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PAINTING
INSTRUCTION PAPER
PKEPARED BY
Ai^VAH HoRTON Sabin, M.
S.,
Lecturer in New York University,
Author of "The Technology of Paint and Varnish,"
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
etc.
AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE
ILLINOIS
CHICAGO
U.S.A.
^\
^5
ofOONiiriESJ
iUBRART
IwoMMs
JUN
13
copyright
Mecei>wi
1908
1908
by
American School of Correspondence
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London
All Risfhts Reserved
A
\I.
^'
PAINTING
The
Introductory.
man
thing a
first
contemplates painting a house,
is
the
wishes to
This
cost.
know when he
will obviously
depend
on the cost of labor, of materials, and the kind of materials chosen.
The outside of a house is painted, either in whole or in part the interior
;
may
Some houses have
be painted or varnished.
their walls partly
covered with shingles; these shingles are sometimes painted, and
sometimes
that
is,
—
in fact, often
—
left
unpainted but what
;
is
called the trim
—
the boarding about the eaves, windows, doors, the base-board,
and corner-pieces
—
is
painted.
Shingles, either wall or roof, are often
stained with a creosote stain consisting of a coloring matter dissolved
or suspended in a liquid called creosote, which
of preserving them;
is
applied for the purpose
and though instances can be cited in which wallstill doing good service although
shingles that were never stained are
believed to be
now two hundred and
creosote will undoubtedly prolong the
fifty
life
years old, yet the use of
of modern,
sawn
shingles, as
it is
noxious to insect Ufe and a powerful deterrent of natural decay.
The
color of unpainted
new
shingles
is
generally disliked; but after
four or five years wall-shingles take on a beautiful, soft color.
question of staining shingles
Most houses
or zinc.
Some
is
a matter of
The
taste.
are exteriorly painted with paint based on white lead
idea
of
the cost
may
perhaps be gained from the
following considerations
less
White lead
commonly
A
oil,
is
— in
mixture
makes 6^
sold either
ground with a
little oil
to a thick paste, or
the dry state.
of 100
pounds
of paste
white lead with 5 gallons of linseed
gallons of paint, weighing 21.3 lbs. per gal.
Approximate
figures are:
15 lbs. paste lead and 6.3 lbs.
oil
equals
1
gal.
and 7^ lbs. oil equals 1 gal.
A mixture of 100 pounds of white zinc and 85 gal. oil, makes 10| gal. of
paint; 12 lbs. zinc and 1 gal. oil make 1.3 gal., or 9.5 lbs. zinc and 5.7 lbs.
Dark -colored paints
oil make 1 gal. white zinc paint weighing 15.2 lbs.
made from iron oxides, ochers, and the like, weigh 12 to 14 pounds per gallon;
but exact figures cannot be given, as the raw materials differ greatly.
(1 gal. oil
equals 7.7
lbs.);
14 lbs. dry lead
Here should be noted the difference between the priming coat and
A priming coat is the first coat applied to the
the succeeding ones.
PAINTING
2
wooden surface
clean
oil,
differs
it
;
because the wood
from the other coats
soak up the
will
•—
in containing
more
and leave the coloring matter
oil
of the paint on the outside.
To make the
paint for the priming coat, take a gallon of the paint
already described and mix with
thus
made
such
is
of course, lower
is,
it
a gallon of raw linseed
in price;
also
it is
much
Paint
oil.
thinner; but
the absorbent power of the wood, that the priming paint does
not cover as
much
A
surface as the succeeding coats per gallon.
gallon of this thin priming coat covers 300 to 400 sq.
ft.,
while a gallon
of second or third-coat paint, well brushed out, will cover about twice
this surface; this
is
because the surface for
and non-absorbent.
all
but the
Priming coats are used
first
coat
hard
is
for both outside
and
inside work, as will be described later.
The
made
dark-colored paints are usually cheaper than those
from lead and
zinc,
and
made
if
of good materials are not inferior in
made by the zinc and lead manumuch doubt. Some of the darkmost durable that can be applied on wood. The
durability; the extraordinary claims
facturers are to be received with
colored paints are the
chief cost of painting
to locality
is,
however, that of labor, which varies according
and other conditions, seldom being
less
than twice that of
materials.
For
light-colored paints,
may be
pale japan dryer
either this or boiled
practically the
On
inside
oil,
it is
lietter to
use raw linseed
added, as described
boiled
oil
later; for
being darker in color.
which
oil to
dark
colors,
The
cost
is
same; also the durability.
work may be used
either
oil
or enamel paint, as
described later, the former being the cheaper, the latter the handsomer
more durable; or the wood may be finished in its natural
color, by varnishing it either with an oleo-resinous varnish or with
The oleo-resinous varnishes darken the wood very
shellac varnish.
and
slightly
appreciably, while white shellac varnish keeps
it
more nearly
in its
natural color; although the latter does not prevent the natural darken-
ing action of light,
it
may retard
sive finish of the two,
finish
hard
zine.
if
it.
Shellac varnish
well applied.
What
is
is
the
more expen-
sometimes called
oil
generally consists in the application of a cheap varnish called
oil,
which
is
usually
Its only merit
is
made
that
it is
of
common
cheap.
rosin, linseed oil,
and ben-
PAINTING
It
would indeed be possible
to apply neither paint nor varnish,
wood with oil, and this would be truly an
would, however, make the wood dark and dingy, and
but merely to saturate the
oil finish; it
would readily retain
sometimes on
These are
boiled
—
and
a practice seldom followed except
especially kitchen floors
and sink shelves.
dirt,
is
—
at frequent intervals oiled
^^•ith
a mixture of equal parts
and turpentine.
oil
It is
floors
the purpose of this Instruction Paper to describe only good
and approved methods.
It
will
readily be understood,
certainly be observed in practice, that these
and will
methods may be abbre-
by the omission of some details that are here specified as desirFor instance, it is difficult to get interior finish sandpapered or
rubbed between coats, even if so contracted; but this is the right
viated
able.
Two
practice.
No
four.
coats of varnish often have to serve in the place of
one, however, needs to be told these things.
The methods
herein described are not luxurious or extravagant; they are, on fairly
good houses, truly economical; and we are not considering temporary
structures.
It is
not
uncommon
finished in varnish,
paints,
which are
to find part of a house, as the living rooms,
and the kitchen and pantry painted with oil
and more easily renewed. The
lighter in color
sleeping rooms, on the other hand, are often finished in enamel paints,
because color effects are desired to harmonize with the furnishings;
and bathrooms are almost always done in enamel for sanitary considerations.
The
taste
and inclination of the owner are
to be con-
sulted in regard to all these matters.
PAINTERS' SUPPLIES
Pigments and Vehicles.
Paint
is
a mixture of a finely-divided
solid substance with a liquid which,
when spread on a solid surface
with a brush or otherwise, will adhere and in a short time form—
by
evaporation, or more commonly by oxidation— a somewhat hard and
tough
film.
The
part, the vehicle.
an
finely divided solid is called the pigment; the liquid
The most common
vehicle
is
linseed
oil.
This
is
obtained by pressure (or extraction by solvents) from flaxseed.
AVhen spread out in a film and exposed to the air, linseed oil is conoil
verted into a tough, leathery, elastic substance called linoxin, insoluble
in
water and
all
common
solvents.
This change
is
brought about by
PAINTING
4
'-
•
'
air,
whereby the
increased about one-fifth or one-sixth.
