Epson | Equity 286 PLUS | User`s guide | Epson Equity 286 PLUS User`s guide

EPSON
®
EQUITY® 286 PLUS
U s e r ’ s G u i d e
FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT FOR AMERICAN USERS
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and
used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment doss cause interference to radio and television
reception which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
a
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
a
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver
a
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected
l
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
W A R N I N G
The connection of a non-shielded equipment interface cable to this equipment will
invalidate the FCC Certification of this device and may cause interference levels which
exceed the limits established by the FCC for this equipment. It is the responsibility of the
user to obtain and use a shielded equipment interface cable with this device. If this
equipment has more than one interface connector, do not leave cables connected to unused
interfaces.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Epson America, Inc., could void the
user’s authority to operate the equipment.
FOR CANADIAN USERS
This digital apparatus does not exceed the class B limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus as set out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian
Department of communications.
Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites
applicables aux appareils numériques de Classe B prescrites dans le réglement sur le
brouillage radioélectrique édité par le Ministère des Communications du Canada.
®
EPSON
EQUITY® 286 PLUS
User’s Guide
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
Epson America makes no representations or warranties, either express or implied, by
or with respect to anything in this manual, and shall not be liable for any implied
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or for any indirect,
special, or consequential damages. Some states do not allow the exclusion of
incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion may not apply to you.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Epson
America, Inc. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of information
contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this
publication, Epson America assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Nor is
any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained
herein. Further, this publication and features described herein are subject to change
without notice.
TRADEMARKS
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
Equity is a registered trademark of Epson America, Inc.
General notice: Other product names used herein are for identification
and may be trademarks of their respective companies.
purposes
only
Copyright © 1990 by Epson America, Inc.
Torrance, California
ii
Y727991002
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1. Read all of these instructions and save them for later reference.
2. Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the product.
3. Unplug this product from the wall outlet before cleaning. Do not
use liquid cleaners or aerosol cleaners. Use a damp cloth for
cleaning.
4. Do not use this product near water.
5. Do not place this product on an unstable cart, stand, or table.
The product may fall, causing serious damage to the product.
6. Slots and openings in the cabinet and the back or bottom are
provided for ventilation; to ensure reliable operation of the
product and to protect it from overheating, these openings must
not be blocked or covered. The openings should never be blocked
by placing the product on a bed, sofa, rug, or other similar surface.
This product should never be placed near or over a radiator or
heat register. This product should not be placed in a built-in
installation unless proper ventilation is provided.
7. This product should be operated from the type of power source
indicated on the marking label. If you are not sure of the type of
power available, consult your dealer or local power company.
8. This product is equipped with a 3-wire grounding-type plug, a
plug having a third (grounding) pin. This plug will only fit into a
grounding-type power outlet. This is a safety feature. If you are
unable to insert the plug into the outlet, contact your electrician
to replace your obsolete outlet. Do not defeat the purpose of the
grounding-type plug.
9. Do not locate this product where the cord will be walked on.
10. If an extension cord is used with this product, make sure that
the total of the ampere ratings on the products plugged into the
extension cord do not exceed the extension cord ampere rating.
Also, make sure that the total of all products plugged into the
wall outlet does not exceed 15 amperes.
III
11. Never push objects of any kind into this product through cabinet
openings, as they may touch dangerous voltage points or short out
parts that could result in a risk of fire or electric shock. Never
spill liquid of any kind on the product.
12. Except as specifically explained in the User’s Manual, do not
attempt to service this product yourself. Opening or removing
those covers that are marked “Do Not Remove” may expose you
to dangerous voltage points or other risks. Refer all servicing in
those compartments to service personnel.
13. Unplug this product from the wall outlet and refer servicing to
qualified service personnel under the following conditions:
A. When the power cord or plug is damaged or frayed.
B. If liquid has been spilled into the product.
C. If the product has been exposed to rain or water.
D. If the product does not operate normally when the operating
instructions are followed. Adjust only those controls that
are covered by the operating instructions, since improper
adjustment of other controls may result in damage and will
often require extensive work by a qualified technician to
restore the product to normal operation.
E. If the product has been dropped or the cabinet has been
damaged.
F. If the product exhibits a distinct change in performance,
indicating a need for service.
iv
®
®
Epson Equity 286 PLUS
User’s Guide Correction
Please note that the setting of jumper J6 on your computer’s main
system board, described on page 5-7, should be as follows:
*Factory setting
Also note that the jumper settings described on page D-6 should be
reversed. To disable the password function, set jumper J6 to position
B. To enable the password function, set jumper J6 to position A.
On pages 5-13 through 5-17, the illustrations and descriptions of
your computer’s option slots indicate that the 8-bit slot is slot
number 1 and that the 16-bit slots are numbers 2 through 4. The
8-bit option slot is actually slot number 4 and the 16-bit slots are
slot numbers 1 through 3. Please keep this in mind as you read
these pages.
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
Equity is a registered trademark of Epson America, Inc.
Copyright © 1991 by Epson America, Inc.
Contents
Introduction
Optional Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Systems and Other Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Get Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
1 Choosing a Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Removing the Protector Card. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Connecting a Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the VGA Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Display Adapter Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Connecting a Printer or Other Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Parallel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Serial Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Connecting the Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Connecting the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Connecting the Power Cord. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Turning On the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Off the Computer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
1
2
3
4
l-l
1-3
l-4
l-4
l-7
1-8
1-8
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-15
1-16
1-18
Running the SETUP Program
Starting the SETUP Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Diskette Drive(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-4
V
Setting the Hard Disk Drive(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Drive Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Primary Display Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Keyboard Test Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Shadow RAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the CPU Clock Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EMS Size.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing or Deleting a Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Built-in Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Parallel Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Serial Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Disk Drive Controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Your Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
Installing MS-DOS or Another Operating System . . . . . . . . .
Special Keys on the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping a Command or Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Disks and Disk Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Disks Store Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Diskette Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write-protecting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Single Diskette Drive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting and Removing Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Diskettes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Backup Copies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Hard Disk Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
2-5
2-5
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-14
2-15
2-15
2-16
3-1
3-2
3-4
3-4
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-9
3-11
3-13
3-15
3-16
3-18
3-18
3-19
Chapter 4
Enhancing System Operations
Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and Other Batch Files. . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Processor Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Keyboard Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the ESPEED Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Expanded Memory Beyond 1MB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the CONFIG.SYS File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the VGA Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying the Utility Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using VGAMODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using SETVGA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using SNOOZE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 5
4-l
4-2
4-4
4-5
4-7
4-8
4-10
4-11
4-13
4-17
4-18
Installing and Removing Options
Removing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Jumpers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Subassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Memory Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Memory Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Memory Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Math Coprocessor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Math Coprocessor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Subassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Setup for Memory Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the CORFIX Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2
5-5
5-6
5-8
5-12
5-17
5-18
5-22
5-23
5-26
5-29
5-33
5-33
5 -41
5-42
5-43
5-44
vii
Appendix A
Specifications
CPU and Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mass Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Using the Correct Drive Bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Use This Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Jumpers for Two Hard Disk Drives . . . . . . . .
Changing the Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Position. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Mounting Frames From the Drive . . . . . .
Removing and Attaching the Mounting Plate . . . . . . . .
Installing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Hard Disk Drive Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical Position . . . . . . . . .
Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in the
Horizontal Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Subassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal Position. . . . . .
Replacing the Drive on the Subassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Disk Drive From the Horizontal Position . .
Replacing the Subassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
A-l
A-2
A-2
A-3
A-3
A-4
A-4
A-4
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-4
B-5
B-7
B-8
B-10
B-12
B-18
B-24
B-27
B-28
B-33
B-41
B-43
B-46
Appendix C
Performing System Diagnostics
Starting the Diagnostics Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Main Menu Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Run Time Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Multiple Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Running the Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Diagnostics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HardDiskParameters.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SeekTest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Read/Verify Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check Test Cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Force Bad Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floppy Disk Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing the Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floppy Disk Error Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Diagnostics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Adapter Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication Adapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exiting System Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C-2
C-2
C-4
C-6
C-8
C-8
C-10
C-I 2
C-12
C-13
C-16
C-17
C-18
C-18
C-18
C-19
C-19
C-19
C-20
C-21
C-22
C-23
C-23
C-24
C-25
ix
Appendix D Troubleshooting
Identifying Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Won’t Start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Does Not Respond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Password Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Your Current Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Drive Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Data on the Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Card Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mouse Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Module Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Math Coprocessor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary
Index
X
D-l
D-2
D-3
D-4
D-5
D-6
D-7
D-8
D-9
D-11
D-12
D-13
D-14
D-15
D-16
D-17
D-18
D-19
D-19
D-20
D-20
Introduction
The Epson® Equity® 286 PLUS is a high-performance personal
computer which offers exceptional speed and convenience in a
compact design. The computer’s 12 MHz 80286 microprocessor
makes all your programs run faster, even when supporting
multitasking operations.
Your system includes 1MB of internal memory, a built-in VGA
(video graphics array) display adapter, built-in parallel and serial
interfaces, an IBM®PS/2™ compatible mouse port, and four
standard option slots (three 16-bit and one 8-bit). These
interfaces allow you to connect most of your peripheral devices
directly to the computer, so you do not have to install option
cards. You can use the option slots to install additional devices,
such as a modem or a network card.
Your computer can support up to three internal drives: either
two diskette drives and one hard disk drive, or one diskette drive
and two hard disk drives.
The Equity 286 PLUS also offers shadow RAM to speed up
processing by moving the ROM BIOS and the video ROM into
the RAM area of memory. This allows the computer to access
information and display text and graphics on the screen faster.
Optional Equipment
You can easily upgrade your computer by installing additional
memory and adding just about any optional device that is
compatible with the IBM Personal Computer, PC XT,“’ or
PC AT.™
Introduction I
By adding memory modules to the main system board, you can
expand the computer’s memory up to 5MB. Memory modules
are efficient because they eliminate the need to use one of your
option slots to add memory to your system. Your computer can
also access memory installed on memory modules faster than
memory installed on an option card. You can add a memory
card, however, if you want to expand your memory up to 16MB.
You may also want to install an 80287 math coprocessor in your
computer to speed up mathematical calculations in certain
application programs. Check with your authorized Epson dealer
to see which options are available.
Operating Systems and Other Software
You probably have a version of MS-DOS® to use with your’
Equity 286 PLUS. Epson has enhanced MS-DOS by adding two
time-saving utilities-HELP and MENU-that make it easier to
use. The HELP program lets you display information on the
screen about any MS-DOS command. MENU provides an easy
way to run many of these commands.
Note
MS-DOS is not the only operating system you can use with
your computer. You can run practically any operating system
compatible with MS-DOS, OS/2, Unix® or XENIX® If you
use another operating system, however, refer to the
documentation that came with it to install and run it on your
computer.
You can use virtually any application program designed for the
IBM PC, PC XT, PC AT, or compatible computers on your
Equity 286 PLUS.
Epson has included special VGA utilities that you can use with
your built-inVGA adapter. These utilities provide 132-column
text mode and emulation of different adapter types, as well as a
program to turn off your display automatically when you’re not
using it.
How to Use This Manual
This manual explains how to set up and operate your
computer, install options, and run diagnostics checks. Although
the illustrations show a computer with a 51/4-inch diskette drive,
instructions are included for using a 31/2-inch drive.
Note
This manual covers basic operating instructions for using your
computer, but does not explain how to use MS-DOS. See
your MS-DOS manuals for comprehensive instructions on
installing and using the operating system.
You do not need to read everything in this book; see the
following chapter summaries.
Chapter 1 provides simple step-by-step instructions for setting
up your system. On the back cover foldout are illustrations
identifying the different parts of your computer; refer to these as
you set up your system.
Chapter 2 describes how to run the SETUP program to define
your computer’s configuration. Do this before you use your
computer. You may need to do it again later, if you change the
configuration.
Chapter 3 provides instructions for important operating
procedures, such as using and caring for disks and disk drives.
Chapter 4 describes specialized features you can use to enhance
your system’s performance.
Introduction 3
Chapter 5 describes some of the options you can use in your
computer and contains instructions for removing the cover,
setting jumpers, replacing the battery, and installing options.
Appendix A gives the technical specifications for the computer.
Appendix B describes how to install and remove a hard disk or
diskette drive.
Appendix C outlines the system diagnostics checks. If you are
having trouble with any part of the hardware, you may want to
run some of these.
Appendix D contains troubleshooting tips.
At the end of the manual, you’ll find a glossary and an index.
Where to Get Help
Customer support and service for Epson products are provided by
a network of authorized Epson dealers and Customer Care
Centers throughout the United States. Epson America provides
product information and support to its dealers and Customer
Care Centers.
Therefore, we ask that you contact the business where you
purchased your Epson product to request assistance. If the people
there do not have the answer to your question, they can obtain
it through our toll-free dealer support program. Epson is
confident that this policy will provide you with the assistance
you need.
Call the Epson Consumer Information Center at
(213) 782-2600 for the location of your nearest Epson dealer or
Customer Care Center. To locate or purchase accessories or
supplies, contact your Epson dealer.
4 lntroduction
Chapter 1
Setting Up Your System
Setting up your Equity 286 PLUS personal computer is easy.
Just follow the eight steps in this chapter. As you set up your
computer, you may want to leave this manual’s back cover
foldout open so you can refer to the illustrations identifying the
different parts.
Note
The illustrations in this manual show the computer with a
5 1/4-inch diskette drive. If your system has a M-inch diskette
drive instead, and you need additional instructions, see
Chapter 3 when necessary.
