MIDDLE SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE

MIDDLE SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE
OFFICE OF CURRICULUM, INSTRUCTION, & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
MIDDLE SCHOOL COURSE OUTLINE
(Revised April 2011)
Department
Science
Course Code
4110
Course Title
Science 7
Abbreviation
Science 7
Grade Level
7
Course Length
1 semester
Prerequisites
None
COURSE DESCRIPTION:
Seventh grade science is a standards and laboratory based program. Students should spend
approximately forty percent (40%) of their class time on hands-on activities. Introductory
principles of life science will be explored in detail, with some related topics from physical and
Earth sciences included. Constructivist methods of teaching are employed to ensure the best
possible comprehension and retention or science concepts. Science activities will be based on
the California Science Standards as delineated in the California Science Framework and will
utilize the skills and techniques outlined in the Investigation and Experimentation Strand of the
Content Standards.
GOALS: (Student needs this course is intended to meet)
•
Students will learn all of the California State Standards for 7th Grade Science, which
emphasize life sciences. The use of well-designed, memorable experiences and the
application of scientific knowledge and methodology are essential in helping students achieve
appropriate comprehension of the content.
•
Students will improve their ability to learn independently by drawing generalizations from
science related articles, books, graphs, charts, and diagrams. Regular opportunities are
provided for students to clearly communicate their understanding through oral and written
explanations of science concepts.
•
Students will study the applications of science in everyday life to inspire them to consider
pursuing advanced studies in science and explore the wide variety of related career choices
available.
Science 7 - Page 2
CONTEXT: CONTENT SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
6th
Physical Sciences
Earth Sciences
Life Sciences
Density (Qualitative) -------- (CA 8)
Energy
Temperature vs. Heat
Heat Transfer
Earth’s Layers
Plate Tectonics
Mountain Building
Earthquakes, Faults, and Epicenters
Volcanoes
California Geology
Mechanical & Chemical Weathering
Minerals
Rock Cycle (Igneous, Metamorphic, and
Sedimentary Rocks)
Sun’s Effect on Weather
Convections
Solar Energy
Atmospheric Conditions
Natural Resources
Stratigraphy: Fossil Locations Rock --(CA 7)
Geol. Timeline of Earth’s History -------(CA 7)
Formation of Fossils -----------------------(CA 7)
Methods of Dating Earth’s History -----(CA 7)
Food Chains / Food Webs
Ecosystems
Human Impacts on Ecosystems --------- (LB)
7th
8th
Six Designated Lessons from Project
ALERT Health Curriculum
Cell Similarities & Differentiation
Function of Cell Structures
Energy at the Cellular Level
Photosynthesis / Respiration
Mitosis
Genetics
DNA
RNA
Protein ----------------Sexual / Asexual Reproduction
Meiosis ----------------------------------------DNA, Genes, & Alleles
Dominant & Recessive Traits
Theory of Evolution
Natural Selection
Body Systems
Taxonomic Keys ----------------------------Kingdoms & Major Phyla -----------------Observing and Defining Motion
Forces and their Effects
Gravity’s Larges Scale Effects
Basic Atomic Theory
Periodic Table as a Tool
Metals, Non-metals, Inert Gases
Electrons beyond the Bohr Model
Ions and Isotopes
Physical & Chemical Properties
Element vs. Compound Properties
Chemical Bonding
Atoms and Ions Forming Solids
Phases and Molecular Motion
Chemical Formulas
Chemical Equations & Conservation
of Matter
Exothermic vs. Endothermic
Acids, Bases, and pH
Density & Buoyancy
Sound and Light Energy ------ (CA 7)
Galaxies and Stars
Life Cycles of Stars (Nebular Theory,
Novas, etc.)
Distances in Astronomy
Light Sources and Reflectors in the
Universe
Cosmology (Universe Origin) --------- (LB)
Solar System
(LB)
(LB)
(LB)
(LB)
Simple Machines
and the Human Body -------------(CA 7)
Blood Pressure and Heart Valves---(CA 7)
Organic Chem. / Biochem.
Three Designated Lessons from Project
ALERT Health Curriculum
Notes regarding non-aligned content:
(LB) => Long Beach specific content; not found in CA Science
Content Standards
(CA 7) => 7th grade content which has been moved to 6th or 8th grade
to accommodate reduced science instruction in 7th grade
(CA 8) => 8th grade content which should be presented qualitatively
in 6th grade to help explain convections and other Earth
science related content
Science 7 - Page 3
CONTEXT: SKILLS SCOPE AND SEQUENCE
Investigation and Experimentation:
Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands,
students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:
6th
7a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Develop a hypothesis.
Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances,
spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop qualitative statements about the
relationships between variables.
Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and oral
presentations.
Recognize whether evidence is consistent with a proposed explanation.
Read a topographic map and a geologic map for evidence provided on the maps and
construct and interpret a simple scale map.
Interpret events by sequence and time from natural phenomena (e.g., the relative ages of
rocks and intrusions).
Identify changes in natural phenomena over time without manipulating the phenomena (e.g., a
tree limb, a grove of trees, a stream, a hillslope).
7th
7a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances,
spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
Utilize a variety of print and electronic resources (including the World Wide Web) to collect
information as evidence as part of a research project.
Communicate the logical connection among hypothesis, science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence.
Construct scale models, maps and appropriately labeled diagrams to communicate scientific
knowledge (e.g., motion of Earth’s plates and cell structure).
Communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and verbal
presentations.
8th
9a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.
Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.
Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this
to interpret graphs constructed from data.
Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the
relationships between variables.
Apply simple mathematical relationships to determine one quantity given the other two
(including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure x area,
volume=area x height).
Distinguish between linear and non-linear relationships on a graph of data.
Science 7 - Page 4
CA CONTENT STANDARDS
Grade 7 Focus On Life Science:
NOTE: [LS10] indicates standards that will be assessed on the
th
10 grade No Child Left Behind Biology/Life Science Test.
Cell Biology
1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible
only through a microscope. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know …
a.
cells function similarly in all living organisms.
b.
the characteristics that distinguish plant cells from animal cells, including chloroplasts and cell walls.
c.
the nucleus is the repository for genetic information in plant and animal cells. [LS10]
d.
that mitochondria liberate energy for the work that cells do, and chloroplasts capture sunlight energy for
photosynthesis. [LS10]
e.
cells divide to increase their numbers through a process of mitosis, which results in two daughter cells with identical
sets of chromosomes. [LS10]
f.
that as multicellular organisms develop, their cells differentiate.
Genetics
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified
by environmental influences. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know…
a.
the differences between the life cycles and reproduction methods of sexual and asexual organisms. [LS10]
b.
sexual reproduction produces offspring that inherit half their genes from each parent.
c.
an inherited trait can be determined by one or more genes. [LS10]
d.
plant and animal cells contain many thousands of different genes and typically have two copies of every gene. The
two copies (or alleles) of the gene may or may not be identical, and one may be dominant in determining the
phenotype while the other is recessive. [LS10]
e.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living organisms and is located in the chromosomes of each
cell. [LS10]
Evolution
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many
generations. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: …
a.
both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. [LS10]
b.
the reasoning used by Darwin in making his conclusion that natural selection is the mechanism of evolution. [LS10]
c.
how independent lines of evidence from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy provide a basis for the theory of
evolution. [LS10]
d.
how to construct a simple branching diagram to classify living groups of organisms by shared derived characteristics,
and how to expand the diagram to include fossil organisms.
e.
that extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are
insufficient for its survival.
Note: This section has been moved to 6th grade in Long Beach to accommodate singlesemester 7th grade science programs.
Earth and Life History (Earth Science)
4. Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth. As the basis for understanding this
concept, students know …
a.
Earth processes today are similar to those that occurred in the past and slow geologic processes have large
cumulative effects over long periods of time.
b.
the history of life on Earth has been disrupted by major catastrophic events, such as major volcanic eruptions or the
impacts of asteroids.
c.
that the rock cycle includes the formation of new sediment and rocks and that rocks are often found in layers, with the
oldest generally on the bottom.
d.
that evidence from geologic layers and radioactive dating indicates Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old and
that life on this planet has existed for more than 3 billion years.