It is there-
absorption and chemical union of the oxygen of the
weight of the
oil is
fore a mistake to suppose that oil paint gets dry as
by the evaporation of the
whitewash does,
Instead of that,
li(|uid.
gets heavier.
it
There are some other vegetable oils which have this property in some
degree, but none which are used for paints to any considerable extent;
some are used a
Linseed
It
for artists' colors.
should stand at least a month or two before using.
oil
should then be perfectly free from sediment or cloudiness;
so, this is
is
little
not
fit
making
for
In this natural state,
paints.
if it is
and such
a sign that the oil has not been properly aged,
not
oil
called raiv oil;
it is
and the price of linseed oil as commonly quoted refers to raw oil.
Boiled oil is this raw oil which has been heated, usually to 450° or 500°
with the addition of a small amount of oxide of lead or oxide of
F.,
manganese, or a mixture of the two (occasionally some other lead or
manganese compounds are used).
raw
color than
oil,
A
times as rapidly.
will
Boiled
but differs fn^m
Oil dries best in
is
on a glass or metal surface
warm, dry weather and out
The pigment
This
oil
mixed
is
usually done
V)y
witli the oil
power,
in
dries five to ten
it
in five or six days, so as to feel
do the same
oil will
darker (browner) in
oil is
chiefly in that
raw
thin film of
dry at ordinary temperatures
longer greasy; but boiled
it
by
no
day or half a day.
in a
of cloors.
stirring the
two together.
The
a vessel called a paint mixer.
mixture should then be run through a paint mill; some paint mills are
which the
of steel, but the best have a pair of mill-stones, between
paint
is
manner
ground and most tlioroughly mixed.
are
much
Besides
ner, the
pentine
oil
and
j)igmcnt, paint
Paints mixed in this
mixed only by
better than those wliich are
sometimes contains a
most important thinners being turpentine and
is
a well-known essential
oil, volatile,
stirring.
volatile thin-
benzine.
Tur-
boiling at about 320° F.,
but evaporating at ordinary t(>mperatures when exposed to the
Benzine
line;
is
a mineral
the kind
benzine,"
its
used
in
lighter than kerosene
tine, 7.2 lbs.;
and
paint
specific gravity
lighter than water.
oil
oil,
varnish
being G2° on the
Linseed
oil
and 62° benzine,
weighs 7.7
G.l lbs.
makers and dealers on the basis of
But
air.
and heavier than gasois
called
Baume
lbs.
"62-degree
scale for liquids
per gallon; turpen-
linseetl oil is sold
7.5 lbs. per gallon.
by the
PAINTIN'G
A
A
in
some form, is an essential ingredient of oil paint.
compound
of lead or manganese (generally both), soluble
is a
oil, and is usually sold, under the name of 'paint dryer or 'paint japan,
dryer, in
dryer
as a solution of such material in a mixture of
zine.
per cent of
turpentine,
oil,
and ben-
usually of such strength that an addition of from 5 to 10
It Is
it
to a raw-oil paint will
make
it
to use, until they
dry
from
in
have stood four times as long as
The
tinue to harden for months.
more
color; but such are
six to twelve
Paints are not dry enough
hours sufficiently to be carefully handled.
this ;
and they con-
strongest drying japans are dark in
injurious to the durability of the paint than
those which are paler, especially
if
the latter do not contain rosin.
The buyer
should always ask for a guarantee that the dryer
from
if
rosin,
great durability in the paint
is
is
free
Not more than
be used in any paint.
needed.
10 per cent of any dryer or japan should ever
Slowly drying paints are more durable than quick ones.
In house painting, the white pigments are the most important,
because they are the base of
important white pigment
is
all
light-colored paints.
white lead.
This
powder, or (more commonly) as paste white lead, which
90
lbs.
dry white lead and 10
with boiled
oil to
make
a white paint.
White lead
oil,
more
than of any other pigment, except red lead.
or covering power.
It
;
in
made- of
of
It
is
it
a very heavy
can be mixed
has great opacity,
discolored by gases containing sulphur,
is
becoming brown or black and unless exposed
becomes yellowish even
is
This can be thinned
lbs. linseed oil.
pigment; and with a given quantity of
The most
sold either as a dry
is
pure
air.
to fairly strong light,
It is better if
it
it
has been mixed
—
some time a year or more.
is a somewhat purer white than white lead; not so
opaque. Three coats of lead are reckoned equal to five coats of zinc.
It becomes harder than lead, but is somewhat liable to peel off; while
lead, after exposure to the air for a long time, becomes dry and powdery
on its surface, and chalks.
A mixture of two parts of lead and one of zinc is much liked.
with the
oil for
White zinc
VAnc-lead, however,
is
the
name
of an entirely different pigment,
made
by furnacing ores containing about equal parts of lead and zinc,
This pigment is free from
in which the lead is present as a sulphate.
the liability to turn brown if exposed to sulphur gases; it is said to be
not quite so pure a white as the preceding.
It is
a comparatively
new
PAINTING
pigment, but
coming rapidly
is
Lithopmic
the others.
Adulterants.
into use, being
somewhat cheaper than
another white pigment of considerable merit.
is
these
All
pigments
may
be adulterated
with
barytcs, or with terra alba (sulphate of lime), sometimes with whiting
These adulterants are powdered minerals.
(carbonate
of
Barytes
a good pigment, so far as protective action goes; and
is
terra alba
is
lime).
thought by some good authorities to be unobjectionable;
them are transparent
the opacity or whitening power of the paint.
but whiting
lessen
From
is
of lead; the blue
green
which the yellow
may
is
chiefly
chrome
yelloiv,
and
by adding
or chromate
be either idtramarine or prussian blue; and the
chrome green, a mixture of chrome yellow and prussian blue.
is
reds are (in house paints)
them are now fairly
ochcrs,
in oil,
these white paints, colored paints are made-
tinting colors, of
The
All of
injurious.
fast to light.
made from coal-tar colors, and most of
Some dull yellow colors are made from
which are clays tinted with iron oxides, roasted and ground.
These are permanent
The
colors.
dark-colored paints
may
not contain lead or zinc at
all.
The
deep yellows, greens, and blues are made from the colors already
named
as tinting colors,
none of which are
entirely fast to light; the
dark reds and browns are chiefly iron oxides, which are a valuable class
of
paints, very
The
permanent on wood.
black or drop-black (bone-black.)
blacks are either lamp-
and other carbon
are often added in small quantity to secure
colors; and these
some desired tone or shade
of color.
case
The
zinc
it is
considered the best practice to apply thin coats; but the dark
and lead pigments have some action on
pigments do not act on
oil,
oil,
and
in their
and, of these, thick coats are best for dura-
bility.
Paint and Varnish Brushes.
to
recommend
brushes
of a
last
it
will
a long time, and
good brush
is
A
brush that has only a low price
prove a poor investment.
it
If properly
pays to have good ones.
cared
The
uniform quality from outside to center.
first
for,
sign
Inferior
brushes have inferior bristles in the middle, and some poor brushes
are actually hollow.
For ordinary
new brush should be
five
stiff
be
oil
painting, the bristles on a large
or six inches long, uniformly flexible, and as
as can be.found they will be flexible
alike.
;
enough
an^'Avay, but all should
PAINTING
A
Paint brushes are round, fat, or oval.
ordinary outside work
brush with
bristles six
stiff
bridled when
it is
new
favorite brush for
pound brush, a large, round
inches long.
Such a brush should be
what
is
called a
is
—a "bridle" being a piece of cord wound around
the bristles to shorten their effective length; as the bristles become
w^orn
and
is
the brush
is
A
may be removed.
the bridle
off,
inches wide)
2j-inch oval brush (2h
a highly satisfactory tool to use in general painting,
recommended by the paint committee
Society for Testing Materials.