Choosing a Location
Setting Up Your System
1-1
Before you set up your computer, it’s important to choose a safe,
convenient location that provides the following:
cl A large, sturdy desk or table. The surface should be strong
enough to easily support the weight of your system and all of
its components. Select a location that allows plenty of space
so you can work comfortably.
cl A flat, hard surface. Soft surfaces like beds and carpeted
floors attract static electricity, which can erase data on your
disks and damage the computer’s circuitry. Soft surfaces also
prevent proper ventilation.
cl Good air circulation. Air must be able to move freely under
the system and behind it. Leave several inches of space
around the computer.
0 Moderate environmental conditions. Protect your computer
from extremes in temperature, humidity, dust, and smoke.
Avoid direct sunlight or any other source of heat. High
humidity also hinders operation, so select a cool, dry area.
0 Appropriate power sources. To prevent static charges,
connect all your equipment to three-prong, 120-volt
grounded outlets. You need one outlet for the computer, one
for the monitor, and additional outlets for a printer and any
other peripheral devices.
Cl No electromagnetic interference. Locate your system away
from any electrical device, such as a telephone, which
generates an electromagnetic field.
1-2
Setting Up Your System
3 Removing the Protector Card
If you have a 5 1/4-inch diskette drive, there is a protector card in
the diskette slot. This card is inserted at the factory to protect
the read/write heads in the drive. To remove it, flip the latch up
to pop the card out part way, then pull it out, as shown below.
(If you have a second 5 1/4-inch diskette drive, be sure to remove
the protector card from that drive as well.)
Save the protector card. If you transport your computer, you may
want to insert the card into your diskette drive prior to shipping.
This will protect the read/write heads during the shipping
process.
Setting Up Your System
I -3
3
Connecting a Monitor
The procedure you use to connect your monitor to the computer
depends on the type of monitor you have. If you have a VGA
monitor (or a multi-frequency monitor with an analog
connector), you can connect it to the computer’s built-in VGA
port. See “Using the VGA Interface” below. If you have any
other type of monitor, see “Using a Display Adapter Card”
below.
Using the VGA Interface
Follow these steps to connect your VGA monitor to the VGA
port on the computer:
1. Make sure your monitor is turned off.
2. Place your monitor on top of or near the computer. For easy
access, turn the monitor and computer around so the backs
of both components are facing you.
3. If necessary, connect the monitor cable to the monitor.
(Your monitor may have a permanently attached cable.)
1-4
Setting Up Your System
4. Examine the connector end of the monitor cable, and
position the plug to match the orientation of the monitor
port (marked with a monitor icon). Then insert the plug
into the port (the connector should fit in easily when
properly oriented), as shown below.
retaining screws
Caution
To avoid damaging the connector, take care not to bend
the pins when inserting the plug.
5. If the connector has retaining screws, tighten them by hand
or with a screwdriver, depending on the screw type.
Setting Up Your System
1-5
6. Plug the monitor power cord into the monitor’s power inlet,
as shown below.
7. Plug the other end of the power cord into an electrical
outlet.
1-6
Setting Up, Your System
Using a Display Adapter Card
If you are using a non-VGA monitor, you’ll need to install a
display adapter (video) card in one of the computer’s option
slots before you can connect the monitor. (Your dealer may have
already installed the video card for you.)
If the video card has not yet been installed, you’ll need to follow
the instructions in Chapter 5 to install an option card. But first,
check the following table to make sure your display adapter card
and monitor are properly matched.
Monitor/video card compatibility
l
Monitor
Video card
Monochrome
Monochrome display adapter (MDA)
Multi-mode graphics adapter (MGA)
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA)
Hercules@ graphics card
Color or EGA
Color graphics adapter (CGA)
Multi-mode graphics adapter (MGA)
Enhanced graphics adapter (EGA);
EGA cards support only EGA monitors;
When you are installing the video card, check to make sure any
switches or jumpers on the card are set properly. For example,
you may need to change a switch setting to select color or
monochrome. See the documentation that came with your
monitor or video card for instructions.
Setting Up Your System
1-7
Note
If you install a display adapter card, you must set jumper J3 on
the main system board to disable the built-in VGA interface
so that your card can operate as the primary display adapter.
You may also need to set jumper J5 to indicate whether a
color or monochrome monitor is installed. See Chapter 5 for
instructions on changing jumper settings.
Once you have installed your video card, return to this section
to connect your monitor to the computer. If your monitor came
with its own manual, follow the instructions there. Otherwise,
you can follow the steps in “Using the VGA Interface” above;
just insert your monitor connector into the video card port
instead of the built-in VGA port.
4
Connecting a Printer or Other Device
Your computer has both parallel and serial interfaces. TO
connect a printer or other peripheral device to one of these
interfaces, follow the instructions below. Of course, Epson offers
a full range of printers; ask your dealer for more information.
Using the Parallel Interface
®
The parallel interface on your computer is Centronic
compatible and uses a DB-25S connector.
To connect your printer and computer, you need an IBM
compatible printer cable. If you are not sure which one you
need, check with your Epson dealer.
1-8
Setting Up Your System
Once you have the correct printer cable, follow these steps:
1. Place the printer next to the computer with the back panels
of both components facing you.
2. One end of the printer cable has a 25-pin, D-shell
connector. Position the plug to match the orientation of the
parallel interface (marked with a special icon). Then insert
the connector into the port, as shown below. If the plug has
retaining screws, tighten them by hand or with a
screwdriver, depending on the screw type.
retaining screws
Setting Up Your System
l-9
3. Connect the other end of the cable to the printer, as shown
below. To secure the cable, squeeze the clips at each side of
the printer port and push them into place.
4. Plug the printer’s power cord into a three-prong, 120-volt,
grounded electrical outlet.
1-10
Setting Up Your System
Using the Serial Interface
If you have a printer, a modem, or other peripheral device with a
serial interface, you can connect it to the serial (RS-232C) port
on the back of the computer.
The serial port uses a DB-9P connector, so be sure you have a
compatible cable. To connect a serial device, follow the same
steps as above for connecting a parallel device but insert the
connector into the serial port, marked with a special icon, as
shown below.
Note
You need to ensure that the serial port is set up so it functions
properly. If you are using the port for a serial printer, you need
to redirect printer output to the serial port instead of the
parallel port. To do this, you can use the MS-DOS MODE
or SETMODE command or the MENU utility. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions.
Setting Up Your System
1-11
5
Connecting the Keyboard
Follow these steps to connect the keyboard:
1. Hold the keyboard cable connector so the indicator on the
housing faces up. Insert the plug into the appropriate socket,
marked with a keyboard icon, as shown below.
keyboard connector
Caution
Although the keyboard and mouse connectors are
physically identical, they cannot be used interchangeably.
Be sure to insert the keyboard plug into the keyboard
socket.
1-12
Setting Up Your System
2. You can raise the keyboard by adjusting the legs on the
bottom. To change the angle of the keyboard, turn it over
and flip each leg upward until it locks into place, as shown
below.
6
Connecting the Mouse
Your computer has an auxiliary port for an IBM PS/2 compatible
mouse that uses a miniature DIN (60pin) connector.
If you have purchased a mouse with this type of connector, you
can connect it to the built-in port on your computer. If you have
another kind of mouse that requires a different interface port,
you need to install the option card to provide the interface.
To connect a mouse to the built-in mouse port, hold the mouse
plug so it is oriented properly with the computer socket. Insert
the plug into the appropriate socket, marked with a mouse icon,
as shown in the following illustration.
Setting Up Your System
1-13
mouse connector
Caution
Although the mouse and keyboard connectors are physically
identical, they cannot be used interchangeably. Be sure to
insert the mouse plug into the mouse port.
Once you have connected a mouse, you may need to add
commands to your MS-DOS CONFIG.SYS file to enable your
computer to use a mouse. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual
and the manual that came with your mouse for instructions.
Note
If you want to use a mouse or other pointing device
connected to a port on an option card in your computer, you
can disable the built-in mouse connector by changing the
setting of jumper J4. See Chapter 5 for instructions.
1-14
Setting Up Your System
7
Connecting the Power Cord
Follow these steps to connect the power cord:
1. Plug the power cord into the AC power inlet on the back
panel, as shown below.
WARNING
To, avoid an electric shock, be sure to plug the cord into
the computer before plugging it into the wall socket.
2. Plug the other end of the power cord into a three-prong,
120-volt, grounded electrical outlet.
Setting Up Your System
1-15
8
Turning On the Computer
After you set up your system, you’re ready to turn on the power.
But first, read the following safety rules to avoid accidentally
damaging your computer or injuring yourself:
Do not unplug cables from the computer when the power is
on.
Never turn on the computer with a protector card in the
diskette drive.
Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drive
light is on. This can destroy data stored on disk or make an
entire disk unusable.
Always wait at least five seconds after you turn off the power
before you turn it on again. Turning the power off and on
rapidly can damage the computer’s circuitry.
Do not leave a beverage on top of or next to your system or
any of its components. Spilled liquid can damage the
circuitry of your equipment.
Always turn off the power, disconnect the computer’s power
cord, and wait five seconds before you remove the cover.
Only remove the cover to access optional devices, change
jumper settings, or replace the battery.
Follow these steps to turn on your system:
1. Make sure the power cord is plugged into the AC power
inlet on the back panel of the computer and into a threeprong, 120-volt, grounded electrical outlet.
2. Turn your computer around so the front panel faces you and
place your other system components in an arrangement that
suits you. (See step 1, “Choosing a Location,” for a typical
arrangement.)
1 -16
Setting Up Your System
3. Turn on the monitor, printer, and any other peripheral
devices connected to the computer.
4. To turn on the computer, press the power button located on
the right side of the front panel, as shown below.
power button
The power indicator next to the button lights up. After a few
seconds, the computer counts the amount of memory in your
computer, and then performs a diagnostic self test. This is a
series of checks the computer completes each time you turn it on
to make sure everything is working correctly.
If necessary, use the controls on your monitor to adjust the
brightness and contrast until characters on the screen are clear
and at a comfortable level of intensity. If your monitor has
horizontal and vertical hold controls, you may need to use them
to stabilize the display.
Note
If you or your dealer have made a major change to your
system, such as adding a disk drive, you may need to wait
several minutes for your computer to complete power-on
diagnostics the first time you turn it on.
Setting Up Your System
1-17
When the system has successfully completed its self test, you see
the following prompt:
Press <Del> to start SETUP
Do not press any key yet. If MS-DOS has already been installed
on your system, you’ll see a prompt to enter the date. (For
information about loading the operating system, see your
MS-DOS Installation Guide or Reference Manual.)
If there is no operating system on your computer, you see an
error message. Ignore the message for now. Follow the
instructions below to turn off the computer and then go on to
Chapter 2 for instructions on running the SETUP program.
Note
If your computer’s configuration does not match the
information stored in the computer’s CMOS RAM (defined
through the SETUP program) you see an error message and a
prompt to press the F1 key. Press F1 to continue. You need
to run the SETUP program to correct the information. See
Chapter 2 for instructions.
Turning Off the Computer
When you are ready to turn off your system, reverse the
sequence of steps you followed to turn it on. Turn off the
computer first, then turn off the monitor and any peripheral
devices.
Now go on to Chapter 2 and follow the instructions to run the
SETUP program.
1-18
Setting Up Your System
Chapter 2
Running the SETUP Program
When you use your computer for the first time, you need to run
the SETUP program to define how your system is set up. This is
a simple procedure which you must do at least once. You may
need to do it again later if you change some part of your
configuration.
The SETUP program is stored in the computer’s read-only
memory (ROM), so you can run the program any time you turn
on or reset your computer. You do not need to insert a diskette
or access the hard disk.
SETUP lets you verify or change the following:
0 Current date and time
0 Type of diskette drives(s) installed
0 Type of hard disk drive(s) installed
0 Type of video display adapter you are using
cl Keyboard testing function
0 Shadow RAM function
cl CPU clock speed
0 EMS size
0 Password feature
0 Built-in interface settings.
Running the Setup Program
2-1
The configuration you define through SETUP is stored in a
special area of memory called CMOS RAM. This memory is
backed up by a battery, so it will not be erased when you turn off
or reset the computer. Whenever you reboot the computer, it
checks the settings, and if it discovers a difference between the
information in the CMOS RAM and your system’s
configuration, it prompts you to run SETUP. You see a message
such as the following:
CMOS memory size mismatch
RUN SETUP UTILITY
Press <Fl> to RESUME
Press Fl to run SETUP and correct the setting.
Starting the SETUP Program
TO start the SETUP program, make sure there is no diskette in
the diskette drive; then turn on your computer. (If the computer
is already on, press the RESET button on the front panel to
reset it.)
After the computer completes its self test, you see the following
prompt:
Press <Del> to start SETUP
As soon as you see this message, press the Del key. If you do not
press Del within five seconds, the computer starts loading the
operating system and you will not be able to run SETUP. If this
happens, reset the computer and try again.
You see the following options:
Start operating system
Run SETUP
2-2
Running the Setup Program
The first option is highlighted. Press ” to highlight Run
SETUP, and then press Enter. The SETUP menu appears on
the screen.
The menu automatically displays the base memory size, the
extended memory size, and whether a math coprocessor
(numeric processor) is installed. Additionally, the SETUP menu
lists the parameters you can change.
Selecting Options
A solid cursor bar highlights the parameter currently selected.
You can scroll through the parameters using the four arrow keys
( ‘ , ’ , “ , ” ). When you reach a parameter you want to change,
press Page Up or Page Down to display and select the
available options.
