Wireless Evolution
Department of Justice
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,Operational Technology Division
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MESSAGE FROM MANAGEMENT
he bou~~aries of technology are constantly expanding.
Recognizing the pathway of emerging technology is
a key element to maintaining relevance in a rapidly
changing technological environment. While this
proficiency is fundamentally important in developing strategies
that preserve long-term capabilities in the face of emerging
technologies, equally important is delivering technical solutions
to meet the operational needs of the law enforcement
customer in a dynamic 'threat' environment. How can technical
law enforcement organizations maintain the steady-state
production of tools and expertise for technical collection, while
infusing ideas and agility into our organizations to improve our
ability to deliver timely, relevant, and cutting edge tools to law
enforcement customers? Balancing these two fundamentals
through an effective business strategy is both a challenge and
an opportunity for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and
other Federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.
T
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develop technical tools to combat threats along the Southwest
Border.
The customer-centric approach calls for a high degree of
collaboration among engineers, subject matter experts (SMEs),
and the investigator to determine needs and requirements.
To encourage innovation, the technologists gain a better
understanding of the operational and investigative needs
and tailor the technology to fit the end user's challenges.
Rather than developing solutions from scratch, the customercentric approach leverages and modifies the technoloe:v to
fit the customer's nFlFlrt~.1
This ~dition .of th~ Emerging Technr.::0.:,;:lo.li:i:;::;es:....:.:=:::.:.:::::.:....J.=.!!.!L., Organizations that have traditionally been successful in vertical
lines of production (sometimes referred to as stovepipes)
can also benefit from an injection of this type of horizontal
"internal consultancy" to jumpstart their capabilities. One
L-_ _ _ _ _ _ _...Jln the last decade, smartphone
way
to implement this customer-centric business strategy
technology and the ability to communicate data over handheld
is
to
empower a team of engineers and SMEs with the
and other portable devices have grown exponentially. Simple
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have been replaced with latitude to work across multiple departments, selecting those
the iPhone, Android, and other Global Positionin System technologies that best fit the customer's needs. By setting
the customer's requirements as the end goal, the internal and
(GPS) enabled hybrid devices.
external collaboration is driven by the user's requirements.
The unique tool or capability derived from this process is the
product of the collaboration.
As law enforcement moves forward into the 21st century,
emerging technologies such ~.IoW.L"""'liiLLLL.W~.I.II.II.LJJ..LIOJ.-'I1.IiLol,
When we consider strategies to mitigate risks posed by other wireless tech nolo ies
a......::-:-_~_~_~______.....IThe concepts
of innovation and collaboration focused on the customer's
requirements are not limited to technology. These principles
rm..;a.:..y_b;;.;e_a;;....;;.s.;;.;ou:.;;n;.;;;d...;:·s:.::tr;.;;;at.::e;su...:.::.:.~:a..:;::::.:.:.:...:::.:~~.:.:.:::.:!IL_---J can help deliver relevant technical solutions successfully,
especially when the technology is changing at such a rapid
pace. We can count on technology to change. Our strategy for
dealing with this change can make a difference in the technical
L -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.JAs an alternative, consider the
tools
we provide our Federal, state, and local law enforcement
opportunity to employ a customer-centric business strategy
customers.
that combines technology, innovation, and collaboration. This
strategy was recently incorporated into the FBI's efforts to
~=======--------~~--.---
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1. Message From, Management . . . • . • • . • . . • . • • • • • • • • • . . • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• I
2. The FCC's Net Neutrality Rules (CIU) •••..•••.••••.•.••••...••••..•.•.•..••••••.•••••.....•. 2
3. Wireless Evolution •..••••.•.•...•....•.•..•.•••••••...••••••.•••.••••••.••.•.••.••••••• 4.
4. !,:ong Term Evolution.................................................................... ~':I:
5. 4G: Technology. ••.•.••....•... '..•..•. " ..••..• '. • • . • . • • . • . • • • • • . • • • • . . • . • • . . . • . • • • • • • •• 26
6. WI.reless. Cell PhQnQ< TQQhnQlog,es: A; ShQrHuJQrlC!1.. .•••• " •.••...••...... " . . . .•••••.•....•••••• 30
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2:1;. GIQssar.y ••••••••.•.•...•••• , •••••••.•. , ...•.•..• , •.••.••..•••..••••.••••.••••..••.•• 69.
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Teclt Insights ...............................' ..•.••...•••.•.•••.•.••.•..•••.•..•.. , •.. • 12
6Qing Dark - A Rev.iew. QUhe NatiQnal' ~awful Int~rcept Strategy...................................... 7.3,
23. FYI' ..•.••••••••••••••••••••....•••••.••...•••• , .....•.•••.••.••...•...••..•.•••••. 76
While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their
employees, makes any warranty, expressed or Implied, or assumes legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, Dr usefulness of any
information, apparatus. product, service, or process disclosed or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference
herein to any speCific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily
constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof.
This document contains privileged, deliberative, sensitive information which relates to the.electronic surveillance procedures and capabilities,
of law enforcement and other government agencies as well as their state of knowledge relating to such issues. The public or unauthorized
and inappropriate disclosure of this document/information will, in fact facilitate the circumvention of the law. Circulation of this document,
either physically or electronically is controlled and reserved exclusively to the FBI. Recipients of this document from the FBI may not publish,
circulate or re-disclose this document or any information contained herein to any other person outside their agency without the express prior,
written consent of the FBI. The only authorized methods of disposal are shredding or burning.
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2. THE FCC'S NET NEUTRALITY RULES
than fixed broadband. However, the FCC's rules prohibit
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
On December 21, 2010, the Federal Communications mobile broadband providers from blocking lawful websites
Commission (FCC) approved new rules aimed at regulating and applications that compete with their voice and video
how broadband service providers offer ifldividuals and telephony services.
organizations the ability to access the Internet. The
Transparency
FCC's goal was to, "... provide greater clarity and certainty
A key purpose of the FCC's transparency rule is to enable
regarding the continued freedom and openness of the
third-party experts (e.g., independent engineers and
Internet." In doing so, it adopted four basic principles:
consumer watchdogs) to monitor and evaluate network
• Transparency. Fixed and mobile broadband providers management practices, in order to surface concerns
must disclose the network management practices, regarding potential open Internet violations. The rule itself
performance characteristics, .and terms and conditions reads:
of their broadband services;
UA person engaged in the provision of broadband
• No Blocking. Fixed broadband providers may not block Internet access service shall publicly disclose accurate
lawful content, applications, services, or non-harmful information regarding the network management practices,
devices; mobile broadband providers may not block performance, and commercial terms of its broadband
lawful websites, or block applications that compete with Internet access services sufficient for consumers to make
their voice or video telephony services;
informed choices regarding use of such services and for
• No Unreasonable Discrimination. Rxed broadband content, application, service, and device providers to
providers may not unreasonably discriminate in develop, market, and maintain Internet offerings.'t!
transmitting lawful network traffic; and
The FCC's reasoning for the transparency rule is based on
• Reasonable Network Management.
Reasonable
practices employed by broadband Internet access
service providers that are consistent with open Internet
protections.
However, critics warn the FCC's new rules could Include
introduction of usage-based pricing for accessing the
Internet at home and preferential treatment for companies
that pay extra for faster access to the network. Another
potential short coming of the rules as identified by critics
is that service providers may choose which websites can
run faster than others over their respective networks.. Still
critics warn that the FCC's actions are an inappropriate
over-reach of a Federal agency.
THE FCC'S NET NEUTRALITY RULES
The FCC's rules come after its issuance of its "Connecting
America: The National Broadband Plan," as mandated by
the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
(See ETR Bulletin Article entitled, "FCC Broadb"and Plan,"
June 2010, Volume 7, Issue 1). The FCC has largely
restricted the application of its rules to fixed, or wired,
broadband access services while only requiring mobile
broadband providers to comply with the transparency rule.
The FCC's rationale, in part, is based on its assertion that
mobile broadband is at an earlier stage in its development
five tenets. First, the FCC believes disclosure will ensure end
users can make informed choices regarding the purchase
and use of broadband service. Second, as end users'
confidence in broadband providers' practices increases,
their adoption of broadband services will increase as
well. Third, disclosure supports innovation, investment,
and competition by ensuring that startups and other edge
·providers have the technical information necessary to
create and maintain online content, applications, services,
and devices, and to assess the risks and benefits of
embarking on new projects. Fourth, disclosure increases
the likelihood that broadband providers will abide by open
Internet principles, and that the Internet community will
identify problematic conduct and suggest fixes. Fifth,
disclosure will enable the FCC to collect information
necessary to assess, report on, and enforce the other
open Internet rules.
No Blocking
The purpose behind the FCC's no blocking rule is to ensure
the freedom of consumers to send and receive lawful
content. In addition, it is intended for users and providers
to use and provide applications and other services without
fear of blocking that may otherwise inhibit the Internet's
openness and competition in adjacent markets such as
..................................................................................
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FCC Report and Order (FCC 10-201), In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet. Broadband Industry Practices. para. 54. adopted December 21. 2010.
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voice communications and video and audio programming.
The rule itself reads:
use the network less to pay less.
Reasonable Network Management
person engaged in the provision of fixed broadband The FCC's three above rules are all subject to a fourth,
Internet access service, insofar as such person is so underlying belief that broadband service providers should
engaged, shall not 'block lawful content, applications,. be allowed to· institute reasonable network management
services, or non- harmful devices, subject to reasonable protocols and practices. Legitimate network management
network management "2
purposes identified by the FCC are: ensuring network
security and integrity, including by addressing traffic that
In sliort, the nO-blocking rule prohibits broadband service
is harmful to the network; addressing traffic unwanted
providers from impairing or degrading particular content,
by end users (including by premise operators), such as
applications, services, or non-harmful devices so as to
by providing services or capabilities consistent with an
render them effectively unusable (subject to reasonable
end user's choices regarding parental controls or security
network management).
capabilities; and reducing or mitigating the effects of
congestion on the network. The rule itself reads:
No Unreasonable Discrimination
In the course of conducting the rulemaking, the FCC found
'~ network management practice is reasonable if it is
that fixed broadband service providers have incentives
appropriate and tailored to achieving a legitimate network
as well as the ability to discriminate in their handling
management purpose, taking into account the particular
of network traffic in ways that can harm innovation,
network architecture and technology of the broadband
investment, competition, end users, and free expression.
Internet access service.'"
The FCC's rule attempts to strike a balance between
restricting harmful conduct and permitting beneficial forms The FCC acknowledged that reasonable network
of differential treatment. The rule itself reads:
management practices may differ across service
platforms. For example, practices to manage congestion
'~ person engaged in the provision of fixed broadband
on a fixed satellite network may be inappropriate for a
Internet access service, insofar as such person is so
fiber-to-the-home network. The FCC also recognized the
engaged, shall not unreasonably discriminate in transmitting
unique network management challenges facing broadband
lawful network traffic over a consumer's broadband
providers that use unlicensed spectrum to deliver service
Internet access service. Reasonable network management
to end-users (i.e., unlicensed spectrum is shared among
shall not constitute unreasonable discrimination.'13
multiple users and technologies and no Single user can
control
or assure access to the spectrum).
The FCC's primary purpose behind its "no unreasonable
discrimination" rule can be summed up by its concern
CONCLUSION
over the following three practices. First, the FCC prohibits
The FCC's Net Neutrality rules have sparked a large amount
discrimination that harms an actual or potential competitor
of controversy since they were issued in December 2010.
to the broadband provider (such as by degrading certain
Diverse interpretations of the rules characterize them as
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) applications or services
either having gone too far in a heavy-handed attempt
when the broadband provider offers telephone service).
to regulate the Internet or not having gone far enough in
Second, prohibit practices that harm ·end users (such·
protecting consumers' interests. The only thing on which
as by inhibiting end users from accessing the content,
critics agree is that the rules are vague and subject to
applications, services, or devices of their choice). Third,
interpretation and will likely lead to lawsuits as the FCC
prohibit practices that impair free expression (such
implements them.
as slowing traffic from a particular blog because the
broadband provider disagrees with the content of blogger's
message).
"Intelligence provides the information we need,
but technology further enables us to find the
However, the FCC's rule does not prohibit tiered or usagebased pricing. The rules adopted by the FCC do not
patterns and connections in that intelligence."
prevent broadband providers from asking subscribers who
~ FBI Director Robert S. Mueller, III
use the network more to pay more, and subscribers who
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2 Ibid,
Ibid,
• Ibid,
3
para. 63.
para. 68.
para. 83.
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3. WIRELESS EVOLUTION
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competing approaches, but has significantly extended the
INTRODUCTION
The vision of a robust mobile broadband capability life of each of its member technologies.
has become a reality with millions of people actively
HSPA is strongly positioned to be the dominant mobile-data
using smartphones, tablets, netbooks, Personal Digital
technology for the next five to ten years. To help leverage
Assistants (PDAs) and laptops with wireless Third
service provider investments in HSPA, the Third Generation
Generation (3G)/Fourth Generation (4G) access. But this
. Partnership Project (3GPP) standards body has developed
is only the beginning of what is to come. This will be the
a series of enhancements to create "HSPA Evolution",
decade of the "anywhere/anytime" social existenGe with
commonly referred to as "HSPA+". HSPA+ represents
mobile broadband being integrated into every aspect of
a rational development of the Wldeband Code Division
life. Recent major developments include: 3G near ubiquity,
Multiple Access (WCDMA) approach, and it is the pathway
expanded smartphone capabilities, the availability of
to a totally new 3GPP radio platform called 3GPP LTE. LTE,
hundreds of thousands of mobile user applications, the
which uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access1
introduction of new form factors (e.g. tablets), projections
(OFDMA), was initially deployed in 2010. At the same time,
of mobile data, bandwidth demand that exceeds current
3GPP recognizes the significant worldwide investments
capacity, and industry and government acknowledgement
in GSM networks, and has defined enhancements to
of the need for more spectrum. Other developments
drastically increase EDGE data capabilities through an
include: implementation of data offload via Wi-Fi and
effort called Evolved EDGE.
Femtocells, dramatic performance increases through
High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) enhancements, initial Combining these advances in radio-access technOlogy,
deployments of Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology, and 3GPP has spearheaded the development of major
significant progress on specifications that will meet "true" core-network architectural enhancements (e.g., the IP
4G requirements. A lot is happening in the wireless sector. Multimedia Subsystem (lMS)) [See IMS Mini Tutorial) and
the Evolved Packet Core2 (EPC), formerly called System
3G technology has demonstrated the power and potential
Architecture Evolution (SAE). These developments will
of always-on, anywhere network connectivity and has
make possible new types of services,· effective integration
created a wave of industry innovation that spans devices,
of legacy and new networks, the convergence of fixed and
applications, Internet integration, and new business
wireless systems, and the transition from circuit-switched
service delivery models. Currently used by hundreds of
architectures for voice traffic to a fully packet-switched
millions of people, mobile broadband connectivity is on the
delivery solution. The result is a balanced portfolio of
verge of becoming ubiquitous. It is doing so on a powerful
complementary technologies that includes both radio
foundation of networking technologies including Global
access and core networks, provides service providers
System for Mobile Communications (GSM) with Enhanced
maximum freedom in how they enhance their networks
Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), HSPA, and LTE. LTE,
over time, and delivers unified voice and data services.
in a forthcoming release called LTE-Advanced, will be one
of the first technologies to meet the new requirements of This white paper focuses on the evolution of EDGE,
International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT- HSPA enhancements, 3GPP LTE; the capabilities of these
Advanced), an International Telecommunications Union technologies, and their position relative to other primary
(ITU) project, and realize a true 4G technology.
competing technologies. It explains how these technologies
fit into the ITU roadmap that leads to IMT-Advanced and
Through continuous innovation, Universal Mobile
the migration from 3G to 4G. The following are some
Telecommunications System (UMTS) with HSPA technology
important observations. (Subsequent ETR Bulletins will
has established itself as a global, mobile-broadband
look at these technologies and new applications supported
solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the
GSM-HSPA ecosystem has become the most successful as they are rolled out onto the network.)
communications technology family ever. Through a process
of constant improvement, the GSM family of technologies
has not only matched or exceeded the capabilities of
• The wireless technology road map now extends to
IMT-Advanced with LTE-Advanced being one of the
first technologies specified to meet the IMT-Advanced
..................................................................................
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access is a multi-user version of the popular Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)
digital modulation scheme. Multiple access is achieved in OFDMA by assigning subsets of subcarriers to individual users. This allows
simultaneous low data rate transmission from several users.
2 The main component of the System Architecture Evolution (SAE) architecture is the Evolved Packet Core (EPC). also known as SAE Core. The
EPC will serve as equivalent of GPRS networks (via the Mobility Management Entity, Serving Gateway and PDN Gateway subcomponents).
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requirements. LTE-Advanced will be capable of peak
throughput rates that exceed 1 Gigabit per second
(Gbps).
• Future networks will be networks otnetworks consisting
of multiple-access technologies, multiple bands, widely
varying coverage areas, all self-organized and selfoptimized, and based on an IMS approach.
• GSM-HSPA has a significant global lead in terms of
subscribers, deployment, and services. It will continue
to dominate other wide-area wireless technologies.
In current deployments, HSPA users regularly experience
throughput rates far in excess of 1 Megabit per second
(Mbps), generally under favorable conditions, on both
downlinks and uplinks, with 4 Mbps downlink speed
commonly being observed. Planned enhancements such
as dual-carrier operation3 will double user achievable peak
throughput rates.
• HSPA+ provides a strategic performance roadmap
advantage for incumbent GSM HSPA service providers.
Features such as multi-carrier operation, Multiple InpuV
Multiple Output (MIMO)4, and higher-order modulation
offer service providers several options for upgrading
their networks, with many of these features (e.g., multicarrier, higher order modulation) being available as
network software upgrades. With all planned features
implemented, HSPA+ peak rates will eventually reach
168 Mbps.
• HSPA+ with 2x2 MIMO, successive interference
cancellation,5 and 64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation6
(QAM) is more spectrally efficient than competing
technologies including Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access (Wi MAX) Release 1.0.
• The 3GPP OFDMA technology used in LTE matches or
exceeds the capability of any other OFDMA systems.
Peak theoretical downlink rates are 326 Mbps in a 20
Megahertz (MHz) channel bandwidth. LTE assumes a
full Internet Protocol (IP) network architecture, and it is
designed to support voice in the packet domain.
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• LTE has become the technology platform of choice as
GSM-UMTS and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)/
One Carrier Evolved, Data Optimized (EV-DO) service
providers are making strategiC, long-term decisions to
deploy their next generation platforms.
• GSM-HSPN will comprise the large majority of
subscribers over the next five to ten years, even as new
wireless technologies are developed. The deployment of
LTE and its coexistence with UMTS-HSPA will be similar
to the deployment of UMTS HSPA and its coexistence
with GSM.
• 3GPP has made considerable progress on how to
enhance LTE to meet the requirements of IMT-Advanced
in an activity referred to as LTE-Advanced. LTE-Advanced
is expected to be the first true 4G system available.
Specifications are to be completed by March of 2011,
and the earliest deployment may be in 2012.
• HSPA-LTE has significant economic advantages over
other wireless technologies.
• WiMAX has developed network speCifications supported
by many providers, but it will likely represent only a very
small percentage of wireless subscribers over the next
five years.
• EDGE technology has proven highly successful and is
broadly deployed on GSM networks globally. Advanced
capabilities with Evolve.d EDGE can double and ultimately
quadruple current EDGE throughput rates, halve latency,
and increase frequency spectral efficiency.
• EPC will provide a new core network that supports both
LTE and interoperability with legacy GSM-UMTS radioaccess networks and non-3GPP based radio access
networks. Policy based billing and control provides
flexible quality-of-service (QoS) management, enabling
new types of applications, as well as billing measures.
• Innovations such as EPC and UMTS one-tunnel
architectureS will "flatten". the network, simplify
deployment, and reduce latency. This is a significant
benefit for service providers that will impact lawful
surveillance methods.
A mobile device in a dual-carrier communication system communicates with a network via first and second carriers by receiving data in the first cell via one
of the first and second carriers on one carrier frequency, whilst receiving syst!lm information and/or downlink data from a second cell via the other of the
first and second carriers on another carrier frequency.
4 MIMO is the use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance.
5 Users are ordered by their chance of successful decoding and the packet of the strongest user is decoded first. After a packet is decoded, the signal is
reconstructed and subtracted from the received signal. The rest of the users are ordered again for the next round of decoding. The procedure is performed
iteratively over all users.
6 QAM Is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals, or two digital bit streams, by changing (modulating)
the amplitudes of two carrier waves, using the amplitude·shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme Dr amplitude modulation (AM) analog modulation
scheme.
7 This paper's use of the term "GSM-HSPA" includes GSM, EDGE, UMTS, HSPA and HSPA+. ·UMTS-HSPA" refers to UMTS technology deployed in conjunction
with HSPA capability.
8 Flat architecture: The direct tunnel approach facilitates the handling of user plane throughput In the core network. User plane processing requires a lot of
processing capaclty in the SGSN, but the solution enables the operator to transfer user plane traffic beyond the SGSN using the IP backbone. Creating the
user plane tunnel directly between the RAN and the GGSN optimizes the operator's costs, since most of the throughput capacity can be carried by standard
IP routers and switches. This simplifies user plane dimensioning and operators no longer need to over-dimension SGSNs to carry user plane data safely.
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Transition to 4G
There is some misunderstanding in the industry as to what
technology falls into which cellular generation. Generally
speaking, lG refers to analog cellular technologies; it
was first available in the 1980s. 2G denotes initial digital
systems, introducing services such as short messaging and
lower (limited) speed data.9 CDMA2000 1xRTT and GSM
are the primary 2G technologies, although CDMA2000
1xRTT is sometimes called a 3G technology because
it meets the 144 Kilobits (kbps) mobile throughput
requirement for 3G. EDGE also meets this refluirement. 2G
technologies became available in the 1990s.
3G requirements were specified by the ITU as part of
the International Mobile Telephone 2000 (IMT-2000)
project, for which digital networks had to provide 144
Kbps of throughput at mobile speeds, 384 Kbps at
pedestrian (walking) speeds, and 2 Mbps while stationary.
UMTS-HSPA and CDMA2000 EV-DO are the primary
3G technologies, although WiMAX was recently also
designated as an official 3G technology. 3G technologies
began deployment in the last decade (2000s).
The ITU recently issued requirements for IMT-Advanced.
They constitute the only official definition of 4G. The
requirements include operation in up to 40 MHz radio
channels with extremely high spectral efficiency. However,
the lTU recommends operation in up to 100 MHz radio
channels and peak spectral efficiency of 15 bps/Hz,
resulting in a theoretical throughput rate of 1.5 Gbps.
Previous to the publication of these requirements, 1 Gbps
was frequently cited as the 4G goal.
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confusion. The following table highlights the generational
characteristics.
Table 3-11G to 4G
,
IGeneration
I
lG
-
Requirements
,I
I'
Comments
No official
requirements.
Analog technology.
Deployed in the 1980s.
·No official
.requirements.
Digital Technology.
First digital systems.
Deployed ·in the 1990s.
New services.such as
Short Mess!lge Service
(SMS) and low-rate data.
Primary technologies
include 'IS-95 CDMA and'
GSM.
Primary technologies
include CDMA2000 1X/
EVDO and UMTS-HSPA.l0
WiMAX now an official
3G technology.
2G
3G
ITU's IMT-2000
required 144 kbps
mobile, 384 kbps
pedestrian, 2 Mbps
indoors.
4G
ITU's IMT-Advanced
requirements
include ability to
operate in up to 40
MHz radio channels
and with very high
spectral efficiency.
No technology meets
requirements today.
IEEE 802.16m and
LTE Advanced being
designed to meet
requirements.
While service providers are starting to deploy LTE networks
today,
it will be the middle of the next decade before a
No available technology meets these requirements, today.
large
percentage
of subscribers will actually be using LTE
It will require new technologies such as LTE-Advanced (with
work already underway) and IEEE 802.16m. For marketing (or LTE-Advanced). During this deployment period, most
purposes, some have tried to label current versions of networks and devices will support the full scope of the
WiMAX and LTE as "4G", but this is only accurate to 3GPP family of technologies (GSM EDGE, HSPA, and LTE).
the extent that such designation refers to the general The history of wireless network deployment provides a
approach or platform that will be enhanced to meet the useful perspective. GSM, which in 2009 was stili growing
its user base, was specified in 1990 with initial networks
4G ITU requirements.
deployed in 1991. The UMTS Task Force established itself
With WiMAX and HSPA significantly outperforming current in 1995, Release 99 specifications were completed in
3G requirements, calling these technologies 3G clearly 2000, and HSPA+ specifications were completed in 2007.
does not give them full credit, as they are a generation Although it's been more than a decade since work began
beyond existing technologies. But calling them 4G is not on the technology, only now is UMTS deployment and
exactly correct either. Unfortunately, the generational acceptance starting to take off. Figure 3-1 highlights the
labels do not properly capture the scope of available transition of wireless technology from early 2000.
technologies and have resulted in some amount of market
..................................................................................
9 2G: • digital systems· leverage technology to increase capacity - Speech compression; digital signal processing' utilize/extend "Intelligent Network" concepts
• improve fraud prevention· add new services' whole range of standards' most successful GSM (TDMA based) • other US versions (COMA based)
10 High Speed Packet Access (HSPA): HSPA Is the set of technologies that defines the migration path for 3G/WCDMA operators worldwide. It includes High
Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), and HSPA Evolved. In most HSPA networks. the end-user can
expect to enjoy speeds of at least 1Mbps upwards. depending on the peak speed of the network (anywhere from 1.8 Mbps to 14.4 Mbps) with peak uplink
speeds of up to 5.7 Mbps. HSPA Evolved introduces Multiple-lnpUVMultiple-Output (MIMO) capabilities and higher order modulation (64 QAM). enabling
greater throughput speeds and higher performance.
SF
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infrastructure. If an LTE picocell is serving a small number
of houses using fiber backhaul, is this a wireline or wireless
network? The answer is both.
100 Mbps
10Mbps
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GPRS40kIlps
10Kbps L - ; n n ; : ; - - - - - ; ; ; ; ; ; - - - - - ' 5 l I ' [ r r - - - -
2000
205
Figure 3-1 Wlreless/Wlrellne Technology Transition
(Illustrated)
Wireless versus Wireline Advances
Today. wireless technology assumes a dominant role
in communications, even though wireline technology,
with fiber links. has inherent capacity advantages.
The overwhelming global success of mobile telephony,
and the growing demand for mobile data, conclusively
demonstrates the desire for mobile communications.
Mobile broadband combines robust high-speed data
services with mobility and anytime, anywhere access.
Thus, the opportunities are endless when viewing the many
diverse markets mobile broadband can effectively address:
Developed countries continue to show incredible demand
for. mobile broadband services. Additionally, in developing
countries, there is no doubt that 3G technology will cater
to both enterprises and their high end mobile workers and
consumers, for whom 3G can be a cost effective solution,
competing with digital subscriber line (DSL) or cable for at
home access.
Relative to wireless networks, wireline networks have
always had superior capacity, and historically have always
delivered faster throughput rates. Wireless technologies
have increased typical user throughput rates; however,
wireline enjoys a consistent lOx advantage over wireless
technologies. It is not throughput that makes wireless
access attractive, it is mobility. Taking advantage of
the .strengths of each technology leads to the efforts to
support seamless mobility (e.g., roaming through multiple
networks).
Bandwidth Management Trends
Given enormous growth in usage, mobile service providers
are either employing or considering multiple approaches to
manage their limited bandwidth:
• More spectrum. Spectrum correlates directly to
capacity, and more spectrum is becoming available
globally for mobile broadband. Purchase of spectrum
from the government. however, is expensive.
• Increased spectral efficiency. Newer technologies are
spectrally more efficient, meaning greater throughput in
the same amount of spectrum.
• More cell sites. Smaller cell sizes result in more
capacity per subscriber, as fewer users are competing
for the frequency spectrum.
• Femtocells.l1 Ferntocells can significantly offload the
macro network. Pricing plans can encourage users to
move high-bandwidth activities (e.g., movie downloads
and IPTV) to Femtocell connections.
• Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi networks offer another means of offloading
intense radio access traffic.
• Off-peak hours. Service providers can offer lower rates
or fewer restrictions on large data transfers that occur at
off-peak hours such as overnight.
• QoS. By prioritizing traffic. large downloads can occur
with lower priority, thus not affecting other active users.
(See Article 2 on FCC's Net Neutrality Rules)
• Innovative data plans. Creative new data plans that
influence consumption behavior, including tiered pricing,
could make usage affordable for most subscribers, and
could discourage excessive or abusive use.
It will take a creative blend of all of the above to make the
mobile broadband market successful and to enable it to
exist as a complementary solution to wired broadband.
EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+/LTE Deployment
Most GSM networks today support EDGE, which represents
more
than 478 networks in approximately 190 countries.12
Despite some of the inherent limitations of wireless
technology relative to wireline. its fundamental appeal Meanwhile, UMTS has established itself globally. Nearly
of providing access from anywhere has fueled its market all WCDMA handsets are also GSM handsets, so WCDMA
growth. As the decade progresses, the lines between users can access the broad base of GSM networks and
wireline and wireless networks will blur. The fact is that services.
wireless networks are mostly wireline in their transport
..................................................................................
Femtocells are low-power wireless access points that operate in licensed spectrum to connect standard mobile devices to a mobile operator's network using
residential DSL or cable broadband connections.
12 GSA. June 2010
11
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There are more than 500 million UMTS-HSPA customers
worldwide spanning 347 commercial networks.13 324
service providers in 137 countries offer HSDPA and 100 of
these have deployed HSUPA. Almost all I:JMTS operators
are deploying HSPA for two reasons:
• The incremental cost of HSPA is relatively low, and
• HSPA makes such efficient use of spectrum for data
that it results in a much lower overall cost per Megabyte
(MB) of data delivered.
Demonstrating marketplace commitment to HSPA
technology, at the close of 2010, there were ,more than
2,350 commercial HSPA devices available worldwide from
230 suppliers. Devices include handsets, data cards,
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modems, routers, laptops, media players, and cameras.
Service providers have begun deploying evolved HSPA
features. As of June 2010, 65 HSPA+ networks are in
service in 35 countries.14 As the technology matures,
upgrading to HSPA+ will likely represent a minimal
investment for service providers in order to significantly
boost their network performance.
LTE appears' to be the preferred choice for service
providers as their next-generation wireless technology. It
has also been selected by public~safety organizations as
their broadband technology of choice. The Association
of Public-Safety Communications Officials15 (APCO) and
the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) have
both endorsed LTE.is
Competitive Positioning of Wireless Technologies
Table 3-2 Competitive Position of Major Wireless Technologies
-
I
I
Technology
EDGEjHSPAjLTE
Subscribers
Over 4.4 billion
-
CDMA2000
518 million17 today; slower growth expected
than GSM-HSPA
--
II
II
WiMAX
61 million anticipated by 2014
Maturity
Extremely mature
Extremely mature
Emerging
Adoption
Cellular operators globally
Cellular operators globally
Umited to date
Coverage/Footprint
Global
Global with the general exception of Western
Europe
Umited
Deployment
Fewer cell sites required at 700 Fewer cell sites required at 700 and 850 MHz
and 850 MHz
Many more cell sites required at 2.5
Devices
Broad selection of GSM/
EDGE/UMTS/ HSPA devices
Broad selection of 1xRIT/EV-OO devices
Initial devices emphasize data
Radio Technology
Highly optimized TDMA for
EDGE, COMA for HSPA, OFDMA
forLTE
Highly optimized COMA for Rev 0/ A/B
Optimized OFDMA in Release 1.0,
More optimized in Release 1.5
Spectral Efficiency
Very high with HSPA, matches
OFDMA approaches in 5 MHz
with HSPA+
Very high with EVOO Rev AlB
Very high, but not higher than HSPA+
for Release 1.0, and not higher than
LiE for Release 1.5
Throughput
Capabilities
Peak downlink user-achievable
rates of over 4 Mbps today
with achievable rates of over 8
Mbps today with HSPA+
Peak downlink user-achievable rates of over
1.5 Mbps, with significantly higher rates in the
future
3 to 6 Mbps typical rates with bursts
to 10 Mbps
Voice CapablDty
Extremely efficient circuit-voice
available today; smoothest migration to VolP of any
technology
Extremely efficient circuit-voice available today
EV-DO radio channels With VolP cannot support
circuit-voice users
Relatively Inefficient VolP initially;
more effiCient in later stages, but
lower than LTE Voice coverage will be
much more limited than cellular
Simultaneous Voice
and Data
Available with GSM18 and
UMTStoday
Not available today. Available with VolP and
future devices
Potentially available, though initial
services will emphasize data
Efficient Spectrum
Usage
Entire UMTS radiO channel
available for any mix of voice
and high speed data
Radio channel today limited to either voice/
medium speed data or high speed data only
Currently only efficient for data
centric networks
..................................................................................