Moved
to 6th
Science 7 - Page 5
e.
fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed
f.
how movements of the Earth’s continental and oceanic plates through time, with associated changes in climate and
geographical connections, have affected the past and present distribution of organisms.
g.
how to explain significant developments and extinctions of plant and animal life on the geologic time scale.
Structure and Function in Living Systems
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and
function. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know …
a.
plants and animals have levels of organization for structure and function, including cells, tissues, organs, organ
systems, and the whole organism. [LS10]
b.
organ systems function because of the contributions of individual organs, tissues, and cells. The failure of any part
can affect the entire system.
c.
how bones and muscles work together to provide a structural framework for movement. [LS10]
d.
how the reproductive organs of the human female and male generate eggs and sperm and how sexual activity may
lead to fertilization and pregnancy.
e.
the function of the umbilicus and placenta during pregnancy.
f.
the structures and processes by which flowering plants generate pollen, ovules, seeds, and fruit.
g.
how to relate the structures of the eye and ear to their functions.
Note: This section has been moved to 8th grade in Long Beach to accommodate singlesemester 7th grade science programs.
Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science)
6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions. As a basis for understanding this concept,
students know …
a.
visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum.
b.
that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye.
c.
light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change.
d.
how simple lenses are used in a magnifying glass, the eye, a camera, a telescope, and a microscope.
e.
that white light is a mixture of many wavelengths (colors) and that retinal cells react differently to different
wavelengths.
f.
light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter.
g.
the angle of reflection of a light beam is equal to the angle of incidence.
h.
how to compare joints in the body (wrist, shoulder, thigh) with structures used in machines and simple devices (hinge,
ball-and-socket, and sliding joints).
i.
how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to the musculoskeletal
system.
j.
that contractions of the heart generate blood pressure and that heart valves prevent backflow of blood in the
circulatory system. [LS10]
Investigation & Experimentation
7. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis
for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop
their own questions and perform investigations. Students will …
a.
select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales,
microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data.
b.
use a variety of print and electronic resources (including the World Wide Web) to collect information and evidence as
part of a research project.
c.
communicate the logical connection among hypothesis, science concepts, tests conducted, data collected, and
conclusions drawn from the scientific evidence. [LS10]
d.
construct scale models, maps and appropriately labeled diagrams to communicate scientific knowledge (e.g., motion
of Earth’s plates and cell structure).
e.
communicate the steps and results from an investigation in written reports and verbal presentations.
Science 7 - Page 6
DISTRICT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS:
The Long Beach Unified School District has common assessments and assignments that are required for seventh
grade science. The Performance Standard Criteria are shown in the table below. The objective is to have all
students achieve at or above the Proficient Level and receive a C or better in the course. Performance level is
determined by the average of the assessments or assignments.
Science Performance Standard Criteria
Graded Student Work
Standards-Based Classroom
Assessments
Written Response / Lab Report /
OES
(6 point scale)
Written Response / Lab Report /
(4 point scale)
OES
End-Of-Course Exam
Not Proficient
Partial Proficient
Proficient
Average is a 1
or less than 60%
Average is a 2
or 60% - 69%
Average is a 3
or 70% - 84%
Advanced
Proficient
Average is a 4
or 85% - 100%
Less than 60%
60% - 69%
70% - 84%
85% - 100%
1-2
3
4
5-6
1
2
3
4
Less than 45%
45% - 59%
60% - 84%
85% - 100%
OUTLINE OF CONTENT AND RECOMMENDED TIME ALLOTMENT:
Content sequencing and time allocations are only suggestions and may be adjusted to suit school site
curriculum plans and student needs.
SCIENCE 7
Cell Biology
1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible
only through a microscope.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… cells function similarly
in all living organisms.
(1,a)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Divide and Conquer
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
Focus on LS,
Ch 1:1,2
PH FoLS, Ch 1:1-2
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
cell
multicellular
cell theory
bacteria
unicellular
genome
SKILLS FOCUS:
Classifying, comparing, organizing,
and contrasting
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• View prepared slide of cork cells,
and different kinds of specialized
cells (nerve cell, blood cell, muscle
cell, Escherichia bacterium,
Thermophilus bacterium, etc.)
• Focus on LS, 1:2, Conc’s in Motion,
Interactive Table of cell structures,
p. 63
• Focus on LS, 1:2, Mini Lab, “…
model a cell”, p. 65
• Focus on LS, 4-in-1 Lab, The
Compound Light Microscope, pp. 1-4
• Focus on LS, Ch 1 Transparency
“Organic compounds”
“A Factory Analogy”
• Wikipedia: Extremophiles
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Extremophile
5 Days
• Summarize the 3 points of the
cell theory.
• Differentiate unicellular from
multicellular organisms.
• Cite significant differences
between cells in different
environments (the variety of
cells in animals and plants,
bacteria such as Escherichia
bacterium living in an intestine
or a Thermophilus bacterium
living in a superheated geyser).
• Explain the common functions
within cells in all living
organisms (i.e., all cells contain
DNA genome which is
expressed by a universal code;
cell division and energy
production are very similar in
all living cells).
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 7 - Page 7
Cell Biology (Cont’d)
1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible
only through a microscope.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… the characteristics
that distinguish plant
cells from animal cells,
including chloroplasts
and cell walls.
(1,b)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Divide and Conquer
[LS10]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Your Basic Unit
“Students are able to …”
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
• Identify the parts/ function of a
compound microscope.
• Manipulate the compound
microscope.
• Differentiate magnification vs.
resolution.
• Prepare and examine wet
mount slides to identify major
cell organelles that differentiate
plant cells from animal cells.
• Explain that plants have rigid
cell walls while animal cells
have a shape defined by an
underlying cytoskeleton.
• Explain that many plant cells
contain chloroplasts and a
central vacuole, which are not
found in animal cells.
• Compare and contrast plant
cells and animal cells using a
Venn diagram.
Focus on LS, Ch 1:2,3
• Explain that DNA molecules
contain the code, or “blueprint”,
for organisms.
• Explain that the DNA
molecules make up structures
called chromosomes.
• Identify the nucleus and
chromosomes on prepared
slides of plant and/or animal
cells.
• Explain that if cells are not
actively dividing, the DNA will
be contained within the
nucleus, but is not condensed
and will therefore not be
visible.
• Explain that when the cell is
actively dividing, the
chromosomes will be
condensed and visible, but the
nuclear membrane will not be
present.
Focus on LS, Ch 1:1,2
PH FoLS, Ch 1:1-2
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
compound
cytoplasm
microscope
cytoskeleton
wet mount slide organelle
cell wall
chloroplast
cell membrane
central vacuole
SKILLS FOCUS:
Comparing, contrasting, organizing
Select and use appropriate tools
and technology (including
microscopes) to perform tests,
collect data, and display data.
(I&E 7.a)
Construct scale models, maps and
appropriately labeled diagrams to
communicate scientific knowledge.
(I&E 7.d)
LABS / DEMOS:
8 Days
… the nucleus is the
repository for genetic
information in plant and
animal cells.
(1,c)
Task Analysis
• Demonstrate microscope parts and
use
• View plant and animal cells under
microscope to compare and contrast
• Focus on LS, Brain Pop Movies
online, “Cell Specialization”
• Focus on LS: 1:2, “Conc’s In
Motion”, Visualizing plant cells, p. 58,
and animal cells, p. 59
• Focus on LS, 1:2, Demo., Cell Wall,
p. 58
• Focus on LS, 1:2, Demo., Fluid in
Cells, p. 59
• Cell structure board game and
jigsaw activity
• Micro-slides (to be used with micro
viewer): Plant Cells, Animal Cells
(Blood cell, nerve cell, cheek cell etc.)
• Model making of a wet mount slide.