An information window appears at the bottom of the menu; it
describes the options available or any other keys to press to
change the highlighted configuration parameter.
The rest of this chapter describes how to choose the correct
SETUP parameters for your system.
Setting the Date and Time
The real-time clock in your computer continously tracks the
date and time-even when the computer is turned off. Once you
set the date and time using the SETUP program, you should not
need to change either parameter, except to adjust the time for
daylight savings, if necessary. (The computer automatically
changes the date for leap years.)
The current month is highlighted and a calendar on the right
side of the screen shows all the days for the month. The current
day is flashing. Press Page Up or Page Down to select the
correct month, day, and year.
Running the Setup Program
2-3
To change the time, move the cursor to the next line and press
Page Up or Page Down to enter the correct hour and minutes
according to a 24-hour clock. For example, 5 p.m. would be hour
17. You cannot set the number of seconds.
Setting the Diskette Drive(s)
Your system probably came with one diskette drive installed.
You may have added another drive or replaced the existing drive
with one of a different size or capacity. The SETUP menu offers
five possible selections for your diskette drives (A and B):
0 1.2MB 51/4-inch
D 360KB 51/4-inch
0 1.44MB 31/2-inch
0 72OKB 31/2-inch
0 Not installed.
Check the settings displayed for both drives and correct them if
necessary. (If you have only one diskette drive, select Not
installed for drive B.)
Note
If you do not know the capacity of your diskette drive, ask
your dealer.
24
Running the Setup Program
Setting the Hard Disk Drive(s)
The SETUP program lets you select the type of hard disk
drive(s) installed in your computer. If you have two hard disk
drives, the first one is C and the second one is D. Be sure to
choose the correct setting for both drives.
Follow these guidelines:
If your system does not have a hard disk, select Not
installed for drives C and D. If you have only one hard
disk drive, select Not installed for drive D.
If your computer came with an Epson 40MB hard disk drive
(or if you install this drive yourself), select number 17 for
drive C.
If you have installed another type of hard disk drive, you
need to select the drive type number that matches your
drive. See “Hard Disk Drive Types” below.
Hard Disk Drive Types
If you have installed a hard disk in your computer that is not the
standard Epson 40MB drive (type 17), you need to select the
correct type number to match your drive.
The following table lists the types of standard hard disk drives
you can use in your computer. Check this table and the
documentation supplied with your hard disk to find the correct
type number for your drive. (Your drive’s documentation should
list all the parameters necessary to identify it using this table.) If
none of the types listed match your drive, see “Defining your
own drive type,” below.
Running the Setup Program
2-5
Hard disk drive types
2-6
Running the Setup Program
Hard disk drive types (continued)
Defining your own drive type
if the parameters listed for your hard disk (in the documentation
that came with it) do not match any of the types listed in the
table above, you can define your own type using the SETUP
program. Follow these steps:
1. With the cursor at the Hard disk type option,press
Page Up or Page Down to scroll through the types until
you come to 47 = USER TYPE.
2. Use the numeric keys to enter the appropriate values for the
parameters listed:
Cyln Head WPcom LZone
Set Size
Cyln = the number of cylinders on the disk.
Head = the number of read/write heads in the drive.
WPcom = the precompensation cylinder.
LZone = the landing zone (the area on which the computer
parks the heads when you run the HDSIT program).
Set = the number of sectors on the disk.
Size = the total amount of storage capacity for the disk.
Running the Setup Program
2-7
Press Enter after typing each number. If you enter an invalid
number, the computer beeps and does not go on to the next
parameter. Check your drive documentation and try again. You
do not enter a value for Size ; SETUP does this automatically
based on the other numbers you have provided.
Setting the Primary Display Type
This option lets you define the type of adapter you are using in
your computer for your primary display device:
0 VGA or EGA
Q Color 80 x 25
0 Monochrome
0 Color 40 X 25.
Note that this option defines the display adapter (the built-in
video port or optional video interface card in your computer),
not the monitor connected to it.
If you have connected your monitor to the computer’s built-in
VGA port, select VGA or EGA. Otherwise, follow these
guidelines to select the correct adapter type:
0 If you have a color graphics adapter (CGA) or a multi-mode
graphics adapter (MGA) attached to an RGB (color)
monitor, select Co1or 8 0 x2 5. (Also be sure to set the
color/mono switch on the MGA card to color.)
Cl If you have a monochrome display adapter (MDA) , an
MGA, or a Hercules MGA attached to a monochrome
monitor, choose Monochrome. (Also remember to set the
color/mono switch on the MGA card to mono.)
2-8
Running the Setup Program
Q If you have a composite color monitor, such as a color
television with a video input, try selecting CO1or
80x25. If YOU find that the monitor’s resolution is poor,
run SETUP again and select Color 40x25.
If you have two display adapters of different types, select the
setting for the one you want to be your primary display adapter.
The other one is your secondary adapter. A message appears at
power-on telling you whether you are currently using your
primary or secondary adapter.
Note
If you have installed an EGA or VGA display adapter card, or
another type of card that you want to be the primary display
adapter, you must set jumper J3 on the main system board to
disable the built-in VGA interface.
You also may need to set jumper J5 to tell the computer the
type of monitor you are using: either monochrome or color. If
you have two types of cards, set the jumper to match the
monitor that is your primary display. See Chapter 5 for
instructions on changing jumper settings.
Setting the Keyboard Test Function
There are two options for the keyboard: Installed or Not
installed. Select Ins t a 11 ed if you want the computer to test
the keyboard each time you turn it on or reset it. Select Not
insta1led if you want the computer to skip the keyboard
test.
Running the Setup Program
2-9
Setting the Shadow RAM
Your computer can access RAM (random access memory) faster
than ROM (read-only memory). The Shadow RAM feature
enables the Equity 286 PLUS to copy the contents of its system
BIOS and/or video ROM into RAM so it can perform certain
operations faster. It uses the RAM memory between the first
640KB and 1MB.
The SETUP Shadow RAM option lets you choose what to place
in the shadow RAM area:
0 System
0 Video
0 System and video
0 None.
Select System+Video unless you have installed a memory
card or video card that provides its own shadow RAM (in which
case you can select just System or just Video ). Select
None if you do not want to use the Shadow RAM function
Setting the CPU Clock Speed
This option lets you set the speed at which your computer’s
processor operates:
0 High speed (12 MHz)
D Low speed (6 MHz)
Q Auto speed.
When it is running at high speed, the TURBO indicator on the
front panel is illuminated.
2-10
Running the Setup Program
At high speed, it can access memory faster, so your programs
work faster. YOU should use high speed for everything you do
unless you are using an application program that requires the
slower speed. Some programs (especially older ones) have
specific timing requirements when accessing diskettes. Check
your application program manual.
You can also set the processor to change speed automatically.
This enables the computer to switch to low speed whenever it
needs to access a diskette drive but run at high speed for all
other operations.
Select High speed for 12 MHz, Low speed for 6 MHZ,
or Auto speed to have the computer switch to low speed
automatically when necessary.
Note
You may not want to use &automatic setting for certain
copy-protected programs. See “changing the Processor
Speed” in Chapter 4 for more information.
In addition to selecting the default operating speed through
SETUP, you can change the speed temporarily by giving a
keyboard command or by running the ESPEED program. See
“Changing the Processor Speed” in Chapter 4 for more
information.
EMS Size
This option lets you specify how much of your total extended
memory you want the computer to use as expanded memory.
Expanded memory can be used by application programs
conforming to the Lotus®/Intel®/Microsoft® Expanded
Memory Specification (LIM EMS), such as Windows/286.
The Equity 286 PLUS is compatible with version 4.0 of the
LIM EMS.
Running the Setup Program
2-11
If you have not installed any additional memory in your
computer (beyond the IMB of on-board memory) , there is no
memory available for you to use as expanded memory.
If you have installed more memory, the total amount appears in
the information window; you can define how much you want to
use as expanded memory in units of 5 12KB. For example, if you
have installed an additional 1MB of memory, for a system total
of 2MB, you can specify either 512KB or 1024KB to be
expanded memory.
Once you have defined the amount of expanded memory
through SETUP, you must also use a memory manager to
convert the computer’s extended memory to expanded. See
“Using Expanded Memory Beyond 1MB” in Chapter 4.
Setting the Password
The SETUP program lets you set a password to control who can
use your system. This is an optional feature, and if you do not
want to define a password for your computer’ skip this section.
Once you set a password through SETUP, you must enter it
every time you turn on your computer or reset it by pressing the
RESET button. If you do not enter it correctly, the computer
does not respond to your keyboard entries. Therefore’ if you
define a password, be sure to remember it or write it down and
keep it in a safe place.
To set a password, move the cursor to the Password option.
Next to it, you see either an empty space or the words Not
ins t a 11 e d . (If you have already run SETUP and entered a
password, you see the current password.) If Not installed
appears, press Page Up or Page Down to display the blank
space.
2-12
Running the Setup Program
Now type the password you want to use. You can type up to
eight characters using the letter or number keys, in upper- or
lowercase. For example, you could enter the following as your
password:
123aBc!
YOU
can use the backspace key to correct mistakes. After you
type the password you want, press Enter.
Note
Be sure to remember the password you enter or write it down
and keep it in a safe place. If you cannot remember it, you
will not be able to access the computer the next time you
turn it on. If you forget your password, however, there is a way
to disable the function. See "Password Problems” in
Appendix D for more information.
Changing or Deleting a Password
If you want to change the current password, use the backspace
key to erase it, and then type the new one and press Enter.
To delete the password, press Page Up or Page Down to
display Not installed.
Running the Setup Program
2-13
Setting the Built-in Interfaces
This option lets you define how the following built-in interfaces
in your computer operate:
0 Parallel port (LPT1 , LPT2, LPT3)
0 Serial port (COMl or COM2)
Cl Hard disk drive controller (HDC)
Cl Floppy disk drive controller (FDC).
Read the following descriptions to make sure the settings are
correct.
Setting the Parallel Interface
The built-in parallel port in your computer is set to act as the
primary port (LPTl). If you install an option card that provides
an additional parallel interface’ you may need to select LPT2 or
LPT3 for the built-in port. Follow these guidelines:
0 If you are using only the built-in port, select LP T 1 . Also
select LPTl if you have installed an additional port but want
to keep the built-in port the primary adapter.
LI If you have installed an additional port that is pre-set to act
as the primary port or one that you want to be the primary
port, select LPT2 . For example, if you have installed an
IBM monochrome adapter/parallel interface card, the
parallel port on the card must be the primary adapter and
you need to select LPT2 for the built-in port.
D If you have installed two additional parallel ports and you
want them to be the primary and secondary ports, select
LPT3.
2-14
Running the Setup Program
0 If you have installed three additional parallel ports and you
do not want to use the built-in port, select Disable.
Note
Be sure to also set any jumpers on the card(s) you install to
indicate how you want the port to be recognized (LPTl,
LPT2, or LPT3).
Setting the Serial Interface
The built-in serial port in your computer is set to act as the
primary port (COMl). If you install an option card that
provides an additional serial interface, that port automatically
becomes a secondary port (COM2). However, if you want the
secondary port to act as the primary, you need to select COM2
for the built-in port.
If you install a card (or cards) that provide two additional serial
ports and you want them to act as the primary and secondary
ports, you need to select Disab1e for the built-in port.
Note
Be sure to also set any jumper (s) on the card(s) you install to
indicate whether you want the port(s) to be primary or
secondary.
Setting the Disk Drive Controllers
If you are using the standard drives that came with your
computer’ the hard disk drive controller (HDC) and diskette
drive controller (FDC) should be set to Enab1e .
However, if you install an option card that provides a controller
for a diskette drive or hard disk drive, you need to disable the
built-in controller.
Running the Setup Program
2-15
Saving Your Settings
After you have made your selections for SETUP, press ESC to
exit. You see the following prompt:
Save SETUP configuration (Y/N)?
Press ESC to return to the menu to make corrections. Press Y
and Enter to save the settings in the CMOS RAM. Press N and
Enter to exit SETUP without saving your changes.
If you saved your changes, the SETUP program resets your
system and the computer runs through its power-on diagnostic
tests. Then you see the prompt to press Del if you want to run
SETUP.
If something is wrong, however, you see an error message and a
prompt to run SETUP. Follow the instructions on the screen to
run SETUP again to correct it. (You may need to reset the
computer.)
If you have just run SETUP for the first time, the next thing you
need to do is install MS-DOS on your computer. See your
MS-DOS Installation Guide for instructions. (If you are using a
different operating system, follow the installation instructions
provided with it.)
2- 16
Running the Setup Program
Chapter 3
Using Your Computer
This chapter briefly describes the following procedures for using
your computer:
D Installing MS-DOS or another operating system
P Using special keys on the keyboard
0 Stopping a command or program
cl Resetting the computer
0 Using a password
P Using disks and disk drives.
Installing MS-DOS or Another Operating
System
After you connect the components of your system and run the
SETUP program, you must install the operating system on your
computer. If you are installing MS-DOS, follow the instructions
in your MS-DOS Installation Guide. If you are installing
another operating system, such as MS OS/2 or Unix, see the
manual that comes with that system for instructions on
installing and using it. The procedures in this manual assume
that you are using MS-DOS with your computer.
Note
Be sure to make backup copies of your original operating
system diskettes.