CiSCO, ·Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update; February 10, 2010.
3G Americas, June, 2010.
IS APCO International Is the world's largest organization of public safety communications professionals, It serves the needs of public safety communications
practitioners worldwide and the welfare of the general public as a whole by providing complete expertise, professional development, technical assistance,
advocacy, and outreach.
16 http://www.fiercewlreless.com/story/public.safety-groups.endorse-lte-broadbandsolution/2009-06-12
17 COG, July 2010 for Q4 2009.
18 Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) Is a protocol based on the GSM standard that allows simultaneous transfer of Circuit switched (CS) voice and Packet switched
{PSI data over the same radio channel (ARFCN). DTM is a 3GPP baseline R99 feature.
13
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3GPP Evolutionary Approach
3GPP standards development falls into three principal
areas: radio interfaces, core networks, and services. With
respect to'radio interfaces, rather than focusing on anyone
wireless approach, 3GPP's evolutionary plan recognizes
the strengths and weaknesses of every technology and
consequently,exploits the unique capabilities of each one.
Note that GSM, based on a Time Division Multiple Access19
(TDMA) approach, is mature and broadly deployed.
Already extremely efficient, there are nevertheless
opportunities for additional optimization and
enhancements. Standards bodies have already defined
"Evolved EDGE", which was available for deployment in
the 2009 to 2010 timeframe. Evolved EDGE more than
doubles throughput over current EDGE systems, reduces
latency by half, and increases spectral efficiency. By the
end of the decade, due to total market momentum, the
majority of worldwide subscribers will still be using GSM/
EDGE technologies.
Meanwhile, CDMA was selected as the basis of 3G
technologies including WCDMA for the Frequency Division
Duplex20 (FDD) mode of UMTS and Time Division COMA
(TD-CDMA) for the Time Division Duplex (TOD) mode of
UMTS. The evolved data systems for UMTS, such as HSPA
and HSPA+, introduce enhancements and simplifications
that help CDMA based systems equal the capabilities
of competing systems, especially with 5 MHz spectrum
allocations.
HSPA innovations such as dual-carrier21 HSPA, synchronizes
the operation of HSPA on two adjacent 5 MHz carriers for
higher throughput rates. In combination with MIMO, dualcarrier HSPA will achieve peak network speeds of 84
Mbps, and quad-carrier HSPA will achieve peak rates of
168 Mbps. Given some of the advantages of an Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFOM) approach, 3GPP
has specified OFDMA as the basis of its LTE effort.
LTE incorporates best-of radio techniques to achieve
performance levels beyond what would be practical
with CDMA approaches, especially in larger channel
bandwidths. Similar to the way that 3G coexists with 2G
systems in integrated networks, LTE systems will coexist
with both 3G systems and 2G systems. Multimode devices
will function across LTE/3G or even LTEj3G/2G, depending
on network circumstances. Beyond radio technology, EPC
provides a new core architecture that enables both flatter
architectures and integration of LTE with both legacy GSM
HSPA networks, as well as other wireless technologies. The
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combination of EPC and LTE is referred to as the Evolved
Packet System (EPS).
LTE is crucial to service providers since it provides the
efficiencies and capabilities demanded by the rapidly
growing mobile broadband marKet. The cost for service
providers to deliver data (e.g., cost per MB) is almost
directly proportional to the spectral efficiency of the
technology. LTE has the highest spectral efficiency of any
currently specified technology, making it an essential
technology as market demand increases.
LTE supports both FDO and TDD modes. Many deployments
will be based on FDD in paired spectrum. The TOD mode,
however, will be important in enabling deployments where
paired spectrum is unavailable. LTE TDO will be deployed
in China; it will be available for Europe at 2.6 GHz, and
available for the U.S. Broadband Radio Service (BRS) 2.6
GHz band. It is also being considered for the TOO portions
of the U.S. Wireless Communications Service (WCS) band.
Over the last year, LTE TOD has developed considerable
market momentum, and Is emerging as a competitive
threat to other OFDMA TOO technologies.
ITU's IMT-Advanced
To address ITU's IMT-Advanced requirements, 3GPP is
developing LTE-Advanced, a technology that will have peak
rates of more than 1 Gbps.
Development of GSM and UMTS-HSPA happens in stages
referred to as 3GPP releases. Equipment vendors' products
support particular versions of each specification. It is
important to realize that 3GPP releases address multiple
technologies. For example, Release 7 optimizes Voice over
Internet Protocol (VoIP) for HSPA, but also significantly
enhances GSM data functionality with Evolved EDGE. A
summary of the different 3GPP releases is as follows:22
• Release 99: Completed. First deployable version of
UMTS. Enhancements to GSM data (EDGE). Majority of
deployments today are based on Release 99. Provides
support for GSMjEDGEjGPRS/WCDMA radio-access
networks.
• Release 4: Completed. Multimedia messaging support.
Firststepstoward using IP transport in the core network.
• Release 5: Completed. HSDPA. First phase of IMS.
Full ability to use IP-based transport instead of just
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).in·the core network.
• Release 6: Completed. HSUPA. Enhanced multimedia
..................................................................................
19 TDMA
is a channel access method for shared medium networks. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into
different time slots.
2. FDM is a form of signal multiplexing which involves aSSigning non·overlapping frequency ranges to different signals or to each 'user" of a medium.
21 The basic idea of the multicarrier feature is to achieve better resource utilization and spectrum efficiency by means of joint resource aliocation and load
balancing across the downlink carriers.
22 After Release 99. release versions went to a numerical designation instead of designation by year.
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support through Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast
Services (MBMS). Performance specifications for
advanced receivers. Wireless Local Area Network
(WLAN) integration option. IMS enhancements. Initial
VolP capability.
for additional global harmonization of the 1.7/2.1GHz
band. These new spectrum bands, allocated harmoniously
across North, Central, and South America, are critical to
efficiently meeting the growing needs of customers for
mobile broadband applications.
• Release 7: Completed. Provides enhanced GSM data
functionality with Evolved EDGE. Specifies HSPA+,
which includes higher order modulation and MIMO.
Performance enhancements, improved spectral
efficiency, increased capacity, and better resistance
to interference. Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC)
enables efficient "always-on" service and enhanced
uplink UL VolP capacity, as well as reductions in call
set-up delay for Push-to-Talk Over Cellular (PoC). Radio
enhancements to HSPA' include 64 QAM in the downlink
DL and 16 QAM in the uplink. Also includes optimization
of MBMS capabilities through the Multicast/Broadcast,
Single-Frequency Network (MBSFN) function.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) auctioned
the 700 MHz band23 in the United States in January
2008. The availability of this band, the Advanced Wireless
Services (AWS) band at 1710-1755 MHz with 2110-2155
MHz in the U.S., and the forthcoming 2.6 GHz frequency
band in Europe are providing service providers with wider
deployment options. A growing number of providers are
also deploying UMTS at 900 MHz, a traditional GSM band.
• Release 8: Completed. Includes further HSPA Evolution
features such as simultaneous use of MIMO and 64
QAM. Includes dual-carrier HSPA (DC-HSPA) wherein two
WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a doubling
of throughput performance. Specifies OFDMA-based
3GPP LTE. Defines EPC.
• Release 9: Completed. HSPA and LTE enhancements
including HSPA dual-carrier operation in combination
with MIMO, EPC enhancements, Femtocell support,
support for regulatory features such as emergency user
equipment positioning and the Commercial Mobile Alert
System (CMAS), and evolution of IMS architecture.
• Release 10: Under development. Expected to be
complete in 2011. Will specify LTE-Advanced that meets
the requirements set by ITU's IMT-Advanced project.
Also includes quad-carrier operation for HSPA+.
Spectrum
Another important characteristic of UMTS-HSPA deployment
is the expanding number of available radio bands and
the subsequent support from infrastructure and mobile
equipment vendors. The fundamental system design and
networking protocols remain the same for each band;
however the frequency dependent portions of the radios
have to change.
As new frequency bands become available for deployment,
standards bodies are adapting UMTS for these bands. This
includes 450 and 700 MHz. The 1710-1770 MHz uplink
was matched with the 2110-2170 MHz downlink to allow
The spectrum projection does not take into account that
small (short) message traffic (e.g., e-mail queries and
SMS) consumes a disproportionate amount of capacity,
nor that providers need additional radio channels for
infill coverage or to separate24 voice and data traffic on
different channels.
Spectrum needs vary by service provider. Some may
experience shortages well before others depending on
multiple factors such as the amount of spectrum they
have, cell site density relative to user demographics,
type of devices they service, and their customer service
plans. As the amount of available spectrum increases and
as technologies simultaneously become spectrally more
effiCient, total capacity rises rapidly, supporting more
subscribers and making malJY new types of applications
feasible.
Different countries have regulated spectrum more loosely
than others. For example, service providers in the United
States can use. either 2G or 3G technologies in cellular,
Personal Communications Service (PCS), or 3G bands,
whereas in Europe there are greater restrictions, although
efforts are under way that will result in greater flexibility
including the use of 3G technologies in current 2G bands.
With the projected increase in the use of mobile-broadband
technologies, the amount of spectrum required by the next
generation of wireless technology could be substantial.
In the U.S., the FCC has committed itself to finding an
additional 500 MHz of spectrum over the next 10 years as
part of its National Broadband Plan. This would effectively
double the amount of spectrum for commerCial mobile
radio service. As regulators make more spectrum available,
it is important that such spectrum be:
..................................................................................
23
24
Analog TV spectrum
Eliminate inter-band interference
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1. Coordinated on a regional or global basis.
2.
Unfettered by spectrum caps and other legacy voicecentric spectrum policies.
3. Made available in the widest radio channels possible
(e.g., 10 MHz, 20 MHz, and mor.e).
4.
Utilized efficiently without causing interference to
existing spectrum owners.
Emerging technologies such as LTE benefit from wider
radio channels. These wider radio channels are not only
spectrally more efficient; they offer greater capacity, which
is an important attribute because typical broadband usage
contributes to a much higher load than voice applications.
Note that watching a YouTube™ video consumes 100 times
as many bits per second on the downlink as a voice call.
Of some worry in this regard is that spectrum for LTE
is becoming available in different frequency bands in
different countries. Initial U.S. deployments will be at 700
MHz, in Japan at 1500 MHz, and in Europe at 2.6 GHz.
With so many varying spectrum bands, roaming operations
based on GSM or HSPA on common regional or global
bands will likely be required.
Core-Network Evolution
3GPP is defining a progression of enhancements to the
core network to improve network performance and the
range of services provided. Improvements will enable
a shift to all IP architectures. One way to improve core
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network performance is by using flatter architectures. The
more hierarchical a network, the more effortlessly it can
be managed centrally. The tradeoff, however, is reduced
performance, especially for data communications, because
packets must pass through and be processed by multiple
nodes in the network. To enhance data performance and,
in particular, to reduce latency (packet delays), 3GPP has
defined a number of enhancements in Release 7 and
Release 8 that decrease the number of processing nodes
and result in a flatter architecture.
Release 7 introduces an option called one-tunnel
architecture that allows service providers to configure
their. networks to allow user data to bypass a serving node
and travel directly via a gateway node. There is also an
option to integrate the functionality of the Radio Network
Controller25 (RNC) directly into the base station.
For Release 8, 3GPP defined an entirely new core network
called the EPC. The key features and capabilities of EPC
include:
• Reduced latency and higher data performance through
a flatter architecture
• Support for both LTE radio access networks and
interworking with GSM-HSPA radio access networks
• The ability to integrate non-3GPP networks such as
Wi MAX
• Optimization for all services provided via IP
• Comprehensive, network-controlled, QoS architecture
Evolution of TOMA, COMA, and OFOMA Systems
Evolved
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that year. Th........ no pub1lc announcements of deployment of
WlMax Rei 1.5. -20110 MHz Indicates 20 MHz ueed an the dOWnlink
and 10 MHz U8ed on the uplink.
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Figure 3·2 Evolution of TOMA, COMA, and OFOMA Systems
..................................................................................
25
RNC is a governing element In the UMTS radio access network (UTRAN) and is responsible for controlling the Node Bs that are connected to it. The RNC
carries out radio resource management, some of the mobility management functions and is the point where encryption is done before user data is sent to
and from the mobile device.
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Service Evolution
Not only do 3GPP technologies provide continual
improvements in capacity and data performance, they also
develop capabilities that expand the services available
to subscribers. Important service advances include
Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMC), IMS, and broadcasting"
technologies.
it supports not only FMC, but also a much broader range
of potential applications. In the United States, AT&T has
committed to an IMS approach and has already deployed
an IMS4Jased video sharing service. Although defined by
3GPP, the Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2),
'CableLabs, and WiMAX have adopted IMS. IMS is how VolP
will (or could) be deployed in CDMA 2000 EV-DO, WiMAX,
HSPA, and LTE networks.
FMC refers to the integration of fixed selYices (such
as telephony provided by wireline or Wi-Fi) with mobile IMS allows innovative amalgamation of different types of
cellular based services. Although FMC is still in its communications and information including voice, video,
beginning stages of deployment, it promises to provide Instant Messaging (1M), presence information, location,
significant benefits to both users and service providers. multi-media messaging, and documents. It provides
For users, FMC will simplify how they communicate, application developers the platform to create applications
making it possible for them to use a single device (e.g., a that have never before been possible. It allows people
smart cell phone) at work, on the go or at home where it to communicate in entirely new ways by dynamically
might connect via a Wi-Fi network or a Femtocell" as well using multiple services, with the" ability to move from one
application to another depending on the communication
as the macro-radio network.
needs, all in real-time. For example, during an interactive
Users will also benefit from single voice mailboxes and
chat session, a user could launch a voice call, and then
single phone numbers, as well as the ability to be in
include another person in that call or chat. Or during a
command of how and with whom they communicate. For
voice call, a user could suddenly establish a simultaneous
service providers, FMC allows the consolidation of core
video connection or start transferring files while still
services across multiple access networks. For instance,
communicating via a voice connection. While browsing
a service provider could offer complete VolP based voice
the Web, a user could decide to speak to a customer
service that supports access via DSL, cable, Wi-Fi, or 3G.
service representative and transfer data to assist in the
FMC also offloads data intensive applications such as
communications. IMS will be a key platform for all IP
movie or video downloads from the macro network.
architectures for both HSPA and LTE.
There are various approaches for FMC including Generic
A new initiative called Rich Communications Suite (RCS),
Access Network (GAN), previously called Unlicensed supported by many service providers and vendors, builds
Mobile Access (UMA), femtocells, and IMS. With GAN, upon thelMS technology. It provides a consistent feature
GSM-HSPA devices can connect via Wi-Fi or cellular set, as well as implementation gUidelines, use cases, and
connections for both voice and data. UMA/GAN is a 3GPP reference implementations. RCS uses existing standards
technology, and it has been deployed by a number of and specifications from 3GPP, OMA, and GSMA.
service providers including T-Mobile in the United States.
A substitute for using Wi-Fi for the "fixed" portion of FMC Core RCS features include:
is femtocells These are small base stations that cost little • An enhanced phone book (device and/or network
more than a Wi-Fi access point, and, like Wi-Fi, femtocells
based) that includes service capabilities and presence
leverage a subscriber's existing wireline broadband
enhanced contact information
connection (e.g., cable or DSL). Instead of operating on
• Enhanced messaging (supporting text, instant
unlicensed bands, femtocells use the service provider's
messaging, and multimedia) with chat and messaging
licensed bands at very low power levels. The significant
history
advantage of the femtocells approach is that single mode,
mobile communication devices can now operate using the • Enriched calls that include multimedia content (e.g.,
video sharing) during voice calls
femtocell.
Another important new service is support for mobile TV
IMS is another key technology for convergence. It supports
through what is called multicast or broadcast functions.
access to core services and applications via multiple
3GPP has defined multicast/broadcast capabilities for
access networks. IMS is more powerful than GAN, because both HSPA and LTE.
...................................................................... ............
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Voice Support
While 2G and 3G technologies were deployed from the
beginning with voice and data capability, LTE networks
can be deployed with or without voice support. Moreover,
there are a number of methods available for voice support
including fallback to 2G/3G and VolP operation. (See Long
Term Evolution Article)
Device Innovation
Computing is becoming more mobile, and notebook
computers and smartphones are now prevalent. In fact,
aU mobile phones are becoming "smart", with some form
of data capability. Also, leading notebook vendors are
now offering computers with integrated 3G (e.g., HSPA)
capabilities. Modems are available in multiple formats
including USB devices, Personal Computer (PC) cards, and
Express cards.
Smartphones are becoming extremely powerful mini
computers with general purpose operating systems and
sophisticated application development environments.
Smartphones, originally targeted for the high-end of the
market, are now available at much lower price points and
thus, are affordable to a much larger market segment.
In the U.S., smartphones already account for some 25%
of phones today, and they are on track to reach 50% by
2011. 26 The continued success of the BlackBerry along
witb the success of the iPhone and Android devices
demonstrates the potential of this market. From a radio
perspective, today's phones can support ever more bands
and technologies. This makes phones that work across the
world feasible. Increasingly, users expect their phones to
work anywhere they go.
Computer manufacturers are also delivering new form
factors such as netbooks, tablet computers, mobile
Internet devices (MID), and smartbooks. The movement
to open networks allows a greater number of companies
to develop products that use wireless networks in both
vertical-market and horizontal-market scenarios. Cellular
telephones are becoming more powerful and feature
large color touch displays, graphics and video viewers,
still cameras, movie cameras, music players, 1M clients,
email clients, PoC, downloadable and executable content
capabilities, and more powerful browsers. All of these
capabilities consume data.
Network Interfaces for Applications
Another important development related to service evolution
is service providers making interfaces available to external
t Olli)
applications for information and control. Today, two widely
deployed capabilities include location queries and SMS.
With location services, mobile devices or external
applications (e.g., applications operating on computers
outside of the network) can query the location of a user,
subject to privacy restrictions. This can significantly
enhance many applications including navigation, supplying
location of nearby destinations (e.g., restaurants and
stores), location of friends for social networking, and
worker dispatch. With SMS, external applications can send
user requested content such as flight updates.
Table 3·3 Parlay X SpeCifications
4
Short Messaging Send and receive of SMS including delivery
receipts
'Send aiid i'e~ive of niultime~ia,meSsages
5
6
Payment
Pre·pald and post·pald payments and payment
reservations
Ma~lag~lme"l i)f aa:ol!nts of.j:Jrepaid
Obtain status such as reachable, unreachable,
or busy
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12 Multimedia
Conference
Address'Ust
Devices
Obtain device capability information and be able
18 capabilities and to push device configuration to device
Configuration
Control multimedia streamiiig to dlivi~
19·
20
Multimedia
Multicast
Session
Management
Control multicast sessions, members,
stream, and obtain channel presence inforlmatl')01
..................................................................................
26
Nielsen, "The Droid: Is this the Smartphone Consumers are Looking For?" November 11, 2009. http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/consumer/the-drold·isthis-the-smartphone-consumers·arelooking-for/.
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Mobile Application Architectures
Many applications used over wireless connections will
be the same as those used over the Internet with
desktop/laptop PCs. An increasing number of applications,
however, will be developed specifically for mobile devices.
This can be a challenge for developers, because there are
a number of different mobile platforms available including
Android, Apple iPhone, liMo, Palm Pre, RIM BlackBerry,
Symbian, and Windows Mobile. Unlike the desktop market,
the mobile device market has become fragmented. Each
of the device platforms comes with its own application
development environment, and developers must face
a learning curve to become adept at programming for
any specific platform. Some developers may be content
targeting specific platforms. Others, however, may need
their applications to operate across multiple platforms.
Fortunately, there are various developments that address
the fragmentation challenge. These include:
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• Eventual Market ConSOlidation. Though the market
is currently fragmented, there are certain platforms
(e.g., AndrOid, BlackBerry, and iPhone) that represent
a relatively dominant market share. Increasingly,
developers are choosing to develop for just a small
number of these platforms using the development tools
specific to that environment.
Broadband-Wireless Deployment Considerations
Much of the debate in the wireless industry deals with the
merits of different radio technologies. Yet, other factors
are equally important in determining the services and
capabilities of a wireless network. These factors include
the amount of spectrum available, backhaul, and network
topology.
Spectrum has always been a major consideration for
deploying any wireless network, but it is particularly
important when looking at high-performance broadband
systems. HSPA and HSPA+ can deliver high throughput
rates on the downlink and uplink with low latency in 5 MHz
channels when deployed in single frequency (1/1) reuse.
By this, we mean that every cell sector (typically three per
cell) in every cell uses the same radio channel(s).
• Mobile Middleware. These are software infrastructures
that consist of a client component that operates on the
mobile device, and a server component that acts as a
proxy for the client. Vendors provide tools with which
developers can develop an application in a platformneutral manner, which enables the application to To achieve higher data rates requires wider radio channels,
operate on multiple device types. Mobile middleware is such as 10 or 20 MHz wide channels, in combination with
emerging OFDMA radio technologies. Very few operators
mostly used for business applications.
today, however, have access to this much spectrum. It
• Mobile Web 2.0. Mobile browsers are adopting many
was challenging enough for GSM operators to obtain
of the same sophisticated capabilities as desktop
UMTS spectrum. If delivering very high data rates are the
browsers. Combined with networks that have higher
objective, then the system must minimize interference.
throughputs and lower latency27, an increasing number
This result is best achieved by employing looser reuse,
of applications can be Web hosted, making the
such as having every sector use only one-third of the
applications available from diverse platforms. Mobile
available radio channels (1/3 reuse). The 10 MHz radio
Web 2.0 technologies include items such as Ajax, offline
channel could now demand as much as 30 MHz of
operation, video capabilities, fast JavaScript execution,
available spectrum.
and mash-ups (combining data from multiple Web
sources). Cloud computing, enabled by Mobile Web 2.0, Backhaul is another factor. As the throughput of the radio
will play an important role for mobile systems and for link increases, the circuits connecting the cell sites to
the core network must be able to handle the increased
desktops.
load. With many cell sites today serviced by just a small
• Push Architectures. Many mobile applications are
notification oriented, meaning users want to know when number of T1/El circuits, each able to carry only 1.5/2.0
new information is available in applications like e-mail Mbps, operators are in the process'of upgrading backhaul
or social networking. "Pushing" small amounts of data capacity to obtain the full benefit of next-generation
on a regular basis to large numbers of users, or having wireless technologies. Approaches include emerging
devices poll on a regular basis, can impact network wireline technologies such as VDSl and optical Ethernet,
capacity. In response, 3GPP has specified supporting as well as point-to point microwave systems. An OFDMA
mechanisms such as Paging Channel (PCH) states and system with 1.5 bps per hertz (Hz) of spectral efficiency in
tools for enabling rapid transitions between active and 10 MHz on three sectors has up to 45 Mbps average cell
throughput.
inactive states.
..................................................................................
21
Latency in a packet-switched network is measured either one-way (the time from the source sending a packet to the destination receiving it). or round-trip
(the one-way latency from source to destination plus the one-way latency from the destination back to the source).
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Additionally, any technology's ability to reach its peak
spectrum efficiency is somewhat contingent on the
system's ability to reach the instantaneous peak data rates
allowed by that technology. For example, 'a system claiming
spectrum efficiency of 1.5 bps/Hz (as described) might
rely on the anility to reach 100 Mbps instantaneously to
achieve this level of spectrum efficiency. Any constraint
on the transport system below 100 Mbps will restrict the
range of achievable throughput and, in turn, impact the
spectral efficiency of the system.
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Wi-Fi has huge inherent capacity for two reasons. First,
a large amount of spectrum (approximately 500 MHz)
is available across 2.4 and 5 GHz bands. Second, the
spectrum is used in small coverage areas, resulting in
high frequency reuse. The result is much higher bps rates
per square meter of coverage than with WANs. Various
organizations are looking at integrating WLAN service
with GSM Communications GSM-HSPA data services. The
GSM Association has developed recommendations for
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) based authentication of
hotspots, and 3GPP has multiple initiatives that address
WLAN integration into its networks, including 3GPP System
to WLAN interworking, UMA, IMS, and EPC.
Finally, the overall network topology also plaY$ an important
role, especially with respect to latency. Low latency is
critical to achieving very high data rates, because of
the way it affects Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/ Integration can either be loose or tight. Loose ihtegration
IP traffic. How traffic routes through the core network- means data traffic routes directly to the Internet and
how many hops and nodes it must pass through-can minimizes traversal of the service providers network. This is
influence the overall performance of the network. One way called local breakout. Tight integration means data traffic,
to increase performance is by using flatter architectures, or select portions, may traverse the service providers core
meaning a less hierarchical network with more direct network. This is beneficial in situations where the service
routing from mobile device to end system. The core EPC providers offer value added services (e.g., internal portals)
network for 3GPP LTE emphasizes a flatter architecture.
that can only be accessed from within the core.
It can be misleading to say that one wireless technology
outperforms another without a full understanding of how
that technology will be deployed in. a complete system that
also takes spectrum into account.
Data Offload
As data traffic loads increase, operators are seeking
to offload some of the data traffic to other networks,
particularly Wi-Fi networks. In the future, once they are
widely deployed, offload onto Femtocells will also play an
important role. The IEEE 802.11 family of technologies has
experienced rapid growth, mainly in private deployments.
The latest 802.11 standard, 802.11n, offers users
throughputs in excess of 100 Mbps and improved range
through use of MIMO. 802.11e provides QoS enabling
VolP and multimedia, 802.11i enables robust security,
and 802.11r provides fast roaming, which is necessary for
voice handover across access points.
Leveraging this success, service providers-including
cellular operators-are offering hotspot service in public
areas such as airports, fast-food restaurants, and hotels.
For the most part, hotspots are complementary with
cellular-data networks, because the hotspot can provide
broadband services in extremely dense user areas and the
cellular network can provide broadband services across
much larger areas .
Essential to successful data offload is providing a good
subscriber experience. This mandates measures such as
automatically provisioning subscriber devices with the
necessary Wi-Fi configuration options and automatically
authenticating subscribers on supported public Wi-Fi
networks. Work in 3GPP Release 10 is defining some
specific mechanisms for offloading traffic. One is called
IP Flow and Seamless Offload (IFOM) used to carry select
traffic over Wi-Fi instead of a Femto connection. Another
is called Selected IP Traffic Offload (SIPTO) used to offload
the mobile core network by separating traffic out early.
Feature and Network Roadmap
GSM service providers first enhanced their networks to
support data capability through the addition of General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) infrastructure with the ability
to use existing cell sites, transceivers, and interconnection
facilities. Since installing GPRS, GSM service providers
have largely upgraded data service to EDGE, and any new
GSM network includes EDGE capability.
Service providers have deployed UMTS-HSPA worldwide.
Although, UMTS involves a new radio access network,
several factors facilitate deployment. First, most UMTS
cell sites can be collocated in GSM cell sites enabled by
multi-radio cabinets that can accommodate GSMjEDGE,
as well as UMTS equipment. Second, much of the GSM/
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GPRS core network can be used. This means that all corenetwork elements above the Serving GPRS Support Node
(SGSN) and Mobile SWitching Center (MSC}-the Gateway
GPRS Support Node (GGSN), the Home Location Register
(HLR), billing and subscriber administration systems,
service platforms, and so forth-need, at most, a software
upgrade to support 3G UMTS-HSPA.
And while early 3G deployment used separate 2G/3G
SGSNs and MSCs, all-new MSC and/or SGSN products are
capable of supporting both GSM and UMTS-HSPA radio
access networks. Similarly, new HSPA equipment will be
upgradeable to LTE through a software upgrade.
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station including using the same shelter, tower, antennas,
power supply, and climate control.
Different vendors have different so-called "zero-footprine
solutions allowing service providers to use empty space
to enable reuse of existing sites without the need for any
new floor space. A service provider can add LTE capability
simply by adding a LTE baseband card. New multi-standard
radio units (HSPA and LTE), as well as LTE only baseband
cards, are mechanically compatible with existing building
practices, so that operators can use empty space in an old
base station for LTE baseband cards, thus enabling reuse
of existing sites without the need for any new construction.
New features are being designed so that the same Base station equipment is available for many bands
upgraded UMTS radio channel can support a mixture of including the 1.7/2.1 GHz AWS band and the recently
terminals. In other words, a network supporting Release auctioned 700 MHz bands in the U.S. In 2010, service
5 features (e.g., HSDPA) can support Release 99, Release providers and vendors began LTE deployment. On the
5, and Release 6 terminals ·(e.g., HSUPA) operating in a device side, multi mode chipsets will enable devices
Release 5 mode. This flexibility assures the maximum to easily operate across UMTS and LTE networks. For
degree of forward and backward compatibility. Note that example, one chipset vendor announced a series of chips
most UMTS terminals today support GSM, thus facilitating that support the following combination of technologies:
use across large coverage areas and multiple networks. UMTS, HSPA+, and LTE; EVDO Rev B; and UMTS, HSPA+,
Once deployed, operators can minimize the costs of EV-DO Rev Band LTE.28
managing GSM/EDGE and UMTS networks, because these
One important and interesting aspect of technology
networks share many of the same aspects including:
deployment is that an advanced technology such as LTE
• Packet-data architecture
enables service providers to upgrade prior technologies,
such
as HSPA. Examples include:
• Cell. sites
• VolP for HSPA: since LTE uses an IP core, once it is
deployed, supporting voice on HSPA via VolP will be
a much Simpler task as it can share the same core IP
network as LTE
• Antenna systems
• Backhaul circuits
• Subscriber account management
• Service platforms
Users largely don't even need to know what type of
network they are connected to because their multimode
GSM-HSPA (and eventually GSM-HSPA-LTE) devices can
seamlessly hand off between networks.
The changes being planned for the core network are
another aspect of evolution. Here, the intent is to reduce
the number of nodes that packets must traverse. This will
result in both reduced deployment costs and reduced
latency. The key enabling technology is EPC, which is
described in detail later in this paper.
The upgrade to LTE will be relatively straightforward,
with new LTE infrastructure having the ability· to reuse a
significant amount of the UMTS-HSPA cell site and base
• Device processing power: supporting the high throughput
rates with LTE (e.g., 50 Mbps or higher) will provide
sufficient processing in the device to also support very
high HSPA rates (e.g., 30 Mbps or higher)
The GSM family of technologies, which
are interchangeably called the 3GPP
family of technologies, are all based on
the evolution of standards developed for
GSM, EDGE, UMTS-HSPA, HSPA+,
LTE, and LTE-Advanced.
..., 4G Americas' Board of Governors
..................................................................................
28
http://www.qualcomm.com/press/releases/2008/080207_Qualcomm_to_Ship.html.
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Table 3-4 Expected UMTS/LTE Feature and Capability Availability
---- -
[-Year_
2010
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.
,
-~
2012 :
,ano'later
- -
--
--
'
2011
----
Features
- --- - - - -Evolved EDGE capabilities available to significantly increase EDGE throughput rates -and announced
deployments. HSPA+ peak speeds further increased to peak rates-of 42 Mbps based on Release 8. LTE
introduced for next-generation throughput performance using 2X2 MIMO. Advanqed core architectures
available through ~PC, primarily fo~ LT~, but aiso fo~ ~$PA+, ,providing benefits such as integration of
multiple antenl"!as.,
..
. .
LTE enhancements such as 4X2 MIMO and 4X4 MIMO available. LTE-Advanced specifications completed.
HSPA+ with MIMO and dual-carrier available.
-i.TE-Adv~mced potentially deployed in initial'stages. HSPA+ with MIMO and quad-carrier avail~ble. M9st
n~w s~rvi(!es implemented in the packet domain.
.
'
'
Over time, the separate GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN), UTRAN, and core-infrastructure elements will
undergo consolidation, thus lowering total network cost and improving integrated operation of the separate access
networks. For actual users with multimode devices, the networks they access will be largely transparent Today, nearly
all UMTS phones and modems support GSM/EDGE.
Service providers will deploy LTE in various configurations. Some will offer only data service on LTE. Others will offer
data service 'on LTE in combination with voice over 2G or 3G. Yet others will provide both voice and data service on LTE.
Individual service provider configurations will also evolve over time.
