LM2937 500 mA Low Dropout Regulator 500 mA
LM2937
500 mA Low Dropout Regulator
General Description
The LM2937 is a positive voltage regulator capable of supplying up to 500 mA of load current. The use of a PNP power
transistor provides a low dropout voltage characteristic. With
a load current of 500 mA the minimum input to output voltage
differential required for the output to remain in regulation is
typically 0.5V (1V guaranteed maximum over the full operating temperature range). Special circuitry has been incorporated to minimize the quiescent current to typically only
10 mA with a full 500 mA load current when the input to
output voltage differential is greater than 3V.
The LM2937 requires an output bypass capacitor for stability. As with most low dropout regulators, the ESR of this
capacitor remains a critical design parameter, but the
LM2937 includes special compensation circuitry that relaxes
ESR requirements. The LM2937 is stable for all ESR below
3Ω. This allows the use of low ESR chip capacitors.
Ideally suited for automotive applications, the LM2937 will
protect itself and any load circuitry from reverse battery
connections, two-battery jumps and up to +60V/−50V load
dump transients. Familiar regulator features such as short
circuit and thermal shutdown protection are also built in.
Features
n Fully specified for operation over −40˚C to +125˚C
n Output current in excess of 500 mA
n Output trimmed for 5% tolerance under all operating
conditions
n Typical dropout voltage of 0.5V at full rated load current
n Wide output capacitor ESR range, up to 3Ω
n Internal short circuit and thermal overload protection
n Reverse battery protection
n 60V input transient protection
n Mirror image insertion protection
Connection Diagrams
TO-220 Plastic Package
SOT-223 Plastic Package
01128002
Front View
01128026
Front View
TO-263 Surface-Mount Package
01128006
Side View
01128005
Top View
© 2005 National Semiconductor Corporation
DS011280
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LM2937 500 mA Low Dropout Regulator
August 2005
LM2937
Ordering Information
Package
Temperature
Range
TO-263
−40˚C ≤ TJ ≤ 125˚C
Part Number
Packaging Marking
LM2937ES-5.0
LM2937ES-5.0
LM2937ESX-5.0
LM2937ES-8.0
LM2937ES-8.0
LM2937ES-10
LM2937ES-12
SOT-223
−40˚C ≤ TJ ≤ 125˚C
−40˚C ≤ TJ ≤ 85˚C
Rail
Rail
Rail
500 Units Tape and Reel
LM2937ET-5.0
LM2937ET-5.0
Rail
LM2937ET-8.0
LM2937ET-8.0
Rail
LM2937ET-10
LM2937ET-10
Rail
LM2937ET-12
LM2937ET-12
Rail
LM2937ET-15
LM2937ET-15
LM2937IMP-5.0
L71B
LM2937IMPX-5.0
LM2937IMP-8.0
L72B
LM2937IMPX-8.0
LM2937IMP-10
L73B
LM2937IMPX-10
LM2937IMP-12
L74B
LM2937IMPX-12
LM2937IMP-15
L75B
LM2937IMPX-15
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Rail
500 Units Tape and Reel
LM2937ES-15
LM2937ESX-15
TO-220
TS3B
500 Units Tape and Reel
LM2937ESX-12
LM2937ES-15
Rail
500 Units Tape and Reel
LM2937ESX-10
LM2937ES-12
NSC Drawing
500 Units Tape and Reel
LM2937ESX-8.0
LM2937ES-10
Transport Media
2
TO3B
Rail
1k Units Tape and Reel
2k Units Tape and Reel
1k Units Tape and Reel
2k Units Tape and Reel
1k Units Tape and Reel
2k Units Tape and Reel
1k Units Tape and Reel
2k Units Tape and Reel
1k Units Tape and Reel
2k Units Tape and Reel
MP04A
TO-263 (10 seconds)
230˚C
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
SOT-223 (Vapor Phase, 60 seconds)
215˚C
SOT-223 (Infared, 15 seconds)
220˚C
ESD Susceptibility (Note 3)
2 kV
Input Voltage
Continuous
26V
Transient (t ≤ 100 ms)
60V
Internal Power Dissipation (Note 2)
Temperature Range (Note 2)
Internally Limited
150˚C
LM2937ET,
−65˚C to +150˚C
LM2937IMP
Maximum Junction Temperature
Storage Temperature Range
Operating Conditions (Note 1)
TO-220 (10 seconds)
−40˚C ≤ TJ ≤125˚C
LM2937ES
−40˚C ≤ TJ ≤85˚C
Maximum Input Voltage
260˚C
26V
Electrical Characteristics
VIN = VNOM + 5V, (Note 4) IOUTmax = 500 mA for the TO-220 and TO-263 packages, IOUTmax=400mA for the SOT-223 package, COUT = 10 µF unless otherwise indicated. Boldface limits apply over the entire operating temperature range of the
indicated device., all other specifications are for TA = TJ = 25˚C.