Using Your computer
3-1
Special Keys on the Keyboard
Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when your
computer is running MS-DOS or application programs. The
keyboard layout is shown below, and the special keys are
described in the table.
function keys
Key functions
3-2
Key
Purpose
Tab I ‘
Tab ’ I
Moves the cursor one tab to the right in normal
mode and one tab to the left in Shift mode.
Caps Lock
Changes the letter keys from lower- to
uppercase, changes back to lowercase when
pressed again. The numeric/symbol keys on
the top row of the keyboard and the symbol
keys in the main part of the keyboard are not
affected.
Shift
Produces uppercase characters or the top
symbols on the keys when used with the main
character keys. Produces lowercase
characters when the Caps Lock function is on.
Ctrl
Works with other keys to perform special
(control) functions, such as editing operations
in MS-DOS and various application programs.
Using Your Computer
Key functions (continued)
Key
Purpose
Atl
Works with other keys to enter alternate
character codes or functions.
‘ Backspace
Moves the cursor back one space, deleting
the character to the left of the cursor.
8
Enter
Ends a line of keyboard input or executes a
command.
Insert (Ins)
Turns the Insert function on and off.
Delete (Del)
Deletes the character marked by the cursor.
Home, End
Page UP PgUp)
Page Down (PgDn)
“”‘’
Control cursor location.
Num Lock
Changes the function of the numeric/cursor
keys from entering numbers to positioning the
cursor; changes back when pressed again.
ESC
Cancels the current command line or
operation.
Fl-F12
Perform special functions within application
programs.
Print Screen
Prints the screen display on a line printer.
SYS Rq
Generates the System Request function in
some application programs (used with Alt).
Scroll Lock
Controls scrolling in some applications.
Pause
Suspends the current operation.
Break
Terminates the current operation (when used
with Ctrl).
The Caps Lock, Num Lock, and Scroll Lock keys work as
toggles; press the key once to turn on a function and again to
turn it off. When the function is enabled, the corresponding
light in the upper right comer of the keyboard is on.
Using Your Computer
3-3
Stopping a Command or Program
YOU may sometimes need to stop a command or program while it
is running. Many programs provide a command you can use to
cancel or even undo an operation. If you have entered an
MS-DOS command that you want to stop, try one of the
following commands:
0 Hold down the Ctrl key and press C.
0 Hold down the Ctrl key and press Break.
These methods may also work in your application program. If
not, you may need to reset the computer, as described below.
Caution
It is best not to turn off the computer to stop a program or
command. If you created new data and have not yet stored it,
the data will be erased if you turn off the computer. The
computer stores your data in its memory area (RAM) until
you save it; but the data is erased each time you turn off or
reset the computer.
Resetting the Computer
Occasionally, you may want to clear the computer’s current
settings or its memory without turning it off. You can do this by
resetting the computer.
For example, if an error occurs and the computer does not
respond to your keyboard entries, you can reset it to reload
MS-DOS and try again. However, resetting erases any data in
memory that you have not saved; so reset only if necessary.
3-4
Using Your Computer
Caution
Do not reset the computer as a means to exit a program.
Some programs classify and store new data when you exit
them in the normal manner. If you reset the computer
without properly exiting a program, you may lose data.
To reset the computer, MS-DOS must be either on the hard disk
or on a diskette in drive A; so if you do not have a hard disk,
insert the Startup diskette in drive A.
There are two ways to reset the computer:
0 If you are using MSDOS, hold down Ctrl and Alt and press
the Del key. The screen goes blank for a moment and then
the computer should reload MS-DOS. If it doesn’t, try the
next method.
0 Press the RESET- button on the front panel. This method
works even when the computer does not respond to your
keyboard entries.
If resetting the computer does not correct the problem, you
probably need to turn it off and reboot it. Remove any
diskette(s) from the diskette drive(s). Turn off the computer and
wait five seconds. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the
Startup diskette in drive A. Then turn on the computer.
Using Your Computer
3-5
Using a Password
If you set a password when you ran the SETUP program, you
must enter it every time you turn on the computer or press the
RESET button. Follow these steps to use your password:
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your Startup diskette
in drive A.
2. Turn on the computer or press RESET. After your computer
completes its memory test, the screen displays the following
prompt:
Password :
3. Type your password at the prompt. The screen does not
display the characters you type. Then press Enter.
After you type the password correctly and press Enter, you see
the Press <Del> to start SETUP prompt.Ifyou
do not press Del, the computer loads MS-DOS and displays the
MS-DOS command prompt.
If you do not enter the correct password the first time, press
Enter and try again.
If you want to change or delete your current password, you must
run the SETUP program and either enter a new password or set
the password option to Not ins t al1ed. See Chapter 2 for
instructions.
3-6
Using Your Computer
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on disk,
and then retrieve and use your stored data. This section explains
how disks work and tells you how to:
0 Use different types of diskettes and diskette drives
LI Care for your diskettes and diskette drives
0 Write-protect diskettes
Ll Use a single diskette drive system
i3 Insert and remove diskettes
c3 Format diskettes
0 Make backup copies
Q Use a hard disk drive.
How Disks Store Data
Diskettes are made of flexible plastic coated with magnetic
material. This plastic is enclosed in a square jacket that is either
slightly flexible (5 1/4-inch diskette), or hard (3 1/2-inch diskette).
Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is
sealed in a protective case to keep it free of dust and dirt. A hard
disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but it works
much faster and has a much larger storage capacity.
All disks are divided into data storage compartments by sides,
tracks, and sectors. Double-sided diskettes store data on both
sides. On each side are concentric rings, called tracks, on which
a disk can store data.
Using Your computer
3-7
A disk is further divided by sectors, which are similar in shape to
pie slices. The figure below provides a simple representation of
tracks and sectors.
Double-sided, double-density diskettes have either 40 or 80
tracks on each side, and double-sided, high-density diskettes
have 80 tracks on each side. Diskettes can have 8,9,15, or 18
sectors per track.
A hard disk consists of two or more platters stacked on top of
one another and thus has four or more sides. In addition, a hard
disk has many more tracks per side than a diskette, but the
number of tracks depends on the capacity of the hard disk. The
number of sectors depends on the type of hard disk.
3-8
Using Your Computer
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to store
and retrieve data on a disk. To write to a disk, the computer
spins it in the drive to position the disk so that the area where
the data is to be written is under the read/write head. A diskette
has an exposed area where the read/write head can access it.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, record
over it, and erase it-just as you play, record, and erase music on
a cassette tape.
Types of Diskette Drives
The following list describes the four types of diskette drives you
can use in your computer and which diskettes to use with them:
0
1.2MB drive-Use 5 1/4-inch, double-sided, high-density,
96 TPI (tracks per inch), 1.2MB diskettes. These diskettes
contain 80 tracks per side, 15 sectors per track, and hold up
to 1.2MB of information, which is approximately 500 pages
of text.
Note
MB stands for megabyte, which equals 1024KB (or
1,048,576 bytes). KB stands for kilobyte, which equals
1024 bytes. Each byte represents a single character, such
as A, $, or 3.
0
1.44MB drive—Use 3 M-inch, double-sided, high-density,
135 TPI, 144MB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80
tracks per side, 18 sectors per track, and hold up to 1.44MB
of information, which is approximately 600 pages of text.
Using Your Computer
3-9
Cl 360KB drive—Use 5 1/4-inch, double-sided, double-density,
48 TPI, 360KB diskettes. (You can also use single-sided,
160KB or 180KB diskettes.) These diskettes contain 40
tracks per side and 8 or 9 sectors per track. With 8 sectors
per track, a diskette holds up to 320KB. With 9, sectors per
track, a diskette holds up to 360KB of information, which is
approximately 150 pages of text.
Ll 720KB drive—Use 3 l/2-inch, double-sided, double-density,
135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks
per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold up to 720KB of
information, which is approximately 300 pages of text.
Note
You must format a new diskette before you can store data on
it. See “Formatting Diskettes,” later in this section.
Drive and diskette incompatibilities
If your computer has more than one type of diskette drive, or if
you use different types of diskettes, you need to be aware of
certain incompatibilities between the drives and diskettes.
Because of the type and size differences, you cannot use a
31/2-inch diskette in a 51/4-inch drive or vice versa. There are
also limitations on using diskettes that are the same size as the
drive but have different capacities. The following tables
summarize the possibilities and limitations.
5 1/4-inch drive/diskette compatibiliy
* If you write to this diskette in a 1.2MB drive, you may not be able
to read it or write to it in a 360KB drive later.
3-10
Using your computer
31/2-inch drive/diskette compatibility
Because of these incompatibilities, always indicate the diskette
type and density when you label your diskettes. (Usually this
information appears on the manufacturer’s label.)
If you have any combination of the above drives (1.44 MB,
1.2MB, 720KB, or 360KB), you can copy files from one drive to
another-using COPY or XCOPY—as long as the correct
diskette type is in each drive. You can also use these commands
to copy files between a hard disk and any type of diskette.
However, you cannot use the MS-DOS DISKCOPY command
to copy from one diskette drive to another if the two drives are
not the same type. For more about copying files and diskettes,
see your MS-DOS Reference Manual.
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskettes and
avoid losing data:
If you have a diskette that contains data you don’t want to
accidentally write over or erase, be sure you write-protect it.
This is especially important for your operating system and
application program diskettes. See “Write-protecting
Diskettes,” below, for more details.
Do not remove a diskette from the diskette drive or reset or
turn off the computer while the drive light is on. This light
indicates that the computer is copying data to or from a
diskette. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy data.
Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
Using Your Computer
3-11
0
Keep diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small particles of
dust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface, destroy data,
and ruin the read/write heads in a diskette drive.
0 Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
0. Keep diskettes in a moderate environment. They work best
at normal room temperature and in normal humidity. Don’t
leave diskettes sitting in the sun, or in extreme cold or heat.
0 Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields, such as electrical
appliances, telephones, and loudspeakers. (Remember that
diskettes store information magnetically.)
Do not place diskettes on top of your monitor or near an
external hard disk drive.
Always hold a 51/4-inch diskette by its protective jacket and
never touch the magnetic surface (exposed by the read/write
slot). The oils on your fingertips can damage it.
Do not place anything on top of your diskettes, and be sure
they do not get bent.
Carefully label your diskettes and indicate the type and
density. Attach the label only along the top of a diskette
(next to the manufacturer’s label). Do not stick several
labels on top of one another; too many labels can make it
difficult to insert and remove the diskette in the drive.
Write on a diskette label before you attach it to the diskette.
If you need to write on a label that is already on the diskette,
use only a soft-tip pen-not a ballpoint pen or a pencil.
0 Store diskettes in their protective envelopes and in a proper
location, such as a diskette container. Do not store diskettes
flat or stack them on top of each other.
3-12
Using Your Computer
Write-protecting Diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being
altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can read it and
copy data from it, but you cannot store new data on it or delete
any files it contains. If you try to change data stored on a writeprotected diskette, MS-DOS displays an error message.
To write-protect a 51/4-inch diskette, cover the small,
rectangular notch (shown below) with an adhesive write-protect
tab. Write-protect tabs usually are included in a new package of
blank 5 1/4-inch diskettes.
To remove the write protection, peel off the write-protect tab.
Using Your Computer
3-13
On a 3 ?&inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small switch
on the back of the diskette in the lower right comer, shown
below. To write-protect a 31/2-inch diskette, slide the switch
toward the edge of the diskette until it clicks into position,
exposing a hole in the comer.
write-protect switch
To remove the write protection, slide the switch toward the
center of the diskette until it clicks into position and the hole is
covered.
Note
Some program diskettes have no notch or switch so they are
permanently write-protected. This protects them from being
accidentally erased or altered.
3-14
using Your computer
Using a Single Diskette Drive System
MS-DOS expects the computer to have at least two diskette
drives and displays prompts and messages accordingly. Usually,
MS-DOS recognizes the first diskette drive (the top drive) as A
and a second diskette drive as B. If you have only one diskette
drive, MS-DOS can treat it as both A and B when you need to
perform operations that normally require two diskette drives.
For example, if you enter a command to copy data from A to B,
MS-DOS copies the data from the first diskette you place in the
drive (which would be drive A) to the computer’s memory.
Then MS-DOS prompts you to insert another diskette (for drive
B) and copies the data from memory to the new diskette. When
copying is complete, you see a prompt to insert the original
diskette (A).
Because you may often swap diskettes this way, it is important to
remember which diskette is which. It is also a good idea to writeprotect your original diskette. See “Write-protecting Diskettes,”
above.
If you have a hard disk and one diskette drive, you can load the
operating system and application programs from the hard disk,
create and store your data there, and use the diskette drive just
for copying data to or from diskettes.
However, if you have only one diskette drive and no hard disk,
you need to use that drive to load the operating system as well as
any application program you are using. First, insert the operating
system diskette (the Startup diskette, for example) in drive A
and load the operating system; this copies it to the computer’s
memory (RAM) so you do not need to leave the system diskette
in the drive. Then remove the system diskette and insert your
application program diskette to load that data into memory, too.
See your application program manual for detailed instructions.
Using Your Computer
3-15
Note
You can load MS-DOS from an application program diskette
if that diskette contains the operating system. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for information about creating a
system diskette.
Inserting and Removing Diskettes
If you have a 5 1/4-inch diskette drive, insert a diskette as follows:
hold the diskette with the label facing up and the read/write slot
leading into the drive, as shown below.
Slide the diskette into the slot until it is in all the way. Then
turn the latch down to lock it in a vertical position. This keeps
the diskette in place and enables the read/write heads in the
diskette drive to access the diskette.
