Primary6_Final Press

Primary6_Final Press
PRIMARY 6
Ministry of Education
Department of Education
Essential Curriculum
2008
Curriculum and Instructional Leadership
Performance Standards Summary
English Language Arts
Mathematics
Science
Social Studies
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS ARE LEARNING EXPECTATIONS
“THE ESSENTIAL CURRICULUM”
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System (BPSS) is to be the first choice in
education by providing rigorous and stimulating learning experiences in safe, responsive
environments from which our students emerge confident and prepared to compete and
contribute locally and globally.
Performance Standards are statements
of what students should know and
be able to do and how they should
demonstrate their knowledge and skills
at the end of each year. Included within
the Performance Standards document
are strands, performance statements
and assessment indicators for English
language arts, mathematics, science
and social studies. It is important to
note that the assessment indicators
listed in this booklet represents the
“Essential Curriculum.” They are
the critical guidelines for ongoing
and island-wide curriculum based
assessment. They are guideposts in
the journey our students make from the
time they enter our schools to the time
they graduate confident and prepared
to compete and contribute locally and
globally.
Serving as guideposts, performance standards establish shared expectations for the:
• completion of each year of our school system,
• guidance in terms of how we may need to redirect our efforts during any given year
of our school system
• direction in terms of what we should be able to expect of students entering each
subsequent year of our school system.
As they serve as guideposts for teachers responsible for maximizing students’ learning
experiences, performance standards tell us not only the ultimate goals for each year level
but also provide direction towards achievement of the goals during each year.
Bermuda Performance Standards will be used to:
• emphasize the concepts and processes all students should learn with
understanding.
• provide explicit goals for student expectation at the end of each year.
• guide Bermuda Criterion Reference and classroom assessments
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
1
2
Number and Number Operations (N)
Patterns, Functions and Algebra (A)
Geometry (G)
Measurement (M)
Data Handling (D)
Strategic Reading (R)
Comprehension of Informational Text (I)
Comprehension of Literary Text (L)
Language Usage (U)
Writing (W)
Processing Information and
Mass Media (M)
Speaking & Listening (S)
Mathematics (MT)
English Language Arts (EL)
Nature of Science (N)
Earth and Space Science (E)
Life Science (L)
Physical Science (P)
Science (SC)
Economics (E)
Civics (C)
Geography (G)
History (H)
Social Studies (SS)
Bermuda Public School System Performance Standards
English Language Arts (EL)
Introduction to Bermuda English Language Arts Performance Standards .........7
• What are English Arts Performance Standards?
• Why English Arts Performance Standards?
References
Strategic Reading (R) ..............................................................................................10
R1 Word Analysis and Vocabulary
R2 Meaning of Text/Reading Comprehension
Comprehension of Informational Text (I) ..............................................................11
I1 Comprehension of Informational (Expository) Text
I2 Comprehension of Procedural Text
I3 Comprehension of Persuasive Text
Comprehension of Literary Text (L) ......................................................................12
L1 Comprehension of Literary Text
L2 Comprehension of Characteristics of Various Genres
Language Usage (U) .................................................................................................13
G1Grammar and Conventions of Standard English Language
Writing (W) ..............................................................................................................14
W1 Compose Writing
Speaking & Listening (S) ........................................................................................15
S1
Effective Communications
Processing Information and Mass Media (M)........................................................16
M1 Information Retrieval and Technological Communication
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
3
Mathematics (MT)
Introduction to Bermuda Mathematics Performance Standards.......................17
• Mathematical Processing Skills
References
Number and Number Operations (N)...................................................................20
N1Numerical Representation
N2Numerical Operations
N3Numerical Relationships
Patterns, Functions and Algebra (A) ....................................................................22
A1 Pattern and Functions
A2Algebraic Representation
A3Algebraic Reasoning
Geometry (G) ..........................................................................................................23 G1 Classification
G2Spatial Reasoning
G3Transformations
Measurement (M) ...................................................................................................24 M1Tools and Units
M2 Measuring
Data Handling (D) ..................................................................................................25
D1Data Collection and Organization
D2Representation
D3Analysis and Interpretation
D4 Probability
4
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
Science (SC)
Introduction to Science Performance Standards .................................................27
• Physical Science
• Life Science
• Earth and Space Science
• Nature of Science
References
Physical Science (P).................................................................................................30
P1 Matter and Materials
P2 Force and Motion
P3 Energy
P4 Forces of Nature
Life Science (L) .......................................................................................................31 L1Diversity of Life
L2Heredity
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems
L4Interdependence
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy
L6 Evolution of Life
Earth and Space Science (E) .................................................................................33
E1Astronomy
E2Geology
E3Resources
E4 Meteorology
E5Oceanography
Nature of Science (N) .............................................................................................34 N1Scientific Investigation
N2Data Representation and Interpretation
N3 Designed World: Science Technology and Society
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
5
Social Studies (SS)
Introduction to Social Studies Performance Standards ......................................37
• History Standards
• Geography Standards
• Civics and Government Standards
• Economics Standards
References
History (H) ..............................................................................................................39
H1Organisation of Historical Information
H2 Communication - Social Studies Analysis
H3 Comprehension of Historical Issues
H4Development of Early Human Societies
H5Impact of Human Interaction on Social, Economic and Political Institutions and
Development of Countries
H6Shifts in International Relationships
H7Impact of Political, Economic & Technological Issues Since 1990
Geography (G) ........................................................................................................40 G1Geographic Representations
G2Regions and Their Patterns of Change
G3Human Migration and Settlement
G4 Environmental Influences
Civics (C)..................................................................................................................41 C1Laws and Government
C2 Cultural Influences
C3Governments’ Power
C4 Bermuda’s Constitution
C5Human Rights
C6 Bermuda Symbols
Economics (E) .........................................................................................................42
E1Use of Money
6
E2 Bermuda’s Economy and Career Choices
E3 Economic Institutes
E4Goods and Services
E5Global Economics
E6Influence of Technology
Ministry of Education | P6 Social Studies (SS) Essential Curriculum
BERMUDA ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (EL)
Teachers gradually raised the bar for student performance by analyzing the type of support their students
needed to demonstrate the knowledge and skills in the standards and by creating learning experiences that
slowly built a framework for success.
(Birdyshaw, Wixson and Yochum)
English Language Arts (EL) is a core discipline that embraces multifaceted domains of learning which are
principally reading, writing, speaking and listening and processing information and mass media. English
Language Arts also acknowledges that students will develop skills in both the mechanics of language,
in the reading and appreciation of literature and will give consideration to how knowledge is presented.
The goal is for students to communicate their understanding of these multifaceted domains of learning by
demonstrating what they are able to do.
WHAT ARE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS?
The Bermuda Performance Standards for English Language Arts indicate benchmarks that students are
expected to reach at the end of each level of their development in English Language Arts. These standards
have been adapted from international standards set by the boards of education across the United States
and the United Kingdom. A wealth of experience and expertise from a team of educational specialists has
been the backdrop infused into the development of the Bermuda Performance Standards.
The Bermuda Performance Standards are aligned with current research practices and provide a
comprehensive guide to appropriately assess the quality and level of student work and teacher performance.
The same rigor of coverage evident in the international standards is evident in the Bermuda Performance
Standards for English Language Arts.
WHY ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS?
Performance Standards are expected to drive graded level assessment for every student, every year, at
every level. Whereas the curriculum indicates what students should know and be able to do at the end of
each year level, performance standards are guideposts embedded in the curricula that indicate to teachers
what students should be able to do at the end of a specific time frame of a learning phase.
Performance Standards are not aimed to address every aspect of curriculum, but rather they are designed
to be guideposts for teachers to assess both what the student is able to do at various stages and how the
student moves toward the achievement of each performance standard. Thus, Performance Standards are
learning expectations that guide instruction.
Reading is the first strand addressed in this document. Reading is a skill that is demanded in the global
society. It is therefore critical that students become proficient readers to not only become literate, but also
to meet increasing societal demands. Research has shown that students who read become better readers
by reading. Thus, it is important to provide students with multiple opportunities for literacy development.
Students will experience literacy growth by exposure to a variety of quality texts.
Writing is the second strand of learning. Students write to inform, to clarify, to persuade and to express
personal ideas. Through writing students cultivate an appreciation for the elements of language (tone,
style, word choice and conventions of language) as they experience English Language Arts.
Speaking and listening strand serve as a framework to strengthen proficiency in English Language
Arts. Oral language is a foundation on which other literacy skills are built. Students gain proficiency by
participating in one-on-one and group conferencing. They also strengthen speaking and listening skills
by delivering singular and group presentations and by participating in the evaluative process. Students
who speak well and listen well hold a distinct advantage in school and social situations and are prepared
to meet the challenges of society.
Processing Information and Mass Media is the fourth strand. By demonstrating an awareness of the
presence of media in daily lives of most people, students must make informed judgments about television,
radio, internet, film productions and other technological advances. It is important that they judge the
extent to which the media are a source of entertainment and information.
