High Performance FSK/ASK Transceiver IC ADF7020-1

High Performance FSK/ASK Transceiver IC ADF7020-1
High Performance
FSK/ASK Transceiver IC
ADF7020-1
FEATURES
On-chip VCO and fractional-N PLL
On-chip 7-bit ADC and temperature sensor
Fully automatic frequency control loop (AFC) compensates
for lower tolerance crystals
Digital RSSI
Integrated TRx switch
Leakage current <1 μA in power-down mode
Low power, low IF transceiver
Frequency bands
135 MHz to 650 MHz, direct output
80 MHz to 325 MHz, divide-by-2 mode
Data rates supported
0.15 kbps to 200 kbps, FSK
0.15 kbps to 64 kbps, ASK
2.3 V to 3.6 V power supply
Programmable output power
−20 dBm to +13 dBm in 63 steps
Receiver sensitivity
−119 dBm at 1 kbps, FSK, 315 MHz
−114 dBm at 9.6 kbps, FSK, 315 MHz
−111.8 dBm at 9.6 kbps, ASK, 315 MHz
Low power consumption
17.6 mA in receive mode
21 mA in transmit mode (10 dBm output)
APPLICATIONS
Low cost wireless data transfer
Wireless medical applications
Remote control/security systems
Wireless metering
Keyless entry
Home automation
Process and building control
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
RLNA
RSET
CREG(1:4)
POLARIZATION
LDO(1:4)
ADCIN
MUXOUT
TEMP
SENSOR
OFFSET
CORRECTION
TEST MUX
LNA
RFIN
MUX
RSSI
IF FILTER
RFINB
7-BIT ADC
FSK/ASK
DEMODULATOR
DATA
SYNCHRONIZER
GAIN
OFFSET
CORRECTION
CE
AGC
CONTROL
FSK MOD
CONTROL
RFOUT
DIVIDERS/
MUXING
Σ-Δ
MODULATOR
GAUSSIAN
FILTER
DIV P
DATA CLK
Tx/Rx
CONTROL
AFC
CONTROL
DATA I/O
INT/LOCK
N/N+1
SLE
SERIAL
PORT
VCO
DIV R
L1
L2
VCOIN
CPOUT
SREAD
SCLK
PFD
RING
OSC1
OSC
OSC2
CLK
DIV
CLKOUT
05669-001
CP
SDATA
Figure 1.
Rev. 0
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113
© 2005 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
ADF7020-1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1
LNA/PA Matching...................................................................... 25
Applications....................................................................................... 1
Transmit Protocol and Coding Considerations ..................... 26
Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1
Device Programming after Initial Power-Up ......................... 26
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
Interfacing to Microcontroller/DSP ........................................ 26
General Description ......................................................................... 3
Serial Interface ................................................................................ 29
Specifications..................................................................................... 4
Readback Format........................................................................ 29
Timing Characteristics ................................................................ 8
Register 0—N Register............................................................... 30
Absolute Maximum Ratings.......................................................... 10
Register 1—Oscillator/Filter Register...................................... 31
ESD Caution................................................................................ 10
Register 2—Transmit Modulation Register
(ASK/OOK Mode) ..................................................................... 32
Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions........................... 11
Typical Performance Characteristics ........................................... 13
Register 2—Transmit Modulation Register (FSK Mode) ..... 33
Frequency Synthesizer ................................................................... 15
Register 2—Transmit Modulation Register
(GFSK/GOOK Mode)................................................................ 34
Reference Input........................................................................... 15
Register 3—Receiver Clock Register ....................................... 35
Choosing Channels for Best System Performance................. 17
Register 4—Demodulator Set-up Register.............................. 36
Transmitter ...................................................................................... 18
Register 5—Sync Byte Register................................................. 37
RF Output Stage.......................................................................... 18
Register 6—Correlator/Demodulator Register ...................... 38
Modulation Schemes.................................................................. 18
Register 7—Readback Set-up Register .................................... 39
Receiver Section.............................................................................. 20
Register 8—Power-Down Test Register .................................. 40
RF Front End............................................................................... 20
Register 9—AGC Register......................................................... 41
RSSI/AGC.................................................................................... 21
Register 10—AGC 2 Register.................................................... 42
FSK Demodulators on the ADF7020-1 ................................... 21
Register 11—AFC Register ....................................................... 42
FSK Correlator/Demodulator................................................... 21
Register 12—Test Register......................................................... 43
Linear FSK Demodulator .......................................................... 23
Register 13—Offset Removal and Signal Gain Register ....... 44
AFC Section ................................................................................ 23
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 45
Automatic Sync Word Recognition ......................................... 24
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 45
Applications..................................................................................... 25
REVISION HISTORY
12/05—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 48
ADF7020-1
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The ADF7020-1 is a low power, highly integrated FSK/GFSK/
ASK/OOK/GOOK transceiver designed for operation in the
low UHF and VHF bands. The ADF7020-1 uses an external
VCO inductor that allows users to set the operating frequency
anywhere between 135 MHz and 650 MHz. Using the divideby-2 circuit allows users to operate the device as low as 80 MHz.
The typical range of the VCO is about 10% of the operating
frequency. A complete transceiver can be built using a small
number of external discrete components, making the ADF70201 very suitable for price-sensitive and area-sensitive
applications.
The transmit section contains a VCO and low noise
fractional-N PLL with output resolution of <1 ppm. This
frequency agile PLL allows the ADF7020-1 to be used in
frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) systems. The VCO
operates at twice the fundamental frequency to reduce spurious
emissions and frequency pulling problems.
A low IF architecture is used in the receiver (200 kHz),
minimizing power consumption and the external component
count and avoiding interference problems at low frequencies.
The ADF7020-1 supports a wide variety of programmable
features, including Rx linearity, sensitivity, and IF bandwidth,
allowing the user to trade off receiver sensitivity and selectivity
for current consumption, depending on the application. The
receiver also features a patent-pending automatic frequency
control (AFC) loop, allowing the PLL to compensate for
frequency error in the incoming signal.
An on-chip ADC provides readback of an integrated temperature sensor, an external analog input, the battery voltage, or the
RSSI signal, which provides savings on an ADC in some
applications. The temperature sensor is accurate to ±10°C over
the full operating temperature range of −40°C to +85°C. This
accuracy can be improved by doing a 1-point calibration at
room temperature and storing the result in memory.
The transmitter output power is programmable in 63 steps from
−20 dBm to +13 dBm. The transceiver RF frequency, channel
spacing, and modulation are programmable using a simple 3wire interface. The device operates with a power supply range of
2.3 V to 3.6 V and can be powered down when not in use.
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 48
ADF7020-1
SPECIFICATIONS
VDD = 2.3 V to 3.6 V, GND = 0 V, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical specifications are at VDD = 3 V, TA = 25°C.
All measurements are performed using the EVAL-ADF7020-1-DBX and PN9 data sequence, unless otherwise noted.
Table 1.
Parameter
RF CHARACTERISTICS
Frequency Ranges (Direct Output)
Frequency Ranges
(Divide-by-2 Mode)
VCO Frequency Range
Phase Frequency Detector Frequency
TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS
Data Rate
FSK/GFSK
OOK/ASK
OOK/ASK
Frequency Shift Keying
GFSK/FSK Frequency Deviation 2, 3
Deviation Frequency Resolution
Gaussian Filter BT
Amplitude Shift Keying
ASK Modulation Depth
OOK-PA Off Feedthrough
Transmit Power 4
Transmit Power
Transmit Power Variation vs. Temp.
Transmit Power Variation vs. VDD
Programmable Step Size
−20 dBm to +13 dBm
Integer Boundary
Reference
Harmonics
Second Harmonic
Third Harmonic
All Other Harmonics
VCO Frequency Pulling, OOK Mode
Optimum PA Load Impedance 5
Min
Max
Unit
Test Conditions
135
650
MHz
See Table 5 for VCO bias settings at different
frequencies
80
325
MHz
20.96
Ratio
MHz
0.15
0.15
0.3
200
64 1
100
kbps
kbps
kbaud
Using Manchester biphase-L encoding
1
4.88
100
110
620
kHz
kHz
Hz
PFD = 3.625 MHz
PFD = 20 MHz
PFD = 3.625 MHz
30
±1
±1
dB
dBm
dBm
dBm
dB
dB
VDD = 3.0 V, TA = 25°C, FRF > 200 MHz
VDD = 3.0 V, TA = 25°C, FRF < 200 MHz
From −40°C to +85°C
From 2.3 V to 3.6 V at 315 MHz, TA = 25°C
0.3125
dB
−55
−65
dBc
dBc
−27
−21
−35
30
79.4 + j64
109 + j64
40 + j47.5
dBc
dBc
dBc
kHz rms
1.1
RF/256
Typ
1.2
FMAX/FMIN, using VCO bias settings in Table 5
PFD must be less than direct output
frequency/31
0.5
−50
−20
−20
+13
+11
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 48
See Figure 13 for how output power varies
with PA setting
50 kHz loop BW
Unfiltered conductive
DR = 9.6 kbps
FRF = 140 MHz
FRF = 320 MHz
FRF = 590 MHz
ADF7020-1
Parameter
RECEIVER PARAMETERS
FSK/GFSK Input Sensitivity
Sensitivity at 1 kbps
Sensitivity at 9.6 kbps
OOK Input Sensitivity
Sensitivity at 1 kbps
Sensitivity at 9.6 kbps
LNA and Mixer, Input IP37
Enhanced Linearity Mode
Low Current Mode
High Sensitivity Mode
Rx Spurious Emissions 8
AFC
Pull-In Range
Response Time
Accuracy
CHANNEL FILTERING
Adjacent Channel Rejection
(Offset = ±1 × IF Filter BW
Setting)
Second Adjacent Channel Rejection
(Offset = ±2 × IF Filter BW
Setting)
Third Adjacent Channel Rejection
(Offset = ±3 × IF Filter BW
Setting)
Image Channel Rejection
CO-CHANNEL REJECTION
Wideband Interference Rejection
BLOCKING
±1 MHz
±5 MHz
±10 MHz
±10 MHz (High Linearity Mode)
Saturation (Maximum Input Level)
LNA Input Impedance
RSSI
Range at Input
Linearity
Absolute Accuracy
Response Time
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
−119.2
−114.2
dBm
dBm
−118.2
−111.8
dBm
dBm
6.8
−3.2
−35
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
−57
−47
Test Conditions
At BER = 1E − 3, FRF = 315 MHz,
LNA and PA matched separately 6
FDEV= 5 kHz, high sensitivity mode 7
FDEV = 10 kHz, high sensitivity mode
At BER = 1E − 3, FRF = 315 MHz
High sensitivity mode
High sensitivity mode
Pin = −20 dBm, 2 CW interferers,
FRF = 315 MHz, F1 = FRF + 3 MHz,
F2 = FRF + 6 MHz, maximum gain
<1 GHz at antenna input
>1 GHz at antenna input
±50
48
1
kHz
Bits
kHz
IF_BW = 200 kHz
Modulation index = 0.875
27
dB
50
dB
IF filter BW settings = 100 kHz, 150 kHz,
200 kHz; desired signal 3 dB above the input
sensitivity level; CW interferer power level
increased until BER = 10−3; image channel
excluded
55
dB
35
−2
70
dB
dB
dB
60
dB
68
65
72
12
237 − j193
101.4 − j161.6
49.3 − j104.6
dB
dB
dB
dBm
Ω
Ω
Ω
FSK mode, BER = 10−3
FRF = 130 MHz, RFIN to GND
FRF = 310 MHz
FRF = 610 MHz
−100 to −36
±2
±3
150
dBm
dB
dB
μs
See the RSSI/AGC section
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 48
Image at FRF − 400 kHz
Swept from 100 MHz to 2 GHz, measured as
channel rejection
Desired signal 3 dB above the input sensitivity
level, CW interferer power level increased
until BER = 10−2
ADF7020-1
Parameter
PHASE-LOCKED LOOP
VCO Gain
Unit
Test Conditions
40
MHz/V
35
MHz/V
16.5
MHz/V
Phase Noise (In-Band)
−89
dBc/Hz
433 MHz, VCO adjust = 0,
VCO_BIAS_SETTING = 2
315 MHz, VCO adjust = 0,
VCO_BIAS_SETTING = 2
135 MHz, VCO adjust = 0,
VCO_BIAS_SETTING = 1
PA = 0 dBm, VDD = 3.0 V, PFD = 10 MHz,
FRF = 315 MHz, VCO_BIAS_SETTING = 2
Normalized In-Band Phase Noise
Floor 9
Phase Noise (Out-of-Band)
Residual FM
PLL Settling
−198
dBc/Hz
−110
128
40
dBc/Hz
Hz
μs
1 MHz offset
From 200 Hz to 20 kHz, FRF = 315 MHz
Measured for a 10 MHz frequency step to
within 5 ppm accuracy, PFD = 20 MHz,
LBW = 50 kHz
MHz
MHz
pF
ms
Must ensure PFD maximum is not exceeded
REFERENCE INPUT
Crystal Reference
External Oscillator
Load Capacitance
Crystal Start-Up Time
Min
Typ
Max
3.625
3.625
24
24
33
2.1
1.0
ms
CMOS
levels
±1
±1
LSB
LSB
From 2.3 V to 3.6 V, TA = 25°C
From 2.3 V to 3.6 V, TA = 25°C
10
3.0
150 μs +
(5 × TBIT)
μs
ms
CREG = 100 nF
See Table 13 for more details
Time to synchronized data out, includes
AGC settling. See AGC Information and
Timing section for more details.
Input Level
ADC PARAMETERS
INL
DNL
TIMING INFORMATION
Chip Enabled to Regulator Ready
Chip Enabled to RSSI Ready
Tx-to-Rx Turnaround Time
LOGIC INPUTS
Input High Voltage, VINH
Input Low Voltage, VINL
Input Current, IINH/IINL
Input Capacitance, CIN
Control Clock Input
LOGIC OUTPUTS
Output High Voltage, VOH
Output Low Voltage, VOL
CLKOUT Rise/Fall
CLKOUT Load
TEMPERATURE RANGE—TA
0.7 × V DD
0.2 × V DD
±1
10
50
V
V
μA
pF
MHz
0.4
5
10
+85
V
V
ns
pF
°C
DVDD − 0.4
−40
Refer to the crystal’s data sheet
11.0592 MHz crystal, using 33 pF load
capacitors
Using 16 pF load capacitors
See the Reference Input section
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 48
IOH = 500 μA
IOL = 500 μA
ADF7020-1
Parameter
POWER SUPPLIES
Voltage Supply
VDD
Transmit Current Consumption
433 MHz, 0 dBm/5 dBm/10 dBm
Receive Current Consumption
Low Current Mode
High Sensitivity Mode
Power-Down Mode
Low Power Sleep Mode
Min
Typ
2.3
Max
Unit
Test Conditions
3.6
V
13/16/21
mA
All VDD pins must be tied together
FRF = 315 MHz, VDD = 3.0 V, PA is matched
to 50 Ω
VCO_BIAS_SETTING = 2
17.6
20.1
mA
mA
VCO_BIAS_SETTING = 2
VCO_BIAS_SETTING = 2
0.1
1
1
μA
Higher data rates are achievable, depending on local regulations.
For definition of frequency deviation, see the Register 2—Transmit Modulation Register (FSK Mode) section.
3
For definition of GFSK frequency deviation, see the Register 2—Transmit Modulation Register (GFSK/GOOK Mode) section.
4
Measured as maximum unmodulated power. Output power varies with both supply and temperature.
5
For matching details, see the LNA/PA Matching section.
6
Sensitivity for combined matching network case is typically 2 dB less than separate matching networks. See Table 11 for sensitivity values at various data rates and
frequencies.
7
See Table 6 for a description of different receiver modes.
8
Follow the matching and layout guidelines to achieve the relevant FCC/ETSI specifications.
9
This figure can be used to calculate the in-band phase noise for any operating frequency. Use the following equation to calculate the in-band phase noise
performance as seen at the PA output: –198 + 10 log(fPFD) + 20 log N.
2
Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 48
ADF7020-1
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
VDD = 3 V ± 10%, VGND = 0 V, TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted. Guaranteed by design, but not production tested.
Table 2.
Parameter
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
t8
t9
t10
Limit at TMIN to TMAX
<10
<10
<25
<25
<10
<20
<25
<25
<10
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
Test Conditions/Comments
SDATA-to-SCLK set-up time
SDATA-to-SCLK hold time
SCLK high duration
SCLK low duration
SCLK-to-SLE set-up time
SLE pulse width
SCLK-to-SREAD data valid, readback
SREAD hold time after SCLK, readback
SCLK-to-SLE disable time, readback
t3
t4
SCLK
t1
SDATA
DB31 (MSB)
t2
DB30
DB1
(CONTROL BIT C2)
DB2
DB0 (LSB)
(CONTROL BIT C1)
t6
05669-002
SLE
t5
Figure 2. Serial Interface Timing Diagram
t1
t2
SCLK
SDATA
REG7 DB0
(CONTROL BIT C1)
SLE
t3
t10
t8
RV16
RV15
RV2
RV1
05669-003
X
SREAD
t9
Figure 3. Readback Timing Diagram
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 48
ADF7020-1
±1 × DATA RATE/32
1/DATA RATE
RxCLK
RxDATA
05669-004
DATA
Figure 4. RxData/RxCLK Timing Diagram
1/DATA RATE
TxCLK
DATA
FETCH
SAMPLE
05669-005
TxDATA
NOTES
1. TxCLK ONLY AVAILABLE IN GFSK MODE.
Figure 5. TxData/TxCLK Timing Diagram
Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 48
ADF7020-1
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 3.
Parameter
VDD to GND 1
Analog I/O Voltage to GND
Digital I/O Voltage to GND
Operating Temperature Range
Industrial (B Version)
Storage Temperature Range
Maximum Junction Temperature
MLF θJA Thermal Impedance
Reflow Soldering
Peak Temperature
Time at Peak Temperature
1
Rating
−0.3 V to +5 V
−0.3 V to AVDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to DVDD + 0.3 V
−40°C to +85°C
−65°C to +125°C
150°C
26°C/W
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
This device is a high performance RF-integrated circuit with an
ESD rating of <2 kV. It is ESD sensitive; proper precautions
should be taken for handling and assembly.
260°C
40 sec
GND = CPGND = RFGND = DGND = AGND = 0 V.
ESD CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily accumulate on
the human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection. Although this product features
proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may occur on devices subjected to high energy
electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD precautions are recommended to avoid performance
degradation or loss of functionality.
Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 48
ADF7020-1
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
CVCO
GND1
L1
GND
L2
VDD
CPOUT
CREG3
VDD3
OSC1
OSC2
MUXOUT
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
VCOIN
CREG1
1
2
ADF7020-1
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
CLKOUT
DATA CLK
DATA I/O
INT/LOCK
VDD2
CREG2
ADCIN
GND2
SCLK
SREAD
SDATA
SLE
05669-006
MIX_I
MIX_I
MIX_Q
MIX_Q
FILT_I
FILT_I
GND4
FILT_Q
FILT_Q
GND4
TEST_A
CE
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
VDD1 3
RFOUT 4
RFGND 5
RFIN 6
RFINB 7
RLNA 8
VDD4 9
RSET 10
CREG4 11
GND4 12
PIN 1
INDICATOR
Figure 6. Pin Configuration
Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
1
Mnemonic
VCOIN
2
CREG1
3
VDD1
4
RFOUT
5
6
RFGND
RFIN
7
8
9
10
11
RFINB
RLNA
VDD4
RSET
CREG4
12
13 to 18
GND4
MIX/FILT
19, 22
20, 21,
23
24
GND4
FILT/TEST_A
25
SLE
26
SDATA
CE
Description
VCO Input Pin. The tuning voltage on this pin determines the output frequency of the voltage controlled
oscillator (VCO). The higher the tuning voltage, the higher the output frequency.
Regulator Voltage for PA Block. A 100 nF in parallel with a 5.1 pF capacitor should be placed between this pin
and ground for regulator stability and noise rejection.
Voltage Supply for PA Block. Decoupling capacitors of 0.1 μF and 10 pF should be placed as close as possible to
this pin. All VDD pins should be tied together.
PA Output Pin. The modulated signal is available at this pin. Output power levels are from −20 dBm to +13 dBm.
The output should be impedance matched to the desired load using suitable components. See the Transmitter
section.
Ground for Output Stage of Transmitter. All GND pins should be tied together.
LNA Input for Receiver Section. Input matching is required between the antenna and the differential LNA input
to ensure maximum power transfer. See the LNA/PA Matching section.
Complementary LNA Input. See the LNA/PA Matching section.
External Bias Resistor for LNA. Optimum resistor is 1.1 kΩ with 5% tolerance.
Voltage Supply for LNA/MIXER Block. This pin should be decoupled to ground with a 10 nF capacitor.
External Resistor to Set Charge Pump Current and Some Internal Bias Currents. Use 3.6 kΩ with 5% tolerance.
Regulator Voltage for LNA/MIXER Block. A 100 nF capacitor should be placed between this pin and GND for
regulator stability and noise rejection.
Ground for LNA/MIXER Block.
Signal Chain Test Pins. These pins are high impedance under normal conditions and should be left
unconnected.
Ground for LNA/MIXER Block.
Signal Chain Test Pins. These pins are high impedance under normal conditions and should be left
unconnected.
Chip Enable. Bringing CE low puts the ADF7020-1 into complete power-down. Register values are lost when CE
is low, and the part must be reprogrammed once CE is brought high.
Load Enable, CMOS Input. When LE goes high, the data stored in the shift registers is loaded into one of the
four latches. A latch is selected using the control bits.
Serial Data Input. The serial data is loaded MSB first, with the 2 LSBs as the control bits. This pin is a high
impedance CMOS input.
Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 48
ADF7020-1
Pin No.
27
Mnemonic
SREAD
28
SCLK
29
30
GND2
ADCIN
31
CREG2
32
33
VDD2
INT/LOCK
34
35
DATA I/O
DATA CLK
36
CLKOUT
37
MUXOUT
38
OSC2
39
40
OSC1
VDD3
41
CREG3
42
CPOUT
43
44, 46
VDD
L2, L1
45, 47
48
GND, GND1
CVCO
Description
Serial Data Output. This pin is used to feed readback data from the ADF7020-1 to the microcontroller. The SCLK
input is used to clock each readback bit (AFC, ADC readback) from the SREAD pin.
Serial Clock Input. This serial clock is used to clock in the serial data to the registers. The data is latched into the
24-bit shift register on the CLK rising edge. This pin is a digital CMOS input.
Ground for Digital Section.
Analog-to-Digital Converter Input. The internal 7-bit ADC can be accessed through this pin. Full scale is 0 to 1.9 V.
Readback is made using the SREAD pin.
Regulator Voltage for Digital Block. A 100 nF in parallel with a 5.1 pF capacitor should be placed between this
pin and ground for regulator stability and noise rejection.
Voltage Supply for Digital Block. A decoupling capacitor of 10 nF should be placed as close as possible to this pin.
Bidirectional Pin. In output mode (interrupt mode), the ADF7020-1 asserts the INT/LOCK pin when it has found
a match for the preamble sequence. In input mode (lock mode), the microcontroller can be used to lock the
demodulator threshold when a valid preamble has been detected. Once the threshold is locked, NRZ data can
be reliably received. In this mode, a demodulator lock can be asserted with minimum delay.
Transmit Data Input/Received Data Output. This is a digital pin and normal CMOS levels apply.
Transmit/Receive Clock Pin. In receive mode, the pin outputs the synchronized data clock. The positive clock
edge is matched to the center of the received data. In GFSK transmit mode, the pin outputs an accurate clock to
latch the data from the microcontroller into the transmit section at the exact required data rate. See the
Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) section.
A Divided-Down Version of the Crystal Reference with Output Driver. The digital clock output can be used to
drive several other CMOS inputs such as a microcontroller clock. The output has a 50:50 mark-space ratio.
Multiplexer Output Pin. This pin provides the Lock_Detect signal, which is used to determine if the PLL is locked
to the correct frequency. Other signals include Regulator_Ready, which is an indicator of the status of the serial
interface regulator.
Oscillator Output Pin. The reference crystal should be connected between this pin and OSC1. A TCXO reference
can be used by driving this pin with CMOS levels and disabling the crystal oscillator.
Oscillator Input Pin. The reference crystal should be connected between this pin and OSC2.
Voltage Supply for the Charge Pump and PLL Dividers. This pin should be decoupled to ground with a 0.01 μF
capacitor.
Regulator Voltage for Charge Pump and PLL Dividers. A 100 nF in parallel with a 5.1 pF capacitor should be
placed between this pin and ground for regulator stability and noise rejection.
Charge Pump Output. This output generates current pulses that are integrated in the loop filter. The integrated
current changes the control voltage on the input to the VCO.
Voltage Supply for VCO Tank Circuit. This pin should be decoupled to ground with a 0.01 μF capacitor.
External VCO Inductor Pins. A chip inductor should be connected across these pins to set the VCO operating
frequency. See the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) section for details on choosing the appropriate value.
Grounds for VCO Block.
VCO Noise Compensation Node. A 22 nF capacitor should be placed between this pin and CREG1 to reduce
VCO noise.
Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 48
ADF7020-1
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
CARRIER POWER –0.28dBm
REF –70.00dBc/Hz
10.00
dB/
ATTEN 0.00dB
MKR1
REF 10dBm
PEAK
1
LOG
10dB/
10.0000kHz
–87.80dBc/Hz
MKR4 3.482GHz
SWEEP 16.52ms (601pts)
ATTEN 20dB
1
3
4
FREQUENCY OFFSET
10MHz
START 100MHz
RES BW 3MHz
Figure 7. Phase Noise Response at 315 MHz, VDD = 3.0 V, ICP = 1.5 mA
VBW 3MHz
Figure 10. Harmonic Response, RFOUT Matched to 50 Ω, No Filter
REF 15dBm
REF 20dBm
NORM
LOG
10
dB/
ATTEN 30dB
STOP 10.000GHz
SWEEP 16.52ms (601pts)
05669-010
1kHz
05669-007
REF LEVEL
10.00dBm
ATTEN 30dB
Δ Mkr1 1.834GHz
–62.57dB
NORM 1R
LOG
10dB/
MARKER Δ
1.834000000GHz
–62.57dB
FSK
LgAv
W1 S2
S3 FC
AA
£(f):
FTun
Swp
GFSK
CENTER 415.000 0 MHz
SPAN 400 kHz
#RES BW 300 Hz
VBW 300 Hz SWEEP 5.359 s (601pts)
05669-058
V1 V2
S3 FC
AA
£(f):
f>50k
SWP
START 800MHz
#RES BW 30kHz
0
STOP 5.000GHz
SWEEP 5.627s (601pts)
ATTEN 30dB
REF 20dBm
NORM
LOG
10
dB/
200kHz FILTER BW
–10
–15
–20
–25
OOK
–30
–35
ASK
–40
150kHz FILTER BW
V1 V2
S3 FC
AA
£(f):
f>50k
SWP
–50
–55
–60
100kHz FILTER BW
–65
–70
–400 –300 –200 –100
0
100 200 300 400 500 600
–350 –250 –150 –50
50
150 250 350 450 550
IF FREQ (kHz)
Figure 9. IF Filter Response
GOOK
CENTER 415.000 0 MHz
SPAN 300 kHz
#RES BW 360 Hz
VBW 360 Hz SWEEP 2.791 s (601pts)
05669-059
–45
LgAv
05669-009
ATTENUATION LEVEL (dB)
VBW 30kHz
Figure 11. Harmonic Response, Murata Dielectric Filter
Figure 8. Output Spectrum in FSK and GFSK Modulation
–5
1
05669-011
LgAv
Figure 12. Output Spectrum in ASK, OOK, and GOOK Modes, DR = 10 kbps
Rev. 0 | Page 13 of 48
ADF7020-1
0
20
9μA
15
+3.6V,+85°C
11μA
10
–2
5μA
0
7μA
–5
+2.3V,–40°C
+3.6V,–40°C
–3
LOG (BER)
5
PA OUTPUT POWER
+2.3V,+85°C
+2.3V,+25°C
–1
+3.6V,+25°C
+3.0V,–40°C
–4
–5
–10
–6
–15
–7
–20
5
9
13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61
PA SETTING
–8
–127 –126 –125 –124 –123 –122 –121 –120 –119 –118 –117 –116 –115
INPUT POWER (dBm)
Figure 16. Sensitivity vs. VDD and Temperature,
RF = 315 MHz, DR = 1 kBPS, Correlator Demod
Figure 13. PA Output Power vs. Setting
CARRIER POWER 10.75dBm
REF –70.00dBc/Hz
10.00
dB/
ATTEN 6.00dB
MKR1
05669-016
1
05669-013
–25
0
10.0000kHz
–86.20dBc/Hz
–1
200.8k
DATA RATE
–2
BER
–3
–4
1.002k
DATA RATE
9.760k
DATA RATE
–5
–6
10MHz
FREQUENCY OFFSET
05669-017
1kHz
05669-057
–8
–122
–121
–120
–119
–118
–117
–116
–115
–114
–113
–112
–111
–110
–109
–108
–107
–106
–105
–104
–103
–102
–101
–100
–99
–98
–97
–96
–95
–94
–93
–92
–91
–90
–7
RF I/P LEVEL (dBm)
Figure 14. Wideband Interference Rejection. Wanted Signal (880 MHz) at 3 dB
above Sensitivity Point Interferer = FM Jammer (9.76 kbps, 10k Deviation)
Figure 17. BER vs. Data-Rate (Combined Matching Network) Separate LNA
and PA Matching Paths Typically Improve Performance by 2 dB
–60
20
–65
0
–70
ACTUAL INPUT LEVEL
LINEAR AFC OFF
–75
RF I/P LEVEL (dBm)
–40
RSSI READBACK LEVEL
–60
–80
–80
–85
CORRELATION
AFC ON
–90
–95
CORRELATION
AFC OFF
LINEAR AFC ON
–100
–105
–100
–80
–60
–40
RF I/P (dB)
–20
0
20
FREQUENCY ERROR (kHz)
Figure 18. Sensitivity vs. Frequency Error with AFC On/Off
Figure 15. Digital RSSI Readback Linearity
Rev. 0 | Page 14 of 48
05669-018
–100
–110
–100
–90
–80
–70
–60
–50
–40
–30
–20
–10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
–110
–120
–120
05669-015
RSSI LEVEL (dB)
–20
ADF7020-1
FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER
REFERENCE INPUT
R Counter
The on-board crystal oscillator circuitry (see Figure 19) can use
an inexpensive quartz crystal as the PLL reference. The oscillator circuit is enabled by setting R1_DB12 high. It is enabled by
default on power-up and is disabled by bringing CE low. Errors
in the crystal can be corrected using the automatic frequency
control (see the AFC Section) feature or by adjusting the
fractional-N value (see the N Counter section). A single-ended
reference (TCXO, CXO) can also be used. The CMOS levels
should be applied to OSC2 with R1_DB12 set low.
The 3-bit R counter divides the reference input frequency by an
integer from 1 to 7. The divided-down signal is presented as the
reference clock to the phase frequency detector (PFD). The
divide ratio is set in Register 1. Maximizing the PFD frequency
reduces the N value. This reduces the noise multiplied at a rate
of 20 log(N) to the output, as well as reducing occurrences of
spurious components. The R Register defaults to R = 1 on
power-up:
PFD [Hz] = XTAL/R
MUXOUT and Lock Detect
The MUXOUT pin allows the user to access various digital
points in the ADF7020-1. The state of MUXOUT is controlled
by Bits R0_DB (29:31).
OSC2
CP2
5669-019
OSC1
CP1
Regulator Ready
Figure 19. Oscillator Circuit on the ADF7020-1
Two parallel resonant capacitors are required for oscillation at
the correct frequency; their values are dependent on the crystal
specification. They should be chosen so that the series value of
capacitance added to the PCB track capacitance adds up to the
load capacitance of the crystal, usually 20 pF. Track capacitance
values vary from 2 pF to 5 pF, depending on board layout.
Where possible, choose capacitors that have a very low
temperature coefficient to ensure stable frequency operation
over all conditions.
Regulator ready is the default setting on MUXOUT after the
transceiver has been powered up. The power-up time of the
regulator is typically 50 μs. Because the serial interface is
powered from the regulator, the regulator must be at its
nominal voltage before the ADF7020-1 can be programmed.
The status of the regulator can be monitored at MUXOUT.
When the regulator ready signal on MUXOUT is high,
programming of the ADF7020-1 can begin.
DVDD
CLKOUT Divider and Buffer
The CLKOUT circuit takes the reference clock signal from the
oscillator section (see Figure 19) and supplies a divided-down
50:50 mark-space signal to the CLKOUT pin. An even divide
from 2 to 30 is available. This divide number is set in R1_DB
(8:11). On power-up, the CLKOUT defaults to the divide-by-8
block.
REGULATOR READY
DIGITAL LOCK DETECT
ANALOG LOCK DETECT
MUX
R COUNTER OUTPUT
MUXOUT
CONTROL
N COUNTER OUTPUT
PLL TEST MODES
Σ-Δ TEST MODES
CLKOUT
ENABLE BIT
DGND
DIVIDER
1 TO 15
÷2
CLKOUT
05669-020
OSC1
Figure 21. MUXOUT Circuit
Digital Lock Detect
Figure 20. CLKOUT Stage
To disable CLKOUT, set the divide number to 0. The output
buffer can drive up to a 20 pF load with a 10% rise time at
4.8 MHz. Faster edges can result in some spurious feedthrough
to the output. A small series resistor (50 Ω) can be used to slow
the clock edges to reduce these spurs at FCLK.
Digital lock detect is active high. The lock detect circuit is
located at the PFD. When the phase error on five consecutive
cycles is less than 15 ns, lock detect is set high. Lock detect
remains high until 25 ns phase error is detected at the PFD.
Because no external components are needed for digital lock
detect, it is more widely used than analog lock detect.
Rev. 0 | Page 15 of 48
05669-021
DVDD
ADF7020-1
Analog Lock Detect
This N-channel, open-drain lock detect should be operated
with an external pull-up resistor of 10 kΩ nominal. When a lock
has been detected, this output is high with narrow low-going
pulses.
For GFSK, it is recommended that an LBW of 2.0 to 2.5 times
the data rate be used to ensure that sufficient samples are
taken of the input data while filtering system noise. The free
design tool ADIsimPLL can be used to design loop filters for
the ADF7020-1.
Voltage Regulators
N Counter
The ADF7020-1 contains four regulators to supply stable
voltages to the part. The nominal regulator voltage is 2.3 V.
Each regulator should have a 100 nF capacitor connected
between CREG and GND. When CE is high, the regulators and
other associated circuitry are powered on, drawing a total
supply current of 2 mA. Bringing the chip-enable pin low
disables the regulators, reduces the supply current to less than
1 μA, and erases all values held in the registers. The serial
interface operates from a regulator supply; therefore, to write to
the part, the user must have CE high and the regulator voltage
must be stabilized. Regulator status (CREG4) can be monitored
using the regulator ready signal from muxout.
The feedback divider in the ADF7020-1 PLL consists of an 8-bit
integer counter and a 15-bit Σ-Δ fractional-N divider. The
integer counter is the standard pulse-swallow type common in
PLLs. This sets the minimum integer divide value to 31. The
fractional divide value gives very fine resolution at the output,
where the output frequency of the PLL is calculated as
FOUT =
Fractional − N
XTAL
× (Integer − N +
)
215
R
REFERENCE IN
4\R
PFD/
CHARGE
PUMP
VCO
Loop Filter
The loop filter integrates the current pulses from the charge
pump to form a voltage that tunes the output of the VCO to the
desired frequency. It also attenuates spurious levels generated by
the PLL. A typical loop-filter design is shown in Figure 22.
4\N
FRACTIONAL-N
INTEGER-N
05669-023
THIRD-ORDER
Σ-Δ MODULATOR
Figure 23. Fractional-N PLL
VCO
The combination of the integer-N (maximum = 255) and the
fractional-N (maximum = 16,383/16,384) give a maximum N
divider of 255 + 1. Therefore, the minimum usable PFD is
05669-022
CHARGE
PUMP OUT
Figure 22. Typical Loop-Filter Configuration
In FSK, the loop should be designed so that the loop bandwidth
(LBW) is approximately 5 times the data rate. Widening the
LBW excessively reduces the time spent jumping between
frequencies, but can cause insufficient spurious attenuation.
For ASK systems, a wider LBW is recommended. The sudden
large transition between two power levels might result in VCO
pulling and can cause a wider output spectrum than is desired.
By widening the LBW to more than 10 times the data rate, the
amount of VCO pulling is reduced, because the loop settles
quickly back to the correct frequency. The wider LBW might
restrict the output power and data rate of ASK-based systems
more than it would that of FSK-based systems.
Narrow-loop bandwidths can result in the loop taking long
periods of time to attain lock. Careful design of the loop filter is
critical to obtaining accurate FSK/GFSK modulation.
PFDMIN [Hz] = Maximum Required Output Frequency/(255 + 1)
For example, when operating at 620 MHz, PFDMIN equals
2.42 MHz.
Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
The ADF7020-1 features an on-chip VCO with external tank
inductor, which is used to set the frequency range. The center
frequency of the VCO is set by the internal varactor capacitance
and the combined inductance of the external chip inductor,
bond wire, and PCB track. A plot of VCO operating range vs.
total external inductance (chip inductor + PCB track) is shown
in Figure 24. The inductance for a PCB track using FR4
material is approximately 0.57 nH/mm. This should be
subtracted from the total value to determine the correct chip
inductor value.
An additional frequency divide-by-2 block is included to allow
operation from 80 MHz to 325 MHz. To enable the divide-by-2
block, set R1_DB13 to 1.
Rev. 0 | Page 16 of 48
ADF7020-1
The VCO can be recentered, depending on the required
frequency of operation, by programming the VCO adjust bits
R1_DB (20:21).
CHOOSING CHANNELS FOR BEST SYSTEM
PERFORMANCE
The fractional-N PLL allows the selection of any channel within
80 MHz to 650 MHz to a resolution of <300 Hz. This also
facilitates frequency-hopping systems.
The VCO is enabled as part of the PLL by the PLL-enable bit,
R0_DB28.
Careful selection of the RF transmit channels must be made
to achieve best spurious performance. The architecture of
fractional-N results in some level of the nearest integer channel
moving through the loop to the RF output. These beat-note
spurs are not attenuated by the loop if the desired RF channel
and the nearest integer channel are separated by a frequency of
less than the LBW.
The VCO needs an external 22 nF between the VCO and the
regulator to reduce internal noise.
750
700
FREQUENCY (MHz)
650
FMAX (MHz)
600
550
The occurrence of beat-note spurs is rare, because the integer
frequencies are at multiples of the reference, which is typically
>10 MHz.
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
0
5
The amplitude of beat-note spurs can be significantly reduced
by using the frequency doubler to avoid very small or very large
values in the fractional register. By having a channel 1 MHz
away from an integer frequency, a 100 kHz loop filter can
reduce the level to <−45 dBc.
05669-024
FMIN (MHz)
10
15
20
25
30
TOTAL EXTERNAL INDUCTANCE (nH)
Figure 24. External Inductance vs. Frequency
VCO Bias Current
VCO bias current can be adjusted using Bits R1_DB19 to
R1_DB16. To minimize current consumption, the bias current
setting should be as indicated in Table 5.
Table 5. Recommended VCO Bias Currents
Direct Frequency Output (f)
f < 200 MHz
200 MHz < f < 450 MHz
f > 450 MHz
VCO BIAS
R1_DB (16:19)
LOOP FILTER
VCO Bias R1_DB(19:16)
0001
0010
0011
TO N
DIVIDER
VCO
÷2
÷2
MUX
TO PA
220μF
VCO SELECT BIT
05669-025
CVCO PIN
Figure 25. Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
Rev. 0 | Page 17 of 48
ADF7020-1
TRANSMITTER
RF OUTPUT STAGE
The PA of the ADF7020-1 is based on a single-ended,
controlled current, open-drain amplifier that has been designed
to deliver up to 13 dBm into a 50 Ω load at a maximum
frequency of 650 MHz.
The PA output current and, consequently, the output power are
programmable over a wide range. The PA configurations in
FSK/GFSK and ASK/OOK modulation modes are shown in
Figure 26 and Figure 27, respectively. In FSK/GFSK modulation
mode, the output power is independent of the state of the
DATA_IO pin. In ASK/OOK modulation mode, it is dependent
on the state of the DATA_IO pin and Bit R2_DB29, which
selects the polarity of the TxData input. For each transmission
mode, the output power can be adjusted as follows:
•
The PA is equipped with overvoltage protection, which makes it
robust in severely mismatched conditions. Depending on the
application, users can design a matching network for the PA to
exhibit optimum efficiency at the desired radiated output power
level for a wide range of different antennas, such as loop or monopole antennas. See the LNA/PA Matching section for details.
PA Bias Currents
Control Bits R2_DB (30:31) facilitate an adjustment of the PA
bias current to further extend the output power control range, if
necessary. If this feature is not required, the default value of
9 μA is recommended. The output stage is powered down by
resetting Bit R2_DB4. To reduce the level of undesired spurious
emissions, the PA can be muted during the PLL lock phase by
toggling this bit.
MODULATION SCHEMES
FSK/GFSK: The output power is set using bits
R2_DB (9:14).
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
•
ASK: The output power for the inactive state of the TxData
input is set by Bits R2_DB (15:20). The output power for the
active state of the TxData input is set by Bits R2_DB (9:14).
•
OOK: The output power for the active state of the TxData
input is set by Bits R2_DB (9:14). The PA is muted when
the TxData input is inactive.
Frequency shift keying is implemented by setting the N value
for the center frequency and then toggling this with the TxData
line. The deviation from the center frequency is set using Bits
R2_DB (15:23). The deviation from the center frequency in
hertz is
FSK DEVIATION [Hz] =
PFD × Modulation Number
214
R2_DB(30:31)
where Modulation Number is a number from 1 to 511
(R2_DB (15:23)).
2
IDAC
6
R2_DB(9:14)
Select FSK using Bits R2_DB (6:8).
RFOUT
R2_DB4
+
DIGITAL
LOCK DETECT
RFGND
FROM VCO
05669-026
R2_DB5
Figure 26. PA Configuration in FSK/GFSK Mode
4R
PFD/
CHARGE
PUMP
PA STAGE
VCO
FSK DEVIATION
FREQUENCY
÷N
ASK/OOK MODE
DATA I/O
R2_DB29
+FDEV
6
IDAC
6
TxDATA
R2_DB(9:14)
FRACTIONAL-N
6
R2_DB4
R2_DB5
DIGITAL
LOCK DETECT
RFGND
FROM VCO
05669-027
+
INTEGER-N
Figure 28. FSK Implementation
R2_DB(15:23)
0
RFOUT
THIRD-ORDER
Σ-Δ MODULATOR
Figure 27. PA Configuration in ASK/OOK Mode
Rev. 0 | Page 18 of 48
05669-028
–FDEV
R2_DB(30:31)
ADF7020-1
Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK)
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
Gaussian frequency shift keying reduces the bandwidth
occupied by the transmitted spectrum by digitally prefiltering
the TxData. A TxCLK output line is provided from the
ADF7020-1 for synchronization of TxData from the microcontroller. The TxCLK line can be connected to the clock input
of a shift register that clocks data to the transmitter at the exact
data rate.
Amplitude shift keying is implemented by switching the output
stage between two discrete power levels. This is accomplished by
toggling the DAC, which controls the output level between two
6-bit values set up in Register 2. A 0 TxData bit sends Bits R2_DB
(15:20) to the DAC. A high TxData bit sends Bits R2_DB (9:14)
to the DAC. A maximum modulation depth of 30 dB is possible.
Setting Up the ADF7020-1 for GFSK
On-off keying is implemented by switching the output stage to a
certain power level for a high TxData bit and switching the
output stage off for a low TxData bit. For OOK, the transmitted
power for a high input is programmed using Bits R2_DB (9:14).
To set up the frequency deviation, set the PFD and the
modulator control bits according to the following equation:
GFSK DEVIATION [Hz] =
PFD × 2 m
212
Gaussian On-Off Keying (GOOK)
where m is GFSK_MOD_CONTROL set using R2_DB (24:26).
To set up the GFSK data rate, set the PFD and the modulator
control bits according to the following equation:
DR [bps] =
On-Off Keying (OOK)
PFD
DIVIDER _ FACTOR × INDEX _ COUNTER
Gaussian on-off keying represents a prefiltered form of OOK
modulation. The usually sharp symbol transitions are replaced
with smooth Gaussian filtered transitions, the result being a
reduction in frequency pulling of the VCO. Frequency pulling
of the VCO in OOK mode can lead to a wider than desired BW,
especially if it is not possible to increase the loop-filter BW >
300 kHz. The GOOK sampling clock samples data at the data
rate. (See the Setting Up the ADF7020-1 for GFSK section.)
where DIVIDER_FACTOR and INDEX_COUNTER are
programmed in Bits R2_DB (15:21) and R2_DB (27:28),
respectively. For further information, see the Using GFSK on
the ADF7010 section in the EVAL-ADF7010EB1 data sheet.
Rev. 0 | Page 19 of 48
ADF7020-1
RECEIVER SECTION
RF FRONT END
The ADF7020-1 is based on a fully integrated, low IF receiver
architecture. The low IF architecture facilitates a very low
external component count and does not suffer from power-lineinduced interference problems.
Figure 29 shows the structure of the receiver front end. The
many programming options allow users to trade off sensitivity,
linearity, and current consumption for each other in the most
suitable way for their applications. To achieve a high level of
resilience against spurious reception, the LNA features a
differential input. Switch SW2 shorts the LNA input when
transmit mode is selected (R0_DB27 = 0). This feature facilitates the design of a combined LNA/PA matching network,
avoiding the need for an external Rx/Tx switch. See the
LNA/PA Matching section for details on the design of the
matching network.
I (TO FILTER)
RFIN
Tx/Rx SELECT
[R0_DB27]
RFINB
SW2
LNA
LO
Q (TO FILTER)
LNA MODE
[R6_DB15]
MIXER LINEARITY
[R6_DB18]
LNA CURRENT
[R6_DB(16:17)]
05669-029
LNA GAIN
[R9_DB(20:21)]
LNA/MIXER ENABLE
[R8_DB6]
Figure 29. ADF7020-1 RF Front End
The LNA is followed by a quadrature down conversion mixer,
which converts the RF signal to the IF frequency of 200 kHz. It
is important to consider that the output frequency of the synthesizer must be programmed to a value 200 kHz below the
center frequency of the received channel.
The LNA has two basic operating modes: high gain/low noise
mode and low gain/low power mode. To switch between these
two modes, use the LNA_mode bit, R6_DB15. The mixer is also
configurable between a low current and an enhanced linearity
mode using the mixer_linearity bit, R6_DB18.
Based on the specific sensitivity and linearity requirements of
the application, it is recommended to adjust control bits
LNA_mode (R6_DB15) and mixer_linearity (R6_DB18) as
outlined in Table 6.
The gain of the LNA is configured by the LNA_gain field,
R9_DB (20:21), and can be set by either the user or the
automatic gain control (AGC) logic.
IF Filter Settings/Calibration
Out-of-band interference is rejected by means of a fourth-order
Butterworth polyphase IF filter centered around a frequency of
200 kHz. The bandwidth of the IF filter can be programmed
between 100 kHz and 200 kHz by means of Control Bits R1_DB
(22:23); it should be chosen as a compromise between interference rejection, attenuation of the desired signal, and the AFC
pull-in range.
To compensate for manufacturing tolerances, the IF filter
should be calibrated once after power-up. The IF filter
calibration logic requires that the IF filter divider in
Bits R6_DB (20:28) be set dependent on the crystal frequency.
Once initiated by setting Bit R6_DB19, the calibration is
performed automatically without any user intervention. The
calibration time is 200 μs, during which the ADF7020-1 should
not be accessed. It is important not to initiate the calibration
cycle before the crystal oscillator has fully settled. If the AGC
loop is disabled, the gain of IF filter can be set to three levels
using the filter_gain field, R9_DB (22:23). The filter gain is
adjusted automatically, if the AGC loop is enabled.
Table 6. LNA/Mixer Modes
Receiver Mode
High Sensitivity Mode (default)
RxMode2
Low Current Mode
Enhanced Linearity Mode
RxMode5
RxMode6
LNA Mode
(R6_DB15)
0
1
1
1
1
0
LNA Gain
Value
R9_DB (21:20)
30
10
3
3
10
30
Mixer
Linearity
(R6_DB18)
0
0
0
1
1
1
Rev. 0 | Page 20 of 48
Sensitivity
(DR = 9.6 kbps,
fDEV = 10 kHz)
−112.5
−105.8
−92.2
−102.5
−99
−105
Rx Current
Consumption
(mA)
20.1
19.0
17.6
17.6
19.0
20.1
Input IP3
(dBm)
−35
−15.9
−3.2
+6.8
−8.25
−28.8
ADF7020-1
RSSI/AGC
AGC _ Wait _ Time =
The RSSI is implemented as a successive compression log amp
following the base-band channel filtering. The log amp achieves
±3 dB log linearity. It also doubles as a limiter to convert the
signal-to-digital levels for the FSK demodulator. The RSSI itself
is used for amplitude shift keying (ASK) demodulation. In ASK
mode, extra digital filtering is performed on the RSSI value.
Offset correction is achieved using a switched capacitor integrator in feedback around the log amp. This uses the BB offset
clock divide. The RSSI level is converted for user readback and
digitally controlled AGC by an 80-level (7-bit) flash ADC. This
level can be converted to input power in dBm.
IFWR
A
IFWR
A
IFWR
LATCH
IFWR
FSK
DEMOD
CLK
ADC
RSSI
ASK
DEMOD
R
05669-030
A
AGC Settling = AGC_Wait_Time × Number of Gain Changes
Thus, in the worst case, if the AGC loop has to go through all five
gain changes, AGC delay = 10, and SEQ_CLK = 200 kHz, then
AGC settling = 10 × 5 μs × 5 = 250 μs. Minimum AGC_Wait_Time
must be at least 25 μs.
RSSI Formula (Converting to dBm)
Input_Power [dBm] = −120 dBm + (Readback_Code +
Gain_Mode_Correction) × 0.5
where:
Readback_Code is given by Bits RV7 to RV1 in the readback
register (see Readback Format section).
Gain_Mode_Correction is given by the values in Table 7.
LNA gain and filter gain (LG2/LG1, FG2/FG1) are also
obtained from the readback register.
OFFSET
CORRECTION
1
AGC _ DELAY × SEQ _ CLK _ DIVIDE
XTAL
Figure 30. RSSI Block Diagram
RSSI Thresholds
When the RSSI is above AGC_HIGH_THRESHOLD, the gain is
reduced. When the RSSI is below AGC_LOW_THRESHOLD, the
gain is increased. A delay (AGC_DELAY) is programmed to allow
for settling of the loop. The user programs the two threshold values
(recommended defaults, 30 and 70) and the delay (default, 10).
The default AGC set-up values should be adequate for most
applications. The threshold values must be more than 30 settings
apart for the AGC to operate correctly.
Table 7. Gain Mode Correction
LNA Gain
(LG2, LG1)
H (1, 1)
M (1, 0)
M (1, 0)
M (1, 0)
L (0, 1)
EL (0, 0)
Filter Gain
(FG2, FG1)
H (1, 0)
H (1, 0)
M (0, 1)
L (0, 0)
L (0, 0)
L (0, 0)
Gain Mode Correction
0
24
45
63
90
105
An additional factor should be introduced to account for losses
in the front-end matching network/antenna.
FSK DEMODULATORS ON THE ADF7020-1
Offset Correction Clock
The two FSK demodulators on the ADF7020-1 are
In Register 3, the user should set the BB offset clock divide bits
R3_DB (4:5) to give an offset clock between 1 MHz and 2 MHz,
where:
•
FSK correlator/demodulator
•
Linear demodulator
BBOS_CLK (Hz) = XTAL/(BBOS_CLK_DIVIDE)
Select these using the demodulator select bits, R4_DB (4:5).
BBOS_CLK_DIVIDE can be set to 4, 8, or 16.
FSK CORRELATOR/DEMODULATOR
AGC Information and Timing
The quadrature outputs of the IF filter are first limited and then
fed to a pair of digital frequency correlators that perform bandpass filtering of the binary FSK frequencies at (IF + FDEV) and
(IF − FDEV). Data is recovered by comparing the output levels
from each of the two correlators. The performance of this
frequency discriminator approximates that of a matched filter
detector, which is known to provide optimum detection in the
presence of AWGN.
AGC is selected by default, and operates by selecting the appropriate LNA and filter gain settings for the measured RSSI level.
It is possible to disable AGC by writing to Register 9 if you want
to enter one of the modes listed in Table 6, for example. The
time for the AGC circuit to settle and hence the time it takes to
take an accurate RSSI measurement is typically 150 μs, although
this depends on how many gain settings the AGC circuit has to
cycle through. After each gain change, the AGC loop waits for a
programmed time to allow transients to settle. This wait time
can be adjusted to speed up this settling by adjusting the
appropriate parameters.
Rev. 0 | Page 21 of 48
ADF7020-1
LIMITERS
Q
IF – FDEV
IF + FDEV
SLICER
POST
DEMOD FILTER
IF
DATA
SYNCHRONIZER
FREQUENCY CORRELATOR
I
Rx DATA
Rx CLK
DB(4:13) DB(14)
05669-031
0
DB(8:15)
Figure 31. FSK Correlator/Demodulator Block Diagram
Postdemodulator Filter
A second-order digital low-pass filter removes excess noise from
the demodulated bit stream at the output of the discriminator.
The bandwidth of this postdemodulator filter is programmable
and must be optimized for the user’s data rate. If the bandwidth
is set too narrow, performance is degraded due to intersymbol
interference (ISI). If the bandwidth is set too wide, excess noise
degrades the receiver’s performance. Typically, the 3 dB bandwidth
of this filter is set at approximately 0.75 times the user’s data
rate, using Bits R4_DB (6:15).
Bit Slicer
The received data is recovered by the threshold detecting the
output of the postdemodulator low-pass filter. In the correlator/
demodulator, the binary output signal levels of the frequency
discriminator are always centered on zero. Therefore, the slicer
threshold level can be fixed at zero, and the demodulator
performance is independent of the run-length constraints of the
transmit data bit stream. This results in robust data recovery,
which does not suffer from the classic baseline wander problems that exist in the more traditional FSK demodulators.
Frequency errors are removed by an internal AFC loop that
measures the average IF frequency at the limiter output and
applies a frequency correction value to the fractional-N
synthesizer. This loop should be activated when the frequency
errors are greater than approximately 40% of the transmit
frequency deviation (see the AFC Section).
where:
DEMOD_CLK is as defined in the Register 3—Receiver Clock
Register section, Note 2.
K = round(200e3/FSK deviation)
To optimize the coefficients of the FSK correlator, two
additional bits, R6_DB14 and R6_DB29, must be assigned.
The value of these bits depends on whether K (as defined
above) is odd or even. These bits are assigned according to the
conditions listed in Table 8 and Table 9.
Table 8. When K Is Even
K
Even
Even
K
Odd
Odd
The discriminator BW is controlled in Register 6 by R6_DB
(4:13) and is defined as
R6_DB29
0
1
(K + 1)/2
Even
Odd
R6_DB14
1
1
R6_DB29
0
1
Postdemodulator Bandwidth Register Settings
The 3 dB bandwidth of the postdemodulator filter is controlled
by Bits R4_ DB (6:15) and is given by
Post _ Demod _ BW _ Setting =
2 10 × 2 π × FCUTOFF
DEMOD _ CLK
where FCUTOFF is the target 3 dB bandwidth in hertz of the postdemodulator filter. This should typically be set to 0.75 times the
data rate (DR).
Some sample settings for the FSK correlator/demodulator are
DEMOD_CLK = 5 MHz
DR = 9.6 kbps
FDEV = 20 kHz
Therefore
FCUTOFF = 0.75 × 9.6 × 103 Hz
Post_Demod_BW = 211 π 7.2 × 103 Hz/(5 MHz)
Post_Demod_BW = Round(9.26) = 9
and
K = Round(200 kHz)/20 kHz) = 10
Discriminator_BW = (5 MHz × 10)/(800 × 103) = 62.5 =
63 (rounded to nearest integer)
FSK Correlator Register Settings
To enable the FSK correlator/demodulator, Bits R4_DB (5:4)
should be set to [01]. To achieve best performance, the bandwidth
of the FSK correlator must be optimized for the specific deviation
frequency that is used by the FSK transmitter.
R6_DB14
0
0
Table 9. When K Is Odd
Data Synchronizer
An oversampled digital PLL is used to resynchronize the received
bit stream to a local clock. The oversampled clock rate of the
PLL (CDR_CLK) must be set at 32 times the data rate. See the
notes for the Register 3—Receiver Clock Register section for a
definition of how to program the various on-chip clocks. The clock
recovery PLL can accommodate frequency errors of up to ±2%.
K/2
Even
Odd
Table 10. Register Settings
Setting Name
Post_Demod_BW
Discriminator_BW
Dot Product
Rx Data Invert
Discriminator _ BW = (DEMOD _ CLK × K ) /(800 × 10 3 )
Rev. 0 | Page 22 of 48
Register Address
R4_DB (6:15)
R6_DB (4:13)
R6_DB14
R6_DB29
Value
0x09
0x3F
0
1
ADF7020-1
LINEAR FSK DEMODULATOR
Post_Demod_BW_Setting =
Figure 32 shows a block diagram of the linear FSK demodulator.
7
LEVEL
Q
FREQUENCY
LINEAR DISCRIMINATOR
FREQUENCY
READBACK
AND
AFC LOOP
DB(6:15)
05669-032
LIMITER
ENVELOPE
DETECTOR
Rx DATA
IF
AVERAGING
FILTER
I
Figure 32. Block Diagram of Frequency Measurement System and
ASK/OOK/Linear FSK Demodulator
This method of frequency demodulation is useful when very
short preamble length is required and the system protocol
cannot support the overhead of the settling time of the internal
feedback AFC loop settling.
A digital frequency discriminator provides an output signal that
is linearly proportional to the frequency of the limiter outputs.
The discriminator output is then filtered and averaged using a
combined averaging filter and envelope detector. The demodulated FSK data is recovered by comparing the filter output with
its average value, as shown in Figure 32. In this mode, the slicer
output shown in Figure 32 is routed to the data synchronizer
PLL for clock synchronization. To enable the linear FSK
demodulator, set Bits R4_DB (4:5) to [00].
The 3 dB bandwidth of the postdemodulation filter is set in the
same way as the FSK correlator/demodulator, which is set in
R4_DB (6:15) and is defined as
Post _ Demod _ BW _ Setting =
DEMOD_CLK
where FCUTOFF is the target 3 dB bandwidth in hertz of the
postdemodulator filter.
SLICER
MUX 1
ADC RSSI OUTPUT
210 × 2π × FCUTOFF
It is also recommended to use Manchester encoding in ASK/OOK
mode to ensure the data run length limit (RLL) is 2 bits. If a longer
RLL, up to a maximum of 4 bits, is required, users should disable
the extra-low gain setting by writing 0x3C00C to the test mode
register.
AFC SECTION
The ADF7020-1 supports a real-time AFC loop, which is used
to remove frequency errors that can arise due to mismatches
between the transmit and receive crystals. The AFC loop uses the
frequency discriminator block as described in the Linear FSK
Demodulator section (see Figure 32). The discriminator output
is filtered and averaged to remove the FSK frequency
modulation using a combined averaging filter and envelope
detector. In FSK mode, the output of the envelope detector
provides an estimate of the average IF frequency. Two methods
of AFC, external and internal, are supported on the ADF7020-1
(in FSK mode only).
External AFC
The user reads back the frequency information through the
ADF7020-1 serial port and applies a frequency correction value
to the fractional-N synthesizer’s N divider.
The frequency information is obtained by reading the 16-bit
signed AFC_readback, as described in the Readback Format
section, and applying the following formula:
FREQ_RB [Hz] = (AFC_READBACK × DEMOD_CLK)/215
210 × 2π × FCUTOFF
Note that while the AFC_READBACK value is a signed number,
under normal operating conditions it is positive. In the absence
of frequency errors, the FREQ_RB value is equal to the IF
frequency of 200 kHz.
DEMOD _ CLK
where:
FCUTOFF is the target 3 dB bandwidth in hertz of the
postdemodulator filter. DEMOD_CLK is as defined in the
Register 3—Receiver Clock Register section, Note 2.
Internal AFC
ASK/OOK demodulation is activated by setting Bits R4_DB (4:5)
to [10].
The ADF7020-1 supports a real-time internal automatic frequency control loop. In this mode, an internal control loop
automatically monitors the frequency error and adjusts the
synthesizer N divider using an internal PI control loop.
ASK/OOK demodulation is performed by digitally filtering the
RSSI output, and then comparing the filter output with its average
value in a similar manner to FSK demodulation. The bandwidth
of the digital filter must be optimized to remove any excess
noise without causing ISI in the received ASK/OOK signal.
The internal AFC control loop parameters are controlled in
Register 11. The internal AFC loop is activated by setting
R11_DB20 to 1. A scaling coefficient must also be entered,
based on the crystal frequency in use. This is set up in R11_DB
(4:19) and should be calculated using
ASK/OOK Operation
The 3 dB bandwidth of this filter is typically set at approximately
0.75 times the user data rate and is assigned by R4 _DB (6:15) as
AFC_Scaling_Coefficient = (500 × 224)/XTAL
Therefore, using a 10 MHz XTAL yields an AFC scaling
coefficient of 839.
Rev. 0 | Page 23 of 48
ADF7020-1
AFC Performance
The improved sensitivity performance of the Rx when AFC is
enabled and in the presence of frequency errors is shown in
Figure 18. The maximum AFC pull-in range is ±50 kHz, which
corresponds to ±58 ppm at 868 MHz. This is the total error
tolerance allowed in the link. For example, in a point-to-point
system, AFC can compensate for two ±29 ppm crystals or one
±50 ppm crystal and one ±8 ppm TCXO.
AFC settling typically takes 48 bits to settle within ±1 kHz. This
can be improved by increasing the postdemodulator bandwidth
in Register 4 at the expense of Rx sensitivity.
When AFC errors have been removed using either the internal
or external AFC, further improvement in the receiver’s sensitivity
can be obtained by reducing the IF filter bandwidth using
Bits R1_DB (22:23).
AUTOMATIC SYNC WORD RECOGNITION
The ADF7020-1 also supports automatic detection of the sync
or ID fields. To activate this mode, the sync (or ID) word must
be preprogrammed in the ADF7020-1. In receive mode, this
preprogrammed word is compared to the received bit stream,
and the external pin INT/LOCK is asserted by the ADF7020-1
when a valid match is identified.
This feature can be used to alert the microprocessor that a valid
channel has been detected. It relaxes the computational requirements of the microprocessor and reduces the overall power
consumption. The INT/LOCK is automatically deasserted again
after nine data clock cycles.
The automatic sync/ID word detection feature is enabled by
selecting Demodulator Mode 2 or 3 in the demodulator set-up
register. Do this by setting R4_DB (25:23) = [010] or [011].
Bits R5_DB (4:5) are used to set the length of the sync/ID
word, which can be 12, 16, 20, or 24 bits long. The transmitter
must transmit the MSB of the sync byte first and the LSB last to
ensure proper alignment in the receiver sync byte detection
hardware.
For systems using FEC, an error tolerance parameter can also
be programmed that accepts a valid match when up to three bits
of the word are incorrect. The error tolerance value is assigned
in R5_DB (6:7).
Table 11. Sensitivity Values for Varying RF Frequency and Data Rates
Frequency
135 MHz
135 MHz
315 MHz
315 MHz
610 MHz
610 MHz
Data Rate (NRZ)
9.6 kbps
1.0 kbps
9.6 kbps
1.0 kbps
9.6 kbps
1.0 kbps
Deviation in
FSK Mode
±10 kHz
±5 kHz
±10 kHz
±5 kHz
±10 kHz
±5 kHz
FSK Sensitivity
at BER = 1E-3,
Correlator Demodulator
−113.2 dBm
−119.5 dBm
−114.2 dBm
−120 dBm
−113.2 dBm
−119.8 dBm
Rev. 0 | Page 24 of 48
FSK Sensitivity
at BER = 1E-3,
Linear Demodulator
−106.2 dBm
−109.2 dBm
−108.0 dBm
−110.1 dBm
−107.0 dBm
−109.0 dBm
ASK Sensitivity
at BER = 1E-3
−110.8
−116.8 dBm
−111.8 dBm
−118 dBm
−110.5 dBm
−116.8 dBm
ADF7020-1
APPLICATIONS
LNA/PA MATCHING
The ADF7020-1 exhibits optimum performance in terms of
sensitivity, transmit power, and current consumption only if its
RF input and output ports are properly matched to the antenna
impedance. For cost-sensitive applications, the ADF7020-1 is
equipped with an internal Rx/Tx switch, which facilitates the
use of a simple combined passive PA/LNA matching network.
Alternatively, an external Rx/Tx switch, such as the Analog
Devices ADG919, can be used, which yields a slightly improved
receiver sensitivity and lower transmitter power consumption.
External Rx/Tx Switch
Figure 33 shows a configuration using an external Rx/Tx switch.
This configuration allows an independent optimization of the
matching and filter network in the transmit and receive path
and is therefore more flexible and less difficult to design than
the configuration using the internal Rx/Tx switch. The PA is
biased through Inductor L1, and C1 blocks the dc current. Both
elements, L1 and C1, also form the matching network, which
transforms the source impedance into the optimum PA load
impedance, ZOPT_PA.
VBAT
L1
PA_OUT
OPTIONAL
LPF
PA
ANTENNA
in a back-to-back configuration. Due to the asymmetry of the
network with respect to ground, a compromise between the input
reflection coefficient and the maximum differential signal swing
at the LNA input must be established. The use of appropriate
CAD software is strongly recommended for this optimization.
Depending on the antenna configuration, the user might
need a harmonic filter at the PA output to satisfy the spurious
emission requirement of the applicable government regulations.
The harmonic filter can be implemented in various ways, such
as a discrete LC pi or T-stage filter. The immunity of the
ADF7020-1 to strong out-of-band interference can be improved
by adding a band-pass filter in the Rx path, or alternatively by
selecting one of the high linearity modes outlined in Table 6.
Internal Rx/Tx Switch
Figure 34 shows the ADF7020-1 in a configuration where the
internal Rx/Tx switch is used with a combined LNA/PA
matching network. This is the configuration used in the
ADF7020-1DBX Evaluation boards. For most applications, the
slight performance degradation of 1 dB to 2 dB caused by the
internal Rx/Tx switch is acceptable, allowing the user to take
advantage of the cost saving potential of this solution. The
design of the combined matching network must compensate for
the reactance presented by the networks in the Tx and the Rx
paths, taking the state of the Rx/Tx switch into consideration.
ZOPT_PA
VBAT
ZIN_RFIN
CA
RFIN
L1
PA_OUT
PA
ADG919
LNA
RFINB
ANTENNA
ZIN_RFIN
CA
ZIN_RFIN
CB
ZOPT_PA
OPTIONAL
BPF OR LPF
ADF7020-1
RFIN
LA
Figure 33. ADF7020-1 with External Rx/Tx Switch
ZOPT_PA depends on various factors, such as the required
output power, the frequency range, the supply voltage range,
and the temperature range. Selecting an appropriate ZOPT_PA
helps to minimize the Tx current consumption in the
application. The Specifications section lists a number of
ZOPT_PA values for representative conditions. Under certain
conditions, however, it is recommended to obtain a suitable
ZOPT_PA value by means of a load-pull measurement.
Due to the differential LNA input, the LNA matching network
must be designed to provide both a single-ended to differential
conversion and a complex conjugate impedance match. The
network with the lowest component count that can satisfy these
requirements is the configuration shown in Figure 33, which
consists of two capacitors and one inductor. A first-order
implementation of the matching network can be obtained by
understanding the arrangement as two L type matching networks
LNA
RFINB
ZIN_RFIN
CB
ADF7020-1
05669-034
LA
Rx/Tx – SELECT
C1
05669-033
OPTIONAL
BPF
(SAW)
Figure 34. ADF7020-1 with Internal Rx/Tx Switch
The procedure typically requires several iterations until an
acceptable compromise is reached. The successful implementation
of a combined LNA/PA matching network for the ADF7020-1 is
critically dependent on the availability of an accurate electrical
model for the PC board. In this context, the use of a suitable CAD
package is strongly recommended. To avoid this effort, however, a
small form-factor reference design for the ADF7020-1 is provided,
including matching and harmonic filter components. The design
is on a 2-layer PCB to minimize cost. Gerber files are available
on the www.analog.com website.
Rev. 0 | Page 25 of 48
ADF7020-1
TRANSMIT PROTOCOL AND CODING
CONSIDERATIONS
DATA FIELD
CRC
Figure 35. Typical Format of a Transmit Protocol
A dc-free preamble pattern is recommended for FSK/ASK/
OOK demodulation. The recommended preamble pattern is a
dc-free pattern such as a 10101010 … pattern. Preamble
patterns with longer run-length constraints, such as
11001100…, can also be used. However, this results in a longer
synchronization time of the received bit stream in the receiver.
Manchester coding can be used for the entire transmit protocol.
However, the remaining fields that follow the preamble header
do not have to use dc-free coding. For these fields, the
ADF7020-1 can accommodate coding schemes with a runlength of up to 6 bits without any performance degradation.
If longer run-length coding must be supported, the ADF7020-1
has several other features that can be activated. These involve a
range of programmable options that allow the envelope detector
output to be frozen after preamble acquisition.
MISO
Table 12 lists the minimum number of writes needed to set up
the ADF7020-1 in either Tx or Rx mode after CE is brought
high. Additional registers can also be written to tailor the part
to a particular application, such as setting up sync byte
detection or enabling AFC. When going from Tx to Rx or vice
versa, the user needs to write only to the N register to alter the
LO by 200 kHz and to toggle the Tx/Rx bit.
Table 12. Minimum Register Writes Required for Tx/Rx Setup
Reg 0
Reg 0
Reg 1
Reg 1
Registers
Reg 2
Reg 2
Reg 4
Reg 6
Reg 0
Reg 1
Reg 2
Reg 4
Reg 6
Reg 0
Figure 38 and Figure 39 show the recommended programming
sequence and associated timing for power-up from
standby mode.
Rev. 0 | Page 26 of 48
TxRxDATA
MOSI
SCLOCK
RxCLK
SS
P3.7
P3.2/INT0
GPIO
CE
INT/LOCK
P2.4
SREAD
P2.5
SLE
P2.6
SDATA
P2.7
SCLK
Figure 36.ADuC84x to ADF7020-1 Connection Diagram
ADSP-BF533
SCK
ADF7020-1
SCLK
MOSI
SDATA
MISO
SREAD
PF5
RSCLK1
DT1PRI
SLE
TxRxCLK
TxRxDATA
DR1PRI
RFS1
DEVICE PROGRAMMING AFTER INITIAL
POWER-UP
Mode
Tx
Rx
(OOK)
Rx
(G/FSK)
Tx <->
Rx
ADF7020-1
ADuC84x
05669-036
ID
FIELD
Low level device drivers are available for interfacing to the
ADF7020-1, the ADI ADuC84x microcontroller parts, or the
Blackfin ADSP-BF53x DSPs using the hardware connections
shown in Figure 36 and Figure 37.
INT/LOCK
PF6
CE
VCC
VCC
GND
GND
Figure 37.ADSP-BF533 to ADF7020-1 Connection Diagram
05669-037
SYNC
WORD
05669-035
PREAMBLE
INTERFACING TO MICROCONTROLLER/DSP
ADF7020-1 IDD
ADF7020-1
17.6mA TO
20.1mA
14mA
_XTAL
T0
3.65mA
2.0mA
AFC
T10
T1
WR3 WR4 WR6
WR0 WR1
T2
T3
VCO
T4
T5 T6
AGC/
RSSI
T7
T8
CDR
T9
TIME
RxDATA
T11
TON
05669-038
REG.
READY
TOFF
Figure 38. Rx Programming Sequence and Timing Diagram
Table 13. Power-Up Sequence Description
Parameter
T0
Value
2 ms
T1
10 μs
T2, T3, T5, T6, T7
T4
32 × 1/SPI_CLK
1 ms
T8
150 μs
T9
5 × Bit_Period
T10
16 × Bit_Period
T11
Packet Length
Description/Notes
Crystal starts power-up after CE is brought high. This typically depends
on the crystal type and the load capacitance specified.
Time for regulator to power up. The serial interface can be written to after
this time.
Time to write to a single register. Maximum SPI_CLK is 25 MHz.
The VCO can power-up in parallel with the crystal. This depends on the
CVCO capacitance value used. A value of 22 nF is recommended as a
trade-off between phase noise performance and power-up time.
This depends on the number of gain changes the AGC loop needs to cycle
through and AGC settings programmed. This is described in more detail
in the AGC Information and Timing section.
This is the time for the clock and data recovery circuit to settle. This typically
requires 5-bit transitions to acquire sync and is usually covered by the
preamble.
This is the time for the automatic frequency control circuit to settle. This
typically requires 16-bit transitions to acquire lock and is usually covered
by an appropriate length preamble.
Number of bits in payload by the bit period.
Rev. 0 | Page 27 of 48
Signal to Monitor
CLKOUT pin
MUXOUT pin
CVCO pin
Analog RSSI on TEST_A
pin (available by writing
0x3800 000C)
ADF7020-1 IDD
ADF7020-1
15mA TO
30mA
14mA
3.65mA
2.0mA
T1
WR0 WR1
T2
T3
WR2
XTAL + VCO
T4
TIME
TxDATA
T5
T12
TON
Figure 39. Tx Programming Sequence and Timing Diagram
Rev. 0 | Page 28 of 48
TOFF
05669-039
REG.
READY
ADF7020-1
SERIAL INTERFACE
RSSI Readback
The serial interface allows the user to program the eleven 32-bit
registers using a 3-wire interface (SCLK, SDATA, and SLE). It
consists of a voltage level shifter, a 32-bit shift register, and
11 latches. Signals should be CMOS compatible. The serial
interface is powered by the regulator and therefore is inactive
when CE is low.
The RSSI readback operation yields valid results in Rx mode
with ASK or FSK signals. The format of the readback word is
shown in Figure 40. It is comprised of the RSSI level information (Bits RV1 to RV7), the current filter gain (FG1, FG2), and
the current LNA gain (LG1, LG2) setting. The filter and LNA
gain are coded in accordance with the definitions in Register 9.
With the reception of ASK modulated signals, averaging of the
measured RSSI values improves accuracy. The input power can
be calculated from the RSSI readback value as outlined in the
RSSI/AGC.
Data is clocked into the register MSB first on the rising edge of
each clock (SCLK). Data is transferred to one of the 11 latches
on the rising edge of SLE. The destination latch is determined
by the value of the four control bits (C4 to C1). These are the
bottom 4 LSB, DB3 to DB0, as shown in the timing diagram in
Figure 2. Data can also be read back on the SREAD pin.
Battery Voltage ADCIN/Temperature Sensor Readback
The battery voltage is measured at Pin VDD4. The readback
information is contained in Bits RV1 to RV7. This also applies
for the readback of the voltage at the ADCIN pin and the
temperature sensor. From the readback information, the battery
or ADCIN voltage can be determined using
READBACK FORMAT
The readback operation is initiated by writing a valid control
word to the readback register and setting the readback-enable
bit (R7_DB8 = 1). The readback can begin after the control
word has been latched with the SLE signal. SLE must be kept
high while the data is read out. Each active edge at the SCLK
pin clocks the readback word out successively at the SREAD
pin, as shown in Figure 3, starting with the MSB first. The data
appearing at the first clock cycle following the latch operation
must be ignored.
VBATTERY = (Battery_Voltage_Readback)/21.1
VADCIN = (ADCIN_Voltage_Readback)/42.1
Silicon Revision Readback
The silicon revision readback word is valid without setting any
other registers, especially directly after power-up. The silicon
revision word is coded with four quartets in BCD format. The
product code (PC) is coded with three quartets extending
from Bits RV5 to RV16. The revision code (RV) is coded with
one quartet extending from Bits RV1 to RV4. The product code
for the ADF7020-1 should read back as PC = 0x200. The
current revision code should read back as RC = 0x6.
AFC Readback
The AFC readback is valid only during the reception of FSK
signals with either the linear or correlator demodulator active.
The AFC readback value is formatted as a signed 16-bit integer
comprised of Bits RV1 to RV16 and is scaled according to the
following formula:
FREQ_RB [Hz] = (AFC_READBACK × DEMOD_CLK)/215
Filter Calibration Readback
The filter calibration readback word is contained in Bits RV1 to
RV8 and is for diagnostic purposes only. Using the automatic
filter calibration function, accessible through Register 6, is
recommended. Before filter calibration is initiated Decimal 32
should be read back.
In the absence of frequency errors, the FREQ_RB value is equal
to the IF frequency of 200 kHz. Note that the down-converted
input signal must not fall outside the bandwidth of the analogue
IF filter for the AFC readback to yield a valid result. At lowinput signal levels, the variation in the readback value can be
improved by averaging.
READBACK MODE
DB15
DB14
DB13
DB12
DB11
DB10
DB9
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
AFC READBACK
RV16
RV15
RV14
RV13
RV12
RV11
RV10
RV9
RV8
RV7
RV6
RV5
RV4
RV3
RV2
RV1
RSSI READBACK
X
X
X
X
X
LG2
LG1
FG2
FG1
RV7
RV6
RV5
RV4
RV3
RV2
RV1
BATTERY VOLTAGE/ADCIN/
TEMP. SENSOR READBACK
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
RV7
RV6
RV5
RV4
RV3
RV2
RV1
SILICON REVISION
RV16
RV15
RV14
RV13
RV12
RV11
RV10
RV9
RV8
RV7
RV6
RV5
RV4
RV3
RV2
RV1
FILTER CAL READBACK
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RV8
RV7
RV6
RV5
RV4
RV3
RV2
RV1
Figure 40. Readback Value Table
Rev. 0 | Page 29 of 48
05669-040
READBACK VALUE
ADF7020-1
M14
M13
...
M3
M2
M1
FRACTIONAL
DIVIDE RATIO
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
1
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
.
.
.
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
.
.
.
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
.
.
.
32764
32765
32766
32767
N7
N6
N5
N4
N3
N2
N1
N COUNTER
DIVIDE RATIO
0
0
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
1
0
1
.
.
.
1
1
0
.
.
.
1
1
0
.
.
.
1
1
0
.
.
.
1
1
0
.
.
.
0
1
0
.
.
.
1
31
32
.
.
.
253
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
254
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
255
Figure 41.
Notes
1.
The Tx/Rx bit (R0_DB27) configures the part in Tx or Rx mode and also controls the state of the internal Tx/Rx switch.
2.
FOUT =
Rev. 0 | Page 30 of 48
05669-041
M15
N8
XTAL
Fractional -N
× ( Integer-N +
).
R
215
C1 (0) DB0
C2 (0) DB1
C3 (0) DB2
C4 (0) DB3
DB4
DB12
M9
M1
DB13
DB5
DB14
M11
M10
DB6
DB15
M12
M2
DB16
M13
REGULATOR READY (DEFAULT)
R DIVIDER OUTPUT
N DIVIDER OUTPUT
DIGITAL LOCK DETECT
ANALOG LOCK DETECT
THREE-STATE
PLL TEST MODES
Σ-Δ TEST MODES
M3
DB17
M14
MUXOUT
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
DB7
DB18
M15
M1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
M4
DB19
N1
M2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
DB8
DB20
N2
M3
M5
DB21
N3
PLL OFF
PLL ON
DB9
DB22
N4
0
1
M6
DB23
N5
PLE1 PLL ENABLE
DB11
DB24
N6
TRANSMIT
RECEIVE
DB10
DB25
N7
0
1
M7
DB26
N8
TRANSMIT/
RECEIVE
M8
Tx/Rx
TR1
ADDRESS
BITS
15-BIT FRACTIONAL-N
DB27
DB29
M1
8-BIT INTEGER-N
TR1
DB30
M2
PLE1 DB28
DB31
M3
MUXOUT
PLL
ENABLE
REGISTER 0—N REGISTER
ADF7020-1
850–920
860–930
870–940
880–950
VB3
0
0
.
1
IR2 IR1
FILTER
BANDWIDTH
0
0
1
1
100kHz
150kHz
200kHz
NOT USED
0
1
0
1
VB2
0
1
.
1
VB1
1
0
.
1
CP2
0
0
1
1
0
1
VCO BIAS
CURRENT
0.375mA
0.625mA
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
CL1
D1
R3
R2
R1
D1
0
1
3.875mA
CP1
RSET
0
1
0
1
ICP(MA)
3.6kΩ
0.3
0.9
1.5
2.1
CL4
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
C1 (1) DB0
DB9
CL2
DIRECT OUTPUT
DIVIDE-BY-2
OUTPUT
R1
1
0
.
.
.
1
C2 (0) DB1
DB10
CL3
VCO
DIV-BY-2
R2
0
1
.
.
.
1
C3 (0) DB2
DB11
CL4
R3
0
0
.
.
.
1
C4 (0) DB3
XTAL
DOUBLER
XOSC
ENABLE
VCO BAND
DB13
V1
V1
VB4
0
0
.
1
DB12
DB14
DD1
X1 XTAL OSC
0
OFF
1
ON
ADDRESS
BITS
R COUNTER
RF R COUNTER
DIVIDE RATIO
1
2
.
.
.
7
XTAL
DOUBLER
DISABLE
ENABLED
CL3
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
CL2
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
CL1
0
1
0
.
.
.
1
CLKOUT
DIVIDE RATIO
OFF
2
4
.
.
.
30
05669-042
0
1
0
1
DB15
DB17
VB2
0
0
1
1
DB16
DB18
VB3
FREQUENCY
OF OPERATION
VB1
DB19
VB4
VA1
DD2
DB20
VA1
VA2
CLOCKOUT
DIVIDE
X1
CP
CURRENT
VCO
ADJUST
DB21
VCO BIAS
VA2
DB22
IR1
IR2
DB23
IF FILTER BW
REGISTER 1—OSCILLATOR/FILTER REGISTER
Figure 42.
Notes
1.
Set the VCO adjust bits R1_DB (20:21) to 0 for normal operation.
2.
See Table 5 for the recommended VCO bias settings.
3.
The divide-by-2 block is enabled by setting R1_DB13. As this divide block is outside the PLL loop, users must program an N-value
that corresponds to twice the divide-by-2 output frequency. The deviation frequency is also halved when divide-by-2 is enabled.
Rev. 0 | Page 31 of 48
ADF7020-1
X
X
X
X
X
MUTE PA
UNTIL LOCK
PA
ENABLE
C1 (0) DB0
C2 (1) DB1
C3 (0) DB2
C4 (0) DB3
ADDRESS
BITS
PE1
POWER AMPLIFIER
0
1
OFF
ON
MUTE PA UNTIL
MP1 LOCK DETECT HIGH
DI1
TxDATA
TxDATA
OFF
ON
0
1
PA2
PA1
PA BIAS
S3
S2
S1
MODULATION SCHEME
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
5μA
7μA
9μA
11μA
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
FSK
GFSK
ASK
OOK
GOOK
POWER AMPLIFIER OUTPUT LOW LEVEL
D1
D2
D5
.
D6
X
0
0
0
0
.
.
1
X
X
0
0
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
X
X
0
0
1
.
.
1
X
X
0
1
0
.
.
1
OOK MODE
PA OFF
–16.0dBm
–16 + 0.45dBm
–16 + 0.90dBm
.
.
13dBm
POWER AMPLIFIER OUTPUT HIGH LEVEL
P1
P2
.
.
P6
0
0
0
0
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
X
0
0
1
.
.
1
X
0
1
0
.
.
1
PA OFF
–16.0dBm
–16 + 0.45dBm
–16 + 0.90dBm
.
.
13dBm
05669-043
0
1
DB4
DB12
P4
IC2 IC1 MC3 MC2 MC1
PE1
DB13
P5
DB5
DB14
P6
DB6
DB15
D1
S1
DB16
D2
DB7
DB17
D3
S2
DB18
D4
DB8
DB19
D5
DB9
DB20
D6
S3
DB21
D7
P1
DB22
D8
DB11
DB23
D9
DB10
DB24
MC1
P2
DB25
P3
DB26
MC2
MP1
MODULATION
SCHEME
POWER AMPLIFIER
MC3
DB28
IC2
INDEX
COUNTER
DB29
DI1
MODULATION PARAMETER
DB27
DB30
PA1
GFSK MOD
CONTROL
IC1
DB31
PA2
PA BIAS
TxDATA
INVERT
REGISTER 2—TRANSMIT MODULATION REGISTER (ASK/OOK MODE)
Figure 43.
Notes
1.
Figure 13 shows how the PA bias affects the power amplifier level. The default level is 9 μA. If you need maximum power, program
this value to 11 μA.
2.
In ASK/OOK, Manchester encoding is recommended to keep the data run length limit to 2 bits. See the ASK/OOK Operation
section for more details on dealing with longer run lengths.
3.
D7, D8, and D9 are don’t care bits.
Rev. 0 | Page 32 of 48
ADF7020-1
DB21
DB20
DB19
DB18
DB17
DB16
DB15
DB14
DB13
DB12
DB11
DB10
DB9
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
P6
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
S3
S2
S1
MP1
PA2
PA1
PA BIAS
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
5μA
7μA
9μA
11μA
D1
F DEVIATION
0
0
0
0
.
1
0
1
0
1
.
1
PLL MODE
1 × FSTEP
2 × FSTEP
3 × FSTEP
.
511 × FSTEP
0
0
0
0
.
1
0
0
1
1
.
1
PE1
POWER AMPLIFIER
0
1
OFF
ON
MUTE PA UNTIL
MP1 LOCK DETECT HIGH
FOR FSK MODE,
D9
D3
....
D2
....
....
....
....
....
....
C1 (0) DB0
DB22
D8
TxDATA
TxDATA
X
C2 (1) DB1
DB23
D9
DI1
X
C3 (0) DB2
DB24
MC1
X
DB4
DB25
MC2
X
PE1
DB26
MC3
X
ADDRESS
BITS
C4 (0) DB3
DB27
IC2 IC1 MC3 MC2 MC1
0
1
MUTE PA
UNTIL LOCK
PA
ENABLE
MODULATION
SCHEME
POWER AMPLIFIER
DB28
MODULATION PARAMETER
IC1
DB29
DI1
GFSK MOD
CONTROL
IC2
DB30
PA1
TxDATA
INVERT
DB31
PA2
PA BIAS
INDEX
COUNTER
REGISTER 2—TRANSMIT MODULATION REGISTER (FSK MODE)
OFF
ON
0
1
S3
S2
S1
MODULATION SCHEME
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
FSK
GFSK
ASK
OOK
GOOK
0
0
0
0
.
.
1
Figure 44.
Notes
1.
FSTEP = PFD/214.
2.
PA bias default = 9 μA.
Rev. 0 | Page 33 of 48
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
X
0
0
1
.
.
1
X
0
1
0
.
.
1
PA OFF
–16.0dBm
–16 + 0.45dBm
–16 + 0.90dBm
.
.
13dBm
05669-044
POWER AMPLIFIER OUTPUT LEVEL
P6
.
.
P2
P1
ADF7020-1
DB14
DB13
DB12
DB11
DB10
DB9
DB8
DB7
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
S3
S2
PA1
PA BIAS
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
5μA
7μA
9μA
11μA
0
0
1
1
IC2
IC1
INDEX_COUNTER
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
16
32
64
128
D8
0
1
0
1
GAUSSIAN – OOK
MODE
NORMAL MODE
OUTPUT BUFFER ON
BLEED CURRENT ON
BLEED/BUFFER ON
C1 (0) DB0
C2 (1) DB1
S3
S2
S1
MODULATION SCHEME
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
FSK
GFSK
ASK
OOK
GOOK
0
0
0
0
.
.
1
0
1
.
7
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
X
0
0
1
.
.
1
X
0
1
0
.
.
1
PA OFF
–16.0dBm
–16 + 0.45dBm
–16 + 0.90dBm
.
.
13dBm
05669-045
0
1
.
1
OFF
ON
POWER AMPLIFIER OUTPUT LEVEL
P1
P2
.
.
P6
MC3 MC2 MC1 GFSK_MOD_CONTROL
0
0
.
1
PE1
MUTE PA UNTIL
MP1 LOCK DETECT HIGH
0
1
D9
C3 (0) DB2
OFF
ON
C4 (0) DB3
POWER AMPLIFIER
0
1
DB4
PE1
INVALID
1
2
3
.
127
TxDATA
TxDATA
PA2
0
0
.
1
MUTE PA
UNTIL LOCK
PA
ENABLE
DIVIDER_FACTOR
0
1
0
1
.
1
DB5
D1
0
0
1
1
.
1
DB6
D2
0
0
0
0
.
1
S1
D3
...
...
...
...
...
...
MP1
DB15
P6
DB21
D7
...
0
0
0
0
.
1
D1
DB22
D8
DB16
DB23
D9
D7
D2
DB24
MC1
DB17
DB25
MC2
DB18
DB26
MC3
D3
DB27
IC1
D4
DB28
IC2
DB19
DB29
DI1
0
1
ADDRESS
BITS
D5
DB30
PA1
DI1
MODULATION
SCHEME
POWER AMPLIFIER
DB20
DB31
MODULATION PARAMETER
D6
INDEX
COUNTER
GFSK MOD
CONTROL
PA2
PA BIAS
TxDATA
INVERT
REGISTER 2—TRANSMIT MODULATION REGISTER (GFSK/GOOK MODE)
Figure 45.
Notes
1.
GFSK_DEVIATION = (2GFSK_MOD_CONTROL × PFD)/212.
2.
Data rate = PFD/(INDEX_COUNTER × DIVIDER_FACTOR).
3.
PA bias default = 9 μA.
Rev. 0 | Page 34 of 48
ADF7020-1
SK7
0
0
.
1
1
0
0
.
1
1
DB0
DB5
BK2
C1(1)
DB6
OK1
DB1
DB7
OK2
C2(1)
DB8
FS1
DB2
DB9
FS2
DB3
DB10
FS3
C3(0)
DB11
FS4
ADDRESS
BITS
C4(0)
DB12
FS5
BB OFFSET
CLOCK DIVIDE
DB13
FS6
DB4
DB14
FS7
BK1
DB15
FS8
DB16
SK1
DB18
SK3
DB17
DB19
SK2
DB20
SK4
...
...
...
...
...
...
CDR CLOCK DIVIDE
SK3
SK2
SK1
SEQ_CLK_DIVIDE
BK2
BK1
BBOS_CLK_DIVIDE
0
0
.
1
1
0
1
.
1
1
1
0
.
0
1
1
2
.
254
255
0
0
1
0
1
x
4
8
16
OK2
OK1
DEMOD_CLK_DIVIDE
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
4
1
2
3
FS8
FS7
...
FS3
FS2
FS1
CDR_CLK_DIVIDE
0
0
.
1
1
0
0
.
1
1
...
...
...
...
...
0
0
.
1
1
0
1
.
1
1
1
0
.
0
1
1
2
.
254
255
05669-046
SK8
SK5
DB21
DB22
SK7
SK6
DB23
SK8
SEQUENCER CLOCK DIVIDE
DEMOD
CLOCK DIVIDE
REGISTER 3—RECEIVER CLOCK REGISTER
Figure 46.
Notes
1.
Baseband offset clock frequency (BBOS_CLK) must be greater than 1 MHz and less than 2 MHz, where
BBOS _ CLK =
2.
XTAL
.
BBOS _ CLK _ DIVIDE
The demodulator clock (DEMOD_CLK) must be <12 MHz for FSK and <6 MHz for ASK, where
DEMOD _ CLK =
3.
XTAL
.
DEMOD _ CLK _ DIVIDE
Data/clock recovery frequency (CDR_CLK) should be within 2% of (32 × data rate), where
CDR _ CLK =
DEMOD _ CLK
.
CDR _ CLK _ DIVIDE
Note that this might affect your choice of XTAL, depending on the desired data rate.
4.
The sequencer clock (SEQ_CLK) supplies the clock to the digital receive block. It should be close to 100 kHz for FSK and close to
40 kHz for ASK:
SEQ _ CLK =
XTAL
.
SEQ _ CLK _ DIVIDE
Rev. 0 | Page 35 of 48
ADF7020-1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
DEMOD
SELECT
DEMOD LOCK/
DB24 SYNC WORD MATCH
0
1
0
1
X
DL8
ADDRESS
BITS
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
DW2
DW1
DS2
DS1
C4(0)
C3(1)
C2(0)
C1(0)
DB9
DW3
DB16
DL1
–
–
OUTPUT
OUTPUT
INPUT
–
DW4
DB17
DL2
INT/LOCK PIN
SERIAL PORT CONTROL—FREE RUNNING
SERIAL PORT CONTROL—LOCK THRESHOLD
SYNC WORD DETECT—FREE RUNNING
SYNC WORD DETECT—LOCK THRESHOLD
INTERRUPT/LOCK PIN LOCKS THRESHOLD
DEMOD LOCKED AFTER DL8–DL1 BITS
DW5 DB10
DB18
DL3
DEMOD LOCK/SYNC WORD MATCH
DW6 DB11
DB19
DL4
DW7 DB12
DB20
DL5
DW8 DB13
DB21
DL6
DW9 DB14
DB22
DW10 DB15
DB23
DL7
POSTDEMODULATOR BW
DL8
LM1
DEMOD MODE LM2 LM1 DL8
0
1
2
3
4
5
DEMODULATOR LOCK SETTING
DB25
DB26
LM2
DB27
DB28
DB29
DB30
DB31
REGISTER 4—DEMODULATOR SET-UP REGISTER
DS2
DS1
DEMODULATOR
TYPE
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
LINEAR DEMODULATOR
CORRELATOR/DEMODULATOR
ASK/OOK
INVALID
MODE5 ONLY
DL7
...
DL3
DL2
DL1
LOCK_THRESHOLD_TIMEOUT
0
0
0
.
1
1
0
0
0
.
1
1
...
...
...
...
...
...
0
0
0
.
1
1
0
0
1
.
1
1
0
1
0
.
0
1
0
1
2
.
254
255
05669-047
DL8
Figure 47.
Notes
1.
Demodulator Modes 1, 3, 4, and 5 are modes that can be activated to allow the ADF7020-1 to demodulate data-encoding schemes
that have run-length constraints greater than 7.
2.
Post_Demod_BW = 211 π FCUTOFF/DEMOD_CLK, where the cutoff frequency (FCUTOFF) of the postdemodulator filter should typically
be 0.75 times the data rate.
3.
For Mode 5, the timeout delay to lock threshold = (LOCK_THRESHOLD_SETTING)/SEQ_CLK, where SEQ_CLK is defined in the
Register 3—Receiver Clock Register section.
Rev. 0 | Page 36 of 48
ADF7020-1
DB4
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
C4(0)
C3(1)
C2(0)
C1(1)
CONTROL
BITS
PL1
DB5
DB6
MT1
PL2
DB7
MT2
DB8
DB9
DB10
DB11
DB12
DB13
DB14
DB15
DB16
DB17
DB18
DB19
DB20
DB21
DB22
DB23
DB24
DB25
DB26
DB27
DB28
DB29
DB30
DB31
SYNC BYTE SEQUENCE
SYNC BYTE
LENGTH
MATCHING
TOLERANCE
REGISTER 5—SYNC BYTE REGISTER
PL2
PL1
SYNC BYTE
LENGTH
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
12 BITS
16 BITS
20 BITS
24 BITS
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0 ERRORS
1 ERROR
2 ERRORS
3 ERRORS
05669-048
MATCHING
MT2 MT1 TOLERANCE
Figure 48.
Notes
1.
Sync byte detect is enabled by programming Bits R4_DB (25:23) to [010] or [011].
2.
This register allows a 24-bit sync byte sequence to be stored internally. If the sync byte detect mode is selected, the INT/LOCK pin
goes high when the sync byte is detected in Rx mode. Once the sync word detect signal goes high, it goes low again after nine data bits.
3.
The transmitter must transmit the MSB of the sync byte first and the LSB last to ensure proper alignment in the receiver sync byte
detection hardware.
4.
Choose a sync byte pattern that has good autocorrelation properties, for example, an unequal amount of digital 1s and 0s.
Rev. 0 | Page 37 of 48
ADF7020-1
DB11
DB10
DB9
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
TD7
TD6
TD5
TD4
TD3
TD2
TD1
C4(0)
C3(1)
C2(1)
C1(0)
DB14
DP1
TD8
DB15
LG1
DB12
DB16
LI1
TD9
DB17
LI2
TD10 DB13
DB18
ML1
DOT
PRODUCT
DB19
CA1
LNA MODE
DB20
FC1
LNA
CURRENT
IF FILTER
CAL
MIXER
LINEARITY
DB21
DB24
FC5
DB22
DB25
FC6
RxDATA
RxDATA
FC2
DB26
FC7
0
1
FC3
DB27
FC8
RI1
RxDATA
INVERT
DB23
DB28
FC9
DP1
DOT PRODUCT
0
1
0
1
CROSS PRODUCT
DOT PRODUCT
ML1 MIXER LINEARITY
LG1
LNA MODE
0
1
0
1
DEFAULT
REDUCED GAIN
NO CAL
CALIBRATE
DEFAULT
HIGH
LI2
LI1
LNA BIAS
0
0
800μA (DEFAULT)
.
FC6
FC5
FC4
FC3
FC2
FC1
FILTER CLOCK
DIVIDE RATIO
0
0
.
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
0
.
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
.
1
0
0
.
.
.
.
1
0
1
.
.
.
.
1
1
0
.
.
.
.
1
1
2
.
.
.
.
511
05669-049
FC9
ADDRESS
BITS
DISCRIMINATOR BW
CA1 FILTER CAL
DEMOD
RESET
CDR
RESET
FC4
DB29
IF FILTER DIVIDER
RI1
DB30
DB31
Rx
RESET
RxDATA
INVERT
REGISTER 6—CORRELATOR/DEMODULATOR REGISTER
Figure 49.
Notes
1.