When you want to remove a diskette, first make sure the disk
drive light is off. Then flip up the latch and carefully pull out
the diskette. Place it in its protective envelope and store it in a
proper location, such as a diskette container.
3-16
Using Your Computer
If you have a 3 1/2-inch diskette drive, insert the diskette with the
label facing up and the metal shutter leading into the drive, as
shown in the following illustration. Slide the diskette into the
drive until it clicks into place.
When you want to remove the diskette, make sure the drive
light is off; then press the release button. When the diskette
pops out, remove it and store it properly.
Caution
Never remove a diskette or reset or turn off the computer
while a diskette drive light is on. You could lose data. Also,
be sure to remove all diskettes before you turn off the
computer.
Using Your Computer
3-17
Formatting Diskettes
Before you can store data on a new diskette, you must format it
using the FORMAT command. Formatting prepares the diskette
so that MS-DOS can write data on it. You need to do this only
once, before you use the diskette for the first time.
You can also reformat previously used diskettes to store new
data. This process erases all the data on the diskette, so be sure
you do not want to save any of the files on a used diskette before
you format it. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
instructions on using the FORMAT command.
Making Backup Copies
It is important to make copies of all your data and system
diskettes. Make backup (or working) copies of all diskettes that
contain programs, such as your MS-DOS diskette and the
Reference diskette that came with your computer. Then use
only the copies. Store the original diskettes in a safe place away
from your working diskettes. Also, copy your data diskettes
regularly, whenever you revise them (to keep them up-to-date)
and store them away from your originals.
If you have a hard disk, you’ll probably use it to store the
programs and data files you use regularly. Keep backup copies of
all your files on diskettes.
You can copy your data in several ways:
0 You can use the COPY or XCOPY command to copy
individual files or groups of files.
0 You can use the DISKCOPY command to make an exact
duplicate of a diskette.
3 -18
Using Your Computer
0 You can use the BACKUP command to back up hard disk
files to diskettes. Because BACKUP can split large files
across two or more diskettes, it makes more efficient use of
diskette space than COPY or XCOPY. It also allows you to
back up files that are larger than the capacity of your
diskettes.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on using
these commands.
Using a Hard Disk Drive
Using a hard disk is similar to using a diskette. However, the
hard disk provides several advantages:
0 A 40MB hard disk can store as much data as approximately
thirty-three 1.2MB diskettes, and a 100MB hard disk can
store as much data as approximately eighty-two 1.2MB
diskettes.
0 Your computer can perform all disk-related operations faster.
Ll You can store frequently used programs and data files on the
hard disk, eliminating the inconvenience of swapping
diskettes to access different files.
The added storage capacity makes it easy to move back and forth
between different programs and data files. However, because it is
so easy to add programs and files to your hard disk, you may find
yourself trying to organize hundreds of files.
MS-DOS lets you keep related files together in directories and
subdirectories so they are easy to find and use. See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on managing your
files and directories.
A hard disk must be partitioned and formatted before you can
use it. Be sure you have performed the procedures in your
MS-DOS Installation Guide to prepare your hard disk for use.
Using Your Computer
3-19
Backing up the hard disk
While the hard disk is very reliable, it is essential to back up
your hard disk files to diskettes in case you lose some data
accidentally. Make copies of all your system and application
program diskettes before copying the programs to the hard disk.
After you create data files on the hard disk, be sure to copy them
to diskettes whenever you revise them to keep your backup
diskettes up-to-date.
Caring for your hard disk drive
Follow these precautions to protect your hard disk drive from
damage and to avoid losing data:
LJ Never turn off or reset the computer when the hard disk
access light is on. This light indicates that the computer is
copying data to or from the hard disk. If you interrupt this
process, you can lose data.
Ll Never attempt to open the hard disk drive. The disk itself is
enclosed in a sealed container to protect it from dust.
Ll Before you move your computer even a short distance, you
need to run the HDSIT program to prepare the hard disk for
moving, as described below.
Preparing the hard disk for moving
If you need to move your computer to a new location, you
should run the HDSIT program-provided on your Reference
diskette-to protect the hard disk during the move.
The HDSIT program moves the disk drive’s read/write heads to
a region on the disk surface that does not contain data, and
locks them securely in position. This protects the hard disk from
being damaged if the computer is bumped accidentally.
3-20
Using Your Computer
Follow these steps to run HDSIT:
1. Exit any program you are using and make sure the MS-DOS
command prompt appears on the screen.
2. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A. Then type A : and
press Enter to log onto that drive.
3. Type the following and press Enter:
HDSIT
You see a message on the screen that tells you the disk drive’s
read/write heads will remain locked until you reset the computer
or turn the power off and on again. The computer locks the
heads and disables the keyboard. Remove any diskettes and turn
off the computer. You are now ready to move it to the new
location.
Note
For convenience, you may want to copy the following two
files from the Reference Diskette to your hard disk:
HDSIT.COM
HDSIT.VER
Then, when you want to run HDSIT, just log onto the
directory on your hard disk where you stored the files, type
HDSIT, and press Enter. See your MS-DOS manual for
instructions on using the COPY command.
If you have a 5 1/4-inch diskette drive and you still have the
original diskette drive protector card, you may want to insert it
into the drive prior to shipping your computer to protect the
read/write heads.
Using Your Computer
3-21
Chapter 4
Enhancing System Operations
This chapter tells you how to use the following procedures to
enhance the operation of your computer:
0 Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and other batch files
0 Changing the processor speed
0 Using expanded memory beyond 1MB
0 Using the VGA utilities.
Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and Other Batch Files
As you get used to using MS-DOS and your application
programs, you may find that there are commands you need to
run frequently. You can automate the execution of these
commands by listing them in a special file called a “batch” file.
When you type the name of the batch file and press Enter,
MS-DOS executes the commands in the file just as if you had
typed each command from the keyboard.
If you have a word processing program that can save a file as a
text-only file (sometimes called an ASCII file), you can use it to
create a batch file. You can also use the MS-DOS COPY or
EDLIN command to create the file.
One batch file that you may find particularly useful is called
AUTOEXEC.BAT. Every time you turn on your computer,
MS-DOS looks for the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and
automatically executes each of the commands.
Enhancing System Operations
4-1
When you install MS-DOS, it creates an AUTOEXEC.BAT file
for you. To modify the file or create another one, you can use
the COPY or EDLIN command, or a word processing program
that can save a file as a text-only file. However, be sure to name
the file AUTOEXEC.BAT and store it in the root directory of
the hard disk or diskette from which you load MS-DOS.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for more information
about creating and using batch files.
Changing the Processor Speed
Your computer’s processor can operate at two speeds: high and
low. High speed is 12 MHz, 1ow is 6 MHz. On high, the
computer can access memory faster than on low. Your processor
is set to operate at high speed unless you change the speed to
low or set the speed to change automatically.
You should use high speed for almost everything you do since
your programs will work faster. However, certain application
programs have specific timing requirements for diskette access
and can run only at the slower speed. See your software manual
to determine if this is the case.
4-2
Enhancing System Operations
Some copy-protected programs require the computer to run at
low speed while accessing the program on a diskette. These
programs also usually require you to leave a key disk-the
diskette that contains the copy protection-in the diskette
drive. If you use a copy-protected program often, you may want
to set your processor speed to change automatically to low speed
when accessing the diskette and return to high speed when it is
finished.
There are different types of copyprotected programs. Depending
on the type you have, you may or may not want to set the
processor to automatic speed. Follow these guidelines:
0 If you are using a copy-protected program that can run only
on a diskette or that requires a key disk, try to start the
program on high speed. If this works, you do not need to set
the speed to change automatically. If you can’t load the
program on high, set the speed to change automatically.
0 If you are using a copy-protected program that does not
require a key disk but requires a special procedure to install
the program on a hard disk, set the speed to low while you
are installing the program. Once it is installed, set the speed
to high, where you should be able to leave it while you load
and run the program.
If this does not work, try installing 4 loading the program
at low speed and then change to high speed to run it. Do not
set the speed to change automatically.
There are three ways to change the processor speed:
Cl Run the SETUP program
Ci Enter a keyboard command
Cl Run the ESPEED program.
Enhancing System Operations
4-3
If you frequently use programs that require the processor to
operate at low speed or require the automatic speed change
when your computer is accessing a diskette, use SETUP to
change the processor speed. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
If you use these programs only occasionally, you should use the
keyboard commands or the ESPEED program (described below)
to change the processor speed.
Entering Keyboard Commands
You can change the processor speed by entering one of the
following commands at the MS-DOS prompt:
Ctrl Alt +
Changes the processor speed to high
(12 MHz).
Ctrl Alt -
Changes the processor speed to low
(6 MHz).
For the + and - characters, press the keys on the numeric
keypad. The commands do not work if you use the keys on the
main keyboard.
Note
You can use the commands listed above while you are
running a program. However, if you are running a program
that uses one of the same commands for another function,
you cannot use that command to change the processor speed.
For example, if you are running a program that uses the
Ctrl Alt - command to move the cursor, you cannot enter
Ctrl Alt - to change the processor speed to low. When you
exit the program, you can enter these commands at the
MS-DOS prompt to change the processor speed. Another
alternative is to use the ESPEED program, described below.
4-4
Enhancing System Operations
To enter these commands, hold down the Ctrl key and the
Alt key and press the + or - key on the numeric keypad. The
speed setting remains in effect until you press the RESET button
or turn off the computer, or until you change it again using the
SETUP program, another keyboard command, or the ESPEED
program, described below.
Using the ESPEED Program
The ESPEED program provides an easy way to change the
processor speed if your application program does not recognize
the Ctrl keyboard commands or if you want to include the
program command in a batch file.
The ESPEED program is provided with your system on the
Reference diskette. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your
Reference diskette in drive A and log onto drive A before you
enter the command to start the program.
If you have a hard disk drive, copy the file ESPEED.COM from
your Reference diskette onto your hard disk and run the program
from there.
To run the ESPEED program, type the following at the
MS-DOS command prompt and press Enter:
ESPEED ?
You see the following message:
Format: ESPEED [H I L I ?]
No Parm: Displays current CPU Speed
: Set to High Speed
H
.. Set to Low Speed
L
: Help Message
?
Enhancing System Operations
4-5
The message tells you the switches you should use to set the
speed to high or low. At the MS-DOS prompt, type the
ESPEED command again and include the appropriate switch,
such as the following:
ESPEED L
This command changes the processor speed to low.
To see the current CPU speed, type ESPEED only and press
Enter. You see the following:
: Speed Up
: Speed Down
<Esc>: Exit
<+>
12.0 MHZ <->
The processor speed you set remains in effect until you press the
RESET button or turn off the computer, or until you change it
using the SETUP program, a keyboard command, or the
ESPEED program again.
Entering the ESPEED command in a batch file
You may want to run the ESPEED program by including the
command in a batch file. For example, if you have a program
called SAMPLE which requires a slower processor speed, you
could include the following commands in a batch file to start
the SAMPLE program:
ESPEED L
SAMPLE
You could name the batch file SAMP.BAT. Whenever you
need to run the SAMPLE program, insert the program diskette
in drive A. Then type SAMP and press Enter. The computer
changes the speed to low and starts the SAMPLE program.
See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions on
creating and using batch files.
4-6
Enhancing System Operations
Using Expanded Memory Beyond 1MB
The Equity 286 PLUS comes with 1MB of random access
memory. MS-DOS and your application programs that run
under MS-DOS use the first 640KB of memory. If you have
installed additional memory (above 1MB) in your computer, you
can use it as extended memory or expanded memory, as
described below.
Expanded memory is required by certain programs (such as
®
Lotus l-2-3 ) that support the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded
Memory Specification (LIM 4.0 EMS). To take advantage of
expanded memory, you need to use a memory manager to
convert the computer’s extended memory to expanded memory.
Follow these steps:
1. Run the SETUP program to allocate the amount of memory
you want to use as expanded memory. See “EMS Size” in
Chapter 2 for instructions.
2. Copy the file EMM286.SYS from your Reference diskette to
the root directory of your hard disk (or the Startup diskette
from which you load MS-DOS). You may put the
EMM286.SYS file in another directory as long as you
include the appropriate pathname on the DEVICE =
command line in the CONFIG.SYS file. See the
instructions below.
3. Add a command to the CONFIGSYS file to include the
memory manager as a device driver, as described below.
Enhancing System Operations
4-7
Modifying the CONFIG.SYS File
If you have a word processing program that can save a file as a
text-only file (also called an ASCII file), you can use it to add
the memory manager to the CONFIG.SYS file. Follow these
steps:
1. Start your word processing program.
2. Load the file CONFIG.SYS and add the following command
line:
DEVICE=EMM286.SYS
For information on optional parameters, see “Using
EMM286.SYS options,” below.
Note
If the EMM286.SYS file is in a directory other than the
root directory and you have not entered that directory in
a PATH command (in your AUTOEXEC.BAT file, for
example), you need to include the pathname for
EMM286.SYS on the DEVICE= command line. For
example, if EMM286.SYS is in a directory called \DRV
on drive C, include the pathname like this:
DEVICE=C:\DRV\EMM286.SYS
If you plan to use any of your expanded memory to create
a virtual disk with the MS-DOS VDISK device driver, be
sure to insert the DEVICE=EMM286.SYS command line
before the VDISK command line in your CONFIG.SYS
file. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for information
about VDISK.