Output Voltage (VOUT)
Parameter
Output Voltage
Conditions
5V
Typ
5 mA ≤ IOUT ≤ IOUTmax
8V
Limit
Limit
8.00
7.60
4.85
5.00
4.75
10V
Typ
Limit
9.70
V(Min)
10.00
9.50
V(Min)
10.30
V(Max)
7.76
5.15
8.24
5.25
Units
Typ
10.50
V(Max)
15
50
24
80
30
100
mV(Max)
5 mA ≤ IOUT ≤ IOUTmax
5
50
8
80
10
100
mV(Max)
(VOUT + 2V) ≤ VIN ≤ 26V,
2
10
2
10
2
10
mA(Max)
10
20
10
20
10
20
mA(Max)
Line Regulation
(VOUT + 2V) ≤ VIN ≤ 26V,
Load Regulation
Quiescent Current
8.40
IOUT = 5 mA
IOUT = 5 mA
VIN = (VOUT + 5V),
IOUT = IOUTmax
Output Noise
10 Hz–100 kHz
Voltage
IOUT = 5 mA
Long Term Stability
1000 Hrs.
Dropout Voltage
240
300
µVrms
20
32
40
mV
IOUT = IOUTmax
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
V(Max)
IOUT = 50 mA
110
250
110
250
110
250
mV(Max)
1.0
0.6
1.0
0.6
1.0
0.6
A(Min)
75
60
75
60
75
60
V(Min)
26
V(Min)
Short-Circuit Current
Peak Line Transient
150
tf < 100 ms, RL = 100Ω
Voltage
Maximum Operational
26
26
Input Voltage
Reverse DC
VOUT ≥ −0.6V, RL = 100Ω
−30
−15
−30
−15
−30
−15
V(Min)
tr < 1 ms, RL = 100Ω
−75
−50
−75
−50
−75
−50
V(Min)
Input Voltage
Reverse Transient
Input Voltage
3
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LM2937
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1)
LM2937
Electrical Characteristics
VIN = VNOM + 5V, (Note 4) IOUTmax = 500 mA for the TO-220 and TO-263 packages, IOUTmax=400mA for the SOT-223 package, COUT = 10 µF unless otherwise indicated. Boldface limits apply over the entire operating temperature range of the
indicted device., all other specifications are for TA = TJ = 25˚C.
Output Voltage (VOUT)
Parameter
Output Voltage
12V
Conditions
Typ
5 mA ≤ IOUT ≤ IOUTmax
Typ
11.64
12.00
Line Regulation
15V
Limit
(VOUT + 2V) ≤ VIN ≤ 26V,
11.40
Units
Limit
14.55
15.00
V (Min)
14.25
V(Min)
12.36
15.45
V(Max)
12.60
15.75
V(Max)
36
120
45
150
mV(Max)
IOUT = 5 mA
Load Regulation
5 mA ≤ IOUT ≤ IOUTmax
12
120
15
150
mV(Max)
Quiescent Current
(VOUT + 2V) ≤ VIN ≤ 26V,
2
10
2
10
mA(Max)
10
20
10
20
mA(Max)
IOUT = 5 mA
VIN = (VOUT + 5V),
IOUT = IOUTmax
Output Noise
10 Hz–100 kHz,
Voltage
IOUT = 5 mA
Long Term Stability
1000 Hrs.
Dropout Voltage
IOUT = IOUTmax
0.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
V(Max)
IOUT = 50 mA
110
250
110
250
mV(Max)
1.0
0.6
1.0
0.6
A(Min)
75
60
75
60
V(Min)
26
V(Min)
Short-Circuit Current
Peak Line Transient
tf < 100 ms, RL = 100Ω
360
450
µVrms
44
56
mV
Voltage
Maximum Operational
26
Input Voltage
Reverse DC
VOUT ≥ −0.6V, RL = 100Ω
−30
−15
−30
−15
V(Min)
tr < 1 ms, RL = 100Ω
−75
−50
−75
−50
V(Min)
Input Voltage
Reverse Transient
Input Voltage
Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Electrical specifications do not apply when operating the device
outside of its rated Operating Conditions.
Note 2: The maximum allowable power dissipation at any ambient temperature is PMAX = (125 − TA)/θJA, where 125 is the maximum junction temperature for
operation, TA is the ambient temperature, and θJA is the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance. If this dissipation is exceeded, the die temperature will rise above
125˚C and the electrical specifications do not apply. If the die temperature rises above 150˚C, the LM2937 will go into thermal shutdown. For the LM2937, the
junction-to-ambient thermal resistance θJA is 65˚C/W, for the TO-220 package, 73˚C/W for the TO-263 package, and 174˚C/W for the SOT-223 package. When used
with a heatsink, θJA is the sum of the LM2937 junction-to-case thermal resistance θJC of 3˚C/W and the heatsink case-to-ambient thermal resistance. If the TO-263
or SOT-223 packages are used, the thermal resistance can be reduced by increasing the P.C. board copper area thermally connected to the package (see
Application Hints for more information on heatsinking).
Note 3: ESD rating is based on the human body model, 100 pF discharged through 1.5 kΩ.
Note 4: Typicals are at TJ = 25˚C and represent the most likely parametric norm.
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4
LM2937
Typical Performance Characteristics
Dropout Voltage vs. Output Current
Dropout Voltage vs. Temperature
01128007
01128008
Output Voltage vs. Temperature
Quiescent Current vs. Temperature
01128009
01128010
Quiescent Current vs. Input Voltage
Quiescent Current vs. Output Current
01128011
01128012
5
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LM2937
Typical Performance Characteristics
(Continued)
Line Transient Response
Load Transient Response
01128014
01128013
Ripple Rejection
Output Impedance
01128015
01128016
Maximum Power Dissipation (TO-220)
Maximum Power Dissipation (TO-263)(Note 2)
01128018
01128017
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LM2937
Typical Performance Characteristics
(Continued)
Low Voltage Behavior
Low Voltage Behavior
01128019
01128020
Low Voltage Behavior
Output at Voltage Extremes
01128021
01128022
Output at Voltage Extremes
Output Capacitor ESR
01128023
01128024
7
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LM2937
Typical Performance Characteristics
(Continued)
Peak Output Current
01128025
Typical Application
01128001
* Required if the regulator is located more than 3 inches from the power supply filter capacitors.
** Required for stability. Cout must be at least 10 µF (over the full expected operating temperature range) and located as close as possible to the regulator. The
equivalent series resistance, ESR, of this capacitor may be as high as 3Ω.
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8
EXTERNAL CAPACITORS
The output capacitor is critical to maintaining regulator stability, and must meet the required conditions for both ESR
(Equivalent Series Resistance) and minimum amount of capacitance.
MINIMUM CAPACITANCE:
The minimum output capacitance required to maintain stability is 10 µF (this value may be increased without limit).
Larger values of output capacitance will give improved transient response.
ESR LIMITS:
01128027
The ESR of the output capacitor will cause loop instability if
it is too high or too low. The acceptable range of ESR plotted
versus load current is shown in the graph below. It is essential that the output capacitor meet these requirements,
or oscillations can result.
IIN = IL + IG
PD = (VIN − VOUT) IL + (VIN) IG
FIGURE 2. Power Dissipation Diagram
The next parameter which must be calculated is the maximum allowable temperature rise, TR (max). This is calculated by using the formula:
TR (max) = TJ(max) − TA (max)
where: TJ (max) is the maximum allowable junction temperature, which is 125˚C for commercial
grade parts.
TA (max) is the maximum ambient temperature
which will be encountered in the
application.
Output Capacitor ESR
Using the calculated values for TR(max) and PD, the maximum allowable value for the junction-to-ambient thermal
resistance, θ(J−A), can now be found:
θ(J−A) = TR (max)/PD
01128024
IMPORTANT: If the maximum allowable value for θ(J−A) is
found to be ≥ 53˚C/W for the TO-220 package, ≥ 80˚C/W for
the TO-263 package, or ≥174˚C/W for the SOT-223 package, no heatsink is needed since the package alone will
dissipate enough heat to satisfy these requirements.
If the calculated value for θ(J−A)falls below these limits, a
heatsink is required.
FIGURE 1. ESR Limits
It is important to note that for most capacitors, ESR is
specified only at room temperature. However, the designer
must ensure that the ESR will stay inside the limits shown
over the entire operating temperature range for the design.
For aluminum electrolytic capacitors, ESR will increase by
about 30X as the temperature is reduced from 25˚C to
−40˚C. This type of capacitor is not well-suited for low temperature operation.
Solid tantalum capacitors have a more stable ESR over
temperature, but are more expensive than aluminum electrolytics. A cost-effective approach sometimes used is to
parallel an aluminum electrolytic with a solid Tantalum, with
the total capacitance split about 75/25% with the Aluminum
being the larger value.
If two capacitors are paralleled, the effective ESR is the
parallel of the two individual values. The “flatter” ESR of the
Tantalum will keep the effective ESR from rising as quickly at
low temperatures.
HEATSINKING TO-220 PACKAGE PARTS
The TO-220 can be attached to a typical heatsink, or secured to a copper plane on a PC board. If a copper plane is
to be used, the values of θ(J−A) will be the same as shown in
the next section for the TO-263.
If a manufactured heatsink is to be selected, the value of
heatsink-to-ambient thermal resistance, θ(H−A), must first be
calculated:
θ(H−A) = θ(J−A) − θ(C−H) − θ(J−C)
Where: θ(J−C) is defined as the thermal resistance from the
junction to the surface of the case. A value of
3˚C/W can be assumed for θ(J−C) for this
calculation.
θ(C−H) is defined as the thermal resistance between
the case and the surface of the heatsink. The
value of θ(C−H) will vary from about 1.5˚C/W to
about 2.5˚C/W (depending on method of attachment, insulator, etc.). If the exact value is
unknown, 2˚C/W should be assumed for
θ(C−H).
HEATSINKING
A heatsink may be required depending on the maximum
power dissipation and maximum ambient temperature of the
application. Under all possible operating conditions, the junction temperature must be within the range specified under
Absolute Maximum Ratings.
To determine if a heatsink is required, the power dissipated
by the regulator, PD, must be calculated.
9
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LM2937
The figure below shows the voltages and currents which are
present in the circuit, as well as the formula for calculating
the power dissipated in the regulator:
Application Hints
LM2937
Application Hints
(Continued)
When a value for θ(H−A) is found using the equation shown,
a heatsink must be selected that has a value that is less than
or equal to this number.
θ(H−A) is specified numerically by the heatsink manufacturer
in the catalog, or shown in a curve that plots temperature rise
vs power dissipation for the heatsink.
HEATSINKING TO-263 AND SOT-223 PACKAGE PARTS
Both the TO-263 (“S”) and SOT-223 (“MP”) packages use a
copper plane on the PCB and the PCB itself as a heatsink.
To optimize the heat sinking ability of the plane and PCB,
solder the tab of the package to the plane.
Figure 3 shows for the TO-263 the measured values of θ(J−A)
for different copper area sizes using a typical PCB with 1
ounce copper and no solder mask over the copper area used
for heatsinking.
01128029
FIGURE 4. Maximum Power Dissipation vs. TAMB for
the TO-263 Package
Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the information for the SOT-223
package. Figure 6 assumes a θ(J−A) of 74˚C/W for 1 ounce
copper and 51˚C/W for 2 ounce copper and a maximum
junction temperature of +85˚C.
01128028
FIGURE 3. θ(J−A) vs. Copper (1 ounce) Area for the
TO-263 Package
As shown in the figure, increasing the copper area beyond 1
square inch produces very little improvement. It should also
be observed that the minimum value of θ(J−A) for the TO-263
package mounted to a PCB is 32˚C/W.
As a design aid, Figure 4 shows the maximum allowable
power dissipation compared to ambient temperature for the
TO-263 device (assuming θ(J−A) is 35˚C/W and the maximum junction temperature is 125˚C).
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01128030
FIGURE 5. θ(J−A) vs Copper (2 ounce) Area for the
SOT-223 Package
10
(Continued)
SOT-223 SOLDERING RECOMMENDATIONS
It is not recommended to use hand soldering or wave soldering to attach the small SOT-223 package to a printed
circuit board. The excessive temperatures involved may
cause package cracking.
Either vapor phase or infrared reflow techniques are preferred soldering attachment methods for the SOT-223
package.
01128031
FIGURE 6. Maximum Power Dissipation vs TAMB for
the SOT-223 Package
11
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LM2937
Application Hints
LM2937
Physical Dimensions
inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
Plastic Package
Order Number LM2937ET-5.0,
LM2937ET-8.0, LM2937ET-10, LM2937ET-12,
or LM2937ET-15
NS Package Number T03B
TO-263 3-Lead Plastic Surface Mount Package
Order Number LM2937ES-5.0, LM2937ES-8.0, LM2937ES-10, LM2937ES-12 or LM2937ES-15
NS Package Number TS3B
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12
inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)
SOT-223 3-Lead Plastic Surface Mount Package
Order Number LM2937IMP-5.0, LM2937IMP-8.0, LM2937IMP-10, LM2937IMP-12 or LM2937IMP-15
NS Package Number MP04A
National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves
the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.
For the most current product information visit us at www.national.com.
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properly used in accordance with instructions for use
provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result
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device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably
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LM2937 500 mA Low Dropout Regulator
Physical Dimensions
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