第10章 IGBT模块的电磁兼容性设计

第10章 IGBT模块的电磁兼容性设计
Chapter 10
EMC Design of IGBT Module
CONTENTS
Page
1
General information of EMC in Power Drive System
···························
10-1
2
EMI design in Power Drive System
···························
10-4
3
EMI countermeasures in applying IGBT modules
···························
10-10
In this chapter, EMC measures when IGBT module is applied are introduced.
1
General information of EMC in Power Drive System
Recently EMC measures coping with European CE Marking and Japanese VCCI(Voluntary Control
Council for Information Technology Equipment) standards are indispensable in designing power
electronic equipments such as Power Drive System(PDS) and Uninterruptible Power Source(UPS)
using IGBT modules.
EMC is Electro Magnetic Compatibility, which is classified into EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference)
and EMS (Electro Magnetic Susceptibility). EMI is adverse effects of electronic devices on peripheral
equipments, and it is also called Emission. There are two kinds of EMI, one is conducted emission
which leaks to power line and the other is radiated emission radiated as electromagnetic wave. EMS
means immunity performance of electronic devices against disturbance, such as electromagnetic
wave, voltage sag, electrostatic discharge, EFT/burst and lightning surge from the surrounding and it is
also called Immunity. These are simplified as shown in Fig.10-1.
Since IGBT modules turn on and off several hundreds of voltage and several hundreds of current in
several hundreds nanoseconds, both conducted emission and radiated emission are easily generated
due to high dv/dt and di/dt of IGBT module. It is important to reduce those emission when designing
power electronics equipments.
In this chapter, effects of switching on others (EMI characteristics), which tend to become troubles in
the application of the IGBT module, and countermeasures are introduced.
10-1
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
EMI
EMC
Conducted emission
Radiated emission
Electromagnetic wave
EMS
Instantaneous voltage drop/voltage sag
Electrostatic Discharge(ESD)
EFT/Burst
Lightning surge
Fig.10-1 Classification of EMC
1.1
EMI performance
The IGBT module is used for equipments in a wide range of application field and power including
such home appliance as air-conditioner and refrigerator, automobile and traction system as well as
industrial PDS. Here are EMI standards related to PDS including general-purpose motor drive which is
one of main application of the IGBT module.
(1) Conducted emission
In IEC61800-3, the limits (QP (Quasi-Peak) values) of the conducted emission are stipulated as
shown in Fig.10-2 for PDS (Power Drive System).
The limits in the standard are classified into Category (C1) applied for equipments used in
commercial area and Category (C2, C3) applied for equipments used in industrial area, and the
industrial PDS are so designed as to clear Category C3 limits.
Fig.10-2 Limits of Conducted Emissions in IEC61800-3
10-2
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
(2) Radiated emission
Fig. 10-3 shows the standard limit values of radiated emission for each category. The category
classification is defined as Fig. 10-4.
(Frequncy:30MHz~1GHz (radiated emissions), 3meters’ method)
Fig.10-3 Limits of Radiated Emissions in IEC61800-3
Fig.10-4 Category Classification in IEC61800-3
10-3
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
2
2.1
EMI design in Power Drive System
Common mode and normal mode noise
The propagation path of conducted emission is mainly classified into two types, normal mode and
common mode.
The normal mode noise is generated by high dv/dt and di/dt due to switching of IGBT, is propagated
in the main circuit and appears as noise at AC input terminal and output terminal. The path of the
normal mode noise is shown in Fig. 10-5
Fig.10-5 Path of Normal Mode Noise
On the other hand, the common mode noise is generated by potential fluctuation against ground due
to charge and discharge of stray capacitance existing between main circuit and ground and in the
transformer, and noise current is propagated through the ground line. The path of common mode noise
is shown in Fig. 10-6.
Fig.10-6 Path of Common Mode Noise
With actual equipment, there is impedance imbalance in the wirings of phases (e.g. R/S/T phase),
and so the normal mode noise is changed to the common mode noise via the ground line (Fig. 10-7) or
reversely the common mode noise is changed to the normal mode noise. In actual noise spectrum,
therefore, it is very difficult to separate the noise through the normal mode path and the noise through
the common mode path. As general caution, it is necessary to prevent the imbalance as much as
possible for the phase wirings.
10-4
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Fig.10-7 Path of Common Mode Noise
2.2
Measures against EMI noise in PDS
Fig. 10-8 shows general measures against noise in Power Drive System(PDS).
