Tesi Jose Subinas Seco

Tesi Jose Subinas Seco
Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna
DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN
MECCANICA E SCIENZE AVANZATE DELL’INGEGNERIA
Ciclo XXVII
Settore Concorsuale di afferenza: 09/C1
Settore Scientifico disciplinare: ING-IND/08
DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROGRID WITH
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND
ELECTROCHEMICAL STORAGE SYSTEM
INTEGRATION
Presentata da:
Jose Manuel Subiñas Seco de Herrera
Coordinatore Dottorato
Relatore
Prof. Ing. Vincenzo Parenti Castelli
Prof. Ing. Antonio Peretto
Correlatore
Ing. Giacomo Gorni
Esame finale anno 2015
1
Abstract
Beside the traditional paradigm of "centralized" power generation with a few main
power plants and a distribution network directly connected to the end-users, a new
concept of "distributed" generation is emerging, in which the same user becomes
pro-sumer, i.e. self-energy producer. During this transition, the Energy Storage
Systems (ESS) can provide multiple services and features, which are necessary for a
higher quality of the electrical system (both on transmission and on distribution)
and for the optimization of non-programmable Renewable Energy Source (RES)
power plants.
A ESS prototype was designed, developed and integrated into a renewable energy
production system in order to create a smart microgrid and consequently manage
in an efficient and intelligent way the energy flow as a function of the power
demand. The produced energy can be introduced into the grid, supplied to the load
directly or stored in batteries.
The microgrid is composed by a 7 kW wind turbine (WT) and a 17 kW photovoltaic
(PV) plant are part of. The load is given by electrical utilities of a cheese factory.
The ESS is composed by the following two subsystems, a Battery Energy Storage
System (BESS) and a Power Control System (PCS). With the aim of sizing the ESS, a
Remote Grid Analyzer (RGA) was designed, realized and connected to the wind
turbine, photovoltaic plant and the switchboard.
Afterwards, different electrochemical storage technologies were studied, and
taking into account the load requirements present in the cheese factory, the most
suitable solution was identified in the high temperatures salt Na-NiCl2 battery
technology. The data acquisition from all electrical utilities provided a detailed
load analysis, indicating the optimal storage size equal to a 30 kW battery system.
Moreover a container was designed and realized to locate the BESS and PCS,
meeting all the requirements and safety conditions.
Furthermore, a smart control system was implemented in order to handle the
different applications of the ESS, such as peak shaving or load leveling.
2
Acknowledgements
I would like to express my special appreciation and thanks to my advisors
Professor Dr. Michele Bianchi and Professor Dr. Antonio Peretto, you have been a
tremendous mentors for me. I would like to thank you for encouraging my research
and for allowing me to grow as a research scientist. Your guidance helped me in all
the time of research and writing of this thesis
My sincere thanks also goes to Eng. Giacomo Gorni, for the continuous support of
my Ph.D study and research, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense
knowledge. His advice on both research as well as on my career have been
priceless.
I thank my company TRE S.p.A for giving me the opportunity of carrying out the
Doctorate and leading me working on diverse exciting projects. Also I express my
gratitude to my colleagues, Eng. Marco Toschi and Eng. Giovanni Fasola for helping
me even at hardship.
A special thanks to my family. Words cannot express how grateful I am to my
mother, father, and brother for all of the sacrifices that you’ve made on my behalf.
Your support for me was what sustained me thus far.
I would also like to thank all of my friends, specially Francesco Matteucci who
supported me in writing, and incented me to strive towards my goal.
At the end I would like to express appreciation to my beloved girlfriend Sara who
spent sleepless nights with and was always my support in the moments when there
was no one to answer my queries.
3
Table of contents
1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 15
Background ............................................................................................................................ 15
Scope ......................................................................................................................................... 16
Thesis Outline ....................................................................................................................... 17
2. Renewable Electricity Deployment in Italy .......................................................... 19
Current Generation Mix and Net Generating Capacity ......................................... 19
Electricity Consumption ................................................................................................... 21
RES Share ................................................................................................................................ 21
Natural Resources and Geographical Structure ...................................................... 23
Grid Operators and Dominant Generators ................................................................ 26
Interconnections, Import/Export ................................................................................. 27
3. Distributed and Renewable Electricity Generation .......................................... 28
Background ............................................................................................................................ 28
Economies of Scale .............................................................................................................. 29
Types of Distributed Energy Resources ..................................................................... 31
Renewable Energy Integration Challenges ............................................................... 41
4. Smart Grid ......................................................................................................................... 46
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 46
Smart Grid Concept ............................................................................................................. 47
Today’s Grid and Smart Grid ........................................................................................... 49
Evolution rather than Substitution .............................................................................. 51
The Components that Make up the Smart Grid ....................................................... 53
Microgrid ................................................................................................................................. 56
5. Energy Storage Technologies ..................................................................................... 57
4
The Concept of Energy Storage ...................................................................................... 57
The Need for Energy Storage in the Future Grid .................................................... 61
Stationary Applications ..................................................................................................... 65
Main Electrochemical Storage Technologies ............................................................ 70
6. Project Description ........................................................................................................ 81
7. Plant Analysis................................................................................................................... 83
Test Plant Location ............................................................................................................. 83
Study of the energy production from the PV plant ................................................ 85
7.2.1
Description of the PV plant...................................................................................... 85
7.2.2
Analysis of the PV Plant Production .................................................................... 88
Study of the energy production from the wind farm ............................................ 94
7.3.1
Description of the wind farm.................................................................................. 94
7.3.2
Analysis of the wind farm production ................................................................ 96
Load Analysis......................................................................................................................... 97
Bus AC Study ....................................................................................................................... 103
8. System Architecture .................................................................................................... 104
Hardware Architecture .................................................................................................. 105
Software Architecture ..................................................................................................... 106
Mechanical Architecture ................................................................................................ 107
9. Civil Engineering Works ............................................................................................ 110
10. Energy Storage System ............................................................................................... 112
BESS – Battery Energy Storage System ................................................................... 114
10.1.1
Sizing system.......................................................................................................... 114
Overview of System Connections ............................................................................... 117
10.2.1
Operation Modes .................................................................................................. 119
PCS - Power Control System ......................................................................................... 121
5
10.3.1
Controller ................................................................................................................ 122
10.3.2
Switchboard ........................................................................................................... 124
10.3.3
Inverter .................................................................................................................... 132
11. Master Power Control ................................................................................................. 134
TGA – Tozzi Grid Analyser ............................................................................................ 140
12. Communication ............................................................................................................. 143
13. First tests ......................................................................................................................... 144
Optimization of the energy production from RES. .............................................. 145
14. Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 148
References .............................................................................................................................. 149
6
List of Figures
Figure 1 Generation Mix - 2010 (%). ............................................................................................ 19
Figure 2 Net generating capacity - 2010 (MW)........................................................................ 20
Figure 3 Electricity consumption and RES generation (GWh). ......................................... 21
Figure 4 RES generation (GWh). .................................................................................................... 23
Figure 5 Map of wind resources at 25 meters above ground level. ................................. 24
Figure 6 Yearly sum of global irradiation on optimally inclined surface, 8 years
average of the period 2001-2008 [kWh/m2]. ........................................................................... 25
Figure 7 Share of overall generation in 2008 and 2009....................................................... 26
Figure 8 Wind energy generation by country/region in 2009 .......................................... 32
Figure 9 Wind energy capacity by country/region in 2009 ............................................... 32
Figure 10 Global wind energy generation projections to 2035 ........................................ 33
Figure 11 Global wind energy capacity projections to 2035 .............................................. 33
Figure 12 Wind energy generation to 2035 by region/country ....................................... 34
Figure 13 Solar PV energy generation in 2009 by country/region ................................. 37
Figure 14 Solar PV energy capacity in 2009 by country/region....................................... 37
Figure 15 Energy generation from solar PV globally ............................................................ 38
Figure 16 Energy generation from solar PV by country/region ....................................... 38
Figure 17 Global CSP energy generation to 2035 ................................................................... 40
Figure 18 Hourly wind power output on 29 different days in April 2005 at the
Tehachapi wind plant in California. .............................................................................................. 41
Figure 19 Example of a day-ahead forecast scenario tree for the wind power
forecast for the PJM region of the United States. ..................................................................... 42
Figure 20 Global mean wind speed at 80 m altitude. ............................................................ 43
Figure 21 Gist of the Smart Grid ..................................................................................................... 48
7
Figure 22 S-Model of diffusion of innovation. .......................................................................... 52
Figure 23 Enel’s subsequent technological innovations on the way to full Smart Grid
capability. ................................................................................................................................................ 53
Figure 24 Smart electricity supply chain. ................................................................................... 53
Figure 25 Electricity system and smart grid components................................................... 55
Figure 26 Microgrid............................................................................................................................. 56
Figure 27 Storage capacity for electrical energy. .................................................................... 57
Figure 28 Roles of energy storage. ................................................................................................ 58
Figure 29 Structure of an ES system. ........................................................................................... 59
Figure 30 Storage capacity versus discharge time for ES technologies. ........................ 61
Figure 31 RedFlow ZBM zinc-bromine battery: 5kWh and 10kWh. ............................... 75
Figure 32 Schematic of a Lithium Ion Battery. ......................................................................... 76
Figure 33 Schematic representation of NaS battery. ............................................................. 79
Figure 34 ZEBRA battery................................................................................................................... 80
Figure 35 Microgrid configuration. ............................................................................................... 81
Figure 36 Test plant location, Forello street, Sant'Alberto (RA). ..................................... 83
Figure 37 Wind turbine. .................................................................................................................... 84
Figure 38 PV plant on the roof of the cheese factory............................................................. 84
Figure 39 Planimetry of the site of TS installation. ................................................................ 85
Figure 40 Energy produced monthly from the PV plant. ..................................................... 88
Figure 41 Daily average of the energy produced from the PV plant. .............................. 90
Figure 42 Daily average power of the PV plant on 06/04/2012. ..................................... 93
Figure 43 Daily average power of the PV plant on 04/07/2012. ..................................... 93
Figure 44 Daily average power of the PV plant on 12/12/2012. ..................................... 94
Figure 45 Daily power of the Wind farm on 04/04/2012. .................................................. 97
8
Figure 46 Variation of the power demand on 27/07/2012. ........................................... 100
Figure 47 Scheme of the exchange configuration of the WT and the PV plant. ....... 103
Figure 48 Scheme of the system. ................................................................................................. 104
Figure 49 Hardware architecture. .............................................................................................. 105
Figure 50 Software architecture. ................................................................................................ 106
Figure 51 Division of the container in three compartments. .......................................... 108
Figure 52 Section plant view of the container. ...................................................................... 108
Figure 53 Left side view of the container. ............................................................................... 109
Figure 54 Photo of the finished container. .............................................................................. 109
Figure 55 Planimetry of the existing cable ducts in the plant......................................... 110
Figure 56 Path of the cables laid on the plant. ...................................................................... 111
Figure 57 Photo of the container within the cheese factory. .......................................... 111
Figure 58 TS configuration. ........................................................................................................... 113
Figure 59 TS distribution. .............................................................................................................. 113
Figure 60 BESS configuration. ...................................................................................................... 114
Figure 61 Fiamm Sonick ST523 Battery. ................................................................................. 115
Figure 63 Battery installed into the shelf. ............................................................................... 117
Figure 64 System connections. .................................................................................................... 118
Figure 65 State diagram. ................................................................................................................ 120
Figure 66 PCS controller................................................................................................................. 122
Figure 67 Interface between PCS and BESS. .......................................................................... 123
Figure 68 Interface of management of the analogue and digital input/output. ...... 123
Figure 69 Interface between PCS and inverter. .................................................................... 124
Figure 70 Functional system diagram. ..................................................................................... 124
Figure 71 Battery switch. ............................................................................................................... 125
9
Figure 72 String switch. .................................................................................................................. 126
Figure 73 Voltmeter and ammeter. ............................................................................................ 126
Figure 74 Overvoltage Protection. ............................................................................................. 126
Figure 75 Insulation relay.............................................................................................................. 127
Figure 76 Capacitive load of the BTS ......................................................................................... 127
Figure 77 DC filter. ............................................................................................................................ 128
Figure 78 Circuit of the transformer. ........................................................................................ 128
Figure 79 Power supply emergency. ......................................................................................... 129
Figure 80 Voltmeter and ammeter. ............................................................................................ 129
Figure 81 Protection switch. ......................................................................................................... 129
Figure 82 Switchboard. ................................................................................................................... 130
Figure 83 Main switch with two voltmeters, AC and DC. .................................................. 131
Figure 84 Selector switch of AC measurements and lamps of voltage warning. ..... 131
Figure 85 Inverter Ingeteam......................................................................................................... 132
Figure 86 Screen of the start of the system. ........................................................................... 135
Figure 87 System configuration. ................................................................................................. 136
Figure 88 Peak shaving/valley filling configuration. .......................................................... 137
Figure 89 Stand alone configuration. ........................................................................................ 138
Figure 90 Polmone energetico configuration. ....................................................................... 139
Figure 91 System block diagram. ................................................................................................ 141
Figure 92 TGA installation. ............................................................................................................ 142
Figure 93 Communication block diagram. .............................................................................. 143
Figure 94 Energy production from the WT and PV plant and the energy
consumption of the load cheese factory on date 12/11/2014. ...................................... 146
Figure 95 Snapshot of the plant activity for a period of 15 min. ................................... 146
10
Figure 96 Snapshot of the TMPC where is showed the noise in the grid. .................. 147
11
List of Tables
Table 1 Physical exchanges in Italian interconnected operation. .................................... 27
Table 2 Differences between the present grid and the smart grid .................................. 51
Table 3 Storage Type Grouped by Technology. ....................................................................... 71
Table 4 Data of the produced energy from the PV plant in the year 2012. .................. 89
Table 5 Daily average power of the PV plant on 06/04/2012........................................... 92
Table 6 Loads present in the cheese factory. ............................................................................ 99
Table 7 Purchased energy in a period of 10 months. Data of the Enel invoice. ....... 100
Table 8 Annual usage scheme of the cheese factory loads. .............................................. 101
Table 9 Daily usage scheme of the cheese factory loads. .................................................. 102
Table 10 Purchased energy monthly......................................................................................... 102
Table 11 Characteristics of the Fiamm Sonick ST523 Battery. ...................................... 116
12
List of Acronyms
Acronym
Description
TS
Tozzi Storage
ESS
Energy Storage System
RES
Renewable Energy Source
PCS
Power Control System
BESS
Battery Energy Storage System
BMS
Battery Management System
TRE
Tozzi Renewable Energy
DC
Direct Current
AC
Alternating Current
LV
Low Voltage
ATU
Air Treatment Unit
WT
Wind Turbine
PV
Photovoltaic
REI
fire-resistance rating
TSO
Transmission System Operator
DSO
Distribution System Operator
HMI
Human Machine Interface
TMPC
Tozzi Master Power Control
TGA
Tozzi Grid Analyser
DOD
Depth of Discharge
SOC
State of Charge
13
GW
GateWay
UPS
Uninterruptable Power System
P
Active Power
Q
Reactive Power
LVFRT
Low Voltage Fault Ride Trough
HVFRT
High Voltage Fault Ride Trough
BDEW
Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion
BIST
Built In Self-Test
GHG
Greenhouse Gas
EU
European Union
EV
Electric Vehicle
V2G
Vehicle To Grid
AMI
Advanced Metering Infrastructure
DR
Demand Response
HAN
Home Automation Networks
DA
Distribution Automation
CSP
Control Solar Power
FIT
Feed-in Tariff
SUES
Stationery Utility Energy Storage
EAC
Energy Advisory Council
DG
Distributed Generation
14
1. Introduction
Background
The last couple of decades have been a great time of change for the power industry.
There are many new and exciting areas in the field of electric power generation,
distribution and storage that may be a potential solution to get a sustainable
improvement of the grid one day. When looking for a solution to power the grid,
the concept of sustainability implies that not only the factor of economics has to be
considered but also feasibility and environmental issues as well.
Renewable or green solutions to power the grid are becoming ever more present as
pressure on environmental issues is being put on industry from governments. One
promising form of green energy is the use of large grid scaled energy storage. Energy
storage is promising due to the multitude of applications that it can be used for.
Renewable generation sources such as wind power and solar power are generated by
stochastic environmental processes such as the sun shining or the wind blowing
and must be used instantaneously. Power that is generated by these energy sources
can be used in the most effective manner by integrating energy storage solutions
due to the fact that power generated by these stochastic processes sometimes
cannot be used immediately and it is best stored until it is needed.
Energy storage can also be used for several maintenance purposes. Today’s
infrastructure is clearly aging and in need of modernization. One of the biggest
problems that avoids the process of repairing and updating the grid is the grid’s need
to be energized at all times, especially when dealing with sensitive loads. Local
energy storage systems can be used for local grid maintenance, rather than
expensive and time consuming methods requiring a certain part of the grid to be
de-energized.
15
Scope
In the last years, the grid is starting to experience problems of congestion, that is,
the existing transmission and/or distribution lines are unable to accommodate all
required load during periods of high demand or during emergency load conditions,
such as when an adjacent line is taken out of service or damaged by a storm.
Another cause is the quick growth of non-programmable renewable energy power
plant, which can be produce instability in the grid, because of its intermittent
generation of electrical energy and mismatches between generation and
consumption profiles.
Based on this new grid situation, ESS are considered one of the most promising
technologies to reduce the congestion problems of the grid and in turn, to optimize
the RESs penetration.
The goal of this research project is the creation of a microgrid through the
integration of an ESS into a farm, where two RES are installed (PV and WT plant).
The installed system must be able to manage the flow energy from the RES and to
the loads present in the farm, in order to reduce or eliminate the electricity
consumption from the grid. Also, the system has to be flexible, that is, has the
potential to be installed in different places with different configurations.
Firstly, a feasibility study, a design and development of an ESS prototype equipped
with Na-NiCl2 batteries will carried out in order to perform field tests. The ESS
performance will have to be guaranteed in on-grid and off-grid mode.
The last goal will be the study and test of several applications such as peak shaving
and load leveling.
16
Thesis Outline
Chapter 2 aims at providing a general introduction to the context of the deployment
of renewable electricity in Italy in terms of electricity production, consumption, and
grid operation
Chapter 3 and 4 present a new concept in the energy field: distributed generation
and smart grid. These concepts are analysed, in particular the different type of
distributed energy resources and the new challenges for the future. Also the main
characteristic and features of a microgrid are described in chapter 4.
Chapter 5 presents an overview of the concept of Energy Storage and the need of
integration into the future grid. A detailed analysis of the main electrochemical
storage technologies is carried out.
Chapter 6, describes the project, the entire system and its components.
the project is described as well as the components of the system.
Chapter 7 offers a detailed analysis of the plant, focused on the analysis of the PV
plant, WT plant and the loads of the farm.
Chapter 8 describes the system architecture, specifically hardware, software,
mechanical and electrical architecture.
Chapter 9, describes all the civil works carried out in the farm to place the ESS and
to connect it to the grid and to the other system components.
In Chapters 10 and 11, the system logic is studied. First the BESS is sized and the
duty cycle is defined. Next step is the design and development of the PCS. Finally
the control and supervision system, named Tozzi Master Power Control (TMPC) is
described.
Chapter 12 describes how to communicate with the ESS from a remote point
through the use of a modem/router HSPA which is installed within the
switchboard. Also it is accessible from a local point through an Access Point.
Chapter 13 presents the first experiments carried out in the system in order to test
both the ESS and the microgrid.
17
Last Chapter summarizes the work realized in the project and provides a critical
analysis of the results obtained. Finally, a brief description of future changes and
tests is given.
18
2. Renewable Electricity
Deployment in Italy
Current Generation Mix and Net
Generating Capacity
Italy is a large consumer and a net importer of electricity, making it a very relevant
subject in the European context. Given its geographical features, Italy shows a large
share of hydro generation. A graphical overview of Italy’s electricity generation mix
in 2010 is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Generation Mix - 2010 (%) [1].
Power generation in Italy holds natural gas as its main production source, counting
for about 46% of overall generation. Hydro power is by far the RES source with the
largest share in overall production (18.5%). Given Italy’s large amount of water
19
resources, especially in the Alps, hydro power has been developed and largely
exploited already in the past decades. As regards wind and solar, despite having
had a steep increase in their shares in the last few years, they still amount only to
3.1% and 0.6% each in the overall generation share.
At a country level, thus, non-programmable RES still amount for a relatively minor
share. Considering their characteristics together with the ones of hydro and gas, it
appears that Italy should not suffer of any issue relating to the balancing of nonprogrammable capacity in the overall grid, as hydro and gas are programmable or
relatively programmable sources that can quickly balance the network in case of
need. This, however, should also be considered in the light of the status of the grid,
now and in perspective. It is true that Italy can quickly fix unbalances, as it
possesses a large share of controllable flexible sources. Non-programmable sources
are concentrated in southern regions, though, and the transmission capacity of the
grid in the centre-south may not always be sufficient to effectively balance RES
generation variability. For these reasons, curtailment of RES plants, wind in
particular, takes place in the centre-south of Italy. In 2010 wind energy was
curtailed of about 470 GWh, equal to 5.6% of production [2].
The net generating capacity is provided in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Net generating capacity - 2010 (MW) [1].
20
Electricity Consumption
In 2010, Italy consumed 330,455 GWh, i.e. circa 5.5 MWh per inhabitant, below the
EU average of 6.2 MWh. In terms of electricity intensity of the economy, Italy has
the 5th lowest value in Europe, consuming 213.2 MWh/M€ GDP, slightly below UK
(220.2) and Germany (222.3) and below the EU average of 257.7 [1].
Considering the
development of electricity consumption
in time
Italy’s
consumption’s growth rate is quite average with respect to the EU 27, at around
2.1% per year on average between 1990 and 2007, a pace similar to the ones of
Finland, the Netherlands and Belgium [3].
RES Share
Figure 3 provides an indication of Italy’s total electricity consumption and RES
electricity production up to 2020, according to the submitted action plan [4]. In
other words, this is not a forecast, but the plan according to the government.
Figure 3 Electricity consumption and RES generation (GWh) [4].
21
According to the Italian NREAP, gross final electricity consumption is forecasted to
grow from 343,143 GWh to 407,445 GWh (18% growth) between 2010 and 2020.
RES production, in the same period, should grow from 66,791 GWh to 98,885 GWh
(48% growth).
Comparing the above figures, the share of RES generation over gross final
electricity consumption should grow from 19.46% in 2010 to 24.27% in 2020, this
means that Italy, according to its plan, will be able to satisfy 19.46% and 24.27% of
its internal electricity consumption through its internal production of RES in 2010
and 2020. This would nevertheless result in an increase of consumption from nonrenewable generation and/or imports from 276,352 GWh/year in 2010 to 308,560
GWh/year in 2020. In comparison, historical data indicate that the share of RES
generation over consumption went from 13.9% in 1990 to 15.6% in 1998, to 13.7%
in 2003, to 16.6% in 2008 [5].
The evolution of renewable electricity generation is further broken down in Figure
4, which outlines the generation shares of wind, solar, hydropower and other RES
to 2020. This graph is particularly interesting for the aim of this study as nonprogrammable sources (wind and solar) will require a grid infrastructure capable
of supporting a high input variability. The higher the share of such sources, then,
the more relevant the issue of grid adaptation will be. Hydropower, on the other
hand, is a fairly controllable RES, which is well suited to balance the fluctuations on
the network caused by wind and solar, thus a large share of this source, the larger
the extent to which fluctuations can be mitigated.
22
Figure 4 RES generation (GWh) [4].
Despite the large increase in non-programmable sources, the share of hydro power
will still remain the largest one in Italy, thus smoothening concerns for balancing
non-programmable capacity, though the location of hydro power plants, mainly in
northern areas (whereas solar and wind are mostly located in the south), together
with the relative scarcity of grid capacity may limit the efficacy of hydro in this
sense.
Natural Resources and Geographical
Structure
Following the context description, this section outlines some elements of the
natural renewable resources of the country, and their geographical distribution.
This is not meant as in-depth analysis, but rather as a rapid background for the
analysis and recommendations in the following chapters.
-
Wind
As shown in Figure 5, the best wind resources in Italy are located in the
south, particularly the Apennine Mountains and on the coast, as well as in
the major islands. Also the relatively large off-shore potential is located in
23
the southern coastal areas and islands. In perspective, this implies that a
large share of non-programmable electricity would be fed into the grid in
such areas. Unfortunately, the power grid in these areas is weak for
historical reasons, since these areas are less densely populated and larger
consumption centres are located in the North. Thus, the integration of
further large resources requires a significant development of the grid, at
local level and in terms of long distance transmission capacities.
-
Solar
The map shown in Figure 6 represents the yearly sum of irradiation in Italy.
Due to high radiation, solar energy is considered a quite relevant technology
for Italy.
In terms of power storage capacities, Italy possesses a large amount of hydro
systems in the North that were developed in the last decades and are fairly
well integrated in the grid.
Figure 5 Map of wind resources at 25 meters above ground level [6].
24
Figure 6 Yearly sum of global irradiation on optimally inclined surface, 8
years average of the period 2001-2008 [kWh/m2] [7].
25
Grid Operators and Dominant
Generators
As shown in Figure 7, power generation in Italy is split between several producers,
the larger one being the ENEL group, which is also a former state monopoly, with a
share in overall generation of 31.8% in 2009 and of 30% in 2010 [8]. It should be
also underlined the fact that smaller producers amount for a total of about 17% in
the country’s generation.
Figure 7 Share of overall generation in 2008 and 2009 [9].
Terna S.p.a. is the main transmission system operator in Italy, managing and
owning about 62.000 km of high voltage lines and responsible for transmission and
dispatching.
Transmission infrastructures were historically owned and operated by two
different subjects: Terna had the ownership and GRTN operated them. The two
companies have been merged in 2005. As of today Terna is the first independent
operator in Europe and the seventh in the world for number of km.
26
In Italy there are about 150 DSOs, generally owned or grouped under larger
companies. These larger companies are 29 in total and typically operate either on a
city council level or on for larger areas.
Since April 1st, 2011, Terna publishes and updates an online register of DSOs.
Interconnections, Import/Export
Given its geographical position, and its ratio consumption / generation, Italy has
interconnections with all neighbouring countries, as well as one with Greece. As
shown in the table below, Italy is a net importer of electricity. In 2010, it imported
42.2 GWh net, i.e. circa 13.38% of its overall consumption.
GWh
(2010)
AT
CH
FR
GR
SI
Total
% of
consumption
Export
2
493
1012
72
120
1699
0.51%
Import
1328
23176
11583
2299
7513
45899
13.89%
Net
-1326
-22683
-10571
-2227
-7393
-44200
-13.38%
Total
flows
1330
23669
12595
2371
7633
47598
14.40%
Table 1 Physical exchanges in Italian interconnected operation [1].
27
3. Distributed and Renewable
Electricity Generation
Background
Whereas on a traditional grid, power generation was centralized and transmission
and distribution were one-way, the metering capabilities and two-way
communication of smart grids enable the production of electricity in numerous,
decentralized locations. The growth of renewable power production, micro- or
large scale, such as the offshore wind parks, is increasing the need for a smart grid
that is able to balance these intermittent resources.
Distributed generation allows electricity to be produced by utilities or by
individuals, closer to the point of consumption, thus reducing energy transmission
loses. It helps utilities to meet peak power needs more easily and diversify the
range of energy resources, lowering the cost of distribution and increasing the
reliability of the power flow. Distributed generation also enables a more efficient
use of waste heat from combined heat and power plants (CHP) and the possibility
of smaller scale, modular expansion of capacity reduces capital [10].
Distributed generation is a driver behind the reduction of electricity costs for
consumers, and increases the use of renewables. Power production in distributed
locations can be small scale and individual ‘prosumers’ (consumers that also microproduce) have the option to resell their production to the utility. This is completely
changing the relationship between utilities and consumers.
The development of DG is driven by environmental concerns, deregulation of the
electricity market, diversification of energy sources/energy autonomy and energy
efficiency, while barriers are mainly technical constraints, such as design
procedures, limitations on rural network capacity, fault level restrictions in urban
areas and a lack of interconnection standards. Recently, increasing difficulties in
28
obtaining planning permission, especially for wind turbines, has also become an
obstacle in some countries. Various EU countries, such as Germany and Spain, have
installed specific incentives and tax policies to promote DG development.
According to Capgemini [11], to meet 2020 EU targets, the volume of renewable
energy generation connected to the grid is expected to triple from 150 GW to 450
GW. Small and medium size enterprises that specialize in ICT and electricity
created by the integration of distributed electricity generation.
Economies of Scale
Historically, central plants have been an integral part of the electric grid, in which
large generating facilities are specifically located either close to resources or
otherwise located far from populated load centers. These, in turn, supply the
traditional transmission and distribution grid which distributes bulk power to load
centers, and from there to consumers. These were developed when the costs of
transporting fuel and integrating generating technologies into populated areas far
exceeded the cost of developing T&D facilities and tariffs. Central plants are usually
designed to take advantage of available economies of scale in a site-specific
manner, and are built as “one-off,” custom projects.
These economies of scale began to fail in the late 1960s and, by the start of the 21st
century, Central Plants could arguably no longer deliver competitively cheap and
reliable electricity to more remote customers through the grid, because the plants
had come to cost less than the grid and had become so reliable that nearly all
power failures originated in the grid. Thus, the grid had become the main driver of
remote customers’ power costs and power quality problems, which became more
acute as digital equipment required extremely reliable [12]. Efficiency gains no
longer come from increasing generating capacity, but from smaller units located
closer to sites of [13].
For example, coal power plants are built away from cities to prevent their heavy air
pollution from affecting the populace. In addition, such plants are often built near
29
collieries to minimize the cost of transporting coal. Hydroelectric plants are by
their nature limited to operating at sites with sufficient water flow. Most fuelled
power plants are too far away for their waste heat to be economically used for
heating buildings.
Low pollution is a crucial advantage of combined cycle plants that burn natural gas.
The low pollution permits the plants to be near enough to a city to be used for
district heating and cooling.
Distributed generation plants are mass-produced, small, and less site-specific.
Their development arose out of:

concerns over perceived externalized costs of central plant generation,
particularly environmental concerns,

the increasing age, deterioration, and capacity constraints upon T&D for bulk
power,

the increasing relative economy of mass production of smaller appliances
over heavy manufacturing of larger units and on-site construction, and

along with higher relative prices for energy, higher overall complexity and
total costs for regulatory oversight, tariff administration, and metering and
billing.
Capital markets have come to realize that right-sized resources, for individual
customers, distribution substations, or microgrids, are able to offer important but
little-known economic advantages over Central Plants. Smaller units offered
greater economies from mass-production than big ones could gain through unit
size. These increased value due to improvements in financial risk, engineering
flexibility, security, and environmental quality of these resources can often more
than offset their apparent cost [14]. DG, vis-à-vis Central Plants, must be justified
on a life-cycle basis. Unfortunately, many of the direct, and virtually all of the
indirect, benefits of DG are not captured within traditional utility cash-flow
accounting.
While the levelled generation cost of distributed generation is more expensive than
conventional sources on a kWh basis, this does not include a complete accounting
30
for the negative externalities associated with conventional fuels. The additional
premium for DG is rapidly declining as demand increases and technology
progresses, and sufficient and reliable demand will bring economies of scale,
innovation, competition, and more flexible financing, that will make DG clean
energy part of a more diversified future.
Distributed generation reduces the amount of energy lost in transmitting electricity
because the electricity is generated very near from where it is used, perhaps even
in the same building. This also reduces the size and number of power lines that
must be constructed.
Typical distributed power sources in a Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme have low
maintenance, low pollution and high efficiencies. In the past, these traits required
dedicated operating engineers and large complex plants to reduce pollution.
However, modern embedded systems can provide these traits with automated
operation and renewables, such as sunlight, wind and geothermal. This reduces the
size of power plant that can show a profit.
Types of Distributed Energy Resources
-
Wind Energy
Wind energy plants around the world produced 273 TWh of electricity in 2009,
from an estimated installed capacity of 159 GW. IEA's estimates of 2009 wind
energy generation and capacity by region and country are provided in Figure 8 and
Figure 9 [15]. Wind power developments in 2010 have been substantial: China
installed over 16 GW of new wind capacity in 2010, bringing its total to 42 GW. This
exceeded the US 2010 total of 40 GW, and made China the world leader in wind
capacity for the first time. Europe installed nearly 10 GW of wind in 2010, bringing
its total capacity to 86 GW, over half of which is located in Germany and Spain.
31
Figure 8 Wind energy generation by country/region in 2009
Figure 9 Wind energy capacity by country/region in 2009
IEA’s New Policies Scenario projects 1282 TWh of annual wind-generated
electricity globally by 2020 [15], a 369 % increase from 2009. By 2030 that figure
reaches 2182 TWh, a near doubling of the 2020 estimate over the course of a
decade, as shown in Figure 10. In terms of capacity, IEA projects growth from 159
32
GW in 2009 to 582 GW in 2020, reaching 1102 GW by 2035, as shown in Figure 11
[15].
Figure 10 Global wind energy generation projections to 2035
Figure 11 Global wind energy capacity projections to 2035
Wind capacity growth over this period is dominated overwhelmingly by China,
OECD Europe and the USA, as shown in Figure 12. Indeed, while the current
disparity between these countries and the rest of the world in wind capacity is
stark, it is dwarfed by future growth estimates, by which the leaders will outpace
the others by orders of magnitude. OECD Europe and China maintain growth in
lockstep through 2035, leaving the USA somewhat behind, though still a major
33
player. It is also apparent that Latin America’s growth in renewables overall does
not translate to a significant growth in wind.
Figure 12 Wind energy generation to 2035 by region/country
Regionally, the OECD European countries together show the strongest wind
growth, slightly outpacing China. 76 GW of European wind power produced 135
TWh of electricity in 2009 [15]. Germany, Spain, Italy and France are the major
contributors to wind energy capacity in this region. In Europe, the majority of wind
farms developed during the past ten years have been onshore and small-capacity.
With many wind-rich areas now thoroughly exploited, European wind developers
are turning their attention to large-capacity offshore wind farms with centralized
integration to the power grid.
By 2020, IEA projects wind capacity of 209 GW and 449 TWh of generation in
Europe. By 2030, capacity reaches 289 GW and generation reaches 675 TWh [15].
Germany has set a target of 45.75 GW of wind capacity for 2020 [16], and Spain a
target of 38 GW [17]. These plans contribute substantially to Europe’s regional
estimate, particularly in the next decade.
If we examine single countries rather than regions, China is the world’s tour de
force in wind power development. 26 GW of wind power supplied 27 TWh of
electricity in China in 2009, ranking it third globally in wind capacity. A year later,
China had jumped into first place with a total of 42 GW in 2010 [18]. China is set to
34
lead the world in wind generation and wind capacity by 2035. The IEA predicts
China will produce 388 TWh of electricity from wind in 2020, and the National
Energy Administration (NEA) of China has set a target of 150-180 GW of wind
capacity by the same date [19], which matches IEA’s estimate of China’s installed
wind capacity of 180 GW. By 2030, IEA projects that China will reach 280 GW of
wind capacity, just behind estimates for the combined European countries.
US wind capacity stood at 35 GW in 2009, generating 74 TWh of electricity. Most of
US wind capacity is concentrated in the states of Texas, Iowa, California, Michigan
and Washington, and is onshore. As a result of declining energy demand, an
economic recession and a precipitous drop in North American natural gas prices,
the USA did not keep pace with Europe and China in 2010, installing only 5 GW to
Europe’s 10 GW and China’s 16 GW. Still, the USA is expected to remain a significant
player in wind. IEA projects that US wind generation will grow to 165 TWh by
2015, more than double its 2009 value. By 2030, the capacity grows to 388 TWh
from 151 GW [15].
Japan’s 2 GW of wind capacity produced 3 TWh of electricity in 2009. IEA estimates
Japanese wind capacity to grow to 7 GW by 2020, producing 18 TWh of electricity,
and to 15 GW by 2030, producing 41 TWh of electricity [weo11]. Though these
numbers are dwarfed by those from geographically larger regions such as China,
OECD Europe and the USA, it is worth noting that the expected rate of increase of
wind generation and capacity on the Japanese grid is dramatic: generation is
expected to grow by 650 % between 2009 and 2030 under the IEA's New Policies
Scenario [15].
The figures above do not differentiate between onshore and offshore wind.
However, the sorts of integration challenges presented may differ between onshore
and offshore wind projects, specifically with regard to the need for special
transmission technologies for offshore plants. We therefore briefly examine the
offshore segment of the wind market, which at present exists almost entirely in
Europe, with a few projects in China.
Europe’s offshore wind capacity stood at 4 GW at the end of 2011, with an
additional 6 GW under construction at the time and 17 GW consented to by EU
35
member states [20]. The majority of these projects are in the UK, Denmark and
Germany, with some projects in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden. The
European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), an industry association, projects that
Europe will have 40 GW of offshore wind by 2020 producing 148 TWh of energy,
and 150 GW producing 562 TWh by 2030. While industry estimates must be taken
with the proverbial grain of salt, these numbers at least plausibly harmonize with
IEA’s OECD European wind (off- and onshore) projections of 209 GW by 2020 and
298 GW by 2030. EWEA itself identifies the availability of high voltage direct
current transmission (HVDC) as a critical bottleneck for the development of
offshore wind in Europe.
-
Solar Energy
Grid-relevant solar energy technologies can be divided into two types: PV and
concentrated solar power (CSP). PV generates electricity directly, converting
sunlight to electricity through a semiconductor such as silicon. CSP technologies
produce electricity by reflecting and concentrating sunlight onto a fluid, which then
heats and boils water, the steam from which then drives a turbine that produces
electricity. Presently, CSP has a lower contribution to RE production than solar PV.
We will discuss each market in turn, beginning with the larger PV market.
Solar PV generated 20 TWh of electricity from 22 GW of global capacity in 2009
(see Figure 13 and Figure 14) [15]. The OECD Europe region far surpassed all other
regions in both capacity and generation, despite its relatively weak solar resource.
This apparent discrepancy is explained by highly favourable policy environments
for solar PV in many European countries.
36
Figure 13 Solar PV energy generation in 2009 by country/region
Figure 14 Solar PV energy capacity in 2009 by country/region
Though solar PV capacity is many times smaller than wind capacity at present, it is
expected to grow at a faster pace than wind over the next several decades. The IEA
projects solar PV generation of 230 TWh from 184 GW of capacity in 2020, an over
1000 % generation increase from 2009. By 2030, those figures reach 551 TWh and
385 GW, more than double the 2020 estimates. Figure 15 and Figure 16 display
IEA's projections for solar PV energy production to 2035 [15].
37
Figure 15 Energy generation from solar PV globally
Figure 16 Energy generation from solar PV by country/region
In the OECD Europe region, solar PV produced 14 TWh of electricity from 17 GW of
solar PV capacity in 2009. Favourable government policies and pricing have led to
higher penetrations, particularly in Spain, Italy and Germany. In Germany, the
government has opted for a feed-in tariff, in which the utilities pay the owner of a
solar PV system a set tariff for renewable power over a period of time [21].
Consequently, solar PV provided 3 % of the total power in Germany in 2011 [22].
Germany led the world in PV capacity in 2009 with 9785 MW. Spain’s 2009
capacity figure, at 3386 MW, was lower but still substantial in comparison to other
countries [23]. Italy has ramped up solar PV capacity dramatically since then,
reaching 12 750 MW and producing 10 TWh of energy in 2011 [24].
38
IEA projects 90 TWh from 84 GW of OECD European capacity by 2020 and 139
TWh from 115 GW by 2030. Germany expects its solar PV capacity to reach 52 GW
by 2020 [16], and Spain estimates 8.4 GW by the same year [17]. It is worth noting
that Europe’s generation capacity factors (the ratio of energy generated from a
given unit of power) for solar PV are lower than those for the USA. This disparity is
explained by differences in the quality of the resource: the USA receives much more
sunlight than Europe. Nevertheless, Europe’s policy environment provides
substantially more support to solar power, particularly in Germany and Spain, than
does the US policy environment, explaining the capacity estimate differences as
well as the ultimately higher generation estimates for Europe .
US solar PV generated 2 TWh of electricity from 2 GW of capacity in 2009. IEA
estimates US solar PV generation at 38 TWh from 25 GW of capacity in 2020 and 81
TWh from 50 GW of capacity in 2030. Note that the 2030 estimate for US solar PV
capacity is roughly a third of estimated US wind power capacity in the same year.
Japan generated 3 TWh of its electricity from solar PV sources in 2009 from 3 GW
of capacity. By 2010, Japan had increased its solar PV capacity to 3.6 GW. This
increase is attributable to a subsidy programme for residential PV system
installations and another programme to purchase surplus PV power from small
systems at double the retail electricity price. IEA projects 18 TWh of electricity
from 17 GW of Japanese solar PV by 2020, and 32 TWh from 28 GW by 2030 [15].
China did not produce any significant amounts of electricity from solar PV in 2009,
but that is changing rapidly, as it has become a manufacturing leader in the
technology. IEA projects that China will produce 29 TWh from 20 GW of solar PV by
2020, and 89 TWh from 58 GW by 2030. This places China behind the USA in solar
PV generation in 2020, but ahead of it by 2030. China’s National Development and
Reform Commission has set targets for China to achieve 10 GW of solar capacity in
2015, and 50 GW of solar capacity installed by 2020 [25].
39
Figure 17 Global CSP energy generation to 2035
CSP’s market is much smaller than wind power or solar PV, and it is less
challenging to integrate into the power system due to its thermal aspects, which
reduce variability in output. CSP produced 1 TWh of electricity in 2009 from a
global capacity of 1 GW, located primarily in the USA, though Spain has since taken
the lead [15].
CSP generation estimates are lower than those for PV, but exhibit similar strength
in growth rates. IEA projects 52 TWh of CSP-generated energy from 14 GW of
capacity in 2020, and 167 TWh from 45 GW in 2030. Figure 17 displays IEA’s
projections for global CSP generation to 2035 [15].
Spain led the world in 2010 in CSP capacity at over 632 MW. Spanish CSP capacity
grew by 400 MW in 2010 due to a Royal Decree from the Spanish government that
provided incentives for solar energy. In 2011, it began construction on nearly 1 GW
of additional CSP capacity [17]. IEA projects 14 TWh of electricity from 4 GW of CSP
sources in OECD Europe by 2020. In 2030, that rises to 36 TWh from 10 GW. The
Spanish government, however, estimates that Spain alone will install 5 GW of CSP
to produce 15.35 TWh by 2020, more than IEA’s projection for all of Europe.
IEA projections for US CSP closely track those for OECD Europe, with 14 TWh from 4
GW in 2020, and 30 TWh from 8 GW in 2030.
40
Renewable Energy Integration
Challenges
Wind and solar generation both experience intermittency, a combination of noncontrollable variability and partial unpredictability, and depend on resources that
are location dependent [26]. These three distinct aspects, explained below, each
create distinct challenges for generation owners and grid operators in integrating
wind and solar generation.
-
Non-controllable variability: wind and solar output varies in a way that
generation operators cannot control, because wind speeds and available
sunlight may vary from moment to moment, affecting moment-to-moment
power output. This fluctuation in power output results in the need for
additional energy to balance supply and demand on the grid on an
instantaneous basis, as well as ancillary services such as frequency
regulation and voltage support. Figure 18 provides a graphical example of
hourly wind power variability.
Figure 18 Hourly wind power output on 29 different days in April 2005
at the Tehachapi wind plant in California [27].
41
-
Partial unpredictability: the availability of wind
and
sunlight
is
partially unpredictable. A wind turbine may only produce electricity when
the wind is blowing, and solar PV systems require the presence of sunlight in
order to operate. Figure 19 shows how actual wind power can differ from
forecasts,
even
when
multiple
forecast
scenarios
are
considered.
Unpredictability can be managed through improved weather and generation
forecasting technologies, the maintenance of reserves that stand ready to
provide additional power when RE generation produces less energy than
predicted, and the availability of dispatchable load to “soak up” excess power
when RE generation produces more energy than predicted.
Figure 19 Example of a day-ahead forecast scenario tree for the
wind power forecast for the PJM region of the United States [28].
-
Location dependence: The best wind and solar resources are based in
specific locations and, unlike coal, gas, oil or uranium, cannot be transported
to a generation site that is grid-optimal. Generation must be collocated with
the resource itself, and often these locations are far from the places where
the power will ultimately be used. New transmission capacity is often
required to connect wind and solar resources to the rest of the grid.
Transmission costs are especially important for offshore wind resources,
42
and such lines often necessitate the use of special technologies not found in
land-based transmission lines. The global map in Figure 20displays the latest
data on mean land-based wind speeds around the world.
Figure 20 Global mean wind speed at 80 m altitude [29].
Because the presence of wind and sunlight are both temporally and spatially
outside human control, integrating wind and solar generation resources into
the electricity grid involves managing other controllable operations that may
affect many other parts of the grid, including conventional generation. These
operations and activities occur along a multitude of time scales, from
seconds to years, and include new dispatch strategies for rampable
generation resources, load management, provision of ancillary services for
frequency and voltage control, expansion of transmission capacity,
utilization of energy storage technologies, and linking of grid operator
dispatch planning with weather and resource forecasting.
The essential insight to integration of variable RE is that its variability
imposes the need for greater flexibility on the rest of the grid, from other
(controllable) generators to transmission capacity to loads. Discussion of
43
variable generation operation alone is insufficient to describe the full impact
of high penetrations of RE on power system operation. Thus this report
explores RE integration from both a plant operator and a system operator
perspective, so as to identify the full range of operations involved [18].
-
Non-Controllable Variability
Variability in the context of wind and solar resources refers to the fact that
their output is not constant. It is distinct from unpredictability, which we
discuss in the following section. Even if operators could predict the output of
wind and solar plants perfectly, that output would still be variable, and pose
specific challenges to the grid operator, which we introduce here [18].
On the seconds to minutes time scale, grid operators must deal with
fluctuations in frequency and voltage on the transmission system that, if left