3. Save the file as an ASCII text file.
4. Reset the computer.
4-8
Enhancing System Operations
If you do not have a word processing program capable of saving
an ASCII text file, you can modify CONFIG.SYS using the
MS-DOS EDLIN or COPY CON command. See your MS-DOS
Reference Manual for instructions.
Using EMM286.SYS options
You can include optional parameters in the DEVICE=
command line to tailor the way the memory manager works with
your system. The table below summarizes the EMM286.SYS
options. Each option is described in more detail following the
table.
The M[n] option specifies a particular 64KB page frame address
for EMM286.SYS. The value n must be a number from 1 to 9 to
indicate one of the following addresses:
Enhancing System Operations
4-9
For example, to specify a page frame address 0CC000h for
EMM286.SYS, add the following command line to your
CONFIG.SYS file:
DEVICE=EMM286.SYS /M4
Note
If you have installed an EGA or VGA display adapter card,
you cannot enter the following values for n:
/Ml -Ml /M2 -M2
The P[nnn] option specifies the number of handles (process IDS)
available to EMM286.SYS. The value for nnn must be in the
range of 64 to 256. The default value is 64.
The D option specifies whether you want EMM286.SYS to run
diagnostics on your expanded memory page frame each time you
load the program. It does not run the diagnostics unless you
include the D parameter on the DEVICE= command line.
Using the VGA Utilities
Your built-in VGA (video graphics array) display adapter
supports both standard VGA monitors and multi-frequency
monitors with analog connectors in non-interlaced mode. The
VGA adapter operates in all standard VGA resolutions without
requiring any device drivers. However, you may want to install
the VGA utilities (which came with your system on the
Reference diskette) to use some special features of your VGA
adapter.
4-10
Enhancing System Operations
The Reference diskette contains the following VGA utilities:
VGAMODE
Provides 132-column text in text-based
programs such as WordStar’s’ and
WordPerfect?
SET-VGA
Sets the built-in VGA adapter to emulate
the operation of a variety of graphics
adapters.
SNOOZE
Turns off your VGA display when you
have not used your computer for a
specified period of time.
Copying the Utility Files
If you have a hard disk, you should copy the VGA utility files
from your Reference diskette to your hard disk and run the
programs from there. This section describes how to copy the files
and include a pathname for the files in your AUTOEXEC.BAT
file. Once you have copied the files and modified
AUTOEXEC.BAT, read the sections below that describe how
to use each utility you copied to your hard disk.
Note
If you do not have a hard disk, you can skip this section and
go on to the sections below about using each utility. Keep in
mind that you’ll need to insert the Reference diskette in drive
A and log onto drive A each time you want to run one of the
utilities.
Follow these steps to copy the utility files to your hard disk:
1. If necessary, turn on your computer.
2. Log onto the root directory of your hard disk.
Enhancing System Operations
4-11
3. Type the following command and press Enter to create a
utility file directory on your hard disk (if you do not already
have one):
MKDIR C:\UTIL
You can name the directory something other than UTIL;
just substitute the directory name you choose in the rest of
the steps in this section.
4. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A.
5. Type the following command and press Enter for each
utility file you want to copy to your utility directory:
COPY A:fi1enane C:\UTIL
where filename is one of the following:
VGAMODE.COM
SETVGA.COM
SNOOZE.COM
6. After copying the utility files you want, remove the
Reference diskette from drive A.
Once the files are on your hard disk, it is a good idea to include
a pathname to your utility directory in the AUTOEXEC.BAT
file, as described below.
4-12
Enhancing System Operations
Modifying your AUTOEXEC.BAT file
For convenience in accessing your VGA utilities, you can
include the pathname to the utility directory in your
AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Follow these steps:
1. At the MS-DOS command prompt in the root directory,
type the following and press Enter:
COPY AUTOEXEC.BAT+CON AUTOEXEC.BAT
2. To set the path for the VGA utility directory, type the
following and press Enter:
PATH C:\pathname\
For instance, if you were using the example directory,
described above, you would type:
PATH C:\UTIL\
3. Press F6 and then Enter. (See your MS-DOS Reference
Manual for more information about pathnames.)
Using VGAMODE
VGAMODE provides 132-column text in popular text-based
applications, such as WordStar and WordPerfect. The
VGAMODE utility allows you to specify the number of rows
(lines) and columns you want displayed on the screen.
You specify values for the desired number of rows and columns
by typing them on the VGAMODE command line. The
command format is:
VGAMODE [columms] , [rows]
Valid values for columns are 80 and 132; for rows, use 25 or 50.
(Do not include the brackets.)
Enhancing System Operations
4-13
For example, if you want your screen to display 132 columns and
25 rows, type the following and press Enter:
VGAMODE 132, 25
To use VGAMODE, you must configure the application
program that uses VGAMODE for the same screen sire. See the
appropriate section below for your application program(s).
Note
Certain monitors cannot display 132 columns or 50 rows on
the screen. The following table specifies the number of rows
that can be displayed on common monitors:
Running WordStar, versions 4.0 and 5.0
After you install WordStar version 4.0 or 5.0 on your hard disk,
follow these steps:
1. Install the VGAMODE utility, if you have not already done
SO.
2. Log onto your WordStar directory.
3. Type the following and press Enter to start WordStar’s
installation program:
WSCHANGE
4. The program asks for the name of your WordStar program
file. If you installed WordStar without changing the
program filename, this file is named WS.EXE. Type the
filename and press Enter.
4-14
Enhancing System Operations
5. The program then asks for the name of a file where the
changes for the new configuration are to be saved. Type the
following and press Enter:
WS132.EXE
6. At the Main Installation Menu, select Console.
7. From the console menu, select Mon i t or .
8. Thenchoose Screen Sizing.
9. At the Screen Siring menu, select B (for width), type 132,
and press Enter. Press X at each menu to exit from the
installation program.
10. When the installation program asks if you want to save the
new configuration, press Y. The program saves the new
configuration in the WS132.EXE file and the computer
displays the MS-DOS command prompt.
11. Type the command below and press Enter to specify
132-column text mode:
VGAMODE 132, 25
12. Type the following and press Enter to start WordStar:
WS132
After you exit WordStar, if you want to return to 80-column
mode, type the following and press Enter:
VGAMODE 80, 25
Enhancing System Operations
4-15
Running WordPerfect, versions 4.0 and 4.1
After you have installed WordPerfect version 4.0 or 4.1 on your
hard disk, follow these steps:
1. Install the VGAMODE utility, if you have not already.
2. Type the following and press Enter to start VGAMODE
and initialize 132-column text mode:
VGAMODE
132, 25
3. Log onto the WordPerfect directory on your hard disk.
4. Type the following and press Enter:
WP /s
5. At the setup menu, select Specify Screen Size.
6. Type 132 to edit the number of columns field.
7. Exit the setup menu.
8. Whenever you run WordPerfect 4.0 or 4.1 with 132
columns, you need to specify 132-column text mode prior to
starting the program. Type the following and press Enter:
VGAMODE
132, 25
9. Type WP and press Enter to start WordPerfect.
10. To use the full width of the screen, you must change the
margins. (See the WordPerfect documentation for
instructions.)
After you exit WordPerfect, if you want to return to 80-column
mode, type the following and press Enter:
VGAMODE 80, 25
4-16
Enhancing System Operations
Running WordPerfect, version 5.0
Follow these steps to run WordPerfect version 5.0 in
132xchnn text mode:
1. Type the following and press Enter:
VGAMODE 132, 25
2. Start WordPerfect.
If WordPerfect does not display 132 columns and 25 rows on the
screen, type the following and press Enter to start the program:
WP /SS=25,132
Using SETVGA
SETVGA lets you operate your built-in VGA adapter in a
specific emulation mode. This allows you to use programs that
were written especially for other adapters when you cannot run
these programs in regular VGA mode.
Note
Only a few, old software packages require you to use the
SETVGA program.
To lock your VGA interface into an emulation mode, you
include the name of the mode on the SETVGA command line.
The command format is:
SETVGA
[emulation]
Enhancing System Operations
4-17
Use one of the following values for emulation:
For example, type the following and press Enter:
SETVGA EGAC
Using SNOOZE
The SNOOZE utility causes your monitor screen to go blank
after a specified period of time if your system has been inactive.
This prevents any single image from being “burned into” the
monitor screen. The screen remains blank until you press any
key; then it resumes display of the current activities.
To activate the utility, type SNOOZE and press Enter. You see
information about the SNOOZE command syntax and a
message that the SNOOZE delay is set to 5 minutes.
The default period of inactivity before the screen goes blank is
5 minutes. You can specify your own time period by entering a
number from 1 to 60 (minutes) on the SNOOZE command line.
For example, to set a SNOOZE delay of 15 minutes, type the
following and press Enter:
SNOOZE 15
To disable SNOOZE, type SNOOZE 0 and press Enter.
4-18
Enhancing System Operations
Chapter 5
Installing and Removing Options
You can enhance the performance of your computer by adding a
variety of options, including the following:
0 Option cards
0 Memory modules
0 A math coprocessor.
An option card is a circuit board you install in your computer to
add a particular function. Most option cards contain a device,
such as a modem, or provide an interface, such as a connector to
which you connect a monitor. This chapter describes how to
install option cards and configure your computer for use with
them.
Memory modules-also called SIMMs (single inline memory
modules)-allow you to increase the amount of memory in your
computer. This chapter describes the types and amounts of
SIMMs you can use in your computer. If you want to install
memory modules, it is best to ask your dealer to do it for you.
You can, however, follow the instructions in this chapter to
install them yourself.
Note
It is best not to add memory to your computer by installing an
optional memory card. Using memory modules is more
efficient since you do not need to use one of your option slots
to add memory. Your computer can also access memory
installed on memory modules faster than memory installed on
a card.
installing and Removing Options
5-1
A math coprocessor speeds up the numeric calculations your
computer performs when using certain application software. If
you purchase a math coprocessor, it is a good idea to ask your
dealer to install it for you, because it can be damaged easily. If
you decide to install it yourself, follow the steps in this chapter.
This chapter also explains how to change the jumper settings
inside the computer. You may need to change jumper settings if
you install certain types of options or if you want to change the
way your computer operates.
If you need to replace the battery for your computer’s real-time
clock and CMOS RAM, you can follow the instructions in this
chapter.
Before you can change jumper settings, replace the battery, or
install any of the options mentioned above, you need to remove
the cover from the computer. You may also need to remove the
subassembly. Be sure to heed all the warnings in this chapter so
you do not injure yourself or damage the computer.
Removing the Cover
To install options, replace the battery, or change jumper
settings, you need to remove the cover from your computer.
Follow these steps:
1. Turn off the computer and then any peripheral devices
(including the monitor and printer).
2. Disconnect the computer’s power cable from the electrical
outlet and from the back panel. Then disconnect any cables
that are connected to the computer, including the keyboard
cable.
3. If the monitor is on top of the computer, lift it off and set it
to one side.
5-2
Installing and Removing Options
4. Turn the computer around so you are facing the back panel.
As shown below, the cover is secured by a large screw on the
back panel. Turn the screw counterclockwise to unlock the
cover.
5. The cover is also secured by two latches on the back of the
cover near the comers. Press both latches inward and then
lift up the cover from the back panel. You might meet some
resistance from the grounding tabs along the inside of the
cover.
latches
installing and Removing Options
5-3
6. Pull the cover away from the front of the computer to
completely remove it. Then set it aside.
7. Before you touch any of the components inside, touch the
inside of the computer’s back panel, as shown below, to
ground yourself and avoid an electric shock.
WARNING
Be sure to ground yourself to the inside back panel of the
computer every time you remove the cover. If you are not
properly grounded, you could generate an electric shock when
you touch a component.
5-4
Installing and Removing Options
Changing the Jumper Settings
If you change your computer’s configuration or need to alter the
way it operates, you may need to change a jumper setting inside
the computer.
A jumper is a small electrical connector that controls one of the
computer’s functions. The jumper settings in your computer are
preset at the factory; however, you can alter the following
functions by changing the standard settings:
Cl Set the computer to use an 8 or 10 MHz math coprocessor
CI Enable or disable the password function
0 Set the computer to use a color or monochrome monitor
CI Enable or disable the built-in mouse connector
0 Enable or disable the built-in VGA display adapter.
If you need to change any jumper settings, follow the
instructions in this section.
Installing and Removing Options
5-5
Setting the Jumpers
The illustration below shows the locations of the jumpers. You’ll
need to remove the subassembly to see all of the jumpers
(described later in this section).
A jumper’s setting is determined by where the jumper is placed on
the pins. It connects either pin A and the middle pin (position A)
or pin B and the middle pin (position B), as shown below.
To move a jumper from one position to the other, use needlenose pliers or tweezers to pull it off its pins and gently move it to
the desired position. Be careful not to lose the jumper.
5-6
Installing and Removing Options
Caution
Be careful not to bend the jumper pins or damage any
surrounding components on the main system board.
The following Table lists the jumper settings and their functions:
Main system board jumper settings
Factory setting
Installing and Removing Options
5-7
If you need to change any jumper settings, follow these steps:
1. Remove any option cards that may be blocking your access
to the jumpers. See page 5-17 for instructions.
2. If you need to change the settings of jumper J5 or J6, remove
the subassembly. See page 5-18.
3. Change the jumper settings.
4. Replace the subassembly, if necessary. See page 5-33.
5. Replace any option cards you removed. See “Installing an
Option Card” on page 5-12.
6. Follow the instructions on page 5-41 to replace the
computer’s cover.