Table 3-5 Throughput Performance of Different Wireless Technologies
I
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i Peak Network
Peak and/or Typical Ii Peak Network T' I U
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Speed (Down) :: _us~~te - Down
~~e~d (UP~Lmk) II
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I
EDGE (type 1 MS) (Practical
Terminal)
.l
200 kbps peak 70 to
135 kbps typical
236.8 kbps
236.8 kbps
200 kbps peak
70 to 135 kbps
typical
; 4Q(): kbpipeak' '
: 15.o-to 300 kbps
: typi¢a!· ~xpecteQ ,
- . t':Mbps':peak.350' ..
to 100 kbps typical
_expe<;~e_d ,(Qu,a~:C_arri~rk
Evolved EDGE (type 2 MS)32
-UMTS' WCDMA -Release' 99-
- 2.048-Mbps
,
UMTS WCDMA Release 99
(Practical Terminal)
384 kbps
HSDPA Initial Devices (2Q06)
i.8 Mbps
-
HSDPA
947.2 kb pS34
1894.433 kbps
'
-
,
.
,
350 kbps peak
200 to 300
kbps typical
, > -1,MpP's:peak
. -
,768 kbps
,
--
,
384 kbps
~384 kbi>~
- .
,
14.4 Mbps
- -
.
-
350 kbps peak
200 to 300
kbps typical
$50:kbps peak -
384 kbps
..................................................................................
A type 1 Evolved EDGE MS can receive on up to ten timeslots using two radio channels and can transmit on up to four t1meslots in one radio channel using
32 QAM modulation (with turbo coding in the downlink),
30 Type 1 mobile, 10 slots downlink (dual-carrier), 08S-12(118,4 kbps/slot).
31 Type 1 mobile, 4 slots uplink, UBS-12 (118.4 kbps/slot).
32 A type 2 Evolved EDGE MS can receive on up to 6timeslots using two radio channels and can transmit on up to eight timeslots in one radio channel using
32 QAM modulation (with turbo coding in the downlink).
33 Type 2 mobile, 16 slots downlink (dual-carrier) at OB5-12 (118,4 kbps/slot).
34 Type 2 mobile, 8 slots uplink, U8S-12 (118,4 kbps/slot).
29
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HSPA35 Initiallmpleme'ntation
7,2 Mbps
HSPA Current Implementation
HSPA
HSPA+ (DL 64 QAM, UL 16
QAM,2 X 5 MHz)
-HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO, DL 16
QAM, UL 16 QAM, 2 X 5 MHz)
HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO,
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM, 2 X
5 MHz)
.HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO,
:DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM, DualCarrier, 2 X 10 MHz)
HSPA+ (2X2 MIMO,
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM, Quad
Carrier, 2 X 20 MHz)
LTE (2X2 MIMO, 2 X 10 MHz)
LTE (4X4 MIMO, 2 X 20 MHz)
CDMA2000 1XRlT
CDMA2000 lXRTT
CDMA2000 EV-DO Rei 0
CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev A
7,2 Mbps
,14,4 Mbps
> 5 Mbps peak
700 kbps to 1.7 Mbps
typical 36
> 1,5 Mbps peak .
500 kbps to 1,2
Mbps typical
2 Mbps
5,76 Mbps
5,76 Mbps
1,9 Mbps to 8,8 MbpS37 11,5 Mbps
13 Mbps pea!<38
11,5 Mbps
21,6 Mbps
28 Mbps
1 Mbps to 4
Mbps
..
42 Mbps
11,5 Mbps
84 Mbps
23 Mbps
168 Mbps
70 Mbps
326 Mbps
153 kbps
307 kbps
2,4 Mbps
3.1 Mbps
23 Mbps
5,9 to 21,5 MbpS39
130 kbps peak
> 1 Mbps peak
> 1,5 Mbps peak
600 kbps to 1.4 Mbps
typical40
14.741 Mbps
CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B (3
radio channels MHz)
CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev B
73.5 Mbps
Theoretical (15 radio channels) ,
WiMAX Release 1,0 (10
46 Mbps
1 to 5 Mbps tYpical 42
MHzTDD, DLjUL-3, 2x2
MIMO)
Wi MAX Release 1,5
TBD
IEEE 802.16m
TBD
*Blue: indicates theoretical peak rates; Green: indicates tYPical peak rate
35 Mbps
86 Mbps
153 kbps
307 kbps
153 kbps
1,8 Mbps
130 kbps peak
150 kbps peak
> 1 Mbps peak
300 to 500
kbps typical
5.4 Mbps
27 Mbps
4 Mbps
TBD
TBD
..................................................................................
HSPA consists of systems supporting both HSDPA and HSUPA,
downlink and uplink throughput rates based on AT&T press release, June 4, 2008
31 3G Americas analysis, Assumes Release 7 with 64 QAM and F-DPCH, Single user. 50% loading In neighboring cells. Higher rates expected with subsequent
versions.
38 Vodafone press release, ·Vodafone Trials HSPA+ Mobile Broadband at Speeds of Up To 16Mbps," January 15, 2009.
3G Americas' member company analysis, Assumes single user with 50% load In other sectors, Verizon Is quoting average user rates of 5-12 Mbps on the
downlink and 2-5 Mbps on the uplink for their network. https://www.lte.vzw.com/AboutlTE/VerizonWlrelesslTENetwork/tabld/6003/Default.aspx
39 Assumes 64 QAM. Otherwise 22 Mbps with 16 QAM.
40 Typical downlink and uplink throughput rates based on Sprint press release January 30, 2007.
41 Assuming use of 64 QAM modulation,
•
42 WIMAX Forum, http://www.wlmaxforum.orgjresources/frequently-asked-questions
3$
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CONCLUSION
large economies of scale, widespread acceptance by
During 2010, the mobile broadband industry grew rapidly service providers,' paired services like messaging and
with data intensive smartphones on track to becoming the multimedia, and an incredible variety of competitive
most common phone type used in developed countries handsets and other mobile user devices. Currently, more
and with innovative new devices such as the Apple than 347 commercial UMTS-HSPA networks are already
iPhone4 and iPad. 3G is becoming ubiquitous in developed in operation. UMTS~HSPA and/or LTE offers an excellent
countries, and advanced wireless technologies such.as LTE migration path for GSM service providers, as well as an
are starting to see initial rollouts. The growing success of effective technology solution for greenfield providers.
mo"i:ii1e' broadband, however, has mandated the network
HSPA has significantly enhanced UMTS by providing a
requirement to increase capacity to which the industry
broadband data service with user rates that often exc~ed
has responded by using more efficient technologies,
1 Mbps on the downlink in initial deployments and that
deploying more cell sites, and offloading. onto either Wi-Fi
now exceed 4 Mbps in some commercial networks.
or ·Femtocells. Governments have also responded with
Numerous networks are being upgraded to' include HSUPA,
supportive planning to supply more commercial spectrum.
providing users with uplink rates in excess of 1 Mbps.
By means of constant innovation, the EDGE/HSPA/ HSPA+ increases rates further, with typical rates between
LTE family of technologies has proven itself to be the 1.9 and B.B Mbps expected in initial versions of the
predominant wireless network solution and offers service technology (based on 64 QAM). Speeds will only increase
providers and subscribers a' true mobile broadband as service providers implement other HSPA+ innovations
capability. Continued use of GSM and EDGE technology such as Dual-Carrier, Multi-Carrier43, and ·MIMO.
through ongoing enhancements allows service providers
Continual improvements in radio technology are
to..Ieyerage existing network investments. UMTS-HSPA
expected. Improvements to the core network through
technologies' advantages provide broadband services that
flatter architectures, particularly EPC, that will reduce
deliver increased data transport and provide a path to an
latency, speed applications, simplify deployment, enable
all services IP architecture.
all services within the IP domain, and allow a common
LTE is currently the most widely chosen technology platform core network to support both LTE and legacy architectures
for the coming decade and with deployment underway, is a.lso anticipated.
the benefits include a best practice, long-term solution
Networks are rapidly moving toward providing the "always
that meets or exceeds the performance of competing
on, anywhere, anytime", type of communications support,
approaches. The migration to 4G, however, is a long-term
with corresponding increases in traffic demanded by
one. Until the middle of this decade, most subscribers will
users in developed countries. Network limitations are
still be using 2G and 3G. Significant uptake of LTE may not
constantly being addressed with solutions that make
occur until the second half of this decade.
this vision a reality. Users will expand to include deviceToday, HSPA offers the highest peak data rates of any to-device applications, thus expanding pOint-to-point
widely available, wide-area wireless technology. With and point-to-multipoint cpmmunications. Smart homes,
continued improvements, peak data rates will increase, smart appliances, cars, and sensors are among the
spectral efficiency will improve, and latency will decrease. new communications devices that are a part of the
The result will be support for more users and more data communications explosion. The number and types of
intensive applications. The scope of applications will also devices that communicate will grow rapidly once the
increase as new services, achieved through standardized network supports the volume at a reasonable cost. The
network interfaces, become available such as location way we communicate is set to change drastically.
information, video, and user initiated call control. Greater
"What works on the net works
efficiencies and capabilities translate to more competitive
offers, greater network usage, and increased traffic.
for people in general. The net has
very
little to do with technology, what
Because of practical benefits and deployment momentum,
matters is how people use the technology."
the migration path from EDGE to HSPA, and then to LTE is
foreseeable. Benefits include the ability to roam globally,
- Craig Newmark, Founder, Craigslist
..................................................................................
43
Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is a method of transmitting data by splitting it into several components. and sending each of these components over
separate carrier signals. The individual carriers have narrow bandwidth. but the composite signal can have broad bandwidth.
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The benefits of using IMS include handling all communication in the packet domain, tighter integration with the Internet,
and a lower cost infrastructure that is based on IP building blocks used for both voice and data services. This allows
operators to potentially deliver data and voice services at a lower cost, thus providing these services at cheaper prices
and further driving demand and usage.
IMS
SIP Applic:at.on
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SIP
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Function ConlrOl
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UMTSlHSPA
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Multiple Possible Access Networks
Figure 3·3 IP Multimedia Subsystems
IMS applications can reside in the operator's network or in third-party networks including those of enterprises. By
managing services and applications centrally-and independently of the access network-IMS can enable network
convergence. This allows operators to offer common services across 3G, Wi-Fi, and wireline networks.
IMS is one of the most likely methods that operators will use to provide voice service in LTE networks. Service Continuity,
defined in Release 8, allows a user's entire session to continue seamlessly as the user moves from one access network
to another. Release 9 expands on this concept to allow sessions to move across different device types. For example,
the user could transfer a video call in midsession from a mobile phone to a large-screen TV, assuming both have an IMS
appearance in the network.
Release 8 introduces the IMS Centralized Services (ICS) feature, which allows IMS controlled voice features to use either
packet-switched or circuit-switched access .
......................... ..........................................................
44
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Third Generation (3G) to Fourth Generation (4G)
evolution m;:ly be the most dramatic change that has been
intiated by the wireless industry. Carriers are deploying
wireless networks that rely on an all-Internet Protocol (IP)
core that transmits information in the form of data traffic.
The new 4G network is evolving with fewer nodes and a
flatter structure, thus providing lower latency. 4G improves
on the limitations of 3G by·increasing access speeds and
addressing network throughput, making better use of
network resources, and improving Quality of Service (QoS).
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for the customer. However, voice service continuity is
not guaranteed if a. Voice over IP (VoIP) subscriber
roams between the LTE coverage area and other wireless
networks, as it is a significant challenge to deliver voice
over LTE networks. Unlike previous generations of mobile
standards like Global' System for Mobile Communications
(GSM), LTE does not have dedicated channels for circuitswitched (CS) telep~ony, and instead relies on an end-toend IP connection from the handset to the core network.
Therefore, any form of voice service used on an LTE bearer,
by definition, must be some form of VoIP.
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is seen as the next technology
for mobile networks. It incluc!es promising features such The industry is evaluating potential solutions to overcome
as semi-persistent scheduling1, Transmission Time Interval the LTE voice issues. During this investigative process,
(TIl) bundling2, and high performance gains on Quality of two options are viewed with significant interest Circuit
end user Experience (QoE).3 The primary objective of LTE Switched Fall Back (CSFB)5 and LTE VolP-based Single
is to provide ultra-high speed mobile broadband service Radio Voice Call CQntinuity (SRVCC). SRVCC provides
with peak data rates over 100 Mbps. One of the main the ability to transition a voice call from the VoIP/IMS
selling pOints of LTE is that it is supposed to encourage packet domain to the legacy circuit domain, (the ability to
and foster new business models for mobile operators, transition from the circuit domain to the packet domain is
especially as certain aspects of the competing WiMAX not addressed in the current generation of LTE standards).
technology are specifically intended to enhance flexibility. IMS is a platform that permits data sessions to be
In practical applications, however, LTE is challenged to supported across telecom networks. IMS architecture may
provide the same capabilities as a 2G/3G network during potentially allow a call to begin in the home using a wired
the initial stages of trial deployments and during the network, transfer seamlessly to a mobile device, and then
move uninterrupted into a corporate wired or wireless
service providers' initial broad network build out.
environment. SRVCC is broadly supported in the industry
A major area of innovation and opportunity for telecom
and is recommended by the LTE OneVoice Initiative. It is
services is being termed "Voice 2.0", also known as
also supported by some of the world's largest service and
"voice mash ups". This involves linking voice with other
network equipment providers and has been endorsed by
applications (e.g., embedding voice capabilities within a
the GSM Association (GSMA).
corporate application or game). A call might be invoked
inside a browser or Web application, either residing on WHYSRVCC?
the handset or the network side. There is huge interest Multimedia services with video sharing, video on demand,
by service providers in monetizing their voice capabilities video telephony, video conferencing, VoIP, Push-Tobeyond mere "person to person' telephony". However, one Talk, broadband access to Personal Digital Assistants
of the concerns regarding LTE is the support for voice (PDAs), and many other applications are currently offered
services. Wireless network architects see voice as just with the existing capabilities of the Universal Mobile
another application on the network. Voice continues to Telecommunications System (UMTS) using High Speed
be the "killer application" for service providers because Packet Access (HSPA), Evolved HSPA (HSPA+), Code
it continues to provide a significant portion of their Division Multiple Access (COMA), and IP MultiMedia
revenue. Voice will remain the dominant critical service in Subsystems (lMS) technologies. Increased demand
the wireless network for years, and despite the technical for these real-time mobile data services coupled with
challenges of providing service over an ail-iP Radio subscribers' requirements for always-on, high-quality
..................................................................................
Semi-persistent scheduling reduces control channel signaling. If every allocation was Individually signaled, the overhead would be unacceptable. In an
application such as voice over IP, for example, a downlink frame occurs every 10 to 20 mnliseconds. If each downlink frame were signaled individually, it
would cause a lot of traffic on the control channel and the control channel would need a lot more bandwidth than necessary. Semi·persistent scheduling lets
you set up an ongoing allocation that persists until it Is changed. Seml·persistent schedules can be configured for both uplink and downlink.
2 TIl, Transmission Time Interval, is a parameter in UMTS (and other digital telecommunication networks) related to encapsulation of data from higher layers
into frames for transmission on the radio link layer. TIl refers to the length of an independently decodable transmission on the radio link. The TIl is related
to the size of the data blocks passed from the higher network layers to the radio link layer.
3 "Quality of User Experience,· Is a subjective measure of a customer's experiences with a vendor.
4 Sits between the Mobile phone, and the core network (CN).
5 3GPP designation as specification 23.272. It uses various network elements and procedures to move the handset radio.
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services is driving the need for expanded network capacity
and increased throughput.
Packet System (EPS)8 with the 3GPP Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (UTRAN).
However, along with added "Voice 2.0" services, another
slowly emerging trend which could be extinguished by
CSFB is that of the shift towards "high definition" voice.
Although this has been widely used in the VolP community
for years, it has taken a long time to penetrate the mobile
marketplace, despite being technically feasible.
For dual-mode/single-standby mobile phones to
simultaneously use dual-network services, the Inter
Working Solution (IWS) node provides on-time message
access. On the other hand, dual-mode/dual-standby
mobile phones require fewer network chang~s to facilitate
inter-working between two networks. Dual-mode handsets
drain battery power quickly and- .need complex terminal
customization.
With LTE's increased data transmission capacity, interworking with 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
and· non-3GPP based networks, and all-IP core network
elements, the converging services can be delivered
effectively. Higher bandwidth for LTE means that more
resource blocks6 can be "allocated by the lIE system,
which in turn provides higher performance gains.
Recognizing this reality, CSFB is a 3GPP-defined standard
that requires radio devices to be equipped with either
dual-mode/single-standby or dual-mode/dual-standby
capabilities. In addition to CSFB, a number of other interim
technologies have been suggested:
• Voice over LTE via GAN (VoLGA) encapsulates circuit
voice within an IP Protocol Security (IPsec) tunnel over
the LTE bearer. It is an evolution of the voice-overWiFi standard UMA (standardized by 3GPP as Generic
Access Network (GAN)), which has existed for a few
years, however, with limited traction. It enables the
normal telephony and SMS7 application on the phone
to connect over an IP connection to the existing Mobile
Switching Center (MSC), via a gateway and handset
client.
Figure 4-1 displays the reference architecture for a CSFB
network using an Evolved
For converging mobile and broadband wireless access
technologies, SRVCC offers LTE-IMS based voice service
within the LTE coverage area, and CS-based voice service
outside the LTE coverage area. The following figure displays
the reference architecture for SRVCC using EPS to 3GPP
UTRAN.
-
VoIP bearer path berore handover
-
Voice bearer path alter handover
Figure 4-2 EPS Reference Architecture for SRVCC to UTRAN
as Destination Network
Whenever the VolP subscriber moves out of LTE coverage,
SRVCC ensures smooth handoff of voice from the LTE to
the CS network, keeping upgrades of the network to a
minimum. The IMS network that stores voice service link
information during this time guides the target CS network
to establish a link, thereby replacing the original VolP
channel.
Table 4·1 CSFB vs. SRVCC
I PARAMETER
SRVCC
Device/terminal Single radio mode
capability
I ~\ 1st; '---.--~
S1-C~\
,--..IL.........,
Figure 4·1 EPS Reference Architecture for CSFB with
UTRAN as Destination Network
CSFB
Dual-mode/
single-standby or
Dualmode/dualstandby
Terminal
customization
Less complex
Complex for single
standby
IMS anchoring
Switching
networks/mobility
to CS network
Mandatory
Only when the
terminal roams out
of LTE coverage
area
Optional
For every mobile
originating and
mobile terminating
voice call
..................................................................................
Resource blocks are groups of transport carriers (e.g. sub-carriers) or Intervals that are assigned to transport data. A resource block for UMTS lTE is 12 subcarriers when the sub·carrier bandwidth is 15 kHz or 24 sub-carriers when the sub-carrier bandwidth Is 7.5 kHz.
7 SMS-over-SGs approach has some significant limitations even when used without fallback, resolutions to which are still only now being discussed in
standards bodies. Problems relate to provision of information for charging purposes, "message waiting" signals and delayed delivery when a mobile is out of
coverage, sending multiple 'concatenated" SMS messages, multiple-addressing of sent messages, and location data (important for lawful interception).
8 In its most basic form, the EPS architecture consists of only two nodes in the user plane: a base station and a core network Gateway (GW).
6
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More, as the
terminal needs to
establish the voice
call session with
CS network for
every access
Increa~ed
Voice call setup
time
Less, as time
is required only
when the terminal
moves out of LTE
coverage area
SRVCC from LTE
SRVCC service for LTE is important when a single radio
User Equipment (UE) accessing IMS anchored voice
call services switches from the LTE network to the CS
domain, while it is able to transmit or receive on only one
of these access networks at a given time. This basically
removes the need for a UE to have multiple Radio Access
Technology (RAT) capabilities. With single-radio terminals,
measurement gaps are needed to allow the UE to switch
onto the CS network and complete radio measurements.
Measurement gaps define the time periods when no uplink
or downlink transmissions are scheduled so that the UE
may perform the measurements. However, it is understood
that the idea of CSFS fits very poorly with LTE femtocells.
An LTE device camped onto a femto would either need to
fallback to 2G/3G in the fernto itself, or look for a macro
cell-site instead. Adding 2G into femtos is extremely
complex, while adding 3G increases cost, complexity and
time-to-market. Conversely, accessing the macro network
is obviously dependent on coverage, and may have a huge
performance gap with the femto for data services running
in parallel.
The Evolved NodeB (eNodeS), (i.e., LTE base station)
is responsible for configuring the measurement gap
pattern and provides it to the UE using Radio Resource
Control (RRC) dedicated signaling. The UE assists the
eNodeB by informing the network about its gap-related
capabilities, at least mentioning if it has a dual or single
receiver. This capability is transferred along with the other
UE capabilities. The UE accessing the SRVCC service is
assumed to have IMS Service continuity capabilities with
single radio access only.
SRVCC from LTE to 3GPP2 3.XCS
In the case of VolP, when subscribers geographically roam
from LTE+CDMA to CDMA, voice calls are switched from
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a VolP to a CDMA Ix network using SRVCC technology.
The existing inter-frequency/RAT gap pattern mechanism
in E-UTRAN is therefore extended to support gap patterns
suitable for lxRTT measurements.
With this approach, the eNodeS is able to interwork with
the 3GPP2 IXRTT MSC using the SI-MME interface with
the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Mobility Management Entity
(MME).
Mobility Management Entity (MME): The MME manages
mobility. Some of MME's functions are:
• NAS signaling and related security
• Inter CN node signaling for mobility between 3GPP
access networks (terminating S3)
• Idle mode UE Tracking and Connectivity (control and
execution of paging retransmission)
• Tracking Area list management
• Roaming (terminating towards home HSS)
• Gateway (GW) selections (serving GW and PDN GW
selection)
• MME selection for handovers with MME change
• Serving GPRS Support Node selection for handovers to
2G or 3G 3GPP access networks
• High Rate Packet Data (HRPD) access node (terminating
reference point) selection for hand overs to/from HRPD
• Authentication
• Bearer management functions including dedicated
bearer establishment
• Lawful interception of Signaling traffic
• Support for Single Radio VCC and CS Fallback for 2G/3G
and 1xRTT CDMA
A new Interworking Signaling (IWS) node is required and
is responsible for the exchange of 3GPP 1XCS signaling
messages with the MME and for establishing a CS session
when the UE is in the process of switching over from the
LTE network to the 3GPP lXCS network. Generally, this is a
case of intersystem handover from the LTE perspective.
A new S102 reference point or interface is defined
between the LTE MME node and the 3GPP IXCS IWS node.
The 3GPP lXCS signaling messages are tunneled over
this single link of S102 and thereafter, tunneled through
E-UTRAN/EPS tunneling messages to the UE.
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The following process identifies the actions taken by the
network to seamlessly hand off voice calls from a VolP
network to a CS network:
1. lxCS SRVCC UE sends measurement reports to the
eNodeB.
2. The E-UTRAN makes a determination to initiate an
inter-technology handover to CDMA2000 1xRTT.
3. The E-UTRAN signals the UE to perform an intertechnology handover by sending a Handover from
E-UTRAN Preparation Request message with 3Glx
Overhead Parameters.
4. The UE initiates signaling for establishment of the CS
access leg by sending an Uplink handover preparation
message containing the lxRTT Origination message.
5. The E-UTRAN sends an Uplink Sl CDMA2000
Tunneling message with Mobile 'Equipment Identifiers
(MElD), lx Origination, Reference Cell ID to the MME.
The eNodeB will also include CDMA2000 Handover
Required Indication Information Element (IE) to Uplink
Sl CDMA2000 Tunneling message, which indicates to
the MME that the handover preparation has started.
6. On receipt of the Uplink Sl CDMA2000 Tunneling
message, the MME:
• Separates the voice bearer from the non-voice bearers
based on the QoS Class Identifier (QCI) associated with
the voice bearer (QCI 1) and CDMA2000 HO Required
Indication.
• Selects the 3GPP2 lxCS IWS based on Reference Cell
ID and encapsulates the lx Origination Message along
with the MElD and Authentication Challenge Parameter,
RAND, in a Direct Transfer message (as "ix Air Interface
Signaling") to the IWS, only for the voice bearer.
7. The traffic assignment is done between the IWS and
RTT MSC, over the Al interface using the signaling
protocols to initiate the handoff to the lXRTT system.
10. The 3GPP2 lxCS IWS creates a lx message and
encapsulates it in a S102 Dire~t Transfer message (lx,
Handover indication). If the 3GPP2 access was able
to allocate resources successfully, the lx message is
a lx Handover Direction message and the handover
indicator indicates successful resource allocation.
Otherwise, the hand over indicator indicates to the MME
that handover preparation failed and the embedded
lx message indicates the failure to the UE.
11. The MME sends the lx message and CDMA2000
HO Status IE in a Downlink Sl CDMA2000 Tunneling
message to the E-UTRAN. The CDMA2000 HO Status
IE is set according to the handover indicator received
over the S102 tunnel.
12. If the CDMA2000 HO Status IE indicates successful
handover preparation, the E UTRAN forwards the lx
Handoff Direction message embedded in Mobility
from E-UTRA Command message to the UE. This
is perceived by the UE as a Handover Command
message.
13. The UE tries to acquire the traffic channel with the
lxRTT CS access as it becomes aware of the traffic
channel information from the CDMA2000 lxRTT
system.
14. The UE sends a lxRTI handoff completion message to
the lxRTT CS Access.
15. The lxRTT CS Access sends a message to the lxRTT
MSC to indicate that the handoff is done. The traffic
aSSignment, that was done during the session/domain
transfer of the CS access leg, between the lxCS IWS
and the lxRTT MSC, is released.
16. An ongOing voice call over the CS access leg is
established over lxRTT access. The UE continues to
transmit voice via the new access system. The voice
bearer path is no longer carried by the EPC.
8. The traffic channel resources are established in the lx
RTT system and 3GPP2 lxCS procedures for initiation
of session transfer for CS access leg are performed.
17. The eNodeB initiates the release of UE context on
the EPS; it sends an Sl UE Context Release Request
(Cause) message to the MME. Cause indicates that Sl
release procedure is due to handover from E-UTRAN
to lxRTT.
9. Whenthe lxRTTMSCreceivesa positive acknowledgment
from the lxRTT radio for traffic allocation and from the
IMS for successful domain transfer, it returns an IS-41
handoff message to the IWS to send to the UE via the
established signaling tunnel.
18. The MME exchanges Suspend Request and Suspend
Acknowledge messages with the Serving Gateway
(S-GW). With this, the Sl-U bearers are released for
all EPS bearers and the Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR)
bearers are deactivated by the MME. The non-GBR
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bearers are preserved and are marked as suspended
in the S-GW. Upon receipt of downlink data, the S-GW
should not send a downlink data notification message
to the MME.
Serving Gateway: The S-GW is the node that terminates
the interface towards E-UTRAN. For each UE associated
with the EPS, at a given pOint of time, there is a single
S-GW. Serving GW functions include:
• The local Mobility Anchor point for inter-eNodeB
handover
• Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPI? 'mobility (terminating
and relaying·the traffic between 2G/3G system and PDN
Gateway)
• E-UTRAN idle mode downlink packet buffering
and initiation of network triggered service request
procedure
• Transport level packet marking in the uplink and the
downlink (e.g., setting the DiffServ Gode POint, based
on the QCI9 of the associated EPS bearer)
• Accounting on user and QCI granularity for inter-operator
charging
~'-----.......
• Packet routing and forwarding
• Some charging support
19. UE Context in the eNodeB and MME are now released
with the normal E-UTRAN/EPS procedure.
CONCLUSION
b7E
competitive solutions, different service providers will likely
choose to implement one or the other depending on many
factors including existing network assets and the overall
requirements for rolling out LTE. CSFB may be used by a
subset of service providers as it requires less core network
modification and changes can be focused primarily on
the handset manufacturers. Due to the efforts of the LTE
-OneVoice initiative and the capability to deliver SRVCC
via a subset of IMS functionality, it is forecasted that the
majority of LTE voice service will be provided using an IMSbased SRVCC architecture.
In current form, CSFB may be unsuitable as a broadlydeployed interim solution, especially for LTE service
providers that do not expect a swift transition to IMS.
While it may be made workable for certain service
providers that retain control of handset software, and
an entrenched business model that supports the ability
to provide a highly-customized user experience, it has
severe deficiencies for many others. While there are likely
to be some work arounds and enhancements to CSFB to
address some of the problems, it seems unlikely that these
will solve all the concerns raised.
For service providers that want to retain' control over
in-house voice applications and which have robust CS
platforms with several years working life and spare
capacity left in them, VoLGA maybe a realistic option - or
at least one worthy of formal investigation and testing, as
well as greater attention from the standards bodies. It is
certainly not without its own challenges. It also requires
changes to handsets, as well as a mechanism for allowing
the network to trigger LTE-to-3G/2G handovers for VoLGA
calls, originally defined as part of SRVCC. It is also purely
a mechanism for delivering "old school" CS-type voice
services rather than the more advanced types of Web/
voice integration, although potentially the voice traffic
could be treated as a packet application/object available
over IP.
The popularity of VolP applications, along with the absolute
need for service providers to deliver voice over LTE, is
causing the SRVCC to receive significant attention. Despite
the fact that SRVCC is apparently more complex than
CSFB due to the requirement of an IMS core network (or
application tier), it continues to be the choice of the LTE
OneVoice initiative due to the lack of need for complex
and expensive dual-mode user devices. To combat the
apparent cost and complexity of a full IMS network The introduction of seamless high speed networking offers
rollout, the industry is now focusing on simplifying the IMS service providers the ability to customize billing specific
protocols and defining a specific IMS "profile" for providing to a customer usage. Blending pre and postpaid services,
and a -per-use, (e. 0, billin for me a-b tes transmitted)
seamless LTE VolP service.
SRVCC will playa key role in handing over the UE from LTE
to other CS-based networks by utilizing high performance
technology capabilities of LTE and the EPC. When there are
..................................................................................
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5. 4G TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
For some time now, marketers in the telecommunications
industry have offered the promise of Fourth Generation
(4G) networks bringing the full power of the Internet to the
world of wireless. But what does 4G really mean? Is it more
than just a promise? Most importantly, how will it impact
Law Enforcement's (LE) ability to perform electronic
intercepts? This article examines the evolving definition
of 4G, describes what is really happening on the network,
and identifies the specific challenges that the deployment
of 4G networks could pose for LE.
THE GENERATION GAP
Generations represent major advances in technologies and
services. As such, the term is often freely used by those
who wish to portray their offerings as major improvements
to what is currently considered state of the art. Often
these changes prove to be incremental at best, and soon
enough another company is touting their own products as
part of the next generation. Such uses of Third Generation
(3G), and now 4G, as marketing terms lead to confusion
within the marketplace. Usually, it is only over time that
the industry converges on an accepted definition of the
characteristics of a generation of telecommunications
technology. 4G is just reaching that stage. While there is
much marketing hype, agreement on what technologies
meet the definition of 4G is just now emerging.1
THE TECHNOLOGIES
Global System for Mobile (GSM): The dominant mobile
phone technology worldwide is GSM, which has over 85%
of the three billion (and growing) subscriptions worldwide.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS):
This 3G mobile phone system evolved from GSM by
replacing the radio subsystem with one based on Code
Division Multiple Access (COMA), which offers higher
capacity and performance than Second Generation (2G).
By squeezing more phone calls into the same spectrum,
fewer cell sites are required or ,higher data rates can be
aChieved. Almost all UMTS networks are owned by or
directly interwork with an existing 2G GSM network'so that
in areas with poor coverage, calls can be handeG over to
and continue on the other network.
High Speed Packet Access (HSPA): Often termed 3.5G,
this is an improved version of UMTS that modifies the
coding used on the radio transmissions to dramatically
improve the data throughput Peak rates of 14 Megabits
per second (Mbps) are achievable in lab conditions, with
promises of even higher capacity. These systems are
completely backward compatible with the original UMTS
systems, although, newer handsets or data dongles would
be required to take advantage of the higher data rates.
Earlier versions of (non-mobile) WiMAX are considered
3-3.5G •
• 1981
• Analog
.1992
• Digital
GSM & CDMA 1 x RTT
.2002
• Minimum 200 Kbps
• Multimedia Support
• Spread Spectrum Transmission
UMTS & CDMA EV-DO
.'1
3.5G: HSPA+ & WiMAX 802.16d
• Mobile Ultra Broadband
(Gigabit speeds) Access
• AIIIP Packet-Switched Networks
• Multi-carrier Transmission (MC-CDMA)
Pre 1G: LTE & WiMAX 802.16e
LTE Advanced &
WiMAX 802. 16m
'. :I
Figure 5-1 Evolution to 40
..................................................................................
1 http://www.fiercebroadbandwireless.com/story/ltu-declares-Ite.advanced-802·16m·4g-standards/2010-10-25
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Code Division Multiple Access (COMA): Not to be
confused with Wideband CDMA (WCDMA), this earlier
technology was popular in the U.S., Japan, and Korea but
did not achieve global deployment. The 2G version of CDMA
is known as One times Radio Transmission Technology
(lxRT.f) and is efficientfor voice and text services. The 3G
version, called Evolution-Data Optimized ot Evolution-Data
Only (EV-DO), provides higH-speed data rates.