unchecked, would damage the system as well as equipment on it. To do so,
operators may order generators to inject power (active or reactive) into the
grid not for sale to consumers, but in order to balance the actual and
forecasted generation of power, which is necessary to maintain frequency
and voltage on the grid. These ancillary services go by a plethora of names
and specific descriptions. Typical services for an impressionistic overview
include:
-
frequency regulation: occurs on a seconds-to-minutes basis, and is done
through automatic generation control (AGC) signals to generators;
-
spinning reserves: generators available to provide power typically within
10 minutes. These reserves are used when another generator on the system
goes down or deactivates unexpectedly;
-
non-spinning reserves: these generators serve the same function as
spinning reserves, but have a slower response time;
-
voltage support: generators used for reactive power to raise voltage when
necessary;
-
black-start capacity: generators available to re-start the power system in
case of a cascading black-out.
44
Additionally, grid operators must track loads demand for electricity on the
consumption side of the grid and ensure that generation matches load at all times.
This load following function becomes particularly important at times of day when
demand for electricity increases substantially, such as morning, a hot afternoon, or
evening. Load following may be provided through a class of ancillary service or
through a “fast energy market”, depending on the system operator.
These functions are not new. Grid operators have been regulating frequency and
voltage, maintaining reserves and following shifts in load since the development of
the electricity grid. This is because loads themselves are variable, and even
conventional, controllable generation experiences problems and cannot perform as
scheduled all of the time. Consumers demand electricity in ways that, while
predictable, are not controllable and have some degree of variability. Thus wind
and solar generation does not introduce entirely novel problems with which
operators have never grappled. Indeed, at low penetrations, the integration
challenges are primarily device and local-grid specific, such as subsynchronous
resonance and harmonics, which the turbine itself may cause.
However, high penetrations of wind and solar generation will add more variability
to the energy system than grid operators have traditionally managed in the past,
and thus increase demand for ancillary services and balancing energy overall. It is
more difficult, and sometimes impossible, to manage such challenges at the device
level, and so grid-level actions, technologies and strategies are often needed. Wind
and solar resources in sufficient amounts may also complicate load following
functions when large demand shifts coincide with weather events that alter power
output from wind or solar resources. Grid operators located in more remote
regions and serving smaller loads may have less flexibility to provide ancillary
services and load following than their larger counterparts. Compounding matters,
plentiful RE resources are often located in these remote locations. The IEA and
other bodies have recommended consolidation of grid operators, in order to
integrate RE sources over larger areas and so reduce the variance of the power
produced, as well as easing of market restrictions on sales of ancillary services as a
solution to this problem [30].
45
4. Smart Grid
Introduction
Electricity has been a powerful driver of economic growth and wellbeing
worldwide. Electricity generation is forecast to grow from 18,800 TWh in 2007 to
35,200 TWh in 2035 [31].
However, electricity consumption alone is causing 17% of anthropogenic
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [32] and as such should be one of the main areas
of focus for mitigation of climate change.
In the EU-27, gross electricity generation is expected to grow from 3,362 TWh in 2007
to at least 4,073 TWh in 2030, not even taking into account the possibility of
significantly higher demand because of deployment of electric vehicles (EV) [33].
Most of Europe’s energy needs are supplied from fossil fuel resources, largely
imported into the European Union.
Energy demand continues to increase, while fossil fuel resources are shrinking and
set to steadily become more expensive. At the same time, climate change and
pollution have become issues of concern to European citizens. Through EU
Directive 2009/28/EC, the EU has set an ambitious 20-20-20 target for 2020,
committing to increase renewables’ share of energy production to 20%, increase
energy efficiency by 20% and lower CO 2 emissions by 20% compared to 1990
levels.
The smart grid is hailed by regulators and industry players as one of the key
opportunities to save energy and lower CO2 emissions, but deployment of the smart
grid seems slow [34], [35].
The smart grid is a complex concept, involving not only distribution of electricity,
but also data generation and communication systems and complex management
applications. It also involves a wide variety of players, from electricity producers,
46
grid operators and electricity retailers to hardware and software producers,
industry giants and start-ups, investors, regulators and ‘prosumers’ (consumer and
micro producer).
Greentech and Electricity Utilities as leading growth areas over the coming ten
years. It is the convergence of these three sectors that creates the smart grid, which
makes this one of the most exciting sectors to emerge [36]. The upgrading of old
electricity grids with information and communication technology to modern ‘smart’
grids facilitates the integration of renewable energy and improves operational
efficiency of the grids. It also enables savings in end consumption of electricity and
allows for shifting of demand load through the involvement of empowered
consumers , thus reducing the need for construction of expensive extra peak
capacity.
Energy efficiency measures generally have a lower GHG abatement cost than
investment in nuclear or renewable power generation or carbon capture & storage.
smart grid technology and applications have the potential to increase the efficiency
of electricity distribution as well as the efficiency of in-home electricity use. This is
an incentive for policy makers, utilities and scientists to prioritize the development of
the smart grid [37] .
Smart Grid Concept
The term “Smart Grid” was coined by Andres E. Carvallo on April 24, 2007 at an IDC
(International Data Corporation) energy conference in Chicago, where he presented
the smart grid as the combination of energy, communications, software and
hardware. His definition of a Smart Grid is that it is the integration of an electric
grid, a communications network, software, and hardware to monitor, control and
manage the creation, distribution, storage and consumption of energy. The 21st
century smart grid reaches every electric element, it is self-healing, it is interactive,
and it is distributed.
47
The term smart grid refers to a modernization of the electricity delivery system so
it monitors, protects, and automatically optimizes the operation of its
interconnected elements from the central and distributed generator through the
high-voltage network and distribution system, to industrial users and building
automation systems, to energy storage installations and to end-use consumers and
their thermostats, electric vehicles, appliances, and other household devices [38].
The smart grid will be characterized by a two-way flow of electricity and
information to create an automated, widely distributed energy delivery network. It
incorporates
into
communications
to
the
grid
deliver
the
benefits
real-time
of
distributed
information
and
computing
enable
the
and
near
instantaneous balance of supply and demand at the device level [39].
A smart grid is the electricity delivery system (from point of generation to point of
consumption) integrated with communications and information technology for
enhanced grid operations, customer services, and environmental benefits [40].
The smart grid, therefore from the above definitions is summarized in the text box
of Figure 21.
The Smart Grid, in quintessence, is a blend of communications and electrical
capabilities that consent to utilities to recognize, optimize, and standardize energy
usage, costs of demand and supply, and the overall reliability & efficiency of the
system. This enhanced technology allows electricity suppliers to interact with the
power delivery system and reveal where electricity is being used and from where it
can be drawn during times of crisis or peak demand.
Figure 21 Gist of the Smart Grid
In order to achieve a modern grid, a wide range of technologies have to be
developed and implemented. These are the essential technologies that must be
implemented by the grid operators and the managers to have tools and training
that is needed to operate modern grid [37].
48
Today’s Grid and Smart Grid
The grid as it exists today was originally designed more than fifty years ago, long
before the creation of computer and telecommunication systems that we rely on
today. The pressure that our increased power-needs exercise on the grid is shown
through interruption of service and occasional blackouts, which pose significant
economic and safety threats to our society. Smart grids have the potential to offer a
number of advances, including some that automatically monitor and evaluate grid
conditions, and report these conditions back to the utility‘s control room when they
occur. Devices on the network can communicate with each other to automate rerouting and switching to avoid power lines with faults, and detect and even repair
faults in wires before they lead to outages.
Also introduces a new level of communication between the consumer and the
power suppliers. The current interface between the suppliers and the customer is
the meter, which has remained basically the same, technologically-speaking, for the
past century, and cannot communicate information to or from the consumer. Smart
grids, however, allow power companies and consumers to gather precise
information about the quantity and timing of household consumption, and enable
consumers to receive information, such as real-time pricing and emergency grid
requests to lower energy consumption [40].
Smart grid improvements will also integrate with intermittent energy sources that
pose a challenge to the current system, like wind and solar power. New
technologies will encourage consumers to invest in distributed generation, or
locally-generated power sources, such as solar panels on a home, to supplement
their power needs [41]. Making such investments worthwhile to consumers also
requires regulatory change to allow different pricing contracts. For example, a
home could be powered by its own solar energy during the day, and the consumer
could sell any extra energy produced by his or her panels back to the larger grid
(this contract option is called net metering). The credit for the energy sold during
the day may cover what the home uses that evening. Smart grids would also
49
accommodate plug-in hybrid cars, allowing consumers to move away from
petroleum-based transportation.
Despite all of the benefits offered by smart grids, such a dramatic change in
technology and approach will not be immediately adopted by industry or by
regulators. Pilot projects, are important opportunities for researchers and
regulators to learn about the potential effects of smart grid technologies [42].
The Smart Grid Technologies that are proven efficient in reducing the growing
energy needs of residential customers cannot be applicable for those of Industrial
loads. The work conducted in the thesis, that is a part of more comprehensive study
in the University of New Orleans Power and Energy Research Laboratory (PERL),
proposes a way on how smart grid can benefit the Industrial customers.
Characteristic
Today’s Grid
Smart Grid
Informed, involved and
Enables active
Consumers are uninformed
active consumers –
participation by
and non- participative with
demand response and
consumers.
power system.
distributed energy
resources.
Dominated by central
Many distributed energy
generation – many obstacles
resources with plug and
for distributed energy
play convenience focus on
resources interconnection.
renewable.
Enables new
Limited wholesale markets,
Mature wholesale markets,
products, services,
not well integrated – limited
growth of new electricity
and markets.
opportunities for consumers.
markets for consumers.
Provides power
Focus on outages – slow
quality for the digital
response to power quality
economy.
issues.
Accommodates all
generation and
storage options.
Power quality is a priority
with a variety of
quality/price options –
rapid resolution of issues.
50
Optimizes asset
utilization and
operate efficiently.
Little integration of
operational data with asset
management – business
process.
Greatly expanded data
acquisition of grid
parameters – focus on
prevention minimizing
impact to consumers.
Anticipates &
Responds to prevent further
responds to system
damage – focus is on
disturbances (self-
protecting assets following
heals).
faults.
Operates resiliently
Vulnerable to malicious acts
against attack and
of vandalism and natural
natural disaster.
disasters.
Automatically detects and
responds to problems –
focus on prevention,
minimizing impact to
consumer.
Resilient to attack and
natural disasters with
rapid restoration
capabilities
Table 2 Differences between the present grid and the smart grid
Smart grid technologies allow us to manage energy usage and save money by giving
the liberty to choose when and how to use our electricity. It is this feature of the
technology that allows us to optimize the integrated demand-supply chain use of
electricity. A year-long study by the U.S. Department of Energy showed that realtime pricing information provided by the smart meter help consumers reduce their
electricity costs 10% on average and 15% on peak consumption.
Evolution rather than Substitution
In “Diffusion of Innovations”[43] is described how diffusion of innovation usually
takes the form of an S-shaped curve, as depicted in Figure 22. Innovations do not
evolve on their own, but their diffusion may depend on interaction with existing
practices and technologies. The S-curve represents the technological life cycle, from
low diffusion in the early R&D discovery phase and pilot tests, to wider acceptance
once the new technology is proven and produced at bigger scale and lower cost, to
51
complete rollout and eventual substitution by other technologies. Various
technologies may coexist and the diffusion of one technology may build on the basis
of another technology.
Figure 22 S-Model of diffusion of innovation [43]
Rather than a radical substitution of the old grid by a modern grid, the
development of the smart grid should be seen as an evolution, the gradual
‘smartening’ of the existing grid by adding various new technologies (digital
metering, communication, distributed renewable generation, advanced storage,
electric vehicles, etc.) and applications (demand response, distribution automation,
energy management systems, etc.) eventually leading to smart homes and smart
grids. The diffusion of these technologies and applications is also expected to follow
overlapping S-curves, as the penetration of one technology, such as smart metering,
will enable the development and diffusion of the next technology, such as active
demand or integration of micro-renewable power generation. Similarly, an electric
vehicles (EV/PHEV) charging infrastructure will facilitate the diffusion of EV/PHEV
and in turn enable storage capability through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology.
Figure 23 shows how Italian utility Enel is planning the introduction of new
technologies and applications on the road to a fully functioning Smart Grid [44].
52
Figure 23 Enel’s subsequent technological innovations on the way to full
Smart Grid capability
The Components that Make up the Smart
Grid
-
Electricity Supply Chain
The electricity supply chain can be divided into 7 steps:
Figure 24 Smart electricity supply chain
A generation plant produces the electricity, which is transformed and transmitted
by the transmission system operator (TSO) over high-voltage transmission
lines. The TSO is responsible for balancing the supply and demand. From
53
there, electricity is distributed by the distribution system operator (DSO)
over medium or low voltage power lines to substations, where it is
transformed again for final delivery. In the past, resellers and supply
companies would buy electricity from the DSO and develop the commercial deals
with end customers. Smart metering is allowing smart energy services
companies to develop new business models and services dedicated to reduction
of end user electricity consumption.
To stimulate competition, the EU Third Legislative Package in 2009
mandated unbundling of generation, transmission and distribution. The
objective was for these steps in the value chain not to be owned by the same
company, but only 15 of the 41 European transmission system operators (TSO)
have been fully separated from electricity generation and retail (PWC, 2010).
Only the UK, the Netherlands, Austria, Hungary, Poland and the Nordic region
(with the exception of Denmark) have a reasonably open competitive
environment. In the European states where the generation/transmission,
distribution and retail of electricity is unbundled completely or to some
extent, the customer is ‘owned’ by the electricity retailer [45], who in turn
buys electricity from the network operator, who in turn is supplied by the
generation/transmission company. The customer is free to change energy
supplier at any time.
-
Physical, Communication and Application Layers
To arrive to a fully intelligent grid, generation and communication of real-time
data regarding demand, supply and network status are required
throughout the grid. Management systems and applications are required to
turn the data into operational and asset management decisions for the
operators, as well as consumption decisions for end customers, thus increasing
the efficiency of the whole value chain.
Until now, most utilities and grid operators have sensors, meters and data
communication systems in place to monitor the transmission and some
distribution parts of the grid, but very limited information is generated about the
consumption patterns at the point of end- consumption. As an important step
54
towards solving this data gap and stimulating transparency and competition
in the electricity sector, the European Union set a 2020 deadline for an 80%
rollout of smart meters with two-way communication and remote control
capability, through Energy Services Directive 2006/32/EC (Art. 13) and the
Directive on internal markets 2009/72/EC.
A fully-fledged smart grid normally incorporates the following components, shown in
Figure 25:

Advanced metering Infrastructure (AMI)

Demand response (DR) systems

Energy management services / Home automation networks (HAN)

Distribution automation (DA)

Distributed and renewable electricity generation (DG/RES)

Advanced energy storage

Electric vehicles (EVs) charging infrastructure

Systems management and data security ICT
Figure 25 Electricity system and smart grid components [46]
55
Microgrid
A microgrid is a localized grouping of electricity generation, energy storage, and
loads that normally operates connected to a traditional centralized grid
(macrogrid). This single point of common coupling with the macrogrid can be
disconnected. The microgrid can then function autonomously. Generation and loads
are usually interconnected at low voltage. From the point of view of the grid
operator, a connected microgrid can be controlled as if it was one entity. Microgrid
generation resources can include fuel cells, wind, solar, or other energy sources.
The multiple dispersed generation sources and ability to isolate it from a larger
network would provide highly reliable electric power. By-product heat from
generation sources such as microturbines could be used for local process heating or
space heating, allowing flexible trade-off between the needs for heat and electric
power [47].
Figure 26 Microgrid [48]
56
5. Energy Storage Technologies
The Concept of Energy Storage
Increasing amount of research in the field of ES technologies, and the eager to find
new solutions has several reasons. Concepts like hybrid vehicles and eco‐friendly
transport, smart grids and more efficient exploitation of renewables, are all
important aspects affecting the effort put into this R&D process. There are
numerous solutions that have proved or seem to have a potential within ES,
supported by theory, experience and test plants, and several are already introduced
and established on the market.
Today there is a global installed storage capacity of 100GW, of which 99% is
represented by pumped hydro [49]. Extensive, on-going R&D is trying to find new
and efficient solutions for ES. Predictions say that the amount of electrical energy
produced will increase from 12% of the total global energy production in 2007 to
34% in 2025, where the share of RE will also rise. Hence, the need of more installed
ES capacity is obvious [50] .
Figure 27 Storage capacity for electrical energy [51].
57
For
large-scale
integration
of
RE,
its
intermittent
characteristic
makes
incorporation onto the electric grid more challenging. New and better technologies
are required, to provide possibilities for control and regulation of the electricity
generation, in addition to a general improvement of grid stability and reliability.
This is why ES has become more important the last decades, as the energy market
experience changes in favour of renewables. It allows these intermittent resources
to “provide energy when it is needed, just as transmission provides energy where it
is needed” [52], despite their stochastic power production. Due to high costs and
technological barriers, conventional and reliable methods for power generation
like fossil fuel are still preferred, but this seems to be heading for a new course.
There are several applications for which ES can be used, as illustrated in Figure 28.
These have generally been divided into five broad application categories:
generation related, ancillary services, transmission and distribution (T&D), enduser and renewable integration [53]. In this thesis the main issue will be
integration of renewables, as introduced in chapter 0, which requires somewhat
large-scale ES (mostly in the range of MW). This is a very important ES application,
as this principle is “best thought of as enabling technologies..(....)..promoting a market
change, such as the faster introduction of renewable energy resources. [54]
Figure 28 Roles of energy storage [55].
58
Working on integration of renewables, ES could be used for several applications:
match supply and demand, store surplus electricity generated on the plant, act as
an electricity backup when generation is not available, and smooth output fluctuations
from the intermittent energy resources [56].
Figure 29 shows a simple structure of an ES system. With a controller monitoring
the deviation of electricity demand compared to production, it can regulate the
electricity output necessary from the storage device (discharge). If the demand falls
below the production level, the storage unit will be charged.
Figure 29 Structure of an ES system [57]
Several technologies can contribute to serve the applications mentioned. Some of
the general characteristics and their ideal values of ES systems are defined as
SERG[55].
-
Quantity of energy stored (commonly kWh or MWh)
-
Duration of discharge required (seconds, minutes, hours) → scalable
-
Power level (kW or MW) →high power
-
Response time (milliseconds to minutes) →fast dynamic response, flexible
-
Frequency of discharge (number per unit of time, such as per day or year)
-
Energy density (facility space and total ES capacity) →high energy density
-
Cycle Efficiency (fraction of energy returned to the grid) →high conversion
efficiency
-
Cycle life → long lasting
-
Footprint/compatibility with existing infrastructure →easy to integrate and
implement
59
-
Transportability →relocatable
-
Cost → cheap
Considering these characteristics, they all in a varying degree describe the technologies
introduced in Chapter 5 . The criterions from which ES is to be assessed in this
thesis comprise the characteristics of cheap, flexible, scalable and high energy densities. All
ES technologies have strengths and weaknesses, and it is important to choose the one best
suited for a few related applications, where its technical capabilities can be leveraged for
maximum economic benefit [54].
Enabling renewables to be integrated into energy market has a high priority on the ES
agenda “EPRI 2008” [57], with the objective to solve the following problem of
intermittency. For adequate ES capacity available, system planner need to include
sufficient generating capacity to meet average demand rather than peak demands
[58].
The basic principle of ES is to charge the storage device using off-peak and/or
excess renewable electricity, and discharge through electricity production in periods of
peak demand and high electricity price. How this cycle function is defined by the ES
characteristics of the different technologies. The essential characteristics, which
determines the cost of an ES facility, are [49]:
– Storage properties: energy density, output density, energy storage efficiency,
storage scale and charge/discharge times.
– Operation properties: start/ stop times, load response, partial load feature,
lifetime, reliability.
– Surroundings/ circumstances: Location, construction time, safety and lead time/
market development.
The significance of the above characteristics is decided by the scope of the project and
storage application. Figure 30 shows the distribution of the most common ES
technologies based on the essential characteristics of discharge time and power
rating.
60
Figure 30 Storage capacity versus discharge time for ES technologies [59].
5.2
The Need for Energy Storage in the Future
Grid
Indeed, ES is an established, valuable approach for improving the reliability and
overall use of the entire power system (generation, transmission, and distribution
[T&D]). Sited at various T&D stages, ES can be employed for providing many grid
services, including a set of ancillary services such as:
-
Frequency regulation and load following (aggregated term often used is
balancing services)
-
Cold start services.
-
Contingency reserves.
-
Energy services that shift generation from peak to off-peak periods.
In addition, it can provide services to solve more localized power quality issues and
reactive power support.
61
Balancing services are used to balance generation and demand in tightly limited situations
to maintain the alternating current (AC) system frequency of 50/60 Hz. ES is perfectly
suited to provide this service by absorbing electric energy (charging cycle) whenever
there is too much generation for a given demand and by injecting electric energy into
the power grid (discharging cycle) when there is too little generation. Traditionally,
these services have been performed by conventional gas or steam turbine
technologies. But rather than varying the torque of large rotary turbo-machinery
on a second-by-second basis, electrochemical ES is much better suited to quickly
respond to the grid needs. To operate the electric grid reliably requires contingency
reserves that are used in cases of a grid contingency such as an unplanned outage
of a power plant or transmission line. Various kinds of contingency reserves are
necessary to step in when the contingency occurs. Reserves are classified by how
quickly they can be brought online and how fast they respond to a grid contingency
the faster the response, the sooner the contingency can be managed. A recent
analysis
suggested
a
relationship
between
contingency
reserve
capacity
requirements and reserve response time—the faster a grid asset responds, the less
capacity the system needs.11 This result suggests that a fast-responding ES unit may
potentially provide a higher value to the grid than a conventional turbine unit of the
same capacity size (MW). Furthermore, in addition to providing reliability service to the
grid, ES can improve the economic efficiency of the electricity infrastructure by
improving its utilization. On average, the entire electricity delivery system (T&D) is
used to about 50%.12 Designed for a peak load condition with some reserve
margin and load-growth expectations added to the peak load, the infrastructure is
underused most of the time. From an economic efficiency point of view, this is less
than optimal. To improve the entire use of the grid assets, the system will need to
be more evenly loaded. ES can play an important role in that process by shifting
electric energy from peak to off-peak periods. As shown in Figure 3, electrical
energy is stored (via load levelling) when it can be produced cheaply (at off-peak
times, for example) and released at peak times when it is more valuable.
To date, however, ES (almost exclusively pumped hydroelectric storage) contributes to
only about 2% of the installed generation capacity in the United States. The
62
percentages are higher in Europe and Japan, at 10% and 15%, respectively, largely
because of favourable economics and government policies.13 With little energy storage
capability, the U.S. power grid has evolved by relying on redundant generation and
transmission grid assets to meet the grid reliability requirements. While this power
system design concept has provided grid operations with acceptable levels of reliability
in the past, the future grid will face signi ficant challenges by providing clean power
from intermittent resources to a much more dynamic load. These challenges will not
only be faced in the United States, but also internationally. With the general effort by
many nations to lower their national carbon footprint, a greater reliance will be placed
on the nation’s electric power grids as their energy system backbone. With tighter
constraints on carbon emissions, a general trend of electrification of fossil-fuel-based end
uses is emerging. The most prominent is the electri fication of transportation. Some
estimates suggest that 30-50% of all new vehicle purchases in 2030 will be plug-in hybrid
vehicles. Other services, such as residential heating, which is generally provided by fuel oil
and natural gas, may be electrified with tighter emission constraints. This places an
increasingly growing importance and reliance on the power grids to support the nations’
economies. But not only will the demand for electricity grow, the way the electricity is
being used will also become much more dynamic as residential, commercial, and industrial
electricity customers install onsite generators (such as PVs, fuel cell technologies, and
other distributed generators) and become net producers of electricity at certain times. On
the large scale power generation side, a significant new capacity of intermittent
renewable energy is projected to decarbonize the electric power system.
While the absolute capacity of intermittent renewable energy resources that can be
integrated into the existing power grids may vary from region to region, there is
ample consensus that additional flexible grid assets are required to accommodate
the increasing variability in power production. A doubling of the regulation service
requirements to maintain 60 Hz grid frequency and safe grid operations has been
reported to be necessary for California and the Pacific Northwest by 2020.
California will then have a contribution of renewable energy resources to the entire
generation mix of 30%. The Pacific Northwest is estimated to have between 15 and
20% of electricity from renewable, non-hydro resources. At a national level, the U.S.
63
Department of Energy (DOE) targets a 20% contribution of renewable energy to
the total electric generation mix.
To meet this target would require about 300 GW of new capacity. The majority of
this new capacity is likely to be wind and solar resources because of their
technological maturity and economic characteristics. To integrate new wind and
solar energy resources at this scale, significant investments will be required to
upgrade the grid. And the need of grid investment is already felt. On February 26,
2008, a cold front moved through west Texas, and winds died in the evening just as
electricity demand was peaking. Over a 2h period the generation from wind power
in the region plummeted rapidly from 1.7 GW to only 300 MW, while the power
demand rose to a peak of 35612 MW from 31200 MW. The sudden loss of wind
power and the lack of alternative electricity supply to ramp up as quickly forced the
Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) to curtail 1100 MW demand from
industrial customers within 10 min and grid stability was restored within 3 h. To
prevent a similar problem, ERCOT investigated the addition of ES. As a result, in
April 2010 Electric Transmission Texas (ETT) installed a 4 MW sodium-sulphur
utility scale battery system in Presidio, TX. ES will not only function as a buffer for
the intermittency of renewable energy resources but also as a transmission
resource if placed properly in the grid. As mentioned above, there are many other
grid services that ES can provide to the grid, and several of them can be provided
simultaneously. While ES can provide significant value to the grid today in the
United States and internationally, it should be noted that other conventional and
nonconventional technologies will compete for the same market share. For ES to be
successful, it will need to compete on its own merits. Its cost and performance
characteristics will need to be cost competitive with the conventional technologies.
In most cases, this is a natural gas combustion turbine. However, with the
significant national and international investments in smart grid technologies,
demand response or load side control strategies are emerging as a new technology
to offer some of the values that ES competes for. The U.S. Congress has recognized
the potential of ES as an enabler for fully used smart grid technologies to integrate
a large capacity of renewable energy resources in the Energy Independence and
64
Security Act of 2007. This legislation authorized DOE to develop and demonstrate
storage technologies for utility applications. The American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act of 2009 has made a significantly level of funding available for
stationary energy storage demonstrations. Additionally, commercial interests have
been generated to develop stationary energy storage technologies for utility
applications. Several pilot projects are under way to test the performance and
reliability of ES. Recently, California enacted a law requiring utilities to include
energy storage systems in electricity distribution networks that can handle 2.255.00% of peak load. While ES may already be cost competitive for some high-value
niche markets, further cost reduction has to occur for ES to be more widely used.
DOE is the key U.S. funding organization to address the science and technology
research needs for the next generation of storage materials and storage systems
[60].
Stationary Applications
-
Transmission Support
In this application, the battery system provides pulses of real and reactive
power to stabilize transmission lines. The battery must be of sufficient size
to support transmission assets, which implies 10s to 100s of megawatts.
Since this is a pulse power application, and the pulses are somewhat
infrequent, not much storage capacity is required, and the life of the
batteries would primarily be determined by calendar life limitations. The
first pulse may be discharge or charge, depending on the cause and nature of
the particular de-stabilizing event, so the battery must be maintained at an
intermediate state of charge.
The electricity storage system allows transmission lines in a constricted
network to be more heavily loaded during periods of peak demand by
customers. This allows utilities to defer investments in transmission assets
[61].
65
-
Area Regulation & Spinning Reserve
These ancillary services are typically provided by generating assets
operating at zero or partial loading. A battery system can provide load
following (real and possibly reactive power) for area regulation (frequency
regulation for an island system) and provide an alternative method for short
term, fast response spinning reserve. As in transmission support, the first
use for area regulation may be discharge or charge, so the battery must be
maintained at a partial state of charge.
This set of applications requires a fairly strenuous duty cycle. Spinning
reserve requires 15 minutes at full power and 15 minutes of ramp down
from full power to zero. These events only happen about once a month, but
they would require a complete discharge of the battery. Area regulation
requires zero net unscheduled power flow between control areas in each
15 minute period. The energy transferred to meet this application is only
about 25% of that for spinning reserve, but the battery is cycled
continuously.
The benefit of the electricity storage system in both spinning reserve and
area regulation derives from reducing or eliminating the fuel and
maintenance costs that are normally associated with underutilized
generating assets. The benefit derived from area regulation is probably
inadequate to justify a battery, but once an electricity storage system has
been installed, a battery could be the least cost alternative for this service
[62].
-
Load Leveling/Energy Arbitrage/Transmission Deferral
This is the classic utility application for energy storage: store cheap
electricity generated off peak and sell it on-peak when more expensive
generators are required. Alternatively, the use of night-time electricity onpeak can allow deferral of transmission expansions.
This application requires large storage capacities, with discharges of five
hours or more favoured by most utilities, particularly for transmission
66
deferral and arbitrage. Each discharge removes most of the capacity of the
battery, and discharges would occur every weekday when power use is
high, i.e., 100 to 200 days per year.
The benefit of the electricity storage system in this application is the
difference between the cost for supplying electricity close to the loads from
on-peak generation and transmission assets and the cost for supplying
electricity from off peak assets [63].
-
Renewables Firming
Most renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar energy, are
intermittent in nature, they do not provide a reliable, continuous source of
power. This limitation prevents system operators from having the same type
of control over renewable generating assets that they have over other
generating assets. For this reason, prices paid for electricity generated by
renewables (unfirm power) are typically lower than what is paid for firm
power.
An energy storage system can follow the renewable generation (and to a
lesser extent the system load) and allow the renewable generator to be
counted a firm resource. This application requires a wide range of storage
capacities, depending on the nature of the renewable resource and the
presence or absence of other generators that fill in the gaps. The duty cycle
for this application depends on the nature of the renewable resource, but
would probably be similar to that found in the other load following
applications, with many shallow DOD cycles superimposed on daily deep
discharges. The first event after a period of inactivity may be discharge or
charge, depending on the needs of the electric system and the renewable
resource.
The benefit of the electricity storage system for renewables is the extra
revenue for firm electricity as compared to electricity from a non-firm
resource. Additionally, variations in the power from renewables can cause
problems with transmission, since wind and solar farms are often placed
67
remote from loads and are often connected through weak lines. The benefit
estimates used here are derived from avoided transmission upgrades [63].
-
Power Reliability & Peak Shaving
An energy storage system can provide electricity during extended outages
and reduce the purchase cost for electricity (demand charges, time-of-day
prices) by shaving peaks. The second use of EV batteries for Uninterruptible
Power Source (UPS) applications alone appears very unlikely, given the low
cost of lead acid batteries for these applications and the fact that they are
widely used and have well-defined warranties. Thus, peak shaving must be
used together with the power reliability function. In this case, the customer
will have to decide on the value of the system for each application and then
decide how much capacity to hold back for power reliability.
Battery systems designed to meet this application could be as large as 2 MW
in rated power output, but will most likely consist of 100 kW modules. Three
to four hours of storage will be required to provide blackout ride-through
and significant peak shaving benefits. Blackouts may only occur a few times
per year, but peak shaving could be used almost every workday depending
on the electricity tariff for the site.
The benefit of the electricity storage system in this application is mostly in
the power reliability function, with peak shaving being used to offset the
total costs of the system.
-
Light Commercial Load Following
A battery will likely be used in tandem with most distributed generation
technologies (including renewables) to allow more efficient and more
reliable operation. The battery system would be used for load-following,
thereby allowing a generator to run at relatively constant power delivery or
a renewable resource to better match the load. This mode of operation
would require the battery to be in use (charge or discharge) most of the time,
and it would be at a partial state of charge for much of the time.
68
The benefit of the electricity storage system in these applications is in
allowing more efficient and more dispatchable local generation. Battery
systems would only be practical for these applications if a utility connection
were not economically viable, if a battery system owner could arrange to
receive a high price for any excess electricity that could be sold back to the
utility, or if the battery reduces the cost of the distributed generating system
by avoiding the need for an oversized generator to meet peak loads.
-
Distributed Node Telecom Backup Power
Lead-acid batteries already provide power for distributed nodes (fiber
nodes) of the telecomm system during electric utility outages. The
replacement of lead acid batteries for telecom .switches. is deemed very
unlikely, but lithium-ion batteries are already being supplied in test
quantities for the distributed telecom node application. Very high reliability,
i.e., the ability to deliver the stated capacity and power, is a must for this
application (in order to minimize costly service calls). Since the batteries are
used for backup power, the duty cycle in this application is fairly benign.
However, VRLAs used in this application have shown lifetimes as short as
one year due to the acceleration of aging processes by the high temperatures
frequently encountered in telecom equipment boxes. Advanced battery
technologies may show less performance degradation during high
temperature float or standby compared to lead acid batteries, resulting in
longer battery lifetimes.
The benefit of an alternative to lead-acid batteries in this application is in
lower life cycle costs due to longer time between replacements. The benefit
estimates listed above are based on the current price for VRLAs.
-
Residential Load Following
This application is very similar to light commercial load following, just on a
smaller scale and operating under different load profiles. Distributed
generation technologies for residential use will likely be paired with a
battery system to improve their efficiency and reliability. The benefit of the
69
electricity storage system in these applications is in allowing more efficient
and more dispatchable local generation. Battery systems would only be
practical for these applications if a utility connection were not economically
viable, if a battery system owner can arrange to receive a high price for any
excess electricity that can be sold back to the utility, or if the battery reduces
the cost of the distributed generating system by avoiding the need for an
oversized generator to meet peak loads.
Main Electrochemical Storage
Technologies
Energy can be stored in electrical, mechanical, electro-chemical, chemical and thermal
means, delivering the final energy in electrical form. (See Table 3.)
Type
Sub-group
Capacitors
Examples (not
exhaustive)
Capacitors and
ultracapacitors.
Superconducting
Electrical
Superconductors
Magnetic Energy
Typical Applications
Power quality
Power quality,
reliability
Storage (SMES)
Potential energy in
storage medium
Mechanical
Kinetic energy in
storage medium
Electro-
Low-temperature
chemical
batteries
Pumped hydro,
Energy management,
Compressed air
reserve
Energy management,
energy storage (CAES)
reserve
Low-speed flywheels
Uninterruptible power
Advanced flywheels
supply
Power quality
Lead-acid
Power quality,
Nickel-cadmium
standby
power
Power quality
Lithium cells
Power quality
70
High-temperature
Sodium-sulphur
Multi-functional
batteries
Sodium-nickel
Standby power,
chloride
Zinc-bromine
remote area
Multi-functional
applications
Vanadium
Remote area
Polysulphide-bromine
applications
Multi-functional
Cerium-zinc
-
-
-
-
Flow batteries
Chemical
Thermal
Hydrogen cycle
Electrolyser/ fuel cell
combination
Other storage media
e.g. chemical hydrides
-
Hot water
-
-
Peak shaving
Ceramics
-
-
Peak shaving
Molten salt/ steam
-
-
Integration of
Ice
-
-
renewable
Peak
shaving
Table 3 Storage Type Grouped by Technology [64].
The main electrochemical storage technologies are described below:
-
Lead-acid battery
Lead acid battery technology is one of the oldest and most developed battery
technologies. They come in two basic forms: flooded lead acid batteries,
which are considered a well proven and robust design, and valve regulated
lead acid (VRLA, or “maintenance free batteries”) batteries. These batteries
are also used in traction for lifts, golf carts, UPS, mines etc. Lead-acid
batteries have some known drawbacks and limitations. They are heavy
giving rise to very poor energy to weight and power to weight ratios that
limit their applications. The lead content and the sulphuric acid electrolyte
make the battery environmentally unfriendly (although approximately 98%
23 of lead acid batteries are recycled). They have short cycle life and long
recharge times. They can only accommodate a small number of full (“deep”)
71
discharges and cannot be stored in a discharged condition without service
life failure.
Relatively low self-discharge rate of lead acid batteries makes them a
common
choice
for
standby
stationary
energy
storage
such
as
uninterruptible power supplies (UPS). Lead acid batteries have been used for
utility applications such as peak shaving. However, the economics and life
cycle requirements do not work out well for the lead acid batteries. They are
therefore not the dominant provider of Stationery Utility Energy Storage
(SUES) applications. Their popularity is expected to decline as advances in
other technologies occur with the exception of SLI applications.
-
Nickel Based Batteries
There are two types of nickel batteries, the older, nickel-cadmium (NiCd)
batteries, and the newer, nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, both are
rechargeable.

Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) Batteries
These batteries use nickel oxy-hydroxide and metallic cadmium as
the electrodes. They come in two designs: sealed and vented. NiCd
are relatively inexpensive, able to sustain deep discharge, recharge
quickly, and have a long cycle life. NiCd can also endure very high
discharge rates with no damage or loss of capacity. Hence they are
common among power tools.
However, NiCd are extremely environmentally unfriendly because
of the use of toxic cadmium. They have relatively low energy
density and relatively high self-discharge rates, which require
recharge after relatively short storage periods. The charging rates
are very sensitive to hot and cold temperature conditions. There
are also known memory effects that shorten the battery shelf life.
They compare unfavourably in terms of availability and energy
density with the Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) and Li-ion batteries.
72
There have been a few demonstrations of large scale SUES
applications, such as the system installed by the Golden Valley
Electric Association Inc. (GVEA) in Fairbanks, Alaska. The system
consists of 13,760 cells and could provide 40 MW of power for up
to seven minutes. However, the inherent disadvantages of Ni-Cd
relative to other emerging battery technologies and environmental
considerations have largely relegated the Ni-Cd battery to the
backburner. There is little, if any anticipated growth for Ni-Cd in
SUES applications.
However, Ni-Cd are extremely environmentally unfriendly because
of the use of toxic cadmium. They have relatively low energy
density and relatively high self-discharge rates, which require
recharge after relatively short storage periods. The charging rates
are very sensitive to hot and cold temperature conditions. There
are also known memory effects that shorten the battery shelf life.
They compare unfavourably in terms of availability and energy
density with the Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) and Li-ion batteries.

Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH) Batteries
These are another alkaline Nickel-based battery technology that
has replaced Ni-Cd in many applications. NiMH batteries provide
30 to 40% more energy capacity and power capabilities compared
to the same size Ni-Cd cell. NiMH is able to meet the high power
requirements in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV); and as such has
been the dominant battery technology powering today’s HEV such
as the Toyota Prius. NiMH are considerably more environmentally
friendly compared with lead acid and Ni-Cd batteries. They can be
charged in about 3 hours, although, like Ni-Cd, charging rates are
sensitive to both hot and cold temperature conditions. While NiMH
batteries are capable of high power discharge, consistent use in
high-current conditions can limit the battery’s life.
73
The NiMH’s self-discharge 25 rate is quite high, up to 400% greater
than that of a lead-air battery . The most significant operational
challenge with NiMH relates to recharge safety. The temperature
and internal pressure of a NiMH battery cell rises significantly as it
reaches 100% state of charge. To prevent thermal runaway,
complex cell monitoring electronics and sophisticated charging
algorithms must be designed into the battery system. With NiMH
technology gaining prominence in the electric and hybrid electric
vehicle markets industry participants believe there are looming
pressures on nickel supplies, which is one significant factor that
may limit the technologies ability to scale.
The general sense among the industry is that other technologies
offer a more favourable energy density and cost profile for utilityscale energy storage applications.
-
Redox Flow Batteries

Zinc-bromine Flow Battery
It is a type of hybrid flow battery with nominal cell voltage 1.8 V
and energy density 16–39 W·h/L or 34–54 W·h/kg. (See Figure 31)
The battery systems have the potential to provide energy storage
solutions at a lower overall cost than other energy storage systems
such as lead-acid, vanadium redox, sodium sulphur, lithium-ion
and others.
74
Figure 31 RedFlow ZBM zinc-bromine battery: 5kWh and 10kWh.

Vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB)
It is one of the mostly studied rechargeable flow batteries, in which
only one electroactive element vanadium in four different oxidation
states is used. The open circuit voltage of VRB is 1.41 V and energy
density 25 Wh/kg. The extremely large capacities possible from
vanadium redox batteries make them well suited to use in large power
storage applications.
It can be recharged simply by replacing the electrolyte if no power
source is available to charge it. The main disadvantages with
vanadium redox technology are a relatively poor energy to volume
ratio, and the system complexity in comparison with standard storage
batteries. Large systems with power of 200kW - 1.5 MW have been
installed.
-
Li-ion Batteries
Li-ion batteries, the most successful electrochemical devices were first
commercialized in 1990 based on the extensive knowledge gained in
intercalation chemistry by inorganic and solid state chemists during the
75
1970’s to 1980’s. The first generation of such batteries allowed storing more
than twice the energy compared to nickel or lead batteries of the same size
and mass. Today, the Lithium ion batteries offer the promise of high energy,
high power, high efficiency, longer life, and easier state-of-charge control at
lower weight, volume, and reasonable cost.
Commercially available Li-ion batteries (LiCoO2 versus graphite) have many
advantages, high open circuit voltage (4V), excellent cyclic performance and
highly reversible (>99% coulombic efficiency), but limited lithium storage
capacity. However, both existing and new emerging applications demand
even better performance in terms of energy density, power, safety, price and
environmental impact. As a consequence, there is a great interest to increase
the storage capacity of both the cathode as well as anode materials of Li-ion
battery. See Figure 32 on the schematic of a Li-ion battery.
Figure 32 Schematic of a Lithium Ion Battery
Among the existing cathodes used in Li-ion batteries, phosphate based
cathode (LiFePO4) offers high rate performance, excellent cyclability,
relatively safe operation and low cost. However, combining LiFePO 4 with
conventional graphitic anode in a full cell poses serious limitation for fast
76
charging and subsequent safety of the system. Thus there is a need to look
for anode materials that operate at slightly higher potential for safety
reasons. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) and titania (TiO2) are being considered
as high potential anode materials with negligible volume expansion and very
high cyclic performance (15,000 cycles compared to graphite having 5,000
cycles).
-
Metal-air Batteries
Metal-air batteries are the most compact and, potentially, the least expensive
batteries available and are environmentally benign. The anodes in these
batteries are commonly available metals with high energy density like
aluminium or zinc that release electrons when oxidized. The cathodes or air
electrodes are often made of a porous carbon structure or a metal mesh
covered with proper catalysts. The electrolytes are often a good OH- ion
conductor such as KOH. The electrolyte may be in liquid form or a solid
polymer membrane saturated with KOH. The main disadvantage is that
electrical recharging of these batteries is very difficult and inefficient [65].
-
Zinc-air Batteries
Zinc-air batteries are electro-chemical batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with
oxygen from air. Zinc air delivers the highest energy density of any
commercially available battery system, and at a lower operating cost. This
advantage is due to the use of atmospheric oxygen as the cathode reactant. It allows
more zinc to be used to fill the zinc-air cell. Typically, batteries contain
approximately the same amount of anode and cathode material, thus their
service life is limited by the material that is consumed first. Thus, the
increase in amount of anode material of the zinc air battery offers up to 5
times more capacity(gravimetric energy density of up to 442 Wh/kg,
volumetric energy density of up to 1673 Wh/l) than regular zinc-anode
systems which must additionally house the oxidant within the cell [66].
These batteries are already commercially available and range in size from
77
small button cells for hearing aids to very large batteries for electrical
vehicle propulsion.
Zinc-air batteries have some properties of fuel cells as well as batteries thus
making it a contender to power electric vehicles. Another advantage of the
zinc-air system is that it is relatively safe as it does not require volatile
material and is thus not prone to catching fire, , and it has a long shelf life,
indefinite in fact, if stored in a dry state but are best used within three
years of manufacture [67].
However, this battery cannot be used in a sealed battery holder as air must
be come in. Some other disadvantages of the zinc-air battery is that zinc
corrosion can produce hydrogen which could build-up in enclosed areas,
short-circuiting the cell and deep discharge below 0.5V/cell may result in
electrode leakage.
-
Li-S Batteries
Li-S batteries due to their light weight (practical energy densities >
600Wh/kg, 2.5 – 1.7 V) and the safe, abundant low cost cathode material
constitute a promising technology for future mobile applications. Its
outstanding potential has e.g. been demonstrated as the night time power
source on the longest solar-powered airplane flight in 2008. The Li-S battery
consists of a Li metal anode, an organic liquid electrolyte and a cathode
made of a composite of sulphur and mesoporous carbon. During discharge,
lithium dissolves from the anode and reacts with sulphur of the anode to
form Lithium polysulphides, S8 ➝ Li2S8➝ Li2S6 ➝ Li2S4 ➝ Li2S3, and finally
to Lithium sulphide, while on charging, Li2S as well as the polysulphides are
reduced again and Li is plated on the anode. Despite its inherent advantages,
Li-S battery technology requires further progress in the coming decades to
overcome challenges in terms of cycle life, cycle efficiency, self-discharging
etc. mostly related to the solubility of Li polysulphides in the available
electrolytes. The problems can be mitigated by electrolyte additives, Li
anodes protected by solid electrolyte separators and coating of cathodes by
78
hydrophilic layers. Another approach is to keep the sulphur accessible to
electrons and lithium by immobilizing it in carbon nanostructures.
-
Sodium-Based Batteries
In the sodium-sulphur (NaS) battery (2.08V, ~120Wh/kg) Na + ions from a
molten sodium metal anode pass at 300-350°C through the ceramic Na+ ion
electrolyte β-alumina and react with the molten sulphur of the cathode to
form sodium (poly) sulphides. As sulphur is an insulator, it is combined
with a porous carbon-sponge matrix has to be used to ensure electronic
conductivity. The high temperature, corrosive nature of Na, and the
potential for catastrophic failure limit applications to large-scale stationary
systems. NaS battery technology was demonstrated at over 200 sites (By
NGK Insulators, Ltd. / Japan) with installations up to 245 MWh (34 MW)
unit e.g. for the stabilization of the power output from wind parks. See
Figure 33 on the schematic representation of NaS battery.
Figure 33 Schematic representation of NaS battery
79
Research for a safe alternative with a long cycle life sparked the
development of the NaNiCl2 or ZEBRA (invented by the Zeolite Battery
Research Africa Project (ZEBRA) at Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research (CSIR) labs / South Africa) battery (2.58V, 90W/kg, ~140W/kg)
and similar Na-metal halide batteries. The Na-NiCl2 battery has been tested
in various electric vehicles (Think, Daimler), a significant drawback is
however that the battery has to be stored in molten charged state. Once the
NaAlCl4 solidifies (below 157°C in the discharged state), a non-destructive
restart takes several days. See Figure 34 [68].
Figure 34 ZEBRA battery
80
6. Project Description
TS (Tozzi Storage) plant is used to store and distribute electrical energy from nonprogrammable renewable sources.
The preexisting production plant is constituted by the following RES:
-
A 17,25 kW photovoltaic plant carried out with solar panels (Trina Solar
TSM-PC05-230 Wp).
-
A 6.7 kWp wind turbine (Tozzi Nord TN420, connected to the grid through
an AFE back to back converter).
In this case the load is composed by all the electrical utilities of a cheese factory.
Based on this pre-existing system configuration an ESS named TS (Tozzi Storage)
has been installed and it is composed by two subsystem: PCS (Power Control
system) and BESS (Battery Energy Storage System).
Figure 35 Microgrid configuration
81
The system allows to manage efficiently the energy flow from renewable sources to
the load, according to demand. The produced energy can be injected into the grid,
supplied to the load directly or stored in batteries.
82
7. Plant Analysis
Test Plant Location
The site chosen for the construction of the test plant has been the cheese factory
named “Il Buon Pastore” located in Sant’Alberto in the province of Ravenna: one
main reason has been the presence of a WT and a PV plant which supply energy to
the cheese factory.
Figure 36 Test plant location, Forello street, Sant'Alberto (RA)
The choice of this site is also motivated by a real problem: due to structural failure
of the network, the farm suffers frequent black outs that impede the normal
operation of production activities and storage of goods.
83
Figure 37 Wind turbine.
Figure 38 PV plant on the roof of the cheese factory.
The position of the TS according to the project has been strategically chosen, next
to the WT in order to be as close as possible to all system components.
84
Figure 39 Planimetry of the site of TS installation
Study of the energy production from the
PV plant
7.2.1 Description of the PV plant
The PV plant is three-phase current and connected in parallel to the public grid,
supplying the produced electricity to the grid in the condition of net metering
(TISP).
The energy flow depends on the electrical consumer and the power produced by
the PV plant. In the period of absence of energy production (during the night), the
85
public grid supplies the necessary energy to satisfy the load demand. The working
system is defined as “grid connected”.
The PV generator, defined as the ensemble of panels and the related accessories,
has a total power of 17,250 kWp and it is composed by 75 modules, each has the
power of 230 Wp.
The plant consists of:
-
PV Generator
-
Conversion Group and measurement and data acquisition
-
Electricity meter (property of ENEL)
The singles PV modules are made up 60 cells of multicrystalline silicon:
-
Model: Trina solar TSM-230PC05
-
Output Power: 230 Wp
-
Maximum Voltage: 29,8V
-
Maximum Current: 7,66A
-
Open Circuit Voltage: 37,0V
-
Current short circuit: 8.20A
-
Efficiency: 14,1 %
The reported values are measured in standard conditions: irradiation 1000W/m2,
cell temperature 25°C.
The modules are connected in series to form 4 strings; n.3 of these are composed
by 19 modules and n.1 by 18 modules, wired individually to the inverter. The string
sizing has been carried out taking into account the continuous voltage limit of the
converter DC/AC. Blocking diode and protection have been installed in the field
switchboard for overvoltages.
The inverter was sized for a nominal power of 30 kW, with the following
characteristics:
-
Model: SMA-ITALIA Sunny Tripower STP 17000TL-10
-
Power DC max: (with cosΦ=1) 17410W
-
Voltage DC max: 1000V
86
-
Voltage range MPP: 400/800V
-
Nominal power in AC: 17000W
-
Nominal grid voltage 3/N/PE,: 230/400V
-
Voltage range in AC 160/280V
-
Nominal current in AC: 24,6A
-
Maximum short circuit current: 0,05kA
-
Grid nominal frequency: 50Hz
-
Working range at grid frequency. 44/55Hz
The converter and controller group of the power is appropriate for the power
transfer from the PV plant to the distribution grid, according the technical norm
requirements and safety norms. The current and voltage values in the input of
these devices are compatibles with those of the respective PV plant, while the
current and voltage values in the output are compatibles with those of the grid
where the system is connected.
The conditioning group of the power is mainly composed by:
-
Incoming section from the PV plant (DC)
-
Modular inverter with forced commutation and microprocessor which
consist of command logic, protections, auto diagnosis and measurements.
The conversion group possesses a system able to read instantaneously the
significant working parameters (i.e. produced energy, power, working time, etc…)
as an instantaneous or historical data. Moreover, the system is equipped with an
interface for connecting the PC in order to download the working data.
The inverter works optimizing the maximum power of the solar generator (MPPT).
When the supplied energy is not enough to supply current to the grid, the inverter
interrupt automatically the connection and it is stopped.
In the conversion device, according to the connection rule to the LV distribution
grid prescribed by ENEL specification, are included the following devices:
-
N1. Energy and power meter
87
-
N1. Interface panel corresponding to the resolution 84/12 and attachment
A70, with the function of: protection of minimum and maximum voltage and
frequency.
-
N1. Three pole circuit breaker as a general device for the plant switch.
The PV generator is located on the roof of the building where the cheese is
produced; in particular the roof give the supporting surface to the modules in
order to have the same angle (about 10°).
7.2.2 Analysis of the PV Plant Production
The power and energy data have been acquired for a year through a grid analyser.
These data are necessary in order to size the ESS plant to absorb the peak power
and the total energy produced.
Next table and figure show the energy data produced for a year, July 20012 – July
2013.
Kwh produced monthly
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Figure 40 Energy produced monthly from the PV plant.
88
Energy produced monthly, kWh
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Day
1
37
9
64
71
83
101 102 105
58
71
43 21
2
4
7
61
28
29
82
103 101
73
67
58 12
3
34
46
75
70
103
64
109 101
26
67
38 48
4
33
59
77
65
84
93
107 102
43
70
15
6
5
37
28
34
15
43
105 102 102
57
61
34 26
6
24
38
8
86
50
105
60
80
81
69
50 42
7
24
30
23
65
50
111 109 103
88
62
57 16
8
7
63
29
70
66
110 114
99
91
34
52
0
9
6
41
50
55
106
70
112 100
89
20
50 24
10
13
48
60
58
48
89
110
98
85
49
27 38
11
4
5
47
93
80
116 111 101
77
34
16 45
12
9
23
65
70
114 115 106
99
67
16
1
41
13
4
19
45
101 116 111
93
92
27
26
11
9
14
9
41
18
102 119 117 110
90
60
29
23
5
15
34
59
37
104 108 109 112
94
60
14
47
6
16
7
65
80
97
43
109 111
97
81
70
19 17
17
14
51
51
93
62
109 110
94
82
50
16
5
18
9
50
29
101 111 106 109
95
84
41
8
7
19
15
66
88
102
72
105 107
96
33
20
3
31
20
5
14
49
27
103 110 109
93
77
54
13 27
21
13
7
92
28
91
111
64
96
88
48
42
7
22
16
4
92
85
108 110
65
88
82
34
25 11
23
30
3
57
81
78
113
68
86
39
57
30
8
24
6
74
12
103
75
96
52
90
59
60
29
9
25
41
66
9
105
61
101 103
91
73
55
9
4
26
50
76
16
63
110
55
102
38
35
10
39
4
27
49
11
64
52
123 105
51
101
10
13
5
5
28
7
38
18
72
88
55
99
99
33
15
4
40
29
17
31
69
102 113
99
93
17
40
20 44
30
11
14
49
115 114 106
84
40
54
7
41
31
12
66
53
102
45
19
39
Total
582 1039 1463 2182 2594 3008 3019 2855 1813 1329 792 639
(kWh)
Daily
19
37
47
73
84
100
97
92
60
43
26 21
average
Table 4 Data of the produced energy from the PV plant in the year 2012
89
Kwh daily average
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Figure 41 Daily average of the energy produced from the PV plant.
From these plots, the different production is noted between the winter months and
the summer months. The maximum production was about 3 MWh in July, while the
minimum was approximately 600 kWh in January.
The daily average of production is another data to take into account in order to
choose the best ESS size. In this case an important variation has been noted
between the winter months, 20 kWh and the summer months, 100 kWh.
In order to see the power peaks data have been acquired every 5 min in different
days of the year.
Time Power kW
00:00
0,0
00:05
0,0
00:10
0,0
00:15
0,0
00:20
0,0
00:25
0,0
00:30
0,0
00:35
0,0
00:40
0,0
Time Power kW
08:00
1,7
08:05
2,1
08:10
4,7
08:15
6,3
08:20
7,5
08:25
6,2
08:30
8,8
08:35
6,7
08:40
7,7
Time Power kW
16:00
3,4
16:05
7,0
16:10
5,8
16:15
7,4
16:20
7,2
16:25
6,8
16:30
6,6
16:35
6,2
16:40
5,9
90
00:45
00:50
00:55
01:00
01:05
01:10
01:15
01:20
01:25
01:30
01:35
01:40
01:45
01:50
01:55
02:00
02:05
02:10
02:15
02:20
02:25
02:30
02:35
02:40
02:45
02:50
02:55
03:00
03:05
03:10
03:15
03:20
03:25
03:30
03:35
03:40
03:45
03:50
03:55
04:00
04:05
04:10
04:15
04:20
04:25
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
08:45
08:50
08:55
09:00
09:05
09:10
09:15
09:20
09:25
09:30
09:35
09:40
09:45
09:50
09:55
10:00
10:05
10:10
10:15
10:20
10:25
10:30
10:35
10:40
10:45
10:50
10:55
11:00
11:05
11:10
11:15
11:20
11:25
11:30
11:35
11:40
11:45
11:50
11:55
12:00
12:05
12:10
12:15
12:20
12:25
9,1
9,2
8,9
6,8
8,9
10,2
10,8
8,8
7,8
6,8
9,1
6,3
5,5
7,2
11,8
6,0
7,8
4,0
4,4
3,7
10,5
8,4
9,5
13,4
9,5
11,9
6,6
13,4
11,8
14,6
13,5
13,8
14,4
10,4
10,4
8,8
8,5
6,0
6,3
8,8
8,6
4,6
5,7
6,7
4,0
16:45
16:50
16:55
17:00
17:05
17:10
17:15
17:20
17:25
17:30
17:35
17:40
17:45
17:50
17:55
18:00
18:05
18:10
18:15
18:20
18:25
18:30
18:35
18:40
18:45
18:50
18:55
19:00
19:05
19:10
19:15
19:20
19:25
19:30
19:35
19:40
19:45
19:50
19:55
20:00
20:05
20:10
20:15
20:20
20:25
5,3
5,2
4,9
4,7
4,3
3,9
3,7
3,2
3,0
2,6
2,2
2,0
1,8
1,5
1,4
1,3
1,3
1,1
1,1
1,1
1,1
1,0
1,0
1,0
0,9
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,1
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
91
04:30
0,0
12:30
9,8
20:30
0,0
04:35
0,0
12:35
15,0
20:35
0,0
04:40
0,0
12:40
13,0
20:40
0,0
04:45
0,0
12:45
14,5
20:45
0,0
04:50
0,0
12:50
13,7
20:50
0,0
04:55
0,0
12:55
13,5
20:55
0,0
05:00
0,0
13:00
12,6
21:00
0,0
05:05
0,0
13:05
11,4
21:05
0,0
05:10
0,0
13:10
10,6
21:10
0,0
05:15
0,0
13:15
13,4
21:15
0,0
05:20
0,0
13:20
12,7
21:20
0,0
05:25
0,0
13:25
12,6
21:25
0,0
05:30
0,0
13:30
12,0
21:30
0,0
05:35
0,0
13:35
12,0
21:35
0,0
05:40
0,0
13:40
12,2
21:40
0,0
05:45
0,0
13:45
12,6
21:45
0,0
05:50
0,0
13:50
12,3
21:50
0,0
05:55
0,0
13:55
12,4
21:55
0,0
06:00
0,0
14:00
11,7
22:00
0,0
06:05
0,0
14:05
13,2
22:05
0,0
06:10
0,0
14:10
12,5
22:10
0,0
06:15
0,0
14:15
12,0
22:15
0,0
06:20
0,0
14:20
11,0
22:20
0,0
06:25
0,0
14:25
11,8
22:25
0,0
06:30
0,0
14:30
10,8
22:30
0,0
06:35
0,0
14:35
11,7
22:35
0,0
06:40
0,0
14:40
10,5
22:40
0,0
06:45
0,0
14:45
10,2
22:45
0,0
06:50
0,0
14:50
8,7
22:50
0,0
06:55
0,0
14:55
4,4
22:55
0,0
07:00
0,0
15:00
3,7
23:00
0,0
07:05
0,2
15:05
7,1
23:05
0,0
07:10
1,0
15:10
9,1
23:10
0,0
07:15
1,1
15:15
9,7
23:15
0,0
07:20
0,4
15:20
7,6
23:20
0,0
07:25
0,5
15:25
10,8
23:25
0,0
07:30
0,5
15:30
7,5
23:30
0,0
07:35
0,7
15:35
9,2
23:35
0,0
07:40
0,9
15:40
10,0
23:40
0,0
07:45
1,0
15:45
10,0
23:45
0,0
07:50
1,2
15:50
9,6
23:50
0,0
07:55
1,4
15:55
9,4
23:55
0,0
Table 5 Daily average power of the PV plant on 06/04/2012
92
16
14
12
8
6
4
2
0
00:00 02:24
04:48 07:12 09:36
12:00 14:24
16:48 19:12 21:36
00:00
Time
Figure 42 Daily average power of the PV plant on 06/04/2012
14
12
10
Power kW
Power kW
10
8
6
4
2
0
0:00
4:48
9:36
14:24
19:12
0:00
Time
Figure 43 Daily average power of the PV plant on 04/07/2012
93
1,4
1,2
Power kW
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0:00
4:48
9:36
14:24
19:12
0:00
Time
Figure 44 Daily average power of the PV plant on 12/12/2012
Study of the energy production from the
wind farm
7.3.1 Description of the wind farm
The small wind turbine is an horizontal axis type, in which the tower carries the
nacelle to the top. The nacelle consists of a low and high speed shaft, gearbox,
electrical generator and the auxiliary devices. The rotor is assembled in the slow
shaft end, it is composed by a steel hub with the blades. The nacelle is able to rotate
in order to maintain always the axis of the machine parallel to the direction of the
wind (yaw orientation). The produced energy is carried to the conversion group
located within an electrical cabin located close to the tower though electrical
cables.
The generator is an asynchronous type with permanent magnets.
94
The energy deployment into the national grid is carried out through a frequency
AC/DC/AC converter, which presents an intermediate DC circuit in order to
separate the voltage and frequency values; with deployment into the grid according
to the nominal values of the electric grid.
The wind turbine is equipped with a drum brake to stop turbine in emergency
situation such as extreme gust events or over speed.
In case of over speed and consequently mechanical danger for the blades, the
turbine has a system, which is able to move the blades in order to put on safety
position; obviously the machine is stopped.
All functions are monitored and controlled by a control unit based on
microprocessors . The shell of the nacelle protects all components from rain, snow,
dust, sun, etc…
The nacelle consist of the following assembled subsystems:
-
N.3 blades of steel/GRP with a connector hub/blade.
-
Connecting hub between the electrical generator and the three-blades
rotor.
-
Multipolar electric generator with permanents magnets , consisting of two
rotor system.
-
Shaft for the transmission of the aerodynamic torque from the wind rotor
to the electric generator.
-
Vane.
-
Hardware and software control of the system.
-
Electrical and signal cables from the nacelle to the tower base
The wind power system is connected in parallel to the public grid, deploying part of
the energy produced.
The energy flow depends on the electrical consumer and the power of the WT. In
the period of absence of energy production, the public grid supplies the necessary
energy to satisfy
the load demand. The working system is defined as “grid
connected”.
95
The WT has a total power of 6.5 kWp and is supplied by Tozzi Nord S.r.l.
The plant consists of:
-
Wind turbine
-
Conversion Group and measurement and data acquisition
-
Electricity meter (property of ENEL)
The converter and power controller are appropriate for the power transfer from
the wind farm to the distribution grid, according the technical norm requirements
and safety norms. The current and voltage values in the input of these devices are
compatible with those of the respective WT plant, while the current and voltage
values in the output are compatible with those of the grid to which the system is
connected.
The power conditioning group is mainly composed by:
-
Incoming section from the wind farm (AC)
-
Modular inverter with forced commutation and microprocessor which
consist of command logic, protections, auto diagnosis and measurements.
The conversion group possesses a system able to read instantaneously the
significant working parameters (i.e. produced energy, power, working time, etc…)
as an instantaneous or historical data. Moreover, the system is equipped with an
interface for connecting the PC in order to download the working data.
The inverter works optimizing the maximum power of the WT. When the supplied
energy is not enough to supply current to the grid, the inverter interrupts
automatically the connection.
7.3.2 Analysis of the wind farm production
The power and energy data have been acquired for a year through a grid analyser.
These data are necessary in order to size the ESS plant to absorb the peak power