See the FSK Correlator/Demodulator section for an example of how to determine register settings.
2.
Nonadherence to correlator programming guidelines results in poorer sensitivity.
3.
The filter clock is used to calibrate the IF filter. The filter clock divide ratio should be adjusted so that the frequency is 50 kHz. The
formula is XTAL/FILTER_CLOCK_DIVIDE.
4.
The filter should be calibrated only when the crystal oscillator is settled. The filter calibration is initiated every time Bit R6_DB19 is
set high.
5.
Discriminator_BW = (DEMOD_CLK × K)/(800 × 103). See the FSK Correlator/Demodulator section.
Maximum value = 600.
6.
When LNA Mode = 1 (reduced gain mode), this prevents the Rx from selecting the highest LNA gain setting. This might be used
when linearity is a concern. See Table 6 for details of the Rx modes.
Rev. 0 | Page 38 of 48
ADF7020-1
REGISTER 7—READBACK SET-UP REGISTER
CONTROL
BITS
ADC
MODE
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
RB3
RB2
RB1
AD2
AD1
C4(0)
C3(1)
C2(1)
C1(1)
RB3 READBACK
AD2 AD1 ADC MODE
0
1
0
0
1
1
DISABLED
ENABLED
RB2 RB1 READBACK MODE
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
AFC WORD
ADC OUTPUT
FILTER CAL
SILICON REV
0
1
0
1
MEASURE RSSI
BATTERY VOLTAGE
TEMP SENSOR
TO EXTERNAL PIN
05669-050
READBACK
SELECT
Figure 50.
Notes
1.
Readback of the measured RSSI value is valid only in Rx mode. To enable readback of the battery voltage, the temperature sensor, or
the voltage at the external pin in Rx mode, users must disable the AGC function in Register 9. To read back these parameters in Tx
mode, users must first power up the ADC using Register 8, because it is off by default in Tx mode to save power. This is the
recommended method of using the battery readback function since most configurations typically require use of the AGC function.
2.
Readback of the AFC word is valid in Rx mode only if either the linear demodulator or the correlator/demodulator is active.
3.
See the Readback Format section for more information.
Rev. 0 | Page 39 of 48
ADF7020-1
PA (Rx MODE)
0
1
PA OFF
PA ON
ADC
ENABLE
FILTER
ENABLE
LNA/MIXER
ENABLE
VCO
ENABLE
SYNTH
ENABLE
DB13
DB12
DB11
DB10
DB9
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
PD7
SW1
LR2
LR1
PD6
PD5
PD4
PD3
PD2
PD1
C4(1)
C3(0)
C2(0)
C1(0)
LOG AMP/
RSSI
SW1 Tx/Rx SWITCH
DEFAULT (ON)
OFF
0
1
CONTROL
BITS
PLE1
(FROM REG 0)
PD2
PD1
LOOP
CONDITION
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
X
0
1
0
1
X
VCO/PLL OFF
PLL ON
VCO ON
PLL/VCO ON
PLL/VCO ON
LR2
LR1
RSSI MODE
PD3
LNA/MIXER ENABLE
X
X
0
1
RSSI OFF
RSSI ON
0
1
LNA/MIXER OFF
LNA/MIXER ON
PD6
DEMOD ENABLE
PD4
FILTER ENABLE
0
1
DEMOD OFF
DEMOD ON
0
1
FILTER OFF
FILTER ON
PD5
ADC ENABLE
0
1
ADC OFF
ADC ON
05669-051
PD7
DEMOD
ENABLE
DB14
INTERNAL Tx/Rx
SWITCH ENABLE
DB15
PA ENABLE
Rx MODE
REGISTER 8—POWER-DOWN TEST REGISTER
Figure 51.
Notes
1.
For a combined LNA/PA matching network, Bit R8_DB12 should always be set to 0. This is the power-up default condition.
2.
It is not necessary to write to this register under normal operating conditions.
Rev. 0 | Page 40 of 48
ADF7020-1
FG1
FILTER GAIN
GC1 GAIN CONTROL
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
8
24
72
INVALID
0
1
AUTO
USER
DB6
DB5
DB4
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
GL2
GL1
C4(1)
C3(0)
C2(0)
C1(1)
DB7
GL3
DB9
DB8
DB10
GL6
GL4
FG2
GL5
AUTO AGC
HOLD SETTING
GL7
DB13
GH3
0
1
DB11
DB14
GH4
GS1 AGC SEARCH
LOW
HIGH
GH1
DB15
GH5
FILTER CURRENT
0
1
DB12
DB16
GH6
FI1
ADDRESS
BITS
AGC LOW THRESHOLD
GH2
DB17
DB19
GC1
AGC HIGH THRESHOLD
GH7
DB20
LG1
DB18
DB21
LG2
GS1
DB22
FG1
GAIN
CONTROL
AGC
SEARCH
DB23
FG2
LNA
GAIN
DB24
FILTER
GAIN
FI1
DB25
DB26
DB27
DB28
DB29
DB30
DB31
DIGITAL
TEST IQ
FILTER
CURRENT
REGISTER 9—AGC REGISTER
GL7
GL6
GL5
GL4
GL3
GL2
GL1
AGC LOW
THRESHOLD
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
.
.
.
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
.
.
.
1
0
1
1
2
3
4
.
.
.
61
62
63
LG2
LG1
LNA GAIN
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
<1
3
10
30
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
.
.
.
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
.
.
.
0
1
0
1
2
3
4
.
.
.
78
79
80
Figure 52.
Notes
1.
Default AGC_LOW_THRESHOLD = 30, default AGC_HIGH_THRESHOLD = 70. See the RSSI/AGC for details.
2.
AGC high and low settings must be more than 30 settings apart to ensure correct operation.
3.
LNA gain of 30 is available only if the LNA mode bit, R6_DB15, is set to 0.
Rev. 0 | Page 41 of 48
05669-052
RSSI LEVEL
GH7 GH6 GH5 GH4 GH3 GH2 GH1 CODE
ADF7020-1
DB17
DB16
DB15
DB14
DB13
DB12
GC2
GC1
DH4
DH3
DH2
DH1
DB11
DB10
DB9
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
GL7
GL6
GL5
GL4
PR4
PR3
PR2
PR1
DEFAULT = 0xA
GAIN TO I CHANNEL
GAIN TO Q CHANNEL
DEFAULT = 0xA
05669-053
0
1
PHASE TO I CHANNEL
PHASE TO Q CHANNEL
ADDRESS
BITS
PEAK RESPONSE
C1 (0) DB0
DB18
GC3
SIQ2 SELECT IQ
0
1
LEAK FACTOR
C2 (1) DB1
DB19
GC4
SIQ2 SELECT IQ
AGC DELAY
C3 (0) DB2
DB20
GC5
I/Q GAIN ADJUST
C4 (1) DB3
UP/DOWN
DB23
R1
DB21
DB24
PH1
UD1
DB25
PH2
SELECT
I/Q
RESERVED
DB26
PH3
SIQ1 DB22
DB27
I/Q PHASE
ADJUST
PH4
DB29
SIQ2 DB28
DB30
DB31
SELECT
I/Q
REGISTER 10—AGC 2 REGISTER
DEFAULT = 0x2
Figure 53.
Notes
1.
This register is not used under normal operating conditions.
DB20 AFC ENABLE
DB19
DB18
DB17
AE1
M16
M15
M14
DB16
DB15
DB14
DB13
DB12
DB11
DB10
DB9
DB8
DB7
DB6
DB5
DB4
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
M12
M11
M10
M9
M8
M7
M6
M5
M4
M3
M2
M1
C4(0)
C3(0)
C2(1)
C1(0)
05669-054
INTERNAL
AE1 AFC
0
1
CONTROL
BITS
AFC SCALING COEFFICIENT
M13
DB21
DB22
DB23
DB24
DB25
DB26
DB27
DB28
DB29
DB30
DB31
REGISTER 11—AFC REGISTER
OFF
ON
Figure 54.
Notes
1.
See the Internal AFC section to program AFC scaling coefficient bits.
2.
The AFC scaling coefficient bits can be programmed using the following formula:
AFC_Scaling_Coefficient = Round((500 × 224)/XTAL).
Rev. 0 | Page 42 of 48
ADF7020-1
PRESCALER
0
1
4/5 (DEFAULT)
8/9
CS1
CAL SOURCE
0
1
INTERNAL
SERIAL IF BW CAL
ADDRESS
BITS
DB1
DB0
C1(0)
DB5
T2
C2(0)
DB6
T3
DB2
DB7
T4
C3(1)
DB8
T5
DB3
DB9
T6
DB4
DB10
T7
T1
DB11
T8
C4(1)
DB12
PLL TEST MODES
T9
COUNTER
RESET
DB13
DB18
SF1
DB14
DB19
SF2
DB15
DB20
SF3
DB17
DB21
DB22
SF5
SF4
DB23
SF6
DB16
SOURCE
DB24
OSC TEST
DB25
CS1
DEFAULT = 32. INCREASE
NUMBER TO INCREASE BW
IF USER CAL ON
Σ-Δ
TEST MODES
CR1 COUNTER RESET
0
1
DEFAULT
RESET
05669-055
P
DIGITAL
TEST MODES
IMAGE FILTER ADJUST
QT1
FORCE
LD HIGH
DB26
DB27
DB28
DB29
DB30
ANALOG TEST
MUX
PRE
DB31 PRESCALER
REGISTER 12—TEST REGISTER
Figure 55.
Using the Test DAC on the ADF7020-1 to Implement
Analog FM Demodulation and Measuring of SNR
The test DAC allows the output of the postdemodulator filter
for both the linear and correlator/demodulators (Figure 31 and
Figure 32) to be viewed externally. It takes the 16-bit filter
output and converts it to a high frequency, single-bit output
using a second-order error feedback Σ-Δ converter. The output
can be viewed on the CLKOUT pin. This signal, when IF
filtered appropriately, can then be used to
•
•
Monitor the signals at the FSK/ASK postdemodulator filter
output. This allows the demodulator output SNR to be
measured. Eye diagrams can also be constructed of the
received bit stream to measure the received signal quality.
Programming the test register, Register 12, enables the test
DAC. In correlator mode, this can be done by writing Digital
Test Mode 7 or 0x0001C00C.
To view the test DAC output when using the linear demodulator,
the user must remove a fixed offset term from the signal using
Register 13. This offset is nominally equal to the IF frequency.
The user can determine the value to program by using the
frequency error readback to determine the actual IF and then
programming half this value into the offset removal field. It also
has a signal gain term to allow the usage of the maximum dynamic
range of the DAC.
Setting Up the Test DAC
•
Digital test modes = 7: enables the test DAC, with no
offset removal (0x0001 C00C).
•
Digital test modes = 10: enables the test DAC, with
offset removal (needed for linear demod only, 0x02 800C).
Provide analog FM demodulation.
While the correlators and filters are clocked by DEMOD_CLK,
CDR_CLK clocks the test DAC. Note that, although the test
DAC functions in a regular user mode, the best performance is
achieved when the CDR_CLK is increased up to or above the
frequency of DEMOD_CLK. The CDR block does not function
when this condition exists.
The output of the active demodulator drives the DAC; that is, if
the FSK correlator/demodulator is selected, the correlator filter
output drives the DAC.
Rev. 0 | Page 43 of 48
ADF7020-1
REGISTER 13—OFFSET REMOVAL AND SIGNAL GAIN REGISTER
05669-056
DB3
DB2
DB1
DB0
C4(1)
C3(1)
C2(0)
C1(1)
NORMAL PULSE WIDTH
2 × PULSE WIDTH
3 × PULSE WIDTH
.
.
.
16 × PULSE WIDTH
DB4
PULSE EXTENSION
0
1
0
.
.
.
1
DB6
PE1
0
0
1
.
.
.
1
DB7
PE2
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
DB8
DB12
PE1
PE3
0
0
0
.
.
.
1
CONTROL
BITS
KP
DB9
DB13
PE2
DB11
DB14
PE3
PE4
DB10
DB15
PE4
DB16
DB17
DB19
DB18
DB20
DB21
DB22
DB23
DB24
DB25
KI
DB5
PULSE
EXTENSION
TEST DAC OFFSET REMOVAL
DB26
DB27
DB28
DB29
DB30
DB31
TEST DAC GAIN
Figure 56.
Notes
1.
Because the linear demodulator’s output is proportional to frequency, it usually consists of an offset combined with a relatively low
signal. Up to a maximum of a 300 kHz offset can be removed and gained to use the full dynamic range of the DAC:
DAC_input = (2Test_DAC_Gain) × (Signal − Test_DAC_Offset_Removal/4096).
Rev. 0 | Page 44 of 48
ADF7020-1
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
7.00
BSC SQ
0.60 MAX
0.60 MAX
37
36
PIN 1
INDICATOR
TOP
VIEW
48
4.25
4.10 SQ
3.95
(BOTTOM VIEW)
25
24
12
13
0.25 MIN
5.50
REF
0.80 MAX
0.65 TYP
12° MAX
PIN 1
INDICATOR
1
EXPOSED
PAD
6.75
BSC SQ
0.50
0.40
0.30
1.00
0.85
0.80
0.30
0.23
0.18
0.05 MAX
0.02 NOM
0.50 BSC
SEATING
PLANE
0.20 REF
COPLANARITY
0.08
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-220-VKKD-2
Figure 57. 48-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
7 mm × 7 mm Body, Very Thin Quad
(CP-48-3)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
ADF7020-1BCPZ 1
ADF7020-1BCPZ-RL1
ADF7020-1BCPZ-RL71
EVAL-ADF70XXMB
EVAL-ADF70XXMB2
EVAL-ADF7020-1DB4
EVAL-ADF7020-1DB5
1
Temperature Range
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
Package Description
48-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
48-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
48-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
Control Mother Board
Evaluation Platform
400 MHz to 435 MHz Daughter Board
135 MHz to 650 MHz Daughter Board
Z = Pb-free part.
Rev. 0 | Page 45 of 48
Package Option
CP-48-3
CP-48-3
CP-48-3
ADF7020-1
NOTES
Rev. 0 | Page 46 of 48
ADF7020-1
NOTES
Rev. 0 | Page 47 of 48
ADF7020-1
NOTES
© 2005 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
D05669–0–12/05(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 48 of 48
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