GRID Alternatives Construction Safety Manual Version 3/3/2014

GRID Alternatives Construction Safety Manual  Version 3/3/2014
GRID Alternatives
Construction Safety Manual
Version 3/3/2014
Table of Contents
Employee Health and Safety Education ..................................................................................................... 4
The Importance of Safety Culture ............................................................................................................. 4
Employer Responsibility........................................................................................................................ 4
Director of Construction Responsibility ................................................................................................ 4
Regional/Executive Director Responsibility .......................................................................................... 5
Construction Manager/Safety Officer Responsibility ........................................................................... 5
Solar Installation Supervisor Responsibility .......................................................................................... 6
Construction Staff Responsibility .......................................................................................................... 7
Volunteer Coordinator Responsibility .................................................................................................. 7
Employee Responsibility ....................................................................................................................... 7
Volunteer Responsibility ....................................................................................................................... 7
Accident Prevention ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Standard Prevention Procedures & Identifying Job Site Hazards ............................................................. 8
Emergency Response Plan ........................................................................................................................ 10
Standard Emergency Procedures ........................................................................................................... 10
Special Site Conditions .............................................................................................................................. 12
Damp or Wet Site .................................................................................................................................... 12
Thunder and Lightning ........................................................................................................................... 12
Natural Disasters (Fire, Earthquake, Severe Storm, Wind, etc.) ............................................................. 12
Extreme Heat .......................................................................................................................................... 12
Threat of Violence .................................................................................................................................. 14
Accident and Injury Reporting .................................................................................................................. 15
Importance of Reporting All Incidents ................................................................................................... 15
Standard Reporting Procedures .............................................................................................................. 15
Open Door Safety Policy ......................................................................................................................... 16
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ....................................................................................................... 17
GRID Alternatives Policy on PPE ............................................................................................................. 17
Routine PPE Inspection .......................................................................................................................... 17
First Aid Kit Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 18
Hard Hats ................................................................................................................................................ 18
Safety Glasses.......................................................................................................................................... 19
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Gloves...................................................................................................................................................... 19
Ear Protection ......................................................................................................................................... 19
Working in Confined Spaces .................................................................................................................. 20
Fire Extinguishers ................................................................................................................................... 20
Hand and Power Tools .............................................................................................................................. 21
General Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 21
Hand Tools .............................................................................................................................................. 21
Power-operated Hand Tools ................................................................................................................... 21
Site Tool Management ........................................................................................................................... 23
Fall Protection ........................................................................................................................................... 24
Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 24
General Site Survey and Inspection Policy ......................................................................................... 24
Steep Roofs ........................................................................................................................................ 24
100% Fall Protection Policy ................................................................................................................. 25
Equipment Inspection Protocol .............................................................................................................. 25
Roof Types and Fall Protection Requirements ....................................................................................... 26
Personal Fall Arrest Systems .................................................................................................................. 27
Guardrail Systems .................................................................................................................................. 31
Scaffolding .............................................................................................................................................. 34
Warning Lines and Safety Monitoring Systems ..................................................................................... 35
Skylights and Holes ................................................................................................................................. 36
Working in Attics .................................................................................................................................... 36
Fall Protection and Rescue Plan ............................................................................................................. 37
Ladders ....................................................................................................................................................... 38
Ladder Placement .................................................................................................................................. 38
Extension Ladder Erection ..................................................................................................................... 38
Methods for Securing Extension Ladders .............................................................................................. 38
Ladder Mounting .................................................................................................................................... 39
Inspection ............................................................................................................................................... 40
Electrical ..................................................................................................................................................... 41
Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 41
Definition of “Qualified Person” ............................................................................................................ 41
Exposure and Energized Work ............................................................................................................... 41
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Lockout/Tagout Procedure ................................................................................................................ 42
Working Space ................................................................................................................................... 43
Safe Methods for Working in the Electrical Service ............................................................................... 43
Safe Methods for Working in the Junction Box ..................................................................................... 44
Safe Methods for Disconnecting Module Connectors ........................................................................... 44
Equipment Inspection ............................................................................................................................ 44
Ground Disturbance .................................................................................................................................. 45
Transportation ........................................................................................................................................... 46
Motor Vehicle Safety .............................................................................................................................. 46
Safe Driving as Recommended by the Department of Transportation ................................................. 46
Buckling Belts ......................................................................................................................................... 47
Securing Loads ........................................................................................................................................ 47
Driving under the Influence ................................................................................................................... 48
Hazard Communication ............................................................................................................................. 49
Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 49
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) .................................................................................................... 49
Appendix .................................................................................................................................................... 50
Appendix A: Safety Talk
Appendix B: Job Hazard Analysis
Appendix C: Emergency Response Plan
Appendix D: Sample Site Safety Plans
Appendix E: Incident Report Forms
Appendix F: PPE Compliance Inspection Log
Appendix G: Sample Equipment Price List
Appendix H: Safety Compliance Checklist
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Employee Health and Safety Education
The Importance of Safety Culture
GRID Alternatives greatly values the safety and security of all staff, volunteers, and
homeowners that are engaged in our organization and mission. Each person plays a key role in
the success of GRID Alternatives and the best way to demonstrate our appreciation for those
involved in the organization is by making safety a number one priority.
GRID Alternatives also aims to be a leader in both solar installation for affordable housing and
hands-on training practices. With this visibility comes opportunities to be role models for job
trainees and influence the adoption of elevated safety practices in the greater solar industry.
GRID Alternatives is working to enhance safety practices so that everyone involved in the
organization can join together in the interests of implementing standardized safety procedures
that reduce workplace hazards and accidents. Each member engaged in the organization has a
responsibility to not only implement but also encourage safe practices on the job site. All
employees and volunteers are encouraged to detect and report conditions that can cause
injuries. No employee or volunteer is required to work at a job that he or she feels is not safe or
healthful or perform a task that they have not been properly trained in or feel uncomfortable
doing.
Employer Responsibility
GRID Alternatives is responsible for providing all staff and volunteers with the best resources
possible to achieve maximum safety during the installation process including written policies,
training, personal protective equipment (PPE), and open door communication channels. The
GRID Alternatives Construction Safety Manual supplements the Injury and Illness Prevention