It is possible to control noise (mainly harmonics current and conducted emission) occurring in PDS
by inserting such countermeasure parts as commercial noise filter and reactor.
10-5
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
The effects of the parts are as follows.
(1) Common mode reactor
(1) Common mode This is a reactor of the common mode to be
inserted in the input/output line. It is effective for
reactor
controlling noise up to the band of several MHz.
(2) Arrester
(2) Surge protective device(Arrester)
(3) Input filter
This is installed to protect the PDS from induced
common mode and normal mode lightning
inflowing from the input power line.
PDS
(3) Input filter
This, composed of L and C, R, controls noise
outflowing to the input power line. Various
products having different noise attenuation
characteristics are available in the market and
proper selection should be made in accordance
with the specification and purpose.
Since attenuation effect may be inferior
depending on the installation method, proper
wiring and installation are required in accordance
with the instruction manual.
(4) Output filter
This is used for controlling surge voltage applied
(1) Common mode
to the motor and controlling noise induced from
reactor
the output cable.
(4) Output filter
Motor
Fig. 10-8 Measures against Noise of PDS
Such filters as described above to be installed outside the PDS are effective for noise control in the
bands of 100kHz to several MHz, but may be less or not effective for higher bands (conducted
emissions of 10MHz or higher and radiated emissions of 30MHz or higher).
This is because the frequency characteristics of filters are limited, and in order to effectively control
emissions over a wide range of frequency, it is necessary to intstall optimum filters to meet the
respective frequency.
2.3
Occurrence mechanism of emission attributable to module characteristics
One of factors to cause emission near the range of 10MHz to 50MHz is wiring inductance and/or
stray capacitance around the IGBT module in the PDS, and it is considered that resonance occurs
accompanying switching. In this section, the mechanism of emissions occurring around the IGBT and
the countermeasures are introduced.
10-6
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Fig. 10-9 shows the block diagram of a typical power drive system. In this figure, AC power source is
rectified into DC by rectifier diodes and then reversely converted into AC by switching at high
frequency the IGBT of the inverter portion, thereby achieving variable speed driving of the motor. The
IGBT module and rectifier diode are mounted on a cooling fin, and this cooling fin is a part of a PDS
body and is normally grounded for safety.
Fig.10-9 Path of Common Mode Noise
In this system , the metal base of IGBT module mounted on a cooling fin and the electric circuit side
such as IGBT chip are insulated each other by a highly thermal conductive substrate. (For the detailed
structure of the module interior, see Chapter 1)
A snubber capacitor which suppresses surge voltage is connected to the IGBT of the inverter
portion.
In the area of MHz order such as radiated and conducted emission, however, the wiring inductance,
stray capacitor which are not appeared on circuit diagram may give large effects.
Fig. 10-10 shows a schematic diagram of PDS in such high-frequency bands as hundreds of kHz to
tens of MHz. At a high frequency, stray capacitance and stray inductance existing in IGBT module and
electrical parts give a very large effect. On the wiring around IGBT module, tens to hundreds nano
henry of stray inductance may exist, and on the insulating substrate described above, hundreds piko
farad of stray capacitance exists. There exists Junction capacitance at the PN junction of the IGBT
itself.
Fig.10-10 Equivalent Circuit Considering Parasitic L/C
10-7
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Assuming, for example, that the stray inductance of the wiring is 200nH and the stray capacitance of
the substrate is 500pF, and if they are looped, the resonance frequency fo of the loop is calculated as
Fig. 10-11.
fo =
1
1
=
≒16MHz
2π LC 2π 200nH × 500pF
Fig.10-11 Resonance phenomenon between stray inductance and stray capacitance
If switching of IGBT becomes a trigger and the resonant current of 16MHz flows in the loop, the
resonant current will generate conducted emission and radiated emissions. In the case shown in Fig.
10-10 common mode noise current of 16MHz via the insulated substrate of IGBT module flows out to
the ground line, and it is propagated to the input power line and appears as the peak of conducted
emissions. If this resonance frequency becomes 30MHz or higher, it is observed as radiated
emissions.
Table 10-1 shows an example of stray capacitance and inductance values of circuit components.
Table 10-1 Example of stray Capacitance and Inductance values in components of PDS
Stary
Circuit Components
Stray Inductance Remarks
Capacitance
Between P and N terminals

