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FRANKLIN INSTITUTE LIBRARY
PHILADELPHIA
Book.RS.S^
Class A.lS!..'^.
Accession. 2.7-.^
iv> intended for circulation.
Aktici.k VI.— The Secretary shall have authority to lonn to Members
and to holders of second class slock, any work heloiiging to the .'-Kcoxn
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nor shall a book l)e kept out
TWO members of the Library Committe
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A kink ok tkx ckxts vym wkek shall be exacted for the
Section 2.
and if a book be not re
detention of a liook beyond the limited time
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ilii.M-
i
;
:
—
;
:
—
—
Reading Koom.
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refuse or neglect to comply with the foregoing rules, it shall be the duty
Library.
Committee on tlie
the i.iijrary.
nun to tlie
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Aktici.k X.
Any Slemlier or holder of second class stock, detected
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oHeiider .>^hali be made juiblic.
—
"-~^^P^^^^-^ ^'^
J
3^,
SUBSCRIBE FOR
The Furniture Trade
The
r^^prrseiifci/ive of
Journal,
Anirnrtni Fiiruiiure Interests.
PUBLISHED TWICE A xMOXTH.
One Dollar per Year.
2S7 Broadway,
New York.
70 Dearborn
Chicago.
St.,
PRACTICAL HINTS
FURNITURE MEN.
,
All kinds of Finishin^^ with
Stains
foi;
.HEJvATIHG TO
jvecf;ij;)ts:
?or
thcrulor— Varnishes— PolishesWood-^Gijtung- i-.vA Slivering—
full <liieclions
WpQd,— Dyes
for
tfit;
'Fav't.^i'y— Lagfiers'^
-lUcLls,
JM-ir 'bit's,, ic.- --Pictured, liinj^ravin^s,
'
&c.
— Miscellaneous.
THE FURNITURE TRADE JOURNAL,
New
York. — Chicago.
1880,
THE GETTY CCK
LIBRARY
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
FINISHING.
—
The process
Filling.— Fillers, For Walnut, For Light Woods, For
Finishing.
Cherry, For Oak, For Rosewood, Sizing
j
2
—
Application of Varnishes. Brushes tor Varnishing,
Varnish Pan
R UBBING
Flowing and Polishing.— Flowing, Varnish Polishing.
Varieties of Finish.- Dead Finish, Varnish Finish, Wax
Finish, Imitation Wax Finish, Ebony Finish, French
Polishing The Ingredients, French Polish, Improved
'
.
g
9
10
Polish, Water-proof Polish, Prepared Spirits, Polish for
Turner's
Work
n
Staining.— Black Stain, Brown Stain, Walnut Stain, Oak
Stain, Rosewood Stam, Cherry Stain, Red Stain, Mahogany Stain, Surface Stains, Crimson Stain, Purple Stain,
Blue Stain, Green Stain, Yellow Stain, To Brighten
Stains
jiy
Dyeing Wood.— Black Dye, Blue Dye, Yellow Dye, Green
Dye, Red Dye, Purple Dye, Liquid for Brightening
and Setting Colors, Orange Dye, Silver Gray Dye, Grav
^y^
:
:
—
Gilding, Silvering and Bronzing. Gilding, The Requisities. Sizes, Oil-Size, Parchment Size, Gold
Size, To
Prevent Gold Adhering, Oil-Gilding, Burnish-Gilding,
Preparing the Wood-work, Polishing, Applying the
Size, Laying the Gold, Burnishing, Matting or DeadGold, Finishing, Shell-Gold, Silver-Size, Composition
for Frames, Ornaments, To Manipulate
Gold Leaf,
Bronzing
Graining and Color Work.— Graining, The
Process,
Graining— Grounds, Light Wainscot Oak, Darker
Wainscot Oak, Dark Oak, Very Dark Oak, Mahogany,
Rosewood, Bird's Eye Maple, Graining Grounds, Mix-
2
76
21
25
—
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
ing Colors, Cream Color, Pearl Grey, Fawn, Buft", Straw,
l^rab. Purple, \'iolet, French Grey, Silver, Dark Chestnut,
late,
Salmon, Peach Plossom, Lead, Dark Lead, ChocoI-ight Yellow, Stone, Olive Green. Grass Green
Carnation, Imitation of Gold, Colors for Outlines of
Ornaments, Tones, Tints, Shaiies, Tempera, Distemper.
Harmony in Grained Work, Chinese White,
Mixing White Lead, \' arnish Green
Color
33
VARNISHES.
Gf.Ms AND Their Qualities.
— Amber,
Anime, Copal,
Oil Varnishes, Spirit Varnishes, Lac, Sandarac, Mastic,
Damar, R esin
The Solvents. — Linseed-oil,
42
Oil of Turpentine, Alcohol,
Naptha
45
Preparation of Oil-Varxishes.
— Copal Varnish, Artists
Virgin Copal, Cabinet Varnish, Best Body Copal, Carriage N'arnish, Wainscot Varnish, Pale Amber \'arnish
.
—
Preparation of Spirit
47
.\nd Terpentine Varnishe.s.
Best White Hard Spirit Varnish, White Hard Varnish,
White Spirit Varnish, Brown Hard .Sjiirit \'arnish,
Hard-wood Lacker, French Polish, Bleached Shellac,
Lacker for Brass, Colored Lackers, Mastic Varnish,
Turpentine \'arnish. Crystal Varnish, Paper \'arnish,
Water Varnish, Sealing-Wax Varnish, Black Varnish,
Varnish
for Iron,
Varnish
for
Cane and Basket Work.
.
5G
POLISH REVIVERS, ETC.
—
Polish
Revivek.s. French Polish Revivers, Furniture
Reviver, Furniture Cream, Furniture Paste, Several
Receipts for Furniture Cream, White Furniture Cream.
09
GLUE.
Gluk — To
Prepare Glue, Mixing Glue, Glue-Pot, To
Prevent Glue Cracking, Strong Glue to Resist Mois-
ture, Portable
"2
Glue
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS.
To Raise Old Veneers. — To Take Out Bruises in Furniture, To Make Paste for Laying Cloth or Leather,
Cements
for
.Stopping
P'laws
in
Wood, Mahogany
Colored Cement, Cement for Turners, Tracing Paper,
Mounted Tracings, Cracks in Drawing Boards, To
Temper 'I'ools, Hardening Tools, To Cut .Steel ScrapTo Remedy Splits in Circular Saws, Brazing Band-
ers,
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Ill
Saw Sharpening, Oiling Tools, To Mark Tools,
Varnish for Tools, Boiler Incrustation, Non-Conducting
Coverings for Steam Pipes, To Harden Wood Pulleys,
To Prevent Belts Slipping, Rasps, Soft Files, Amalgain Varnish, Painting and Preserving Ironwork, Preparing Soft Solder, To Clean Silver Filigree, Bronzing
on Metal, Polishing Metals, Imitation Marble, To Polish Marble, To Clean Marble, To Remove Stains from
Marble, To Clean Pictures, Cleaning Varnished Pictures, Cleaning Engravings, To Smooth a Damaged
Picture, Embossed Gilding for Illuminating, Gold for
saws,
Illuminating, To Stain Horn in Imitation of Tortoise
To Stain Ivory or Bone Red, Black, Green, Blue,
Yellow, To Soften Ivory, To Bleach Ivorj', Artificial
Ivory, Cement for Joining Leather, Cement for Leather
and Wood, Cement for China, Cement for Glass, Cement for Aquariums, To Restore the Elasticity of
Caned Chair Bottoms, Moths in Carpets, To Destroy
Moths in Carpets, To Clean Carpets, To Make Parchment Transparent, Tinting on Parchment, India Ink
Running, Erasing India Ink, To Make Carbon Paper,
Removing Oil Stains from Tiles, To Polish Floors,
Black Wax, Green Wax, To Polish Tortoise Shell or
Horn, To Clean Looking-Glasses, To Remove InkStains, To Remove Stains from Wood, To Clean Velvet, To Remove Paint or Stain from Wood, To Remove
Varnish from Wood, Tests for Gilding, Anti-Attrition,
To Remove Grease from Cloth, Putty
Shell,
76
FINISHING.
Finishing
tlnin
is
wood
the process of applying to the surface of
coating of varnisli or other substance, to render
it
a
durable,
enhance its beauty or change its appearance. There are numerous
methods of finishing, and a variety of materials are used the
The distinctive qualities
varieties of varnish being the principal.
of these varieties are treated under the article Varnlshes.
;
In their natural state
all
woods are more
or less porous, consist-
ing of bundles ot hard fibres, with interstices
filled
with a softer
These constitute the grain, and as the hard or soft
parts predominate the wood is said to be hard, irne, or closeTo fill these softer parts, or
grained, or soft and open-grained.
pores, and give to the whole an even, uniform surface, hard, and
substance.
capable of a brilliant polish,
This hard, firm
surface
is
the object of the finishers' art.
was formerly gained by
the successive
application of several coats of varnish, at least three preliminary
fill the pores; the inequalities were then
reduced by fine sand or glas's-paper, and several additional coats
laid on, the last, after becoming thoroughly hard, being polished
coats being required to
if
is
desired.
In this operation, however, a great quantity of varnish
absorbed by the open pores of the wood, and it is consequently
it is now seldom used.
Recourse is therefore
had to various plans to render the wood non-absorbent before
applying varnishes, and certain compounds called fillers are
so expensive that
largely used for this purpose.
—
The Processe.s. Finishing, although comprehending many
minute sub-divisions, may be divided into four principal processes,
i. c, Filling, Varnishing, Rubbing, and Flo\ving,Polishing,
&c. Each of them are treated at length in their proper order, and
TRACTICAL HINTS
for
iiilbrinatiou
full
learner
must
refer
regarding
to these
the
heads
:
successive
here
A'iew of the entire operation without
we
operations,
the
shall give a general
details.
The
process des-
work. First make the article to be finished
•quite clean and free from dust; then apply the proper filler witli
a brush; rub it well into the grain with e.\celsior or tow, rubbing
across the grain when practicable, then clean all the surplus filler
from the surface]with rags; after filling, allow the article to stand
for several hours, during which time the filler should become
quite hard and dry.
Before proceeding to apply the varnish, if
cribed
tor fine
is
necessary, make the surface of the filler quite smooth, with sandpaper; then apply a coat of varnish, allowing it to get quite hard;
after the last coat of varnish, with fine sand-paper, sand-paper
the surface sufficiently to make it entirely .smooth and remove
any lumps or irregularities. The number of coats required depends greatly upon the quality of filler used, regarding which
some remarks will be found under the head of Filler.s. It is
said that with some fillers one coat of varnish is sufficient, but
this can scarcely be the case with fine work, as it is not possible
for one coat of varnish to give sufficient body to rub four, or
;
more
possibly three coats are
desirable.
varnish has been applied, the article
pumice
is
stone, moistened with linseed oil
When
the last coat of
ready for " rubbing" with
and applied with a bit of
hair-cloth or coarse rag.
This is for the purpose of making the
varnish perfectly smooth and preparing it for the polishing.
After rubbing, if a dead finish is desired, the work is complete, but
the body of the work is generally cleaned up with a little oil well
rubbed
in,
which gives
dampened with
surface.
it
a lustre, afterward rubbed with a cloth
which removes the surplus oil from the
The veneered panels are either "flowed" or "polished,"
alcohol
which processes are described under these heads.
FILLING.
Fillers- -These compounds play a very important part in the
art of finishing, not only in the great economy of material and
time required, but in producing a handsomer and more durable
finish than possible, except at great cost,
sometimes used as a
filler,
but
its
use
without them.
is
not
Oil
is
recommended-
FOR FURNITURK MEN.
applied directly to the
" raise the grain,"
becomes
fibres
The
to swell the
is
fibres,
in that condition until
During
shrinking, and
gradually
the
or
oil
time the
this
all
moving
consecpiently
qualities essential to a
good
or
are:
filler
porous portion of the wood, and
shall readily enter the
it
effect
its
entirely dry, or disappears.
are
checking the varnish.
that
wood
which remains
very soon harden and render the wood impervious to the
varnish, which should lie smoothly upon the surface, giving bril-
shall
liancy and effect to the natural beauty of the
not raise the grain of the
very few of the home-made
we
give a
that
These conditions
color of the wood.
while
wood;
number
fillers
it
ai'e
wood;
shall
that
it
shall
not change the
satisfactorily
filled
by
ordinarily used in shops, and
of receipts, our readers are advised that
they will obtain better satisfaction, at less cost, by purchasing
some of the patent
Wood
Finishing
In these
Chicago.
now coming
fillers
we can recommend
the very excellent
New
Co.,
fillers
very
into general use, of
fillers
York, and
little oil is
J.
which
of the Bridgeport
W. Kenna &
Co.,
used and a large amount
of dryers, so that the wood becomes perfectly dry and hard in a
few hours, preventing any swelling or shrinking of the fibres of
the
wood
after the varnish
be allowed to
di-y until
is
The following fillers should
About eight hovirs are usually
applied.
quite hard.
sufficient.
Walnut Filler — P'or Medium
brown, 3
linseed
lbs.
oil,
and Cheap Work.
dry burnt umber, 4
calcined plaster,
lb. Venetian red,
bolted English whiting, 3
lbs.
^
J^ gal. spirits
lbs.
1
— 10
lbs.
Vandyke
gal. boiled
turpentine, 1 quart black japan.
Mix
well and apply with brush; rub well with excelsior or tow, clean
oft"
with rags.
Walnut
whiting,
1 lb
Filler.
— For
Imitation Wax-Finish
—5
lbs.
bolted
calcined plaster, 6 ounces calcined magnesia, 1 ounce
dry burnt umber, 1 ounce French yellow, 1 quart raw linseed oil, 1
quart benzine spirits, ^ pint very thin white shellac. Mix well
and apply with a brush. Rub well in and clean oft" with rags.
Before using the above
shellac.
When
filling
dry, sand-paper
give the work one coat of white
down and
apply the
filler.
;
PRACTICAL HINTS
Walnut
ground
Filler.
— For First-Class Work — 3
burnt sienna ground
in oil, 1 lb
Mix
brown japan.
in oil,
1
burnt umber
lbs
quart
spirits tur-
and apply with a brush
sand-paper well; clean oil' with tow and rags. This gives a beautiful chocolate color to the wood.
pentine,
pint
1
well
—
Filler for Light Woods. 5 lbs bolted English whiting, 3
^ gallon raw linseed oil, 1 quart spirits turpentine, 1 quart brown Japan, and sufficient French yellow to
tinge the white. Mix well and apply w ith a brush, rub in with
lbs calcined plaster,
excelsior or tow, and clean off with rags.
Filler for Light Woods.
lbs.
1
calcined plaster, 1
gallon raw linseed
lb.
oil,
— 10 lbs
^
gallon spirits turpentine,
Mix
japan, 2 ounces French yellow.
rub
in
bolted English whiting, 5
corn starch, 3 ounces calcined magnesia,
1
quart
brown
well and apply with brush,
with excelsior or tow, and clean off with rags.
Filler for Cherry.- -5
calcined plaster,
lbs. bolted English whiting, 2 lbs.
ounces dry burnt sienna, 1 ounce Venetian
\j4,
red, 1 quart boiled
linseed
brown
well,
japan.
Mix
oil,
rub
in
pint spirits turpentine,
1
1
pint
with excelsior or tow, and clean
off with rags.
Filler for Oak.
—5
bolted English. whiting, 2
lbs.
lbs.
calcined
ounce dry burnt sienna, ^ ounce dry French yellow, 1
quart raw linseed oil, 1 pint benzine spirits, % P>rit white shellac.
Mix well, apply with brush, rub in with excelsior or tow, and clean
plaster, 1
off with rags.
Filler for Rosewood.
calcined plaster, 1
Vandyke brown,
^ gallon
lb.
%. lb.
—6
lbs.
bolted English whiting, 2
brandon
red, 1 gallon boiled
lbs.
^
lb.
linseed
oil,
rose pink, 2 ounces Venetian red,
quart black japan. Mix well, apply
with excelsior or tow, and clean off with rags.
spirits turpentine, 1
with brush, rub
Sizing.
— Size
surface of
wood
in
of different kinds
is
sometimes applied
to prevent absorption of the varnish.
to the
The kind
of material used for the size is not important, the object being
only to prevent absorption by a very thin coat of some substance
not soluble in the varnish.
For dark-colored woods, thin
size,
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
made by reducing ordinary glue
for lighter-colored surfaces, a
witli water, is generally
used but
;
which is prepared
or parchment cuttings, in
white size
is
used,
by boiling white kid or other leather,
water for a few hours, or until it forms a thin jelly-like substance,
which is reduced with water to a thin consistency, and used in a
tepid state.
employed
Sometimes
in like
solutions of isinglass or tragacanth are
manner.
Unlike the best fillers, sizes of any kind do not improve the
and are sometimes a positive detriment to it. They are
finish,
used solely as an economy to reduce the quantity of the varnish
needed, and their use
is
recommended
not
for the best
work.
APPLICATION OF VARNISHES.
Preliminary to applying the varnish the pores of the wood
should be filled, according to instructions given in the preceding
receipts.
Sufficient time should be allowed for the filler to become
and
any lumps or inequalities remain, the surface
smooth by the use of glass paper. All
dust, specks, etc., should be carefully removed by the brush made
for that purpose, and the work is then ready for the varnish.
perfectly hard,
should be
made
Varnishes of
if
perfectly
all
kinds should be uniformly applied, in very thin
upon the edges and angles, where the varnish is liable
to accumulate.
In first placing the brush on the surface, it should
be applied, not close to the edge, which would be liable to give too
thick a coat at that part, but at a little distance from the edge, and
coats, sparingly
the strokes of the brush should be directed towards the ends alter-
and only very moderate pressure.
whole may be passed over in one operation, and then the brush may be returned to the edge at which
work was begun, and it may be passed over the surface a second
or a third time, to distribute the varnish uniformly, and work out
the air bubbles. Sometimes, in small surfaces, the second series of
nately, with steady rapid strokes,
If the surface
strokes
is
is
made
small, the
at right angles to the
the varnish more
direction as the
equally,
work.
it
es|,ually,
first;
first,
and the third
but unless this
leaves cross-lines,
is
in order to distribute
laid on in the same
done expeditiously and
is
which injure the appearance of the
—
PRACTICAL HINTS
6
Large surfaces are more
as the varnish thickens too
difficult,
rapidly to allow of the entire surface being covered at one opera-
They must
tion.
one edge
worked gradually from the
therefore either be
to tlie other, as in lading a tint of water-coior, or the
varnish must be applied upon separate portions successively but
it is rather difficult to join the portions without leaving irregular
;
marks.
It
may, however, be
same
direction as those
accomplished by
brush made in the
successfully
thinning off the edge with light strokes
of the
on the finished portion
;
but some care
required to avoid disturbing the former coat while
and
it
is
still
is
soft
upon by the fresh varnish. In the same manner,
on a second or any subsequent coat of varnish, care
easily acted
in laying
must be taken not
to continue the application of the brush suffici-
ently long to disturb the previous coat,
which
is
speedily softened
the application of the brush were
continued too long, the preceding coat would be disturbed, giving
by the fresh varnish; and
to the
work an
if
irregular or chilled appearance.
A sufficient inter-
val of time should be allowed
between each coat for the perfect
evaporation of the solvent, whether alcohol, turpentine or oil.
The time required for this depends partly upon the kind of varnish
employed, and partly on the state of the atmosphere.
Under
ordinary circumstancss, spirit varnishes generally require from
two to three hours between every coat; turpentine varnishes
mostly require six or eight hours; and oil varnishes still longer
sometimes as much as twenty-four hours. But whatever time
may be required, the second layer should never be added until the
first is permanently hard; as when one layer is defended from the
air by a second, its drying is almost stopped, and it remains soft
and adhesive.
in applying spirit \arnish,
some
little
tact
and expedition are
necessary, in order to spread the varnish uniformly over the sur-
becomes too much thickened by evaporation, or it
very irregular surface when finished. If the surface
does not exceed a few inches square, no material difficulty is experface before
it
will exhibit a
ienced, as the
whole may be brushed over two or three times
before the varnish becomes too thick
or three square feet present
much
;
but surfaces containing two
greater difficultv, as
it is
neces-
FOR P^URNITURE MEN.
worked with the brush
minute air-bubbles, which would spoil the appearance of the work, and can seldom be entirely removed until just
sary that the varnish should be sufficiently
to exclude all
before the varnish
after the
Turpentine and
manner
time
is
becomingjto thick
brush has passed over
oil
uniformly
varnishes are applied in the same general
as spirit varnishes
may
to flo-v or spread
it.
but as they dry more slowly, more
:
be occupied in laying on the varnish, and therefore
may be more easily and uniformly covei-ed but the
same precautions with respect to the dryness and waririth of the
large surfaces
;
atmosphere are likewise desirable when
it is
wished
to
produce a
brilliant surface.
Every precaution should also be taken to prevent any dust, or
becoming accidentally attached to the
varnish. Should this occur they will require to be carefuHv picked
out with the point of a pen-knife and the surface of the varnish
loose hairs from the brush,
leveled with fine glass-paper, prior to the application of the next
coat.
In using spirit varnishes,
it is
at all times of the first
importance
that particular attention should be given to doing the varnishing
in a
dry atmosphere as
;
all
solutions of resins in alcohol are pre-
by the addition of water, not only as visible moisture, but
even as vapor, which is at all times deposited by the atmosphere
at a reduced temperature, in the form of invisible dew, and in this
state it precipitates the resin in the thin coat of varnish, and gives
the surface a milky, clouded or opaque appearance, when the varnish is said to be chilled. But this effect is frequently produced
even on a warm and apparently fine summer day, when the atmosphere happens to be more than usually charged with moisture.
This is a frequent stumbling block in varnishing, and is only to be
obviated by carrying on the process in a room sufficiently warmed
to keep the moisture suspended in the air until the solvent has
cipitated
completely evaporated.
Not only should the room be sufficientlv heated, but all currents
must be avoided, as cold drafts if suffered to pass over
of cold air
the recently varnished surface, are quite sufficient to dull the var-
nish wherever they extend.
When
the varnish has been chilled,
PRACTICAL HINTS
8
the brilliancy and clearness
may
frequently be restored by giving
the chilled surface another thin coat of varnish, taking care to
avoid the causes of the former
failure,
and immediately holding the
varnished surface at a moderate distance froin a
it
necessary to avoid heating the varnish so
in
so as to
fire,
warm
sufficiently to partially re-dissolve the chilled coat; but care is
much
which case no remedy would remain but
as to raise blisters,
to scrape off the entire
coat.
The temperature
about 72 deg.
F.,
generally preferred for the varnish
room
is
but a few degrees more or less are not important
Brushes for Varnishing.
— For
spirit varnishes,
pencils and brushes are used, the sizes of
camels-hair
which vary from one-
quarter to three-quarters of an inch diameter, according to the size
of the
work.
When
the surfaces are very large,
flat
camel-hair
brushes are used but from their comparative thinness they scarcely
;
contain a sufficient quantity of varnish to preserve the brush
uniformly charged in passing over a large surface.
Turpentine
and flat brushes, made of
fine soft bristles, are generally used, or sometimes ordinary painting brushes are employed, but they are rather harsh, and, owing to
the adhesion of the varnish, the hairs are apt to be loosened, and
come out. Brushes should always be kept perfectly soft and clean,
and therefore should never be laid aside when through work, without cleaning. For this purpose turpentine is best; the brushes can
either be washed out quite clean in it, dried on a cloth, and laid
aside, or the bristles can be partially immersed in turpentine and
allowed to remain in it until wanted for use.
Warm \vater and
soap will also serve to clean the brushes. IC, however the brushes
are laid aside without being thoroughly cleaned, they will certainly
be ruined by the hardening of the varnish.
and
oil
varnishes require less delicacy
Varnish Pan. — This
constructed of
;
can be procured at the color-shops.
It is
bottom the interval between the
two bottoms is filled with sand, which being heated over the fire
keeps the varnish fluid, and it flows more readily from the brush.
There is a tin handle to it, and the false bottom slopes from one
end to the other, which gives sufficient depth when the varnish is
tin,
with a
false
;
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
9
low. It should also have a wire fixed across the top to wipe the
brush against. An ordinary preserve-jar is frfquently used for
containing the varnish, and is sufficiently suitable; but it also
should have a wire or string stretched across the top, for reducing
the quantity of varnish taken
The
up by the brush.
quantity of
varnish poured into the jar should be sufficient to nearly cover the
hairs of the brush in order to keep it soft. Too small a quantity
of varnish
is
liable to
at all times be
thicken rapidly by evaporation, which should
prevented as
closely covered
when not
far as possible,
by keeping the vessel
in actual use.
RUBBING.
This
part
to the varnish
of
the
when
process
finishing
laid
is
upon the wood
that
which
gives
a degree of smooth-
ness not otherwise attainable; for by the use of the brush alone,
minute furrows and ridges are left upon the plastic surface of
the varnish and although good varnish possesses in itself a high
;
gloss, the gloss
liant polish,
is
not nearly so agreeable to the eye as the
of which rubbing
is
the preliminary.
The
bril-
reduction
of these ridges and furrows is accomplished by means of finelypowdered pumice-stone moistened with raw linseed oil, applied
with a piece of hair-cloth or other coarse and fibrous material.
For rubbing large flat surfaces the hair-cloth is sometimes folded
over a block of convenient
size,
but
this
articles of small size or irregular shape.
is
not practicable for
In rubbing considerable
used, but the stroke should be steady and as long as
and great care should be taken to rub the surface uniformly, as in case it is rubbed unevenly the varnish is liable to be
worn away quite to the wood in some places, and the perfect
smoothness that is the beauty of a good finish will thus be impossible.
The edges especially are liable to be rubbed bare, and
should be carefully treated. The crevices and hollows of carvings are rubbed by means of hard pointed sticks of various convenient sizes. The rubbing should be continued until the entire
surface appears perfectly smooth and free from marks of any
kind. The surplus pumice-stone and oil should all be carefully
removed from the surface by means of rags, and the work may
force
must be
possible,
PRACTICAL HINTS
10
then be cleaned up with a little sweet
retouched with a cloth slightly dampened
remove any remaining
to
\eneered panels, thej are
'polishing" or "flowing."
oil
from the
now
oil
well rubbed
in alcohol,
surface.
ready for the
in, and
which serves
If article has
final
processes of
FLOWING AND POLISHING.