PH FoLS, Ch 1:2
KEY VOCABULARY:
DNA
nucleus
genetic
nuclear membrane
chromosomes
SKILLS FOCUS:
Observe
LABS / DEMOS:
• Using a microscope, view a fixed
and stained section of onion root tip,
focusing on the DNA within the
nucleus. (Framework p.104)
• Focus on LS, 1:1, Data Lab, “…
observe DNA in a cell”, p. 54
3 Days
Select and use appropriate tools
and technology (including
microscopes) to perform tests,
collect data, and display data.
(I&E 7.a)
Science 7 - Page 8
Cell Biology (Cont’d)
1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible
only through a microscope.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… that mitochondria
liberate energy for the
work that cells do and
chloroplasts capture
sunlight energy for
photosynthesis.
(1,d)
[LS10]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Your Basic Unit
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
Focus on LS, Ch 1:3
PH FoLS, Ch 2:1-2
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
photosynthesis
simple
sugar
cycle
chemical energy
pigment
energy captured
stomata
stored energy
source
chlorophyll
nitrogen
cellular respiration consumers
SKILLS FOCUS:
Analyzing, summarizing
Select and use appropriate tools
and technology (including
calculators, computers, balances,
spring scales, microscopes, and
binoculars) to perform tests, collect
data, and display data. (I&E 7.a)
Construct scale models, maps and
appropriately labeled diagrams to
communicate scientific knowledge
(e.g., motion of Earth’s plates and
cell structure).
(I&E 7.d)
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, 1:3, Identifying
Misconceptions, p. 69 TE
• Focus on LS: 1:2, “Conc’s In
Motion”, animation of cell resp, p. 60
• Focus on LS, 1:3, Practice Skills, p.
71 TE
• Focus on LS, 1:3, Fig. 25, p. 71
• Focus on LS, 1:3, Mini Lab, ”… see
photosynthesis”, p. 73
9 Days
• Explain that an organism’s food
is broken down by digestion
into simple sugar molecules
that travel to all of the
individual cells.
• Demonstrate that chemical
energy is stored in the bonds
that hold the atoms together in
a sugar molecule.
• Diagram how mitochondria in
every cell efficiently extract the
chemical energy from these
sugar molecules by breaking
the sugars (6-carbon) into
carbon dioxide (1-carbon).
• Describe how the mitochondria
convert the sugar’s energy into
another form of chemical
energy in molecules that are
easily used by the cell.
• Create an analogy to express
mitochondrial function such as,
considering the sugar to be like
crude oil that a car cannot run
on until it is refined into an
easily used form – gasoline.
• Explain that chloroplasts use
pigments to capture the energy
of sunlight.
• Make a diagram showing how
the energy captured in
chloroplasts drives a chemical
reaction that takes carbon
dioxide molecules (1-carbon)
from the air and connects them
together to form sugar
molecules (6-carbon).
• Explain that plants are called
producers because they
produce (synthesize) their own
food, in the form of sugar
molecules, from light (photo),
air, and water. This is why the
process is called
photosynthesis.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 7 - Page 9
Cell Biology (Cont’d)
1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible only through
a microscope.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… cells divide to
increase their numbers
through a process of
mitosis, which results in
two daughter cells with
identical sets of
chromosomes.
(1,e)
[LS10]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Divide and Conquer
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
Focus on LS, Ch 2:1
PH FoLS, Ch 2:3
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
cell division
prophase
chromatin
metaphase
mitosis
anaphase
cell cycle
telophase
cytokinesis
DNA replication
interphase
daughter cells
diploid
SKILLS FOCUS:
Predicting, observing, calculating
Construct scale models, maps and
appropriately labeled diagrams to
communicate scientific knowledge
(e.g., motion of Earth’s plates and
cell structure).
(I&E 7.d)
6 Days
• Define mitosis as the process
by which individual cells
reproduce themselves.
• Explain that before a cell
divides, it must replicate a copy
of the DNA in the nucleus and
double the number of
organelles in the cytoplasm,
such as mitochondria and
chloroplasts.
• Diagram and explain the
events that occur during
mitosis.
• Diagram and explain how
replicated DNA chromosomes
segregate so that each
daughter cell receives the
same number of chromosomes
(two of each type to make a
diploid organism).
• Compare and contrast (in a
Venn diagram, for instance) the
“cell cycle” to the life cycle of
an animal.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
LABS / DEMOS:
• Micro slides: Plant Mitosis
• Focus on LS, Brain Pop Movies
online, “Mitosis”
• Focus on LS, Ch 2 Transparency
“Animal Cell Division”
• Tissue Slides from SMRC
• Stained section of onion root tip
showing cells undergoing mitosis
with visible, condensed chromosome
structures
• Class Role Play: DNA replication
• CellsAlive.com: Mitosis animation
http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.
htm
Genetics
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by
environmental influences.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the
genetic material of living
organisms and is
located in the
chromosomes of each
cell.
(2,e)
[LS10]
“Students are able to …”
• Explain that the chromosomes
in eukaryotes are made of a
combination of DNA and
protein.
• Distinguish between the roles
of proteins in a chromosome,
which help to support the DNA
structure and functions, and
DNA, which stores all of the
genetic information.
• Infer that chromosomes
organize genetic information of
a cell into discrete units. For
instance, sex-linked traits are
all located on the X and Y
chromosomes.
• Recall that humans have 23
pairs of chromosomes that vary
in size.
• Explain that chromosomes are
normally loosely stretched out
in the nucleus and are not
visible under a microscope until
they pull together in condensed
form for mitosis.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Focus on LS, Ch 1:2
and 2:1, 4:2
PH FoLS, Ch 3:3 and 4:1
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
chromosomes
chromatin
sex-linked
SKILLS FOCUS:
Abstract reasoning
Construct scale models, maps and
appropriately labeled diagrams to
communicate scientific knowledge
(e.g., cell structure).
(I&E 7.d)
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, 4:2, Critical Thinking,
“Infer”, p. 186 TE
5 Days
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Mutations
Task Analysis
Science 7 - Page 10
Cell Biology (Cont’d)
1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible
only through a microscope.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
* … DNA serves as the
template for all functional
(enzyme) and structural
proteins in cells. (LBUSD)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
OES:
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Divide and Conquer
:
“Students are able to …”
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
• Contrast structural proteins
from proteins that facilitate
chemical reactions in cells
called enzymes.
• Explain that codes from various
segments of the DNA
molecules are transcribed into
a similar molecule called RNA,
which in turn is translated into
protein molecules needed by
the cell.
• Explain that the mechanism
that selects which parts of the
DNA are transcribed is the
mechanism that determines the
cell type.
Focus on LS, Ch 1:1
pp. 53-54
• Examine a variety of tissue
samples showing differentiated
cells in plants and animals.
• Research the variety of cell
types in humans.
• Explain that all of the different
cell types in a multicellular
organism began as a single
fertilized egg.
• Give evidence that a fertilized
egg cell goes through several
mitosis divisions creating
apparently identical cells.
• Point out evidence from
pictures/diagrams that at very
early stages, cells begin to
form distinct structures,
implying that the cells are no
longer identical.
• Define cells that have become
identifiable types as
differentiated cells.
• Contrast early differentiation
(cells which will become
stomach and intestines can be
distinguished from those which
will become the nervous
system) from later, more fine
differentiation (retinal cells
becoming either rods for dim
light vision, or cones for color
vision).
• Cite evidence that plant cells
often retain the ability to
differentiate into other tissue
types. For example, plants
which can root from clippings.
• Explain that after
differentiation, most animal
cells lose the ability to become
other types of cells, except for
the germ cells that produce
sperm and eggs.
Focus on LS, Ch 2:2
PH FoLS, Ch 3:4
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
protein
code
RNA
transcription
translation
SKILLS FOCUS:
Model, correlate
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
1 Day
… that as multicellular
organisms develop, their
cells differentiate. (1,f)
Task Analysis
LABS / DEMOS:
• Teachers Domain: Making Proteins
animation
http://www.teachersdomain.org/
resources/lsps07/sci/life/stru/cell
protein/index.html
PH FoLS, Ch 16:1 & 23:3
KEY VOCABULARY:
embryo
differentiation
fertilized egg
different
SKILLS FOCUS:
Observing, classifying,
communicating, organizing
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
3 Days
• Observe prepared slides of plant and
animal tissues.
