal-rich gas in and around galaxies and
groups. While observations of soft X-ray and UV line emission are therefore not
a promising route to close the baryon budget, they do offer the exciting
possibility to image the gas accreting on to and flowing out of galaxies.
X-ray coronae in simulations of disk galaxy formation
The existence of X-ray luminous gaseous coronae around massive disk galaxies
is a long-standing prediction of galaxy formation theory in the cold dark matter
cosmogony. This prediction has garnered little observational support, with nondetections commonplace and detections for only a relatively small number of
galaxies which are much less luminous than expected. Crain (Swinburne,
Autralia), McCarthy (Cambridge, UK), Frenk, Theuns (both Durham, UK), and
Schaye investigated the coronal properties of a large sample of bright, diskdominated galaxies extracted from the GIMIC suite of simulations.
Remarkably, the simulations reproduce the observed scalings of X-ray
luminosity with K-band luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) and, when
account is taken of the density structure of the halo, with disk rotation velocity
as well. Most of the star formation in the simulated galaxies (which have
realistic stellar mass fractions) is fuelled by gas cooling from a quasi-hydrostatic
hot corona. Only a small fraction of the mass of the hot gas is outflowing as a
wind but, because of its high density and metallicity, it contributes
disproportionally to the X-ray emission. The bulk of the X-ray emission,
however, comes from the diffuse quasi-hydrostatic corona which supplies the
fuel for ongoing star formation in disks today.
The enrichment history of cosmic metals
Wiersma, Schaye, and collaborators used a suite of simulations to investigate the
chemical enrichment history of the Universe. Specifically, they traced the origin
of the metals back in time to investigate when various gas phases were enriched
and by what halo masses. They found that the age of the metals decreases
strongly with the density of the gas in which they end up. At least half of the
metals that reside in the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 0 (z = 2) were
ejected from galaxies above z = 2 (z = 3). The mass of the halos that last
contained the metals increases rapidly with the gas density. More than half of
the mass in intergalactic metals was ejected by halos with total masses less than
100 billion solar masses and stellar masses less than a billion solar masses. The
range of halo masses that contribute to the enrichment is wider for the hotter
part of the IGM. By combining the `when' and `by what' aspects of the
enrichment history, they showed that metals residing in the lower density gas
were typically ejected earlier and by lower mass halos.
Feedback and the structure of simulated galaxies at redshift two
Sales (Groningen, NL ), Navarro (Victoria, Canada), Schaye, and collaborators
studied the properties of high-redshift galaxies using runs from the OWLS
project. The runs contrast several feedback implementations of varying
effectiveness: from no feedback, to supernova-driven winds to powerful active
galactic nucleus (AGN)-driven outflows. These different feedback models result
in large variations in the abundance and structural properties of bright galaxies
at z = 2. In agreement with earlier work, models with inefficient or no feedback
lead to the formation of massive compact galaxies collecting a large fraction
(upwards of 50 per cent) of all available baryons in each halo. Increasing the
efficiency of feedback reduces the baryonic mass and increases the size of
simulated galaxies. Despite the large differences in galaxy formation efficiency,
the net specific angular momentum of a galaxy is, on average, roughly half that
of its surrounding halo, independent of halo mass (in the range probed) and of
the feedback scheme. Feedback thus affects the baryonic mass of a galaxy much
more severely than its spin. Feedback induces strong correlations between
angular momentum content and galaxy mass that leave their imprint on galaxy
scaling relations and morphologies. Encouragingly, they found that galaxy disks
are common in moderate-feedback runs, making up typically about half of all
galaxies at the centres of halos with virial mass exceeding 100 billion solar
2.9 Simulations and theory
A new radiative transfer tool
Brinch and Hogerheijde completed and published a new molecular line
radiation transfer tool called LIME (Line Modeling Engine). This is a full 3-D
code for predicting molecular line profiles and the continuum of a given input
source model. This code is particularly suited for modeling interferometry
observations with a high spatial resolution. LIME was developed for the
purpose of predicting the emission signature of low-mass young stellar objects,
including molecular envelopes and protoplanetary disks, but the method works
for similar environments such as (giant) molecular clouds, atmospheres around
evolved stars, high mass stars, molecular outflows, etc. as well. LIME was used
to model carbon monoxide and water line observations in several Herschel
Space Observatory Early Results papers during 2010. By the end of 2010, the
LIME code had more than 40 registered users from more than 20 different
Almost-instant radiative transfer using a sparse-matrix Markov
Icke and Kruip, assisted by Vooys, determined the mathematical properties of
SimpleX-type radiative transfer by formulating the transport problem as a
Markov chain in which the connectivity between the nodes of the transport
graph was prescribed by various ways, such as Voronoi-Delaunay-neighbours
or nearest-neighbours. In this formulation, the transport of radiation is
described by a sparse matrix that links the nodes of a graph by a fixed set of
probabilities. Using the fact that the number of neighbours is easily three, and
sometimes five orders of magnitude smaller than the number of nodes, Icke and
Vooys found a method for computing the equilibrium Markov state that is so
quick that the computing time is irrelevant when compared with the time it
takes to construct the graph. In a way, this means that solving the radiative
transfer takes effectively no time. Such an approach can be very efficient in
obtaining the equilibrium solution to scattering problems in highly
inhomogeneous media.
Ionising radiation escaping from high-redshift dwarf galaxies
Paardekooper, Pelupessy, Altay and Kruip computed the escape fraction of
ionising radiation from high-redshift dwarf galaxies. They used the latest
version of the SimpleX radiative transfer code, based on Voronoi-Delaunay
triangulation, developed by Ritzerveld, Icke, Paardekooper and Kruip. They
found that supernova feedback is the main driver of escaping ionising photons,
by inducing spatial porosity in the galactic gas. Galaxies in which this feedback
has a strong effect on the gas distribution may contribute significantly to
reionisation in the early Universe, even when gas has stopped accreting onto the
Figure 18. A typical accreting dwarf galaxy as seen along the X- Y- and Z-axis,
Cosmic reionisation: inside-out or outside-in?
Kruip has determined the influence of resolution and different radiation
transport methods on the morphology of cosmic reionisation. Although
resolution effects influence the results quantitatively, they do not change the
overall morphology of reionisation. Using the SimpleX radiative transfer code,
based on Voronoi-Delaunay triangulation, developed by Ritzerveld, Icke,
Paardekooper and Kruip, a consistently `inside-out' reionisation scenario is
found. These results are compared with those obtained using a different
prescription for radiative transfer based on describing the transfer equation by
its first two moments with respect to solid angle. The latter method finds a
qualitatively different reionisation morphology (called inside-out-middle)
where the intermediate `filaments' of the cosmic web are the last to ionise.
Figure 19. Comparing the radiative transfer grids at redshift z=6.49 side-by-side. Left
panel: 963 regular grid from Finlator et al. 2009. Right panel: SimpleX grid based on a
random sampling of the original 5123 SPH particles with 106 particles. The insets
demonstrate the adaptive resolution of the Delaunay grid which typically captures a
dynamic range of five orders of magnitude in length scale.
AMUSE software development
Version 2 of the Astrophysical MUltiphysics Software Environment (AMUSE)
was released in March by the AMUSE development team (van Elteren,
Pelupessy, Marosvolgyi and de Vries). AMUSE aims to provide a flexible
environment for astrophysical simulations by providing physically motivated
and standardised interfaces to simulation codes, freely available under an open
source license. The second release consisted of the Gravity and Stellar Evolution
modules, unit handling and the AMUSE infrastructure. Version 3 was released
in October and included the hydrodynamic modules.
Pelupessy used hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies to explore the evolution
of gas-rich and metal-poor systems, which are expected to be numerous in the
early universe. He found significant and systematic deviations of the star
formation rate from that expected from the classical Schmidt-Kennicutt relation,
showing that the simple-minded application of this relation in the high redshift
universe may not be appropriate. Simulations of the gas dispersal in young
clusters were run by Pelupessy using the prototype AMUSE software
environment. These simulations showed that low mass stars are preferentially
ejected due to mass segregation.
2.10 Advanced instrumentation programs
Data processing for the GAIA space mission
The Leiden Gaia group, led by Brown, is involved in the preparations for the
data processing for ESA's Gaia mission. Scheduled for launch in 2013, Gaia aims
at providing a stereoscopic census of the Milky Way by measuring highly
accurate astrometry (positions, parallaxes and proper motions), photometry and
radial velocities for a billion stars and other objects to 20th magnitude. Major
activities in 2010 included the following.
Brown and Busso continued their work on the development of the data
processing software for the photometric instrument of Gaia in collaboration
with groups in Rome, Teramo, Cambridge, and Barcelona. The photometric data
for Gaia will be collected through low dispersion spectrophotometry with
prisms and the group in Leiden is responsible for developing the algorithms
that extract the spectra from the raw data. During 2010 the infrastructure of the
photometric pipeline was overhauled. This led to a redesign of the algorithms
developed earlier. Busso ported the photometric code already developed for the
initial data treatment pipeline (which first receives the raw telemetry from Gaia
and carries out important pre-processing steps) to the new photometric pipeline.
Brown proposed a new method for the deblending of overlapping prism spectra
in crowded regions of the sky. It is based on the description of these images in
terms of basis functions derived from a principle components analysis. The first
tests of this method carried out by the group in Rome were promising.
Busso contributed to development of in-flight measurement strategies for
characterising the background in the Gaia images, both the astrophysical
background and that due to the artificial charge injections which are used to
counter the effects of radiation damage to the CCDs. She also contributed to the
development of the charge injection strategy.
A major concern for the Gaia mission is the effect of radiation damage to the
CCDs (due to the solar wind and to cosmic ray protons). The consequence will
be an increased level of charge transfer inefficiency which will cause a loss of
signal as well as a distortion of the image. The latter will cause systematic errors
in the astrometry if not carefully controlled. In this context Prod'homme is doing
his PhD research on the theoretical and empirical modelling of radiation
damage effects. Prod'homme, A. Brown, Lindegren (Lund, Sweden), Short
(ESA), and S. Brown (Cambridge, UK) completed a detailed Monte Carlo model
to simulate the operation of an irradiated CCD at the pixel electrode level. This
model implements a new approach to both the charge density distribution
within a pixel and the probabilities of charge capture and release by radiation
induced traps. The model allows the reproduction of radiation damage effects
on a variety of measurements for a large signal level range in particular for
signals of the order of a few electrons.
An approximate but fast analytical model of CTI effects is under development
within the Gaia project. In the Gaia data processing consortium, a forward
modelling approach to CTI mitigation will allow the estimation of the true
image parameters from observations affected by CTI. The analytical CTI model
is a key element in this process, and its performance regarding the reproduction
of the future damaged observations is critical to achieving the Gaia
requirements. Prod'homme, Weiler (Paris, France), S. Brown, Short, and A.
Brown completed the validation of this analytical model through a comparison
against experimental data obtained with irradiated CCDs.
To counter the effect of radiation damage at low signal levels, each Gaia CCD
pixel contains an extra doping implant, a so-called supplementary buried
channel (SBC). Experimental tests carried out by Kohley et al. (ESA) and
simulations by Seabroke et al. (Open University, UK) showed that the SBC
might be missing in the first half of some of the Gaia CCDs. Prod'homme used
his Monte Carlo CTI model to investigate this hypothesis by simulating the
effects of a missing SBC on so-called first pixel response measurements. The
results confirm the experimental tests.
In order for Gaia to reach its astrometric accuracy goals the highest quality for
the attitude knowledge of the spacecraft is needed. It is thus important to
incorporate a complete physical understanding of the dynamics of a
continuously rotating space platform into the attitude modelling for Gaia. In this
context Risquez is developing detailed simulations of Gaia's attitude,
incorporating all of the relevant physical effects. This model is developed in
collaboration with van Leeuwen (Cambridge, UK) and Keil (Bremen, Germany).
During 2010 Risquez debugged and optimised the modules that simulate
specific physical effects in the spacecraft attitude. These include: micrometeoroid impacts, thermal infra-red emission from the satellite surface, and
noise due to the micro-propulsion system. In addition Risquez implemented a
simplified simulation of Gaia's Attitude and Orbit Control System.
Figure 20. This is an artistic image of Gaia. It presents what the Dynamical Attitude
Model (DAM) simulates: the spacecraft is spinning around the Z axis (that goes
through its centre of mass, CoM), and some perturbations (the impact of a micrometeoroid in this example) produce a force (blue "F") that modify the attitude.
MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope
Martinez-Galarza, Kendrew and Brandl worked on the wavelength
characterisation of the medium-resolution integral field spectrograph of the
Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI), to be launched into space on-board the James
Webb Space Telescope. Their work provides a method to calibrate the
wavelength range and spectral resolving power for all four channels of the
spectrometer and discusses preliminary results obtained with the instrument
test model. Comparisons with optical models confirm that MIRI will be able to
reach its specifications in terms of resolving power and line width.
ELT instrumentation: METIS
After completion of the conceptual design phase, the Mid-infrared E-ELT
Imager and Spectrograph (METIS) team, led by Brandl (PI) and Molster (PM),
continued the development of technologies and key components that will be
important later on for the METIS instrument. These activities include the cold
chopper demonstrator, an opto-mechanical device to switch quickly (5
milliseconds) and very accurately (1.7 microrad) between two beam positions in
any direction under cryo-vacuum conditions. The project is done jointly with
partners in industry and other academic institutions. Further development
projects include an ultra-precise optical field (de)rotator, more powerful
sorption-coolers, and novel aluminium mirror polishing techniques.
VLT instrumentation: MUSE and ASSIST
MUSE, the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer is a second-generation instrument
for ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), featuring wide-field, adaptive-opticsassisted integral-field spectroscopy. MUSE is currently being manufactured by a
number of European companies and integration on sub-system level is currently
taking place at various institutes around Europe. Integration will to start in mid2011. The MUSE consortium consists of 7 institutes and is led by the
Observatory of Lyon. NOVA, by way of Stuik at Leiden Observatory, is mainly
involved in the interface between MUSE and its Adaptive Optics system
(GALACSI), the preparations for scientific operation of MUSE--like the
Exposure Time Calculator (ETC) and Operation, Calibration of MUSE, the
MUSE observation templates efforts and the building of the database to handle
the enormous amounts of data that will be delivered by MUSE--and the MUSE
science team.
ASSIST--the Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument STimulator is the test
system for the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) and will allow verification of
the operation of the various hardware and software systems for the AOF
without the need for--sometimes long--on-sky testing. ASSIST, as currently
developed by Stuik and Molster is now being manufactured. The main optical
components as well as the main mechanical components are either delivered or
nearly finished and integration is taking place at Leiden Observatory, with
support from NOVA-ASTRON. ASSIST will be delivered to ESO in the summer
of 2011.
Figure available at,
caption: The ASSIST Main Structure during preliminary acceptance at Boess
enkool Almelo. The ASSIST Main Structure will house ASSIST, including optics,
mechanics and electronics. It will provide a stable environment for testing the
components of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility. The image also shows ASSIST
before its final coating, which will increase the light-tightness and reduce
reflection in the system.
Commissioning LOFAR
LOFAR, the Low Frequency Radio Array, is a pan-European radio telescope
currently being commissioned. At the end of 2010, the array included 23 stations
out to ~ 30 km within the Netherlands, three international stations in Germany
and one each in France and the United Kingdom. Operating at frequencies from
30 to 200 MHz, LOFAR will open up the last unexplored window of the
electromagnetic spectrum for astrophysical studies. One of the key science
projects is to survey the entire low-frequency sky at a number of frequencies (PI
Rottgering).The areas, depths and frequencies of these surveys have been
chosen so that they would contain: (i) ~100 powerful radio galaxies close to or at
the epoch of reionisation, (ii) ~100 radio halos at the epoch when the first
massive bound galaxy clusters appeared, and (iii) ~100 proto-clusters. In 2010, a
number of observational commissioning projects were carried out to
commission LOFARs increasing capabilities. This resulted in low frequency
images of a number of well-known objects such as the galaxy M 51, the radio
source 3C61.1, and the cluster A2256. Van der Tol produced software that can
produce flux-corrected images of the low frequency sky taking into account the
variable observing beams. Rafferty and Birzan continued testing of the system,
with particular emphasis on removal of radio frequency interference and crosschecking of the results from the new LOFAR reduction software with existing
radio reduction packages.
2.11 Raymond and Beverly
Laboratory for Astrophysics1
The conditions in space are extreme and do not favour an efficient chemistry:
temperatures are low, radiation fields are intense, and particle densities are
exceedingly low. Nevertheless, more than 150 different molecular species have
already been identified in star-forming regions. These comprise both small and
complex species as well as stable and transient molecules and are the result of
an exotic chemical evolution. Today, astrochemists explain the chemical
complexity in space as the cumulative outcome of gas, grain and gas-grain
interactions. Gas phase models explain the observed abundances of the smaller
and many of the larger radical species, but fail to explain the presence in space
of stable and complex, partially organic species. It is now generally accepted
that such species form on icy dust grains, small solid particles that are an
important ingredient of the material found between the stars. They play an
essential role as they provide opacity (blocking regions of the galaxy from UV
radiation), the basic material from which icy planetesimals and ultimately
planets are formed, and catalytic sites for molecule formation. Thermal and
ultraviolet processing as well as atom bombardment of icy dust grains trigger a
fascinating solid state astrochemistry. Understanding the cycle of matter in
galaxies, the origin of stars and planetary systems and the complex (organic)
chemistry that is found in molecular clouds and proto-planetary disks is
intimately linked to the study of the role icy solids have in space. A quantitative
characterisation of this role is only possible through detailed laboratory studies
and this is the research topic of the work performed at the Sackler Laboratory
for Astrophysics.
Particle processing of inter- and circumstellar ice analogues
The team around the setup SURFRESIDE (Ioppolo - PhD thesis 2010, Cuppen,
Fedoseev) has been focussing on water formation upon hydrogenation reactions
of oxygen/ozone ice. They derived temperature and flux-dependent reaction
rates that elucidate the role of solid state reaction schemes in the formation of
The Sackler laboratory participates in a large EU consortium (LASSIE Laboratory Astrochemical Surface Science in Europe -
water in space and make it possible to extend the results to astrochemical
models. For a first time, they performed detailed studies of binary ice mixtures
(CO:O2) that showed the efficient formation of CO2.
Figure 21.
In 2010, the construction of MATRI2CES was completed by Isokoski and Bossa.
This setup combines laser desorption and time-of-flight detection and aims at
visualising chemical pathways towards molecular complexity in much more
detail than is possible with regular UHV RAIRS and TPD techniques.