Flowing.
— Flowing
is
the process of giving the work, after
has been properly prepared, a coat of varnish
that purpose, called flowing varnish.
finished this way.
dead-finish with
varnish
Some
finishers,
it
expressly for
Veneered panels are usually
the body --work is to be
when
flowed panels, coat the panels with the same
—shellac or other—used for
pumice-stone and
made
the body, and rub
them with
make no
body-work and the
panels.
Such treatment is not recommended; whatever varnish
is used for the bodj'-work, the panels should be coated with two
oil
;
in fact,
up
to the point of flowing
difference whatever in the treatment of the
or three coats of the best rubbing varnish
for rubbing, as, if the surface
;
oil
should not be used
subsequent coat
of flowing varnish cannot be evenly laid, therefore water should
be used with the pumice-stone for rubbing, in place of oil. After
the rubbing is completed, wash oft" with a sponge and dry with a
is
at all greasy, the
chamois skin. Let it stand for a day, and after freeing the work
of all pumice-stone and dust, take it to the flowing-room, which
should be clean, dry, and free from dust and all drafts of air, apply
the varnish with a flat brush of suitable width made of badger or
fitch hair; lay the varnish on smoothly and evenly, leaving no
marks of the brush. The quicker tiie varnish is put on, and the
less it is worked, the better it will look.
Let it stand in the room
until it is hard enough to handle.
Upholstered work should not
be flowed until it comes from the hands of the upholsterer and is
ready for the ware-rooms.
—
Varnish Poli.shing. Tliis process is used when it is desired to
give to the work a bright lustre, different from the natural gloss, and
resulting from a perfectly
smooth surface produced by rubbing.
previously applied coats of rubbing varnish having been
rubbed down with pumice-stone and water, one or more coats of
The
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
11
is appHed, rubbed down as before, and brought
toabright mirror-like surface with rotten-stone and water. Clean
up with a little sweet oil, and afterward with a cloth dampened in
polishing varnish
alcohol.
VARIETIES OF FINISH.
The
having
processes of finishing
been
described,
it
now
remains to explain varieties of finishing in use; these are largely
derived from the peculiar qualities of the different varnishes used,
which see article Varnishes. Polishingwhich are very hard and durable, are so called because
their surface can be brought to a high luster by rubbing with the
Flowingor finishing- varnishes contain more
proper materials.
oil than polishing-varnishes, dry more slowly, and are softer, but
their peculiar qualities are brilliancy and durability, fitting them
for full explanation of
varnishes,
work requiring a brilliant gloss, such as veneered panels.
Rubbing-varnishes are those that dry sufficiently hard to admit of
being rubbed to a smooth surface. Turpentine varnishes, being
the cheapest variety are employed for cheap work, such as common chairs, bedsteads, (Sic. In general terms it may be said that
the particular filler, stain or other preliminary application used
exercises on important influence over the appearance of the finish,
and that a great variety of combinations are possible. For diffor
ferent
woods
different fillers are used, the
basis
in
most cases
being the same, the difference being principally in the coloring
material, and this is capable of great variation, to suit individual
tastes.
The same is true of stains, and under the head of Stains
and Fillers
will
be found
all
needed information concerning the
methods for using
applications proper for diflierent woods, with
them.
The
varnish or other covering material used subsequently,
will here be treated of separately.
Dead-Finish.
—This term
is
applied to the finish produced by
the reduction of any of the rubbing varnishes with powdered
pumice-stone and raw linseed oil, (see Rubbing) the surface thus
produced being
left in
the semi-lustrous state, by omitting the
now more
used than any other for body
work, shellac varnish being generally employed because of its
polishing process.
It is
PRACTICAL HINTS
12
adaptation to the requirements of fine cabinet-work, and
its
prop-
Copal, anime and amber
of quick and hard drying.
varnishes are also used, but are slower drying. Veneered panels
erties
are usually " flowed " or " polished "
The number
finished.
the quality of the
amply
less are
when
the body
work
is
dead-
of coats required depends somewhat upon
filler,
but usually three coats, and sometimes
sufficient.
Varxish Fixish. — Forclieap work — One coat of
filler
or stain,
followed by one coat of cheap turpentine varnish, without rubbing.
In this class of work, the brilliancy of the gloss and covering
qualities of the varnish are principally considered.
The cheaper
turpentine varnishes have a brilliant gloss, and dry very hard, but
is not permanent, and after drying, the gum is very
and easily cracked and broken. The gum used is princi-
the gloss
brittle
common
pally
Wax
resin.
Fixisii.
of turpentine
— Mix
wax and spirits
when cold, apply
together with heat, white
to the consistency of thick paste;
work with a rag; rub on heavily so as to fill the pores of
wood remove all wax from the surface with a wooden scraper
made in the shape of a carpenter's chisel; smooth off with a
bunch of soft rags by rubbing hard and quick for a'few minutes;
it
to the
the
;
with a little French polish applied with a cotton pad. (See
Frexcii Polish.)
For table tops and all large flat surfaces,
finish
wax
to remain on and finish with a warm iron by passand quickly over the work until the wax is made
smooth and the surface is sufficiently polished.
This is not
considered a desirable finish, as it is not durable and water spots
allow the
ing
it
it
lightly
very easily.
—
I.MiTATiox Wax Fixish. Use the light colored filler, named
under head of Fillers. Apply three coats of white shellac; rub
down with pumice-stone and oil; clean up with brown japan and
spirits of turpentine
mixed.
Ebony Finish. — This
Varnish-polish the panels.
finish
other light-colored woods having
ance
is
produced by the use of a
is
usually applied
little
stain,
grain.
to
cherry, or
The ebony
appear-
various receipts for which
FOR FURNITURE MEN,
will be
found under the head of Stains.
13
White
shellac
is
the
varnish usually employed, but soine prefer the best rubbing-varWhatever varnish is selected, it should be as near as
nishes.
possible
transparent, as otherwise the color of
the
work
will
appear to be greenish or brown. Not more than three coats
should be applied, as successive coats of the most transparent varExperience
nish, will cause an opaque or clouded appearance.
and care are required to successfully rub an ebonized article, as
must be rubbed almost to the wood, and if rubbed toa
deep a portion of the stain is removed, leaving a spot. Especial
the varnish
care should hs used in rubbing the angles.
Ebony Finlsh. — Instead
of staining the
wood and applying
successive coats of transparent rubbing-varnish, a black varnish
(or
more properly speaking, a
lacker)
is
often laid
upon the surface
This process possesses the advantage of being very
speedy, not occupying inore time than ordinary spirit-varnishing,
but on the other hand, the rapid hardening of the gum prevents
the varnish from entering into and becoming fixed in the pores,
so that it lies in a thin, hard, but very brittle coating upon the sur-
of the wood.
face,
and
is
very readily broken and scaled
off,
leaving spots of the
wood, that cannot be properly repaired.
Shellac varnish is generally used for this finish and is prepared by
adding to it, drop-black or perfectly pure lamp-black, containing
original color of the
no grease or other foreign substance, sufficient to make it perfectly'
Apply one or more coats of this to the work, and finish by
adding the necessary number of coats of brown shellac, and
rubbing in the usual way.
This finish is employed when it is
black.
desired to engrave or carve a design through ebonized work, -thus
making
the natural color of the
wood appear
in contrast to the
black.
—
French - Polishing. This is a method of varnishing by
rubbing the varnish upon t'le surface of the wood instead of
applying it with brushes. When varnish is applied simply with a
brush, a comparatively uneven surface results, rendering necessary
the subsequent processes of rubbing and polishing, but by the
method of French-polishing, a smooth and continuous
hard and not easily scratched,
is
secured.
surface,
PRACTICAL HINTS
14
All the polishes are applied very much in the same way and a
general description will therefore be suft'icient. To obtain a good
polish with lac varnish on wood, the quantity applied must be
very small, and must be rubbed continuously until dry. If the
work be porous or coarse grained, it will be necessary to give it
a coat of thin, clear size previous to commencing with the polish;
when drv, the surface must be smoothed with fine glassor sandpaper. The size fills up the pores and saves the polish, and also
saves considerable time in the operation.
Make
a
wad of
cotton-batting, covered with several folds of very
linen cloth
fine, soft
;
put the wad or cushion to the mouth of the
and shake
bottle containing the preparation (or polish)
damp
ficiently to
with circular motion
may
as the rubber
;
become
suf-
it
the cloth; then proceed to lightly rub the
work
drier, the pressure
be increased, but care should be taken not to press too heavily
when the rubber contains much polish, as streakiness will result.
The circular motion should be continued until the rubber becomes
quite dry when niore polish may be taken upon it and the rubbing
renewed. It should be borne in mind that the rubber should
never be raised directly from the work, but should be raised with
a sweeping motion also that it should never for a moment remain
quitt upon the surface and that its motion should be as even as
possible; neglect of these precautions will produce a rough surface
wherever the rubber remains quiet or is improperly removed. The
circular rubbing must be continued until the surface appears perfectly smooth and the pores are no longer visible.
Be very particular to keep the cloth covering of the wad clean and soft; it is
;
;
desirable to use a clean portion each time
It is
it is
tion
the
surface of the
work
will be lustreless,
plainly visible; in that case proceed over the
grain
is
thoroughly
particular care and
produce good
to
The
of
dipped
in the polish.
quite likely that in about twelve hours after the above opera-
all
French-polishing
filled.
skill,
is
until the
a process requiring
and considerable experience
is
necessary
results.
Ingredient-S.
— Shellac, dissolved
French-polishes, and
witliout
and the grain
work again
some
in alcohol is the basis
finishers use thin shellac varnish
other admixture, slightly moistening the rubber with
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
linseed oil to prevent stickiness
There
is
and make
16
it
work smoothly.
a great variety of admixtures and diversity in the pro-
portion of ingredients, but the dilTerences are not material.
subjoin a
number
We
of receipts.
—
The Gexuine French-Pollsh. To one point of spirits of
wine add a quarter of an ounce of gum-copal, a quarter of an
ounce of gum-Arabic, and one ounce of shellac.
Let the gums be well bruised, and sifted through a piece of
muslin. Put the spirits and the gums together in a vessel that
can be closely corked place them near a warm stove, and frequently shake them. In two or three days they will be dissolved.
Strain the mixture through a piece of muslin, and keep it tight
;
corked for use.
French-Polish.
—
Take one ounce each of mastic, sandarac,
gumlac, and gum-Arabic; reduce them to powder;
and add a quarter of an ounce of virgin wax put the whole into
a bottle, with one quart of rectified spirits of wine; let it stand
twelve hours, and it will be fit for use.
seedlac, shellac,
;
—
French-Polish. Put into a glass bottle one ounce of gumlac,
two drachms of mastic in drops, four drachms of sandarac, three
ounces of shellac, and half an ounce of gum dragon reduce the
whole to powder add it to a piece of camphor the size of a nut,
and pour on it eight ounces of rectified spirits of wine. Stop the
;
;
when
bottle close, but take care,
not
more than
half
full.
the
gums
Other French-Polish Receipts. — 1
orange shellac,
^
are dissolving, that
it is
Place near a warm stove until dissolved.
ounce elima.
pint naptha, d}4 ounces
Darkei; with red saunders wood
ounce of gum
an ounce of seed lac, and a quarter of ounce of gum
sandarac; submit the whole to a gentle heat, frequently shaking
To one
pint of spirits of wine, add half an
shellac, half
it, till
the various
gums
Shellac 6 ounces,
^
are dissolved,
naptha
1 quart,
when
it is fit
sandarac
1
for use.
ounce, benzoin
ounce.
Three ounces
shellac, }4
ounce of
gum
mastic pulverized, and
;
PRACTICAL HINTS
10
one pint of methylated
of wine added.
spirits
Let
it
stand
till
dissolved.
Twelve ounces
copal,
ounces
shellac, 2
gum
elima, 3 ounces
gum
gallon of spirits of wine; dissolve.
1
—
following must be well mixed and dissolved: Pale shellac
pounds, 3 ounces mastic, 3 ounces sandarac, 1 gallon spirits
of wine. After the above is dissolved, add 1 pint copal varnish, 1
The
2X
^
ounces shellac, J4 ounce
gum
juniper, J^
ounce benzoin,
}4
pint of methylated alcohol.
—
An
Improved Polish. To a pint of spirits of wine add, in
powder, one ounce seedlac, two drachms of gum guaiacum,
two drachms of dragon's-blood, and two drachms of gum mastic
expose them, in a vessel stopped close, to a moderate heat for
fine
three hours, until
you
find the
gums
dissolved; strain the whole
into a bottle for use, with a quarter of a gill of the best linseed
to be shaken up well with it.
This polish is more particularly intended
oil,
woods
— for
it is
—owing
air-wood, &c.,
which gives
it
for
dark-coloured
apt to give a tinge to light ones, as satin-wood, or
to the
admixture of the dragon's-blood,
a red appearance.
—
Water-prook Polish. Take a pint of spirits of wine, two
ounces of gum benzoin, a quarter of an ounce of gum sandarac,
and a quarter of an ounce of gum anime; these must be put into
a stopped bottle, and placed either in a sand-bath or in hot water
then strain the mixture, and, after adding about a
till dissolved
quarter of a gill of the best clear poppy oil, shake it well up, and
put it by for use.
;
Prepared
—
Spirits. This preparation is useful for finishing
any of the foregoing receipts, as it adds to the lustre and
durability, as well as removes every defect, of the other polishes;
and it gives the surface a most brilliant appearance.
aftei
Half
a
pint of the very
best rectified
spirits
of wine, two
and two drachms of gum benzoin. Put these
ingredients into a bottle, and keep it in a warm place till the gum
is all dissolved, shaking it frequently; when cold, add two tea-
drachms
of shellac,
;
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
17
spoonfuls of
the best clear white poppy oil;
shake them well
together, and
it is fit
for use.
used
Tiiis preparation is
polishes; but, in order to
in the
remove
same maimer
dull places,
all
as the
foregoing
you may increase
the pressure in rubbing.
Polish for Turners' Work.
— Dissolve
1
ounce of sand-
arach in _^ pint of spirits of wine; shave 1 ounce of beeswax, and
dissolve it in a sufficient quantity of spirits of turpentine to make
into a paste, add the former mixture to it by degrees; then, with
woolen cloth, apply it to the work while it is in motion in the
lathe, and polish it with a soft linen rag; it will appear as if highly
it
a
varnished.
STAINING.
Staining
is
the process of imparting to the surface of
color different from
its
natural one.
It
consists of
two
w ood
In the former, as the
surface-staining and body-staining.
a
varieties,
name
by various compounds in the
nature of pigments, laid upon the surface like paint, and forming
a thin opaque coating, which does not, to any considerable degree
In the latter, the changes are chemaffect the fibre of the wood.
ical, the stain being usually applied as a thin wash, which, entering
the pores of the wood, colors it to some depth be!ow the surface.
Staining requires no preliminary preparation, the stain being
implies, the staining
is
effected
applied directly to the wood.
the
wood
As most
to a considerable extent,
the varnish, to sand-paper the
stains raise
the grain
wood
smooth this sometimes renders a second coat necessary,
which the sand-paper must be again applied.
quite
ot^
necessary before applying
enough to render the grain
it is
;
after
—
Black Stain. Boil y^ lb. of chip logwood in 2 quarts of water,
add one oz. of pearl-ash, and apply it hot to the work with a brush
then take y^ lb. of logwood, boil it as before in 2 quarts of water,
and add ^ oz. of verdigris and >^ oz. of copperas; strain it oft",
put in Yz lb. of rusty steel filings, and with this go over the work
a second time.
A Good
Black Stain. — 1.
Gall-nuts coarsely
broken,
3
PRACTICAL HINTS
18
ounces, rain-water, 1 quart; boil until reduced one-half. 2. White
vinegar, pint, iron filings, 2 ounces, antimony (powdered) 2
logwood a small handfull. Infuse in
down. To stain a piece of wood,
give the wood a coating of No. 1, which acts as a mordant; when
nearly dr\' put on No. 2; let it dry quite, and then brush it over
ounces,
ounce,
vitriol, 1
bottle eight days, tying the cork
again with No.
2.
—
Black Staix. Boil the extract of logwood in water and to it
Brush on
add slowly a little of the yellow prussiate of potash.
hot.
—
Black Staix. Boil 1 lb. logwood in 4 quarts of water; add a
double handful of walnut-peel or shells, boil it up again, take out
the chips, add a pint of the best vinegar and it will be fit for use;
apply hot. This will be improved by applying over the first stain,
a solution of one ounce of green copperas in a quart of water.
—
Brown Staix. Boil 1 lb. of the brown pigment called Terre
de Cassel with 4 quarts of water, until it is reduced one-third.
Mix 2 ounces (Troy) of white potash with sufficient water to disThis stain must be
solve it, and mix with the Terre de Cassel.
applied with a brush, two or even three times, according to the
depth of the shade required.
—
Walnut
Staix. Mix together by stirring, 1 quart spirits of
pint asphaltum varnish, 1 pint of japan, 1 lb. dry
This
burnt umber, 1 lb. dry Venetian red; applv with a brush.
stain is transparent, and allows the grain of the wood to show
turpentine,
1
through.
Walxlt
Staix.— Boil
bichromate of potash, in
dyke brown. This stain
1
1^
ounces washing-soda, and }^ ounce
add 2_J^ ounces Vanbe used either hot or cold.
quart of water
may
;
—
Walxut Staix. With a brush apply a thin solution of
permanganate of potassa in water, until the desired color is produced, allowing each coat to dry before another
Oak
Staix.
and pearl-ash.
is
applied.
— Add to a quart of water, 2 ounces
each of potash
good
should be used
Tiiis
is
a very
stain,
but
it
:
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
carefully as
may
be
Oak
may
it
made
blisters the
The
hands and softens brushes.
lighter by adding
Stains.
19
more
stain
water.
—To darken the color of oak any of the following
be used
Liquid
ammonia
laid
on evenly with a rag or brush
the color immediately, and
it
will not fade, this
will
being an
deepen
artificial
production of result produced naturally by age.
Bichromate of potash, dissolved
in cold water,
and applied with
a brush will produce a similar result.
A decoction of green walnut-shells will bring new oak to any
shade or nearly black.
—
^
lb. of extract of logRosewood Stain. Mix in a bottle
wood, one oz. salts of tartar and one pint of water; in another
bottle, put one pound of old iron in small pieces and one pint of
vinegar, which after standing twenty-four hours will be ready for
use make a hard, stiff brush with a piece of rattan sharpened at
;
one end in a wedge shape, pounding it so as to separate the fibre.
Mix in one pint of varnish, ^ lb. of finely powdered rose pink.
The materials are now ready, and the first thing in the process is
to stain the wood with the logwood stain give two coats of this,
;
allowing the
first to
become nearly dry before applying the second;
it form the grain,
which give the work a coat of the varnish and rose-pink.
There can be no definite directions given for graining, except to
study the natural wood and imitate it as near as possible.
With
the above materials skillfully applied, any common wood can be
made to resemble rose.vood so nearly that it will take a good
then dip the rattan brush in the vinegar and with
after
judge
to distinguish the difference.
Rosewood Stain. — Boil one pound
of logwood in one gallon
of water, add a double handful of walnut-shells, boil the whole
again, strain the liquor and add to
It is
then ready for use.
Apply
it
it
one pint of the best vinegar.
boiling hot, and
when
the
wood
form red veins in imitation of the grain of rosewood with
a brush dipped in the following solution: Nitric acid, 1 pint;
metallic tin, 1 ounce; sal ammoniac, 1 ounce.
Mix and set aside
is
dry,
to dissolve, occasionally shaking.
PRACTICAL HINTS
20
Cherry
Stain.
— Mix together, by
one quart of spirits
pound of dry burnt
stirring,
of turpentine, one pint of varnish, and one
sienna; apply with 'a brush and after it has been on about five
minutes wipe it oft" with rags. This stain takes about 12 hours to
dry.
—
Red]Stain, for common work. Archil will produce a very
good stain of itself, when used cold, but if after one or two coats
have been applied and suffered to get almost dry, it is brushed over
with a hot solution of pearl-ash in water, it will improve the color.
Mahogany
Stain.
—To darken
mahogany, apply a weak soluApply successive coats
tion of bichromate of potash in water.
allowing each to
dr}', until
Surface .St.mn.s. — The
the rtquired shade
is
secured.
following are for the most part used to
make them resemble choicer
mixed with very thin glue size,
woolen material, and the wood wiped dry
apply to woods of inferior quality, to
woods.
laid
The
colors are
on warm with a
all
soft
to be
All the colors used in staining should be well
after application.
pulverized, and before use the liquid should be strained.
Oak
Iimtation
— Equal
Stain.
parts
burnt umber and brown
ochre.
Imitation
Mahogany
Stain.
— One
part Venetian
red
and two
parts yellow lead.
Imitation Rose-Mood Staiii.
— Venetian red, darkened
with lamp-
black to required shade.
Imitation\Walnut Stain.
— Burnt umber and yellow ochre, mixed
in proportions to give desired shade.
Fine Cri.mson Stain.
— Boil one pound
oi good Brazil dust in
and add half an ounce
half an hour, and it will be
three quarts of water for an hour; strain
of cochineal
fit
;
boil
it
again gently tor
it,,
for use.
you
have it more of a scarlet tint, boil half an ounce of
a quart of water for an hour, and pass over the work
previous to the red stain.
If
will
"•atlVon in
Plki'Le .Stain,
—To a pound of good chip
logwood, put three
;
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
quarts of water; boil
pearlash, and
it
well for an hour; then add four ounces oj
two ounces
Fine Blue Stain.
of indigo
pounded.
— Into a pound
acid) in a clean glass phial, put four
above directed
as
in
21
of
oil
of vitriol (sulphuric
ounces of indigo, and proceed
dyeing purple.
Fine Green Stain. —To two pints of the strongest vinegar,
add four ounces of the best verdigris pounded fine, half an ounce
of sap green, and half an ounce of indigo.
Distilled vinegar, or verjuice, improves the color.
Yellow
let
Yellow
will
Stain.
— Dissolve ]^
lb.
turmeric in one pint alcohol
stand until the turmeric settles to the bottom.
it
have
Stain.
all
— A small piece of aloes added
to
the varnish
the effect of a bright yellow stain.
To Brighten
— Any
Stain.s.
surface stains) will be rendered
of the stains
much more
named
brilliant
(except the
by an
appli-
ounce nitric acid, % teaspoonful muriaMix in a bottle,
tic acid, )^ ounce grain tin, two ounces rain water.
at least two davs before using, and keep the bottle well corked.
cation of the following:
1
DYEING WOOD.
Dyeing wood
mostly applied for the purpose of veneers,
while staining is more generally had recourse to give the desired
In the one
color to the article after it has been manufactured.
case, the color should penetrate throughout, while in the 'after the
surface
is all
that
is
is
essential.
In dyeing pear-tree, holly, and beech, take the best black; but
most colors, holly is preferable. It is also best to have wood
voung and as newly cut as possible. After the veneers are cut,
for
as
they should be allowed to lie in a trough of water for four or five
days before they are put into the copper; as the water, acting as a
purgative to the wood, brings out an abundance of slimy matter,
which must be removed, or the wood will never be a good color.
After this pvirificatory process, they should be dried in the open
air for at least twelve hours.
They are then ready for the copper.
By these simple means, the color will strike much quicker, and be
PRACTICAL HINTS
22
of a brighter hue.
the colors,
if,
would also add
It
to the
improvement of
veneers have boiled a few hours, the}' are
after the
taken out, dried in the
air,
and again immersed in the coloring
in the open air, for fire invariably
Always dry veneers
copper.
injures the colors.
—
Fine Black Dye. Put six pounds of chip logwood into the
many veneers as it will conveniently hold, without
copper, with as
pressing too tight;
fill
it
with water, and
three hours; then add half a
let it boil sloivly for
pound of powdered
about
verdigris, half a
pound of copperas, and four ounces of bruised nut-galls; fill the
copper up with vinegar as the water e\aporates; let it boil gently
two hours each day till the wood is dyed through.
F'lNE Bl.vck
make
or
Dye.
— Procure some
a strong decoction of
liquor from a tanner's
pit,
oak-bark, and to every gallon of
pound of green copperas, and mix
them well together; put the liquor into the copper, and make it
quite hot, but not boil immerse the veneers in it, and let them
remain for an hour; take them out, and expose them to the air till
it has penetrated its substance; then add some logwood to the
solution, p'.acethe veneers again in it, and let it simmer for two or
the liquor add a quarter of a
;
three hours;
let
the whole cool gradually, dry the veneers in the
shade, and they will be a very fine black.
Fine Blue Dye.
oil
of
vitriol,
—
Into a clean glass bottle put one pound of
and four ounces of the best indigo pounded in a
mortar, (take care to set the bottle in a basin or earthen glazed pan,
as
it
will ferment;)
trough
much
;
fill
it
then put the veneers into a copper or stone
rather
more than one-third with water, and add
of the vitriol and indigo (stirring
it
about) as will
as
make
a
which may be known by trying it with a piece of white
paper or wood. Let the veneers remain till the dye has struck
fine blue,
through.
The
color w
vitriol be
ill
be
much improved,
if
the solution of indigo in
kept a few weeks before using
it.
The
the veneers are boiled in plain water
color will strike
till
completely
soaked through, and then allowed for a few hours to dry partially,
previous to being immersed in the dye.
better, if
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
—
Fine Blue Dye. Throw pieces of quicklime into soft water;
well; when settled, strain. or pour oif the clear part; then to
stir it
every gallon add ten or twelve ounces of the best turnsole; put the
whole into the copper with the veneers, which should be of white
holly, and prepared as usual by boiling in water; let them simmer
gently
to let
A
till
the color has sufficiently penetrated, but be careful not
them
boil in
it,
as
would injure the
it
Fine Yellow Dye.