Program (IIP Program) outlined in the GRID Alternatives Operations Manual. The IIP Program is
a policy of GRID Alternatives and its Affiliates and compliance with the IIP Program is not
optional. The organization requires that all Regional/Executive Directors, Construction Staff,
and Volunteers complete mandatory safety training, read and acknowledge their understanding
of all materials provided in the Construction Safety Manual, and go forth in promoting safety
awareness (See Operations Manual, Appendix VII-B – All Employee Safety and Health
Training/Review Checklist).
Director of Construction Responsibility
Director of Construction safety responsibilities may include (but are not limited to):
 Keep construction safety policies and trainings up-to-date and inform staff of the
location of key resources.
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 Be a point person or resource for all staff regarding safety-related questions.
 Facilitate Construction Safety Manual training to new staff. Record and document
attendance.
 Conduct safety trainings on a monthly basis through the organization-wide construction
huddle meetings in order to keep safety in the forefront of our minds as well as to
continue an on-going discussion about best practices.
 May conduct internal investigations and publish incident case studies in an effort to
improve safety practices.
Regional/Executive Director Responsibility
Regional/Executive Director safety responsibilities may include (but are not limited to):
 Authorize purchase of safety equipment and PPE and other recurring expenses of the
Safety Program.
 Follow communication protocol outlined in the Emergency Response Plan.
 Ensure staff attend required training based on their role. Record and document
attendance.
 Enforce Safety Compliance Program.
Construction Manager/Safety Officer Responsibility
Each GRID Alternatives office is unique in its departmental organization and delegation. In
offices where there is a Construction Manager who oversees regional construction staff, the
Construction Manager takes on the responsibility of always ensuring that Installation
Supervisors are engaged in demonstrating and teaching the best safety practices on site with
volunteers. For offices with no Construction Manager, responsibilities may be clearly
distributed among the construction team or a designated construction staff member may serve
as the safety authority.
Construction Manager/Safety Officer safety responsibilities may include (but are not limited to):
 Ensure adequate safety equipment, PPE, and first aid supplies.
 Ensure that safety equipment and PPE are regularly inspected and/or tested and
replaced as needed. Document inspection.
 Read all instruction manuals for safety equipment.
 Ensure staff attend required training based on their role. Record and document
attendance.
 Enforce Safety Compliance Program.
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Solar Installation Supervisor Responsibility
On GRID Alternatives installations, the Solar Installation Supervisor is considered the designated
“competent person” as per OSHA standards. A competent person is defined as “one who is
capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working
conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has
authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.”1 Installation Supervisors
take on the challenge of engaging volunteers in not only solar installation safety, but also
standard residential installation processes and techniques. Supervisors work with volunteers
coming from various backgrounds and levels of expertise in regards to construction safety. All
volunteers receive safety training during their initial volunteer orientation, but it is the
responsibility of the Installation Supervisor to make sure that volunteers are actively
implementing GRID Alternatives safety policies and practices.
Solar Installation Supervisor safety responsibilities may include (but are not limited to):
 Ensure that all volunteers upon arrival read and sign the “Volunteer Agreement,
Assumption of Risk and Release from Liability” form. The Installation Supervisor is
responsible for communicating to all volunteers that this document must be read and
that their compliance with this document is indicated upon signing. The waiver must be
signed for all volunteer assignments including installations, site visits, and office or
warehouse work.
 Lead morning safety talks and post-lunch safety refreshers and point out site-specific
hazards on each day of the installation. Supervisors may choose to review the safety talk
one-on-one with any late arrivals. Supervisors have the authority to send away any late
arrivals or volunteers who refuse to abide by GRID Alternatives safety practices, appear
to be under the influence, or pose an immediate threat to site security.
 Prepare a site-specific Site Safety Plan for each installation.
 Ensure that the on-site project paperwork includes the Safety Talk, Site Safety Plan,
Emergency Response Plan and hospital directions, Accident Report Forms, and
applicable Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs).
 Ensure that a first aid kit is stocked and accessible at installations.
 Report all injuries, incidents, and close calls. Follow communication protocol in the
Emergency Response Plan.
 Train Team-Leaders-in-Training in GRID Alternatives safety policies and practices.
1
29 CFR 1926.32 (f)
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Construction Staff Responsibility
Additionally, all construction staff including Project Managers, Construction Assistants,
SolarCorps Fellows, etc. must respect and abide by the safety standards outlined by GRID
Alternatives. Construction staff safety responsibilities may include (but are not limited to):
 Report all injuries, incidents, and close calls. Follow communication protocol in the
Emergency Response Plan.
 Attend mandatory monthly organization-wide construction huddle meetings and followup with the Director of Construction regarding any missed trainings.
 Attend First Aid, CPR, and OSHA 10-hour trainings and maintain current certifications.
Volunteer Coordinator Responsibility
Volunteer Coordinator safety responsibilities may include (but are not limited to):
 Train volunteers and job trainees in GRID Alternatives safety policies and practices at
volunteer orientations.
Employee Responsibility
All employees shall receive basic safety training during a mandatory volunteer orientation as
part of their new staff training. In the event of a special installation, some non-construction
GRID Alternatives staff may be present on the job site. When hosting guests, staff should checkin with the Installation Supervisor upon arrival and help guests sign waivers and distribute hard
hats. It is the responsibility of these employees to respect and implement the same level of
safety as GRID Alternatives construction staff and volunteers.
Volunteer Responsibility
Volunteers are provided with basic safety training during the volunteer orientation and are
required to understand and implement all items addressed in the safety talk read at every
installation. All volunteers are obligated to read and sign the “Volunteer Agreement,
Assumption of Risk and Release from Liability” form when performing work with GRID
Alternatives. This form is part of the sign-in process for all volunteers as communicated by the
Installation Supervisor. Volunteers are required to follow any and all safety instructions given
by the Installation Supervisor. As on any construction site, workers are responsible for the
safety and well-being of themselves at all times and the best way to do this is by adhering to
GRID Alternatives safety practices, speaking up if potential hazards are identified, and making
the Installation Supervisor aware of any health conditions.
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Accident Prevention
Standard Prevention Procedures & Identifying Job Site Hazards
The best way to minimize accidents on the job site is for the Installation Supervisor to plan
ahead by envisioning potential safety hazards and determine a means to prevent them from
happening. It is part of GRID Alternatives’ best practices in accident prevention to encourage all
construction staff to never work alone while on the job site. By following the steps listed below
and communicating this process to volunteer crews, all workers involved on installations can
enhance their own safety awareness, reducing the likelihood of accidents from occurring:
1) Evaluate and Identify the Hazards
The initial evaluation and identification of hazards must be performed during the site visit. If
any items exist that could potentially pose a threat to the safety and security of the worker
crew, these hazards should be documented on the Job Hazard Analysis Checklist. Not all
hazards may be evident during the time of the site visit. It is the responsibility of the
Installation Supervisor to be aware of any further hazards recognized during the time of
installation as well as inform Team Leaders and volunteer workers that they must report
any identified hazards to the Installation
Supervisor. The Job Hazard Analysis
THE JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS CHECKLIST CAN
Checklist must be used to create the Site
BE USED TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL HAZARDS
Safety Plan.
AT THE SITE VISIT AND CREATE A SITE2) Eliminate or Remove the Hazards
SPECIFIC SAFETY PLAN.
Once a safety hazard has been
A PRINTABLE COPY OF THE JOB HAZARD
identified, it is the responsibility of the
ANALYSIS CHECKLIST CAN BE FOUND IN
Installation Supervisor to evaluate if the
APPENDIX B.
hazard can safely be removed or
eliminated. If possible, the Installation Supervisor should remove or eliminate the imposed
safety threat before the volunteer work crew arrives and the installation begins. If a safety
hazard is recognized during the time of installation, it is at the Installation Supervisor’s
discretion to see that the hazard is removed either by him/herself or an authorized Team
Leader or volunteer worker.
3) Control the Hazards that Can’t be Eliminated
In the event that a safety hazard is present but cannot be eliminated from the site, it is the
responsibility of the Installation
Supervisor to develop and implement a
A SAMPLE SITE SAFETY PLAN CAN BE
plan for controlling or avoiding the
FOUND IN APPENDIX D.
hazard. This plan must be clearly
communicated to all Team Leaders,
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volunteer workers, and staff that are present on the job site. If a safety hazard that cannot
be eliminated has been identified during the initial site visit, this item must be addressed in
the Installation Supervisor’s Site Safety Plan.
4) Recover from the Accident
All installations are required to have the Emergency Response Plan on-site. This plan
includes a general outline of what to do in the case of an emergency, communication
protocol, and how to respond to safety hazards.
WHAT DOES A SITE SAFETY PLAN LOOK LIKE?
FALL PROTECTION PLAN MARKED UP ON A COPY OF SITE PLANS INCLUDING FALL
PROTECTION EQUIPMENT TYPES AND QUANTITIES AND ANY ADDITIONAL JOB HAZARDS AND
RESPECTIVE HAZARD CONTROLS.
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Emergency Response Plan
Standard Emergency Procedures
The Installation Supervisor is required to
A PRINTED COPY OF THE EMERGENCY
provide the Emergency Response Plan along
RESPONSE PLAN INCLUDING HOSPITAL
with hospital directions on-site for each
DIRECTIONS IS REQUIRED ON EVERY SITE.
installation. At the beginning of every
A PRINTABLE COPY OF THE EMERGENCY
installation, it is the responsibility of the
RESPONSE PLAN CAN BE FOUND IN
Installation Supervisor to communicate to the
APPENDIX C.
volunteer workers the basic items stated in
the Emergency Response Plan. Volunteer
workers should have a general understanding of how to react and what resources are available
in the event of an accident. In the event that the Installation Supervisor is incapacitated, an
already predetermined trained individual,
either a Team Leader or staff member, shall
VOLUNTEERS MUST KNOW WHERE TO FIND
THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN ON SITE.
take on the responsibility of implementing the
Emergency Response Plan. Please see
Appendix C for a printable version of the Emergency Response Plan. The following is a general
outline of required steps to be taken in the event of an accident during an installation:
1) Provide Proper Medical Treatment
When an accident has occurred on the site, it is critical to stop all work and first ensure
the safety of those individuals involved in the incident. Depending on the severity of the
accident, the Installation Supervisor
must act accordingly by treating the
IN THE EVENT THAT THE INSTALLATION
injured individuals with first aid,
SUPERVISOR IS INCAPACITATED, AN
arranging the transport of the
ALREADY PREDETERMINED TRAINED
individuals to an appropriate medical
INDIVIDUAL, EITHER A TEAM LEADER OR
facility, or contacting 911 immediately.
STAFF MEMBER, TAKES ON THE
2) Correct the Safety Hazard
RESPONSIBILITY OF IMPLEMENTING THE
As soon as it is practical to do so, the
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN.
Installation Supervisor must work to
remove or eliminate any remaining safety hazards involved in the accident scene.
Caution must be exercised while dealing with any continuing safety threats. If the site is
evaluated to be unsafe, all individuals must evacuate the job site and a qualified
technician must be contacted to clear the area of the identified safety hazard.
3) Notify the Essential Organization Personnel & Emergency Contacts
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For any incident involving more than basic first aid, call down the phone list until
someone is reached and notify them to contact the others on the list:
i) Regional/Executive Director
ii) Human Resources
iii) Founders
iv) Depending on the level of severity of the accident, the emergency contact of the
injured individuals should also be contacted with the location of the hospital, etc.
4) Preserve the Accident Scene for Investigation
It is the responsibility of the Installation Supervisor to document the scene of the
accident and the implicated safety hazards to the best of his/her ability once the
emergency has passed. Proper documentation protocol includes photos, video, and
volunteer worker testimony.
5) Submit Appropriate Accident Report Forms to Human Resources Immediately
As stated under “Accident and Injury Reporting,” Supervisors must document all
accidents by means of the “OSHA Form 301 Injury and Illness Incident Report” and the
“Witness Report Form.” These forms must be promptly filled out and submitted to the
Regional/Executive Director, Katie Kerr, and Tim Sears
within 5 calendar days.
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Special Site Conditions
Depending on the location of the site, some installation crews may be subject to additional
safety hazards including natural disasters, severe weather, and internal community threats. The
following addresses several specific emergency scenarios and what measures can be taken to
effectively respond to the given situation.
Damp or Wet Site
No volunteers on the roof when it is raining. Installation Supervisors and authorized Team
Leaders may stay on the roof to close junction boxes and make the roof weather-tight. Extra
caution should be used on damp or wet roofs as well as ladders and wet areas around electrical
equipment.
Thunder and Lightning
No one shall work outside if thunder or lightning are observed. No outside work until 30
minutes has passed since last observed thunder or lightning.
Natural Disasters (Fire, Earthquake, Severe Storm, Wind, etc.)
In the event of a natural disaster, the following steps can be taken to effectively respond to the
episode:
1) Stop Work Immediately
Any volunteers and staff working on the roof should immediately return to the ground and
gather in a safe place away from any structures and power lines. All instruction dispensed
by the Installation Supervisor must be followed.
2) Follow Instructions as Outlined in the Standard Emergency Response Plan
Every work site is required to have a written Emergency Response Plan detailing how to
respond in the case of an emergency. As with any accident, implement the response
protocol as relevant to the situation.
3) Evaluate the Safety and Security of the Site
Based on the level of severity of the event, the Installation Supervisor will decide to either
cancel the installation or continue working if the site is deemed safe.
Extreme Heat
Sunburn and dehydration represent our most common and immediate risks. GRID Alternatives
provides resources and suggestions that encourage workers to protect themselves from the
potential effects of extreme heat. Workers are advised to wear light-colored clothing that is
loose fitting, protect their skin from the sun through the application of sunscreen, drink plenty
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of water before and throughout the installation process, as well as take breaks frequently to
prevent exhaustion. It is the responsibility of the Installation Supervisor to ensure that ample
water is provided on every installation. Installation Supervisors cannot rely on the homeowner
to provide ample water for volunteers. Additionally, Installation Supervisors are responsible for
seeing that a shading device (pop-up canopy) is available and definitely erected if there is not
sufficient shading provided on site.
For moderate activity, at least one pint
(two 8-oz cups) of water per hour is needed
to maintain good hydration. For heavy
exertion in hot weather, a minimum of one
quart (four 8-oz cups) per hour is
recommended. Avoid substituting water
with soft drinks, coffee, or other drinks
containing caffeine or sugar.
IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE INSTALLATION
SUPERVISOR TO ENSURE THAT AMPLE WATER IS
PROVIDED ON EVERY INSTALLATION.
INSTALLATION SUPERVISORS CANNOT RELY ON
THE HOMEOWNER TO PROVIDE WATER FOR
VOLUNTEERS.
Heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke are conditions caused by exposure to heat and
the loss of fluids and electrolytes. Symptoms of heat exhaustion include clammy, pale skin,
headache, dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. In the event that a worker has become exposed to
heat exhaustion, the following steps must be taken to respond to the affected individual:
1) Evaluate if Immediate Medical Attention is Required
If the affected individual is unconscious, disoriented, has high body temperature, or is
experiencing difficulty breathing, call 911 immediately.
2) Lower Body Temperature
The affected individual should be placed in a cool, shaded environment immediately.
Apply cool water to the individual.
3) Rehydrate
Provide the individual with hydrating fluids.
4) Rest
The affected individual should refrain from working for the remainder of the installation.
Provide the individual with over the counter pain reliever if experiencing a mild
headache.
5) Connect with Emergency Contact if Symptoms Persist
If symptoms get worse or last for over an hour, call the affected individual’s emergency
contact and advise that the individual see a health care provider.
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Threat of Violence
Due to the nature of GRID Alternatives’ work, installation crews have the potential of being
witness to internal community violence. In the event of an act of neighborhood violence, the
following steps can be taken to respond to the situation:
1) Remain Calm
It is the responsibility of the Installation Supervisor to remain calm and composed in the
event of a violent threat. The Installation Supervisor should advise the worker crew on
an appropriate line of action in a manner that encourages a quick response without
creating panic.
2) Stop Work Immediately
The Installation Supervisor should instruct all workers to stop work even if the
installation is incomplete. In the event of a violent threat, worker crew safety must be
prioritized over job completion.
3) Get to a Safe Place Isolated from the Violence
The Installation Supervisor must direct all worker crew members into a safe and secure
location. Roof crew should immediately descend from the roof. In the event of gun
violence, ground crew members should immediately fall to the ground to avoid
potential contact with harmful elements.
4) Evaluate the Severity of the Situation
The Installation Supervisor should exercise his/her best judgment in determining on
what level the event could potentially impact the worker crew. Stay aware and alert of
the surrounding environment. If the area becomes a crime scene, work must be stopped
for the remainder of the day.
5) Contact Law Enforcement Officials
If not already contacted, GRID Alternatives strongly encourages the Installation Supervisor to
call law enforcement officials to report the incident. If the Installation Supervisor chooses to
contact law enforcement officials, it is important for him/her to do so in a private space to
prevent community members from identifying who reported the incident, keeping the
reporter’s identity anonymous.
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Accident and Injury Reporting
Importance of Reporting All Incidents
As compliant with OSHA safety standards, GRID Alternatives requires that all major accidents
and injuries be documented utilizing the appropriate forms identified below. 2 Additionally,
accidents that are resolved on site with basic first aid as well as close calls and near misses
should be reported. By reporting workplace
injuries, GRID Alternatives can identify how
RECOGNIZING AND REPORTING NEAR MISS
INCIDENTS CAN SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE
certain risks arise and how they can be
WORKER SAFETY AND ENHANCE GRID
prevented in the future. In effect, reporting
ALTERNATIVES SAFETY CULTURE.
workplace injuries makes GRID Alternatives a
safer place to work.
Standard Reporting Procedures
For any major injuries, the Installation Supervisor must use the following two forms to
document the incident:
1) “OSHA Form 301 Injury and Illness Incident Report”
This replaces the previous Incident Report Form. Note "volunteer" where the form
states "employee" if applicable.
2) “Witness Report Form”
This form can also be used to document property damage.
These forms can be found in the following location on the server:
"O:\OSHA & Safety\Incident Report Forms - Shortcut.lnk"
GRID Alternatives safety policy requires that hard copies of these forms be available on site so
as to promptly document any accident or injury. All non-fatal accidents or injuries must be
documented and reported within 5 calendar days of the event to the Regional/Executive
Director, Katie Kerr, and Tim Sears.
As per OSHA requirements, any accidents
resulting in the death of a worker must be
ALL NON-FATAL ACCIDENTS OR INJURIES
MUST BE DOCUMENTED AND REPORTED
reported to OSHA within 8 hours of the
WITHIN 5 CALENDAR DAYS OF THE EVENT.
event.3
2
3
29 CFR 1904.7 (a)
29 CFR 1904.39 (a)
15
Open Door Safety Policy
Whenever a GRID Alternatives employee becomes aware of a hazard that may put the safety of
a client, employee, or volunteer at risk, he or she should immediately and directly notify their
Regional/Executive Director, and if that person is unavailable, immediately notify the GRID
Alternatives Chief Operations Officer or Chief Executive Officer. Notification of such a hazard
should be made immediately regardless of time of day or whether the situation presents itself
on a weekend or holiday. Regardless of the immediacy of their nature or resolution, all such
incidents should ultimately be reported to the Chief Operations Officer or Chief Executive
Officer. GRID Alternatives encourages reporting under this policy and will not retaliate against
an employee who in good faith, has made a notification based on a reasonable belief of the
existence of a risk or potential risk concerning the health, safety, or welfare of clients,
employees, volunteers, partners, or other affected persons.
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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
GRID Alternatives Policy on PPE
In order to reduce employee and volunteer exposure to hazards, GRID Alternatives requires the
use of PPE on every job site. Required PPE, as determined by GRID Alternatives, will be paid for
and provided by the employer. As per OSHA
requirements, all equipment must be maintained
REQUIRED PPE ON SITE INCLUDES, BUT IS
in a sanitary and reliable condition.4 Based on a
NOT LIMITED TO, HARD HATS, SAFETY
comprehensive evaluation of site hazards, GRID
GLASSES, GLOVES, AND EAR PROTECTION.
Alternatives has determined the essential PPE to
REGULAR INSPECTIONS AND CLEANING OF
be worn on residential solar installation jobs. This
ALL PPE MUST BE DONE BY THE
PPE includes, but is not limited to, hard hats,
CONSTRUCTION TEAM.
safety glasses, gloves, and ear protection.
IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE
Correctly sized protective equipment must be
CONSTRUCTION MANAGER OR
provided to accommodate all staff and
DESIGNATED CONSTRUCTION STAFF AT
volunteers on the job site. GRID Alternatives
EVERY OFFICE TO ENSURE AMPLE AND
must provide training to staff and volunteers
APPROPRIATE PPE IS AVAILABLE ON EVERY
required to wear PPE in order to ensure that all
INSTALLATION.
workers understand the proper use and
implementation of the protective equipment. Regular inspections and cleaning of the
equipment must be performed.
PPE is designed to protect staff and volunteers from possible workplace hazards and must be
worn at appropriate times to promote worker safety. It is the responsibility of the Construction
Manager or designated construction staff at every office to ensure ample and appropriate PPE
is available on every installation.
Routine PPE Inspection
Having a care and maintenance plan for all PPE is critical in ensuring staff and volunteer safety.
GRID Alternatives construction staff are responsible for reading and understanding all PPE
product literature including the equipment’s service life and limitations. Routine PPE inspection
must be performed by someone who has been properly trained on PPE inspection by using the
PPE Compliance Inspection Form. This form serves as a formal log of GRID Alternatives PPE
quality and quantity. During standard PPE inspection, equipment must be cleaned, replenished,
and replaced as deemed appropriate in order to ensure that GRID Alternatives staff and
4
29 CFR 1910.132 (a)
17
volunteers are provided with quality resources to protect themselves from work site safety
hazards. In order to consistently provide sanitary PPE, alcohol wipes or other sanitizing
resources should be made available on every installation.
First Aid Kit Requirements
GRID Alternatives requires that every job site
IN ORDER TO CONSISTENTLY PROVIDE
be equipped with an adequate first aid kit that
SANITARY PPE, ALCOHOL WIPES OR OTHER
can be easily accessed by all staff and
SANITIZING RESOURCES MUST BE MADE
volunteers. It is the responsibility of the
AVAILABLE ON EVERY INSTALLATION.
employer to supply each work crew with first
aid resources, and the responsibility of the
Installation Supervisor to ensure that a first aid kit is ready and accessible on the day of the
installation. Based on OSHA standards, GRID Alternatives’ minimum first aid kit requirements
include the following for work sites consisting of approximately 12 people5:




Twelve gauze pads (at least 4 x 4 inches)
Eight large gauze pads (at least 8 x 10 inches)
Box adhesive bandages (Band-Aids)
Four packages gauze roller bandage at least 2 inches wide


Eight triangular bandages
Wound cleaning agent such as sealed moistened towels

Scissors




At least one blanket
Tweezers
Adhesive tape
Latex gloves



Resuscitation equipment such as resuscitation bag, airway, or pocket mask
Eight elastic wraps
Splint

Directions for requesting emergency assistance
Hard Hats
In accordance with GRID Alternatives head protection policy, hard hats are required to be worn
at all times on the job site. This requirement applies to both ground and roof work crews as
well as homeowners, staff, and any on-site guests. Upon arrival at a GRID Alternatives
5
29 CFR 1910.266 App A
18
installation site, staff and volunteers must put on hard hats immediately. Hard hats are to be
worn throughout the entire duration of the installation and are the last items to be put away at
the end of the work day. Appropriate signage
must be visible to encourage, promote, and
HARD HATS MUST BE WORN AT ALL TIMES
remind work crews and site visitors of GRID
THROUGHOUT THE INSTALLATION BY
Alternatives work site hard hat policy. It is the
STAFF, VOLUNTEERS, HOMEOWNERS, AND
responsibility of each office to purchase proper
ANY GUESTS ON SITE.
hard hat signage. Hard hats must be Class E rated
which provide high voltage electrical protection.
Safety Glasses
GRID Alternatives strongly encourages the use of safety glasses at all times on the work site.
Ample safety glasses must be provided on every installation work site to accommodate all staff
and volunteers. Best practice is to provide all
workers with properly rated safety glasses to
SUNGLASSES AND EYEGLASSES ARE NOT
ensure accessibility and encourage use.
PERMITTED FOR USE AS SAFETY GLASSES
Safety glasses are always required when staff
UNLESS ANSI Z87.1 RATED.
or volunteers are either utilizing, or adjacent
to another individual utilizing, power tools
such as drills, impact wrenches, and the
band-saw. All workers must use safety glasses that are ANSI Z87.1 rated.6 Unless rated to ANSI
Z87.1 standards, sunglasses and eyeglasses are not permitted for use as safety glasses. While
utilizing power tools, GRID Alternatives staff or volunteers may be exposed to hazardous flying
debris that can come into contact with the eyes.
Gloves
GRID Alternatives requires the use of protective gloves whenever handling flashings or other
sharp objects, shingle or other abrasive objects, lumber, and during a wire or rope pull. Best
practice is to provide all workers with gloves to ensure accessibility and encourage use. Palm
coated gloves allow for dexterity and grip
while also providing protection.
GLOVES ARE REQUIRED WHENEVER HANDLING
SHARP OR ROUGH OBJECTS, LUMBER, AND
DURING WIRE AND ROPE PULLS.
6
Ear Protection
GRID Alternatives requires that short term
exposure to excessive noise levels be
prevented through the use of appropriate ear
29 CFR 1910.133 (b) (1)
19
protection equipment. Single-use earplugs or earmuffs must be ready and available on every
job site for workers utilizing noise-intensive power tools, such as the band-saw or sawzall.
Working in Confined Spaces
GRID Alternatives requires the use of the following PPE in order to prevent the potential
exposure to harmful elements often found in unfinished attics and crawl spaces: hard hat,
safety glasses, gloves, respirator, and coverall. These confined spaces can contain cancercausing chemicals such as fiberglass and asbestos
as well as infection-inducing elements such as
HARD HAT, SAFETY GLASSES, GLOVES,
vermin droppings and molds. It is critical that all
RESPIRATOR, AND COVERALL MUST BE
required PPE be worn while conducting attic and
WORN WHILE CONDUCTING WORK IN
crawl space work in order to protect worker
CONFINED SPACES.
health and safety.
Fire Extinguishers
GRID Alternatives requires that appropriate fire extinguishers be kept available on every job
site. Fire extinguishers are rated to combat specific categories of fires. Fire extinguishers with
multiple category ratings are common and available for purchase. It is important to purchase
and utilize fire extinguishers for their intended purpose:

Class A extinguishers are for ordinary combustibles such as paper, cardboard, scrap, etc.

Class B extinguishers are for fires involving flammable or combustible liquids such as gas
or kerosene.

Class C extinguishers are for electrical fires.
20
Hand and Power Tools
General Requirements
GRID Alternatives is responsible for furnishing hand tools and power-operated hand tools that
are in adequate and working condition during each installation. Hazards associated with hand
and power tool use can easily be prevented by taking basic safety precautions. Tools should
regularly be maintained and always kept in good condition. During installations, it is ultimately
the responsibility of the Installation Supervisor to oversee the proper use of hand and power
tools. Similarly, Team Leaders should be properly trained on tool use and possess the expertise
to oversee and guide volunteers in appropriate tool use.
Hand Tools
Non-powered hand tools can potentially pose safety hazards if not used for their intended
purpose or not properly maintained. The following OSHA regulations on proper hand tool use
can be applied to tools specific to GRID Alternatives solar installations7:

Tools with wooden handles exhibiting splinters, cracks, or loose joints are strictly
prohibited as they have the potential to break down during use causing splinters, cuts,
or the head of the handle to detach and strike a worker.

Wrenches possessing weakened or sprung jaws are considered defective and must not
be used as the tool can easily slip during use causing injuries ranging from minor scrapes
and cuts to serious falls.

In general, the use of tools in a manner which they are not intended for is prohibited
since this can cause the tool to break or otherwise perform in a way that can adversely
affect the safety of workers.

Tools that are not in adequate condition must be removed, eliminated, or restored as
they can potentially cause harm to workers. For example, dull tools or blades must be
reconditioned, sharpened, or replaced immediately.
Power-operated Hand Tools
WHEN USING POWER TOOLS, BEST
GRID Alternatives requires that extreme
PRACTICE IS TO ALWAYS OPERATE TOOL
caution be exercised during both the training
USING TWO HANDS.
of power tool use and the general use of
power tools on every job site. Installation
Supervisors and Team Leaders must always stay aware of volunteer power tool use as every
volunteer may have a different level of experience in using the respective tool. The following
7
29 CFR 1926.301
21
are general OSHA recommendations on how to safely operate and control the use of power
tools on the job site8:
8

Volunteers observing the use of any power tool must keep themselves at a safe distance
from the work area and/or wear safety glasses.

Any materials being cut by the band-saw should be secured with clamps or a vise, or be
otherwise properly supported, in order to safely operate the tool with two hands and
avoid inadvertently damaging the tool during use.

The high torque created by power drills can injure wrists when tightening screws if
handling the drill with one hand.
Adjust the torque settings on the drill
TOOLS BEING POWERED DIRECTLY BY AN
ELECTRICAL SOURCE MUST USE A GROUND
so that it “breaks” before twisting.

FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER.
Appropriate clothing must be worn,
hair must be tied back, and all jewelry
must be removed in order to prevent loose articles from catching in the power tool.

Use well charged batteries for any cordless tools. Tools can be dangerous when
operated on low batteries since they tend to catch on hardware; this is especially true
with a cordless reciprocating saw when cutting conduit.

Power tools must always be disconnected either by means of unplugging from the main
electrical source or by battery removal before servicing. The power source of the tool
must be removed in order to safely change out any blades.

Tools being powered directly by an electrical source must use a ground fault circuit
interrupter.

Tools should not be powered unless being used for the intended job.

Power tool cords should never be abused in any way such as carrying the tool by the
cord, yanking the plugged-in cord from an outlet, or manipulating the cord in any other
way that may compromise its integrity.

Any power tools or extension cords that are damaged or defective must be removed
from the work site and tagged “Do not use.”
U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA Office of Training and Education, “Hand & Power Tools”
22
Site Tool Management
All tools should be handled with care in
a safe and secure manner on the job
site. The following are best practices
that should be implemented on the job
site in regards to tool management:
TRANSPORT TOOLS TO THE ROOF BY MEANS OF A
ROPED BUCKET OR THREE PERSON HAND-OFF.

Transport tools to the roof by means of roped tool buckets or bags to allow workers to
climb ladders without tools in their hand, to prevent worker injuries, and to help
preserve tools in good condition. Alternatively for single-story installations, implement a
hand-off system of 3 workers-one roof, one ladder, one ground-to safely transport tools
up and down the ladder.

Tool bags and buckets should always be secured to prevent tools from spilling out.
23
Fall Protection
Overview
GRID Alternatives is dedicated to implementing safe practices to prevent falls during the
installation process. GRID Alternatives staff must be properly trained on recognizing the
potential hazards of working on residential roofs with volunteers in order to avoid falls on the
job. GRID Alternatives staff must also be trained in the proper use of fall protection systems and
equipment. Staff must be advised that different fall protection regulations and standards apply
as contingent on the purpose of site work: site survey, installation, inspection, and
maintenance. These regulations and requirements are stated within and must be followed in
accordance with GRID Alternatives safety policy on fall protection.
General Site Survey and Inspection Policy
As per OSHA fall protection standards, no fall protection is required during the initial precontract site survey visit when GRID Alternatives staff evaluates the site. Similarly, fall
protection is not required during the inspection of the system. Any evaluations or inspections
undergone on the site prior to the installation or after the installation is complete do not
require fall protection systems to be in place.9 However, GRID Alternatives mandates that
extreme caution be exercised while staff
conduct themselves at any height, although
BEST PRACTICE IS TO INSPECT THE ROOF
fall protection systems may not be required.
STRUCTURE FROM THE ATTIC FIRST TO
Best practice is to inspect the roof structure
VERIFY SUPPORT AND IDENTIFY ANY ROT
from the attic first to verify support and
OR TERMITE DAMAGE. DO NOT GET ON
ANY ROOFS THAT ARE SUSPECTED TO NOT
identify any rot or termite damage. Do not
BE STRUCTURALLY SOUND OR SAFE.
get on any roofs that are suspected to not
be structurally sound or safe.
If the Site Supervisor does not feel safe or comfortable working on a roof with extreme pitch
(greater than 6:12) without fall protection, do not do so! Measurements and photos can be
taken from the ladder or ground.
Steep Roofs
The following equipment can be utilized to help prevent falls when conducting site visits
without fall protection or to install or remove fall protection on steep roofs:
Chicken Ladder System
Chicken ladders hook to the peak of the roof and aid in climbing steep roofs. Chicken ladders
9
29 CFR 1926.500 (a) (1)
24
serve as a means to increase a worker's safety while installing or removing fall protection but
are never a means for an effective fall protection plan. Never use chicken ladders as an
anchorage point as the equipment is not designed or rated to serve this purpose. For further
resources on chicken ladder purchasing, please refer to the following:
Acro Building Systems Chicken Ladder #11601 and #11610
100% Fall Protection Policy
For installation, clean-up work, maintenance, and troubleshooting, GRID Alternatives enforces a
100% fall protection policy. In accordance with OSHA fall protection safety standards, GRID
Alternatives requires that fall protection systems
be implemented when any work is being
GRID ENFORCES A 100% FALL PROTECTION
conducted at or above 6 feet, or if staff and
POLICY FOR INSTALLATION, CLEAN-UP
WORK, MAINTENANCE, AND
volunteers are in danger of falling into hazardous
TROUBLESHOOTING.
equipment.10 11 Upon arrival at the site, the
Installation Supervisor is responsible for installing
the appropriate fall protection system. In the best interests of volunteer safety, no volunteers
are allowed on the roof top until a proper fall protection system is installed and secured by the
Installation Supervisor or an authorized Team Leader.
Equipment Inspection Protocol
Checking and maintaining all fall protection-related equipment and devices is critical in
preserving staff and volunteer safety. Using the equipment product’s literature as a reference
guide, staff must routinely monitor the integrity of fall protection devices. Best practice to
ensure regular equipment inspection is for the Site Supervisor to integrate the inspection into
morning installation protocol by engaging volunteers in the process. Regular inspections of the
equipment must be performed by construction staff.
The following are general equipment control points
NO VOLUNTEERS ARE ALLOWED ON THE
for fall protection utilized on GRID Alternatives
ROOF TOP UNTIL A PROPER FALL
installations:
PROTECTION SYSTEM IS INSTALLED AND
SECURED BY THE INSTALLATION
SUPERVISOR OR AN AUTHORIZED TEAM
LEADER.
10
11
29 CFR 1926.501 (b) (1)
29 CFR 1926.501 (b) (8) (i)
25
Body Harnesses
Webbing, D-rings, buckles, and grommets must all be inspected upon use during every
installation. Key items to look for include damage to the fiber and metal components of the
harness. Any harness with unusual and excessive wear and tear must be replaced by a harness
of fair quality.
Lanyards
The primary items to examine for all types of lanyards
include the metal snap hook and thimble. Carefully check
all metal for any cracks, corrosion, or other damage. The
latch on the snap hook must fit into place, firmly closing
and locking into place. Check that the thimble and splice
are secured together and no excessive wear and tear is
present on the splice. All lanyard webbing and fiber must
be thoroughly examined for deterioration.
Self-Retracting Lifelines
BEST PRACTICE TO ENSURE
REGULAR FALL PROTECTION
EQUIPMENT INSPECTION IS
FOR THE SITE SUPERVISOR TO
INTEGRATE THE INSPECTION
INTO MORNING
INSTALLATION PROTOCOL BY
ENGAGING VOLUNTEERS IN
THE PROCESS.
Several components must be checked when examining
self-retracting lifeline devices including the frame, retraction, braking, and snap hook. The
frame of the device must be intact, free of cracks and damage. The device’s retraction and
braking mechanisms must be in working order and all webbing must be in a state that does not
affect the integrity of the retraction and braking mechanisms.
All equipment should be properly maintained and stored in clean, dry space. Please refer to fall
protection product literature for specific equipment control instructions.
Roof Types and Fall Protection Requirements
GRID Alternatives installation staff must be prepared to implement proper fall protection
systems based on the roof type present on the site. Roof structure, pitch, and other job site
factors can affect the type of fall protection required to ensure staff and volunteer safety. The
following are different roof categories with respective fall protection requirements listed
within:
Flat Roofs
As per OSHA standards regarding walking-working surfaces, GRID Alternatives requires that
staff and volunteers working on any open–sided surface six feet above ground must be
protected by means of guardrails OR a personal fall arrest system.12
12
29 CFR 1926.501 (a) (1)
26
Flat Roofs with Parapets
In accordance with OSHA fall protection standards, when GRID Alternatives staff and volunteers
are working on flat roofs that include a low protective wall that is less than 39 inches in height,
a guardrail system must be installed or a personal fall arrest device must be utilized.13
Low-Slope and Steep Slope Roofs
While working on any sloped roof, GRID
Alternatives requires the use of guardrail systems
with toe boards or personal fall arrest systems.14
FLAT ROOFS WITH PARAPET WALLS LESS
THAN 39 INCHES IN HEIGHT MUST
IMPLEMENT A FALL PROTECTION SYSTEM.
Personal Fall Arrest Systems
In order to ensure staff and volunteer safety, GRID Alternatives requires the use of personal fall
arrest systems for all roof top workers during the installation process unless otherwise
protected by an alternative fall protection system. GRID Alternatives utilizes the following
personal fall arrest system components: body harnesses, lanyards, self-retracting lifelines,
anchors, and connectors. Each component works together to satisfy OSHA personal fall arrest
system requirements. As per OSHA requirements, personal fall arrest systems must achieve the
following:
(1) Completely halt the fall of the worker.
WHEN IMPLEMENTING A PERSONAL FALL
ARREST SYSTEM, WORKERS MUST BE
HOOKED INTO A LIFELINE WHEN
TRANSITIONING ON AND OFF THE ROOF AT
THE TOP OF THE LADDER.
(2) Not allow a worker to free fall for more than
6 feet.
(3) Be capable of arresting a force up to 1,800
pounds.
(4) Not allow the deceleration distance of the
fall to exceed 3 1/2 feet.
(5) Possess the structural integrity to support a worker falling 6 feet.15
When implementing a personal fall arrest system on site, GRID Alternatives requires that
workers be anchored and secured to a lifeline before getting off the ladder. Best practice for
implementing this requirement includes installing an anchor and self-retracting lifeline near the
top of the ladder. The most vulnerable position for a volunteer to fall is during the ladder/roof
transition. By installing and implementing a personal fall arrest device near the top of the
13
29 CFR 1926.502(b)(1)
29 CFR 1926.501 (b) (10) (11)
15
29 CFR 1926.502 (d)
14
27
ladder, this adds a heightened sense of security for volunteer workers as well as secures the
individual in the case of a fall when mounting or descending from the roof.
Body Harnesses
Body harnesses are designed to work in conjunction with lanyards, self-retracting lifelines,
anchors, and connectors to arrest workers in the event of a fall. When properly implemented,
body harnesses will secure the worker during a fall, distributing the force of the fall through the
thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders. In order to safely and effectively utilize the body
harness, GRID Alternatives construction staff are required to read and understand their
respective harness instruction manual as well as guide volunteers on proper use of the body
harness. Appropriate harness sizing and fit is critical to the proper implementation of a personal
fall arrest system. GRID Alternatives construction staff are responsible for seeing that a wide
range of harness sizes are always available on installations and checking that volunteers are
fitted for a suitable harness. The harness should fit snugly so that it is not displaced when under
tension and can properly support the body in the event of a fall. A loose harness may not work
as intended. Best practice is for the Installation Supervisor to possess a personal body harness
that is comfortable when custom fitted.
Lanyards
On GRID Alternatives installations, lanyards serve as a flexible line of rope that connect a
worker between the body harness and an anchorage point. The stretch in a lanyard works to
absorb the shock of a sudden stop in the event of a fall. OSHA requires that lanyards have a
minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds and be kept clear from items that could cut or
otherwise affect the rope’s webbing.16 To ensure proper use of lanyards, GRID Alternatives
construction staff are required to read and understand the lanyard’s instruction manual and
enforce the lanyard’s proper use on all installations.
Shock-absorbing Lanyards
GRID ALTERNATIVES CONSTRUCTION STAFF
ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR SEEING THAT A
WIDE RANGE OF HARNESS SIZES ARE
ALWAYS AVAILABLE ON INSTALLATIONS
AND CHECKING THAT VOLUNTEERS ARE
FITTED FOR A SUITABLE HARNESS.
Shock-absorbing lanyards specifically serve as a
means to reduce the impact of a fall by
extending no more than 3 ½ feet to absorb the
arrest force as per OSHA personal fall arrest
system requirements.17 OSHA specifications
require that the arrest force be limited to 1,800
pounds but shock-absorbing lanyards can limit the arrest force to as little as 900 pounds.18 The
16
29 CFR 1926.502 (d) (9)
29 CFR 1926.(d) (16) (iv)
18
29 CFR 1926.502 (d) (16) (ii)
17
28
total distance of a possible fall must always be evaluated when implementing shock-absorbing
lanyards on site. This estimate can be calculated by evaluating the following:
Example: Determining Total Fall Distance with a Shock-absorbing Lanyard
EXAMPLE TOTAL FALL DISTANCE
Lanyard Length + Deceleration Distance +
Worker’s Height + Safety Margin
=
Max Distance to Lower Level
Self-Retracting Lifelines
Self-retracting lifelines (also known as yo-yo’s) are cased deceleration devices that are secured
between an anchorage point and a worker’s body harness. The cased device contains a cord
that extends and retracts to simultaneously allow for a free range of motion while working but
also locks in place if under tension to keep workers secured as well as arrest a fall. Like
lanyards, self-retracting lifelines must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.19
During installations, construction staff and volunteers must exercise caution to avoid crossing
lines as this presents a safety hazard.
Standard metal cable used in some retractable lifelines can damage PV module frames and may
increase shock hazard. However, synthetic webbing used in other retractable lifelines may not
be durable enough for use on abrasive asphalt-shingle roofs or against racking and module
edges. Custom retractable lifelines can be ordered with a protective coating over the metal
cable which provides a nonconductive layer.
19
29 CFR 1915.159 (b) (4)
29
Anchors
GRID Alternatives uses multiple anchor types throughout our offices to secure lanyards and
self-retracting lifelines. In securing anchors to the roof it is critical that the fasteners pass
through the initial layers of roofing material and into the actual support structure. Upon each
installation, new fasteners should be utilized to secure down the anchors. If anchors are
modified or not installed correctly, rendering the anchor ineffective, this may compromise the
safety and security of the worker utilizing the anchor in the event of a fall. OSHA requires that
the anchor’s attachment point possess the structural capacity to support 5,000 pounds.20 One
anchor must be installed for each anticipated
roof worker including the Installation Supervisor
ONE ANCHOR MUST BE INSTALLED FOR
and Team Leader so that there is only one
EACH ANTICIPATED ROOF WORKER
INCLUDING THE INSTALLATION
worker to an anchor point at a time. The
SUPERVISOR AND TEAM LEADER SO THAT
following highlights some anchor types seen in
THERE IS ONLY ONE WORKER TO AN
the field and their respective specifications:
ANCHOR POINT AT A TIME.
Miller RA 35-1 Roof Anchors (Recommended)
Miller RA 35-1 roof anchors are strictly designed for use by only one person and rated
for a maximum capacity of 310 pounds. Anchors must be secured to the identified roof
member (rafter or truss) by means of three 1/4” x 2-1/2” lag screws or six 16d nails as
per the manufacturer’s instructions.21
Permanent Anchors
Permanent anchors are a good choice particularly for new construction where they can be
properly flashed and waterproofed. These anchors remain in place ready for use on future
site visits.
Connectors
Connectors are the critical attachment points between different personal fall arrest system
components. GRID Alternatives uses connectors that are already integrated into fall arrest
system devices such as D-rings in harnesses, snap-hooks spliced or sewn into lanyards or selfretracting lifelines, and O-rings on anchors. As per OSHA requirements, both D-rings and snaphooks must have a minimum tensile strength of 5,000 pounds.22 All snap-hooks must be
designed to lock into place in order to prevent disconnection from the system. Unless designed
for such use, snap-hooks must never be connected:
20
29 CFR 1915.159 (a) (9)
“Miller by Honeywell: Temporary Roof Anchors & Roofing Fall Protection System Kits: User Instruction Manual”
22
29 CFR 1915.159(a)(3)
21
30
(1) Directly to webbing, rope, or wire.
(2) To each other.
(3) To a D-ring to which another snap-hook or connector is attached.
(4) To a horizontal lifeline.
(5) To any object which is incompatibly shaped in relation to the snap-hook such that the
connected object could depress the snap-hook keeper and release itself.23
Guardrail Systems
Depending on the job site evaluation, guardrail systems may be used in lieu of a personal fall
arrest system. Guardrail systems are passive systems that once installed, do not require much
worker awareness or participation. They allow for freer range of movement and minimal roof
surface penetrations. General OSHA guardrail requirements and guidelines enforced by GRID
Alternatives include the following unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer24:


Guardrails must be installed on all fall edges where people will be working.
The top of the guardrail must be between 39 and 45 inches above the surface of the
edge of the roof.

A mid rail must be installed in between the edge of the roof and the top of the guardrail
at a height of no less than 21 inches.

All supporting rail posts should be at intervals not exceeding 8 feet.25


Gaps between guardrail end posts must not exceed 19 inches.
When toe boards are required, they must possess a minimum height of 4 inches and
securely attach to the implicated platform. 26


The guardrail must possess the structural integrity to support 200 pounds of force
without deflecting the rails in place.
The mid rail must possess the structural integrity to support 150 pounds of force.

Guardrail systems must structurally be free of any potential safety hazards.
Based on the type of overhanging roof structure, an appropriate guardrail system must be
installed in order to ensure staff and volunteer safety as well as minimize the amount of wear
and tear the installation process imposes on the client’s home. The following is a list of
guardrail product recommendations based on the type of overhanging roof structures or eaves:
23
29 CFR 1926.502 (d) (1)
29 CFR 1926.501 (b) (1)
25
29 CFR 1926 Subpart M Appendix B
26
29 CFR 1910.23 (e) (4)
24
31
Eaves with Gutters: HUGS Model
Product
HUGS One LLC:
Mini HUG: Product #HB1002
Detachable Stanchion: Product #ST42
Hawaii Bracket 2 x 4: Product #H24
Stanchion Clip: Product #ST42 Clip
Eaves without Gutters: HUGS Model
Product
HUGS One LLC:
HUG: Product # HB1001
Detachable Stanchion: Product #ST42
Hawaii Bracket 2 x 4: Product #H24
Stanchion Clip: Product #ST42 Clip
Eaves without Gutters and with Fascia, Gable Ends/Rakes with Fascia: Red HUGS “RUGS”
Product
Fall Protection Guardrail Systems LLC:
Roof C-Clamp: Product #RCC120
32
Eaves with Covered Soffits or Gable Ends/Rakes without Fascia and Minimal Overhang:
Ground or Surface Mounted Rails
Product
HUGS One LLC:
Ground HUG Kit: Product #GH1002
Ground HUG kit is conducive to heights from 2’4”to 12’4”:


(2) 72” Extensions: Product # E72
(1) 42” Detachable Stanchion: Product #ST42

(1) Wall Arm Bracket: Product #WAB1001

(1) Ground Mounted Bracket: Product #GMB1001
Edge Bracket: Product #EMB1001
Product
HUGS One LLC:
Stanchion HUG: Product #SH1001
Product
Fall Protection Guardrail Systems LLC:
Basic Rail System: Product #BR100
33
Scaffolding
GRID Alternatives permits the use of scaffolding as an acceptable means for a fall protection
system assuming that the scaffolds are properly erected with appropriate guardrails in place.
The following outlines the appropriate use and erection of scaffolding as an effective fall
protection system.
General Requirements
In order to securely construct the scaffolding system, the Installation Supervisor must adhere to
the following guidelines:

Footing or anchorage must be secured in a way that does not compromise the scaffold’s
structural integrity; no unstable items can be used to support the scaffold. Use
adequate sills as a foundation for the scaffold and securely fasten base plates to sill with
screws or nails.

Once an initial scaffold level has been constructed, the system should be plumbed and
leveled to enhance structural security.

The GRID Alternatives Installation Supervisor is responsible for overseeing any erection,
moving, or dismantling of the scaffolding system.
Any scaffolding system erected 10 feet or more above ground is required to have both
guardrails and toe boards
installed on all open sides and
USE ADEQUATE SILLS AS A FOUNDATION FOR
ends of the platform.27 28
THE SCAFFOLD AND SECURELY FASTEN BASE


Any scaffolding system erected
PLATES TO SILL WITH SCREWS OR NAILS.
between 4 and 10 feet above
ground is required to have guardrails installed on all open sides and ends of the
platform except where a ladder may be attached. Additionally, toe boards are required
if workers will be passing beneath the open sides.29

All platforms must be completely secured to prevent displacement; Planks can be
cleated, restrained by hooks, or overlapped by 12 inches with the platform extended at
least 6 inches over the centerline of the support.30

An appropriate and secured ladder must be provided to safely access the top of the
scaffold. 31

For scaffolds with a height to base width ratio of more than four to one (4:1), guys, ties,
27
29 CFR 1926.451 (g) (1)
29 CFR 1926.451 (h) (2) (ii)
29
29 CFR 1910.23 (c) (1)
30
29 CFR 1926.451 (b) (4)
31
29 CFR 1910.28 (a) (12)
28
34
or braces shall be installed according to the scaffold manufacturer’s recommendations
or at the closest horizontal member to the 4:1 height and be repeated vertically at
locations of horizontal members every 20 feet or less for scaffolds 3 feet wide or less,
and every 26 feet or less for scaffolds greater than 3 feet wide. The top guy, tie, or brace
shall be placed no further than the 4:1 height from the top. Such guys, ties, and braces
shall be installed at each end of the scaffold and at horizontal intervals not to exceed 30
feet.32


Defective or damaged scaffolding
equipment must be promptly
removed and tagged for service
or replacement.33
THE USE OF STEPS, STOOLS, OR OTHER
MOUNTING DEVICES ARE STRICTLY PROHIBITED
BETWEEN THE SCAFFOLD PLATFORM AND THE
WORKING EDGE OF THE ROOF.
All guardrails must be installed in
accordance with GRID
Alternatives’ guardrail policy adhering to OSHA guardrail requirements as well as the
manufacturer’s specifications.

The vertical distance between the working edge of the roof and the scaffold platform
must not compromise the ability for a worker to safely dismount the roof onto the
scaffolding system. The use of steps, stools, or other mounting devices are strictly
prohibited between the scaffold platform and the working edge of the roof.

The horizontal distance between the working edge of the roof and the scaffold platform
must be kept to a minimum and not compromise the ability for a worker to safely
dismount the roof onto the scaffolding system.
Warning Lines and Safety Monitoring Systems
During a GRID Alternatives installation, the use of warning lines as a fall protection system is
only permissible on flat roofs and when used in conjunction with a safety monitoring system.
Warning lines must be placed 6 feet away
from the edge of the roof in order to comply
WARNING LINES MUST BE PLACED AT LEAST 6
with OSHA standards and meet the following
FEET AWAY FROM THE EDGE OF THE ROOF IN
ORDER TO COMPLY WITH OSHA STANDARDS.
criteria34:

Be flagged at every 6 feet with high visibility material.


Be rigged so that the line is 34 to 39 inches from the walking/working surface.
Have a minimum tensile strength of 500 pounds. Plastic caution tape supported by
32
29 CFR 1926.451 (c) (1)
29 CFR 1910.28 (a) (6)
34
29 CFR 1926.502 (f)
33
35
traffic cones is not an acceptable
warning line system.

PLASTIC CAUTION TAPE SUPPORTED BY TRAFFIC
CONES IS NOT AN ACCEPTABLE WARNING LINE
SYSTEM.
Be attached to each stanchion so
that the tension on one section
of the line will not cause an adjacent stanchion to tip over. Stanchions must be able to
support a force at least 16 pounds applied horizontally in the direction of the roof edge
without tipping over.
A proper safety monitoring system consists of an active, dedicated competent person (a Team
Leader authorized by the Installation
Supervisor trained in recognizing fall
IT IS REQUIRED THAT WARNING LINE SYSTEMS ARE
hazards) working to prevent fall hazards
USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH A TEAM LEADER
by careful observation and
SERVING AS THE OFFICIAL SAFETY MONITOR
communication with GRID Alternatives
THROUGHOUT THE DURATION OF THE
staff and volunteers.35 The safety
INSTALLATION.
monitor must be on the same working
plane and shall not have other responsibilities that could distract the monitor’s attention from
the monitoring function.
Skylights & Holes
When working on roofs with skylights or holes GRID Alternatives requires that Installation
Supervisors follow the following protocol in order to ensure worker safety when working
around such spaces:

Skylights and holes must be guarded with a skylight screen meeting OSHA criteria or by
erecting a guardrail on all exposed sides of the opening.36

The OSHA compliant skylight screen must be capable of withstanding a force of 200
pounds applied perpendicularly without deflecting in a capacity that could break a glass
below. The screen must consist of a grillwork with openings not exceeding 4 inches long
or slat-work with openings not exceeding 2 inches in width with an unrestricted
length.37
Working in Attics
In order to reduce the risks of falls while conducting work inside attics, GRID Alternatives
requires an initial evaluation of the space to be included as part of the site visit hazard analysis.
35
29 CFR 1926.502 (h) (1)
29 CFR 1910.23(a)(4)
37
29 CFR 1910.23(e)(8)
36
36
The hazard space must be evaluated for the following:
1) Determine if the structural integrity of the truss chords and ceiling joists possess the
capacity to support workers safely.
2) Identify any further fall hazards such as exposed nails, cables, wires, low-hanging rafters
or cross-beams, hot conditions, poor lighting, or truss chords hidden by deep insulation.
If hazards are identified, GRID Alternatives requires that protective measures be taken as
compliant with OSHA rules and regulations regarding fall protection and walking-working
surfaces.
Fall Protection & Rescue Plan
GRID Alternatives requires that a written Fall Protection and Rescue Plan be included in the Site
Safety Plan. A detailed list of fall protection equipment including type and quantity must be
documented as well as a strategic plan that indicates where fall protection equipment will be
installed. In the event of a fall, the following steps can be taken by the Installation Supervisor to
respond effectively to the emergency situation:
1) Call 911 and report the injury and site location.
2) Stop all installation work and ask volunteers not to crowd the injured worker.
3) Evaluate if the emergency situation allows for safe access to the suspended worker
through use of a ladder and appropriate fall protection by the Installation Supervisor.
Rescue ladders should be
immediately accessible. If safe
GRID ALTERNATIVES REQUIRES THAT A WRITTEN
access is not possible, determine
FALL PROTECTION AND RESCUE PLAN BE INCLUDED
how long it will take for a trained
IN THE SITE SAFETY PLAN. THIS INCLUDES A
fire or rescue unit to arrive. If the
DETAILED LIST OF FALL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
rescue team’s response time is
AND A STRATEGIC PLAN THAT INDICATES WHERE
anticipated to be more than 5
FALL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT WILL BE INSTALLED.
minutes, be aware that medical
attention may become necessary. Suspension trauma poses a serious threat on the
implicated victim and immediate rescue of the worker is critical. Trauma relief steps can
aid in self-rescue.
4) Communicate with the worker implicated in the fall.
5) Evaluate and establish the implicated worker’s state of consciousness.
6) Evaluate and establish if the implicated worker has been injured in the fall.
7) Comfort and monitor the implicated worker throughout the emergency.
8) Follow all other general guidelines in the standard Emergency Response Plan.
37
Ladders
Ladder Placement
When erecting ladders, the GRID Alternatives Installation Supervisor is responsible for making
sure the ladder is securely fastened with both feet placed
on a level surface. An unsecure ladder should never be left
AN UNSECURE LADDER
unattended. During erection, exercise caution to ensure
SHOULD NEVER BE LEFT
that the ladder does not come into contact with electrical
UNATTENDED.
lines or windows. Proper ladder angle is 4 to 1, meaning
that for every 4 feet of elevation, the ladder’s base should be set out 1 foot. The ladder must be
placed with a 3 foot extension past the eve meaning that there is a 3 rung minimum that
extends.38
Extension Ladder Erection
The following steps serve as a best practices guide for safely erecting extension ladders:
1) The ladder should be closed. Position the ladder with the base section on top of the fly
section. Block the bottom of the ladder against the base of the structure.
2) Make sure there is clearance and no electrical lines are overhead. Carefully “walk” the
ladder up until it is vertical. Keep your knees bent slightly and your back straight.
3) Firmly grip the ladder, keep it vertical, and carefully move back from the structure about
one quarter the distance of the ladder’s working length. This allows you to place it at the
correct angle against the structure.
4) Raise the fly section. After the bottom rung of the fly section clears the bottom rung of
the base section, place one foot on the base rung for secure footing.
5) Lean the ladder against the structure. The distance from the base of the ladder to the
structure should be one quarter the distance of the ladder’s working length. Make sure
the ladder extends three feet above the top support points for access to a roof or other
work level. Both rails should rest firmly and securely against the structure.
Methods for Securing Extension Ladders
As compliant with GRID Alternatives ladder safety policy, extension ladders must always be tied
down and secured to a structurally sound support. The following are examples of products
available to securely fasten extension ladders at a residential job site. Manufacturer’s
instructions should be followed accordingly to comply with the product’s intended purpose.
38
29 CFR 1926.1053 (b) (1)
38
Ladder Stability Anchor
Guardian Fall Protection’s Ladder Stability Anchor Part # 10808 is specifically designed to
comply with OSHA standards for securing ladders to roofs. This product can firmly attach to
fascia board or rafters and is used in combination with either 2 or 3 foot long Velcro straps to
secure extension ladders in place.
C Clamps
C clamps can be tightly fastened to fascia board or rafters and used in combination with tiedowns to secure the ladder to the roof and prevent side-to-side movement.
Example Reusable 2 x 4 Anchor
When working on houses with no exposed rafter or fascia boards, alternatively a 32” length 2 x
4 can be rigged as a reusable anchor:
(1) Screw 2 3/8” x 2” eye screws into the 2 x 4 length.
(2) Screw the 2 x 4 to the roof with 3” deck screws.
(3) Tightly secure the ladder to the eye screws with appropriately rated rope or ratcheting
straps.
Gutter Mounts
In order to minimize gutter wear and tear during extension ladder erection as well as ensure
ladder stability, the following products are available to work in conjunction with standard
ladder tie-off procedures:
Moheco Pro Ladder-Dok
Moheco Pro Ladder-Dok fits inside 5" or 6" gutters and distributes the weight of the ladder
onto the fascia rather than the gutter. The guard serves as an excellent buffer and helps
stabilize and support the ladder.
Ladder-Max Ladder Standoff Stabilizer
Ladder-Max Ladder Standoff Stabilizer provides a standoff extension between the ladder and
the roof in order to protect gutters and shingle edges from typical damage caused when
erecting an extension ladder against a house. This application is also helpful for increased
comfort and stability when mounting and dismounting the roof from the ladder.
Ladder Mounting
All GRID Alternatives staff and volunteers are required to follow standard ladder safety
practices when mounting and dismounting the equipment. Staff and volunteers must be
trained to always face the ladder and maintain three points of contact with the ladder rungs
39
while ascending and descending. Ladder extensions like the Guardian Fall Protection 10800
Safe-T Ladder Extension System allow for workers to step through the top of the ladder rather
than around and provide handrails for mounting and dismounting the ladder at the roof level.
The rungs that fall at or above roof level should never be mounted. When transporting items to
and from the roof, use a roped bucket or
three workers (one ground, one ladder, one
IF PERFORMING WORK ON A LADDER, IT IS
roof) to move the items safely. In order to
EXTREMELY IMPORTANT NOT TO
prevent falling hazardous objects from
OVERREACH. OVERREACHING CAN LEAD TO
coming into contact with a ground worker,
SERIOUS FALL-RELATED ACCIDENTS.
no tools or other items should ever be
resting on or near the top of the ladder. Only one worker is permitted to be on the ladder at
any one time. Be aware of ladder load weight capacity which is typically 300 pounds. If
performing work on a ladder, it is extremely important not to overreach. Overreaching can lead
to serious fall-related accidents.
Inspection
As with all construction-equipment, ladders must be inspected regularly to ensure that they do
not pose a safety threat to staff and volunteers climbing or working around the equipment. If
defects are identified, the ladder must be immediately replaced.
40
Electrical
Overview
Electrical safety is the foundation of GRID Alternatives’ work. Proper electrical safety habits are
critical in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems as GRID Alternatives ties all
systems into the electric utility grid. Residential service panels receive 120/240 VAC from the
utility grid and it is essential that GRID Alternatives construction staff are properly trained in
electrical safety as our systems are installed and tied into the utility via the main AC service
panel. The following outlines GRID Alternatives electrical safety policies as compliant with OSHA
and National Electrical Code (NEC).
Definition of “Qualified Person”
GRID Alternatives electrical work
specifically conducted in the main AC
DURING GRID ALTERNATIVES INSTALLATIONS THE
INSTALLATION SUPERVISOR OR AN AUTHORIZED
service panel is strictly limited to a
LICENSED ELECTRICIAN ARE THE ONLY INDIVIDUALS
“Qualified Person.” NEC defines a
PERMITTED TO WORK IN THE MAIN SERVICE PANEL.
qualified person as “one who has skills
and knowledge related to the
construction and operation of electrical equipment and installations and has received safety
training to recognize and avoid the hazards involved.”39 During GRID Alternatives installations,
the Installation Supervisor or an authorized licensed electrician are the only individuals
permitted to work in the main service panel and for all intents and purposes are considered the
designated “Qualified Person” for electrical work.
Exposure and Energized Work
GRID Alternatives electrical policy encourages limited exposure to energized sources at all times
during the installation process. Working with energized sources increases the risk of exposure
to electrical hazards and can impose a fatal threat on staff and volunteer safety. As compliant
with NEC, GRID Alternatives requires that if physically within 3 feet 6 inches of an open,
energized service panel or inverter,
workers and observers must wear safety
IF PHYSICALLY WITHIN 3 FEET 6 INCHES OF AN
glasses and insulated gloves with leather
OPEN, ENERGIZED SERVICE PANEL OR INVERTER,
protectors and use insulated tools.
WORKERS AND OBSERVERS MUST WEAR SAFETY
GLASSES AND INSULATED GLOVES WITH LEATHER
PROTECTORS AND USE INSULATED TOOLS.
39
NFPA 70E Article 100
41
Testing and troubleshooting are the only
electrical tasks that must be performed
energized. For other tasks such as removing a dead front or installing a circuit breaker or
conduit, either the main must be shut off or the installer must be wearing the required PPE.
Insulated gloves and tools must be rated to at least 500 volts. Gloves must be inspected
regularly as per the manufacturer's specifications. Remember that insulated gloves and tools
that are worn or damaged can potentially render the product ineffective, failing to protect the
user in a case of shock. Insulated gloves should be sent to the manufacturer for testing every 6
months.
Lockout/Tagout Procedure
ALL OFFICES HAVE BEEN PROVIDED WITH
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT KITS THAT ARE REQUIRED IN
ORDER TO COMPLY WITH OSHA AND NEC
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT REGULATIONS.
GRID Alternatives requires the
implementation of lockout/tagout kits
on all installations during any system
ELECTRICAL TAPE IS NOT AN ACCEPTABLE METHOD
wiring. It is the responsibility of the
OF “LOCKING OUT” HOMERUN CONNECTORS.
Installation Supervisor to lock off all
hazardous energy sources in order to
ensure staff and volunteer safety during the installation process. All offices have been provided
with lockout/tagout kits that are required in order to comply with OSHA and NEC
lockout/tagout regulations.
A proper lockout/tagout kit must include the following:

4 homerun lockout containers – Electrical tape is not an acceptable method of “locking
out” homerun connectors.



1 breaker lockout device
5 locks with unique keys
2 tagout labels
Micro Inverter System Lockout/Tagout Protocol
In systems with micro inverters, GRID Alternatives requires that AC sources/the main service
panel be isolated during junction box and AC disconnect wiring and until the system is ready for
testing. This can be executed by implementing one of the following systems:
1) Lockout and tag the entire main service panel when no one is working inside.
2) Do not install the solar breaker until after the junction box and AC disconnect have
been wired and are closed. Lock the removed solar breaker until ready for installation.
3) If the solar breaker has already been installed, lockout and tag the breaker until the
junction box and AC disconnect have been wired and are closed and the system is ready
for testing.
42
Central Inverter System Lockout/Tagout
Protocol
IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE INSTALLATION
SUPERVISOR TO LOCKOUT AND TAG ALL DC AND AC
ENERGY SOURCES AND MAINTAIN THE KEYS IN A
SAFE LOCATION.
In systems with central inverters, GRID
Alternatives requires that AC
sources/the main service panel and DC
sources/the homerun connectors be isolated during junction box, inverter, and disconnect
wiring and until the system is ready for testing. AC sources can be isolated same as micro
inverter protocol. DC sources can be isolated by implementing one of the following systems:
1) Lockout and tag all homerun connectors immediately after crimping.
2) Do not install homerun connectors until the junction box and inverter have been wired
and are closed.
It is the responsibility of the Installation Supervisor to lockout and tag all necessary energized
sources and maintain the key in a safe location.
Working Space
Sufficient working space is critical when working in electrical services. Before beginning work on
any electrical service, the qualified person must ensure that satisfactory working space is
available to comply with NEC. NEC working space regulations include the following when
working on 120/240 volt single-phase systems40:
1) A workspace depth of at least 36 inches must be available from the electrical service.
2) A workspace width of at least 30 inches must be available from the electrical service.
Crowding the electrical working space can cause potential safety hazards for both the qualified
person working on the service as well as volunteers. It is the responsibility of the authorized
qualified person to communicate to volunteers and staff an appropriate distance of at least 3
feet 6 inches at which to observe and learn.
Overhead power lines can carry high voltage and pose fatal electrocution risks in addition to
burns and fall hazards. When possible, stay at least 10 feet away from overhead power lines or
service mastheads and use fiberglass ladders when working nearby.
Safe Methods for Working in the Electrical Service
By following the above electrical safety guidelines, exposure to potential hazards can be
significantly reduced and prevented. Here is a summary of best practices to adhere to while
40
NEC 2011, Table 110.26 (A) (1)
43
working in the main service panel:


Turn off and lock/tag the circuit on which you are working.
Test the voltage of the circuit before proceeding to verify that the circuit is off.

When turning breakers on and off, always stand to the side of the main service panel
and turn your head away to prevent exposure to a potential arc flash.

Always wear insulated gloves with leather protectors to protect your hands from
electrical shock as well as sharp edges from handling wires or other equipment.

Always wear safety glasses to protect your eyes from various potential hazardous
elements.

Maintain clear communication with those working on the roof to ensure that all
electrical sources are properly isolated to prevent shock exposure.
Safe Methods for Working in the Junction Box
As with working in the main service panel, junction box wiring can also pose an electrical safety
threat if the guidelines listed within are not followed. Here is a summary of best practices to
adhere to while working in the junction box:

Verify that all implicated electrical conductors have been isolated by following the
appropriate lockout/tagout protocol.

Handle exposed wires cautiously during a wire pull. Wire pulls can subject the
implicated worker to cuts and burns if appropriate PPE is not implemented.

Maintain clear communication with those working on the ground and roof to ensure
that all electrical sources are properly isolated to prevent shock exposure.
Safe Methods for Disconnecting Module Connectors
Use a DC amp clamp meter to confirm there is no current in the string before disconnecting any
module connectors.
Equipment Inspection
All electrical-related equipment and PPE must be regularly inspected including: DC amp clamp
meters, insulated gloves, and insulated tools. Please see manufacturer’s instructions for
equipment inspection guidelines.
44
Ground Disturbance
In the event of grounding electrode/ground rod installation, trenching, or ground mount
racking installation, notify underground service alert to locate any gas, electric, water, or other
service lines. Proceed with caution and only use hand tools within 24” of any flagged
underground service lines. Call 811 at least 2 days before digging or for state specific
information on digging, go to http://www.call811.com/state-specific.aspx.
45
Transportation
Motor Vehicle Safety
Motor vehicle safety is a critical component of ensuring the success of GRID Alternatives’ safety
program. The safe operation of GRID Alternatives vehicles must always be considered when
driving for work purposes. All state traffic laws are firmly enforced under GRID Alternatives
motor vehicle policy. The following highlights key practices to be observed when operating
vehicles in order to ensure staff, volunteer, and public safety.
Safe Driving as Recommended by the Department of Transportation41
Cutting in Front
Cutting in front of other vehicles can put yourself and surrounding drivers at risk for an
accident. Stay cognizant of all moving vehicles on the road so as to avoid braking situations for
all drivers and pass other vehicles with care.
Watching Blind Spots
When passing large commercial vehicles, stay aware of the respective vehicle’s blind spots.
Drivers of large commercial vehicles are restricted from obtaining clear access to the front,
back, and sides of their vehicle. In order to avoid an accident, stay clear of these areas of
neighboring moving vehicles and be sure that the driver has clear visual access to your vehicle.
Inattentive Drivers
Inattentive drivers are those that are
not fully engaged in vehicle safety.
IF YOU NEED TO ATTEND TO ANOTHER ACTIVITY
SUCH AS, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, TALKING ON THE
Not paying attention while driving
PHONE, TEXTING, OR USING A SMART PHONE, PULL
imposes a safety threat on the driver
OVER IN AN APPROPRIATE SPACE TO EXECUTE
as well as the general public. Stay
THOSE TASKS.
aware of the possibility of inattentive
drivers on the road and maintain full
focus on your driving at all times. If you need to attend to another activity such as, but not
limited to, talking on the phone, texting, or using a smart phone, pull over in an appropriate
space to execute those tasks.
41
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, “Share the Road Safely,”
www.sharetheroadsafely.org
46
Aggressive Drivers
Stay aware of aggressive drivers not following safe driving practices on the road. They can put
themselves and others at risk through reckless driving behavior. Likewise, always implement
mindful driving practices in order to keep yourself and others safe on the road.
Buckling Belts
GRID Alternatives safety policy requires the use of seat belts by all passengers while operating
organization vehicles. In the event of an accident, seat belts prevent passengers from striking
the steering wheel or the windshield, being thrown around, and from being ejected from the
car.
Securing Loads
Proper load securement is critical in order to keep yourself, passengers, drivers, and the general
public safe. Not properly securing loads can result in a fatal accident. A load is secure when no
loaded equipment can slide, shift, or fall onto the roadway, or become airborne. The following
are practices that must be implemented in order to avoid load-related accidents:

Secure all equipment and materials to prevent movement forward and backward, side
to side, and up and down.

Secure all equipment and materials against the wind and other forces that can cause the
items to become airborne.


Use appropriate tie-downs to secure your loads.
Drivers should always check loads before driving off to ensure all items are securely
fastened.
Here are some helpful tips for securely
fastening loads to your vehicle:
DRIVERS SHOULD ALWAYS CHECK LOADS BEFORE
DRIVING OFF TO ENSURE ALL ITEMS ARE SECURELY
FASTENED.

Place lighter items in the bottom
of the load so that heavier items
can help hold them down.

As best practice, keep the load below the top edge of the truck.

Block items against each other or bundle them together to minimize shifting and
movement.

Place tall items against the back of the cab.


Lay tall items flat in the truck bed or trailer.
Securely seal all boxes, bags, and garbage cans to keep contents from blowing away.
47

Wrap straps through and around items such as ladders. Secure the straps to anchor
points in the bed of the truck or on ladder racks.

Strap similarly shaped items together, i.e. square (rails) or round (conduit). Best practice
is to use a ladder rack container to secure rails and conduit.
Strap small items together and/or cover them with a tarp. Place items such as hand
tools in the cab of the truck or in a toolbox secured to the bed of the truck.

Be sure to have appropriate and ample tie-downs available to secure loads such as the
following:


Webbed straps with tightening ratchets
Webbed lashing straps
It is important to note that bungee cords should never be used as a primary tie-down for loads.
Driving under the Influence
GRID Alternatives strictly prohibits the use of drugs or alcohol before or during the operation of
any organization vehicles.
48
Hazard Communication
Overview
In the context of occupational safety in the U.S., hazard communication refers to the United
Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals, Revision 3.42
As per OSHA laws and regulations which are consistent with the aforementioned legislation,
GRID Alternatives mandates that all toxic substances used during the installation process be
accompanied with the product’s “Material Safety Data Sheet” (MSDS) which specifies
information regarding the potential hazards of chemicals present in the product.43 GRID
Alternatives is responsible for communicating information on chemical hazards present on the
jobsite and providing an effective means of protection for all staff and volunteer workers
against harmful substances. The Installation Supervisor is responsible for ensuring that MSDSs
are available on site for all toxic products being used or that may be used in the case of an
emergency.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
GRID Alternatives specifically keeps on file MSDSs for products that are often used or have been
used in the past during the installation process. MSDSs for all chemical products can be found
at the following location on the server:
"O:\OSHA & Safety\Material Safety Data Sheets - Shortcut.lnk"
Installation Supervisors are required to read and understand the content within all MSDSs for
any chemical product on the job site. MSDSs provide critical information such as the following:















42
43
Product and company identification
Emergency overview
Potential health effects
Signs and symptoms of overexposure
Medical conditions aggravated
Routes of entry
Composition and information on ingredients
First aid measures
Fire-fighting measures
Accidental release measures
Handling and storage
Exposure controls and personal protection
Ecological information
Disposal considerations
Transport information
29 CFR 1910.1200 (a) (1)
29 CFR 1910.1200 (b) (1)
49
Appendix
Appendix A: Safety Talk
Appendix B: Job Hazard Analysis
Appendix C: Emergency Response Plan
Appendix D: Sample Site Safety Plans
Appendix E: Incident Report Forms
Appendix F: PPE Compliance Inspection Log
Appendix G: Sample Equipment Price List
Appendix H: Safety Compliance Checklist
Revision History
PPE: Fire Extinguishers
Fall Protection: General Site Survey and Inspection Policy
Fall Protection: Site Survey and Inspection Policy Steep Roofs
Fall Protection: Flat Roofs with Parapets
Fall Protection: Personal Fall Arrest Systems
Fall Protection: Fall Restraint Systems (Removed)
Fall Protection: Skylights and Holes
Ladders: Gutter Mounts
Electrical: Exposure and Energized Work
Ground Disturbance
50
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