Replacing the Battery
Your computer comes with a 3.6 volt lithium battery that
provides power for the real-time clock and the CMOS RAM.
The real-time clock keeps track of the time for your computer,
and the CMOS RAM stores the information about your system
configuration that was saved by the SETUP program.
This battery lasts approximately three to five years. If it loses
power, you will see an error message when you turn on or reset
your computer. Contact your dealer to obtain a replacement
battery pack. Your dealer can also install the battery for you. If
you want to replace the battery yourself, you can follow the
instructions in this section.
5-8
Installing and Removing Options
Note
When the battery runs out, your computer loses the
information stored in the CMOS RAM and the time stored
in the real-time clock. After you replace the battery, you must
run the SETUP program to reconfigure your system and set
the real-time clock.
If necessary, follow the instructions on page 5-2 to remove the
computer’s cover. Then follow these steps to replace the battery:
1. Turn the computer so that the front panel is facing you. The
battery is attached to the bottom of the computer case, just
behind the front panel, as shown below.
Installing and Removing Options
5-9
To disconnect the battery from the main system board, pull
up on the connector plugged into socket CN 1, as shown
below.
battery cable connector
CN1
2. The battery is attached to the computer with Velcro?
Remove the battery by pulling it up from the bottom of the
computer case, as shown below. Then set the battery aside.
5-10
Installing and Removing Options
3. Remove the new battery from its package and position it so
that the Velcro is facing down and the cable is facing
connector CNl. Then attach it to the bottom of the
computer case, as shown below.
4. Connect the battery cable to socket CN-1 on the main
system board.
Installing and Removing Options
5-11
5. Follow the steps on page 5-41 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then run the SETUP program to reconfigure your
system and reset the time for the real-time clock. See
Chapter 2 for instructions.
Installing an Option Card
Your computer has four standard option slots: three 16-bit slots
and one 8-bit slot. Each slot can accommodate an option card.
You can buy option cards from authorized Epson dealers as well
as other vendors.
This section explains how to install option cards in your
computer. Later on, you may need to remove an option card to
access jumpers, memory modules, or a math coprocessor. If so,
see “Removing an Option Card” on page 5-17 for instructions.
Note
After you install or remove an option card, see "Postinstallation Setup” at the end of this chapter for information
about reconfiguring your computer.
5-12
Installing and Removing Options
The illustration below shows the four standard option slots
inside your computer.
Slot 1 is designed for an 8-bit option card and slots 2 through 4
are designed for 16-bit cards. As you can see below, a 16-bit card
has an extra connector along the bottom.
16-bit option card
8-bit option card
Installing and Removing Options
5-13
Usually it does not matter which slot an option card occupies as
long as the card fits in the. slot. For example, you can place some
8-bit cards in a 16-bit slot. However, you must follow these
guidelines when deciding which slot to use:
0 An 8-bit card with an additional tab along the bottom must
go into an 8-bit slot.
Cl If you install a disk drive controller card, place the card as
close as possible to the drive it is controlling.
0 Some option cards must be installed in a specific slot.
Consult the instructions that come with the card to see if
this is the case.
Follow these steps to install an option card:
1. If you have not already done so, remove the cover from the
computer. (See page 5-2 for instructions.)
WARNING
After you remove the cover, touch the inside back panel
of the computer to ground yourself and avoid an electric
shock.
2. If you are installing an option card that controls a mouse,
you need to change the setting of jumper J4 on the main
system board before you install the card. If you install a
display adapter card, you may need to change the settings of
jumpers J1,13, and J5. See page 5-7 for instructions.
5-14
Installing and Removing 0ptions
3. Remove the retaining screw from the top of the metal
option slot cover: hold on to the screw as you remove it so it
doesn’t fall into the computer. Lift out the slot cover.
Keep the screw to secure the option card to the computer.
Store the slot cover in a safe place in case you remove the
option card later.
4. Unpack the option card and adjust any switches or jumpers
on it, if necessary. (Check the option card instructions.)
When you handle the card, be careful not to touch any of
the components on the circuit board or the gold-edged
connector pins. If you need to set it down before you install
it, place it gently on top of its original packing material with
the component side facing up. Keep the packing materials in
case you remove the card later.
Installing and Removing Options
5-15
5. Grip the card firmly by the top comers and position it at the
top of the slot, as shown below. Make sure the connector
pins point down and the component side faces the power
supply inside the computer.
6. Insert the card into the slot, guiding it straight down. Once
the connector pins reach the connector slot, push the card
downward firmly (but carefully) to insert it fully. You should
feel the card fit into place.
If the card does not go in smoothly, do not force it; pull it all
the way out and try again, keeping it straight as you insert it.
Examine the card to verify that it is fully seated in the slot
along the length of the connector.
5-16
Installing and Removing Options
7. Secure the end of the card to the back of the computer with
the retaining screw.
8. Follow the instructions at the end of this chapter to replace
the cover. Then see “Post-installation Setup,” following that
section.
Removing an Option Card
If you need to remove an option card, follow these steps:
1. First, remove the cover from the computer. See page 5-2 for
instructions.
2. Remove the screw securing the card to the back of the
computer and pull it straight up and out of the slot. Either
set the card aside by placing it gently on a soft surface with
the component side facing up or carefully wrap the card,
preferably with the original packing materials, and place it
inside its box for safe storage.
Installing and Removing Options
5-17
3. Cover the option slot opening with the original metal cover
and secure it with the retaining screw.
4. if you are removing an option card that controls a mouse,
you need to change the setting of jumper J4 on the main
system board. If you are removing a display adapter card, you
may need to change the settings of jumpers J1,J3, and J5.
See page 5-7 for instructions.
5. Replace the cover. See page 5-41 for instructions.
Removing the Subassembly
In order to access the SIMM sockets, jumpers J5 and J6, and the
math coprocessor socket on your computer’s main system board,
you need to remove the subassembly that covers them. The
subassembly is the large metal casing that holds the horizontal
drive bays and the power supply, as shown below.
subassembly
5- I 8
Installing and Removing Options
Follow these steps to remove the subassembly:
1. Remove the front panel from the computer by lifting up
slightly on the three clips at the top of the panel and tilting
it toward you. Then set it aside.
clips
front panel
2. If you have a hard disk drive, the drive cable is connected to
the main system board on the left side of the subassembly, as
shown below.
Grasp the connector and pull it straight up to remove it
from the socket. Do not pull only on the cable.
InstalIing and Removing Options
5-19
3. The diskette drive cable is connected to the socket just
behind the hard disk drive socket; disconnect it in the same
manner.
4.
5-20
To lift the subassembly from the front of the computer,
place your thumbs under the diskette drive and grasp the top
edge of the computer with the rest of your fingers, as shown
in the following illustration. (If you have a diskette drive
installed in the lower horizontal drive bay, place your
thumbs underneath that drive instead.)
Installing and Removing Options
5. Raise the front of the subassembly, as shown below.
6. Reach back underneath the subassembly and disconnect the
two power supply cables connected to the back right side of
the main system board, as shown below. Pull each of the
connectors straight up. Do not pull only on the cables.
Installing and Removing Options
5-21
7. Lift the entire subassembly out of the computer and carefully
place it on your work surface.
Adding Memory Modules
Your computer comes with 1MB of memory which is soldered
directly onto the main system board. By installing SIMMs
(single inline memory modules), you can increase the amount of
memory in your computer up to 5MB. (You can add a memory
card, however, if you want to expand your computer’s memory
up to 16MB.)
Caution
It is best to have your dealer install memory modules for you
because they can be damaged easily if installed incorrectly.
If you prefer, you can install them yourself by carefully
following the instructions in this section. However, you could
transmit an electrostatic discharge and damage your
components; so read this entire section before you begin.
Before you install SIMMs, check the following guidelines to
ensure that they will work properly:
0 Use SIMMs that operate at 100ns (nanosecond) or faster
access speed. Be sure all the SIMMs operate at the same
speed.
0 Use the correct SIMM configuration to add the amount of
memory you want. See the table on the next page.
Once you have the SIMMs you need, you or your dealer can
install them in your computer. If you are going to install them
yourself, follow the instructions in this section.
5-22
Installing and Removing Options
Installing Memory Modules
There are four SIMM sockets on the main system board
organized in two banks consisting of two sockets each. Each
socket can contain one memory module.
You must fill both sockets in any bank you use. The sockets in
Bank 1 are labelled U27 and U28 while the sockets in Bank 2
are labelled U29 and U30. Therefore, if you use Bank 1, for
example, you must install one SIMM in socket U27 and one
SIMM in socket U28.
The following table shows all the possible SIMM configurations
for the Equity 286 PLUS. Do not install SIMMs in any other
configuration. Keep in mind that 1MB of memory is already
soldered directly onto the main system board.
SIMM configure for the Equity 286 PLUS
— = No SIMM installed
K = 256KB SIMM installed
M = 1MB SIMM installed
Once you have determined where to add the memory modules,
follow these steps to install them:
1. Remove the computer’s cover. See page 5-2 for instructions.
2. Remove the subassembly. See page 5-18.
Installing and Removing Opions
5-23
3. Turn the computer so the front panel is facing you. The
SIMM sockets are located on the front of the main system
board next to the math coprocessor, as shown below.
The sockets are labelled as shown below.
5-24
Installing and Removing Options
4. Hold the SIMM in your hand so the component side faces
to the right and the metal connector pins face down. To
insert the SIMM in the socket, place it on the right side of
the tabs at an angle, as shown below.
5. Gently push down on the SIMM and, at the same time,
guide the top of the SIMM to the right until it is vertical.
Installing and Removing Options
5-25
The SIMM should snap into place between the tabs and the
retaining posts. If it does not go in smoothly, do not force it;
pull it all the way out and try again.
Make sure the SIMM is fully inserted into the socket and
that the pins on the retaining posts protrude through the
holes in both ends.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each SIMM you want to install.
7. Replace the subassembly. See page 5-33 for instructions.
8. Follow the steps on page 5-41 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then see "Post-installation Setup” (following that
section) for instructions on configuring your computer for
use with your new memory.
Removing Memory Modules
If you need to remove memory modules from your computer,
have your dealer do it for you or follow the steps below. If you
remove them yourself, check the table on page 5-23 to be sure
you remove SIMMs from the correct sockets.
Caution
It is safer to have your dealer remove SIMMs for you since
there is a danger of transmitting an electrostatic discharge
and damaging your components.
1. Remove the cover. See page 5-2 for instructions.
2. Remove the subassembly. See page 5-18.
5-26
Installing and Removing Options
3. Turn the computer so the front panel is facing you. The
SIMM sockets are located on the front of the main system
board, next to the math coprocessor, as shown below.
The SIMM sockets are labelled as shown below.
installing and Removing Options
5-27
4. Use your fingers or two small screwdrivers to pull away the
tabs that secure the SIMM at each end. Be careful not to
pull the tabs too far, or they may break.
tab
As you pull away the tabs, the SIMM falls to the left.
5-28
Installing and Removing Options
When the SIMM is at an angle, release the tabs and
carefully remove it from the socket.
5. Repeat step 4 for each SIMM you need to remove.
6. Replace the subassembly. See page 5-33.
7. Follow the steps on page 5-41 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then see “Post-installation Setup” (following that
section) for instructions on configuring your computer for
use with your decreased memory.
Installing a Math Coprocessor
Your computer has a socket on the main system board to
accommodate an 80287 (8 or 10 MHz) math coprocessor. A
math coprocessor speeds up the numeric calculations your
computer performs when using certain application software. It
also increases the speed at which graphic images are displayed
on your monitor when you use graphics-oriented software.
It is best to have your dealer install a math coprocessor for you,
since it is a delicate component that can be damaged easily if it
is installed incorrectly.
If you install it yourself, be sure to read the manual that came
with your math coprocessor, if you received one. Then follow
the steps in this section to install it in your computer. Before you
begin, be sure to read all of the warnings and instructions
carefully so you do not injure yourself or damage the coprocessor
or your computer.
Caution
To avoid generating static electricity and damaging your
math coprocessor, remain stationary when you install it.
Installing and Removing Options
5-29
Carefully follow these steps to install a math coprocessor:
1. Remove the computer’s cover. See page 5-2 for instructions.
2. Remove the subassembly. See page 5-18.
3. Remove the math coprocessor from its package and set it
aside.
4. If you are installing an 8 MHz math coprocessor, set
jumper J2 to position A; for a 10 MHz coprocessor, set J2 to
position B. See page 5-7 for instructions.
5. Turn the computer so the front panel is facing you. The
math-coprocessor socket is located on the front of the main
system board next to the SIMM sockets, as shown below.
SIMM sockets
math coprocessor
5-30
Installing and Removing Options
6. The math coprocessor socket is rectangular. There is a notch
at one end of the socket, as shown below.
notch
There is also a notch on one end of the math coprocessor:
notch
Align the notched side of the coprocessor with the notched
side of its socket. The notched sides must be aligned for the
coprocessor to operate properly, so be sure the alignment is
correct before you proceed to the next step.
Installing and Removing Options
5-3 I
Caution
If you insert the math coprocessor in the wrong position,
you could permanently damage it and destroy the
components on the main system board.
7. Set the coprocessor on the socket and line up all of the pins
on the coprocessor with the holes in the socket. Then gently
push the coprocessor into the socket, pressing evenly on
both ends, as shown below.
If the coprocessor does not go in smoothly, do not force it;
pull it all the way out and try again, keeping it straight as
you insert it. Examine the coprocessor to be sure it is
inserted all the way into the socket.