;
fovu*
then put in as
— Reduce
four pounds of the root of
which put in a copper or brass
ounces of turmeric and four gallons of water,
barberry, by sawing, to
trough add
color.
many
dust,
white holly veneers as
the. liquor will
cover;
them together for three hours, often turning them when cool,
add two ounces of aquafortis and the dye will strike through
boil
much
;
soonei".
A Bright Yellow Dye. — To every gallon
to
of water, necessary
cover the veneers, add one pound of P'rench berries; boil the
veneers
till
the color has
penetrated
through; add
to the infu-
French berries, the liquid for brightening colors given
on page 24, and let the veneers remain for two or three hours,
sion of the
and the color will be very bright.
Bright Green Dye. — Proceed
receipts to produce a yellow
the brightening liquid, add as
as will
;
as in either of the previous
but instead of adding aquafortis or
much
vitriolated indigo (see
page 22)
produce the desired color.
Green Dye. — Dissolve
four ounces of the best verdigris, and of
sap-green and indigo half an ounce each, in three pints of the
best vinegar; put in the veneers,
and gently
l^oil till
the color has
penetrated sufficiently.
The hue
may
of the green
of the ingredients; and
it is
be varied by altering the proportion
advised, unless wanted for a particular
purpose, to leave out the sap-green, as
apt to change, or turn brown,
—
it is
a vegetable color very
when exposed
to the air.
Bright Red Dye. To two pounds of genuine Brazil dust,
add four gallons of water; put in as many veneers as the liquor
will cover; boil them for three hours; then add twooimces of alum.
PRACTICAL HINTS
24
and two ounces of aquafortis, and keep
it
lukewarm
luitil
it
has
struck through.
Red Dve. — To
every pound of logwood chips, add two gallons
of water; put in the veneers, and boil as in the
sufficient quantity of the brightening liquid (see
mind; keep the whole as warm
see the color to your
can be borne
in
The logwood
with which
best
when
it
it, till
chips should be picked from
bright red color; for
much
as the finger
the color has sufficiently penetrated.
all
foreign substances,
and it is always
which may be known by its appearing of a
if stale, it will look brown, and not yield so
generally abounds, as bark,
fresh cut,
then add a
page 24) til! you
last;
dirt, etc.
;
coloring matter.
Purple Dye.
—To
two pounds of chip logwood and half a
and after putting
in the veneers, boil them for at least three hours
then add six
ounces of pearlash and two ounces of alum let them boil for two
pound of
Brazil dust, add four gallons of water,
;
;
or three hours every day,
The
till
the color has struck through.
Brazil dust only contributes to
red cast;
you may,
therefore,
omit
it,
if
make
the purple of a
you require
more
a deep bluish
purple.
Purple Dye. — Boil two pounds
powder,
in four
of logwood, either in chips or
gallons of water, with the veneers; after boiling
is well struck in, add by degrees vitriolated indigo,
page 22,)till the pvu-ple is of the shade required, which may be
known by trying it with a piece of paper; let it then boil for one
hour, and keep the liquid in a milk-warm state till the color has
penetrated the veneer.
This method, when properly managed,
will produce a brilliant purple, not so likely to fade as the foretill
the color
(see
going.
Liquid for Brightening and Setting Colors
pint of strong aquafortis, add one
ounce of grain
of sal-ammoniac of the size of a walnut; set
tin,
—To
every
and a piece
it by to dissolve,
shake the bottle round with the cork out, from time to time; in
the course of two or three days it will be lit for use. This will be
found an admirable liquid to add to any color, as it not only
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
brightens
it,
but renders
it
less likely to fade
25
from exposure
to the
air.
—
Orange Dye. Let the veneers be dyed, by either of tlie
methods given in page 23, of a fine deep yellow, and while they
are still wet and saturated with the dye, transfer them to the bright
red dye as in page 23, till the color penetrates equally throughout.
Silver Gray Dye.
— Expose to the
weather
of six or eight gallons, old iron nails, hoops,
in a cast-iron
etc., till
pot
covered with
rust; add one gallon of vinegar, and two of water, boil all weil for
an hour; have the veneers ready, which must be air-wood,(not too
dry,) put them in the copper used to dye black, and pour the iron
liquor over them; add one pound of chip logwood, and two ounces
of bruised nut-galls; then boil up another pot of the iron liquor to
supply the copper with, keeping the veneers covered, and boiling
two hours a day,
till
of the required color.
Gray Dye. — Expose any quantity
the borings of gun-barrels,
from time
to to
etc.,
in
of old iron, or
time sprinkle them with
acid,) diluted in four
times
its
what
any convenient
spirits
quantity of water,
is
better,
vessel,
and
(muriatic
of
salt,
till
they are very
pounds add a gallon
of water, in which has been dissolved two ounces of salt of tartar;
lay the veneers in the copper, and cover them with this liquid
let it boil for two or three hours till well soaked, then to every
gallon of liquor add a quarter of a pound of green copperas, and
keep the whole at a moderate temperature till the dye has sufficithickly covered with rust; then to every six
:
ently penetrated.
GILDING, SILVERING
AND BRONZING.
Gilding, Silvering and Bronzing are processes of applying to previously prepared surfaces a thin layer of gold or silver
leaf, or in bronzing, of a fine powder, prepared from various metals
and intended
The
to imitate the peculiar
appearance of genuine bronze.
processes of gilding and silvering being identical, the descrip-
tion of one will suffice to explain the other.
—
Gilding. Gold leaf, applied to articles of furniture as a
means of decoration, is used in two ways it is applied over an
;
PRACTICAL HINTS
26
ordinary varnish or other finish, in which case but Hllle special
preparation
nices, etc.,
of which
is
is
necessary;
is
it
or, as
when ined
for picture frames, cor-
applied to a specially prepared foundation, the basis
whiting, mixed with various other ingredients sug-
gested by experience or fancy.
In either case, the gold leaf is
caused to adhere to the work, by size specially prepared for the
purpose, receipts for which are given below the size being first
applied to the work, and when it has become of the right consis;
tency, the gold
Gilding
is
laid
are different
upon it.
Oil Gilding and Burnishmethods used to obtain certain desired
-
SO
effects, the former principally for articles exposed to the weather,
and for heightening the effect of incised carving
O or engraving,
O
O'
and the latter for picture-frames and articles having a speciallyprepared foundation, whose entire surface is to be gilded.
It is
intended that the gold shall adhere to the work only in the places
to which the size has been applied, but the smallest portion of oil
or even a slight dampness may cause the gold to partially adhere
to the adjoining surface, resulting in slightly-ragged
prerent
this,
edges
;
to
before applying the size to the desired design, the
is covered with a thin film of some substance perfrom moisture, and easily removable by water, after
entire surface
fectly free
completion of the process.
process are given under
Directions regarding this preliminary
the
To Prevent Gold
caption:
Adhering.
The
— First, a sufficient
— the deep gold, as
Requisites.
of two sorts
which
is
gold.
The former
is
quantity
the best; the latter
of
leaf-gold,
and the pale
very useful, and may
is
it
called,
occasionally be introduced for variety or effect.
Second, a gilder's cushion an oblong piece of wood, covered
with rough calf-skin, stuffed with flannel several times doubled,
with a border of parchment, about four inches deep, at one end, to
prevent the air blowing the leaves about when placed on the
:
cushion.
Thirdly, a gilding-knife,
with
a
straight
and
vi^iy
smooth
tips,
made of
edge, to cut the gold.
Fourthly, several camel-hair pencils
a few long camel's hairs put between
in
two
sizes,
and
cards, in the
same man-
;
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
27
ner as hairs are put into tin cases for brushes, thus
making
a
flat
brush with a very few hairs.
Lastly, a burnisher,
which
is
a crooked piece of agate set in a
long wooden handle.
Sizes.
when
—These
two kinds
are of
ate laying of the gold-leaf
upon
it;
which
immedi-
sizes are those
oil
:
applied, present an adhesive surface, requiring the
of this class
is
the oil-size
commonly used in decorating furniture water sizes are those that
are allowed to become dry and hard when applied, and are rendered
adhesive when the gold is to be laid, by brushing over with water
:
for burnish-gilding these are
always employed, as
oil-size
does not
dry sufficiently hard to permit of burnishing.
Oil-Size for Oil-Gilding.~ Grind calcined red-ochre with
the best and oldest drying-oil.
make
cient oil of turpentine to
When
it
desired for use, add
work
suffi-
freely.
—
—
Parchment-Size For preparing Frames, etc. To half a
pound of parchment shavings, or cuttings of white leather, add
three quarts of water, and boil it in a proper vessel till reduced to
nearly half the quantity then take it off the fire, and strain it
through a sieve. Be careful, in the boiling, to keep it well stirred,
and do not let burn.
;
Gold-Size for Burnish-Gilding.
— Grind fine sal-ammoniac
well with a muller and stone; scrape into
grind
all
it
a
little
beef-suet, and
well togetlier; after which, mi.K in with a pallet-knife a
small proportion of parchment-size with a double proportion of
water.
When
about to use, add parclinient-size until
it
will just
flow from the brush.
Gold-Size for Burnish-Gilding.
pipeclay into a very
stiff
— Grind a lump of tobacco-
paste with thin size; add a small quantity
fine, and temper the
whole with a small piece of tallow. When ready to use, reduce
with parchment-size until it will just flow from, the brush.
of ruddle and fine black lead, ground very
—
Grind separately in
Gold-Size for Burnish-Gilding.
1 lb. Armenian bole, 2 ounces red lead, a sufficient quantity
water,
of black lead; mix, and re-grind with a small quantity of olive
Reduce with parchment-size
to the proper consistency.
oil.
PRACTICAL HINTS
28
—
To Prevent Gold Adhering. Either one of the following
methods will prevent gold-leaf or bronze from adhering to the
surface beyond the outlines of the sizing laid on to receive it:
1.
2.
Whiting used dry, and applied by means of a pounce bag.
Whiting mixed in water, and applied with a soft brush.
When
the water has evaporated, dust
By
with an ordinary paint duster.
ofl'
this
the superfluous whiting
method a very
thin coat-
from any grittiness.
One
advantage gained by the use of whiting thus applied is, it furnishes
a whitish ground over which clear varnish or oil size may be
ing of whiting remains, which
is
free
distinctly seen as the striping progresses.
After the leaf or bronze
has been applied, the work, must be carefully washed, so as to
insure the removal of the whiting.
3.
White of egg reduced with water, and applied with
a piece
of sponge.
4.
A
thin
wash of
starch water, either brushed on with a
flat
camel-hair brush, or applied with a soft sponge.
5.
Take
with a
ball liquorice
hoft brush.
This
and water, a weak solution, and apply
may
be kept
in a bottle
ready for use at
any time.
Cut a new potato in two, and rub over the part to be sized
6.
with thj raw face exposed, allowing the juice to remain until dry.
It will be observed that any substance which interposes a film
over the varnish, itself being free from tackiness and readily
remoxed by water, will answer the purpose.
Oil Gilding.
fini-^hed
— Applying the Gold — If the wood to be gilded
with varnish or otherwise, no additional foundation
necessary upon which to lay the gold-leaf;
if
the
has been smoothed and dusted, give
wood
is
is
is
not
one or two
coats of parchment size, after it is perfectly dry and hard again
smoothing the surface with fine sand-paper. That the gold may
not adhere to any part ot the work except where the size is hard,
powder the surface lightly with whiting from a pounce-bag,
which is a small bag made of material sulUciently loose to permit
the powdered whiting to sift through as fine dust; if preferred,
any of the preceding rec<.'ipts for that purpose can be used
finished, after
instead.
it
Remove
it
the surplus whiting with the dusting-brush.
;
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
29
and the work is then ready for the size. Apply this with a sable
brush of the proper size, carefully observing not to
fit
make the outer lines of the design clear and sharp, that the work
may not appear ragged. Let the size remain until it feels tackj-,
when the gold may be applied. This is the most difficult part of
or
the operation, and experience
is necessary before gold-leaf can be
smoothly, without a wrinkle or a break. Turn a leaf of gold
out of the book upon the cushion breathe gently upon the center
of the leaf and it will lay flat on the cushion cut it to proper size
by bringing the knife perpendicularly over it, and sawing it gently
laid
;
;
until divided.
drawing
after
dust that
pen
it
may
Take your
it
brush used for the purpose) and
your hair to remove any particles or
breathe upon it gently which w-ill damtip (a
lightly over
be upon
it,
sufficienth' to cause the leaf of gold to
adhere to
it;
lay the
upon the leaf of gold and carefully transfer it to the work
blow upon it gently and it will straighten out and adhere. It
may be rendered quite smooth by slightly dabbing it with a bit of
In about an hour wash oft' the superfluous gold trom the
cotton.
edges, with a sponge and water.
If the article is to be exposed to
tip
the weather or
much
may
wear, the gilding
be varnished with
copal varnish.
Burnish-Gilding.
— As previously stated, this process requires
a specially prepared foundation
upon which
the preparation of this foundation
dealer or cabinet-maker seldom finds
the articles
coming
to his
to lay the gold,
and as
a distinct trade, the furnitin-e
is
necessaiy to undertake
it
hand ready-prepared
in repairing picture-frames, cornices,
for gilding;
mirror frames,
etc.,
it,
but as
it
fre-
quently becomes necessary to renew the foundation, a comprehensive description of the whole process
Preparing the Wood-\vork.
is
given.
— After smoothing and dusting
the work, coat the frames in evevy part with boiling-hot parch-
ment
size,
described on page 27; then mix a sufficient quantity of
whiting with
size to the
consistency of thick cream, and with
by means of a brush, coat every part
times, permitting each coat to
ceeding with the next.
become
The wood
will
of the
frame
it
several
perfectly dry before pro-
thus be covered with a
PRACTICAL HINTS
30
layer of hard whiting nearly or quite a sixteenth of an
thickness.
The
size
must not be too
thick and
inch in
when mixed with
the whiting should not be so hot as the preliminary coat of
PoLisiiixG.
— When
size.
the prepared frames are quite dry, clean
and polish them. To do this, wet a small piece at a time, and,
with a smooth, fine piece of cloth, dipped in water, rub the part
till all the bumps and inequalities are removed; and for those
parts where the fingers will not enter, as the mouldings, &c.,
wind the wet cloth round a piece of wood, and bv this means
make the surface all smooth and even alike.
Where there is carved work, &c., it will sometimes be necessary
to bring the mouldings to their original sharpness by means of
chisels, gouges. Sec, as the preparation will be apt to fill up all
the finer parts of the work, which must be thus restored. It is
sometimes the practice, after polishing, to go over the work once
with fine vellow or
Appyixg the
Roman
Size.
is
rarely necessary.
— Select
receipts previously given
flow from the brush;
ochre; but this
;
make
the proper gold size from the
add parchment size until it will just
it
quite hot and apply
with a very soft brush, taking care not to
make
the
it
to the
first
work
coat too
let it dry and give two or three successive coats, after the
brushing it with a stiff brush to remove any inequalities. The
work is then ready for the gold.
thick
;
last
—
Laying the Gold. The manipulation of the gold-leaf has
been described under the heading Oil-Gildixg. In the process
now being described, the size used (being water-size, which as
previously explained is permitted to become hard and dry after
being applied) must be moistened to cause the gold-leaf to adhere
to it.
For this purpose, with a long-haired camel's-hair pencil,
dipped in water, go over as much of the work as you intend the
piece of gold to cover; then lay the gold upon it in the manner
previously explained.
Be sure
that the part to
which the gold
is
wet indeed it must be floating or the gold will
be apt to crack. Proceed in this manner a little at a time, and do
not attempt to cover too much at once, until by experience you
ajiplied
is
sufficiently
;
are able to handle the gold with freedom.
In proceeding with the
:
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
work,
tion
if
31
any flows or cracks appear, immediately apply a por
sufficient to cover them.
Sometimes when the
of gold
gold does not appear to adhere sufficiently tight,
draw a
sary to
the gold, that the water
Burnishing.
may
— When
the
run underneath
work
is
to dry: there is a particular state or
only
b}'
it
ten hours, but
of the
will be neces-
will
it
it
and soften the
is
probably be ready to burnish
will
size.
covered with gold, set it by
degree of dryness, known
experience in which the moulding
burnishing;
it
pencil quite filled with water close to the edge of
a
in
in
fit
state
for
about eight or
depend on the warmth of the room or
state
air.
When
it is
ready, those parts intended to be burnished
must be
dusted with a soft brush; then wiping the burnisher with a piece
of soft wash-lether (quite dry) begin to burnish about an inch or
two
in length at a time,
taking care not to bear too hard, but with
a gentle and quick motion, applying the tool until
all
parts of the
surface are equally bright.
Matting or Dead Gold. — Certain
portions only of the
work
and the facility with which
the burnishing-tool can be applied; the remaining parts are now
are burnished, according to the fancy,
to be deprived of their metallic luster, to
contrast with the burnishing.
be matted or dead-gold.
The
The
make
a more
efl:ective
parts thus treated are said to
process
is
as follows
Grind some vermilion or yellow ochre very fine, and mix a very
small portion either with the parchment size or with the white of
an egg, and with a very soft brush lay it evenly on the parts to be
dulled; if well done, it will add greatly to the beauty of the work.
Previous to matting, the woi'k must be well cleared of superfluous gold,
by means of a
Finishing.
soft brush.
— In elaborate works
it
is
frequently impossible to
lay gold-leaf into all the intricacies of an elaborate design,
the parts thus left bare
must be
and
finished by touching-up with a
small brush charged with sheil-gold, or gold-powder, mixed with
gum-Arabic
to the
proper consistency'.
describes the preparation of shell-gold
Shell-Gold.
—Take
The
following receipt
:
any quantity of leaf-gold and grind
it
PRACTiCAL HINTS
S'2
with a small portion of honey, to a fine powder add a little gumArabic and sugar-candv, with a little water, and mix it well
;
toget'ier
;
let it
dry.
Silver Size.
— Grinci pipe-clay
fine with a little black-lead
good soap, and add parchment-size
and
as directed for gold- size.
—
Composition for Frame Ornaments. The ornaments for
etc., are usually moulded from some plastic
substance that is somewhat tougher and more durable than the
gilded mirror-frames,
ordinary gilding foundation of whiting and
size.
''The proper
moulds being prepared they are thoroughly rubbed upon the
inside with sweet oil, and the composition firmly pressed in; after
remoTing the mould the cast may be dried by a gentle heat, or while
still plastic it can be applied in its proper place and bent into any
Following are receipts for composition
position.
:
Dissolve one pound of glue in one gallon of water.
kettle boil together 2 lbs. of resin,
1
1
gill
In another
of Venice turpentine, and
mix altogether in one kettle, and boil and
Turn the whole into a tub of
whiting, and work it till it is of the consistency of
pint of linseed
oil
;
the water has evaporated.
stir till
finely rolled
dough.
Boil 7 lbs. of best glue in 7 halt'-pints of water.
Melt 3
lbs.
of
raw linseed oil. When the above has
been well boiled put them into a large vessel and simmer them
for halt'-an-hour, stirring the mixture and taking care that it does
not boil over. The whole must then be turned into a box of
whiting rolled and sifted, and mixed till it is of the consistency
w
hite
resin in 3 pints of
of dough.
To
Manipulate Gold Leaf. — Get
enough
it
to
show shadow- of
f)n gold-leaf,
a piece of paper, thin
gold-leaf through, slightly
wax
it,
lay
the latter will then adhere, and can be easily worked,
and will come off" clean. The paper should be slightly larger
than the gold-leaf, and the fingers passed over the pap.r to make
the ^old-leaf adhere.
—
Bronzing. This is a process for imitating on metal, plaster,
wood or other material, the peculiar appearance produced by
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
chemical action upon the surface of bronze metal. It is accomplished by spreading over the surface of the material to be orna-
mented a very
which is caused to
upon a coating of any of the
the foregoing pages, or by mixing with a
thin coating of bronze-powder,
adhere either bj applying
it
directly
mentioned in
such as gum- Arabic or transparent varnish. The latter
is most desirable, as in the other case, being subject to the direct
action of the atmosphere, the bronze-powder soon tarnishes.
In
ornamenting furniture, bronzing is generally employed to represent gilding, a variety of bronze called gold-bronze being used,
which aflbrds an excellent imitation but is not very lasting. It is
usually applied after the completion of the other finishing processes, the ground-work being prepared in the manner described
under Oil-Gilding, and the size likewise applied as there dessizes
vehicle,
cribed.
A small wad of cotton-batting is then dipped in the
bronze and passed gently over the sized portions, causing the
bronze to adhere. In the other method that of applying the
—
bronze by means of a vehicle- -the preliminaries of whiting the
ground and sizing are not necessary, a small quantity of bronze
being simply mixed with the vehicle employed to such a degree
of fluidity that
it
with a fine brush.
will flow easily,
Many
and
in that condition applied
preparations are used as vehicles, such
as transparent varnish thinned
with turpentine, gum-Arabic
dis-
solved in warer, and gold-size reduced with parchment-size. There
are a variety of colors in bronze-powders, and to produce the best
effect the size or vehicle
bronze used
;
should be of a color similar to that of the
in gold-size the coloring
pigment
is
ochre, and in
place, for green-bronze, red-bronze, or blue-bronze,
may
its
be em-
ployed respectively verditer, vermillion or Prussian blue, a very
small quantity being sufficient. In bronzing on painted work the
ground should be as nearly
as possible the color of the bronze to
be applied.
GRAINING AND COLOR WORK.
Graining.
—This
is
a variety of painting by which the grain,
color or texture of different
experience
is
woods
is
imitated.
Considerable
necessary to produce satisfactory results, the mixing
3
PRACTICAL HINTS
34
of the colors to the right shade, and the manipulation of the simple
tools in a manner to faithfully imitate the grain and markings of
Of course these
the wood, requiring a high degree of skill.
remarks do not apply to that variety of graining in which only a
variegated surface is aimed at, and no pretentions made to a close
imitation ol any wood: that simple process requires neither skill
nor judgment.
The peculiar effect of graining
produced bv the use of several
applied; the design being
drawn bv wiping off a certain portion of the second and third or
darker coats, while still in a moist condition, the intermediate and
light shades below arc partially uncovered, the contrast of the
different shades resembling the effect of the more prominent markThis resemblance is heightened by
in""s of the grain of wood.
processes called "stippling" and "blending" which, as indicated
bv their titles, blend the shades and soften the lines.
The tools required are a stippling-brush, which is a brush with
hairs about six or eight inches long a kalsominer's brush will
answer the purpose; a blending-brush, which is made from camel's
or badger's-hair and is verj' soft two or three steel combs of different sizes; a rubber like a pencil-rubber, about the size of the
thumb and rounded off at the ends, to convenient size.
is
shades of paint, the lightest being
first
;
;
The
Proces-s of Graining.
— If there are any
knots or sappy
places in the article, they should be covered with one or
two coats
of glue-size or parchment-size to prevent them showing through.
The work is then ready for the paint, three different shades being
These are called the ground color; the stippling color;
and the graining or oil color, and they are laid in the order named.
An infinite number of combinations of colors are possible,
obtained by the use of various coloring pigments in the difterent
coats, and no two grainers agree as to the precise proportion ot
the ingredients to be used in imitating difterent woods; we give a
number of receipts for graining grounds, and also for mixing various colors; the learner can vary the proportions to suit his taste
as experience dictates, and to suit the work in hand. The ground
color is used to represent the lightest part of the grain of the
wood, the stippling color the intermediate shades, and the graining
necessary.
,
FOR FURNITURE MEX.
color the darkest parts; a close study of natural
fore be necessary to
35
woods
will there-
determine the color and depth of each.
The proper ground being selected (see Graining Grounds)
one or more coats
as
many as are necessary to
thoroughly cover the surface.
As soon as the ground color is
—
apply
hard the stippling coat
may
This is prepared by mixwith either very thin gum-
be applied.
ing the dry pigments without
oil,
water, stale beer, or vinegar containing a small portion of dissolved
The pigments to be used, as stated above are usualhabout the same as those used for the ground color, but of different
proportions to produce a deeper shade. Apply the stippling color,
fish-glue.
it dries, beat it softly with the side of the stippler, the
long elastic hairs of which, disturbing the surface of the laid coat
and before
cause the lighter coat beneath to become indistinctly visible, and
produce the
effect
of the pores of wood.
ing color; as soon as
Next apply the
take the rubber and with
grain-
wipe
wiping the paint
from the rubber with a cloth held in the other hand for that purSome grainers use a small sponge for veining, and others a
pose.
small piece of cloth over the thumb, but the rubber is probably
When the veins have been put in, to imitate
tlie most convenient.
as closely as possible the markings of natural w-ood, the \arious
steel combs are brought into use, and the edges of the veins, and
sometime other portions of the work, combed with them, to soften
the abrupt transition from the dark to the lighter shades. The
blender is also now brought into use, and wherever the work may
require it, the colors are still more softened and blended by its soft
hairs.
When too much color has been removed in veining, or
when a certain figure, such as a knot, is required, the work is
touched up with a fine brush, and again softened with the blender.
When dry a coat of transparent varnish should be applied, having
it is
laid,
it
outth"? larger veins to be shown, after each stroke
considerable
oil to
render
it
durable, as grained
work
frequently
is
washed.
Ready-made graining
colors are
recommended
as
best and
cheapest
Graining Grounds.
ground
colors.
— Subjoined are a few recipes
for
mixing
PRACTICAL HINTS
36
Light Wainscot Oak.
required
tint.
Some
—White lead and yellow ochre, mixed
to the
grainers prefer a perfectly white ground for
very light oak for inside work, but it is always difficult for any but
a perfect master of the art to proceed satisfactorily on a white
ground, and the work, when completed, is apt to have a chalky
effect, even though a dark varnish be applied.
A
Darker Wainscot Oak.
— Mix
white lead, middle chrome, and
yellow ochre.
Dark
—
Oak. White lead, Venetian red, and yellow ochre.
Very Dark Oak. White lead, raw sienna, burnt umber, and
Venetian red; or burnt and raw sienna, white lead, and burnt
umber.