and the total energy produced.
Next figure shows the daily power of the wind farm on 04/04/2012.
96
6750
6000
5250
Power W
4500
3750
3000
2250
1500
750
0
-750
0:00
2:24
4:48
7:12
9:36
12:00
Time
14:24
16:48
19:12
21:36
0:00
Figure 45 Daily power of the Wind farm on 04/04/2012
The energy produced on this day was about 100 kWh.
The average energy of the turbine measured daily in the period of one year was 70
kWh.
Load Analysis
The cheese factory “Il Buon Pastore” has been chosen as the place to install the TS.
This cheese factory meets all requirements to test all system applications.
In the cheese factory area there is a zone dedicated to the management and flock
care with premises destined to the milking and milk works and premises to age the
dairy products. The cheese factory area is around 71 ha, and possesses two cheese
factory yards with a capacity of 500 heads.
The loads present in the cheese factory are listed below:
97
Load Type
Monophase Triphase
Power
(kW)
Refrigeration Unit 1
X
11,00
Refrigeration Unit 2
X
5,00
Cashier Counter
X
1,00
Air Conditioning - Shop
X
1,00
X
0,30
X
0,30
Air Conditioning Butcher
Air Conditioning – Dairy
Work Room
Air treatment room 1
X
2,00
Air treatment room 2
X
2,00
Washer unit
X
9,00
Hydro-wash Machine
X
1,50
Ice Storage
X
2,60
Refrigerator
X
0,40
Multi-use Tub
X
0,70
Transfer Pump for milk
X
1,00
Compressor
X
1,47
Vacuum Pump
X
4,00
Pump for milk
X
1,00
Electronic System
X
Motor for Tub 1
0,30
X
1,10
Motor for Tub 2
X
0,40
Thermal Power Plant
X
1,00
Conveyor for Feeding 1
X
1,50
98
Conveyor for Feeding 1
X
1,50
Transporter
X
0,70
N.2 Extraction
Tower(2x0,7)
X
1,40
N. 3 SILOS (3x1,1kW)
X
3,30
Irrigation Plant: N. 2
Electro Pump (2x2,2kW)
X
4,40
Electro Pump - Farmyard
X
2,20
Auxiliary Feed
X
0,20
Guardian House
X
3,00
X
3,30
X
1,40
X
0,60
X
0,80
X
5,00
X
0,40
X
1,35
N.46 Fluorescent Light
2x36W 230V – Ordinary
Light
N.20 Fluorescent Light
2x36W 230V –
Night/Emer. Light.
N.6 Incandescent Light
1x100W 110V
N.2 Projector 400W – Ext.
Light
N.69 Incandescent Light
4x18W 230V –ORD. Light
N.23 Emergency Light
1x18W
N.9 Lights for Exterior
Viability JM-E 150W
TOTAL
78,12
Table 6 Loads present in the cheese factory
A grid analyser has been installed to acquire data related to power and energy
consumption in order to know the exact consumption of these loads.
In this way, data have been acquired for a period of 10 months with an interval of
10 s.
99
28000
Power (W)
21000
14000
7000
0
0:00
2:24
4:48
7:12
9:36
12:00
Time
14:24
16:48
19:12
21:36
0:00
Figure 46 Variation of the power demand on 27/07/2012.
According to the measured data of energy consumption, it has been obtained a
daily average of 300 kWh.
Next table shows the purchase of the total and monthly average energy after the
exchange.
Acquired Energy kWh
PERIOD
30/09/12
31/07/13
10 MESI
F1
12929
20520
7591
F2
7562
11764
4202
F3
38000
45526
7526
TOTAL
58491
77810
19319
MONTHLY AVERAGE
1931,9
DAILY AVERAGE
64,4
Table 7 Purchased energy in a period of 10 months. Data of the Enel invoice.
Due to the cheese factory works change frequently depending on the season, the
different consumption between the months of the year has to be into account.
In the following table the frecuent use of the main loads during a year and a day is
showed.
100
Table 8 Annual usage scheme of the cheese factory loads
Daily usage scheme of the loads
Consumption
Activity
19:30 05:30
Minimun
Refrigerator
Room conditioning
Night-light
Monitoring PC
Illumination
Shop refrigerators
Cheese factory activity
non-productive
Wash machine
Milking
Room conditioning
Monitoring PC
13:00 19:30
Medium
from
to
101
Maximum
Production
Sale
Wash machine
REfrigerator
Room conditioning
Monitoring PC
07:00 13:00
Room conditioning
05:30 07:00
Monitoring PC
Low
Milking
Refrigerator
Illumination
Table 9 Daily usage scheme of the cheese factory loads
Next table shows the data of the energy purchase for the cheese factory in three
different months. Data provided by Enel.
Table 10 Purchased energy monthly
102
Bus AC Study
*
*
Figure 47 Scheme of the exchange configuration of the WT and the PV plant.
The bus AC is the line QG001-C0, where in the junction * the PV and WT production
are collected and then going to the switchboard QG001. In this way, the selfproduction is encouraged, that is, the loads are firstly supplied by the energy
produced Pv and WT. All production surpluses go to the public grid according to
the agent (in this case Enel).
The fee of the energy deployment into the grid and produced by the PV plant is
counted and paid by Enel, whereas the fee generated from the WT is not paid. The
design is based on the choice of connecting the power cable to the batteries in the
point * in order to reduce the length.
103
8. System Architecture
The system is composed by two RES, (a 7 kW WT and a 17 kW PV plant) loads
present in the cheese factory and an energy storage system TS. All of these are
connected to the grid through an AC Bus. The TMPC Tozzi Master Power Control is
connected directly to the TS in order to control and supervise the entire system.
Different grid analyser TGA are distributed on the system to monitor the energy
flows.
Figure 48 Scheme of the system.
104
Hardware Architecture
The main components of the hardware architecture are the Tozzi Storage (TS),
Tozzi Master Power Control (TMPC) and the Tozzi Grid Analyser (TGA).
The TS is subdivided in two parts, a Power Control System (PCS) and a Battery
Energy Storage System (BESS). These system is installed within a 20” container.
-
The PCS is connected to the DC bus and consists of an 50 kW inverter
connected to a switchboard where is installed the controller (National
Instrument hardware).
-
The BESS consists of a battery pack organized in parallel
configuration and connected through a Battery Management System
(BMS) to the DC bus.
Also it is connected to the AC bus in order to exchange energy with the grid and the
RES.
The TMPC consists of different electronic devices connected to the TS, WT, PV plant
and AC bus. A computer is used for monitoring and managing the energy flows of
the system from a remote position.
Figure 49 Hardware architecture.
105
Software Architecture
It is a distributed architecture where the controller is interfaced with the inverter
and BMS. The different operations carried out within the PCS controller are
realized for a FPGA and a microprocessor.
The software used for introducing the system logic into the National Instruments
hardware (controller) is LabView.
The data acquisition is carried out for the TGA installed and transmitted to the
TMPC.
Figure 50 Software architecture.
106
Mechanical Architecture
The housing chosen for the ESS installation is a container ISO 20 feet modified in
order to meet the system requirements.
The changes implemented are the following:
-
Container with double door on both ends.
-
N° 1 Door with window and air grill situated in the middle of the container.
Dimension: 2000 x 1100 mm (height x width).
-
N°7 Air grills. Dimension: 400 x 400 mm
-
N°8 Roof fans, two of them without forced ventilation. One of these is
connected to the ventilation system of the inverter. The roof fan situated
near the switchboard is connected to the related ventilation connector.
-
N°3 Grommet plates, model Murrplastik KDL/E 24/10 in the zone A (see
Figure 51).
-
N°4 Grommet plates REI 120, model Murrplastik KDL/E 24/10 in the zone C.
-
Construction of a metallic channel painted like the colour of the interior
container and situated in the upper part of the zone B, on the four sides and
adjacent to each side.
-
Construction of a metallic channel painted like the colour of the interior
container and situated on the ground of the zone A.
-
Interior lining REI 120 on the walls, doors and ceiling in the zone C. For the
zone A and B has been applied a polyurethane lining with a thickness of 50
mm.
-
Construction of a wall to separate zone C of zone B with a REI 120 lining.
-
Construction of a shelving to collocate 8 batteries (zone A). The shelving
includes a sliding system in order to insert the batteries.
-
The floor was made by plywood panels, coated with homogeneous and flame
retardant PVC , edged an aluminium profile on the perimeter.
-
Carrying out a side hole to pass the cables.
107
-
The floor of the zone where the batteries are situated, is finished in steel
inox.
This container has been designed with 3 separated areas: one area to place the
batteries, another for the PCS and the last one kept empty.
Zone A: Empty
Zone B: PCS
Zone C: Batteries
Figure 51 Division of the container in three compartments.
Figure 52 Section plant view of the container
108
Figure 53 Left side view of the container.
Figure 54 Photo of the finished container.
109
9. Civil Engineering Works
In order to carry out the system, it has been necessary to modified the site. The
first change has been the installation of a manhole close to the container to
facilitate the passage of the cable. Besides this, the laying of power and data cables
(cooper and fiber) has been carried out following the path of the existing cable
ducts in the plant.
Figure 55 Planimetry of the existing cable ducts in the plant.
110
Cable Type
Path
Power
Container – Main Switchboard
Ground Cable
Container – WT Manhole
Copper
Container – WT Manhole
Container – Main Switchboard
Container – Inverter PV Plant
Fiber
Container – WT Manhole
Container – Main Switchboard
Container – Inverter PV Plant
Figure 56 Path of the cables laid on the plant.
It was necessary the insert of a switch of 125 A in the main switchboard in order to
shut down the whole system.
Finally, the container has been located in the place which was previously chosen.
Figure 57 Photo of the container within the cheese factory.
With the installation of the container, the civil works were completed within the
cheese factory.
111
10. Energy Storage System
Tozzi Storage (TS) is the energy storage system which:
-
Optimizes the energy production from non-programmable renewable energy
source, like a WT and PV, according to specific duty cycles.
-
Stores energy from the grid for applications that are compatibles with TSO
and DSO ones, according specific duty cycles.
-
Distributes energy to the privileged and non-privileged loads when it is
disconnected from the electric grid (stand-alone mode).
-
Energy distribution to the grid when it is connected.
-
Shows information about the process performance of the HMI through:
o Visual message – showed on the monitor.
o Control actions – button and keyboard.
TS consists of the following subsystems:
-
BESS (Battery Energy Storage System).
-
PCS (Power Control System).
112
Switchboar
d
Figure 58 TS configuration.
These components are distributed within a container which is divided in three
different areas.
Plant section view.
Figure 59 TS distribution.
113
BESS – Battery Energy Storage System
BESS is the electronic system which consists of a battery pack and its control
system named BMS.
The BMS manage the operation of a rechargeable battery (single cell or battery
pack), monitoring its state, calculating and reporting the secondary data, protecting
it and controlling its working ambient and/or its balance.
Figure 60 BESS configuration.
10.1.1
Sizing system
Once the data related to the PV plant, WT and load of the cheese factory have been
acquired, it has been carried out the choice of the most suitable battery technology
has been carried out according the cheese factory requirement.
The BESS must meet the following system requirement:
-
Supplying energy to all the loads when the activities of the cheese factory are
carrying out for at least 8 hours, without PV and WT production. The daily
average consumption is around 300 kWh, therefore for 8 hours is 100 kWh.
-
Covering the power peaks required by the loads. Peaks are over 30 kW.
114
-
Storing the produced energy from the WT and PV plant. The sum of the
nominal power of these two plants is 24 kW.
-
Based on this requirements, the best electrochemical storage technology for
this test plant has been identified.
In this case, the high temperature
sodium/nickel battery has been chosen.
Figure 61 Fiamm Sonick ST523 Battery.
The Fiamm ST523 battery uses a powder of nichel and NaCl as the material for the
electrodes, while the electrolyte and the separator are made in β''-Al2O3 (good
conduction of ions Na+ at T> 260°C)
2NaCl + Ni  NiCl2 + 2Na,
E 0=2.58V a 300°C,
T = 270°C ÷ 350°C
Cathode: FeCl2 o NiCl2 impregnated of NaAlCl4 molten (Tf =154°C), conductor of
Na+ through the membrane (columbic= 100%). High safety level
in case of
damage.
FIAMM Sonick ST523 Battery
Cell number
240
Nominal capacity
38 Ah
Nominal energy
23.5 kWh (efficiency 100%, DOD 100%)
115
Nominal power
6.25 kW
Working voltage (min/nom/max)
460/620/648 VDC
Recharge Voltage (min/max)
420 VDC/700 VDC (via DC Bus)
Maximum discharge current
30 A
Standard time of charge
8h
Standard time of discharge
3h
Energy efficiency
 93%
Working temperature of the ambient
from -20°C to 60°C
Working temperature
from 250°C to 350°C
Auto discharge
< 140 W per hour
Auxiliary consumption
 120 W
Dimension and weight (including the BMS)
624x404.5x1007.7 cm (LxHxP); 231 kg
Table 11 Characteristics of the Fiamm Sonick ST523 Battery.
One of the main reason to choose this technology is the power/capacity ratio of the
batteries and the loads requirements of the cheese factory.
Power/capacity ratio→ 1/3.
Each battery module has a power of 6,25 kW and a capacity of 18 kWh.
In this case the plant would need a pack of 8 batteries for a total of 50 kW and 150
kWh (80% DOD). In this way it satisfies all the requirements.
Another reason for the choice of this technology has been based on the low
damage: These batteries do not have an explosion or fire risk, very relevant aspect
as the system is sited in a transit area. Moreover, this type of batteries does not
have harmful residues for the environment.
116
Figure 62 Battery installed into the shelf.
Overview of System Connections
The PCS interfaces to the FIAMM Battery Energy Storage System by means of a DC
BUS, a communication interface to the GW and a couple of discrete signals (for
safety reasons).The communication interface implemented is TCP Modbus, in
which the PCS is the master and the GW is slave. This means that PCS will poll the
GW for the working modes requested, the voltage/current limits, current status,
and will provide the GW with some feedback signals.
117
Figure 63 System connections.
The PCS must be able to bring the DC BUS voltage from 0 V to the requested value
charging all the capacitors connected to the DC BUS.
At system power up each BMS has a total capacitance of about 1.5 uF connected to
DC BUS. This capacitance is always connected to the DC BUS.
Below the operating temperature the BMS disconnects the battery cells from the DC
BUS and activates the heaters through a PWM controller.
At operative temperature the BMS can:
-
Disconnect the cells from the DC BUS
-
Charge the battery cells drawing current from the DC BUS through the BMS
built-in charge regulator (a diode provides a path for discharging current),
provided that DC BUS voltage is above the battery voltage
-
Connect the battery cells to the DC BUS to allowing the flow of charge and
discharge current
118
10.2.1
Operation Modes
During operation, to assure proper working of the system, it is assumed that PCS
can be configured in the following modes:
-
STOP
-
I MODE
-
V MODE
In STOP status, the PCS is not active and no current is exchanged with the DC BUS.
In general, the DC BUS could be at 0V or at battery voltage.
In I MODE, the PCS acts as a bidirectional current generator. The PCS sets the
current according to user requests (positive or negative Power) and according to
the current and voltage ranges provided by Fiamm gateway. The DC BUS voltage is
determined by the batteries and is a non-decreasing function of the current
(assuming positive sign for charging).
In V MODE, the PCS acts as a voltage generator. The DC BUS voltage will follow
the Gateway voltage set point. The current will be determined by the batteries.
The GW requests the PCS to set a new modes using the “I MODEreq” and “V
MODEreq” bits. The PCS confirm to the GW the starting of its internal transition to I
mode or V mode with “I mode initialized” and “V mode initialized”, at the end of the
transition the current working mode is sent by “I MODE now reached ” and the “V
MODE now reached” bits.
In STOP, all IMODE=0 and VMODE=0.
119
Figure 64 State diagram.
The main states of the system from the PCS point of view are:
-
OFF: this state is entered at system INIT, if there is no communication with
the PCS, or after a TRIP reset. It is active until the PCS.HEARTBEAT is toggled
or the bit “Trip Condition Reset Request” is set to 1. It is assumed that the
PCS is in STOP mode.
-
READY: a valid toggling PCS.HEARTBEAT signal is received from the PCS.
The Gateway toggles the
GW.HEARTBEAT reply bit and sets the GW.READY bit. There are three main substates:
-
WAIT: In this state the both GW.IMODEREQ and GW.VMODEREQ is zero. The
PCS must set the PCS.ENABLE bit to allow the transition to the V MODE state.
It is assumed that the PCS is in STOP MODE.
-
V MODE: In this state the PCS is in VMODE. The Gateway requests the V
MODE to the PCS in order to:
o Warm up batteries below operating temperatures
120
o Perform a periodical Full Charge Procedure using the BMS Built-in
Charger (in one or more BMSs)
o Keep batteries warm and preventing charge or discharge
o Safeguard batteries when low SOC or high SOC limits are exceeded in I
MODE
o Safeguard batteries when current or voltage limits are exceeded in I
MODE
PPC Control Word allow the System Supervisor to request the activation of the V
MODE
(with or without full charge). The Gateway internal logic activates the transition to
the I MODE as soon as all the impeding conditions cease (see above).
-
I MODE: In this state the PCS is in IMODE. The Gateway continuously
monitors all battery parameters and adjusts PCS limits in order to assure
safety of the system, maximizing availability in I MODE. Nonetheless, there
are several conditions that activates the V MODE (see V MODE state
paragraph). The Gateway estimates the remaining time before the I MODE
state is left.
TRIP: this state is reached when an ALARM or a FAULT occurs. The batteries are
disconnected and the “TRIP” bit is set. The PCS can try to recover from error setting
the signal “Trip Condition Reset Request” to 1. If the error can be recovered, the
GW goes to the OFF state. The “ALARM STATUS WORD” and “TRIP STATUS WORD”
contain the description of the problem occurred. It is assumed that the PCS is in
STOP MODE.
PCS - Power Control System
The PCS is the control system of the plant. It consists of three subsystems:
Controller, switchboard and inverter.
121
10.3.1
Controller
The PCS controller is the electronic device which carries out the process functions:
read all the inputs, execute the working modes previously configured and the
output.
Figure 65 PCS controller.
The software used for introducing the system logic into the National Instruments
hardware is LabView. The main advantage of this hardware is the possibility of
carrying out types of operation that a normal PLC is not able to do.
Next figures show the synoptic of the software modules implemented in the
controller.
122
Figure 66 Interface between PCS and BESS.
Figure 67 Interface of management of the analogue and digital input/output.
123
Figure 68 Interface between PCS and inverter.
10.3.2
Switchboard
The Switchboard has been designed to satisfy the requirement of the electric
system.
Figure 69 Functional system diagram.
124
The switchboard is divided in two parts; DC and AC sections.
-
DC Section
This section consists of different components, which are described below.
o Protection and battery switch
The batteries of the subsystem are isolated from the ground and
individually protected by two fuses in case of overcurrent. Moreover,
they can be switched manually by means of switches in order to be
serviced.
The switches are equipped with auxiliary contact in order to PCS
reads its state.
Figure 70 Battery switch
o String bus
The batteries of the subsystem are gathered in switching strings
manually and protected by thermomagnetic switches.
The switches have an undervoltage release which have the function of
opening the switch in an emergency case.
The switches have an auxiliary contact to allow the PCS Controller see
the state.
125
Figure 71 String switch.
o Voltage and current measurement
The DC bus of the system is equipped with analogic sensors to
measure the local voltage and current. In this way the PCS controller
can manage the operation cycle of the system.
Figure 72 Voltmeter and ammeter.
o Overvoltage protection
The subsystem is equipped with a discharger which has the function
of protecting the DC bus from any overloads. This discharger has an
auxiliary contact to allow the PCS controller to know the state.
Figure 73 Overvoltage Protection.
126
o Isolation control
The subsystem is equipped with a monitoring relay which has the
function of communicate to the PCS controller any loss of isolation.
This monitoring relay has an auxiliary contact to allow the PCS
controller to know the state.
Figure 74 Insulation relay.
o Pre-charge circuit
The subsystem is equipped with a pre-charge circuit which has the
function of absorb the peak initial current.
o Capacitive load of the BTS
The system manage a capacity of 1,5 µF per battery in the DC bus. In
the case of 8 batteries this value is 12 µF.
The circuit is driven by the PCS controller.
Figure 75 Capacitive load of the BTS
127
o DC bus filter
The DC bus of the subsystem is protected from interferences from the
inverter by means of a low-pass LC filter with pass-band lower than
40 Hz.
The capacitive part is gathered to the discharge resistance in order to
guarantee the discharge of the remaining energy when the
switchboard is opened.
Figure 76 DC filter.
-
Ac Section
o Power supply of the BMS
The subsystem is equipped with a transformer circuit of the power
supply from 400 V AC to 24 V AC, necessary for the auxiliary
components of the high temperature batteries.
Figure 77 Circuit of the transformer.
128
o Power supply emergency
The subsystem is equipped with a circuit which supply the emergency
circuit (24 V DC UPS) to the PCS controller when there is no voltage in the
grid. In this case, the PCS controller takes the system to a safe state.
Figure 78 Power supply emergency.
The AC bus of the system is equipped with analogic sensors to
measure the local voltage and current. In this way the PCS controller
can manage the operative cycle of the system.
Figure 79 Voltmeter and ammeter.
o Protection and bus AC switching
The bus Ac of the subsystem can be switched manually by means of
thermomagnetic switch of protection.
The switch has an undervoltage release which have the function of
opening the switch in an emergency case.
The switch has an auxiliary contact to allow the PCS Controller see the
state.
Figure 80 Protection switch.
129
Also the switchboard is equipped with the following auxiliary services.
-
Temperature monitoring: the subsystem is equipped with temperature
sensor appropriately positioned to allow the PCS controller to map the
thermal state of the environment.
-
Temperature Management: the subsystem is equipped with independent
thermostats from the PCS controller in order to switch on the forced
ventilation subsystem with the goal of guaranteeing a constant temperature
in the three areas of the container.
-
Interior Illumination: the subsystem is equipped with lamps and its