LTE Advanced) is moving toward deployment in 2011 with
LTE Advanced deployment projected to begin in 2012.
WiMAX 1.x (based on IEEE 802.16e)· has been deployed
in the U.S. and worldwide, with WiMAX 2 deployments
projected to begin before the end of 2011.4
Long Term Evolution (LTE): Both GSM and CDMA
communities have agreed to move toward a common
standard for their next step. LTE is their 4G standard,
and radio interface has already demonstrated data rates
over 100 Megabits per second (Mbps). The Orthogonal
Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) scheme is
particularly effective at combating multi-path and other
aspects where radio propagation is difficult There will also
be a major change to the core network standard, which is
called System Architecture Evolution (SAE) and uses the
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to setup sessions and
voice calls.
• E-UTRAN was designed to offer high-speed
broadband access equivalent to the higher
end of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable
connections
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX):
This is also an OFDM technology and competes with LTE,
although, there are talks to combine the two. It is marketed
as a low-cost means of delivering broadband data
services, is likely to be popular in areas where there are no
land line alternatives, and is a competitor to HSPA and LTE.
A summary of the key aspects of the four widely
acknowledged generations of telecommunications
technology is shown in Figure 5-1. The key aspects of
4G wireless networks that distinguish them from widely
deployed 3G networks are:
• Gigabit (GB) wireless data rates - one to two orders of
magnitude faster than the most advanced 3G or 3.5G
networks2
• All Internet Protocol (IP)-switched networks - rather than
the mixed circuit and packet nature of 3G networks
• Multi-carrier transmission - allows more effiCient use of
available radio access network bandwidth
In October2010, the ITU declared that only two technologies
meet its definition of 4G3 - LTE Advanced and WiMAX
2 (based on the IEEE 802.16m air interface standard),
Neither of these technologies has been deployed. LTE (not
LTE EVOLUTION
• The term LTE originally referred to the Evolved UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN)
• LTE is now used as a 4G marketing term for the Evolved
Packet System (EPS)
• EPS = E-UTRAN + the Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
• EPC is the result of the SAE, which optimized an allpacket core network to accommodate higher access
speeds and larger volume data network sessions
• Initial LTE deployments use the 700 Megahertz (MHz)
band
• LTE supports Voice (lP Multimedia Subsystems (IMS)
VoIP) and data
• Initial deployments may also support Circuit
Switched (CS) fallback for voice
WI MAX EVOLUTION
• 802.16d fixed Wi MAX; mobility added in 802.16e
• Sprint's Xohm WiMAX offering ranges between 3.7 - 5
Mbps
• Developing 802.16m with average downlink speeds
greater than 100 Mbps
• WiMAX initially supported data only
• VolP was provided by third-parties
• WiMAX currently developing WiMAX VolP Capability
WHO IS DEPLOYING LTE IN THE US?5
Verizon conducted successful user LTE (not LTE Advanced)
usability tests in five markets in June 2010. On December
1, Verizon announced that it will roll out LTE service in 38
U.S. markets by the end of 2010 and extend the network
to reach all of its eXisting 36 coverage areas by 2013.6
..................................................................................
EV-DO Rev B offers downstream data rates up to about 14.7 mbps. HSPA+ in theory can provide downstream rates up to 56 mbps. but has achieved only
2
about 28 mbps in existing deployments - Wikipedia "3G Networks"
http://www.engadget.com/2010/10/21/itu-lays-down-law-wimax-2-lte-advanced-are-4g-everyone-else-i/
4 http://www.wimaxforum.orgfsites/wimaxforum.orgffiles/documenUibrary/wimax_hspa+and_lte_111809_final.pdf
5 http://www.informationweek.com/news/hardware/handheld/showArticle.jhtml?articleID-225701635
http://connectedplanetonline.com/ctia/2010/news/aircom-fast-tracking-us-lte-rollouts-0322/
http://connectedplanetonline.com/independent/news/centurytel-2010-lte-rollout-0219jindex.html(Feb 09)
http://www.4ginfo.com/index.php/centurytel-to-offer-fixed-line-lte-as-soon-as-2010.html
http://www.siashgear.com/metropcs-lte-network-arriving-2h-2010-with-samsung-sch-r900::2478981/
http://blog.laptopmag.com/att-14-4mbps-hspa-to-cover-250-million-people
http://gigaom.com/2010/01/25/forget-cables-wimax-dreams-cox-trials-lte-network/
6 http://www.thetechherald.com/article.php/201048/6493/Hands-on-with-Verizon-s-speedy-lTE-4G-network
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Cox Communications conducted LTE trials in Phoenix and
San Diego beginning in January 2010. In November 2010,
it announced the start of service in three areas: Hampton
Roads, VA, Omaha, NE, and Orange County, CA?
MetroPCS launched its LTE rollout in September 2010 in
Las Vegas with promises to add at least 10 more markets
"soon".8
Centl,lrytel announced plans to roll out'lTE in 2010 for
broadband, but not wireless.
AT&T plans a mid-2011 deployment and is conducting
trials in Baltimore and Dallas.9 The company is deploying
HSPA+ prior to its LTE launch. and is working out its
LTE deployment strategy to ensure that voice and data
services can work simultaneously on UMTS and LTE.
Despite T-Mobile USA's ongoing partnership negotiations
with Clear (formerly Clearwire), a T-Mobile USA statement
made in October 2010 indicated that while there is no
pressure to transition to LTE, the carrier prefers LTE over
Wi MAX. T-Mobile did not make a definitive announcement
on their future strategy.10 T-Mobile is continuing its HSPA+
rollout; it currently has 55 markets on HSPA+ and plans to
cover 100 major metropolitan areas by the end of 2010.
WHO IS DEPLOYING WIMAX IN THE US?U
Clear began WiMAX 1.x deployments in partnership
with Sprint Nextel in 2008. Clear also has wholesale
partnerships with Comcast and Time Warner Cable. By
the end of June 2010, Clear had commercial WiMAX
services available in 36 U.S. cities including: Atlanta,
Baltimore, Chicago, Las Vegas, Philadelphia, Honolulu,
Seattle, Dallas/Ft. Worth, and central Washington, DC.
By the end of 2010, Clear plans to have service for: Los
Angeles, Miami, New York City, Boston, Denver, and San
Francisco amongst others.
Clear is also conducting LTE trials in Phoenix. If the
company decides to switch from Wi MAX to LTE, it would
not be until 2012, at the earliest.12 Reacting to changes
in the market, Clear updated their agreement with Intel
to allow either party to terminate their agreement with a
30-day notice, increasing the carrier's flexibility.
, I
: I)
LTE Advanced are still in development and vendor and
service provider implementation and deployment plans are
not known in detail.
Higher Data Rates
One notable impact is that Law Enforcement Agencies
(LEAs) will need to deal with significantly higher data rates
than in current wireless network intercepts. Managing
this "fire hose" of data is complicated by the lack of
buffering or reliable delivery requirements. In contrast to
the CS environment, with packet-based communications,
if critical packets are lost, entire streams of content can
be rendered unintelligible. These higher data rates could
place a greater emphasis on the filtering of data to identify
specific content.
AIIIP and Multi-media
In the IP environment, all subject content will be embedded
in a single packet stream. To perform VolP intercepts, voice
packets will need to be extracted from the packet stream in
near real-time. Voice packets also may not include voice,
exclusively. 4G wireless networks will support multi-media
applications that combine voice and video or other media.
Another aspect of the All IP network is that as users move,
tunnels are used within the networks during handoffs to
provide the mobile user's wireless communications (either
voice or data sessions) with continuity. Tunnels within a
network increase the complexity of lawful intercept (LI)
solutions. Challenges imposed by tunneling may include
difficulty in identifying the traffic of a particular user
(e.g., deep packet inspection may be needed), accessing
the content of a tunnel at its end-points, and the use of
encryption within tunnels.
Multiple Subject Identifiers
Since service-related functions are independent from
transport-related technologies, applications can be
defined independently (at the service level) from the
network. This results in a variety of identifiers being used
in 4G wireless networks; different networks may use
different identifiers (or different types of identifiers) for the
same subject's intercepted communications. For example,
access networks are likely to continue using IP addresses,
but various identities may be associated with IMS:
IMPACT OF 4G ON ELECTRONIC
SURVEILLANCE
• IP Multimedia Private Identity (IMPI)
There are a number of w~ys in which 4G wireless technology
could impact electronic surveillance. Many of these areas
represent unknowns because standards for WiMAX 2 and
• Globally Routable User Agent URI (GRUU)
• IP Multimedia Public Identity (IMPU)
• Wildcarded Public User Identity
..................................................................................
7 http://www,pcmag,com/article2/0,2817,2373038,00,asp
http://wwwJiercewireless.com/story/metropcs.launches-lte-las-vegas-promises-more-markets-soon/2010-09-21
hltp:/jwww,fiercewireless,comjstory/t-launching-lte-mid-2011/2010-09-16
10 http://wwwJiercewlreless.com/story/t-mobile-backs-lte-calls-wimax-niche-playj2010-10-01
II http://www.informationweek.com/news/hardware/handheld/showArticle,jhtml?articleID-225701635
12 http://wwwJiercewireless.com/story/clearwire-holding-any-lte-switch-until-2012/2010-05-10
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The use of these identifiers could pose challenges for those identities mayor may not be mapped to SIP URIs.
identifying a target's traffic by the service provider and These additional identifiers will also need to be addressed
correlation of data received by the LEA. It is not clear if in 4G U solutions.
the timing of the assignment of these identifiers aligns well
Access Level Interception May Not Be Sufficient
with existing reporting capabilities.
4G wireless networks support a broad range of interworking
Both IMPI and IMPU are not phone numbers or other and service continuity capabilities across both service
series of digits, but Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) providers and technologies. This will add to the complexity
can be digits (a TEL URI, like tel: +1-555-123-4567) or of correlating different parts of a communication. The
alphanumeric identifiers (a SIP URI, like sip:[email protected] access and connectivity (core network) services may
example.com).
be provided by different service providers, thus, the
access network may not have access to all r.nntp.nt nr
IMS IDENTIFIERS
silmalimd
IP Multlm~dla Private Identity
The IMPlls a unique, permanently allocated global identity
assigned by the home network operator and is used, for
example, for registration, authorization, administration,
and accounting purposes. Every IMS user has one or more
IMPI. The IMPI is not accessible to the user and is only
visible to control nodes inside the IMS.
I
IP Multlm~dia Public Identity
The IMPU is employed by a user to request communications
with other users and takes the form of a SIP URI or a TEL
URI. There can be multiple IMPU per IMPI. The IMPU
can also be shared with another phone so that both
can be reached with the same identity (e.g., a single
phone number for an entire family). This identity is visible
outside of the network. In the case of more than one IMS
subscription, there may be a many-to-many mapping of
Private User Identities to Public Users l1:>s.
Globally Routable User Agent URI
GRUU is an identity that classifies a unique combination
of IMPU arid UE instance. There are two types of GRUU:
Public-GRUU (P-GRUU) and Temporary GRUU (T-GRUU).
P-GRUU reveals the IMPU and is very long lived. T-GRUU
does not reveal the IMPU and is valid until the contact is
explicitly de-registered or the current registration expires.
Wi/dcarded Public User Identity
A wild carded Public User Identity expresses a set of IMPU
grouped together. The Home Subscriber Server (HSS)
subscriber database contains the IMPU, IMPI, IMSI, and
Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN), subscriber
service profiles, service triggers, and other information.
Although already a challenge today, other applications
such as Web-based VolP and instant messaging (1M), have
introduced closed identifier schemes. These providers
proprietarily manage the subscriber's identities, though
I
I
Growth of Machine-ta-Machine Communication
Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications exist
in earlier generations of wireless technology but are
proliferating in 4G, particularly in WiMAX where they have
become a significant focus area. M2M communications
are used to support applications such as meter reading,
tracking, building security and environmental control fleet
management, and remote paymentj
I
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"As a result of the increase in digital
communications and the growing
importance of digital evidence in all types of
investigations, Regional Computer Forensics
Laboratories continue to develop and deploy
innovative digital forensics tools and
services to meet law enforcement's needs."
,.., Anthony P. DiClemente, Chief,
Data AcquisitionlIntercept Section
..................................................................................
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6. WIRELESS CELL PHONE TECHNOLOGIES: A SHORT TUTORIAL
INTRODUCTION
Today, wireless is not just a concept; it is a reality that
is driving mobile technology to new levels of seamless
mobility, With the emergence of higher bandwidth offered
by the 802.11n standard and the explosion of mobile
applications, there is a need for a new architecture to
accommodate 802,11g's 54 Megabits per second (Mbps)
to 802,11n's 300 Mbps and mobile cellular broadband.
BACKGROUND
What does wireless technology mean? And how did we
arrive here?
In 1980, the First Generation (1G) wireless analog
technology was the 'brick or bag phone' or 1G. 1G was
replaced by the second generation (2G) cell phone
advancing the technology from analog to digital and the
introduction of Global System for Mobile Communications
(GSM) standard on the 2G network. 2G also utilizes the
following digital protocols: Code Division Multiple Access
(CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Integrated
Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN), and Primary Domain
Controller (PDC). In order to bridge the gap between
2G and the Third Generation (3G), the Interim Standard
(2.5G) was created for marketing purposes. One major
advance leading up to 3G is packet-switched systems. The
transition from 2G to 3G enabled faster data transmission
speeds and greater network capacity with more advanced
services. The first commercial 3G launch was in Japan
on October 1, 2001. Today, the future is looking to Fourth
Generation (4G) or 'beyond 3G' with the cell phone
evolving to replace 3G technology. The next generation
promises higher data rates, and voice, data, and highquality multimedia In real-time ("streamed") anywhere and
anytime. 4G networks are forecasted to launch between
2012 and 2015.1
The Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life
Project revealed that: 2
• 82 percent of American adults own a cell phone
• Five percent of adult texters send more than 200 text
messages per day
• Women tend to make slightly fewer calls than men; 26
percent of men say they make or receive 6 to 10 calls a
day, while 20 percent of women make the same claim
• 91 percent of cell phone owners say their phones make
them feel safer
• 42 percent of cell phone owners say they feel irritated
when a call or text interrupts them
• 65 percent of adults say they have slept with their phone
"on or right next to" their bed
• 72 percent of adult cell phone "Users send and receive
text messages
HISTORY
How are eel/phones Different from Smartphones?
The first cell phone was demonstrated 19 years ago.
Motorola employee Dr. Martin Cooper on April 3, 1973
called researcher Dr. Joel S. Engel of AT&T's Bell Labs
using a prototype from Motorola called the DynaTAC. 3
Less than 20 years later, IBM designed the first
smartphone in 1992. It was called Simon. The
smartphone was presented that year as a concept device
in Las Vegas at the computer industry trade show known
as COMDEX.
A smartphone is like a miniature computer that can place
and receive calls. Smartphones use a mobile operating
system (OS). A mobile operating system is much like
what's powering your personal computer at home or at
work. However, the software goes by different names. Cell
phones don't have
~
operating systems
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Cell phones can typically send and receive text, picture, and
video messages, and some can email, too. Smartphones
typically go a step further by syncing with the email server
of your personal or corporate provider.
..................................................................................
http://cellphones.about.com/od/phoneglossary/tp/lg2g3g4g.htm
http://cellphones.aboutcom/
3 http://cellphones.about.com/od/coverlngthebaslcs/qt/cellphonesvssmartphones.htm
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3G
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Frequency Band:
1.B -2.5 GHz
2-BGHz
Forward error correction (FEC):
3G uses Turbo codes for
error correction
Data Throughput:
Up to' 3.1 Mbps
Concatenated codes are used for error
corrections in 4G
Practically speaking, 3 to 5 Mbps but
potential estimated at a range of 100 to
300 Mbps
Services And Applications:
COMA 2000, UMTS, EDGE WiMax, LTE and Wi-Fi
etc.
SPEED OF 3G VS. 4G
How much faster is 4G compared to 3G? Unfortunately for
consumers, the answer to this question is more nuanced
than one would like. The speed of a 3G network depends
upon how it is implemented. In the U.S., by 2010 Sprint
and Verizon (both COMA networks) had reached the limits
of how fast they could make their 3G networks. Upgrading
to 4G networks allowed them to offer data transmission
speeds up to four times faster than their 3G networks.
However, the 3G networks of GSM carriers AT&T and
T-Mobile were designed such that there was room to
upgrade 3G speeds. As of mid-2010, it was anticipated
that when AT&T and T-Mobile upgrade their 3G networks,
their speeds will become comparable to 4G from Sprint
and Verizon.
Relevance
The speed you ultimately experience on your mobile
phone depends much more on factors other than "3G"
or "4G". In theory, newer technologies offer performance
improvements. However, 3G and 4G refer to the
communication protocol between the mobile handset and
the cell phone tower. So, it's only one piece of the puzzle.
The throughput rate and browsing speed also depends on
factors such as:
• How many·cell phone towers are.in the vicinity?
• How many users are sharing these towers?
• The bandwidth available to these cell phone towers to
connect to the Internet or the carrier'S network.
LAW ENFORCEMENT IMPACT
Design Principle and Applications
The advances in the mobile arena allow users to not just
Both 2G and 3G networks were designed primarily for have access to inform~J!m..aD~~~i.Jlai1i.W~1LD.UI...,
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4G is designed especially for data tr.ansmission rather than
voice. So, 4G offers faster access to data using mobile
phones. For example, streaming video works better with ~----,..---------------I
4G, with less stuttering and a higher resolution. Similarly,
video conferencing and multi-player online games work
better with the faster data transmission offered by 4G.
• http://www.dlffen.com/difference/3G_vs_4G
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7. OPERATOR'S DILEMMA! FEMTOCELL OR WI-FI?
:1
INTRODUCTION
The growth of data centric devices is humongous and
mobife data will roughly double each year from 2008 to
2013 1
According to Cisco, the average broadband connection
generates 11.4 Gigabytes (GB) of Internet traffic per
month, or 375 Megabytes (MB) per day. Reports from
early Fourth Generation (4G) Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access (WiMAX)-based broadband networks
found that the average traffic per customer is analogous
in Russia and the U.S., with 10GB of traffic per month.2
Data projections for next decade anticipate that Internet
traffic will grow at a compound annual rate of at least 50
percent By 2020, the average mobile Internet connection
from Third Generation (3G) and 4G handsets will generate
22.5GB of traffic, and Internet-centric devices will generate
171.7GB of traffic.
Data Growth in Internet-centrlc Devices (Laptops)
base stations. At least two solutions are on the table for
operators: Femtocells and Wi-Fi offloads. Both approaches
solve the backhaul issue by using customer or third-partv
links (e.g. DSL, MetroE, Ti/El, WISP, or others).
ti
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Femtocells are tiny mobile cell sites that use the mobile
operators' licensed spectrum supporting all devices and
all services. Femtocells are a great way to extend coverage
and create higher capacity.
To extend data service
in places where macro cell coverage is poor, a WiMAX
Femtocell could be an ideal candidate. However, operators
also have the option of extending indoor coverage through
Wi-Fi access points. This article examines the various
aspects of Femtocells and Wi-Fi for the purpose of indoor
coverage.
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The amount of traffic Internet will compel operators to
offload data from their Macro Base station to indoor
ARCHITECTURE AND DEPLOYMENT
Femtocell-based architecture requires that all management
and data traffic be passed through an Access Service
Network Gateway (ASN-GW) and a security gateway to
perform handovers and security procedures defined in
IEEE 802.16e. Wi-Fi based systems do not require data
traffic to pass through any central location and have a
much flatter architecture than Femtocells. Of course, there
are advantages to using a Serving Gateway (S-GW) and
ASN-GW in the case of Femtocells.
Femto archItecture
ASN
Access
CSN
•
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-
Rgure 7-2 Femtocell vs. WI-FI Architecture
..................................................................................
https://www.cisco.com/en/US/netsol/ns827/networking_solutlons_sub_solutlon.html
http://img.en25.com/Web/WiMaxBroadbandSolutions/SenzaFilLYotaWP.pdf
3 http://www.beyond4g.orgfmanaging-data-networks
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ECONOMICS
The current prices of femto access points are five to ten
times higher than the cost of Wi-Fi devices. Businesses
using operator controlled Femtocells will likely face
economic challenges as a result of high prices, and retail
customers may be deterred from buying Femtocells at
current price levels. A huge demand for Femtocell access
points is not expected in near future, therefore, it would
be very difficult for operators to push Femtocell-based
solutions to their customers. In fact, businesses using
operator controlled Femtocells to provide higher capacity
and coverage would face severe return on investment
challenges as the cost of femto access points and the
associated infrastructure is way too expensive compared
to Wi-Fi access pOints.
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Intel is ready to ship 6250 Kilmer Peak chipsets, which will
have 2x2 11 a/gin and 16e WiMAX in the 2.3/2.5 and
3.5 GHz bands. The 11n version is capable of supporting
peak data rates up to 300Mbps. Intel's next Wi MAX
module, Evans Peak, is targeted for MIDs and will support
one module of lX2 11 a/gin, 16e, Bluetooth, and Global
Positioning System (GPS) in the 2.3, 2.5, and 3.5 GHz
bands.
SPECTRUM
The data growth expected in the next decade will keep
operators hungry for spectrum. 83MHz of Wi-Fi spectrum
in the 2.4GHz band is ideal for operators to manage the
mobile data demand generated out of indoor locations.
The next version of Wi-Fi, 802.11n, supports Multiple
Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) and data rates up to
300Mbps. The cost of 11n devices is not significantly
higher than 802.11b/g devices. Worldwide, operators are
demanding at least 30MHz of spectrum for Broadband
Wireless Access (BWA) application in the 2.3, 2.5, and
3.5 GHz bands. Current deployments are mostly in reuse,
and there is little spectrum left for operators to build
Femtocells. Free Wi-Fi spectrum in 2.4 GHz band will help
operators provide sufficient capacity for indoor use.
Figure 7·3 WI-FI vs WIMAX
ROADMAP
WiMAX release 1.5 will focus on a WiMAX/Wi-Fi/Bluetooth
co-existence.· A forum is also evaluating and addressing
handovers between Wi-Fi and WiMAX.5
SUMMARY
Pico Base Station and Repeaters will continue to play
an important role in extending coverage and generating
additional capacity in wireless networks.6 The economics
of deploying Pico Base Stations in enterprise buildings
and commercial hubs is encouraging. However, Femtocells
appear challenging from a bUSiness and deployment
DEVICES
The primary sources of mobile data demand are laptops, perspective. There are numerous advantages associated
notebooks, and smartphones. Laptops and notebooks with Wi-Fi for retail consumers and Wi-Fi will continue
have Wi-Fi connectivity. Wi-Fi chipsets are prevalent and to complement wireless networks. WiMAX+WiFi router
is included in almost 100% of the laptops and other capabilities have already been demonstrated by Clearwire
Internet-centric devices on the market. Wi-Fi is already with its Clearspot, the Yota Egg, and UQ. Operators must
widely available and Wi MAX-embedded devices may reach keep Wi-Fi in their access strategy when building next
generation mobile data networks.
these levels in the next five to seven years. ABI research
projects that 1 billion Wi-Fi chips will be shipped in 2011
and the global shipment of Wi-Fi enabled cell phones will
"While this technology expands accessibility
double between 2009 and 2011. Wi-Fi is not only common
and productivity, it introduces complexity
in Internet-centric devices like laptops and notebooks. It
and
security risks as wireless networks and
is expected that 90% of smartphones will be embedded
handheld mobile devices become a new
with Wi-Fi modules by 2014. Current Wi-Fi chlpsets are
target for hackers and thieves."
very competitively priced and Intel has plans to embed
WiMAX+Wi-Fi into their Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs) and
- Sarah Hicks, Vice President of Mobile and
all future Internet-centric devices.4
Wireless Solutions, Symantec
..................................................................................
• http://www.beyond4g.org/intel-continues-its-commitment-to-worldwide-mobile-wimax-mids
5 http://www.beyond4g.org/814
6 http://www.beyond4g.orgfovercoming-indoor-coverage-chailenge-in-wimax
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B. FCC'S POSITION ON BROADBAND WHITE SPACE
INTRODUCTION
Technology companies (e.g., Google, Motorola, Microsoft
and Dell) have been lobbying the
~~'0~\CAT!OI\( Federal
Communications
~~\S' Commission (FCC) for years
to open new spectrum to
~ expand existing wireless
services or create new
~
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'>'
~ years the FCC has been
• US1\."
solicited by Congress to open
the unused wireless spectrum that
separates TV channels for use by unlicensed broadband
networks. In November 2008, the FCC agreed to open
up unused broadcast TV spectrum for unlicensed use, in
the 300 Megahertz (MHz) to 400 MHz band of unused
spectrum known- as 'white space'.
11
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BACKGROUND
"The FCC has been examining this issue for six years,
and finished testing several proof-of~concept devices this
summer to see if companies can develop products that use
the buffer spectrum between licensed broadcast channels.
The' commission's Office of Engineering Technology (OET)
found that sensing technology alone was not 100 percent
effective in preventing channel interference. But when
coupled with geo-Iocation technology, which uses GPS
technology along with a data base of known services
using certain spectrum channels, interference was greatly
reduced."l
In accordance with the rules, the FCC will require that all
white space devices be tested and certified by the FCC
Laboratory, as is required of all other wireless devices,
including cell phones and wireless routers.
In early 2009, Congress directed the FCC to develop
a National Broadband Plan to ensure every American
has "access to broadband capability". Congress also
required that this plan include a detailed strategy for
achieving affordability and maximizing use of broadband
to advance "consumer welfare, civic participation, public
safety and homeland security, community development,
health care delivery, energy independence and efficiency,
education, employee training, private sector investment,
entrepreneurial activity, job creation and economic growth,
and other national purposes."2
Why is this significant? Why is this important to consumers?
Why is ttiis important to· law· enforcement (LE)?
"Like electricity a centur.y ago, broadband communications
is a foundation for economic growth, job creation, global
competitiveness and a better way of life. It is enabling
entire new industries and unlocking ·vast new possibilities
for existing ones. It is changing how we educate children,
deliver health care, manage energy, ensure public safety,
engage government, and access, organize and disseminate
knowledge."3
Under the Omnibus Broadband Initiative (OBI), the plan
outlines four ways that the Government can influence the
broadband ecosystem:
• Establish competition policies
• Ensure effiCient allocation and use of Governmentowned' and Government-influenced assets
• Create incentives for universal availability and adoption
of broadband
• Updating policies, setting standar.cts, and aligning
incentives to maximize use for national priOrities
Long-Term GoalS"
Goal No.1: At least 100 million United States (U.S.) homes
should have affordable access to actual download speeds
of at least 100 Megabits per second and actual upload
speeds of at least 50 Mbps.
Goal No.2: The U.S. should lead the world in mobile
innovation, with the fastest and most extensive wireless
networks of any nation.
Goal No.3: Every American should have affordable access
to robust broadband service, and the means and skills to
subscribe if they so choose.
Goal No.4: Every American community should have
affordable access to at ieast 1 Gigabit per second
broadband service to anchor institutions such as schools,
hospitals and government buildings.
Goal No.5: To ensure the safety of the American people,
every first responder should have access to a nationwide,
wireless, interoperable broadband public safety network.
Goal No.6: To ensure that America leads in the clean energy
economy, every American should be able to use broadband
to track and manage their real-time energy consumption .
..................................................................................
I
http://news.cnet.com/8301-1035_3-10082505-94.html
2 http://www.broadband.gov/plan/executive-summary/
3 Ibid
• http://www.broadband.gov/plan/executive-summary/
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FCC Plan Opens 90 MHz of Satellite SpectrumS
The FCC wants to open mobile satellite spectrum in three
bands for land-based services as part of its effort to free
up an additional 500 Megahertz (MHz) of spectrum for
mobile broadband.
tI· J I; PI
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"opportunistic use" of underdeveloped spectrum. It doesn't
plan to take up the issue of net neutrality or reclaSSifying
broadband Internet services under TItle 11."6
LAW ENFORCEMENT IMPACT
The challenges facing LE increase with the introduction
The agency's proposed rulemaking wOuld open a total of each new wireless device. In fact, reports state that
of 90 MHz in the 2 Gigahertz (GHz) band, Big LEO ·band "wireless data traffic on the AT&T network has grown more
and l-band for uses other than satellite-based broadband than 5,000 percent over the past three years, largely
services.
attributed to today's advanced smartphones that are
generating dramatically increasing volumes of network
Specifically, the proposal aims to add co-primary fixed and
traffic." 7 "We're seeing advanced smartphones driving
mobile allocations to the 2 GHz band and expand existing·
up to 10 times the amount of usage of other devices on
secondary market policies and rules involving the use of
average," according to Vice President and General Manager
satellite bands for terrestrial services. The FCC is also
for AT&T Mobility and Consumer Markets in Minnesota."s
seeking comment on· what actions the agency could take if
Over 50 percent of homes have broadband connectivity. A
the value of the spectrum increases.
smartphone device with -Wi-R installed can automatically
CTIA President and CEO Steve Largent commended the establish a dual connection while using the outdoor macro
FCC for opening up the spectrum. "We are pleased the network for voice and mobile data services and the indoor
Commission and the Obama Administration have joined
us in recognizing the critical importance of harnessing
our spectrum resources to benefit the nation's wireless
consumers," he said in a statement.
GOOGLE-VERIZON NET NEUTRALITY DEAL
As of November 5, 2010, the FCC reported that, "The
agency plans to cover the UHF and VHF television
bands, experimental licenses, and ways to accelerate
..................................................................................
http://www.wirelessweek.com/News/2010/07/Policy-and-lndu5try-FCC-Plan-90MHz-Satellite-Spectrum.Governmentj
http://www.wirelessweek.com/News/2010/11/Policy.and.lndustryNet.NeutralityAbsent-FCC.Nov-Meeting.Legal/
7 http://www.prnewswire.com/news.releases/att.investment.in-minnesota·network.aimed.at.enhancing.mobile-broadband·service-acros5.the.
state-85340242.html
8 ibid
9 http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20101214005657/en/What%E2%80%99s-Store-Augmented-Reality-2011-Totai-lmmersion%E2%80%995
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9. CLOUD SERVICES
INTRODUCTION
With mass volumes of information being exchanged
and viewed by individuals on all types of devices from
smartphones to iPads; the demand and need for storage
capacity has become a big business for some companies,
but for those who subscribe or use these services it
is important to select ttie right provider. In the past,
companies in the technology, device and gadget industry
strived to provide equipment that had the largest storage
capacity and overall memory. Today, with the.vast number
of companies focusing on how to provide storage to both
individuals and business, acquiring a service that meets
your personal needs or your business model. requirements
is easy. As with any service provider there are guidelines
and restrictions, along with risk and security issues. These
services can be downloaded for free or a subscription can
be purchased and utilized by the entire organization. Fees
give value added- services over free and basic services.
What's In the Cloud?
There are several types of cloud services. This article will
discuss some of the most popular services and uses.
As people acquire multiple digital devices, including tiny
netbooks and super-smartphones, it becomes harder for
them to coordinate all their documents, music and photos
so, they have access from whichever device they're using
at the moment.1 Using these digital devices requires that
the industry create a means for users to store and· access
the information. Ideally, it would be convenient to go
to one location and retrieve all of the information, but
sometimes that is not feasible due to the size and amount
of information.
functionality for uploading large files. It also lets the user
automatically back up files to online space either on
demand or at scheduled intervals.
Security for business level service appears to be well
implemented and thorough. All uploads are handled using
128-bit SSL encryption, which is a current standard. Files
can also be stored in encrypted form so that not even
the data center managers can view them. This is very
important when dealing with what may be critical business
documents and sensitive information. The free option
offers 1 Gigabyte (1GB) of storage space and 200 Mb of
downloads per month, but you can only get a free account
if you sign up and use the DriveHQ software.2
Dropbox is basically an intelligent combination of Box.net,
dot.mac, and Microsoft's FolderShare syncing service.
It makes online storage and sharing of files simple - as
simple as dragging files into specially marked local folders.