These colors, [mixed in diflerent proportions, will produce a
—
multiplicity of tints suitable to receive the graining color, their
strength being of course determined by the greater or lesser pre-
ponderance of white
lead.
Mahogany Grounds.
—There are various notions extant amongst
grainers as to the best grounds for
ferring a
ground of
a
deep yellow
approaching a bright red.
The
mahogany
graining,
some
pre-
while others choose one
cast,
reds and yellows used are Vene-
raw sienna, burnt sienna, orange
chrome, middle chrome, etc. These colors can be mixed to the
tint required, an addition of white lead being made in each case,
tian red, red lead, vermillion,
as the positive reds and yellows are too powerful unless diluted in
turn by white.
Venetian
red,
orange chrome, and white lead are
the colors most generally used, and these three will, according to
predominance or subordination, make such a variety of tints
most fastidious grainer need have no misgiving that the
result will not come up to his expectation, if he exercise due discretion in mixing the colors.
Ro'<e-Mood Ground.
Venetian red, vermillion, and white lead.
A little scarlet lake is added for superior work, but this of course
their
that the
—
is
too expensive for general use.
Some
painters
mix with
tiie
reds
a small quantity of raw sienna or chrome yellow.
Bird's Eye Maple. White lead alone is preierred by some grainers, but the majority of painters use a little yellow ochre to kill
—
the rawness of the white, and this
is
much
the better plan to adopt
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
37
Beginners are apt to make the ground too yellow, a mistake that
should be avoided at the outset, as the varnish which has subsequently to be coated over the work will give transparency, and
add a pale creamy tone, whereas,
if
the
ground be too yellow, the
result will be heaviness.
Graining Grounds.
—Thebestand cheapest and most con\en-
making grounds for light oak, maple, ash,
pure raw Italian sienna, tinted with pure white
ient simple material, for
and chestnut,
is
lead, not the so-called sienna
which
is
sold
by most paint dealers
under that name, but the genuine article, which can be, and should
be obtained even at some cost and trouble, the said article being
one of the most useful and indispensable articles in the paint shop.
For maple ground, ot covirse the smallest quantity is required, it
being necessary only to change the white to the faintest suggesFor ash, the ground should be a little darker.
tion of straw color.
For light oak, more of the sienna will be required, while for chestCare must be taken
nut a decidedlv yellowish tone is wanted.
not to make the grounds too dark. Rather in the other extreme,
for the reason, that there is a remedy for a too liglit ground, in the
application
of a greater
in the glazing coat;
quantity
of graining
color,
as also
while a ground too dark, cannot be
made
For dark oak, burnt Italian sienna with white will produce a far better ground than any other single color. The same
caution must be observed, however, in obtaining this color as
recommended in the case of the raw Italian sienna. The domestic so-called siennas will not prove substitutes for the genuine
The ground for black walnut may be the same
Italian pigments.
as for light oak with the addition of a little burnt sienna and
lighter.
black.
—
Mixing Colors. The primary colors are those that cannot be
compounded from other colors, being pure in themselves; they are
three in number red, blue and yellow; and from these three all
—
From each of the three primaries in
combination with either of the others, is derived certain groups of
colors, termed secondaries and tertiaries, with the variations of
tints and shades.
All of these are regularly classified and their
combinations may be learned according to rule, with great pleasothers are compounded.
PRACTICAL HINTS
38
ure to the learner, and an almost limitless adittion to his resources.
these subjects is " Chevreul on Color,"
A standard authority on
which may be obtained at any book-store. The combinations
named below will enable the painter to mix many colors that he
may
require.
Cream
Color.
— Chrome jellow,
tlie
best Venetian red,
and white
lead.
—
Pearl Grey. White lead with equal portions of Prussian blue
and lampblack. The blue must be used very cautiously, as it is a
powerful color.
Fa-vii Color.
— Burnt sienna, ground very
fine,
mixed with white
lead.
Fa-jun Color.
Biif.
—This
— White lead, stone ochre, and vermillion.
is
a mixture of pale
chrome yellow and white
lead,
Venetian red.
Siravj.
A mixture of pale chrome yellow and white lead.
Drab. Raw or burnt umber and white lead, with a little
Venetian red.
Drab. White lead with a little Prussian blue and yellow ochre.
Drab. White lead with a little yellow ochre and lampblack.
tinged with a
little
—
—
—
—
chrome green.
Drab. — White lead with a
Purple. — White lead, Prussian blue, and vermillion.
Purple. — Prussian blue, vermillion, and rose madder
little
or crim-
son lake.
—
Vermillion, French ultramarine, a small portion of
and white lead.
French Grey. White lead and Prussian blue,' tinged with
vermillion and for the last coat, if cost is no object, substitute
rose madder or lake for vermillion.
White lead, indigo, and a small portion of black, as
Silver.
Vtolei.
black,
—
;
—
the shade
Dark
may
require.
Clioitnut.
— Mix light red and black.
Use red ochre when
required to lighten the color.
—
White lead tinged with the best Venetian red.
Peach Blossom. White lead tinged with orpiment.
Lead. This is a mixture of vegetable black and white lead.
Dark Lead Color. White, black, and indigo.
Salmon.
—
—
—
;
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
—
is
39
Vegetable black and Venetian red.
ChocolateLight Tello'v. Lemon yellow and white lead.
Light Telhnv. Chrome yellow, white lead, and red lead.
Light Telloxv. Raw sienna, mixed with white lead. If the color
required of a warmer cast, add a little bm-nt sienna.
Stone Color. Yellow ochre, burnt umber, and white lead.
Stone Color. Raw sienna, burnt umber, and white lead.
Stone Color. Whits lead, burnt umber, yellow ochre, and a little
—
—
—
—
—
—
Venetian red.
Olive Green.
Olive Green.
— Prussian blue, chrome yellow, and
—Vegetable black, chrome yellow,
burnt umber.
and a small
portion of burnt umber.
Grass Green.
— Several shades of grass
green
may
be made by
mixing Prussian blue and chrome yellow.
Carnation. Lake and white lead.
—
Imitation of Gold.
—Mix white
sienna, until the proper shade
is
lead,
chrome yellow, and burnt
obtained.
Colors for Outlines of Ornaments.
into
which
will greatly increase the
on
— In decorative designs
different colors enter, attention to the following rules
beauty of the work
;
tue rules are based
scientific principles.
First:
Any color on a gold back-ground
its own color.
should be outlined with
a darker shade of
A
gold ornament on a colored back.ground may always
Second:
be outlined with black, provided the back-ground is not too dark
with a light color.
colored ornament on a ground of complementary
color should be outlined with a lighter tint of its own color, or a
in that case outline
A
Third:
neutral color.
Fourth: If the ornament and ground are in shades of the same
and the ornament is darker than the ground, the outline
should be still darker; if the ornament is lighter than the ground,
color,
no outline
Tones.
is
required.
—Often called shades, signify
white or black.
Tints
are colors
mixed with white.
colors
mixed with
either
PRACTICAL HINTS
40
Shades
are colors
Tempera
is
Distemper
mixed with
black.
a mixture of powdered colors with gum-water.
is
a mixture of
powdered colors with
size.
—
Color Harmoxy ix Graixed Work. It is unquestionably
know what plain colors and tints
may be used in harmonious contrasts or combinations with the
essential that every painter should
fancy woods.
Green is entirelv
forms a pleasing contrast with light
oak, satinwood, bird's-eye maple, chestnut and ash but discords
with mahogany, black walnut and rosewood.
Blue is entirely
harmonious with all these latter.
Black harmonizes with all
the woods as does white but white with the lighter colored
ones is feeble and wanting. All the woods harmonize with each
each other except black walnut with mahogany and rosewood.
Gold is good with all, but the contrast with the light colored ones
is not so brilliant as with the dark-toned woods.
The bright colors
in these, deaden the usually dull tones of the black walnut and
detract from it thereby whereas the contrast with the latter-named
wood, with the light colored ones, improves and brightens all the
contrasting tints and shades. Light and dark oak are best shown
by themselves in contrast with each other, being too coarse in the
grain to exhibit with good effect in combination with maple and
satinwood.
In color harmony, generally, white and black harmonize with all colors but green.
Gold is good with every color,
shade and tint, but especially rich with green, black, purple, carmine and blue.
of
various painted imitations
unobjectionable; indeed,
it
—
;
;
—
Chinese White. The following is recommended as the best
way to prepare Chinese white: Dissolve as much Roman alum
—
is barely sufficient, and then
with two ounces and a half of honey. Set this mixture to
evaporate to dryness in an earthen vessel, over a gentle fire. It
in as small a quantity of
hot water as
m.ix
it
will
then appear like a spongy sort of coal, which being removed
from the
fire,
must be pounded, and the powder placed
crucibles or cupels, so that
it
may
lie
in
very thinly on them.
Expose
powder must
the cupels it must be
these to a strong red heat for an hour; after this, the
be pounded again, and being replaced in
shallow
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
41
exposed anew to a strong heat, and to a free current of air for an
hour longer. Being then removed from tlie fire, it is reduced
upon a porphyry slab to an exceedingly fine powder of an intense
whiteness. It may be mixed with gum-water, in the saiiie manner
as other paints are usually treated, and it is not apt, like white
lead to turn to a dusty hue.
Mixing White Lead.
—To mix
the white lead
placed in a can or pot, and an admixture of
it
should be
and turpentine
being at hand, a small quantity should be poured over the white
lead, and the whole stirred about with a stifi' palette-knife or a
stopping-knife, till the dilutent has become thoroughly incorporoil
ated with the white lead.
The mixture may now be stained to the required tint. For this
purpose the staining color should be ground in oil, and added cautiously to the diluted white lead, some colors staining much more
powerfully than others.
The staining color should never be
added
in a
powdered or dry
state.
Varnish Green, for Venetian Blinds,
&c.
—The
work
be painted once or twice with a light lead color; when
hard, grind some dry white lead in spirits of turpentine; afterwards
must
first
take about one-third in bulk in verdigris, or navy green,
a
little
When
minutes.
the
which has
then mix them both together, and add
common oak varnish, sufiicient only to bind the color.
this has been applied it will become hard in about fifteen
been ground
work
stiff"
in oil;
Add more
varnish to give a good gloss.
a second time, and,
if
Then go over
Thus you
required, a third time.
will have a beautiful green with a high polish.
It possesses a very
drying quality, enabling the work to be completed in a few hours.
The tint may be varied according to taste, by substituting different
if a bright grass green is required, add a little Dutch
pink to the mixture. This color is best used warm, as it gives
the varnish an uniform appearance.
greens; and
VARNISHES.
Varnishes
called
gums,
ai-e
solutions
commonly
The gums prin-
of the various resins,
in either oil, turpentine, or alcohol.
applied are amber, anime, copal, lac, sandarac,
cipally
damar and common
resin.
The
varnishes are
all
mastic,
applied to the
surfaces of the woods, metals, or other materials, while in the
fluid state,
and the solvent
is
afterwards evaporated, leaving a thin
glossy coat of the diiferent resins as a defence from the action
ot the
atmosphere, or from slight
friction.
Sometimes the resins are used separately at other times two or
more are combined according to the qualities required in the
;
varnish.
THE GUMS AND THEIR QUALITIES,
Amber.
—
The durability of the varnishes is of course mainly
dependent upon the comparative insolubility of the resins; their
hardness, toughness, and permanence of color. In these respects
amber excels
all other resins used for varnishes; it resists the
ordinary solvents, and can only be dissolved for
making varnish by fusion at a high temperature; it is hard and
action of
all
moderately tough, and its color is but little influenced by the
atmosphere; but, unless very carefully selected, it is too yellow
for delicate works of light colors.
Amber is, however, but little
used in making varnishes, principally on account of its high price,
but partly because the varnish dries slowly, and does not attain its
full hardness for many weeks.
Anime
is
nearly as insoluble and hard as amber, and the best
is
of a very pale color; but it is not nearly so tough as amber. The
varnishes made from anime dry quickly, but are very liable to
crack,
and the color becomes deeper by exposure
to iiglit
and
air.
FOR FURNITURE MKN.
43
is, however, extensively used in making oil varnishes, and
most of these called copal varnishes contain a considerable proportion of anime, which is substituted principally on account of
Anime
its'quick drying qualities.
when very carefull}'
almost colorless, and becomes rather lighter b}'
exposure; it is more easily dissolved by heat than either amber or
anime, and although softer than these resins, is too hard to be
Copal
selected
next in durability to amber;
is
is
it
scratched by
the nail.
material for varnish, and
emplov
it
Copal is, therefore, a most excellent
numerous attempts have been made to
with only
as the basis of a spirit varnish, but hitherto
Pure alcohol has little eifect on copal; with the
addition of a small quantity of camphor, the greater portion of
the copal is dissolved, but the camphor impairs the durability of
the varnish. Copal may be perfectly dissolved by ether, but this
partial success.
too rapidly to allow of the varnish being uni-
spirit evaporates"
essential oils of spruce and lavender have
been occasionally employed as solvents of copal, but not with
sufficient success to warrant its general adoption in spirit varnishes.
The
formlv applied.
—
Oil Varnishes. Amber, anime, and copal are usually dismaking varnish by fusing the gum, and adding linseedoil heated nearly to the boiling point. They are then amalgamated
solved for
by stirring and boiling, and the varnish is reduced to the required
degree of fluidity by the addition of oil of turpentine. They constitute the more important of what are called oil varnishes, are
the most durable of all, possess considerable brilliancy, and are
sufficiently
tor
to
hard to bear polishing.
works of the best
much
friction
;
They
are therefore
quality, that aie exposed to the
as coaches, house-decorations,
ypiRiT-VARNiSHES.
employed
weather or
and japanning.
— Lac and sandarac are moi-e
soluble than
the above resins, and are generally dissolved in spirits of wine;
but sometimes the pyroligneous
spirit,
commonly known
as
employed as a cheapei substitute. These
resins constitute the basis of what are called spirit varnishes, and
are employed principally for delicate objects not exposed to the
w^eather, such as cabinet and painted works.
vegetable naphtha,
is
PRACTICAL HINTS
44
Lac
is
basis of
much
harder and more durable than sandarac, and
most lackers
Of
polish.
the latter
hard
wood and
is
the
metal, and also of French
the three varieties, stick-lac, seed-lac, and shell-lac,
most
the
is
for
free
from
color,
therefore almost exclusively used in
and the most soluble;
it is
making varnishes and lackers;
but the palest shell-lac contains a considerable quantity of coloring matter, that renders it inadmissible for varnishing works of a
In addition, shell-lac also contains a small quantity
light color.
of wax, and other matters, that are only imperfectly soluble in
spirits of wine, and therefore give a cloudy appearance to the
varnish, but which is not of great importance in varnishing darkcolored works, and may be in great measure avoided by making
the solution without heat, and allowing the more insoluble portions time to be precipitated.
San'darac
softer
is
and
less brilliant
than shell-lac, but
is
much
making a pale varnish for
light colored woods, and other works for which the dark color of
When hardness is of greater
shell-lac would be unsuited.
lighter in color
;
it is
therefore used for
importance than paleness, a portion of shell- lac is added; but
when paleness and brilliancy are required, a small quantity of
mastic is added. When the varnish is required to be polished,
Venice turpentine is added to give sufficient thickness or body.
Mastic
and
is
is
softer
than any of the resins previously mentioned,
dissolved either in spirits of wine or
oil
of turpentine; the
more generally used on account of its cheapness. With
either of these sohents mastic makes a varnish of a very pale
color, that is brilliant, works easily, and flows better on the surIt is
face to which it is applied than most other varnishes.
also tolerable flexible, and may be easily removed by friction with
latter
is
the hand;
it is
therefore
much
used for varnishing paintings, and
other delicate works.
Damar
and when carealmost colorless; it makes a softer varnish than
mastic. The two combined, however, form an almost colorless
varnish, moderately hard and flexible, and well suited for maps
is
easily dissolved in oil of turpentine,
fully selected is
and similar purposes.
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
Common Resin
linseed-oil
brilliant,
for
common
and
is
generally dissolved either in turpentine or
Varnish made with resin
with heat.
but
It is
is
45
employed
principally
is
hard and
make cheap
to
brittle,
varnishes
purposes in house-painting, toys, and cabinet work.
also added to other varnishes in order to
improve
their bril-
should be added in small quantities onlv, as a large
proportion of resin renders the varnishes brittle.
lianc}',
but
it
THE SOLVENTS.
Linseed-oil
is
extensively employed
harder resins, to which
a vehicle for the
as
imparts softness and toughness, but
causes the varnish to dry slowly
and unless the oil is of the
it
;
purest and palest quality, well clarified, and carefully combined
with the resin, without excess of heat,
colar
of the varnish
become darker by age
when
after
first
it
is
it
materially darkens the
made, and
it
is
also liable to
Linseed-oil intended
applied.
is clarified by gradually heating it in a
copper pot, so as to bring it nearly to the boiling point in about
t^\o hours; it is then skimmed and simmered for about three
hours longer, when dried magnesia, in the proportion of about
for the best varnishes
one-quarter of an ounce to every gallon of oil, is gradually introduced by stirring; the oil is then boiled for about another hour,
and afterwards suftered to cool very gradually. It is then removed
into leaden or tin cisterns, and allowed to stand for at least three
months, during which the magnesia combines with the impurities
of the oil and carries them to the bottom, and the clarified oil is
taken from the top of the cistern as it is required without disturbing the lower portion, and the settlings are reserved for black paint,
a pale drying oil may also be made as above, by substituting for
the magnesia white copperas and sugar of lead, in the proportions
of two ounces of each to every gallon of oil.
Linseed-oil
when rendered
of litharge and red lead,
extempore varnish.
to bring
it
to the
is
drying, by boiling and the addition
sometimes used alone as a cheap
In boiling linseed-oil,
boiling point in about
skimmed, and well-dried litharge and red
it
is
heated gradually
two hours;
lead, in the
of about three ounces of each to every gallon of
oil,
it
is
then
proportion
are slowly
PRACTICAL HINTS
46
sprinkled
and the whole
in,
three hours, or until
smoke.
It is
feather into
curls
up
it,
it
is
boiled and gentlj stirred for about
ceases to throw
up any scum, or emit much
then frequently tested by dipping the end of a
and when the end of the feather
briskly, the oil
is
is
burned
ofl"
or
considered to be sufficiently boiled, and
allowed to cool very slowly, during which the principal portion
settle to the bottom.
The oil is afterwards deposited
is
of the driers
in leaden cisterns screened
from the sun and
air.
When
the
oil is
required to be as pale as possible, dried Avhite lead, sugar of lead,
and white copperas are employed instead of the litharge and red
lead.
Oil of Turpentine
is employed as a vehicle for most of the
being generally' thinned with hot oil of
Mastic, damar, and common resin are generally made
resins, the oil varnishes
turpentine.
into varnishes by dissolving
them
in oil of turpentine alone, either
Varnishes made witli turoil, and are paler
colored, but not so tough and durable. Turpentine varnishes hold
an intermediate position between oil and spirit varnishes, and are
employed principally on account of their cheapness and flexibility.
cold or with very moderate warmth.
pentine only, dry quicker than those
made with
in quality, and is greatly improved
by age; that intended for varnish should be of the best quality,
clear and limpid, and be kept for many months, or even years,
before it is used and when employed alone, as for mastic varnish,
care should be taken that it is not passed through an oily measure,
Turpentine varies considerably
;
as
is
frequently the case in procuring small quantities.
Wine, is employed for dissolving
make the white and brown hard spirit
varnishes, and lacker for liard wood or brass, and also French
polish.
The varnishes made with alcohol dry much quicker,
harder, and more brilliant than those made with tin-pentine; but
Alcohol, or
Spirit.s of
sandarac and shell-lac, to
more than a minute proportion of water, it
dissohe the resins, and when the \arnish is applied,
a very slight degree of moisture in the atmosphere will cause the
resins to be precipitated from tlie solution, giving the varnish a
dull, cloudy, or milky appearance.
It is therefore of the first
if
the spirit contains
will scarcely
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
importance, in making
pure as possible.
Ordinary
spirits
ispirit
varnishes, to procure the alcohol as
of wine, however, always contains a consider-
able proportion of water, and are
commonly
tested for varnish pur-
poses by saturating a slip of writing-paper with the
is
then ignited.
If the flame of the spirit
which
spirit,
communicates
to the
and the whole is burned, the spirit is considered to be sufgood but if, as frequently happens, the paper should be
so far saturated with the water remaining from the evaporation of
the spirit as to prevent its burning, the spirit is rejected as unfit
paper,
ficiently
for
;
varnish purposes.
Nearly pure alcohol may be obtained from ordinary spirits of
wine, by adding about one-third its weight of well-dried carbonate
of potash, agitating the bottle and then allowing it to stand for
ten or twelve hours, during which time the potash will absorb
much of the water from the spirit and fall to the bottom the
spirit may then be poured off, ana fresh alkali added, and the prothe alcohol is
cess repeated until the potash remains quite dry
;
;
then to be freed from the small portion of potash which
in solution by distillation in a water-bath.
it
holds
Naphtha,
or the spirit procured by distillation from pyroligand commonly known as vegetable or wood naphtha,
frequently employed instead of spirits of wine for making
is
resins more readily than
It dissolves ihe
cheap varnishes.
ordinary spirit of wine, but the varnish is less brilliant, and the
It is therefore never
smell of the naphtha is very offensive.
neous
acid,
employed
for the best works.
Preparation of Oil Varnishes.
—The
preparation
of
oil
varnishes requires the application of considerable heat, and owing
to this and the highly inflammable nature of the materials, the
process
on
fire.
is
attended with considerable risk of setting the building
process should, therefore, always be conducted in
The
detatched buildings constructed expressly for the purpose. Owing
partly to the necessity for this precaution, and the circumstance
that
oil
varnishes are greatly improved by being kept in leaden
some months before they are used, the preparation of
cisterns for
PRACTICAL HINTS
48
varnish
oil
is
carried
facture, the details of
on almost exclusively as a separate manuwhich are greatly varied, and are mostly
kept secret.
pot employed to make the varnish is called a gumand measures about two feet nine inches in height, and nine
and a half inches diameter externally. The bottom is hammered
out of a single piece of copper, and fashioned like a hat without a
brim it is about nine inches deep, and three-eights of an inch in
thickness. The upper part of the pot is formed as a cylinder, of
sheet copper, about two feet two inches in height, and of sufficient
diameter to slip about two inches over the upper edge of the bottom piece, to which it is firmly rivited. A wide flange of copper,
to support the pot, is also fixed just beneath the lower edge of the
cylinder, and a strong iron hoop is fixed a little above the line of
the rivets, to serve for the attachment of the horizontal handle,
which is made as a nearly straight rod, one inch square, flattened
at the end, and two feet eight inches long.
The stirrer is a copper rod about three-quarters of an inch
diameter, and three feet six inches long, flattened at the one end
The copper
pot,
;
to one and a half inch in breadth tor about eight inches in length,
and fitted at the opposite end with a short wooden handle.
The
which should contain about two quarts, is also of
solid, and riveted to a handle of the same
metal, three feet six inches long, and fitted with a wooden handle
ladle,
copper beaten out of the
like the stirrer.
Jack, for pouring hot oil into the gum-pot, is made
form of a pitcher, with a large handle and a wide spout; it
contains two gallons. The brass or copper sieve, for straining the
varnisli, is about nine inches diameter, and contains sixty meshes
The copper funnel, for straining the boiling varnish,
to the inch.
is large enough to receive the sieve, and should be well made with
lapped seams, as solder would be melted with the heat.
The tin pouring-pot, to hold three gallons, is formed exactly like
a garden watering-pot, only smaller at the spout, and without any
rose
This is never to be used for any purpose except pouring
The copper
in the
oil
of turpentine into the varnish.
A
small broom, termed a "swish," used for washing out the
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
gum-pot every time
49
is made from cuttings of cane tied
hearth-broom; the head is five inches
inches round. This should be washed in turpentine,
after use,
to a small handle like a
long, and five
and kept very clean.
A
three-footed iron trevet, with a circular top,
The
support the gum-pot.
is
emplovcd
to
about sixtfen
inches in height, and spread wider at the bottom than the top,
which is made of such a size that the pot will fit easily into it, the
flange resting
An
on the
feet of the trevet are
top.
ash-bed should be prepared near the
fire, upon which to
gum-pot when the varnish is ready for mixing, or the
heat is becoming too great. This is prepared by sifting some dry
ashes through a fine sieve, to make a smooth layer about one
and a half inch thick, aiid a little larger than the bottom of the
place the
gum-pot.
Place the trevet in a hollow in a
field,
house, where there can be no danger from
yard, garden, or out-
a temporary
round the trevet with loose bricks, after the same manner
that plumbers make their furnaces; then make up a good fire with
either coke, coal, or wood charcoal, which is far preferable; let
the fire burn to a good strong heat, set on the gum-pot with three
pounds of gum copal observe that if the fire surround the gumpot any higher inside than the gum, it is in great danger of taking
fire.
As soon as the gum begins lo fuse and steam, put in the
copper stirrer, and keep cutting, dividing, and stirring the gum to
assist its fusion; and if it feels lumpy and not fluid, and rises to
the middle of the pot, lift it from the fii-e and set it on the ash-bed,
and keep stirring until it goes down (in the mean time let the fire
be kept briskly up); then set on the gum-pot again, and keep
stirring until the gum appears fluid like oil, which is to be known
by lifting up the stirrer so far as to see the blade. Observe, that
fire; raise
fireplace
;
if the gum does not appear quite fluid as oil, carry it to the ashbed whenever it rises to the middle of the pot, and stir it down
again (keep up a brisk fire), put on the pot and keep stirring until
gum
rises above the blade of the stirrer; call out to the assist"be ready!" He is then, with both hands, to lay hold of the
copper-pouring jack, charged with (one gallon) clarified oil, and
the
ant,
4
PRACTICAL HINTS
50
lean the spout about one inch and a hah' over the
ed<,'e
of the
gum-
Let him keep himseh" firm, steady, and collected, and not
flinch, spill, or pour the oil, which would perhaps set all on fire-
pot.