These standards are for use in a diverse culture with a range of different settings. They are intended
to focus on what is important and necessary for students to know, do and understand. Students will
demonstrate competence in the following broad strands for English Language Arts:
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
7
STRATEGIC READING (R)
Reading is a process that includes interpretation of text. Strategic readers make meaning of text when they
read, and extend their thinking by evaluating and making critical, thoughtful judgements.
R1 Word Analysis and Vocabulary - Students will use appropriate reading strategies in order to
understand, reflect, evaluate and enjoy a variety of texts.
R2 Meaning of Text/Reading Comprehension - Students will use appropriate reading strategies in
order to understand, reflect, evaluate, and enjoy a variety of texts.
COMPREHENSION OF INFORMATIONAL TEXT (I)
Informational text is text that informs, explains, describes, presents information or persuades. Readers of
informational text decode information from a wide range of genres for understanding.
I1 Comprehension of Informational Text - Students will demonstrate the ability to [or be able to] read,
comprehend, interpret, analyze, and use expository text.
I2 Comprehension of Procedural Text - Students will demonstrate the ability to read, understand, and
use documentary and procedural text.
I3 Comprehension of Persuasive Text - Student will demonstrate the ability to read, comprehend,
interpret, analyze and use persuasive text.
COMPREHENSION OF LITERARY TEXT (L)
Literary text offers insight about the human experience and encourages students to examine genres, authors
and conventions of literature.
L1 Comprehension of Literary Text - Students will consider the contributions of literary elements and
devices when constructing meaning of text.
L2 Comprehension of Characteristics of various genres - Students will identify and analyze the
characteristics of various genres as forms with distinct characteristics
LANGUAGE USAGE (U)
Having control of the conventions and grammar of the English language means having the ability to
represent oneself appropriately with regard to current standards of correctness (e.g., spelling, punctuation,
paragraphing, capitalization, and subject and verb agreement.)
U1 Grammar and Conventions of Standard English Language - Students will demonstrate the ability
to control language by using correct grammar and conventions of Standard English Language.
WRITING (W)
Writing is the process of controlling language to communicate thoughts, ideas and concepts effectively. The writing process is developed well by giving consideration to purpose, audience, content, form, word
choice and voice; by producing a series of drafts; and by receiving informed feedback.
W1 Compose Writing - Students will demonstrate the ability to compose fluently to express personal
ideas, to inform and to persuade.
SPEAKING AND LISTENING (S)
Speaking, listening and viewing are fundamental processes which people use to express, explore, and learn
about ideas. The functions of speaking, listening and viewing include gathering and sharing information;
persuading others, expressing and understanding ideas; coordinating activities with others; and selecting
and critically analysing messages. The context of these communication functions include one-to-one
conferences, small group interactions, large audiences and meetings, and interactions with broadcast
media.
PROCESSING INFORMATION AND MASS MEDIA (M)
As students demonstrate awareness of the presence of media in their lives, they are encouraged to evaluate
the role of the media, judge the extent to which the media is entertaining as well as informative and define
the role of advertising as part of media presentation.
Although there are seven major strands in English Language Arts, indicators from five strands will be
formally tested in the Bermuda Assessment Programme. However, it is the expectation that Speaking and
Listening (S), Processing Information and Mass Media (M) will be taught and assessed in the classroom by
the teacher during the course of the entire year.
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Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
REFERENCES
John S. Kendall and Robert Marzano, Content Knowledge, A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks
for K-12 Education
State of Tennessee Department of Education, English Language Arts Curriculum Framework K – 12
Marc S. Tucker and Judy B. Codding, Standards for Our Schools, 1998
Judy F. Carr and Douglas E. Harris, Succeeding With Standards, 2001
Council for Basic Education, Standards for Excellence in Education, 1998
Jeffrey D. Wilhelm, Standards in Practice Grades 6-8, 1996
National Council of Teachers of English and International Reading Association, Standards for the
English Language Arts, 1996
International Reading Association and National Council of Teachers of English, Standards for the
Assessment of Reading and Writing, 1994
National Center on Education and Economy Performance Standards New Standards Reading and
Writing, Middle School, 1999
National Center on Education and Economy Performance Standards New Standards Reading and
Writing, Elementary, Middle and Senior School, 1997
National Center on Education and Economy Speaking and Listening, for Pre-School through third grade,
2001
National Center on Education and Economy Reading and Writing, for Kindergarten through third grade,
1999
Board of Education Commonwealth of Virginia, English Standards of Learning for Virginia Public
Schools, June 1995
Mark R. O’Shea, From Standards to Success, 2005
Robert Marzano, Timothy Waters and Brian A. McNulty School Leadership that Works, 2005
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
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Strategic Reading (R)
Reading is a process which includes demonstrating comprehension and showing
evidence of interpretation of the text. Strategic readers extend their thinking when they
evaluate what they have read by making critical, thoughtful judgments about the text.
When strategic readers comprehend and interpret text, they apply prior knowledge and
skills to perform tasks, revise text and to answer questions.
R1 - The student will use
appropriate reading
strategies in order to
understand, reflect, evaluate,
and enjoy a variety of texts.
R2 - The student will use
appropriate reading
strategies in order to
understand, reflect, evaluate,
and enjoy a variety of texts.
10
EL.P6.R1
Word Analysis and Vocabulary
a) Know meanings of word parts (prefixes, suffixes, roots)
b) Use double meanings and multiple meanings of words
c) Recognize high frequency words as they relate to other words
synonyms/antonyms
d) Use a variety of strategies to determine words in context.
e) Demonstrate understanding of the meaning of new words
encountered in independent reading, compound words
f) Recognize word meanings encountered in reading antonyms,
synonyms, homonyms
g) Apply knowledge of sentence structure and context.
h) Locate information in reference sources
EL.P6.R2
Meaning of Text/Reading Comprehension
i) Identify important facts/details
j) Draw texts together to compare/contrast themes, characters and
ideas
k) Make perceptive and well developed connections
l) Note underlying themes or messages; identify main idea
m) Make and support inferences
n) Make and support warranted and responsible assertions about the
text.
o) Summarize and synthesize significant ideas in a text
p) Draw conclusions about contexts, events, characters, and settings
q) Determine cause and effect/ sequence of events
r) Use organizational structure to contribute to understanding of text
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
Comprehension of Informational Text (I)
This part of the Reading standard requires students to work with informational materials
in order to develop understanding and expertise about topics they investigate. This area
of informational materials is of great importance and its inclusion indicates our desire
that more attention be given to reading a broad range of materials written for a variety
of audiences and purposes.
I1 - The student will demonstrate
the ability to [or be able to]
read, comprehend, interpret,
analyze, and use expository
text.
I2 - The student will
demonstrate the ability
to read, understand, and
use documentary and
procedural text.
EL.P6.I1
Expository
a) Use structure to retrieve information
b) Compare observations of author to their own observations
c) Identify purpose and main points
d) Distinguish fact from opinion
e) Detect bias
f) Summarize information
g) Make connections between print and non-print text (e.g., article and
photograph or illustration)
h) Read and make connections to expository text about Bermudian
culture/life
i) Identify important facts and details in informational text.
EL.P6.I2
Documents and Procedural
a) Identify use of transitional words
b) Follow instructions and directions
c) Identify sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure
d) Locate specific information
e) Interpret details from the text
f) Analyze clarity of text features and content
Suggested texts:
• Graphs
• Diagrams
• Brochures
• Schedules
I3 - The student will demonstrate
the ability to read,
comprehend, interpret,
analyze, and use persuasive
text.
EL.P6.I3
Persuasive
a) Determine an author’s position (i.e., what is the author arguing),
providing supporting evidence from the text
Suggested texts:
• Advertisements
• NIE editorials
• Feature articles
• Photo-essays
• Newspaper articles
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
11
Comprehension of Literary Text (L)
Readers who read regularly tend to read what interests them. Reading literary text
encourages all students to do what good readers do and pursue themes, authors and
genres that are of interest to them. Readers create justifiable critiques to appraise the
text’s effectiveness and quality. Therefore, the reader’s perspective is valued in the
process.
L1 - The student will consider
the contributions of literary
elements and devices when
constructing meaning of a
text.
L2 - The student will
identify and analyze the
characteristics of various
genres as forms with distinct
characteristics.
12
EL.P6.L1
Literary Elements and Devices
a) Identify the author’s purpose
b) Identify the point of view (i.e., the perspective from which the story
is being told)
c) Identify the basic motivation of a character
d) Identify stereotypical characters as opposed to fully developed
characters
e) Critique the degree to which a plot or setting is contrived or
realistic
f) Recognize theme(s) in a literary text
g) Recognize literary devices (e.g., simile, metaphor, personification,
onomatopoeia, sensory details, exaggeration)
h) Recognize how literary devices contribute to the meaning of text
i) Identify and explain the effect of author’s word choice in a literary
text
EL.P6.I2
Characteristics of Various Genres
a) Identify the characteristics of fiction (e.g., movement through time,
imaginative elements) present in a literary work.
b) Identify the characteristics of literary nonfiction (e.g., figurative
language,) and how they contribute to the text
c) Identify the characteristics of poetry (e.g., structure, rhyme, rhythm,
word choice) and how they contribute to the meaning of a poem
d) Identify elements of drama (e.g., dialogue, stage directions, scenes,
acts) and how they contribute to the play
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
Language Usage (U)
Having control of the conventions and grammar of the English language means having
the ability to represent oneself appropriately with regard to current standards of
correctness (e.g., spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, capitalization, and subject and
verb agreement).
U1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability to
control language by using
correct grammar and
conventions of Standard
English language
EL.P6.U1
Grammar and Conventions of Standard English Language
a) Capitalize proper nouns, titles of people, titles of books, letter parts,
first word in sentence and first word in quotations.
b) Punctuate using periods, question marks, exclamation marks
c) Punctuate using periods with abbreviations.
d) Punctuate using apostrophes with contractions and possessives
e) Punctuate with commas with items in a series, in an address, in
dates, in a compound sentence
f) Use quotation marks and comma with dialogue
g) Use subject-verb agreement with simple subject
h) Use forms of adjectives
i) Use appropriate tenses including present, past and future
j) Use parts of speech correctly (nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives,
adverbs)
k) Identify special usage of double negatives
l) Use subject and predicates in sentences
m) Use spelling correctly in patterns and words
n) Combine sentences by employing strategies of coordination,
subordination, and sequencing of ideas
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
13
WRITING (W)
Writing is a process by which language is shaped to communicate effectively. Writing
often develops through a series of drafts and through access to informed feedback and
response. Purpose, audience and context contribute to form and substance of writing
as well as to its style, tone, and stance.
W1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability to
compose fluently to express
personal ideas, to inform,
and to persuade.
14
EL.P6.W1
Compose Writing
a) Compose a short story that has character(s), setting, plot, and
movement through time and change
b) Create a sequence of events
c) Develop a plot using appropriate strategies (e.g., elaboration of
details, suspense, emotions of characters)
d) Create an organizational structure appropriate to a short story
e) Provide a sense of closure to the story
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
SPEAKING AND LISTENING (S)
Speaking, listening and viewing are fundamental processes which people use to
express, explore, and learn about ideas. The functions of speaking, listening and
viewing include gathering and sharing information; persuading others, expressing and
understanding ideas; coordinating activities with others; and selecting and critically
analysing messages. The context of these communication functions include one-to-one
conferences, small group interactions, large audiences and meetings, and interactions
with broadcast media.
S1 - S
tudents will communicate
effectively adhering to the
conventions of standard
English giving consideration
to audience and purpose.
EL.P6.S1
Effective Communications
a) Initiate new topics in addition to responding to adult-initiated
topics
b) Listen to proficient, fluent models of oral reading, including
selections from classic and contemporary works.
c) Respond to questions with appropriate elaboration
d) Use language cues to indicate different levels of certainty or
hypothesizing, e.g. “what if …,” “very likely…,” “I’m unsure
whether…”
e) Confirms understanding by paraphrasing the adult’s directions or
suggestions.
f) Participate in group meetings
g) Volunteers contributions and responds when directly solicited by
teacher or discussion leader
h) Gives reasons in support of opinions expressed
i) Use notes and other memory aids to structure the presentation
j) Engages the audience with appropriate verbal cues and eye contact
k) Projects a sense of individuality and personality in selecting and
organizing content, and in delivery
l) Hold themselves and others accountable to the rules by using verbal
reminders
m) Ask relevant questions
n) Collaborate by seeking out peers to solve problems, disagreeing
diplomatically, and assigning or delegating tasks to organize a
group
o) Consistently observe politeness, apologize when appropriate;
occasionally compliment others
p) Agree or disagree appropriately to extend conversation
q) Detect a variety of speech ambiguities and understand the intended
meaning
Suggested Activities
• Book Talks
• Read Alouds
• Literature Circles
(It is the expectation that this strand will be taught and assessed
in the classroom by the teacher throughout the entire year.)
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
15
PROCESSING INFORMATION AND MASS MEDIA (M)
Processing information and mass media is a vehicle that our students can use to become
critical thinkers about the world around them. The omnipresence of media has forced
our students to be enveloped, therefore they must be selective and focused on that
which will enhance their learning.
M1 - The student will
demonstrate the ability
to analyse, synthesize and
interpret information
presented to them through
mass media and process
this information to enhance
their learning.
EL.P6.M1
Information Retrieval and Technological Communication
a) Make informed judgments about television, radio, and film
productions:
b) Demonstrate an awareness of the presence of the media in the daily
lives of most people
c) Evaluate the role of the media in focusing attention and in forming
an opinion
d) Judge the extent to which media provide a source of entertainment
as well as a source of information
e) Define the role of advertising as part of media presentation
Suggested Activities:
• Present a paper or report on reasons for selecting one media choice
over another
• Prepare a report on the benefits obtained from media exposure
• Maintain a week’s log to document personal viewing habits and
analyze the information collected in the log
• Summarize patterns of media exposure in writing or in an oral
report
• View two or more different media responses to a single topic and
response
• Analyze the appeal of particularly memorable commercials
(It is the expectation that this strand will be taught and assessed
in the classroom by the teacher throughout the entire year.)
16
Ministry of Education | P6 English Language Arts (EL) Essential Curriculum
BERMUDA MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (MT)
Many of the elementary terms and concepts of mathematics have concrete applications and examples in
the world. For they are part of a language developed to describe the physical (and social) world.
(Ernest, 1991, p.56)
“Improving mathematics education is not a matter of adding a little spice to a dull subject or of making
a few minor changes in content or approach. It requires no less than a redefinition of mathematics
(instruction) and an understanding that (its) goal must be the development of mathematical power in
all students” (Parker, 1993, p. xi). From as early as preschool, we attempt to present the students with
a balance of conceptual understanding, skills and problem solving. Mathematics is no longer viewed
as the subject to be mastered by the chosen few. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics,
published by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM 2000, p.4) states that the need to
understand and be able to use mathematics in everyday life and in the workplace has never been greater
and will continue to increase. While some careers are considered mathematics intensive, all will require
fundamental mathematical skills, procedures and understandings.
The Bermuda Mathematics Performance Standards were developed from standards defined by the
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and from various jurisdictions including the United Kingdom
and Canada. The Bermuda Mathematics Performance Standards support the Bermuda Mathematics
Curriculum. The curriculum identifies the distribution of mathematics content over a 14-year period. It
advises when enduring understandings and procedural knowledge should be introduced, reinforced and/
or developed. The Standards provide a framework for assessing the understandings and applications
of essential mathematical ideas, that is, what students should know and be able to do. The assessment
indicators listed in the Standards define the critical elements of the mathematics programme that will
be formally assessed at the end of each year level from Primary 3 through Senior 2. The assessment
instruments will be comprised of selected- and constructed-response items with an emphasis on reasoning
and problem solving. Students will be required to produce evidence that they are able to use, represent
and explain the fundamental components of the mathematics programme. The Standards include these
conceptual areas:
NUMBER AND NUMBER OPERATIONS (N)
A sense of number implies an ability to describe and apply relationships among numbers including their
uses and their representations. These numbers are effectively used for various purposes such as counting,
measuring, estimating and problem solving. A range of methods of computation is applied to practical
tasks, in real-life situations and within mathematics itself.
N1. Numerical Representation - The positions of the digits in numbers determine what they
represent, that is, which size group they count, measure or order and these numbers are best
understood in terms of familiar real-world experiences, such as budgeting, cooking, carpentry,
etc.
N2. Numerical Operations - Numerical operations consist of taking apart and combining numbers
using a variety of strategies which require an understanding of the properties of the operations.
Manipulatives and diagrams are used to model these operations and their inverses and to relate
them to their symbolic expressions. The mathematical models or representations are also used
to assist with solving contextual problems.
N3. Numerical Relationships - Equal shares or equal-sized portions of a whole or unit are
compared using a variety of representations. Fractions, decimals and percents can be used
interchangeably and equivalent fractions are ways of describing the same amount by using
different-sized fractional parts. Ratio and proportion are used to represent relationships
between quantities and measures as applied in problem solving
PATTERNS, FUNCTIONS AND ALGEBRA (A)
The generalization of patterns, relationships and change are expressed by means of symbolic notation,
algebraic equations and graphical representations. Reasoning is used to generalize, formalize and
communicate patterns and regularity in all aspects of mathematics.
A1. Patterns and Functions - Patterns are regular and predictable changes. They are found
in nature, and numbers, as well as in physical and geometrical situations. Patterns show
relationships among variables and can be recognized, extended or generalized.
A2. Algebraic Representation - Symbols are used to represent variables and equations. They
assist us with understanding the patterns and relationships among forms of representations Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
17
words, tables, graphs and rules. Variables are symbols used to represent quantities that change
- time, temperature, distance traveled.
A3. Algebraic Reasoning consists of a variety of formats used to assist with understanding,
justifying or presenting solutions to problems. Equations and inequalities are used to express
the relationships.
GEOMETRY (G)
Spatial sense involves the application of the properties and relationships of points, lines, angles, planes
and curves of shapes and solids. The space around us and the measurement of the objects and shapes in
that space are defined and categorized according to a specific set of assumptions.
G1. Classification - Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes can be described, analysed
and classified in a variety of ways and according to their properties and relationships.
G2. Spatial Reasoning - Geometric properties, reasoning and visualization can be used to solve
problems.
G3. Transformations - Draw shapes and build models
MEASUREMENT (M)
Measuring requires the use of tools and units to determine, describe and compare attributes. These
measurements encompass the dimensions, size, quantity, length, or capacity of substances or figures as
well as sequential relationships such as time and temperature.
M1. Tools and Units - Standard mathematical measurement tools and units depend on the real
world situation.
M2. Measuring - The comparison of an item with a unit (length, time, volume, etc.)
DATA HANDLING (D)
Data may be presented in a variety of representations including graphs to show logical relationships
between various quantities and to assist with decision-making. The collection and analysis of data is
identified as either statistics or probability. Statistics is the mathematics used for collecting, organizing,
and studying data while probability is the measure of the likelihood of an event.
D1. Data Collection and Organization - Data are collected and organised to help with the making
of decisions, the drawing of inferences or the development of new ideas.
D2. Representation - Appropriate representations of data depend on characteristics of that data.
D3. Analysis and Interpretation - Provides information on the attributes of data
D4. Probability - The occurrence or non-occurrence of an event is characterized as impossible,
less likely, equally likely, more likely or certain. The likelihood of an event or its probability
is quoted as a ratio between 0 and 1 inclusive.
Mathematics processes are the means by which students use mathematical ideas and procedures to
communicate, represent, connect, reason and solve problems. These skills assist in the acquisition of
knowledge and the application of ideas. Students are required to use a variety of techniques to understand
and solve problems, reason and construct proofs as well as communicate and make connections. They
express and extend their mathematical ideas using correct notations, generalizations, inferences and
rigorous arguments leading to notions of proof. The solutions involve a process as well as a product.
The use of mathematical process skills are categorized as follows:
1. Mathematical processes are used to identify and explain everyday experiences, in and outside of
school, and to make connections with other disciplines.
a) u se reasoning ability to analyze, perceive patterns, identify relationships and formulate questions
for further exploration
b) formulate a problem and set limits for acceptable solutions
2. Mathematical reasoning and problem solving provide a means for making sense of, investigating,
evaluating and justifying the solution to problems.
a) s ystematically apply a model (plan) for problem solving - understand the problem, select a
strategy, implement the strategy, evaluate the solution.
b) select or develop an appropriate problem-solving strategy
c) analyze problems using appropriate processes such as modelling, simplifying, generalizing, etc
d) validate conclusions using mathematical properties and relationships
18
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
3. Appropriate mathematical representations and technology tools are used to illustrate and assist
with the solution process.
a) determine the most efficient manner to solve problems
b) design representations of the problem using technology and appropriate mathematical discourse
(terminology, symbols and drawings)
c) select mathematical ideas and tools to support the reasoning process
4. Ideas and solutions are communicated mathematically using language and symbols, efficient
tools, appropriate units and graphical, numerical, physical or algebraic models.
a) communicate logical arguments clearly to show why the solution makes sense
Using the Standards as a framework, the assessment results will provide teachers with information
on how well the students perform procedures, understand concepts, solve problems and communicate
their reasoning. Administrators will be able to analyze and compare data to ascertain trends in student
performance over time. The Bermuda Mathematics Performance Standards define the framework for
assessing the depth and breadth our students are engaging in mathematical thinking and are confidently
using quantitative and spatial information to make decisions.
REFERENCES
British Columbia. (1996). Mathematics 8, 9, 11 and 12 - Integrated Resource Package. British Columbia:
Ministry of Education.
Council for Basic Education. (1988). Standards for Excellence in Education. Washington D.C.: CBE
Lappan, G. et al. (2006). Connected Mathematics 2. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Department for Education and Employment. (1999). The National Curriculum for England - Mathematics.
London: The Stationery Office.
Department for Education and Skills. (2003). The Primary National Strategy: Mathematics. London:
Department for Education and Skills
Georgia. (2005). The New Georgia Performance Standards. Georgia: Georgia Department of
Education.
Massachusetts. (1999). Mathematics Curriculum Framework. Massachusetts: Department of Education.
Michigan. (2005). Michigan Grade Level Mathematics. Michigan: Department of Education.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (1997). Ontario Curriculum Grade 1-8 Mathematics. Ontario: Ministry
of Education.
National Centre on Education and the Economy and the University of Pittsburg. (1998). New Standards.
USA: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1991). Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics.
Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1995). Assessment Standards for School Mathematics.
Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.
Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
New Zealand. (1992). Mathematics in the New Zealand Curriculum. New Zealand: Ministry of
Education.
Wiggins, G. & McTigne, J. (1998). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
19
Number and Number Operations (N)
A sense of number implies an ability to describe and apply relationships among
numbers, their uses and their representations. These numbers are effectively used for
various purposes such as counting, measuring, estimating and problem solving. A
range of methods of computation is applied to practical tasks, in real-life situations and
within mathematics itself.
Students will explore and make sense of the meaning, relationship and application of
numbers, number systems and number operations. They will extend their estimation
and computation skills, develop procedural fluency and represent their conceptual
understanding using words, formulas, diagrams, charts and graphs.
N1 - Numerical Representation:
The positions of the digits in
numbers determine what they
represent, that is, which size
group they count, measure
or order and these numbers
are best understood in
terms of familiar real-world
experiences, such as budgeting,
cooking, carpentry, etc.
N2 - Numerical Operations:
Numerical operations
consist of taking apart and
combining numbers using a
variety of strategies which
require an understanding
of the properties of the
operations. Manipulatives and
diagrams are used to model
these operations and their
inverses and to relate them to
their symbolic expressions.
The mathematical models
or representations are also
used to assist with solving
contextual problems.
20
MT.P6.N1
Students will demonstrate an understanding of numbers, by using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) compare and order numbers (0.001 < n < 1,000,000)
b) identify place value up to 1,000,000
c) apply equivalent representations of the same number and generate
them by decomposing and composing numbers including expanded
notation
d) know and apply the properties of special numbers, 0 and 1
MT.P6.N2
Students will demonstrate an understanding of numbers, by using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) apply estimation strategies and identify when an estimate is more
appropriate than an exact answer
b) apply the four operations and the relationship between them to
problem solving
c) understand and use the inverse relationship between multiplication
and division
d) use a variety of methods to check results and to determine
reasonableness of the solution, including estimation and inverse
operations
e) apply order of operations to positive rational numbers (2 operations
with or without brackets)
f) apply number theory concepts (prime and composite, factors,
multiples, odd numbers, divisibility – 4 & 8) in real world and
mathematical problem situations
g) apply appropriate problem solving strategies
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
Number and Number Operations (N)
(continued)
A sense of number implies an ability to describe and apply relationships among
numbers, their uses and their representations. These numbers are effectively used for
various purposes such as counting, measuring, estimating and problem solving. A
range of methods of computation is applied to practical tasks, in real-life situations and
within mathematics itself.
Students will explore and make sense of the meaning, relationship and application of
numbers, number systems and number operations. They will extend their estimation
and computation skills, develop procedural fluency and represent their conceptual
understanding using words, formulas, diagrams, charts and graphs.
N3 - Numerical Relationships :
Equal shares or equal-sized
portions of a whole or unit
are compared using a variety
of representations. Fractions,
decimals and percents can
be used interchangeably
and equivalent fractions are
ways of describing the same
amount by using differentsized fractional parts. Ratio
and proportion are used
to represent relationships
between quantities and
measures as applied in
problem solving.
MT.P6.N3
Students will demonstrate an understanding of numbers, by using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) apply the equivalency of fractions to analyze and solve problems
b) find fractions of quantities
c) order rational numbers and represent them as fractions or
terminating decimals where possible and translate between these
representations
d) apply proportional comparisons of fractions, decimals and
percentages (multiples of 10 up to 50%) in the context of everyday
situations
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
21
Patterns, Functions and Algebra (A)
The generalization of patterns, relationships and change is expressed by means of
symbolic notation, algebraic equations and graphical representations. Reasoning is
used to generalise, formalise and communicate patterns and regularity in all aspects
of mathematics.
Students will explore and make sense of patterns, functions, symbols and models. They
will use symbolic forms to represent and analyze mathematical situations and use
mathematical models to analyze change in both real and abstract contexts. Students
will create and translate multiple representations of mathematical relationships.
A1 - Patterns and Functions:
Patterns are regular and
predictable changes. They
are found in nature, and
numbers, as well as in physical
and geometrical situations.
Patterns show relationships
among variables and can
be recognized, extended or
generalized.
A2 - Algebraic Representation:
Symbols are used to
represent variables and
equations. They assist us
with understanding the
patterns and relationships
among forms of
representations - words,
tables, graphs and rules.
Variables are symbols used
to represent quantities that
change - time, temperature,
distance traveled.
A3 - Algebraic Reasoning:
Algebraic reasoning consists
of a variety of formats used
to assist with understanding,
justifying or presenting
solutions to problems.
Equations and inequalities
are used to express the
relationships.
22
MT.P6.A1
Students will demonstrate an understanding of algebra, by using,
representing and explaining. They will:
a) create and extend geometric and numeric patterns
b) represent and describe patterns with tables, pictures, symbolic rules
or words
c) explain how a change in one variable affects the change in another
variable such as, Area of rectangle =bh (e.g., Area of a rectangle is
24 with length = 4 and width = 6. If the length is doubled and the
area stays the same, what will be the new width?)
d) justify predictions about patterns
MT.P6.A2
Students will demonstrate an understanding of algebra, by using,
representing and explaining. They will:
a) use symbols to represent patterns in relationship to real world
situations (e.g., A = 17n for A the number of apples in 17 boxes
containing n apples each)
b) graph ordered pairs on a positive coordinate grid
MT.P6.A3
Students will demonstrate an understanding of algebra, by using,
representing and explaining. They will:
a) solve linear equations using concrete models, tables and paperpencil methods
b) model and solve problem situations using objects, graphs and tables
(e.g., Given a table of hours and wages earned, how long will it take
to earn x amount?)
c) find and explain solutions to number sentences with a missing
value
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
Geometry (G)
Spatial sense involves the application of the properties and relationships of points,
lines, angles, planes and curves of shapes and solids. The space around us and the
measurement of the objects and shapes in that space are defined and categorized
according to a specific set of assumptions.
Students will use a variety of techniques, tools and formulas to analyze characteristics
and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric objects; apply coordinate
geometry and graph theory; and solve problems using visualization and spatial
reasoning
G1 - Classification:
Both two-dimensional and
three-dimensional shapes
can be described, analysed
and classified in a variety of
ways and according to their
properties and relationships.
G2 - Spatial Reasoning:
Geometric properties,
reasoning and visualization
can be used to solve problems.
G3 - Transformations:
Draw shapes and build models.
MT.P6.G1
Students will demonstrate an understanding of geometry by using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) classify and describe two-dimensional shapes (polygons up to eight
sides) and three-dimensional objects according to their attributes
b) identify line segments and angles
c) identify the parts of a circle (radius, diameter, circumference)
d) identify lines of symmetry in plane figures
e) identify and describe the results of reflections (flips), translations
(slides) and rotations (turns)
MT.P6.G2
Students will demonstrate an understanding of geometry by using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) solve problems related to two-dimensional shapes and threedimensional objects
b) solve problems using congruency and similarity (rectangles,
triangles, combination of both)
MT.P6.G3
Students will demonstrate an understanding of geometry by using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) construct circles
b) visualize and describe the results of combining and sub-dividing
three-dimensional objects (sphere, cuboids, cone, cylinder,
pyramid)
c) reflect (flip), translate (slide) and rotate (turn) plane figures
d) locate or plot a point on a map using cardinal (N,E,S,W) and
intermediate (NE,SE,SW,NW) directions
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
23
Measurement (M)
Measuring requires the use of tools and units to determine, describe and compare
attributes. These measurements encompass the dimensions, size, quantity, length or
capacity of substances or figures as well as sequential relationships such as time and
temperature.
Students will use a variety of techniques, tools and formulae to determine the dimensions
or the capacity of shapes and figures. Students will understand the systems of units for
measuring perimeter, area and volume and will understand how to measure the volume
and surface area of solid figures.
M1 - Tools and Units:
Standard mathematical
measurement tools and units
depend on the real world
situation.
M2 - Measuring:
The comparison of an item
with a unit (length, time,
volume, etc.).
24
MT.P6.M1
Students will demonstrate an understanding of measurement by
using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) convert linear units within a system of measurement (feet, inches,
mm, cm, dm, m)
b) convert units of time (hours, minutes, seconds)
c) select and use appropriate tools and units to measure to a level of
accuracy required in a particular setting
MT.P6.M2
Students will demonstrate an understanding of measurement by
using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) find the perimeter and area of rectangles, triangles and combinations
of both
b) compare perimeter and area when a two dimensional shape is
changed (rectangles, triangles)
c) compare and order events according to the duration of time (years,
decade, century)
d) solve real world problems (e.g. measure in increments of one inch,
half inch, quarter inch and eighth inch intervals)
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
Data Handling (D)
Data may be presented in a variety of representations, including graphs to show logical
relationships between various quantities and to assist with decision-making. The
collection and analysis of data is identified as either statistics or probability. Statistics
is the mathematics used for collecting, organizing, and studying data while probability
is the measure of the likelihood of an event.
Mathematics instruction will include data analysis, statistics and probability. Students
will be given the opportunity to pose questions and collect, organize, represent and
interpret data to answer those questions; develop and evaluate predictions and
arguments that are based on data; and apply basic notions of chance and probability.
Students will use technology tools to investigate large samples, explore graphical
representations and simulate events.
D1 - Data Collection and
Organisation:
Data are collected and
organised to help with the
making of decisions, the
drawing of inferences or the
development of new ideas.
D2 - Representation:
Appropriate representations of
data depend on characteristics
of that data.
D3 - Analysis and interpretation:
Provides information on the
attributes of data.
D4 - Probability:
The occurrence or nonoccurrence of an event is
characterized as impossible,
less likely, equally likely,
more likely or certain. The
likelihood of an event or its
probability is quoted as a ratio
between 0 and 1 inclusive.
MT.P6.D1
Students will demonstrate an understanding of data handling by
using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) collect and organise data
MT.P6.D2
Students will demonstrate an understanding of data handling by
using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) display data in a variety of forms (tables, bar graphs, line graphs)
b) compare and contrast graphical representations of the same data
MT.P6.D3
Students will demonstrate an understanding of data handling by
using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) analyse data represented in a graph (double bar graphs, simple pie
charts – 1/2, 1/4, 1/8)
b) make predictions based on data and communicate the reasoning
c) use data to solve problems
MT.P6.D4
Students will demonstrate an understanding of data handling by
using, representing and explaining. They will:
a) state the outcome of simple experiments (spinners, number cubes,
cards)
Ministry of Education | P6 Mathematics (MT) Essential Curriculum
25
PLANNING Notes
26
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
BERMUDA SCIENCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (SC)
The study of science is an intellectual and social endeavour – the application of human intelligence to
figuring out how the world works.
Benchmarks for Science Literacy: Project 2061 (1993)
The Bermuda Science Performance Standards document is an amalgam of widely respected science
documents that have been developed in many different countries, including the United Kingdom, United
States and Canada. As is easily recognizable in standards documents from other jurisdictions, Benchmarks
for Science Literacy has been used as the basis for Bermuda Science Performance Standards. Science in
the schools provides an introduction to many different scientific disciplines from the traditional physics,
chemistry and biology to geology, environmental science and meteorology. These standards are therefore
wide ranging and provide the foundation for not only scientific literacy, but also the critical knowledge and
skills for those who intend to study science as a requisite for their careers.
The National Science Education Standards (NSES, National Research Council, 1995) define scientific
literacy as the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes which are required for
participation in civic and cultural activities, economic productivity and personal decision making. The
philosophy of The Bermuda Science Curriculum (Bermuda Ministry of Education, 1997) echoes the
intent of the NSES statement and indicates that science education should empower all students to make
informed choices concerning personal, societal, environmental and technological issues, thus fostering an
appreciation and a sense of responsibility for the future.
In Bermuda, science is considered a critical component of education for all children and is therefore
mandated as a core subject from preschool through to senior school. The Bermuda Science Performance
Standards are not a curriculum. They provide the framework for our year-by-year science curriculum that
spans the fourteen years from preschool to senior school. They expand the “what” students should know
and be able to do to the “how” and “to what extent” students should demonstrate their understanding of
scientific concepts and skills.
As stated in the National Curriculum for England, the standards must be “robust enough to define and
defend the core of knowledge and cultural experience and flexible enough to give teachers scope to build
their teaching around it in ways that will enhance its delivery to pupils” (The National Curriculum for
England, 2000).
The Bermuda Science Performance Standards are categorized into four (4) strands, recognizable as
organizers in curriculum documents of many jurisdictions:
1. Physical Science (P)
2. Life Science (L)
3. Earth and Space Science (E)
4. Nature of Science (N)
The first three strands, communicate the knowledge and concepts of science using traditional categories.
The Nature of Science emphasizes the way that science and scientists work and how, together with
mathematics and technology, the world has been shaped by human endeavour.
The strands are divided into standards that spiral throughout the compulsory years of the science
programme in Bermuda. When the goal is deep understanding it is essential for concepts to be revisited
over time. Standards are further broken down into indicators for assessment.
Students show conceptual understanding when they can:
• use a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions, first in familiar then
unfamiliar situations
• represent the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts and graphs, as
appropriate
Both aspects of understanding – explaining and representing – are required to meet the standard.
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
27
PHYSICAL SCIENCE (P)
Physical science, which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the study of matter and
materials, forces and energy. There are four (4) physical science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
P1 Matter and Materials - their properties, components, interactions and changes
P2 Force and Motion - the relationship between force, mass and motion of an object and the nature
and interaction of waves and matter
P3 Energy - the sources and forms of energy, including transmission and transformations and how
energy helps explain the structure of matter and the universe
P4 Forces of Nature - gravitational, electrical and magnetic forces as the fundamental forces acting
in nature
LIFE SCIENCE (L)
Life Science, which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the diversity of living
organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one another and their environment. There
are six (6) Life Science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
L1 Diversity of Life - the variety of living things and the processes responsible for the maintenance
of life
L2 Heredity – biological traits and how they are passed on from generation to generation
L3 Cells, Organs and Organ Systems – the structure, function and reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization essential for life and specialized organs systems that interact with
each other to maintain internal balance
L4 Interdependence of Life – relationships amongst organisms and their dependence on their
environment
L5 Flow of Matter and Energy - the linking of organisms to one another and their physical setting
by the transfer and transformation of matter and energy
L6 Evolution of Life – the evolution of life on earth and natural selection as an explanation of
biological processes
EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (E)
Earth and Space Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources, meteorology and
oceanography. Earth and Space Science involves the study of the earth, the universe, their components
and interactions. There are five (5) Earth and Space Science standards
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
E1 Astronomy - the current scientific view of the nature, components, matter and energy sources of
the universe
E2 Geology - the features of the earth’s surface, how they were formed and how they are continually
changing
E3 Resources - the earth’s limited and varied materials that supply many of the resources that
humans use
E4 Meteorology - the interactions of structures of the earth’s system and the sun’s energy which
cause weather and climate patterns
E5 Oceanography - the features of oceans and the impact of these features on the global
ecosystem
NATURE OF SCIENCE (N)
The Nature of Science strand involves of the understanding and application of scientific investigative
techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also includes the study of the interrelationships among
science, technology, and society. There are three (3) Nature of Science standards.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding of:
N1 Scientific Investigation - People can often learn about things around them by just observing those
things carefully, but sometimes they can learn more by doing something to things and noting
28
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
what happens. Investigations are conducted for different reasons, which include exploring new
phenomena, checking on previous results and comparing different theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and making predictions.
N2 Data Representation and Interpretation - Data must be analysed in order to make sense of
what has been collected. Sometimes the evidence collected might not be what you expected or
might not be sufficient to draw a conclusion. Clear and accurate communication is important in
doing science and an essential part of sharing an investigation order to inform others.
N3 Designed World: Science, Technology and Society - Over the course of the history of world
exploration, humans have shaped and reshaped the world we live in by using technology in
tandem with expanding science knowledge. Science cannot answer all questions and technology
cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs. Science influences society through its
knowledge and world view. Technology influences society through its products and processes.
Science and technology have advanced through contributions of many different people, in
different cultures, at different times in history.
REFERENCES
It should be noted that there is a great deal of similarity amongst standards. The main sources for the
Bermuda Performance Standards document contain hundreds of pages of detail that cannot be provided
in the Bermuda Science Performance Standards. If further amplification of standards is required, it
would appropriate to research the sources cited in this section.
Allport Geoff et al. (1996) The New Sc1 Book – Experimental and Investigative Science, Northampton:
NIAS Production Unit
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993) Bench Marks for Science Literacy:
Project 2061. New York: Oxford University Press
American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2001) Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington,
DC: AAAS
Council for Basic Education. (1998) Standards for Excellence in Education. Washington, DC: CBE Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. (1997) Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Toronto, Ontario: CMEC
Department of Education and Science. (2000) National Curriculum for England: Science. London:
HMSO
National Center on Education and Economy and the University of Pittsburg. (1995) New Standards
Performance Standards. Washington, DC and Pittsburg, PA: Hartcourt Brace
National Research Council. (1995) National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press
Wiggins, G. McTighe J. (1998) Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
29
Physical Science (P)
Physical science (P), which consists of concepts of chemistry and physics, involves the
study of matter and materials, forces and energy.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
P1 - Matter and Materials their properties, components,
interactions and changes
P2 - Force and Motion the relationship between
force, mass and motion of
an object and the nature and
interaction of waves and
matter.
P3 - Energy the sources and forms of
energy, including transmission
and transformations and how
energy helps explain the
structure of matter and the
universe.
P4 - Forces of Nature gravitational, electrical
and magnetic forces as the
fundamental forces acting in
nature.
30
SC.P6.P1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Sometimes matter will not change back after it has been changed.
b) New materials can be made by combining two or more materials.
Assessment limits:
• chemical and physical changes – test concept but not terms
c) Matter has mass/weight and volume.
Assessment limits:
• understand properties of solids and liquids
SC.P6.P2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.P6.P3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.P6.P4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Life Science (L)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L1 - Diversity of Life the variety of living things
and the processes responsible
for the maintenance of life.
L2 - Heredity –
biological traits and how they
are passed on from generation
to generation
L3 - Cells, Organs and Organ
Systems –
the structure, function and
reproduction of cells that
maintain the organization
essential for life and
specialized organ systems that
interact with each other to
maintain internal balance
SC.P6.L1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Plants and animals have certain characteristics that help them live/
survive in different places.
Assessment limits:
• habitat - identify characteristics of plants and animals and relate to
the organism’s habitat
• land habitats - rocky coast, beach dune, coastal upland, upland forest,
saltwater marsh, and fresh water marsh
SC.P6.L2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.P6.L3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
31
Life Science (L)
(continued)
Life Science (L) which consists of concepts of biology and ecology, deals with the
diversity of living organisms, their organization, life processes, relationships with one
another and their environment.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
L4 - Interdependence of Life –
relationships amongst
organisms and their
dependence on their
environment.
SC.P6.L4
L5 - Flow of Matter and Energy
- the linking of organisms to
one another and their physical
setting by the transfer and
transformation of matter and
energy.
SC.P6.L5
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
L6 - Evolution of Life –
the evolution of life on
earth, natural selection as
an explanation of biological
processes.
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
32
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Animals and plants depend on each other in many ways.
Assessment limits:
• Interpret food chains and simple food webs
• basic roles – producers, consumers, and decomposers
Some insects and various other organisms depend on dead plants for
food. Organisms interact with one another in various ways.
Assessment limits:
• carrying of pollen
• dispersal of seed
b) Changes in an organism’s habitat have varying impacts. These
impacts can be positive or negative.
SC.P6.L6
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Earth And Space Science (E)
Earth and Space (E) Science consists of concepts of astronomy, geology, resources,
meteorology and oceanography. Earth and space science involves the study of the
earth, the universe, their components and interactions.
Conceptual understanding should be demonstrated by
• Using a concept accurately to explain observations and make predictions
• Representing the concept in a variety of ways including words, diagrams, charts
and graphs, as appropriate
E1 - Astronomy the current scientific view
of the nature, components,
matter and energy sources of
the universe.
E2 - Geology the features of the earth’s
surface, how they were
formed and how they are
continually changing.
E3 - Resources the earth’s limited and varied
materials that supply many of
the resources that humans use
E4 - Meteorology the interactions of structures
of the earth’s system and the
sun’s energy which cause
weather and climate patterns
E5 - Oceanography the features of oceans and the
impact of these features on
the global ecosystem
SC.P6.E1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.P6.E2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.P6.E3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SC.P6.E4
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) When liquid water disappears, it turns into a gas and can form again
as a liquid when cooled. If the temperature is below freezing a solid
(ice) will form.
Assessment limits:
• Understanding of terms and processes of the water cycle
b) The earth is surrounded by a layer of air and water vapour which
under various conditions produces different kinds of weather.
Clouds and fog consist of tiny droplets of water. When air moves
we feel it as wind.
c) Weather and seasons result from interactions of sunlight and earth’s
land, water and air masses.
Assessment limits:
• includes weather conditions, such as temperature, rainfall, etc
SC.P6.E5
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Physical properties of the ocean can be measured and affect the
global ecosystem. The ocean is a large body of water that influences
weather.
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
33
Nature Of Science (N)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N1 - Scientific Investigation
-People can often learn
about things around them
by just observing those
things carefully, but
sometimes they can learn
more by doing something
to things and noting what
happens. Investigations
are conducted for different
reasons, which include
exploring new phenomena,
checking on previous results
and comparing different
theories. Investigations
usually involve collecting
evidence, reasoning, devising
hypotheses, and making
predictions.
N2 - Data Representation and
Interpretation Data must be analysed in
order to make sense of
what has been collected.
Sometimes the evidence
collected might not be what
you expected or might
not be sufficient to draw
a conclusion. Clear and
accurate communication is
important in doing science
and an essential part of
sharing an investigation in
order to inform others.
34
SC.P6.N1
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Planning an investigation
Assessment limits:
• Plan an investigation and understand the need for the test to be fair.
Identify factors that make a test fair
• Make appropriate predictions which are reasonable but outcome is
not known
• Recognize when comparisons might not be fair because some
conditions are not kept the same
• Understand that results of investigations are seldom exactly the
same, but if differences are large, the observations should be made
again / evaluate similar experiments and predict different results
based on procedures
b) Obtaining evidence for investigation.
Assessment limits:
• Choose appropriate scales/instruments to measure (including g vs
kg; cm vs metres/km)
• Distinguish between actual observations and speculation
• Locate scientific information from sources including books,
databases, CD-ROMS, articles in magazines
SC.P6.N2
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Summarising and organising data
Assessment limits:
• Organize and display data in a variety of forms (tables, bar graphs,
line graphs)
• Present observations clearly and use tables and bar charts and line
graphs
b) Analyzing evidence and making conclusions
Assessment limits:
• Analyse data represented in a graph (double bar graphs, simple pie
charts
• Make predictions based on data/Use data patterns to draw
conclusions
• Use diagrams to help explain things. Make comparisons using
diagrams
• Use science knowledge/data to support conclusions
• Evaluate or identify strengths and weaknesses of claims or
conclusions based on data/results
• Develop follow-up questions for investigation (results of experiment
generate new questions for further study)
• Use simple models to predict changes in real systems/ understand
importance of scale in models/ compare parts of model with real
system
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
Nature Of Science (N)
(continued)
Nature of Science (N) consists of the understanding and application of scientific
investigative techniques and data analysis. Nature of Science also involves the study of
the interrelationships between science, technology, and society.
N3 - The Designed World Over the course of the
history of world exploration,
humans have shaped and
reshaped the world we live
in by using technology in
tandem with expanding
science knowledge. Science
cannot answer all questions
and technology cannot solve
all human problems or meet
all human needs. Science
influences society through
its knowledge and world
view. Technology influences
society through its products
and processes. Science and
technology have advanced
through contributions of many
different people, in different
cultures, at different times in
history.
SC.P6.N3
Students will produce evidence that demonstrates understanding
of :
a) Things found in nature are different from those that are made by
humans. New products and systems can be developed to help solve
problems, but there could be desirable or undesirable consequences.
Assessment limits:
• Some kinds of materials (natural and man made) can be changed to
make them more useful
• for example
• wood, clay, animal skin, wool, cotton, metal, glass
• Some resources are nearly unlimited while others are very limited in
supply. Some can be renewed within a short timeframe while others
would require hundreds/thousands of years.
for example
- Understand importance of conservation
• Safety and impact on the environment must be considered when
using/designing new technologies
• Technology has given some people better transportation,
communications, nutrition, health care, entertainment. Technologies
often have drawbacks as well as benefits (pesticides can affect other
living things inadvertently)
• Identify repeated elements in sequences in designs, structures,
sounds, and events; identify symmetry in a design/structure; identify
possible solution and analyze the effectiveness of solution.
b) Important contributions to the advancement of science, mathematics
and technology have been made by different kinds of people in
different cultures in different times.
Assessment limits:
• Identify science careers that involve science (doctor, veterinarian,
nurse, etc.).
c) Diet, exercise, disease and toxic substances influence the physical
health of individuals. Science has contributed to health and health
technologies.
Assessment limits:
• Humans must eat certain kinds of food to grow and develop healthy
bodies.
• Some diseases are caused by germs and some are not. Washing one’s
hands with soap and water reduces the number of germs that can be
passed onto other people.
• Some things in the environment make people sick. Tobacco, alcohol
and other drugs can harm human beings and other living things.
• Vaccinations protect people from certain diseases and medicines
help people who are sick to recover.
Ministry of Education | P6 Science (SC) Essential Curriculum
35
PLANNING Notes
36
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
BERMUDA SOCIAL STUDIES PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (SS)
Social Studies is the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence.
Within the school program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such
disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political
science, psychology, religion and sociology, as well as appropriate content from the humanities,
mathematics, and natural sciences. The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people develop
the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good.
Expectations of Excellence Curriculum Standards for Social Studies: NCSS (1994)
The Bermuda Social Studies Performance Standards document endorses an international network of
standards infused with Bermuda standards for social studies. The standards for social studies cover
standards in critical thinking, history, geography, economics, civics/government, problem-solving and
technology as it relates to social studies.
Most of the standards apply to all phase levels. However, the criteria by which to measure mastery of a
standard will differ at each level and this will be shown separately. Also included in this document are
additional assessment indicators. This section is displayed in green and reflects what will be taught and
assessed in the classroom by the teacher during the course of the entire year.
The standards are aligned to the five goals that form the foundation for the Bermuda Social Studies
Curricula and the ten social studies themes promoted by the NCSS. The Bermuda Social Studies
Standards, if adhered to and taught effectively, with confidence, will help Bermuda’s students to meet not
only the national standards but also educational standards internationally.
HISTORY STANDARDS (H)
History requires the student to understand how the past has influenced the present development of a
country, including its values, beliefs, government and economy. A good understanding of a country’s
evolution should enable the student to make predictions for future possibilities. It should also give
students an understanding and appreciation for their own culture and that of others.
The students will produce evidence that demonstrates their ability to:
H1 Organise information chronologically and understand the sequence and relationship of events.
H2 Communicate in various forms using social studies vocabulary and concepts to engage in
inquiry, research, social studies analysis, and decision-making.
H3 Comprehend, analyse, and interpret historical information, including literature, documents and
data to make decisions on appropriate and viable solutions to historical issues.
H4 Analyse the development of early human societies, civilisations and empires.
H5 Explain the impact of the interaction of people, culture, and ideas and analyse the effects it has
on the social, economic and political institutions and development of countries and regions.
H6 Explain how shifts in international relationships and world power impacts on individual countries
and world affairs recognising long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history.
H7 Identify and explain the political, economic, social and technological issues challenging the
world since 1990.
GEOGRAPHY STANDARDS (G)
Geography will give the student an understanding of its three interrelated components- subject matter,
skills, and perspectives. Subject matter (the Earth) provides the basis on which geographic skills are
applied. Skills are: (1) asking geographic questions, (2) acquiring geographic information, (3)
organising geographic information, (4) analysing geographic information, and (5) answering geographic
questions about the Earth. Knowledge and skills must be considered from two perspectives – spatial
and ecological (place). Space in the world is identified in terms of location, distance, direction, pattern,
shape, and arrangement. Place is identified in terms of the relationships between physical environmental
characteristics, such as climate, topography, and vegetation and human characteristics such as economic
activity, settlement, and land use.
The student will produce evidence that demonstrates their ability to:
G1 Use maps, globes and other geographic representations, tools and technologies to locate, obtain,
process and report information about people, places and environments.
G2 Use information on the physical and human features and cultural characteristics of places to
define and study regions and their patterns of changes including changes in distribution and
importance of resources.
Ministry of Education | P6 Social Studies (SS) Essential Curriculum
37
G3 Explain how economic, political, and cultural processes interact to shape patterns of human
migration and settlement, influence and interdependence, and conflict and cooperation.
G4 Apply geographic knowledge of people, place, and environments to interpret the past, understand
the present, and plan for the future.
CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT STANDARDS (C)
Civics will allow the student to obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to participate in political life
in Bermuda as a responsible and informed citizen committed to the further enhancement of democratic
values both locally and globally.
The students will produce evidence that demonstrates their ability to:
C1 E
xplain why society needs rules, laws, and governments.
C2 Explain how culture influences self-perception, national identity, and the social and political
characteristics of a country and result in different interpretations of events by people from
diverse cultural perspectives.
C3 Describe how governments’ powers are acquired, used and justified.
C4 Analyse Bermuda’s Constitution, the type of government that it creates and the parameters that
it sets for Bermuda as a colony, the roles of the individual, political parties, interest groups and
public opinion in the democratic process.
C5 Report and evaluate the changes in human rights in Bermuda and the world.
C6 Identify and explain the significance of various Bermuda symbols, landmarks, physical features,
and personalities.
ECONOMIC STANDARDS (E)
Economics will provide the student with a basic understanding of economic issues in Bermuda. It will
also give them an understanding of how local and global economics can influence political and social
aspects of a country and changes over time.
The students will produce evidence that demonstrates their ability to:
E1 E
xplain the concept and use of money.
E2 Use their understanding of past and present economic activities in Bermuda to make plausible
predictions on Bermuda’s economic future and career choices.
E3 Identify and describe the roles of various economic institutions, including but not limited
to, financial institutions, labour unions, local and international companies, and not-for-profit
organizations for ensuring the positive economic development of the country.
E4 Distinguish between private and public goods and services.
E5 Describe and explain global economic interdependence and competition, using examples to
illustrate their influence on national and international policies
E6 Identify the role and influence of technology on daily life.
REFERENCES
Center for Civic Education. (1997). National Standards for Civics and Government. CA: Center for
Civic Education.
Connecticut State Department of Education Division of Teaching and Learning. (1998). Social Studies
Curriculum Framework.
Geography Education Standards Project. (1994). Geography for Life: National Geography Standards
1994. Washington D.C: Geography Education Standards Project.
National Center For History In The Schools. (1996). National Standards for History in the Schools. CA:
National Center for History in the Schools
The National Center on Education and the Economy and the University of Pittsburg. (1998). New
Standards: Performance Standards, vol.2. USA: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement.
National Council for the Social Studies. (1994). Curriculum Standards For Social Studies: Expectations
of Excellence. MD: NCSS
38
Ministry of Education | P6 Social Studies (SS) Essential Curriculum
History (H)
History requires the student to understand how the past has influenced the present
development of a country, including its values, beliefs, government and economy.
A good understanding of a country’s evolution should enable the student to make
predictions for future possibilities. It should also give students an understanding and
appreciation for their own culture and that of others.
H1 - O
rganise information
chronologically and understand
the sequence and relationship
of events.
H2 - Communicate in various forms
using social studies vocabulary
and concepts to engage in
inquiry, research, social studies
analysis, and decision-making.
H3 - Comprehend, analyse, and
interpret historical information,
including literature, documents
and data to make decisions
on appropriate and viable
solutions to historical issues.
H4 - Analyse the development
of early human societies,
civilisations and empires.
H5 - Explain the impact of the
interaction of people, culture,
and ideas and analyse the
affects it has on the social,
economic and political
institutions and development of
countries and regions.
H6 - Explain how shifts in
international relationships
and world power impacts on
individual countries and world
affairs recognising long-term
changes and recurring patterns
in the world.
H7 - Identify and explain the
political, economic, social
and technological issues
challenging the world since
1990.
SS.P6.H1
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Make sequential outline of specific events.
b) Form a simple organization of key ideas related to a topic.
c) Note cause and effect relationships.
SS.P6.H2
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Identify and define key social studies concepts.
b) Formulate conclusions based on critical examination of relevant
information.
c) Identify the tools used to study the past.
d) Use a variety of methods to communicate social studies information
(e.g., complete maps and graphs in addition to standard written
responses).
SS.P6.H3
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Recognize instances in which more than one interpretation of factual
material is valid.
b) Compare and contrast differences in the retelling of historical events
such as the first settlement from different perspectives (Bermuda Five
Centuries).
c) Demonstrate an understanding that people in different times
and places view the world differently (Writers’ Machine books,
Benchmark books and others).
SS.P6.H4
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Explain how the early governance of Bermuda influenced its
development 1612-1619 (Bermuda Five Centuries: Chapters 3 and 4).
SS.P6.H5
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SS.P6.H6
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SS.P6.H7
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | P6 Social Studies (SS) Essential Curriculum
39
Geography (G)
Geography will give the student an understanding of its three interrelated components- subject
matter, skills, and perspectives.
Subject matter (the Earth) provides the basis on which geographic skills are applied. Skills are:
• asking geographic questions,
• acquiring geographic information,
• organising geographic information,
• analysing geographic information, and
• answering geographic questions about the Earth.
Knowledge and skills must be considered from two perspectives – spatial and ecological
(place).
Space in the world is identified in terms of location, distance, direction, pattern, shape, and
arrangement.
Place is identified in terms of the relationships between physical environmental characteristics,
such as climate, topography, and vegetation and human characteristics such as economic activity,
settlement, and land use.
G1 - U
se maps, globes and other
geographic representations,
tools and technologies
to locate, obtain, process
and report information
about people, places and
environments.
G2 - Use information on the
physical and human features
and cultural characteristics
of places to define and study
regions and their patterns of
change, including changes in
distraction and importance of
resources.
G3 - E
xplain how economic,
political and cultural
processes interact to shape
patterns of human migration
and settlement, influence and
interdependence; and conflict
and cooperation.
G4 - Apply geographic knowledge
of people, place and
environments to interpret the
past, understand the present
and plan for the future.
40
SS.P6.G1
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Explain how geographic location is a factor in the creation of
climatic region.
b) Use physical and thematic maps to make comparisons about natural
resources and natural vegetation, etc.
SS.P6.G2
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Explain how the human and natural alterations of the physical
environment have produced positive and negative consequences,
e.g., fish industry/reefs, magma, mid-atlantic ridge, platform,
plates, volcano, convection currents, building developments,
transportation, erosion, pollution.
SS.P6.G3
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Compare the reasons various immigrant groups had for coming to
Bermuda- forced labour, economic, family, adventurous.
b) Explain why human activities require movement and how human
networks bring areas together- employment, telecommunication,
internet, etc.
SS.P6.G4
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | P6 Social Studies (SS) Essential Curriculum
Civics (C)
Civics will allow the student to obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to participate
in political life in Bermuda as a responsible and informed citizen committed to the
further enhancement of democratic values both locally and globally.
C1 - Explain why society needs
rules, laws and governments.
SS.P6.C1
C2 - Explain how culture
influences self-perception,
national identity and
the social and political
characteristics of a country
and result in different
interpretation of events by
people from diverse cultural
perspectives.
SS.P6.C2
C3 - Describe how governments’
powers are acquired, used and
justified.
C4 - Analyse Bermuda’s
Constitution, the type of
government that it creates
and the parameters that it
sets for Bermuda as a colony,
the roles of the individual,
political parties, interest
groups and public opinion in
the democratic process.
C5 - Report and evaluate the
changes in human rights in
Bermuda and the world.
C6 - Identify and explain the
significance of various
Bermuda symbols and
personalities.
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Describe the ways in which local, regional and ethnic cultures may
influence the everyday lives of people, e.g., parents, principals,
religious leaders, police, peers, nation as authority and their means
of justice.
SS.P6.C3
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Acquire, analyse and interpret information regarding constitutional
and national issues in Bermuda.
SS.P6.C4
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Compare and contrast a colony and independent state; roles of
House of Assembly and Senate at present.
SS.P6.C5
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Analyse the relationship between justice and authority.
SS.P6.C6
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | P6 Social Studies (SS) Essential Curriculum
41
Economics (E)
Economics will provide the student with a basic understanding of economic issues in
Bermuda. It will also give them an understanding of how local and global economics
can influence political and social aspects of a country and changes over time.
E1 - Explain the concept and use
of money.
E2 - Use their understanding of
past and present economic
activities in Bermuda to
make plausible predictions on
Bermuda’s economic future
and career choices.
E3 - I dentify and describe the
roles of various economic
institutions, including but
not limited to, government,
financial institutions,
labour unions, local and
international companies and
not-for-profit organizations
for ensuring the positive
economic development of the
country.
E4 - Distinguish between private
and public goods and
services.
E5 - Describe and explain global
economic interdependence
and competition, using
examples to illustrate their
influence on national and
international policies.
E6 - Describe and explain global
economic interdependence
and competition, using
examples to illustrate their
influence on national and
international policies.
42
SS.P6.E1
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Describe and explain how money makes it easier to trade, borrow,
save, invest and compare the value of goods and services.
SS.P6.E2
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SS.P6.E3
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
SS.P6.E4
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Define and give examples of the terms “private and public goods
and services” and a “market”.
SS.P6.E5
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
a) Describe a competitive market as one in which there are many
buyers and sellers of the same product, e.g., how this effects local
demand for goods and services and imports.
b) Know the factors that must be considered when determining selling
price of products.
SS.P6.E6
The students will produce evidence that demonstrate their ability
to:
Not assessed at this level on the Bermuda Criterion Reference Test
(BCRT)
Ministry of Education | P6 Social Studies (SS) Essential Curriculum
PLANNING Notes
English Language Arts (EL)
Mathematics (MT)
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
43
PLANNING Notes
Science (SC)
Social Studies (SS)
44
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
Ministry of Education | Essential Curriculum
MISSION STATEMENT
The mission of the Bermuda Public School System is to be the
1st choice in education by providing rigorous and stimulating
learning experiences in safe responsive environments from which
our students emerge confident and prepared to compete and
contribute locally and globally.
Ministry of Education
Curriculum & Instructional Leadership Office
P. O. Box HM 1185
Hamilton HMEX
Telephone: (441) 292-3507
Fax: (441) 296-2843
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