UV photo-processing of inter- and circumstellar ice analogues
The successful photo-desorption, photo-processing and photo-dissociation
studies by Öberg were continued by Fayolle and Zhen who focussed on
frequency-dependent irradiation effects. In this context, a measuring campaign
at SOLEIL (Paris) was successfully conducted, which showed that molecular
processes in the solid state depend on the frequency of the incoming light. The
team around the setup OASIS (Bouwman - Ph.D. thesis 2010, Allamandola,
Tenenbaum and Cuylle) has been able to study the photo-physical and photochemical behaviour following UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) d in an astronomical water and ammonia ice analogue. Insitu and real time optical data provide insight in the role PAHs play in the solid
state and in addition provide an alternative route to search for PAHs in space.
Gas-phase studies
For the first time, a promising overlap between a laboratory spectrum and a
broad diffuse interstellar band (DIB) has been found by Wehres and
collaborators. The resulting paper was chosen as an A&A highlight. More
recently this work has also triggered a discussion whether the C3H2 molecule
may be the carrier of several DIBs. She performed much of that work in close
collaboration with Zhao and Ubachs (Amsterdam, NL) using a supersonic
planar plasma setup to simulate interstellar clouds. On the setup SPIRAS Guss
completed the construction of a new infrared laser detection scheme for
molecular transients in space. A cavity enhanced detection scheme in
combination with a planar plasma expansion is used to search for molecular
fingerprints of transient species likely present in the spectra recorded by the
HIFI instrument on board of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory
and social events
and social events
3.1. Education
Education and training of students is a major priority of Leiden Observatory. In
2010, 47 freshmen started their studies in astronomy. Of this number, 6 (13%)
were women, and 25 (53%) pursued a combined astronomy/physics or
astronomy/mathematics degree.
The Observatory registered a total number of 91 BSc students at the end of the
year, of which 46 (48%) aimed at a combined astronomy/physics degree or
astronomy/mathematics degree; 15% of all BSc students is female. There were
35 MSc students, including 16 (45%) women and 10 (28%) foreign nationalities.
Several students from the applied physics department of Delft Technical
University took courses of the Leiden astronomy curriculum as part of the
requirements for a minor in astronomy.
Twelve students passed their propedeutical exam, of which eight completed the
requirements in the nominal one year. There were 17 BSc exams, and 9 MSc
At the beginning of the year, Pen started as the new education coordinator
taking care of the daily running of tasks. In September, Linnartz stepped down
as BSc study adviser and his tasks were taken over by Hoekstra. Portegies Zwart
continued as the MSc study adviser
In addition to counseling by the student adviser, incoming students were
assigned to small groups meeting at regular intervals with a staff mentor
(Hoekstra, Icke, and Snellen) and a senior student mentor. In the tutor
programme, physics and astronomy freshman students were provided on a
voluntary but regular basis with coaching by senior students.
As part of the introductory astronomy course, students were taken to the Artis
Planetarium in Amsterdam for a lesson in coordinate systems, time and
constellations in the sky (Hoekstra). As part of the second-year training in
practical astronomy, 12 honors students were offered the opportunity to take
part in a specially arranged observing trip to the Isaac-Newton-Telescope on La
Palma, Canary Islands (van der Werf, de Mooij, Szomoru).
The astronomy curriculum is monitored by the ‘Opleidingscommissie’
(education committee), which advises the Director of Education on all relevant
matters, and which was chaired by Röttgering. Other members are van
Dishoeck, Franx, Schaye, and van Uitert, as well as Bremer, Pijloo, Segers,
Vreeker for the student body. In the fall, the composition changed: student
representatives became de Pous, Pijloo, Segers, Vreeker and Buijsman. Under
the authority of the Opleidingscommissie, the lecture course monitoring system
(SRS) was continued. In this system, students provide feedback to lecturers
during and after the course.
The quality of curriculum and exams is guarded by the Exam Committee
(Examencommissie) chaired by Lub, with Israel, Aarts (physics), Snellen en van
der Werf as members.
Admission to the master-curriculum for students without a BSc in astronomy
from a Netherlands university requires a recommendation by the
‘Toelatingscommissie’ (admissions committee) chaired by Schaye and having
Israel and Linnartz as members. In September Hoekstra and Portegies Zwart
took over the membership.
3.2. Degrees awarded in 2010
3.2.1. Ph.D. degrees
A total of 10 graduate students successfully defended their Ph.D. theses in 2010
and were duly awarded their Ph. D. degree: They are:
Titel thesis:
Pedro Lopes Beirao
ISM Conditions in Starburst Galaxies
F.P. Israel
B.R. Brandl
Titel thesis:
Mario Soto Vicencio
3-Dimensional Dynamics of the Galactic Bulge
K. Kuijken
J. Lub
Titel thesis:
A.J.P. Raat
The Life of Governor Joan Gideon Loten (1710-1789)
Titel thesis:
Maaike Damen
The build up at Massive Galaxies
M. Franx, P.G. van Dokkum
I. Labbé
Titel thesis:
Robert Wiersma
Simulating the Chemical Enrichment of the Intergalactic
P.T. de Zeeuw
Co-promotor: J. Schaye
Titel thesis:
Jordy Bouwman
Spectroscopy and Chemistry of Interstellar Ice Analogues
H.V.J. Linnartz
L.J. Allamandola
Titel thesis:
Demerese Salter
Millimeter Emission from Protoplanetary Disks
E.F. van Dishoeck, M.R. Hogerheijde
Titel thesis:
Marcel Haas
Nature and Nurture in Galaxy Formation Simulations
M. Franx, J. Schaye
Titel thesis:
Sergio Ioppolo
Surface formation routes of interstellar molecules
H.V.J. Linnartz, E.F. van Dishoeck
Titel thesis:
J-P. Paardekoper
And there was light: Voronoi-Delauney radiative transfer and
cosmic reionisation
V. Icke
3.2.2. Master’s degrees (Doctoraal diploma’s)
The following 9 students were awarded Master’s/Doctoral degrees in 2010:
Annelies Mortier
Daniel Harsono
Marcel van Daalen
Sweta Shah
Wouter Schrier
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aleksander Shulevski
David Delgado Diaz
Renske Smit
Michiel Lambrechts
Sep 28
Oct 26
Oct 26
Nov 30
Present position
Ph.D Portugal
Ph.D Leiden Observatory
Ph.D Leiden Observatory, Leiden and Berlin
Ph.D Radboud University Nijmegen
Student Administration Science Leiden
Ph.D Groningen
Ph.D Leiden Observatory
Ph.D Lund, Sweden
3.2.3. Bachelor’s degrees
A total of 10 students obtained their Bachelor's degree:
Babs Beemster
Sascha Zeegers
Bas Crezee
Casper Schonau
Yorick van Boheemen
Ingrid Icke
Merlijn van Deen
Michiel Meijer
Ruben van Drongelen
Anna Freudenreich
Tjibaria Pijloo
Rogier van Loo
Jeroen Franse
Paul Langelaan
Siebe Weersma
Luc Harms
Maria Drozdovskaya
Feb 19
Feb 19
Feb 19
June 4
June 4
June 4
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Aug 31
Present Position
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
Msc Programme, Leiden Observatory
Msc Programme, Leiden Observatory
MSc Programme, LION
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
MSc Programme, LION
MSc Programme, LION
MSc Programme, LION
MSc Programme, LION, BSc Mathematics
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
MSc Programme, LION
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
MSc Programme, Leiden Observatory
3.3. Academic courses and pre-university
3.3.1. Courses taught by Observatory staff
Elementary courses:
Course title
Introduction astrophysics
Astronomy lab 1
Modern astronomical research
Astronomy lab 2
Observational techniques 1
Radiative processes
Bachelor research project
Introduction observatory
H.V.J. Linnartz
H. Hoekstra
A.G.A. Brown
M. Franx
P. P. van der Werf
B. Brandl
V. Icke
I. Snellen
E.R. Deul
Advanced courses (keuzevakken; semesters 7, 8, 9, 10):
Astronomy from space
Computational astrophysics
Galaxies, structure, dynamics & evolution
IAC 2009: virtual observatories
Stellar structure and evolution
Interstellar medium
Origin and evolution of the universe
Radio astronomy
Stellar dynamics
M. Fridlund
S. Portegies Zwart
M. Franx
J. Brinchmann
J. Lub
M. Hogerheijde
W. Jaffe
K. Kuijken
M. Garrett
S. Portegies Zwart
3.3.2. Pre-university programmes
LAPP-Top, the Leiden Advanced Pre-University Programme for Top Students,
is aimed at enthusiastic and ambitious high-school students from the 5th and the
6th grade. Candidates are selected on the basis of their high-school grades and
their enthusiasm to participate. Students that are selected will then take part in
6 to 8 meetings from January till May, following the programme of their own
The Sterrewacht has been participating in the LAPP-TOP programme since its
start in 2001. In that pilot year 5 students participated, growing to 6 (2002/3), 11
(2003/4), 33 (2004/5), 17 (2005/6), 27 (2006/7), 16 (2007/8), 20 (2008/9), and 10
The astronomy LAPP-TOP programme was developed by Van der Werf from
2002 onward. From 2005-2008 the project was coordinated by Snellen. Since 2008
it is coordinated by Franx. In eight sessions the following subjects were treated:
The Milky Way and other galaxies – J. Schaye
Extrasolar planets – I. Snellen
Practicum I
Gas and Radiation - V. Icke
Black Holes – P. P. van der Werf
Practicum II
Cosmology – H. Hoekstra
Excursion to the radio telescopes in Westerbork and Dwingeloo
After successfully completing the programme participants have been awarded
with a certificate from the University of Leiden. High-school students are
allowed to use this project as part of their final exams.
3.3.3. Contact.VWO
Contact.VWO has been in existence since May 2007. Buisman and van der
Hoorn (physics teachers in secondary schools) both work one day a week for the
Physics and Astronomy Departments in order to intensify the contacts between
secondary schools and the university.
Van der Hoorn organizes twice yearly a production and mailing of posters and
organizes three times an informative meeting for physics teachers, starting at 5
p.m. and featuring a lecture on modern developments in physics or
astrophysics, an informal dinner with extensive networking between teachers
and university workers, and after-dinner subjects dealing with the change from
secondary school to university study.
Buisman is concerned with school classes (programmes for whole-day visits as
well as individual help (assisting pupils with practical work, answering
questions by mail etc.). He also has organized a training session for the module
Measuring in Star Systems (Meten aan Melkwegstelsels) which is part of the
school curriculum track Nature, Life and Technology (Natuur, Leven en
Contact.Vwo answers ad hoc requests for assistance by school pupils or
teachers. Buisman also has an appointment for half a day a week as local
coordinator of the HiSPARC project, but although related, this is not a part of
the activities of Contact.VWO.
Activities at Leiden University in 2010
For teachers:
January 21: Theme: Cosmic Radiation and HiSPARC.
May 18: Theme: Visiting Museum Boerhaave, Leiden
October 12: Measuring in star systems (NLT: Natuur, Leven en Technology)
November 2: Theme: LION: Research and Education
For teachers accompanied by their best pupils:
March 10: Einsteins Birthday party
For pupils:
February 5: Instituutsdag for pupils visiting CERN afterwards (preparation)
For School classes:
January 15, 2010; school: Hofstad Lyceum, Den Haag; Lab: Measuring in Star
Systems (lab plus Lecture )
January 16, 2010, school: Monteigne Lyceum, Den Haag; Lecture Cosmology
March 26, 2010: De Populier (Den Haag) Measuring in Star Systems (lab plus
April 9, 2010 VCL Measuring in Star Systems (labplus Lecture)
Seven teams of pupils have been supported by Contact.Vwo working on a
practical assignment (profielwerkstuk) about astronomy.
3.4. Popularization and media contacts
3.4.1. Public lectures and media interviews
‘Fleurance’ (Children astronomy festival, France; Aug 7-13)
‘Star formation and ALMA, (Lecture, Copenhagen, Denmark; Sep 6)
Idem, (Lecture, Århus, Denmark; Sep 13)
‘Gaia - Een stereoscopische kaart van de Melkweg’ (KNVWS, Nijmegen; Jan 26)
Idem (Venlo; Feb 26)
Idem (Rotterdam; Oct 13)
‘Unravelling the formation history of the Milky with Gaia’ (EADS-Astrium Toulouse,
France; Sep 21)
Idem (EADS-Astrium Toulouse, France; Dec 2)
Van Delft
‘Echo’s van licht’ (openingstoespraak tentoonstelling Marlies van Boekel en
Marijke Gerritsen, Ars Aemula, Leiden; Jan 20)
‘Koud, kouder koudst’ (MuseumJeugdUniversiteit, Leiden; Feb 14)
‘Newton in Nederland’ (Teleac radio; Feb 17)
‘Johannes Diderik van der Waals en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (Studium
Generale Universiteit Twente, Enschede; Feb 18)
‘Over oude en nieuwe zwaartekracht’ (Museum Boerhaave, Leiden; Apr 8)
‘Materieel erfgoed: van blingbling naar sleutelstukken met verhalen’
(Docentennetwerk natuurkunde, Leiden; May 18)
‘Tube your future’ (Nemo, Amsterdam; May 26)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en de Tweede Gouden Eeuw’ (collegereeks Keerpunten in
de geschiedenis van de natuurwetenschappen, Leiden; June 7)
‘Getemde, dode en museale natuur’ (Vroege Vogels, Radio 1; June 13)
‘Sleutelstukken en storytelling in Museum Boerhaave’ (master Wetenschapscommunicatie, Leiden; Sep 7)
‘Dat mag in de krant! Over wetenschap en de pers’ (collegereeks Fysica &
Samenleving, Leiden; Sep 21)
‘De laatste jaren van Paul Ehrenfest’ (lustrumserie Ratio & Emotie,
Universiteit Leiden, Leiden; Nov 9)
‘Materieel erfgoed: van blingbling naar sleutelstukken met verhalen’ (collegereeks
Fysica & Samenleving, Leiden; Nov 9)
‘De Leidse jaren van Nobelprijswinnaar Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943)’
(Cleveringalezing, Middelburg; Nov 25)
‘De afscheidsbrieven van Paul Ehrenfest’ (Leiden; Nov 28)
‘Heike Kamerlingh Onnes: de man van het absolute nulpunt’ (Koninklijk
Genootschap Physica, Alkmaar; Dec 6)
‘Jan zonder genade schreef gevoelige poëzie’(Nieuwsbrief Universiteit
Leiden; Dec 7)
‘De laatste jaren van Paul Ehrenfest’ (VPRO-radio; Dec 12)
‘De poëzie van J.D. van der Waals’(Labyrint, Radio 1; Dec 19)
Van Dishoeck
‘Astrochemistry comes of age: 1970-1990’ (Chemische historische vereniging,
Utrecht; Mar 4)
‘Leven in het heelal, Spinoza te Paard’(Den Haag; Mar 16)
‘From molecules to planets, OECD forum’ (Amsterda; Oct 11)
‘Waar komt het water in de oceanen vandaan?’ (Jeugdacademie Boerhaave museum,
Leiden; Oct 17)
‘Hot spots in de ruimte’ (ESERO conferentie, Breukelen; Nov 3)
‘Hoe ontstaan planeten?’ (Science cafe, Enschede; Nov 24)
‘First localisation of water in a protoplanetary disk’(IRAM, MPG, NOVA press
releases; Feb 8)
‘Leven in het heelal’ (Spinoza te paard lecture, Teleac, DVD; Apr and Sep)
‘Herschel's HIFI follows the trail of cosmic water’(ESA press release; May 6)
‘HIFI op het spoor van nieuw water in de kosmos’ (NOVA persbericht; May 7)
‘Met het oog op morgen’ (Radio 1; Sep 5)
‘Puzzelen aan de kosmische achtertuin’(Reggae en Ratelslangen p. 47-57, UL; Sep)
‘De ruimte is een uniek laboratorium’ (Jaarboek NWO-CW; Sep)
‘Viereneenhalf miljard jaar water’(Leidsch Dagblad; Oct 20)
‘Derin Uzay Nesneleri (Deep Sky Objects)’(13th National Skygazing Festival,
Saklikent, Antalya, Turkey; July 18)
‘Galactic Magnetism in the LOFAR Era’ (NAC Annual Meeting, Utrecht; Feb 5)
‘De gepolariseerde hemel door de ogen van een radioschotel’ (CAMRAS
Kwartaalvergadering, Dwingeloo; Sep 18)
Interview (TubeYourFuture; Feb 25)
Winner (National Science Quiz; Dec 26)
‘Donkere materie, Cosmic Senstations’ (Nijmegen; Mar 12)
‘Wat doet een sterrenkundige?’ (Weekendschool, Den Haag; Mar 14)
Lezing (Teylers Museum, Haarlem; Jan 10)
Matt Dings "Jonge Jaren" (Jan 12)
(Bibliotheek Amstelveen; Jan 16)
‘Gas en Straling’ (college LappTop, Leiden; Feb 3)