switches to light all the components of the switchboard. Also, the area with
the batteries have an illumination system.
-
Emergency
illumination:
the
subsystem
is
equipped
with
a
thermomagnetic switch for the control of the emergency illumination of the
area inverter.
-
Auxiliary power supply plug: the subsystem is equipped with a monophase
plug for supplying external devices.
-
Auxiliary ethernet plug: the subsystem is equipped with an auxiliary
ethernet plug for connecting digital external devices.
Figure 81 Switchboard.
130
Figure 82 Main switch with two voltmeters, AC and DC.
Figure 83 Selector switch of AC measurements and lamps of voltage warning.
131
10.3.3
Inverter
PCS inverter is the power electric converter which transforms direct current (DC)
into alternate current (AC); the AC can be converted into any voltage and frequency
through suitable transformers, commutators and control circuits.
Figure 84 Inverter Ingeteam.
-
Operation mode
o Wait for the set point of the working parameters from PCS controller,
Psp and Qsp.
o Activate the commands received by the PCS Controller with
immediate effect that is, starting the execution before 50 ms from the
receipt of the command.
o Set P and Q values between the nominal and the maximum, for a time
is not greater to the minimun between t inv and tbatt: t < min (tinv, tbatt)
after which the inverter has to return to the nominal condition
automatically.
132
o It is put in phase with the AC bus when is supplied by the grid in
nominal conditions.
o
-
Change its frequency.
LVFRT/HVFRT
The system integrates the LVFRT algorithm according to the CEI 0-21 and
CEI 0-16 Ed.III and BDEW
-
Failure management
The system is equipped with a diagnostic function of the run-time regarding
the critical function. The system is disconnected in case of failure opening
the AC switch.
133
11. Master Power Control
The Tozzi Master Power Control (TMPC) is the management system of the plant,
consists of monitoring electronic devices.
The characteristics and functions of the TMPC are described below.
-
Management and monitoring system.
The subsystem carries out the management and monitoring off-site.
-
Data acquisition.
The subsystem is equipped with control functions of the data acquisition:
o Enable/disable and scanning of the analogic/digital inputs.
o Entering data manually.
-
Data communication.
The subsystem is equipped with control function of the port and the
communication protocol.
-
BIST and troubleshooting.
-
The subsystem is equipped with BIST functions and troubleshooting driven
by the identification and signposting of the failure:
o Execution Flow.
o Control function.
o Function of the diagnosis and state of health.
134
Figure 85 Screen of the start of the system.
The different duty cycle that the TMPC manages are described below.
-
Charge.
The system runs different charge profiles:
o Complete: it is used for the recharging balance. It indicates a charging
phase characterized by a change in the rise of the SOC up to 100%.
o Continuous: It is the Nominal operation recharge. Indicate an
operation
characterized
by
a
charge
phase
without
phase
interpositions of stand-by or discharge phase.
o General: Charging out the previous range, in this case the limits of
current absorption are fixed from the physic limits of the batteries.
-
Discharge.
The discharge profile is characterized by:
o Minimum current discharge regarding to the maximum available time
of the system.
o Maximum current discharge regarding to the maximum available time
of the system.
135
The different applications that the TMPC manage are described below.
-
Optimization of the energy production from RES.
The system stores in the TS the energy overproduction from RES in relation
to the needs of the load consumer, avoiding the transmission curtailment.
Figure 86 System configuration.
The energy flows are detailed bellow.
𝑃1 + 𝑃2 ≥ 𝑃𝐿
⇒ 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠
- { 𝑃4 = 𝑃1 + 𝑃2 − (𝑃𝐿 + 𝑃3 ) ,
𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑆𝑂𝐶 = 90%
𝐼4 = (𝐼1 + 𝐼2 ) − (𝐼𝐿 + 𝐼3 )
136
𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ:
{
𝑉 = 640𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐼4 ≤ 𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 15𝐴 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
If we are in F1 Enel (energy price based on the ENEL phase, F1, F2, etc…), it is
advisable to carry out the normal cycle and the surplus introduced into the grid.
𝑃1 + 𝑃2 ≤ 𝑃𝐿
⇒ 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠
- { 𝑃3 = 𝑃1 + (𝑃2 − 𝑃𝐿 ),
𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑆𝑂𝐶 = 10%
𝐼4 = 𝐼𝐿 − (𝐼1 + 𝐼2 + 𝐼3 )
𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ:
{
-
𝑉 = 640𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐼4 ≤ 𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 50𝐴 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
Peak shaving/valley filling
In this application, the system follows continuosly the peak/drop of
production from RES absorbing/supplying the power in excess/deficit
regard to the energy demand. The system acquires data at high frequency by
means of the TGA and the analogic sensors. Moreover it predicts the time of
maximum consumption according to the specific load curve of the load
consumers.
Figure 87 Peak shaving/valley filling configuration.
137
The energy flows are detailed bellow
𝑃 = (𝑃1 + 𝑃2 ) − 𝑃𝐿
𝐼𝑓 𝑃1 + 𝑃2 > 𝑃𝐿 ⇒ { 3
𝑃4 = 0
𝑃𝑆
𝑃 = 𝑃𝐿 − (𝑃1 + 𝑃2 )
𝐼𝑓 𝑃1 + 𝑃2 ≤ 𝑃𝐿 ⇒ { 4
𝑃3 = 0
𝑉𝐹
-
Stand alone
The system optimizes the energy production from the RES and manages the
loads, according the scheme below.
Figure 88 Stand alone configuration.
The energy flows are detailed bellow.
138
𝑃1 + 𝑃2 ≥ 𝑃𝐿
⇒ 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠
- {𝑃4 = 𝑃1 + 𝑃2 − (𝑃𝐿 + 𝑃3 ) ,
𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑆𝑂𝐶 = 90%
𝐼4 = (𝐼1 + 𝐼2 ) − 𝐼𝐿
𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ:
𝑉 = 640𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
{
𝐼4 ≤ 𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 15𝐴 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝑃1 + 𝑃2 ≤ 𝑃𝐿
- { 𝑃4 = 𝑃𝐿 − (𝑃1 + 𝑃2 ),
𝐼4 = 𝐼𝐿 − (𝐼1 + 𝐼2 )
⇒ 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠
𝑢𝑝 𝑡𝑜 𝑆𝑂𝐶 = 10%
𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ:
𝑉 = 640𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
{
𝐼4 ≤ 𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 50𝐴 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
-
Energy reserve
The TS works at SOC 50% to keep a capacity reserve in case of
underproduction RES and a recharge margin in case of overproduction. In
this case the system behaves as a lung with the ability of expanding and
contracting around the state of semi-charge depending of the generation
level of the RES.
Figure 89 Energy reserve configuration.
139
- 𝐹𝑜𝑟 10% ≤ 𝑆𝑂𝐶 ≤ 40% ⇒ 𝐶ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠
{
𝑉 = 640𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐼 ≤ 50𝐴 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
- 𝐹𝑜𝑟 40% ≤ 𝑆𝑂𝐶 ≤ 90% ⇒ 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠
{
𝑉 = 640𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝐼 ≤ 15𝐴 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡
TGA – Tozzi Grid Analyser
This is the acquisition instrument of electrical data of the system. The main
functions are the following:
-
Analyse of the grid parameters
The system measures the following mono-phase / three-phase grid
parameters.
o Phase-Neutral Voltage (V).
o Phase-Phase Voltage (V).
o Current (A).
o
Active Power (W), reactive power (VAR), apparent power(VA).
o Power factor cos(Φ).
o Harmonics voltage (V) and harmonics current (A).
o THD (%).
o Frequency (Hz).
-
Voltage measurement
The system acquires the voltage values by means of interior process unit connected
to the grid cable.
-
Current measurement
The system acquires the current values by means of three amperometric
transformers connected to the interior process unit.
140
Figure 90 System block diagram.
141
The system communicates throug the serial port RS485 or fiber, with a protocol of
communication Modbus/RTU Slave for the data transmission to the PCS controller.
Figure 91 TGA installation.
142
12. Communication
The TS can be managed remotely through the use of a modem/router HSPA which
has been installed in the interior of the switchboard or accessible on-site through
an Access Point.
The different subsystems communicate with each other as it is described below.
-
Communication between PCS controller and PCS inverter
The subsystem communicates with the PCS inverter by means of an Ethernet
connection.
-
Communication between PCS controller and BESS
The batteries are connected by CAN BUS to a Gateway and this one to the
PCS controller through Ethernet using an intermediate switch.
-
Communication between TMPC and TGA
The TGAs communicates with the TMPC by means of two different channels:
o Transmission copper cable: the TGAs are connected through RS485 to
the Gateway (sdfsdf, 234)and this one to (gdfgdfg) the TMPC through
Ethernet using an intermediate switch.
o Transmission fiber cable: the TGAs are connected to the TMPC
through a fiber ring and a converter of fiber to RS485
Figure 92 Communication block diagram.
143
13. First tests
Once the test plant has been placed and all its components assembled, we
proceeded to test system functionality and the application described in the
previous chapter. In particular, the application tested was “optimization of the
energy production from RES”.
Due to delays in the supply of batteries, at the present moment only one has been
installed. We could proceed with the test plan anyway, despite the impossibility to
operate the storage system at full capacity.
Ahead of the application test, it was necessary to test each system component. This
test lies in switching on the system and set it to the operation mode (“I mode”). The
different steps are described below.
Firstly, the switches of the switchboard were rotated to “on” position, (see Figure
81 and Figure 82) then it was carried out the same operation with the switch of the
inverter ( the switch is necessary to rotate only once, then, the inverter will be “on”
or “off” depending on the presence or absence of current in the system).
After this step, the battery pre-charge operation starts, giving voltage to the DC bus
up to a value approximated of 580 V. Then, the electronic boards of the inverter are
turned on and the communication check starts in order to control the state of the
system components. If there are no communication problems, the inverter pass to
magnetization mode and it is connected to the grid. The PCS changes the operation
mode of the inverter to voltage mode and gives a set point around the 105% of 580
V with the scope of opening the pre-charging circuit. When the DC bus voltage has
been raised, the pre-charging circuit is disconnected.
Afterwards, the inverter reads the state of the batteries from the BMS and
communicates that it has changed to “V mode”. Thereby, the battery begins the
warm-up operation for 12 hours. Once the batteries have reached the operation
temperature, the BMS communicates to the PCS that it is ready.
144
Finally, the inverter changes the mode to “ I mode” (operation mode), in this way
the system is ready to work.
Optimization of the energy production
from RES.
The TMPC is the management system of the plant and the responsible of setting up
the operation mode. In this case, the system has set up the values for the
optimization of the energy production from RES.
Initially, the TMPC by means of the TGA acquires the power production data from
the WT and PV plant and the power consumption of the load cheese factory.
There is a tool in the TMPC that allows the data exportation to an Excel file in order
to analyse them later. The TGA was set up for carrying out measures each 200 ms.
In Figure 93, a large difference is noted between production and consumption, but
equally there are moments where the sum of the WT and PV production is bigger
than the consumption. This implies that part of the production must be introduced
into the national grid. Due to this fact, the goal of this application is the use of all
the energy production to satisfy the energy demand. The plot of these data is
showed below.
145
Figure 93 Energy production from the WT and PV plant and the energy
consumption of the load cheese factory on date 12/11/2014
Once the TMPC has analysed the data, it sends the inputs to the PCS controller in
order to balance the power. Afterwards the TMPC shows the progress of the plant
activity.
Figure 94 Snapshot of the plant activity for a period of 15 min.
146
In line red
PGrid = PLoad – PWT - PPV
In line blue
PGrid = PLoad – PWT - PPV - PTS
This Figure 94 shows the trend of the energy consumption from the grid (red line)
and the trend of the real consumption (blue line) using the TS. In this way, we
noted how the peaks are reduced to 0, as long as they are in the range of [-6,6] kW.
This range is defined for the maximum charge/discharge power of the TS, that in
this case is 6 kW due to the presence of just one battery. Even so, there are periods
where the energy consumption/supply from grid is 0, which was the purpose of
this application.
This energy balance of the plant is near 0 as it is shown in the snapshot of the TMPC
because of the minimum system threshold which is approximated [-25,25] W (see
Figure 95)
Figure 95 Snapshot of the TMPC where is showed the noise in the grid.
147
14. Conclusions
A microgrid was created within a cheese factory where a 7 kW WT and a 17 kW PV
plant were already present. A storage system, TS (Tozzi Storage), was designed,
developed and installed in order to manage the energy flow from the RES to the
loads. The TS is composed by the following two subsystems: BESS and PCS. With
the aim of monitoring the power flows, a TGA was also designed, constructed and
connected to the wind turbine, photovoltaic plant and the load switchboard.
Different electrochemical storage technologies were studied, and by taking into
account the load requirements of the cheese factory, we identified the high
temperature salt Na-NiCl2 battery technology as the most suitable solution.
The data acquisition in the load analysis indicates the need of a 30 kW battery
system, but nowadays the system is composed by a single battery of 6 kW. Shortly,
by introducing more battery modules, the target value of 30 kW will be reached in
order to satisfy the total load demand of the cheese factory.
Different tests were carried out to verify the good performance of the battery,
especially in the most critical charge and discharge phases. The battery met all the
specifications declared in the data sheet.
The condition to optimize the use of RES was tested with success. It was
demonstrated how the integration of the TS reduce or in some cases eliminate the
consumption or supply of energy from the grid.
Also, the system has been realized to be flexible, that is, it can be installed in
different places with different system architectures through a modification of the
TMPC configuration and the installation of the TS.
Further work is planned, as in the near future the off-grid operating condition will
be tested once the system is completed with the remaining batteries.
148
References
[1]
ENTSO-E:
Online
Database.
Available
at:
https://www.entsoe.eu/resources/data-portal/, 2011.
[2]
GSE. Illustrazione Esiti della Mancata Produzione Eolica. Available at:
http://www.gse.it/media/ConvegniEventi/Presentazioni%20e%20Interventi/Con
vegno%20MPE%20Auditorium%20GSE%2014%20aprile%202011.pdf, 2011
[3]
EEA. The European environment – state and outlook 2010. European
Environmental Agency, 2010.
[4]
NREAP. National Renewable Energy Action Plan (Italy), 2010.
[5]
Eurostat.
European
Online
Database.
Available
at:
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat, 2011.
[6]
Atlante Eolico dell’Italia. CESI and University of Genova, 2002.
[7]
M. Šúri, T.A. Huld, E.D Dunlop, H.A Ossenbrink. EC JRC: Potential of solar
electricity generation in the European Union member states and candidate
countries. Solar Energy, 81, 1295–1305, 2007.
[8]
AEEG. Relazione dell’Autorità per l’Energia Elettrica e il Gas sullo stato del
mercato dell’energia elettrica e del gas naturale e sullo stato di utilizzo ed
integrazione degli impianti alimentati da fonti rinnovabili. Autorità per l’Energia
Elettrica e il Gas, 2011.
[9]
AEEG. Relazione annuale sullo stato dei servizi e sull’attività svolta. Autorità
per l’Energia Elettrica e il Gas, 2010.
[10]
P.BUSQUIN. New ERA for electricity in Europe, Distributed Generation: Key
issues, challenges and proposed solutions, EU publications office, 2003.
[11]
C. LEWINER. European Energy Markets Observatory, Capgemini, 2009
[12]
DOE; The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and Rate-Related
Issues that May Impede Their Expansion; 2007
149
[13]
Takahashi. Policy Options to Support Distributed Resources; U. of Del., Ctr.
for Energy & Env. Policy; 2005.
[14]
Lovins. Small Is Profitable: The Hidden Economic Benefits of Making
Electrical Resources the Right Size; Rocky Mountain Institute, 2002.
[15]
World Energy Outlook. International Energy Agency, 2011.
[16]
Federal Republic of Germany: National Renewable Energy Action Plan in
accordance with Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from
renewable sources, Report, 2010.
[17]
Gobierno de España: Spain's National Renewable Energy Action Plan, Report,
2010.
[18]
J. Smith, B. Parsons. Wind Integration: Much Has Changed in Two Years, IEEE
Power &Energy Magazine, 9(6), p18-25, Nov/Dec 2011.
[19]
State
Grid
Corporation
of
China:
http://www.sgcc.com.cn/ywlm/mediacenter/corporatenews/04/245999.shtml,
Article 2011.
[20]
The European Wind Energy Association. Wind in Our Sails: The coming of
Europe’s Offshore Wind Energy Industry, Report, 2011.
[21]
1BOG Blog, How Solar Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs) Work, http://solarfi
nancing.1bog.org/feed-in-tariffs/, 2012.
[22] V.Eckert.http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews /idAFL6E7NT1WK
20111229?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandChannel=0, Article 2011.
[23]
European Photovoltaic Association: Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics
until 2014, Report, May 2010.
[24]
GSE
Group:
Osservatorio
Statistico,
http://www.gse.it/it/Dati
%20e
%20Bilanci/Osservatorio %20statistico/Pages/default.aspx.,2012
[25]
F.
Wong,
C.
Yixin:
http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/
idAFL3E7G554620110506, Article 2011.
150
[26]
I. Perez-Arriaga: Managing Large Scale Penetration of Intermittent
Renewables,
MITEI Symposium
on
Managing
Large-Scale
Penetration
of
Intermittent Renewables, Cambridge/ U.S.A, 20 April 2011.
[27]
D. Hawkins. Evolving Role of Wind Forecasting in Market Operation at the
CAISO, Power Systems Conference and Exposition, pp. 234-238, Atlanta/U.S.A, 29
October-1 November 2006.
[28]
P. Meibom. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States
Eastern Interconnection, 9th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale
Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission
Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, Quebec/Canada, 18-19 October 2010
[29]
Webpage: http://www.3tier.com/en/, 2012.
[30]
S. Inage: Prospects for Large-Scale Energy Storage in Decarbonized Power
Grids, International Energy Agency Working Paper, 2009.
[31]
International Energy Outlook. U.S. Energy Information Administration, July
2011.
[32]
R.Adam. from distribution to contribution, commercializing the smart grid.
Booz&Co, 2008.
[33]
G. Oettinger. Priorities for 2020 and beyond - A blueprint for an integrated
European energy network. European commission, 2010.
[34]
N. Vikash. Slow and steady loses the race: can europe’s smart meter
deployment make 20-20-20 mission possible?. Frost & Sullivan Market Insight,
2010.
[35]
E. Giglioli., How Europe is approaching the smart grid. McKinsey, 2010.
[36]
B. Young. Survey results: Utilities Executives on Energy Efficiency & the
Smart Grid, Intelligent Energy Management, Jan 2011.
[37] R.J. Kerestes. Economic analysis of grid level energy storage for the
application of load leveling. B. S. thesis, University of Pitchburg, 2011.
[38]
Smart Grid. US Department of Energy. www.doe.gov, 2011.
151
[39]
Website. http://gridwise.pnl.gov/.
[40]
Website. www.smartgridnews.com.
[41]
Ipakchi, Ali and Albuyeh, Farrokh. Grid of Future. IEEE power & energy
magazine, 2009
[42]
National Institute of Standards Technology. www.nist.org.
[43]
51M. Rogers. Diffusion of Innovations. The Free Press, chapter 1, 1963.
[44]
P. Petroni. From smart metering to smart grids. Enel infractuctures and
networks division, 2010
[45]
Annual Report. PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2010.
[46]
Technology Roadmap: Smart Grids, 2011.
[47]
S.M. Kaplan, F. Sissine. Smart grid: modernizing electric power transmission
and distribution. The Capitol Net Inc, ISBN 1-58733-162-4, page 217, 2009.
[48]
Microgrid project Laborelec. Laborelec, 2010.
[49]
World Energy Outlook. International Energy Agency, 2009.
[50]
Ibrahim, H. Ilinca, H. Perron, A.J. Energy Storage systems - Characteristics
and comparisons. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, pag. 1221–1250,
2008
[51]
D. Rastler. Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: System Cost
Benchmarking. IPHE Workshop “Hydrogen- A competitive Energy Storage Medium
for large scale integration of renewable electricity”. Casa Palacio de Guardiola,
Seville, Spain, 2012.
[52]
I. Guyk. Energy Storage Applications For The Electric Grid. DOE, October
2008.
[53]
R. Sioshansi. Some Policy and Research Questions Related To Energy Storage,
April 2010.
[54]
R. Baxter. Energy Storage - A Nontechnical Guide. ISBN 1-59370-027-X,
2005.
152
[55]
SERG (Sustainable Energy Research Group). Electricity Storage Options,
November 2003.
[56]
D. Connolly. A Review of Energy Storage Technologies: for the integration of
fluctuating renewable energy. University of Limerick, 2010.
[57]
EPRI. Emerging Technologies to Increase the Penetration and Availability of
Renewables, July 2008.
[58]
H. Chen, T. Cong, Y. Ngoc, T. Wei, L. Chunqing, D. Yongliang, Yulong. Progress
in electrical energy storage system: a critical review. Progress in Natural Science 19
(2009), P 291-312, July 2008.
[59]
European Parliament. Outlook of Energy Storage Technologies, February
2008.
[60]
H. Beltran. Energy storage systems integration into PV power plants, PhD
Thesis, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2011.
[61]
Updated and inflated from Hurwitch et. al., EPRI Energy Storage Workshop
materials, 1991.
[62]
A. Akhil, S. Swaminathan, and R. Sen. Inflated cost of PREPA BESS. Cost
Analysis of Energy Storage Systems for Electric Utility Applications, Sandia National
Laboratories report SAND97-0443, 1997.
[63]
H. Zaininger, Analysis of the Value of Battery Storage with Wind and
Photovoltaic Generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Sandia
National Laboratories report SAND98-1904, 1998.
[64]
Anthony Price. Electrical Energy Storage - A review of Technology Options.
Proceedings of ICE, Civil Engineering 158, pgs 52-58, Nov 2005.
[65]
Website. http://www.electricitystorage.org/ESA/technologies/
[66]
Website. http://www1.duracell.com/oem/primary/Zinc/zinc_air_tech.asp
[67]
Website. http://www.technologyreview.com/business/23812/
[68]
Website. http://www.metricmind.com/ac_honda/battery.htm
153
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement