•
INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR MIG WELDING MACHINE
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION!!!
READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY
BEFORE INSTALLATION, USE, OR SERVICING OF THIS
UNIT. PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO THE SAFETY RULES
AND CONTACT YOUR DISTRIBUTOR IF YOU DO NOT
UNDERSTAND SOME OR ALL OF THE POINTS COVERED
IN THESE INSTRUCTIONS.
1 SAFETY RULES CONCERNING THE USE OF THIS
WELDING MACHINE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
All people authorized to use this machine should read the
following instructions manual before using or servicing this
unit.
A REMINDER: YOUR SAFETY DEPENDS ON YOU!!!
Always follow all safety regulations and instructions when
using this machine. It is your responsibility to protect
yourself and others against the risks related to the operation
of this welding machine. The operator must be familiar with
and observe all the safety rules regarding the safe operation
and maintenance of this welding machine.
NOTHING REPLACES GOOD COMMON SENSE !!!
1.2 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
1.2.1
Fire
• Avoid causing fires due to sparks, slag,
hot metal and spatter which are produced
during normal welding operations.
• Make sure that a suitable fire-extinguisher is located near
the welding sight.
• Remove all flammable material within 30 feet of the
welding area.
• Do not weld containers (tanks or drums) containing
flammable material, even when empty.
• Allow the welded metal to cool down before touching it or
putting it into contact with flammable material.
• Do not weld structures with hollow spaces containing
flammable substances.
• Do not work in conditions where there are high concentrations of combustible vapours, gases, or flammable dust.
• Always check the work area half an hour after welding so
as to make sure that no fire has started.
• Do not keep any flammable material such as lighters or
matches in your pockets while using this equipment.
1.2.2
Burns
• Protect your
entire body by wearing fire-proof clothing
This will protect your skin against burns caused by: ultraviolet radiation given off by the arc, sparks and molten slag.
• The protective clothing should include: gloves, a hat, and
high shoes. Your shirt collar and pocket flaps should be
buttoned , and cuff-less trousers should be worn to prevent
contact with sparks and molten slag.
• Wear a helmet equipped with the appropriate lens shade
and a clear glass cover plate. This is imperative when
welding, cutting, and chipping to protect your eyes from
ultra-violet arc rays and molten spatter. Replace the glass
cover plate when cracked or covered with spatter etc.
• Do not wear clothing spotted with oil or grease as a spark
may set them on fire.
• Hot metal, electrode stubs and workpieces, should never
be handled without gloves.
• First-aid equipment and a qualified first-aid person should
always be available when welding, unless medical facilities
are in the immediate vicinity, to treat flash burns of the eyes
and skin burns.
• Ear plugs should be worn when working in the overhead
position or in confined spaces. A hard hat should be worn
when others are working overhead.
• Flammable hair sprays and gels should not be used by
those persons intending to weld.
1.2.3
Fumes
Welding operations produce harmful fumes and
metal dusts which may be hazardous to your
health, therefore:
• Work in well-ventilated areas.
• Keep your head out of the fumes.
• In closed areas, use a fume exhaust system, preferrably
placed under the welding area if possible.
• If ventilation is inadequate, use an approved respirator
set.
• Clean the metal to be welded of any solvents or halogen
degreasers which give rise to toxic gases. During some
welding operations chlorine solvents may be decomposed
by arc radiation thus creating phosgene gas.
• Do not weld coated metals or those containing lead,
graphite, cadmium, zink, chrome, quicksilver, or mercury
unless you have an approved respirator set.
• The electric arc creates ozone. Long exposures to high
ozone concentrations may cause headaches; nasal, throat
and eye irritation; as well as congestion and chest pains.
WARNING: NEVER USE OXYGEN FOR VENTILATION.
• Gas leaks in confined spaces should be avoided. Leaked
gas in large quantities can dangerously alter oxygen levels
in the air surrounding the weld sight. Do not place gas
cylinders in confined spaces.
• DO NOT WELD where solvent vapors can be drawn into
the welding shield atmosphere or where arc rays can come
into contact with even minute quantities of trichloroethylene
or perchloroethylene.
1.2.4
Explosions
Do not weld above or near containers under
pressure.
• Do not weld in environments containing
explosive dusts, gases or vapours.
When this machine is used for MIG welding, one of the
following gases or gas mixtures must be used to shield the
arc: Carbon Dioxide, Argon, or Argon mixed with Oxygen.
When using a shielding gas pay careful attention to the
following:
•
A) GAS CYLINDERS
• NEVER DEFACE or alter the name, number, or other
markings on a cylinder. It is illegal and dangerous!
• Do not use cylinders whose contents are not clearly
identified.
• Do not directly connect cylinder to the unit without using
a pressure regulator.
9
• Handle and use pressure cylinders with care and in
conformity with existing safety standards.
• Do not use leaking or damaged cylinders.
• Do not use cylinders which are not well secured.
• Do not transport or move cylinders without the protection
of the installed valve and protective valve cap.
• Do not lift cylinders off the ground by: their valves or caps,
by chains, by slings, or by magnets.
• Never try to mix gases in a cylinder.
• Never refill a cylinder!
• Never lubricate the cylinder valve with oil or grease.
• Never allow an electrode to touch a cylinder!
• Do not expose cylinders to excessive heat, sparks, molten
slag or flames.
• Do not tamper with the cylinder valve.
• Do not try to loosen tight valves by means of a hammer,
a wrench, or any other object.
B) PRESSURE REGULATORS
• Keep pressure regulators in good condition. Damaged
regulators may cause damages or accidents. They should
be repaired by skilled personnel only.
• Do not use regulators for gases other than those for which
they were manufactured.
• Never use a leaking or damaged regulator.
• Never lubricate regulators with oil or grease.
• Avoid touching or holding the workpiece by hand.
• Should you work in a dangerous area or close to one , use
all possible precautions.
• Stop welding immediately if you should feel even the
slightest sensation of electric shock. Do not use the
machine until the problem is identified and corrected.
• Often inspect the mains input cable.
• Disconnect the power input cable from the mains supply
before replacing cables or before removing the unit covers.
• Do not use the unit without protection covers.
•Always replace any damaged parts withGENUINE SPARE
PARTS.
• Never disconnect any of the unit's safety devices.
• Make sure that the mains power supply line is equipped
with a good electrical ground.
• Servicing of the machine must be done by qualified
personnel who aware of the risks involved with the high
voltage levels necessary to make the machine operate.
1.2.7 Pacemaker
Magnetic fields created by the high currents in the weld
circuit can affect pacemaker operation. Persons wearing
electronic life support equipment (pacemakers) should
consult their doctor before going near any arc welding,
gouging, cutting, or spot welding equipment in operation.
C) HOSES
• Replace hoses which appear to be damaged.
• Keep hoses unwound in order to prevent kinks.
• Keep the excess hose neatly wound and out of the working
area in order to avoid damage.
• Cylinder fittings should never be modified or exchanged.
1.2.8
Noise
These power source alone do not produce noise
levels exceeding 80 dB. The welding procedure,
however, may produce noise levels in excess of 80
dB. in which case the machine operator must take
the necessary safety precautions as prescribed by the
national safety regulation.
1.2.5
2 GENERAL TECHNICAL DESCRIPTIONS
Radiation
Ultra-violet radiation emitted by arc rays may
damage your eyes and burn you skin. Therefore:
• Wear proper clothing and helmet.
• Use a mask or helmet equipped with lens shades that have
a minimum DIN rating of 10
• Warn people in the area surrounding the welding sight that
you are going to be welding.
Remember: the arc may dazzle or damage the eyes. It is
considered dangerous up to a distance of 15 meters (50
feet). Never look at an arc with the naked eye.
• Prepare the welding area so as to reduce the reflection
and transmission of ultra-violet radiation: paint walls and
exposed surfaces in black to reduce reflection, install
shielding systems or curtains to reduce the transmission
of ultra-violet rays.
• Replace protective lenses whenever damaged or broken.
Electric shock
Electric shocks are hazardous and potentially fatall!!
• Do not touch live electrical parts.
• Insulate yourself from the workpiece and the
ground by wearing insulated gloves and clothing.
• Keep garments (gloves, shoes, hats, clothing) and body
dry.
• Do not work in humid or wet areas.
• If you are welding near a body of water take precautions
to ensure that the machine cannot fall into the water.
2.1 SPECIFICATIONS
This manual has been prepared with the intent of instructing
the operator on how to install, operate, and properly maintain
this electric arc welding machine.
This machine is a constant voltage power source for MIG/
MAG and OPEN-ARC welding.
Upon receiving and unpacking the machine, make a careful
inspection to ensure that there are no damaged parts.
Should there be a claim for losses or damages it must be
made by the purchaser directly to the shipper who handled
the goods.
When requesting information about this welding machine
please state the machine's part number and serial number
to ensure receiving accurate information relating to
your machine.
1.2.6
10
2.2
DESCRIPTION OF TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
EC 974.1. ... This machine is manufactured according to the
EN 60947.1 IEC 974 international standard.
N°. ............ Machine Serial Number which must appear on
requests or inquiries concerning the machine.
3~
Single-phase transformer-rectifier.
Flat characteristic.
MIG/MAG. . Continuous wire welding
U0. ............. Secondary no-load voltage
X. .............. Duty-Cycle Percentage
The duty-cycle is the number of minutes the
machine can operate (arc on) within a ten
minute period without overheating. The duty
cycle varies according to the output current.
I2. .............. Output welding current
U2. ............. Secondary voltage whith welding current I2
U1. ............. Nominal supply voltage
3~50/60Hz Three-phase input supply at 50 or 60 Hz
I1. .............. Input Amps absorbed corresponding to different
output levels (I2).
IP21. ......... Protection class of the machine's case
The 1 in the singles digit place means that this
unit is not fit to work outdoors in the rain.
S. .............. Fit to work in hazardous areas.
NOTE: ...... This machine has also been designed to work
in class 3 pollution areas (see IEC 664)
3 INSTALLATION
3.1
SETUP
Place the machine in a ventilated area.
Dust, dirt, or any other foreign material that might enter the
machine may restrict the ventilation which could affect the
machine's performance.
Fasten the rotating support to the machine top and fix the
handle, the wheeles, the bottle support and, if any, the cooling
unit.
3.2 INPUT POWER CONNECTIONS
• All sections concerning the installation of this machine
must be read carefully.
• This machine must be installed by skilled personnel.
• Make sure that the input power plug has been disconnected
before inspecting, maintaining, or servicing.
• Connect the yellow-green wire to a good electrical ground.
• Do not use water pipes as earth conductor.
• After a final inspection, the machine should be
connected to the input supply voltage marked on the
input power cord.
• If you wish to change the input supply voltage, remove
the right side panel (15), locate the voltage-changing
terminal board and arrange the connections as shown
in figure 1.
• After having changed the supply voltage, re-place the
upper cover.
• This machine must never be used without the top and side
covers. This is both for obvious safety reasons and to avoid
11
protection lead must also be attached to the work at the
same spot as the work return lead. To do so, a second
ground clamp, fitted to the protection lead, must be attached
next to the ground clamp of the work return lead.
fig. 1
interference with the machine's internal cooling system. The
warranty is to be considered null and void if this machine is
used without the protection of its top and side covers.
• Mount a plug on the power supply cable that corresponds
to the input power drawn by the machine.
3.3 OUTPUT CONNECTIONS
3.3.1 Wire feeder connection
This power source is compatible with the wire feeders TFA2
and TFA4. To connect the power source to the wire feeder
units use the extension art. 1186 (5 mt) or 1186.20 (10 mt).
Performances and operating features of the wire feeder are
described in the operating manuals supplied with the wire
feeder itself.
3.3.2 Connecting the work return lead clamp.
• Some versions have one impedance socket only.
• Connect the male end of the work return lead to one of the
impedance taps on the front panel of the machine. The
impedance tap designated by the
provides the
maximum amount of impedance which will produce nicely
filleted weld beads. This tap is recommended when welding
aluminium, stainless steel, and carbon steels of binary or
ternary composition. The impedance tap designated by the
provides the least amount of impedance and is
recommended when using carbon dioxide as a shielding gas
to weld carbon steels, in the upwards vertical position, of
binary or ternary composition.
It is generally advisable to use low impedance values for small
diameter wires and high values for big diameter wires.
• After having selected the proper impedance tap, attach the
work return clamp to the work to be welded.
• Make sure that the ground clamp is tightly fastened to the
work return cable and periodically check that this connection
remains well tightened. A loose connection can cause weld
current drops or overheating of the work return lead and
clamp which, in turn, creates the risk of burns from accidental
contact with the work return lead.
• The weld circuit must not be placed deliberately in direct or
indirect contact with the ground conductor if it is not in the
work to be welded.
• If the work to be welded is attached deliberately to the
ground by a protection lead, then the connection must be
the most direct possible and it must be done using a lead that
has a cross section that is at least equal to the cross section
of the work return lead being used for the weld circuit. The
12
3.3.3 Connecting the gas hose.
• Keep the cylinders in an upright position by chaining them
to their support.
• Keep the cylinders in a place where they cannot be damaged.
• Do not lift the machine with the cylinder on its support.
• Keep the cylinder away from the welding area and uninsulated electric circuits.
• Cylinders containing inert gas have to be equipped with a
pressure reducer and a flowmeter.
• After having positioned the cylinder, connect the gas hose
that comes out from the rear of machine to the pressure
reducer output.
• Regulate the gas flow to 8¸10 l/min.
4 DESCRIPTION OF CONTROLS
4.1 CONTROLS ON GENERATOR FRONT PANEL
A- On/Off switch
This switch turns the machine on or off.
B- Switch
This switch adjusts the weld voltage range and, in some
versions, turns the machine on and off.
C- Rotary weld voltage switch
This switch allows the fine tuning of the welding voltage
selected with switch B. (Step adjustment)
D - Impedance Taps
Connect the male end of the work return lead to one of
the three impedance taps.
from the torch.
WARNING: Keep your face away from the terminal nozzle
while the wire comes out.
• Screw the current nozzle again, making sure that the hole
diameter be the same as that the wire used.
• Insert the welding conic gas nozzle by rotating it clockwise.
• Open the gas cylinder and adjust flowmeter at 8¸10 l/min.
WARNING: Check that the gas used is compatible with the
material to be welded.
4.2 CONTROLS ON GENERATOR REAR PANEL
To weld carbon steels the following things are necessary:
1) The use of a binary shielding gas which is most commonly
Argon and Carbon dioxide, in a ratio of 75¸80 % Argon and
25¸20% Carbon dioxide. Some applications, however, may
require a mix of three gases: Argon, Carbon dioxide (CO2), and
dioxide (O2). These gas mixtures generate heat during welding
and as a result the weld bead will be well filleted and neat in
appearance. The penetration, however, will not be deep.
The use of Carbon dioxide as the shield gas results in a
narrow weld bead with deep penetration but the ionization of
the gas will have an influence on arc stability.
2) The use of a filler wire of the same quality as the steel to be
welded. It is recommended that high quality wires be used and that
welding with rusted wires be avoided because they can give rise
to defects in the weld bead. Generally, the current range within
which a wire can be used is calculated in the following manner:
Ø of wire x 100= minimum number of Amperes.
Ø of wire x 200= maximum number of Amperes.
Practical example: 1.2 Ø wire= 120 Amps minimum and 240
Amps maximum. These amperages are based on the use of
an Argon/CO2mixture as the shield gas and welding in the
Short Arc transfer mode.
3) Avoid welding on rusted work pieces or work having spots
of oil and grease present on the surface.
4) The use of a welding torch suitable to the welding currents
that are going to be used.
5) Periodically check that the two handles making up the
ground clamp are not damaged and that the welding cables
(torch cable and the work return lead) do not have any cuts
or burn marks that would reduce their efficiency.
E - 230V power supply socket.
440 W max. power. For cooling unit only. (Warning: Do not
connect other equipment to this socket.).
F - 6-pin socket connector.
For the 6-pin plug connector on extension lead.
G - Socket.
For the extension lead power supply connector (‘+’ pole).
H - Socket.
For connection to the safety device on the cooling unit.
N.B. If no cooling unit is used with the machine, plug the
connector supplied with the machine into the socket H.
5
WELDING
5.1 INSTALLATION AND STARTER
• Machine installation must be done by a competent staff. All
connections must correspond to the rules in force (CEI 2010 HD 427) and must respect laws concerning accidents.
• Check that the wire diameter corresponds to that indicated
on the roll and mount the wire coil.
• Connect the pipe coming out of the extension with the
cylinder flowmeter.
• Position the welding machine so as to allow free air
circulation inside it and avoid that metal or any other.
5.2 THE MACHINE IS READY TO WELD
• Connect the ground terminal to the part to be welded.
• Turn the machine on.
• Extract the conic gas nozzle by rotating it clockwise.
• Unscrew the current nozzle.
• Press the torch trigger to feed the wire until it comes out
5.3
5.4
WELDING CARBON STEELS.
WELDING STAINLESS STEEL
Welding stainless steels in the 300 series (the austenitic series)
must be done using a shield gas mixture of predominantly Argon
with a small percentage of O2 added to stabilize the arc. The
recommended mixture is AR/O2 in the ratio of 98/2. Do not use CO2
or AR/CO2mixtures as the shield gas.
Do not touch the welding wire with your bare hands.
The filler metal (the wire) must be of a higher quality than the
work to be welded and the weld area must be clean.
5.5 WELDING ALUMINIUM
The following is required for aluminium welding:
1) 100% Argon as welding protection gas.
2) A torch wire of composition suitable for the basic material
to be welded.
For ALUMAN welding wire 3.5% silicon.
For ANTICORODAL welding wire 3.5% silicon.
For PERALUMAN welding wire 5% magnesium.
For ERGAL welding wire 5% magnesium.
3) A torch prepared for aluminium welding.
13
If you only have a torch for steel wires, the same shall be
modified in the following way:
- Make sure that lenght of torch cable does not exceed 118
inches (it is advisable not to use longer torches).
- Remove the brass sheath-holding nut, the gas and the
current nozzles, then slip the sheath off.
- Insert the teflon sheath for aluminium and ensure it
protrudesfrom both ends.
- Screw the current nozzle so that the sheath adheres to it.
- Insert the sheath holding nipple, the O-Ring in the free end
of the sheath and secure with the nut without tightening too
much.
- Slip the brass tube on the sheath and insert both into the
adapter (after removing the iron tube which was fitted inside
the adaptor).
- Cut the sheath diagonally so that it stays as close as
possible to the wire slide roller.
4) Use drive rolls that are suitable for aluminium wire. The drive
rolls, when being installed, must be tightened as tight as
possible.
5) Use contact tips that are suitable for aluminium wire and
make sure that the diameter of the contact tip hole
corresponds to the wire diameter that is going to be used.
6) Use abrasive grinders and tool brushes specifically designed
for aluminium. Never use these tools on other materials.
REMEMBER that cleanliness equals quality.
The wire spools must be stored in plastic bags with a
dehumidifier.
Contact tip . A good contact between the contact tip and the
wire ensures a stable arc and optimal current output. Therefore,
following steps must be followed:
A) The contact tip hole must be kept free of dirt or oxidation.
B) After lengthy welds, spatter can easily accumulate on the
contact tip and prevent the wire from being fed. The contact tip
must be cleaned regularly and if necessary it must be replaced.
C) The contact tip must always be screwed tightly on to the
body of the torch. The thermal cycles which the torch
undergoes during operation may loosen the contact tip
which, in turn, may cause the torch body and nozzle to
overheat or cause unsteady wire feed.
The Wire Liner is an important part that must often be
checked since, during normal operations, the wire can deposit
copper dust or tiny metal shavings in the lining. Periodically
clean the liner and the gas line with a jet of dry, compressed
air. Wire liners are exposed to continual wear and therefore
they must be replaced after a certain period of time.
Wire feed motor. Periodically clean the wire feed assembly
and the drive rolls from any rust or metal shavings due to the
feeding of the wire. A periodic check of all the components
of the wire feed assembly, spool holder, drive rolls, wire liner
and the contact tip is recommended.
8 TROUBLESHOOTING
TROUBLE
PROBABLE CAUSE
Limited electric output A phase is missing
6
WELDING DEFECTS
1- DEFECT- Porosity (in, or on the surface of the weld
bead)
CAUSES • Bad wire (rust on the surface).
• Insufficient gas shielding due to:
- Inadequate gas flow due to a block in the gas line.
- Defective flowmeter.
- Gas regulator covered with frost because a
gas heater was not used to heat the CO2
shielding gas.
- Failure of gas valve solenoid.
- Gas nozzle plugged up with spatter.
- Gas flow holes plugged up.
- Air drafts in the welding area.
2- DEFECT- Shrinkage Cracks
CAUSES • Welding wire or work to be welded dirty or rusty.
• Weld bead too small.
• Weld bead too concave.
• Too much weld bead penetration.
3- DEFECT- Lateral cracking
CAUSES • Welding speed too fast.
• Low current and high arc voltages.
4- DEFECT Too much Spatter
CAUSES • Voltage too high
• Insufficient impedance
• No gas heater used for CO2 shielding gas.
7 MACHINE MAINTENANCE
Gas nozzle . Periodically clean the nozzle of all weld spatter
that may have accumulated during welding operations. If the
nozzle should become distorted or oval in shape then it must
be replaced.
14
REMEDY
Check the phase of the
feed line and/or the
remove control switch
contacts
A line fuse is burnt
Replace it
Wrong connection on the
voltage changer terminal
board
Check the terminal board
connections by following
the plate scheme
The rectifier diode/s is/are
burnt
Replace the rectifier
Loosened torch or ground
connections
Tighten all connections
Welding regulation commu- Replace the commutator
tator has an uncertain contact
Welding with a lot of
metal spatter
trasformer wire interrupted
on the commutator
Unscrew the commutator
contact, remove the wire
insulation and put it
under the contact
Wrong adjustment of the
welding parameters
Select the correct parameters through the welding-voltage switch and
the wire-speed adjustment potentiometer
Wire advancing unproperly Uncorrect sheath diam.
Insufficient grounding
Wire not advancyng or Wire roller with too wide
advancyng unproperly groove
The wire jams or
entangles between the
drive rolls and the
torch infeed wire
guide
Check grounding
connections
Replace roller
Obstructed or clogged
liner
Extract it and clean
Loose wire pressing roller
Tighten it
Coil reel friction too tight
Loosen and adjust it
Current nozzle clogged
Replace it
Wrong current nozzle
diameter
Replace it
Wrong roller groove
alignment
Align it
Obstructed or clogged
sheath
Remove and clean
Note: All repair work must be done by qualified personnel.
Disconnect the power input cable from the mains supply
before replacing cables or before removing the unit covers.
The machine is equipped with a thermostat that shuts the
machine down when the power source overheats. After the
thermostat intervenes, let the power source cool down for
several minutes before resuming welding operations.
The troubleshooting table lists troubles, causes and remedies
for those troubles that occur most commonly.
9
WELDING MACHINE SERVICING
Experience has shown that many fatal accidents originated
from servicing improperly executed. For this reason, a
careful and thorough inspection on a serviced welding
machine is just as important as one carried out on a new
welding machine.
Furthermore, in this way producers can be protected from
being held responsible for defects stemming from repairs
not carried out by the manufacturer.
9.1 Prescriptions to follow for servicing
● After rewinding the transformer or the inductance, the
welding machine must pass the applied-voltage test in
accordance with indications in table 2 of 6.1.3 of the EN
60974.1 standard (CEI 26.13).
Conformity must be checked as specified in 6.1.3.
● If no rewinding is done, a welding machine which has
been cleaned and/or reconditioned must pass an
applied-voltage test with voltage values equal to 50% of
the values given in table 2 of 6.1.3. Conformity must be
checked as specified in 6.1.3.
● After rewinding and/or the replacement the no-load
voltage shall not exceed the values given given in 10.1
of EN 60974.1.
● If the servicing is not done by the manufacturers, the
repaired welding machines which underwent replacements
or modifications of any component, shall be marked in a
way such that the identity of the person having serviced
it is clear.
● After making repairs, take care to re-order the cables so
that there is sure to be insulation between the primary and
secondary sides of the machine. Make sure that the wires
cannot come into contact with moving parts or parts that
heat during operation. Replace all clamps in their original
positions on the machine, to prevent a connection between
the primary and secondary circuits if a conductor accidentally
breaks or disconnects.
15
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