Wiskundedagen (Feb 5)
BIGBROTHER Awardgala (De Balie, Amsterdam; Feb 5)
‘Inspiratie tot leren’ (Sprekersplatform; Feb 9)
‘Toekomst in het Groot’ (Universiteit van Amsterdam; Feb 10)
Dies Natalis alumni 2010 (Leids Universiteitsfonds, Leiden; Feb 13)
Lunchlezing (Toomre; Feb 16)
‘Kunst en Wetenschap ‘(Volksuniversiteit Haarlem; Feb 16)
Lezing Van Stockum (Feb 20)
Studiekring (Golfclub Wassenaar; Mar 2)
Boekwinkellezing (Mar 3)
Ben van Tilborg (Museon, Den Haag; Mar 18)
Comenius leergang (Mar 19)
Opening tentoonstelling (Kunstuitleen, Amstelveen; Mar 28)
Nacht van de filosofie (Felix Meritis, Amsterdam; Apr 9)
Nieuw Archief Wiskunde (Apr 19)
Klukhuhn Lezing (Utrecht; Apr 20)
Minicollege nuldejaars (Leiden. Apr 23)
Meet & Greet (Kunstuitleen, Amstelveen; Apr 24)
Gastcollege TUE Brussaard (Apr 26)
Lezing (Openbare Bibliotheek Amsterdam; May 16)
‘Tsnuk!’ (Amersfoort; Jun 13)
Kosmologie Olympiade discussie (Jun 14)
PrOUT PhD-dag (Jun 16)
Lezing (Rabobank, Leiden; Jun 16)
Voordracht Vaderschapsdag (Jun 18)
Invited talk (APNs; Jun 23)
Communicating Science (June 24)
Symposium Privaatrecht (Universiteit van Amsterdam; Jun 30)
ObaLive interview (Desmetstudio, Jul 5)
‘Zout’ (Interview Theo Kroese; Aug 18)
Lezing MIC (Hotel Arena, Amsterdam; Aug 23)
Opening jaar Studium Generale (Universiteit Eindhoven; Sep 1)
Opening Haags schooljaar (Den Haag; Sep 2)
Petit Prince Festival (Ede; Sep 3)
Opening nieuw Reviuslyceum (Doorn; Sep 7)
Opening Kunstroute (Scheltema, Leiden; Sep 17)
Lezing St. Joost (Sep 22)
Lustrum Aesculapius (Sep 24)
Opening Centrum Beeldende Kunst Gelderland (Oct 2)
NOVA Herfstschool Science Communications (Oct 6)
Opening Universitair Sportcentrum UvA (Oct 8)
‘Hoe zou hij het nu bouwen?’ (Lezing Eise Eisinga; Oct 9)
Huygenslezing (Oct 13)
Interview KRO Radio 4 (Oct 26)
Interview Het Parool (Oct 26)
‘Scherpdenkers’ (Lezing, Concertgebouw Amsterdam; Oct 26)
Voordracht Muziekcentrum Frits Philips (Eindhoven; Oct 27)
Opening Ontdekhoek (Amsterdam; Nov 5)
Lezing CODA (Apeldoorn; Nov 7)
Kinderuniversiteit (Tilburg; Nov 8)
Interview Trouw (Nov 11)
Lezing Kunst en Wetenschap (Gynaecongres; Nov 12)
Kaleidoscoop Sterrenkunde (Nov 16)
Opening Olympus College (Arnhem; Nov 23)
Interview NWO (Nov 25)
Interview Ad Valvas (Nov 25)
Cleveringalezing (Amersfoort; Nov 26)
Opening tentoonstelling Vincent Cattani (Leiden; Nov 28)
Uitzending OBA Live (Amsterdam; Nov 29)
Interview KPMG (Nov 30)
De Wereld Draait Door (Amsterdam; Nov 30)
Socrateslezing (Den Haag; Dec 1)
Comenius leergang (Arnhem; Dec 3)
‘Verleden en Toekomst van de Ruimtevaart’ (VPRO Noorderlicht; Apr 7)
‘Zicht op de Sterren’ (Noordwijk Schilderfestival; June 21)
van Langevelde
Radio interview on SN2007gr and eVLBI (Noorderlicht radio, Hilversum; Feb 2)
'eVLBI connecting remote telescopes in real-time' (Kick-off GigaPort3, Den Haag;
Feb 18)
‘Een telescoop groter dan Europa’ (ASTRON/JIVE open dag, Westerbork; Oct 24)
‘VPRO Noorderlicht’ (Radio 1; Feb 22nd)
‘Van hier naar het einde van heelal en weer terug’ (Christelijke School Vreeland,
Vreeland, Feb 17)
‘Leven in het heelal’ (Spinoza te Paard, Den Haag; Mar 16 (zie ook
‘Oplossing van geheim in sterrenwolken is een stuk dichterbij’ (Mare; Mar 11)
‘Unlocking the chemistry of the heavens’ (Discovery talk, May 27)
‘Moderne sterrenkunde, op avontuur in het heelal’ (Vrouwen
van Nu, Abcoude/Braambrugge; Nov)
‘De hemel boven Vreeland’ (maandelijkse rubriek Vreelandbode)
Van Lunteren
‘Commentary on the Scientifc Revolution in the Netherlands’ (Leiden; Feb 17, Mar 17,
Apr 15, May 12, June 9, July 7)
‘Galileo Galilei en de grondslagen van de fysica’ (Studium Generale Series
Geschiedenis van de natuurkunde, Delft; Apr 20)
‘Sonnenborgh als bastion van wetenschap: sterrenwacht en KNMI in de 19de eeuw’
(Open Monumentendag, Museum Sterrenwacht Sonnenborgh, Utrecht; Sep 11
‘De gedachte-experimenten van Galileo Galilei’ (Studium Generale Series
Experimenteren in je hoofd, Leiden; Nov 8)
‘De tragi-komische geschiedenis van de meter’, (Woensdagavond Gezelschap,
Utrecht; Dec 15)
Portegies Zwart
Astrophysics lectures for group 3 and 5, ( Sint Bavoschool, Haarlem)
‘Het tumulteuze leven van een sterrenstelsel’, (Diligentia)
NEMO lecture, (Dag van de Sterren)
Radio interview voor Teleac Hoe?Zo!, (Radio 5, 747AM, Jan 14)
Interview Noorderlicht, (Radio 1, Jan 19)
‘Nacht van de Onderzoeker’(presentatie onderdeel ’Sterren kijken in Rotterdam’,
Pathe, Rotterdam; Sep 27)
‘Actieve sterrenstelsels’ (Noordhollandse Sterrenkundige Organisatie, Hoorn; Sep
‘Exoplanet atmospheres’( KNVWS symposium, Oct 9)
‘ESO Press release, VLT detects first superstorm on exoplanet’ (June 23)
‘Adaptieve Optiek: Op jacht naar de scherpste astronomische beelden met telescopen
vanaf de grond’ ( Public Lecture Sterrenwacht Almere, Almere; Feb 16)
Idem (Public Lecture Stichting J.C. van der Meulen, Hoorn; June 4)
‘Chemische Processen in de Ruimte: van Interstellaire Stofwolken tot Leven’(public
lecture, Delft; Feb 16)
Idem (Venlo; Mar 26)
‘Chemie Tussen de Sterren’( public lecture, Rotterdam; Mar 8)
‘Vorming van Sterren en Planeten’ (public lecture, Den Haag; Oct 22)
‘Science with Herschel’ (public lecture, Delft; Oct 28)
‘Chemische Processen in het Heelal’ (public lecture, Amsterdam; Nov 19)
van de Voort
‘Het heelal in de computer’ (public lecture, Amsterdam, Netherlands Oct 19)
Idem, (public lecture, Delft; Dec 14)
Idem, (public lecture, Den Haag; Dec 17)
‘Tiberius Cornelis Winkler: Een popularisator van de Wetenschap als
Curator’ (Teylers Museum, Haarlem; Jan 7)
3.5. Universe Awareness programme
Universe Awareness is an international activity initiated by
Miley designed to use the perspective and excitement of astronomy to inspire
children aged 4 to 10 from underprivileged backgrounds. The goals are to
broaden children’s minds and introduce them to the scientific method. An
additional long-term goal is to produce more tolerant and internationally
minded adults. Started 5 years ago, UNAWE is now active in 40 countries with a
multi-disciplinary network of more than 500 professional and amateur
astronomers and educators. Miley is Chair of the International UNAWE Steering
Committee and International Coordinator of the European EUNAWE FP7
International UNAWE Project. In July 2010 Dr. Carolina Ödman left her
position as International UNAWE Project Manager to begin a new life in South
Africa. Although she will continue participate in the Board of EUNAWE, her
departure left a large gap in the organisation of the international project.
A successor Mr. Pedro Russo, previously coordinator of the International Year of
Astronomy, was appointed in January 2011.
European EUNAWE Project. During 2009 and 2010 Miley and Ödman
conducted a vigorous lobbying campaign at the European Parliament to win
European support for Universe Awareness. A proposal to support the
implementation of Universe Awareness in 6 countries was submitted to the
Directorate of Industry and Enterprise (responsible for the space programme).
The EUNAWE proposal entered the negotiation stage in June and the
negotiations were formally concluded in February 2011 with the award of 1.9
million Euro to a 3-year FP7 project to support EUNAWE in Germany, Italy, the
Netherlands, South Africa, Spain and the UK (Northern Ireland).
Netherlands UNAWE-NL Project. The Netherlands UNAWE programme
started officially in November 2009 with the appointment of Frederiek Westra
van Holthe as UNAWE-NL project manager. This is being carried out as a joint
venture with NOVA and with support from the VTB-Pro/ Plan Beta Techniek
programme of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.
An important activity of UNAWE-NL during 2010 was to set up and coordinate
“duo-stages”, in which an astronomy student together with a PABO student
develop and implement a series of astronomy “lessons” in Dutch primary
schools located in disadvantaged districts. Pairing an astronomy student with a
PABO student ensures that the lessons are scientifically sound and
pedagogically suitable for the children that are targeted.
Ten such UNAWE-NL duo-stages were carried out in 2010 throughout the
Netherlands. Leiden students participated in duo-stages at three schools in the
Hague - De Pous at the “Zuidwal” school, Pijloo at the “Onze Wereld” school
and Crezee at the “Prinsehageschool”. The duo-stages received excellent
evaluations by the schools and the participating astronomy and teaching
students were enthusiastic about the results.
highlights of 2010 was the
Beatrix of the LOFAR radio
telescope in the presence of
an international audience that
Australia, New Zealand and
South Africa.
Prior to the inauguration,
UNAWE-NL organised a SKYPE live-exchange between children from Class 7 of
the “Burgemeester W.A. Storkschool” in Dwingeloo in Dwingeloo and children
from schools close to radio telescopes in Australia and South Africa. This
exchange was filmed and shown to the audience at the LOFAR inauguration.
Five girls from the class assisted Queen Beatrix with the inauguration and this
received considerable press coverage.
3.6. IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the
Developing World
Miley continued his work as Vice President of the International Astronomical
Union with the portfolio “Development and Education”. Considerable progress
was made in working towards the implementation of the IAU Strategic Plan
2010 – 2020 “Astronomy for the Developing World”. This Plan, written by
Miley, foresees a substantial expansion of programmes, and funding, together
with a large increase in the number of volunteers. Building on the IYA model,
the focus will be on a demand-driven coherent mix of sustainable activities. As
is stated in the large expansion and strategic approach will require a more
suitable organisational structure.
At the heart of the Plan is a Global Office of Astronomy for Development
(GOAD). A call for proposals was issued to host to host the Office and the
response exceeded expectations. Forty letters of intent were received followed
by 20 full proposals, many of which were excellent. In May 2010, the IAU
Executive Committee selected the South African Astronomical Observatory as
host organisation for GOAD. An agreement was signed in July between the IAU
and the South African National Research Foundation, who will co-fund GOAD.
Miley was appointed Chair of the GOAD Steering Committee.
3.7. The Leidsch Astronomisch Dispuut ‘F.
L.A.D. 'F. Kaiser' has not organised any activity in 2010, but in September the
board of Kaiser changed. The new members of the board are: Bart Bijvoets, Joris
Hanse, Chris Lemmens. Later in the year Tiffany Meshkat joined as well. With
the Old Observatory still closed, the main activities of Kaiser were postponed
until the next academic year. Kaiser hopes to organise activities for the bachelor
and master students in 2011, such as movie nights and the annual soccer
tournament and barbecue on the end of the academic year.
3.8. Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters
The 'Vereniging van Oud-Sterrewachters' (VO-S; is the
official association of Sterrewacht/Observatory (ex-)affiliates. It has been in
existence for over 15 years now and has seen another active year. As usual, the
150 members were offered a variety of activities. The activities included a social
drink prior to the Oort Lecture and an annual meeting. This year, the annual
meeting was held in Leiden and involved, among others, a visit of the old
Sterrewacht buildings in the centre of Leiden. These buildings are currently
under restauration and the attending members received a guided tour of the site
by the architect. The meeting was attended by 20 members. VO-S members also
received newsletters with Sterrewacht news and were offered an electronic
member dictionary.
Observatory staff
Observatory staff
(As of December 31, 2010)
Names, e-mail addresses, room numbers, and telephone numbers of all
current personnel can be found on the Sterrewacht website:
Telephone extensions should always be preceded by (071) 527 …
(from inside The Netherlands) or by +31-71-527 … (from abroad)
Full Professors:
E.F. van Dishoeck
M. Franx
V. Icke
F.P. Israel
K. Kuijken (Director)
G.K. Miley (0.0)
S. Portegies Zwart
H.J.A. Röttgering
A.G.G.M. Tielens
P.T. de Zeeuw (0.0)
Full Professors by Special Appointments:
D. van Delft*
(Museum Boerhaave, Stichting tot beheer
Museum Boerhaave)
W.J. Jaffe
(Universiteit van Amsterdam)
M. Garrett**
(ASTRON, Sterrewacht, Faculty W&N)
H.V.J. Linnartz
(Stichting Fysica, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
F. van Lunteren
(UL (0.5)/VU (0.3), Teijler’s Hoogleraar
H.A. Quirrenbach
(Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Faculty W&N)
* Director Boerhaave Museum
** Director ASTRON
Associate Professors and Assistant Professors / Tenured Staff:
R.J. Bouwens
B.R. Brandl
J. Brinchmann
A. Brown
M. Haverkorn (0.0) *
H. Hoekstra
M.R. Hogerheijde
W.J. Jaffe
P. Katgert (0.0)
M.A. Kenworthy
H.J. van Langevelde (0.0)**
Y. Levin (0.0)***
H.V.J. Linnartz
J. Lub
R.S. Le Poole (0.0)
R. Quadri (0.0)
J. Schaye
I.A.G. Snellen
R. Stuik (NOVA, Muse)
P.P. van der Werf
Visiting Scientists:
J.K. Katgert-Merkelijn
R. Mathar
M. Spaans (RUG)
R. Stark (NWO)
J.A. Stüwe
A. Blaauw (†)
W.B. Burton
A.M. van Genderen
H.J. Habing
I. van Houten-Groeneveld
K. Kwee
A. Ollongren
C. Van Schooneveld
J. Tinbergen (†)
* Staff, ASTRON Dwingeloo
** Director, JIVE, Dwingeloo
***Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Postdocs and Project Personnel:
C. Arasa Cid
Funded by
O.N. Berné
L. Birzan
C. Booth
J.B. Bossa
C. Brinch
G. Busso
L.R. Carlson
A. Deep
B.A. Devecchi NWO VICI
A. van Elteren NOVA AMUSE
E. Gaburov
S. Giodini
M.A. Gurkan NWO VENI
J. Guss
J. Holt
C. Hopman (0.2) NWO, VIDI
S. Ioppolo
M. Iwasawa
A. Juhasz
T. van Kempen NOVA/ALLEGRO
A. Kóspál
Funded by
L. Kristensen
E. Loenen
M.A. Marosvolgyi NOVA AMUSE
J. Meisner
R. Meijerink
E. Meyer
F. Molster
detachering NWO
B.D. Oppenheimer NOVA /NWO VENI
S.G. Patel
F.I. Pelupessy
D.A. Rafferty
F.L. Raicevic
D. Risquez-Oneca EU-ELSA / UL
D. Schleicher
E. Semboloni
E.D. Tenenbaum NWO RUBICON
S. van der Tol
N. de Vries
S.M. Weinmann EU Adv ERC
J. Zhen
N. Amiri
J.E. Bast
J. Bedorf
J. Bourne
M Brogi
R.F.J. van der Burg
D. Caputo
Y. Cavecchi
N. Clementel
S.H. Cuylle
M.O. van Daalen
E.C. Fayolle
G. Fedoseev
M. Fumagalli
R. van Haasteren
D.S. Harsono
M.B. van Hoven
M. Iacobelli
K.M. Isokoski
A. Karska
Funded by
Spitzer /NWO
EU-ITN Cosmocomp
MPA / UL (0,0)
M. Khazandjian
C.J.H. Kruip
E. Kuiper
S. Krijt
K. Maaskant
A. Madigan
J.R. Martinez Galarza
NOVA (2 jaar bij UvA)
NWO toptalent
I. Martins e Oliveira
F. Maschietto
Spitzer / UL
E.J.W. de Mooij
Funded by
M. Mosleh
S.V. Nefs
J.B.R. Oonk
B. Pila Diez
T.F. Prod'Homme
A. Rahmati
O. Rakic
S. Rieder
M.J. Rosenberg
M. Sadatshirazi
F.J. Salgado Cambiazo
J. van de Sande
I. San Jose Garcia
C. Shneider
R. Smit
D.M. Smit
A.H. Streefland
D. Szomoru
K.J.E. Torstensson
EU-ITN Lassie
NWO / guest
UL/EU-starting grant
E. van Uitert
M.B.M. Velander
S. Verdolini
L. Vermaas
F. van de Voort
K.S. Wang
R.J. van Weeren
M.P.M. Weiss
U. Yildiz
UL / Teyler's
Support staff:
J.C. Drost
E. Gerstel
A. van der Tang
L. van der Veld
Management assistant
Institute manager
Programme coordinator BSc and MSc
Computer staff:
E.R. Deul
D. J. Jansen
T. Bot
A. Vos
Manager computer group
Scientific programmer
NOVA office:
E. van Dishoeck
W.H.W.M. Boland
K. Groen
J.T. Quist
F. Molster
Scientific director
Managing director
Financial controller
Management Assistent
Project Manager (ESFRI, NWO)
MSc Students:
A.S. Abdullah
A.H. Bakker
T.C.N. Boekholt
N.A. Bremer
S. van den Broek
J. Figuera
R.T.L. Herbonnet
J. Hu
D.S. Huijser
M.P.H. Israel
R.M.J. Janssen
T.D.J. Kindt
M.J. van der Laan
M. Lameé
N. van der Marel
T.R. Meshkat
G.P.P.L. Otten
W.M. de Pous
C.M.S. Straatman
F.N. Vuijsje
S.T. Zeegers
C.H. Schönau
Senior BSc Students:
K.A.J.B. Beemster
Y.O. van Boheemen
S. Crezee
I.C. Icke
M.J. Luitjens
G.P.P.L. Otten
S.T. Zeegers
Staff changes in 2010:
Arasa Cid
Funded by
UL/Gratama St.