of IGBT module
IGBT chip
100~200pF
20~40nH

Voltage dependency is large
Snubber capacitor
Insulated substrate
500~1,000pF
20~40nH

Electrolytic capacitor
100pF

Iron-core reactor
50~200pF

Varister
100~200pF

Motor
13,000pF

Hundreds of
pF

Hundreds of nH
Per meter
~several micro H
Hundreds of nH About 100nH per 10cm
Shielded 4-core cable
Wiring busbar
Between internal electrode
and mounting metallic band
At several MHz or higher a
reactor works as a capacitor.
The higher voltage resistance
is, the smaller stray C is.
Example of 3-phase 15kW
induction motor
In an actual system, these components are connected in a complicated way, and an unintended L-C
resonance circuit will be formed. Due to the IGBT switching, resonance current will be occurred in the
L-C circuit and will generate peak value of conducted emission and radiated emission.
10-8
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Table 10-2 and Fig. 10-12 show resonance loops that tend to cause the peaks in the conducted and
radiated emissions.
Frequency
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
1~4MHz
5~8MHz
10~20MHz
30~40MHz
Table 10-2 Example of Resonance Loops in PDS
Conducted/radiated Normal/common Path
Motor capacitance ~ wiring
Conducted
Common
inductance
DBC substrate capacitance and
Conducted
Common
wiring inductance
DBC substrate capacitance and
Conducted
Common
wiring inductance
Device capacitance ~ snubber
Radiated
Normal
capacitor
Fig.10-12 Example of Resonance Loops in PDS
The wire length (inductance) and stray capacitance vary depending on the system configuration, but
approximate resonance frequency can be estimated by roughly calculating inherent stray L and C
values in a subject system.
10-9
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
2.4
Frequency bands affected by IGBT module characteristics
Conducted
[dBuV]
ConductedEmission
Emission[dBuV]
As aforementioned, the frequency of the conduction noise for a power drive system such as
general-purpose motor drive is 150kHz ~ 30MHz. Fig. 10-13 shows an example of measured data of
the conducted emissions in PDS. As shown in Fig. 10-13, the conducted emission is highest near
150kHz, and as the frequency becomes higher, it is mildly attenuated. In the spectrum of the
conducted emissions, the harmonics of rectangular switching waveform at the carrier frequency
(several kHz ~ 20kHz) appears, and therefore, it is hardly affected by the switching characteristic of the
IGBT module itself. This is because, as shown in Fig. 10-14, the voltage rise time and fall time in the
switching of IGBT module are about 50~200 nanoseconds which is equivalent to 2~6MHz in terms of
frequency, and in the frequency band lower than this, spectrum of conducted emission does not
depend on the rise time and fall time of IGBT module.
120
100
IEC61800-3
(Category C3)
80
60
40
0.1
1
10
100
周波数[MHz][Hz]
Frequency
Fig.10-13 Example of Conducted Emission of PDS
Fig.10-14 IGBT Voltage Waveform and Frequency Spectrum
10-10
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Fig. 10-15 shows measurement results of radiated emissions (30MHz ~). Like the conducted
emissions, the radiated emissions become the highest near 30MHz, which is the lowest frequency of
the standard, and tend to attenuate as the frequency becomes higher. As shown in Fig. 10-15, the
noise spectrum due to switching of IGBT does not have a sharp peak such as the CPU clock but a
relatively broad.
Conducted
Emission [dBuV/m]
Feild Strength[dBuV/m]
60
50
40
30
20
10
30
40
50
60
70
80
周
波数 [MHz] [Hz]
Frequency
90
100
Fig.10-15 Radiated Emission Spectrum of 7MBR100U4B120 with Standard Gate Drive
3
3.1
EMI countermeasures in applying IGBT module
Measures against conducted emissions
3.1.1 Filter installation
Normally as the measures against the conducted emission, an input filter is installed on the input AC
side to prevent the noise current produced in the inverter from outflowing to the AC power line. The
input filter is composed of L and C elements, and the cutoff frequency of the filter is so designed that
sufficient attenuation will be obtained for the target standard value. Since various filters for preventing
emission are marketed by magnetic material and capacitor manufactures, a proper one should be
selected in accordance with the relevant standard and necessary input current.
Fig. 10-16 shows reducing effects of an input filter designed for Category C2 of IEC61800-3. The
conducted emission that was about 125dBμV at 150kHz without filter was attenuated to 70dBμV
thanks to the filter, thus clearing the standard value with the margin of several dBμV.
10-11
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Fig.10-16 Measurement Results of Conducted Emissions in 3-Phase PDS 200V/37kW (QP Value)
3.1.2 Cautions when filter is applied
In case of an ideal filter, the attenuation becomes large as the frequency increases, but in actual
filter circuits, ideal attenuation characteristic can no more be obtained at a certain frequency or higher,