It is
of the iVmerican
worth noting that this committee,
made up
equally of expert paint manufacturers and experts employed
by the large consumers, unanimously agreed that no larger brush than
this
should be used in making paint
tests.
is common for outside work;
may
had
of
be
the best quality, they are heavy
but while such brushes
and laborious to use, and the workman who uses such a brush will not
The
use of brushes five inches wide
brush
is
should not exceed 3^ inches in width; and three inches
is
brush the paint
used,
it
better.
A
sufficiently to get the best result.
good 2^-inch oval varnish brush
for all large
work
is
a
flat
a most excellent brush
The
in either paint or varnish.
If
painter should also
have a good l|-inch oval brush for smaller work, and a number of
round or oval brushes, called sa^h
tools,
more
and frame painting.
delicate work, such as sash
brushes, which have been
rubbing-in
filling.
For varnishing large
22 inches wide are good
inch wide are useful.
For flowing varnish,
brushes, running up
varnishing
worn
off short,
;
of different smaller sizes, for
is
also similar ones 2 inches,
as
1 h
inches,
and
1
have chiseled edges.
necessary to have thick,
to 3^
work
surfaces, flat bristle brushes
All flat brushes should
it
Stiff-bristle
are suitable for such
flat,
camel's-hair
inches in width, although most house
may be done with brushes not over 2k inches wide.
Besides paint brushes, the
workman
will
need some ordinary
scrubbing brushes and one or two painter's dusting brushes, to have the
surface properly cleaned.
Steel-wire brushes, with
like
stiff steel
wire instead of bristles, shaped
scrubbing brushes, are used for cleaning
cleaning structural metal work.
steel wires are of different lengths
They may be had
at
hardware
Care of Brushes
These are
and
sizes,
off old paint
of various sizes;
hence differing
and
for
and the
in stiffness.
stores.
Hair and
bristle
brushes must be kept clean
PAINTING
and
can be done by care and faithfulness.
soft; this
They should
become dry with paint or varnish in them. To
wash them out in oil or turpentine as soon as you are
not be allowed to
prevent
this,
through using them; or they
closely in paper
this
way
may be
left in
They may be kept over
few days.
if
should not be
them very
they have been used in a slow-drying material; in
may be
they
the paint or varnish for a
night by wrapping
left to
carried
from one place
dry with even clean
oil
to another.
Brushes
or turpentine in them;
they are to be put away, they should be well washed
first
if
with soap
and water, then with clean water, then hung up until thoroughly dry.
In use, brushes are best kept in what is called a brush safe. A
deep wooden
pail,
with nails driven in
its
sides at different distances
from the bottom, and with a close cover, makes a good receptacle
The
for brushes.
brushes have holes in their handles, or loops of
cord tied to them, and are hung on these nails; their bristles dip into
some turpentine or oil in the botttom of the pail; they are so hung that
they do not dip into the liquid above where the bristles project from
If brushes are left standing on the bristles on the bottom
the binding.
of a vessel, they soon become one-sided and distorted in shape.
Tin
brush-safes may be bought of any large dealer in brushes.
A brush which has dried with paint or varnish in it, may be
recovered by soaking it in a non-alkaline varnish-remover. This will
in
time soften
it
so that
such treatment.
it
may be used
again, but
it is
not improved by
Brushes used in shellac should be washed out with
No brush
alcohol instead of turpentine or benzine.
is
good unless
it is
clean.
Fillers
Fillers.
are
of
two kinds
paste
and
liquid.
fillers
are something like a very thick paint, and are composed of
solid
powdered substance, usually
silica
Paste
some
or powdered quartz, mixed
with a quick-drying varnish thinned with turpentine or benzine.
This
applied to the dry surface of the
is
brush, or
is
wood with a
stiff,
short-bristle
put on with a clean, white cotton cloth, and well rubbed into
the pores of the wood.
After half an hour or so, the surface of the
wood
wad
felt.
fillers
is
A
wiped
liquid
off
with a
filler is
a quick-drying varnish; and most of the liquid
on the market are cheap rosin varnishes loaded with dryers,
and should never be used.
cases.
of excelsior or a clean cloth or a piece of
Paste
fillers
are the best in almost
all
PAINTING
HOUSE PAINTING
Work.
Inside
All
window and door frames, whether they
are to
be finished with paint or varnish, should receive a good coat of paint
made with some cheap pigment, such as iron oxide, and boiled oil,
applied to the back of the frame, before they are brought from the
shop to the house; this prevents the absorption of moisture and hin-
ders decay.
be painted, they should receive a priming
possible; if not, it should be applied as soon as pracpriming coat is composed of white lead and boiled oil or
If they are to
coat in the shop,
The
ticable.
raw
oil,
with
oil,
if
five to ten
with very
little
per cent of dryer; and should be almost
pigment.
Turpentine
priming coat, because the object
turpentine evaporates.
are to be
filled
lead putty,
made by mixing a
common
to
fill
as this
The
with putty.
or by adding dry lead to
sistency.
is
As soon
is
the pores of the wood, and
is
dry to the touch,
best putty for this purpose
little
paste
lead
raw
cracks,
all
holes
is
white
with dry white lead,
oil
until
it
is
of
the right con-
This kind of putty hardens quickly as compared with
putty, and is the best for this purpose.
A steel putty-knife
should not be used on interior woodwork, as
scratch
all
not a good thing in a
it
is
almost certain to
hardwood stick, suitably shaped, should be used. All
joints, and nail-holes shoukl })e carefully filled.
All knots
it;
a
and sappy places should be varnished with shellac varnish; this prevents the pitch and moisture from attacking the paint.
The shellac
should be applied where it is needed, before the priming coat. The
priming coat should be given time to get quite dry; at least a day —two
days,
if
and a week is better yet. Then it is ready for the
This should contain a considerable amount of turpentine.
possible;
second coat.
no turpentine is used, the surface is likely to be glossy, antl the next
coat of paint will not adhere well; l)ut by replacing part of the oil with
turpentine, we get what painters call a fiat coa/— that is, one which is
If
this is made from paste lead or any paste paint, it can
be produced by thinning the paste with a mixture of oil and turpentine
in equal proportions; some painters prefer one-third oil and
two-
not glossy;
if
thirds turpentine.
This
is
for inside
be allowed to dry thoroughly;
dry enough to
work
only.
This coat should
takes ten hours for the paint to be
handle, then at least four times ten hours additional
if it
should elapse before the next coat is applied; this is a good general rule;
and as much more time as possible should be allowed. If the finish
PAINTING
10
'
«
is
be ordinary
to
about half as
examined, and,
if
the coat
glossy,
it
is
thoroughly dry,
I'hen the
it
must be
all.
carefully
should be rubbed with something to take
a light rubbing
off the gloss; curled hair is often used, or
and water.
paint, thinned with
turpentine as before, or with no turpentine at
when
In the latter case,
may be
the next coat
oil paint,
much
final coat,
which has no turpentine
witii
j)umice
in
may be
it,
applied.
But
when
if
the finish
c|uite dry,
is
to
be with an enamel paint, the second coat,
should be very lightly sandpapered with fine sand-
paper, and the third coat should be of like composition to the second,
same way; then the enamel paint is applied. For a really
when this is cjuite dry, it should be rub])ed down with
curled hair or pumice and water, and another coat of enamel put on.
treated the
first-class job,
This may be
left
with the natural gloss
with pumice and water to a
flat (dull)
oil
desired; or
it
may
be rubbed
Old plastered walls may be painted
Painting Plastered Walls.
with
if
surface.
or enamel paints as though they were wood, remembering that
the priming coat will have almost
New plastered
all
of
absorbed by the
its oil
plaster.
walls do not take paint well, on account of their alkaline
character, which gradually disappears with exposure to the atmos-
phere.
if it is
It is well to let
a wall remain unpainted at least a year.
necessary to paint a freshly plastered wall, the wall
by some painters by washing
it
it
first
some
extent; or
with a strong solution of
with a solution of soap.