Bemmel, van
Hopman (0.1 fte)
Ioppolo (PhD)
Ioppolo (postdoc)
Kempen, van
Funded by
Pila Diez
II.1. Observatory Committees
(As of December 31, 2010)
(Directie onderzoekinstituut)
K. Kuijken (director of research)
F.P. Israel (director of education)
E. Gerstel (institute manager)
Observatory management team
(Management Team Sterrewacht)
K.H. Kuijken (chair)
E.R. Deul
J. Drost (minutes)
I. Snellen (outreach)
E. Gerstel
F.P. Israel
J. Lub (advisor)
Supervisory council
(Raad van Advies)
J.A.M. Bleeker (chair)
B. Baud
J.F. van Duyne
K. Gaemers
C. Waelkens
Research committee
(Onderzoek-commissie OZ)
M. Franx (chair)
A.G.A. Brown
M. Hogerheijde
W. Jaffe
P.P. van der Werf
Research institute scientific council
(Wetenschappelijke raad onderzoekinstituut)
R. Bouwens
P. Katgert
B. Brandl
K.H. Kuijken
J. Brinchmann
H.J. van Langevelde
A.G.A. Brown
R.S. Le Poole
D. van Delft
Y. Levin
E.R. Deul
H.V.J. Linnartz
E.F. van Dishoeck
J. Lub
M Franx
F. van Lunteren
M. Fridlund
G.K. Miley
M. Garrett
S. Portegies Zwart
H. Habing
A. Quirrenbach
M. Haverkorn
H.J.A. Röttgering
H. Hoekstra
J. Schaye
M. Hogerheijde
I. Snellen
V. Icke
R. Stuik
F.P. Israel
A.G.G.M. Tielens
W.J. Jaffe (chair)
P.P. van der Werf
P.T. de Zeeuw
Institute council
E. Deul (chair)
J. Drost
W.J. Jaffe
H. Hoekstra
M. Hogerheijde
T. Pijloo
E. van Uitert
Astronomy education committee
(Opleidingscommissie OC)
E. van Uitert
M. Franx
E. van Dishoeck
J. Schaye
H. Röttgering
vacancy (minutes)
N.A. Bremer
T. Pijloo
M.C. Segers
A. Vreeker
Astronomy board of examiners
J. Lub (chair)
J. Aarts (Physics)
F.P. Israel
I. Snellen
P.P. van der Werf
Oort scholarship committee
F.P. Israel
S. Portegies Zwart
J. Schaye
Mayo Greenberg Prize committee
G. Miley (chair)
E.F. van Dishoeck
P. Katgert
H.V.J. Linnartz
J. Lub
PhD admission advisory committee
J. Schaye (chair)
F.P. Israel
H.V.J. Linnartz
Graduate student review committee
(Commissie studievoortgang promovendi)
M. Franx (chair)
H. Linnartz
W. Boland
J. Schaye
Colloquia committee
J. Brinchmann
M. Kenworthy
Computer committee
A.G.A. Brown (chair)
B. Brandl
M. Smit
Library committee
W.J. Jaffe (chair)
F.P. Israel
J. Lub
Public outreach committee
F.P. Israel (chair)
V. Icke
R. van der Burg
J. van de Sande
F. van der Voort
Social committee
E. Fayolle
T. Meshkat
M. Rosenberg
A. van der Tang
N. van der Marel
R. Meijerink
I. Snellen
II.2. University Committees
(As on December 31, 2010)
Member Begeleidings Commissie ICT projecten
Chair Facultair Overleg ICT
Member Facultair Beleids Commissie ICT
van Dishoeck
Chair, Faculty Research Committee (WECO)
Member, Raad van Toezicht, Leiden Institute of Physics (LION)
Member, Faculty Research Committee (WECO)
Director, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Foundation
Director, Leids Sterrewacht Foundation
Director, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation
Member, Board of Directors, Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, Board of Directors, Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member, Board of Directors, Jan Hendrik Oort Foundation
Member, Advisory Council, Faculty of Creative and Performing Arts
Member, Belvédère Committee
Member, board FWN Graduate School
Chairman, board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Chairman, board of directors Oort Fonds
Member, board of directors Leidsch Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Member, board FWN Graduate School
Member, FMD/ELD user committee
Member, laboratory user group 'FWN nieuwbouw'
Member, Selection Committee, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize
Chairman, SLA Exchange Foundation
Van Lunteren
Scientifc Board Scaliger Institute
Historical Committee of Leiden University
Studium Generale Committee Leiden University
Writer-in-residence Committee
Chairman, Selection Committee, J. Mayo Greenberg Scholarship Prize
Member, Joint Education Committee Physics and Astronomy
Member, Curatorium of the professorship at Leiden University
‘Experimental Astroparticle physics’
Member, education advisory committee new buildings
Member, LUF International Study Fund (LISF) committee
Van der Werf
Member Faculty Council
Organist of the Academy Auditorium
Science policy
Member, NOVA Instrument Steering Committee
Principal investigator, METIS (mid-IR instrument for the E-ELT)
Dutch deputy co-I, JWST-MIRI
Co-I, KINGFISH Herschel Open Time Nearby Galaxies Key Project
Member, Spitzer-IRS instrument/science team
Deputy PI, Palomar AO camera (PHARO)
Member, ESA Astronomy Working Group (AWG)
Member, ESO FP7 coordinating action on Wide-field imaging with the E-ELT
Member, OPTIMOS-DIORAMAS Science Team
Member, Organizing Committee IAU Commission 8
Member, IAU Commission 37
Member, Gaia Science Team
Member, EU MC RTN European Leadership in Space Astrometry (ELSA)
Member, Steering Committee ESF-RNP Gaia Research for European Astronomy
Training (GREAT)
van Delft
Member, commissie wetenschapsgeschiedenis KNAW
Member, jury Huijbrechtsenprijs, Avond van wetenschap en maatschappij
Member, Nederlandse Maatschappij der Letterkunde
Member, (directeur) Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen
Member, Interdisciplinary Program Board Lorentz Center / NIAS
Member, organisatiecomité KunstWetenschapSalon
Member, adviesraad tijdschrift NWT (Natuur, Wetenschap en Techniek)
Member, Raad van Advies Jaarboek KennisSamenleving
Ambassador Platform bètatechniek
Member, begeleidingscommissie Digitaal Wetenschapshistorisch Centrum,
Huygens Instituut
Member, comité van aanbeveling Science Café Leiden
Member, bestuur Nederlands Natuur- en Geneeskundig Congres
Member, Adviesraad Stichting Technolab, Leiden
Member, Raad van Toezicht Stichting RINO, Leiden
Van Dishoeck
Scientific Director, Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA)
Co-Editor, Annual Reviews of Astronomy & Astrophysics
Member, ALMA Board
Member, SRON Board
Member, Search committee SRON director
Member, National Committee on Astronomy (NCA)
Member, MPIA-Heidelberg Fachbeirat
Member, IRAM visiting committee
Member, Herschel-HIFI Science team
Co-PI, European JWST-MIRI consortium
Chair, IAU Working Group on Astrochemistry
Vice-president, IAU Commission 14
Coordinator, Herschel-HIFI WISH Key Program
Chair, Scientific Organising Committee, IAU Symposium 280, 'The Molecular
Universe', Toledo, Spain
Chair, Multi-wavelength coordination working group for ASKAP Survey POSSUM
Chair, LOFAR MKSP Galactic Magnetism working group
Member, LOFAR Cosmic Magnetism Key Science Project
Member, LOFAR Surveys Key Science Project
Member, management team Arecibo GALFACTS survey
Member, SOC workshop 'The Dynamic Interstellar Medium'
Chair, SOC/LOC LOFAR MKSP project meeting, April
PI, Southern Twenty-cm All-sky Polarization Survey
Co-I, Galactic Magneto-Ionized Medium Survey
Co-I, S-band Polarization All-sky Survey
Member, Time Allocation Committee Island Telescopes
Member, Allocation Committee NWO "vrije competitie"
Member, ALMA Science Advisory Committee
Member, ALMA European Science Advisory Committee
Member, ALMA Science Integrated Project Team
Member, ALMA European Regional Center Coordinating Committee
Member, IRAM Programme Committee
Project Scientist for CHAMP+/Netherlands
Co-coordinator, JCMT Gould Belt legacy Survey
Secretary/treasurer, Board of Directors Leids Kerkhoven-Bosscha Fonds
Secretary/treasurer, Board of Directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Secretary/treasurer, Board of Directors Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds
Member at large, NL-Lofar Astronomy Consortium
Coordinator-NL SCUBA2 Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey
Member, IAU, Commissions 28, 40 and 51
Member, Science Team Herschel-HIFI
Member, Science Team APEX-CHAMP+
Member, Science Team JWST-MIRI
Member, Editorial Board Europhysics News
Member, LOCNOC
Member, Herschel User's Group (HUG)
van Langevelde
Member, consortium board European VLBI Network
Member, RadioNet Board and Executive Board
Coördinator, NEXPReS (Novel EXploration Pushing Robust e-VLBI Systems),
board and management team
PI, RadioNet reserach activity ALBiUS (Advanced Long Baseline Interoperable
User Software)
Member, board PrepSKA (Prepatory SKA studies)
Member, European SKA Consortium
Member, NOVA Instrumentation Steering Committee
Member, Dutch URSI committee
Member, board of directors Leids Kerkhoven Bosscha Fonds
Member, board of directors Leids Sterrewacht Fonds
Member, board of directors Jan Hendrik Oort Fonds
Member, SKA klankbordgroep NL
Member, Allegro steering committee
'SPIN' chair for Molecular Laboratory Astrophysics, Laser
Center Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam
Editor CAMOP (Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical
Physics), part of Physica Scripta
Workgroup leader, FOM group FOM-L-027
Research coordinator, FP7 ITN 'LASSIE' (Laboratory
Astrochemical Surface Science In Europe)
Member, NWO-EW/CW 'DAN' (Dutch Astrochemistry Network)
Member, NWO-EW 'Vrije Competitie' allocation committee
Member, NWO-CW 'Spectroscopy and Theory'
Member, NWO-FOM 'COMOP'' (Condensed Matter and Optical
Member, HRSMC research school
Chairman, Infrared Plasma Spectroscopy Meeting 2010APPENDIX III - Science
Policy Functions
Secretary Nationaal Comité voor Astronomie (NCA)
Member Board of Editors Astronomy and Astrophysics
Van Lunteren
Education and Research Board Huizinga Institute
Vice President, International Astronomical Union (Education and Development)
Chair, International Universe Awareness Steering Committee
Chair, LOFAR Research Management Committee
Chairman, LOFAR Survey Science Group, Highest Redshift Objects
Chair, Review Committee, South African National Research Foundation AstroGeosciences Facilities
Trustee, Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI- managing body of US National Radio
Astronomy Observatory)
Member Executive Committee International Astronomical Union
Member, Advisory Panel on Astronomy to the South African Minister for Science
and Technology
Member, European Research Council, Selection of Advanced Grant Awardees
Member, UK South Eastern Universities Physics Network (SEPNET) Scientific
Advisory Committee
Member, LOFAR Astronomy Research Committee
Member, Board of Governors of the LOFAR Foundation
Member, Max Planck Institut fur Radioastronomie Fachbeirat
Member, Core Team, LOFAR Surveys Key Project
Portegies Zwart
Member, Rhine Network, pan-European N-body community
Member, PRACE Scientific Steering Committee
Member, Lorentz Center, Computational Science board member
Member, NWO, proposal call "Complexity" committee
Member, ESF, International review commission board representative, ASTROSIM
Virtual European Ambassador, MICA
Member, NWO-VIDI review committee
Member GAIA science advisory board
Member, KNAW computational science action group
Key researchers NOVA (Network 3)
Beta Ambassador for the Netherlands
NOVA ISC, reporting on AMUSE progress
Key researcher NOVA research school
Member, ASTRON Science Advisory Committee
Member, Science team MID-infrared Interferometric instrument for VLTI (MIDI)
Member, XMM Large Scale Structure Survey Consortium
PI, DCLA (Development and Commissioning of LOFAR for Astronomy)
Member, LOFAR Technical Working Group
Member, LOFAR Astronomy Development (LAD) board
Member, LOFAR Astronomy Research Committee (ARC)
Member, Selection panel NWO's Rubicon program.
Member, Spitzer warm legacy survey project SERVS
Member, Euclid consortium board
Member, ESO science team for Gravity and Matisse
Member, Herschel TAC
Member of the steering committee, Virgo Consortium for cosmological
supercomputer simulations
Co-Investigator, MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer)
Key researcher, NOVA
Member, MUSE science team
Member, LOFAR Epoch of Reionization science team
Member, ISTOS science team (Imaging Spectroscopic Telescope for Origins
Member, Xenia science team (A probe of cosmic chemical evolution)
NL-representative, Euro-VO Data Center Alliance, Theoretical astrophysics expert
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, "Cosmological reionization",
Allahabad, India
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, "Gas in galaxies: from cosmic web to
molecular clouds", Seeon, Germany
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, "The cosmic odyssey of baryons:
accreting, outflowing and hiding", Marseille, France
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee, "The physics of galaxy formation",
Durham, UK
PI, OWLS collaboration (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations)
PI, EAGLE collaboration (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their
Member, PLATO consortium
Member, ECHO science team
Member, METIS consortium
Board member, Nederlandse Astronomen Club
Associate member, OPTICON Key Technologies Network
Member, FP7 Network “Wide field imaging at the E-ELT: from GLAO to
diffraction limit”
Co-chair Scientific Organizing Committee, “PAHs and the Universe: A
symposium to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the PAH hypothesis
Co-chair Scientific Organizing Committee, “Herschel and the Formation
of Stars and Planetary Systems”
Member Scientific Organizing Committee, “Conditions and Impact of
Starformation: New Results with Herschel and Beyond”
Member Scientific Organizing Committee, “COST - The Chemical Cosmos,
Annual Conference”
Van der Werf
Member, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Board
Principal Investigator, SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey
Principal Investigator, Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey
Co-investigator, HIFI
Co-investigator, MIRI
Member, METIS Science Team
Member and co-chair of Galaxies Panel, ESO Observing Programmes Committee
Member, STFC Herschel Oversight Committee
Member, Scientific Organizing Committee of 2 international conferences
Member, TAMASIS Network
Workshops, lectures
and colloquia
in Leiden
lectures and
colloquia in Leiden
IV.1. Workshops
Most of the workshops were held in the Lorentz Center, an international center
which coordinates and hosts workshops in the sciences. In 2010 the Leiden
astronomers contributed to the following workshops there:
January 25 - 29
Analysing first imaging data from LOFAR
K. Chyzy, P. Best, R. Morganti, M. Jarvis, G. Brunetti, I. Snellen, P. Barthel, G.
Miley, J. Conway, M. Bruggen, H. Röttgering, M. Lehnert
February 22 – 26
Formal theories of communication
J. van Benthem, R. Ramanujam, R. Verbrugge
March 8 – 12
Surveying the low frequency sky with LOFAR
K. Chyzy, P. Best, R. Morganti, M. Jarvis, G. Brunetti, I. Snellen, P. Barthel, G.
Miley, J. Conway, M. Bruggen, H. Röttgering, M. Lehnert
April 19 – 23
How to weigh clusters of galaxies
H. Hoekstra, A. Babul, A. Mahdavi
May 3 – 13
Advanced School and Workshop on Computational Gravitational Dynamics
S. Portegies Zwart, S. McMillan, A. Quillen, J. Stadel
June 14 – 16
Emergence of the Hubble Sequence 1<z<3
R. Ellis, M. Franx
June 21 – July 2
IPTA 2010: Detecting Gravitational Waves with Pulsars
P. Demorest, L.S. Finn, Y. Levin, B. Stappers, D. Stinebring
Additional meetings:
Feb 8
Star Formation: near and far
E.F. van Dishoeck
Apr 26 – 39
Lofar Busy Week
H. Röttgering
Apr 27 – 30
Herschel Wish Team Meeting 2010
E.F. van Dishoeck
May 2 – 3
Herschel DIGIT Meeting
Dec 13 – 17
Second AMUSE meeting and workshop
De Vries, Marosvolgyi
IV.2. Endowed Lectures
Apr 29
Richard S. Ellis
Oct 28
Linda J. Tacconi
Cosmic Dawn – The Search for the
First Galaxies
Gas Dynamics, Galaxy Assembly
and Star Formation in the early
IV.3. Scientific Colloquia
Jan 14
Speaker (affiliation)
Anna Watts (Univ. of Amsterdam)
Jan 21
Jan 28
Mike Hudson (Univ of Waterloo)
Huib Intema (Leiden Observatory)
Feb 11
Andrea Merloni (MPE Garching)
Feb 25
Ciska Kemper (Jodrell Bank Centre
for Astrophysics, Manchester)
Pat Cote (Herzberg Institute of
Mar 4
Mar 8
Mar 10
Mar 12
Mar 15
Mar 17
Mar 18
Mar 19
Mar 22
Mar 23
Mar 24
Mar 25
Mar 26
Apr 8
Apr 28
Sijme-Jan Paardekooper (DAMTP,
Michela Mapelli (Univ of MilanoBicocca)
Ciska Kemper (Jodrell Bank Centre
for Astrophysics, Manchester)
Ian McCarthy (Kavli Institute for
Cosmology, Cambridge)
Elena Rossi (Hebrew Univ,
Joel Bregman (Univ of Michigan)
Might of the living dead 0 the violent afterlife
of neutron stars
The star formation histories of red galaxies
Radio Interferometry beyond metrewavelengths: wide fields, ionosphere and
The impact of supermassive black holes growth
for structure formation and cosmology
The dusty interstellar medium of galaxies
Scaling Relations for Early-Type (Red
Sequence) Galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax
New insights in planet migration
Galaxie clashes and peculiar galaxies
Written in stone: Dust formation in the
The Physics of the Intracluster Medium
Formation and growth of Supermassive Black
The Missing Baryons from Galaxies and
Chemistry on interstellar grains as tools to
Herma Cuppen (Leiden
constrain physical parameters in star
forming regions
Philip Chang (Canadian Institute for Morphological Mysteries on Multiple Scales
Theoretical Astrophysics)
3-Dimensional Dynamics of the Galactic Bulge
Mario Soto Vicencio (Leiden
(PhD colloquium)
Rubina Kotak (Queen’s Univ Belfast Supernovae progenitors and dust production:
variations on a theme
Exoplanet Atmospheres: from Discovery to
Sara Seager (MIT)
Charactarization and Beyond
The Frontier of our Solar System
Pedro Lacerda (Queen’s Univ
Sadegh Khochfar (MPE, Garching) The formation of massive galaxies: A tale of
cold accretion and mergers
Marc van der Sluys (Univ of Alberta Gravitational-wave astronomy with LIGO and
May 12 Robert Wiersma (Leiden
Observatory and MPA Garching)
May 27 John Bally (Department of
Astrophysical and Planetary
Sciences, Univ. of Colorado
June 3 Maaike Damen (Leiden Observatory
June 10 Estelle Bayet (Univ College London)
June 17 Thimothy S. Beers (Michigan State
Sep 7
Marcel Haas (Leiden Observatory)
Sep 24
Sep 28
Sep 30
Oct 5
Oct 7
Oct 21
Nov 4
Nov 9
Nov 11
Nov 16
Nov 25
Dec 2
Dec 14
Dec 16
Simulating Enrichment of the Intergalactic
Medium (PhD colloquium)
Massive Star & Cluster Formation from
Orion, to the Galactic Center, and Beyond
The build-up of massive galaxies
Extragalactic star formation activity
The Metallicity Distribution Function(s) of
Halo Stars as Revealed by SDSS/SEGUE
Nature versusnurture in galaxy formation
simulations (PhD colloquium)
A Panchromatic Approach to the GRB-SN
Alicia Soderberg (Harvard Univ)
Derek Groen (Leiden Observatory) Simulating N-body systems on planet-wide
infrastructures (PhD colloquium)
Unraveling the magnetized interstellar
Marijke Haverkorn
Tomasso Treu (UC Santa Barbara) Dark matter and black holes over cosmic time
Spectroscopy and Chemistry of Interstellar Ice
Jordy Bouwman (Leiden
Analogues (PhD colloquium)
Millimeter Emission from Protoplanetary
Demerese Salter (Leiden
Disks: Dust, Cold Gas, and Relativistic
Electrons (PhD colloquium)
Eta Carinae: A Box of Puzzles … Some Solved
Ted Gull (NASA/GSFC)
by 3D Modeling, Others Await
Sergio Ioppolo (Leiden Observatory) Surface formation routes of interstellar
molecules – A Laboratory Study (PhD
Rajesh Kochhar (Indian Institute of Scriptures, science and mythology: Ancient
Indian astronomical interplay
Science Education and Research
Mohali, Chandigarh
The Genesis Projects: Laboratory Studies in
Daniel Savin (Columbia Univ)
Molecular Astrophysics from the First Star
to the Beginnings of Organic Chemistry
Circumstellar disks structure and evolution:
Leonardo Testi (ESO)
the dawn of planetary systems
Towards an Understanding of Gas Accretion
Guinevere Kauffmann (MPA,
and Star Formation in Galaxies
Jan-Pieter Paardekooper (Leiden
And there was light Voronoi-Delaunay
radiative transfer and cosmic
reionisation (PhD colloquium)
The extremes of the high-z ULIRG population:
Scott Chapman (IoA, Cambridge)
bright SMGs from the south pole telescope,
and hot dust dominated Herschel ULIRGs.