Observe,
when
the
gum
within five inches of the pot-mouth,
rises
pour I" The assistant
slowly until towards the last,
call out, "
then to pour in the oil very
maker stirring during the
is
tlic
pouring.
time
If the fire at this
gum
is
strong and regular, in about eight or
concentrate and become quite
by taking a piece of broken windowglass in the left hand, and with the riglit lifting up the stirrer and
dropping a portion of the varni-h on it if it appears clear and
transparent, the oil and gum are become concentrated or joined
ten minutes the
clear; this
is
and
oil will
to be tested
;
together.
It
is
now
to
be farther boiled until
it
will
string
between the finger and thumb; this is known by once every minute dropping a portion on the glass and taking a little between the
If it is boiled enough it will stick strong,
forefinger and thumb.
and string out into
boiled enough, it is
fine
filaments, like bird-lime; but
when not
and greasy without being stringy.
The moment it is boiled enough, carry it from the fire to the ashbed, where let it remain from fifteen to twenty minutes, or until
have at hand a sufficient quantity
it is cold enough to be mixed
of oil of turpentine to fill the pouring-pot (two gallons); begin
and pour out with a small stream, gradually increasing it, and if
soft, thick,
;
the varnish rises rapidly in the pot, keep stirring
it
constantly at
the surface with the stirrer to break the bubbles, taking care not
to let the stirrer touch the bottom of the pot, for if it should, the
oil
of turpentine would be in part converted into vapor, and the
varnish would run over the pot
in a
moment;
therefore, during
the mixing, keep constantly stirring as well as pouring in at the
same time. Have also a copper ladle at hand, and if it should so
far rise as to
down
cool
it
ting
it fall
be unmanageable,
witli
it,
lifting
into the pot.
As
let
up one
the assistant take the ladle and
ladleful after another,
varnish sieve in the copper funnel placed
let
is
immediately; empty it into open-mouthed jars,
or cisterns, there let it remain and settle, and the longer it
strain the varnisii
tins,
in
and
mixed, put the
the canving tin, and
soon as the varnish
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
remains the better
will
it
bacome.
Recollect
51
when It is taken
out,
not to disturb or raise up the bottoms.
Instead of the ash-bed, a circle of loose bricks four courses high
maj
be erected to support the gum-pot.
when
gum-pot
The
bricks are to be laid
by its
bottom about six inches from the ground. Upon
this brick-stand set the pot every time there is occasion to carry
Near the stand an iron trevet may be placed,
it trom the fire.
upon which to turn the gum-pot every time after it is washed out,
as, by so doing, it will always be kept clean, and cool gradually,
for by cooling rapidly copper oxidizes very quickly.
Near the
trevet have the swish broom and also a large wide tin jack or
other vessel to recei\e the washings. Have also at hand a copper
ladle, and a tin bottle with turpentine, for washing with when
so that
the
is
set within,
it
will rest securely
tiange with the
wanted.
The moment
the
maker has emptied
the gum-pot, throw into
half a gallon of turpentine, and with the swish immediately
it
from lop
to bottom,
and instantly empty
Afterwards, with a large piece of woolen
it
it
wash
into the tin jack.
rag dipped in pumice
powder, wash and polish every part of the inside of the pot, performing the same operation on the ladle and stirrer; rinse them
with the turpentine washings, and at
last
rinse
them altogether
with clean turpentine, which also put to the washings, wipe dry,
with a clean
soft rag, the pot, ladle, stirrer,
and funnel, and lay the
which will
sieve so as to be completely covered with turpentine,
always keep
it
from
gumming up
Eight pounds of copal takes in general fi'om sixteen to twenty
minutes in fusing, from the beginning till it gets clear like oil;
but the time depends very much on the heat of the fire and tiie
attention of the operator.
the
gum
is
During the first twe'.ve minutes while
must look to the oil, which is to^be
a copper pot, large enough to contain
fusing the assistant
heated at a separate
fire in
The oil should be brought to a
smart simmer, for it ought neither to be too hot nor too cold, but
in appearance beginning to boil, which the assistant is strictly to
observe; and, when ready, call to the maker; then immediately
each take hold of one handle of the boiling-pot and carry it to the
double the quantity required.
;
PRACTICAL HINTS
52
maker
ash-bed, the
instantly returning to
gum-]iot, while tiie
tlie
assistant ladles the hot oil into the copper-pouring jack, bringing
it
and placing
A
it
at the
back
of the
gum-pot
until wanted.
thick piece of old carpet, tree from holes, should be kept at
hand
the gum-pot should take
fire; should this happen,
throw the piece of carpet quickly over the blazholding it down all round the edges; and in a few minutes-
in case
let the assistant
ing pot,
the
fire will
be smothered.
has been mixed with the gum, a brisk strong fire
should be kept up, until a scum or froth rises and covers all the
surface of the contents, when it will begin to rise rapidly. Observe
After the
when
oil
about two-thirds the height of the pot, carry it from
and set it on the ash-bed, or brick-stand, stir it down
again; and if driers are to be added, scatter in a few by a little at
a time; keep stirring, and if the frothy head goes down, put the
pot on the fire, and introduce gradually the remainder of
the driers, always carrying the pot to the ash-bed when the frolh
the
it
rises
fire,
In general, if the
about two-thirds the height of the pot.
be gooJ, all the time a pot requires to boil from the time ot
the oil being poured in, is about three and a half or four hours
but time is no criterion for a beginner to judge by, as it may vary
rises
fire
according to the weather, the quality of the ingredients, or the
heat of the
on a
bit
fire; therefore,
about the third hour of boiling, try it
it until
it feels strong and
of glass, and keep boiling
stringy between the fingers, as before mentioned.
The foregoing
directions are, with very
observed in making
quantities of
Copal
oil,
all
sorts of copal
gum, ^c,
.a
difterences, to
little
few of which will be
\'arni,sh ior 1-'ine PAiN'riNG.s,t*v;c.
gum
be
varnishes, excepting the
now
added.
— Fuse eight pounds
when completely
run fluid, pour in two gallons of hot oil let it boil until it will string'
very strong; and in about fifteen minutes, or while it is yet very
hot, pour in three gallons of turpentine, got from the top of a
Perhaps during the mixing a considerable quantity of
cistern.
of the very cleanest
])ale
African
copal, and,
;
the turpentine will escape, but the varnish will be so
brighter, transparent, and fluid
;
and
will
work
freer,
much
the
dry quickly.
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
53
and be very solid and durable when dry. After the varnish has
been strained, if it is tbund too thick, before it is quite cold, heat
as much tur|->entine and mix with it as wi'l bring it to a proper
consistence.
Artist'.s
can
gum
pieces,
Virgin Copal.
copal, before
it is
— From a select parcel of scraped Afri-
broken, pick out the very fine transparent
which appear round and
these very small; dry them
Afterwards,
when
cool,
in
pale, like
drops of crystal; break
the sun, or by a very gentle
brinse or
pound them
into
a
fire.
coarse
powder; then procure some broken bottles or flint-glass, and boil
the same in soft water and soia; then bruise it into a coarse
powder, like the gum; boil it a second time, and strain the water
from it, washing it with threj or four waters, that it may be perfectly clean and free from grease or any impuritv; dry it before
the fire, or upon a plate set in an oven. When thoroughl}' dry,
mix two pounds of the powdered glass with three pounds of the
powdered copal; after mixing them well, put them into the gumpot, and fuse the gum; keep stirring all the time; the glass will
pre\'ent the gu;n from adhering together, so that a very moderate
fire will
cause the
gum
to fuse.
When
it
appears sufficiently run,
have ready three quarts of
clarified oil,
Afterwards,
strings freely
let it boil until
Begin and mix
as there
is
it
it
rather hotter than
but a small quantity,
it
if
will
five quarts of old turpentine, strain
it
very hot, to pour
open jar, or large glass bottle;
light, but keep it both from the sun and moisture until it
sufficient age for use.
This is the finest copal varnish
into an
in.
between the fingers.
it were body varnish, for,
be sooner cold; pour in
immediately, and pour it
expose it to the air and
is
of a
for fine
paintings.
—
C.\BiNET Varnish. Fuse seven pounds of very fine African
gumcopal; when well dissolved, pour in half a gallon of pale clarified oil and when clear mix with it three gallons of turpentine after;
;
wards strain it, and put it aside for use. This, if properly boiled,
will dry in ten minutes; but if too strongly boiled, will not mix
at all with the turpentine; and soincttin'^-^, when boiled with the
turpentine will mix, and yet refuse to amalgamate with any other
varnish less boiled than itself; therefore, it requires a nicety which
;
PRACTICAL HINTS
54
is
This varnish
only to be learned iVom practice.
other
chill all
cipally
oil
employed
varnishes to which
it
may
is
however, more generally
boil
mix
it
it
prin-
Cabinet varnish
coach-painters.
made
African
gum
is,
with anime than copal.
Best Body Copal V.vrnish for Polishing.
fine
is
as a quick drying varnish for the occasional use
of japanners, cabinet, and
pounds of
very apt to
be added, and
copal, add
— Fuse
two gallons of
eight
clarified oil
very slowly for four or five hours, until quite stringy, and
off with three
and a half gallons of turpentine.
great fluidity
made of the finest copal without
and best of the copal varnishes, possessing
and pliability, but they are rather slow in drying
and
months
The above
varnishes being
driers are the palest
retain for
so
much
softness that they will not polish
and become hard; after which
is not of primary importused, and when the varnish is
well, until they give out a moisture
they are very durable.
When
of gum
paleness
is
ance a second quality
required to dry quickly, sugar of lead or white copperas are introduced as driers, either singly or conibin d, in the proportion of
from half a pound to one pound to each of the quantities above
quoted, but driers are always injurious to the color, brilliancy, and
When
durability of varnishes.
a varnish
is
required that will
dry quick and hard without driers, gum anime is substituted for
th: copal, but it is less durable and becomes darker by age. Frequently, anime varnish is mixed with copal varnish by the maker
while both are hot,
in different
proportions according to the quality
required; one pot of the anime to two of copal being used for a
moderately quick drying body varnish of good quality; ami two
pots of anime to one of copal for a quicker drying body varnish
of
common
quality.
Carriage Varnish
is
made much
the
varnish, e.vcept that to ei^ht pounds of
same
gum
as
common body
second quality
about two and a half gallons of oil and five and a half gallons of
turpentine are used with driers. This varnish is boiled until very
stringy, and is used for the wheels and under framework of
ot
coaches and other objects not requiring to be polished;
mediate
in quality
it is
between body varnish and the following.
inter-
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
55
Wainscoat Varnish con;,istsof eight pounds of second quality
e;um anime, three gallons of clarified oil, one-quarter pound of
litharge, one-quarter pound of dried sugar of lead, one-quarter
pound of copperas, well boiled until it strings very strong, mixed
with five and a half gallons of turpentine.' This varnish dries
quickly, and is principally used for house-painting and japanning.
When a darker varnish is required, as for mahogany, a small portion of gold size may be mixed with it.
Pale Amber Varnish. — Fuse
pale transparent
amber
in the
hot clarified
Boil
until
oil.
it
This
gallons of turpentine.
work very
six pounds of fine-picked very
gum-pot, and pour in two gallons of
it
strings very strong.
will be as
Mix with
body
fine as
four
copal, will
and flow well upon any work it is applied to; it
becomes very hard, and is the most durable of all
free,
dries slowly, but
varnishes.
to
It is
very excellent to mix in copal varnishes,
them a hard and durable
but
little
Amber
quality.
used, on account of
its
varnish
to
give
however,
is,
expense.
making all the above varnishes, it should be observed that
the more minutely the gum is fused, the greater the quantity and
the stronger the produce. T«ie more regular and longer the boiling of the oil and gum together is continued, the more fluid or
In
free the varnish will
mixture of
oil
and
extend on whatever it is applied. When the
is too suddenly brought to string by too
gum
strong a heat, the varnish requires
of turpentine to thin
it,
reduced, which renders
in
laying on.
The
whereby
it
more than
its
oily
its
and
just proportion
gummy
less durable; neither will
greater proportion of
oil
it
quality
is
flow so well
there
is
used in
varnishes, the less they are liable to crack, because the tougher
and softer they
are.
Increase the proportion of
gum in
varnishes,
the thicker the stratum required, and the firmer they will
set,
and
the quicker they will dry.
All bodv varnishes, or those intended to be polished, should
have one and a half pounds of gum (o each gallon of varnish
when it is strained otf and cold. All carriage or v\ainscot varnishes
or those not intended to be polished, should have full one pound
of gum to each gallon. But the quantity of gum required to
bring it to its proper consistence, depends very much upon the
PRACTICAL HINTS
56
it has undergone; therefore, %vhen tlie giiin and
have not been strongly boiled, the varnish requires less turpentine to thin it, and when boiled stronger than usual, a larger proportion of turpentine is required; if the mixing of the varnish
with the turpentine is commenced too soon, and the pot is not
sufficiently cool, there may be considerable loss by evaporation.
Copal varnishes should be made at least three months before
they are required for use, and the longer they are kept the better
they become; but when it is necessary to use the varnishes before
degree of boiling
oil
they are of sufficient age, they should be
left
thicker than usual.
Preparation of Spirit and Turpentine Varnishes.—
-
In the preparation of spirit and turpentine varnishes, scarcely any
apparatus
is
required;
as,
generally speaking, the process
is
almost
limited to mixing the resins and solvent together, and agitating
the whole until the resin
is
thoroughly dissolved.
Heat
is
not
generally necessary, and although frequently resorted to in order
most instances only a
moderate degree of warmth is required; consequently the preparation of spirit and turpentine varnishes is far more manageable
than that of oil varnishes, and entails much less risk of accident.
The resins should be thoroughly free from moisture, and are
generally broken into small pieces, in order that they may be
dissolved more quickly, and all impurities are carefully picked
out; after which the finest and clearest pieces are generally
selected and set aside for making small quantities of varnish of a
superior quality.
Sometimes, with the view of expediting the
dissolution of the resins, they are finely powdered before they are
added to the solvent; but, in this case, it is necessary that the
agitation should be maintained from the time the resin is added
until it is thoroughly dissolved, otherwise it is liable to agglutinate
into one mass, that is afterwards ver^- difficult of solution.
In making turpentine varnishes without heat, in quantities of
ten or twelve gallons, the resin and turpentine are generally introduced into a large can with a wide mouth, and agitated by stirring
with a stout stick; a number of wooden pegs or nails are mostly
driven into the stick, near the lower end, to increase its effect.
to facilitate the dissolution of the resins, in
Spirit varnishes are generally
made
in smaller quantities; and,
FOR FURNITURE
57
MI1;N.
to prevent the evaporation of the spirit, the nioulh of the vessel
is
mostly closed and the vessel
itself is
agitated.
making
In
quantities of four to eight gallons, the resin and solvent are some-
times introduced into a small cask capable ot containing about
double the quantity, and mounted]t<j revolve on central bearings at
the ends. The cask is made to revolve either with continuous
motion by a winch-handle, or with an alternating motion by
means of a cord passed around the barrel and terminating in a
which the operator pulls to give motion to the
barrel in the one direction, and the momentum of which suffices
to coil up the cord ready for the following pull, which causes the
croas-handle,
barrel to revolve in the opposite direction,
and so on continually.
Quantities of varnish not exceeding two or three gallons, are
generally agitated in a tin can, rolled backwards and forwards
upon a bench covered with an old carpet or a sack; but whatever
method is adopted for the agitation, it should be continued, without intermission, until the resin
is
sufficiently dissolved to prevent
becoming agglutinated; the time required for
which depends upon the solubility of the resin and the strength
the
risk
of the
of
its
spirit,
but
is
commonly from
farther agitation for tlie
The
three to four hours.
thoiough solution of the resin
maybe
either continuous or intermittent, according to convenience, but
it
should not be abandoneil until
when
it
is
judged
to
another vessel for examination; and
perfectly dissolved, the
When
agitation.
to stand for a
whole
the resin
is
is all
if
bottles,
and allowed
is
is
is
and
poured into
perfect;
any of the resin
is
not
returned to the vessel for farther
dissolved, the varnish
tew hours, that any impurities
bottom, and the clear varnish
lawn into
solution
tlie
be complete, the varnish
may
is
settle
allowed
to the
through muslin or
a few days before use.
lastly strained
to stand for
Very small quantities of varnish are generally made in glass
bottles, large enough to contain about one-third more than the
quantity introduced, and they are shaken up at frequent intervals; but although,
from the small bulk of the
agglutinate into so insoluble a mass as
made,
still,
when
the agitation
is
when
resin,
it
cannot
larger quantities are
intermitted, several days are
frequently required before the resins are entirely dissolved, as the
PRACTICAL HINTS
58
more upon the amount of agitation than the
length of time the resins are submitted to the action of the
solution depends
solvent.
Sometimes, with the view of preventing the agglutination and
lacilitating the dissolution of the resins,
introduced with the resin and solvent;
coarsely-pounded glass
in
this
is
case the glass
should be thoroughly washed and dried, and afterwards sifted, to
all the smaller particles, which, from their lightness,
exclude
would have little effect in preventing the aggregation of the resin,
and would be more troublesome to separate from the varnish.
When heat is employed in making spirit varnishes, the lowest
temperature should be used that will suffice to dissolve the resins,
as otherwise there
is
risk of losing a considerable portion of the
alcohol by evaporation,
thereby reducing the strength of the
made of a darker color by
excess of heat, and those containing shell-lac are less clear and
hard when made with heat than when made quite cold, as the
spirit; the
varnish
is
also liable to be
heated spirit dissolves the greater portion of the wax contained in
the shell-lac, and which becomes disseminated throughout the
mass; but when the solution is made without heat, the principal
wax and other impurities remains undissolved at
the bottom.
portion of the
In
making
large quantities of spirit varnish with heat, a
still
and worm are sometimes employed, in order to prevent loss by
evaporation; the still is heated by a steam or water-bath, and the
resins and solvent are agitated by a stirring-rod passing through
a stuffing-box in the head ot the still. Quantities of two or three
gallons are generally made in a tin can, which is dipped at frequent intervals into hot water, and agitated between every dip by
rolling; but in this case
time
it is
immersed
it is
in the
necessary to loosen the cork every
hot water, in order to allow the vapor
of the spirit to escape; otherwise the cork would be driven out
wiih great force, and some of the spirit might be thrown on the
fire with great risk of serious accident.
Glass bottles, although
,
convenient from their transparenc}', should never be employed
for making varnish with heat, as they are liable to break from the
alternations of teinperature.
They
are,
however, often used for
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
making small
quantities,
and
59-
in this case the safer
practice
is
to
heat the water only in a moderate degree, and to allow of the
continuous escape of the vapor through a small notch cut lengthwise in the cork, and which may be closed bv the thumb when
the bottle
is
much
There
shaken.
of accident in
making
is,
however, always some
varnishes near an open
spirit
little risk,
fire,
when
employed; and a water or sand bath, placed on the
top of a stove, so as to be heated only in a moderate degree, will
be generally ibund to aftbrd sufficient warmth, and is, perhaps^
the most safe and convenient arrangement for occasional purposes.
heat
is
more than a very moderate warmth to
and the solution is frequently inade in stone bottles,,
placed near a fire and sh.'iken occasionally. When it is required
to be very clear, as tor metal lacker, it should be passed through
Shell-lac never requires
dissolve
it,
filtering-paper, before
it is
bottled.
need scarcely be observed, that all the utensils employed in
making spirit varnishes should'be perfectly clean and dry, as the
least moisture or even a damp atmosphere is liable to deteriorateIt
the quality of the varnish.
Best White Hard Spirit Varnish, to bear polishing, is
made by adding two pounds of the best picked gum sandarac to
one gallon of
spirit
of wine;
they are then shaken up without
gum
intermission for about four hours, or until the
solved; eighteen ounces of Venice turpentine
warmed,
in
a water-bath, to
varnish to give
it
a body
;
make
it
fluid,
the whole
is
is
is
quite dis-
then moderately
and poured into the
then well agitated for
about one hour, and afterwards
strained and put into bottles,
which should be kept well corked,
to
prevent the evaporation of
the spirit; after standing about a week, the varnish
is fit
for use.
This varnish may be made sufticiently pale to be used on white
work, when the clearest and jpalest pieces of the gum are carefully selected.
When
the \\ork does not require to be polished,
the proportion of Venice turpentine
may
be reduced one-half.
White Hard Varnish is also made with
gum sandarac to one gallon of spirit
pounds of
three and a half
of wine, and
they are dissolved one pint of pale turpentine varnish
is
when
added,.
PRACTICAL HINTS
60
and the whole are well shaken
wiiite hard varnish
poimd of
gum
is
thoroughly mixed.
vmtil
made with two pounds
mastic, and one gallon of
of
sj^irit
Anotlier
gum sandarac, one
of wine.
foi- N-iolins, is made with two ]iounds
one gallon of spirit of wine, and one pint ol turpentine varnish.
This may be made either in the same manner as
the white hard varnish, or the ingredients may all be mixed
together in a tin can, placed in a warm situation near a fire, and
shaken occasionalh- until dissolved.
^VIIITE .Spirit Varni.sii,
of mastic
to
Brown Hard
Spirit Varnish
is
made
in the
same manner
as white hard varnish, but shell-lac is generally used instead of
sandarac. Thus a very excellent brown hard spirit varnish that
-will bear polishing is made with two pounds of shell-lac to one
gallon of spirit of wine; and, after they are amalgamated,
eighteen ounces of \'enice turj^entine are warmed and added,
•exactly as described for the best Avhite hard varnish.
very good brown hard
shell lac, one
poimd of sandarac, and two ounces of mastic
solved in one gallon of spirit of wine.
is
Another
varnish consists of two pounds of
spirit
made with two pounds of
sandarac, one
dis-
lighter-colored varnish
pound of
shell-lac,
and
After the resins are dissolved, one pint of
•one gallon of spirit.
turpentine varnish
A
is
added, and the whole
is
well mixed by
agitation.
Hard-wood Lacker
made, like the brown hard varnish,
one gallon of spirit of wine, but
without turpentine. Another hard-wood lacker is made with one
pound of seed-lac and one poimd of white resin, dissolved in one
\\ith
two pounds of
is
shell-lac to
gallon of spirit of wine.
French
Poli.sh
is
made
ways; but the
pound
of wine without heat.
in a great variety of
simplest, and probably the best, consists of one and a half
of shell-lac dissolved in one gallon of
Copal, sandarac, mastic, and
gum
spirit
Arabic, are frequently used in
making French jiolish, partly with the view of making the polish
of a lighter color, and partly to please the fancy of the polisher;
the proportions of the different
but with
little
advantage.
A
gums
are varied almost infinitely,
polish that
is
by some considered to
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
61
be very good is made \sith t\\ ehe ounces of shell-lac, six ouncesof guin Arabic, and three ounces of copal to one gallon of spirif
When
of wine.
of
benzoin
is
a dark-colored polish
is
required, half a
pound
one pound of shell-lac dissolved
or four oimces of guaiaciim are added to-
sometimes added
to
in one gallon of spirit,
one and a half pound of shell-lac;
at
other times the polish
is
colored to the required tint with dragon's-blood.
The
and
the
shell-lac alone
it is
first
makes
the hardest and most durable polish^
a frequent practice to
instance than
it
spirit.
farther portion of shell-lac.
of the polish being
tion of shell-lac
the polish rather thicker in
But
it
may
be readily
should be made toowould require to be thickened by dissolving a
thinned by the addition of
thin originally,
make
required for use, as
it is
is
made
if it
Willi the view of avoiding any risk
too thin in the
frequently
first
instance, the propor-
made two pounds
to
the gallon of
Other resins are sometimes added, with the view of making the polish tougher. Thus, sometimes, the polish is made \\ith
one and a half pound of shell-lac, four ounces of seed-lac, four
ounces of sandarac, and two ounce of mastic to the gallon of
spirit; at other times the proportions are two pounds of shell-lac
and four ounces of thus to the gallon of spirit.
spirit.
Bleached Shellac. — When
polish
lac,
is
the bleached
lac,
sold
employed with adx'antage.
is
a lighter-colored lac varnish, or
made with the palest ordinary shellunder the name of white lac, may be
The varnish made with the white lac
required than can be
at first
almost colorless, but becomes darker by exposure
tO'
the light.
Various modes have been adopted for bleaching
One
process
is
as follows:
lac varnish.
Six ounces of shell-lac, coarsely
pounded, are to be dissolved by gentle heat in a pint of spirit of
wine; to this is to be added a bleaching liquor, made by dissolving
purified carbonate of potash in water, and then impregnating it
with chlorine gas till the silica precipitates, and the solution
becomes slightly colored. Of the above bleaching liquor, add
one or two ounces to the spirituous solution of lac, and stir the
whole well together; eft'ervescence takes place, and, when thisceases, add more of the bleaching liquor, and thus proceed till the
PRACTICAL HINTS
^2
become
color of the mixture has
is
now
made
to be added,
In'
pale.
A second
lileaching liquid
diluting muriatic acid with thrice
its
weight of water, and dropping into it pulverized red lead, till the
Of this acid bleaching
last added portions do not become white.
liquor, small quantities at a time are to be added to the halfbleached lac solution, allowing the effervescence, which takes
place on each addition, to cease before a fresh portion is poured in.
This is to be continued till the lac, now white, separates from the
The supernatant fluid is now to be poured awaj, and the
liquor.
lac
is
dry
to be well
washed
in repeated waters,
and
rniully
wrung
as
as possible in a cloth.
ounces of shell-lac in a quart
few minutes with ten ounces
of well-burned and recentl^'-heated animal charcoal, when a small
quantity of the solution should be drawn off and filtered; if not
Another process
:
Dissolve
of rectified spirit of wine
colorless, a little
;
five
boil for a
more charcoal must be added.
When
all
color
removed, press the liquor through silk, as linen absorbs more
varnish, and afterwards filter it through fine blotting-paper.
Dr. Hare's process, published in the Franklin yoitrnal, is as follows: Dissolve, in an iron kettle, one part of pearlash in eight
parts of water; add one part ot shell or seed-lac, and heat the
is
whole to ebullition. When the lac is dissolved, cool the solution,
and impregnate it with chlorine gas till the lac is all precipitated.
