272 357 SB UC-NRLF

272 357 SB UC-NRLF
UC-NRLF
SB 272 357
ADVERTISEMENTS.
THE
PHOSPHOR BRONZE CO
LIMITED
87
SUMNER STREET, SOUTHWARK, LONDON,
AND AT BIRMINGHAM
S.E.
REESE LIBRARY
OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
Class
i
'DURO METAL
ALLOY
'
(REGISTERED TRADE MARK)
adapted for BEARINGS for HOT NECK ROLLS
IRONWORKS, TIN-PLATE MILLS, &o.
B, specially
of
ROLLED & DRAWN PHOSPHOR BRONZE, SILICIUM &
OTHER BRONZES, NAYAL BRASS, GUN METAL
AND MANGANESE BRONZE.
BABBITT METAL, "VULCAN" BRAND, PLASTIC METAL, "COG
WHEEL" BRAND, "WHITE ANT" METAL, cheaper than any
Babbitt's and equal to Best Magnolia Metal.
PHOSPHOR TIN & PHOSPHOR COPPER,
"
COG WHEEL
"
BRAND
Please specify the manufacture of the Phosphor Bronze Co., Ltd., Southwark,
prevent imposition and error.
to
ADVEKTISEMENTS.
THE
PHOSPHOR BRONZE
GO.
LIMITED/
Sole
Makers of the following ALLOYS:
PHOSPHOR BRONZE.
"Vulcan" Brands.
Castings, Plates, Strip, Bars and Wire.
"Cog Wheel" and
"
DURO METAL "
(Registered
A
Tuw.
Wagon
for Roll Bearings,
Ingots,
Bronze Alloy
Brasses, &c.
PHOSPHOR TIN AND PHOSPHOR COPPER.
The best
"Cog Wheel" Brand.
qualities made.
PLASTIC METAL.
The best
"Cog Wheel" Brand.
Metal
in
filling
and
lining
the market!
BABBITT'S METAL.
"Vulcan" Brand.
Seven Grades.
"PHOSPHOR" WHITE LINING METAL.
Fully equal to Best White Brass
Marine Engine Bearings, &c.
"WHITE ANT" METAL,
Cheaper than any
No.
No. 2, for lining
I.
Babbitt's,
and equal to best
Magnolia Metal.
"WHITE ANT" BRONZE.
Superior to Fenton's Metal for Car Bearings.
SILICIUM BRONZE ELECTRICAL WIRE.
For Overhead Electrical Lines and other purposes
Please apply for Catalogues containing full particulars to th*
Company's Head
Office,
87 SUMNER STREET, SOUTHWARK
LONDON,
S.E.
ADVERTISE MENTS.
With Illustrations, 129 pp. Crown 8vo, Cloth, 4s. 6d.
net.
BRASSFOUNDERS' ALLOYS
A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK
Containing
Useful Tables, Notes and Data,
Guidance of Manufacturers
and Tradesmen
many
for the
;
Together with
Illustrations
and
Descriptions
of
Approved
Methods and
Appliances for Melting' and Mixing the Alloys.
By JOHN
F.
BUCHANAN,
BRASSFOUNDER.
London: E. &
F. N.
SPON,
Ltd.,
125 Strand.
METAL REFINERS.
WILLIAM GEMMELL & CO
6
MAIN STREET, ANDERSTON,
Nat. Tel.: 1230.
GLASGOW.
Cor. Tel.: 2241.
MANUFACTURERS OF
INGOT BUSH AND YELLOW BRASS,
SPELTER,
ANTI-FRICTION METAL,
TYPE METAL,
SPECIALITE:
German
Silver,
sound, white, easily wrought
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE
n
glouibcr's |jachet Jltrtfomirn
CONTAINING
OVER TWO THOUSAND WORDS, TERMS AND PHRASES,
OF SPECIAL IMPORT AND APPLICATION
IN THE FOUNDRY
AND
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE, APPLIANCES, MATERIALS, METALS,
TEST-BARS, CAST-IRON SCRAP, SHOP RECEIPTS, USEFUL
MEMORANDA, RULES AND TABLES
Concise (uibc to
t^je
J'rtcts,
prases attir
^oun
("Terms Delating to
(/ounirrn ^rattue antr
COMPILED BY
JOHN
AUTHOIt OF
BUCHANAN
F.
'
r.RASSFOUXDEKS* AU.OYS'
OF THE
UNIVERSITY
OF
^
Eontfon
K.
^
F.
N.
SPON,
LTD., 125
SPON & CHAMBERLAIN,
123
1903
STRAND
LIBERTY STREET
PREFACE
MANY
of the words
foundries
are
many more
not
and phrases in everyday use in
clearly
defined
or
are used in a loose sort of
understood
way
;
;
while
the meanings attached to others have only a local
significance.
A
Moulder in a Stove Foundry or a
Pipe Foundry uses a different set of trade terms
from one in a Jobbing or Marine Foundry, and the
Brass or Steel Moulder very often speaks a different
dialect
from the Iron Moulder.
While examining papers by Students
on
"
"
at a technical school, the
Ironfounding
was
nical
also impressed
terms.
The
in a class
Author
with the gross misuse of techtechnicalities
of processes
are
oftentimes expressed in words or phrases which obscure the
From
meaning
to those
these reasons
unacquainted therewith.
Foundry Nomenclature
necessarily expansive and
158494
many
is
of the terms being
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
VI
vague,
fanciful
and
somewhat
elusive
liable
to
misinterpretation.
This Pocket Dictionary
up the terms
interest to
is
an attempt to gather
in general use which are of practical
Foundrymen
(regardless of their bearing
on Philology, Etymology, Literature or Science), and
present the trade definitions and technical applications of
It is
words and phrases familiar
to
Moulders.
hoped the supplementary matter
may
prove
a useful addition to the work.
J.
F.
P>.
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
1
DICTIONARY
6
SYNOPSIS OF FOUNDRY PHRASES
.
.
.114
.
MAXIMS FOR MOULDERS
125
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE
Moulders
aiid
Moulding
.
.
.128
.
Foundry Management
The Jobbing Foundry
NOTES ON
APPLIANCES
116
Crimes Ladles
Moulding Machines
Cupolas
Magnetic Separators General Remarks Grooved
Wedges Improved Furnace Cover Loam Moulder's
Horse etc.
NOTES ON MATERIALS
Abrasives
Blasting
165
:
Emery Wheels
Sands
Facings
Carborundum
Fluxes
Sand-
Fuels
NOTES ON METALS
Cast Iron
Steel
176
Aluminium
Brass
USEFUL MEMORANDA, RULES AND TABLES
Converting Weight
of Iron
to
Brass
,
Weight
.185
of
Round
Plates, Pipes, etc.
Weight of Sections of
Metals Weight of Spur-Wheel Castings Weight
To Weight Down Moulds
of
Wheels
for
Finding Length
of
Chords
Constants
Converting Ounces
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Vlll
USEFUL MEMORANDA
iiito
continued.
Decimal Parts of a Pound
rAt K
-
Weight
of Pipes
Bauer's Drill Test ConDecimal Equivalents of Fractions
of an Inch Weight of Square Foot of Metals
Weight of Metals per Lineal Foot and Yard
Weight of Iron Pipe
Weight of Cast Iron
Circumferences and Areas of Circles Squares and
Shrinkage
oi'
Castings
version of Prices
Cubes
Comparative Weights of Metals Properties
etc., used in Foundries
Specific Gravities
of Metals,
To Convert Degrees
C.
into Fahr.
Weight of
Castings by Weight of Patterns Weight of Iron
Balls Rule for Camber in Patterns
Eule for
Shrinking Brass Liners
NOTES ON TEST-BARS
"2
CAST-IRON SCRAP
l!lG
SHOP RECEIPTS
.
.
11
218
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATUEE
THE
MOULDER'S POCKET DICTIONARY.
INTRODUCTION.
LANGUAGE
Words
may
is
the
common medium
are the clothing
oi expressing ideas.
we put upon our thoughts, and
be graceful, pointed, poetical or uncouth, accord-
ing as the vicissitudes of custom or necessity, or the
varieties of vocation,
coining
may demand.
new words, and allowing
abeyance
or
become
obsolete
;
We
are continually
old ones to fall into
thus
it
frequently
happens, even in ordinary conversation, that words
or phrases are used the sense or precise meaning of
which may not be at once evident.
Synonyms are
and
therefore confusing when employed to
unscientific,
designate trade operations or appliances. To be perfect,
the tradesman wants to call a spade a spade all the
time unfortunately this fact has been overlooked to a
;
large extent in the foundry, and thus a host of words
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
2
require explanation, or translation, so that the
meaning
may be generally comprehended.
Numerous reasons could be assigned for trade terms
being circumscribed, ambiguous, and apparently inept
but probably a better illustration of
or inconclusive
;
than the accepted explanation of the familiar phrase a code and bull story,
" numerous
viz.
mistakes were made in interpreting
their laxity could not be given
hieroglyphic writings in the middle of the seventeenth
century
the figures being so uncouth, and the ren-
;
derings
so
common
illustrations
unsatisfactory,
it
that
two of the most
to
was alleged of some translators
that they had mistaken a cock for a bull."
Tradesmen have
their peccadilloes like other people,
and trade etiquette is probably as inexorable in its precedents and practices as even the most hidebound
society
forms.
To know
the
"
correct
thing,"
or
surely as essential in the
workshop as
it is in the drawing-room.
Besides, tradesmen acquire
the trade manner and speech, like their mother tongue,
correct word,
is
as part of their training,
and
fall
into
mannerisms and
colloquialisms automatically, and oftentimes quite unwittingly.
The
less scientific
tradesman
is
apt to use homely
expressions to convey his ideas, or to make known his
wants, and indeed, he may be none the less thorough a
tradesman for so doing.
Moulding
is
an art which
is
encased in truly scientific operations which for the most
part have not been formulated, or have only received
O
INTRODUCTION.
by the foundry operative. The
is heedless of the hearing science may
moulder
average
So long as he can successfully
have on his work.
scant acknowledgment
accomplish the objects of his calling on the lines of
recognised foundry practice by use and wont, or by
"
rule-of-thumb," he
men
admitted by
is
It
must, however, be
of progressive ideas that the spirit of
more healthful than the
is
inquiry
just as the foot rule
thumb.
content.
The
;
spirit of content,
more accurate than that of the
moulder
ideal
and resourceful
is
is
a born leader, confident
a past master in the principles of
mechanics, a student of physics and chemical laws,
besides being an artist instinct with feeling for symmetry, and with a fine sense of touch
impossible as
the average moulder
no more
he lacks
;
One man
in brief,
he
is
But on the other hand,
an automaton an imitator and
an individual.
is
initiative
and leans on his
picks up a certain tool and gives
it
a
fellows.
name
he adopts it another characterises a particular operation
he accepts it a third individual, may be a stranger to
;
;
foundry work, comments in foreign terms on a familiar
foundry incidence he assimilates the stranger's view
With
system, or rather haphazard
method, of accumulating data or directions we have no
of things.
fault
to
find
;
it
this
has a broadening
obvious that difficulties
must
effect,
arise as to the
but
it
IB
meaning,
origin, or particular application of terms and phrases
of such irregular inception.
For example, the word
wood placed at regular
soldiers, as applied to pieces of
B 2
4
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
intervals to support a
hanging part of a mould, might
justly be termed a misnomer, seeing they are not likely
" stand
to
An old pensioner making his debut
fire."
in a foundry might be excused if an order to cut out a
lot
for
the charge,
that a
the
hand shanks, and get ready
non-plussed him but a moulder knows
of soldiers, line-up
"
soldier
;
"
in the foundry
"
"
and the
field,
the
charge
is
is
different
from one in
the
amount
of metal he
to get through at a time.
Again, the familiar
foundry phrase, sun about, would bewilder almost any
tradesman, but the moulder, who however little he may
is likely
know about astronomy,
the sun's motion
or
instinctively closes his
is it
the earth's
?
box with
Only a moulder,
be expected to understand the peculiar use of
the word Up ! when a casting is poured as a term of
too, could
intense
excitement, comparable
enthusiast's use of the
only to the football
word "Goal!" when the
ball
has passed between the uprights.
Further, the phrase
iron to iron might convey much the same meaning as
back to back, to the lay mind, but how
differently the moulder feels about the matter when he
like to like, or
knows
that
the valuable parts of a mould are bound
all
" iron to
iron,"
immovably. These are only a few
examples of the force and scope of foundry nomenclature,
and,
i.e.
we
believe,
reason
enough
for
this
compilation.
It is important that foundrymen, at least, should
have an identity of ideas regarding the words employed
to describe identical operations, happenings and tools,
INTRODUCTION.
as
an exact definition of terms
of thought.
To
co-ordinated,
and trade terms
For convenience
is
5
essential to clearness
this end, provincialisms require to be
specifically
in distinguishing
described.
between the various
words which belong by established usage to the foundry,
either as trade or technical terms, or as adaptations
from ordinary expressions capable of specific description, we have had those words with a special trade
meaning printed in bold type (thus AIR-FURNACE),
and for the sake of brevity we have used the symbols
only of the various metals in stated compositions.
6
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
DICTIONARY.
'Abbreviations
:
= French Lat. = Latin Sc. =
a., n., v. = adjective, noun, verb.
Ex. = Example.
Comp. = composition.
Am. = American
Words with a
Abrasives.
;
Fr.
;
;
Scotch.
meaning are printed in small capitals,
thus: AIR-FURNACE.
special trade
Hard
rundum,
substances, such
"
stars," etc.,
as emery, carboused for rubbing tbe sand
off castings.
Acid
Steel prepared by tbe acid process in the
Steel.
Bessemer converter.
Actinium.
A
supposed metal, said by Phipson to be
contained in zinc
so called because certain of its
;
are darkened
compounds
by exposure to light.
Admixture. The compound formed by mixing substances together
which
Aeration.
is
;
or (ad
-f
miscere, Lat.) that
mixed with anything.
Exposing
Bessemer's
to
the free action of
steel process
;
air,
impregnating with
as in
air.
DICTIONARY.
Of
Mruginous.
/
the nature of
or copper
verdigris,
rust.
The
Affinity.
attraction which causes bodies to unite
and form chemical compounds.
The blowing
AfterUow.
of air in a
Bessemer con-
verter after the carbon has been burnt out, in
order to oxidise the phosphorus.
The anomalous expansion, termed recalescence, which takes place when steel is cooled
AFTERGLOW.
down from
falls
As
a white heat.
the
through dull redness (about
temperature
F.), there
1200
a sudden development of heat before the further
in temperature takes place.
is
fall
An
Aich Metal.
rolled,
Fe
AIR.
drawn.
or
Comp.
Also called "
'
1 8.
The
alloy capable of being
:
Cu
G edge's
60,
hammered,
Zn 38 -2,
alloy."
gases which generate in a mould when
being cast
;
the moulder's object in venting
it is
is
to
dispose of these freely.
AIR-BELT.
An
annular ring in which the air from
the blast pipes
is diffused,
so as to be delivered
through the tuyeres in a continuous stream.
Aired Air-drisd. In a crumbling condition
;
;
a green sand
weak parts
may run
mould
is
when
air-dried, the edges and
are apt to crumble away, or the sand
before the inflowing metal and cause a
dirty casting.
AIR-FURNACE.
A
reverberatory
air-furnace.
IJ
Ri I
W r-r<>
furnace;
a crucible
8
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A
AIR-HOLE.
bubble of air
;
by a
a casting, produced
in
fault
a blow-hole
a vent.
;
A name for German silver.
A school of chemists whose
Alchemists.
Albata.
practice con-
sisted in the pretended transmuting of the baser
metals into gold and silver.
An
which aimed at transmuting the
baser metals into gold, and led the way to modern
Alchemy.
art
chemistry.
An
Alfenide.
with
alloy of nickel
and
silver, electro-plated
silver.
ALGIERS METAL.
bell metal.
Comp.
Takes a beautiful
A
Alignment.
Alkahest.
:
Cu
table-
5 parts, Sn 94-5, Sb
5.
polish.
formation in a straight
The
White
(Fr. metal d'Alger.)
fabled
"
universal
line.
solvent
"
the
of
alchemists.
ALL-MINE
Pig-iron which has been smelted
PIG.
entirely from ore.
Changeable physical forms in certain of
Allotropic.
the elements.
The
Allotropy.
existence of the
same element
in
more
than one usual condition.
Alloy.
A
mixture of two or more metals formed by
fusion.
A silver- white metal, extremely light and
Aluminium.
malleable
silver.
;
its elasticity
Never
Aluminium-Brass.
and hardness are equal to
occurs native.
An
alloy containing
:
Al
1 to
12
9
DICTIONARY.
Cu 56
cent.,
per
cent.,
to
10 Al.
Ni
20,
An
Zn 23
43 per
to
silver comp.: Cu57,
Also an alloy of silver and
3.
:
;
:
5,
;
Al 95.
Zn
57,
Cd 43
;
or
Zn
30,
5.
Any
Amalgam.
Cu
:
comp. Ag
Aluminium-Solder. Comp,
65, Bi
90 to 98 Cu, and
90, Al 10.
alloy of
An imitation
20, Al
aluminium
Sn
cent.,
in.
Standard
Aluminium-Silver,
Zn
75 per
with tensile strengths ranging from 14 to
43 tons per sq.
Aluminium-'Bronze.
2
to
union
of
another
with
mercury
metal.
To blend
Amalgamate.
or unite metals to form com-
pounds.
Without regular form, with reference
Amorphous.
to crystallisation.
The
Analysis.
into its
primary
A
ANCHOR.
resolution of
any complex substance
or ultimate constituents.
chaplet or stay.
A
Anchoring.
method of
fixing isolated portions of a
mould or cores by means of
grids, or
ANDIRON.
bolts, tie-wires, bars,
wedgps.
Originally a fireplace built of stone and
from the ancient fireplace of
This term is now used by stove-
iron, distinguished
stone and lime.
makers
to designate the rests or
"
"
dogs
for fire-
irons.
Angle.
The
point.
inclination of
two
lines
meeting at a
10
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Annealing.
the process hy which
and certain other metals are freed from
Tempering by heat
cast steel
;
crystallisation or brittleness.
An
ANTI-ACID METAL.
alloy
corrosive actions of acids
which withstands the
usually a mixture of
;
A
copper and lead, and sometimes antimony.
good example: Cu 63
Sb 7 per cent. used
ANTI-FRICTION METAL.
or journa's.
per cent.,
per cent.,
chemical plant fittings.
for
;
with smooth surface
Pb 30
A
;
comparatively soft metal
used for lining up bearings
Tin, zinc or lead (about
80 per
cent,
combined with small proportions of
of either)
copper and antimony, form the composition of the
great bulk of this class of metal.
Antimony. A bluish-white, brittle, crystalline metal,
which expands on solidifying and imparts this
property to
and
its
electricity.
alloys;
a bad conductor of heat
Tartar emetic was discovered by
Basil Valentine, a sixteenth century alchemist,
accidentally administered
his brother
monks.
it
in poisonous doses to
This caused the mineral
name " anti-moine
= strong water).
Aqua-fortis (Lat.
receive the
used for
who
"
to
or anti-monk.
Kitric acid (dilute),
"
"
pickling
castings.
=
royal water).
Aqua-regia (Lat.
nitric and 3 parts hydrochloric
A mixture of 1
part
acids, capable of dis-
solving gold or platinum.
small spindle a core-bar conforming to the
ARBOR.
A
;
shape of the core to be made thereon.
,
11
DICTIONARY.
ARBOR DIANAS
which
A
(the Silver Tree).
precipitated in a
is
silver
crystalline
amalgam,
form by
adding mercury to a solution of silver nitrate.
A segment of a circle.
" A curved member made
Arch.
up of separate wedge-
Arc.
solids
shaped
with the joints between them dis-
posed in the direction of the radii of the curve."
Webster.
Area.
The
superficial contents of
The
Areometry.
art of
any
figure.
measuring the
specific gravity
of fluids.
German
ARGENTAN.
and nickel.
Argentiferous.
ARGUZOID.
ing.
an alloy of copper, zinc
;
,
Producing or containing
A common
Comp.
Argillaceous.
silver
:
Cu
quality
56,
Zn
(Lat. argilla
German
24,
=
Ni
silver.
silver for cast-
14,
Pb
3,
white clay.)
Sn
Of
4.
the
nature of clay.
The sharp edge of a core or mould which has
been made with square joints.
ARRIS.
A
Arm.
Arsenic.
projection or support.
A
steei-grey,
tarnishes readily.
At
brittle,
metal
crystalline
a low red heat
without fusion.
Alloyed with lead for shot.
good conductor of heat and electricity.
Ashes.
The
;
it volatilises
residue of fuel after combustion
;
A
useful
for venting cores, etc.
ASH METAL.
A
poor quality of metal, made from the
skimmings and ashes of the brass-foundry.
12
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
To examine
Assay.
ores or
compounds
for the
pur-
pose of determining the particular proportions of
metals contained in them.
A
The assay
weight of 29' 166| grms.
its subbe
convenient
but
weight,
may
any
divisions must bear to it the same relations as
Assay Ton.
ton
pounds and ounces bear to the actual
Assaying.
The chemical
ton.
by which the
operation
quantity of metal in an ore or mixture
is
ascer-
It differs from analysis only in degree,
performed in the dry way, as by heat in
the moist way, as by reagents
or by both
tained.
and
is
;
;
methods.
The weight of the atom of an element
the weight of the atom of hydrowith
compared
gen taken as a standard.
Atomic Weight.
as
^ERUGO NOBILIS
(Lat.
=
is
noble rust).
"
known
The
charac-
green coating
patina," which
so highly valued on account of bringing out the
as
teristic
beauty of the contours in bronzes.
Autogenous Soldering.
A
process of uniting the
two
edges of metals by fusion, without interposing
another metallic alloy as a bond of union.
Lead,
aluminium, and even the refractory metals and
alloys can be joined in this way by the aid of the
oxyhydrogen blowpipe.
13
DICTIONARY.
B.
BABBITT METAL.
Any anti-attrition
original formula
Sn 88
:
*
9,
metal.
Sb 7
4,
Cu 3
Babbitt's
7.
which contains over 80 per
alloy in this class
Any
cent.
genuine Babbitt metal.
lining of bearings with anti -friction
tin is called
The
BABBITTING.
metal, so called after the inventor of the process,
Isaac Babbitt, Massachusetts.
BACK PLATES.
Plates which are sometimes bolted to
the back of moulding boxes which have to be cast
They prevent the pressure of the
from forcing the sand outwards and
metal
liquid
vertically.
"
avoid
swells," or
"
bursts."
A method of producing a pattern or
from
a half-pattern, or a block with only
casting
BACKING-OUT.
the external outline carved into
is
"
it.
An impression
taken from this and
and
thicknessed,"
back or
this forms the
under
side
the
of
casting.
To
Bag.
down
or
swell
;
used
same sense
holding
the
as sag.
A
BaiJcie (Sc.).
hang
in
box
loam.
for
See
BAIL.
TOTE Box.
BAIL.
An
arched
handle for supporting the ladle
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
14
by the shanks and connecting
to the crane
;
some-
times called the Bull, and the Bow.
To harden hy
Bake.
BALLING.
into
heat, as cores in a core-oven.
Heating metal
for
balls
a furnace and forming
in
The
rolling.
last
process
is
puddling.
In refining metal
BALLING.
drosses, the formation of
oxide or infusible material surrounding the metal
and hindering
A
Baluster.
it
from melting into one mass.
small column or pilaster for railing
off
stairs, etc.
Banca
Tin.
Bank.
A
BANK-UP.
Straits tin.
slope, or a sloping
sandy
To heap up sand
mound.
as a support
;
to enclose
with sand.
Small as to
Bare.
Barium.
A
size, i.e.
barely the size.
silver-white metal, difficult of extraction,
melts at a very high
the
oxide is called laryta
of high specific gravity
The
known as heavy
temperature.
sulphate
BARS.
is
;
;
spar.
Bands of wood or metal which
moulding boxes
stretch across
to prevent the sand
from falling
The bottom
foundation
out.
Base
(Fr. las
=
low).
or
;
the bedplate of a loam mould.
BASE METAL. All metals losing their metallic lustre
at ordinary temperatures or
base metals
BASIC
PIG.
;
also a trade
by heating are termed
term for
lead.
Metal made by the Basic process, by
15
DICTIONARY.
which the elimination of phosphorus and sulphur
is
rendered possible.
A
basic lining is used in
the converter (dolomite), instead of
ganister or
other silicious material, as practised by Bessemer
in the acid process.
That part of the head which supplies the
runners with metal while a mould is being
BASIN.
cast.
The metal
BASIS METAL.
the base
of,
essential
bronze, or Ni in
German
and forming
to,
a characteristic alloy, as
P
in
phosphor-
silver.
Many alloys are made by preparing a bath of
the more stable metals, and immersing the volatile
elements a pickling vat.
BATH.
;
A
Bath Metal.
very malleable brass
alloy.
Comp.
:
Cu ll,Zn2.
Batten.
Bead
A
piece of timber which serves as a brace.
A
metal nearly the colour of copper,
used for casting beads and bands for copper pipes.
Metal.
Comp.
:
Cu 80
BEAM HOOK.
to 90,
Sn 3
Pb
to 6,
6 to 14.
A hook
with a loop tor sliding along the
beam to any required notch. See Lifting Beam.
BEARING.
In
contact
close
;
touching
;
the joint
;
resting place for a core.
BEARING METAL.
The metal put
into bearings, as
locomotive bearings, hard gun-metal, marine en-
gine bearings, Babbitt metal,
BEAUMONTAGUE.
The
trade
etc.
name
for a
cement com-
posed of rosin, sulphur and iron filings
;
or borax,
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
16
beeswax and
tin,
filings
;
used for
A
up holes
See Filling.
a core or mould
or flaws in iron castings.
BED.
filling
layer of sand on which
turned over;
may be
an open-sand moulding
bed.
BED CHARGE.
The quantity
charged into the cupola.
is
to place three
and iron
of coke
The
first
old rule of charging
pounds of iron
to
one of coke in
the bed, upon the bed, and ten to one upon the
The bed is the amount of fuel
charges following.
required to fill the space in the cupola from the
sand bottom to a given height above the tuyeres,
locating the melting zone.
BEDDING-IN.
Setting
work in the moulding
floor.
See PHRASES.
The bottom
BEDPLATE.
is
plate
on which a loam mould
usually built.
Coating metal patterns with a film of
beeswax to facilitate their withdrawal from the
BEESWAXING.
sand, and to keep the patterns from rusting.
BELL-METAL.
A
BELT.
Hard
bronze.
Comp.
:
Cu
80,
Sn
girdle around the cupola, carrying a
20.
series
of tuyere pipes.
Bellows.
See NOTES ON APPLIANCES,
BENCH WORK.
Small work.
BERLIN IRON.
A
p.
146.
very fusible variety of cast iron,
from which figures and other delicate articles are
manufactured these are often stained or lacquered
;
in imitation of bronze.
The
adjective
Berlin
is
DICTIONARY.
17
used here, as in other manufactures, to indicate a
Exs.
fine quality.
To daub
Besmear.
Berlin black
:
over
to
;
purpose of hiding chisel
BESSEMER
;
Berlin wool.
blackwash castings for the
marks or minor defects.
Pig iron of special quality prepared
for conversion into mild steel by the Bessemer
PIG.
process.
BESSEMER STEEL.
made
Steel
directly
from cast iron
by burning out a portion of the carbon and other
impurities through the agency of a blast of air
which
is forced through the molten metal.
So
from Sir Henry Bessemer, the inventor.
Any angle other than a right angle.
called
Bevel.
A
BIBCOCK.
nose-cock.
BIDDERY-WARE.
is
Indian art metal-ware.
The
material
a composition of zinc, copper and lead, in which
ornaments of gold or
cened.
Comp.
A
BILLET.
short
:
Zn
dumpy
damas-
silver are inlaid or
93,
Cu 3
5,
Pb 3
5,
bar of metal, convenient for
rolling or forging.
An
Bin.
enclosed place used as a receptacle for any
commodity.
To
Bind.
restrain
A
BINDER.
;
to fetter, confine, or
make
bar of iron with bent ends, called
fast.
toes, for
gripping the top and bottom parts of a mould and
keeping them together while it is being cast.
Bing
A
(Sc.).
Bisect.
To
Bismuth.
heap or
divide into
pile.
two equal
parts.
A reddish- white crystalline metal
;
volatilises
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
18
at a white heat
;
a bad conductor of heat and
Bismuth expands on
electricity.
cooling,
and
is
the most diamagnetic substance known.
A
a pin inserted between geared wheels
in a crane to keep it locked in one position.
BITE.
check
;
BITUMINOUS FACING.
Black
is
See Coal Facing.
often used to qualify metallic
oxides, as black
mony, Sb 2 S 3
manganese,
black copper
compounds or
MnG
= an
2
black anti-
;
earthy black
oxide of copper black tin = tin ore (cassiterite)
in the form of a black powder ready for smelting
black silver
black jack
stephanite, a silver ore
;
;
;
=
=
zinc blende
A
BLACKBAND.
BLACK SAND.
dust and
;
;
well
blacklead
known
Old sand
new sand
;
=
graphite.
iron ore.
used for mixing with coal
for facing.
BLACKWASH.
Liquid facing for moulds, of various
compositions, as lampblack and clay-water or
plumbago and molasses,
BLAST.
ing
etc.
A forcible stream of air
to
;
the continuous blow-
which a charge of metal
the furnace.
The terms
is
subjected in
hot blast and cold blast
are employed to designate whether the current
is
heated or not before entering the furnace.
BLAST-FQRNACE.
ing
Usually a shaft furnace for smelt-
ores.
BLAST GATE.
A
shutter for regulating the supply of
by a blower, and to guard against
often occur from the accumulawhich
explosions,
air delivered
19
DICTIONARY.
tion of gas in the blast pipes during a temporary
By using the gate, the
stopping of the machine.
blast can be regulated without regard to the speed
of the blower
economy of
;
fuel
and correct pres-
sure of blast are also ensured.
An
BLAST GAUGE.
instrument for indicating the air
The pressure should be
pressure in blast pipes.
way through the whole concupola when charged it varies from
sufficient to force its
tents of the
3
to
;
16 ounces per square inch, according to the
size of the cupola.
BLAZE.
To
heat slowly to a dark red.
BLEEDING.
Liquating
insufficient
through
before
pressure,
or
being exposed
it is set.
BLENDING.
Mixing
A
BLISTER.
metal oozing from a casting
;
different grades of iron.
formation on the surface of a casting,
caused by a hard or wet spot in the mould or gases
in the iron a film.
;
Crude
BLISTER STEEL.
steel
formed from wrought
iron by cementation.
BLOCK MOULDING.
castings
A
by making
sides of the pattern,
interchangeable
BLOCK PRINT.
A
method
of obtaining
plaster casts of top
delicate
and bottom
and moulding from these with
See Plate Moulding.
flasks.
core
print
made
larger than
is
actually required, to obviate difficulties in mould-
deep lifts, chaplets, etc. The
termed a block core. See Pocket Print.
ing, as drawbacks,
core
is
G 2
20
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
BLOCK
TIN.
Ingot tin
slabs of tin, usually weigh-
;
ing 28 Ib.
Blocks.
That part of the lifting
which the direction of motion
The
BLOOMING.
process of
by means of
tackle
is
changed.
making forge blooms from
the ore or scrap iron.
The
BLOW.
operation by which the iron in a converter
becomes
The
steel.
period in which a furnace
is
in blast.
A
Blower.
machine
To
BLOW-DOWN.
BLOWHOLE.
Blown-in.
An
for creating forced draught.
finish
blowing a heat of metal.
air-hole in a casting.
Blast furnaces are said to be
when they are
"
blown-in
"
working order. The first
heats tapped are of an inferior grade, owing to
in full
the silicious lining attacking the metal as
it
melts.
Glazed Pig is the name given to the metal proIt
duced during the period of " bio wing-in."
takes about three weeks to
furnace, after
which
it
is
"
blow-in
said to
"
a blast
be in "full
blast."
A
brassfoundry practice to break the
castings off the gate while hot, and dip them
BLOW-OUT.
at a certain temperature into cold
if
caught
at the right
water.
This,
moment, has the effect
blowing out the core, and leaving the
casting without a particle of sand adhering
of
to
it.
BLUE-LINES.
Those
lines
upon a drawing, usually
in
21
DICTIONARY.
which indicate
blue,
what parts the dimensions
to
given have reference.
A clay cone fixed on the end of a long rod ;
used for " boating-up," i.e. stopping the flow of
iron from the cupola.
(Colloquial.)
BOAT.
A
Bob.
polishing mop.
BODY CORE.
The main
core, as distinguished
from
branch or connecting cores.
BOILING.
The ebullition of molten metal, caused by
the presence of steam or gases the condition of
;
metal tapped into an imperfectly dried ladle.
BOLT. To sift or separate the coarser from the finer
particles.
BOLT METAL.
Admiralty tough gun-metal.
Sn
EOND.
1,
Zn
Muntz metal
metal, as
Any tough
Comp.
Cu
:
or
14,
1.
Any substance which
serves to bind or hold to-
gether, as talc or molasses in plumbago, or clay
in sand.
BONE - DRY.
Perfectly
dry
;
free
from
moisture.
(Colloquial.)
A
Borax.
double
boron and sodium
salt of
;
used as
a flux in soldering metals.
Bore.
The
size of a hole
;
the interior diameter of a
pipe or cylinder.
Borings.
BOSHES.
Metal turnings.
The lower
inwards
;
part of a blast-furnace which slopes
in smelting
which ingots and
and forging, a trough in
tools are cooled.
22
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A master or foreman.
A knob or stud also
Boss (Am.).
master.
loam
BOT
;
Dutch baas
=
a thickness on a
core, taking the place of a pattern.
BOT-STICK. A long rod with a flat button forged
on one end, upon which a cone of wet clay is
This tool is used for plugging the tappressed.
;
hole with clay after sufficient or all the iron has
been allowed to run from the cupola.
The drag
BOTTOM-PART.
under
halt'
The Dame given
Bows.
of a
moulding box, or the
of a mould.
to the tackle used for
ing propeller-blades in loam
;
mould-
curved plates with
holes for fixing bars and binders into.
A
Box.
moulding box
;
the smaller sizes are termed
flasks.
A tool
n.
BOX-CLEANER,
for sleeking flanges, or
moulds
with square corners.
Axle-bo* metal, usually composed of
BOX-METAL.
Cu
88,
A
Bracket.
Sn
12.
support
;
often used to strengthen angles
in castings.
BRANCH-CORE.
A
separate core, or a connecting core.
Branch-Pipe. A pipe having branches, or connecting
to the main body.
BRAND.
The manufacturer's mark on
An
metal.
Comp. Cu 2,
alloy of copper and zinc.
Great variations are permissible in making
brass, copper ranging from 60 per cent, to 94 per
BRASS.
Zn
1.
cent.,
according to requirements.
:
23
DICTIONARY.
Bushes
BRASSES.
bearings
;
so
;
called
because
fre-
quently made of brass.
BRASS-FEVER. An ague caused by inhaling the fumes
of brass.
BRASS-FURNACE.
air crucible furnaces.
Usually refers to
A
Brazier.
coppersmith.
The process of hard soldering, i.e. soldering
Brazing.
with an alloy of copper and zinc = brazing solder.
Comp.
:
Cu
50,
Zn
50.
An alloy suitable for brazing to
Brazing Metal.
must
stand a good fire test.
copper
Comp.
Cu 80, Zn 20 to Cu 90, Zn 10.
:
;
Bray.
To pound or grind
BREAK,
v.
To
into fine dust.
sever as by fracture,
The
n.
fracture of
a metal.
The
BREAKING.
action
by which molten
phosphor-bronze assumes varying
the different aspects of striation
it
is
or
iron
curves.
By
possible to
distinguish between hard and soft iron while in
the liquid condition.
BREAST.
The
made up
space in front of the cupola which
for the tapping hole.
is
Sometimes called
the Breast-hole.
BREEZE.
Small coal
BRICKING-UP.
;
charcoal dust.
The building up
of a
loam mould with
courses of brick.
BRIDGE.
The
division
between the
hearth in an air furnace
a cupola.
;
fireplace
and the
a form of scaffolding in
24
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Cu
61 to 75 per cent., Zn 39 to 25 per
sometimes called Prince's Metal.
Bristol Brass.
cent.
;
The
Britannia Metal.
alloy
known under
this
name
consists principally of tin alloyed with antimony,
and occasionally copper and zinc. Exs. Sn 90,
Sb 6, Cu 3, Zn 1 standard, Sn 90, Sb 10.
:
;
British gum.
Starch, reduced to a gum-like state
by
great heat.
An
BRONZE.
and
alloy of copper
tin, to
which small
proportions of other metals, especially zinc, are
sometimes
added.
Standard,
Admiralty bearing bronze,
A
Bronze Poivder.
Cu
Cu 90, Sn 10
Sn 14.
;
86,
metallic powder, used with size, to
give the appearance of bronze, gold or other metal
to
any
surface.
The
Bronzing.
art of
metal, wood, plaster,
communicating
etc.,
to articles in
the appearance of bronze
by means of bronze powders, or by chemical processes.
Brush.
A
tool
composed of
bristles
for cleaning or
purposes, as pattern brush:
polishing
a small,
scratch
hard, pointed brush for cleaning patterns
brush a polishing brush for metal surfaces soft
;
:
brush
:
;
a camel-hair brush, used for dry facing
dry brush
:
;
a hand brush, with which the moulder
sweeps away the sand from the joints of moulds
and patterns.
BUCKLE, n. and v.
plate.
A distortion, bulge or bend in a metal
Unequal
internal stresses, due to different
25
DICTIONARY.
densities or rates of cooling, will cause buckles in
castings.
A
Buff, n.
wheel covered with buff leather, used in
polishing.
An
Buffer.
operative
emery wheel
;
who
grinds castings at a buff- or
a fender to protect from shock.
"
The name given in some places to the small
shot-scrap made in the vicinity of the cupola and
BUGS.
along the track of the ladles, during the time of
Bolland.
casting.
'
'
The containing
BUILDING.
walls of a loam mould.
Cast-iron rings, used to support or
BUILDING-RINGS.
strengthen a loam mould.
To
Bulge.
mould when
a
as
swell,
it
yields
to
pressure.
BULL.
See Bail
BULL-HANDLES.
and
:
bull-ladle.
Handles bent
suitable for being
hooks
like the
horns of a
bull,
hooked up by the crane
also called bow-handles.
;
BULL'S METAL.
A
high tension bronze, containing
aluminium and manganese.
BULLION.
in
Properly, uncoined gold or silver in bulk
many
brass- foundries
bar
lead
is
;
called
bullion.
BUNGED,
v.
Stopped up
the iron
zone.
BURDEN.
is
;
as a
bunged cupola, where
hindered from falling into the melting
See Scaffold.
The charge
on the bed
of metal, fuel and flux placed
in the cupola.
26
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
To
BURN.
fuse and unite two surfaces of metal
by
pouring over them a quantity of the same metal
in a liquid state.
BURNT
Cast iron which has long been subjected
IRON.
to the action
which
iron
to the absorption of oxygen.
owing
is
of heat;
included in the cupola mixture
sparingly, as
is
worthless
If burnt iron
it
must be used
renders the metal sluggish and
it
produces an extraordinary amount of slag.
Burr. The turned up edge which commonly results
from punching,
or cutting operations on
drilling
metals.
Burst.
BUSH.
A
A
sudden
rent, as
when
a
mould runs
out.
ring of metal inserted in a machine part
intended to receive wear; a ring used as a head
for increasing the pressure
on a casting.
A cheap brass, principally used for
marine engine fittings.
Comp. Cu 46, Sn 5,
BUSH-BRASS.
:
Pb
3, brass 40.
A
Bush-Metal.
Cu
16,
Sn
BUTT-CORE.
core,
Button.
hard
2,
A
Zn
brass,
commonly put
core which
presses
forming a close joint.
technical term applied
A
of metal
into bushes.
1.
against another
to the
round mass
found at the bottom of the crucible
after fusion,
or in the cupel in the
process
of
assaying.
Button Metal.
Buttons are made of alloys which give
sharp impressions and are easily pressed.
White
27
DICTIONARY.
Brass
button metal, comp. Cu 46 5, Zn 53 5.
buttons are mostly made from Bristol brass or
:
similar alloys.
The
Cab.
driver's seat
or
carriage on a travelling
crane driven from overhead.
A
CABBAGE POT (Am.).
kind of mortar, used for
reducing scrap brass or other metal to a ball for
charging into the crucible.
CAKE. A slab of dried sand, used for overlapping or
a
covering
away
space or vacancy caused by taking
a loose piece from a pattern, such as a flange
in a three-way pipe, or the
snugs of a moulding
box pattern.
Calamine. The common ore of zinc: lapis cdlaminaris.
The heating
Calcination.
of ores in order to expel
some of the injurious contents, preparatory to
their reduction to the metallic condition.
Calcium.
A
widely disseminated element
nate, limestone,
Colin.
This term
is
is
;
the carbo-
a valuable flux.
applied to an alloy used by the
Chinese for lining tea-chests.
Comp. Pb 126
1
*25 parts.
parts, Sn 17*5 parts, Cu
Camber.
An upward curve on a beam or plate.
:
CAMLACHIE-CEAMP
A
patch cast round a broken
piece of tackle, such as a box-part or a core-iron,
to bind
it
(Sc.).
together temporarily.
28
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
To
Cant.
an angle.
Broad faced hooks for gripping a
tip over, or to set at
CAN-HOOKS.
flat
surface; hooks which cannot swivel.
CAPE AND CORNER = diagonally. (Am.) Cattycornered.
Capital.
The head
Car (Am.).
A
of a column.
truck or carriage moving on
HOOK.
rails.
Carbon.
An
element which exists in three conditions
amorphous, graphite and
ing to the condition and
element in
iron,
we
crystalline.
proportions
:
Accordof
this
get cast iron, steel or malle-
able iron.
Carborundum = carbide
of silicon; an artificial mineral
produced in the electric furnace
ful abrasive
;
the most power-
C 32
per cent., Si 68
set of patterns fixed
on a board or
known.
Comp.
:
per cent.
CARD
A
(Am.).
plate.
CARDED PATTERNS (Am.).
Patterns fixed on a board
or plate for plate or machine moulding.
Card- Wire.
A
piece of carding cloth, used for rubbing
cores, etc.
CAR-LADLE.
A
ladle
on wheels, convenient for distriSee NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
buting molten metal.
The foundry bogie or truck for conveying
moulds in and out of the drying stove.
CARRYING BAR. A stout iron bar having a depression
in the middle, by means of which two or more
Carriage.
29
DICTIONARY.
men
can support a heavy weight, or carry the
single end of a shank ladle.
A
the surface
process for hardening
case-hardened
be
The article to
of iron castings.
is rubbed over with prussiate of potash, or put in
Case-hardening.
an iron box with shreds of leather, horn,
etc.,
a blood-red heat, and then immersed in
heated to
cold water.
impression taken from a pattern, v. To
pour metal into a mould.
CASTER. In many of the foundries divisional labour
CAST,
An
n.
prevails,
and the business
is
casting.
on in three
making, moulding and
distinct branches, viz. core
The
carried
caster only closes moulds and casts
them.
article
Any
Casting.
cess of pouring
cast
;
the pro-
The
CASTINQ-ON.
iron
which has been
molten metal into a mould.
work
process of uniting cast to wrought
by pouring the former around the
latter while placed in
due
The product
CAST IRON.
position.
of the
blast-furnace;
a
mixture of iron and certain proportions of the
metalloids carbon,
silicon,
phosphorus,
sulphur,
etc.
Crucible cast steel
Cast Steel.
by
is
generally understood
this term, although there are other
methods of
casting.
CEMENT.
Any compound
castings.
used for
See Filling.
filling
up
holes in
30
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
The
Cementation.
process
by which the chemical com-
bination of substances absorbed by iron produces
steel.
A
CENTRE-BLAST.
cupola or converter having the blast
in the centre of the hearth.
One-hundredth
Centesimal Proportions.
Chamfer.
arris
The
parts.
surface formed
by cutting away the
or angle made by two
faces of a piece of wood, metal,
sand, etc.
A
CHANGE HOOK.
hook,
triple
sometimes termed a ram's horn
because of
hook
is
right
its
shape
to
angles
;
the third
and turned
central
hooks above. It
is
the
at
double
a convenient
tool for passing loads
from one
crane to another.
Change -Wheel.
which, when
A
toothed
geared,
wheel
effects a
change in the power or motion
of a piece of machinery
:
as the
CHAPLET.
crane.
CHAPLET.
A
metal stud for holding a core in position
in the mould.
CHAPLET-BLOCK.
A
block of wood or metal which
is
bedded below the mould, to support the stem of a
See PHRASES, p. 114.
chaplet.
CHARCOAL IRON.
Iron made in a furnace in which
31
DICTIONARY.
wood charcoal
showing
angular
crystals
The quantity
n.
into the furnace for
A
Charger.
for
many
or coke irons.
of metal, coke,
one heat.
To
v.
etc.,
load or
put
fill.
funnel for charging metal into crucibles.
The opening through which the
CHARGING-DOOR.
metal
strong iron,
superior
;
purposes to the anthracite
CHARGE,
A
the fuel used.
is
charged into the furnace.
The platform from which the
FLOOR.
is
CHARGING
is
cupola
charged.
CHARGING TONGS.
for
Tongs
charging
metal into
crucibles.
Burned
Charred.
CJAUFFER
(Fr.
v.
;
=
reduced to cinder.
A
to heat).
small stove, usually
a cylindrical box of sheet iron, with a grate at the
bottom and an open
See also Firelamps
top.
;
Kettles.
CHEEK.
A
moved
made
section of a flask so
laterally
to permit
pattern from the mould
;
the
that
it
can be
removal of
the
the forepart or place of
anything.
Chemical Analysis.
The
separation of a compound
chemical processes into its constituents with a view to ascertain either what
substance by
elements
element
is
it
contains,
or
how much
of
each
present.
CHEMICAL Mix (Am.).
A
mixture of cast iron calcu-
lated from the chemical analyses of the different
grades composing the charge.
32
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A
CHILL, n.
metal mould.
To produce
?;.
a cliauge
of crystallisation at or near the surface of cast
iron, so as to increase the hardness.
Some
kinds of
cast iron chill to a greater depth than others.
CHILLED IRON.
surface
are
Chimes.
Chink.
CHINSE,
by
Iron which has been hardened on the
Some mixtures
chilling.
more susceptible
of cast iron
than others.
to chill
A set of bells musically tuned to each
A small opening or cleft
n.
A piece of waste used as a swab.
other.
v.
To
up cracks in a mould which has been dried
close
by moistening the
surface,
and dressing with
sticks.
chiming
CHIPPER (Am.).
man
some
=
a
hammer and
chisel
An
extra facing of metal, allowed on
castings for fitting.
A
wedge or
and act as a
CHOKE.
dresser
a pneumatic chisel.
;
CHIPPING-PIECE.
Chock.
A
To
block, used to
fill
in
any apace
rest.
block up or
obstruct, as
in choking
a
riser.
CHURNING.
Feeding.
A
the safest means by
which vents are provided with a sure outlet in
moulds and cores having large surfaces.
CINDER-BED.
CIRCUS.
A
cinder-bed
is
revolving table for conveying boxes from
a stationary moulding machine to the casting floor.
tool for holding the parts of a box toCLA.MP, n.
A
gether,
v.
To
bind anything.
33
DICTIONARY.
CLAUT
A
(Sc.).
long-handled rake for gathering the
See
the metal in a reverberatory furnace.
slag off
Rabble.
Pieces of clay which have been used for testing
CLAYS.
the thickness or metal space in a mould.
Clay and water mixed ; used for sticking
Clayivasli.
cores together, or for washing over the bars and
sides of boxes or lifters.
A
CLEANER.
tool
for
loose
cleaning
sand from a
mould. (Am.) A dresser, who cleans castings.
CLEANING (Am.). Dressing castings cleaning room
;
=
dressing shop.
When
CLEAN-LIFT.
a pattern
mould, or a top part
is
is lifted
withdrawn from a
without any of the
called a clean-lift.
sand being torn away, that is
Metal free from kish,
CLEAN METAL.
scoriae, dross,
or
oxide.
The space allowed so that one part of
a mould or core will clear another while being
CLEARANCE.
fitted
the part shaved off the joints or prints of a
;
mould
to allow for fitting.
CLICHE CASTING
A
(Fr.).
mode
of obtaining an im-
pression from a coin, die or woodcut,
it
by
striking
suddenly upon metal which has been fused and
is
Pb
just
becoming
solid.
Sn 36, Cd 22.
To hold fast to make
Cliche
Metal comp.
:
50,
Clinch.
CLINKER.
when
;
secure.
Black oxide of
iron
is
It is always formed
iron.
heated to redness in the air.
D
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
34:
To
CLIP.
cut the radius or angle on a branch- or butt-
core.
To
Clog.
CLOSE
;
adhere, as sand to a pattern.
The
CLOSING.
mould prior
Clouded.
(Sc. Clag.)
act of finally shutting
to casting
up a
it.
Shaded, tarnished or irregular in colour or
appearance, as badly applied lacquer on polished
brass, or varnish on wooden patterns.
COAT.
A
layer or course, as first coat, rough coat and
finishing coat, or fine coat on a loam core.
Cobalt.
A
metal occurring in meteoric iron, and in
conjunction with nickel
Brandt in 1733.
;
first
Taking
discovered pure
by
as
its
silver
100,
electrical conductivity is only 11 '22.
An
COCK METAL.
alloy of copper,
zinc
and
lead,
used for small water-taps; the zinc is generally
added in the form of yellow brass. Ex. Copper
:
20
parts, yellow brass 15 parts, lead
A chisel
Cold-Chisel.
COLD-SHORT.
;
cold.
a flaw in a casting, due to cold metal at
Also called Cold-shot.
that part.
COKE.
when
parts.
for cutting cold metal.
Closed or set while too cold to become
COLD-SHUT.
united
Brittle
tempered
2J
The
solid
residuum produced by the destructive
distillation of coal.
COKE-FORK
Coke
is
better handled with a fork than
only clean coke of the proper size
be
can
charged with it.
A form of core-bar
COLLAPSIBLE CORE-BARREL.
with a shovel
;
35
DICTIONARY.
adopted in pipe foundries to facilitate the removal
cx>re from the casting and save the cost of
of the
hay band, the loam being daubed directly on to
An
the bar.
ordinary collapsible bar consists of
three longitudinal segments held in circular section
by
internal cones
After the casting
is
wedging them outwards.
cooled the cones are knocked
back and the segments collapse.
COMBINED CAB BON.
Carbon which has entered into
chemical combination with iron.
According to
the proportion of combined carbon in iron we get
white iron, chilled iron, steel, etc.
"
That proportional weight, usually
Combining Weight.
hydrogen as a standard, by which an
element unites with another to form a compound."
referred to
The combining weights
are either identical with, or
are multiples or submultiples
Tho
Combustion.
oxygen.
COMPOSITION.
alloy
;
of,
union
the atomic weight.
of
bodies
with
ingredients required to complete an
example in making brass, the copper
melted, and then the composition or zinc is
for
is first
added
The
chemical
:
in.
COMPOSITION METAL.
Muntz
metal, or
any
alloy used
instead of copper for sheathing vessels.
Compressed
Steel.
Cast steel which has been subjected
molten condition. The ob-
to pressure while in a
ject of compression
is the
production of a sounder
than
can
in an open mould.
obtained
be
ingot
D 2
36
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
COMPRESSED
CASTINGS.
Castings made
under com-
pression. By an ingenious arrangement a vacuum
is set
up within the mould simultaneously with
the action of a piston forcing the metal into the
mould.
Shrinkage the property by which bodies
assume smaller dimensions.
Contraction.
;
A
CONVERTER.
in
retort used in the
which molten cast iron
manufacture of
is
steel,
decarbonised by a
blast of air passing through the liquid metal
a trunnion ladle with blower attachment.
;
A
bad casting.
In brass-foundries doing
bad
light work,
castings are sometimes used for
metal
to the proper casting temthe
cooling
COOLER.
perature.
Coom.
Soot
smoke
;
black.
The
top part of a flask or mould
part of a loam mould.
COPE.
COPE-KING.
The
of a loam
Copper.
cast-iron ring
mould
A common
malleable
and
conductors
of the most
of
;
the outer
upon which the cope
is built.
metal of a deep red colour, very
ductile, and one of the best
heat and
useful
electricity.
metals in
itself
It
is
and
in
one
its
alloys.
CORE.
The portion
of a
mould which shapes the
terior of a cylinder or other hollow casting
of the
in
it,
;
in-
a part
mould made separate from, and inserted
for shaping some part of the casting, the
37
IXLCTlOiTAllY.
form of which
is
not determined by that of the
pattern.
A
CORE-BARREL.
tube with perforations for the escape of gases, used for spinning cylindrical cores in
loam.
A
CoRE-Box.
box conforming
to the shape of the
internal parts of a casting, usually in halves or
divisions, for convenience in
ramming
or turning
out cores.
CORE.
which CORE
of the words to
Many
is
prefixed
are self-explanatory, as core-bench, core-bay, core-
gum,
core-iron, core-maker, core-oven,
core-sand,
core- arbor, core- wash, etc.
The
CORING-UP.
a
mould
placing of cores in their position in
in readiness for casting.
CORE-STOCKS.
Core- boxes.
Corinthian Brass.
Brass
is
fabled to have been
first
accidentally formed at the burning of Corinth,
146
B.C.
The
Corrosion.
by
corrosive
dissolution or eating
agents,
acids,
away
alkalies,
of metals
etc.,
due to
chemical action.
COURSE.
The quantity of sand which it is conveniram properly in a mould at a time; the
ent to
course varies with the size of the work.
A
layer
of bricks.
A
a gap left in a mould
by withdrawing a part of the pattern without
COVER-CORE.
making a
core which
fills
special joint or parting.
38
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Crack.
A
partial separation of parts
;
a
common
flaw
in castings.
CRAMP.
A
device, usually of iron bent at the ends,
used to hold the parts of a mould together in turn-
ing over, or while casting.
CRIB-PLATES.
Plates for confining a large mould,
These plates are bound
especially a loam mould.
and the space between them and the
together,
mould
CRONK.
is
rammed
Crooked
A
;
securely with sand.
twisted
with
;
wrong.
arms
supporting the
spindle with which loam moulds are swept up
also a four-armed beam used for lifting heavy
CROSS.
seating
for
;
moulds.
CROSSHEAD.
when
The beam which
it is
meant
to
carries a
loam-board
work up and down
instead of
revolving with the spindle.
Crow-Bar. A chisel-pointed bar used for pinching the
carriage into the stove, or for applying a large
leverage for a temporary purpose.
CROWDIE
(8c.).
Meal and water, a drink used by
workers at furnaces.
CROWN.
The dome
of a reverberatory furnace.
A melting-pot, composed of plumbago,
and
other very refractory substances.
fireclay,
CRUCIBLE FURNACE. A pit furnace.
CRUCIBLE.
CRUCIBLE STEEL.
The invention
of
Benjamin Hunts-
man, over 160 years ago. Crucible cast steel is
still
recognised to le the most uniform in quality,
39
DICTIONARY.
and the hardest and most
See notes on STEEL.
tools.
To
Crush.
reliable steel for cutting
bruise or squeeze, so as to destroy the
natural shape of a piece
;
to compress
by pressure
or weight.
The
Crystallisation.
process
by which a substance
in
by mechanical conditions, assumes
solidifying, or
the form of a crystal, or becomes
crystallised
crystallisation im-
;
plies brittleness.
Cupel.
A
cible,
small,
made
flat,
cup-like cru-
of bone-ash, used in
assaying the precious metals.
The process of purifyCupellation.
ing gold and silver by melting
them with
first
lead,
which becomes
oxidated, then
vitrified,
and
sinks into the cupel, carrying
the baser metals with
it,
all
and
leaving the gold and silver on
the surface.
A
CUP-HEAD.
cup or basin which
CUPOLA.
scooped out at the top of a
a head flush with the top of the flask
iu which a mould has been made.
is
runner
CUPOLA.
;
The
iron-founder's furnace for melting and
mixing pig-irons and producing irons suitable
various
kinds of castings.
which iron
is
A
for
space furnace in
melted iu direct contact with the
40
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
and
fuel,
is
supported by the fuel previous to
melting.
CUPOLA BLOCKS.
CUT,
To
v.
Circle fire-bricks for
lining cupolas.
See CRIB-PLATES.
Curb-Plate.
scar or sever
;
to scab
;
to slice sand with
a shovel for the purpose of mixing it. n. A scab
made by the cutting action of molten metal on a
sand mould.
CUTTING-PIECE.
A
stick
mould not desired
for
cutting off part
to be cast,
of a
and to save cutting
the pattern.
CUT-OFF.
A
deadhead or sullage piece
to the length of a
casting
to collect impurities
made
an addition
;
perpendicularly,
and give extra pressure
to the
required parts.
D.
DABBERS.
etc., to
Prods, cast on core-irons, building rings,
make the sand or loam adhere.
A reservoir or tank used for gathering
n.
metal in large quantity, to cast heavy castings.
When sufficient metal has been collected the dam
DAM,
is
emptied by raising a shutter controlled by a
A firebrick wall which forms the front of
lever.
the hearth of a blast-furnace,
v.
To
obstruct the
flow of metal.
Damascus
Iron.
Metal formed of iron and
steel wires
41
DICTIONARY.
and welded together;
elaborately twisted
flexible
iron.
A
Damascus Metal.
locomotive-bearing metal, con-
taining lead.
A
Damascening.
process of decorating metals by in-
etching with
DAUBING.
head
another
A
"
;
metal,
or
by
acids.
Coating roughly with
DEADHEAD.
"
with
incrusting
laying,
sullage
piece,
damp sand
sometimes
or loam.
a
called
the part or extension piece on a casting
poured in a vertical position,
which contains the
greater portion of the oxides and impurities
part of a casting which
DEAD METAL.
not paid
is
;
a
for.
Sluggish metal, liable to produce cold-
shuts.
DELIVER.
A term
applied to the withdrawal of the
pattern from the sand.
or
ill
It is said to deliver well
according to the state of the mould and the
manner
Deflection.
in which
The
it
parts from the sand.
deviation from a right line, especially
of a test bar under a load.
DELTA METAL.
An
of copper, zinc
tions of
Delve.
Density.
alloy of great strength,
and
iron,
composed
with occasionally addi-
phosphorus or manganese.
To dig with a
The quality
spade.
of being compact
;
the specific
gravity of substances referred to water at a tem-
perature of 4
Deoxidised Bronze.
C. as a standard.
An
American steam metal with a
42
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
small addition of phosphorus.
Sn
12,
Zn4, Pb
Deoxidiser.
Comp.
Cu 82
:
;
PO'05.
2,
reducing agent, or any substance
Any
that neutralises the oxides in molten metal.
A
Derrick Crane.
crane having facility for hoisting
and also for swinging the load horizontally.
Small parts or conDections.
Metals which are repelled on
Diamagnetic Metals.
being brought near to a magnet, as Bismuth.
DETAILS.
A
Diameter.
straight line passing through the centre
and terminating at both ends in the
of a circle,
circumference.
A
DIAMOND-POINT.
DIP, n.
faceted chisel.
Inclination downwards,
v.
To immerse
in a
liquid, as brass castings in aquafortis or piekle.
DIPPING METAL.
Fine yellow
brass.
Comp.
:
Cu
73,
Zn27.
An
DIPPER.
who
operative
dips castings, or works
in the dipping shop.
DIRT.
Sullage
;
dross
specks of sand or cinder in
;
metal.
DISH.
To
depress in the middle, or to
make concave
like a dish.
DISMANTLING.
Taking
adrift
;
separating the parts of
a mould to get out the casting.
Dodge.
A
makeshitt
DOG-RAMMER.
DOGS.
;
a tricky device.
See Flat-Rammer.
Holdfasts, used for keeping parts ot a pattern
or core-box together
;
rests for fire-irons.
43
DICTIONARY.
DOLLY.
DOSE.
A
To
polishing bob.
saturate an alloy with
some adulterant, as
lead in brass.
DOUBLE CONTRACTION. The
traction when a casting
made
allowance
is
meant
for con-
to be used as a
pattern.
DOWEL.
A
pin fitting into
holes in
two abutting
pieces, as the halves of a pattern or
core-box, to
keep
them
in
proper
relative position.
DRAFT.
for
The
taper allowed on a pattern
it
drawing
See
out of the sand.
Deliver.
DRAG.
The bottom
part of a
flask or
mould.
DRAWBACK.
A
method
of getting
away
an undercut part of a pattern by
drawing back that portion of the
DOWEL.
mould and resetting it also the plate or frame
which supports the portion drawn back.
;
DRAWHOOK. See Drawspike.
DRAWN. Shrunk a hollow place in
DRAW DAMP.
To absorb damp
;
roundings,
as a
a casting.
from
dry-sand core in
the
sur-
a green -sand
mould.
DRAW-DOWN.
A
drop or sinking of the surface of a
mould, especially where there are thick sections
metal or square corners; due to insufficient
soldiering, or excessive moisture in the mould.
of
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
44
DRAWING
STRAPS.
Iron straps fastened to a pattern
out of the sand.
for drawing it
DRAWSPIKE. A sharp-pointed
patterns.
DRESSING.
tool
drawing small
for
Also called a Drawl look.
Fettling castings
;
cleaning
;
finishing a
mould.
DROP-OUT.
An
unexpected collapse of the cope or
hanging part of a mould.
See NOTES ON TEST BARS, p. 211.
Drop-Test.
DROSS.
Scum the waste mr.tter which forms on the
;
surface of molten metals.
A
DRUM.
cylinder of large diameter
made from wrought
DRUNK. The condition
truth."
Drying
;
a core-barrel
iron.
of being crooked, or
"
out of
See Sided.
A
Stove.
brick
chamber with a
fireplace, for
drying cores or moulds.
n.
Rock sand the sand used for drysand
DRYSAND.
;
moulding.
Ductility.
may
Dull
That property of metals by which they
be drawn or extended without breaking.
Sluggish
;
inert.
Dull metal
is
used by pre-
ference for heavy castings.
DUMB FLOW.
A
riser
which does not come through
the top part.
DUMB
A
SCAB.
patch of sand which has peeled from
the mould and adheres to the surface of the casting, creating a hollow,
with a crust of metal.
which
is
usually covered
45
DICTIONARY.
A
DUMB- VENT.
vent from a hollow core led to some
by means of an underground flue, where
there will be no possibility of sparks igniting the
distance
Holland.
gas and causing an explosion.
model for the underside of a jacket
A
DUMMY- BLOCK.
When
or other core.
is
the core
is
dried the block
removed, leaving the core in the position in
it was
swept up.
which
Dump,
v.
To
(Am.).
hand-barrow,
DUST BAG.
A
unload, as by tilting a cart or
The foundry rubbish-heap.
n.
bag (sometimes a stocking-foot) which
used for holding flour, plumbago or soapstone,
to dust moulds with.
is
DUTCH GOLD.
One
the most
of
malleable alloys
also called dutch-leaf, dutch-foil, dutch-metal,
bronze-leaf.
Cornp.
Cu
:
1 1
,
Zn
;
and
2.
E.
EKE
(Sc.).
An
addition
;
a portable
extension-piece
for a box.
The power
Elasticity.
bound
after the
force
springiness.
;
Elastic Limit.
The
of bodies to
recover or
re-
removal of external pressure or
body can
undergo and yet return to its original form when
relieved from stress
also the unit force or stress
limit of distortion that a
;
required to produce the distortion.
46
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A
ELBOW.
bend-pipe an angle.
Electric Furnace.
furnace giving highly elevated
whose
temperatures,
potential heat is supplied by
;
A
the electric arc.
The
Electrolysis.
com-
whereby chemical
process
pounds are separated into their constituents
means
by
The electro-chemical
of electric currents.
equivalent of a metal
deposited by
is
the weight in
grammes
1 coulomb of electricity.
The
Electro-Metallurgy.
art of precipitating a metal
Metals deposited by
method are generally freer from impurities
than those which are refined in the ordinary
by
electro-chemical action.
this
way.
A
Electrotype.
Electrotypirtg.
cast produced
by electro-deposition.
Copying by precipitating copper or
other metal in solution through
the agency of
electricity.
The
Elongation.
state of being lengthened out
ex-
;
tension.
Grain corundum, used
Emery.
polishing hard substances
;
for
grinding
and
generally in the form
emery
emery powder, or emery wheels.
The lees of beer, used for
EMPTYINGS (Am.).
of
cloth,
hardening cores
poured
;
also
surplus
metal
which
is
out.
Engraving-Bronze. An alloy suitable for sign plates
and panels. Com p. Cu 100, Sn 15.
:
ENTERED
!
An
exclamation used by moulders
when
47
DICTIONARY.
mould together, indicating
that their end of the box has entered the guideclosing the parts of a
pins or stakes.
A
Expanding Metal.
metal which expands on
Pb 9, Sb 2, Bi 1.
Comp.
The act
fying.
:
Expansion.
or
enlarging, especially
expand by
A
Explosion.
solidi-
power of spreading out or
the
property of metals
to
heat.
chemical action which causes the sud-
den formation of a great amount of expanded gas,
as the explosion caused
by the generation of gases
and
in a mould, or the mixture of molten metal
moisture (hydrogen gas).
Extruded Metal.
as
Metal pressed into various sections,
metal which has been
by Dick's patent process
;
stamped or pressed into shape.
Eye-Bar. A pointed or
on one end.
chisel bar with
an eye forged
F.
FACING.
A
powdered substance, as charcoal,
coal-dust,
plumbago, etc., applied to the face of a mould,
or mixed with the sand that forms it, to give a
fine smooth surface to the casting.
FACE-BO ABD.
See Face- Plate.
FACE-MOULDING.
A
process of moulding for obtain-
ing a sharp impression.
The mould
is
dusted over
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
48
with some facing, as lampblack or plumbago, and
(Am.) Returnreimposed upon tbe pattern.
moulding.
A
FACE-PLATE.
patterns
smooth
plate, or
board, on which
forming a plain parting in the mould
are placed in position for
ramming up the drag.
See Follow- Board.
FAINT.
Lacking in
not sharp or
cold-shut;
detail;
full.
Fake,
v.
To
used for
montague
FALSE-CORE.
gloss
over
up
filling
defects.
The substance
Beau-
defects in a casting
Scotch cement.
:
A
loose piece of a
mould
;
a drawback.
Sometimes the undercuts in a pattern are filled up
temporarily, and after it is withdrawn from the
sand,
false-cores are
carefully
rammed
in their
several places.
A parting which
PART.
cannot be moved without de-
FALSE
stroying the mould.
A
Fan.
wheel with vanes fixed
on a rotating shaft, inclosed in
a chamber, to create a blast of
FAN.
air.
FATIGUE.
The weakening of
a metal
when
subjected to
repeated strains.
Faucet.
The enlarged end
of a section of pipe which
receives the spigot-end of the next section.
FEEDER.
A
rod
used
for
pumping metal
into
a
49
DICTIONARY.
casting while
it is
solidifying
above a mould which
;
an excess of metal
serves to render the casting
more compact by its pressure.
FEED-RING. An extension on a casting for feeding.
An anti-friction metal. Comp.
FENTON'S METAL.
:
Zn
Sn
79,
A
Ferro.
16,
Cu
5.
an ingre-
prefix indicating ferrous iron as
Exs.
dient.
ferro-aluminium, ferro -manganese,
:
ferro-sodium, etc.
To put
Fettle.
in order
;
fettle castings, to fettle
FETTLERS.
Dressers
a furnace,
etc.
casting-cleaners.
;
FILLER (Am.). Cement
up defects in castings.
rounded corner where two surfaces meet.
A
Fillet.
to clean or prepare, as, to
The
FILLING (Am.).
for filling
substance used to
fill
a cavity.
See Fake.
See
FILLING-IN.
FOUNDRY PHRASES,
FILLING-UP PIECE.
mould
in a
to
A
fill
p. 114.
shaped piece which
is
inserted
up any part not required
in the
casting.
FIN.
A
ridge left on a casting at the junction of the
The
parts of the mould.
surplus metal formed on a
casting by the metal filling the clearance, or fittingspace, allowed in all moulds, for joints or cores.
Fining. To purify metals.
FINISHING.
After the pattern has been withdrawn
from the sand, all the work done in preparing the
mould
ing
;
for casting is
mending and
embraced in the term
slicking.
finish-
50
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
The
FINISHING COAT.
An
Fireclay.
any
alkali
of loain or facing
core.
infusible clay, free
from
iron, lime, or
used for lining furnaces,
A
Fire-Gilding.
final coat
mould or
applied to a
mode
etc.
of gilding with an
amalgam
of gold, the mercury being driven off afterwards
by
heat.
The mode
FIRING.
of introducing fuel into the furnace
and working it.
FIRE-LAMP. A local term
been
cast.
FIRE-SAND.
less
Silicious
"
To
FLAKED.
for
foundry purposes requires
hence fire-sand.
"
fire
test,
Sparks from molten
FIREWORKS.
which has
sand intermixed with more or
Sand
alumina.
to stand a high
FIT-ON.
for a chauffer
See KETTLE.
iron.
(Colloquial.)
try on, or adjust the parts of a mould.
Streaked
;
scaly
;
marked
;
as a flaked or
imperfect casting produced by the assembling of
minute particles of sand or facing, which have run
before the liquid metal.
FLARE PLATE.
FLARE-UP.
A
See Glimmer.
sudden burst, or spilling of metal on
the floor.
FLASK (Am.).
The box
or frame which holds the sand
When there are more than
forming a mould.
two parts in a complete flask, it is called a threepart flask, or a flask with cheeks, or mid-parts,
as the case may be.
FLAT TOP.
The top
part of a mould which has been
51
DICTIONARY.
rammed up
or swept
upon a pattern
;
The rammer
FLAT-BAMMER.
A
Flaw.
-which
is
used near the
on the hed of an open sand
top of a mould, or
mould, to
up without being imposed
a plain top.
resist pressure.
defect or blemish.
when a casting having
from
the
mould with the whole
comes
perforations
surface covered over with metal.
FLOODED.
Filled to excess, as
FLOOR SAND.
the
Moulding sand which has been used in
floor.
Common
Flour.
flour,
used in foundries for dusting
on moulds, or mixing with core-sands.
FLOW. A riser Floiv-off a riser which
:
;
is
led into
a gutter.
FLOWER.
The
radiated crystalline appearance on the
surface of soft solder,
by which experts judge of
the quality.
An
Flue.
passage for directing a
enclosed
current
of air.
Fluor-spar.
Calcium
iron, steel, etc.
sufficient
FLUX.
Any
when
fluoride
it is
a powerful flux in cast
:
About 6
Ib.
to the ton of iron is
used simply as a flux.
substance or mixture
the fusion of metals
;
used to promote
a solid reagent, added for
the purpose of forming a
compound with the
earthy matter in an ore or metal.
FOAL'S-FOOT.
rounded ripping chisel.
A
FOLLOW-BOARD (Am.).
A
face-board
which, being
E 2
52
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
shaped to the outline of the top side of a pattern,
obviates the making of a parting ; literally a
wooden
See MATCH-BOARD.
oddside.
FONDERIE A CALABASSE (the Calahasse process). An
economical method of melting and using scrapiron for small ornamental castings, practised by
Belgian ironfounders.
See Strickle.
FORMER.
Formula.
A
Specified mixture.
method of expres-
sing a rule by symbols.
The mechanical
which comprises all
the operations of reducing ores, and of smelting
and casting metals.
Founding.
art
FOUNDRY IRON.
Iron undergoes some changes other
than being melted in the cupola; the phrase
foundry iron generally refers to iron ready for
turning into castings.
vessel for holding molten metal
Foundry Ladle.
and conveying it from the cupola or furnace to the
A
moulds.
Foundry
Practice.
The methods
of doing
work
in a
foundry.
Foundryology.
The
science
of
founding
and
its
literature.
FOUNTAIN-KUNNER.
FRACTURE.
See Horn-gate.
The texture of a freshly broken surface.
Metals are often bought or blended by the fracture
only the fracture of a metal varies with its purity,
;
temperature, and the manner in which the rupture
53
DICTIONARY.
has been produced. Fractures are usually
classified
as: 1, crystalline (as antimony, bismuth, zinc)
2,
granular
iron)
4,
;
(as cast iron)
An
called in
FREE SAND.
its
;
5,
;
columnar
6,
;
wrought
conchoidal (as
(as tin or lead).
make
additional part to
a flask deeper,
America a flask-riser a mid-part.
Sand which has little clayey matter in
;
composition
Freezing Point.
which a
3, fibrous (as
silky (as copper)
crucible cast steel)
FEAME.
;
sharp sand.
;
That degree of a thermometer
fluid begins to freeze
;
at
the setting point
of metals: the degree of heat at which a metal
begins to solidify or
FRENCH
A
FLOW.
set.
sarcastic
term for a run-out.
(Colloquial.)
FRENCH SAND.
A
natural moulding sand, of a fine
strong texture and velvety surface; suitable for
intricate bronze castings.
Frusli.
Fuel.
Easily broken friable, as burnt sand.
Combustible matter used for fires, furnaces,
;
coal, coke,
FUEL
RATIO.
wood,
etc.
:
oil, gas, etc.
The quantity
of fuel required to produce
a given proportion of fluid metal suitable for
making
castings.
Fulcrum.
That by which a
about which
it
lever
is
sustained,
FULL BLAST. The highest
melting capacity of a cupola,
or the greatest pressure of fan or blower.
Fumes.
or
turns in lifting or moving a body.
Yapours; smoke.
54
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A vent
FUNNEL.
pipe
;
a
filler
;
a vessel of the shape
of an inverted hollow cone, terminating below in a
pipe,
and used
for filling crucibles
with scrap metal
or borings.
An
Furnace.
inclosed place in which
heat
is
pro-
duced by the combustion of fuel, as for reducing
Furnaces are classified as air
ores or metals.
furnaces when the fire is urged only by natural
draught as Hast furnaces when the fire is urged
;
by the injection artificially of a forcible current of
air ; and as reverberatory furnaces when the flame,
in passing to the chimney,
is
thrown down by a
low arched roof upon the materials operated upon.
The highly
FURNACE LINING.
refractory
materials
used for lining furnaces, as fireclay, ganister, etc.
An alloy which melts at a low tem-
Fusible Metal.
perature.
Comp.
Onion's, Bi 5,
202 Fahr.
Fusibility.
;
The
Pb
:
Newton's, Bi 8,
3,
Sn
2.
Pb
5,
Sn 3
The former melts
the latter melts at 197
;
at
Fahr.
quality of being fusible.
G.
The mouth
GAB.
or opening of a hook, as a crane
hook.
Gable.
The end
of a building;
the sweep of a propeller blade.
The foreman.
Gaffer.
a template
giving
55
DICTIONARY.
GAGGERS.
Hangers
pieces of iron
:
sand of a mould to keep
The method
GAGGERING.
A
Gallium.
it
imbedded in the
intact.
of setting gaggers.
rare metal, resembling aluminium,
and
low melting point (86 Fahr.).
Iron
coated with zinc by being
Iron.
Galvanised
plunged into a bath of molten zinc.
Galvanising.
Coating iron with a layer of zinc to
remarkable for
its
keep it from rusting.
Galvanic Action. The mutual action of certain liquids
and metals
;
dynamical electricity
which causes corrosion
A
Gang.
squad
man.
A
Gangue.
;
action
in metals.
a group of labourers under one fore-
term applied to
stituting the matrix of
GANISTER.
the
;
some
silicious
matter, con-
ores.
A refractory silicious stone, which is ground
and mixed with
fireclay for lining furnaces, cupolas,
etc.
An
Gas.
elastic fluid,
commonly
referred to in the
foundry as air.
Gas
Coke.
The
soft
coke which results from the dry
distillation of coal in gas-works.
for use in the cupola,
stoves
GATE.
is
It
is
too friable
although suitable for drying
and brass furnaces.
The channel
poured
into
ingate or git:
or opening through which metal
a mould; sometimes called the
a sprue.
There are numerous
forms of gates, as lall-gate, a gate with a ball cut
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
behind
it for the
purpose of feeding branch- gate,
a gate leading from the main gate horse-shoegate,
a double gate forming a horseshoe ;
pop-gate or
;
;
plump-gate, a direct-pouring gate
skim-gate, a
to
skim
the
metal
on
its way into
gate designed
;
the mould
castings,
spray-gate, a series of gates for small
;
branching
off a central
runner, sometimes
called a finger-gate.
A moulder's
GATE-CUTTER.
tool for
scooping a
nel for the metal to run in
by
for
off gates
from
gate-knife.
See
cutting
castings
;
;
also a
chan-
machine
Sprue-Cutter.
An
GATE-PIN.
upright runner
which forms the connection
between
and the
the pouring head
casting.
An
GATE-SPOOL.
inverted cone
with a knob-like handle
used
is
smoothing
;
it
and
for
shaping
the runner, or
GATE-SPOOL.
head, in small moulds.
A
GAUGE.
stick.
template for gauging dimensions.
Wind-Gauge, an instrument
for
See Size-
measuring
the force of the blast.
Gear.
Tackle; plant
;
the mechanism which trans-
mits motion to the parts of a machine.
GERMAN
SILVER.
A
silver-white
alloy,
hard and
tough, containing copper, zinc and nickel in vary-
57
DICTIONARY.
ing proportions, with sometimes small additions of
Standard comp. Cu 60, Zn 20,
iron, lead or tin.
:
Ni20.
A
GIG.
stool
work
in
;
loam
jobs.
GLIMMER.
A
with a central socket for a spindle to
the gig is used for sweeping up small
plate covering the
ladle to
glare of molten metal from the
To
Glow.
keep the
workmen.
shine with an intense or white heat
;
to
he incandescent.
A
Goggles.
kind of spectacles for protecting the eyes
of furnacemen, etc.
The most
Gold.
The Standard gold
malleable metal.
an alloy containing 8 33 per
when molten in
Colour, yellow
of Great Britain
cent, copper.
is
;
large quantities, green.
Gold Solder.
Comp.
Cu 4 parts.
GOLDEN BRONZE.
Gong.
A
flat
GONG-METAL.
A
:
Au 12
parts,
Ag
2
parts,
Aluminium-bronze.
saucer-shaped
Comp.
:
Cu
bell.
82,
Sn
18.
gripping objects to enable them to
be moved about.
Grab.
tool for
n.
to regulate the
v. To classify
Quality,
content and condition of carbon in pig-iron, as
Grade,
;
grey, mottled
Grade No.
and
The mark
white.
of quality in cast-iron.
No.
1,
a soft porous iron which has to be mixed with
scrap or other grades with smaller crystals for
58
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
finished
-work
;
the
fracture
presents
crystal of dark bluish cast.
which takes a
close iron
No.
2,
fine finish.
a
a
large
medium
No.
3,
the
common
grey iron, used for general castings.
Texture the arrangement of the particles of
Grain.
;
a metal.
GRAIN TIN.
Eefined tin of the purest quality.
GRAPHITE.
Carbon
exists in cast iron in
graphitic and combined.
A cast
GRATING.
GREEN.
frame with crossbars
Imperfectly dried
;
two
states,
Free carbon.
damp
;
a core-iron.
moist.
;
GREENSAND.
Moulding sand used for a mould while
slightly damp, and not dried before the cast is
made.
GREY
IRON.
Cast iron containing
a
comparatively
high proportion of graphitic carbon.
GRID.
GROUT,
A
v.
joints
GRUNTER.
grating
To
;
between
A
crucibles
a core arbor.
in with grout,
fill
thin mortar, as the
bricks.
hook used
up
i.e.
in brassfoundries in
to the pouring-hole of
lifting
a flask intended
to be cast vertically.
Gudgeon.
The pin
fastened in the end of a shaft or
core-barrel.
GUIDE MARKS.
Clay or loam patches fixed on the
on the sections of
sides of a moulding-box, or dents
a loam mould, and marked across the joint before
the mould is separated, to enable it to be put
together again with the parts in proper position
;
59
DICTIONARY.
a makeshift, used where box-parts are not pro-
vided \\ith pins.
GUN-METAL.
at)
Usually an alloy of copper, tin and zinc,
Comp.
Admiralty gun-metal.
Zn
2, or
GUTTER.
Cu
Sn
87,
A channel
8,
Zn
:
Ou
88,
Sn
10,
5.
for leading metal into a pig-bed,
or for venting a core.
A
Guy.
guide rope
thing to steady
a rope or chain attached to any-
;
it.
HAND-LADLE.
H.
HACK-SAW.
A
light frame
saw
for cutting metals
by
hand.
Haft.
A
handle.
HAMMERED METAL.
when
Metal hardened by hammering
it
cold.
HAND-LADLE.
A
small
ladle
comfortably by one man.
which can be carried
60
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
HANGERS.
Gaggers
:
pieces of iron for carrying the
weight of projecting or depending parts of a
mould.
An
HARDENING-.
alloy of equal parts copper
and
tin,
used in the manufacture of anti-friction metals
and
metal
bell
;
the element which has the effect
of hardening a soft metal, as copper in gold, zinc
in aluminium,
HARD
antimony in lead.
is machined with
Iron which
IRON.
difficulty:
white iron.
HARD
Lead which has been alloyed with some
LEAD.
hard metal, as antimony in type-metal, tin in
pattern-metal, and arsenic in shot -metal.
HARD
SOLDER. Brazing solder any solder which sets
with a hard surface, and is difficult to melt.
;
Comparative degrees of firmness or un-
Hardness.
yielding qualities in metals.
HATCHING.
out
Lines on a pattern or drawing bringing
details.
HAY-BAND.
Hay-rope, used
the rope
is
wound on
making loam cores:
make up
for
the core-barrel to
the difference in size between the barrel and the
core diameters
barrel
HEAD.
;
;
and to
The top
to bind the
loam securely
to the
ass st in venting the core.
;
of a runner which
is
enlarged to
supply the mould with metal a cut-off or sullageAlso the height of a column of liquid, or
piece.
;
the pressure equivalent to that height.
The floor of a furnace on which
HEARTH.
the
61
DICTIONARY.
material io be heated
is
placed
the bed of a
;
furnace on which the metals melt.
HEAT.
The
quantity of metal
melted
at
a
single
operation.
HEAVY METALS.
The
metallic elements not included
in the groups of alkalies, or alkaline earths, specifi:
cally
gold, mercury, platinum, lead, silver, etc.
An important ore of iron also a special
kind of pig-iron, used for strengthening other
HEMATITE.
;
brands.
Hemp.
Hemp or tow
is
used for winding on small core-
bars previous to daubing on the loam
;
it
is
also
wrapped round gate-pins to prevent the sand
from getting into mould while the head is being
rammed.
HERCULES METAL.
iron
Hitch.
;
An
alumiDium-bronze, containing
made by the Cowles
A knot or noose in a
Co.
rope which can be readily
undone.
HOLLOW-WARE.
Cast-iron kitchen utensils, pots, pans,
kettles, boilers, etc.
Hook.
A piece of metal formed into a curve for catch-
ing hold, as an S-hook, a double link, shaped like
an S
lin/c-hooJc, a hook with an eye for Unking
;
on to an open hook.
HOOP-BINDER.
A length of hoop-iron encircling a
course of bricks in a loam mould and having
tension applied by tying the ends with wire and
twisting
till
perfectly taut.
62
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Hopper.
A
chute, usually funnel-shaped, for feeding
material
machine
a
to
bell
;
and hopper, the
apparatus at the top of a blast furnace
which the charge
through
introduced while the gases
is
are retained.
HORN-GATE.
A
tapered circular gate, which supplies
the metal from underneath the mould, filling it
with the least possible amount of
HORSE-DROPPINGS.
core
A
and facing
common
friction.
ingredient in loam and
them porous and
sands, rendering
suitable for conveying gases from the mould.
Heated
HOT-BLAST.
air
ores were smelted
drawn
blast,
until the year
;
1828
iron
by the aid of a current of
air
from the atmosphere, then the hotwhich is effected by the utilisation of waste
direct
furnace gases, was introduced
economising
fuel.
with a view to
Cold-blast iron
is
stronger than
hot-blast.
HOT-SHORT.
Brittle
when
HYDRAULIC GUN-METAL.
hot.
A
metal capable of with-
standing great hydraulic pressure.
Ex.
:
Cu
87,
Snl3.
I.
Often used adjectively to characterise
things which have a deceptive appearance, as
imitation bronze, cast-iron coated with bronze-
Imitation, a.
powder ; imitation gold, some of the brass
alloys.
63
DICTIONARY.
Foreign matter
IMPURITIES.
;
undesirable elements in
a metal.
White, glowing -with intense heat.
Incandescent.
Incapable or
Infusible.
ING ATE.
is
difficult
of fusion.
The
principal channel by which the metal
run into the mould.
A
INGOT.
mould
;
bar of metal which has been cast in a
also the
copper, steel, etc.
called pigs
INSIDE STAKES.
;
mould
ingot mould.
Ingot
Iron and lead in this form are
tin, blocks
itself,
zinc, cakes
;
;
gold, bars.
A
term applied in sarcasm to the
marks left by unequal ramming close on the joint
See Monkey Knuckles.
of a mould.
IRISH TIN.
Iron.
of
A
nickname
for
Pig Lead.
Probably the most abundant, useful and valuable
all
the metals.
Iron
is
employed for mechanical
purposes in three states, viz. cast iron, wrought
Cast iron is now treated as an
iron and steel.
alloy of pure
iron with
the metalloids carbon,
silicon, phosphorus, sulphur and manganese, and
the various grades are produced by controlling the
proportions of these elements present.
J.
JACKET-CORE.
JAM.
A
core forming an outer covering, or
surrounding the main core in a casting.
To wedge, squeeze into a tight position, or
press close.
64
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A
JAMMER.
See Springer.
spring chaplet.
JEWELLERY.
Delicate castings, especially fine brass-
work.
Jib.
The
A
JIG.
arm
or
beam
of a crane.
contrivance fastened to or enclosing a piece of
work
JOINT.
projecting
a templet or guide.
;
The
place
where two
parts, as of a
mould,
are capable of being separated and put together
;
a parting.
Journal.
That part of a machine which turns in a
bearing, as a shaft, spindle, etc.
A long chisel-bar or a quick-cutting
"
used for " jumping a hole.
JUMPER.
" JUMPERS.'*
The sparks which
scintillate
tool,
from fused
iron containing a high proportion of carbon in the
"combined"
condition.
K.
Kaolin.
China
clay, extensively
used for making clay
crucibles for steel melting.
KARA KANE.
Japanese bell-metal.
Cornp.
:
Ou
10,
Zn 1-5, Sn4, Ag 1-5.
" KEEP'S TEST." A method of
determining the perof
silicon
in
cast
iron, invented by W. J.
centage
Keep, Detroit.
yoke, and
A test-bar is cast
the silicon content
amount of shrinkage and
chill.
is
against an iron
judged by the
65
DICTIONARY.
A
KETTLE.
small
or
chauffer
fire-lamp,
used
drying loam moulds at certain stages of
for
con-
struction.
To
KILL.
counteract
as for example, antimony
:
is
said to kill the lead in a cock-metal mixture.
KILLED - SPIRITS.
Soldering
fluid
:
spirits
of
salts
which has been neutralised by
(muriatic acid)
the action of zinc.
An
KINGSTON'S METAL.
metal.
Kink.
KISH.
Kit.
A
Comp.
Sn
:
almost obsolete anti-friction
88,
Cu
Hg
6,
6.
twist in a rope or chain.
Grit or scum in metals.
A
trade outfit
KNURLED.
:
a kit of tools.
Provided with ridges
:
milled, as the edge
of a coin.
KunzeTs Bronze.
Sn 4
to 15,
Comp.
P 0-5
:
Cu 66
to 91,
Pb 4
to 15,
to 3.
False copper.
The arsenide of nickel.
"
The word " Nickel is a term of detraction, having
Kupfernickel.
been applied by the old German miners to what
was looked upon as a kind of false copper.
L.
LA CIRE PERDU
(Fr.
=
the lost wax).
Briefly, this
of modelling a pattern in wax, surrounding it with plaster of Paris, firing it to
burn out the wax, then casting the metal into the
consists
cavity.
F
66
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A
LACQUER.
varnish, consisting of a solution of shellac
in alcohol,
and some colouring matter
etc.
dragon's blood,
them from
An
Ladle.
;
applied
like saffron,
to metals to
keep
tarnishing.
iron pot or vessel to carry molten metal
from the furnace
APPLIANCES,
p.
LAMB AND FLAG.
to the
mould.
See NOTES ON
151.
A
famous brand of tin
Cornwall
tin.
LAMINATED.
Scaly
thin
;
layers
with
little
ad-
hesion.
A
LANTERN.
temporary drying apparatus.
See Fire-
lamp.
LE MOULAQE
The French
FRAN^AIS.
moulding statuary and
The
ings.
pattern
is
system
of
intricate ornamental cast-
reproduced in sections by
the ordinary dry-sand methods, and the pieces are
afterwards joined by means of mortise and tenon
joints, screws, or burns.
Lead.
A
bluish-white
soft
metal, of
low tenacity,
largely used in the manufacture of pipes, sheeting, etc.
;
also
an important ingredient in
of the alloys, as
many
type-metal, solder, cock-metal,
anti-friction metal, etc.
LEAN.
Thin
;
bare as to size
;
smaller than the print
or size-stick.
LEAVE.
Level.
Separate; part.
instrument used for finding the horizontal
An
line.
67
DICTIONARY.
A
LIFTER.
with an eyelet, which
roc!
core-irons, or an iron bent to
or sides of a cope
;
or tool for lifting
is
fixed into
hang from the bars
(Am.) a cleaner
See
loose sand from the mould.
a tied gagger
;
Cleaner.
A
LIFTING-SCREW.
kind of eye-
which screws into a plate
fixed
in the pattern, and
bolt
enables the moulder to get a
steady
drawing the
in
lift
pattern.
LIGHT ALLOYS.
aluminium
Alloys in which
the chief com-
is
ponent.
LIGHT METALS.
Alkali metals or
metals of the alkaline earths.
Limestone.
Calcium carbonate
;
a
valuable flux for cast iron.
The
Lining.
internal covering of
anything, as furnace lining or
ladle lining.
LINING
or
METAL.
Babbitt metal,
anti-friction
metal
used
for lining bearings.
Lip.
The mouth
or pour of a
LiFTING-SCKEW.
ladle.
LIQUATION.
The
separation of an
easily fusible metal
from one
less
fusible, as
from copper in bronze.
F 2
tin
68
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
LOAD.
To
some
adulterate or to saturate, as lead or zinc in
alloys, or
Loadstone.
LOAM.
mercury
in
some amalgams.
Magnetic iron ore.
A
mixture of sand, clay and other materials,
used in making moulds for large castings, often
without a pattern.
A
LOAM-BOARD.
sweep, or templet, for shap-
strickle,
ing some part of a mould in loam.
LOAM BRICK.
A mass of loam which
bricks are
ordinary
would
has been
Loam
a brick-mould and then dried.
shaped in
chiefly
bricks,
interfere
used
on
for building
account
of
where the
their
rigidity,
with the free contraction of the
casting.
LOAM-CAKE.
A
flat
slab of dried loam.
See Cake;
Cover-core.
LOAM MOULDER'S CROSS. See Cross.
LOAM MOULDER'S HORSE. A top bearing
for the spindle
which
is
kept in position by a tie-rod. See NOTES
ON APPLIANCES, p. 157.
LOAM MOULDER'S GIG. A stool with a central socket,
upon which loam moulds may be
built
and
lifted
off again.
LOAM MOULDER'S SQUARE.
a notch to allow
it
to
fit
A
graduated square with
close against the spindle
;
used for marking angles, circles, etc.
LOAM-PLATE. The foundation plate of a loam mould.
A cupboard for tools having a lock attached.
A rapping-bar, usually round and
LOOSENING-BAR.
Locker.
69
DICTIONARY.
pointed, for jarring patterns previous to lifting off
the cope or drawing out a pattern.
LONG TON.
2240
The ton
Ibs.
reckoned as 2000
Ibs.
A part of a
LOOSE PIECE.
any way, and
in
in U.S. is sometimes
is
pattern which
withdrawn
is
not fastened
main
after the
pattern has been taken out.
Waste
Loss.
:
the proportion of metal which oxidises
or volatilises during the process of melting.
Spoiled: the moulder speaks of having
LOST.
a casting
"
lost"
turns out bad.
if it
LOTTINOPLASTIQTJB.
M. Lottin de
Laval's
method
of
taking paper moulds of inscriptions, basso-relievos,
An
etc.
adaptation of this
method has been
found useful for rotary presses requiring flexible
stereotypes curved to fit the moving drum.
That which
Lug.
projects like
an
ear, as
the lugs of
a moulding box, or loam-plate.
LUTE.
To
close
or seal
up a
joint;
to lute
on the
cover of a crucible.
LUTING.
Fireclay or loam daubing used to lute any-
thing.
A
vegetable powder, largely used in
the manufacture of fireworks, and in America by
Lycopodium.
moulders to prevent the sand from clogging to
patterns.
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
70
M.
See NOTES
J\!ACHINE MOULDING.
ON
APPLIANCES,
p. 146.
An
MAGNALIUM.
alloy of
Comp.: Al 100,
A
Magnesium.
Mg
magnesium and aluminium.
10
to 30.
silver -white
metal,
and
malleable
ductile ; used chiefly in pyrotechny and photography, and recently in alloys for mathematical
instruments.
A
famous anti-friction metal, the principal
ingredients of which are lead, tin, antimony and
MAGNOLIA.
:
bismuth.
A German
MAILLECHORT.
silver
containing
about
15 per cent, nickel and a small proportion of
A
Makeshift.
iron.
temporary expedient.
MAKING-UP PIECE.
any deficiency
A
in
a
piece of
wood
for
mould
after
the pattern
making-up
is
withdrawn.
Capable of being extended or shaped by
Malleable.
beating or pressing.
MALLEABLE BRONZE. Tobin bronze. Delta metal.
MALLEABLE CAST. Partially decarbonised cast iron
made from pig
articles
by heating
iron and
;
made malleable
in the presence of oxides,
which de-
of some of its carbon.
prives the cast iron
A small maul or mell with a short handle.
Mallet.
MANDRIL.
shape
A
it
;
bar of metal inserted in the work to
a metal core.
71
DICTIONARY.
An
Manganese.
cast iron
abundant metal which much resembles
in appearance
The metal
and physical properties.
readily to be of
too
oxidises
much
an ingredient of some few alloys,
as manganese-lronz where 2 per cent, manganese
service, except as
,
added to an ordinary brass alloy greatly increases
the strength, hardness and ductility of the metal
;
or ferro-manganese, used for increasing the density
and hardness of
MANGANESE-PIG.
Mn
what more
steel.
made from
Iron
ore containing some-
than the regular grades.
An
MANILLA METAL.
alloy of
copper and arsenic,
from which the money used by certain
the
West Coast
Akin
MAPPED
to
of Africa
Muntz
;
a volatile alloy.
metal.
Streaked;
(A.).
made
is
tribes of
mapped
is
casting
some-
times caused by too rnucb sea coal used in the
sand
;
the surplus facing
is
washed in irregular
lines by the inflowing metal.
Marine Acid. Spirit of salt. Muriatic
Marine
Glue.
acid.
Ordinary glue, made with an
milk or linseed
MARINE METAL.
oil,
An
to assist
alloy
it
of
addition of
to repel moisture.
lead,
antimony and
mercury, for sheathing ships.
MAKES.
Characters or indications serving for guidance
mould together. See Guide.
pattern from which duplicates are
in fitting parts of a
Master Pattern.
A
made, and having double shinkage allowed.
MATTE. The first product obtained from the smelting
72
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
In the case of copper it
consists principally of sub-sulphides and about
40 per cent, metallic copper also a dull, frosted
of copper or other ores.
;
surface on metals.
MATCH
An
(Am.).
oddside
;
a perforated board, block
of plaster, hardened sand,
is
partly imbedded,
in
etc.,
for giving
which a pattern
shape to the surfaces
mould
(plural
MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. See Keeps Test.
MELTING POINT. The degree of heat at which
a metal
of separation between the parts of a
matches).
See MATCH.
MATCHBOARD.
passes from the solid to the fluid condition.
MELTING RATIO. See Fuel Ratio.
MELTING ZONE.
The
space in which iron
melted in
is
the cupola, usually from 12 to 20 inches above the
top of the tuyeres.
a notch in a loam- board, serving to
line
MEMBER.
A
;
locate certain radii in the mould.
Mend.
To
repair, restore or patch
to
;
make good any
fault.
Mercury.
A
metallic
element which
ordinary temperatures, and
to
a
soft,
malleable,
is
solidifies at
ductile
metal.
liquid
at
39
C.
Alloys of
mercury with other metals are called amalgams.
The distinction between a metal and a non-
Metal.
metal
is
a purely
artificial one.
Chemists define
a metal as an electropositive element capable of
reflecting light
and conducting heat and
electricity,
73
DICTIONARY.
and whose oxides have basic rather than acid proPopularly the name
perties.
is
applied to certain
fusible metals, as gold, silver, copper, etc.,
mixed metals or metallic
to the
and also
alloys, as brass,
bronze, steel, etc.
The
METALLOGRAPHY.
science of microscopic analysis
of metals.
Elements which in the
Metalloids.
unlike metals, and whose
free
compounds
state
are
possess acid
rather than basic properties.
The
Metallurgy.
from their
art of separating
A frame
MID-PART.
and refining metals
ores.
moulding box
for a
;
the middle
part in a three-part box.
MINARGENT.
Cu 100
An
alloy used
parts,
Ni
MINERAL FACING.
70,
by
W
5,
is
and Al
1.
low graphite
meant merely to be dusted
Anthracite
carbon facing, which
jewellers, consisting of
coal, or
on a mould when a particularly smooth surface
is
not required.
MIRROR METAL.
copper, tin
MITIS CASTINGS.
wrought
Speculum metal, usually an alloy of
and arsenic.
Castings
iron, cast
the invention of a
Mixer.
A
machine
for
made from a mixture of
iron
and aluminium-bronze,
Swede named Ostberg.
mixing sand
;
or the material
used for giving special qualities to moulding-sand.
In brassfoundries, the term is generally applied to
the furnaceman.
74
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
An
MIXING METAL.
alloy prepared for the purpose of
mixing in with other metal. See HARDENING.
MIXTURE. The ingredients composing an alloy. See
Composition.
A
MOCK PLATINUM.
etc.
white
white brass.
;
The
Modelling.
used for buttons,
alloy,
Comp.
:
brass 8, zinc 5.
art of designing or copying
works of
art in clay or wax.
"
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY.
The measure
of the elastic
any substance expressed by the ratio cf
on a given unit of the substance to the
force of
stress
accompanying distortion or
MOIRE-METALLIQUE
strain."
The ornamental appearance
(Fr.).
obtained by treating the surface of metals, as
aluminium,
MOKUM.
An
etc.,
with dilute
tin,
acids.
upon gold and
made by the Japanese. It is pre-
alloy used for decorations
silver articles
pared by placing thin plates of gold, silver and
copper upon each other, and stretching under the
hammer.
Molasses.
MONKEY.
falls
Treacle, used for mixing into core-sand.
A weight or ball which, being raised on high,
on any object underneath used for breaking
;
heavy pieces of cast iron.
MONKEY KNUCKLES. Indentations on the parting of a
The moulder
mould, due to irregular ramming.
who produces them
fellows.
is
the laughing stock of his
See Inside Stake.
75
DICTIONARY.
MOTTLED
Pig-iron which
IRON.
is
a
decided
mottle,
portions
between the two
The
extremes of white and grey.
of
fracture shows
white iron being
scattered through a matrix of grey iron.
The
Mould.
cavity from which anything
is
shaped
;
matrix.
One
MOULDER.
making moulds
the art of
skilled in
for castings'.
MOULDER'S GLUE.
Expectorations.
The
MOULDER'S TOOLS.
ries
tools
(Colloquial.)
which the moulder car-
about with him are small, but numerous.
They include
trowels, level, rule, slickers, cleaners,
Other
callipers, etc.
tools of trade are supplied
by the masters, and are called shop
Moulding Sand.
Sand
containing clay,
suitable
for
tools.
making moulds,
and sometimes mixed with other
materials, as sawdust, flour, coal-dust, etc., to
it
open.
MOULDING STALL.
in
;
A
division for a
moulder
to
work
a bench.
MOULDING TUB. A trough
made in brassfoundries.
MUDDING-UP (Am.).
Muffle.
make
A
in
which small moulds are
See Steam-up.
furnace for annealing castings
;
a covering
or compartment used in furnaces to protect objects
heated from the direct action of the
Muntz Metal.
Comp.
:
Cu
60,
Zn
40.
fire.
76
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
N.
A
Nail, n.
stud.
nature
To
v.
Few
Native Metal.
gold
fasten or secure with nails.
of the metals are found pure in
the most prominent
is
;
un-
free or
combined metal.
An
NAVAL BRASS.
Nave.
The hub
NEST.
A
A
and
cast
Comp.
Cu
:
62,
Zn
of a wheel.
set of small core-tubes of
NEST-EGG.
by the
37, Sn 1.
alloy frequently specified
British Admiralty.
mould
meant
left
to
over
figure
size.
graduated
from the
in
the
present
next heat.
(Colloquial.)
NEW
METAL.
A
metal or alloy melted for the first
time, as distinguished from re-melted metal or
metal made with scrap.
NEW
SAND.
Sand
fresh from the quarries
and
pits,
furnished to founders for moulding purposes.
To
Nick.
cut or mark, as a piece of metal, to see
the fracture.
A
Nickel.
white tenacious metal, strongly magnetic
next to manganese, nickel
metals.
The
bility of steel,
addition of
is
the hardest of
Ni reduces the
and increases
its
;
all
corrodi-
tenacity.
Small pincers or pliers for cutting wires.
METALS. Metals which do not combine with
Nippers.
NOBLE
oxygen when heated in contact with
air,
and at a
UNIVERSITY
.O,
77
DICTIONARY.
red heat remain indifferent towards water.
gold,
Silver,
mercury and platinum are the most import-
ant metals belonging to this group.
Notions (Am.).
NOWEL
Small wares or
The
(Am.).
trifles.
core or inner part of a
casting a large hollow object
mould
also the
;
for
bottom
part of a flask in distinction from the cope
the
:
drag.
A lump
NURNBERG GOLD.
Nugget.
of metal.
An
alloy
which
is
frequently used
in the manufacture of cheap gold ware.
Au
2
5,
A17-5, Cu90.
NUTS.
Small coal
:
fuel
which has been screened.
O.
on a pattern usually indicates a screw, nail or pin
which requires to be undone in the process of
moulding, so as
drawn.
ODDSIDE.
A
box
to
allow
part, usually
the impression
having
the
pattern
rammed with
of
the
to
be
sand, and
top-part
of the
used for making the parting, or to save
pattern
bedding in. See MATCH.
;
To bid,
OPEN HEARTH.
Offer.
or estimate a price.
The shallow hearth
of a reverberatory
furnace.
OPEN-HEARTH STEEL.
Siemens-Martin
steel.
Cast
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
78
iron
converted into steel by the addition of
is
iron, or iron ore
wrought
and manganese, and by
exposure to heat in an open-hearth furnace.
A method
OPEN-SAND MOULDING.
applicable to castings
having a
of moulding only
flat
upper surface
;
moulding without a cope or top-part.
Ore.
Any
native metallic compound.
sionally alloys,
are
associated
Ores are occa-
but the great majority of them
with other elements, as oxides,
sulphides, carbonates, etc.
ORDNANCE BRONZE.
The
original gun-metal,
Cu
90,
SnlO.
An
much used for purely artistic
Comp. Cu 58 '3, Sn 16-7, Zn 25 '3.
purposes.
Cu 90,
Another example of this gold-bronze
Sn 6, Zn 4.
ORMOLU
(Fr.).
alloy
:
:
OROIDE
An
(Fr.).
tin,
alloy, chiefly of copper,
resembling gold in colour
OUNCE METAL
(Am.).
An
alloy
and
zinc
and
brilliancy.
suitable for steam
Comp: Cu 16, Sn 1, Zn 1, Pb 1.
The weight or number of castings put
fittings.
Output.
the foundry in a given time.
OVER- ALL.
Oxide.
"A
A
for
an outermost dimension.
binary compound of oxygen with an atom
"
popularly referred to as rust.
Combining with oxygen.
or radicle
Oxidation.
shop term
out of
;
DICTIONARY.
P.
German
Cu 40-4, Ni 31*6, Zn 25 '4,
Chinese white metal, resembling
PACKFONG.
silver.
Comp.
:
Fe2-6.
Pieces of iron for
PACKING.
making up space between
binders.
Liquid facing black wash, core wash, etc.
PALLIONS. Thin strips of metal, used for soldering
PAINT.
:
work
fine
or jewellery.
Surplus metal which has been poured out
PANCAKES.
on the
floor.
Paper makes an excellent substitute
parting-sand at parts of a joint where it is
PAPER-PARTING-.
for
difficult to
condition
;
apply the sand either in the wet or dry
it is mostly used in
loam-moulding as
a separator between parts.
A lot or portion of anything, as a parcel of
Parcel.
gun-metal.
To separate.
Part.
PARTING.
The
joint of a
mould
;
the outline which
separates the parts of a mould.
PARTING SAND. Burnt sand, used for covering a joint
so as to keep the parts of a sand mould from ad-
hering.
PASTED CORES.
Cores which have been dried in halves
and then pasted together with flour
Patch.
To mend,
or
make up
paste.
deficiencies.
80
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
PATENT METAL.
Any
Patent Metal
Babbitt or anti- friction metal.
was originally known as "Babbitt's
when other makers of this class
Babbitt's metal
"
;
of metal entered the
dropped naturally.
PATINA.
The aeruginous
Mrugo
the
to
comes on
atmosphere.
See
Nobilis.
A
mould
which
coating
bronzes by exposure
PATTERN.
the word Babbitt's was
lists,
made
is
around which a sand
full-sized model,
mostly made
Patterns are
to receive the metal.
of wood, but they
may
be made from
any substance strong enough to resist the pressure
of ramming, etc. There are many kinds of patterns
:
as solid pattern, a pattern cut out of the solid
or metal
;
"built
pattern, a pattern
made up
wood
of small
skeleton pattern, a pattern
of
the
the
outline
casting only ; shell pattern,
giving
a pattern which permits core and mould to be made
pieces glued together
;
simultaneously; carded patterns, a plate having
patterns fastened on one or both sides.
PATTERN-METAL.
Patterns which would be
warp, or be easily
made
damaged
Cast iron
in metal.
is
if
made
liable to
in wood, are
not the most suitable
metal for patterns, although, owing to
its
cheap-
and duplicates a
soft
For small patterns
metal with low shrinkage is
a desideratum.
Tin
8,
ness,
fine
many
are
made
therein.
pattern-metal, but
expense would be an
and antimony
for
1,
makes a
heavy patterns the
objection.
Aluminium has
81
DICTIONARY.
come
lately
many ways
metal suitable in
into favour as a
for
It compares
foundry patterns.
favourably in price, weight, and general results
with any of standard pattern alloys.
To strip off the skin or burnt sand on the face
PEEL.
of a casting.
To
PEEN.
stretch or
draw metal with the peen of a
hammer.
A
Peg.
wooden
pin.
PEGGING HAMMER.
A
light
narrow rammer, used
for
pressing the sand into corners.
A
PENDULUM.
PENE
;
slicker for deep flanges.
PENE KAMMER.
PERISHED METAL.
its original
A
PEWTER.
See PEGGING
"
strength.
Burnt
"
lost
iron.
hard, tough, easily fusible alloy, originally
consisting of tin with a
by the addition
from the
little lead,
but modified later
of antimony, copper or bismuth.
The
PHILOSOPHER'S WOOL.
rise
KAMMEE.
Metal which has oxidised or
flakes of zinc oxide
yellow-brass
alloys
are
which
termed
"Philosopher's Wool/'
PHOSPHOR-BRONZE.
An
from 1 to 3 per
ordinary bronze
cent.
P.
containing
The phosphorus
is
introduced into the bronze generally as phosphide
of tin,
and imparts increased hardness,
etc. to
the metal.
elasticity,
Physical Properties of Metals, usually considered, are
specific
tenacity,
gravity,
hardness,
elasticity,
fusibility,
elongation,
:
volatility,
ductility,
malle-
82
FOUNDEY NOMENCLATURE.
viscosity,
A
PICKLE.
power or
conductivity, fracture, flowing
ability,
and welding.
bath of dilute acid for removing burnt sand
from castings, or to improve their colour.
PICKLING.
An
PIG.
Dipping castings treating with acids.
oblong mass of metal, as pig-iron, pig-lead
;
;
ingot.
A
PIG-BED.
channels
bed arranged with a series of
running metal into ingots called
sand
for
pigs.
Cast iron as
PIG-IRON.
it
comes from the smelting or
blast-furnace.
A
PiG-InoN BREAKER.
iron
into
short
machine
lengths
for breaking
for
charging
up pig-
into
the
cupola.
A foundry term for a gate-pin or a flask-pin.
PIN-BOARD. A strickle board having a pivot.
PIN.
Minute
PINHOLES.
on a casting
PINCHBECK. An
air-holes,
after it has
which sometimes show
been machined.
alloy of copper
and
zinc, invented
Christopher Pinchbeck about 1700
;
in the manufacture of cheap jewellery.
Cu
PIPE.
88,
A
Zn
by
much used
Comp.
:
12.
shrinkage hole, especially a hollow in an
ingot of steel.
Pipe Foundry.
pipes
Pit.
is
A
foundry where the manufacture of
a speciality.
A large hole in the foundry
jobs are cast.
floor in
which heavy
83
DICTIONARY.
The
Pit-Head.
the
surface of the
ground at the mouth of
pit.
Marked with
PITTED.
little
hollows
;
unsound.
Metal made smooth by light
PLANISHED METAL.
blows with a hammer.
PLANT,
n.
Equipment
tackle
;
;
tools,
v.
To bed in
a
job.
A
Plaster-Cast.
copy of an object obtained by pourParis, mixed with water, into a
of
ing plaster
mould.
An
PLASTIC BRONZE.
alloy of cojpper, tin, lead
arsenic, lead ranging from 21 per cent, to
and
47 per
cent.
An
PLASTIC METAL.
its fluidity for
soldering iron.
PLATE MOULDING.
practised
anti-friction metal
which retains
some
time, and works well with a
Ex. Sn 81, Cu 8, Pb 9, Bi 2.
:
An
economic process of moulding
where there
is
a large quantity wanted
from the same patterns. The patterns are fixed
on a plate, which is interposed between the top
and bottom halves of the
PL ATE- WALLOPER.
flask in moulding.
A piece-worker at plate moulding.
(Colloquial.)
PLATFORM.
The charging
Platinum.
One
in
aqua
reyia.
able, ductile
floor of the cupola.
of the noble metals, insoluble except
White, non-tarnishing, very mallelargely used in technical
and infusible
;
and chemical manufactures.
metal
known around which
Platinum
is
the only
glass can be fused,
a 2
84
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
and
indispensable in the manufacture of electrical
is
apparatus, such as incandescent lamps.
The metal
is now becoming scarce.
A. hard, white coloured bronze.
Platinum-Bronze.
Cornp.
PLUG,
:
A
n.
Cu
43,
Zn
22,
Ni
Pt
30,
5.
conically-shaped piece of clay, which is
fixed to the button of the bott-stick.
v.
To plug
the tapping-hole of the cupola.
Plumbago.
which
Graphite
;
and ensures smooth
PLUMP.
To
plump
POCKET.
blacklead
acts as a separator
cast
foundry facing,
between metal and sand
;
castings.
or let drop suddenly.
See Gate:
gate.
A
cavity in a
mould
;
or a piece of tackle
serving as an enclosure for a projecting part of a
pattern from which a mould
POCKET-PRINT.
A
print which
parting-joint of a pattern,
is
being made.
is
prolonged to the
"
and
stopped over
"
after the core is fitted in its place.
POLING.
A
process in refining copper.
of the metal
is
covered with
prevent access of air,
wood
is
introduced,
fine
The
surface
charcoal to
and a long pole of green
when
a violent evolution of
and other reducing gases takes
Various tests
the oxygen.
and
removes
place
are applied during this operation, as it is one
hydro-carbon
requiring extreme nicety, the result of too long
"
"
"
continued " poling
copper,
being
over-poled
and the reverse " under-poled."
DICTIONARY
See Gate.
POP-(TATE.
Porous.
85
.
Spongy
nietal
;
which
is
permeable by liquids
;
unsound.
A crucible
POT.
An
POT-METAL.
a cast-iron. ladle.
;
alloy of copper
and lead
:
a
common
cock-metal.
In some foundries the moulds are
POURING-FLOOR.
made
in a different part
where they are
Potinjaune
A
PRESS.
(Fr.).
ramming machine
"
Pressure.
A
of the building
from
cast, hence pouring-floor.
Yellow brass.
thrust which
for small
is
moulds.
equally intense in
all
directions around a point."
A
PRICKER.
sharp pointed wire, used for venting cores
and moulds.
A
PRINT.
in the
projecting piece on a pattern which forms
mould an impression
for holding in place
or steadying a core.
PRINTING (Am.).
PRODS.
See Punting.
Dabbers; projecting teeth or prickers on a
loam-plate.
Prove.
To
test,
or
make a
trial,
as in setting a loam-
board or centering a core in a mould.
PUDDLING.
iron
A process in
and
steel.
The
the manufacture of wrought
iron is subjected to intense
and frequent stirring in the presence of
oxidising substances to free it from impurities and
heat
some of
its
PUNTING (Am.).
carbon.
Stamping
:
a method of closing the
86
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
pores of a mould which cannot be slicked.
After
the facing has been dusted on, the pattern is
"
returned to the mould and " punted or knocked.
See Return Facing.
Q.
QUEEN'S METAL.
Britannia metal
an alloy consist-
:
ing essentially of tin, with a slight admixture of
antimony, bismuth, lead or copper.
Mercury so-called from
Quicksilver.
:
resemblance to liquid
its
its
fluidity
and
silver.
R.
A long iron bar or flapper, for stirring molten
metal in the reverberatory furnace.
BABBLE.
"KAB HA'"
(Sc.).
A reservoir for molten metal
;
usually
a large tank fitted with a sluice, daubed or lined
with sand.
is
This
is
a
common
it
inconvenient to cast with ladles, or where the
ladle capacity is too small.
notorious glutton.
BACE.
makeshift where
A
Kobert Hall was a
See Gathering Metal
;
Dam.
sloped bed of sand in which wedges and
rough tackle are sometimes cast.
Radius. The semi-diameter of a circle.
A barb
BAG.
Rake.
The
:
an irregular fin or ragged edge on a casting.
inclination of anything
dicular direction
;
angle.
from a perpen-
87
DICTIONABY.
bars used for drawing the
Long round
BAKING-BARS.
residuary coke, slag and metal, from a
solid
bottom
cupola, after the cast.
A
RAMMER.
render
BAMMING.
tool for
it
pounding the sand of a mould to
compact.
Pounding sand; an operation
in
mould-
ing requiring judgment, the force of the blows
being tempered to suit the various thicknesses and
areas of sand in a mould.
RAMMING-BLOCKS.
used
Plaster or
some
in
classes
metal reverse moulds
of repetition work.
See
Block Moulding.
Range. Originally a chimney rack
whole fireplace.
BAP.
To
free a pattern,
a mould,
by
BAPPING-BAR.
and
now used
;
facilitate its
for the
removal from
a series of light blows.
A
spiked bar, which
is
struck to knock
the pattern about.
Iron plates, which are let into the
faces of a pattern to effect the loosening of the
RAPPING-PLATES.
same from the mould by rapping upon a bar
inserted into holes in the plates.
BATTLER.
A tumbling-barrel,
from castings.
BAT'S TAIL. A small,
for cleaning the sand
fine swab, tapered
like a rat's
tail.
RECEIVER.
A
receptacle in a furnace or ladle for hold-
ing molten iron and keeping
slag, etc.
it
free
from cinder,
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
KED
Tomlac.
BRASS.
collective
KED
term
Comp.
:
Cu
85,
Zn 15
;
also a
for the various alloys
distinguished
by hardness, and used for bearings of heavily
loaded and rapidly revolving axles.
METAL. Cock metal ; steam metal. Ex. copper
:
64, tin 4, yellow brass 8, lead
KED-SHORT.
KEDUCE.
when
Brittle
To bring
1.
hot.
to the metallic state
by separating
from impurities.
Refiner.
One who
The
KEFINING.
purifies metals.
last process in
the manufacture of the
commercial metals.
Refractory.
Difficult of treatment, as fusion or re-
duction.
KEFUSE.
Scum,
EEGENERATOR.
dross, kish, scoria.
A
device used in connection with gas-
burning furnaces, in which the incoming air or gas
is heated by being brought into contact with masses
of iron, brick,
etc.,
which have been previously
heated by the outgoing air or gas
Siemens' pro-
cess.
Regulus.
The name given by
the alchemists to the
metallic substances separated from other matter
by fusion.
KEMELT. To melt a second time
;
to
render metal
homogeneous by remelting.
EEPEAT WORK.
Castings
with a large number on
order.
Respirator.
A
gauze covering, for the mouth or nose,
89
DICTIONARY.
some metal workers from inhaling
to prevent
noxious fumes.
A
BEST.
or
stool
support
;
a
beam
small
or
trestle.
KETURN FACING.
Facing suitable
for light
work or
delicate impressions, requiring the return of the
mould
pattern to the
The
being dusted over.
a combination of light
after
best return facing is
carbons.
Scrap metal returned from the dressing-
RETURNS.
yard
home
;
A
Rhodium.
scrap.
See Furnace.
Reverberator*/.
rare metal
;
obtained from some ores of
platinum, and largely used for pen points.
A bar or ridge of metal which tends to stiffen a
Bib.
casting.
EIDDLINGS.
Eefuse
;
hard worthless material
left after
riddling sand.
EIG.
To
fit
A
EINGER.
with tackle
;
to arrange appliances.
malleable iron binder, which forms a loop
over the binding bars.
EISER.
feed head ; an opening in a mould to allow
A
air or dirt to ascend.
EOASTING.
Submitting to the action of heat and
by which most of the impurities
air: a process
in ores are oxidised
and slagged
off,
as silicates,
etc.
EODDED
(Am.).
Fixed or stiffened with
wire through the centre of a core.
rods, as the
90
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A moulding
EOLL-OVER Box.
box which can be turned
over.
An
EOMANIUM.
alloy of
Al 98, Ni
1,
W
1.
Bope Tarn. The best material for moulders' swabs.
KOTTEN ROCK. A special sand largely used in some
localities for cores
and hollow-ware
;
rotten sand-
stone.
ROUGH
A
CASTING.
which has not been
casting
machined or tooled in any way.
RUB-STONE. A piece of sandstone, brick or emery,
used by dressers to rub off the sand adhering to
the surface of a casting.
A piece
RUBBING-BOARD.
of stick used for dressing
loam moulds and cores prior to finishing with
See Chinse.
black wash.
RULOZ SILVER
French
facturers
standard
Ni 25
RUMBLER.
are
Sometimes
(Fr. Argent-Buloz).
An
silver.
for
articles
silver.
called
alloy used by French manu-
Comp.
formerly
prepared
Ag
Cu 37
:
33,
from
to 42,
to 30.
An
made
iron
barrel in
which small castings
to rub against one another
motion and clean the sand
off;
by a rotary
sometimes called
a tumbler or a rattler.
RUNNER.
A
channel for leading molten metal into a
also the metal left in
mould, ladle, or pig-bed
;
the channel.
Run.
To
fuse, to melt, to escape, as
starts to run.
when
a crucible
91
DICTIONARY.
EUN
A
OUT.
burst or leak in a mould while
it is
being
cast.
KUN
Malleable iron castings.
STEEL.
RUST.
The
film of oxide which forms
is exposed to moist air
hence,
;
on iron when
by
it
extension, any
metallic film of corrosion.
s.
:
Sodden
Safe-Edge.
heavy with moisture damp.
The uncut edge of a smooth file.
SAJTE SIDE.
On
SAD.
To
SAG.
;
;
the right side
sink in the middle
;
;
sure.
to lose firmness
;
to give
way.
SALAMANDER.
See Scaffold.
Ammonium
Sal-ammoniac.
chloride, used as a flux.
Acid potassium sulphate
Sal-enixum.
:
an excellent
flux for brass.
SAND.
Foundry sand
is
a variable article, or rather
All sands taken direct from the earth
compound.
contain more or
less vegetable matter, \vhich
out as soon as the molten metal strikes
burns
it.
For
and
fireproof substances are
added to divide the particles or fusible element of
this reason, facings
sand.
For heavy
sand, and
the mould.
British
iron castings, loamy sand, old
coal dust, are generally
mixed
Core sand usually contains
gum,
for facing
flour, rosin,
or other binding material.
No
hard
92
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
and
can
be devised for mixing the
various qualities of argillaceous or siliceous earths
fast
rules
moulding the moulder must use his
and
consider the nature of the metal as
judgment,
available for
;
well as the weight of the casting.
"SAND ARTIST"
A
(Am.).
sarcastic
term
for
a
moulder.
The sand-bed made by ramming about
SAND-BED.
3 inches of sand on the bottom of the cupola
"
"
open-sand
" SANDLESS
PIG-IRON."
an
Iron which has been cast into
metallic ingot-moulds.
"
"
pig
;
bed.
Sometimes called " chilled
machine-cast pig."
;
SAND END.
That part of the foundry where only sand
moulds are made, as distinguished from the loam
end.
SAND
SIFTER.
SCAB.
An
A
machine
for riddling sand.
incrustation on the surface of a casting,
caused by the metal washing away sand from that
part of the mould.
SCAFFOLD.
An
accumulation of partly fused material,
forming a shelf or dome-shaped obstruction above
the tuyeres in a blast-furnace.
SCAFFOLDING.
The term used when the
alternate
charges of coke and iron in the cupola get "hung"
or wedged, so that the succeeding charges cease to
fall
SCALE.
down and
The film
castings
melt.
of oxide formed on iron and steel
by annealing.
93
DICTIONARY.
The topmost
SCONCE.
piece
of
packing
used
in
binding.
Scoriae.
The scum
Scotch.
To wedge,
SCOTCH CEMENT.
SCRAP.
Spillings
:
or dross of metals.
chock, or prevent from slipping.
See Beaumontague ; 'Filling.
fragments of metal or defective cast-
ings for remelting in the foundry.
A
SCRAPER.
ing
tool for levelling off the
sand in a mould-
flask.
SCREW-CLAMP.
SCRATCH BRUSH.
A
stiff
wire
brush for cleaning
castings.
Screiv-Clamp. A clamp which
with a nut.
SCREENING.
Dross, scoria.
SEA-COAL.
threaded and fastened
Passing foundry sand or coke through a
screen.
Scum.
is
See Facing.
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
" SEAM-UP."
To
up the seams or
stop
with skilly or
soft
joints of a
mould
loam.
as phosphor-bronze is a
Penetrating
metal burning into the pores of a
SEARCHING-.
:
searching
mould.
A bearing for a core or a section of a mould
SEATING.
;
print.
A
Section.
division or slice of anything, or a repre-
sentation of such.
A
Sector.
radii
part of a circle comprehended between two
and the included
A
Segment.
arc.
part cut off from a figure by a line, as
the segment of a
SEGREGATION.
The
circle.
act of separating
:
as in the pro-
cess of solidification of alloys, the heavier metals
sink, or the less fusible metals set
The
.SELF-DELIVERY.
own
first.
delivery of a pattern leaving
core as distinguished
its
from one which requires
to be cored out.
To become
SET.
Sliaclde.
Shaft.
solid
A clevis,
The handle
rammer
of certain tools, as
hammer
shaft,
shaft.
" SHAKER "
(Am.).
SHANK.
to solidify, as metal sets.
;
a loop fitted with a movable bolt.
A ladle
An
fitted
oscillating
sand
sifter.
with bars forged to a hoop for
supporting and handling it.
An attachment to the spindle used in
.SHEAR IRON.
loam moulding, and
fastened.
to
which the loam board
is
95
DICTIONARY.
Metal sheets used
SHEATHING.
SHELL PATTERN.
SHORT.
Brittle
for sheathing vessels.
See Pattern.
as cast iron
:
is
said to be hot short
or cold short.
A
SHORT CAST.
casting spoiled through insufficient
metal being poured into the mould.
Shore.
To prop
SHOT.
Spillings
Short-run.
or support anything.
the
in
form
of
small
globular
ammunition, an alloy of lead 1000
and arsenic from 3 to 8, Shot is prepared by
letting fall, from a height, drops of lead into
masses
water
also
;
;
and an addition of a small quantity of
helps its solidification, and
arsenic to the lead
gives to the shot a
hardening
SHRINKAGE.
more spherical shape besides
it.
The dimension
lost
by
contraction
in
metals while cooling.
SHRINKING HEAD.
A
body of molten metal, connected
with a mould, for the purpose of supplying metal
to compensate for the shrinkage of the casting
;
also called sinking
SIDED.
Twisted
;
head and
riser.
leaning to one side, as a core un-
equally divided, or a casting showing an uneven
joint.
SiDE-EuNNER.
A
runner, or gate, which supplies the
metal by the side of the casting.
A
metalloid which
always combined in
nature.
Characteristically the element of the
mineral kingdom, as carbon is of the organic
SILICON.
is
96
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Acts as a softener in cast
world.
and a
iron,
deoxidiser in copper alloys.
SILICON-BRONZE.
or without
An
alloy of copper
and
silicon,
with
tin.
SILICON-COPPER.
The most approved
flux or deoxidiser
for brass alloys.
One
SILVER.
"
of the
noble
"
metals
and best conductor of
metals,
whitest of all
;
electricity.
A German silver without nickel.
Cu 67 '5, Si 5, Mn 18, Zn 13, Al 1-20.
SILVER-BRONZE.
Comp.
:
Another imitation
SILVERETTE.
Al 94, Ni
A
SIMILOR.
2,
Cu
2,
Sn
silver alloy.
brilliant gold-like brass.
ZnlO-5, Sn
A
SINK-HOLE.
Comp.
:
2.
Comp.
:
Cu
89,
'5.
caused by the shrinkage of
metal on solidifying a draw.
cavity
:
SINKING HEAD.
A
riser,
from which the mould
is
fed
as the casting shrinks.
SIZE-STICK.
are set
A
SKIDS.
A measuring stick,
and cores are made.
pair of bars
to
which loam boards
which stretch across the mould-
ing tub stretchers.
Sand and water mixed to a
SKILLY.
;
soft consistence
;
slurry.
SKIM.
To
SKIMMER.
one
clear the surface of
A
who
SKIMMINGS.
ming
molten metal.
bent iron for skimming metals
;
also the
skims.
Dross of metals, ashes,
hole.
etc.,
from the skim-
97
DICTIONARY.
A
SKIM-GATE.
gate designed
ensure that the
to
casting gets only clean
metal.
To put on
SKIN.
a thin coat
of loam.
SKIN-DRY.
Partially dried.
SKINNING-UP.
Putting the
fine loam
SKIM -GATE.
coat of
last
on a core or mould.
Small
Slack.
SLACKENING.
coal, or
half-burnt coal.
Believing parts of a casting to allow
it
to contract freely.
The metal which
SKULLS.
sets in the
bottom of the
ladles after casting.
SLAB-CORE.
SLAG,
See Cake; Cover-Core.
The
n.
dross or recrement of a metal,
clear metal
SLEEKER
;
To
from scum.
To make smooth.
SLEEK.
v.
SLICKER.
Sling.
A
SLIP.
Fine loam;
A
(Am.)
slick.
tool for slicking
moulds.
rope or chain for suspending a heavy body.
also
called
Dull, inactive.
Cold
skinning-loam.
Sluggish.
metal (colloquial).
SMELTING.
Fusing ores
purpose
of
for
separating
the
and
refining the metals.
SNAP-FLASK.
repeat
A
flask
SNAP-FLASK.
for
small
work, the sides of
which can open on
n
98
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
hinges and leave the finished sand-mould intact
;
a portable moulding-box.
SNUG.
See Lug.
SOAPSTONE. Talc
a hydrous silicate of magnesia.
:
Soakage.
Shrinkage.
SOAKING.
Allowing molten metal to remain in the
furnace after
SOFTENER.
it is
ready.
Silicon, graphite, or
any substance which
has a softening influence on cast iron.
Plumbers' solder
Soft Solder.
To
SOLDER.
:
Sn
1,
Pb
2.
unite the surfaces of metals by
means
of a more fusible metal, which, being melted upon
each surface, serves partly by chemical attraction
and partly by cohesive force to bind them together.
FAT.
Powdered colophony and salammoniac.
SOLDERING
"
killed
Prepared dilute acids
used to clean the surfaces to be soldered.
SOLDERING FLUID.
spirits,
"
:
Pieces of wood, used for supporting hanging parts of a mould.
SOLDIERS.
The heavy runner which conducts the molten
Sow.
metal into the rows of moulds in a pig-bed
;
an
ingot runner.
SPARE.
Metal over and above what
necessary for a
is
cast.
The
ratio of the
weight of a body
to the weight of an equal volume of some other
body taken as the standard or unit in considering
Specific Gravity.
;
solid
and liquid
bodies, water at 4
C.
is
taken as
99
DICTIONARY.
the standard
;
one cubic foot at this temperature
weighs 62 -42511)8.
A
SPECULUM METAL.
hard brittle
alloy,
used for mak-
ing metallic mirrors, as reflectors of telescopes;
usually consisting of copper and
proportion of arsenic.
According
best proportions are:
i.e.
tin,
copper
with a small
to
Boss,
the
126*4, tin 58*9,
atomic proportions.
SPELTER.
The
trade
name
hard solder as spelter
for zinc
;
also applied to
solder.
\\\ Vx^xrx
SPILL-TROUGH.
A fusible
SPIEGELEISEN.
white cast iron, containing a
large proportion of carbon (from 3 to 7 per cent.)
and
some manganese.
When the manganese
25 per cent, and upwards, it has a
reaches
granular structure, and constitutes the alloy ferromanganese, largely used in the manufacture of
Bessemer
SPILLINGS.
steel
;
called also spiegel
and spiegel-iron.
Scrap metal spilled during a
SPILL-TROUGH.
A
cast.
tray for catching spillings, used in
brassfoundries.
H 2
100
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
SPILLY.
Containing dross.
SPINNING METAL.
Any
malleable metal or alloy which
can be shaped into a hollow form by
pressing
against it with a smooth tool or roller while it
revolves.
The method
SPLITTING.
pulleys, etc.,
of dividing castings, as wheels,
and relieving them from tension by
mould to effect a separation
inserting plates in the
in the act of casting.
A regulus
Speiss.
assaying, a
consisting essentially of nickel
compound
Full of cavities
Spongy.
SPOON METAL.
;
The
A series of
central runner
to
the standard
spoons.
Comp.
:
through which the metal flows
orifice
from the furnace
SPRAY.
in
porous.
The name given
German silver put into cheap
Cu 50, Ki 25, Zn 25.
SPOUT.
;
of a metal with arsenic.
to the ladle.
castings or patterns attached to a
;
or a branched runner
made
tribute metal in all parts of the mould.
to dis-
See GATE.
Moulders' brads for binding weak parts of a
Spriggs.
mould.
A
SPRINGER.
The
SPRUE.
bent plate for steadying a core.
hole through which melted metal
poured into the gate
is
and thence into the mould
;
also the waste piece of metal cast in this hole.
SPRUE CUTTER.
SPY.
To
amine
A
machine
for cutting off sprues.
look under the cope of a mould and exit.
101
DICTIONARY.
An
Spy-Hole.
opening for looking into the furnace
during the operation of melting.
To arrange
Stack.
in piles: as to stack boxes, pig-
iron, etc.
A
STAKE.
wood driven
piece of
into the
ground
to
stay or guide the position of a cope or top part.
See PUNTING.
STAMPING.
STANG
;
on,
A
STANGY.
piece of wire with a plate riveted
and used as a support
for a core in place of a
chaplet.
A
Staple.
meant
loop of iron or other nietal
to act as
a stay.
STARS.
star- shaped castings, made in very hard
and used in tumbling barrels
Small
iron,
for cleaning the
sand off castings.
A permanent opensand moulding-bed.
STATIONARY-BED.
STEAM
METAL
Gun-metal
(Am.).
suitable
for
Comp.:
Cu
boiler
86,
Sn
mountings.
7,
Zn
5,
Pb2.
An extra
STEADY-PIN.
long box -pin for keeping a cope
in true vertical position while
Steel.
it is
See NOTES ON MATERIALS, p.
STEEP JOINT.
shift
A
1
being parted.
63.
deep parting in a mould: a make-
which enables the moulder to use a shallow
top part for a deep joint.
Sterro Metal.
Cu
55,
Zn
An
alloy of brass
41, Iron 4.
and
iron.
Comp.
:
102
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
A
Stiffening Bar.
bar to prevent a pattern from
warping.
STIRRER.
piece of wood, iron or plumbago, used for
A
agitating metals.
To prevent tbe metal from running out of
wben casting.
STOP-OFF.
To close or fill in with sand a part of the
STOP-UP.
the joints
mould not required
Stool
A
for the casting.
or small trestle.
rest,
Straight-Edge.
A
board used to ascertain whether a
line is straight or a surface even,
and
for
drawing
straight lines.
Strain.
The terms
strain and stress are sometimes
used synonymously, but there should be this distinction
strain is the alteration of form caused by
:
force
;
stress is the force operating
produce
STRAPS.
and tending to
strain.
The
leather straps used for lifting cores into
the mould.
STREAKED.
A
defect in castings
due to the careless
application of blacking.
See SKIDS. A distance piece, to keep a
from
sling
chafing the work.
STRICKLE. A board for smoothing the surface of a core,
or for striking off superfluous sand or loam.
STRETCHER.
STRIPPING PLATE.
A
device which
moulding machines,
is
used on some
to permit of deep lifts being
made without breaking the edges of the mould.
STRONG SAND. Milled sand, or rock sand mixed with
103
DICTIONARY.
loam
sand which
:
resists
metal and does not scab
A
Stud.
the cutting action of
easily.
chaplet, nail, or metal support.
The
Sublimation.
deposit of a solid from a state of
vapour.
SULKY LADLE.
The
SULLAGE.
See NOTES ON APPLIANCES,
scoria
p.
146.
on the surface of molten metal
in the ladle.
A
SULPHUR.
non-metallic element which
is
diffused in combination with the metals.
extensively
The
chief
ores of silver, lead, zinc, antimony, etc. are sulphides.
Sulphur
is
an undesirable element in
metals.
" SUN
ABOUT."
FOUNDRY PHRASES,
See
p.
114.
yarn rafs
tail,
SWAB.
SWAB,
n.
for
A
chinse, or a rope
used
damping the edges of a mould and for black-
washing v. To wash over or make moist.
To liquate to unite by heating after the
SWEAT.
;
application of solder.
SWEEP.
A movable
templet for shaping moulds in loam.
SWEDISH CHARCOAL IRON.
mercial iron.
Probably the purest com-
104
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
An
SWELLING.
enlargement on the surface of a casting caused by stress, or a soft place in the mould.
A ring turning on a staple the trunnions of
Swivel.
;
a moulding-box.
Symbol. An abbreviation for the name of an element,
and consisting of the initial letters of the Latin
name.
T.
A
TABLE.
TACKLE.
of mixtures or charges.
list
Plant
;
apparatus required to produce cast-
ings, as core-irons, lifters, etc.
TACKY.
Sticky, adhesive
as
:
when
a core has been
i.ewly black washed.
A
Talc.
soft mineral, of
plumbago
Tally.
TAP,
v.
soapy
feel,
used as a bond in
facings.
To keep count, or check off.
To draw off metal from a furnace by
piercing
the breast.
A
TAPPING-BAR.
clay-bott
pointed iron bar for removing the
when
it
is
desired to tap the metal in
the cupola.
Tarnish,
v.
To
lose lustre.
TEEM, v. To pour or cast metal.
TEEMING-BOX. A hole in the floor about 2
feet deep,
with sand spread over the bottom, for pouring
crucible steel into ingot-moulds.
105
DICTIONARY.
TEMPER,
To moisten
v.
to a proper consistency
sand or loam for moulding
chilling, as steel
;
:
to harden metals
as
by
or by alloying, as bell-metal,
;
pewter, etc.
TEMPLET.
See Sweep.
Tenacity.
The
greatest longitudinal strength a sub-
stance can bear without tearing asunder: tensile
strength.
"
A
TERRA FLAKE."
trade
name
for
soapstone, or
" white
plumbago."
TEST BAR. A bar of metal (sometimes attached to the
casting),
which must bear certain
physical, before the casting
ON TEST BARS,
THERMAL
chemical or
See NOTES
accepted.
211.
p.
A
TEST.
is
tests,
severe
test
applied to locomotive wheels.
which
A
is
generally
certain quantity
poured round the outer circumference of the wbeel, and allowed to contract
of molten iron
"
upon it.
Thermit"
is
A mixture
of ferric oxide, aluminium and
barium super-oxide, which on ignition develops
"
"
By the application of Thermit
intense heat.
Feildens Magazine, December
can be welded, and highly refractory
(as described in
1900), steel
metals like chromium and manganese can be reduced in a state of purity not obtainable by the
ordinary processes.
THICKNESSING.
A
method of moulding by putting a
thickness of sand, clay or loam,
upon the core
106
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
when
there
there
is
them
See Boss.
Annealed iron wire, thin and
TIERS-ARGENT
Ag
1,
A
A
Al
tie
Also called Tie-rods.
together.
TIE WIRE.
Tin.
no pattern, or upon the mould when
Irons fixed on the handles of hox parts to
TIERS.
TILE.
is
no core-hox provided.
one-third
(Fr.
pliable.
An
silverX
alloy
of
2.
furnace cover.
white, crystalline metal which enters into
soft,
of the alloys.
many
The creaking
TIN CRY.
when
bent.
TITANIUM.
An
noise produced
of
alloy
tin
and
by a bar of
copper
used
tin
for
pewter-ware.
TOMBAC.
A
cheap gilding metal
jewellery.
A
Tor-PfiiNT.
Red
brass.
used for
Comp.
Cu
:
86,
common
Zn 14.
print placed on the top of a pattern to
guide the core into
TORCHED MOULD.
A
its place.
mould over which a torch has
been held to close the pores. This is the practice
with fine brass work which cannot be faced in the
ordinary way.
"
ToTE-Box
"
(Am.).
blackwash,
A
Trammel.
circles,
TRAMPING
A
box or
pail for carrying loam,
etc.
beam compass, used
in
drawing arcs of
a method of
ramming which,
or as a divider.
or
TREADING
when thoroughly
is
understood,
is
of great value to
the moulder, owin<^ to the fact that upon an equal
107
DICTIONARY.
thickness of sand, a man's weight applied at every
portion must result in an
over, and thus produce a
equal depression
rammed
surface
all
of
If this operation
equal density at every part.
with
is not
judgment and care, the
performed
casting will most
assuredly betray the moulder's
ignorance or neglect
treading
bein^
;
alternate heavy
unmistakably
TRANSPLANTING.
of
part
the
the
" TOTE-BOX."
Drawing
floor
by
the casting's surface.
undulating appearance of
Holland.
FOUNDRY
and light
revealed
or
the
flask
pattern
out
and bedding
of one
it
in
another.
TRANSVERSE TEST.
i.e.
the
strain
The
transverse breaking weight,
necessary
to
break
a
bar of a
given section placed between supports 12 inches
apart.
TREADING.
Trestles.
Ramming
with the
Movable supports
loam cores are turned.
;
feet.
See Tramping.
the supports on which
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
108
A double-ended
TRICKY.
slicker for bushes or
rounded
surfaces.
Trowel.
A
tool used for
them
smoothing a mould.
on the sides of boxes to enable
A journal
Trunnion.
to be rolled over while
suspended on the
crane.
The trough
TUB.
which brass-moulders ram up
in
small moulds.
TUCKING.
Pressing the sand close against the pattern
This is generally done with
or round the soldiers.
the fingers before using the rammer, but only in
places inaccessible to
ordinary ramming, as for
under portions of a pattern
being bedded in.
example near the
which
is
TUMBLER.
A
tumbling
TUMBLING CORE.
A
barrel, rattler, or rumbler.
core with a double parting,
and
which can be turned over with the mould.
Tungsten.
in steel
A
and
rare metal, very hard
infusible,
making, and in a few of the modern
used
alloys,
as
Wolframinium.
TURNOVER BOARD.
A
face
board
patterns are laid while the drag
up, after which
it is
is
plain
being rammed
turned over.
An alloy
TYPE METAL.
type plates,
used for making type, stereoIt consists essentially of lead and
etc.
antimony, with occasionally a
copper.
on which
Comp.
:
Sn
80, Sb
little
20.
tin, nickel or
109
DICTIONARY.
u.
A
UNDERCUT.
pattern
is
said to be undercut
when
those portions which are lowermost in the mould
The usual methods of
have larger dimensions.
dealing with undercuts are
pattern, or
"Up."
See
Up-end,
v.
A
pieces
on the
drawbacks in the mould.
FOUNDRY PHRASES,
To set on end.
Uranium.
loose
p.
114.
metal of the chromium group, and with
similar properties.
V.
Veins.
Small cracks
in a
mould, which produce veins
on the casting.
VENT.
An
air passage,
intended to carry off the gases
moulds and cores \vhen brought into
with
the molten metal.
contact
produced in
VENT- WIRE.
A
pricker, for piercing sand
cores, to facilitate the egress of gases
moulds and
formed at the
time of casting.
VENUS METAL.
An
alloy of equal parts of copper and
antimony, so-called because of its beautiful pinkviolet colour.
The m^tal
commercial value.
is
too brittle to be of anj
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
110
VERDE ANTIQUE
A
(old green).
a green
finish to brass
articles
are
cleaned
process for imparting
and copper goods.
from
thoroughly
finished with a scratch-brush,
and
common
salt,
The
grease,
dipped in a
solution consisting of: vinegar, 1 quart; sal-amnioniac,
250 grains
;
250 grains
;
When
taken out of the liquid a
ammonia, J
green froth begins to form on the surface; this
has to be spread with a camel-hair brush, then
oz.
dried with
a second
brush.
Allow 24 hours
putting on another coat,
before
Three or four coats give a deeper
then
lacquer.
colour.
Acetate of copper, or " copper-rust."
Verdigris.
Virgin Metal.
Superfined metal.
Ex.
:
virgin zinc or
spelter.
W.
Worn away by
WASHED.
the action of the metal at
the time of pouring.
WASHED
COKE.
Coke which has been
purified
by
washing.
WASHINGS.
Brassfoundry tailings,
i.e.
ashes which have
been ground and washed, leaving the small scrap
metal behind.
.
WASTE.
Loss in melting metals.
Ill
DICTIONARY.
Bad castings.
Plaster
WASTE BLOCKS.
WASTERS.
block?,
which have served
making reversed moulds, the waste blocks
See
being rammed directly on the pattern.
for
Block Moulding.
The
Water-Gilding.
process of gilding by the appli-
an amalgam of gold
of
cation
to the surface of
the mercury is driven off by heat, and a
thin coating of gold remains.
metals
;
WATER TQMBLER.
An
iron barrel, usually wood-lined,
which brass castings are packed with coarse
sharp sand and water. After revolving some time,
in
the castings are taken out, washed in cold water,
then plunged into hot water, taken out and left to
dry.
The wearing
Weathering.
action of the atmosphere
on
iron or other metal.
Wedge,
A
n.
piece of metal thick at one end
tapering thinner towards the other,
To
v.
and
fasten
or tighten anything.
WEIGHTS.
WELL.
metal
"
WET "
Pieces of iron for weighting
The lower
down moulds.
part of the furnace into
which the
falls.
POT-METAL.
so that
it
Pot-metal saturated with lead,
separates from the alloy as
it
cools.
pot-metal alloy containing over 28 per cent,
"
"
lead is classed as
wet pot-metal.
Any
WHITE BRASS. An
Gu 45, Zn 55.
alloy of copper
and
zinc.
Comp.
:
112
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
WHITE
A
IRON.
very hard iron, containing a large
and
percentage of combined carbon,
having a
small whitish crystal in the fracture.
WHITE METAL.
white-coloured metal, as pewter,
Any
Britannia metal,
etc.,
but specially in recent years
anti-friction metals.
A
WHITE NAVY BRONZE.
metal.
Ex.
:
Sn
WHITE TOMBAC.
78,
good quality anti-friction
Pb
Comp.
Sb
16,
Cu
:
3,
75,
Cu
As
3.
See
25.
Tombac.
"
WHISTLER."
A small riser used in light
so-called because of the noise
thin castings,
made by the
air
escaping in the act of casting.
" WINDBAGS."
The
playful moulder's
term
for
the
bellows.
Wind-Gauge.
A
gauge indicating the pressure of
blast entering the cupola.
\VOLFRAMINIUM.
An
alloy of
Registered by the British
Al
98,
Cu
1,
W
1.
Aluminium Company,
Limited.
Indian steel
supposed to be an alloy of steel
with small quantities of siliciurn and aluminium.
Wootz.
;
X.
X or
X
on a pattern usually indicates something requiring attention as some loose piece, or a screw:
nail that requires to be
undone,
etc.
113
DICTIONARY.
Y.
Yard.
An
enclosure for storing foundry materials.
YELLOW BRASS,
or
alloy of brass,
YOKE.
YELLOW METAL. The common
Cu 66*4, Zn 33 '3.
i.e.
A crosspiece connecting two
legs of a sling
;
a
shroud.
Z.
Zinc.
An abundant
bluish-white metal, malleable
heated.
Zinc-White.
ZONE.
A
Zinc oxide.
girdle or belt.
See Melting Zone.
when
Ill
A SYNOPSIS OF
FOUNDRY PHRASES.
WORKMEN
acquire habits of speech and address which
" teleare only fit for use in the workshop.
Factory
graphese "is as universal as the horny hand and a
sign even may be made to convey a world of meaning.
This is as it should be, for good workmanship does not
;
depend on fine speeches.
There
is
no time
for
"
kootoo-
civilities, in a foundry where work
timed on the hypothesis of everything going like
Alas it is not always
the proverbial marriage bell.
ing," or exchanging
is
!
plain sailing in a foundry
;
mishaps are plentiful, but
There are
fortunately, they are not often disastrous.
many
difficulties;
but few that are insurmountable.
Conversation in the foundry
is
necessarily brief, often-
times brusque, and generally of the importunate stamp
which
is
The
wound
off in deliberate monosyllables.
reasons for these peculiarities are evident to
Foundry
anyone acquainted with foundry practice.
tools pass from man to man, and are called for when
required
;
moulders work very much
"
on their own,"
FOUNDRY PHRASES.
and have
115
to call for help at critical parts of their
work;
they are also largely dependent on unskilled help for
work requiring dexterity and nerve. These things do
not conduce to smooth talk, and are at the root of
the seeming vulgarity of foundry colloquialisms.
The quantity
Melting Ratio.
of fuel required
to
produce a given quantity of iron, in a fluid condition, suitable for the
Setting-point.
The
work
to be cast.
freezing-point of a metal.
Bear a hand (Am.). To assist without delay.
The blackwash will do the rest. When
a dryconvinced that he has put enough
finish on a mould, he not infrequently uses this
sand moulder
phrase
;
is
meaning, the blackwash will hide small
defects.
Shut the doors and windows.
when
Said
in
irony
a moulder turns out a casting with abnormal
fins.
All cast up.
All the work ready has been cast
,
none
short or left over.
Blow her down.
An
order for the cupolaman to
finish melting.
Who had
the half-inch?
To
a moulder this
He
quite a familiar and coherent question.
it
everyday in all tones of voice.
riddle
is
really
what
is
The
is
hears
half-inch
being sought, and
it
is
thoroughly understood and read into the question
as put.
i
2
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATUBE.
116
Boat up the furnace.
The cupola
tender controls
the supply of molten metal by tapping and boating
up the furnace, according as there is a need for it
The
in the foundry, or the cupola.
boat
is
simply
a clay stopper or cone on the end of an iron rod.
To " miss the boat" is to allow the metal to escape
having tried to plug up the tapping-hole.
Iron to iron. That process of binding work in the
after
foundry, by which the most unyielding and satisfactory rigidness and security
is
obtained.
Light the vent. An order generally given at the
crucial moment of casting, to relieve the mould or
core from the pressure of gases generated
by the
inrushing metal.
Daub
the ladle.
To
prepare the ladle by lining
it
with fresh sand or loam, so that the molten metal
may not attack the shell.
Give it a dry-sand finish.
so
particular."
slick their
"Don't be
Dry-sand moulders are said to
moulds with a bag when they come out
hence dry-sand finish.
dull metal is used for light castnecessary to force it into the moulds
of the stove
Flop
Literally,
:
When
it in.
ings, it is
with a rush so that they may be completely
Rush it in means the same thing.
Brick about.
Tn some loam jobs
build with soft bricks
(i.e.
it is
filled.
necessary to
loam bricks) other jobs
;
can be built altogether with hard bricks (commoD
others, again, are built up with some of
bricks)
;
FOUNDRY PHRASES.
117
each kind, in such a way that the soft bricks can
"
be cut out or " slackened
after the job is cast.
This
last style of building is called
A
Brick and Bond.
found
"
brick about."
bricklayer's term, which has
into the loam
end of the foundry,
implying that the building is landed at regular
its
way
intervals or courses.
Miss a Brick.
This
is
done
for
the
purpose of
Ashes are
leaving a space for the vent.
filled
into
the vacancy.
Cast on the Bank.
To make
a casting on a slope
or declivity.
Cast on the Flat.
Cast on End.
To
To
cast a job horizontally.
cast perpendicularly.
Lower a Tooth.
This term is not indigenous to the
but
it
is
foundry,
very frequently used when the
crane is required to be merely moved.
Sun about.
In closing boxes, the moulder makes a
habit of twisting the top part from left to right,
which is called " towards the Sun," so as to avoid
irregularities along the joint of a casting.
sailor coils a
Up
An
!
"
rope
The
towards the Sun."
exclamation used at the finish of a cast in
order to
let
the caster
know
that sufficient metal
has been poured into the mould.
It
is
sometimes
important that pouring should cease as soon as
"
u
the metal appears in the risers
swells
and
;
"
bursts
order.
"
are
common
results of neglecting this
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
118
All up.
Let
it
Finished
there
All clear.
exhausted.
;
go and chance
A common
it.
phrase when
a doubt about a mould or a core being in
is
condition
perfect
turn out
for
Sometimes they
casting.
right, but
all
the job
if
is
urgent the
careful moulder leaves nothing to chance.
Pour slow or
ehort
is
To pour
you'll be short.
apparent that he
is
him by some
When you
it
to risk the spoiling of
going
mould, this ironical injunction
at
a mould
When
moulder's bete noire.
the
is
a
usually thrown
is
of his mates.
A
phrase which intimates to the
leading hand on a job that all is ready for the next
may.
move.
Steady
The moulder
off one.
needs
it,
and
thus,
it
is
four"
"
also for as
a
Turn
calls for
many hands
common
help as he
as he requires ;
"
Lift off
to hear
thing
over two," " Part three."
All of
these refer to the handling of boxes.
Spy one.
Someone
see that the
Bed
it
in.
is
mould
wanted
is
"Bedding
in^"
under a box and
to look
intact until
is
a
it
closed.
moulding process
whereby a bed of sand conforming to the shape of
the bottom or underside of the pattern
is
pre-
pared, and the pattern knocked down on it.
End of the Blow. The " blow " is an operation in
the Bessemer process.
The end
of the blow
is
the period in which the iron in the converter
is
transformed into
steel.
119
FOUNDEY PHRASES.
The
Estimated Weight.
A deviation
weight.
Governmental
See
specifications.
TABLES, p. 185.
before the
Cast
or calculated
theoretical
of 5 per cent,
damp
allowed in
is
RULES AND
back.
strikes
Many
greensand jobs are skin-dried, and it is necessary
to cast such moulds as soon after they are closed
as possible.
It'
they were allowed to remain over
for
a
some time, the heat on the surface would have
tendency to draw the damp from the sand,
inwards, and spoil the casting.
Pound
it
a
hard
A
(Am.).
moulds
rule
for
foundry maxim. As
require to be rammed
steel
steel
harder than for iron.
Skimmer
A
here.
for
call
someone
to
skim the
ladle while the job is being cast.
A
When
the moulder has a pipe or
other casting requiring to be parted in the middle,
steep joint.
and cannot
flat
find a pipe-box to suit
top part with the bars, and
running from the
level of the
This
centre of the pattern.
shift in
Cover up.
it,
he uses a
makes a steep joint,
foundry
is
a
floor to
the
common make-
jobbing foundries.
When
iron
is
spilled at a cast, the order
and keep the heat from the men
round the ladle, and also to protect their feet.
is
A
to cover up,
day
A
The
wi'
Rabbie."
(So.).
A
"
burns."
day at
facetious phrase in Scotch foundries.
carriage waits,
my
Lords.
This
is
another
120
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
The carriage is
example of foundry humour.
a truck for holding work which has to be dried in
the stove;
it
loaded shortly before stopping
is
In many of the foundries
time, in the evening.
the
carriage
is
pushed into the stove by the
This is the
labourers, assisted by the moulders.
call for
Entered!
moulders to help.
Landed! Started!
These three words
are used in fitting moulds requiring the crane,
and mark progress in such a way that the moulder
in charge of the job knows what order to
give
the crane-man.
The moulder's
Fill in.
to the labourer to
call
fill
in
a course of sand.
A
Someone
is wanted to
rap a pattern while it
drawn.
being
Seam up. To loam up the seams or joints of a box,
and prevent the metal from running out. This is
rap.
is
a very necessary precaution, especially with
wooden
boxes, which are liable to
heat, or
warp with the
get burned with the metal.
Eight Ounce Metal.
alloys
are
number
referred
Many
to
in
of the standard brass
the
foundry
by the
of ounces of zinc added to the
copper, thus
:
Muntz's metal
is
pound of
known as 12 oz.
8 oz. metal, dipping metal
metal
as 3 oz. metal.
On
metal, brazing
the other hand, sheet metals are graded by the
number of ounces they weigh per square foot, as
metal, yellow brass as
as 6
oz.
121
FOUNDRY PHRASES.
example, 16
for
Muntz
oz.
sheet,
26
oz.
sheet
etc.
copper,
Crossing the Course. Means to break the joints in
building a loam mould. Successive courses are set
so that each brick shall be equally divided
the two bricks on which
Binding the Course
end
in, to rest
is
upon
it is laid.
laying one row of bricks
on the inner and outer course.
"
In making an " open sand-bed
"
dead
importance that it should be
Levelling the Bed.
it is
of first
This
level."
is
accomplished by means of three
level.
First, one of the
straight-edges and a
straight-edges
level
;
is
the other
tance, and,
packed until it agrees with the
is then set at the required dis-
by means of a
each of the ends
is
made
parallel straight-edge,
to agree
with the
The sand within the two straight-edges
tramped
ing
is
level.
then
or pressed to the required density, leav-
it full,
edge, long
so that
enough
by applying another
straight-
to reach across, the superfluous
may be strickled off and leave a level bed.
Weighting down. This is an important operation,
sand
requiring good judgment and ability to calculate
the lifting force of fluid metal over a given area,
in
moulds which cannot be bound, clamped or held
securely by any other means than dead
down
weight.
Liquids exert pressure in every direction,
and molten metal influenced by gravity alone
presses in all directions.
The
pressure per square
122
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
inch
The
always proportionate to the depth.
amount per square inch mul-
is
total pressure is the
Eeduced
tiplied into the area.
would
W=
P =
to a formula this
WxH
xA,
where
appear
=
the weight of a cubic inch of metal
as
;
the head in inches;
square inches
P =
;
A =
H
area of the casting in
pressure in Ibs. per square
inch.
Example.
A
plate 3 feet square, cast with
12 inches of a head.
26
12
Weight of cubic inch
Head in inches.
cast iron.
3-12
36" x 36"
=
1296
Area in square inches.
18 72
280 8
624
312
4043*52
Note.
This
=
is
Pressure in
Ibs.
per square inch.
the actual pressure, but
customary to allow extra in weighting
overcome the increase due
to fins
it
is
to
down,
and the height
of the ladle above the runner-box.
Eule, page 194, which gives 4320
See Neave's
Ibs. as
answer
to above example.
Lost His Block.
In bedding-in work requiring
is
placed at some distance
chaplets a chaplet-block
123
FOUNDRY PHRASES.
below the bed prepared to receive the pattern, to
act as a solid obstruction to the chaplet stem and
support the weight of the core
set
to the required
ramming the
when he conies
drag,
carelessly
block
;
will discover that
to
when
it
has been
The moulder, by
distance.
fit
may
displace this
he
in the chaplet
The
he has "lost his block."
phrase has become a proverb in the foundry, and
is
applied to anyone doing a stupid action.
Head
Keep the
In pouring work it is always
desirable that the runner-head should be kept
fall, so
full.
that no air or dirt
mould with the metal
rally
made with
be drawn into the
may
Ixunner-heads are gene-
a gentle slope, deepening towards
the runner, to assist in carrying out this injunction.
"
If three or four ladles are used
Gathering Metal.
for
pouring a heavy casting, the metal
be gathered in that
is
number
constructed to collect
from several cupolas
It is
common
in
it
of vessels.
all
is
is
said to
If a
dam
the metal required
gathered in the dam.
some places
to
supplement the
regular melting in the air furnace by simultaneous
melting in the cupola, transferring the metal from
the cupola to the bed of the air furnace as fast as
it
melts.
In the
latter
instance the
metal
is
gathered into the air furnace, which, if suitably
constructed,
is
assuredly the best
lecting metal in large quantities."
Driven Home.
method of
col-
Bolland.
are
said
to
be " driven
\Yedges
121
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
home
the
"
air,
when
or
when the
the sconces
Hard-up.
In
the blows of the
is
hammer
ring on
space between the wedge
and
solidly packed.
fitting cores or sections of a
mould
it is
essential that the abutting surfaces should be as
close together as possible, otherwise fins,
and an
unequal division of the thickness of metal,
result.
Such pieces are said
when they
to
be
would
"hard-up"
will not yield to further pressure in
the direction of the joint.
125
MAXIMS FOR MOULDERS.
(ADAPTED FROM WELL-KNOWN PROVERBS.)
1.
A
bad moulder might make a good baker; if
he continued to make bad ones, he could be
made
to eat them.
2.
A
good mender
3.
A
tool in the
4.
Always have a stand-by
is
hand
always a good moulder.
is
worth two in the sand.
in case
you "miss
the
boat."
5.
Better a
fin
than a crush
;
better be sure than
sorry.
6.
Better a burn than a bad casting.
7.
Cast in haste, increase the waste.
8.
" Chance-it "
9.
Cleanliness
10.
Dirt and
is
is
dead
;
" short-cast " killed him.
next to cleverness in moulding.
damp can make
or
mar a mould.
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
126
11.
Dull metal makes dull moulders.
12.
If fins were
13.
wings, some castings would
only
and rings, and
need
slings,
them
in the foundry.
Keep
"
soldiers
"
things,
to
keep
the front, and well under
to
cover
14.
Make your mark, but mind where you made
15.
Make your
16.
Manners
it.
plans to suit your plant.
man
make a
methods
;
mark
the
moulder.
17.
Never prophesy
when you
till
you
know
be cocksure
;
see the eastings.
18.
Nothing beats a
19.
Some moulds
fair divide.
are like penny-pies,
fitter for
pork
than pig-iron.
20.
Spare the swab and save the
21.
Take care
of the
job.
ramming, and the cramps
will
take care of themselves.
22.
When
clay
Too much
23.
Weight
well.
cheap castings are dear.
clay is as bad as too little clearance.
is
tells
well
;
the want of
it
tells just as
127
MAXIMS FOR MOULDERS.
24.
Work
25.
Youth or age
for love
and earn your money.
is
but a stage
;
both struggle in
the foundries.
Good moulders get
their
work and wage
;
bad ones get the sundries.
For want of a nail a corner fell off
For want of a corner the core came away
"
"
For want of a core the casting was off
And this kind of work I find never does pay.
;
;
the
128
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
MOULDERS AND MOULDING.
IT
no exaggeration to say that there
is
is
no
craft
more
more deceiving to the
The work looks simplicity
fascinating to the novice, or
onlooker, than moulding.
itself,
that
and the densest mind can always grasp the fact
finished and filled with molten metal, the
when
casting should conform to the shape and configuration
of the mould.
How
But,
we
often have
crushed,
etc.
blown,
models to look
alas, this is
come from moulds which were
This
at.
not always the case.
seen castings distorted, fractured,
is
where a wide knowledge of
the art conies in handy, for then one is able to arrive at
some conclusion
as to the cause of such unlooked-for
and untoward happenings, and guard against them in
Most moulders have only their own paltry
the future.
experience to guide them, and they content themselves
with being adepts at one particular branch of moulding,
or one special class of work.
man's experience
may have
No
matter how wide a
been, he
is
always able to
gain something by other people's experience,
capable tradesman
if
he
is
a
sometimes even from people who
129
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
have no knowledge of or connection with the trade
The common conception of a moulder is a
whatever.
smutty, sweaty, sweep-like individual of low intelligence,
who is able to stand up to unlimited heat and hard
"
When we speak of a moulder, in the indusgraft."
trial sense, we generally mean a tradesman who makescastings in iron
it
;
has been the custom from time
immemorial to particularise those tradesmen who cast
in other metals, such as brass-moulder,
steel-moulder,
etc.
divisions of the craft, as
and iron-moulders
sub-
stove-founder, pipe-founder,
We
bell-founder, etc.
type-founder,,
There are also numerous
may say
have much
in passing that brass
in
common
in
their
business, but there has been an unfortunate spirit of
them here for a
jealousy and antagonism brooding over
long time, and we hold there is no need, nor indeed, in
the modern industrial conflict, room for any such
is an art, and, like all true art, it
" Sand
of touch and feeling.
sense
the
acquired by
"
is a term of derision which has been coined by
Artist
Moulding
feeling.
is
Americans given
he should
to sarcasm,
be, the term
is
but
if
a moulder
is
what
his true designation, quite
independent of the metal he happens to manipulate.
"
And " Sand Artists are not so rare as many people
imagine we have learned of a moulder (who was also
a born artist) who could put as much genuine art, both
;
constructive and ornamental, into a
as ever designer knew, and
his work in good time.
at the
common
core-iron,
same time get through
OF TH'." I/ <!>
UNIVERSITY
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
130
To
the uninitiated, the art of moulding
mystery, and, to be frank,
clever
many
enough tradesmen, help
is full
of
moulders, themselves
to
make
it
still
more
mysterious through not having a proper knowledge of
or by their inability to give a coherent state-
its rules,
ment of them.
For example,
if you go into a
jobbing foundry,
a
machine
of
the
drawing
part to the
present
simplest
and
ask
him
if
there
is
moulder,
any special way in
which he would prefer to have the pattern or loam-
boards made, ten chances to one he would be unable to
distinguish even the contour of the casting, and
if
he
happened to be one of the few who know a drawing
from an exercise in Chinese, he would not be able to
measure up the plant required for the job until he
saw the pattern or boards. This is no exaggeration,
and
only one instance of the need for technical training being pressed upon the budding tradesman.
Again, ask the average moulder to account for a bad
is
casting
:
more than
know how
likely
to account for
he
it
;
will tell
or, if
you he doesn't
he doesn't wish to
appear stupid, he will say he thinks it must have been
due to so-and-so, or because of such-and-such ; the
answer
is
always
indefinite,
never a settled conclusion.
Then, how many moulders can give even an apIt is only
proximate idea of the weight of a casting ?
he
is
that
able
to
make a
by familiarity with castings
guess at the estimated weight always rather over than
" safe
No selfside," as he calls it.
under, or on the
131
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
respecting moulder
who wished
to be true to the tra-
would ever dream of totting it up,
in
his
own
way he does a deal of calculating, as
yet
when allowing for contraction, he says this will have to
ditions of his trade
be slackened, or that will require to be
"
fed,"
and so on.
just as necessary for the moulder as
it is
for the engineer to study sections, areas, pressures,
and
Now,
all the
it is
data which have been for-
other dry-as- dust
mulated for arriving at a correct knowledge of things.
Why should the moulder's part of the work be done
by guesswork, or by any
similar slipshod
method?
Moulding is a science as well as an art, and it seems a
hard thing to say that the average moulder knows
literally nothing of the science, and only so much of the
art as will enable
him to earn
How
jobs in the foundry.
to those
who have
a livelihood at the
travelled
through the shops in the
various competing industrial countries.
for
to
want of
inclination,
grasp the laws of
moulder, in
common
with
common
known
far this is true is only
opportunity,
mechanics
all
Whether
it is
or intelligence
laws which
the
other tradesmen, observes
on his daily operations the fact remains
that there is a deplorable want of knowledge regarding
in carrying
the cause or effect of the various actions involved in the
everyday work of the foundry. It is not the want of
thinking power, but the want of having the thoughts
properly directed, that is to blame for this state of
If one tithe of the brain-racking thought that
from time to time expended in rigging up temporary
K 2
affairs.
is
132
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
arrangements for carrying on jobs in the foundry wasgiven to the principles underlying and governing such
arrangements, the battle would be won for scientific
moulding, and the day of haphazard foundry practice
would be doomed. As it is, makeshifts, patching, and
temporary success are the order of the day, and are
about all that are looked for from the ordinary moulder.
It goes without saying that the best tradesmen are
who can
those
see the end
from the beginning, who can
have a job moulded in their minds before putting a
hand to the tools. Half-an-hour spent on studying a
job, or in mentally
measuring up
its
points, is often
better than half-a-day's work at it on the rush.
This
"
habit of " rushing things through
is the one great
blemish of modern foundry practice.
to think, or
to
There
weigh the pros and cons of
The foundry seems
can best be done.
is
no time
how
a job-
to be smitten
more severely than other departments with the fever
of excitement and hurry, and in most foundries one or
two men who are expert
"
for the purpose of
know
their
way
in different branches are kept
horsing on the work."
These men
about a particular class of work, say
marine work or stoves or tools
;
they make the pace,
the others have to follow in their wake.
Let
it
clearly be understood that
we
are not depre-
expeditious output of good work in the
but
only the system which prevails of getting
foundry,
done
anyhow. You don't catch the patternthings
cating the
maker or the machinist doing
his bit
on these
lines..
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
It is a
well-known
fact that in
133
timing a break-down job
the manager never takes the foundry into account unless it happens to be either an intricate or weighty
piece.
The patternmaker
gives in the quickest time in
which he can do his part of the repair, the machinist
and the fitter do the same, but the moulder is seldom
consulted in the matter, the time for moulding being a
mere bagatelle
and
besides, the
to
what the other departments
moulder
is
take,
"
only a sandgroper," any-
way. He is not supposed to know much.
In America, moulding has been reduced to a fine
art,
but the fine
ma-
artist in this case
chinist rather than a moulder.
to be a
happens
Machine moulding, as
practised in the United States, is a really wonderful
example of what science can do
their
art.
True,
is
it
for
moulders and
only in repeat work or light
castings that the advantages of machines are visible.
Nevertheless there
is
ample scope
for the application
new notions to all grades of foundry work.
The
primary objects of all such improvements must be to
combine economy with exactness in the work produced.
of
It
seems a pity that
men who
are clear-sighted
to see the advantages to be derived
enough
from the intro-
duction of machinery in other departments of labour
are not able to appreciate them in their own. Moulders
award the palm
to
machine-made patterns, core-boxes,
dowel-pins, chaplets, hay-ropes, etc.
and, indeed
Yet
when
prefer
it
them
comes
to
to
;
they use these,
the hand-made variety.
introducing
labour-saving
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
134
machinery for foundry work, they shy and kick
all strength and no sense.
like
ill-trained horses
Without entering
into the economics of the question
should be quite patent to all such that the
hands of time cannot be put back, nor the wheels of
at all,
it
progress stopped, by an unreasonable refusal to counten-
ance such a thing as machine moulding,
day of triumph will
come when he
and
with makeshifts
studies
and how they can be
trade,
hand or machine.
the
The moulder's
leaves off
working
principles
of his
whether by
notorious that, as an adjunct
It is
best applied,
of the engineering shop, the foundry has not kept pace
with the progress made in other departments. Time
was, in engineering circles, when science was looked
upon
as
some kind of knowledge connected with steam
or the steam engine
forces.
;
it
is
the study of electrical
These advances never seem
of the foundry, for
and the
known
to mechanics
the
lever
King Solomon's
Technical
to touch the pulse
essential tools, the wedge, the
its
screw,
in
now
are
three
much
strongest
powers
the same as they were
time.
education
in the realms of steam
has
done marvellous
and
electrical
things
engineering
in
enabling the engineer to master the forces at his hand ;
it has also
put the textile trades on a sound footing by
establishing
with mathematical exactitude the prin-
ciples of design, as well as the strength and hygienic
and in the domain of agriculhas defined what is wholesome and pro-
qualities of materials,
tural produce
it
135
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
While
Stable.
all this activity in
the schcol and the
workshop has been taking place, moulding and foundry
have been stapractice, in the smaller shops at least,
tionary.
Why
should this be allowed to continue?
\Vhy not send our moulders to the technological institute as well as our machinists ?
Moulding is a constructive art, but the principles of construction
have
not been studied as they ought by those engaged in it,
with the result that, as often as not, it has proved a
most destructive business to all concerned destructive
of reputation and prosperity.
To sum up
the whole matter,
is
it
evident that the
moulder should know drawing and pattern-making as
work or mechanics, and a course of
well as foundry
each should be included in the technical training of a
The reason why practice and theory are so
moulder.
often at variance in the foundry
is
because the founder
disdains to acknowledge the utility of theoretical for-
mulae, and prefers to
work by
"
rule-of-thumb."
\Ve
cannot hope for anything but clumsy, inaccurate, and
unreliable work until we have educated him out of this
state
"
of " lofty ignorance
training as
we have
by
*-ome such
course of
indicated.
FOUNDRY MANAGEMENT.
Foundry management is as open to reproof as foundry
The management of any business is the
cause
of its being.
The work produced iray
primary
methods.
be meritorious, the conditions commendable, but unless
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
136
there
is
some system of securing and putting through
orders, these things go for next to nothing.
grows haphazard, not even weeds
;
Nothing
and business weeds
There, is a system at the root of all
In
no
growth.
department of a business is the pulse
Britain has reached
sooner felt than the managerial.
less
than others.
her high place amongst the industrial nations by a
happy combination of good management and good
Strange to say, the foundry is more
mismanagement than any other branch of
workmanship.
liable to
The reason
engineering.
is
not far to seek.
works managers are compelled
Budding
undergo a practical
course in the drawing-office, the pattern, fitting and
machine shops, but their knowledge of foundry matters
is left entirely to
Tiie
result
is,
to
the theoretical points of mouldicg.
they are at the mercy of foremen or
workmen (who have
little or no theory) for successful
schemes, and often in ignorance of the practical diffi-
culties,
managers undertake utter
have met with
many
impossibilities.
We
instances of this, and from time
we have
pointed out, from the practical aspect,
some of the things in the foundry requiring the atten-
to time
tion
fuller
of those interested, such as better equipment, a
knowledge of the principles involved and the
materials wrought with,
etc.,
as
it
is
along these lines
that the actual progress and improvement of foundry
amenities must come, and the average tradesman does
not trouble to reason
they seem.
why
certain things are not
what
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
"
The
leaders of Industry,
if
Industry
137
ever to be
is
led, are virtually the Captains of the World."
Industry offers an open field to everyone who will
enter, but all who aspire to be captains of industry
must be willing to recognise the rules of the fight for
They must
mastery in the industrial arena.
possess, in
addition to the qualifications characteristic of leaders,
ability to take part in the industrial
development of
the world, and an even temper.
Enterprise and good
luck have made many men successful in business, but
and vigilance do not always
self-confidence
cess, for
many
spell suc-
a bold venture, launched with eclat and
pious hopes for the future, has ended in dismal failure.
The
any undertaking is, first and foremost, a
management. Without a doubt, the manu-
success of
question of
industries
facturing
are
more
liable
to
suffer
loss
through laxity or mismanagement than the purely
The reasons are
commercial or economic agencies.
obvious
:
Labour and material
are required to produce
commodities, and unless there
and
is
alert administration
careful handling of both, leakages occur
bound
to
have a baneful
effect
which are
on the health of even
the strongest concerns; on the other hand, where the
simply of an intermediary nature, the risks
are fewer and more confined, and errors, when they do
business
is
occur, can be readily detected and remedied. The mind
"
of the " middleman is not distracted with the
problems
incidental to manufacturing operations, but
ruminate on the
and
final objective of all trade
selling at a profit.
is
free to
viz.
buying
138
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
The
subject of foundry
ceived the attention
it
management has not
deserves.
It
is
re-
quite notorious
that in large engineering establishments, where found-
ing
is
included as an auxiliary branch, the foundry
is
invariably behind the other departments in equipment
and facilities for getting work done.
We cannot
understand
why works
managers,
who
are generally
clever financiers, should not value labour-saving appli-
ances in the foundry as well as in the machine shop.
A shilling
saved in the foundry has the same currency
one earned in any other department.
Besides,
material
in
whatever economises labour or
a workshop
as
worth having, and in the matter of foundry plant
equipment, a small and seemingly ins'gnificant
This is the
alteration may have very great results.
is
or
day of keenest competition and commercial activity.
Success to-day depends on ability to maintain the
rapid pace set by
modern inventions and competition,
and up-to-date traders demand the best
can produce for a
know
and
it
But many
article
you
firms do not
the cost of producing the goods they manufacture,
has been proved that in foundries where books
are so kept as to
the
fair price.
month
number
show only the
or year,
it is
result at the
end of
make
a large
quite possible to
of castings which cost
more than they
bring.
In the management of the foundry there is nothing
of more importance than to have a correct system of
prime-cost summaries, which must tally with the total
of the balance against the commercial books.
That
is-
139
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
amount paid for labour, as given in the
prime-cost summaries, must tally with the total of the
wages book and cash book. In the same way, the total
to say, the total
value of material must tally with the total purchases
day book, plus and minus the amount of stock
commencement and end of the period dealt
in the
at
the
A
with.
continuous
day by day,
time
is
effected
record of these matters, taken
will enable the
manager
to find out
being wasted and where economy
As
by improved methods.
where
may
be
an example of this
method, we copy a blank page from the cost record of
a highly successful firm in Scotland
:
THE
FOUNDRY
C
CO.
ABSTRACT.
*.
Labour
:
:
Material
:
:
:
Oncost
:
:
:
:
:
:
Charge
:
:
:
Profit or loss
:
:
:
Total
Here the oncost
derived
d.
:
is
from work
arrived at
by a system of averages
already done.
By
adopting the law
140
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
.
of averages, and allowing a fair margin for
profit,
there can be no serious discrepancies.
It would be
quite impossible to allocate charges in grouped detail
for foundry work.
A moulder may be employed on
two or three jobs
the
office
at once,
and
it
would add greatly to
expenses to find the proportion of coke, coal,
chargeable to every little job.
in this broad sense, the economics of the
oil, etc.
Viewed
foundry are easily fathomed.
remember are
:
First, to consider
speculative or operative
to
all
The
essential points to
whether the risks
are sufficiently remunerative
pay the expenses of production second, to detail
expenses; and third, because of the waste in
;
working metal,
fuel,
sand,
etc.,
the
success
of
the
foundry business is regulated altogether by the output, and greatly depends on the capacity of the shop
being fully occupied.
Everyone has his own ideas as
to
how
a
business
should
be
managed.
Without
matter of foundry management,
that the founder might with profit
dogmatising in the
this
may
be
said,
both to himself and his customers display a little more
intimate knowledge with exact science in so far as it
relates to his trade.
in
demand
in the foundry as in
engineering.
thing in the
requires
skilful
Science and skill are as
any other branch of
"
There is no-
It has been well said that
way
of mechanical arts or sciences that
more thought, more mechanical
practice.
rules, tables,
much
In
all
gauges, and
the
other
skill,
trades
and more
there
are
fixed systematic order that
141
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
can
be,
and
All these
are, applied to the different requirements.
fall
when you come
short
moulding, as that
learned
is
to apply
them to
almost entirely by the
is no such thing as a
While there
sense of feeling."
system of works organisation, or cast-iron
standard
methods of managing a business, it is now generally
recognised that some system of order and despatch is
The whole question, of course, resolves
imperative.
itself into
one of cost and selling
are anxious that your
if
you
manent advertisement, you must
at a price that will
command
price,
work
and nowadays,
shall remain a per-
offer the best quality
The man
consideration.
anything wants to sell not only to-day, but
to-morrow and the next day, and he can make more
who
sells
money out
spirit of
it.
of his business if he enters into the
Many
to their creators little
more than fame
on the basis of excellent work
;
conditions
many
some time or another
the very best of moulders.
failure is
bound to overtake
The most
successful
he who makes the best use of
with some things,
it is
always the
There are
conducing to perfect work that
so
it is
is
an occasional disappointment.
at
is
but fame built
better for business
is
than money reaped by jerrymandering.
In a business like moulding, there
certainty of
true
splendid structures have brought
his failures
essential that
he "
moulder
and while,
;
try, try again,'*
combined
also essential that his trying should be
with some reasonable alteration in method or material.
One
of the greatest drawbacks to the spread of
knowledge
142
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
in the foundry is the
To be
isation.
modern tendency towards
special-
able merely to enumerate the ordinary
branches of the moulding industry in present vogue, is in
all probability an accomplishment
beyond the power of
The average moulder is uninformed and oftentimes negligent regarding the depart-
the bulk of foundry workers.
ments and processes outside of
his
own
particular sphere
How few, for example, understand the
"La cire perdu" i.e. the wax process
in the foundry.
intricacies of
for
making monumental and ornamental bronzes
the possibilities of French sand?
of a moulder who could reckon
And whoever
by mere
or
heard
figures the
weight required to keep a mould intact during the cast ?
If we have been able to awaken an interest in these and
kindred subjects, even although we have not elucidated
them, we shall not have failed in our object in this
work.
THE JOBBING FOUXDRY.
In planning a foundry, the
be considered
is
This matter
produce.
first
the class of work
is
easily
thing that
it
is
intended to
determined in some
made
it
for all
it
parts where the specialisation of industries has
easy to drop into a given
is
worth.
The
its ability to face
by
a good yard
storing
and work that
existence of a jobbing foundry depends
on
The
line,
falls to
any job that may turn up.
first requisite of
such a shop is a good yard ;
laid out with sheds for
we mean one
sand, loam,
soldiers,
coal,
etc.,
and a light
143
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
railway for running boxes, plant and castings in and
Too often the yard is the last thing thought of,
out.
and as a
we have
result
The
state of chaos.
the foundry floor in a constant
external view of the foundry
seldom inviting, hut when debris of
to accumulate inside, there is
although debris
all sorts is
no beauty anywhere, and
a necessary evil in a foundry,
is
is
allowed
we
should be omnipresent.
why
The state of the foundry floor reveals, in a great
measure, the system of conducting the operations of
fail to see
it
When we
moulding.
scrap
bricks,
spread
all
see promiscuous piles of sand,
box-parts,
over the place,
sence of method, and
it
a foundry that every
man
make
expected to
"gaggers," and
we have
core-tackle,
evidence of the ab-
will generally be found in
shift
is
such
a law unto himself, and
for
is
himself, rather than to
advantage of the work or the
consider the general
output.
It is a
common mode
" loam-end
foundry
"
floor
or the
"
of expression to refer to the
"
of a foundry.
The
sand-end
should be subdivided into sections suit-
able to the nature of the work to be done.
"
the "
arrangement
viz.
the
sand-end
M
"
bedding-in
By
such an
would have two sections
section
and the
"
roll-over
box
"
Boxes and tackle would accumulate where
they were most wanted, the hard part of the floor
would be -definitely located, and much of the prepara-
section.
tory digging and ramming would be avoided.
The next thing
of importance
is
the crane.
This
144
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
should be an overhead traveller, capable of reaching any
part of the foundry in six-eight time. It matters little
whether
it be
propelled by steam, electric, hydraulic,
hand power, so long as it runs smoothly and lifts
That reminds us that the walls must be
steadily.
or
built
with strong butts, or cast-iron columns may be
position to support the rail on which the
fixed in
crane runs
;
the wooden beams so often used in foundry
construction vibrate too
The
much
for satisfactory work.
pit should occupy the centre of the shop, and
new foundry
a
that
being laid out, it will pay
to build the pit with brick, and bed it with concrete.
"
There will be no trouble then with the " bank giving
if it is
way
or
"
have the
water
is
"
coming
in.
Many modern
foundries
one side for the sake of econo-
pit all along
a good plan where
it is convenient
mising space.
with
the
a
track
to run
pit. Boxes and
trolley
parallel
plant can be run right into a job without interfering
This
is
with the legitimate work of the crane, and iron can be
distributed by trolley with less waste and less danger
than by shanks.
Every foundry, large or
small, should
have a stationary bed for open sand work ; even if no
castings are made, but only core-irons or tackle for the
foundry, there will be an appreciable saving of time in
good plan, where space is a
levelling out beds.
A
consideration, is to hinge a frame to the wall
of
two eye-bolts and a
or lowered as required.
it is
pin.
It is set so that
level ready for using,
by means
This frame can be raised
when lowered
and when raised
it
stands
NOTES ON FOUNDRY PRACTICE.
145
The shop should be
side
doors
convenient
to the yard,
small
with
arranged
and it must be well lighted and ventilated. The light
against the wall out of the way.
should enter by the sides only, with windows movable
from the inside, and a spacious louvre made to run the
whole length of the building. The core-bench should
from the main shop, and have racks
A
holding core-boxes, irons and finished cores.
be partitioned
for
off
stove for cores alone
is
a positive necessity in a jobbing
foundry, and the carriage-way of the main stove should
l>e as wide as possible so as to distribute the load and
The cupola
save packing.
is
best
placed near the
centre of the building, with only the
inside, to
the
be handy
The
floor.
tapping hole
pouring work on any part of
ought to be outside of the foun-
for
office
dry, preferably on one side of the
gateway, with the
on
the
shed
other.
This
dressing
arrangement is found
to be convenient for despatching castings and receiving
stores, etc.
After
all
these
points
in
planning the general
arrangements of the foundry have been attended to,
there remains
much
to be done in designing plant
appliances suitable for jobbing work.
and
There can be no
such thing as an ideal jobbing foundry, but there are
ideal tools and materials which only require to
be brought under notice of practical moulders to be
many
appreciated.
146
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
Moulding Machines.
There
creasing tendency to transfer
the
from the hand
to the machine.
a rapidly in-
is
burden of labour
The
stress of
modern
made it imperative that no opportunity
be lost of minimising or economising labour.
In moulding, a certain amount of intuition, coupled
competition has
with deft-handed ness,
is
required, so
it
is
only where
rigid accuracy of motion, or purely automatic methods
can be adopted, that machines for moulding purposes
There will always be a
are able to make a show.
demand
for skilled moulders, as there are operations in
the foundry which no machine, however highly developed its mechanism, will ever be able to perform.
Nevertheless, moulding machines hare developed possibilities in
the hands of American founders, which, but
a few years back, were never even dreamt of.
things are evident regarding moulding machines
Two
:
first,
that they are only economical where repeat or specialand secondly, that they are only
ised work is wanted
;
convenient for comparatively small work
;
heavy work
147
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
having irregular contour, or requiring graduated ramming, is better done by hand. The advantages of
moulding machines in speciality shops, are the saving
of hand ramming, a perfectly vertical lift or withdrawal
:
of the pattern and prevention of broken moulds, the
economy of time, or
elimination of skilled labour, and
its
equivalent, increased production.
There are many types of moulding machines in
vogue, fixed and portable, operated by hand, steam ,
pneumatic,
or hydraulic power.
Some
of
them are
simply presses, others are designed chieHy for drawing
the pattern, others again combine both these features ;
but as a rule the more complicated a machine is, the
less fit it is to stand the wear and tear of manipulation
in the foundry.
Probably the highest point towards
perfection
has been reached in this department, in
Gear moulding machines, by which toothed wheels, of
almost any diameter or outline are moulded, and duplicated more accurately and uniformly than those
made
It would be quite impossible for us to deby hand.
scribe here the merits of the various types of moulding
machines.
And
those
who
are interested
lack information about them, as there
amongst makers
is
need not
keen rivalry
for the trade.
Cupolas. The proper construction and management of cupolas has been the subject of much discussion
and inquiry.
There are so many things
sidered in laying
down foundry
plant, that
to be con-
no one can
say what particular type or style of cupola
is
L 2
best for
148
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
general
work,
irrespective
of the
fuel
used or
tlie
condition and quantity of the metal required for the
The
heat.
old-fashioned
bottle-shaped
solid-bottom
and giving place to the
straight, lofty, drop-bottom style which is universal
in America.
A comparison of the relative drawbacks
cupola
fast
is
dying out,
and advantages
of
cupolas
collecting the metal in their
solid
having
own
bottoms,
hearth, and those
having drop bottoms, or having separate hearths and
receivers, shows that the former are less expensive to
erect, less costly in upkeep of lining, etc., and require
less fettling daily.
The
tuyeres
of a
cupola, however, have
or self-contained
solid -bottom,
be placed high enough to
be
allow a body of metal to
collected, and this causes
the coke bed to be higher than is necessary in a cupola
to
having a receiver or separate hearth. Cupolas having
receivers allow a more perfect mixing of iron, as a large
quantity may be collected in the receiver with no risk
On
of iron or slag getting into the tuyeres.
the other
hand, a given quantity of coke will produce hotter
metal at the tap-hole of a self-contained cupola than
will
be tapped
from one having a
receiver.
One
material advantage the drop-bottom has over the solid
bottom
drawn
is
in
that the contents of a cupola
two
mentioning, as
minutes without
when more
any
may be
with-
effort
worth
iron has been charged than
necessary to cast the work on the moulding floor,
the heat can be stopped at any time by tapping out
is
149
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
is melted, turning off the blast and dropping out
the unmelted iron and unburnt coke in the cupola.
what
all
This can be quenched and used again the following
Another advantage of the drop-bottom is the
day.
easy access
it
gives to the interior of the cupola for
There are a great many points in
the construction of cupolas about which even the most
fettling purposes.
experienced foundrymen differ, as for example, whether
separate tuyeres or a "belt" are most efficacious,
whether small charges or large produce the best iron
(which means restricted or enlarged capacity in the bed
for holding a quantity of
molten iron), whether double
rows of tuyeres are any advantage, or whether the
variation of volume or moisture of blast has much to do
The
with irregularities so largely found in melting.
exact location of tuyeres and charging door, proper size
of delivery pipe
and pressure
of blast are also subject
to variable interpretations.
One foundry man
says,
" The secret of
being able to
run long heats and of having a clean drop, lies in
having tuyeres so high that they can not only hold
what iron
is
necessary for a tap, but also a distance of
from 6 inches to 16 inches between the slag hole and
the bottom of the tuyeres."
Another says, " The distance from the tuyeres to the
bottom of the charging door is given as 15 feet but
;
my
experience
is
altogether
different
from
that.
I
think the cupola should be charged from 10 to 13 feet,
If the cupola is
of right up to the door.
instead
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
charged up to the door you cannot get a good biting
blast, and that means slower melting and higher
This sort of thing could be quoted ad
melting ratio."
infinitum, without
"
any nearer the
making one any the wiser, or getting
acme of science in cupola construction."
Every practical foundryman knows
location and area of tuyeres have a deal
high melting
that
to
the
do with
and may be trusted to adopt
efficiency,
the system best suited to his mode of working.
sum up, a cupola which collects the metal in its
To
own
bottom will melt metal more economically than one
having a receiver, but will require higher personal
A
to produce well mixed iron.
in
a
receiver
takes
more
to
cupola having
fettling
keep
order, is not so economical of fuel, having a larger body
skill in
management
of brickwork to heat up, but gives
more perfectly mixed
iron.
Cranes.
The crane
one of the most important
and one which may be
is
appliances inside the foundry,
the cause of
critical
much concern
moments
or satisfaction at certain
in the day's work.
In large foundries
overhead cranes (of which there is a great variety
driven either by hand, steam or electric power), are
practically indispensable.
Wall
cranes, hydraulic
auxiliaries for relieving
or
hand
driven, are useful
the main crane and allowing
the smaller work to proceed without interfering with
It is desirable to have
the progress of unwieldy jobs.
a crane equipped with
all
the necessary motions,
and
151
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
double
trolleys.
In many cases a ladle can be sus-
pended on each hook, which will amount to having two
We have seen a large foundry with six jib
cranes.
cranes in the length of the shop, occupying space where
moulders might have been working, and keeping a
"
"
squad of labourers on the grind passing boxes and
castings from one to the other, out and in the shop.
Such a sight
is
is
not very elevating, and to the
compelled to wait
indeed.
depressing
difficulties
on such contrivances
The moulder
often
it
man who
must be
encounters
and troubles in the course of his work,
which require a good deal of scheming to overcome.
Most of these are due to the want of proper tools, and
as often as not the crane
is
one of them.
Electrically-
other types owing
and
to
the
freedom
accuracy of control and
principally
driven cranes are fast superseding
general efficiency and economy.
an engineering
to those best able to deal with
construction
is
all
The
subject,
it,
details of crane
and we leave
it
resting satisfied that
most essential part of the foundry equipment will
receive the consideration it deserves from progressive
this
foundry men.
Ladles
equipment
are not the least important part of the
of a foundry.
to the moulder, or the
for the best part of
Handy ladles
man who has to
an afternoon.
hand
ladle
carry the iron
The
ladles in a
and design as the work
Beginning with the smallest, we have the
in sizes holding from 7 to 28 Ibs. ; the shank
foundry are as various in size
to be cast.
are a delight
152
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATUKE.
the capacity of which averages 100
ladle
double shank, which
geared-ladle,
which
somewhat larger
is
made
is
Ibs.
;
;
the
and the
in different sizes, to hold
In some foundries the small
almost any quantity.
ladles are simply cast-iron pots fitted to a shank, or
"
"
band with handles.
These pots are very clumsy and
Other foundries have malleable iron ladles,
weighty.
with riveted rims and
sides,
but the up-to-date foundries
CAR-LADLES.
Made by
go in
for
the C.
seamless
W. Hunt
steel
Coy., N.Y.
ladles,
which are of much
lighter gauge than any other make.
In geared
variety. There
ladle
again, there is also plenty of
the single gear ladle, the double gear
ladles
is
(which can be worked either from the back or
side as required), the car-ladle, convenient for distribut-
ing iron, or pouring into hand ladles ; the reservoir or
self-skimming ladle, having a metal partition inside
the
pouring
lip
that the metal
is
extending nearly to the bottom so
drawn from underneath the surface
and only clean iron poured
;
lastly, there is
the geared
153
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
trunnion
ladle,
of work, and
main thing
balanced
is
in
used for the very heaviest class
The
generally mounted on a carriage.
which
is
foundry ladles
top -heaviness
;
When
are burned.
is
to have
common
a
them
failing,
nicely
with the
wasted and frequently men
a ladle gets worn in the journals,
much metal
result that
is
is
some part of the traverse there
is always the risk of an accident, either to the mould
or the men, coupled with the certainty of making unand out of control
at
necessary scrap at a cast.
Good
ladles give the
men
confidence in casting, bad ones are always a source of
To run
anxiety.
a foundry without a complete assort"
economy and those who
ment cf ladles is " penny- wise
;
have heavy castings to make cannot afford to run the
risk of losing them for the small cost of an improved
ladle.
In addition to the standard ladles already referred
to,
there are special kinds for special work, as bottom-
pouring ladles for steel foundries, and ladles with detachable
lips,
capacity,
etc.
or extension rims, for increasing their
Magnetic Separators. Many of the tools and
machines now in use in foundries have been the outcome
of exceptional conditions.
immense need and
which
will
desire
for
There certainly is an
any kind of appliance
help to simplify or ameliorate the conditions
the foundry, as well as an insatiable
"
"
machinery, i.e. economical
up-to-date
longing for
and profit-saving machinery. Amongst the latter, the
of labour
in
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
154
familiar magnetic separators
most
must be assigned a
fore-
Originally invented for the express purpose
place.
of extracting iron from brass borings, they have
now
reached a point in design and application which, in a
word, must powerfully impress us with the latent
and pneumatics in the progress
Many improvements and new uses
possibilities of electricity
of the industries.
The old-fashioned
have been found for separators.
multiple magnet and brush machine with hopper and
shute
is
almost obsolete, and the later styles include
such as disintegrators, knives," screens,
and wire-straightening adjustments, which were not
contrivances
thought of
have made
foundry
before,
There are two types of separators in
offal.
general use
;
and which, to use an Americanism,
a pleasure and a profit to deal with the
it
those with permanent magnets, and those
with electro-magnets.
demagnetisation
iron
is
is
much more
By
secured
the use of electro-magnets
by a
cut-off device,
easily released than from
magnets, which are cleaned with
General Remarks.
and the
permanent
difficulty.
As we
are
not writing a
text-book on foundry appliances, but simply a running
commentary on some modern features, we shall pass
from this subject when we have mentioned one or two
other apparatus, which have almost become indispensSome of them have^been
able in the modern foundry.
well considered and worked out in several very practical
example tumbling barrels hexagonal,
ribbed, eccentric, cylindrical and elliptical; sand- sifters
forms, as
for
155
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
and vibratory
core-making
on the continuous plan and with dies
centrifugal, oscillating
machines
;
;
for hand, foot, or
gate-cutting machines
sprue
and
-metal
of
brass
soft
castings rampower working
or
;
heavy work as ramming up pits or
pneumatic hammers and chippers, etc.
ming machines,
large boxes
;
for
These things have grown with the foundry business,
and it is an eisy matter to predict that other improve-
GRODVED WEDGE FOR FOUNDRY USE.
inents will follow.
Besides these there are
many minor
tools deserving the attention of practical
The
wedge,
for
not received
example,
is
foundrymen.
an ancient device which has
much study from
loss of a propeller blade
the tradesmen.
through a wedge
The
"
"
skidding
while casting was the occasion of the following im-
provement.
A
Grooved Wedge.
The wedge
is
perhaps one
of the most useful accessories of the moulding shop, as
nearly all kinds of foundry work require cramping or
156
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
binding in some direction.
wedge
is
Grooving the surface of a
an
something of
innovation, and though the
principle of relieved surfaces
fitting
and turning shops,
the foundry.
is
met with
often
in the
seldom thought of in
The illustration shows a new style of
is
it
wedge, with longitudinal grooves, and made in malleable iron
The
a very considerable
faces give a better grip
wedge, and with
less
saving over forging.
than the ordinary flat
tendency to rebound.
IMPROVED FDKNACE COVEK.
Another little improvement which adds greatly to
the convenience of handling crucible furnace covers in
brass and steel foundries
is
here shown.
An Improved Furnace
type of air-furnace
cover
Cover.
The general
consists of a circular
square cast-iron plate ribbed
on the top
a central lug for lifting or sliding
it
side
or
and with
into position.
This form of cover, after some little time, becomes
distorted and ceases to be of much service.
The illustration
shows the section of a composite form of cover,
the cast-iron
dome enclosing a
fire-clay slab,
kept in
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
157
by a wrought-iron ring held
position
in
recess
by
countersunk screws.
The arrangement
to furnace doors
either in a vertical or horizontal
hung
and although the
position,
initial
is
applicable
a
is
expense
little
more, they soon pay for themselves by the more efficient
working, there being less absorption of heat and less
liability to twist
the cover, whilst the renewal of the
fire-clay slab is only necessary after
a couple of years'
use.
The mould
up"
dome
for a circular
is
readily
" struck
in green sand with a couple of strickles, thus
saving cost of pattern, also slabs of any size to order
are easily obtainable.
Also by permission of the proprietors of Feildens
Magazine, a description
loam moulder's horse
(with
is inserted.
The Loam Moulder's Horse.
top
spindle-bearing
of the
illustrations)
shown
overleaf
The horse
is
a
or
common
any foundry doing loam work. Its average
from
the floor to the top is about sixteen feet
height
and its distance from the wall eight feet, but variations
feature in
are
made
when
The
to suit the different requirements.
in use, is kept in exact position
spindle has been set vertical with plumb-rule
tie
rod,
one end of which
is
horse,
after the
fastened
to
loam
by a
the wall,
leaving the other to drop into holes at set distances or
one about midway of the arm.
the spindle,
which,
in
brackets as shown, and
is
turn,
It is free to slide
is
supported
on
by wall
usually locked in position by
158
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
LOAM MOULDER'S HORSE.
a set-screw.
The
various methods employed to secure
the top of the main spindle are shown on the next page,
the most effective and least troublesome being the
hinged end, No. 4. The illustration shows the cap
pushed back for the admission of the spindle. The cap
is
kept closed by a catch fastened on the end of the
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
LOAM MOULDER'S HORSE.
159
1
160
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
arm, a light
it
is
staff
necessary to
being kept handy to release
remove the spindle.
The
gudgeon on the main spindle is kept
height by a collar on the underside.
when
arm or
it
to the required
There are many little conveniences and improvements in foundries which have been of immense advantage, but which for
want of being
set forth
or
acknowledged by the proper parties are allowed to
remain in obscurity. This is the kind of thing which
tends to retard good foundry practice, and also the
reason
why
so
ID any
ingenious individual and local
ideas never pass into the general
member having
seen a portable
"
for casting liners or perpendicular
to the side of the
practice.
head box
work
;
it
We
re-
"
designed
hooked on
moulding box the metal being led
was no sand round about the
;
in between the bars there
core,
and there was perfect freedom in building. In
we found an arrangement for sweeping
another place
any pitch, with a horizontal instead
was a
spindle. Another useful appendage
propeller blades of
of a vertical
swivel attachment to turn over boxes of various dimen" tub "
sions in a
(such as are to be seen in brass
foundries) without the aid of a crane or other assistance.
There must be hundreds of these
little
conveniences
and novelties scattered round the various foundries
which never get beyond the primitive use for which
they were designed, but which if known might be improved upon and made serviceable to the trade in
Anything that helps to take the hard work
general.
NOTES ON APPLIANCES.
away from the men
in
the foundry
them
profitable, as
it
and attention
to other matters,
leaves
161
is
sure to be
free to give their strength
and results in a higher
FACING BELLOWS.
SPRINKLING BELLOWS.
standard of excellence in the work performed.
lately
we
Just
noticed in an American foundry catalogue,
an improved bellows
for distributing
dry facings where
they cannot be applied with the dust-bag, and for spraying moulds with water, kerosene, blackwash, instead of
swabbing them.
These facing and sprinkling bellows attachments
show considerable ingenuity, and are sure to be appre-
by the moulder engaged on deep or delicate
work.
Crucibles for melting brass are now made with
ciated
two pouring
lips instead of one,
more uniform wear and
less
with the advantage of
bother in cleaning the
M
lip.
162
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Flexible leather
for tacking
fillets
a great advance on the wood
to
any
fillet
;
on
to patterns are
they can be applied
corner, and are as
easily
handled upon a compound curve as
The moulder
in a straight line.
who
gets a pattern with pencil lines
marking
off
a
fillet,
knows he has
a cheap job on hand, and cannot be
blamed if he is not so careful of the
pattern as he
FOB MELTING
little
BRASS,
might
be.
It
is
things like these which add
to the profit
and pleasure of foundry
work, and the firms which provide the bost appliances
have generally most satisfaction and success in their
work.
We
know
all
chaplets wherever
that objection exists to the use of
is
it
possible to avoid them.
much on
ac-
count of the lack
of
This
is
as
union which
exist
let
is
likely to
between the chap-
and the metal which
surrounds
it
as to the
marred appearance
the
casting.
use
of the
e
,
n
By
f
L
i
THE PEERLESS CHAPLET.
perforated
chaplets herewith
overcome.
of
the
shown most of
these objections are
163
NOTES ON MATERIALS.
Abrasives.
The use and
received enormous
scope of abrasives has
impetus from the introduction of
machinery and steam or other motive power in the
"
"
Castings used to be cleaned or fettled by
hand with files, and polished by slow processes and
foundry.
muscular exertion
barrels,"
;
"
but since the discovery of tumbling
emery wheels, carborundum, and sand-blasting
files, although still of great use in holes
and corners, have had to take a back seat in foundry
machinery,
work.
Emery Wheels
are
made
are extensively used for all
in various grades,
manner
of grinding
and
and
The two principal kinds of
sharpening purposes.
which
the
from
wheels are manufactured, are
emery
the Turkish and the Naxos.
rock)
is
latter
The former
stone (or
found near Smyrna in Asia Minor, while the
which is supposed by expert? to be of a much
superior quality
comes from the island of Naxos, in
the Greek Archipelago.
stone
is
After being imported, the
crushed by means of powerful breakers, and
M
2
164
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
and sieved
then bolted
by
machinery into
special
various sizes or grains, ranging from 6
per inch
to
200 per
inch.
The wheels
are formed
down
by the appli-
cation of hydraulic pressure, and then undergo a
process
They are thus made very compact and
but the success of emery wheels depends to a
great extent upon two points, viz. running them at
of vitrification.
strong
;
and being properly mounted.
Carborundum is practically a manufactured
correct speed,
mineral
made
of coke, salt, sawdust
and common sand
fused at an intense heat
by the use
The
is
furnace.
enough
ideal
to withstand
will break
abrasive
the electric
of
one which
is
the hardest of materials
hard
;
that
when
too great a pressure has been brought
and
one which, when it breaks, leaves
upon
These characteristics are all
sharp irregular crystals.
contained in carborundum.
Besides being an ideal
to bear
it,
abrasive,
it is
also the
most powerful flux and softener
of cast iron at the service
enables
him
of the
scrap and obtain solid castings.
the
Carborundum Company,
commercial
foundryman.
It
to use mixtures carrying large portions of
article
average analysis
is
contains
as follows
at
As manufactured by
Niagara
certain
Falls,
impurities.
:
Silicon
62
Carbon
35'
Iron
1-5
Aluminium
1-5
100
per cent.
,.
the
An
165
NOTES ON MATERIALS.
Crude carborundum,
as
taken from the electric
furnace, usually consists of large masses of crystals.
Frequently these are exceedingly beautiful in colour,
and of adamantine lustre. Grain carborundum is produced by crushing and grinding the crude, treating
with acids, and separating by sieves into various-sized
These are numbered, the same as emery,
grains.
according to the
number
of threads per lineal inch of
Powders are the
the sieve through which they pass.
by sieving they are graded
Wheels are made by the vitrified
particles too fine to size
by
floating in water.
process,
wheels
;
the same as
;
employed for making emery
but as carborundum is 23 per cent, lighter
is
than emery, they can be run at a higher speed with
less risk, the
weight.
breaking strain being proportional to the
Carborundum being
insoluble in water,
oils,
or acids, absolutely infusible, in hardness only exceeded
by the diamond, and
breaking
into
sufficiently brittle to permit of its
sharp,
angular
particles,
is
an
ideal
material for grinding wheels, or the general purposes of
abrasion.
Sand-blasting is an old process in glass decoration
and other arts, but it is only recently, and chiefly in
America, that
it
Compressed
has found
its
way
into the foundry.
an important part in many
the sand-blast is one of them.
air plays
modern appliances:
For cleaning scale from iron or
steel,
or putting a face
on iron or brass castings nothing could be finer. It is
"
"
far and away superior to the messy
pickling
process,
166
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
being
much
less laborious
and more expeditious.
By
a
simple tank arrangement, and a regulating lever, the
sand is forced by air pressure through a hose with a
rose connection,
and squirted into crevices in castings
by any other method.
that would be difficult to reach
Facings.
The
and
application of some adhesive
partially
combustible
mould
a sine qua non for smooth castings in the
Among the materials which have proved
is
foundry.
material
the
to
of a
surface
useful in this respect, are flour, rosin, pease-meal, lampblack, talc or soapstone,
as they are called,
may
and plumbago.
These facing?,
either be used alone, and in a
dry condition, or mixed with
some argillaceous or
glutinous liquid, as clay-water, molasses, sour beer, or
certain resinous
The primary
oils.
requisites of a
good
should adhere well and also stand a
facing are, that it
high degree of heat without disintegrating or forming
a slag on the mould.
Plumbago
the favourite foundry facing.
is
finest quality, so far as purity is concerned,
which
The
also
analyses highest in carbon and stands the highest firecomes from the island of Ceylon. The celebrated
test,
Cumberland
leads are monopolised in the manufacture
of pencils, and
beyond the price permissible in
Quantities of an inferior grade
are
getting out castings.
are found all over
the world, chiefly in
States,
Canada and Germany.
nature,
is
plumbago
and bolt
finely.
The
the United
to its greasy
mineral to grind
pure material is never used for
a very
Owing
difficult
facing by itself
to
make
NOTES ON MATERIALS.
167
requires a bond of
some description
it
;
adhere
it
For dry
from 10 per
:
or molasses.
talc, soapstone, flour
facing, talc is the best adulterant of
20 per
plumbago,
being the average
The facing is applied to the surface of the
admixture.
mould in sufficient quantity to cover it lightly but
evenly
it
;
cent, to
cent,
then rubbed in by hand or camel's-hair
it being allowed to remain loose on the
is
brush, none of
This
mould.
moulding
for
;
method adopted
drysand or core work it
is
mix with water, molasses, or liquid
the mould or core with a soft brush
When
in
the
a smooth surface
is
glue,
and apply
to
or swab.
desired to the castings,
the moulds are smoothed over with a
facing has been put on.
greensand
necessary to
is
slick, after
the
For heavy work, two or even
be applied to insure the best results.
three coats
may
Lampblack or Return Facing.
In making
stove plate castings and other light work, which is
very thin, an extremely smooth surface is required.
Two
facings are generally employed for this class of
work.
A
first,
or heavy facing, like graphite, to
fill
the pores of the sand ; and a second or light facing,
like lampblack, or any combination of lighter carbons,
make a good impression on the surface of the mould,
and at the same time to prevent the first or heavy
to
facing sticking to the pattern
the mould, to assist
lastly to give
Soot
is
it
in
when
"
"
peeling
it
the
is
returned to
casting,
and
the proper colour.
peculiar to the foundry business, and the
168
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
"
term " one of the black squad is most appropriately
Some branches of moulding, such
applied to moulders.
or ornamental brass moulding,
a
facing which will not clog the metal patterns,
require
nor add materially to the weight of sharp impressions
as "face moulding,''
Lampblack or ground carbon has
in fine chased work.
been found to be the most suitable for this kind of
It is also very well suited for general castings,
work.
but the sand does not peel so freely as when plumbago
facing
used.
is
The
Flour.
best facing for brass-work in green-
undoubtedly pease-meal, but flour is almost as
good, and can be had very much cheaper the sweepings
of the mill and the bakery are usually bought for this
sand
is
:
A
purpose.
common
budding moulder
failure of the
is
to use the flour-bag too freely, with the result that his
"
"
flaked
on the top side. Flour
castings are generally
is
by American foundrymen
largely used
for
mixing
into core-sand.
Talc
Steatite
mineral
or the
is
particularly
suitable for the general purposes of the foundry facing,
but more especially light castings and hollow-ware it
is granular, greasy, and comparatively incombustible.
;
As
a
bond
for
the
nothing to surpass
castings
made
substitute
substance
"
flake,"
for
is
soft,
it,
friable
plumbago, there
and as a dry facing,
in greensand,
the more
known under
it
is
is
for brass
a very satisfactory
expensive
plumbago.
different names, as
white plumbago," soapstone,
etc.
"
This
terra-
169
NOTES ON MATERIALS.
Sea-coal
" mixer!'
a
only
actually
called bituminous
is
but
facing,
Sea-coal
it
is
mixed with
is
moulding sand in proportions of from 1 to 10 or even
20, according to the size and weight of the casting to
Too much sea-coal used in the sand causes
be made.
"
"
"
not
shut" streaked or
cold
mapped
sand
allow the
used will
Another advantage of
to
casting
to
cling
enough
;
the casting.
sea-coal in facing sand is that
it
allows the gases to escape more freely than does ordinary
The best qualities of sea-coal facing
sand by itself.
contain neither
high
in carbon
Sands.
sulphur, nor phosphorus, but are
slate,
and
volatile matter.
The
work.
to be
mixed and
to suit different
classes of
Moulding sand requires
tempered in various
ways
essential properties of a good moulding
sand are the combination of adhesiveness and openness.
These qualities are found in a suitable degree in some
sands in their natural state, but as a rule, foundry
sands have to be mixed
those of an argillaceous tem-
perament with the siliceous grades in order to produce
good results. The moulder judges sand by the feel of
it,
and sometimes
pressing
enough
it,
also
he can
for his
by putting some
tell
by
The mixing of
purpose.
facing-sands, strong-sands
with
many moulders
perience
is
in his
ear whether
;
and loam
but this
is
is
it
hand and
is
sharp
core-sands,
a great hobby
a study in which ex-
the only guide, and as there are no standard
mixtures or uniform sands, but only local qualities to
work upon, it devolves upon the moulder to mix what-
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
170
We
ever grades he can get to his liking.
made
cores
have seen
for very thin oil-boxes with moistened core-
gum, with soft Belfast sand, and with hard rock sand,
and in all cases the castings were a success but, on the
;
other hand,
we have
seen cores
made
for
"
"
chunky
and the cast-
castings with both Belfast and rock sands,
ings were failures, as these sands alone were not able to
Sands suitable
stand the cutting action of the metal.
always suitable for brass. Brass is a
more searching metal, and the sand used for moulding
brass castings does not require to be quite so open as
for iron are not
The sand
for iron.
a higher
fire-test
for steel castings requires to stand
than any other moulding sand.
A
patent facing sand for steel costings consists of black
sand 16 parts; white sand 4 parts; fireclay 1 part;
ammonia
chloride
1
The
part.
latter is dissolved in
and mixed in with the sands, the hot metal
water
in
coming
contact with
this
facing
chloride and forms a gas which in
for cores
in steel foundries
core-sand and
1
quart linseed
its
nascent state
Another
cleans the face of the casting.
is
decomposes the
composed
special sand
of 2 bushels
oil.
Fluxes are useful to the founder only in
as they have a refining influence on the metals
Fluxes.
so far
he
is
using.
Many
of the
modern
fluxes are supposed to have the
additional virtue of imparting
metals
;
but
it is
new
properties to the
only where metallic or semi-metallic
bodies are used that this could be assured.
171
NOTES ON MATERIALS.
The standard
aluminium
in
flux for cast iron is limestone
some form
;
;
for steel,
for brass, potash, nitre, or char-
coal dust; for lead, tallow; for copper, silicon ; for brazingsolder,
borax
;
for anti-friction alloys, sal-ammoniac.
Some founders pin
refining purposes,
their faith to one class of flux for
and use quite a
different article for
This is how it
regulating the properties of the metal.
silicon
are both
of
and
carbide
should be.
Fluor-spar
powerful fluxing agents in cast iron, but for ordinarymixtures excellent results can always be had with the
"
tC
good old stand-by limestone. Again, polled copper
is a vast improvement on the crude material, but nothing
great in comparison with purified or partly alloyed
copper.
experiments have been made in order to obtain
solid copper castings with a high electrical efficiency.
Many
It
is
highly important that the conductivity shall be
retained as near to that of pure copper as possible, and
the metal that
in
demand
for
is highest in this respect will be most
such castings as are required for electrical
machines.
One
of
the
most successful
is
gained by using
Cowles' silicon, aluminium and copper alloy (pulverised)
and manganese dioxide mixed in equal quantities. To
two ounces of this add an equal quantity of a flux
composed of borax and nitre equal parts
cient to refine 100 Ibs. of copper, and
;
this is suffiis
added
five
A high degree of conducminutes before pouring.
metal.
claimed
for
this
is
tivity
172
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Boron
is
said to have
much
the same effect on copper
as carbon has
upon cast iron.
one of the founder's greatest enemies, and
fluxes are introduced into molten metals for the purpose
Oxide
is
The greater
of reducing or altering the oxides.
a substance
may
possess for
affinity
oxygen, the more likely
is
to perform the function of a flux or de-oxidiser.
No
matter how carefully alloys may be melted they always
it
contain a certain amount of oxide, and
of
is
it
Many
if
a largo quantity
will be
present, the castings
badly blown.
of the so-called fluxes, therefore, are simply used
as a protective covering, especially adapted
for
this
purpose.
A
soda,
mixture of this description
is
composed
of borax,
alum and
The
fluor-spar, each 1 part.
following mixture for improving alloys, was
also the subject of a patent
manganese peroxide,
i part aluminium, 18 parts
;
biborate,
4
parts.
iron peroxide,
:
1 part
;
magnesium
33
parts
;
carbonate,
3J parts sodium
and
aluminium both
Phosphorus
;
silicon,
;
act as reducing agents in combination with other metals*
and they are especially active in lowering the fusionThere is an important distinction
point of metals.
between fluxes and reducing agents which is quite overFluxes yield slags, reducing
looked in the foundry.
agents yield metal.
The
action of reducing agents is
the separation of the oxygen or sulphur from the metal
with which it is combined, and owing to this fact they are
sometimes called de-oxidising or de-sulphurising agents.
NOTES ON MATERIALS.
The principal
tartar
de-oxidisers are
and
potash
(i.e.
The
and manganese.
173
charcoal, borax, flour,
:
charcoal),
silicon
fluor-spar,
a flux
addition of
is
always
advantageous it cleans the metal, keeps it more fluid in
the ladle, tends to set free occluded gases, and avoids
:
Some
blow-holes in the casting.
(so-called)
steel
and
of the metallic fluxes
have additional advantages, as aluminium in
iron, producing metal of superior ductility,
toughness and softer skin for machining purposes, and
taking away the tendency to chill at the edges or thinner
parts of the castings
reducing friction
;
;
or bismuth in antifriction alloys in
or
manganese
in copper,
making
it
possible to cast this difficult metal satisfactorily.
Fuels.
The
fuels principally in use for melting
metals are coke, coal, charcoal,
foundries solid fuel
is
solid fuel is generally used,
of the
modern processes
and gaseous
and gas.
oil
a necessity;
;
but gas
is
In iron
in steel foundries
employed in some
in brass foundries, solid, liquid
fuels are all available for
in a condition suitable for casting.
fuel for melting iron in the cupola.
does not collapse while giving
up
its
producing metal
Coke
is
the best
and
It is strong
heat, therefore
it
is
well adapted for bearing the burden of metal charged
it
carries less impurities,
iron,
ash,
than any other
which are detrimental
;
to cast
fuel.
Coke, high in fixed carbon and low in sulphur and
is desirable for melting iron.
Cast iron absorbs
about 4 per cent, of the sulphur in the coke, but rapid
it
melting tends to lessen the proportion taken up
;
174
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
follows then,
that the quality of the coke and the
amount needed
to
melt the charge both influence the
quality of the castings and the expense of melting.
graded in two ways: 1st, by the manufacturers, according to the number of hours consumed
Coke
is
in coking
;
2nd, by the foundrymen, according to the
Thus we
it weighs per bushel.
have 24, 48 and 72 hour coke also 32-lb. coke, 4 6-lb.
The longer coke remains
coke, and up to 70-lb. coke.
number
of pounds
;
(up to a certain period) in an oven in the process of
coking, the denser and harder it becomes; also, the
harder the coke, the longer the time required to consume it in a cupola, the heavier the burden it will
carry and the larger the amount of iron it will melt.
The following analyses of foundry cokes are within the
specifications of a large
Specific gravity
..
foundry company in America
:
T890
1'697
NOTE. No. 1 is a light coke with medium porosity, and will
give a quick intense heat. No. 2 is strong coke, more dense, and will
give a steady continued heat and support a heavier burden of iron.
Gas
steel,
is
largely used as a fuel in the manufacture of
and in many instances the
fuel
is
the adoption of regenerating chambers,
the blast, or by injecting steam.
economised by
by pre-heating
Gas furnaces are also
175
NOTES ON MATERIALS.
a
common
feature in brass foundry practice.
tended that gas
takes up
is
the most convenient form of fuel
little space,
much
It is con-
leaves
no ash, and
:
it
can be con-
it
than any of the solid fuels. Against
The
these advantages we must put the drawbacks.
waste or melting loss of an expensive metal like brass
trolled
is
easier
of primary importance to the brassfounder,
that
is
and as
increased by melting in gas furnaces, and the
constituent metals are not so easily kept within required
proportions, serious objections have been found in
quarters to gas as
some
With
a fuel for melting brass.
oil
a? a fuel in crucible furnaces, air space is necessary to
have proper combustion, and success depends on the
regulation of the air supply for perfect combustion.
Where too much air is admitted the waste of metal and
crucibles is excessive
;
with too
little
not delivered hot enough for casting.
air the metal is
It
is
essential for
the foundryman to understand the process of c )mbustion
and the
effect
on metals before he can get the bsst
from any fuel. Gases are absorbed by molten
metal from the waste products of combustion and are
results
locked
up by the
solidification of
oxidation and forming blowholes.
the metal, causing
There
is
no unifor-
mity in foundry melting methods, but it is generally
conceded that coke gives the best results in cupola
melting (unless we except the purest of all fuels, wood
Coal is well adapted for use in reverberatory
charcoal).
and
furnaces,
gas-house charcoal is the most economical
fuel for melting in crucibles.
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
176
NOTES ON METALS.
Cast Iron.
furnace,
is
Pig-iron, the
foundry iron
product of the blast
The term
crude cast iron.
used
cast
iron or
to
always
imply cupola iron.
Elements other than iron in pig-iron regulate its chais
and the composition of the iron put into the
cupola regulates the physical properties and condition
There is a growing demand for pig-iron
of the casting.
racter,
and castings of
now doing
for
specified composition
for the iron-founder
The custom
the steel-maker.
fracture or grade number,
extent to
the more accurate
chemical analyses.
what
In
is
;
it
and chemistry is
has already done
of
buying iron by
giving place to a great
practice of selecting irons
many
by
foundry irons are
Since it has been
cases, too,
being mixed by chemical formulae.
realised that the contents of pig-iron is not revealed in
" brand" or
"grade," careful consumers have verified
the analyses furnished by the seller, and mixed their
iron according to the
constituents
present, or Lave
unfit for use, or have required
rejected the irons as
adjustment with the
seller.
Thus
an
the average formula
NOTES ON METALS.
177
grey iron castings contains in ths mixture,
between 2*50 and 3 '50 per cent. carbon, 3 to
for light
silicon,
4 per
0'05
cent.
;
6 to 1 00 per cent. ; sulphur,
manganese about 0*50 per
*
;
to
phosphorus,
080 per
cent.
;
cent.
Formulae for other castings
is
a matter of calculation
:
work would require maximum
while
heavy machinery would want miniphosphorus,
for example, stove-plate
mum
silicon.
TABLE OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION or LIGHT
CASTINGS (!RON).
For very heavy castings a mixture containing about 2 00 silicon
should be used; other elements same as mixture (<7)
General Remarks. The
by pig-iron
is
total
carbon usually held
from 3-5 to 4 5 per
cent, graphitic
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
178
Combined carbon adds strength
carbon predominating.
The
to castings as well as hardness.
are
made from
strongest castings
iron which will produce sound castings
with the least amount of silicon
silicon is lost in re-melting.
;
20 per cent,
about
Silicon
up
to
of
about 3 00
per cent, softens iron by keeping the carbon in the
graphitic state 3 35 per cent, silicon in a casting, other
;
conditions being equal, will produce
high breaking strain
is
maximum
graphite.
than hard iron, but
Soft iron will re-melt oftener
required, silicon
if
a
must necessarily
be kept low.
Silicon is the element
hard or
upon
soft iron.
the
by which the founder makes
The percentage
amount of carbon
present,
Dr.
balance of the composition.
necessary depends
and upon the
Edward Kirk
lias
characterised carbon as the true softener, and hot blast
Man-
charcoal iron as the best for general casting.
ganese
produces
hardness
and
shrinkage and
also
removes sulphur. Phosphorus reduces shrinkage, but
should never exceed 1 00 per cent.
High phosphorus
irons are adapted to delicate patterns, because such iron
is
very limpid
much weakened,
when molten
the castings are very
;
other things being uniform.
increases fusibility of cast iron, but
when
rise
molten, giving
to
makes
it
Sulphur
sluggish
blowholes in castings.
Sulphur should never exceed O'lO per cent. Silicon,
besides being a softener, if used in proper proportions,
increases fluidity
and
removes sulphur, and
fusibility.
is
the flux
Lime
or fluor-spar
commonly used
in the
179
NOTES ON METALS.
The average proportion
foundry.
7 to 10
mixture
"
Ibs.
regulated by two things,
is
Home "
"
or
"
Foreign
From 25
or selected.
scrap,
to
aluminium
viz.
40 per
cent, is a
From 2
is
Scrap in the
whether
and whether
of scrap in ordinary mixtures.
soft iron
of flux required
lime to every ton of iron.
it is
it is
mixed
good average
5 oz. of
oz. to
to the ton of cast iron is said to produce
by converting
the
combined
carbon
into
graphite.
Historically, the
Steel.
advancement which has
been made in the manufacture of
*'
converter
of the
"
process of steel-making to the
success, introduced
other
notably the regenerative
discoveries have been
treatment of
steel,
has been said
Steel
is
a modern
Members
British Association assembled at Cheltenham.
Following Bessemer were
it
steel, is
In the year 1856 Bessemer described his
miracle.
we
many who,
processes
stimulated by his
of
making
process of Siemens.
made
in
the manufacture
steel,
New
and
with such phenomenal strides, that
are now living in the Steel Age.
a combination of iron and carbon, in which the
is
very small. It occupies an intermediate position between cast iron and wrought iron,
proportion of carbon
and
it is
produced by many different processes. In the
foundry there are two prominent methods of producing
steel employed in the manufacture of castings, viz. the
crucible and the converter.
invention of Benjamin
and
is still
Crucible cast steel was the
Huntsman over 160
years ago,
recognised to be the most uniform in quality,
N 2
180
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
and the hardest and most
The tough
reliable steel for cutting tools.
quality of the so-called malleable iron cast-
ings which are
made with
special mixtures of iron in
the cupola, depends altogether on the process of annealThere is a great craze for alloyed steels,
ing.
self-hardening steel, desulphurised steel,
etc.,
does not affect the general foundry practice in
It has been manifested
castings.
by
but this
making
the introduction
of alloyed steel that the metalloids contained in steel are
confined to well-known limitations, while there
latitude permissible in the
amount of purely
To
so-called
alloyed tool steel,
Taylor-White
tungsten
8 5
for
calls
give
:
;
15
silicon
0*15;
manganese
;
great
The
an example
with patent
chromium 2 ;
carbon 1 85
elements introduced.
specifications,
is
metallic
;
phosphorus 0*025; sulphur 0*03; and occasionally
molybdenum is used. This leaves about 87 per cent,
a remarkably low proportion.
iron in the steel
General Remarks.
The
quality of steel
is
regu-
lated by the absence of phosphorus, sulphur and other
The grain of steel is no indication of
impurities.
quality
milder
:
hard
steel
shows a
steel
of the
close fine grain,
same quality shows a coarser
Temper means the percentage
the iron to produce
steel.
and a
grain.
of carbon combined with
Carbon
is
the controlling
element in steel.
Aluminium
but the
is
probably the most abundant metal,
extracting the pure metal call for
difficulties of
a comparatively high selling price.
The
early sodium
181
NOTES ON METALS.
reduction methods of obtaining aluminium have been
As
methods.
completely superseded by electrolytic
made in
been
has
that
showing the progress
the
manufacture of aluminium, in 1860 the price of an
ounce,
made by the
Deville process, in France,
was
penny. It
something
is likely that aluminium will be more useful in combination with other metals, such as steel, magnesium,
7s.
6d.
like a
to-day the cost is
;
The
metal.
copper, silver or nickel, than as a simple
99 or 99 25
ordinary aluminium of commerce is about
silicon in
and
iron
the
cent,
impurities being
per
pure,
about the
per cent.
;
following
silicon
*
proportions:
50 per
cent.
;
aluminium 99 '25
iron
*
25 per
cent.
In casting aluminium, pour the metal as cold and
Use large sprues and cut heavy
as quickly as possible.
gates,
moulds
on
unless
softly,
thin,
delicate
castings.
Earn
the
use the swab sparingly and keep the
sand as dry as practicable.
Aluminium
is
not as liable
wash away portions of the mould as other metals on
Vent all moulds well.
account of its lightness.
to
Brass.
Brass,
and brassfounders' alloys have a very
extensive and misleading nomenclature.
It is generally
conceded that the terms brass and bronze distinguish
and zinc and copper and tin
Nevertheless, numerous bronzes (so-called)
certain alloys of copper
respectively.
made without having any tin in their composition,
and numerous brasses (so-called), as for example, the
are
white anti-friction brasses, are made without zinc.
some
districts like the
In
Midlands, brass means a positive
182
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
mixture of copper two parts and zinc one part in
others, as the Clyde or general marine districts, it
;
means a common, cheap type
of metal having the colour
used
for
which
is
glands, gaurds and general
of brass,
mountings in marine engineering. The general public
again characterise
all
metals having an approach to
yellowness in colour under the general
There
term of hrass.
a Standardising Bureau in the United States
is
for determining the qualities of the different kinds of
cast iron.
Surely,
when a simple and cheap metal
cast iron is treated as a technical
of expensive
array
and complex
like
compound, the vast
alloys which are
handled in the brass foundry, deserve no less consideration.
The need for naming things correctly grows
greater
every day,
industrial
know
as
pursuits can
anyone
actively
testify.
Many
engaged in
nostrums we
and many
equal to and
are sold under high-sounding names,
imitations
are
off
as
being
passed
"
the same as genuine
chemically and mechanically
alloys of repute ; so that, looking at the subject from
"
almost any standpoint, it would be better for all concerned if some system of designating alloys could be
devised, even although it was on the clumsy commercial
basis
which
is
commodities.
sometimes made a means of identifying
Thus,
"
" the
sixpence-halfpenny brass
and the ninepenny gun-metal would become familiar
terms, but also a straight means of comparison would
be presented to the unwary or unversed purchaser. The
proper temperature at which the various brassfounders'
183
NOTES ON METALS.
alloys should be cast, is also a subject
The best heat
investigation.
a
matter
for
which deserves
good results
is
largely
of conjecture, and, in the foundry at least,
altogether a question of practice.
Heats
in the sense
of casting temperatures are only comparative in the
Yellow brass might justly be said to be very
hot, while gun-metal at the same temperature would be
dull, and probably unfit for making castings.
Many
"
"
writers on alloys speak of the proper heat for casting
foundry.
;
but no authority has yet ventured
to fix
the proper
degree of heat for casting any of the alloys, and even if
such a thing were done, there is the insuperable
difficulty
the
of
determining the
want of appliances for correctly
The
heat of metal in the foundry.
brassfounder uses a few terms and rules, which, again,
are
only comparative; for instance, he may express
Yellow brass cannot be cast too hot ;
himself thus
:
phosphor-bronze cannot be cast too dull; gun-metal
"
"
should be cast at a nice heat, and antifriction-metal
should never be allowed to come to a red heat.
That
is the whole foundry practice with regard to these
To say more would be to
metals in a few sentences.
This is
without enlightening the subject.
really a matter for the attention of some body such as
''The Alloys Research Committee," and one upon
enlarge
which
it
would be of untold benefit
to the
foundryman
pronouncement. As showing the
amount of uncertainty which surrounds this question of
the proper heat for casting alloys, we might add that
to have
some
definite
184
we have
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
seen one
imparted to
the
man judge the heat by the heat
skimmer in a given time if the
;
skimmer melted soon, then, if it was gun-metal or
Another man
phosphor-bronze, the metal was too hot.
would judge the heat of the metal by the rate at which
"
it was able to dissolve a
cooler," and yet another would
depend on
reflected light,
and shut a window or a door
the purpose of seeing the metal in a
for
dimmer atmosphere.
185
USEFUL MEMORANDA, RULES
AND TABLES
EVERY foreman
rules
or foundry
manager has a code of
by which he estimates the weight of
castings,
the shrinkage of metals, or the pressure exerted on
moulds by
all
fluid metal.
There are standard rules
of these, but the foreman
knows that there are frequent
especial care to
expression).
rules, devised
who
is
worth his
Many
this
salt
exceptions, and takes
" err on the safe side "
(to use a
on
for
common
thoroughly sound and practical
plan, have never been formulated,
and indeed, many of them are of such a flexible nature
it would be a difficult matter to state them in cold,
that
unsympathetic and unerring figures.
Every man
is
working by the rule which gives the greatest
amount of satisfaction, no matter what its derivation may
justified in
be.
Thus
crucibles
moulders,
in brass foundries, there is a rule regarding
which
is
tacitly
viz. that all the
acknowledged by observant
metal should be poured out,
186
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
and none of
it
allowed to settle in the crucible.
and where
This
is
not observed there is a
"
noticeable increase in the percentage of " running pots,
besides extra risk and loss. Another rule which is general
in all foundries is to use core-boxes which are a " tight
"
"
fit
for the prints.
Eules for " feeding or " slackening" castings, or weighting down boxes, are not so
good
practice,
it is
simple, and depend more often upon good judgment
than upon any fixed equations or decisive theories.
Figuring mixtures calls for a nice adjustment of different
metals to bring about the various qualities and effects,
and success depends altogether upon the founder having
an accurate knowledge or estimate of the different
grades.
It is
now
recognised that mere mechanical
tests or fractures are not sufficiently accurate for the
best work, hence the reason of the
ing irons
A
by chemical analyses.
new method
of mix-
mechanical test
may
give an approximate idea of the strength, and with a
knowledge of the shrinkage
of the components
it is
at best an
it
may
even give an inkling
in cast iron, but
especially silicon
awkward
test, as the
iron must first pass
through the cupola and be melted.
Circumference of a
diam.
x ^.
Area
X
of
a
circle
=
circle
=
diam. 2
diam.
x 3*1416
x -7854
;
;
or
or radius 2
3-1416.
Area of an ellipse
and -7854.
Area of a triangle
of its height.
=
the product of both diameters
=
the base multiplied by one-half
187
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
Side of an equal square = diam. X '8862.
the diameter of
The side of a square x 1-414214
=
its
circumscribing
The
The
circle.
= diam. 2 X
= diam. 3 X
x '00058 = cubic
3 '1416.
surface of a sphere
'5236.
solidity of a sphere
Cubic inches
or cubic inches
ft.,
1728
-f-
x '26
x "3
x 32
x '286
x '41
X '259
x '49
x 38
X -7
x '092
x '097
'
,,
,,
,,
'
,,
,,
4- 4
-f- 4
= Ibs.
= Ibs.
= Ibs.
Tons
Square inches
copper.
steel.
= Ibs.
lead.
= Ibs.
= Ibs.
= Ibs.
= Ibs.
= Ibs.
+ J=
+ YV=
Lbs. avoirdupois
brass.
=lbs.
=lbs.
= cubic ft.
cast iron.
zinc.
mercury.
silver.
gold.
aluminium (pure).
aluminium (com-
mercial quality).
Ibs.
brass.
lbs - cast iron.
X *009
X '00045
X 2240
x '007
=
=
=
=
cwts.
tons.
Ibs.
sq. ft.
To
find the weight of a cubic foot of substance, multiits
ply
specific gravity by 62*4 ; the weight of a cubic
inch
=
specific gravity
x
'0361.
EULES FOB CONVERTING WEIGHT OF CAST IRON
INTO BRASS.
The weight
of
cast iron
x 1'16
=
the weight in
Another rule weight of cast iron
brass (approximate).
X T2B gives the quotient to be added for brass.
:
188
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Example.
1
Find the weight
of a plate 3
ft.
sq.
by
in. thick.
36 X 36 x 1'25
1620 cubic inches
26 (for iron)
=
1620 cubic inches.
1620 cubic inches
3 for brass
=
9720
3240
421 '20
486-0
Ibs.
Ibs.
weight in brass.
weight in cast iron
2
13)842-40(64-80
78
+
421-20
=
486
Ibs.
=
weight in brass.
104
104
RULES TO FIND THE WEIGHT OF KOUND PLATES,
PIPES, PULLEY AND WHEEL HEMS, ETC.
Round
EULE
1.
Plates.
Multiply half the circumference by half
the diameter, multiply "by the thickness of metal, and
weight in Ibs.
again by 26 for cast iron or 3 for brass
=
RULE
7854
2.
Square the diameter of plate, multiply
for area in square inches, multiply
and again by
by
by
thickness,
-3 for brass or *26 for cast iron.
RULE
and
or
3 (approximate).
Square diameter of plate,
multiply by thickness and again by 2 for cast iron
*
24 for brass
=
weight in
Pipes, Pulley
RULE
1.
Ibs.
and Wheel Hems,
To the inner diameter add
of metal, multiply
by
3 '141 6 (or 3|),
etc.
the thickness
and the product
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
189
of pipe ; the result is the superficial area.
the
Multiply
superficial area by the thickness to get
cubic contents in inches, and again multiply by -3 for
by the length
brass or
RULE
26 for cast iron for weight in Ibs.
Subtract the square of the inside diameter
2.
from the square of the outside, multiply by *7854 for
the superficial area, and again multiply by the length for
cubic inches.
=
cast iron
Then multiply by
*3 for brass, or -26 for
Ibs.
EULE
3 (approximate).
Subtract the square of the
from the square of the outside diameter,
and multiply by 2 for cast iron or 24 for brass ; the
inside diameter
the weight of one inch in length.
Example. Find the weight of a liner in brass 9
result
is
by 12
in.
Rule
9
_9
by J
Same Example compared
by Rule 1, which is more
3.
in.
accurate.
outside diam., 8
8
81
in.
8*5 inside diam.
inside diam.
64
1-21
25-50
64
17
24 for brass
26-71 circumference
12 length
~68
34
320-52 areasq.
in.
5 thickness
4-08 Ibs weight of one inch
,
160 -260 cubic
-
12
48-96
in.
in. thick.
Ibs.,
weight of liner
48-0780
r
in.
3 for brass
Ibs.
weight of
liner
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
190
A VERY EASY METHOD
WEIGHT
OF CALCULATING THE
OF METALS OF ANY KEGULAR SECTION.
NOTE
Always reduce any dimensions,
1.
as width,
thickness, diameter, etc., to sixteenths of an inch.
NOTE
2.
inches
=
Always square any sixteenths so found, as
x 20 sixteenths = 400 squared.
NOTE 3. Always add to the square of the sixteenths
the proportion given for each metal and each form of
1
20
section.
NOTE
Note that the result is always the weight
which can be instantly pointed
Ibs.
Thus
4.
in Ibs. of 100 feet run,
off for 1
ft.
as
:
432
=
42-3=
4-32=
100 feet run.
10
1
Square or Flat
Let Ibs. per 100 feet run
teenths thick.
Add J
of the squared
-g-
2 2
T o <i
,,
Sections.
=
sixteenths wide
number
for copper.
steel.
cast iron.
brass.
x
six-
191
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
X
Example. Find the weight of a plate 3 feet square
inch thick.
I
Usual Method.
=
36
in.
1|
in. ^=
36 side.
36 length.
576 sixteenths.
20
"216
11520
squared.
5760 add for copper
108
.
17280
3
Ibs.
100 feet run.
518-40
Ibs.
3 feet copper.
1296
1-25 thickness.
6480
2592
1296
1620
32
fc&
cubic inches.
for copper.
3240
4860
518 -40
A
Ibs.
copper.
plate of the same dimensions in cast iron would
2 2
to be added to the squared number, thus
require T o
:
<j-
1620 cubic inches.
26 for cast iron.
11520
22
23040
23040
9720
3240
2534-40
11520
421-20
+
=
14054-40
100=
Ibs.
per 100
Ibs.
3
ft.
run.
3
421-6320
ft.
cast iror.
Ibs. cast iron.
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
192
Round
Let
Ibs.
squared)
100
feet
or Oval Sections.
=
run
(diameter in sixteenths
:
Add
-fa of
the result for
steel.
brass (castings).
TV
copper
i-
Deduct ^V
cast iron.
Find the weight
Example.
12 inches by 10 feet long.
12 inches
=
of
a
solid
column
192 sixteenths.
192
384
1728
192
36864 sixteenths squared.
1843-2
i
The weight
38707-2
Ibs.
weight in
3870-72
Ibs.
weight of 10
of
j
per 100
steel
ft.
ft.
Crun
ipes or liners can be got in
way by "taking out" the weight of two cylindrical
and one for the core,
solids, one for the outside diameter
this
and subtracting.
For the sake
of comparison
we work out
the above
example by the usual method of finding the cubic inches
X
'
3 for brass.
Thus
:
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
Usual Method.
12
in.
Sixteenths
diam.
12
in.
X
=
12
Sixteenths Method.
192 sixteenths.
192
384
1728
192
144
7854
576
720
1152
1008
36864 diam. in sixteenths squared.
-4 -J added for brass.
113-0976 area sq. in.
120 inches in length.
13571-7120 cubic inches.
40550 -4
Ibs.
100ft. run.
4055 -04
Ibs.
10
ft.
This shows a difference of 16 Ibs.,
is a mere trifle in the matter
of 36 cwts.
which
3 for brass.
4071- 51360
193
Ibs.
WEIGHT o? SPUR- WHEEL CASTINGS (CAST
= p2 x N x B
C
IRON).
W
P =
where
B=
stant,
=
pitch
in
breadth in inches
250
inches
;
;
N=
number
W = weight
which up to 2-in. pitch = 270
from 3-in. to 4-in. = 245.
;
in cwt.
from
of
;
teeth
C=
;
con-
2 in. to 3-in.
;
APPROXIMATE EULES FOR FINDING THE WEIGHT OF
WHEELS.
EULE 1. Multiply the number of teeth by the
square of the pitch, and by the breadth of face, and by
4 for the weight in Ibs. cast iron.
EULE
2.
Calculate the weight of wheel
hem
(as in
example for pipes, etc.), double this weight, and multiply
by 2 2 for the weight of whole wheel in Ibs. cast iron.
194
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
EULE FOR WEIGHTING DOWN MOULDS BEFORE
CASTING.
"
The number
multiplied
and by 40
of square feet in the surface of
by the height
of flow-gates
mould
above the surface,
as a constant, gives the weight required to
resist the strain in Ibs. avoirdupois."
Neave.
TABLE OF CONSTANT NUMBERS FOR FINDING THE
LENGTHS OF CHORDS FOR DIVIDING CIRCLES.
RULE.
Multiply the constant in the Table to the
figure which represents the number of
parts into which you wish the circle divided by the
diameter of the circle in inches, and the product will be
right of that
the length of chord required in inches.
Example.
It is required to divide a 60-inch circle
into 11 equal parts.
281901
60
16-914060
NOTE.
= the constant for 11 parts.*
= the diam. of the circle in inches.
= lef}*" 1 inches = length of chord
For decimal equivalents
of fractional parts
of an inch, see p. 197.
*
Example marked
required.
in Table.
195
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
TABLE OP CONSTANTS.
TABLE FOR CONVERTING OUNCES INTO DECIMAL
PARTS OF A POUND.
o 2
196
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
KULE FOR THE WEIGHT OF PlPES.
D = outside diameter of pipe in inches.
d = inside diameter.
ic :=
weight of a lineal
W = K (D
K=
=
=
=
=
2
-
foot of pipe in Ibs,
cl").
2 '45 for cast iron.
2 64 for
iron.
wrought
2 -82 for brass.
3 -03 for copper.
3 -87 for lead.
SHRINKAGE OF CASTINGS.
The usual allowance
follows
for each foot in length
is
as
:
iu.
Iii
In tin
large cylinders
small
copper
,,
beams and girders
=
thick brass
thin
bismuth
To
Ai
JL
....
.
cast-iron pipes
i
**
aluminium
zinc
Delta metal
lead
gun-metal (in 9
A
.
i
in.)
BAUER'S DRILL TEST FOR HARDNESS OF METALS.*
(Average of 100
tests
with each metal.)
Showing the revolutions required in boring exactly
of metal, using a
inch twist drill, the pressure
inch
J
on the drill being 160 Ibs., and running at 350 revolu-j{-
tions per minute.
Metals.
Lead
(pig)
Pewter
"A
"
.
lie vs.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Babbitt
.
.
"B"
.
.
Antimonv lead
.
.
Stereotype metal
Tin (block)
Tin (5 percent, phosphorus)
"
C"
Babbitt (hard)
.
.
7
8
11
12
12
12
13
13
18
Metals.
Revs.
Zinc
70
89
106
Aluminium
Antimony
Copper (ingot)
.
.
.160
.
164
244
253
.
Phosphor-bronze (red)
400-600
Wrought iron
Phosphor-bronze (white)
Hard bronze
(88 -12)
.
.
.
.
.
Cast iron
.
.
The Foundry, August 1901.
.
.
200-700-
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
197
RULES FOR CONVERTING PRICES per ton, cwt. and
into prices per lb., cwt. and ton, and vice versa.
EULE
cwt. or
<
1.
At any
price per
lb.,
II.
to find shillings per
per ton, multiply the price in pence per
lb.
28
RULE
2.
At any
to find the price per
3
.
per cwt. by
<
lb.,
per ton, or shillings per cwt.,
multiply
per ton or shillings
DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF FRACTIONAL PARTS OF
AN INCH.
198
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
WEIGHT OF A SQUARE FOOT OF METALS.
Thickness advancing by sixteenths of an inch.
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
199
200
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
Il
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201
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
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202
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
-
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s a
h-
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111
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203
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
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204
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
TABLE OF THE CIRCUMFERENCES AND
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
AREAS OP CIRCLES, ADVANCING BY EIGHTHS.
205
206
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
SQUARES AND CUBES (FRACTIONAL).
207
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
COMPARATIVE AVEIGHTS OF DIFFERENT METALS.
The weight of aluminium when compared with copper is as
ItoS'G; gun-metal, 3'3 brass, 3*1; steel, 2 '9. Brass is from
;
2 to 4 per cent, lighter than copper,
specifically.
COMPARATIVE WEIGHT OF METALS.
TABLE
II.
208
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
PROPERTIES OF METALS, ALLOYS, METALLOIDS, AND
ARTIFICIAL SUBSTANCES USED IN FOUNDRIES.
209
USEFUL MEMORANDA.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF MISCELLANEOUS SUBSTANCES.
To CONVERT DEGREES CENTIGRADE INTO DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT.
Let
F=
C=
F =
|
C
No. of degrees Fahrenheit.
No. of degrees Centigrade.
and
-r 32,
vice versa
C = - (F -
32).
Freezing point, or 32 Fahr. = Zero in Centigrade.
Boiling point, or 212 Fahr. = 100 Centigrade.
1 Fahr. = 0'55G Centigrade.
WEIGHT OF CASTINGS BY WEIGHT OF PATTERNS.
Weight of Pattern, White Pine x 16
,,
.,
= Weight
x 17 =
Xl7-3=
x!8 =
x25 =
in Cast Iron.
Malleable Iron.
Steel.
,.
Copper.
Lead.
In general practice the weight of pine pattern multiplied twenty
is taken as the mean weight of casting and runners in brass
times
or gun-metal.
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
210
WEIGHT OF CAST-IRON BALLS.
p
/-v
.
i
3
(diam. in inches)
2
cube of the
ball's
diam.
._
Or,
8
A square foot of cast iron 1
v
x
i
_
.1
-,
-.
'
1 1
w VM
=
"
-
Ib
W weight in
-,I T
i
inch thick weighs 37
L
11
Ibs.
Ibs.
To
find
what a square foot of any other thickness will weigh, multiply
37 '5 by the thickness in inches or fractions of an inch.
IN PATTERNS LIABLE TO PRODUCE
DISTORTED CASTINGS.
KULE FOR CAMBER
Camber equals half the
set in the opposite direction
contraction allowance (lineal), and
from the bend in distorted casting.
EULE FOR SHRINKING BRASS LINERS ON TAIL
is
SHAFTS.
Bore the liner r -th per foot diam. smaller than the finished size
of the shaft upon which it is to be shrunk.
T
211
NOTES ON TEST BAES.
THE
test bars desirable for
as follows
ordinary cast-iron work
:
Transverse Strength. Bar 1 inch by 1 inch by 14
inches.
This bar should be broken with 12 inches
It
between supports and load in centre.
it
as
to
the
for
the
information
chiefly
gives
is
useful
elasticity
means should be provided for
not only ascertaining its deflection under breaking
of the metal
load,
tion
hence, a
;
maximum
but the
and return
load
it
will carry
with deflec-
to its original straightness.
A
metal
close-grained and firm, with high elasticity,
may be more valuable than another whose ultimate
tensile strength is higher, but whose elasticity is of
which
is
low degree.
Tensile Strength.
Bar 14 inches
long,
1J inches in
diameter at ends, with area reduced at centre, preferWhere
ably to 1 square inch or 1| inch diameter.
diameter
divided
is
1
inch,
by '7851
the machine reading must be
to get tensile strength per square
p 2
212
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
These bars
inch.
may
metal on them, and,
section
may
he tested with the skin of the
if desired,
other hars of the same
down from 3 -inch diameter bar
be turned
to get strength of the metal at the heart of the bar.
Fracture.
Bar 4 inches by 6 inches by 1
inch.
This bar or plate to be cast with the 6-inch edge
The test break is made through the
against a chill.
chill,
and the fracture gives the depth of
The
nature of iron.
influence of the
chill
and
metalloids
notably manganese and sulphur
may be judged by
the depth of the chill.
It may be in general emphasised here, however, that gradation
a comparative
bound by
by fracture
is
only
test, as the effect of the metalloids is
their action
on the relation of the carbon
to
the iron, increasing or decreasing the affinity of these
two
for each other.
Solidity
and Homogeneity.
by 2J inches by 1 inch by 6
supposed, the
Angle
is
2
inches
This bar
is
extreme conditions which exist in a
flanged casting, the corner being
break
bar,
inches.
made by
sharp.
The
splitting through the corner,
test
when
the tendency to segregation, the formation of pockets,
and the general nature of the fracture may be noted.
The shrinkage per
a
bar
this
by
length, although
a square bar, 1 inch by 1 inch by 12 inches, with ends
cast against a chill, answers the same purpose.
ShrinJcage.
Bar, 8 feet long.
foot is best determined
The Drop
usual
tensile
Test
test,
is
sometimes substituted for the
The following
description,
by
213
NOTES ON TEST BARS.
Mr.
W.
G. Scott, of a machine, and the method of
carrying
out
the
The Foundry,
appeared in
test,
August 1901.
"Our drop
on the principle of
a pile-driver, with two upright posts 12 inches apart.
A frame 12 inches wide and 18 inches long, slides
test
machine
is built
up and down between the upright
end of
made
this
on the lower
;
attached the iron striking block
is
in the shape of a
steel face
Ib.
frame
posts
wedge with an oval hardened
J inch wide.
The frame and parts weigh 10 kilos,
The frame or weight is pulled up
or about
22
to a certain
height and then automatically released by means of a
suitable trip. A fall of 1 inch is equivalent to 22 inch-lb.,
a 2-inch drop
12 inches
is
With a
equivalent to
is
calculated as
264
44
and a drop of
inch-lb.,
inch-lb. or
22/oo-lb.
1 -inch-square test bar placed on supports
12 inches apart, we
with a 3-inch drop, and
increase the height of the fall or drop by 1 inch each
time until the bar
is
start
broken.
For example, we may
paper as follows
illustrate
the
method on
:
First drop (1 blow) 3-in. full
..
..
Second drop (2 blows) 4-in. fall ....
..
Third drop (3 blows) 5-in. fall ..
..
Fourth drop (4 blows) 6-in. fall..
Fifth drop (5 blows) 7-in.
fall
Total, 25-iu. fall
..
..
..
..
66 inch-' b.
88
113
132
154
550
This would be reported as 5 blows, a total
25
inches, and equivalent to 550
inch-lb.
fall
of
214
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
This
is
our method of making the drop
does not necessarily follow that
it is
but
test,
it
the best method
;
some experimenters prefer a given height for the drop
and repeat the fall until rupture occurs, in which case
the
number of blows
to
shock,
is
the main feature.
Castings in actual service are generally subjected
consequently it seems to us that more
attention should be given the
drop test method of
determining the strength.
It has been found from numerous experiments that
a square test bar having a tensile strength of, say
24,000 lb., will have a transverse strength of about
2,400
lb.,
Chill.
and a shock resistance of 240 inch-lb."
The
chilling
properties
of cast iron
determined in several ways.
In order to get the exact measurement,
to get a print
Grind
off
it is
are
better
from an etching in. the following manner.
one side of the chilled end of the bar,
using an emery wheel or grindstone, then polish with
flour of emery to remove scratches. Wash the polished
surface with
weak ammonia and then with
to remove the grease,
etc., after
clear water
which place in an
etching solution for about 15 minutes.
The etching
oz. of
solution is
made by pouring 3
fluid
strong sulphuric acid into 9 fluid oz. of distilled
water, then adding 1 fluid oz. of strong muriatic acid.
Make
the mixture in an earthenware jar, as the
heat of the mixture will be liable to break a glass
vessel.
NOTES ON TEST BARS.
Never pour
the
215
water into the acid, but add the
sulphuric acid slowly in a thin stream and stir well.
When the piece is well etched, rinse in clear water,
then wipe dry.
With a printer's roller give the face of the etching
a coat of ink, then by means of a letter press or by
bearing clown hard with the hand, you can get a print
showing the chill.
Below is an exact reproduction of an etching showing the chill on a test bar.
216
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
CAST-IEON SCUAP.
ITS
THE
following
VALUE AND
CLASSIFICATION.
classification
of
scrap
is
suggested,
each pile to be carefully separated in the yard.
1. Stove Plate.
Kich in silicon, carbon and phcsphorus.
Its chief objection is the great
oxide which collects on
amount of
surface in proportion to
its
weight.
2. Agricultural Machinery.
Equally as rich in
carbon as No. 1, but nob so high in silicon and phos-
phorus.
3.
Light Machinery.
phosphorus, but about a
4.
Heavy
Not so high in silicon and
medium between extremes.
This
Machinery.
gearing, housings,
rolls, etc.
;
consists
low in
silicon
of heavy
and phos-
phorus, but rich in carbon.
5.
Fire Bars, Furnace Plates.
Castings that have
been exposed to heat.
This is the lowest grade of
scrap iron, having been depleted of most of its lifegiving properties.
217
CAST-IRON SCRAP.
Silicon is recognised as the element
soft iron
As
with low shrinkage.
which produces
a guide in
making
up mixtures,
Ordinary machinery scrap
2*75 Silicon
2*00
Heavy
1-75
Stove plate scrap
may be reckoned
In these days of cheap
will
to contain
castings, a pig-iron
which
perform the functions of a good scrap-carrier
is
essential.
From 25
per cent, to 40 per cent, scrap
is
a good
average for general work.
In calculating mixtures, allowance should he made
for variations in melting, thus
Silicon
may be reckoned
:
to lose about
..
Sulphur
Phosphorus
Total Carbon
*
25 per cent.
'20
Manganese
increase,,
..
*01
..
'005
as stationary.
Although it may either lose or gain, according to
the speed and conditions of melting.
218
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
SHOP BECEIPTS.
To prevent damp sand from
patterns, dust
To
sticking to
wood or metal
on lycopodiiim.
from iron turnings, salt them well,
moisten thoroughly, and after a few days wash
free
brass
with running water.
To
take the temper out of cast steel for turning,
it a dark
cherry red, and bed in dry lime.
To melt
steel or
make
wrought iron turnings and improve
12 per cent, to 20 per cent, of
cast iron, put from
the capacity of the ladle into the bottom,
making
sure that the turnings are dry, and pour good
hot iron in by tapping the cupola.
"Mixture for tough or hydraulic cast iron
No. 3
pig,
32
cwt.
test pieces, etc.),
steel (boiler-plate
;
18
:
grey iron,
punchings,
cwt., divided into five equal
charges.
Core compound, used in
steel
and brass foundries
1 quart linseed oil to 2 bushels sand.
Facing for steel castings 4 parts black sand
:
;
:
1 part
219
SHOP EECEIPTS.
white sand
J part
;
fireclay
The hot metal
ammonia.
cliloride of
J part
;
coining in contact with
the facing, decomposes the chloride and forms a
gas,
which in
its
nascent state cleans the face of
the castings.
To
liven dull iron
and prevent shrink
holes,
Aluminium
small piece of dry zinc into the ladle.
has a similar effect.
Core sand mixture for intricate castings
:
lake or silica sand, 1 quart flour,
drop a
6 quarts fine
pint linseed
oil.
Flux
welding copper: horacic acid 2 parts, phosHeat the copper
phate of soda 1 part; mix.
in
a
or
flame
where
pieces
gas jet,
they will not
for
touch charcoal or solid carbon
;
strew the powder
over the surfaces at a red heat, continue heating
to welding point, then
hammer.
Aluminium can be cleaned and
dipping for 1
minutes in 3
its
mat
restored
oz. of caustic
by
potash
or soda in a quart of water, then washing well,
and dipping in a solution of 3 parts
nitric acid
and 3 parts sulphuric acid (by volume).
Delicate cores
made with moistened core-gum,
or good
sea sand, without vents, never blow.
Annealing cast iron
a slow charcoal
it
:
To anneal
fire to
cast iron, heat
it
with
a dull red heat, then cover
over about 2 inches with fine charcoal, then
with ashes
;
let it lie until cold.
Hard
cast iron
can be softened enough in this way to be
filed
or
220
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
This process will be extremely useful to
ironfounders, as by this means there will be a
drilled.
great saving of expense in making
To make a
casting of precisely the
new
same
patterns.
size of
a
broken casting without the original patterns, put
the pieces of broken casting together and mould them
and
cast
from
this
Then anneal it
mould.
as above
It will expand to the original size of the
and
there remain in that expanded state.
pattern
To harden cast iron Many times it is very convenient
described.
:
to
make an
article of cast iron that needs to
be
Cast
finished, and which should be very hard.
iron can be hardened as easily as steel, and to
such a degree of hardness that a file \vill not
touch it.
Take J pint of vitriol 1 peck of common salt J Ib. saltpetre 2 Ib. alum J Ib. prussic
;
;
potash
;
J
;
Ib.
;
cyanide of potash
in 10 gallons of soft water.
it
in the solution.
to be very hard, heat
all to
Be
be dissolved
sure that
Heat the iron
articles are dissolved.
red and dip
;
all
the
to a cherry
If the article needs
and dip the second and even
the third time.
For burns, the famous carron
should always be at hand
oil is
a specific which
in the foundry.
parts of linseed oil and lime-water
dressing
;
make
Equal
a soothing
but for killing pain and taking the heat
out of burns there
picric acid.
is
nothing to equal dilute
It acts like magic.
in a quart of water.
Dissolve 1 oz.
221
SHOP EECEIPTS.
Furnace lining
ganister
is
is
a fad with
many foundry men. Ground
Two
the standard substance employed.
parts fireclay, 1 part
old crucible (ground),
ground firebrick and 2 parts
is an excellent mixture for
this purpose.
A
in
benzene,
applied with
When
the film of
wiped
off
remaining
A
wax
rustless coating for steel is a solution of white
wax
a
camel-hair
brush.
hardens, the bulk of
with a chamois leather, just
it
is
sufficient
to prevent rust.
quick method of breaking up large castings is as
follows
Take, for example, the case where old
:
and heavy machinery has to be pulled
out,
and
where, very often, the parts are so corroded that
they cannot be detached except by breaking them.
The
usual method
when
the sledge-hammer
is
not
heavy enough to break the metal, is to drill a
number of holes, and then use a chisel or drift to
Sometimes
sever the metal between each hole.
several inches of solid metal have to
be
drilled
through before anything effective can be accomplished.
A
better
way
is
to
drill
one or two
holes 1 inch diameter partly through the metal,
which partially fill them with water. Then
take a round drift with a diameter slightly less
after
than the hole, place the same in the hole, giving
a sharp blow, when the hydraulic pressure thus
it
occasioned will split the metal readily.
a brilliant or dead black on brasswork,
To produce
222
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
take a J
Ib.
of copper carbonate and dissolve in
1J
next get about a pint of dilute
add
ammonia,
very gently to the copper solution
pints water;
till
the precipitate which
is
formed
is
re-dissolved.
Care must be taken not to add too much am-
monia
and the solution should be made in a crock
;
The
or enamelled pan, and used cold.
articles to
be blacked are previously cleaned in the ordinary
acids.
To
how many
ascertain
bushels of coke are required
for a bed for a cupola, divide the cubic inches in
the space to be
filled
(measuring from the sand
bottom to the desired height above the tuyeres,
say 20 inches) by the cubic inches in a bushel of
coke.
The average bushel
of coke
numbers 2200
cubic inches.
Cement
for stopping holes in castings: Sulphur, 1 part;
iron filings, 80 parts.
sal-ammoniac, 2 parts
Triturate and mix into a paste.
Another: Iron filings, 15 parts sal-ammoniac, 2 parts;
;
;
Mix
Portland cement, 2 parts.
no more than can be used immediately.
sulphur, 1 part
Hand-made loam
2 parts
;
:
;
Fire-sand, 7 parts
horse manure,
1
J parts.
;
moulding-sand,
Mix with
thick
clay-water.
"
A new
Method of Eepairing Brass Furnaces.
rebuilding or relining of brass furnaces
big job
foundries
it
once was.
have
"
not the
Most of the up-to-date
:'
caisson
is
The
furnaces
which only
223
SHOP RECEIPTS.
occasionally.
relining
require
Some
firms, in-
stead of using bricks for this purpose, get
clay liners
made
But an
casing.
using up
in one
piece, to slip into the
idea struck us as a good
to
it
this
large enough
fastened to
When
the casing
and a plate
was
hottom of the furnace
to cover the
it
of
set in position,
old liner pattern would do).
was stripped
way
A
plug was made with a
allow an eye-holt to pass (an
old material.
hole through
fire-
from below.
The
space between
the casing and the plug was then filled up with a
mixture of fireclay and broken firebricks, made
this
like concrete;
The
to set.
result
was rammed up and allowed
was a lining equal in wear
to the best firebrick."
Feilderis Magazine, July
1902.
Core sand mixture (American) Silica moulding sand,
3 parts cotton seed meal, 1 part pulverised rosin,
i
Mix with water to the same dampness as
part.
Cores made with this mixture
moulding sand.
:
;
;
will neither sag
nor blow.
Loam
mixture for heavy brass castings Sharp sand or
6 parts ; rock sand, 1 part. Mix with
thick clay-water, then mill or cut on a slab for 20
:
fine gravel,
minutes, or
till
it
becomes adhesive.
The same
mixture, with 1 part horse droppings added,
is
suitable for cast iron.
To
obtain a core model of regular thickness
:
Make
sand mould from the casting or pattern;
a
melt
224
FOUNDRY NOMENCLATURE.
sufficient
Lave a
sulphur to fill it. Cast upon end, and
about the diameter of the largest part
riser
"Watch the sulphur setting in the
set, turn
of the casting.
and when the desired thickness has
riser,
down and empty
the mould upside
liquid sulphur out.
the remaining
Into the shell of sulphur
left
When
set,
in the mould, pour plaster of Paris.
open the mould, and crack off the sulphur thickness from the plaster core model.
To
extract a rusty screw from a pattern
end of a piece of bar iron
;
make
:
Flatten one
red hot, and
it
expand the screw by placing it on the head. In a
few minutes the screw can be drawn with the
screw-driver.
Waterproof glue
stand
damp
for patterns
A glue that will withcan be made by making ordinary glue
with linseed
:
oil,
instead of water.
of glue in 2 quarts of
The
Boiling 1
skimmed milk
best of all waterproof glues
Ib.
also does well.
is
got by cut-
ting 1 oz. of indiarubber into threads with a wet
knife,
bottle,
putting this into a wide-mouthed pickle
and filling up with either benzine or naph-
tha, loosely corking the bottle,
and
letting
it
stand
warm
place away from flame until melted in
Shake occasionally.
a week or ten days.
Thin
in a
with benzine
Sea coal facing
:
;
thicken with rubber.
Sand mixtures
weight of castings
cent,
:
average, according to
sea coal, 8 per cent, to 12 per
added to half old and half new sand.
225
SHOP RECEIPTS.
Cupola daubing: Equal parts kaolin and rock sand,
mixed with clay-wash, forms an excellent daubing
Ground
material.
mixed with
make the
firebrick or old cupola blocks,
or
fireclay
best cupola
old
crucibles
Dry sawdust makes a splendid flux
To keep the sand from clogging a
it
a coat of beeswax, or wash
immediately before using.
the same
One
way on
(ground),
daub known.
for Babbitt metal.
it
metal pattern, give
over with kerosine
Sal-ammoniac acts in
brass patterns.
ton of fireclay should be sufficient to lay
3000
ordinary bricks.
A
9-inch brick weighs 7
One
cubic
foot
of wall
Ife.
requires 17
1 cubic yard requires 460.
9-inch bricks
Where
and other shapes are used, add 10 per
estimating the
number
;
keys, wedges
cent, in
required.
LONDON FEINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED
GEE AT WINDMILL STBEKT, W., AND DTJKB STBEET, STAMFOED STBEET,
:
S.K.
THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE
STAMPED BELOW
^I^M
THE!
87
SU
Sole
Mak
The best
AN INITIAL FINE OF
25
CENTS
WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY
WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH
DAY AND TO $1.OO ON THE SEVENTH DAY
OVERDUE.
N"
hes,
ze
Strong as
'etal.
i
ALLOY
ROLLE
of
&
I
OTI
BABBIT'
WH
COG
any
Babl
PHOSP
Please spt
*k,
to
'
D
Mb/'
ADVEBTISEMENTS.
THE
PHOSPHOR BRONZE
GO.
LIMITED,
Sole Makers of the following
ALLOTS
:
PHOSPHOR BRONZE.
Wheel" and "Vulcan" Brands.
Castings, Plates, Strip, Bars and Wire.
"Cog
"DURO METAL"
A Bronze Alloy
(***** *,).
Wagon
Br
for Roll Bearings,
^s,
PHOSPHOR TIN AND PH(X
"Cog Wheel" Brand./
Ingots,
&c.
R COPPER.
/
qualities
made.
and
lining
PLASTIC METAL.
"Cog Wheel" Brand'
Metal
in
filling
the Mark
BABBITT'S METAL.
Vulcan
"B
W
"PHOSPHOR"
Fully e'
j.ss
No. 2, for lining
Marir
"WHET
,.
'
^
2-
3O
I.
.obitt's,
and Equal to best
ZE.
,
^^r,iton's Metal for Car Bearings.
SILICIUM BRONZE ELECTRICAL WIRE.
For Overhead Electrical Lines and other purposes.
Please apply for Catalogues containing full particulars to the
Company's Head
Office,
87 SUMNER STREET, SOUTHWARK,
,
S.JE.
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