After this
is
dry,
water, allowed to dry, and then painted.
insoluble
tent,
compound which
Outside
Work.
more
it
is
then
washed with clean
The alum and soap form an
closes the pores of the plaster to
Exterior paints are
lasting,
— more commonly
common alum and
and prevents the lime from acting on the
to be far
But
prepared
with a solution of sugar in vinegar,
the sugar uniting with the lime to
by washing
is
than those used on
some
ex-
paint.
more
elastic, as
they need
interiors, since the effect of
exposure to the sun and rain destroys paint more than almost anyPaint on the interior of a house
thing else does.
indefinitely; but
surface,
if
on the outside the best paint
is
will last
not very durable.
be the same paint which
with l)oiled
The
new, should be cleaned by brushing; knots should be
shellacked: after which the priming coat should be applied.
may
almost
oil (or
raw
oil
is
This
selected for the finish, only thinned
and dryer), using one
to
one and a-third
PAINTING
gallons of
may
ing the pigment as
is
from which the next coat
to putty
many
up
all
nailholes
why
ordinary paint
that the
is
probably peel
will
and other
The
off.
next step
For the second
defects.
coat,
experts advise the addition of half a pint of turpentine to the
make no
gallon of paint; others
applied after the second
is
Repainting.
addition to
thoroughly dry;
elapse between these coats, so
to
reason
wood absorbs the oil, leava comparatively non-adhesive powder on the sur-
not be used as a primer,
face,
The
each gallon of paint.
oil to
11
much
The
it.
if
third coat
a week or a month can
the better.
has been on a long time,
If the old paint
is
liable
it is
be permeated by minute cracks, which admit moisture to the surface
of the
wood and
paint,
which shrinks
loosen the paint.
If
now we
paint over
the
this,
and of
in drying, tends to pull off the old paint,
course the whole peels off in patches.
new
If the old paint is in this state,
it must be removed before the new paint is applied.
This can be
done by burning ojf. For this work a 'painter's torch is required,
which is a lamp burning alcohol, gasoline, or kerosene, and is so con-
structed that a blast of flame can be directed against the surface. This
melts or softens the old paint, which
The
with a steel scraper.
by heat so that
to
it
paint
can be scraped
remove as much
is
then immediately scraped off
not literally burned, but
is
In some cases
off.
a scrubbing brush, with steel wires instead of
sufficient
it is
as possible with a steel brush; this
is
bristles,
softened
is
a brush like
when
and,
vigorously used, will take off the loose paint.
Old
well,
it
paint, however,
may be
and when
it is
is
not always in this condition.
quite dry, the
new
paint
the paint seems in good condition, only
in
If
it
adheres
cleaned with an ordinary scrubbing brush and water,
such cases a coat of boiled
oil,
may be
it
applied.
has faded and
or raw
oil
Sometimes
lost its luster;
with dryer,
that
is all
is
needed.
It is well to paint
casings, corner-pieces,
the trim
and the
—that the window-casings, door—before painting the body of the
is,
like
house; then the paint can be applied to the
than
is
otherwise likely to be done.
coats, well
brushed on;
re-entrant angles while
difficult to
it
is
flat
surfaces
not unusual to see paint
it is still,
good on
brush the paint properly
more neatly
Paint should be applied
flat
come
in thin
in those places.
difference in durability between a thin paint flowed
There
from
off
surfaces, because
is
it
was
a great
on with a
large.
PAINTING
12
m
flat
brush, and one of proper consistency well brushed out with a brush
medium
of
In
size.
painting on wood,
all
desirable to brush
it is
it
on
wood and by painting only a few boards at once,
we may avoid laps by painting the whole length. Rough surfaces
hold paint better, and more of it, than smooth. A gallon of paint will
with the grain of the
;
cover, one coat (on a painted or well-primed surface), about GOO scjuare
The priming
not flowed on, but well brushed out in a thin film.
feet,
coat will not cover
more than 300 or 400 square
make no
measuring the outside of a house for surface,
doors and windows;
if
the trim
is
to
In
feet to the gallon.
deductions for
be painted a different color, from
one-sixth to one-third of the paint will be required of that color.
A coat of dry paint is
Paint should be stirred frequently while using.
from
5^-J
-Q
to
Y,
uW
of an inch in thickness.
Roof paints should contain a
Rocf Painting.
oil
to
Many
pigment than other paints, and
larger proportion of
dryer (or none at
less
think that the addition of ten to twenty per cent of fish
paint for roofs
is
advantageous;
all).
oil to
a
fish oil greatly retards
drying and
Tin
new, should
prevents the paint from becoming
brittle.
roofs,
if
be thoroughly scrubbed with soap and water, or with pieces of harsh
cloth,
They may then be
such as burlap, well wet with benzine.
painted.
Paint dries relatively fast on roofs; but as a roof paint
slow-drying, plenty of time
must be allowed between
roof should receive three coats.
treated the
same way.
difficult to paint;
Do not
have
it
new
A
and spouts are
^Nletal gutters
very
is
coats.
new
to be
or galvanized iron
is
very thoroughly scrubbed, even though
it
forget that
tin
looks perfectly clean, and then rub the paint on well with the brush.
Metal spouts
will usually
be painted the same color as the wall of the
house.
Sometimes shingle roofs are painted with
fireproof paint.
is
not really fireproof, but considerably retards the spread of
it
has become thoroughly dry; when fresh,
does
it
have much
made by adding
powdered boracic
and forms a
after a time
Canvas
effect after
acid.
When
after
;
so.
It
may
be
any good paint about a pound of
strongly heated, this material fuses
which keeps the
washed out by the
This
does not even do that nor
has been on a year or
it
to a gallon of
sort of glass,
it
fire,
air
from the wood.
It is
rain.
roofs are prepared in the following
manner:
The canvas
PAINTING
(10-ounce duck
draw
tight;
it
it
often used)
nailed
is first
show some
thoroughly wet;
common
it
shrinks,
and
practice to paint
all
the
while
it
down, care being taken
to
wrinkles, but these are not to be allowed
accumulate to form a large wrinkle or
to
a
is
will
l.ri
tion to all other practice; but
little
the canvas
wrinkles disappear.
it is still
some wait
Then
fold.
is
It is
wet, this being an excep-
until
it is
The
dry.
writer
has been accustomed to the latter method, and has not found that the
canvas shows wrinkles on drying, while the results are all that can be
A well-painted
desired.
canvas roof
is
very durable and satisfactory.
PAINTING STRUCTURAL METAL
more perishable material than wood, and more difficult
to paint.
Without regular expenditure for maintenance, wooden
bridges last longer than steel ones; there are wooden roof beams a
thousand years old and iron roofs are so short-lived that they are used
only over furnaces and the like, wdiere wooden ones would take fire.
Steel
is
a
;
The
painting of structural steel
difficult, if
we
In the
we
it
first
oil,
therefore important;
and
also
is
it
place comes the preparation of the surface.
we have
paint wood,
with
is
are to judge by results.
the surface clean and dry; and then
so as to have the paint
bound
to
in the
it
When
we soak
most intimate
manner.
Iron and steel, on the other hand, always come to us dirty,
and covered with oxide; and as the surface is not porous, the paint
does not penetrate it, but has to stick on the outside the best way it can.
If we paint over the dirt and scale, and that ever comes off, the paint
comes off with it; if the metal is actively rusting, and w^e paint over the
rust, the corrosion is
perhaps made slower, but
Air and moisture cause rust;
if
it
does not stop.
we can keep them away,
the metal
will last; but, unfortunately, all paint is very slightly porous,
exposed to the weather
thing in painting metal
it
is
in
time deteriorates.
to get the paint
The most
and
if
essential
on the metal, not on an
inter-
mediate coating.
There are only two ways
pickling
it
followed by washing to remove the acid ; and the other
who must do
all dirt
and
all
the next best thing.
loose scale
and
oxide.
is
by
20 per cent sulphuric acid),
of the sand-blast. Neither of these processes
painter,
One
to clean steel perfectly.
in dilute acid (usually 10 to
is
is
by the use
available to the ordinary
This
is
to
remove absolutely
First clean off the dirt,
if
anv,
PAINTING
14
with brushes, as
come
would be cleaned
it
with scrapers and
any new rust (not
If there is
off.
scraped out and cleaned
One
This
off.
it,
before
This must be mixed on the
oil.
harden into a cake
will
gallon of
oil
is
for a first coat
spot, shortly before
all
red lead in
allowed to stand very
to
—not
than 28
less
oil,
in
any
case.
This
put on in too thick a coat,
if it is
others boiled
The
used.
oil;
it
it
does not
is
the
be mixed with each
immediately painted
will
run and be uneven.
make much
paint dries rapidly; and as soon as
other paints in
away from
is
used, because
it is
if
in the pail or
Red
a second coat of the paint can be applied.
from
this is
is
use raw
w^hich
will
can
on the metal;
Some
When
indispensable.
is
which
must be well
it
30 to 33 pounds of dry red lead
From
long.
mill scale),
Then,
begins rusting again.
it
most popular materials
of the
any other surface.
off
steel-wire brushes, clean off all the scale
done, immediately paint
it
—
•-
•
this, that
This
air.
it
because
is
will finish
it
lead
difference
seems hard,
is
different
hardening just as well
does not dry by oxidation, as
it
other paints do, but by the lead combining chemically with the
just as water
combines with Portland cement.
red lead should have one or two coats of
w^riter,
than red lead, over
may be
used.
But red lead
it.
Any good
other carbon paint, or
linseed oil
paint
some
is
important, in using any of these, to
less
paint, other
coating which
first
—a good graphite paint, or
of the varnish-like coatings containing
and asphaltum which are made
between coats. Not
some good
not the only
may be used
oil,
In the opinion of ths
let
for the purpose.
It
is
plenty of time for drying elapse
than two coats
is
permissible,
and three are
desirable.
Projecting angles, edges, and bolt and rivet heads arc the places
which
first
show
rust through the paint.
brush draws the paint thin at such places.
becoming common practice
and paint
bolt
and
all
to
This
partly because the
go over the work after the
is
first
now
coat,
edges for about an inch from the edge or angle, and
with an extra or striping coat; then,
rivet heads,
second coat goes on over the whole, there
full
is
To overcome this, it
is
when
all
the
the equivalent of two
coats everywhere.
Painting on iron, as on wood, should be done in dry weather,
when
it
is
not very cold^
coats should be used,
the paint into
all
— at
any
rate not
and well brushed on.
cracks and corners.
below 50° F.
Full,
heavy
Care must be taken
to get
PAINTING
15
VARNISH
A
film,
that
varnish
is
a liquid
made
which, on exposure to the
is
to be applied to a surface in a thin
hardens into a protective coating
air,
There are two principal
usually glossy and almost transparent.
classes—spirit and oleo-resinous varnishes.
which shellac^
Spirit varnishes, of
by dissolving a
resin (or
sometimes some other substance)
They dry by
solvent, such as alcohol.
and leaving the
off
the most important, are
is
made
in a volatile
evaporation, the solvent going
resin spread out in a thin film, the liquid or vehicle
having really served as a mechanical means of spreading the resin over
the surface.
thin flakes.
Shellac
It
in the following
may
gum
an earthenware
in
and gently drop the
of alcohol, then put on the cover
on any account
stir
soaked and swollen; but
the mass with a
it,
shellac, little
and leave
five
pounds
Just before leaving at
it
by
until
into the jar
little,
Do
morning.
if
wooden
you had
in
stirred
lumps.
stick once every
them
in,
the night before,
Now, during
hour or so
;
the day,
By
will
be ready for use.
gum
shellac contains
—
perhaps before
make a
clear solution
the next morning
does not
It
some wax, which does not
varnish
is
milky or cloudy;
alcohol
is
volatile, the
is,
it
—the
,
whole
shellac
because the
dissolve,
and so the
As the
however, ready for use.
jar should be kept covered;
made, the varnish should be put
stir
do not put any
especially iron; one iron nail will spoil the color of a
barrel of shellac.
not
In the morning the flakes of shellac will be
it.
they would have stuck together
metal in
and weigh out
jar,
shellac for each gallon of alcohol.
night, carefully
lars:e,
be dissolved in denatured (or any other) alcohol
manner
Put the alcohol
of
a resin which comes on the market in
is
and
after
it
is
in glass bottles or clean tin cans.
There are many grades of shellac gum, the best being known by
the letters D C; but there are others nearly as good. The common
shellac is brownish yellow, and is called orange shellac; this is the natuWhite
ral shellac color.
chlorine; but
it is
shellac
course, the advantage of being
gum
will,
is,
made from
this
much
by bleaching with
paler in color.
on long standing, sometimes become
Note. — By some
There
is
not of so good quality as the unbleached;
it
has, of
WTiite shellac
insoluble. Shellac
painters, the term "varnish" is never used to include shellac.
however, no valid, objective reason for thus limiting the use of the term.
PAINTING
16
may be
varnish
Shellac
lessens
thinned with alcohol, and often this
common
too often adulterated with
is
its
This
value.
Damar
is
rosin,
by a chemical
easily detected
a white resin which
is
pounds
five or six
•
which greatly
test.
soluble in spirits of turpentine-
is
of resin to a gallon of turpentine. It
we
nearly colorless varnish
necessary.
is
the most
is
have, but never becomes very hard.
It is
used to a considerable extent as a vehicle for white lead and zinc, to
make a
very white enamel paint.
It is
not durable
exposed to the
if
weather.
More important than
varnishes are the oleo-resinous var-
spirit
nishes, which consist of certain resins dissolved in linseed
is
put in a copper kettle and heated until
some hot
oil is
added
to
thoroughly combined.
when
it,
The
kettle
film hard and lustrous, and the
is
oil
until the
whole
is
then taken from the
The
stirred in.
is
the mixture
thoroughly melted; then
it is
and the mixture cooked
partly cool, the turpentine
oil,
In making these, the resin
being thinned with turpentine or benzine.
makes
it
resin
Thus
tough.
fire, and
makes the
the larger
the proportion of resin, the harder and more brilliant will be the film;
the larger the proportion of
durable
it
will be,
comes from the
The
in
pale
gums
elastic,
and more
resin; the paler this
is,
the paler will be the varnish.
are higher in price than the dark ones, but are no better
Dark
color.
—
(except in color) as pale ones
resins are often harder
medium,
more
and the slower it will dry. ]Most of the color of varnish
any respect except
The hard and
the tougher,
oil,
varnishes
may
may be
in fact
be just as good
better, for the
and better than the pale ones of the same
quick-drying varnishes are suitable for furniture
for interior house-varnishes; the slow
and
elastic, for
dark
sort.
;
the
exposure
to the weather.
The wood
Varnishing.
better,
if
necessary to clean
it,
to avoid
the carpenter
is
make
supposed
to
do
When
in
proper condition,
on that account.
this,
open-grain w^ood, a coat of paste
it
is
it
smooth.
Of course
but the painter must not neglect
if it is
an
The open-grained woods
and ash. The woods classed
as
filler.
most common use are oak, chestnut,
this reason
washing as much as possible,
using sandpaper instead, which will also
it
For
should be dry.
it first
receives,
in
woods are white pine, maple, birch, yellow pine, whitewood, cherry, and sycamore. These latter do not need filling. If
filler is used, it should be well rubbed in with a short, stiff brush; and
close-grain
PAINTLXG
when
it
has
17
say in fifteen to thirty minutes,
set,
it is
rubbed
off
with a
handful of excelsior, rubbing across the grain, and rublMng hard, so as
to force the
filler
Then
well into the pores of the wood.
should
it
stand 24 to 48 hours.
When
purchased, a paste
too thick to be used with a brush,
filler is
and must be thinned with turpentme or benzine; at the same time
may be stained to any desired color with an oil or varnish stain.
stains can
is
be purchased of any desired
under treatment, the
stain the
wood but
first
it is
;
thing
common
is
to
These
color. If a close-grained
apply a stain
it
wood
desired to
if it is
practice to finish in the natural color.
amount
Water stains are seldom
Stains usually require a good deal of thinning before using; the
of thinning will determine the depth of color.
used, as they tend to raise the grain of the wood.
In cleaning
usmg
ings,
off
use any steel
is
filler,
be careful to clean out corners and mould-
shaped hardwood
sticks;
do not
tool.
Where rooms
it
the
for this purpose, properly
are to be finished in the natural color of the wood,
common
nevertheless a
cherry or light
mahogany
practice to stain the window-sashes; a
stain
used on close-grain woods; but
is
Fillers are
often used.
sometimes
this is not advisable, as they tend to
prevent the varnish from getting a good hold on the wood.
Next comes the varnishing. Window-sills, jambs, inside blinds,
and other surfaces exposed to the direct rays of the sun, are to be
treated as exterior woodwork, and are not varnished with the ordinary
work. The floors also are left
The rest of the woodwork receives its
first coat of varnish apply it, as much as possible, with the grain of the
wood, brushing it out well in a thin coat. The varnish ought to dry
interior varnish used
on the
rest of the
out of account for the present.
;
dust free
five
(;'.e.,so
that dust will not stick to
days should elapse between coats.
it)
When
overnight; but at least
dry,
it
should
l)e
rubbed
with ciu'led hair or excelsior enough to remove the gloss, so that the next
coat of varnish will adhere properly; a better result will be had
lightlv
the
sandpapered with GO paper.
first.
The
third
is
it
surface.
thick,
may
For
which
may be
be rubbed with
this
is
second coat
is
if it is
treated like
not sandpapered, but rubbed with curled hair;
the fourth or finishing coat
ferred,
The
fine
left
with the natural gloss,
pumice and water
purpose the varnish dealers
well wet in clean water; a
to a
sell felt,
little
or, if pre-
smooth, dull
about an inch
dry pumice powder
is
PAINTING
18
put on
and the rubbing
it;
and dry before
slow work; that
done with
is
quite hard
this
done,
is,
is
The
this.
varnish must be
Varnishing,
attempted.
is
much time must be
if
properly
allowed for each
coat to dry thoroughly.
The varnish which
too quickly;
to
and
it,
but
if
in
it
is
used on interior woodwork should not dry
should dry enough over night so that dust will not stick
twenty-four hours should be hard enough to handle freely;
a chair, for example,
on
entirely safe to sit
perfectly free
it
were varnished with
for a week. It should,
from tack, which
present prices (and
at prices ranging
will not
do
however,
if it is
would not be
it
finally
become
a rosin varnish. At
not probable that they will ever be lower) var-
it is
woodwork
nishes for interior
it
it,
are sold, according to color and quality,
from $2.50 to $4.00 a gallon.
It is in
the highest
degree inadmissible to use a cheap varnish for undercoats theouter coats
;
will
crack
as what
this
if
is
done.
A
good varnish that dries too quickly, such
called a rubbing varnish, or one intended for furniture, has
is
economy to use a good
varnish. The writer has in mind a house which was properly varnished eighteen years ago and has been constantly occupied by a large
not the durability needed for this work.
family, yet the varnish
is still
in fair condition
papered and one new coat applied,
possible for a surface to be.
it is
it
if it
;
would be
Cheap
were
like
new
lightly sand-
—as good
as
rosin varnishes never look
even when new, never keep clean, and deteriorate rapidly.
well,
Shellac.
varnish
is
Interiors are sometimes finished with shellac.
not used on exterior work, but
it is
shellac
is
wood but white
;
comparatively free from this objection; at any rate
than anything
else.
Orange
shellac
is
is
more durable than
shellac for this service.
it is
If shellac is
does
it
Orange
and should be used wherever
white,
admissible, rather than white; but
it
a dark varnish, and even
white shellac darkens with age to an appreciable degree.
shellac
This
a good varnish for inter-
All varnishes containing oil darken the color of
iors.
less
It is
usually necessary to use white
made up
as heavy as has been
the standard
pounds to a gallon of alcohol, and
described —
— should be thinned consitlerably with alcohol before using on
this is
five
inte-
it
rior
woodwork.
time to dry.
hard
in
It
It is
must be applied
in thin coats,
very deceptive about this;
an hour, and
it is
it
hard enough to handle
coat after coat, even six hours apart,
we
and gi^en plenty of
appears to be dry and
freely; but
if
shall find that the
we apply
wood is
PAINTING
finally
covered with a waxy mess which will be the source of nothing
but trouble.
may
19
The
be applied
six
between coats.
wood a second coat
coat sinks rapidly into the
first
;
hours later; but after that, allow two days at least
Shellac
makes a very
thin coat; so
apply a large number of coats, at least twice as
it is
necessary to
many
as of oleo-
resinous varnishes, to get a sufficient thickness of coating.
of this labor, shellac
The
durable.
treatment of
it,
as
Because
handsome fnd
regards rubbing, etc., is the same
an expensive
is
but
finish;
is
it
as has been described for other varnish.
Varnish makers usually advise that shellac should never be used
as a priming coat for other varnish; this
to sell
more
of their
own
where
coat, except for exterior work,
wood should be
filled
is
probably because they wish
goods, for shellac
really
is
an excellent
before shellacking, the
same
first
Of course,
should not be used.
it
as for other varnish.
Varnish does not, however, wear well over a heavily shellacked surShellac
face.
little,
with
makes a good
and wearing
it,
floor varnish, discoloring the
fairly well. After the floor
and
has been well varnished
very thin coats, applied rather frequently
four months, according to use
after applying
—
will
keep the
one of these thin coats
wood very
—say every one
to
floor in fine condition
thinned shellac),
(of
will
it
be dry enough to use in an hour.
wide,
in a
brush, and a
flat
few minutes.
man
This can be applied with a very
can go over the floor of an ordinary room
Shellac brushes should be washed out with alcohol
immediately after using.
Exterior Varnishing.
doors than within, so that
The
able materials.
are not good enough.
exterior
work;
shellac; as
blister.
it
will
Varnishes dry
it is
much more
practicable to use
more
rapidly out of
In the
first
place,
do not use any
probably crumble and come out.
an undercoat exposed to the hot sun,
Use only the best spar varnish, such as
ing the spars of yachts;
fill
the
wood with
is
it;
it
w^ell
;
finish
will soften
made
is
more
lasting
on
not use
and
for varnish-
sandpaper
lightly
will
take
and leave it with its
than a rubbed surface. This is
with a coat well flowed on
natural gloss, which
filler
Do
between coats, just enough so that each succeeding coat
hold
and dur-
elastic
conditions, in fact, are so severe that the best
;
the treatment for hand-rails, outside doors, inside blinds, windowsills
rails
and jambs, and everything exposed
to the direct sun.
Hand-
and outside doors should be refinished every year; varnish
will
PAINTING
20
^
.
not last on an outside door more than one-twentieth as long as
Never use
on an inside door.
interior varnish for outside
will
it
work.
ENAMEL PAINTS
Varnishes are
all
more or
brownish yellow or yellowish brown.
less
Therefore a coat of varnish applied over a paint obscures and changes
its
some
color to
this
way
These
To overcome
extent.
varnish, instead of
if
made with good
used,
l)ut
it
oil;
In
vehicle.
varnish, are durable; the
with spar varnish instead of
it
as possible, the
the pigment comes to the surface and displays
paints,
application has already been described.
do
much
this as
mixed with the pigment, as a
oil, is
its
color.
method of
necessary to thin them,
If
a good interior varnish
may
be
injures the flowing quality of the paint somewhat.
White lead and zinc are sometimes mixed with damar varnish.
This makes the whitest enamel paint, but it never gets very hard,
never has
much
easily applied,
luster,
and
is
not very durable.
It is
very white,
NEW VARNISH
FINISH
of finishing open-grained interior
woodwork, which has
practiced for a few years, consists in first staining the
been
water-stain
—dyeing
pores of the
it,
usually
wood with a
addition of a pigment.
—and then, when
paste
filler
it
is
wood with a
dry, filling the
which has been colored by the
For example, the wootl may receive a
of any dark color, and the wood-filler be mixed with white lead.
shows the open or porous part of the grain
By
ground.
is
dries (|uickly.
A
A method
and
in
stain
This
white on a dark back-
using artistic combinations of color in the stain and
filler,
very beautiful effects can be produced, and this finish has been used in
some
Thus,
of the
if
a
most handsome and costly public and private buildings.
room
is
to
be decorated
in green, the
to harmonize with the j)revailing color.
on the wood, as
is
it
will
oil stain
not work well with the
applied and rubbed off in the
and then the varnish
An
is
same way
applied over
it
in
woodwork can be made
filler.
that
must not be used
The
any paste
colored
filler is
filler
used,
the usual way.
FLOOR FINISHING
The primary
thev did not,
trouble with floors
is
there woukl be no trouble
walk on them. If
Four coats of varnish.
that people
at all.
PAINTING
21
or even paint, having an aggregate thickness of less than one one-
hundredth of an inch,
shod
will not last indefinitely
under the wear of
nail-
painting them.
The
heels.
Probably the simplest treatment
for floors
is
paint should contain a large proportion of a hard oleo-resinous
varnish; an ordinary
used,
it
oil
paint
is
not hard enough.
an
If
paint
oil
is
for a floor paint should
must be heavily charged with dryer,
Good quick-drying
floor paints are in
the
Floors of choice w^ood, how^ever, are not usually painted they
may
dry in twelve hours.
market.
;
be either varnished or waxed.
wood, they must be
If
they are of oak or other open-grained
with a paste
filled
applied directly to the wood.
otherwise the varnish
filler;
Floor varnish
is
quicker in drying, and
is
harder than interior finishing varnish, but should not be so hard as to
be
rubbing varnish
brittle;
this
done with an
is
oil
is
too hard.
If the floor is to
stain before varnishing;
has previously been varnished, so that the stain
wood, the
may be mixed
stain
if it is
be stained,
a floor which
will not penetrate the
with the varnish, although the
effect is
not then so good.
Floor
wax
is
by
all
not
made
of beeswax, but of a harder vegetable wax,
shellac; then the floor
The floor should receive one coat of
wax maybe rubbed on with a stiff brush, and
when
will
and
sold
is
it
which
dry,
is
paint dealers.
be in a few hours,
it
may
be polished by
rubliing with a clean cloth or with a heavy, weighted floor brush
for the purpose.
It
or six coats have been applied; after this a
thinned
to
keep the floor looking
cleaning the floor only a
brush,
it is
is
floor
is
well.
little
washed.
of the floor wax,
Alkalies dissolve the wax,
and
in
soap should be used in the water with
A wax finish kept polished with a polishing
the handsomest surface than can be obtained for a floor; but
so slippery that
the wood.
finished.
little
necessary with turpentine, should be applied often enough
if
which the
made
should receive another coat every week until four
it is
Interior trim
This
somewhat dangerous.
(but not hand-rails)
finish requires a
It
does not discolor
is
sometimes wax-
good deal of care, as
it
is
likely to
handsome and durable.
Old floors which require cleaning and revarnishing should have
the old varnish or paint removed by a good varnish-remover, one of the
modern sort, free from alkali. This is painted over the surface, and,
catch dust; otherwise
it is
PAIXTINC;
22
•
after a short time,
remover
is
removed with a
being taken that there
This
ing room.
The
scraper.
last of the
varnish-
taken out with a rag wet with turpentine or benzine, care
is
no
fire
of
any sort
in the
room or any neighbor-
not only take off the old varnish, but the old
will
must be treated
new
Any
filler
also;
and the
floor
floor
may be
treated with a hot solution of oxalic acid, one part to ten
of water;
when the
like
stains disappear,
the floor dry a day; sandpaper; and
This treatment
remover
—
wash
stains
all
on the
with clear water;
Avell
let
ready for varnishing again.
it is
off in this
varnish-
The
varnished or painted work.
of a house could have the old paint taken
off is
floor.
—removal of old paint or varnish by a liquid
applicable to
is
a
outside
way, but hurning
These varnish-removers are mixtures of
cheaper and quicker.
benzole, acetone, alcohol, and other liquids, and the best of
them are
patented.
ALUMINUM AND BRONZE
PAINTS
Radiators and pipes are often painted with aluminum or bronze
These consist of metallic powders, in fine flakes, mixed with
some varnish usually with a pyroxylin varnish, which is a thin solu-
paints.
—
tion of a variety of gun-cotton in a suitable solvent, generally acetate of
amyl.
If
one of these paints
becomes thickened
in the
with acetate of amyl,
if
—which smell somewhat
can by evaporation,
some
like
bananas
can usually be thinned
of the special thinner cannot be had;
A
brushes can be washed out in the same.
durable, even exposed to the weather.
two certainly
it
One
good aluminum paint
coat
is
is
usually enough,
so.
GLAZING
House
are usually expected to understand the art of
painters
setting window-glass;
it is
sheet or cylinder glass
not difficult to learn,
and
plafc glass.
glass works, by blowing a ((uantity of
then,
(rlass
Sheet glass
glass,
by more blowing and manipulation,
reheating,
is
name
after annealing,
it is
cut
up
at the
this is stretched out into
"cylinder glass")
flattened out into a sheet,
made,
into a hollow globe;
first,
hollow cylinder perhaps a foot in diameter and
cylinder (whence the
classified as
is
is
is
a
five feet long; this
cut open, and, after
whence the name "sheet
into convenient sizes.
It is
made
glass;"
of
two
PAINTING
thicknesses
single thick,
and double
uniform.
and
dirt,
to this
which
23
about one-sixteenth of an inch;
is
an inch; but
thick, one-eighth of
does not run perfectly
it
and specks of
All sheet glass contains streaks, bubbles,
more or
is
it is
graded as
"B"
is
wavy in
its
surface;
and
marked "AA," "A," and "B;" and anything
Foreign glass
called stock sheets.
marked, each maker having his own arbitrary marks.
glass
not thus
is
Single-thick
used for sizes not greater than about 28 by 34 inches; double-
is
thick,
in respect
second, and third quality; in American glass
first,
these grades are usually
poorer than
or
less irregular
up
to
40 by 60.
For larger
sizes, plate glass
only
is
used; but
of course either plate or double-thick can be used for small sizes,
if
desired.
Plate glass
is poured out on an
and smoothed down to a
an inch by passing a roller
cast in plates; the liquid glass
is
and 25
iron table, about 15 feet wide
feet long,
uniform thickness of half or five-eighths of
over
it,
like rolling pie-crust ; after this
it is
ground down with sand,
emery, and polishing powder to a quarter or five-sixteenths of an inch
in thickness.
is
also
more
Crystal
and
is
It is
is
known
all
too heavy, as in movable sash. It is
There are two grades of plate glass,
windows) and silvering (for mirrors), the latter
window
as glazing (for
In the
first
must receive a priming
turpentine added;
oil
If
it is
place, the sash
coat;
if it is
to
if it is
oil,
It is
If well
replaceable.
plate glass
is
prepared for the glass.
to be painted,
it is
it is
it
crumbly.
being a
little
or no
wood
will
sharp-edged
oil
draw
is fitted
diamond or with a
steel
wheel
set in a
made, the wheels may be bought separate and are
The
wheel cutters are generally used on sheet glass; but
cut only with a diamond, which
wheels are kept
w^et
with kerosene; the
makes a deeper
workman has
or cup of kerosene on the bench, and dips the wheel in
The
little
Next, the glass
cut either with a glass-cutter's
latter
primed with
primed with boiled
not primed, the putty will not stick; the
wheel cutter, the
handle.
is
the mixture having very
be varnished,
out of the putty and leave
to the sash.
The
is
glass.
white lead and boiled linseed
alone.
costly than sheet glass, but
a very thin plate glass, about one-eighth of an inch thick,
being the best.
the
much more
used where ordinary plate
the finest of
It
therefore
perfect.
cut.
a litde bottle
it.
glass being cut to the right size, a layer of putty
is
spread,
with the putty-knife, along the recess in the sash where the glass
is
to
PAINTING
24
This
rest.
It is
and should always be done.
called bedding the glass,
Is
not inicommonly omitted with pine sash; but
hardwood sash, metal or metal-lined sash, and for all
and it ought to be done in all cases. Then the
is gently pressetl into place, after which it is fastened with glaziers'
done with
plate
glass
and
all
crystal glass;
which are triangular
points,
and No.
single-thick,
1,
No. 2 points are used on
bits of metal.
which are
larger, are used
They
glass; they are put in 9 to 12 inches apart.
a hammer, but with the thin side of a two-inch
which
on the
lies
glass, the
so as to avoid scratching
position of the pane
when
the sash
is
monly
;
The chisel
there
it is
The
on one side a space between
if
held over this crack, and with
is
so placed that
pane of glass
points are
and when the pane
easily;
placed,
made
also useful for adjusting the
edge bearing on the wood.
chisel
is
is
smaller than the sash,
which bends
of zinc,
are driven, not with
edge of the chisel away from the surface
it.
if it is
on double-thick
chisel, the flat side of
in its natural upright position the
rest with its lower
is
absolutely must be
it
is
will
com-
properly
and the wood, the
it
edge an indentation or crimp
its
in the little triangular zinc point
which has already been
driven; this crimp prevents the glass from sliding back against the
wood.
This
the reason zinc
is
is
used for the points;
it
will
bend.
Steel points are sometimes used for plate glass, because of their greater
To
strength, the glass being heavy.
metal-covered sash,
steel slugs are
about I inch long, and
^'^
drive through the sheet metal of
used; these are about
g^Q
inch thick,
"ich wide at the wude end, triangular, and
sharp-pointed.
There
is
a machine for driving points, but
it
is
not
much used
except on small glass set in soft-wood sash.
The
ing.
To
glass being properly secured
do
this,
is
across the bottom; then the sash
is
repeated.
The most
points,
the professionals set the sash
position on an easel; the glass
operation
by
This
it is
up
in
ready for puttya nearly vertical
puttied on the right-hand side
is
and
turned the other edge up, and the
finishes the
work.
important things about glazing are to use a sufficient
number of points and to use good putty. Ordinary (pure) putty is
made of whiting, which is pulverized chalk, mixed with enough linseed
The workman can make it
oil to give it the consistence of stiff dough.
from these materials with his hands; everyone can make his own putty.
As a matter of fact, however, the putty of commerce is made by ma-
PAINTING
chinery; and also, as a matter of fact,
adulterated.
It
25
in general
is
it
abominably
would seem as though whiting and linseed
oil
were
materials cheap enough; and in reality putty can be sold for about
three cents a pound, or sixty dollars a ton;
putty
almost impossible to
and a mixture of
about
half.
rosin
It is
get.
and mineral
oils for
he should make
best putty for glazing
one-tenth white lead putty.
it
If
remove
will
is
substituted for whiting,
is
the
oil,
and the
cost reduced
it
is
If the glazier
it
cannot be sure of
himself.
a mixture of pure whiting putty with
This makes
it
set
a
little
more quickly,
Pure white lead putty gets too hard;
becomes harder.
difficult to
worth
the use of this miserable stuff which causes nine-
his putty otherwise,
and
dollar's
Pure putty, however,
INIarble dust
tenths of the troubles with windows.
The
and a
the glass in an ordinary house.
all
in case of
breakage of
it is
too
glass.
the glass has not been bedded in putty,
it
is
customary
to
go
around the indoors side of the glass, and crowd some putty into the
crack between
it
and the sash.
This
is
called 6flcA-mf/ the glass.
Large
plates of plate glass are not puttied, but are held in place with strips
of moulding nailed on the sash, in which case the crack between the
glass
and the moulding
is
backed with putty.
EXAfllNATION PAPER
PAINTING
Read carefully: Place your name and full address at the head of
the paper. Any cheap, light paper like the sample previously sent you
may be used. Do not crowd your work, but arrange it neatly and legibly.
Do not copy the answers from the Instruction paper; use your oivn words, so
that we may be sure that you understand the subject.
1.
is
What
is
the difference between raw and boiled oil?
When
one preferable to the other?
2.
What would you
and varnishing the
interior
consider a good brush outfit for painting
woodwork and
exterior finish of a
modern
frame dwelling?
3.
How
would you make your own putty
if
you could not buy
a satisfactory grade?
4.
Describe the principal ingredients used as pigments.
As
vehicles.
5.
What
are thinnersf
Dryersf
Fillersf
7.
How
How
8.
Describe the process of mixing the successive coats of
6.
are painters' brushes kept in good condition?
are paints adulterated?
paint for ordinary interior (not floor) and exterior woodwork.
9.
Describe
the
process
of
preparing the woodwork and
applying the successive coats of paint in ordinary interior (not floor)
and
exterior work.
10.
of
What
points require particular attention in the repainting
an old job?
11.
Describe the process of painting a plastered wall.
12.
Describe the material and methods of work in roof painting.
13.
What
is
enamel paint?
How
would you do a job of
enameling the woodwork, say, in a bathroom?
14.
Describe in detail the process of painting structural metal.
15.
How
IG.
Describe the method of preparing and applying shellac
are varnishes classified?
varnish.
17.
Describe in detail the method of preparation and appli-
PAIXTIXG
*
cation of varnish (not shellac) in the case (a) of interior
(not floors)
IS.
;
(h) of exterior
What method
your opinion, gives the best
in
floor (a) of pine; (h) of ash?
19.
woodwork
woodwork.
finish to
a
Describe the process in detail.
Distinguish the different kinds of glass used in windows
and doors.
20.
In
window
glazing, describe in detail the
paring the sash and inserting the glass.
same way
in the
as ordinary
window
method
Is large plate glass
of pre-
put in
glass?
After completing the work, add and sign the following statement:
I
hereby certify that the above work
(Signed)
is
entirely
my
own.
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