IV.4. Student Colloquia
June 21
June 28
Daniel Harsono
Marcel van Daalen
June 28
Annelies Mortier
July 5
Wouter Schrier
July 5
Sweta Shah
Sep 6
Michiel Lambrechts
Sep 20
Reinier Janssen
Sep 27
Sep 30
Juan David Delgado
Alexander Shulevski
Oct 5
Renske Smit
Oct 18
Arthur Bakker
Star Formation in Serpens Molecular Cloud
The Effects of Baryons on the Matter Power
Properties of Stars with protoplanetary disks
in the Lupus Cloud
Optical secondary eclipse observations of an
Mass-size relation of Galaxies from the SemiAnalytic Models
The Rotation Measure Fingerprint of a
Galactic Radio Loop
Submicron Kinetic Inductance Detectors for
Accounting for noise biases in KSB+
LOFAR Observations of the Radio Galaxy
3C 61.1
A study of scatter in Galaxy Cluster
Mid-infrared spectroscopy of a deeply
embedded massive YSO
IV.5. Colloquia given outside Leiden
W43A: magnetic field and morphology
Lake District, UK; June 20-25
Dutch-American Coöperation in Space: the Story of ANS and IRAS
National Air and Space Museum, Washington DC, USA; Nov 30
Exploring the chemical and physical structure of terrestrial planet-forming zones in
protoplanetary disks with CO line profiles
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA; Aug 5
New Probes of Physics and Chemistry in the Inner Regions of Planet-Forming
ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, Netherlands; Oct 29
Properties of PAHs in the ISM and galaxies
Oxford University Astronomy Dpt., UK; Feb 10
PAHs in the universe
ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, Netherlands; Feb 3
The shape of the PAH spectrum in the universe
PAH Symposium, Toulouse, France; June 31
Fusion of mid-IR ground- and space-based observation using non-negative matrix
IEEE-WHISPERS, Reijkyavik, Iceland, June 12
What we can learn about the build-up and evolution of galaxies
at early times from the new WFC3/IR observations
Harvard University, USA; Dec 2
Idem, National Radio Observatory, USA; May 7
Idem, Herzberg Institute for Astronomy, Canada; Apr 20
Idem, Stanford University, USA; Jan 21
Early Galaxy Build-up: >100 z~7-8 galaxies with WFC3/IR and the evolution of the UV
LF from z~7-8 to z~1
Penn State University, USA; June 8
High-Redshift Galaxy Formation with WFC3/IR: A guide to future work with JWST
and the ELTs
Garching, Germany; Apr 14
Star Formation Rate Density at z>3
Tucson, USA; Mar 16
UV colors of z~2-7 Galaxies: Luminosity Functions of z~7-8 Galaxies
Austin, USA; Mar 11
UV colors of z~2-7 Galaxies: Luminosity Functions of z~7-8 Galaxies
Aspen, USA; Feb 8
z~7 Galaxies from ultra-deep WFC3/IR observations of the HUDF: What about their
UV colors?
Washington, USA; Jan 6
Mid-IR Instrumentation for the Future: METIS and MIRI
Cornell University, USA; Oct 4
Instrument concept and science case for the mid-infrared E-ELT imager
and spectrograph METIS
San Diego, USA; July 2
The ALMA challenge: Modeling high-resolution observations of young stars
University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Apr 19
The gas content of SDSS galaxies
ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Apr 8
Formation of supermassive black hole seeds in high redshift nuclear clusters
ESO Garching, June 25
van Dishoeck
Molecules in star- and planet-forming regions: from ice cold to steaming hot
Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK; Jan 28
From protostars to protoplanets: synergy of IR and mm
European Southern Observatory, Santiago, Chile; Apr 6
Molecules in star- and planet-forming regions: from ice cold to steaming hot
ETH, Zürich, Switzerland; Apr 23
From molecules to planets
Star and planet formation center, Copenhagen, Denmark; May 10
A WISH come true: water in star-forming regions with Herschel
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA; May 21
Idem, Caltech, Pasadena, USA; June 28
Idem, European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany; Oct 19
Idem, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Nov 15
Early radio astronomy in the Netherlands
ASTRON, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands; Jan 27
Funding radio astronomy in The Netherlands: 1945-1960
British Society for the History of Science, Aberdeen, Scotland; July 23
Funding radio astronomy in postwar Netherlands: Dutch radio astronomers and the
Organisation for Pure Scientific Research
Belgian Society for Logic and Philosophy of Science, Brussels, Belgium; Sep 6
Science and national prestige: early Dutch radio astronomy
European Society for the History of Science, Barcelona, Spain; Nov 18
Funding the new field of radio astronomy in postwar Netherlands
Centre for History of Science (Ghent University), Ghent, Belgium; Dec 3
Mineralogie aan de Universiteit Gent van 1817 tot heden
Mineralogische Kring Antwerpen, Schilde, Belgium; Dec 3
Thermal Desorption of Ices Around Protostars
LPMAA - Univ. P&M Curie, Paris, France; Mar 18
Fitting the SEDs of Galaxies
Institute d'Astrophysics Paris, France; Jan 19
Starburst SED modeling near and far
Royal Astronomical Society, London, UK; Mar 12
An Application of Fractals to Stellar Dynamics
Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey; Feb 24
Idem, Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen; Nov 09
Weak lensing by large scale structure
Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm, Sweden; Aug 31
Measuring masses: from galaxy clusters down to galaxies
UVic, Victoria, Canada; Nov 26
Eta Carinae, Past and Present
Invited Lecture, APN5 Conference; June 23
Cosmology Requires New Physics
FMF Congres, Groningen, Netherlands; Nov 18
Communicating Science
Keynote speech, Bucharest, Romania; Dec 6
Laboratory Pathways to Molecular Complexity in Space: The Case of Water
NAC, Nijmegen-Cuijk, Netherlands; May 20
Laboratory Study of Surface Reactions in Interstellar Ice Analogues: HCOOH
Formation at Low Temperatures,
ECOSS 27, Groningen, The Netherlands; Aug 30
Surface Formation Routes of Interstellar Molecules: The Case of Water
Jena University, Eisenach, Germany; Oct 15
Anomalous Dust in Late-Type Galaxies
Zermatt Symposium, Zermatt, Switzerland; Sep 21
Idem, CalTech, Pasadena, USA; Nov 2
Thermal Imaging of Extrasolar Planets
Dutch Astronomy Meeting; May 20
Developing Achromatic Coronagraphic Optics for LMIRCam and the LBT
SPIE Instrumentation Conference, San Diego, USA; July 3
Looking for Planets around A Stars with Thermal Imaging
Nijmegen, Netherlands; Sep 14
Direct and Coronagraphic Thermal Imaging of Extrasolar Planets
Amsterdam, Netherlands; Sep 24
The Arizona MMTO survey for giant planets around A stars
Spirit of Lyot Conference, Paris; Oct 25
Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets at Thermal Wavelengths
University of Nottingham; Nov 3
Irregular variability during early stellar evolution: what can we learn about the
circumstellar material?
Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom;
June 24
Észleljünk ALMA-val!
Konkoly Observatory, Budapest, Hungary; Dec 21
Mapping molecules in star-forming regions: paving the way for Herschel and tracing
ESO Garching, Munich, Germany; Apr 6
Unlocking the chemistry of the heavens
Astronomical Institute Jena, Jena, Germany; Feb 12
Pathways towards molecular complexity in space
NASA-AMES, Moffett Field; Mar 19
Unlocking the chemistry of the heavens
ACS meeting, San Francisco; Mar 24
Pathways towards molecular complexity in space
NEVAC 2010, Delft, Netherlands; Apr 8
News from the DIB front; ISM/CSM meeting
Amsterdam, Netherlands; June 2
Animations in astronomy, Kliksymposium
Amsterdam, Netherlands; Sep 19
Solid state astrochemistry in the Netherlands
Kick-off meeting Dutch Astrochemistry Network, Utrecht, Netherlands; Sep 28
Astrochemistry and laboratory astrophysics
Radboud University, Netherlands; Oct 28
Unlocking the chemistry of the heavens
Academia dei Lincie, Rome, Italy; Nov 4
Plasma techniques in laboratory astrophysics
WELTPP2010, Rolduc, Netherlands; Nov 25
Exciting CO in Mrk 231: Black Hole Accretion or Star Formation?
Herschel First Results Symposium, Noordwijk, The Netherlands; May 7
idem, Molecules in Galaxies, Oxford, United Kingdom; July 26
Herschel observations of Messier 82, Great Barriers in High Mass Star Formation
Townsville, Australia; Sep 13
van Lunteren
Georg Marcgraf and the Seventeenth-Century Scientific Revolution
Symposium Georg Marcgraf in Dutch-Brazil, Leiden; Sep 23
Causality, contingency and human agency in the history of science: some methodological
Colloquium Exploring New Vistas in Historiography of Science, Leiden; Oct 7
A new instability of eccentric stellar disks around supermassive black holes
AEI, Berlin, Germany; Jan 27
Secular stellar dynamics near massive black holes
Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; Dec 7
SED modeling as a probe of physical conditions in Starbursts: 30 Doradus as a
Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; Nov 23
New developments in starburst SED modeling: using 30 Doradus as a benchmark
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; Nov 22
Idem, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ, USA;
Nov 19
Probing the Early Universe with Radio Galaxies
IAC, Teneriffe, Spain; Jan 26
The IAU Strategic Plan: Astronomy for the Developing World
SAAO, Cape Town, South Africa; July 28
Tracing the Evolution of Dust in Protoplanetary Disks
STScI, Baltimore, USA; Nov 15
Idem, UT Austin, Austin, USA; Nov 17
Idem, IfA, Honolulu, USA; Nov 19
Idem, UC Berkeley, USA; Nov 22
Portegies Zwart
Real Science in Virtual Worlds
KNAW, invited talk; Mar 18
Gas in the Vicinity of Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2-2.5
UC Santa Cruz, USA; Nov 30
Idem, UC San Diego, USA; Dec 6
Idem, CfA Harvard, USA; Dec 10
Serial Register Analysis Planning
University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Oct 18
The Gaia Attitude Model
University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, June 7
Self-regulated evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes
Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, UK; Apr 29
Idem, University of Texas, Austin TX, USA; Nov 22
Dynamos during primordial star formation
KIPAC, Stanford, USA; June 15
Magnetizing the Universe: Dynamo amplification and 21 cm constraints
MPE, Garching, Germany; June 22
Dynamos during primordial star formation
IAP, Paris, France; Sept 1
Weak lensing statistics
Albert Einstein Institute (MPI), Berlin, D; March
COSMOS: three-point shear statistics
NAC, Netherlands; Apr
Weak lensing statistics
University of British Columbia, CA; June
COSMOS: three-point shear statistics
Edinburgh, UK; July 23
Transiting extrasolar planets
University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Dec 6
Astromaterial sciences
Physics department, University of Basel, Switzerland; Mar 18
PAHs and star formation
Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam; Netherlands; Apr 23
Large Molecules in Space
Chemistry department, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, Oct 12
Nanomaterials in space
Physics department, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Oct 26
PAHs and star formation
Astronomy Department Stockholm University, Sweden; Nov 18
Van Uitert
Weak lensing in the RCS2 survey
DUEL meeting, Ringberg, Germany; Jan
Idem, NAC, Cuijk, The Netherlands; May
Idem, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh, UK; July
Idem, DUEL meeting, Sorrento, Italy; Oct 2010
Chemical Evolution from Cores to Disks
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Jan 19
Idem, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA; Jan 20
Idem, CalTech, Pasadena, CA, USA; Jan 26
Idem , CfA, Cambridge, MA, USA; Jan 29
Idem , NASA Goddard, Greenbelt, MD, USA; Feb 1
Idem , Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C., USA; Feb 2
Modelling the Hot Gas Observed in Low-Mass YSOs with Herschel
TU Delft, Netherlands; Nov 24
van de Voort
The growth of haloes and galaxies
CRAL, Lyon, France; May 28
van Weeren
Shock acceleration in CIZA J2252.8+5301
UNS CNRS OCA Laboratoire Cassiopee, Nice, France; Nov 16
The largest collision in the Universe
University of Groningen, Groningen; Nov 9
The Red Rectangle proto planetary nebula
Laser Center VU Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Apr 26
Optical Spectroscopy of interstellar and circumstellar molecules - a
combined laboratory and observational study
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, The Netherlands; Feb 7
Idem,, Joint Institute for laboratory Astrophysics (JILA), University of Colorado
at Boulder, USA; Feb 15
idem, Nasa Ames, USA; Feb 18
Teylers Museum in de 19de Eeuw: Kabinet voor Liefhebbers, Laboratorium voor
Wetenschappers, of Museum voor het Publiek?
Teylers Museum, Haarlem, Netherlands; Mar 11
The Masses and the Muses
Huygens Institute, The Hague, Netherlands; May 7
Talk3, Visitors Welcome: Teylers Museum around 1800, British Society for the History
of Science
Aberdeen, Scotland; July 24
With a Little Tacit Encouragement
Teylers Museum, Palaeontological and Mineralogical Collections, Museums and
Galleries History Group, Leeds, England; Sep 10
You say musaeum, I say museum
History of Science Society, Montréal, Canada; Nov 5
Van der Werf
Fingerprinting (Ultra)luminous infrared galaxies
Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh, Scotland; Sep 15
Idem, Oxford University, Oxford, England; Oct 5
Idem, John Moores University, Liverpool, England; Nov 3
Guggenheim Fellowship, Smithsonian Institution, ‘Dutch-American Cooperation in
Space?’, $ 10.500
British Council Partnership Fellowship, £ 650
Marie Curie Initial Training Network, EU, 'Gaia Research for European Astronomy
Training', Є 4.250.000 (13 partners, Є 500.000 to Leiden)
Van Delft
FOM, ‘PhD project Kistemaker’; Є 100.000
van Dishoeck
Dutch Astrochemistry network, NWO, 'Photodissociation and excitation in
protoplanetary disks', Є 203.693
Profileringsfondsen, UL, 'Fundamentals of Science', Є 1.000.000 (together with
Leiden Institute for Physics (LION) and Mathematical Institute (MI)
Spinoza, NWO, € 2.500.000
‘Bezoekersbeurs’, NWO ‘The Astrophysics of Eta Carinae’. Visitor: Prof. dr. T. Gull.
EU-IRG, ‘Direct Imaging of Extrasolar Planets from LBT and
VLT to E-ELT’ , Є 100.000
van Langevelde
Combination of Collaborative Project and Coordination and Support
Action, EC DG-INFSOC, 'Novel EXploration Pushing Robust e-VLBI Systems
(NEXPReS‘); Є 3.500.000 (NEXPReS is comprised of 15 partner institutes in
eleven countries and is coordinated by JIVE, ASTRON).