The precipitate is white, but the color deepens by washing and
consolidation; dissolved in alcohol,
lac,
bleached by the process
above mentioned, yields a varnish which
any copal varnish.
A
nearly colorless varnish
may
also be
as free
from color as
made by
dissolving the
is
Dr. Hare's process; bleaching it with a filtered solution
of chloride of lime, and afterwards dissolving the lime from the
The precipitate is
precipitate, by the addition of muriatic acid.
lac, as in
in several waters, dried, and dissolved in
which takes up the more soluble portion, forming a very
pale but rather thin varnish, to which a small quantity of mastic
then to be well washed
alcohol,
may
be added.
Attempts are frequently made to combine copal with all the
spirit varnishes, in order to give them greater toughness and dura-
FOR FURNITURE MRN.
bility;
63
and although copal cannot be entirely dissolved, even in
still, a moderate portion will be taken up by strong
of wine when a temperature of about 120 ° is employed
pure alcohol,
spirit
with frequent agitation of the varnish.
colored varnish
may
be
shell-lac, three-quarters
made with
In this
manner a liijhtpound of
three-quarters of a
of a pound of copal to one gallon of
spirit
The
of wine containing about ninety-five per cent, of alcohol.
copal should be powdered quite fine, and
and
the shell-lac
shell-lac
spirit at the
may
either be added to
commencement,
which case the
in
should also be powdered, or the shell-lac
dissolved and the powdered copal added
;
may
be
first
but, in either case,
only the more soluble portion of the copal that
is
it is
taken up, and
the remainder settles to the bottom in a viscid mass, from
which
Copal may be
added in the same manner to the white hard varnishes, and it is
sometimes recommended to fuse the copal and drop it into water
before attempting to dissolve it in spirit, but the advantage of
adding copal to spirit varnishes is very questionable.
the varnish
may
be decanted and strained for use.
Lacker for Brass,
French polish, is made in a great
French polish, the simplest and best
pale lacker for works that do not require to be colored, consists of
shell-lac and spirit of wine only, in the proportions of about half
Lacker
a pound of the best pale shell-lac to one gallon of spirit.
it is, therefore,
is required to be as clear and bright as possible
always made without heat by continuous agitation for five or six
like
variety of ways; and, as in
;
hours.
The
lacker
is
tions are precipitated,
then allowed to stand until the thicker por-
when
the clear lacker
should not be sufficiently clear,
it
is
is
poured
off,
and
if it
afterwards filtered through
paper into a bottle, which should be kept closely corked and out
would darken the color of the
This may, however, be easily prevented by pasting paper
of the influence of light, which
lacker.
round the
bottle.
Colored Lackers. — Lackers
ai-e
frequently required
to be
For yellow tints, turmeric,
or gamboge are employed and for red tints,
colored, either of yellow or red tints.
cape aloes, saftVon,
annotto and dragon's-blood are used
;
— the proportions being varied
PRACTICAL HINTS
64
Thus, for a pale yellow, about
one ounce of gamboge and two ounces of cape aloes are powdered
and mixed with one pound of shell-lac. For a full vellow, half a
pound of turmeric and two ounces of gamboge, and for a red
lacker, half a pound of dragon's-blood and one pound of annotto.
The color is also modified bj that of the lac employed, the best
pale or orange shell-lac being used for light-colored lackers, and
according to the color required.
dark-colored shell-lac or seed-lac
is
used for the darker
tints.
sometimes used with the shell-lac.
Thus a pale gold-colored lacker is made with eight ounces of
shell-lac, Iwo ounces of sandarac, eight ounces of turmeric, two
ounces of annotto, and a quarter of an ounce of dragon's-blood
to one gallon of spirit of wine.
For pale
to
lackers, sandarac
is
The most convenient method, however, of coloring lackers, is
make a saturated solution in spirit of wine of each of the color-
ing matters, and to add the solutions in different proportion to the
pale lacker according to the tint required; but the
whole of the
coloring matters are not generally used by the same maktrs, and
solutions of turmeric,
gamboge, and dragon's-blood
The turmeric
cient choice for ordinary pin-poses.
aflbrd suffi-
gives a greenish
yellow tint, and, with the addition of a little gamboge, is the coloring matter employed in making the so-called green lacker used
for bronzed works.
Another mode of making lacker: Four ounces of shell-lac
and a quarter of an ounce of gamboge are dissolved by agitation,
without heat, in twenty-five ounces of pure pyro-acetic ether.
The solution is allowed to stand until the gummy matters not
taken up bv the spiiit subside the clear liquor is then decanted,
and when required for use is mixed with eight times its quantity
of spirit of wine. In this case, the pyro-acetic ether is employed
for dissolving the shell-lac, in order to prevent any but the purely
rtbinous portions being taken up, which is almost certain to occur
;
with ordinary
if
spirit
the lacker were
of wine,
made
owing
to the presence of water; but
entirely with pyro-acetic ether, the latter
would evajiorate too rapidly
to allow time for
it
to be equally
applied.
Mastic \'arnish,
for painting,
and similar purposes,
is
some-
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
times
made
in
65
small quantities with spirit of wine; but,
more
employed as the solvent, the proportion being about three pounds of mastic to the gallon of turpentine.
For the best varnish, the mastic is carefully picked and
dissolved by agitation without heat, exactly as for the best white
generally,
oil
of turpentine
is
hard varnish after the mastic varnish has been strained it is
poured into a bottle, which is loosely corked and exposed to the
sun and air for a few weeks; this causes a precipitation, from
which the clear varnish may be poured off for use but the longer
the varnish is kept the better it becomes.
;
;
Mastic varnish works very freely, but
the surface
varnish
is
frequently
applied.
remams tacky
To prevent
the latter
before dissolving the mastic, to bruise
and pick out
all
it
is
liable to chill,
and
some time after the
evil, it is recommended,
for
it
slightly with a muller,
the pieces that are too soft to break readily, and
which maybe used for common varnish. To prevent the chilling,
which arises from the presence of moisture, Mr. W. Neil recommends a quart of river sand to be boiled with two ounces of pearlash the sand is afterwards to be washed three or four times w ith
hot water, and strained each time.
The sand is then to be dried
in an oven, and when it is of a good heat, half a pint of the hot
sand is to be poured into each gallon of varnish, and shaken well
for five minutes; it is then allowed to settle, and carries down the
;
moisture of the
In making
gum
and turpentine.
common
varnish, heat
is
generally employed to dis-
solve the mastic, and about one pint of turpentine varnish
to
is
added
every gallon of varnish.
Turpentine Varnish
resin dissolved in
is
made with
one gallon of
oil
other preparation than sufficient
four pounds of
of turpentine.
warmth
common
It requires
no
to dissolve the resin.
Sometimes resin and turpentine are mixed together in a stone or
tin bottle, which is placed near the fire, or in a sand-baih over a
and shaken occasionally but varnisli-makers generally
resin and turpentine in the gum-pot, and employ sufficient
heat to fuse the resin. This is a more expeditious practice, but is
attended with some danger of fire. When a very pale turpentine
stove,
mix the
;
PRACTICAL HINTS
66
varnish
to
is
required, bleached resin
employ more heat than
is
is
used, and care
making
necessary in
is
taken not
the varnish.
is principally used for in-door painted works
and common painted lurniture and toys. It is also frequently
added to other varnishes to give them greater body, hardness, and
Turpentine varnisii
brilliancy.
Crystal Varxish
is
a
name
frequently given to ver}' pale
varnishes employed for paper
—
the two are thoroughly incorporated.
The
works such as maps, colored
A very good crystal varnish is made with
paints, and drawings.
two pounds of mastic and two pounds of damar, dissohed without heat in one gallon of turpentine. Another good but more
expensive crystal varnish is made with equal quantities of Canada
balsam and oil of turpentine. In making this varnish, it is only
necessary to warm the Canada balsam until it is quite fluid, then
add the turpentine and shake the mixture for a lew minutes until
placed in a moderately
warm
varnish
may
situation for a few hours,
then be
and
will
These crystal varnishes
are both nearly colorless, flow freely, and are more flexible, so as
to bear bending or rolling, and either of them may be employed
to make a tracing paper of middling quality, by applying a thin
coat of varnish on one or both sides of any thin transparent
paper, such as good tissue or foreign post paper.
be ready for use on the tbllowing day.
Paper Varnish, for paper hangings and similar purposes, is
made with four pounds of damar to one gallon of turpentine.
The damar dissolves very readily in the turpentine, either with
moderate agitation or a very gentle
bleached resin
is
heat.
Sometimes white
or
used instead of the damar, or the two are com-
bined.
"Water Varnish. — All
the varieties of lac
may
be dissolved
water by the addition of ammonia, borax, potash,
or soda, but these alkalies all have the eflect of rendering the
color of the lac much darker. The solutions, may, however, be
in nearly boiling
employed
as varnishes,
which when dried
will resist the applica-
tion of water sullicicntl}' well to bear washing, especially
when
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
the proportion of alkali
the dissolution of the
67
employed is only just sufficient to cause
and which is also desirable in order to
lac,
The
keep the \'arnish as light-colored as possible.
least color is
given with diluted water of ammonia, in the proportions of about
sixteen ounces of ordinary water of ammonia to seven pints of
water and two pounds of pale shell-lac, to which about four ounces
of gum Arabic
may be added. Borax is, however, more generally
and the proportions are then two pounds of shell-lac, six
ounces of borax, and four ounces of gum Arabic to one gallon of
used,
water.
When
the varnish
possible, while lac
Sealing-wax
is
is
required to be as light-colored as
employed.
Varnish,
for
coating
parts
of
electrical
machines and similar purposes, is made by dissolving two and a
half pounds of good red sealing-wax and one and a half pound of
shell-lac in one gallon of spirit of wine.
Black Varnish may
be
made with
three
pounds of black
sealing-wax and one pound of shell-lac to the gallon of
spirit,
or
lampblack may be mixed with brown hard varnish or lacker,
according to the thickness required in the varnish. The interior
of telescope tubes are frequently blackened with a dull varnish of
this kind, made by mixing lampblack with rather thick brass
lacker, as little of the lampblack being employed as will serve to
deaden the bright color of the lacker. Mathematical instruments
are sometimes blackened with a similar thin varnish, and the surface is afterwards brightened with one or two coats of lacker
applied as usual.
Ordinary lampblack, however, generally contains greasy impurities and moisture, which render it unfit for
varnish purposes, and therefore the best kind should be employed,
or the lampblack should be purified by ramming it hard into a
close vessel, and afterwards subjecting it to a red heat.
In the
workshop, when small quantities of lampblack are required, it is
fine
frequently inade for the occcasion, by placing a piece of sheet
metal over the flame
ot
used for metal works,
asphaltum, and,
when
is
an
oil
lamp.
made by
A black varnish,
sometimes
fusing three pounds of Egyptian
well dissolved, half a
and one gallon of turpentine are added.
pound of
shell-lac
PRACTICAL HINTS
68
Varnish for Iron. — Take
^
gum
lb.
benzoin,
1
2
lbs.
pulverized
gum
gallon spirits of turpentine.
varnish quickly, keep in a
warm
asphaltum,
To make
place and shake often
till
this
it
is
with finely ground ivory black. Apply
with a brush. This varnish should be used on iron work, exposed
to the weather.
It is also well adapted for inside work, s-ich as
dissolved.
iron
Shade
to suit
furniture, w-here a
handsome
polish
is
desired.
Varnish for Cane and Basket-work.
— Lac, prepared after
and colored cane: 25grs.
of good linseed oil are heated in a sand-bath, as long as a drop of
it, poured on a cold stove, does not run when the stone is inclined,
and when touched with the finger it feels thready.
Then is
added first in small portions, 1 lb. fat copal varnish, and the vessel
wherein the copal varnish is heated must be large, because by the
the following recipe
is
addition of the linseed
When
used to cover
oil,
split
a great deal of frothing takes place.
cold, the required consistence
mixing
elascity,
it
with turpentine
oil.
It
soon
is
given to the varnish by
dries,
preserves a sufficient
and may be applied with or without addition of
colors.
POLISH REVIVERS &C.
French Polish Reviver. — Half
of camphor, 2 ozs. vinegar,
^
oz.
pint linseed
oil, 1
oz. spirits
of butter of antimony,
34^
oz.
of spirts of hartshorn.
Another.
Let
it
— One
stand
till
of naptha, 4 oz. of shellac,
lb.
dissolved,
and add 3
^
oz. oxalic acid.
oz. linseed oil.
Furniture Reviver. — Pale linseed oil, raw, 10 oz. lac varnish
Mix well before using.
spirits, of each 5 oz.
;
and wood
—
Furniture Cream. 1. Cut in small pieces a quarter of a
pound of vellow wax, and, after melting it, add an ounce of well
powdered colophony, which is a black resin or turpentine boiled in
The wax and colophony being both
by degrees, quite warm, two ounces of oil of
When the whole is thoroughly mixed, pour
spirit of turpentine.
The
it into a tin or earthen pot, and keep it covered for use.
method of applying it to the furniture, which must be first well
dusted and cleaned, is by spreading a little of this composition on
a piece of woolen cloth, and well rubbing the wood with it, and in
a few days the gloss will be as firm and fast as varnish.
2.
One quarter lb. of beeswax melted in an earthenware pot;
add gradually ^ pint tuipentine, colored with ^ oz. alkanet root;
add ^ pt. linseed oil mix well. Should be kept in wide-mouthed
bottles for use.
Note. This cream should not be used on newly
water, and afterwards dried.
melted, pour
in,
;
—
polished furniture.
Furniture Paste.
—
If
it is
ural color, scrape a quarter of a
of turpentine.
Linseed
oil will
required to keep the
pound of beeswax
wood
its
nat-
into half a pint
darken the wood.
Six ounces of pearlash in a quarter of a pound of white
wax
PRACTICAL HINTS
70
When cool the wax
and simmer for half an hour in a pipkin.
will float on the top, which must be taken off, and with hot water
worked
into a paste.
Equal parts of beeswax,
Melt well together.
of turpentine, and linseed
spirits
oil.
Four ounces of beeswax, ten ounces of turpentine, alkanet root
Melt together and strain.
to color.
To Make Furniturk Paste. — Scrape two ounces of beesinto a pot or basin; then add as much spirits of turpentine as
wax
moisten
will
it
At
through.
of an ounce of resin, and add
of paste, as
Stir
color.
much
up,
it
the
it,
same
when
time,
Indian red as will bring
and
will be
it
powder an eight part
dissolved to the consistence
it
to a
deep mahogany
for use.
fit
Several Receipts for Furniture Cream. — Yellow wax,
yellow soap, 2 oz. water 50 oz.; boil, with constant
and add boiled oil and oil of turpentine, each 5 oz.
1 oz.
;
;
Soft water,
1
gallon
;
soap, 4 oz.
;
white wax, in shavings,
Boil together, and add 2 oz. pearlash.
laid
s'irring,
1 lb.
To
be diluted with water,
on with a paint brush, and polished off with a hard brush or
cloth.
Wax, 3
oz.; pearlash, 2 oz.
4 oz. boiled
oil
and 5
oz.
;
Heat together, and add
water, 6 oz.
of spirits of turpentine.
1 oz. water, 8 oz.
beeswax (genuine) 6 oz., mix with
and add sufficient water to reduce it to the consistency of
cream for use add more water, and spread it on the wood with a
painter's brush, let it dry, and polish with a hard brush or cloth.
Pearlash,
;
;
heat,
;
Beeswax, 3 oz. pearlash, 2 oz.; water, 6 oz. mix with heat, and
add boiled oil, 4 oz. turpentine (oil) 5 oz. mix.
;
;
;
White Furniture Cream. — With
;
the following receipt the
vinegar must be mixed with the linseed
oil by degrees, and the
shaken up. The spirit of antimony must afterwards be
added, and well mixed. Six ounces of raw linseed oil, three ozs.
methylated spirit, three ozs. white wine vinegar, lialf an ounce of
butter of antimonv.
bottle well
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
71
FURNITURE POLISH
AN IMPORTANT
FACT.
an undeniable fact that a g-ood furniture polish is demanded by the
and for household use. Furniture by standing- in warerooms becomes
dusty, dirty, and lustreless; the dealer must have something- with which to
polish it up and make it attractive. Of course all furniture dealers have something for this purpose, but it is well known that almost all the preparations used
It IS
trade,
for this
purpose produce only temporary'
relief,
so that the furniture quickly
relapses into a faded, second-hand appearance, greatly to the distress of the
housekeeper and the injury of the reputation of the dealer.
particularly in hotels,
constant use.
A really good
The kind
of a polish that
In households, and
would come
wanted, and that is an actual
furniture polish
is
in almost
necessity,
must combine the following qualities:
First. It must be made of pure gum, then it will have a g-ood body, thoroughly cover up scratches, bruises and stains, and impart a body that will last.
Second. It must s:ive a fine lustre which will make the furniture handsome
and attractive.
Third. It must dry quickly, so that the articles to which it is applied may
be handled without
delaj'.
must be pat up in convenient shape for use by the dealer, and
for households and hotels, particular care being taken not to have the bottles too
large, else the gum will settle to the bottom, and only the lighter ingredients be
Fourth.
It
used from the top.
Such a polish dealers could sell in large quantities and make considerable
money on it, and such a polish will be found in the " Can't be Beat " Furniture
Polish, manufactured by H. E. Taylor & Co., i6i and 163 Bowery, New York.
It has been tested for twenty years, and is now in use by thousands of dealers.
etc., may be had by addressing- the above firm.
Undertakers throughout the world will study their own interests by
HAVING their NAMES ON THE REGISTER OF
Pamphlets, testimonials, terms,
H. E.
TAYl^OR &
CO.
(Secret Information oiven to Undertakers.)
GLUE.
—
Glue. Glue is prepared from waste pieces of skin, horns, hoofs,
and other animal oft'al. These are steeped, washed, boiled, strained,
melted, reboiled and cast into square cakes, which are then dried.
The strongest kind of glue is made from the hides of oxen; that
from the bones and sinews is weaker. The older the animal, the
stronger the glue.
Good glue should
be hard in the cake, of a
strong, dark color almost transparent, free from black or cloudy
spots, and with little or no smell.
The best sorts are transparent
and of a clear amber color. Inferior kinds are sometimes contaminated with the lime used for removing the hair from liie skins of
which they are made. The best glue swells considerably (the
more the better) when immersed in cold water, but does not dissolve, and returns to its former size when dry.
Inferior glue made
from bones, will, however, dissolve almost entirely in cold water.
To Prepare Glue. —To
prepare glue for use
it
should be
broken up into small pieces, and soaked in as much cold water as
will cover it, for about twelve hours.
It should then be melted in
a double glue pot, covered to keep the glue from dirt. Care must
be taken to keep the outer vessel full of water so that the glue
shall not burn, or be brought to a temperature higher than that of
boiling water.
The glue
is
allowed to simmer for two or three
much hot water being added as
hours, then gradually melted, so
make
enough, just
run off a brush in a continuous
When the glue is done with,
some boiling water should be added to make it very thin before it
is put away.
Freshly made glue is stronger than that which has
been repeatedly melted. Too large a quantity should not therefore
will
it
liquid
to
stream, without breaking into drops.
be made at a time. Glue may be freed from the foreign animal
matter generally in it by softening it in cold water, washing it
with the same several times till it no longer gives out any color,
FOR FURNITURE MKN.
then bruising
it
witli the
YS
hand, and suspending
it
in a linen
beneath the surface of a large quantity of water
By doing
this the
pure glue
is
at
bag
06 ° Falir.
retained in the bag, and the soluble
If the softened glue be heated to 122'^
impurities pass through.
filtered, some other impmities will be retained
and a colorless solution of glue be obtained.
The addition of a little bichromate of potash will render glue
impervious to moisture after exposing to the light, and a small
quantity' of methylated spirits will greatly improve its keeping
without water, and
by the
filter,
qualities.
Mixing Glue.
good work, and
faces of the
it
wood
— A minimum amount of glue should be used in
should be applied as hot as possible. The surto be united should be clean, dry and true they
:
should be brought together as tightly as possible, so that the
superfluous glue is squeezed out. The cohesion of a piece of solid
glue, or the force required to separate one square
inch,
is
four
thousand pounds. The strength of common glue for coarse work
The hotis increased by the addition of a little powdered chalk.
ter the glue,'the greater its cohesion; therefort in all large and
long joints the glue should be applied immediately after boiling.
Glue
loses
therefore,
much
which
of
is
its
strength by frequent re-melting; that glue
newly made,
is
much
preferable to that
which
has been re-boiled.
Glue-Pot.
— A glue-pot recently perfected consists of a circular
kerosene lamp, made of
in diameter.
glass,
see
and
how
The lamp
fitted
tin,
is
resting
fitted
upon
with a
a tin
tin
bottom 8
chimney
in
/i
inches
place of
with a small aperture, covered with mica, so as to
The glue pot is made of copper,
to regulate the flame.
tinned on the inside and supported upon a rim setting up about six
inches from the bottom of the lamp, the rim supported by three
and riveted to the rim and bottom of lamp rest.
which the bottom is placed has a portion of the bottom
arched, to give more heating surface, and connecting with the
chamber under the pot is a flue, passing out and up alongside of
the pot which carries off any smoke from the lamp, and also acts
as a draft to the flame. This pot is five inches in diameter, and
legs, soldered
The pot
in
PRACTICAL HINTS
74
about six inches high. The pot for the reception of the ghie is
set in the same as an ordinary glue pot, and will hold about a
quart of glue. The whole can be carried to any place where you
wish to use it, and still have the heat kept up. The cost of oil is
but a few cents a week.
Another improvement is in the pot being of copper, tinned.
and spoil the glue, as is the case with iron.
It
will not corrode
French cabinet-makers use a glue-pot with an inside pan m.ide
of glazed earthenware and divided radially into three divisions, in
one of which is kept strong glue, in another weaker, and in the
third water only, with a brush or piece of sponge for cleaning off
superfluous glue from the work.
A few holes bored near the top of the inner vessel of a glucpot,
by admitting steam from the outer vessel will prevent the glue
from solidifying on the side. The}- need not be bored round the
whole circumference of the pot, to allow of pouring out the glue
if
necessary.
To Prevent Glue Cracking. — Glue
because of the dryness of the
The
air in
frequently
rooms warmed by
cracks
stoves.
addition of chloride of calcium to glue will prevent this disa-
greeable property of cracking.
deliquescent salt that
it
attracts
Chloride of calcium
enough moisture
to
is
such a
prevent the
Glue thus prepared will adhere to glass,
and can be used for putting on labels witliout danger of
their dropping off.
glue from cracking.
metal,
etc.,
Strong Glue to Resist Moisture. — Dissolve gum-sandarac
and mastic, of each a quarter of an ounce, in a quarter of a pint of
spirits of wine, to which add a quarter of an ounce of clear turpentine: now take strong glue, or that in which isinglass has been
dissolved; then, putting tlie gums into a double glue-pot, add by
degrees the glue, constantly stirring it over tiie Are till the whole
is well incorporated: strain it through a cloth, and it is ready for
use.
You may now return it to the glue-pot, and add half an
If you
ounce of very finely-powdered glass; use it quite hot.
join two pieces of wood together with it, you may, when perfectly
hard and dry, immerse it in water, and the joint will not separate.
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
75
—
Glue to Rksist Moisture. To two quarts of skimmed milk
add half a pound of the best glue; melt them together, taking care
thej do not boil over, and you will have a very strong glue, which
will resist
damp
or moisture.
Portable Glue. — Boil one pound
clear; boil also four
pot,
of the best glue,strain
ounces of isinglass; put
it
with half a pound of fine brown sugar, and boil
thick; then pour
cut and dry
it
them
into plates or moulds.
it
very
into a double glue-
When
cold
it
pretty
you may
for the pocket.
This glue is very useful to draughtsmen, architects, etc., as it
immediately dilutes in warm water, and fastens the paper without
the process of dampening: or,
the mouth, and applying
it
it
may
be used by softening
to the paper.
it
in
;
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS.
To Raise Old Veneers. — First, wash
water, and, with a coarse cloth,
remove
the surface with boiling
dirt or grease
;
then place
with a caul oil its surface with common
linseed oil, place it again to the fire, and the heat will make the oil
penetrate quite through the veneer, and soften the glue underneath
then, while hot, raise the edge gently with a chisel, and it will sepit
before the
fire,
or heat
it
;
arate coinplelely from the
work
ground
:
be careful not to use too great
Again, if it should get cold
during the operation, apply more oil, and heat it again. Repeat
this process till the veneer is entirely separated, then wash oft' the
old glue and proceed to lay it again as a new veneer.
force, or the
will be spoiled.
To Take out Bruises in Furniture. — Wet
warm water; double a piece of brown paper five or
it,
and
lay
moisture
on the place; apply on that a hot
it
is
evaporated.
flat-iron
soak
till
the
If the bruise be not gone, repeat the pro-
After two or three applications, the dent or bruise will be
cess.
raised level with the surface.
it
the part with
six times,
with
warm
keep
face;
it
If the bruise be small, merely soak
water, and apply a red-hot poker very near the sur
continually wet, and in a few minutes the bruise will
disappear.
To Make Paste for Laying Cloth or Leather. — To
a
pint of the best wheaten flour add resin, very finely powdered,
in powder; mix
and add by degrees
about two large spoonfuls; of alum, one spoonful,
them
all
well together, put
them
into a pan,
soft or rain water, carefully stirring
of thinnish cream
it
;
put
it
constantly stirred, that
stift"
it till
it
is
of the consistence
into a saucepan over a clear
it
may
not get lumpy.
consistence, so that the spoon
fire,
When
w ill stand upright
keeping
it is
in
of a
it, it
is
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
done enough. Be careful
burn if not well attended
it
over
make
till
it
it
well from the bottom, for
Empty
to.
cold, to prevent a skin
will
it
out into a pan and cover
forming on the
is
top,
which would
very superior for the purpose,and adhesive.
for cloth or baize, spread the paste
top of ihe table, and lay the cloth on
with a
it
lumpy.