as shown in Fig. 10-17. This is because, as aforementioned, stray L and C exist in parts used for the
filter circuit, and the attenuating effect tends to decrease at the frequency of 1MHz or higher, like the
measurement results of conducted emissions shown in Fig. 10-16.
Furthermore, the peak appears in a high frequency band near 10MHz, and so the margin against the
standard is the smallest. Depending on the measuring environment, the level near 10MHz may rise
and exceed the standard value.
Fig.10-17 Attenuation Characteristics of Ideal Filter and Actual Filter
10-12
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
As one factor of the peak appearing in the band of 10MHz or higher of the conducted emissions,
described in the preceding section, the resonance via the insulating substrate of the IGBT module can
be cited.
Assuming, for example, that stray capacitance of the insulating substrate and stray inductance of
main circuit are such values as shown in Fig. 10-11, the peak value of conducted emissions appears at
16MHz. The LC values of a loop that resonates with the frequency of 10MHz or higher are in the order
of hundreds of pF and hundreds of nH, and the causes may be the capacitance of IGBT chip,
insulating substrate capacitance and wiring inductance inside the package.
Fig. 10-18 shows an example of common mode circuit model of resonance via the DBC (Direct
Bonding Cupper) substrate.
Fig.10-18 Example of Circuit Model of Resonance via Insulating Substrate of IGBT
This shows the resonance between the inductance of capacitor connected as an input filter and the
substrate capacitance of inverter side module and the resonance between converter and inverter
modules. When the filter or varistor is added to prevent emissions, it should be noted that the peak
may appear due to the resonance with the parasitic L/C of the filter.
3.1.3 Measures against conducted emissions caused by IGBT module
In order to reduce the peak occurring in the high-frequency band of conducted emissions spectrum
as described above, it is necessary to:
[1] to decrease dV/dt of IGBT for switching
[2] to make resonance current smaller by raising the impedance the resonance loop
But there are such demerits as shown below.
[1] IGBT loss will be increased when dV/dt is decreased.
[2] Only increasing/decreasing the constants of L and C will result in moving the resonance frequency,
and it is difficult to decrease the peak value. It is impossible to eliminate the stray L and C components
structurally and physically.
10-13
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
3.1.3.1 A measure of conducted emissions by adjusting gate resistance
Fig. 10-19 shows an example of conducted emissions spectrum of PDS (with input filter) applying
7MBR75U4B120. From Fig. 10-19, it is known that the peak near 10MHz of the conducted emissions
is controlled about 5 dBμV when the gate resistance is 2 times or 3 times as big as standard value.
Fig.10-19 Measurement of Conducted Emissions of 7MBR75U4B120
Even if the gate resistance is increased to 2 times or more, the reducing effect is smaller, and so it is
necessary to judge the reducing effect considering the demerit of increased switching loss.
3.1.3.2 Controlling of resonance with ferrite core
The ferrite core is one of parts often used for reducing the emissions. Its equivalent circuit is
normally shown as a series circuit of L and R. The characteristics of L and R as magnetic material of
the ferrite core are as shown in Fig. 10-21.
Fig.10-20 Equivalent Circuit of Ferrite Core
10-14
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Fig.10-21 Impedance (L, R) Characteristics of Ferrite Core
If this ferrite core is inserted in the resonance loop to produce the noise peak described above, the
following circuit model is made.
Fig.10-22 Equivalent Circuit When Ferrite Core Is Installed
By selecting a ferrite core material with optimum impedance characteristic in accordance with the
constant (resonance frequency) of the loop, it becomes possible to control the noise peak by damping
the resonance.
10-15
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Fig. 10-23 shows the impedance characteristic of the resonance loop before and after the core
measure is taken. At the resonance point, the impedance becomes the lowest and large resonance
current runs, and so the peak occurs in the conducted emissions. By inserting the core here, the
impedance is increased, and by damping the resonance, the conducted emissions can be effectively
controlled.
Fig. 10-24 and Fig. 10-25 show an example of inserting the common mode/ferrite core in the PDS
main circuit and reducing effects, respectively.
Since the loop impedance when no measure is taken is about 8Ω, peak reduction of about 10dB can
be achieved by increasing it to about 30Ω by means of the ferrite core.
Unlike the gate resistance method, applying the core can reduce the emissions without increasing
the loss of IGBT. In Fuji’s 5th generation IGBT modules, U4 series, the tradeoff between high-speed
switching and low-noise characteristic is greatly improved when a core is applied. Furthermore, lower
noise of equipment can be achieved without sacrificing the high-speed switching characteristic by
arranging the ferrite core effectively. (Various patents are applied)
Z [Ω]
100
with core
コアあり
10
1
without
core
コアなし
1M
f [ Hz ]
10M
Fig.10-23 Impedance Characteristic of
Fig.10-24 Example of Measure by means of Common
Resonance Loop before and after
Fig.10-25 Measurement Results of Conducted Emissions
10-16
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
3.1.4 Measures against radiated emissions of IGBT module
The main cause of the radiated EMI emissions is considered to be the high-frequency L-C
resonance produced by the junction capacitance of a semiconductor chips and stray inductance on the
wiring (mainly the wiring between a module and a snubber capacitor) that is triggered by high dV/dt
produced when the IGBT turns on (a FWD on the opposing arm side acts as reverse recovery) (Fig.
10-26). This is the same occurrence mechanism as the peak in the conducted emissions described
above.
Radiated emission
Generally, the far electric field Ef at frequency f radiated
from a very small current loop (aforementioned L-C loop
here) placed in a free space is given by the following
formula (Maxwell’s equations).
Ef =
1.32 × 10 -14
⋅ S ⋅ If ⋅ sinθ (1)
r
r: distance from loop, S: area of loop,
If: current value of loop, θ: angle from loop surface
Fig.10-26 Loop formed by a module
From this formula (1), it is known that the Ef is in inverse proportion to the distance from the loop and
the loop area is proportional to the loop current.
The current value If is given by the following formula.
If =
E
(2)
Z
E: voltage spectrum of switching waveform of IGBT (Fig. 10-14), Z: impedance of loop
In order to reduce the radiated emissions, therefore, the following measures may be considered.
[1] Increasing the distance from the loop
[2] Decreasing the loop area S
[3] Decreasing the loop current
[3]a Decreasing the spectrum of switching voltage
[3]b Increasing the loop impedance
As for [1], the measurement at the distance of 10m or 3m is specified in the standard, and therefore,
realistic measures are [2] or [3].
10-17
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
3.1.4.1 Reducing loop area S
As described above, the high-frequency noise current induced when switching is the parasitic
capacitance of the device and the resonance current of L-C loop formed by the snubber capacitor (path
[4] of Fig. 10-12). With medium/large capacity module of 2in1 package class, it is necessary to
minimize the radiation area of the loop by screwing the mold type snubber capacitor directly to the
terminals. This is also effective from the viewpoint of controlling the spike voltage when switching.
Pin terminal type modules such as 6in1 and 7in1 types are installed on the power substrate in most
cases, but it is important for the snubber capacitor to be arranged near the P/N terminal pins as much
as possible.
3.1.4. 2 Decreasing voltage spectrum
As described above, the spectrum of voltage waveform when IGBT and FWD chips are switching is
as shown in Fig. 10-27.
Fig.10-27 Spectrum of IGBT Switching Voltage Waveform
Conventionally, the method to make the rise time tr slower by increasing the gate resistance has
been generally applied, and this means to make lower frequency of f2 in Fig. 10-27 and reduce the
spectrum of 30MHz or higher. In comparison with the voltage component E(1) at 30MHz when RG is
small and the voltage rise and fall time are short (dV/dt is large), the voltage component when RG is
large and dV/dt is small becomes smaller like E(2).
Since E(1), E(2) is equivalent to E in Formula (2), reducing the dV/dt means to control the noise
current If consequently.
Fig. 10-28 shows the dependency on gate resistance of the radiated emissions of
7MBR100U4B-120. By approximately doubling the standard resistance, the radiated emissions can be
greatly controlled. Thus, the radiated emissions can be easily controlled by adjusting the gate
resistance for U4 series, and the emission and loss are balanced well.
10-18
Chapter 10 EMC Design of IGBT Module
Fig.10-28 Dependency on Gate Resistance of Radiated Emissions of 7MBR100U4B-120
3.1.5 Summary
As described above, the EMI (especially the peak value of high-frequency conducted emission at not
less than 10MHz and radiated emission) produced by IGBT switching is generated by the resonance of
stray L and C existing in the IGBT itself and on its peripheral circuit. These stray L and C components
cannot be reduced to zero in principle and physically. As the measures against the emissions,
therefore, it is important to accurately discover the resonance of the loop to be the problem and take
proper measures.
10-19
WARNING
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