Files are constantly being uploaded and downloaded
to edit, and therefore requires some additional peer-topeer software. Dropbox .is available via a public beta for
GigaOM readers."3
CI
~Dropbox
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Figure 9-1 Main Screen and Work Area
The software, once downloaded, is simple to install (it
works on both Windows and Mac) and integrates with
provider. Although aimed at business users, DriveHQ also the file browser. It runs efficiently in the background. You
targets individuals with its free memberships and low cost create folders inside the DropBox folder and then just
subscription options. The service is professional and high drag and drop them. The files are constantly synced with
quality but still easy enough to use for novice users. It your online storage locker - any time a file is changed,
offers many different services bundled into one package - the changes are sent to the online folders, which can be
online storage, online backup, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) accessed via any Web browser even if your home machine
server hosting and email server hosting.
is shut off. The system keeps revised versions of the files
as backup, just in case the user aCCidentally erases or
The online storage service can be accessed through the
damages the "live" version of a document. Therefore, there
downloadable desktop client, a Web-based interface,
is a file timeline that may be used to identify changes and
or an FTP client of your choice, although the desktop
dates. You can click and share the "URLs" of every file with
software is only available for Windows. Mac or Linux users
anyone by simply sending them an email (a feature that
only have the Web-based or FTP client options. Drive HQ's
opens up Viral growth opportunities for DropBox).4
proprietary software for uploading files provides robust
DriveHQ is an enterprise level online storage and backup
..................................................................................
http://online.wsj.com/article/NA_WSCPUB:SB10001424052748704107104574572002476586722.html
http://online-storage.nolrevlews.com/drivehq.html
3 http://en.wikipedia.orgfwiki/GigaOM
4 http://glgaom.com/2008/03/11/drop-it-like-its-drop-box/
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At the very least, you can use Dropbox to automatically
backup a subset of your files, and to access them when
traveling. You can also use the service to easily share files
with friends and associates. However, the service does
not currently provide 'any' password protection on files or
folders to limit public access. While Dropbox appears to
be just another cloud storage service, it's actually a file
synchronization service that will sync your files, remotely
back them up and provide web and iPhone access at the
same time.
Dropbox, in a number of ways, goes beyond FolderShare's
simple ease of use. You can access your files through the
Web browser in addition to the desktop client. All files are
version controlled so you can revert to an earlier version
of a document, or restore it completely when lost. There
are also two special folders within the local Dropbox
folder: one for publicly sharing files (via distinct URL)
and one for sharing photos (which gets distinct URLs for
particular galleries that have been formatted online for
easy viewing). 8
.Are images encrypted? "Dropbox stores their data on
Amazon S3 using AES-256 encryption. Dropbox employees
don't have access to your data, and all traffic between your
computer and their servers is encrypted using SSl."5
I~e
The encryption software that will allow you to secure your
Dropbox is called "EncFS".. lt works by creating a folder in
which to store an encrypted version of each of your files
and folders, and then making the unencrypted names and
content available in a different folder.
·Dropbox Locl:Ition
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Figure
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Screenshot
·of
File
Ubrary
on the computer? The cloud serves to keep your files up
to date, but Dropbox uses a hosted virtual disk on your FolderShare provides a desktop client that syncs local
computer to store files.
folders across computers. But it's a bit like comparing
Vista to MacOS; both get the job done, but one may be
easy to use and appears designed for maximum customer
satisfaction. FolderShare allows a private peer-to-peer
Home
Photos
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Account
Install
network to be created that will help you to synchronize
files
across multiple devices and access or share files
Q FlI..
1:1 Rece.,1 evon..
with colleagues and friends. The user no longer needs to
Q My Dropbox • encryplad
send large files via email, burn them to CDsjDVDs and
a. _e" • _
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SIr.
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Figure 9-3 Home Pagel
What information on the local PC points to the cloud (e.g.
client server)? Dropbox uses the drag and drop concept
to move files from one location to another and creates
a Dropbox folder on your hard drive which syncs with the
Dropbox server on the Internet.7
"Our industrY is going through quite a wave
of innovation and it's being powered by a
phenomenon which is referred to as the cloud."
- Steve Ballmer, CEO, Microsoft
..................................................................................
5 http://www.sidelane.co.uk/blogj2009/12/locking-down-your-dropbox-with-espionage/
http://pragmattica.wordpress.com/2009/05/10/encrypting-your-dropbox-seamlessly-and-automatically/
http://www.bloggersbase.com/internetjdropbox-puts-the-drag-n-drop-into-online-collaboration/
8 http://gigaom.com/2008/03/11/drop-it-like-its-drop-box/
9 http://fileforum.betanews.com/detail/FolderShare-/l055803293/1
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comes a new cloud-based storage solution, called Open Drive.
Presently in public beta mode, Open Drive acts much like a
typical redundancy device, but its downloadable software
utility
connects
the users personal
10 information to
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Account and the Plus Account. The Free Account gives
access to all of the features and is only limited in the
capacity or storage you receive, which is up to 2 GB( The
Plus Account is $10 per month for every 100 GB increment.
If a user wants 300 GB of storage, it is $30 per month.
Alternatively, if users choose to sign up for a year, the rate
is lower: $100 per year for every 100 GB increment. So, if
300 GB is purchased on a month-to-month basis it would
cost $360 per year, but if the user signs up for a year it
would only cost $300.
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SpiderOak is an online backup, syncing and sharing
service similar to Dropbox or SugarSync. It is powerful,
versatile and free to use. for up to two GB
/ , of storage.ll SpiderOak is a strong,
,- competitor in the arena of apps that
backup, share and sync your data
across multiple machines. Once
signed on, users see the menu
bar application with several tabs to
select from:
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SUGARSYNC12
There is another client application that has been compared
to SpiderOak and Dropbox called SugarSync. SugarSync
is an interface for Windows, which integrates with Explorer
to show the status of the synced folders with small colored
indicators overlaid on the file/folder icons. SugarSync offers
OpenDrive advertises a free storage limit of 1 GB, which
is considerably less than the amount offered by BOXSTr.
But as an added plus if a user is already registered with
BOXSTr, then registration with Open Drive is not necessary.
OpenDrive also manages data via the Web through BOXSTr
and it is only available for Windows XP or Vista users •
......................................... ....................................... .
,
http://mashable.com/2008/07/15/opendrive/
II http://mac,appstorm,net/how.to/utilities.how.to/how.to.back.up.your.data.with-splderoak/
12 http://technologykills.com/2010/04/06/sugarsync-vs.spideroak/
10
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clients for Windows, Mac, iPhone, Android, Blackberry, and
stunning."14
Windows Mobile, but there are no provisions for other
operating systems, such as Linux.
Citrix boasts that GoToMeeting, ".. .is the easiest and
most cost-effective way to conduct an online meeting.D1s
SugarSync implements share administration in the main
Specifically, the GoToMeeting app for iPad allows users to:
Web interface that is highly polished with similar features
to.SpiderOak. Files are transferred one at a·time, at a high
data rate. It supports file versioning, keeps deleted items
until permanently removed while monitoring the file system
• Collaborate with remote colleagues in real-time
for changes and automatically uploads. SugarSync doesn't
require the user to be online to use the files it synchronizes.
It offers a Web Archive to store files without syncing them
to a specific device. There is also file sharing,and files can
be e-mailed to a SugarSync account. SugarSync data is
SSL-secured, and encrypted once it hits the servers. Data
is stored in "geo-redundant, world class data centers."
The service offers 2 GB of free storage, allows use of all
features, supports multiple devices, and syncs and share
files up to the 2 GB limit. 30 GB from SugarSync costs $5
per month, which is easily affordable.
• Present to remote audiences
• Demenstrate products to prospects and customers
• Train customers and employees across the globe16
~-
- ---------------
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ZUMODRIVE
-----~
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ZumoDrive provides the convenience of home information I
away from home by allowing tne user to put any amount II
of media from Macs or PCs to a phone. Users can read i
all file types to include Word, Excel, PowerPoiot, and PDF,
anywhere and anytime. It offers one of the better media
capabilities out of all "cloud apps". ZumoDrive is not a
Agure 9-9 Citrix GoToMeeting
stand-alone application; it works with a free PC, Mac, and
Linux app that you can download from zumodrive.com. Get Citrix has also developed a GoToMeeting Corporate app,
2 GB of storage for free and everything put on ZumoDrive which is designed to provide online meeting services
is protected with encryption and stored on file servers.
for multiple users. The GoToMeeting Corporate app for
iPad includes unlimited online meetings as well as, "...
features to make it easy for you to manage multiple users,
streamline usage, and maximize your cost savings.rll7
Additional GoToMeeting Corporate features include an:
l~
Figure 9-8 ZumoDrlve Main Screenu
Citrix 'GoToMeeting'
Citrix recently announced the availability of a new Apple
iPad app called Citrix GoToMeeting®. Launched as a
free app for download through Apple's App Store, "The
Citrix GoToMeeting App for iPad brings the same level
of simplicity to the world of business meetin~s, making
it easy for iPad owners to collaborate from anywhere
via online meetings that are both effortless and visually
• Administration Center: Quickly deploy GoToMeeting to
new users, control feature access and track usage from
a convenient.online.Administration Center
• Meet Now Buttons: Start meetings from the company's
own website
• XenApp Integration: Integrate GoToMeeting into the
XenApp® environment
• Integrated TolI·Free Audio Service: Purchase convenient
toll-free packages from Citrix Online Audio18
GoToMeeting for Individuals provides an alternative online
solution for the face-to-face meeting, which may require
..................................................................................
http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/zumodrive/id292504894?mt-8
http://www.citrix.com/English/NE/news/news.asp?newsID-1864354
15 http://www.citrix.com/engJish/ps2/products/produclasp?contentid-13976
18. 17. 18 Ibid
13
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business travel and is:
• Easy to use. The streamlined interface makes it extremely easy for organizers and meeting attendees to start meeting
right away on both pes and Mac® computers.
• Cost-effective. GoToMeeting's All You Can Meet® subscription model provides unlimited meetings for one flat fee,
with no limits on meeting duration and no "overage" charges. Plus, VolP and toll-based phone options reduce audio
costs even further.
• Secure. GoToMeeting uses industry-standard SSL and U.S. government-standard 128-bit AES encryption to ensure
that confidential meeting information remains private. Security is built-in and no configuration is required by users or
administrators.19 The following figures display how to host a GoToMeeting.
Figure 9-11 Host Invites Meeting Attendeeg21
Figure 9-10 Host Starts GoToMeeting20
Figure 9-12 Host Shares Screen/Documents22
Figure 9-13 Attendees See Shared Screen23
GoToMeeting is a hosteq service, delivered via Web browsers, downloadable client executables and a network of
multicast communication servers operated by Citrix Online. It has the following security features:
• Powerful encryption: All GoToMeeting data is encrypted with industry-standard SSL and U.S. government-standard
128-bit AES encryption, including screen-sharing data, keyboard and mouse data, and chat messages.
• Privacy: Meeting information is only available to the organizer and invited participants.
19.20.21.22.2]
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• Authentication and password security: Strong passwords, unique meeting IDs and optional meeting passwords
protect privacy and integrity. Through attendee authentication, GoToMeeting ensures that only authorized attendees
can join meetings to which they have been invited.
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• Firewall and network compatibility: Administrators don't need to reconfigure firewall ports, which could potentially
compromise security.
• Role-based security: Organizers set the appropriate controls and rights based on user roles.
• Endpoint system security: GoToMeeting creates a secure endpoint on each user's desktop with Web-downlo~dable
executables that employ strong cryptographic measures.
LAW ENFORCEMENT IMPACT
With the llrowth of cloud comDutinEt. the
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10. WIRED VS. WIRELESS
for wired infrastructure such as desk phones and wired
BACKGROUND
"While the United States was built on the postpaid model Internet links.
(and relies heavily on consumers' use of credit) Europe's
The rollout of Verizon's Long Term "Evolution (LTE) service
wireless industry has long thrived on the prepaid model,
sets the standard for future networks; it's due to launch
with less credit-dependent customers willing to shell out
at the end of 2010 and will bring coverage to more than
a little extra to get a premium device without having to
.100 million people. "We'll be announcing 4G modems first
sign a contract. As differentiation between postpaid and
and support for cell phones by mid-2011.''4 The firm isn't
prepaid fades, more Americans will start to lean. towards
building a cell-phone network but a data network, one just
adopting the European way when it comes to cell service.
as fast as wired links. Sprint Nextel has been rolling out its
The prepaid proposition has always been burdened with
4G service in major U.S. cities all year, and is now up to
the 'you-get-what-you-pay-for' stigma. But that's changing
55 cities. That network is based on the Wi MAX standard,
as the smartphone playing field levels and device and data
an alternative to LTE. Sprint is also working on the idea of
prices drop dramatically".l
packaging a set of 4G modems and other hardware into an
off-the-shelf 'office in a box'. "It would contain everything
you need to set up a new branch and connect it up."
There are doubts that networks can keep pace with the
demand for wireless data, a demand that's growing 55
percent annually in North America. Predictions indicate
that by 2013, there will INCREASING APPETITE
be more. North Americans The capabilities 01 new devices Inspire
users to download more and more data.
connecting to the Internet
Average monthly data usage (MB)
via mobile broadband
than via any other forin of Basic or multimedia phone 1. to 25 •
INTRODUCTION
"Wireless technology is becoming increasingly popular. It access-with enterprises BlackBerry
has been said that wireless networks will possibly become expected to account for ;;;IPh;:":on-:c.------::ao.
much of the demand.
more widely used than the wired networks".2
The era of flat pricing
for wireless data looks to
be ending and the next
step might involve asking
customers to pay for
different tiers of service
depending on their data
During the first wave of the wireless revolution, being out· demands. Ultimately,
of the office didn't mean being out of action. BlackBerrys, the net neutrality policy
iPhones, and 3G dongles for laptops let people stay may become the biggest Source: FCC
connected on the move.
practical
distinction Figure 10-1 Monthly Data Usage
between
wired
and wireless connections.
The second wave, ushered in by the development of 4G
mobile broadband, will take the mobile revolution indoors.
Although consumer excitement over apps and smartphones
is high, and has attracted much of the attention of the
press, the enterprise will be the first serious consumer of
4G services. Cellular networks and other service providers , - - - - - - - - - - - ,_ _ _ _ _ _--.J
are preparing services that will potentially elimate the need
With the booming demand for mobile access to multiple
applications and services, the evolution and proliferation
of Wireless Local Area Network devices and applications
have outpaced the ability to scale networks efficiently. In
fact, the prediction is that "70% of new enterprise users by
2013 will be wireless by default and wired by exception". 3
.....................
http://www.lehman.edu/itr/wireless-n;~o·r:'p~; •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
1.2
: http://resources.ldgenterprise.com/origlnaI/AST-0008746_Gartner_Newsletter~ug.pdf
http://technologyrevlew.com/printeUriendly_artlcle.aspx?ld-26636
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INTRODUCTION
number of Wi-R devices can connect to the Wi-Fi PAN
With the various wireless technologies that are.·available in order to share various resources and internet access.
today, people are able to conduct business, keep in In contrast to fixed and complicated corporate Wi-Fi
touch with family, or simply spend a few minutes checking networks, Wi-Fi PANs are easy to use and can be setup
e-mails or social networking .websites all while on. the go. with little effort in any location. As an added benefit, Wi-Fi
Over the years, the popularity of wireless devices such . PANs provide users with the same bandwidth and range
as laptops, netbooKs, notebooks, smartphones, MP.3 as a corporate Wi-R network, which is typically larger than
players, and e-readers have facilitated the development of conventional wireless PAN technologies like Bluetooth and
a "constantly connected" culture that continues to expand Infrared.
everyday.
The advantages of Wi-Fi over more conventional short range
Although there are considerably more ways and places wireless technologies has resulted in the development of
to connect to the Web than there were a decade ago, for more devices equipped with Wi-Fi that can be easily
some, publicly offered Wi-Fi hotspots.are not enough. This integrated into a Wi-Fi PAN. Once integrated, devices
growing desire among consumers to have access to the including: digital cameras, digital projectors, printers,
Internet wherever they go has led to an increase in the game consoles, HOTV, and digital photo frames can share
number of businesses offering free 802.11 Wi-Fi including resources at high data rates and across relatively long
hotels and resorts, airports, popular coffeehouses, bus distances, wirelessly.
stations, and public libraries. For users that want to
The potential benefits of using a Wi-Fi PAN include:
connect to the Web in areas where Wi-Fi is unavailable,
or do not want to pay fees that may be charged for • Sharing of Internet/Network access with other Wi-R
commercially providEld Wi-Fi, there is the mobile hotspot.
users and Wi-Fi devices
With a mobile hotspot device, a user no longer has to worry
• Sharing of data directly between two or more Wi-Fi
about how and where they will be able to connect to the
users
Internet. With increasingly popular mobile hotspots, users
now have the ability to create a personal Wi-Fi hotspot with • Enjoying content accessible on the user notebook (such
as YouTube) on a HOTV wirelessly
the convenience of having the Internet available anytime,
anywhere, with access to a wireless cellular network.
Mobile hotspots are not becoming more attractive to
buyers solely because they are portable. They also offer a
single paint of access for all of a user's wireless devices.
Equally appealing is the mobile hotspot's ability to be
shared among multiple users, allowing several people to
benefit from Internet connectivity while only using one
access interface. There are many options available for
people interested in investing in a mobile hotspot. Today,
"You can buy a simple, slim unit that fits in a pocket or
others that maximize throughput by shifting from 3G to
speedier 4G networks." Additionally, "You can convert
some cell phones into hotspots, while a few new phones
now come with hotspots included."
• Transfer of pictures/video from a digital. camera/digital
camcorder directly to computer instantaneously over the
air within the range of Wi-Fi PAN
• Printing of user's documents on the printer over the air
• 'Projection of user's content wirelessly through a
projector1
Today, smartphones and personal mobile Wi-R hotspot
devices are used to set-up Wi-Fi PANs, which allows users
to create open or closed private networks.
TYPES OF MOBILE HOTSPOT DEVICES
The following mobile hotspot devices are examples of
popular portable WI-Fi products available to the public.
Novatel MiFI 2200
WI-FI PERSONAL AREA NETWORKS
MiR is a line of compact wireless routers that serve as
Wi-Fi Personal Area Networks (PANs) are setup and mobile Wi-R hotspots. Through backconnections to a
managed by a specific user, unlike corporate Wi-Fi cellular data network, and frontconnections to local Wi-R
networks that are established and administered by a devices (up to 10 meters/30 feet distance), MiFi creates
corporate network administrator. Once arranged, a limited a local area of shared high-speed Internet connectivity.2
..................................................................................
I
2
http://www.informationweek.in/Software/l0.04.27/WI.FLpersonaLarea_networks..geca_booscwith_W1ndows3.aspx
http://en.wikipedla.orgfwlki/MiFI
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The Novatel MiFi 2200 acts as a mobile Wi-R hotspot The Clear Spot offers Wi-R connectivity .to Sprint's 4G
that has no screen and is powered on by a single button. 3 network, that is not currently available, nationally. The
Measuring at 3.5"x 2.3"x 0.4" and weighing approximately Clear Spot can support up to eight wireless devices within
2.0 ounces, the Novatel MiFi 2200 is too large to fit in a 150 foot range. Plans are available that offer 3G speeds
a typical wallet, but it is small enough to be considered and unlimited 4G access.9
pocket-sized. The MiFi 2200 creates a Wi-Fi hotspot using
CradlePoint PHS300
a 3G connection that can be shared among five devices.4
The Cradle Point PHS300, "... is a compact router device
Like a cell phone, -the Novatel MiR wirelessly connects
which connects to a user's laptop to create a Wi-R hotspot
to a 3G cellular network, but unlike a phone, the device
for up to 16 users." The self managing device is battery
broadcasts a Wi-Fi signal to its surrounding area. This
powered and can
capability allows devices within a 30-foot range to connect
connect several
to the Internet
users to a 3G/4G
network
by
simply inserting
a
wireless
Gprint -J
broadband card
(~
into a laptop. One
of the CradlePoint Figure 11-5 Cradlepoint PHS30010
Figure 11-1 Verlzon Wireless
Figure 11-2 Sprint Novatel
PHS300's most
Novatel MiFi 22005
MiA 2200·
important and unique features is the capability to support
Overdrive 3G/4G
up to five broadband cards at the same time, regardless
The Overdrive 3G/4G, available from Sprint for $49.99 of the user's carrier or the services used. The CradlePoint
is another mobile hotspot option
PHS300's ports are load balanced and can be used to
that is small enough to fit in your
increase bandwidth and provide Wi-R service up to 150
pocket Although slightly bigger than
feet. 11
the Novate I MiR '2200, the Overdrive
CLEAR iSpot
3G/4G includes more features
The iSpot, made by CLEAR, is a mobile hotspot device
such as the ability to connect to
designed specifically for use with Apple's iPad, iPhone,
Sprint's 3G network as well as the
and iPod. iSpot allows up to eight Wi-A enabled devices to
faster 4G network, where available.
connect to the Internet in areas where CLEAR provides 4G
Other features include, "...a bright Figure 11-3 Sprint
coverage. The password protected iSpot is small enough
screen that displays information ·like Overdrive 3G/4G7
to' fit in your pocket and
remaining battery life, signal strength, the hotspot's name,
has a rechargeable battery
password and the number of connected devices."
that provides up to four
Clearwire Clear Spot
hours of continuous use. In
~
,
Clearwire's Clear Spot uses Sprint's 4G network to provide comparison to many of the
linternet connectivity. Larger than the Overdrive 3G/4G, the other mobile hotspot devices
Clear Spot is not ideal on the market, it is relatively
for users wanting a inexpensive and offers an
pocket-sized device. unlimited 4G data plan. 12
Figure 11-6 CLEAR ISpot13
Clear Spot costs
$49.99 and requires
Vodafone Mobile Wi-FI R201
a modem ranging in
Vodafone recently launched the Mobile WI-Fi R201. This
price from $69.99 to
mobile hotspot device, which connects automatically once
$224.99, depending
the
user enters the Wi-Fi authentication key, supports the
Figure 11-4 Clearwire Clear SpotB
on desired features •
.
..................................................................................
3 http://www.nyUmes.com/2010/06/03/tecl1nology/personaltech/03basics.
• http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/03/tecbnology/personaltech/03beslcs,html?_
html?src-busln
r-l&Slc-busin
• http://www.networkworld.com/communlty/node/66583
htlp:/Iposterous.com/getlile/files.posterous.com/temp·2010.04-20/
• http://www.quantum.wlreless.com/store/medla/catalog/p,oduct!cache,ll/lmage/500x IRoyjgJqJlnxdwhmutGqxFOlxarrbpwBvFjUbczJOfjlcxHECncHtHCIzi/C,adlePolnCPHS300.
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It htlp;/Ibuslness-solutions.tmcnetcom/toplcs/business-soluUons/articles/877907 http://www.ubergizmo.com/photos/2010/1/sprinl-overdrive.jpgcradlepolnts-phs300-personal-wifl-hotspot-supports-up-16.htm
• htlP:/lcdn.slashgear.com/wp-contenl/uploads/2009/04/clearwire_cleacspoC
12 http://www.trendygadgetcom/wp-c:ontenl/uploads/2010/08/lspot.jpg
personaLhotspot-480x295.jpg .
..http:t/www.clear.com/spol/ispot
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Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) standard, which system includes a hotspot feature that allows some
allows DLNA-compatible devices to share digital content Android phone models to be turned into a mobile Wi-R
among
each
other. hotspot without requiring a USB cableP
The Vodafone Mobile
For users that own cell phones without built in mobile
Wi-Fi R201 is the first
hotspot capabilities, there is software available that can
mobile router to be
transform many cell phones into mobile hotspots. The
deemed compatible with
WMWiflRouter software, which was created by Morose
Windows 7. The device is
Media in the Netherlands, works with a variety of cell
approximately the size of a
phones.ln'orderto tum a cell phone into a mobile hotspot,
credit card and creates an
a user can download the WMWifiRouter software directly
Agpre 11-7 Vodafone WI-FI R20114 instant mobile hotspot for
to the phone from the http://wmwifirouter.com/website
up to five wireless devices. Currently, Mobile Wi-Fi R201 is
for $19.99.
only available in countries where Vodafone operates, which
does not include the U.S.15
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CELL PHONES AS MOBILE HOTSPOTS
One of the most novel ways for a user to create a mobile
hotspot is through the use of a cell phone. Using a
smartphone as a mobile hotspot can help eliminate clutter
by allowing the user to limit the number of devices that
must be transported. Phones that offer this capability
include Verizon's Palm Pre Plus, which is available for
$49.99 with two-year contract. The Verizon Pixi Plus is free
with a two-year contract and includes the mobile hotspot
option. Using a cell phone as a mobile hotspot provides
the same type of internet connectivity as other mobile
Wi-Fi devices, although, this function is likely to drain a
smartphone battery quicker than normal.
A 21-day trial version of the software can be downloaded
for free. In order to use the WMWifiRouter software, the
user must have:
Sprint's HTC EVa 4G, which runs on the Sprint 4G network,_
• Windows Mobile 5: AKU 3.3 or newer
-,
. . . - . . .......... oI't••
.-.!nr,~_
Figure 11-9 Screenshot of WM WIFI Router Homepage18
• Windows Mobile 6: 6.0, 6.1, 6.5 or 6.5.3
• Both a Wi-Fi and a cellular data connection
• An installed and working version of Internet Sharing
9" ~~edill~diRof!terI_.!'r
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Figura 11-8 Mobile WI-FI Hotspot Network Using a Smartphone
also has mobile hotspot support. The mobile hotspot
feature on the HTC EVa 4G device is available for $29.99
in addition to the Sprint calling and data plan. AT&T is
also allowing tethering for the iPhone to a computer for
a monthly fee. 16 Google's updated Android 2.2 operating
To use tIu feoIuIe.)ODUI mobil. doW:e ....1oII".,q, be connaoted when you did< the Inslol
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..................................................................................
14http://www.crunchdot.com/wp-contenVuploads/2010/08/153547ee18162010.jpg.jpg
15 http://www.networkworld.com/community/node/66583
16 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/03/technology/personaltech/03basics.htmIV-l&src-busln
17 http://blogs.computerworld.com/16153/seven_reasons_android_2_2_froyo_beats_the_iphone
18 http://global.wmwiflrouter.com/
19 http://global.wmwifirouter.com/consumer/
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The JoikuSpot, available at jOikushop.com, supports many
phones that use the Symbian operating system including
several Nokia and Samsung models. Smartphones such
as the iPhone and some Android· phones can be hacked
to operate as mobile hotspots, as well. Multiple methods
can be used to root an Android phone to allow tethering.
They include:
• Tether Android with Apps that Need Root (Free, heavy
configuration)
• Tether Android with Proxoid (Free, no root required,
some configuration)
• Tether Android with PDAnet ($30, no root required,
minimal configuration)
:ad S!£SS 5§ I WI 111111,
into a mobile hotspot, a user would first need to jailbreak
their iPhone. Once the phone has been jailbroken, the user
can then follow the instructions listed on ReadWriteWeb
website at: http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/turn_
youciphone_into_a_wi-fi_hotspot.php, to add the mobile
hotspot capability.23
PUBLIC WI-FI HOTSPOTS
Retailers are becoming increasingly aware that the average
customer enjoys the freedom of having Internet connectivity
on the go. Therefore, many businesses have begun offering
free Wi-Fi as a service to their patrons. Starbucks, a
popular destination among coffee drinkers, launched a
"... no-charge, registration-less and limitation-free Wi-Fi
initiative..." in hopes of, "... introducing a seamless and
entertaining Web experience for all mobile devices..."24
Many other businesses are following the free Wi-Fi trend
and have already begun or have plans in the works to
provide free wireless Internet access to their customers.
AT&T's Free Wi·FI Hotspots
Figure 11-11 PdaNet Tethering App Figure 11-12 Proxold Tethering App
For more details on how to root an Android phone
and install tethering apps such as PdaNet and Proxoid
that allow an Android phone to operate as a mobile
hotspot, visit the following webpage: http://lifehacker.
com/5447347/how-to-tether-your-android-phone.2D
MyWi Mobile Hotspot
App
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Once an iPhone has been
MyWI
jailbroken, it can be turned
W1ATe'hering
•
I
into Wi-Fi hotspot by
downloading the MyWi app.
6)
MyWi is a jailbreak app that
allows a user to tether and
create a Wi-Fi hotspot on their
iPhone.21 The MyWi app costs
$9.99 to download, and users
must pay a fee to use the
service after the trial period Figure 11·13 MyWI iPhone
expires. To turn an iPhone
Tethering Screen22
I
Wireless carriers, like AT&T, have also started offering
free public Wi-Fi hotspots in metropolitan areas to help
mitigate issues related to crowded wireless data networks.
AT&T launched a completely free outdoor wireless hotspot
in New York's Times Square that provides complimentary
Wi-Fi access to AT&T customers. The company's broadband
and wireless customers can take advantage of the wireless
hotspot using their smartphones, laptops, and other
wireless devices. AT&T launched the pilot program to
determine how the free Wi-Fi hotspot can help to decrease
wireless congestion on its network. AT&T has struggled to
manage the demand for data services on its network due
to the use of devices like the popular (Phone, and has
seen extra traffic in major cities such as New York and
San Francisco cause problems for users including dropped
calls and sluggish Internet access. As a reSUlt, "AT&T
has also been using its more than 20,000 Wi-Fi hotspots
throughout the country to offload some of the traffic. The
company has offered free Wi-Fi access to its smartphone
subscribers in the hopes that customers will use the Wi-Fi
network when it's available rather than the slower 3G
network."25
"AT&T said that traffic on the 3G network has grown by
5,000 percent over the past three years. The introduction
this year of the Apple iPhone 4, which can shoot and
upload high-definition video, and Apple's iPad, a whole
new class of device, is likely to push that growth even
faster."26 AT&T's strategy to offer its customer base
..................................................................................
24 hUp:/Imashabie.com/2010/07/01/starbucks-free-wifl-2/
hUp:/Iiifehacker.com/5447347/how-to-tether-your-androld-phone
25 http://www.cnn.com/2010/TECH/mobile/05/25/atLfree.wifl.nyc.cnet/index.
http://www.iphone4Jalibreak.orgfhow-to-turn-your-iphone-lnto-a-wiflhtmi
hotspot.html
22 Ibid
28 http://www.networkworid.com/news/2010/072210-att-wi-fi-use-soared-30.
htmi?source-nww_rss
23http://www.readwriteweb_com/archlves/turn-youUphone_into_a_wi-fl_
hotspot.php
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access to free Wi-Fi hotspots appears to be working.
According to the company, "users "are piling on to AT&Ts
public Wi-Fi hotspots, racking up millions of connections
in the second quarter." AT&T reported that a total of 68.1
million connections were made through phones and other
devices in the second quarter of 2010; a number that is
more than four times the 15 million connections logged
in the second- quarter of 2009. In 2010, subscribers used
the network 121.2 million times; also up from the 85.5
million reported in 2009. The number of connections has
increased by 30% just from the first to second quarter of
this year, alone.
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1111
Does Free Wi-Fi Effect Choice of Venue?
AT&T has stated that it intends to continue developing
its Wi-Fi infrastructure, including the launch of more
"hotzones", like the one piloted in Times Square. 3G iPad
as well as iPhone subscribers can use AT&Ts hotspots,
Figure 11-15 Results of Consumer Study on Effect of Free
where available. A searchable database of free AT&T
WI-FI on Choice of Venue28
hotspots can be found by visiting the following webpage: significant value in bringing customers to a venue. It's no
http://www.att.com/gen/general?pid-13540.
wonder over 150 thousand cafe/retail venues have now
deployed Wi-Fi hotspots, but not all of these are free.
That's in addition to the tens of thousands of travel-related
installations (hotels, airports, in-flight) worldwide."
Other conclusions made as a result of the research include:
• Worldwide annual hotspot connects, or sessions, will
reach over 2 billion by the end of 2010 with annual
hotspot connects anticipated to grow to over 11 billion
by 2014
.~ .. ~
• Sbrbudcs
• Bam.. & NobM
o AlI'pQIt:I
• Asia/Pacific will have about one quarter of the worldwide
hotspot venues over the forecast period
• McDomIld'.
• By 2012, handhelds are anticipated to account for half
of hotspot connects
• Fedb: Office
• Addltionllt AT&.T Wl-FJ LoaUons
Figure 11-14 Free AT&T Hotspots Map27
• The total worldwide hotspot market size will swell to
WI-FI HOTSPOT USAGE STATISTICS
319,200 venues by year-end. 29
Statistics show that the availability of free Wi-Fi hotspots
for public use definitely influences consumer decision- Based on the In-Stat study, it is apparent that the
making regarding which venues to visit. According to recent mobile Wi-Fi hotspot market is growing exponentially.
In-Stat's Wi-Fi Hotspot research, approximately two-thirds The· marketplace can expect to see more mobile hotspot
of those surveyed indicated that free Wi-Fi influences their devices and venues that offer free Wi-Fi as consumer
choice of venue. 31% of the group indicated that free demand for complimentary Internet connectivity via Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi access may potentially influence their decision, and increases.
only 5% said that it would have no impact on the choice WI-R HOTSPOT RESOURCES
of venue.
There are several online resources that provide information
According to Amy "Craven, Market Analyst, "... research on where to find publicly offered Wi-Fi by location including:
shows that while revenue may not always be directly
gleaned from the hotspot offering, free Wi-Fi has a
• WI-Fi Zone Finder - www.wi-fi.jiwire.com
• Wi-Fi Free Spot - www.wififreespot.com
..................................................................................
http://www.attcom/gen/general?pid-13540
http://www.ln-stat.com/images-l/Venue_Choice.gif
29 http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/Free-Wi-Fi-Hotspots-Influence-Venue-Choice-for-95-of-Users-Says-ln-Stat-1336222.htin
27
28
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• The Hotspot Haven - www.hotspothaven.com
. • WiFinder - www.wifinder.com
• WeFi - www.wefi.com
The Wi-Fi Finder app, powered by JiWire, Inc., can also
be downloaded to an iPhone or iPod Touch from Apple's
iTunes store.3D
LAW ENFORCEMENT IMPACT
..................................................................................
http://www.jiwire.com/lphone
http://www.technologyreview.com/printeUrlendly_article.aspx?Id-26981
32 See ETR Bulletin Volume 2. Issue 2, "Tor: Onion Routing for Anonymity".
30
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F I HI I I U
The issue of 'Going Dark' has just been escalated to
another .Ievel. While customers and field operators
wrestle witl'l'finding hotspots to operate mobile devices via
Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) and Wireless- 'Microwave Access
(Wi MAX}; others are vying for space in coffee shops,
bookstores or libraries to get online using cellul9r modems
from :Verizon, Sprint, T-Mobile or AT&T. Not only do these
devices drain your battery; they also limit your accessibility
and options for use to basically being stationary.
I tiS (UiB/~9Y9) Rediealsl
2
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"
1111.'
The MiFi allows online access to families who are travelling
in a vehicle and using a variety of devices; colleagues on
a business trip or corporate retreat and first responders at
a disaster site. 'In the cell phone era where customers are
trading a 'Iandline' for mobile phones, users could make
the MiFi an at home family Internet service. One unique
feature of the MiFi is the select location and mapping MiFi
2200 GPS application.
As of October 28, 2010 to further encourage the use of
Two prevailing theories for how we will access the Internet portable devices and popular technology Verizon Wireless
in the future hinge on the success of small plastic started selling a combo package (iPad and Wi-Fi + MiFi
gadgets called MiFis.l If National Aeronautics and Space mobile hotspot).3
Administration can send a man to the moon; and utility
LAW ENFORCEMENT IMPACT
companies can provide water, electriCity, phone.and cable,
The technology that comprises a MiFi and a personal area
why not have universal wireless Internet? Say··good-bye:to
network (PAN) is not new. In fact, this is no different from
USB stick and card-slots, AT&T has introduced its first MiFi
connecting to the Internet via a Verizon DSL modem or
device, Sprint Nextel, has the 4G-enabled Overdrive and
·a wireless router. The key for users is the portability and
a thinner gadget called the ZTE Peel and Verizon Wireless
single access to a network anywhere.
offers the popular Novatel MiFi 2200 Intelligent Mobile
Hotspot. The MiFi 2200
Service Providers are rapidly improving the speeds of their
has the ·thickness of
networks with fourth generation technology. MiFi could
three credit cards,
eventually replace wired broadband subscriptions in the
one power button,
same way that Americans are canceling home phone
one status light and a
lines in favor of cell phones. 4 When industry looks at
swappable battery that
developing new products to keep up with technology the
looks like the one in a
last thing that a service p...,wIlolMl...I.LL.lLL,l,jIl.lW~OiI.II.I.t.II...I.lLlLliMOa,
cell phone. Within little
at
is the securi as ect.
Figure 12·1 Verlzon MI·FI
or no time after turning
on your MiFi, wait 30 seconds, it provides a personal,
portable, powerful, password-protected wireless hotspot.
The battery lasts for four hours per charge and offers 40 " - - - - - - - - -....
hours of standby, and Verizon uses its 3G (high-speed)
cellular data network to provide customers with an array
of usage options. 2
The MiFi acts as a Hub creating a Wi-Fi cloud providing
access and coverage for up to five people at one time. The
MiFi is not only small and portable, with a range of 30 feet.
Just like car
the MiFi can be left in a pocket, purse or
laptop bag and still fire
up the mobile device.
Once connected, the
box dials into the
Verizon's network, it
connects online via
Figure 12·2 AT&T MI·A
the personal hotspot.
According to Cisco, in 2010, total mobile
data traffic, including video, grew by
159% -- more than three times faster than
Internet traffic traveling over wired ("fixed")
communications. Earlier, Cisco predicted
that growth would be 149%, so this trend is
moving faster than expected.
,... Doug Webster, Cisco Senior Director
..................................................................................
http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-18/tech/mifi.wireless.hotspots_Cwi-fi-verizon-wireless-mifi?_s-PM:TECH
http://www.engadget.com/2009/03/30/verizon-mifi-2200.evdo-hotspot-Ieaks.out-will-sell-like-canadia
3 http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9191118/Verizon_to_seIUPad_MiFChoCspoccombo_beginninLOcl_28
4 http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-18/tech/mifi.wireless.hotspots_l_wi-fi-verizon-wireless-mifl?_s-PM:TECH
I
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13. SLURP DIGITAL EYEDROPPER
INTRODUCTION
Today, there is no shortage in the number of wireless
mechanisms that can be used to transfer data from one
device to another. These capabilities come in many forms
including portable hard drives, Digital Versatile .Discs
(DVDs), Compact Discs (CDs), Zip discs, and Universal
Serial Bus (USB) drives. Over the years, the devices that are
used to transfer data have become more inconspicuous,
like USB drives that resemble tubes of lipstick, double
as a fancy designer necklace, or come attached to Swiss
Army knives. Many of these devices also employ additional
functionality like the ability to receive and transmit data
wirelessly.
A former MIT Media Lab student.has followed this trend by
creating a gadget that at first glance seems like a simple
eyedropper. The device, .called Slurp because of its ability
to suck up information and its resemblance to a typical
eyedropper, is another example of how objects that may be
disregarded as common .items, can actually be tools used
as a means to transfer data quickly and discretely.
HOW SLURP WORKS
Slurp was created as a, "tangible interface for manipulating
abstract digital information as if it were water." The
eyedropper, which can, "extract (slurp up) and inject (squirt
out) points to digital objects," allows connected desktops
and machines to facilitate a wireless data transfer from
desktop-to-desktop, or from a desktop to another devlce.1
device to access it from." Slurp actually contains digital.
information ·as opposed to working as a hyperlink. It also
offers both haptic2 and visual feedback, thus eliminating
tHe need for visible tags on accessed objects.
Slurp is composed of two parts: the digital eyedropper,
and the IR nodes. 3 To use the device, a person would
simply extract data by touching the screen with the Slurp
device, pointing it at an object or remote display, and
then squeezing the eyedropper's bulb; much like a regular
dropper would be used to suck up a liquid. After the digital
object is extracted, it can be "squirted out" or injected
by touching the screen with the Slurp device, pointing it
~t a remote display, and once again' squeezing the··bulb.
Essentially, this process is facilitated by a small pOinter
that is passed between the Slurp eyedropper and the IR
node. All related files are transferred, in the background,
over the network in a process that is transparent to the
user.
Slurp is also used as a mechanism for storing data. It
indicates that it is full when it is pOinted at an IR node
and the stem lights vibrate, much like a liquid that is
bubbling to be rEtleased. During the injection process, light
travels from the Slurp's bulb to the stem, and then fades.
Gentle presses of a full Slurp'S bulb will inject data into
the targeted data object while still retaining the data in
the bulb for future injections. The bulb remains illuminated
while data is injected. A full Slurp that is pressed firmly will
inject and clear all of the data.
IR NODES
In the Slurp eyedropper, each IR node is connected to a
display or object (auditory, visual, and so forth), that is
powered by a Personal Computer (PC). Since they are selfcontained and less costly. IR nodes that operate from a
microcontroller may also be used and potentially,. "...could
be attached to computationally passive unidirectional
objects such as buildings. artwork, or trees for locativemedia interactions."
Figure 13-1 Slurp Digital Eyedropper
The Slurp tool is said to be different from existing work
done in the area of abstract digital media. As such, "Slurp
allows for the extraction of digital media from physical
objects and the selection of an appropriate display
MULTISENSORY FEEDBACK
Using a vibrotactile actuator, users can search for digital
signals within any given space. This can be likened to
a beeping metal detector or the sounds emitted from a
Geiger counter4 indicating the presence of objects that are
not visible to the user. When a digital object is targeted,
the Slurp eyedropper displays a different feedback for a
...................................................................................
hUp://www.engadgetcom/2010/07/05/slurp-digital-eyedropper-sucks-up-lnJects-information-wirelessV
Haptic: relating to or based on the sense of touch; characterized by a predilection for the sense of touch
3 IR Nodes use infrared data communication (IrDA) to act as a gateway between Slurp and the objects with which it communicates.
4 Geiger counter, also called a Geiger-MUlier counter, is a type of particle detector that measures Ionizing radiation •
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discrete or a continuous object.5 Once an empty Slurp is
pOinted towards an IR node, the Slurp's stem is illuminated
and reflects the color of the targeted object, much like
how an· eyedropper assumes the color of the 'liE/uid that it
is placed in. In the extraction process, light travels from
the stem to the bulb, which remains in the bulb until
information ·is injected. When·injection occurs; ·lightmoves
from the Slurp's bulb to its stem, and then fades out.
platform based on multiple, small graphical displays," is b 7 E
a logical next step for the technology according to the
inventor and other Slurp collaborators. This would provide
userS'the capability to navigate through large video media
libraries on a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and extract
them straight from a monitor. Slurp could potentially be
used to transfer video between devices, which would
leverage a GUI's scalability and Siftables' spatial and
tangible properties.7
LAW ENFORCEMENT IMPACT
It is not only the large number of devices that are available
that can be used by targets to obtain and transfer data
that poses a threat to Law Enforcement (LE). New wireless
data storalle technolollies.l
'--___~J Devices like Slurp, designed to appear
as an eyedropper and not a typical wireless storage
device,
Figure 13·2 Slurp Injecting a Digital Object onto a
Computer Screens
LOCATIVE MEDIA
Locative media, also known as location-based media,
is the linking of digital objects to physical locations,
and is achieved through the use of camera phones, text
messages, and two-dimensional (20) barcodes. In locative
media, 20 barcodes act as pointers, aimed at locations on
the Web or a type of hyperlink. In the future, it is expected
that media will be linked to physical objects, locations,
and people; the Slurp eyedropper could be used to transfer
data among them. When Slurp is pointed at a digitally
active object (e.g., a music video), the eyedropper vibrates
and is illuminated. Once this occurs, the user can extract,
and then inject, the object into a container (e.g., a watch
or cell phone) for later use.
ADDITIONAL SLURP FUNCTIONALITY
Slurp functions in a' manner that is similar to a USB drive
and has the ability to work remotely by pointing it in the
direction of the display (e.g., an audio or video object). It
also works with non-visual displays (e.g., speakers); this
feature has yet to be implemented on most systems with
multiple displays.
POTENTIAL SLURP USES
Adding Slurp to Siftables, "a tangible sensor network
..................................................................................
5'Olscrete objects generate a short burst of vibration and a static color in the stem. Continuous objects (such as video media) generate continuous feedback
to mirror their current state.
S Images taken from: http://zig.medla.mit.edu/Work/Slurp
7 Ishii. Kumpf, Vazquez, et. AI. Slurp: Tangibility, Spatiality, and an Eyedropper. MIT Media Lab.
8 http://support.eye.fi/support-resources/troubleshootlngJnetworking-geotaggingJwhy-arent-my-photos-geotagging-or-at-the-right-location/
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14. HUMAN DATA TRANSMISSION
showed, "...two people having devices pocketed and
INTRODUCTION
Technology continues to explore several alternative sharing data',between the two via hand touching..."
means of communicating. In addition to already eXisting
. The Electric-field Communication model is very small and
forms of voice, written, and electronie communication,
can only be powered by a button battery. It is anticipated
new technologies are being created that allow users to
that in the future, the device may be used to advertise
communicate through less traditional means. Researchers
products and services, allowing people to touch a poster
are experimenting with human data transmission
or sign to have information transferred directly to their
technology, a novel idea in the communication arena,
cell phone. The Electric-field Communication model already
which uses the human body to transfer data from one point
has the ability to conduct small data transmissions such
to another.
as swapping phone numbers and addresses. According to
ALPS ELECTRIC-FIELD COMMUNICATION
an ALPS representative, "high-capacity data transmission
MODEL
can be done using multiple people in theory, but they have
ALPS has created an Electric-field Communication model to be holding hands all the while so it sounds a bit too
expanding on the concept behind TransferJet, "... a 'Close impractical. Data can be transmitted by anyone regardless
Proximity Wireless Transfer technology featuring simple of age and sex.•."
operation, safe connection, and efficient transfer of data,"l
and employing the use of the human body as a transport
medium for transferring data between two devices. The
mQdel, which ALPS unveiled at the latest Tokyo Gadget
Fair, functions through electric field transmissions that are
communicated through the human body.
The electric field transmissions in ALPS' Electric Field
Communication model use the human body to transfer data
through electric field modulation, which creates signals
that are sent and received through it. Communication is
initiated by simply placing the hand over a sensor. As a
result of its easy usability, the ALPS model is thought to
be suitable for applications such as ID cards or keyless
automobile access.
With this model, "you can network various devices like
a cellphone, camera, watch, tonometer, and pedometer
just by touching them." In a demo of the tool, "... one
person held a mockup cell phone displaying one of three
images. The user held the phone in one hand, picked one
of those images,
-..::t
and then placed
his or her other
hand
against
a
computer
panel, whereby
that image was
displayed
on
an
overhead
machine."
Figure 14-1 ALPS Electric Field
Another demo
Communication Model2
I
\
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i
,/'
Figure 14·2 Demo Showing Data Transference
through a Hand Shake3
MICROSOFT SKINPUT
A graduate student at Carnegie Mellon University and
former intern at Microsoft Research, has developed a
working prototype of a system called "Skinput" that
essentially turns a person's hand and forearm into a
keyboard and screen.
"Using Skinput, a person could tap their thumb and middle
finger together to answer a call; touch their forearm to go
to the next track on a music player; or flick the center
of their palm to select a menu item. All of these signlanguage-like movements, which are customizable, would
control a gadget In a person's pocket through a Bluetooth
connection. When fitted with a pica-prOjector, the Skin put
system could display an image of a digital keyboard on a
person's forearm. So, using Skinput, someone could send
text messages by tapping his or her arm in certain places
-- without pulling the phone out of a pocket or purse."
..................................................................................
I http://www.transferjet.orgjen/tj/tj_overview.html
z hUp://en.gigazine.netjindex.php?/news/comments/20091006_alps_ceatec.,japan_2009/
3 http://www.japanretallnews.com/2/postj2009/10/alps.ele<ltric-sends.date.through-the-human.body.html
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Skinput is a technology that aims to make communication
more "natural" by, ".. .Ietting people communicate with
their gadgets by gesturing, using sign language or tapping
on their hands, fingers, and forearms."
To use Skinput, a person must wear an armband with
sensors (the prototype is an elbow brace lined with 10
sensors), that are able to pick up low, but audible sounds
with frequencies ranging from 25 to 78 hertz.
Ii. I j
'5' thr
Ilh.1
arm, and found that low-frequency electromagnetic waves
were able to travel tnrough the skin easily and without
any outside interference. The study, which improved on
previous attempts that used tiny metal electrodes coated
with a silicon-rich polymer, allowed the device to be bent
at a gO-degree angle 700,000 times without incident,
and proved that human skin can be used as a conduit for
transferring data.
REDTACTON
RedTacton is a technology designed to use the human
body as a network transmission path. Considered a
Human Area Network (HAN) technology, RedTacton is
unlike wireless and infrared. It operates by forming a
transmission path when part of the human body comes in
contact with a RedTacton transceiver. Once the body part
is
separated from a RedTacton transceiver, communication
Skinput can differentiate whether a person tapped a
middle finger or an index finger, as the movements each ends. Communication through RedTacton is initiated when
impart a unique sound to the receivers. Once the system embedded devices or terminals carried by the user are
becomes accustomed to the sound of a user's arm, a linked in a variety of combinations according to a user's
process that generally takes one to two minutes, the user
can begin to use Skin put as desired. Skin put allows a user
to tap their palm as a signal to unlock a door or to tap
virtual buttons on an arm to power on a :rv and search
through channels.4
Once a Skinput user taps their thumb and middle finger
together, the impact acts as a catalyst and sends ripples
down the skin and through the bones in the person's
arm. The arm band's receivers then read the sound waves
and determine what gesture the person made, and then
proceeds to pass that information on to a telephone.
USING S~IN TO TRANSFER BROADBAND
SIGNALS
An experiment conducted by researchers at Korea
University demonstrated that human skin is an energyefficient conduit for data transmission. Performed with
small, flexible electrodes that are the approximate width of
three human hairs, the experiment showed that data can
be transmitted through skin at a rate of 10 Megabits per
second (Mbps).
Figure 14-4 illustration of RedTacton
Data Transfer Through .Human Body'
physical movements through hands, fingers, arms, feet,
face, legs, torso, and so forth. RedTacton usability is not
impacted when a user wears clothing or shoes. It can
communicate data through the human body at speeds up
to 10 Mbps.
RedTacton has three primary functional features:
Figure 14-3 Human Arm Used to Transfer Data
over Broadband SignaIsS
South Korean researchers that administered the test placed
electrodes approximately 12 inches apart on the subject's
• Touch: Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping
and other human movements can be the triggers for
unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or
obtaining data
• Broadband and Interactive: Duplex, interactive
communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10
Mbps. Because the transmission path is on the surface
..................................................................................
• http://www.cnn.com/2010/TECH/04/19/microsoftskinput/index.html
5 http://gizmodo.com/5493931/south-korean-sclentlsts-transmit-broadband-signals-through-human-arm
6
http://www.redtacton.com/en/info/index.html
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of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at
the same time
• Any-media: In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media.
Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination7
How RedTacton Operates
The following steps detail how the RedTacton technology works:
1. The RedTacton transmitter induces a weak electric field on the surface of the body.
2. The electric field sensor (transistor or photonic electric field sensor) detects the electric ,field that reaches the
RedTacton receiver.
3. Signals are processed in the receiver circuit and the data is downloaded.
RedTacton de"lIce (TnnslllitlerJ
RedTacton device (Recei,'er)
{
......................
Hrgh-2ffioEoSlt
Signal inducing
t,,"chnal=
HIgh-sensitive
8ectricfieldst::nsing
technology
) urface of body
Figure 14·5 Process for Transferring Data from RedTacton Transmitter to RedTacton Recelyer·
The RedTacton transmitter sends data based on fluctuations in the weak electric field induced in the human body. The
electric field is then received using sensing technology that is highly sensitive to the body's electric field. RedTacton's
super-sensitive electric field
sensing technology is used
to measure the weak electric
fields induced by the ultra
efficient alternating electric
field induction technology,
developed by RedTacton's
creators, NIT (Japan).
RedTacton Prototypes
According to RedTacton, the
following RedTacton security
device and data transmission
device prototypes have been
developed, or are currently in
development:
Figure 14·6 RedTacton 'Communicatlon Mechanism Dlagram9
..................................................................................
http://www.redtacton.com/en/feature/index.html
http://www.redtacton.com/en/lnfo/lndex.html
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r-
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-
-
_
_
-
-
- --
-- --
--
Security Devices (Development Co!!,pleted) _
b7E
--
_
__
Portable Card-Size Transmitter
• Transmission rate: 230 Kbps
• Protocol: Proprietary protocol
• Transmission method:' Unidirectional
Embedded Receiver
• Transmission rate: 230 Kbps
• Protocol: Proprietary protocol
• Transmission method: Unidirectional
• External device interface: 10/100BASE-T, RS232C
~
l
-
_
-
-
--
-
-
-
---
Data Transmission Devices (in Development)
-
-
_
--
_
PC Card Transceiver
• TransmiSSion rate: 10 Mbps
• Protocol: TCP/IP
• Transmission method: Half-duplex
• Terminal interface: PCMCI
Embedded Receiver
• Transmission rate: 10 Mbps
• Protocol: TCP/IP
• Transmission method: Half-duplex
• External device interface: 10BASE-T
LAW ENFORCEMENT IMPACT
HAN technology is responsible for. ground-breaking developments in the way that people communicate. In the future,
conventional voice-to-voice calling and data transfer methods may no longer be required to pass information to a person
or a device. Devices that are based on HAN technology allow people to communicate and initiate tasks with a simple
handshake, tap on the arm, or b lacin a hand over a sensor. Such devices ot 0 I iv ·f
share information
..................................................................................
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15. GESTURE-RECOGNITION
'I
software uses eyesight's Touch Free Interface which,
INTRODUCTION
The act of placing a telephone call or selecting a song to "... allows the user to interact with the mobile device
play on an MP3 player has gone through many changes easily and intuitively, without touching the keypad or
over the years. Making a call on a cell phone is no longer touchscreen." The eye Can technology operates with any
limited to a user pressing buttons on a compact dial pad standard phone containing a bUilt-in camera, which it uses
or touchscreen. Scrolling through an entire collection of in combination with advanced real-time image processing
music to find a specific song, which was once the only algorithms to track a user's hand motions and translate
way for a user to pick and play their favorite tune, is now them into user actions. 2
just one of many options. Voice-activated calling allows
eyeCan operates by recognizing the four basic hand
users to simply speak the name or number of the person
gestures, that are then translated into various actions
with minimal or no physical contact with their phone,
such as skipping tracks, volume control of a media player,
and users can utter commands on their smartphones or
scrolling through pages in an E~book viewer or Web
MP3 players to search for addresses, contacts, and other
browser, switching content channels in a media streaming
data. These examples are representative of a growing
application, and'so forth.3
movement exploring the potential of gesture-based mobile
device capabilities, and a progression toward touch-less Using a mobile phone's front-facing camera, eyeCan
telecommunication.
provides users with the capability to navigate through
picture galleries, send Short Message Service (SMS)
Expanding on the idea of touch-less functions, a new
messages, and place phone calls using "swipe" gestures
technology known as gesture-recognition is the latest
that are ex.ecuted a few inches in front of a mobile device.
way that individuals use their cell phones and other
Other features include pause-and-play control of a music
mobile devices to perform tasks and communicate with
player using a temporary "hold" gesture.4
each other. "Gesture-recognition is a topic in computer
-.'
science and language technology with the goal of
Eye Menu
interpreting human gestures, via mathematical algorithms.
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but commonly originate from the face or hand." Gesturerecognition can be considered a means for computers to
t
m
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MUlle
understand human body language, as well as a way to
--.- facilitate communication among humans and machines,
Figure 15-1 Eye Menu on Nokia N9005
which at present, is mostly limited to text and Graphical
User Interfaces (GUls) such as the keyboard, mouse, and EyePhone
screens. 1
The EyePhone, created by a team of researchers at
Dartmouth College, is an eye tracking technology that,
Applications with gesture-recognition capabilities are
"lets users browse through mobile phone menus with the
being integrated into mobile and gaming devices and have
blink of an eye."6 The EyePhone system works by creating
infiltrated the marketplace.
a template of a user's open eye· when the individual
APPLICATIONS
initially uses the system. Once a template is created, it
Several companies have begun advertising new gesture- is saved in the device's persistent memory and retrieved
recognition tools and software for mobile phones. A few when the EyePhone is invoked. In the EyePhone's current
of these technologies are described in the sections that implementation, the system is trained individually (e.g., an
follow.
eye template is created for each user when the application
is used for the first time). In future iterations, it is
eyeCan
anticipated that the eye template training will be facilitated
Developed by the company eyeSight, "eyeCan is a pure
through the use of the EyeMenu, a customizable shortcut
software solution, which provides a unique interface to
for accessing EyePhone functions.
control mobile phone features and applications." eyeCan
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..................................................................................
http://en.wlkipedia.org/wiki/Gesture_recognition
http://www.eyesight-tech.com/products/eyecan/
4 http://www.pcworld.com/article/198552/touchless..gesture_controLcominLto_android_devices.html
5 http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/-tianyuw/eyephone.pdf
6 http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/25369/?a-f
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The EyePhone is designed to map the position of a user's
eye to one of nine buttons, which are highlighted once the
EyePhone detects the eye in the position mapped to the
button. Once in the position of a corresponding 'button,
a user then blinks their eye to launch the associated
application?
"EyePhone runs on a Nokia 810 smartphone". The program
tracks the position of an eye relative to the screen (rather
than where a person is looking). A user must move the
phone slightly so the icon is directly in front of the eye and
then select an application"by blinking. The program places
an "error box" viitually around an eye, and can recognize
the eye as long as it doesn't move outside of this box. The
phone app divides the camera frame into nine regions and
looks for the eye in one of these regions."s
Moove MP3 Player
eyeSight is also the creator of the Moove MP3 player, an
application that uses gesture-recognition technology to
allow users to control an MP3 shuffler using hand motions.
Moove works by having the user place their hand over
the phone to initiate the playing of a song. A song can
be paused by the user placing a hand over the phone a
second time. With the ease of the Moove application and
the phone's camera, "a hand gesture above the phone will
skip to the next song..·.wave again and skip to the next, and
to the next..." A "Sync" button is also available to add new
songs to a playlist9
as i & Oft".
Microsoft Klnect
One of the highlights of the Electronic Entertainment
Expo (E3) 2010 press conference was the unveiling of
Microsoft's Kinect for Xbox 360, a motion control system
formerly titled "Project Natal". Released on November 4,
2010, the"Kinect, "...can sense and respond to users' body
motions as well as their voices ..."l1
KINECT
b'if", • ~ .
Figure 15·2 Microsoft Kinect for Xbox 360 Console12
"The slim black Kinect sensor plugs directly into any Xbox
360. Despite its small size, the Kinect device contains a
camera, audio sensors, and motion-sensing technology
that tracks 48 pOints of movement on the human body.
It has the ability to recognize faces and voices."13 Kinect
is able to conduct full·motion human body tracking at 30
frames per second, and is not affected by surroundings
including furniture or what the user is wearing.
With Kinect technology, "...users will be able to access
and control Netflix movies or TV··shows through Xbox Live
with nothing more than a wave or two of their hands and a
Tokyo~ Touch/ess Camera System
voice command to stop, pause, or play. They will be able
Researchers at the University of Tokyo's Ishikawa Komuro
to have video chats with friends, watch pro sports games
Laboratory have produced a camera system that allows
via a Microsoft content partnership with ESPN and, of
users to interact with their cell phones without actually
course, play games." Microsoft's Kinect will also contain,
touching them. The system was designed to attach to a
"other features of Xbox Live, including the new content
mobile device and track suspended finger movements and
from ESPN, Facebook, Last.fm, and Twitter..."14
then translate them into commands.
Morna for Windows Mobile
"The camera recognizes if the finger is moving toward it
Momo for Windows Mobile, created by the company
and away from it and at what speed. This lets a user move
GestureTek, is a new technology that uses a cell phone
a mouse, zoom and scroll pictures, and digitally draw and
camera to track objects and motions within the camera's
type, without ever touching the screen."10
field of view. Momo's engine defines interfaces for two
trackers. The first is a Motion tracker that determines
GAMING
Gesture-recognition technology is a new trend that can interaction by following specific movements; the other is
be seen in the releases of popular gaming technology. the Mosaic tracker, which tracks objects such as faces
Abandoning traditional remote controls, gamers have the and hands. 'Momo makes possible groundbreaking mobile
opportunity to navigate through games and perform other games that can respond to hand motions over menu items
and even track the position of the user's head.' The tool
functions with simple gestures and body movements.
allows users to control and direct actions on their phone
using specific hand or body gestures and does not require
..................................................................................
http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/-tianyuw/eyephone.pdf
http://www.eyesight-tech.com/games-and-appllcations/moove/
10 http://www.technologyreview.com/blogfeditors/25102/
11.12 http://reviews.cnet.com/8301-21539_7-20007681-10391702html?tag-mncol;pm
13.14 http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/features/2010/junl0/06-13kinectintroduced.mspx
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movement of the device itself.
Users could also abuse gesture-recognition
1 -_ _- - : - '
EyeMo
to communicate with associates. Providing the capability
EyeMo, which uses a mobile device's camera to sense and
to scroll through pictures, draw and type digitally, and
report device motion, is now available for Android devices.
peruse phone menus that can easil take a user to the
For people with camera-enabled Android phones, "once
e-mails and so forth
the software is enabled, users can shake, rock or roll
their phone to play games, answer calls, shuffle playlists,
navigate maps, scroll, pan, zoom, turn pages and even . ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - '
browse the Web - all without pressing a button or touching Gesture-recognition technology is clearly within the early
the screen."15
.
- stages of development. It has the potential to alter how we
execute command and control functions, as well as how
ILAW ENFORCEMENT IMPACT
we interface with com uter and communication devices.
----ilThis technology is
L...-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
definitely one to watch •
..................................................................................
http://www.pmewswire.com/news-releases/gesturetek-Iaunches-gesture-control-software-for-androidr-and-a-new-tracking-englne-for-windowsr-mobile-atthe-consumer-electronics-show-80912557.html
18 http://www.engadgetcom/2011/02/03/eyeslg/lt-brings../ts-gesture-controls-to-androld-tablets-wlndows/
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INTRODUCTION
one soon. If the device is unable to find a hotspot within a
Microsoft Researchers have been working on a technology . predicted maximum delay time it switches to 3G.
that would let mobile phones and other third generation
"We try to ensure that application performance
(3G) devices automatically switch to public Wi-Fi even
requirements are met. So, if ,data needs to be transferred
while the device·is traveling in a vehicle. The technology is
right·away (e.g., VoIP) we do not wait for Wi-Fi connectivity.
dubbed Wiffler and earlier this year, researchers took it for
But, if some. data can wait for a few seconds for Wi-Fi
some test drives in Amherst, Massachusetts (MA), Seattle
instead
of transmitting right away on 3G, this reduces 3G
and San Francisco.1
usage."
Wi-Fi is available only about 11 percent of the time for
"The second feature is that both connections can be
a ·mobile device- 'in transit, compared to 87 percent of
used in parallel instead of using only one. So, if some
the time for 3G availability, .Wi-Fi was not designed as a
data cannot be transferred using Wi.:Fi alone within
mobile access technology. At best, mobile devices can
its latency requirement, both 3G and Wi-Fi are used
use Wi-Fi for short periods of time. The Wiffler protocol
simultaneously. This parallel use is different from a handoff
allows devices to offload nearly half of its data from 3G to
from one technology to'the other, and it-better balances
Wi-Fi. How does this work? Wiffler is smart about when
the sometimes conflicting goals of reducing 3G usage and
to send the packets. It doesn't replace 3G, it augments it
meeting application constraints."3 It is similar to mUlitand transmits over Wi-Fi simultaneously, allowing users
network load balancing.
to set Wi-Fi as the delivery method of choice when it is
available -- and when an application can tolerate it. Not The test consisted of running Wiffler units on 20 buses in
every application can handle even a few seconds delay in Amherst, MA as well as in one car in Seattle and one at the
the stream Voice-over-Internet Protocol {VoIP} -- and Wi-Fi San Francisco airport. The Wiffler unit itself was a proxy
tends to drop more packets than 3G does. But many apps device that included a small-form factor computer, similar
can handle even a minutes-worth of delay perfectly well to a car computer (no keyboard), an 802.11b radio, a 3G
(e.g., messaging).2
data modem, and a GPS unit. The 3G modem was using
HSDPA-based service via AT&T. With today's smartphones,
Wiffler uses what researchers call "prediction based
the Wi-Fi/3G combo tends to use Wi-Fi connectivity only
offloading" in which it determines how likely it is to
when stationary; the Wifflertechnology provides automatic
travel within the area of an acceptable Wi-Fi hotspot
combo management that permits optimal application
within a certain time frame. A car in an urban area
performance.
discovers frequent hotspots and predicts finding another
one quickly. If traveling on a highway and Wiffler does not Currently, it is not known when the Wiffler will be available
locate a hotspot in a while, it figures it won't find another on the commercial market.
Wiffler Implementation
Wiffler proxy
Figure 16-1 Wiffler Implementation
..................................................................................
http://www.networkworld.com/community/blog/microsoft-wiffler-Iets-smartphones-use-free-w?t51hbIbid
3 The results of the test was presented in a paper, Augmenting Mobile 3G Using WiFi (PDF), presented in June 2010 at the eighth annual International
Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services.
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17. COUNTERFEIT GADGETS
INTRODUCTION
The introduction of devices such as the iPod, iPhone, and
iPad, Apple's recently released touchscreen tablet, have
proven to be very popular among consumers. Because of
their popularity, and the inability for some interested buyers
to get their hands on the devices legitimately, a growing
gray market has emerged in places like Beijing: China. The
gray market provides options for users that cannot afford
to pay the retail price for Apple's mobile devices, as well
as individuals that live in areas where the iPad and the
iPhone 4 just recently became available. These counterfeit
devices often appear to look very Similar to the real iPad
and iPhone sold in stores but are available for a much
cheaper price. The functionality of fake iPhone 4 models
available on the gray market varies and some phones even
offer capabilities that Apple's licensed products do not.
For this reason, Law Enforcement (LE) should be aware
that these phony mobile devices exist, and understand
that they may be used to perform functions that Apple
manufactured devices cannot.
BACKGROUND
Three Wi-Fi models of the Apple iPad went on sale in
China on September 17, 2010. Apple first released the
iPad in the United States back in April 2010, and in late
May 2010 made the device available in Australia, Canada,
France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Switzerland, and the U.K.l
The iPhone 4 was officially released in China on September
25, 2010, three months after the phone's initial launch
in the United States.2 A thriving Chinese gray market
emerged in between the time that the iPhone 4 and iPad
were released in the U.S. and when the devices were made
available for legal purchase in China.
Despite a significant portion of China's population living in
poverty or on low income, the iPhone 4 can be sold for as
much as $1,000 once it is unlocked.3 For many Chinese
buyers, "Apple is a sign of coolness," suggesting that the
widespread popularity of both the real and counterfeit
iPhone 4 is related to the status that It conveys. 125
"Most people in China can only dream of being able to
afford an expensive phone. But millions of Chinese are
developing a taste for luxury goods, and Apple products
have joined Louis Vuitton bags as totems of wealth.1I4 The
Chinese gray market provides easy access to high-quality
replicas of trendy Apple gadgets for consumers that were
too anxious to wait for the official release of the iPhone 4
and iPad or those that cannot afford the premium cost to
buy these items.
Figure 17-1 Clphone 45
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Figure 17-2 Apple iPhone 48
Before their official September 2010 release, the iPhone
4 and iPad were readily available in China. Available in
electronics malls in major cities like Shanghai and Beijing,
the sale of fake Apple devices is so lucrative that it can
be considered a serious competitor for Apple. Phones
sold on the gray market are smuggled from the United
States and Hong Kong, where devices went on sale long.
before their authorized release in China. The smuggled
iPhone 4 sells in China for $800 to $1,700, depending on
the storage size. An iPad with 64 gigabytes (GB) goes for
..................................................................................
http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9184958/Apple_slates_Chlna_iPad_launch_for_Friday
http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9187998/Chlnese_Apple_fans_lIne_up_foCiPhone_4_launch
3 http://www.macworld.co.uk/ipod-itunes/news/lndex.cfm?newsid-3240713
• http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/23/technology/23Iphone.html?_r-3&pagewanted-l&src-busln
5 http://www.clonedinchlna.com/2010/07/ciphone-4-clones-lphone-4-runs-windows-mobile.html
8 http://images.lntomobilthcom/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/white-iphone-4-bigJpg
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about $1,000.7 The expensive price tag was a deterrent
for many Chinese consumers that wanted to purchase the
iPad and iPhone produced by Apple. As a result, users that
could not afford to buy the licensed Apple iPhone 4 opted
for counterfeits that are virtually indistinguishable from
the real one. These counterfeit Apple phones are known
in China as "Shanzhaiji", which is loosely translated as
"Mountain Bandit Phones".
In China, a country well known for its production of copycat
jewelry, electronics, clothing, and accessories, the growing
prevalence of smartphones and other mobile devices
has introduced a new marketplace for the production
and selling of counterfeit items. According to BOA China,
a business advisory firm based out of Beijing, ".. .illicit
phones made up 38 percent of the handset sales in China
in 2009."8 Arguably, the popularity of Taiwan's iPhone
4 phone is based on its likeness to the real iPhone 4.
Comprising a significant portion of the market share, the
popul~rity of "Shanzhaiji" is so vast that it has allowed the
gray market t<? become a threat to legitimate smartphone
and other mobile device manufacturers;
COUNTERFEIT GADGET AVAILABILITY AND
FEATURES
Many illicit phones offer the same, and sometimes more,
features than the real model. One Taiwanese version of the
iPhone contains a removable battery and slots for two SIM
cards, which allows a user to have two phone numbers ring
for the same phone. According to a Chinese gray market
vendor, users can't tell the difference between this and
the real thing. Apple's signature logo is displayed on the
back of the phone's case, and it works with legitimate
iPhone accessories including chargers and earphones. The
only major difference between the Taiwanese version and
the real iPhone 4 is price. The counterfeit device sells for
approximately $100.
With lower end iPhone 4 imposters such as the iPhooe,
which reads "iPhooe" on the back, it is more obvious
these devices are not the real thing. One of the cheapest
versions of the counterfeit iPhone 4 models simply reads,
"Phone" on the back of the case. 9
A lot of the newest wireless technologies come from
the United States, but the market that always uses
technology first is Japan, followed by other places like
Korea. China, then Europe and the United States. "
Rgure 17-3 IPedlO
Rgur. 17-41Ped Boxll
Popular iPad alternatives such as Orphan Electronics' iPed
were introduced on the gray market last summer. The iPed
runs on Google's Android version 1.50 and includes 16
GB of storage and 1 GB of RAM. It also comes with a 600
MHz processor, and a 800 x 480 pixels screen resolution.
The Apple iPad is built with a 1 GHz Apple A4 processor
and a 1024 x 768 pixel screen. The iPad's 9.7 inch display
is significantly larger than the iPed's 7 inch screen. Priced
at $150, the iPed is much more affordable than the real
Apple iPad, which starts at $499 for an entry-level tabletP
APPLE PEEL 520
The Chinese based company, Yosion Technology, is giving
users another alternative to the iPhone models available on
the market. The Apple Peel 520, a hack that can transform
any iPod Touch device into a cellular phone, attaches to
an iPod Touch like a protective case, works as a dock
connector, has an extended battery, and provides a slot for
a SIM card to allow voice calls. "For less than $60, users
can jailbreak their iPods, install Yosion's calling and textmessaging application, pop in SIM cards, and start making
calls through the device using a headset. Previously, iPods
could only be used for Voice-over-IP calls when connected
to the Internet via Wi-Fi." The device can be ordered from
Moody, Director of Authen Tee, Inc .
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11 htlp:j/www.yugatech.com/blog/wp.contentjuploads/2010/0B/iped-tablet.jpg
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the following website: http://www.peeI520.neVOperating as an iPod turned phone, the device is made of
soft plastic and claims to offer good signal strength and
a battery talk time up to 4.5 hours. The low price of the
Apple Peel 520 is one reason that the device is appealing
to Chinese consumers that cannot afford to purchase a
real iPhone. Comparatively, the Apple Peel 520, combined
with an 8 GB iPod Touch, would cost less than $300, a
fee that is lot more affordable than the iPhone 3GS, which
sells for $738 with a minimum monthly fee of $33. 14
There is a small lag time when calls are made from the
iPod Touch with the Apple Peel 520, and it does not allow
text messages to be deleted and forwarded. Otherwise,
people that have used the device are impressed with
its functionality. The most important development of
the Apple Peel 520 is that it, "... iIIustrates the evolution
of China's massive 'Shanzhaiji', or black market, phone
industry." The Apple Peel 520 is novel in the sense that, "It
is the first time there has been a hardware application that
has changed the functionality in such a key way." "Because
the iPod Touch is very cheap, there is a value proposition
for people who want to save money."
The second generation Apple Peel 520 is sleeker and less
bulky than the previous model, and from a distance, could
be mistaken for an iPhone 4. It also allows the use of
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) data. The device is
not currently available for purchase. 15
HOW THE CHINESE GRAY MARKET WORKS
The Chinese gray market is facilitated by participants
working in China and the u.s. "People wait in line at an
Apple store to buy the newest iPhone for $600, paying
R J
" hr 66'
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a premium to skip the AT&T contract They then sell
the phones to middlemen, usually at electronics stores
in Chinatown, for about $750." Once the phones are
purchased from Apple, they are shipped to. China for
distribution to local shops or are placed on e-commerce
websites where they can sell for up to $1,000. Once an
iPhone 4 is unlocked, it is no longer tied to AT&T, and
therefore, is free to be used with any local carrier. Apple
limits the number of iPhone purchases to two with the
use of a credit card, but the manufacturer does not track
phones purchased with cash, allowing people to buy
multiple phones to be sold on the gray market.
Retailers in China report that iPhones are usually smuggled
into the country by people hiding them in bags or taping
them to their bodies. More established smugglers are
known to bring in a 100 or more iPhones a day by hiding
them among other goods in shipping containers. The
official release of the iPhone 4 in China has resulted in a
drop in the price of counterfeit phones on the gray market,
but it is not anticipated to end sales of illicit phones
entirely.16
EMERGING COUNTERFEIT GADGET MARKETS
The popularity of counterfeit gadgets on the gray market
has spread beyond China. Significant numbers of illicit
cell phones are exported to countries in the Middle East
and Africa, which have also proven to be successful
markets for inexpensive imitation devices. According
to vendors working in Beijing's electronics malls, many
African customers buy fake phones in bulk to be sold in
their home countries.
The Director of China research for iSuppli stated that
fake phones are often purchased in China and then sold
in other countries. "When exported to some emerging
market countries, the products are sold as the real ones."
According to BOA reports, in the previous year, illicit
phone-makers were China's largest handset exporter. Fake
phone producers are set to become even more prevalent
overseas due to inexpensive prices, well-established
distribution networks, and the ability to customize clone
phones for local users. Foreign countries are expected
to replace China as the primary market for illicit phones
produced in China. A BOA principal analyst, said that 2.5
million smuggled iPhone handsets were sold in China in
the first half of 2010, which is significantly more than the
800,000 legitimate iPhones sold. Many buyers of cloned
products are foreigners that travel to China to stock up on
fake phones and other goods.
............ .. . ............... .. ................... ...... ..... ....................
http://www.iapplepeeI520.com/
" http://blogs,wsj.com/chinarealtime/2010/08/07/ipOd-to-iphone-on-the-cheap/
15 http://articles.cnn.com/20 10-08-16/ tech/ch ina. apple .peel_1_ apple-smart-phone-iphone-ipod/2?_ s· PM:T£CH
t. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/23/technologyj23iphone.html?_r-3&src-busln&pagewanted-print
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There is little regulation of the sale of counterfeit gadgets
on the Chinese gray market. In fact, many smugglers 1r---------hIC:-o-u~nt-e..,.rfEe...it:""'i~p~ho-n-e-s-a-nd"l""t~a"l""b~le"!"'"ts.J
and vendors appear to be apathetic about the idea that are widely available on the gray market at price pointsthat
they are buying and trading devices illegally. One vendor are much more reasonable than the Ie itimate iPhone and
stated, "The police won't crack down us -- it's not guns ,.;i.:..;Pa:::.;:d:u..._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _T"""____.......
or drugs, why bother? The cell phones aren't illegal. If it's
illegal, why is such a big market still open here?" A second ,:================----'1
vendor concurred, asserting, "If selling this violates the
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law, how come so many people are seiling cellphones here
.
.
illegally? If it violates the law, how can such a big market ~hone nu~b~rs to nng on the same device, m.any fake
still exist?"17 The lack of regulation over the development, IPhones eliminate the need for two hones; this allows
I
trade, and sale of counterfeit gadgets can be problematic
for LE. Without adequate overSight, counterfeit gadgets
....J
can be easily produced , traded , and sold to users that '--_---'LE may find it difficult to keep up with the number
of illiCit iPhones and iPads and their unlawful users w~fl
seek to use them to conduct unlawful activities. Even
the continuous introduction of new counterfeit devices.
though counterfeit devices must be registered with a
service orovider's networkl
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18. ACTIVITY-BASED NAVIGATION
INTRODUCTION
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become an
integral part of how people navigate the world since it was
made available for civilian use in the 1980s. GPS, ..... a
satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of
24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of
Defense," has no subscription fees or setup charges and
can be used around the clock to aid navigation among
travel destinations in all weather conditions anywhere
in the world. 1 For the most part, GPS is a reliable way
for people to map their way from location-to-Iocation,
but there are places where GPS signals are unavailable
such as the inside of a building. Microsoft researchers
are currently working on a technology, termed the Menlo
Project, which is intended to function in places where GPS
cannot.
BACKGROUND
Activity-based navigation is based on the use of human
activity derived from sensor data to help a user navigate and
retrace a path traversed by themselves or another person.
Trails can include, step counts, walking up/down stairs
or taking elevators, compass directions, and photos taken
along a user's path, in addition to absolute positioning
(GPS and maps) when available." This form of navigation is
an alternative to the traditional map-based routing used in
GPS road map systems and indoor localization systems, as
activity-based navigation does not require the creation of a
map and it is not reliant on absolute positioning that may
not be available in all situations. Presently, activity-based
navigation can be used for activities such as locating a
lost object such as a car or finding an acquaintance in a
large concert hall, cinema, or sports arena. In the future,
activity-based navigation may be useful for performing
more broad navigation tasks.
M. . .
Navigation based on human activity involves the guiding
of a user to a specific destination through the use of an
established path of human movement activities. These
activities can include walking up a specific number of
stairs or going up/down a particular number of floors.
The pattern of these activities can be acquired through
sensor data from a trail previously traveled by the same
or a different user that possessed a mobile device with
sensors to track movement. Mobile tracking devices, such
as Microsoft's Menlo, can intuitively infer and record a
trail of activities based on sensor data gathered when a
I
I
'
user walks, thus garnering a path without any assistance
from the user. One of the advantages of activity-based
navigation over a positioning-based navigation system
like GPS is that it does not require pre-existing knowledge
like a map or 3D building model. One of activity-based
navigation's greatest assets is that it can serve as a useful
tool for navigating spaces where GPS is not available. 2
MICROSOFT MENLO
Microsoft is in the process of designing a mobile device
that can collect trail data while a user walks indoors,
underground, and in other spaces where GPS signals
are not available or are too weak to be picked up like
mUlti-level parking garages. The device would essentially
facilitate the gathering of data used to create of a path
of "digital bread crumbs". Comprised of a collection of
sensors including, "an accelerometer to detect movement,
a side-mounted compass to determine direction, and a
barometric pressure sensor to track changes in altitude,"
the Menlo prototype phone is Microsoft's solution for users
that need to navigate spaces that are incompatible with
GPS.3
Rgure 18·1 Microsoft Menlo Prototype4
Greenfield App
Several existing phones already have the sensors contained
in Microsoft's prototype, although, Menlo also includes the
Greenfield app, which works by harnessing data from its
multiple sensors. The purpose of the Greenfield app is
..................................................................................
http://www8.garmin.com/aboutGPS/
http://tesearch.microsoft.com/pubs/121932/activitybasednavigation%20mobilehci20l0.pdf
3 http://www.technologyreview.com/communications/26079/pagel/
, http://tesearch.microsoft.com/pubs/121932/activitybasednavigation%20mobilehci20l0.pdf
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"This kind of data is terrific for convicting people.sDd
terrific at exonerating people. \
\ With an
Rgure 18·2 Greenfield User Interface
to, "".count a user's sequence of steps, gauge direction
changes, and even calculate how many floors the user
has traversed by stairs or an elevator." The Greenfield app
can also store trail data so that a user can access and
accurately retrace their path at a later time. The Greenfield
app is considered a type of activity-based navigation
and is being presented as a useful method for navigating
locations where maps are inaccessible or have yet to be
produced.
activity· based navigation devicej
\Since trail data can be obtained in areas where
GPS would not normall~ be available, the Menlo prototype
and the Greenfield app
L -_ _•
Uses for the Greenfield App
There are a number potential uses for the Greenfield app
with Microsoft's Menlo. It is believed that, "Greenfield
could be used for new kinds of urban street games, to
recover lost items, to find friends at a stadium, or to rescue
hikers and mountain climbers." It could act as a compass
in common situations, like when a person leaves the mall
after shopping for several hours and forgets where they
parked their vehicle. With a Menlo phone running the
Greenfield app, losing one's car is no longer a problem
because the device has the capability to record a user's
activity trail, allowing them to retrace their route. The
device may also enhance trail data with pictures taken
along the course of the user's path.
Figure 18·3 Greenfield App Conditions·
..................................................................................
, Images fro m: http://research.microsoft.com/pubs/121932/activi tybasednavigation%20mobilehci20l 0.pdf
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19. TECH BYTES
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WINDOWS PHONE 7
IPHONE 4 COMES TO VERIZON
Comes with a solid as and strikes a balance
between Web-oriented and local storage, using
the cloud for information like contacts and apps
and tying itself to a PC (or Mac, with a basic
client) for big updates, music, and video syncing.
Contacts from Facebook and Google sync and
integrate perfectly, and finding your lost phone,
photo uploading, and note syncing is built-in,
automatic, and free.
Verizon's COMA network doesn't support
simultaneous voice and data like the
GSM version. The big innovation is the
five user Wi-Fi hotspot functionality,
something that's standard on Android
phones.
!
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http://www.engadget.com/apple/verizon-iphone/
http://gizmodo,com/5668738/windows-phone-7-review
~
GIVING HACKERS A PRINTED
INVITATION
Real attackers can mine printers for
valuable information sitting inside the
device. PrintFS automatically finds
vulnerable printers via the Internet or
in an internal network and turns them
into a distributed storage network.
Storage space could be used by
hackers to store malicious programs
or other material. According to an
independent researcher, "Depending
on the devices, most of the time, you
can find 20 to 30 unsecured devices
[on a local network) and you can get
a gig of storage to 30 gigs of storage."
" http://www.technologyreview.com/
computing/27121/pagel/
SMARTPHONES AND TABLETS
TO GET EVEN FASTER WITH
NVIDIA'S TEGRA 3 CHIP
Nvidia is set to roll out the nextgeneration Tegra 3 chip for smartphones
and tablets, promising to be even faster
The first Android Gingerbread apps than its current processor, the dualsupporting NFC technology have already core Tegra 2. The new chip is expected
sprung up, even though there's just one to have four cores inside, which
compatible handset - Samsung's Nexus can further speed up browsing and
S. Two of these apps are Taglet, an gaming on tablets and smartphones.
information-sharing system that allows In addition, multiple cores can run at
phones to pass details to each other half speed to accomplish the same
with a swipe, and EnableTable, which tasks that a single core would need
plants NFC chips inside restaurant menus. to run at full speed, enhancing battery
Other mobile companies are on the brink efficiency and generating less heat.
of launching handsets supporting NFC Clearly, multicore smartphones have
including Nokia and RIM.
arrived, with quad-core chips probably
waiting in the wings.
• http://www.technologyreview.com/
APPS TURN SMARTPHONES INTO
WALLETS
communications/27125/?pl-A2
•hi [email protected] SA"SlI iiie hi.
VIBER
Viber features deep integration with
your native contacts, excellent call
quality, and no registration. There's no
assigned number and those that you
call will see your own mobile number.
Hit the purple icon instead of the green
icon every time a phone call is made.
s http://www.wirelessweek.com/Reviews/2010/12/
Mobile-Content-Out-with-Old-in~with·New-Mobile·
Applications/
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FACEVACS-VIDEOSCAN
FaceVACS-VideoScan
automatically
scans incoming video streams, detects
multiple faces, and checks for possible
"watch list" matches, If a match is found,
operators are notified - in real-time allowing them to focus on the identified
person instead of simultaneously
observirig multiple video screens, The
Cognitec facial-recognition system is
used to continuously scan a croWd, The
goal is to identify targeted individuals
whose faces have already been captured
as a digital image and stored in the
facial-recognition system, When FaceVacs picks up a face that it recognizes
through a facial biometrics match, it
immediately pulls up the recorded face
image and displays it with the live camera
image of the scanned croWd,
MAGIC TRACKPAD
Make your Magic Trackpad act like a multibutton mouse with the BetterTouchTool,
The BetterTouchTool utility allows you to
define your own gestures and actions. In
addition to its not-yet-final support for the
Magic Trackpad, BetterTouchTool works with
many third-party trackpads and Apple's
Magic Mouse. It even lets you assign
various actions to keyboard shortcuts. The
key feature is the ability to assign actions
to newly-available gestures. This allows
the user to replicate the functionality of
the mUlti-button mouse while gaining the
gesture features of the Magic Trackpad.
• http//www.macworld.com/article/157058/2011/01/
trackpadtricks.html
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ASIAN CELLPHONES
When it comes to cell phones,
America is still trying. to catchup with countries such as Japan
and Korea.
Asians use their cell phones
in more robust ways than the
typical U.S. resident - as TVs,
wallets. GPS devices, and music
players. Japanese cell phones
can double as a house key, a
credit card, and an 10. Other
cell phone functions include:
• Reads Vital Signs
• Environmental Awareness
• Home Security Service
• Internal Wi-Fi Spot
• Send Money to Other
Subscribers
, hltp://www.cognitec-systems.de/FaceVACSAlert.20.0.html
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• Personal Butler
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MOBILE E-MAIL RISES; WEB E-MAIL DIPS
Mobile e-mail is growing in popularity while the use of Web-based e-mail seems to be waning, according to a new study
from ComScore. Looking back at November 2010, ComScore found that the number of people sending e-mail via a
dedicated client on a mobile device was up 36 percent from the prior November. Over the same period, the number of
visitors to Web-based e-mail sites fell by six percent. "From PCs to mobile devices, whether it's e-mail, social media, 1M,
or texting, consumers have many ways to communicate and can do so at any time and in any place."
10
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20. PATENTS OF INTEREST
lOCAfBON-BASIEIl) SIEIRVOCES
UnIted States Patent Application 7,848,765
Abstract December 7, 2010
Provided herein are methods and systems relating to
location-based services such as social networking, providing
demographic information, tracking mobile devices, providing
business information, providing an adaptable user interface,
remotely effecting a change on a portable electronic device,
providing a geo-fence, outputting location-based information
on a mobile device, varying transmissions to and from a mobile
device, providing location-based alerts, verifying transactions and tailoring information to the behavior of a user.
IEXCllUSOVIE WORlElESS SERVDCE PROPOSALS
United States Patent Application 7,853,244
Abstract December 14, 2010
Provided herein are systems and methods for providing exclusive wireless service proposals to subscribers. A
method for providing an exclusive wireless service proposal to a subscriber includes the steps of conducting
measurements of at least one metric; sending measurement data acquired during the step of conducting to a
measurement analysis machine (MAM), the MAM being configured to analyze the measurement data; analyzing
the measurement data; predicting performance of at least one of wireless voice and wireless data services
based upon the results of the analysis step; generating a proposal for exclusive wireless services based upon
the measurement data and the performance prediction; and providing the proposal to a subscriber. Systems for
performing this and additional or aiterrrative methods are also disclosed.
CONTROlLlDNG A [DOCIUMIENT !BASED ON USER ISEIHIAVOORAL SDGNAlS Il)IE1!'EClEIl)
IFROM A 31D CAIP1l"URED IMAGE STREAM
United States Patent Application 7,877,706
Abstract January 25, 2011
A computer-implemented method, system, and program product comprises a behavior processing system for
capturing a three-dimensional movement of a user within a particular environment, wherein
the three-dimensional movement is determined by using at least one image capture
device aimed at the user. The behavior processing system identifies a three-dimensional
object properties stream using the captured movement. The behavior processing system
identifies a particular defined behavior of the user from the three-dimensional object
properties stream by comparing the identified three-dimensional object properties
stream with multiple behavior definitions each representing a separate behavioral
signal for directing control of the document. A document control system selects at
least one document element to represent the at least one particular defined behavior
and inserts the selected document element into the document.
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3GPP: Third' Generation Partnership
Project
EDGE: Enhanced Data for GSM
Evolution
AGPS: Assisted Global Positioning
System
eNB: Enhanced Node B
AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone
System
AMR: Adaptive Multi-Rate
compression
API: Application Programming
Interface
ARPU: Average Revenue Per User
AS: Application Server
BGCF: Breakout Gateway Control
Function
BIP: Bearer Independent Protocol
BTS: Base Transceiver Station
CAGR: Compound Annual Growth
Rate
CAMEL: Customized Applications for
Mobile Enhanced Logic
CAPEX: Capital Expenses
CSoPS: Circuit-Switched over PacketSwitched
COM: Code Division Multiplexing
ENUM: Telephone Number Mapping
from E.164 NUmber Mapping
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GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node
GPRS: General Packet Radio System
GRE: Generic Routing Encapsulation
GSM: Global System for Mobile
communication~
EPC: Evolved Packet Core; also
GTP: GPRS Tunneling Protocol
known as SAE (refers to flatter-IP core
network)
GTP-U: The part of GTP used for
transfer of user data
EPS: Evolved Packet System is the
combination of the EPC/SAE: (refers GTT: Global Text Telepho~y
to flatter-IP core network) and the
GW: Gateway
LTE/E-UTRAN
HLR: Home Location Register
ETSI: European Telecommunication
Standards Institute
EUTRA: Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access
E·UTRAN: Evolved Universal
Terrestrial Radio Access Network
(based on OFDMA)
EV-DO: Evolution Data Optimized or
Data Only
HO: HandOverPage 38 HPLMN Home
PLMN
HPCRF: Home PCRF
HSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet
Access
HSPA: High Speed Packet Access
(HSDPA + HSUPA)
FCAPS: Fault, Configuration,
Accounting, Performance & Security
HSPA+: High Speed Packet Access
Plus (also known as HSPA Evolution
or Evolved HSPA)
FDD: Frequency Division Duplex
HSS: Home Subscriber Server
FDM: Frequency Division Multiplex
HSUPA: High Speed Uplink Packet
Access
CN: Control Network
FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple
Access
CPE: Customer premise Equipment
FDS: Frequency Diverse Scheduling
HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
FMC: Axed Mobile Convergence
CS: Circuit-Switched
HTML: Hyper-Text Markup Language
CSFB: CS-Fallback
GAN: Generic Access Network
HTTPS: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Secure
CTM: Cellular Text Modem
DCH: Dedicated Channel
GANC: Generic Access Network
Controller
IMEI: International Mobile Equipment
Identity
DCS: Digital Cellular System
GBR: Guaranteed Bit Rate
IMPI: IMS Private Identity
E-CSCF: Emergency Call Session
Control Function
GERAN: GSM EDGE Radio Access
Network
IMPU: IMS Public Identity
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IPTV: Internet Protocol TV
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IPV4: Internet Protocol Version 4
MIP: Mobile IP
PDN: Packet Date Network
IPV6: Internet Protocol Version 6
MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service
PDP: Packet Data Protocol
I-RAT: Inter-Radio Access Technology
MMTel: Multimedia Telephony
PIM: Passive Iner-Modulation
ICS: IMS Centralized Services
MRFC: Multimedia Resource Function
Controller
PLMN: Public Land M6bile Network
1M: Instant Messaging'
MRFP: Multimedia Resource Function
Processor
IM-MGW: IMS Media GateWay
IMS IP: Multimedia Subsystem
IN: Intelligent Networking
MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service
IP-CAN: Internet Protocol Connectivity ms: Milliseconds
Access Network
MSC: Mobile Switching Center
IPSec: Internet Protocol Security
NAT-PT: Network Address Translation
ISIM IP: Multimedia Services Identity _ Protocol Translation
Module
OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency
ISR: Idle Mode Signaling Reduction
Division Multiplexing Access (air
ITU: International Telecommunication interface)
Union
OA&M: Operations, Administration
and Management
kHz: Kilohertz
LCS: LoCation Service
L1: Lawful Intercept
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i
LNA: Low Noise Amplifier
LNP: Local Number Portability (for
No~h America)
RAN: Radio Access Network
RAT: Radio Access Technology
RB: Radio Bearer
REL-X: Release '99, Release
4, Release 5, etc. from 3GPP
standardization
RF: Radio Frequency
RIT: Radio Interface Technology
S-CSCF: Serving- Call Session
Control Function
OPEX: Operating Expenses
S-GW: Serving Gateway (LTE)
OR: Optimal Routing
SAE: System Architecture Evolution
also known as Evolved Packet System
(EPS) Architecture (refers to flatter-IP
core network)
OTA: Over-the-Air Activation
Mbps: Megabitz per Second
P-CSCF: Proxy-Call Session Control
Function
P-GW: PDN Gateway
see AS: Service Centralization
Continuity Application Server
SGs: Reference point between the
MME and the MSC for CS Fall Back
PCC: Policy and Charging
Convergence
MIM: Mobile Instant Messaging
RAU: Routing Area Update
OP: Organizational Partner
MAC: Media Access Control
MHz: Megahertz
RA: Routing Area '
RLT: Release Link Trunk
LTE: Long Term Evolution
MGCF: Media Gateway Control
Function
QoS: Quality of Service
OMA: Open Mobile ArchitecturePage
39
OS: Operating System
MF: Multi-Frequency
PSAP: PUblic Safety Answering Point
QoE: Quality of Experience
MMD: Multimedia Domain
MME: Mobility Management Entity
IP: nternet Protocol
PS: Packet-Switched
SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node
PCS: Personal Communication
Service
SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
MIMO: Multiple-Input Multiple-Output PCRF: Policy Charging and Rules
SIP: SeSSion Initiated Protocol
MIB: Master Information Block
SLR: Subscriber Location Register
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sMs: Short Message Service
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sOA: Service-Oriented Architecture
TlsPAN: Telecoms & Internet
converged Services & Protocols
for Advanced Networks, a
standardization body of ETSI
SON: Self Opitmizing Networks
TP: Transport Protocol
sRIT: Set.of Radio Interface
Technologies
TrFO: Transcoder Free O·perationPage
40
UsIM: UMTS SIM
sRVCC: Single Radio Voice ·Call
Continuity
Ts: Technical Specification
U~sD: Unstructured Supplementary
Service Data
sNs: Social Networking Site
SV Interface: Interface between the
MME and MSC for performing SRVCC
Handover
TsM: Transport Synchronous Module
TTY: TeleTYpe writer
UDI: Unrestricted DigitiaJ Information
UMTs: Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System, also
known as WCDMA
UpPTs: Uplink Pilot Time Slot
USB: Universal Serial Bus
UTRA: Universal Terrestrial Radio
Access
UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio
Access Network
TA: Tracking Area
UE: User Equipment
TAU: Tracking Area Update
UGC: User Generated Content
VANC: VoLGA Access Network
Controller
T8: Transport Blocks
UICC: Universal Identifier
Cryptographic Computer
VCC: Voice Call Continuity
TCP-IP: Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol
VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol
UL: Uplink
--
TDD: Time Division Duplex
Telecommunication Device for Deaf
TDM: rime Division Multiplexing
TDMA: Time Division Multiplexing
Access
UL·SCH: Uplink Shared Channel
UM: Unacknowledged Mode
UMA: Unlicensed Mobile Access
UMB: Ultra Mobile Broadband
VoLGA: Voice over LTE via Generic
Access
VPCRF: Visiting PCRF
WCDMA: Wideband Code Division
Multiple Access
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22. TECH INSIGHTS
standard, set to be in draft form by 2011, will mainly work
GOOGLE LAUNCHES VOICE·TO·TWITTER
with the current technology powering 802.11a. The new
SERVICE TO HELP PROTESTERS IN EGYPf1
standard
will continue to work on the 5.0 GHz band, but
A. group of engineers from Google, Twitter, and Say Now
(which Google acquired) were hard at work building a will provide larger channels for data throughput. Whereas
speak-to-tweet service for protesters in Egypt. The service, current technology uses 20 MHz-wide channels, 802.11ac
which is already live, enables users to send tweets will be using either 40 MHz or 80 MHz-wide (and possibly
using a voice connection. Anyone can tweet by leaving a 160 MHz) channels to deliver data. Files will be able to
voicemail on one of three international phone numbers: flow more freely on your home network come 2012.
+16504i~4196 or +390662207294 or +91316199855.
None of these specs are standardized as yet and they
Tweets sent using the service will automatically include the
may be drastically change in the next few years. On top of
hashtag #egypt.
that, a fatter pipe for wireless data throughput does not
increase our actual Internet connection speeds. For most
G.722 VOICE CODER
G.722 describes the characteristics of a wideband audio home users, the relevancy of 802.11ac may depend on the
(50 to 7,000 Hz) coding system which may be used for expansion of robust fiber optic Internet infrastructure or an
a variety of higher quality speech applications including increase in large-file data streaming.2
HD VoIP. The coding system uses sub-band adaptive
"The goal of 802.11ac is to provide data speeds much
differential pulse code modulation (SB-ADPCM) within a
faster thaA 802.11n, with speeds around 1 Gbps. The
bit rate of 64 kbps. The system is referred as 64 Kilobits
timeline for 802.11ac approval is to have a draft standard
per second (Kbps)/(7 kHz) audio coding.
created by 2011 and the first 802.11ac products out by
G.722 is Wideband Audio. The G.722 codec gives much the end of 2012. The technology behind 802.11ac has
better audio quality than 'G.711, typically the standard not been finalized. However, it will likely involve bonding
codec used on LANs and T-l/E-1 Circuits. Now users can four or eight channels together with some tweaks to the
have better than toll quality audio on an IP phone system modulation scheme."3
at around' 64 Kbps, the same bandwidth requirements
802.11ac, slated to be the next release version of the Wi-Fi
as G.711. G.722 samples at 16 kHz instead of 8 kHz of
standard, hopes use advanced simultaneous transmission
G.711 resulting in much better audio quality. G.722 is an
technology to increase data rates to 1 Gbps.
International Telecommunication Union standard.
NOKIA TRANSITIONS TO MICROSOFT MOBILE OS
Although the wireless 802.11n standard has just recently
Nokia, the world's largest-volume cell phone maker, and
been made official, IEEE has begun work on the next
software giant Microsoft are joining forces. Nokia will
iteration of Wi-Fi. The coming upgrade may deliver speeds
adopt Windows Phone as its choice smartphone platform
of up to 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps) by improving on
and provide services (e.g., mapping programs), and Bing
the effeciency of existing technology. The IEEE 802.11ac
will become the default search engine.4
ANDROID'S LAW: MANUFACTURING CYCLES ARE
5
GETTING SHORTER
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CYCLES ARE GETTING SHORTER
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ANDROID 1.5
CUPCAKE 4/09
ANDROID 1.6
DONUT9/09
ANDROID 2.1
ECLAIR 10/09
ANDROID 2.2
FROYOS/l0
..................................................................................
, htlp:t/mashable.com/2011/01/31/googt...twitter·egypt.call-s8fYlce!
, http://www.pcworld.com/artlcle/184067/S0211ac_standard.will_brin&..gigabiLspeeds_to_..lfl.html
• htlfl:t/www.aksgeek.com/2011/02/ztlO·IO.bUrlOn.s0211ac·enablecHIevlce.hunll.xzzlDOKhaSaj
, hUP'-//WWW.cnn.com/2011/TECH/mobile/02/11/nokia.microsoft!,ndex.hunl
'htlp://phandroid.com/2011l01/3I/new·phone·already·leef,ng·old·you.ean·thank-androids·sholl·manulacwllng-cyclf/25
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
3. Enhanced Law Enforcement Coordination Court-authorized lawful interception is a critical tool
Enhancing greater law enforcement lawful intercept
necessary to enforce the law, protect our citizens, and
mutual coordination/assistance.
maintain our Nation's security. Maintaining a capability
to lawfully and properly intercept communications content 4. Greater Industry/taw Enforcement Cooperation
- Expanding industry cooperation among law
and communications-identifying information pursuant to
enforcement on new and emerging technology issues/
court order forms the very foundation of law enforcement's
solutions.
National Lawful Intercept Strategy. Equally important
is the balance maintained by existing laws between the 5. New Federal Resources - New Federal funding to
interests of our citizen's privacy, the communication
bolster lawful intercept capabilities.
industry's competitiveness, and law enforcement's duty to
The five components of the Strategy must be pursued
protect our nation's people.
in concert. Adopting one or more, but not all, of the
As detailed in a recent ETR Bulletinl, the variety and prongs would be ineffective-that is, a partial fix is no fix.
complexity of new communications technologies and Consequently, the support of the Administration and the
services and the "convergence" of these technologies and Congress is vitally important, especially with respect to- the
services have increased dramaticall over recent ears. legislative and appropriations funding components.
Self-help has always been afirstinstinctforlaw enforcement,
but law enforcement is at a point where enhanced
. ._
~-o:--~~~~--~
Hence, law enforcement
has developed a five-pronged National Lawful Intercept
Strategy:2
1. Modernization Of Lawfui Intercept Laws - Reviewing
current lawful intercept legislation, regulation, and
assistance mandates, and identifying areas that need
updating.
2.
IMPORTANCE OF LAWFUL INTERCEPTION
Lawful interception is critically important and is relied
on in many significant investigations -- a fact attested to
repeatedly. In the House Report of the Communications
Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) of 1994,
it states, "Law enforcement officials have consistently
testified, as Director Freeh did at the hearings of the
bill, that court-authorized electronic surveillance is a
critical law enforcement and public safety tool."3 Further,
lawful interception produces vital intelligence and singular
evidence, leading to the prevention of major terrorist
attacks and prosecution of the leadership of major
organized crime families and drug-trafficking cartels.
Impediments to Lawful Intercept
• "Access" pertains to the first step in effecting lawful
interception, where a service provider or law enforcement
seeks to identify an intercept access point (lAP) to
isolate the lawful intercept subject's communications in
order to intercept it
•
Lawful Intercept Authorities -Id~ntifying impediments
to law enforcement's ability to protect and share
lawful intercept technical equipment and expertise.
..................................................................................
Emerging Technologies Bulletin. Volume 6 Issue 1. September 2009.
For more detailed information regarding each of the five prongs. please refer to the Going Dark Edition of the ETR bulletin. published in September 2009.
3 H.R. Rep. No. 103·827. at 17 (1994). reprinted in 1994 U.S.C.C.A.N. 3489. 3497.
I
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Ii IbiSCIIIOiiE SChslBIe hilbimar/till fbi era/lise 8"1) (t!8; Jlet'JSJ flel4lSOIssa:e l :atliS" Cd tj
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lin tum, to
needless additional lawful intercept costs. The proposed
National Lawful Intercept Strategy, among other things,
is intended to bring about carriers' implementation of
standard commercial delivery formats-and protocols.
• While communications protocols are employed in voicebased telecommunications, the use of numerous diverse
communications protocols, especially bycommunications
application providers, is dramatically greater in an
electronic/data c.ommunications environment. For law
enforcement, as well as for communications service and
application providers and end-users, communications
cannot be handled, processed, and understood if one
cannot identify and understand the communications
protocols involvedCJ
II
• Prior to CALEA, most law enforcement could conduct
lawful interception in analog voice networks by using
standard commercial intercept, collection, and recording
equipment. There was very little need to "process" or
"view" those intercepted voice communications. However,
post-CALEA, more complex and much more expensive
lawful intercept "collection systems" are now required in
order to properly interface with the CALEA-grade voice
intercept solutions fielded by carriers. Furthermore,
with the growth in electronic communications, much
more complex and sophisticated law enforcement
multimedia (e.g., voice, email, and imagery) collection
platforms are now required to g.al1Cal~.c.r.&~:II.....ii.I:U:&..,
As part qf the National Strategy, a significant infusion of
funding is sought to assist state/local law enforcement
by increasing and leveraging national technical expertise,
training, and assistance.
• Conducting lawful interception today with modem
multimedia digital and IP services, applications, and
networks is vastly more expensive than in the ast.
As a result of reatl increased costs,
The FBI increaSingly has had to expend great sums
in its lawful intercept ,program in order..w-.LiI.II.~w.u..I.I.IIj
Countering Lawful Intercept Impediments -
A National Lawful Intercept Strategy
To deal with existing and ever-emerging lawful intercept
challenges, law enforcement has developed a five-pronged
National Lawful Intercept Strategy. Drawing on existing
lawful Intercept expertise from the FBI and other lawful
intercept leading agencies, a core purpose will be to
coordinate, integrate, and distribute lawful intercept
solutions among law enforcement, increasing their ability
to strengthen lawful intercept capabilities and information
sharing in a more effective and efficient way.
Any change in the current paradigm of lawful interception
will likely require an extensive, coordinated effort on behalf
of the entire law enforcement community. Future progress
of the National Lawful Intercept Strategy will require
Congressional hearings, testimony, and meetings with
• Until the early 1990s, law enforcement lawful intercept high-level- decision makers. Succ~ss will hinge upon law
capabilities were often limited to the installation of enforcement's ability to clearly illustrate case examples of
relatively inexpensive wiretap devices by technical
personnel. But, with the communications revolution
and the advent of digital and IP-based communications,
t::i:lcn OT tne Tlve
·prongs of the National strategy will be needed. Rnally,
how law enforcement is capable. of leveraging existing
~
I Act:ordin~lv, aloM capabilities (I.e., sharing capabilities among- agenCies) to
with the cost impediments involved, I
solve a case that would have otherwise gone unSOlved will
be instrumental.
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INFOGRAPHIC: AT&T'S WI-FI CONNECTIONS
Wi-Fi is increasingly taking the burden off already strained
cell networks, and recent numbers issued by AT&T show
just how huge Wi-Fi usage has become.
In the third quarter of last year, users made 106.9 million
connections on AT&T's U.S. Wi-Fi network. Q3 2010
connections were more than 320 percent higher.
The company's collective total value of signed Wi-Fi
customer contracts is approximately $200 million. The
company saw 228.1 million connections through the first
nine months of 2010, and was estimated to break 300
million connections.
"In addition to smartphones, we saw that more devices
like tablets, eReaders and netbooks were becoming Wi-Fi
enabled and realized that Wi-Fi would playa major part in
our ability to mobilize everything for our customers. Now,
our Wi-Fi services are a significant asset for AT&T and for
the consumers and businesses we serve."l
BROADBAND USAGE GROWING EVEN AS GAPS
PERSIST2
The U.S. still faces a significant gap in residential
broadband use that breaks down along incomes,
education levels and other socio-economic factors, even
as subscriptions among American households overall grew
sevenfold between 2001 and 2009.
Key socio-economic characteristics in the U.S. continues
to confront a racial gap in residential broadband use, with
non-Hispanic white Americans and Asian-Americans more
likely to go online using a high-speed connection than
African-Americans and Hispanics.
Major Findings
• 94.1 percent of househOlds with income exceeding
$100,000 subscribed to broadband in 2009, compared
with 35.8 percent of households with income of less
than $25,000
• 84.5 percent of households with at least one college
degree subscribed to broadband last year, compared
with 28.8 percent of households without a high school
degree
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• 77.3 percent of ASian-American households and 68
percent of non-Hispanic white households subscribed
to broadband last year, compared with 49.4 percent
of African-American households and 47.9 percent of
Hispanic households
• 65.9 percent of urban househOlds subscribed to
broadband in 2009, compared with 51 percent of rural
households
CORPORATIONS GOING TOTALLY WIRELESS3
Mobile broadband services are becoming competitive with
fixed data links-which means businesses should be able
to cut their wired connections.
During the first wave of the wireless revolution, businesses
realized that being out of the office didn't mean being
out of action. BlackBerrys, iPhones, and 3G dongles for
laptops let bUSinesspeople stay connected on the move.
The second wave, ushered in by the development of 4G
mobile broadband, will take the mobile revolution indoors.
Cellular networks and other service providers are preparing
services for offices that will make wired infrastructure such
as desk phones and wired Internet links obsolete.
Verizon's Long Term Evolution (LTE) service, a set of
standards for future networks, was launched at the end of
2010, bringing coverage to more than 100 million people.
"We'll be announcing 4G modems first and support for cell
phones by mid-2011." The firm isn't building a cell phone
network but a data network, one just as fast as wired links.
Sprint Nextel rolled out its 4G service in major U.S. Cities
last year, and is now over 55 cities. That network is based
on the Wi MAX standard, an alternative to LTE. Sprint is
also working on the idea of packaging a set of 4G modems
and other hardware into an off-the-shelf "office in a box."
"It would contain everything you needed to set up a new
branch and connect it up." There are doubts that networks
can keep pace with the demand for wireless data, a
demand that's growing by 55 percent annually in North
America.
Research firm Infinetics predicts that by 2013, there will
be more North Americans connecting to the Internet via
mobile broadband than via any other form of access-
.............................................................................. ....
,
http://www.mobilemarketlngwatch.com/infographic-atts-wi-fj-connections-in-q3-exceeded-total-for-all-of-2009-10567/#more-l0567
2 http://www.dailyfinance.com/artlcle/broadband-usage-growing-even-as-gaps/1381651/
3 http://technologyreview.com/printeUriendly_article.aspx?ld-26636
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with enterprises -expected to account for much of the
demand. The era of flat pricing for wireless data looks to
be ending; the next step might involve asking customers
to pay for different tiers of service depending on their data
demands. Ultimately, net neutrality policy may become the
biggest practical distinction between wired and wireless
connections.
r,
•
"iiijzed hy ral eiilt
detected; various functions of the electronic device can be
restrict~d. For example, access to particular applications
and sensitive information can be restricted and erased
from the electronic device."
The patent targets a number of behaviors such as
compromising or hacking a device, including removing
the SIM card, unlocking, jail-breaking, and even moving. a
predetermined distance from a synced device.
IPHONE KILLSWITCH PATENT
In a move that seems Big Brother-ish, Apple has a patent
The application also identifies a number of methodologies
in the works that could use voice and facial recognition
for determining whether a user is legitimate, including
technology to activate a "kill switch" on its popular iPhone,
photographing the user and applying facial recognition
shutting it down when hackers "jailbreak" or unlock the
software, analyzing their voice, and analyzing a users'
phone to install unauthorized programs on it, or try to steal
heartbeat using a "heartbeat sensor"-which, so far
information from an unsuspecting iPhone user.
doesn't exist in any current Apple product. In addition to
Apple would track "suspicious behavior", including potentially shutting down the device if unauthorized users
comparing the "identity of the current user to the identity are detected, the technology could also be used to wipe
of the owner of the electronic device," then notify the sensitive information-address books, email, passwords,
legal owner of the iPhone about the possible hack. There account details, and sensitive text messages-if it detects
are some "scary" issues around the technology, including an unauthorized user.5
where data collected by Apple would stored, and who
SAMSUNG OFFERS SMARTPHONE USERS
would have access to it "Hopefully this would be entirely
ISLAMIC APPS THIS RAMADAN6
up to the consumer or user of the device whether or
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., a market leader and awardnot they were going to buy into it at all. Apple's patent,
winning innovator in consumer electroniCS, announced
"Systems and Methods for Identifying Unauthorized Users
the launch of a dozen customized Islamic apps for
of an Electronic Device," was filed in February 2009, but
smartphones. The suite of applications includes a Prayer
published August 19th by the U.S. Patent & Trademark
Time calculator that shows official prayer times in over
Office. The "kill switch" would be part of a processor that
400 cities and the only mobile Quran that is certified by
Apple would create.4
AI Azhar. The applications can be downloaded for free and
The ways a registered owner uses the iPhone and where can be used across a variety of mobile phone platforms
it's used could also be obtained, Apple said. "For example, including Android, and Samsung's own Bada operating
information such as the current's user's photograph, system. The new applications are available to users of
a voice recording of the current user, screenshots of Android, Bada, and Java-based phones who can download
the electronic device, key-logs the of electroniC device, them via shortcuts to the Samsung's App Store. Bada
communication packets (e.g., Internet packets) served smartphone users can also download the applications
to the electronic device, location coordinates of the directly from the App Store (www.samsungapps.com).
electronic device, or geo-tagged photos of the surrounding Users with online access through Wi-Fi or 3G can also
use the built-in RSS Readers on their Galaxy S and Wave
area can be gathered."
handsets to update the AI Sayan application with the latest
"Unauthorized users" could be detected, the company
Islamic and regional news." The smartphone has become
said, by monitoring, "activities such as entering an
a ubiquitous part of day-to-day life and it seems only
incorrect password a predetermined number of times
fitting that it plays an important role during the month of
in a row, hacking the electronic device, jail-breaking
Ramadan," said the General Manager of Samsung Egypt
the electronic device, unlocking the electronic device,
"Ramadan is the holiest month in the Islamic calendar and
removing a SIM card from the electronic device, or moving
we are keen to offer our customers the added functionality
a predetermined distance away from a synced device."
of Islamic smartphone applications." The new range of
applications
includes:
Apple is proposing that when an "unauthorized user is
..................................................................................
http://technolog.msnbc.msn.comLnews/2010/08/23/4954400-apple-would-use-voice-facial-recognition-as-part-of-iphone-kill-switch
http://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/apple-applies-for-iphone-killswitch-patentj
5 http://www.zawya.com/prlntstory.cfm?storyid-ZAWYA20100829114836
4
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• A Hijri calendar that integrates with the smartphone's
calendar, and shows Islamic and national holidays
• A Prayer Time calculator that shows official prayer times
in over 400 cities with multiple Adhan voices. The
application also shows the pOSition of the Qibla to the
user
• A Mobile Quran application that is AI-Azhar certified and
features popular Ottoman calligraphy
• An AI-Doaa' application that shows Doaas and Ahadith
Qudsaya organized by situation. with comprehensive
explanations of origins and benefits
• The AI-Sebha application which shows popular morning
and nightly Tasabeeh with explanations
• An AI-Sunna application, which automatically indexes
all Muhammed Sunnahs for different situations and
explains the rewards of each Sunna
• The AI-Bayan application keeps users updated on the
latest Islamic and regional news with regional and
Islamic RSS feeds
• A Hajj & Umra Daily guide which features step-by-step
explanations of all the rituals and deeds
aCSiSCIbSS,S 'lHiMerti!sii lay IRIiI OAlv
On GoGoStat Sync, you can synchronize contacts and
photos across multiple social media sites, publish status
updates across sites, and sync address books with social
networks and email accounts. One feature of the Sync
app is that synchronization occurs in the background, not
just when users are logged in. Synchronization can be
defined in any direction, and users can set-up their Sync
rules using credentials from any of their social media sites,
so it is not necessary to set up different credentials for
GoGoStat Sync?
SocialShield, is a service designed to help parents keep
their kids safe while using online social networks. "Since
launching this· summer, we've proven the technology works.
SocialShield has identified suspicious friends, including a
sex offender who had connected with a child ·on a social
network, as well as helping one family with a suicidal
teen after keywords were flagged in the child's stream."
A cloud-based service, SocialShield has no software to
download or install, and extracts information wherever
Facebook, MySpace, or other social networks are being
used, including cell phones.s
Group Texting, Going Beyond Mobile
Texting is not just for kids anymore. Thanks to iPhones,
• The Tazkerah application notifies users when and Blackberrys, and new mobile apps, it is possible to text
how many times to recite the Zikr while explaining the a group of people at once, opening the world of text to
benefits and origins of each Zikr
the novice. Group texting is a great tool for personal
• The 99 Names application shows the 99 Divine names collaboration. It can be' used in almost every situation, from
in beautiful graphics accompanied with explanations of making plans to gathering opinions. Free smartphone apps
their meaning
like Fast Society (iPhone), textPlus 4 (Apple and Android
devices),
BrightKite (Apple, Android and BlackBerry), and
• The Zakaty is an interactive Zakah calculator
GroupMe (iPhone and, next month, Android) are among
accompanied by explanations and Esnad
the apps that have emerged, making it easier and smarter
• The Ramadaniat application contains a full description to group text. 9
of Ramadan activities
THE REALITY OF SOCIAL NETWORKING IN A
Currently, the applications can be downloaded and used WIRELESS AGEW
on a variety of Samsung smartphones including the Galaxy
Facebook brings the Afghan War to Fort
S, Wave, and Java-based models like Champ (C3303K).
Campbell
With each successive year of war, new technologies and
SYNCING SOCIAL NETWORKS
Managing your multiple different social network streams social-media sites have narrowed the distance between
and accounts can be a time consuming task for some. the home front and the frontlines. In the early days of the
A number of startups aim to help you publish to multiple Afghan war - before Facebook existed - troops typically
social networks at the same time including Ping.fm and e-mailed home a few times a week or called with a lesser
HelloTxt. GoGoStat Sync, a startup developed by a frequency.
number of ex-Microsoft employees is hoping to make the
Today, spouses and troops; based in even the most remote
syncing of social networks a bit easier today by allowing
areas of Afghanistan, can trade messages and phone
users to organize and update their profiles on Twitter,
calls dozens of times a day. In good times, the minute-byFacebook, MySpace, and Flickr.
..................................................................................
7 http://techcrunch.com/2010/04/12/gogostat-competes-witll-ping-to-sync-your-soclal-networks/
a http://venturebeat.com/2010/10/05/socialshield-pulls-in-l0m-to-help-parents-monitor-kids-soclal-networkingf
9 http://www.cmswire.com/cms/enterprise-20/mobile-enterprise-group-texting-going-beyond-mobile-009017.php
10 http://www.washingtonpostcom/wp-dyn/ContenVartlcle/2010/11/04/AR2010110407505..J)f.htmls
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minute status updates provide peace of mind.
A massive roadside bombing had killed five soldiers from
her husband's 120-man infantry company. The soldier was
calling Franks, who was at the center of a wives' support
network, in violation of a military~imposed communications
blackout on the unit.
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It was an agonizingly slow process. First the military had
to track down the relatives of the deceased across the
country. Then chaplains and officers trained to deliver the
news drove to their doorsteps, a ritual that the military
considers sacred.
She waited there until midnight, the hour at which the Army
Using an Afghan cellphone, he told Franks that her
stops notifying next of kin of a fatality.
husband was safe, but that the company commander was
probably dead.
.
Then s'he went inside and logged onto Facebook.
The events 7,000 miles away in Afghanistan take on
a different face when the windows of communications
are temporarily closed or eliminated. The world of
communications and the reliance on technology becomes
abundantly clear when that resource is limited or nonexistent. Living behind the scenes as part of a military
family is a story that often goes untold and is brought
to life when tragedy occurs and is broadcasted as the
'Breaking News' or come~ across as a Really Simple
Syndication (RSS) News Feed.
News of his death hit Facebook before his wife was
formally notified.
The Army relies on phone trees run by the wives to spread
the word. Franks spent most of the day on the phone with
spouses and parents. "First off your soldier is safe," she
began. "However, I have some bad news I need to give
you." At that point, Franks was supposed to read an official
script listing the names of the dead before moving on to
the next family.
As she was working through her call list, the blackout was
lifted. Franks"husband, Michael, contacted her via a Skype
video call from Afghanistan. He looked physically and
emotionally drained.
To ensure that a service member's family does not receive
the news of a death bye-mail, phone, or an errant
Facebook posting, the military temporarily shuts down
Internet access to deployed units that suffer a fatality. In WI-FI DIRECT
today's era of ever-present connections, such blackouts The Wi-Fi Alliance unveiled a new standard it hopes will
are rarely enough to cut off the flow of information.
make Wi-Fi the de facto standard for peer-to-peer wireless.
Known as Wi-Fi Direct, it will turn any supporting device into
When the news comes that something terrible has
an access point and let it auto-discover other compatible
happened, social-media sites become sluggish with the
hardware nearby. The technique will not only simplify ad
number of users Clnd text messages being sent at a rapid
hoc networks, reducing the need for a dedicated router,
speed in a quest to get the latest update. Worried spouses
but will let peripherals use Wi-FI where they couldn't
search for news, post -pray~rs on Facebook and they scour
have before; cameras, mice and other devices could work
the Internet for scraps of information about the fate of their
without
needing any special setup.ll
loved ones.
In moments of crisis, the connectivity can make the
looming possibility of death seem almost suffocating.
Spouses jump with each phone call and ringing doorbells
spark tremors of terror.
The Army funnels information to the spouses of deployed
soldiers through volunteer-run Family Readiness Groups,
which evolved from now-defunct officer and enlisted wives
clubs.
Many of the spouses were accustomed to getting calls from
their husbands via cellphone and Skype in the morning. No
one received a call on the morning of June 7. None of the
soldiers were on Facebook. The unit was in blackout.
Using Wi-Fi radios embedded in Wi-Fi Direct devices to
form a connection between gadgets in the absence of
a nearby hotspot or Internet connection, two or more
individuals can share apps, play a video game together
and more using Wi-Fi direct. Pictures can be wirelessly
printed' from a camera at a kiosk, or display smartphone
pictures on a TV. For security reasons, a pair of devices
will communicate with one another, similar to forming a
connection between two Bluetooth devices. Press a button
on the first device and the subsequent devices open a
window asking for permission to connect to the primary
device.12
Wi-Fi Direct is expected to be approved for new products
..................................................................................
II
12
http://www.electronlsta.com/articles/09/10/14/wi.fi.directstandard.due.in.mid.2010/#ixzz15YB8gEbK
http://content.usatoday.com/communities/technologylive/posV2010/10/wi-fi-direct-can-connect-devices-without-a-hotspoV1
10
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by mid-2010, allowing devices to communicate with one
another or other forms of hardware, or perform tasks like
printing or sharing files. "Wi-R Direct represents a leap
forward for our industry. Wi-Fi users worldwide will benefit
from a single-technology solution to transfer content and
share applications quickly and easily among devices, even
when a Wi-Fi access paint isn't available. The impact is
that Wi-Fi will become even more pervasive and useful for
consumers across the enterprise."13 Devices that meet the
alliance's specifications can use the Wi-Fi Certified logo on
their products.
"Empowering devices to move content and share
applications without having to join a network brings even
more convenience and utility to Wi-Fi-enabled devices. The
new Wi-Fi Direct standard is intended for both consumer
electronics and enterprise applications. It will include
WPA2 security, and management features for enterprise
environments."14
ANALOG CODECS16
G.729 delivers call quality that is only marginally less than
that of G.711 but uses approximately half the bandwidth.
This offers very significant benefits as we move to fully IP
based networks as it allows greater volumes of voice traffic
to be carried. G.722 on the other hand uses a similar
amount of bandwidth as G.711, but samples audio at 16
Kilohertz (kHz) which is double that of G.711 and delivers
what many regard as far more natural sounding audio.
Newer codecs such as Siren22, created by Polycom, take
things a step further and sample audio at 22 kHz, resulting
in audio that sounds even better but with the downside of
using Significantly more bandwidth. G722-2 or AMR-WB is
also slowly making it's presence felt in the mobile market
with a number of mobile carriers having recently deployed
this codec, which offers superior 16 kHz voice quality
over a mobile connection when the end users both have
handsets that support this co dec.
lteliJe8Je8_ AlftJI.ril8~ i) IXiI QII;
GSMA VOLTE16
The GSMA Voice over LTE (VoLTE) initiative was formally
announced on February 15, 2010. In establishing the
VoLTE initiative, GSMA has adopted the work of the One
Voice Initiative* as the baSis of the work to lead the global
mobile industry towards a standard way of delivering voice
and messaging services for Long-Term Evolution (LTE).
Using lP Multimedia Subsystem specifications developed
by 3GPP as its basis, GSMA expanded upon the original
scope of One Voice work to address the entire end-to-end
voice and SMS ecosystem by also focusing on Roaming
and· Interconnect interfaces, in addition to the interface
between the customer and the network.
This is comprised of three sets of interfaces:
• The User Network interface (UNI) between the customer's
equipment and the service provider's network
• The Roaming Network Network Interface (R-NNI) between
the Home and Visited Network of a sUbscriber that is not
attached to their normal Home network
• The Interconnect Network Network Interface (I-NNI)
between the networks of the two parties making a call
TURN YOUR IPHONE INTO A FAKE WINDOWS
PHONE 7 WITH THIS HACK17
Released as a public beta, a new hack transforms the
interface ofthe iPhone to mimic the main screen of Windows
Phone 7. The iPhone theme does not work the same. The
authentic Windows Phone 7, uses tiles to represent "Hubs"
containing the main experiences of the 'phone. The photo
hub has a camera and after snapping a photo it brings
up a feature to share the photo on social networks or via
e-mail. This is called 'threaded' experiences. The iPhone
hack does not replicate the threaded Hub functionality, it
repurposes the individual apps into Windows Phone 7 like
tiles and mimics the process of adding or removing tiles.
Jailbreaking is required •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • e· • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/09/10/14/apple_endorses_wULdirecUor_nelworklnl!-withouLhotspots.html
Ibid
15 http://www.vocal.com/speech_coders/g722.html
18 http://www.gsmworld.com
17 http://www.wlred.com/gadgetlab/2011/01/windows-phOne-7-hack/
13
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LATEST NEWS
1
802.11ac
Although the wireless 802.11n standard has just recently
been made official, IEEE has begun work on the next iteration
of Wi-Fi. The coming upgrade may deliver speeds of up to 1
Gigabit per second by improving the effeciency of existing
technology.
The IEEE 802.11ac standard, set to be in draft form by 2011,
will mainly work with the current technology powering 802.11a.
The new standard will continue to work on the 5.0 GHz band,
but will provide larger channels for data throughput. Whereas
current technology uses 20 MHz-wide channels, 802.11ac will
be using either 40 MHz or 80 MHz-wide (and possibly 160 MHz)
channels to deliver data. Files will be able to flow more freely
on your home network come 2012.
None of these specs are standardized as of yet and they may
be drastically changed in the next few years. On top of that, a
fatter pipe for wireless data throughput does not increase our
actual Internet connection speeds. For most home users, the
relevancy of 802.11ac may depend on the expansion of robust
fiber optic Internet infrastructure or an increase in large file
data streaming.
of $1,000. This device wili cost just $100, and because both
the software and hardware are open-source, you can build
your own.
ANONYMOUS CREDENTIALS!
Anonymous credential systems allow users to authenticate
themselves in a privacy preserving manner. In a credential
system, a user can obtain credentials from an organization, and
then at some point later on prove to the organization (or ~ny
other party) that they have been given appropriate credentials.
In an anonymous credential system, user can do this without
revealing anything else about their identity. In fact, we can even
guarantee that if the user credentials are used a second time,
no one will be able to tell that the two interactions involved the
same user. Not only is it impossible to identify the user; there
will be no way anyone can trace the user's transactions.
Research has focused primarily on using new developments
in proof systems (such as the pairing based constructions of
Groth, Ostrovsky, and Sahai) to design credential schemes
which rely on weaker assumptions, allow users to perform a
wider range of transactions anonymously, or prevent users from
abusing their privileges.
UBERTOOTH ONE: A BLUETOOTH NETWORK
SPRINT'S 4G STRATEGY4
HACKING TOOL ON KICKSTARTER2
Sprint's long-term 4G strategy to be presented later this year,
Ubertooth One is a cheap, open-source Bluetooth network indicates that Sprint might adopt the LTE technology that
sniffer. Unlike Wi-Fi, which has had a wide range of free network everyone else is using, and ditch Wi Max, which no one else is
monitoring tools for years, Bluetooth has remained pretty using.
closed. This is about to
change with the Ubertooth SMARTER WI-FIB
There is a smarter way for mobile operators to leverage Wi-Fi.
Kickstarter project.
A smarter solution would actually use Wi-A to Improve indoor
The Ubertooth One is a coverage while offloading Internet traffic from the macro
USB plug with an antenna, network.
and ARM Cortex-M3
processor-based board In effect, Wi-A access points in the home or office would be
in-between. Plug it into turned into mini-cell towers, indoor extensions to an operator's
your computer and you can mobile network. Thus, mobile operators would improve indoor
use it with various wireless monitoring tools like Kismet. The coverage while gaining additional capacity from Wi-Fi.
Ubertooth allows you to use Bluetooth in monitoring mode. This A smarter Wi-Fi solution would provide a secure, trusted
"promiscuous" mode makes the radio pass everything that it connection to smartphones over Wi-A so the operator's most
picks :up onto the host computer. Normally, wireless receivers valuable voice and SMS services can reach subscribers over
will ignore anything not addressed to them. In "promiscuous" any broadband network.
mode, you can sniff and gather data meant for other devices.
For subscribers, this smart Wi-Fi solution would result in
These tools can be used for testing network security, or for dramatically improved indoor coverage, using the Wi-A which
hacking. Kismet, for example (and derivatives like the Mac already exists in the home or office.
OS X version KisMac) can be used to crack Wi-Fi networks'
passwords.
The technology has been standardized in the 3GPP's Release 6
specifications and is known as UMA/GAN. Commercial services
Until now, Bluetooth monitoring hardware would cost upwards based on the UMA/GAN specifications are available today.
http://www.pcworld.com/artlcle/184067/80211ac_standarcLwiII_brinlL&igabILspeeds_to_wlfi.html
http://www.wired.com/gadgeUab/2011/02/ubertooth.one-a.bluetooth-netwodl.hacking-tooioOn-kickstarter/?uIm_source-feedbumer&utm_medium-twitte.&UIm_carRpaign-Feed.lr.3A+wired.lr.2FFgiC+(Wir
ed+Gadget+Lab)
J http://research.mlcrosoft.com/en-us/projects/creds
• http://www.businessinslder.com
• http://www.wfrelessweek.com
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NEXT ISSUE: TOOLS FOR AND AGAINST LAW ENFORCEM.ENT
MARCUS C. THOMAS
D. KEITH BRYARS
Assistant Director
FBI, Operational Technology Division
Acting Deputy Assistant Director
FBI, Operational Technology Division
ANTHONY P.DICLEMENTE
Section Chief
FBI, Data Acquisition/Intercept
Unit Chief
FBI, CALEA Implementation Unit
Technical Researcher
Technical Researcher
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