• Focus on LS, Lab, “Exploring the
Unknown”, p. 74
• Focus on LS, 2:2, Identifying
Misconceptions, p. 102 TE
• Focus on LS, Brain Pop Movies
online, “Cell Specialization”
• Wikipedia: cellular differentiation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_
differentiation
• NOVA Online: animation of early
embryo development and
differentiation
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/
odyssey/clips/
Science 7 - Page 11
Begin District Quarter 2 (or 4) Exam Material
Genetics
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be
modified by environmental influences.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
germ cells undergo to
produce the haploid cells
needed for sexual
reproduction.
(LBUSD)
Connections
(per 180
days)
Focus on LS, Ch 3:1
& 13:1 Start w/ Fig 5, p 508
then see Fig 3, p 506
KEY VOCABULARY:
meiosis
haploid
germ cell
gamete
PH FoLS, Ch 3:3
SKILLS FOCUS:
Organization
Construct appropriately labeled
diagrams to communicate
scientific knowledge.
(I&E 7.d)
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, 3:1, Mini Lab, “What
Does Meiosis Look Like?”, p. 132
• Focus on LS: 3:1, “Conc’s In
Motion”, animation of meiosis, p. 131
• Access Excellence: meiosis
diagram
http://www.accessexcellence.org/
RC/VL/GG/meiosis.php
• Cells Alive: meiosis animation
http://www.cellsalive.com/meiosis.
htm
Focus on LS, Ch 3:1-4
PH FoLS, Ch 8:2, 11:3,
12:1,3, and 23:2
Appx
Time
2 Days
KEY VOCABULARY:
fission
budding
fertilization
zygote
pollination
gymnosperm
angiosperm
seed
sperm
flower
egg
hermaphroditic sexual reproduction
asexual reproduction
sexual reproduction
vegetative propagation
SKILLS FOCUS:
Comparing, contrasting
Communicate the steps and
results from an investigation in
written reports and verbal
presentations.
(I&E 7.e)
LABS / DEMOS:
• Flow chart ( each type of
reproduction)
• Focus on LS, Lab, “Plant
Propogation”, pp. 158-159
• Use microscope (with Flex Cam, if
available) to show budding yeast in
varying temperatures of water
• Focus on LS, 3:4, Mini Lab, “How Do
Yeast Reproduce?”, p. 153
• Tell Me Why video, “Flowers”
• Grow sweet potato plants in class
• Focus on LS: Ch 3 Transparencies
“It’s Raining, It’s Sporing”
“Fern Life Cycle”
“Spuds and Buds”
“Asexual Reproduction”
5 Days
• List organisms whose cells are
diploid, having two sets of
chromosomes (animals, plants,
fungi) and organisms whose
cells have only one set of
chromosomes (bacteria).
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
• Demonstrate that diploid
OES:
organisms must produce
gamete cells with half the
normal chromosome number
(haploid), in order to produce an
offspring with chromosomes
from both parents.
• Diagram and describe the steps
of meiosis that germ cells
undergo to produce haploid
cells (sperm and egg in
animals) needed for sexual
reproduction.
• Diagram and explain fertilization
… the differences
as the key step in sexual
between the life cycles
reproduction for animals when a
and reproduction
haploid egg and sperm cell fuse
methods of sexual and
asexual organisms. (2,a) to form a diploid fertilized egg
(zygote).
[LS10] • Diagram the parallel sexual
reproduction process in plants
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
where pollination of haploid
CR: Mutations
cells in flowering plants
produces diploid seeds.
• Explain how sexual
reproduction produces new
organisms that are genetically
related to both parents.
• Explain how hermaphroditic
sexual reproduction occurs
when sperm and egg generated
by a single organism fuse.
• Define reproduction without
fertilization as asexual.
• Describe different types of
asexual reproduction (i.e.,
fission, budding, vegetative
propagation).
• Cite examples of organisms that
reproduce asexually.
• Give examples of organisms
have both sexual and asexual
reproduction methods.
• Compare and contrast sexual
and asexual reproduction.
• Explain that growth into a new
adult organism involves many
cell divisions (mitosis) and
developmental stages.
* … meiosis is the process
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 7 - Page 12
Structure and Function in Living Systems (cont’d)
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and
function.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
… the structures and
processes by which
flowering plants
generate pollen, ovules,
seeds, and fruit.
(5,f)
•
•
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Flower Power
•
Focus on LS, Ch 3:2
PH FoLS, Ch 11:3
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
angiosperm
stamen
anther
pollen
filament
receptacle
pistil
stigma
style
pollen tube
ovary
ovule
ova
SKILLS FOCUS:
Observation
Select and use appropriate tools
and technology (including
calculators, computers, balances,
spring scales, microscopes, and
binoculars) to perform tests, collect
data, and display data. (I&E 7.a)
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, Virtual Lab “The Simple
Life: What is the life cycle of a simple
plant?” at ca7.msscience.com
• Focus on LS, 3:2, Demo., “Plant
Reproduction”, p. 137 TE
• Focus on LS, 3:2, Mini Lab “What’s in
a flower?”, p. 138
• Focus on LS, 3:2, Conc’s in Motion:
animation of the angiosperm life
cycle, p. 139
• Focus on LS, 3:2, Demo., “Model
Diversity” using fruit, p 140 TE
• Focus on LS, Ch 3 Transparency
“It’s Raining, It’s Sporing?”
1 Days
•
Explain how the flower is the
reproductive structure of
angiosperms, which may
contain male, female or both
parts.
Describe the male reproductive
parts of the flower, including:
stamen, anther, pollen granules,
filament and receptacle.
Describe the female
reproductive parts of the flower,
including pistil, stigma, pollen
grains, style, pollen tube, ovary,
ovules, and ova.
Describe the process after
fertilization from seed to fruit.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 7 - Page 13
Structure and Function in Living Systems (cont’d)
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
•
NOTE: This unit requires
parent notification.
… how the reproductive
organs of the human
female and male
generate eggs and
sperm and how sexual
activity may lead to
fertilization and
pregnancy.
(5,d)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
NOTE: This unit requires
parent notification.
… the function of the
umbilicus and placenta
during pregnancy. (5,e)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Life Begins
•
•
Describe the male reproduction
system, including testes, scrotum,
and sperm.
Describe sperm production from
immature cells in the walls of the
seminiferous tubules to flagellated
cells stored in the epididymis.
Explain that during sexual arousal
millions of sperm are transported
to the urethra and ejaculated
through the penis and that some
may exit before ejaculation
without the man’s knowledge.
Explain how sexual activity
without ejaculation can release
sperm causing fertilization and
pregnancy.
Describe the female reproduction
system.
Explain ovulation following the
path of the egg (oocyte) from a
ruptured follicle of the ovaries
(ovulation), to the Fallopian tubes,
and uterus.
Explain how a sperm can be
deposited in or near the vagina
and can fertilize the egg.
Describe pregnancy from the
implantation and development of
the fertilized egg in the uterus
tothe delivery of a baby, typically 9
months later.
Explain the physiology of why
menstruation occurs noting that
when the cycle stops, this can be
the first sign of pregnancy.
Focus on LS, Ch 13:1
Explain the role of the placenta
in a developing fetus.
Explain the role of the umbilical
cord (noting that the blood of the
mother and fetus do not mix
together).
Discuss how drugs, alcohol and
infectious viruses, including HIV,
can easily pass from the
mother’s blood to the blood of
the fetus.
Focus on LS, Ch 13:2
PH FoLS, 23:2,3
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
penis
testes
scrotum
sperm
urethra
ejaculation
fertilization
pregnancy
embryo
ovaries
ovulation
oocyte
Fallopian tubes
vagina
uterus
menstruation
follicle
fetus
SKILLS FOCUS:
Evaluating, predicting, graphing
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• NOVA Video: “The Miracle of Life”,
60 min., (CA standards 5,d and 5,e)
• Focus on LS: 13:1 Data Lab, “Which
hormones control ovulation?”, p. 509
• Focus on LS: Ch 13 Transparencies
“Thoughts on Reproduction”
“Male and Female Reproductive
Systems”
“Fertilization”
PH FoLS, Ch 23:3
½ Day
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Life Begins
CR: Can’t You See it?
•
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
KEY VOCABULARY:
placenta
fetus
umbilical cord
amniotic sac
SKILLS FOCUS:
Comparing
Utilize a variety of print and
electronic resources (including the
World Wide Web) to collect
information as evidence as part of
a research project.
(I&E 7.b)
½ Day
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS: 13:2, “Conc’s in Motion”
Interactive Table about the stages of
pregnancy, p. 516
• Focus on LS: 13:2, Data Lab: “folic
acid … birth defects?”, p. 519
• Focus on LS: 13:2, “Conc’s In
Motion”, Interactive Table on stages
of pregnancy, p. 516
• Focus on LS: 13:2, Design Your Own
Lab, “A Healthy Pregnancy” , p. 522523
• Focus on LS: 13:2, Real World
Science: Science & Society, p. 525
• Focus on LS, Ch 13 Transparencies
“A New Development”
“Human Development”
Science 7 - Page 14
Genetics (cont’d)
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be
modified by environmental influences.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… sexual reproduction
produces offspring that
inherit half their genes
from each parent. (2,b)
… an inherited trait can
be determined by one or
more genes.
(2,c)
[LS10]
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
• Illustrate how sexual
reproduction combines genetic
material from two distinct cells
to form a new and unique
combination.
• Show by models or illustrations
that nearly half of the genetic
material comes from each
parent.
• Recall that mitochondrial DNA
comes solely from the mother.
• Demonstrate how
mitochondrial DNA allows for
tracing heritage from
grandmothers to grandchildren
with great certainty.
Focus on LS, Ch 3:1-3
mitochondrial DNA: p 65 and
p 187 “Maternal Inheritance”
KEY VOCABULARY:
offspring
probability
genotype
trait
PH FoLS, Ch 3:2 and 4:1
SKILLS FOCUS:
Inferring, classifying
• Define genes as portions of the
DNA that code for specific
traits.
• Define inherited traits as
physical characteristics that
have been passed down
through generations by DNA.
• Explain that single genes may
affect more than one trait or
feature.
• Cite examples that some traits,
like hair and eye color, are the
result of multiple genes.
Focus on LS, Ch 4:2
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• Use of Blood Type chart( shows
which combinations of alleles result
in each blood type)
• Focus on LS, 3:1, Science Skills,
“Make a Table”, p. 128 TE
• Focus on LS: Ch 3 Transparency
”Fertilization”
KEY VOCABULARY:
gene
PH FoLS, Ch 4:1
pedigree
SKILLS FOCUS:
Observation, logic
Utilize a variety of print and
electronic resources (including the
World Wide Web) to collect
information as evidence as part of
a research project.
(I&E 7.b)
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, 4:2, Science Concepts,
“Activity”, p. 184 TE
• Focus on LS: Ch 4 Transparency
”Genetic Inheritance”
4 Days
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: In the Pink
CR: A Very Hairy Problem
“Students are able to …”
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
5 Days
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Mutations
CR: In the Pink
CR: A Very Hairy Problem
Task Analysis
Science 7 - Page 15
Genetics (cont’d)
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be
modified by environmental influences.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… plant and animal cells
contain many thousands
of different genes and
typically have two
copies of every gene.
The two copies (or
alleles) of the gene may
or may not be identical,
and one may be
dominant in determining
the phenotype while the
other is recessive. (2,d)
[LS10]
“Students are able to …”
• Analyze traits of people to
appreciate that there are tens
of thousands of traits controlled
by genes.
• Explain that genes exist in
multiple versions, called
alleles.
• Account for the diversity of
individuals by explaining that
every person has the same
genes as other people, but in a
combination of alleles unique
to the individual.
• Logically show that by
definition, diploid organisms
will have two copies (or alleles)
of every gene, which may be
identical or different.
• Explain that one of the alleles
in a pair may be dominant over
the other (recessive allele) so
that it is expressed outwardly.
• Define phenotype as the
outward expression of genes
as traits.
• Predict phenotypic expression
of traits in offspring of sexual
reproduction using a 2x2
Punnett square.
• Explain that genetic disorders
are not caused by the
presence of a gene that other
individuals lack. They are
caused by an abnormal allele
being expressed.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Focus on LS, Ch 4:1,2
PH FoLS, Ch 3:1,2 and 4:2
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
alleles
dominant
recessive
expression
genotype
phenotype
Punnett square
SKILLS FOCUS:
Diagram, organize
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, 4:1, Practice Skills,
“Make a Table”, p. 174 TE
• Focus on LS, 4:1, Science Concepts,
“Use Models”, p. 1774 TE
• Focus on LS, Ch4 Transparency
“Pedigree”
4 Days
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: In the Pink
CR: A Very Hairy Problem
Task Analysis
Science 7 - Page 16
Evolution
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many
generations.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… both genetic variation
and environmental
factors are causes of
evolution and diversity
of organisms.
(3,a)
[LS10]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Adapt or Die
[LS10]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Adapt or Die
“Students are able to …”
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
• List examples of variations
among individuals in a
population.
• Explain that genetic variability
means there are favorable and
unfavorable traits in a
population.
• Discuss how genetic
homogeneity (ex. cheetah)
makes a population more
susceptible to extinction (ex.
succumbing to an infectious
disease for which there is no
natural resistance).
• Give reasons why genetic
variation is important for
survival.
• Explain that environmental
factors (such as habitat loss,
climate change, and the
introduction of non-native
species) may be a cause of
natural selection.
Focus on Life
Science, Ch 5:1,2, 6:1
• Define natural selection, noting
that it is considered the primary
mechanism for evolution.
• Provide examples of how
differences in offspring occur
randomly and may affect an
individual’s ability to survive
and reproduce.
• Give examples of environment
and ecological conditions that
affect the survival and
reproduction of species.
• State the reasoning and
evidence that Darwin gave in
forming his law of natural
selection.
• Explain that scientists’ work is
based on the ideas and work of
other scientists (e.g., the work
of Thomas Malthus influenced
the development of Charles
Darwin’s proposal that natural
selection is the mechanism for
evolution).
• Explain how natural selection
accounts for the great variety
of species seen today, and for
the great number of extinct and
non-extinct species found in
the fossil record.
Focus on LS, Ch 5:1
PH FoLS: Ch 5:1
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
evolution
species
theory
variation
evidence
natural selection
populations
extinction
ancestry
SKILLS FOCUS:
Interpreting data, drawing
conclusions
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
3 Days
… the reasoning used
by Darwin in making his
conclusion that natural
selection is the
mechanism of evolution.
(3,b)
Task Analysis
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS: 5:1, Launch Lab,
“…attracts insects to flowers?” p. 207
• Focus on LS: 5:1, Mini Lab, “…the
strongest survivors?”, p. 228
• Focus on LS: 4-in-1 Lab, “Differences
in Species”, pp. 23-24
• Focus on LS: 4-in-1 Lab, “Seed
Adaptations”, p. 33-36
• Focus on LS: Culturally Responsive
Teaching, “… Seeds for a Healthy
Planet”, p. 19
• Focus on LS: Ch 5 Transparencies
“It’s a Camel Now”
“A Family Reunion”
PH FoLS, Ch 5:1,2
KEY VOCABULARY:
natural selection
species
Charles Darwin
offspring
fossil record
environment
adaptation
ecological
evolution
reproduce
SKILLS FOCUS:
Comparing, observing, interpreting
data, inferring
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS: 5:1, Mini Lab “… shape
of a bird’s beak …?”, p. 214
• Focus on LS: 4-in-1 Lab, “Bird Beaks
and Physical Adaptations”, p. 25-28
• Focus on LS: 5:2, Design Your Own
Lab, “… apply … natural selection to
island species?”, p. 230-231
• Focus on LS: 6:4, Real World
Science, p. 268-269
2 Days
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
Science 7 - Page 17
Evolution (cont’d)
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many
generations.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… how independent
lines of evidence from
geology, fossils, and
comparative anatomy
provide a basis for the
theory of evolution. (3,c)
[LS10]
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: The Leg Bon’s Connected
to the …
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
Focus on LS, Ch 6:1,2
7:1,2
PH FoLS: Ch 5:2-3 & 6:1-4
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
evolution
theory
homologous structures
absolute age dating
radioactive dating
relative age dating
comparative anatomy
preserve
index fossil
fossil record
variation
fossil
fossilization
anatomy
paleontologist
population
geology
vertebrates
protein
Law of Superposition
SKILLS FOCUS:
Classifying, organizing, inferring,
drawing conclusions, comparing,
contrasting
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS: 6:1, Mini Lab, “How do
fossils form,?” p. 249
• Focus on LS: 6:2, Data Lab, “…
proteins tell us about evolution” p. 255
• Focus on LS: Ch 6 Transparencies
“Fossil Formation”
“Guess Again”
“Ancient Geography”
2 Days
• Describe the process of
fossilization and explain how
fossils preserve evidence of
ancient life.
• Describe how paleontologists
use radioactive dating methods
and geologic interpretation of
the organisms in rock layers to
provide evidence for evolution.
• Cite evidence from
comparative anatomy
(homologous structures) that
can be seen as evidence that
all vertebrates descended from
a common ancestor.
• Cite evidence from geology,
the fossil record, molecular
biology, and studies of
comparative anatomy that
supports the theory of
evolution.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 7 - Page 18
Evolution (cont’d)
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many
generations.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
…how to construct a
simple branching
diagram to classify living
groups of organisms by
shared derived
characteristics and how
to expand the diagram
to include fossil
organisms.
(3,d)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
PT: A Leafy Situation
• Define systematics as the
classification of organisms
according to their
characteristics.
• Discuss how classification
groups organisms together
based on shared
characteristics (using the
system developed by Carolus
Linnaeus).
• Create a branching tree
diagram that shows the
probable evolutionary
relationships among living
organisms and their ancestors.
• Learn and practice the use of
taxonomic dichotomous keys.
• Develop and use dichotomous
keys for a set of non-living
objects.
• List the seven levels of
classification.
• Describe the similarities in
body shape and function
(morphological similarities)
among organisms of one
taxonomic group.
• Compare and contrast
prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells.
Focus on LS, Ch 6:4
PH FoLS, 5:2 7:3
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
systematics
classification
branching tree ancestors
evolutionary relationships
SKILLS FOCUS:
Comparing, contrasting, inferring,
interpreting data, diagraming,
organizing, classifying
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS: 6:4, “Conc’s In Motion”,
Interactive Table of levels of
classification, p. 263
• Focus on LS: 6:4, Mini Lab, “… create
a dichotomous key?”, p. 264
• Focus on LS: 6:4, Lab “Classifying the
Students in your Class”, p. 266-267
• Focus on LS: 4-in-1 Lab,
“Classification”, p. 29-31
• Focus on LS: 4-in-1 Lab, “Designing a
Classification System” , p. 97-98
• Focus on LS: Ch 6 Transparencies
“It’s a Bird! It’s a Plane! It’s all of
the Above!”
“Modern Classification”
“Bear Evolution”
• Focus on LS: Ch 8 Transparencies
“Geologic Time”
“Geologic Time Scale”
• Berkeley/NSF: Cladistics “T-Rex”
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/
education/explorations/tours/Trex/
index.html
Focus on LS, Ch 6:4,
Ch 1:2, p. 64-66
Ch 2:2, p.98-100
KEY VOCABULARY:
taxonomy
morphology
dichotomous key prokaryotic
classification
eukaryotic
PH FoLS, 7:3,4 and 9:1
SKILLS FOCUS:
Comparing, contrasting, inferring,
interpreting data, organizing,
classifying
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS: 6:4, Mini Lab,
“…dichotomous key?”, p. 264
• Focus on LS: Ch 6 Transparency
“Modern Classification”
(optional)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
OES:
“Students are able to …”
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
1 Day
…use a taxonomic key to
classify organisms,
recognizing the
microscopic and
macroscopic differences
between the taxonomic
groups.
(LBUSD)
Task Analysis
Science 7 - Page 19
Evolution (cont’d)
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many
generations.
Standards and
Assessments
“Students know…”
… that extinction of a
species occurs when the
environment changes
and the adaptive
characteristics of a
species are insufficient
for its survival.
(3,e)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Adapt or Die
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
Focus on LS, Ch 5:2,
6:3,
Ch 8:2,3 p. 324-343
PH FoLS, 5:1,2 3:4
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
extinction
fossil record
species
environment
mutations
overproduction
competition
variation
geographic isolation
populations
SKILLS FOCUS:
Comparing, contrasting, inferring,
interpreting data, making models,
classifying
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, 5;2, “Conc’s In Motion”,
Interactive Table on causes of
extinction, p. 226
• Focus in LS, 5:2, Science & Society,
“Habitat Degradation …”, p. 233
• Focus on LS, 8:3, Lab, “…CA Change
over geologic time”, p. 342-343
• Focus on LS, Ch 5 Transparency
“Skull Shape and the Brain”
• Focus on LS, Ch 6 Transparency
“Ancient Geography”
“Mountain Building and Evolution”
2 Days
• Explain how the fossil record
indicates that most of the
species that once lived on
Earth are now extinct.
• Enumerate specific factors that
contribute to species extinction.
• Describe how extinction of a
species occurs when adaptive
characteristics of the species
are no longer sufficient to allow
the species to survive under
changing environmental
conditions.
• Discuss how random mutations
may result in variations of traits
that give some organisms
advantages to survive
changing environmental
conditions.
• Cite examples of factors that
affect the process of natural
selection (overproduction,
competition, and variations).
• Describe how natural selection
will ultimately lead to the
existence of populations better
able to survive and reproduce
in the current environmental
conditions.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 7 - Page 20
Structure and Function in Living Systems
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and
function.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
… plants and animals
have levels of
organization for
structure and function,
including cells, tissues,
organs, organ systems,
and the whole organism.
(5,a)
[LS10]
•
•
•
•
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Organized Organisms
•
•
Focus on LS, Ch 2:2,
Ch 9:1, p. 364-365
PH FoLS, 16:1, 7:1, 17:2,
and 22:1,2
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
multicellular
tissue
organ
organ system
musculoskeletal
bundle
fiber
SKILLS FOCUS:
Organizing, analyzing
Communicate the logical
connection among hypothesis,
science concepts, tests conducted,
data collected, and conclusions
drawn from the scientific evidence.
(I&E 7.c [LS10])
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, 2:2, Mini Lab, “What is a
Tissue?”, p. 103
• Focus on LS: 5;2, “Conc’s In Motion”,
Interactive Table on human organ
systems, p. 105
• Focus on LS, 2:2, Demo., Bone
Tissues, p. 106
• Focus on LS, 2:2, Design your own
lab, “Design an Organ”, p. 108-109
• Focus on LS, 2:2, Virtual Lab “Cell,
How do animal and plant cells work?”,
p. 106 TE
• Focus on LS, Ch 2 Transparency
“At Home in the Salt”
• Focus on LS, Ch 9 Transparency
“Human Bones”
1 Day
•
Explain how a one-celled
organism (such as an amoeba)
performs all of the functions
necessary for life.
Explain that plants and animals
are multicellular organisms.
Cite specific examples of
cellular specialization
(differentiation).
Give several examples of cells
which function together as
tissue, which is part of an organ
within an organ system, which is
necessary for the life of an
organism.
Provide analogies from the
community or school of similar
organizational structures. For
instance, an athlete (cell) works
as part of a team (tissue), which
represents its school (organ)
and school district (organ
system) providing healthy
activity and attitudes that benefit
the nation (organism).
Describe how the
musculoskeletal system of
animals is made up of many
muscle groups.
Explain the organization of a
muscle, starting with its
organelles (such as
mitochondria that provide
energy for muscle contraction),
to groups of muscle cells to
bundles of muscle fibers that
together enable the organism to
move.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 7 - Page 21
Structure and Function in Living Systems (cont’d)
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and
function.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
… organ systems
function because of the
contributions of
individual organs,
tissues, and cells. The
failure of any part can
affect the entire system.
(5,b)
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Organized Organisms
•
•
•
Review (from grade 5) how
oxygen and carbon dioxide are
exchanged in the lungs and
body tissues.
Explain how the pulmonary –
circulatory system functions as
a whole.
Describe how heart attacks,
suffocation, pneumonia, and
strokes are each caused by a
particular failure of the
pulmonary-circulatory system.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Focus on LS, Ch 2:2,
and 10:1,2
PH FoLS, 15:3, 19:1-4,
and 20:1
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
pulmonary
lungs
diaphragm
pneumonia
alveoli
heart attack
stroke
circulatory
artery
vein
capillaries
atherosclerosis
suffocation
shock
SKILLS FOCUS:
Modeling
Utilize a variety of print and
electronic resources (including the
World Wide Web) to collect
information as evidence as part of
a research project.
(I&E 7.b)
LABS / DEMOS:
1 Day
• Focus on LS, 10:1, Launch Lab:
“Does your pulse change?”, p. 389
• Focus on LS, 10:1, Science
Concepts, Activity, p. 394
• Focus on LS, 10:1, Demo., “Air
Pressure”, p. 397
• Focus on LS, 10:1, Conc’s in Motion,
Interactive Table on components of
whole blood, p. 397
• Focus on LS, 10:1, Data Lab, “…
illness affect the cardiopulmonary
system?”, p. 404
• Focus on LS, 10:1, Virtual Lab
“Hypertension”, p 389
• Focus on LS, 10:2, Demo., “Model a
Diaphragm” , p. 407
• Focus on LS, 10:2, Science Concepts
Activity, “Heart Rate”, p. 408
• Focus on LS, 10:2, Conc’s in Motion:
animation of blood flow through the
heart, p. 409
• Focus on LS, 10:2, Mini Lab “…
cardiopulmonary system”, p. 412
• Focus on LS, 10:2, Applying Math
“Blood Pressure Variations”, p. 413
• Focus on LS, 10:2, Design Your Own
Lab “Model and Invent”, p. 414-415
• Focus on LS, 10:2, Real World
Science: Science &Career, p. 416
• Focus on LS, Ch 10 Transparencies
“A friend in need”
“Circulation”
“How to Relax in Traffic”
• Focus on LS, Ch 1 Transparency
“Oxygen and the Body”
Science 7 - Page 22
Structure and Function in Living Systems (cont’d)
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and
function.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
… how bones and
muscles work together
to provide a structural
framework for
movement.
(5,c)
•
[LS10]
•
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: Cooperative Movement
•
•
•
Focus on LS, Ch 9:1
PH FoLS, 17:1-3
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
tendon
ligament
contraction
relaxation
flexion
extension
biceps
triceps
humerus
ulna
opposing muscles
skeletal system
SKILLS FOCUS:
Observe, experiment
Communicate the steps and
results from an investigation in
written reports and verbal
presentations.
(I&E 7.e)
LABS / DEMOS:
• Focus on LS, Virtual Labs, “Bones”,
p. 357
• Focus on LS, 9:1, Demo., “Flexion”,
p. 364 TE
• Focus on LS, 9:1, Mini Lab “How do
bones and muscles interact?”, p. 366
• Focus on LS, 9:1, Real World
Science: Career and Society, p. 380381
• Focus on LS, Ch 9 Transparency
“No Sweat”
1 Day
•
Describe how the skeletal
system provides support and
protection to the body.
Describe the relationships
between muscles, tendons and
bones with the nervous system.
Explain how contraction and
relaxation of different muscle
groups cause movement.
Demonstrate examples of
flexion and extension, such as
with the biceps and triceps,
describing what happens to the
angle between the humerus and
ulna during these coordinated
movements.
Discuss the roles of opposing
muscle groups.
Demonstrate how one muscle
group can be a prime mover of
bone, while the opposing
muscle group can be involved in
controlling the motion and
protecting the joint, as during a
lifting motion.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Science 7 - Page 23
Structure and Function in Living Systems (cont’d)
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and
function.
Standards and
Assessments
Task Analysis
“Students are able to …”
“Students know…”
… how to relate the
structures of the eye
and ear to their
functions.
(5,g)
•
•
DISTRICT ASSESSMENTS:
CR: The Eyes Have it
•
Identify and explain the function
of the different parts of the eye,
including: retina, iris, pupil, lens,
cone cells and rod cells.
Explain the structure and
function of the different parts of
the human ear, including
external ear (of humans and
other mammals), middle ear,
tympanic membrane, malleus,
incus, stapes, inner ear.
Identify the different parts of the
ear and explain how those parts
work together to transmit
sensory information through
sound waves.
Adopted
Textbook
Correlation(s)
Focus on LS, Ch 11:4,
and 12:1,2
PH FoLS, Ch 22:4
Connections
Appx
Time
(per 180
days)
KEY VOCABULARY:
lens
iris
pupil
retina
cone cell
rod cell
tympanic membrane
malleus
incus
stapes
inner ear
SKILLS FOCUS:
Analyzing, making models
Construct scale models and
appropriately labeled diagrams to
communicate scientific knowledge.
(I&E 7.d)
LABS / DEMOS:
1 Day
• Focus on LS: 11:4, p. 451 Identifying
Misconceptions: seeing in the dark;
have students test iris response to
light and dark
• Focus on LS: 11:4, “Conc’s in Motion”
animation of lens and light through
eye, p. 452
• Focus on LS: 11:4, “Conc’s in Motion”
Interactive table on structures and
functions of the eye, p. 453
• Focus on LS: 11:4, Lab, “Can a cow
teach you about your eyes?”, p. 458459
• Focus on LS: 11:4, Real World
Science: Science & Technology,
p. 460
• Focus on LS: 12:1, Launch Lab: “How
many sounds can you make?”, p. 469
• Focus on LS: 12:1, Demo., “Vibrations
Cause Sound”, p. 472
• Focus on LS: 12:2, Mini Lab “How
does the ear hear?”, p. 489
• Focus on LS: 12:2, Lab “Animal
Hearing”, p. 490-491
• Focus on LS: 12:2, Real World
Science: Science & Technology,
p. 492
• Focus on LS: Ch 11 Transparency
“The Eye”
• Focus on LS: Ch 12 Transparency
“The Ear”
“Sound”
Science 7 - Page 24
APPLICATION OF COURSE CONTENT:
Career Connection:
Related Major Skills & Characteristics – objective observation, careful measurement, curiosity,
problem solving, organizational skills, numerical reasoning, ability to analyze & interpret data, critical
thinking, reading comprehension, concise and accurate communication skills, computer literacy, logical
thinking, team skills, testing skills, practical safety awareness, evidence evaluating
Related Careers – Students who continue in the sciences can prepare for the following careers:
Aeronautical Engineer
(Rocket Scientist)
Agricultural Ecologist
Analytical Chemist
Aquatic Microbial Ecologist
Astronomer
Automotive Engineer
Biochemist
Biologist
Biotechnologist
Botanist
Cell Biologist
Physiologist
Professor
Quality Control Specialist
Radiologist
Refrigeration Technician
Science Fiction Writer
Seismologist
Teacher
Technical Editor
Veterinarian
Virologist
Wildlife Ecologist
Mining Geologist
National Park Ranger
Neurobiologist
Nuclear Physicist
Nurse
Paleontologist
Pathologist
Pediatrician
Petroleum Geologist
Pharmacist
Physician
Physicist
Chemical Engineer
Electrical Engineer
Energy
Fire Fighter
Geologist
Geneticist
Immunologist
Marine Biologist
Materials Scientist
Medical Researcher
Meteorologist
Microbiologist
METHODS:
Lesson Design & Delivery: Teachers will incorporate these components of lesson design during direct
instruction and inquiry activities. The order of components is flexible, depending on the teacher’s vision for the
individual lesson. For instance, the objective and purpose, while present in the teacher’s lesson plan, are not made
known to the students at the beginning of an inquiry lesson.
Anticipatory Set
Objective
Essential
Standard Reference
Elements of
Purpose
Input
Effective
Modeling
Instruction
Check for Understanding
Model for Lesson Design Guided Practice
Using Task Analysis
Closure
Independent Practice
Some components may occur once in a lesson, but others will recur many times. Checking for understanding occurs
continually; input, modeling, guided practice and closure may occur several times. There may even be more than one
anticipatory set when more than one content piece is introduced.
Active Participation: Teachers will incorporate the principles of active participation and specific strategies to
ensure consistent, simultaneous involvement of the minds of all learners in the classroom. Teachers should include
both covert and overt active participation strategies, incorporating cooperative learning structures and brain research.
Some of the possible active participation strategies include:
OVERT
(Oral)
COVERT
•
•
•
•
Recall
Imagine
Observe
Consider
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pair/Share
Idea Wave
Choral Response
Give One, Get One
Socratic Seminar
Cooperative Discussion
Groups (i.e.Talking Chips,
Gambit Chips)
OVERT
(Written)
•
•
•
•
•
Restate in Journals / Notes
Response Boards
Graphic Organizers
Folded Paper
Ticket Out of Class
OVERT
(Gestures)
•
•
•
•
Hand Signals
Model with Manipulatives
Stand up/ Sit down
Point to Examples
Science 7 - Page 25
Baldridge Quality Tools: Students can become more positively involved in their education through goal setting,
self-assessment, and data tracking and analysis by making use of the following strategies:
BALDRIDGE TOOL
PURPOSES
Affinity Diagram
Flowchart
Force Field Diagram
Issues / Ideas Bin
– finding consensus, organizing complex information
– describing a process, planning a project, identifying problem steps in a process
– identifying obstacles, finding causes and solutions to problems
– handling individual questions/requests without stopping a group activity, providing
anonymous input, obtaining diverse input in specific areas.
– tracking goals and actual results
– tracking improvement efforts, identifying opportunities for change, finding out what’s
working and what’s not working in a process, procedure, activity, etc.
– displaying trends for goal setting
Data Folder
Plus / Delta
Class Data Graphs
Learning styles and learning challenges of your students may be addressed by implementing
combinations of the following:
Reading Strategies in Science
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Learning Logs
Pre-teaching
Vocabulary
Pre-reading
Text Structures
Trail Markers
Reciprocal Teaching
Functional Text
SDAIE Strategies for English
Learners
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Tapping/Building Prior
Knowledge (Graphic
Organizers, Schema)
Grouping Strategies
Multiple Intelligences
Adapt the Text
Interactive Learning
(Manipulatives, Visuals)
Acquisition Levels
Language Sensitivity
Lower the Affective Filter
(including Processing Time)
Home/School Connection
(including Cultural Aspects)
Differentiation for Advanced
Learners
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Curriculum Compacting
Tiered Assignments
Flexible Grouping
Acceleration
Depth and Complexity
Independent Study
‰
‰
‰
Current Events
Peer Teaching
Guest Speakers
Significant, Proven Science Strategies for ALL Science Students
‰
‰
‰
Hands-On Labs
Inquiry Activities
Written/Oral Presentations
‰
‰
‰
Short/Long-term projects
Essential Questions
Summarization
Please note that these strategies often overlap and should not be limited to specifically defined courses or student populations.
MATERIALS:
Basic Textbook and Supplementary Materials: Glencoe Science: Focus on Life Science,
McGraw-Hill Glencoe, 2007
Science Online: ca7.msscience.com
- Study Tools, Extensions, For Teachers
safety equipment: goggles, latex gloves, fire extinguisher
glassware: flasks, beakers, test tubes, etc.
measuring devices: triple beam balance, rulers, volumetric containers
chemical reagents
microscopes, microviewers, hand lenses, dissection equipment
appropriate technology
™ Many items are available through Science/Math Resource Center (SMRC).
Science 7 - Page 26
RESOURCES:
Documents
‰ Science Framework: .............. http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/fd/documents/scienceframework.pdf
[or find it posted in sections at the LBUSD Science Office website]
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
CST / NCLB Test Blueprints: ............................ http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/blueprints.asp
CST Reference Sheets: ...................................... http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/cstsciref.asp
CST Released Test Questions ............................ http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/css05rtq.asp
National Science Standards: .................... http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/html/
Science Safety Handbook for CA Public Schools (1999)
can be ordered from the CDE at .................................... http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc/
LBUSD Approved Chemicals List, Chemical Hygiene Plan, and Science Fair Resources:
http://www.lbusd.k12.ca.us/Main_Offices/Curriculum/Areas/Science/teacher_resources.cfm
District Offices
‰ Science Curriculum Office
o
‰
Science / Math Resource Center (SMRC)
o
‰
‰
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2965)
o
o
wood shop / lumber room
copying, enlarging, and laminating
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 7145)
videos for check out to fit the curriculum (see your librarian for current catalogs)
district TV channels programming
Program Assistance for
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 8031)
Language Minority Students
technical assistance and professional development for English Language Development (ELD) and Specially
Designed Academic Instruction In English (SDAIE)
assistance in the implementation and maintenance of programs addressing the needs of English Language
Learners (ELLs)
PALMS Office
o
o
‰
standards-based instructional materials
content integrated instructional materials
monthly theme-based literacy
supplements for science
Office of Multimedia Services (OMS)
o
o
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2964)
hands-on materials, consumable material orders, alternative standards-based curriculum packets
Instructional Materials Workshop (IMW)
o
o
o
‰
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2963)
K-12 science standards, curriculum, professional development, science fair
Health Curriculum Office
o
curriculum and training for mandated health content
(562) 997-8000 (ext. 2967)
Science 7 - Page 27
EVALUATION: Student achievement in this course will be measured using multiple assessment tools.
Assessments will be used for diagnosing student understanding before instruction, monitoring student learning during
instruction, and evaluating student understanding after instruction.
SUGGESTED EVALUATION TOOLS:
Source
District Developed
Assessments
Glencoe Science:
Focus on Life Science
Teacher Developed
Assessments
Diagnose
Monitor
Grade Level Pretest
Open-Ended Science
Performance Task
Reading Essentials: Before You Read
Launch Labs
New Vocabulary
Reading Check questions
Science Notebook, “Summarize It”
Lesson Review: Summarize, Using
Vocabulary, Understanding Main Ideas,
Applying Science
Reading Essentials: Think it Over,
Reading Check, Picture This
Applying Math
Foldables
Active Folders
Mini Lab and Lab
Standards Review
Pre-quiz
Pre-Test
Vocab. Knowledge Rating
Warm-Up
Quiz
Proving Behavior
Lab
Evaluate
End of Course Exam
Standards Assessment
Performance Assessment
Sci Activities for Adv. Learners
Chapter & Unit Tests
Rubric Scored Projects, Labs, and
Writings
Chapter / Unit Test
Practicum
Semester Final Exam
SUGGESTED GRADE WEIGHTING:
(with some possible examples)
1. Assessment
o
o
o
o
o
2. Homework
o
o
o
o
o
~30%
objective tests including comprehensive finals
performance tasks (rubric scored)
open-ended questions (rubric scored)
portfolios
student self-evaluations
not more than 10%
discovery assignments
assignments reinforcing class lesson
essays
organization
research
3. Labs
o
o
~20%
lab reports
active participation
4. Projects
o
o
~20%
science fair projects
research-based reports and projects
5. Classwork
o
o
o
o
~20%
note taking skills
organization skills
oral presentations
individual and group projects and assessments
STANDARD GRADING SCALE:
Advanced Proficient A 90 – 100%
B 80 – 89%
Proficient
C 70 – 79%
D 60 – 69%
Partial Proficient
0 – 59%
F
Not Proficient
...........................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Submitted by:
Eric Brundin (S. Garcia)
School:
Science Office
Date:
4/15/11
Revised Board Date:
10/4/11
...........................................................................................................................................
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