This paste
it
to stir
77
piece of
flat
wood;
let
it
To
use
evenly and smoothly on the
it,
pressing and smoothing
remain
till
it
dry; then trim the
If you cut it close at first, it
edges close to the cross-banding.
will, in drying, shrink and look bad where it meets the banding
all
If used for leather, the leather
round.
must be
first
previously
damped, and then the paste spread over it; then lav it on the table,
and rub it smooth and level with a linen cloth, and cut the edges
Some lay their tableclose to the banding with a short knife.
cover with glue instead of paste, and for cloth perhaps it is the
best method; but for leather it is not proper, as glue is apt to run
through. In using it for cloth, great care must be taken that the
glue be not too thin, and that the cloth be well rubbed down with
a thick piece of wood made hot at the fire, for the glue soon chills.
By this method, the edges may be cut off close to the border at
once.
Cements for Stopping Flaw.s
of fine sawdust of the same
in
earthen-pan, and pour boiling water on
remain
boil
it
for
for
it,
stir
it
well,
and
let it
week or ten days, occasionally stirring it; then
some time, and it will be of the consistence of
a
pulp or paste; put
ture from
Wood. — Put any quantity
is made with into an
wood your work
it.
it
Keep
into a coarse cloth,
for
use, and,
and squeeze
when wanted, mix
all
the mois-
a sufficient
make it into a paste; rub it well into the
up the holes in your work with it. When quite
hard and dry, clean your work oft", and, if carefully done, you will
quantity of thin glue to
cracks, or
fill
scarcely discern the imperfection.
Mahogany-Colored Cement. — Melt two
and half an ounce of Indian
ochre, to bring the
for use.
cement
to
ounces of beeswax
and a small quantity of yellow
the desired color; keep it in a pipkin
red,
PRACTICAL HINTS
Cement for Turners.— Melt
resin half an ounce, and pitch half
some very
resin;
if
cakes or
fine brickdust to
too hard,
rolls,
give
more wax.
which keep
it
together beeswax one ounce,
an ounce;
a body.
When
stir in
the mixture
If too soft,
nearly cold,
make
add more
it
up
into
for use.
This will be found very useful for fastening any piece of wood
on the chuck, which is done by applying the roller of cement
to the chuck and it will adhere with sufficient force.
—
Tracing Paper. A good firm tissue paper washed with a
mixture of six parts spirits of wine, one of resin, one of nut oil.
Apply with a sponge.
—
Tracing Paper. Canada balsam and turpentine
make a varnish which, if applied to one side of
will
paper, will answer well.
If
it is
meant
equal parts,
a
good thin
to take watercolor, a coat
of ox gall must be laid on.
Tracing Paper.
— Dissolve a piece of white beeswax, about the
size of a walnut, in half a pint of spirits of turpentine; then, hav-
ing procured some very fine white, woven tissue-paper, lay it on a
clean board, and, with a soft brush dipped in this liquid, go over
one side, and then turn it over, and apply it to the other hang it
;
up in a place free from dust, to dry. It will be ready for use in a
few days. Some add a small quantity of resin, or use resin instead
of wax.
Mounted
board, by
Tr.\cings.
means of
—Tightly
strain across
an old drawing-
tacks slightly driven, a piece of cotton toler-
damp it, except with paste, as herementioned. Work the last in well with a painter's brush
It is advisable to
that has not been used for any other purpose.
soak the brush, before using, for a few hours in cold water, so as,
ably good quality, but do not
after
by expansion of the handle and constriction of the cordage, to
tighten the hairs, and prevent them coming out with the paste.
Paste also the back of the tracing, and, obtaining the assistance of
another person, hold it by the corners over the strained fabric,
allowing it to sag well, and lower it gently until the middle of the
tracing first come into contact with the calico, after which gently
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
Y9
and simultaneously lay down each corner. The tracing maj' now
be gently dabbed with a clean cloth, commencing at the middle,
and working out the blisters to the edge. A needle may sometimes be used with advantage to puncture small holes and set free
the air in some of the obstinate blisters; but do not trouble to
remove them all, as the smaller ones will quite disappear in drying.
Do not rub the tracing whilst wet without the intervention of a
sheet of large thin lining paper, such as is used for lining walls.
Allow the tracing to dry gradually on the board without fire heat,
and do not remove it until thoroughly dry. Draw on the scale
before mounting, so that it may, by contracting and expanding
with the drawing, be always true. The tracing, when mounted,
presents a better surface for coloring than before.
The board
should be cleaned before using.
Cracks
Drawing Boards. — The
in
in stopping the
worked up
above
material generally used
made
of glue and chalk,
and applied to the board in
dry, and smoothed oft" with sand-paper.
is
a composition
to the consistency of putty,
a soft state, allowed to
—
To Temper Tools. The quality of the steel should be uniform throughout; indeed, it is always better to have them tempered rather too hard than soft, for use will reduce the temper. If
at any time it is necessary to perform the operation yourself, the
best method is to melt a sufficient quantity of lead to immerse the
cutting part of the tool
in.
Having previously brightened
its
sur-
melted lead for a few minutes, till it gets
sufficiently hot to melt a candle, with which rub its surface; then
plunge it in again, and keep it there till the steel assumes a straw
face,
plunge
in into the
colour; but be careful not to
case, take
it
it
out,
should be too
out the tallow
;
rub
soft,
and,
it
let it
turn blue.
When
again with the tallow, and
wipe the grease
when
it is
oft",
that
is
let it cool.
the
If
repeat the process with-
sufficiently hot,
plunge
it
into cold
By a proper attention
to these directions, and a little practice, every workman will have
it in his power to give a proper temper to the tools he may use.
If a saw is too hard, it may be tempered by the same means; but
as it would be not only expensive, but in many cases, impossible
spring-v ater, or water and vinegar mixed.
PRACTICAL HINTS
80
a plumber's shop is mostly at hand, where the
be repeated %yhen they are melting a pot of lead.
But here obserye that the temper necessary is different to other
cutting tools: you must wait till the steel just begins to turn blue,
to
do
Ayhich
same
home,
at
it
may
process
is
a temper that \yin giye
it
more
elasticity, and, at
the
time, sufficient hardness.
—
A communication to the Etigltsh
Tools.
" Mercury is the best liquid for hardening steel
cutting tools. The best steel, \yhen forged into shape and hardened in mercury, %yill cut almost anything. I have seen articles
made from ordinary steel which have been hardened and tempered
to a deep straw color, turned with comparative ease with cutting
tools from good tool steel, hardened in mercury."
Hardening
Mechanic, says:
To Cut Good Steel Scrapers. — Part
broken saw makes the best scrapers
difficult to
cut
ditious \vay
is
;
but, as
it
into the required form.
to
mark
it
The
of the blade of a
it
is
hard,
best and
it
is
very
most expe
out to the size wanted, and then to place
whose chaps shut very close, plac-
the blade or steel plate in a vice
ing the
mark even with
the face of the vice, and the part to be
Then with
cut to \vaste above the vice.
mon
a cold-chisel, or a
com-
broken off, holding it close to
the vice and rather inclined upwards, begin at one end of the steel
Keep
plate, and with a sharp blow of the hammer it will cut it.
going on by degrees, and you will with ease cut it to the shape
required; then grind the edges of your scraper level, and finish by
rubbing it on your Turkey-stone.
steel-firmer that has
To Remedy Splits
in
Drill a small hole in the
Drill six holes about
basil
its
^
Circular Saws.
saw
at the
in. in
— Three
bottom of the
methods.
split.
diameter, along the line of the
one of them falls just inside it; countersink the five outer holes on both sides, and rivet nicely up with
hot rivets slightly less in diameter than the holes.
crack, taking cart that
Cut a
series of dovetails across the split,
per dovetail^, which
must be
and insert therein cophammering on each
riveted tight by
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
The edges
side.
the holes
ol
must be
filed
81
to
from each side of the saw, half the thickness of
fit
in
an acute angle
and the copper
must not be quite long enough to fill the hole, but
exactl}', and of course must be well annealed,
dovetail pieces
must
it,
width
and considerably thicker than the saw.
with saw.
When
riveted,
file
off level
Brazing Band Saws. — Good
brass, rich in copper is generally
Bring the two ends of tlie saw close together and fasten,
then take a small pan of charcoal, and place it imder the ends and
direct the flame of a blowpipe on it.
As the ends will soon
become red-hot sprinkle some powdered borax upon them and
add the solder with a piece of iron. The way to make the solder
melt; cast in ingot and file away; collect the filings, and put into
solution of sal ammoniac in water, and so keep until wanted.
used.
Saw Sharpening. — To
three-square
file
it
is
sharpen the saw, take a triangular
called, the
file,
handle in the right hand, the
between the thumb and torefinger of the left
away from
the operator. Let the point of the file incline towards the point
of the saw, give three or four or more rubs of the file, and the
point of the tooth will be sharpened, and the front brought to a
sharp edge, and as the file will have passed over the top of the
next tooth it also will be filed down, and the point partly
point of the
hand, apply
file
it
to the front of the first tooth that leans
sharpened.
Now
apply the
file
to the front of this tooth;
the operator, so the point of the
handle of the saw.
in this
leans
was
its
it
leans towards
incline towards the
and the point
ot this tooth will also
front brought to a sharp, cutting edge.
alternately,
away from
must
Give, as before, three or four rubs, according
to the state of the saw,
sharpened, and
file
be
Go on
always remembering that when the tooth
the operator the point of the
the point of the saw, and
when
file
must
incline to
the tooth leans towards the opera-
it must incline towards the handle of the saw.
saw has been sharpened before, it will be advisable to first
run the file along the top of the teeth, to bring them all to a level.
tor,
then
If the
Oiling Tools.
6
— An
English authority says:
When
a set of
PRACTICAL HINTS
82
bench-planes
is
French-polished, they certainly look very well on
the bench for a short time, but the French-polish does not add to
and
their durability or usefulness,
I
think, gives
them anything
but a workmanlike appearance. My plan is to knock the irons
out, weigh them, and then drop them into the linseed oil barrel,
and let ihem stay there a week I then take and weigh them
;
how much
they have absorbed. The oil
goes right to the heart of the planes, and as it sets it makes them
hard, and they may be depended upon for keejiing their shape.
Rubbing them over every dinner-hour for a Aveek or two will
give them a beautiful surface, and they will not show scratches or
dints as they would if they were French-polished.
again to ascertain
To Mark Tools. — Coat
or hard tallow, by
first
oil
over the tools with a thin layer of wax
the steel and rubbing on the wax;
warming
until it flows and let it cool.
When hard, mark the name
through the wax with a graver and apply some aquafortis (nitric
acid); after a few moments wash oft' the acid thoroughly with
water, warm the metal enough to melt the wax, and wipe it oflf
with a soft rag. The letters will be found etched into the steel.
warm
Varnish for Tools.
—Take
2 oz. tallow,
1
oz. resin;
melt
together and strain, while hot, to remove the specks which are in
Apply
the resin.
will
keep
oft"
a slight coat
on the
tools with a brush,
and
it
the rust for any length of time.
Boiler Incrustation.
— The
following remedies have been
used, with varying success, to prevent the incrustation of boilers.
1.
Potatoes, in weight one fiftieth part that of the water, pre-
vents the adherence of scale.
2.
12 parts of
of bark, }4
3.
P^i't
salt, 2j/^
parts of caustic soda, yi part of extract
of potash.
Pieces of oak-wood, suspended in the boiler and renewed
monthly.
4.
2 ounces of muriate of
5.
A
ammonia
in the i)oiicr
twice a week.
coating, consisting ot 3 parts of black-lead and
18 parts
of tallow, applied hot to the inside of the boiler every few weeks.
FOR FURNITURK MEN.
83
6.
12}4 lbs. of molasses, fed into an 8 horse-boiler at intervals,
prevented incrustation for six months.
7.
Mahogany
or oak saw dust in small quantities.
Use
this
with caution, as the tannic acid attracts iron.
8-
Carbonate of soda.
NoN-CoNDUCTING COVERING FOR StEAM
PiPES. Sawdust
and water into a thick paste is a non-conducting
covering for steam pipes, cylinders, &c. The flour should be made
into a very thin paste, and then the sawdust is stirred in.
The
adhesion of this composition is very great when applied on clean
surfaces of wrought or cast iron but on copper pipes it is necessary to wash them first with a clay-wash, made with potter's clay,
until it forms a thin coating, after which the sawdust and paste
mixed with
flour
;
will
all
adhere firmly.
that
is
It is
necessary.
very simple to apply
Lay on
a small trowel
is
five successive coats one-fifth of
an
Let the pipes or other objects to
little steam, and let one
before applying a second. Should the pipes
to the open air, give them three or four coats
;
inch thick.
be covered be kept
warm by
coat be perfectly dry
the aid of a
them waterproof, but
is
if
inside a building,
it
be outside, exposed
of coal tar to
is
make
not necessary.
well to pass the sawdust through a riddle to cleanse
it
It
from the
wood which are always to be found amongst
Steam pipes so covered lose less heat than when covered
coarse fragments of
sawdust.
by any other known or patented process sold tor that purpose.
is inuch less expensive and much more efficient.
To Harden Wood Pulleys. — Soft maple
construction of friction pulleys.
If
it is
is
It
often used in the
boiled in olive
oil
it
will
prove beneficial in a number of ways. It will harden the timber
and render it less liable to split, but at the same time the gear will
slip
more
after
such treatment.
To Prevent Belts Slipping. — A
piece of rubber belting
fastened around the belt pulley of an engine will keep the belt
from slipping.
Rasps.- -A farrier's rasp is an excellent tool for preparing a
rough piece of wood or ivory for the lathe. Where only a small
PRACTICAL HINTS
84
quantity of the material
to be
also
is
required to be reinoved
it
will be
found
more convenient than the axe or paring-knife. There is
a somewhat similar tool used by shoemakers which, for
smaller jobs, will be tound equally
Soft Files.
— Small
shapes not hardened,
single-cut
may
efficient.
files
or "floats" of
be met with at
some of the
various
dealers in
watchmaker's tools, which are useful in finishing small articles in
hard wood, ivory, and also gold and silver; they are used sometimes by jewellers for finishing, on account of their leaving a
smooth surface behind them instead of a rough one, as a cross-cut
file
does.
Amalgam Varxish. — Melt
together equal parts of bismuth,
and quicksilver when melted and cooled inake it into a varnish
It is used for the varnishing of plaster of
with white of egg.
Paris figures and others of the like kind. Some people recommended lead, but lead soon becomes tarnished, but tin and bismuth
will keep bright.
tin
;
—
Painting and Preserving Ironwork. A good black paint
ironwork may be made by mixing plumbago with hot
for coarse
Equal parts of asphaltum and resm dissolved in commake also a good, cheap covering for heavy ironwork. For machinery, dissolve 2 lbs. india-rubber, 4 lbs. resin,
and 2 lbs. shell-lac, in 5 galls, of benzine. This may be used with
any other paint as a vehicle. Wrought-iron bridges are painted
with white-lead as follows: The ironw^ork is first made clean by
scrubbing and brushing it with wire brushes; this done, all the
cavities and fissures are filled up with a putty of litharge, linseed
oil, varnish, and white-lead; this filling being dry, brushing is
Afterwards a paint is applied, consisting of 800 lbs. of
repeated.
coal-tar.
mon
turpentine
white-lead, 10 galls, of crude linseed
oil, 1
or 2 galls, of boiled lin-
This paint is repeated when
sufficiently dry, and finally evenly overspread with white sand.
Galvanizing is employed also to prevent rusting. A galvanizing
paint consists cliifly of zinc powder and oil varnish.
Rusting is
further prevented by rubbing the red-hot iron with wax, tallow,
seed
oil,
and 1>^
gal. turpentine.
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
pitch, or coal-tar.
Rubbing with heavy
85
petroleiiin
is
also well
adapted for keeping ironwork clean.
—
Preparing Soft Solder. The tbllowing directions for solderfire or lamp may suit the querist: Bismuth, ^ oz.,
ing without
quicksilver, j^ oz., block tin filing, 1 oz., spirits of salts,
Mix the whole together. Another soft solder for tin, &c.
lead
1 part, tin 1 part,
bismuth 2 parts;
1
oz.
Take
this melts in boiling water.
To Clean Silver Filigree. — Make
a thin paste with cold
water and cream of tartar, spread over ornaments thickly, fold in
flannel, leave a week, then wash oft" with water, and they wili be
as
good as new.
Bronzing on Metal.
—
The article must be chemically cleaned
up brushing with a mixture of fine pumice in dilute sulphuric
The bronze liquor must be
acid, rinsed in pure water and dried.
applied quickly and evenly with a camel's hair brush, having first
heated the article, just so as it can be held without burning the
fingers.
—
Polishing Metals. A useful compound for polishing and
is composed of 1 oz. carbonate of ammonia dissolved in 4 oz. water; with this is mixed 10 oz. Paris white. A
cleaning metals
moistened sponge is dipped in the powder, and rubbed lightly
over the surface of the metal, after which the powder is dusted
oft",
leaving a fine brilliant luster.
Imitation Marble.
— Mix
1
thick paste with water, and add
lb.
^
finely
lb.
powdered lime
into a
what is
stand for some
of colophony
or,
Venice turpentine. Allow the mixture to
work up with it suitable quantities of fine white
chalk and various colored earths, adding a few drops of olive oil
A soft mass is thus obtained, which can be moulded,
if necessary.
like plaster of Paris, to any desired form, or it can be rolled out on
a warm metal plate, or passed under wooden rollers, into thin
sheets, which can be glued to the surface to be decorated, like
ordinary veneers, and left to harden. It hardens and takes a good
surface.
Anv cavities that appear must be filled up with some of
the composition mixed with oil of turpentine. The composition
better,
time, and then
PRACTICAL HINTS
86
will
keep
fit
for use for
some
time,
if
covered with a
damp
cloth
while moist.
—
To Polish Marble It sometimes happens that the cabinetmaker has a table-top of marble to remount, which is scratched,
and requires re-polishing. The following is the process used hy
the mason, and will, therefore, be acceptable in a work like the
present. With a piece of sandstone with a very fine grit, rub the
slab backward and forward, using very fine sand and water, till
the marble appears equally rough, and not in scratches; next use
a finer stone and finer sand, till its surface appears equally gone
over; then, with fine emery-powder and a piece of felt or old hat
wrapped round a weight, rub till all the marks left by the former
process are vorked out, and it appears with a comparative gloss
on its surface. Afterward, finish the polish with putty-powder
and fine, clean rags. As soon as the face appears of a good gloss,
do not put any more powder on the rags, but rub it well, and in a
short time it will appear as if fresh from the mason's hands.
To Polish Marble. — Make
stone and olive
oil,
a thick paste with rotten stone
and vigorously rub the marble with
it
on a
cloth.
To Polish Black Marble. — Wash
when dry rub
water, and
ish,
and then rub
two
trials
it
wi!l
it
it
with an old
become quite
To Clean Marble — Mix
lime,
it
with
warm
soap and
well with furniture paste or French pol-
to the consistency of
handkerchief.
silk
After one or
bright.
the strongest soap-lees with quick-
milk;
on the stone, etc., for
and wash with soap and
let it lie
twenty-four hours; then clean it
water, and it will appear as new.
oft",
The
polish will
require to be
renewed by the process given above.
To Clean Marble. — Mix
with
^
pint of soap lees,
of turpentine, sufficient pipe clay and bullock's gall to
^ a gill
make
the
whole into a rather thick paste. Apply it to the marble with a
soft brush, and after a day or two, when quite dry, rub it oft" with
Apply this a second or third time till the marble is
a soft rag.
quite clean.
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
To Remove Stains on Marble. — Apply
carefullj
wash
8Y
spirits
of salt and
oft".
—
To Clean Pictures. Wash with a sponge or a soft leather
and water, and dry bj rubbing with a silk liandkerchief. When
the picture
is
very dirty, take
making
towel, and
it
out of
quite wet, lay
it
it
frame, procure a clean
its
on the
face of the picture,
from time to time with clear soft water; let it remain
wet for two or three days take the cloth oft' and renew it with a
fresh one; after wiping the picture with a clean wet sponge, repea'
sprinkling
it
;
the process
soft
seed
till all
sponge, and
oil.
the dirt
let
Spirits of
is
soaked out; then wash
quite dry
it
;
rub
it
it
well with a
with some clear nut or
wine and turpentine may be used
lin-
to dissolve
the hard old varnish, but they will attack the paint as well as the
varnish if tae further action of the
proper time by using water freely.
spirits
is
not stopped at the
—
Cleaning Varnished Pictures. There are conditions
where the above simple proces.s will not accomplish what is
required; where a thick coating of varnish has been applied to the
picture, and it has been hung in a smoky room, and dust and dirt
has been allowed to gather and remain then it is that no high
lights will be visible, the sky will be dirty, no distance visible, and
perhaps the figures in the foreground very indistinct. Under
these conditions the varnish must be either removed or the smoke
and dirt must be brought out of the varnish. If it is thought
;
desirable to try the latter, the following receipt will be found val-
uable for the purpose
pint of linseed
Mix
:
2 oz.
wood naptha
;
1
oz. spirits of salts
;
^
oil.
the above well together, and before using shake the bottle.
can be used as follows: Get some soft linen rag, and make up
a soft pad, which place on the mouth of the battle and shake up
some of the mixture into the pad, when commence rubbing the
picture with a circular motion, and when nearly dry again give
the pad another dressing of mixture, and continue this mode of
procedure for some time, when the picture will gradually come
out in all its detail.
It
PRACTICAL HINTS
Cleaning Engravings. — Put
board, cover
it
lemon
upon the
of
juice
thinly witli
cominon
salt fineh-
considerable portion
salt so as to dissolve a
elevate one end ot the board so that
it;
on a smooth
powdered. Squeeze
the engraving
it
may form an
angle
Pour on the engraving boiling water
the salt and lemon juice be all washed oft"
of about 45 or 50 degrees.
from a tea kettle until
The engraving then will be perfectly clean and free from stains.
It must be dried on the board or some smooth surface gradually^
If dried by the fire or the sun it will be tinged with a yellow
color.
Cleaning Engravings. — Presuming
proceed
in the
following manner:
Cut a
perfectly clean knife; pare the crust
place the engravings on a perfectly
face
these to be mounted,
stale loaf in half,
away from
flat table,
the edges.
with a
Now
and rubbing the sur-
with the fresh-cut bread, in circular sweeps, lightly but
performed, will remove all superficial markings. Now
firmly
soak the prints
ric
acid, say
1
for a short
time in a dilute solution of hydrochlo-
part acid to 100 of \\ater, and then
remove them
into a vessel containing a sufficient quantity of clear chloride lime
water to cover them.
Leave them there
until
bleached to the
Now
remove, rinse well by allowing to stand an
hour in a pan in which a constant stream of water is allowed to
flow, and finally dry off" by spreading on clean cloths.
Perhaps
the sheets ma}' require ironing between two sheets of clean
desired point.
paper.
—
To Smooth a D.\.maged Picture. Paintings sometimes get
convex and concave patches on their surface, owing to pressure
on one side or the other, and these inequalities cause a great deal
of trouble to bring out. The most successful way is to well wet
oth sides of the picture on the spot, and keep it under pressure till
dry. With small pictures the quickest way would be to take them
oft' the stretcher and lay them in a press, w ith a ligiit pressure
I
between
soft sheets of paper.
Embossed
(Jildinc; i-or
Illuminating
— Gilding
of figures
and letters on paper and for the embellishment of manuscripts,
,*s
performed with shell gold tempered with gum water; or the
FOR FURNITURE MRS.
89
may
be drawn with a milky solution of guTn ammawater, and gold leaf applied upon them when
almost dry; they may again be sufficiently moistened for receivcharacters
made
nacuni
in
ing the gold by breathing on them.
Letters raised from the sur-
paper or parchment
manner of embossed work,
face, if
in
the
such as are seen on ancient manuscripts, may be formed either by
on a proper body with a solid piece of gold, or by leaf
friction
gold.
The former method
with strong
tal
ters
when they
;
gum
is
practised by tempering pulverizers' crys-
water, and with
tliis
paste forming the
as in polishing, and the letters will appear as
The
gold.
the separate letters
fill
if gilt
with burnished
formed with an embossed figure, either of
or of whole words cut in steel, and each letter
letters are
of these stamps
Then
let-
are dry they are rubbed with a piece of solid gold
when
they are used,
is
oiled evenly with a feather.
these concave letters with the above paste, and strike the
stamps in a perpendicular direction on the paper or vellum laid
on sheets of soft paper.
When the embossed letters are formed with leaf gold, the following or a similar composition must be used: Thicken beaten
whites of eggs with as much vermillion as is necessary to give-
them the consistence of
when
strong
paste; use the
the letters are dry moisten
gum
water, and
with leaf gold, pressing
when
it
stamps as before, and
them by a small
pencil w^ith
almost dry cover the letters
close to every part ot them with cotton
this
is
wool when dry, burnish.
;
Gold for Illuminating. — Procure
book of leaf gold, take
mortar with a piece of
honey about the size of a hazel-nut, until it is thoroughly intermixed with the gold, then add a little water and re- work it; put
the w hole into a phial and shake it well.
Let it remain an hour
or two, and the gold will deposit at the bottom of the phial.
Pour off the liquor, and add weak prepared gum in its stead;
sufficient to make it flow freely from the pen or camel's-hair pencil.
When required for use, shake it occasionally.
ovit
the leaves gently and grind
To Stain Horn
them
a
in a
in Imitation of Tortoise Shell.
— Mix an
PRACTICAL HINTS
90
equal quantity of quicklime and reil lead with strong soap lees,
lay it on the horn with a small brush, in imitation of the mottle
of tortoise-shell;
when
dry, repeat
it
two or three times.
To Stain Ivory or Boxe Red. — Boil
cloth
in
shavings of scarlet
water, and add by degrees pearlash
till
the color
is
roach alum, now added, will clear the color;
then strain it through a linen cloth. vSteep your ivory or bone in
aquafortis (nitrous acid) diluted with twice its quantity of water,
then take it out, and put it into your scarlet dve till the color is
to your mind.