VICI, NWO, 'Unlocking the Chemistry of the Heavens', Є 1.500.000
FP7 ITN, EU, 'LASSIE: Laboratory Astrochemical Surface Science in Europe',
Є 6.050.000 (13 partners, Є 500.000 to Leiden)
Dutch Astrochemistry Project, NWO, 'Shining light on molecules', Є 200.000
Van Gogh, Frans Nederlandse Academie, Laboratory astrophysics, Є 3600
VENI, NWO, ‘Fourteen Billion Years of Baryonic Galaxy Formation’. €250.000
NWO-TOP, NWO, 'Probing the formation and evolution of galaxies and clusters of
galaxies with LOFAR', Є 750.000
ASTRON, 2 LOFAR PhD projects, Є 300.000
NWO, Humboldt fellowship for Prof. Brüggen, Є 16.000
PI, NWO open competition, 'Simulating cosmological reionization', Є 221.635
HPC Europa2, EU, ‘Simulating the Central Regions of Active Galaxies at High
Redshift’; Є 1.700 + 50k CPU hrs
Vrije competitie, NWO, ‘The atmospheres of extrasolar planets’, Є 201.600
Rubicon, NWO, 'Ultraviolet Induced Chemistry in Interstellar Ices', Є 55.000
ERC-advanced grant, European Research Council, ‘The Role of Large Polycyclic
Aromatic Hydrocarbon Molecules in the Universe’, Є 2.400.000
Dutch Astrochemistry Project, NWO, ‘Astronomical implications’ , Є 104.000
Van der Werf
Distinguished Visitor Grant, Scottish Universities Physics Association,
Molecular gas in submillimetre galaxies, GBP 7000
Observing time
VI. Observing time
Green Bank Telescope, The role of the magnetic field on the mass loss in AGB stars, 6
JCMT Observations, High rotational transition of SiO masers in evolved stars
Effelsberg Observations, On the lifetime of H2O masers at the tip of the Asymptotic
Giant Branch, September 2009, 15 hrs
Herschel, Spectrocopic survey of the extraordinary disk Gomez's Hamburger, 10 hrs
VLT-VISIR, The evolution of very small dust particles in Gomez's Hamburger, 11 hrs
VLT, Spectroscopy of a Uniquely Bright, Gravitationally Lensed Galaxy at z~7.4-8.0,
10 hrs
VLT, Solving the Mystery of the X-ray Superbubbles in 30 Doradus, 16 hrs
WHT, What are the sources of He II ionising radiation in low metallicity galaxies?, 2
WHT, Dual-AGN - pursuing parsec-scale black hole mergers, 2 nights
van Dishoeck
APEX, Origin and evolution of warm dense gas around low-mass protostars, 31 hrs
Parkes, Southern Twenty-cm All-sky Polarization Survey, 374 hours
INT, Multi-colour imaging of nearby clusters of galaxies, ~18 nights
JCMT, A deep dive for methanol in the protoplanetary disks of
TW Hya and HD163296, 26 hrs
Herschel Space Observatory, Deep HIFI searches for cold water vapor in
protoplanetary disks, 46.8 hrs
Submillimeter Array, Separated at Birth? A Detailed Study of the Two
Protoplanetary Disks in the VV CrA Binary System, 2 tracks priority B
VLT, The impact of AGN feedback in young, radio-loud AGN, 2 nights
WHT, Outflows in heavily obscured AGN, 8 hrs
IRAM 30m, Dense Gas in Galaxy Nuclei, 38 hrs
JCMT 15m, Dense Gas in Galaxy Nuclei, 68 hrs
JCMT 15m, Molecular Gas and Dust in the Taurus Clouds, 52 hrs
ESO APEX, Infalling Molecular Gas in Centaurus A, 13 hrs
WHT/LIRIS, First IR spectra of three newly discovered young eruptive stars, 4 hrs
IRAM PdBI, CO mapping of FUors: infalling envelopes and outflows, 8 hrs
IRAM-30m, Search for complex molecules in the Serpens core, 25 hrs
Herschel, Gas excitation through black hole accretion and star formation
in the centers of active galaxies, 22.4 hrs
De Mooij
WHT, Optical to near-infrared dayside spectra of a sample of hot-Jupiters, 6 nights
WHT, Characterising the atmosphere of the transiting Super-Earth GJ1214b, 1 night
NTT, The near-infrared spectral energy distribution of the exoplanet WASP-18b, 4
Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), Follow-up of candidate exoplanets transiting
red dwarf stars, 13 nights
Anglo Australian Telescope (AAT), On the road to transiting super-Earths
with the WTS Survey, 2 nights
GMRT, A coherent 3 Mpc-size radio relic: evidence for a triple merger?
GMRT,The discovery of an extreme radio relic: evidence for diffuse shock acceleration
induced by a cluster merger, 26hrs
Herschel, SPIRE and the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters, 16,7h
XMM,The toothbrush-relic: evidence for a coherent 3-Mpc scale shock wave ?, 8300sec
XMM, Diffusive shock acceleration induced by a cluster merger?, 12800sec
VLT, A CRIRES survey of hot Jupiters atmospheres, 155 hrs
JCMT, The Origin of Methylamine in Hot Cores, 43 hrs
Herschel Space Observatory, Physical conditions in PDRs, 23 hrs
JCMT, HCN and CN as UV tracers of YSO envelope-outflow interactions, 76 hrs
JCMT, A (more) systematic search for disks around massive
YSOs (II), 29 hrs
van Weeren
WSRT, A giant radio relic in the merging galaxy cluster RX J0649.3+1801, 39 hrs
WSRT, A coherent 3 Mpc-size radio relic: evidence for a triple galaxy cluster merger?,
78 hrs
GMRT, The first high-resolution polarization study of an extreme radio relic, 32 hrs
WHT, Dynamics of galaxy clusters with megparsec-scale shocks in the ICM, 2 nights
Van der Werf
Herschel, Herschel spectra of low-z QSOs: measuring feedback, radiation pressure
and star formation, 28.1 hrs
IRAM, Plateau de Bure Interferometer, Search for H2O, H2O+ and OH+ in the z=3.91
lensed QSO APM08279+5255, 8 hrs.
VII.1. Ph.D. Theses
Bouwman, J. ; Spectroscopy Chemistry of Interstellar Ice Analogues;
Damen, M. ; The build-up of Massive Galaxies;
Haas, ; NatureNurture in Galaxy Formation Simulations;
Ioppolo, S. ; Surface formation routes of interstellar molecules;
Lopes Beirao, P., ; Interstellar Medium Conditions in Starburst Galaxies;
Paardekooper, J. P., ; And there was light: Voronoi-Delaunay radiative
transfercosmic reionisation;
Raat, A. J. P., ; The Life of Governor Joan Gideon Loten (1710-1789);
Salter, D. M., ; Millimeter Emission from Protoplanetary Disks;
Soto Vicencio, M., ; 3-Dimensional Dynamics of the Galactic Bulge;
Wiersma, R. ; Simulating the Chemical Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium;
VII.2. Publications in refereed journals
Abbas, U., and 49 co-authors, including Brinchmann, J.; The VIMOS-VLT Deep
Survey: evolution in the halo occupation number since z ~ 1; MNRAS; 2010; 406;
Acke, B., and 7 co-authors, including Bouwman, J., Tielens, A. G. G. M.;
Spitzer's View on Aromatic and Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Emission in Herbig Ae
Stars; ApJ; 2010; 718; 558
Alibert, Y., and 25 co-authors, including Fridlund, M., Röttgering, H.J.A.;
Origin and Formation of Planetary Systems; Astrobiology; 2010; 10; 19
Allison, R. J., and 4 co-authors, including Portegies Zwart, S. F.; The early
dynamical evolution of cool, clumpy star clusters; MNRAS; 2010; 407; 1098
Amblard, A., and 71 co-authors, including van der Werf, P., Vlahakis, C.;
Herschel-ATLAS: Dust temperature and redshift distribution of SPIRE and
PACS detected sources using submillimetre colours; A&A; 2010; 518; L9
Amiri, N., and 2 co-authors, including van Langevelde, H. J.; The magnetic field
of the evolved star W43A; A&A; 2010; 509; A26
Baan, W. A., and 2 co-authors, including Loenen, A. F.; Evolution of the ISM in
luminous infrared galaxies; A&A; 2010; 516; A40
Baes, M., and 31 co-authors, including Vlahakis, C.; The Herschel Virgo Cluster
Survey. VI. The far-infrared view of M 87; A&A; 2010; 518; L53
Baes, M., and 41 co-authors, including van der Werf, P., Vlahakis, C.;
Herschel-ATLAS: The dust energy balance in the edge-on spiral galaxy UGC
4754; A&A; 2010; 518; L39
Baneke, D. ; Teach and Travel: Leiden Observatory and the Renaissance of
Dutch Astronomy in the Interwar Years; Journal for the History of Astronomy;
2010; 41; 167
Bartko, H., and 21 co-authors, including Levin, Y.; An Extremely Top-Heavy
Initial Mass Function in the Galactic Center Stellar Disks; ApJ; 2010; 708; 834
Beirão, P., and 40 co-authors, including Brandl, B. R., Groves, B.; Far-infrared
line imaging of the starburst ring in NGC 1097 with the Herschel/PACS
spectrometer; A&A; 2010; 518; L60
Bendo, G.J., and 23 co-authors, including Israel, F. P., van der Werf, P.,
Vlahakis, C.; The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey - III. Comparisons of
cold dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, molecular gas and atomic gas in
NGC 2403; MNRAS; 2010; 402; 1409
Benz, A. O., and 68 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Hogerheijde, M.
R., Kristensen, L. E., Tielens, A. G. G. M., van Kempen, T. A., Visser, R.;
Hydrides in young stellar objects: Radiation tracers in a protostar-disk-outflow
system; A&A; 2010; 521; L35
Berciano Alba, A., and 4 co-authors, including Garrett, M. A.; Radio
counterpart of the lensed submm emission in the cluster MS0451.6-0305: new
evidence for the merger scenario; A&A; 2010; 509; A54
Bergin, E.A., and 63 co-authors, including Hogerheijde, M. R., Brinch, C.,
Kristensen, L. E., van Dishoeck, E. F., Panić O. van Kempen, T. A., Visser, R.,
Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sensitive limits on the abundance of cold water vapor in
the DM Tauri protoplanetary disk; A&A; 2010; 521; L33
Bergin, E.A., and 58 co-authors, including Wang, S., Tielens, A. G. G. M.;
Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): The present and
future of spectral surveys with Herschel/HIFI; A&A; 2010; 521; L20
Bernardi, G., and 13 co-authors, including Pandey, V. N., Schaye, J.;
Foregrounds for observations of the cosmological 21 cm line. II. Westerbork
observations of the fields around 3C 196 and the North Celestial Pole; A&A;
2010; 522; A67
Berné, O. and 2 co-authors; Waves on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud;
Nature; 2010; 466; 947
Bertone, S., and 5 co-authors, including Schaye, J., Booth, C. M., Wiersma,
Robert P. C.; Metal-line emission from the warm-hot intergalactic medium - II.
Ultraviolet; MNRAS; 2010; 408; 1120
Bertone, S., and 5 co-authors, including Schaye, J., Booth, C. M., Wiersma,
Robert P. C.; Metal-line emission from the warm-hot intergalactic medium - I.
Soft X-rays; MNRAS; 2010; 407; 544
Boersma, C., and 5 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.; The 15-20 μm
PAH emission features: probes of individual PAHs?; A&A; 2010; 511; A32
Bois, M., and 23 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T., Weijmans, A.;
Formation of slowly rotating early-type galaxies via major mergers: a resolution
study; MNRAS; 2010; 406; 2405
Booth, C. M., Schaye, J.; Dark matter haloes determine the masses of
supermassive black holes; MNRAS; 2010; 405; L1
Boquien, M., and 19 co-authors, including Israel, F. P., van der Werf, P.; 100
μm and 160 μm emission as resolved star-formation rate estimators in M 33
(HERM33ES); A&A; 2010; 518; L70
Boselli, A., and 80 co-authors, including Vlahakis, C.; FIR colours and SEDs of
nearby galaxies observed with Herschel; A&A; 2010; 518; L61
Bot, C., and 6 co-authors, including Israel, F. P.; Submillimeter to centimeter
excess emission from the Magellanic Clouds. II. On the nature of the excess;
A&A; 2010; 523; A20
Bottinelli, S., and 10 co-authors, including Bouwman, J., van Dishoeck, E. F.,
Linnartz, H. V. J.; The c2d Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices Around Lowmass Young Stellar Objects. IV. NH3CH3OH; ApJ; 2010; 718; 1100
Bouwens, R. J., and 11 co-authors, including, Franx, M.; z ~ 7 Galaxy
Candidates from NICMOS Observations Over the HDF-Souththe CDF-South
and HDF-North Goods Fields; ApJ; 2010; 725; 1587
Bouwens, R. J., and 10 co-authors, including Franx, M.; Discovery of z ~ 8
Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field from Ultra-Deep WFC3/IR
Observations; ApJ; 2010; 709; L133
Bouwens, R. J., and 9 co-authors, including Franx, M.; Very Blue UVContinuum Slope β of Low Luminosity z ~ 7 Galaxies from WFC3/IR: Evidence
for Extremely Low Metallicities?; ApJ; 2010; 708; L69
Bouwman, J., and 4 co-authors, including Cuppen, H. M., Linnartz, H.;
Photochemistry of the PAH pyrene in water ice: the case for ion-mediated solidstate astrochemistry; A&A; 2010; 511; A33
Bouwman, J., and 7 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.; The
Protoplanetary Disk Around the M4 Star RECX 5: Witnessing the Influence of
Planet Formation?; ApJ; 2010; 723; L243
Brack, A., and 24 co-authors, including Fridlund, M., Röttgering, H.J.A.; Origin
and Evolution of Life on Terrestrial Planets; Astrobiology; 2010; 10; 69
Braine, J., and 25 co-authors, including Israel, F., van der Werf, P.; Cool gas and
dust in M 33: Results from the HERschel M 33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES);
A&A; 2010; 518; L69
Bridle, S., and 33 co-authors, including Kuijken, K. H., Velander, M.,
Schrabback, T.; Results of the GREAT08 Challenge: an image analysis
competition for cosmological lensing; MNRAS; 2010; 405; 2044
Brinch, C., Hogerheijde M.; LIME - a flexible, non-LTE line excitation and
radiation transfer method for millimeterfar-infrared wavelengths; A&A; 2010;
523; A25
Brown, A. G. A., and 2 co-authors, including Portegies Zwart, S. F.; The quest
for the Sun's siblings: an exploratory search in the Hipparcos Catalogue;
MNRAS; 2010; 407; 458
Bruderer, S., and 68 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Hogerheijde, M.
R., Kristensen, L. E., van Kempen, T. A., Visser, R.; Herschel/HIFI detections
of hydrides towards AFGL 2591. Envelope emission versus tenuous cloud
absorption; A&A; 2010; 521; L44
Buckle, J. V., and 32 co-authors, including Hogerheijde, M. R.; The JCMT
Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a first look at Orion B with HARP; MNRAS;
2010; 401; 204
Bujarrabal, V., and 27 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.;
Herschel/HIFI observations of high-J CO transitions in the protoplanetary
nebula CRL 618; A&A; 2010; 521; L3
Burtscher, L., and 4 co-authors, including Jaffe, W., Röttgering, H. J. A.;
Resolving the Nucleus of Centaurus A at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths; Publications
of the Astronomical Society of Australia; 2010; 27; 490
Cardamone, C. N., and 15 co-authors, including Taylor, E., Damen, M.; The
Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC): Deep Medium-band Optical
Imaging and High-quality 32-band Photometric Redshifts in the ECDF-S; ApJ
Suppl Series; 2010; 189; 270
Caselli, P., and 65 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Hogerheijde, M.
R., Kristensen, L. E., van Kempen, T. A., Visser, R.; Water vapor toward
starless cores: The Herschel view; A&A; 2010; 521; L29
Cassano, R., and 3 co-authors, including Röttgering, H. J. A.; Unveiling radio
halos in galaxy clusters in the LOFAR era; A&A; 2010; 509; A68
Castellano, R., and 25 co-authors, including Bouwens, R.; The bright end of the
z ~ 7 UV luminosity function from a wide and deep HAWK-I survey; A&A;
2010; 524; A28
Catinella, B., and 25 co-authors, including Kauffmann, G., Wang, J.,
Brinchmann, J.; The GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey - I. Gas fraction scaling
relations of massive galaxiesfirst data release; MNRAS; 2010; 403; 683
Cernicharo, J., and 26 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.; A highresolution line survey of IRC +10216 with Herschel/HIFI. First results: Detection
of warm silicon dicarbide (SiC{_2}); A&A; 2010; 521; L8
Chavarría, L., and 61 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Hogerheijde,
M. R., Kristensen, L. E., Tielens, A., van Kempen, T. A., Visser, R.; Water in
massive star-forming regions: HIFI observations of W3 IRS5; A&A; 2010; 521;
Chen, Y.-M., and 6 co-authors, including Kauffmann, G., Brinchmann, ., Wang,
J.; Absorption-line Probes of the Prevalence and Properties of Outflows in
Present-day Star-forming Galaxies; The Astronomical Journal; 2010; 140; 445
Clemens, M.S., and 30 co-authors, including Vlahakis, C.; The Herschel Virgo
Cluster Survey. III. A constraint on dust grain lifetime in early-type galaxies;
A&A; 2010; 518; L50
Cooke, R., and 5 co-authors, including Rakic, O.; A newly discovered DLA and
associated Lyα emission in the spectra of the gravitationally lensed quasar
UM673A,B; MNRAS; 2010; 409; 679
Cortese, L., and 29 co-authors, including Vlahakis, C.; The Herschel Virgo
Cluster Survey . II. Truncated dust disks in H I-deficient spirals; A&A; 2010; 518;
Crain, R. A., and 4 co-authors, including Schaye, J.; X-ray coronae in
simulations of disc galaxy formation; MNRAS; 2010; 407; 1403
Crimier, N., and 13 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Physical
structure of the envelopes of intermediate-mass protostars; A&A; 2010; 516;
Crockett, N. R., and 62 co-authors, including Wang, S., Tielens, A. G. G. M.;
Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): The Terahertz
spectrum of Orion KL seen at high spectral resolution; A&A; 2010; 521; L21
Cuppen, H. M., and 2 co-authors, including Kristensen, L. E.; H2 reformation
in post-shock regions; MNRAS; 2010; 406; L11
Cuppen, H. M., Ioppolo, S., Linnartz, H. V. J. .; Water formation at low
temperatures by surface O2 hydrogenation II; the reaction network.
PCCP, 2010; 12; 12077.
Davé, R., and 4 co-authors, including Oppenheimer, B. D.; The intergalactic
medium over the last 10 billion years - I. Lyα absorptionphysical conditions;
MNRAS; 2010; 408; 2051
Davé, R., and 6 co-authors, including Oppenheimer, B. D.; The nature of
submillimetre galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations; MNRAS;
2010; 404; 1355
Davies, J. I., and 29 co-authors, including Vlahakis, C.; The Herschel Virgo
Cluster Survey. I. Luminosity function; A&A; 2010; 518; L48
Davis, C. J. , and 33 co-authors, including Hogerheijde, M. R.; The JCMT
Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a first look at Taurus with HARP; MNRAS;
2010; 405; 759
De Looze, I., and 29 co-authors, including Vlahakis, C.; The Herschel Virgo
Cluster Survey . VII. Dust in cluster dwarf elliptical galaxies; A&A; 2010; 518;
De Marchi, G., and 2 co-authors, including Portegies Zwart, S.; On the
Temporal Evolution of the Stellar Mass Function in Galactic Clusters; ApJ; 2010;
718; 105
De Vries, N., and 3 co-authors, including Snellen, I. A. G.; The dynamical ages
of two low-luminosity young radio sources; A&A; 2010; 521; A2
Dedes, C., and 40 co-authors, including Berné, O.; The origin of the [C II]
emission in the S140 photon-dominated regions. New insights from HIFI; A&A;
2010; 521; L24
Demarco, R., and 8 co-authors, including Hoekstra, H.; Spectroscopic
Confirmation of Three Red-sequence Selected Galaxy Clusters at z = 0.87,
1.16,1.21 from the SpARCS Survey; ApJ; 2010; 711; 1185
Devecchi, B., and 3 co-authors.; High-redshift formation and evolution of
central massive objects - I. Model description; MNRAS; 2010; 409; 1057
Dionatos, O., and 4 co-authors, including Kristensen, L.; Spitzer spectral line
mapping of the HH211 outflow; A&A; 2010; 521; A7
Duffy, A.R., and 5 co-authors, including Schaye, J., Booth, C. M.; Impact of
baryon physics on dark matter structures: a detailed simulation study of halo
density profiles; MNRAS; 2010; 405; 2161
Dvorak, R., and 24 co-authors, including Fridlund, M., Röttgering, H.J.A.;
Dynamical Habitability of Planetary Systems; Astrobiology; 2010; 10; 33
Eales, S., and 98 co-authors, including van der Werf, P., Vlahakis, C.; The
Herschel ATLAS; Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific; 2010; 122;
Edge, A. C., and 26 co-authors, including Oonk, J. B. R., Jaffe, W.; Herschel
photometry of brightest cluster galaxies in cooling flow clusters; A&A; 2010; 518;
Edge, A. C., and 26 co-authors, including Oonk, J. B. R., Jaffe, W.; Herschel
observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies; A&A; 2010; 518;
Emonts, B. H. C. , and 9 co-authors, including Holt, J.; Large-scale HI in nearby
radio galaxies - II. The nature of classical low-power radio sources; MNRAS;
2010; 406; 987
Engelbracht, C. W. , and 40 co-authors, including Brandl, B. R., Groves, B.;
Enhanced dust heating in the bulges of early-type spiral galaxies; A&A; 2010;
518; L56
Espada, and 11 co-authors, including Israel, F. P.; Disentangling the
Circumnuclear Environs of Centaurus A. II. On the Nature of the Broad
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Schneider, J., and 19 co-authors, including Fridlund, M., Röttgering, H.; The
Far Future of Exoplanet Direct Characterization; Astrobiology; 2010; 10; 121
Schrabback, T., and 21 co-authors, including Hildebrandt, H., Hoekstra, H.,
Kuijken, K., Semboloni, E., Velander, M.; Evidence of the accelerated
expansion of the Universe from weak lensing tomography with COSMOS; A&A;
2010; 516; A63
Serre, D. ; The Fresnel imager: instrument numerical model; Experimental
Astronomy; 2010; ; 17
Serre, D., and 2 co-authors,; The Fresnel Imager: learning from ground-based
generation I prototype; Experimental Astronomy; 2010; ; 16
Sewilo, M., and 21 co-authors, including Carlson, L. R., ; The youngest massive
protostars in the Large Magellanic Cloud; A&A; 2010; 518; L73
Shapiro, K. L., and 17 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T.; The SAURON
project - XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxiesthe evolution of the
red sequence; MNRAS; 2010; 402; 2140
Sibthorpe, B., and 39 co-authors, including Bouwman, J., Fridlund, M.,
Hogerheijde, M. R.; The Vega debris disc: A view from Herschel; A&A; 2010;
518; L130
Smith, M. W. L., and 29 co-authors, including Vlahakis, C.; The Herschel Virgo
Cluster Survey. IV. Resolved dust analysis of spiral galaxies; A&A; 2010; 518;
Snellen, I. A. G., and 2 co-authors, including de Mooij, E. J. W.; Bright optical
day-side emission from extrasolar planet CoRoT-2b; A&A; 2010; 513; A76
Snellen, I. A. G., and 3 co-authors, including de Mooij, E. J. W.; The orbital
motion, absolute mass and high-altitude winds of exoplanet HD209458b; Nature;
2010; 465; 1049
Soleri, P., and 14 co-authors, including Garrett, M.; Investigating the disc-jet
coupling in accreting compact objects using the black hole candidate Swift
J1753.5-0127; MNRAS; 2010; 406; 1471
Spezzi, L., and 4 co-authors, including Oliveira, I., van Dishoeck, E. F.; A deep
optical/near-infrared catalogue of Serpens; A&A; 2010; 513; A38
Srinivasan, S., and 11 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.; The mass-loss
return from evolved stars to the Large Magellanic Cloud. III. Dust properties for
carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars; A&A; 2010; 524; A49
Steidel, C. C., and 7 co-authors, including Rakic, O.; The Structure and
Kinematics of the Circumgalactic Medium from Far-ultraviolet Spectra of z ~= 23 Galaxies; ApJ; 2010; 717; 289
Strazzullo, V., and 20 co-authors, including Bouwens, R. J., Franx, M.; Cluster
galaxies in XMMU J2235-2557: galaxy population properties in most massive
environments at z ~ 1.4; A&A; 2010; 524; A17
Sturm, B., and 42 co-authors, including Bouwman, J., van Dishoeck, E. F., van
Kempen, T. A., Kristensen, L. E., , Hogerheijde, M. R., Meijerink, R., Visser,
R.; First results of the Herschel key program ``Dust, Ice and Gas In Time''
(DIGIT): Dust and gas spectroscopy of HD 100546; A&A; 2010; 518; L129
Sur, S., and 4 co-authors, including Schleicher, D. R. G.; The Generation of
Strong Magnetic Fields During the Formation of the First Stars; ApJ; 2010; 721;
Szomoru, D. and 8 co-authors, including Franx, M., Bouwens, R. J.;
Confirmation of the Compactness of a z = 1.91 Quiescent Galaxy with Hubble
Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3; ApJ; 2010; 714; L244
Taylor, E. N., and 4 co-authors, including Franx, M., Brinchmann, J.; On the
Masses of Galaxies in the Local Universe; ApJ; 2010; 722; 1
Taylor, E. N., and 5 co-authors, including Franx, M., Brinchmann, J.; On the
Dearth of Compact, Massive, Red Sequence Galaxies in the Local Universe; ApJ;
2010; 720; 723
Testor, G., and 5 co-authors, including Kristensen, L. E.; VLT/NACO nearinfrared imaging and spectroscopy of N88A in the SMC; A&A; 2010; 510; A95
Thi, W.-F., and 3 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Evidence for
episodic warm outflowing CO gas from the intermediate-mass young stellar
object IRAS 08470-4321; MNRAS; 2010; 406; 1409
Tielens, A. G. G. M. ; The mid-far-infrared range: radiation emission processes
from interstellar dust and gas; ISSI Scientific Reports Series; 2010; 9; 131
Tudose, V., and 10 co-authors, including Garrett, M. A.; Probing the behaviour
of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 with very long baseline radio interferometry;
MNRAS; 2010; 401; 890
Urquhart, S. A., and 3 co-authors, including Hoekstra, H.; An environmental
Butcher-Oemler effect in intermediate-redshift X-ray clusters; MNRAS; 2010;
406; 368
van de Ven, G., and 5 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T.; The Einstein
Cross: Constraint on Dark Matter from Stellar Dynamics and Gravitational
Lensing; ApJ; 2010; 719; 1481
van den Bosch, R. C. E. and de Zeeuw, P. T..; Estimating black hole masses in
triaxial galaxies; MNRAS; 2010; 401; 1770
van der Burg, R. F. J., and 2 co-authors, including Hildebrandt, H.; The UV
galaxy luminosity function at z = 3-5 from the CFHT Legacy Survey Deep fields;
A&A; 2010; 523; A74
van der Tak, F. F. S., and 58 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.,
Hogerheijde, M., Kristensen, L., van Kempen, T., Visser, R.; Water abundance
variations around high-mass protostars: HIFI observations of the DR21 region;
A&A; 2010; 518; L107
van der Werf, P. P., and 36 co-authors, including Meijerink, R., Loenen, A. F.,
Israel, F. P., Vlahakis, C.; Black hole accretion and star formation as drivers of
gas excitation and chemistry in Markarian 231; A&A; 2010; 518; L42
van der Wiel, M. H. d., and 67 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.;
Herschel/HIFI observations of spectrally resolved methylidyne signatures
toward the high-mass star-forming core NGC 6334I; A&A; 2010; 521; L43
van Dokkum, P. G., and 13 co-authors, including Franx, M., Quadri, Ryan; The
Growth of Massive Galaxies Since z = 2; ApJ; 2010; 709; 1018
van Haasteren, R., and Levin, Y.; Gravitational-wave memory and pulsar
timing arrays; MNRAS; 2010; 401; 2372
van Kempen, T. A., and 44 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.,
Kristensen, L. E., Bouwman, J., Hogerheijde, M. R., Jaffe, D., Meijerink, R.,
Visser, R.; Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT) Herschel program first results. A
full PACS-SED scan of the gas line emission in protostar DK Chamaeleontis;
A&A; 2010; 518; L128
van Kempen, T. A. , and 64 co-authors, including Kristensen, L. E., Visser, R.,
van Dishoeck, E. F., Brinch, C., Hogerheijde, M. R.; Origin of the hot gas in
low-mass protostars. Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of HH 46; A&A; 2010; 518;
van Loon, J. Th., and 12 co-authors, including, Tielens, A. G. G. M.; A Spitzer
Space Telescope Far-Infrared Spectral Atlas of Compact Sources in the
Magellanic Clouds. I. The Large Magellanic Cloud; The Astronomical Journal;
2010; 139; 68
Van Waerbeke, L., and 3 co-authors, including Hildebrandt, H.; Magnification
as a Probe of Dark Matter Halos at High Redshifts; ApJ; 2010; 723; L13
van Weeren, R. J., and 3 co-authors, including Röttgering, H. J. A.; Particle
Acceleration on Megaparsec Scales in a Merging Galaxy Cluster; Science; 2010;
330; 347
Vandenbussche, B., and 42 co-authors, including Hogerheijde, M. R.; The β
Pictoris disk imaged by Herschel PACSS and PIRE; A&A; 2010; 518; L133
Verhoeff, A. P., and 10 co-authors, including Tielens, A. G. G. M.; HD 95881: a
gas rich to gas poor transition disk?; A&A; 2010; 516; A48
Verley, S., and 14 co-authors, including Israel, F. P., van der Werf, P. P.;
Properties of compact 250 μm emission and H II regions in M 33 (HERM33ES);
A&A; 2010; 518; L68
Visser, R., and 1 co-author; Sub-Keplerian accretion onto circumstellar disks;
A&A; 2010; 519; A28
Vlemmings, W. H. T., and 3 co-authors, including Torstensson, K. J. E., van
Langevelde, H. J.; Magnetic field regulated infall on the disc around the
massive protostar Cepheus AHW2; MNRAS; 2010; 404; 134
Volino, F., and 3 co-authors, including Garrett, M. A.; Very Large Array
observations of the 8 o'clock arc lens system: radio emissiona limit on the starformation rate; A&A; 2010; 524; A79
Wahhaj, Z., and 17 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; The Spitzer c2d
Survey of Weak-line T Tauri Stars. III. The Transition from Primordial Disks to
Debris Disks; ApJ; 2010; 724; 835
Wakelam, V., and 12 co-authors, including Linnartz, H. V. J., Cuppen, H. M.;
Reaction Networks for Interstellar Chemical Modelling: Improvements and
Challenges; Space Science Reviews; 2010; 156; 13
Wampfler, S. F. , and 61 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Kristensen,
L. E., Visser, R., van Kempen, T. A., Hogerheijde, M. R.; Herschel observations
of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in young stellar objects; A&A; 2010; 521; L36
Warren, B. E., and 22 co-authors, including Israel, F. P., van der Werf, P. P.,
Vlahakis, C.; The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy
Survey. II. Warm Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Three Field Spiral
Galaxies; ApJ; 2010; 714; 571
Wehres, N. , and 4 co-authors, including Linnartz, H. V. J., Tielens, A. G. G. M.;
C2 emission features in the Red Rectangle. A combined observational laboratory
study; A&A; 2010; 518; A36
Wehres, N. , and 2 co-authors, including Linnartz, H. V. J.; Rotationally
resolved A(3)Sigma(-)(u)-X-3 Sigma(-)(g) spectrum of HC7H; Chemical Physics
Letters; 2010; 497; 30
Weijmans, A., and 6 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T.; Dissecting the
Lyman α emission halo of LAB1; MNRAS; 2010; 402; 2245
Weiß, A., and 25 co-authors, including Israel, F. P., van der Werf, P. P.; HIFI
spectroscopy of low-level water transitions in M 82; A&A; 2010; 521; L1
Whitaker, K. E., and 13 co-authors, including Franx, M., Quadri, R. F.; The Age
Spread of Quiescent Galaxies with the NEWFIRM Medium-band Survey:
Identification of the Oldest Galaxies Out to z ~ 2; ApJ; 2010; 719; 1715
White, M. C., and 2 co-authors, including Smit, R.; Cluster galaxy dynamics
and the effects of large-scale environment; MNRAS; 2010; 408; 1818
Wiersma, R. P. C., and 5 co-authors, including Schaye, J., Booth, C. M.; The
enrichment history of cosmic metals; MNRAS; 2010; 409; 132
Williams, R.J. , and 6 co-authors, including Quadri, R. F., Franx, M.; The
Evolving Relations Between Size, Mass, Surface Density, and Star Formation in 3
x 104 Galaxies Since z = 2; ApJ; 2010; 713; 738
Wuyts, S., and 7 co-authors, including Franx, M.; On Sizes, Kinematics, M/L
Gradients, and Light Profiles of Massive Compact Galaxies at z ~ 2; ApJ; 2010;
722; 1666
Wyrowski, F., and 65 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Hogerheijde,
M. R., Kristensen, L. E., van Kempen, T. A., Visser, R.; Variations in
H2O+H2O ratios toward massive star-forming regions; A&A; 2010; 521; L34
Yildiz, U. A., and 62 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F., Kristensen, L.
E., Visser, R., van Kempen, T. A., Hogerheijde, M. R., Deul, E., Tielens, A. G.
G. M.; Herschel/HIFI observations of high-J CO lines in the NGC 1333 lowmass star-forming region; A&A; 2010; 521; L40
Young, D. R., and 17 co-authors, including de Mooij, E. J. W., Snellen, I. A. G.;
Two type Ic supernovae in low-metallicity, dwarf galaxies: diversity of
explosions; A&A; 2010; 512; A70
Zhao, H., and 4 co-authors, including Hoekstra, H.; Structure Formation by
Fifth Force: Power Spectrum from N-Body Simulations; ApJ; 2010; 712; L179
Zwitter, T., and 25 co-authors, including Brown, A. G. A.; Distance
determination for RAVE stars using stellar models . II. Most likely values
assuming a standard stellar evolution scenario; A&A; 2010; 522; A54
VII.3. Publications in non-refereed journals and
conference articles
Arsenault, R., and 39 co-authors, including Stuik, R.; Progress on the VLT
Adaptive Optics Facility; The Messenger; 2010; 142; 12
Bacon, R., and 67 co-authors, including Brinchmann, J., Serre, D., Schaye, J.,
Stuik, R.; The MUSE second-generation VLT instrument; Society of Photo-Optical
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7735;
Balcells, M., and 23 co-authors, including Brown, A. G. A.; Design drivers for a
wide-field multi-object spectrograph for the William Herschel Telescope; Society
of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7735;
Bois, M., and 24 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T., Weijmans, A.;
Formation of Slowly Rotating Elliptical Galaxies in Major Mergers. A Resolution
Study; American Institute of Physics Conference Series; 2010; 1240; 405
Brandl, B. R., and 18 co-authors, including Molster, F., Kendrew, S., van
Dishoeck, E. F., van der Werf, P. P.; Instrument concept and science case for
the mid-IR E-ELT imager and spectrograph METIS; Society of Photo-Optical
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7735;
Brandl, B. R., and 4 co-authors,; METIS: A Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and
Spectrograph; The Messenger; 2010; 140; 30
Brinchmann, J. ; Challenges in Stellar Population Studies; IAU Symposium; 2010;
262; 3
Busso, G., and 1 co-author; The UV spectrum of the Galactic Bulge; IAU
Symposium; 2010; 262; 311
Callier, P., and 55 co-authors, including Serre, D., Stuik, R.; The MUSE project
from the dream toward reality; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
(SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7738;
Cappellari, M., and 12 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T.; Testing Mass
Determinations of Supermassive Black Holes via Stellar Kinematics; American
Institute of Physics Conference Series; 2010; 1240; 211
Cappellari, M., and 24 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T., Weijmans, A.;
Scaling relations in early-type galaxies from integral-field stellar kinematics;
Highlights of Astronomy; 2010; 15; 81
Carbillet, M., and 2 co-authors, including Jolissaint, L.; The Software Package
PAOLAC: an embedment of the analytical code PAOLA within the CAOS
problem-solving environment; Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes;
2010 ;
Ciesla, L., and 80 co-authors, including Vlahakis, C.; SED fitting of nearby
galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey; SF2A-2010: Proceedings of the Annual
meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics; 2010; ; 31
Coccato, L., and 12 co-authors, including Kuijken, K. H..; Kinematic properties
of early type galaxy halos using planetary nebulae; Highlights of Astronomy; 2010;
15; 68
Cortesi, A., and 13 co-authors, including Kuijken, K. H.; Revealing S0 Galaxies'
Formation Histories Using the Stellar Kinematics of the Faint Outer Disks;
American Institute of Physics Conference Series; 2010; 1240; 289
Cunningham, C., and 2 co-authors, including Molster, F.; The OPTICON
technology roadmap for optical and infrared astronomy; Society of Photo-Optical
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7739;
Davies, R., and 45 co-authors, including Deul, E., Kuijken, K.; Science and
Adaptive Optics Requirements of MICADO, the E-ELT adaptive optics imaging
camera; Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes; 2010; ;
Davies, R., and 45 co-authors, including Deul, E., Kuijken, K.; MICADO: the EELT adaptive optics imaging camera; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation
Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7735;
De Marchi, G., and 2 co-authors, including Portegies Zwart, S. F.; On the
temporal evolution of the stellar mass function of Galactic clusters; IAU
Symposium; 2010; 266; 81
de Zeeuw, P. T. ; In Memoriam Christine Nieuwenkamp; The Messenger; 2010;
142; 48
Deep, A., and 3 co-authors, including Jolissaint, L.; Use of AO PSF models for
the Study of Resolved Stellar Populations; Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large
Telescopes; 2010; ;
Deep, A., and 10 co-authors, including Boland, W., Molster, F., Stuik, R.;
Alignment and integration of ASSIST: a test bench for VLT adaptive optics
facility; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series;
2010; 7793;
Emsellem, E., and 22 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T., Weijmans, A.; The
ATLAS3D Project: A Paradigm Shift for Early-Type Galaxies; American Institute
of Physics Conference Series; 2010; 1240; 335
Falcón-Barroso, J., and 11 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T.; The
Kinematics of Core and Cusp Galaxies: Comparing HST Imaging and IntegralField Observations; The Impact of HST on European Astronomy; 2010; ; 127
Garrett, M. A., and 5 co-authors; The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) - Phase 1
Design Concept; ISKAF2010 Science Meeting; 2010; ;
Giodini, S. ; The Baryonic Budget of Galaxy Groups in the COSMOS field;
Galaxy Clusters: Observations, Physics and Cosmology; 2010; ; 27P
Girard, J. H. V., and 15 co-authors, including Kenworthy, M. A.; Status and
new operation modes of the versatile VLT/NaCo; Society of Photo-Optical
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7736;
Gladysz, S., and 8 co-authors, including Jolissaint, L.; Suppressing stellar
residual light on extremely large telescopes by aperture modulation; Adaptative
Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes; 2010; ;
Gouliermis, D. A., and 15 co-authors, including Brandl, B.; A Hubble View of
Star Forming Regions in the Magellanic Clouds; The Impact of HST on European
Astronomy; 2010; ; 71
Guillard, P., and 18 co-authors, including Kendrew, S.; Optical performance of
the JWST/MIRI flight model: characterization of the point spread function at
high resolution; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Conference Series; 2010; 7731;
Gvaramadze, V. V., and 2 co-authors, including Portegies Zwart, S.; Highvelocity runaway stars from three-body encounters; IAU Symposium; 1/1/2010;
266; 413
Hayward, C. C., and 7 co-authors, including Groves, B.; Testing star formation
rate indicators using galaxy merger simulations and radiative transfer; IAU
Symposium; 2010; 262; 257
Heald, G., and 16 co-authors, including van Weeren, R. J., Rafferty, D., Birzan,
L.; Recent LOFAR imaging pipeline results; ISKAF2010 Science Meeting; 2010 ;
Herpin, F., and 5 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Herschel/HIFI
reveals the first stages of stellar formation; SF2A-2010: Proceedings of the Annual
meeting of the French Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics; 2010; ; 221
Hogerheijde, M. R. ; Structure and life time of circumstellar disks; EAS
Publications Series; 2010; 41; 113
Israel, F. P. ; Dense Star-forming Gas and Dust in the Magellanic Clouds; EAS
Publications Series; 2010 40; 299
Jaffe, W. ; Extragalactic Astronomy; JENAM 2010, Joint European and National
Astronomy Meeting; 2010; ;
Jolissaint, L., Kendrew, S.; Modeling the Chromatic Correction Error in
Adaptive Optics: Application to the Case of Mid-Infrared Observations in Dry to
Wet Atmospheric Conditions; Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes;
2010 ;
Jolissaint, L. ; Synthetic modeling of astronomical closed loop adaptive optics;
Journal of the European Optical Society - Rapid publications, 5, 10055; 2010; 5;
Kamble, A. P., and 7 co-authors, including Garrett, M. A.; WSRT Radio
Observations of SN 2010br; The Astronomer's Telegram; 2010; 2612; 1
Kamble, A. P., and 8 co-authors, including Garrett, M. A.; WSRT Radio
Observations of PTF10bzf; The Astronomer's Telegram; 2010; 2479; 1
Kendrew, S. ; SpS1-High-resolution infrared spectroscopy at high and low
altitudes; Highlights of Astronomy; 2010; 15; 536
Kendrew, S., and 9 co-authors, including Jolissaint, L., Brandl, B., Molster, F.;
Mid-infrared astronomy with the E-ELT: performance of METIS; Society of PhotoOptical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7735;
Kenworthy, M. A. and 7 co-authors.; An apodizing phase plate coronagraph for
VLT/NACO; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference
Series; 2010; 7735;
Kenworthy, M. A., and 5 co-authors.; Developing achromatic coronagraphic
optics for LMIRCam and the LBT; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation
Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7734;
Kenworthy, M. A., and 7 co-authors; A New Coronagraph for NAOS-CONICA
-- the Apodising Phase Plate; The Messenger; 2010; 141; 2
Koechlin, L., and 5 co-authors, including Serre, D.; The Fresnel Interferometric
Imager; Pathways Towards Habitable Planets; 2010; 430; 278
Kristensen, L., van Dishoeck, E. F.; Water in Star-Forming Regions with
Herschel (WISH): overview; 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly; 2010 38; 2479
Kroes, G., and 18 co-authors, including Brandl, B.; METIS opto-mechanical
design and packaging study; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
(SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7735;
Kruijssen, J. M. D., and 4 co-authors, including Pelupessy, F. I., Portegies
Zwart, S. F., Icke, V.; Simulations of Interacting Galaxies Covering More Than
Ten Orders of Magnitude; Galaxy Wars: Stellar Populations and Star Formation in
Interacting Galaxies; 2010; 423; 203
Kruijssen, J. M. D., and 1 co-authors, including Portegies Zwart, S. F.; The
Relation Between the Globular Cluster Mass and Luminosity Functions; Galaxy
Wars: Stellar Populations and Star Formation in Interacting Galaxies; 2010; 423; 151
Kruijssen, J. M. D., and 1 co-author.; The Mass-to-Light Ratios of Galactic
Globular Clusters; Galaxy Wars: Stellar Populations and Star Formation in
Interacting Galaxies; 2010; 423; 146
Kuijken, K. H. ; Dark Haloes as Seen with Gravitational Lensing; Galaxies and
their Masks, A Conference in Honour of K.C. Freeman, Edited by by David L. Block,
Kenneth C. Freeman, Ivânio Puerari. New York: Springer, 2010. ISBN: 978-1-44197316-0, p.361-372; 2010 ; 361
Le Fèvre, and 22 co-authors, including Brinchmann, J.; DIORAMAS: a widefield visible and near-infrared imaging multi-slit spectrograph for the EELT;
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010;
Lenzen, R., and 24 co-authors, including Brandl, B. R., Molster, F., van
Dishoeck, E. F., van der Werf, P., Kendrew, S., Stuik, R., Jolissaint, L.; METIS:
system engineering and optical design of the mid-infrared E-ELT instrument;
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010;
Levin, Y. ; Stellar discs near the Galactic Center; Dynamics from the Galactic
Center to the Milky Way Halo; 2010; ;
Loupias, M., and 19 co-authors, including Stuik, R.; MUSE instrument global
performance analysis; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Conference Series; 2010; 7738;
Lundgren, R., and 22 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, T.; APEX: five years of
operations; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference
Series; 2010; 7737;
Martin, C., and 12 co-authors, including Israel, F. P.; The Herschel Inner Galaxy
Gas Survey (HIGGS): Early Results; 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly; 2010 38;
Martínez-Galarza, J. R., and 7 co-authors, including Kendrew, S., Brandl, B.;
Wavelength calibration of the JWST-MIRI medium resolution spectrometer;
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010;
Mei, S., and 11 co-authors, including Franx, M.; Stellar populations and
morphology on the red sequence at z~1; American Institute of Physics Conference
Series; 2010; 1241; 236
Meisner, J.A., and 6 co-authors, including Jaffe, W. J., Le Poole, R. S.; The
polarization-based collimated beam combiner and the proposed NOVA fringe
tracker (NFT) for the VLTI; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
(SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7734;
Minier, V., and 14 co-authors, including Israel, F. P.; The Antarctic
Submillimetre Telescope; EAS Publications Series; 2010; 40; 269
Molinari, S., and 142 co-authors, including Berné, O.,; From Clouds to Young
Stellar Objects and back again: the all-in-one view from the Herschel infrared
Galactic Plane Survey; 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly; 2010; 38; 2488
Morganti, R., and 3 co-authors, including Holt, J.; Cold and Warm Gas
Outflows in Radio AGN; IAU Symposium; 2010; 267; 429
Müller, A., and 16 co-authors, including Jaffe, W.; First results using PRIMA
FSU as a fringe tracker for MIDI; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
(SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7734;
Nan, R.-D., and 11 co-authors, including, Garrett, M.; Division X: Radio
Astronomy; Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, Series B; 2010; 27;
Neumayer, N., and 6 co-authors, including van der Werf, P., de Zeeuw, T.;
SINFONI on the Nucleus of Centaurus A; The Messenger; 2010; 139; 36
Oliveira, I., and 3 co-authors, including, van Dishoeck, E. F.; Evolution of Dust
in Protoplanetary Disks; Disks, Meteorites, Planetesimals; 2010; ; 6003
Oliveira, I., and 3 co-authors, including, van Dishoeck, E. F.; Evolution of
Young Stars and Their Disks in Serpens; Highlights of Astronomy; 2010; 15; 731
Oonk, J. B. R., and 3 co-authors, including, Jaffe, W.; Cool gas in brightest
cluster galaxies; Highlights of Astronomy; 2010; 15; 279
Oonk, J. B. R.,, and 3 co-authors, including, Jaffe, W.; FUV Emission in CoolCore Clusters; IAU Symposium; 2010; 267; 463
Pawlik, A. H., and 2 co-authors, including Schaye, J.; Keeping the Universe
Ionised: Photoheating and the High-redshift Clumping Factor of the
Intergalactic Gas; New Horizons in Astronomy: Frank N. Bash Symposium 2009;
2010; 432; 230
Pérez-Beaupuits, J.P., and 3 co-authors, including Hogerheijde, M. R.; Warm
molecular gas in the M17 SW nebula; Highlights of Astronomy; 2010; 15; 401
Portegies Zwart, S. F., and 9 co-authors, including Groen, D., Harfst, S.;
Simulating the universe on an intercontinental grid of supercomputers; IEEE
Computer, v.43, No.8, p.63-70; 2010; 43; 63
Prod'Homme, T., and 4 co-authors, including Brown, A. G. A.; Comparison of a
fast analytical model of radiation damage effects in CCDs with experimental
tests; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series;
2010; 7742;
Rakic, O., and 4 co-authors, including, Schaye, J.; Intergalactic Medium near
High Redshift Star-Forming Galaxies; 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly; 2010; 38;
Ronayette, S., and 17 co-authors, including Kendrew, S.; Performance
verification of the MIRI imager flight model at CEA; Society of Photo-Optical
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7731;
Röttgering, H. J. A. ; LOFAR and the low frequency Universe; ISKAF2010
Science Meeting; 2010 ;
Rudie, G., and 3 co-authors, including Rakic, O.; Mapping the circumgalactic
medium of high-redshift galaxies; 38th COSPAR Scientific Assembly; 2010; 38;
Schaye, J. ; The warm-hot intergalactic medium; 38th COSPAR Scientific
Assembly; 2010; 38; 2632
Schleicher, D. R. G., and 6 co-authors.; Primordial Magnetic Fields:
Reionization Constraints and Implications for the First Stars; American Institute of
Physics Conference Series; 2010; 1294; 281
Schleicher, D. R. G., and 5 co-authors; The Formation of Supermassive Black
Holes in the First Galaxies; American Institute of Physics Conference Series; 2010;
1294; 246
Schleicher, D. R. G., and 2 co-authors.; Detecting the first quasars with ALMA;
Highlights of Astronomy; 2010; 15; 426
Schleicher, D. R. G., and 2 co-authors; Detecting the First Quasars with ALMA;
IAU Symposium; 2010; 267; 52
Serra, P., and 26 co-authors, including de Zeeuw, P. T.; Early-type Galaxies in
Isolation: an HI Perspective with ATLAS 3D; Galaxies in Isolation: Exploring
Nature Versus Nurture; 2010; 421; 49
Serre, D., and 6 co-authors, including Jolissaint, L.; Modeling the spatial PSF at
the VLT focal plane for MUSE WFM data analysis purpose; Society of PhotoOptical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7736;
Short, A., and 4 co-authors, including Prod’homme, T., Brown, A. G.A.; A fast
model of radiation-induced electron trapping in CCDs for implementation in the
Gaia data processing; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
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Skemer, A. J. , and 9 co-authors, including Kendrew, S., Mathar, R. J. Stuik, R.;
A Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Dispersion in N-band Spectra:
Implications for Mid-IR Systems on ELTs*</xref>; Adaptative Optics for
Extremely Large Telescopes; 2010 ;
Spoon, H. W. W., Holt, J.; Discovery of Strongly Blue Shifted Mid-infrared [Ne
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2010; 427; 80
Stuik, R., and 5 co-authors, including , Jolissaint, L., Kendrew, S., Brandl, B.;
Extreme Adaptive Optics in the mid-IR: The METIS AO system; Adaptative
Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes; 2010 ;
Stuik, R., and 4 co-authors, including Jolissaint, L., Kendrew, S., Brandl, B.;
Extreme adaptive optics in the mid-IR: The METIS AO system; Highlights of
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Stuik, R., and 9 co-authors, including Jolissaint, L., Kendrew, S., Brandl, B.;
The METIS AO system: bringing extreme adaptive optics to the mid-IR; Society
of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7736;
Stuik, R., and 9 co-authors, including Boland, W., Molster, F.; Testing the VLT
AO facility with ASSIST; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Conference Series; 2010; 7736;
Testi, L., van Dishoeck, E. F.; Report on the Joint ESO/MPE/MPA/LMU
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Tudose, V., and 6 co-authors, including Garrett, M.; e-EVN observations of
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Tudose, V., and 8 co-authors, including Garrett, M.; Radio non-detection of Aql
X-1; The Astronomer's Telegram; 2010; 2911; 1
Tudose, V., and 14 co-authors, including Garrett, M.; Radio observations of
Cyg X-1 in the soft X-ray state; The Astronomer's Telegram; 2010; 2755; 1
Uttenthaler, S., and 11 co-authors, including Kendrew, S., Brandl, B. R.,
Molster, F. J.; Correcting METIS spectra for telluric absorption to maximize
spectral fidelity; Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Conference Series; 2010; 7735;
van der Horst, A. J., and 11 co-authors, including Garrett, M. A.; Sudden radio
flux decline in MAXI J1659-152; The Astronomer's Telegram; 2010; 2918; 1
van Dishoeck, E. F. ; Astrochemistry: Building on Dalgarno's Legacy;
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Molecular, Optical Physics, Astrophysics, Atmospheric Physics; 2010 ; 72
van Langevelde, H. J. ; The future of VLBI has begun!; ISKAF2010 Science
Meeting; 2010 ;
Verley, S., and 14 co-authors, including Israel, F. P., van der Werf, P.; The
Herschel view of HII regions in M 33 (HERM33ES); SF2A-2010: Proceedings of the
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Wahlgren, G. M., and 9 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Commission
14: Atomic and Molecular Data; Transactions of the International Astronomical
Union, Series B; 2010; 27; 261
Wild, V., and 8 co-authors, including Groves, B.; A Complete Census of AGN
and Their Hosts from Optical Surveys?; IAU Symposium; 2010; 267; 96
Wright, G. S., and 22 co-authors, including van Dishoeck, E. F.; Progress with
the design and development of MIRI, the mid-IR instrument for JWST; Society of
Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series; 2010; 7731;
Younse, P., and 5 co-authors, including Garrett, M.; Robotic Sample Acquisition
and Caching Testing for Potential Astrobiology Mars Sample Return Missions;
LPI Contributions; 2010; 1538; 5621
VII.4. Popular articles
Baneke, D., Wie leidt, wie volgt? Wetenschap en maatschappij van fin de siècle
tot wederopbouw?, De Gids, August, 534-540
Baneke, D., Een geheime missie naar Mekka, Zenit, December, 549-551
Baneke, D., Op zoek naar een zuidelijke sterrenwacht, Zenit, November, 527-529
Baneke, D., Astronomisch erfgoed: bewaren of weggooien?, Zenit, October, 462463
Baneke, D., Een fotoalbum van formaat, Zenit, July/August, 321-327
Baneke, D., Monument voor de rekenaars, Zenit, June, 284-285
Baneke, D., Het uitdijende heelal met twee jaar vertraging, Zenit, May, 232-233
Baneke, D., Het tragische verhaal van C.L.F. Kampf, Zenit, April, 192-193
Baneke, D., Sterrewacht Zolderkamer: Frederik Kaiser in Leiden, Zenit, March ,
Baneke, D., Keerpunt 1944: radioastronomie en de oorlog, Zenit, February, 84-85
Delft, van, D., Wij zijn allen stoommachines, Academische Boekengids, 78, no 1
Delft, van, D., Kijk maar, lucht bezit veerkracht. Robert Boyle (1627-1691):
modern en eminent onderzoeker in dienst van zijn Schepper, NRC Handelsblad,
Boeken, January
Delft, van, D., Museum Review: Museum Boerhaave, Leiden, the Netherlands,
Europhysicsnews 41, no5 (2010) 34-35.
Delft, van, D., In zijn ogen stond een machtig licht. Het conceptuele denken van
het strenge genie Isaac Newton (1642-1727) minutieus geanalyseerd, NRC
Handelsblad, Boeken, April
Delft, van, D., Jacob Kistemaker (1917-2010): vader van de Nederlandse
ultracentrifuge, NRC Handelsblad, June
Delft, van, D., Kes, P., The discovery of superconductivity, Physics Today, 63,
September, 36-42
Delft, van, D., Wetenschap en woeling: de ruimte van Christiaan Huygens, Ons
Erfdeel 2010, no 1, 166-168.
Delft, van, D., Hittebarrière. Vijftig jaar plasmafysica bij FOM-Rijnhuizen,
Studium, vol. 3, no2, 104-105
Delft, van, D., Staartdeling op buik als straf, NRC Handelsblad, December
Elbers, A., Book, A., MineralUGENT: mineralogie en de Universiteit Gent van
1817 tot heden (Mededelingen van het Museum voor de Geschiedenis van de
Wetenschappen), Gent, 2010
Elbers, A., Book, A., Jonckheere, A., Segers, D. en Wautier, K., Wetenschap op je
bord, Gent, 2010
Kristensen, L., A WISH come true: Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel,
Eureka, 30, October 2010, 12-14
Langevelde, van, H. J., Kosmisch vuurwerk, masers tussen de sterren,
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde, 76-6, p191
Portegies Zwart, S. F., De kinderen van de Boogschutter, De Gids, december
Portegies Zwart, Virtual Universum, Eureka
van Uitert, E., Zwaartekrachtlenzen: De Grootste Telescopen in het Heelal,
Universum, 3
Weiss, M. P. M., Een paar ogenblikken uit de 18e eeuw: Teylers Museum in
reisverslagen van buitenlanders rond 1800, Teylers Magazijn, 106, Spring 10-11
Tibbe, L., Weiss, M. P. M., Publiek gebruik van Nederlandse verzamelingen in
de negentiende eeuw: inleiding op het thema, De negentiende eeuw, vol. 34, nr. 3,
Weiss, M. P. M., De gang naar toegankelijkheid: Publiek gebruik van Teylers
Museum in de negentiende eeuw, De negentiende eeuw, vol. 34, nr. 3, 269-285
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