Be careful not to let your aquafortis be too strong;
extracted; a
little
neither let your ivory remain too long in
slip
of ivory, and
roughness on
if
Trv
it.
you observe the acid has
just
first
with a
caused a
trifling
it
surface, take
it out immediately, and put it into
must be warm, but not too hot. A little
practice, with these cautions, will enable you to succeed according
to your wishes; cover the places you wish to remain unstained
its
the red liquid, which
with white wax, and the stain will not penetrate in those placesbut leave the ivorv of its natural colour.
To Stain Ivory or Bone Black. — Add
any quantitv of
bulk of water, and
steep your ivory or bone in it; take it out again in about an hour,
and expose it to the sunshine to dry, and it will be a perfect black.
nitrate of silv<=r (lunar caustic) three times
to
its
To Stain Ivory or Bone Green. — Steep your work
solution of verdigris and sal-ammoniac in
weak
in a
aqufortis, in the
proportion of two parts of the former to one of the latter, being
careful to use the precautions mentioned for staining red, as
above.
To Stain Ivory, etc.. Blue.— Stain your materials green
according to the previous process, and then dip them in a strong
solution of pearlash and water.
To Stain Ivory,
solution of
alum
etc.,
Yellow. — Put your
ivory in a strong
and keep the whole some time nearly
boiling; then take them out and immerse them in a hot mixture
of turmeric and water, either with or without the addition of
in water,
FOR FURNITURE MEN,
91
berries; let them simmer for about hah" an hour, and
your ivory \\\U be of a beautiful yellow. Ivory or bone should
dry very gradually, or it will split or crack.
French
—
To Soften Ivory. Slice a quarter of a pound of mandrake,
and put it into half a pint of the best vinegar, into which put
your ivory let the whole stand in a warm place for forty-eight
hours, when you will be able to bend the ivory to your mind.
;
—
To Bleach Ivory. Take a double handful of lime, and slake
by sprinkling it with water; then add three pints of water, and
stir the whole together; let it settle ten minutes, and pour the
water into a pan. Take the ivory, and steep it in the lime-water
for twenty-four hours, after which boil it in a strong alum-water
one hour, and dry it in the air.
it
—
Artificial Ivory. Two parts of caoutchouc are dissolved in
36 parts of chloroform, and the solution is saturated with pure
gaseous ammonia. The chlorot'orm is then distilled off at a temperature of 85 deg. C. (185 deg. F.). The residue is mixed with
calcium phosphate or zinc carbonate, pressed into moulds and
dried.
When calcium phosphate is used, the product possesses
to a considerable degree the nature and composition of ivory.
Cement for Joining Leather. — A cement which
has been
may
be prepared by mixing ten
parts of bisulphate of carbon, one of oil of turpentine, and so
much gutta-percha as is necessary to produce a thick fluidity.
The leather must be first freed from all grease, which can be done
found useful for this purpose
by simply laying
The
it
in a cloth
and pressing
this
with a hot iron.
parts to be joined, after being brought into contact with the
cement, require to be kept pressed together until they are quite
dry.
Cement for Leather and Wood. — Equal
gutta-percha melted together.
parts of pitch and
This compound
is
insoluble in
water.
Cement for Joining China,
well to a froth,
let
them
settle,
etc.
add
— Beat
soft
the whites of eggs
grated or sliced cheese
92
PRACTICAL HINTS
and quicklime; beat them well together, and appl_y a little to the
broken edges. This cement will endure both the fire and water.
Cement for China, etc.— Pound half an ounce of resin and
four ounces of gum-mastic; put them into a pipkin on the fire to
melt; stir them well. To this add about half an ounce of finelypowdered
glass,
and half an ounce of quicklime; stir the whole
nearly cold, form it into sticks, on a stont-,
When
well together.
same manner as sticks of sealing-wa.^c are formed. When
cement any article, heat the broken edges sufficiently to melt the cement, which rub thinly on both edges; bring
them accurately together; press them close, and let them cool. If
this be carefully done, the work will sooner break in anv
other
part than where the cement has been applied.
in the
it
is
desired to
—
Ce.ment for Gl.sss. Steep one ounce of isinglass in half a
pint of spirits of wine for twenty-four hours; then let it dissolve
over a slow fire, (always keeping it covered, or the spirit will
evaporate); now well bruise six cloves of garlic in a mortar, put
them in a linen cloth, and squeeze the juice
mix all well together, and keep it for use. It
into the isinglass;
is
excellent to join
glass ornaments, ete.
Cement.s for Aquariums.— Take
gill
of litharge,
powdered
for use,
resin.
then mix
Mix
putty.
Mix
the
1
gill
Mix
it
well,
cement only
using white lead in
and
with boiled
boiled linseed
1
of fine white
in
gill
of plaster of Paris,
sand,
>^
gill
1
of finely-
and cork it until wanted
and dryers until as thick as
bottle
oil
small quantities as
it
dries quickly.
and white lead together,
the largest proportion, spread on fiannel, and
oil,
litharge, red
place on the joints.
A
solution of glue, 8 oz. to
1 oz. of Venice turpentine; boil
the time, until the mixture becomes as
complete as possible, the joints to be cemented to be kept together
for forty-eight hours if required.
together, agitating
Take
gill of gold size, two gills of red lead,
1>^ gill of
and sufficient silver-sand to make it into a thick paste for
This mixture .sets in about two days.
litharge,
use.
all
Yz a
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
93
—
To Restore the Elasticity of Cane-Chair Bottoms.
Turn up the chair bottoms, and with a hot water and sponge
wash the cane-work well, so that it ma}- be well soaked; should
it be dirty, you must add soap.
Let it dry in the air, and you will
find it as tight and firm as when new, provided the cane is not
broken.
Moths
that are
in Carpets.
kept
warm
— Moths
work
will
in carpets in
winter as well as in summer.
in
method of removing the
rooms
A
sure
pour strong alum- water on
the floor to the distance of half a yard around the edges before
la^ying the carpets. Then once or twice during the season sprinkle
dry salt over the carpet before sweeping. Insects do not like
salt, and sufiicient adheres to the carpet to prevent them alighting
upon
pests
is
to
it.
To Destroy Moths
cloth, lay
it
upon the
in Carpets.
carpet,
and
so as to convert the water into steam,
beneath, and destroy the
life
—Take a wet sheet or other
tlien
rub a hot
flat
iron over
it,
which permeates the carpet
of the grub.
To Clean Carpets. —The
carpet being first well beaten and
from dust, tack it down to the floor; then mix half a pint
ol bullock's-gall with two gallons of soft water; scrub it well
with soap and the gall-mixture; let it remain till quite dry, and it
will be perfectly cleansed, and look like new, as the colors will be
restored to their original brightness. The brush used must not
be too hard, but rather long in tlie hair, or it will rub up the nap
freed
and damage the
article.
—
To Make Parchment Transparent. Soak a thin skin oi
parchment in a strong ley of wood ashes, often w-ringing it out
till it becomes transparent; then strain it on a frame, ^nd let dry.
This will be much improved if, after it is dry, you give it a coat,
on both sides, of clear mastic varnish, diluted witli spirits of
turpentine.
—
On a good skin you may get an
After " inking in " the plan, cover (with a
large color brush) rather more than the whole of it with a strong
Tinting on Parchment.
even
tint,
as follows
:
PRACTICAL HINTS
94:
wash of alum dissolved
taking care that every portion
in water,
when dry brush away the dry
alum, and the parchment will then take color almost as easily as
paper, and the ink will not be disturbed.
is
saturated by the solution, and
India Ixk Running.
vent
it
— If
running by adding a
Erasing Indian Ink.
Indian ink lines
it
for
is
little
—The
drawing plans you may pre-
sugar
to the
most
etlectivc
India ink.
mode
of erasing
by rubbing the part to be erased with sandquality, which will not only eflectually remove
is
paper of the finest
the ink, but will leave a clear, smooth surface, which will take the
ink better than at
first,
and may be colored upon.
To Make Carbon Paper
duplicating, can be
oil,
mixed
made
in
— Carbon
paper,
for
the following manner:
to the consistence of
copying or
Take sweet
cream, with either of the following
paints (to produce the color desired): Prussian blue, lampblack,
Venetian red, or chrome green
Use rather
stone.
;
they should be ground fine on the
thin but firm paper, put
on with a sponge, and
them between uncolored
paper, and press by laying a weight or some other heavy flat substance upon them until the surplus oil is absorbed, when it is
wipe
oft"
as dry as
possible; then
lay
ready for use.
—
Stain.s from Tiles. You can remove oil
completely by mixing fuller's earth into a thick
paste with water, and spreading it over the tiles, letting it remain
twenty-four hours, and then wiping it olf. It" the mark, then, has
Removing Oil
stains
from
tiles
not quite gone, put on another paste.
To Polish Floors. — Put some
the
fire,
ai^ mix
it
spermaceti into a saucepan on
with enough turpentine to
then with a piece of flannel put
it
make
it
quite fluid;
very thinly on the
floor.
It
and brushed in the same
way that oak stairs are polished. This part of the process,
rubbing and brushing, takes a long time to do thoroughly.
must then be rubbed with
a dry flannel
To Polish Floors. — Dissolve
half a
pound of potash
pints of water, in a saucepan on the fire;
when
in three
the water boils
FOR FURNITURE MEN.
throw
the
in
wax
1 lb.
is
95
of beeswax, cut up in small pieces;
quite melted.
When
the polish
is
stir
well until
cold, if
it
be too
add more water, then witli a brush paint tlie boards evenly
with it; and when it has dried rub them with a iiannel tied at the
end of a broom.
tiiick,
Black Wax. — Add one ounce
of beeswax to half an ounce of
melt them together, and add one ounce and a
half of ivorj-black, groimd very tine, and dried.
Burgundy
pitch
;
—
Green Wax. Melt one ounce of beeswax, and add half an
ounce of verditer; let the pipkin be 'arge enough, as the wax will
immediately boil up. Stir it well, and add the eighth part of an
ounce of resin, when it will be sufficiently hard and fit for use.
—
To Polish Tortoise-shell or Horn. Having scraped your
work perfectly smooth and level, rub it with very fine sand-paper
or Dutch rushes; repeat the rubbing with a bit of felt dipped in a
very finely powdered charcoal with water, and
stone or putty-powder;
lastly,
and finish with a piece of
leather, damped with a little sweet oil.
with rottensoft
wash-
To Clean Looking Glasses. — Sponge down the glass with
gum and water, equal parts, then dust down with whitening, and
finish
with a
soft old silk liandkercliief
To Remove Ink
—
Stains. Ink stains may be removed from
by putting a few drops of spirits of niter into
a teaspoonful of water, and touching the part stained with a feather
dipped into the mixture; immediately the ink stain disappears,
the place must be rubbed witli a rag wet witii cold water, or there
will be a white mark, which will not easily be removed.
Ink
stains on silver or plated articles may be removed immediately
and eftectually without doing any injury to the things, by making
a little cliloride of lime into a paste with water and rubbing the
stains until they disappear, and afterwards washing the article
with soap and water. Ink stains may be removed from colored
table covers by dissolving a teaspoonful of oxalic acid in a teacupful of hot water and rubbing the stained part well ^vith the solution.
Ink stains niay be taken out of anything white b}' simply
a
mahogany
table
PRACTICAL HINTS
96
powdered salts of lemon on the stain, damping it,
remain about five minutes, and then washing it out
with soap and water, when the stain will disappear. Ink maj' be
removed from boards by applying some strong muriatic acid or
spirits of salt with a piece of rag and afterwards well washing the
putting a
allowing
little
it
to
place with water.
To Remove Stains from Wood. —To
half a pint of soft
water put an ounce of oxalic acid and half an ounce of butter of
antimony; shake it well, and when dissolved it will be very useful
in extracting. stains, as well as ink from wood, if not of too long
standing.
To Clean Velvet. — Velvet
tion, as
wet.
it
loses
fine
its
To remove
dust:
requires very careful
appearance
if
wrung
or pressed
manipula-
when
it is
— Strew very fine dry sand upon the velvet,
and brush in the direction of tlie lines until all the sand is removed.
The brush must be clean. To remove dirt: Dissolve ox-gall in
nearly boiling clean water, and add some spirits of wine. Dip a
soft brush into this solution and brush the dirt out of the velvet.
After this, hang it evenly up
It may require repeated brushing.
to dry.
For finishing, apply a weak solution of gum by means of
a sponge to the reverse side of the velvet.
—
To Remove Paint or Stain
in water,
making
fro.m
Wood. — Dissolve
a strong solution, with this
the work, allowing
then be scraped
off,
until the paint
is
it
to soak a few minutes.
potash
wash the surface of
If the paint
cannot
wood another application, and repeat
removed. Afterward, wash the surface with
give the
clean water sufficiently to ensure
tiie
removal of
To Re.move Varni-sh from Wood. — A
all
the potash.
strong application of
ordinary spirits of camphor will remove almost any kind of polish
or varnish.
or
it
Give the
will injure the
The
solution
spirit
new
time to evaporate before repolishing,
polish.
of potash, mentioned above, will also remove
varnish.
—
Tests for Gilding. If a gilt surface be touched with a drop
of chloride of gold or nitrate of silver solution, the former will
FOR FURNITURE
M?:N.
97
produce a brown, the latter a grey spot if the coating be an alloy,
but will have no effect vipon pure gold. For gilt paper, moisten
with a drop of chloride of sulphur, which will iTnmediately produce a dark brown margin if the covering is not pure gold.
Metallic spangles shaken in close flasks with chloride of sulphur,
suffer no change if gold, otherwise they gradually darken but if
under slight pressure, as in hermetically sealed tubes, gold spangles
disappear in a short time by conversion into chloride of gold.
;
—
Anti-Attrition. This mixture is made of one part of plumbago or blacklead ground very fine, and four parts of hog's lard
or grease,
much
mixed well together.
It
prevents the effects of friction
better than oil or other grease,
turner,
and
will
be found to
make
and
the lathe
is
very useful
work much
the
easier, as
oil, which with constant use grows
and sensibly impedes the motion while this preparation, once
applied, will last a long time without requiring renewal.
well as to be a great saving in
stiff",
;
To Remove Grease from Cloth. — Drop on
oil
of tartar, or salt of
place
till
it
turns into
the spot
wormwood, which has been left
then immediately wash
a fluid
;
in a
some
damp
the place
with lukewarm sott water, and then with cold water, and the spot
will disappear.
This
will be
found very useful, as
it
frequently happens that the
cloth of the card tables, and the inside flaps of secretaries, are
spotted and greasy.
By preceding
as above, every spot of grease
completely taken out.
will be
— Painters
use various kinds of putty, using varnish
dry lead, red lead, whiting, zinc white, umber,
vellow ocher, &c., in the composition of the various kinds. In
mixing up putty the painter should always be governed by the
time he may have in which to complete his. work. If the vork
Putty.
iapan,
oil,
keg
lead,
doing must be completed in an unreasonably short time,
mixed with very little or no oil, although a
putt^' mixed ^\ith japan alone will dry quicker, so as to bear sandpapering in the shortest possible time, but it is a mealv, poor kind
he
is
the putty should be
7
PRACTICAL HINTS
98
of putty, and
is
apt to shrink, allowing
dampness
to penetrate
it
when rubbed with pumice-stone and water.
The best and toughest kind of putty is made
of keg and dry
white lead, with only a small portion of japan.
In making this
kind of putty, use about 4 pounde of keg lead to about a gill of
japan, mixing them thoroughly together; then add dry white lead
and when you have
dough, use the mallet
If dry zinc white is used instead of dry
or hammer very freely.
lead, the putty will be much better.
This putty should be allowed
three or four days to dry. Another kind of this necessary compound is made by using keg lead and red lead. The latter is of
itself a powerful dryer, consequently it does not require so much
japan to dry the putty. It works very easy and adheres to the
wood very tenaciously, and is not apt to swell or shrink.
in
small quantities, pounding
added
sufficient dry lead to
it
lightly at
form a mass
THE END.
first,
like
INDEX
PAr,R.
Alcohol
46
Amber, gum
Anime, gum
43
42
....
Anti- Attrition
97
Prevent Slipping
Belts, to
83
Bleached Shellac
61
Boiler Incrustation
82
Bronzincr
;^2
on Metal
Bruises in Furniture to
B.')
Take Out
76
Burnish-Gilding
Brushes for Varnishing
29
Cane-chair Bottoms, to Restore Elasticity
9o
Carbon-paper, to
8
Make
94
Carpets, to Clean
to
Cements,
Destroy Moths
for
Aquariums
for
China
98
in
for Glass
ibr
for
Joining Leather
Leather and Wood
Stopping Flaws
for Turners
Circular Saws, to Remedy Splits in
Color Harmony in Grained Work
Colors for Outlines of Ornaments
Colors to Mix
Buff
Carnation
Chestnut, dark
for
9:J
92
91,
92
92
91
91
77
78
80
40
39
87
:;8
89
88
INDEX.
102
Colors to Mix, Chinese White
89
Cream
38
Drab
38
Fawn
38
French Grev
38
Gold, Imitation of
39
Green, Grass
39
Green, Olive
39
Lead
Peach Blossom
38
Pearl
o8
38
Salmon
38
Silver
38
Stone
Straw
39
38
Green
Violet
White Lead
Yellow
Composition for Frame Ornaments
gum
Cracks
in
38
Pm-ple
\''arnish
Copal,
40
Chocolate
Drawing-boards
Damar, gum
41
38
41
39
32
43
79
44
Dead-finish
11
Distemper ....
D\e. Black, fine
40
Blue, fine
22
22,23
Gray
Green
23
Liquid for Brightening and Setting
24
Orange
25
Purple
Red
^'ellow, fine
Dyeing Wood
23
24
23,24
23
21
INDEX.
103
Ebonv Finish
12. 13
Files, soft
84
Filigree, Silver to
Clean
85
Fillers
2
Cherry
4
4
Light- wood
Oak
4
Rosewood
4
Sizing
4
Walnut
3,
Finishing
1
Processes of
1
Varieties of
11
Dead-finish
11
Ebony Finish
12, 13
French Polishing
Varnish Finish
Wax
Wax
13, 14, 15,
IG
12
Finish
12
Finish, imitation
12
Flowing
10
Floors, to Polish
94
French Polish
French Polishing
Furniture
4
14, 15, 10,
60
13
Cream
70, 71
Furniture Paste
Gilding
70
25
Gilding, Burnish
29
Applying the Size
30
Burnishing
31
Finishing
31
I>aying the Gold
30
Matting or Dead Gold
31
Polishing
30
Preparing the
Gilders'
Woodwork
Cushion
29
,
26
Oil
28
Sizes for
27
INDEX.
104
Gilding. Burnish, Oil size for
Parchment
27
27
size for
Gold, size for Burnish
27
The Requisites
To Prevent Gold Adhering
26
28
Gilding Embossed for Illuminating
88
Silvering and Bronzing
25
Tests for
96
GJue
73
Portable
Mixing
75
73
.
To Prepare
To Prevent Cracking
To Resist Moisture
72
74
74, 75
(jluc-pot
73
Gold, applying
28
Burnishing
Dead-gold
For Illuminating
31
Imitation of
39
Shell-gold
31
To Manipulate
To Prevent Adhering
32
31
89
28
Graining
33
Color, liannony in Grained
Colors.
(Jrounds
Maple
Mixing Colors
f
Mahogany
Oak
Rosewood
The Process
Remove from Cloth
juMiR and their qifalities
Amber
Anime
40
35,
Birds'-eje
(ireaBC, to
Work
(See Colors)
37
36
37
36
36
36
34
97
42
42
42
INDEX.
Gums, Bleached
105
Shellac
61
Copol
Horn,
34
Damar
44
Lac
44
Mastic
44
R esin
45
Sandarac
44
to Polish
to Stain in
95
Imitation of Tortoise Shell
89
India Ink, to Erase
to
94
Prevent Running
Ink, Stains to
94
Remove
95
Ironwork, Painting and Preserving
84
Ivory, Artificial
91
To
To
91
or.
Lac,
Bleach
Soften
91
Bone, to Stain Black
Blue
90
90
Red
90
Yellow
90
44
63
63
60
gum
Lackers, colored
for
Brass
hardwood
Linseed Oil
45
Looking
95
Glasses, to Clean
Marble, Imitation
85
To Clean
To Polish
To Remove
Mastic,
80
86
Stains on
87
gum
44
Metals, Polishing
Moths in Carpets,
Naphtha
85
to
Destroy
'
.
.
.
93
47
Oil Varnishes
28
43
I'archment, Tinting on
93
Oil Gilding
INDEX.
106
Parchment, to Make Transparent
Paste for Laying Cloth or Leather
Pictures, to Clean
to
93
76
87,
Smooth Damaged
Polish tor Turner's
88
88
Work
French
Improved
15, 10,
60
16
Prepared Spirits
Revivers
Water-proof
16
70
16
Polishing, French
13
Varnish
10
Putty
97
Rasps
Resin
83
45
R ubbing
Sandarac,
9
gum
44
Saws, Band, Brazing
Circular, to
Remedy
81
80
Splits in
Sharpening
81
40
ijhades
Shellac, bleached
61
Shell-gold
31
Silvering, (see Gilding)
32
Silver-size
Burnish Gilding
Oil, for Gilding
Parchment, for Gilding
27
Silver
32
Size, Gold, for
27
27
Solder, Soft, Preparing
85
Spirit Varnishes
4i3
Stain, Black
17,
Blue, fine
18
21
Brown
18
Cherry
Crimson,
20
fine
Mahogany
20
20
INDEX.
Stain,
Oak
107
18, 19,
Purple
20
21
Red
Rosewood
Walnut
20
19,
20
18,
20
Yellow
21
Staining
17
Stains, surface
20
To Brighten
To Remove from Wood
21
96
Steampipes non-Conducting, Covering for
Steel Scrapers to
80'
Tempera
Tiles, to
83
Cut
4
^
Remove
Oil Stains from
94
Tints
39'
Tones
89
Tools, Oiling
81
To Harden
To Mark
To Temper
Varnish
80
82
79
83
for
Tortoise Shell, Imitation of
To
89
Polish
95
Tracing-paper
Tracings, to
78
Mount
78
Turpentine, Oil of
Varnish,
Amalgam
46
84
Amber,
55
pale
Black
Brown Hard
07
60
Spirit
Cabinet
Carriage
Copal
Crystal
53
54
52, 53,
54
60
Cane and Basket Work
68
"
Iron
68-
"
Paper
66
for
INDEX.
108
Varnish
Tools
for
82
Lacker, Hardwood
60
Mastic
64
Sealing-wax
Turpentine
Wainscot
65
Water
White
67
55
66
Spirit
59,
Varnishes
Application of
Gums and their qualities
Oil, preparation of
5
42
47
and Turpentine
"
"
43
preparation of
Solvents,
56
Alcohol
Linseed Oil
45
46
45
Naphtha
47
Turpentine
46
Varnish, Finish
Pan
to
42
43
Oil
Spirit
60
Remove from Wood
12
8
96
Velvet, to Clean
96
Veneers, to raise old
76
Waterproof Polish
16
Wax, Black
95
Finish
12
Imitation
Green
Whitelead, mixing
Wood-pullcvs, to Harden
12
95
41
83
JCstabllslKMl
by E.
& C.
AV.
HorCHTON
to 19'JG,
French and American Burl Veneers,
Mahogany Boards, Planks, and Veneers.
Rosewood and
Satinvrooil Boan's,
Planks and Veneers.
C. C.
HOUGHTON &
f^ticcessors to R. X- V. \V.
No. S
Howard
ITouoriToN and the
iatc
SONS,
Fran'ots Copct/TT,
New
-
Street,
York.
Our patrons will plense notice that this business was established by the
York, and is the oldest and as reliable
father of C. C. Houg-hton, in 1826, in
as any house in the Veneer business.
New
HEADQUARTERS FOR VENEERS
No Branch Warerooms
Althout»-li
1
!
French and American Burl Veneers are our Specialty,
recently enlarg-ed our business, which now includes
^\'e
have
MAHOGANY, ROSEWOOD,
AXD
.\LL
Cabinet ^A^oods
In
Boai^s, Planks and Veneer^.
Remember
the NiLJubcTy
No Connection
8 Howard
with any other
House
in
Street,
N. Y.
the Business.
NO DUST AND NO TLANIX^G.
Tlie only perfL-cl cut
-
lumber
in tin; world,
Spanish
CeOilir^
Whittwvooili
CIGAR BOXES.
i-tc.,.
lor
-
-
Walnut, Mahogany, Cherry, Whitewood,
Etc. in 34 t"
M
'"c'' thick, all
equal lo sawid and planed lumb«r.
to Dur S4)etialty of.
Ih addition
Cut and Press Dried Ltmiber,
A'fttH stock of Hardwood Lumber,
and Veneers,
French Walnut Veneers,
!><;iiJ
for Cataloijui:
and Prioc
Mahogany, Walnut, Ash; Oak,
£to.. Eto.
IJst.
Geo.
W. Read & Co.,
18G
to 30rt
Tewls
Street, N. Y, flty.
'
WM. GIFFERT
WHOLESA.t-E MAN'UFACTUKEROr
Parlor Furniture,
Students' ClKiirs andi^atent Rockers.
Adjustable Lounges, Mattresses, Etc.
No.
2-17
South
C.\.\al
ciiic.\(;o.
Street,
MOLTER BROS.
MANL'FAi'irKKltS OK
CHAMBER
SUITS,
Bureau Lookino-Glass Frames
.-Si'lJC
1
Al.TV.
N0S.339&341 Clybourn Avenue,
CHICAGO,
Tiikc Clvliourn
Avtmic
Cur.s
;il
ILL.
Madison
luid
Claik Streets.
r.
Date Due
m~^3-17
\
C
L
'
r V;r\M.
rstublislK-d 1838.
HALL
&
31.
O.
STKPHEX,
STEPHEN,
(Suoceascre to D. K. H.vu-
& 9o«t.)
MANUFACTURERS
B !EI3DiDili
T^
^'D—
^TTRL^SES,
ss
Bedsteads
185 Sixth Ave. N. Y.
vif~.Seua for Price I4sW
GEHY CENTER
3
LIBRARY
3125 00140 9016
m
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