8. Replace the subassembly. See page 5-33.
9. Follow the steps on page 5-41 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then see “Post-installation Setup,” following that
section, for instructions on configuring your computer for
use with your math coprocessor.
5-32
Installing and Removing Options
Removing a Math Coprocessor
If you need to remove a math coprocessor from your computer,
contact your dealer for assistance. You need a special extracting
tool to remove the coprocessor without damaging it. Do not
attempt to remove it without this tool; you can easily damage it.
Follow the steps described earlier in this chapter to remove the
subassembly. Then remove the coprocessor with the tool and
replace the subassembly and the computer’s cover.
After you remove the coprocessor, run the SETUP program to
configure your system for use without it. See Chapter 2 for
instructions.
Replacing the Subassembly
Follow the steps below to replace the subassembly inside your
computer:
1. Notice that there are four mounting slots on the back of the
subassembly: two in the upper corners and two in the lower
corners.
lower slots
Installing and Removing Options
5-33
There are four corresponding tabs on the inside back panel
of the computer which fit into the openings in the
subassembly slots.
Lift up the subassembly from your work surface and lower
the back end into the computer, guiding the top slots on the
subassembly into the top tabs on the computer, as shown in
the next illustration.
5-34
Installing and Removing Options
tabs in slots
2. Hold up the front of the subassembly at a slight angle and
arrange the ribbon cables so they curve underneath the
subassembly and extend out its left side. Then grasp the two
power supply cables, labelled P4 and P5. Each connector has
six pin holes and a large tab on one side, as shown below.
Installing and Removing Options
5-35
There is one 120pin power supply socket on the right side of
the main system board (toward the back) that holds both of
the power supply connectors, as shown below.
3. Position power supply connector P4 so the large tab on the
connector faces the right side of the computer. Beginning
with the six pins toward the back of the computer, carefully
line up the holes in the connector with the pins in the
socket. Then push the connector onto the pins.
5-36
Installing and Removing Options
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins in the
socket, you could severely damage your computer when
you push in the connector.
4. Connect power supply connector P5 to the remaining six
pins in the socket using the same procedure.
5. Carefully lower the front of the subassembly onto the
computer. Make sure that all four tabs on the back of the
computer are inserted into the slots on the subassembly as
you lower it.
small tabs
Installing and Removing Options
5-37
Guide the tabs on the front of the subassembly over the
opening in the front of the computer so the two small tabs
sit behind the opening and the large tab with the curved lip
sits over the front of the opening. If necessary, press on the
large tab until the subassembly snaps into place.
6. Locate the hard disk drive and diskette drive ribbon cables.
(The hard disk drive cable is slightly longer than the
diskette drive cable.) Look at the back of each drive to make
sure you know which cable is which.
5-38
Installing and Removing Options
Both the diskette drive and hard disk drive sockets are
located on the main system board on the left side of the
subassembly, as shown below.
Both sockets have a notch on one side. Connect the
diskette drive cable first. As shown below, there is a tab on
one side of the connector.
ribbon cable connector
diskette drive socket
Installing and Removing Options
5-39
Align the connector with the socket so the tab on the
connector lines up with the notch in the socket. Make sure
the holes in the connector fit over all the pins in the socket
and then push in the connector.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your computer when you push in
the connector.
7. Now connect the hard disk drive cable in the same manner.
8. To replace the front panel, fit the three ridged tabs on its
bottom edge into the three notches on the lower edge of the
computer, as shown below.
notches
tabs
9. Tilt up the front panel until the clips on the top of the panel
touch the computer. Then push on the top of the panel
until it clicks into place.
10. Follow the steps on page 5-41 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then see “Post-installation Setup” on page 5-44 for
instructions on configuring your computer.
5-40
Installing and Removing Options
Replacing the Cover
Follow these steps to replace the computer’s cover:
1. Facing the back of the computer, hold the cover so that the
side with three tabs on the edge faces away from you, as
shown below.
2. Insert the three tabs into the three notches in the back of
the front panel of the computer.
Installing and Removing Options
5-41
3. Lower the back of the cover onto the computer and press
down firmly on all edges of the cover to form a tight seal.
4. Turn the large screw on the back panel clockwise to secure
the cover to the computer.
5. Reconnect the computer to the monitor, printer, keyboard,
and any other peripheral devices you have. Then reconnect
the power cable to the back of the computer and to an
electrical outlet.
Post -Installation Setup for Memory Cards
After you install an optional memory card, you need to
configure your computer to use it. Follow these guidelines:
0 Run the SETUP program to reset your computer’s
configuration to include the memory on your memory card.
See Chapter 2 for instructions.
Li Use the setup program that comes with your memory card to
configure the computer for use with your particular card. See
your memory card manual for instructions. If you installed
the Rampage Plus ® 286+ card, see “Using the CORFIX
Program,” below, before running the card’s setup program.
5-42
Installing and Removing Options
LI If you want to use any of the memory on your card as
expanded memory, see “Using Expanded Memory Beyond
1MB” in Chapter 4.
Also see “Post-installation Setup,” below, for more information
on setting up your computer for use with an option card.
Using the CORFIX Program
To configure your computer for use with the Rampage Plus 286+
memory card, you need to run CORFIX, an Epson utility on
your Reference diskette, and SMART, the Rampage Plus 286+
setup program. You must run CORFIX before you use SMART.
If you have a hard disk, you can copy CORFIX.EXE from your
Reference diskette to your hard disk before you run it. Then
follow these instructions to run CORFIX:
1. Turn on your computer. Make sure the MS-DOS command
prompt appears on the screen. If you do not have a hard disk
(or you did not copy CORFIX to your hard disk), insert your
Reference diskette in drive A. Type A: and press Enter to
log onto drive A.
2. At the MS-DOS prompt, type CORFIX and press Enter.
The following messages appear:
The program will configure the
system to work with the SMART
utility when installing the Rampage
plus 286.
SMART can only be executed
immediately after this configuration
program. Continue ? (Y/N)
Installing and Removing Options
5-43
3. To run the program, press Y. To exit without running
CORFIX, press N. If you press Y, you see the MS-DOS
prompt and this message:
Configuration completed. The SMART
installation utility may now be
used.
4. Use the SMART setup program now. See your RampagePlus
286+ manual for instructions.
Post-installation Setup
After you install or remove options such as memory modules, a
math coprocessor, or a disk drive, you need to run the SETUP
program to update the computer’s configuration information.
For example, if you add a hard disk drive, you need to let the
computer know the type of drive you have installed. See
Chapter 2 for instructions.
If you replaced the battery for the real-time clock and CMOS
RAM, you must run SETUP to reconfigure your system and reset
the clock. See Chapter 2.
N o t e
If you installed additional extended memory and want to use
any of it as expanded memory, see “Using Expanded Memory
Beyond 1MB" in Chapter 4 for instructions.
If you install a hard disk drive that has never received a
hardware level format (such as some non-Epson hard disk
drives), you need to format the disk. Check the manual that
came with your drive, and then, if necessary, follow the
instructions in Appendix C to format your new hard disk.
5-44
Installing and Removing Options
If you have added a hard disk drive and you want to load
MS-DOS or another operating system from that drive, you need
to install the operating system on it. See your MS-DOS
Installation Guide or the documentation that came with your
operating system for instructions.
If you install an optional memory card, use the setup program
that comes with it to configure the computer for use with the
card. See your memory card manual for instructions.
Additionally, you may need to add some commands in your
configuration files. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual and
the manual that comes with your optional equipment for
instruct ions.
You may also want to test a newly-installed option. Some
options come with their own diagnostics test programs, and you
can use the diagnostics programs on your Reference diskette to
test the following:
Cl System memory
0 Serial and parallel ports
0 Disk drives
0 Monitors and display adapters.
See Appendix C for instructions.
Installing and Removing Options
5-45
Appendix A
Specifications
CPU and Memory
16-bit CPU
80286 microprocessor, 12 MHz system
clock speed, 12 MHz or 6 MHz processor
speed; user selectable
0 wait state memory access speed at
12 MHz
System memory
1MB RAM standard; expandable using
256KB or 1MB SIMMs up to 5MB
(maximum); SIMMs must be 100ns or
faster access speed
Memory expandable to 16MB if memory
option card is used
ROM
128KB (includes system BIOS and VGA
BIOS)
Shadow RAM
0 wait state access speed; system ROM
BIOS and video ROM can be copied into
RAM through SETUP
Math coprocessor
(optional)
80287 (8 or 10 MHz) support; speed
Clock/calendar
Real-time clock, calendar, and CMOS
RAM for configuration; battery backup
Battery
Replaceable, 3.6V lithium battery;
3-5 year life
selectable by jumper
Specifications A-1
Controllers
Diskette
Supports up to two drives in any of four
formats: 5 1/4-inch, high-density, 1.2MB;
5 1/4-inch, double-density, 360KB;
3 1/2-inch, high-density, 1.44MB; 3 1/2-inch,
double-density, 720KB; controller on main
system board
Hard disk
Supports up to two drives; embedded
controllers; interface on main system board
Interfaces
Monitor
Standard VGA with 256KB of video
memory; supports up to 640 x 480 pixels in
160-color or gray scale mode; 150pin,
D-shell connector
Serial
RS-23 2C, programmable, asynchronous;
9-pin, D-shell connector
Parallel
Standard 8-bit parallel, mono-directional;
25-pin, D-shell connector
Auxiliary
Mini DIN, 6-pin connector for PS/2
compatible mouse or other device
Keyboard
Mini DIN, 6-pin connector for PS/2
compatible keyboard
Option slots
Four standard input/output expansion
slots (three 16-bit ISA compatible and one
8-bit ISA compatible); 8 MHz bus speed
Speaker
Internal
A-2 Specifications
Power Supply
TYPE
l45W, fan-cooled
Input ranges
98 VAC to 132 VAC, 47 Hz to 63 Hz
Maximum
outputs
+5 VDC at 18 Amps, +12 VDC at
4.2 Amps
-12 VDC at 0.3 Amps, -5 VDC at
0.3 Amps
Mass Storage
Three half-height drives maximum
(one vertical mount and two horizontal
mounts) configurable using the following
drive types:
Diskette drives
5 1/4-inch diskette drive, 1.2MB
(high-density) storage capacity
3 1/2-inch diskette drive, 1.44MB
(high-density) storage capacity
5 1/4-inch diskette drive, 360KB
(double-density) storage capacity
3 1/2-inch diskette drive, 720KB
(double-density) storage capacity
Hard disk drives
3 1/2-inch form factor hard disk drive(s),
up to half height size; the first mounted
vertically, second mounted horizontally
Specifications A-3
Detachable, two position; 101 sculpted
keys
58-key QWERTY main keyboard; 17-key
numeric/cursor pad; 10 cursor keys;
additional 4-key cursor pad; 16 function
keys (user-definable)
Four levels (normal, shift, control,
alternate); user-definable
Environmental Requirements
Physical Characteristics
Width
14.75 inches (375 mm)
Depth
17.5 inches (444 mm)
Height
6.0 inches ( 152 mm)
Weight
Single diskette drive model without
keyboard: 20.6 lb (9.4 kg)
Appendix B
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
This appendix describes how to do the following:
0 Install a hard disk or diskette drive
Cl Remove a hard disk or diskette drive
Ll Change the hard disk drive jumper settings.
Your system can include up to three drives: either two diskette
drives and one hard disk drive or one diskette drive and two
hard disk drives. Your computer has two horizontal drive bays
and one vertical mounting position to hold the drives, as shown
below.
hard disk drive
vertical
mounting area
diskette drive
horizontal
drive bays
I
diskette or
hard disk drive
lnstalling and Removing Disk Drives
B-I
Caution
Installing or removing a disk drive is a complicated
procedure, so you may want to ask your dealer to do it for you.
If you decide to do it yourself, you must carefully follow all
the instructions in this appendix or you could damage your
equipment.
Using the Correct Drive Bay
The upper horizontal drive bay probably contains the diskette
drive that came with your system. That drive can be one of the
following types:
Cl 51/4-inch diskette drive
0 31/2-inch diskette drive with a 51/4-inch mounting frame
installed on it.
You can install an additional drive of one of the following types
in the lower horizontal drive bay:
0 51/4-inch diskette drive
Cl 31/2-inch diskette drive with a 51/4-inch mounting frame
installed on it
Cl 31/2-inch hard disk drive with a pair of 51/4-inch mounting
frames installed on it.
Your computer may have come with a hard disk drive already
installed in the vertical mounting position. If not, you can
install one 3l/2-inch hard disk drive in this position.
If you are installing your first hard disk drive, it is best to install
it in the vertical mounting position. If you add a second hard
disk drive or diskette drive, use the lower horizontal drive bay.
B-2
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
How to Use This Appendix
The instructions in this appendix describe how to install and
remove optional Epson diskette and hard disk drives. All drives
sold by Epson for the Equity 286 PLUS are qualified and
recommended for use in this system. Your drive may look a bit
different from the one illustrated in this appendix, but you
install it the same way.
If you are installing or removing a non-Epson drive, some of the
steps in this appendix may not apply to your drive; see the
documentation that came with it for more information.
Each section describes a part of the process you may need to
perform. Here are the guidelines:
Ll Before you begin any of the procedures described in this
appendix, follow the steps in Chapter 5 to remove the
computer’s cover.
D If you are removing your only hard disk drive, see “Removing
a Hard Disk from the Vertical Position” on page B-24.
CI If you are installing a hard disk drive or removing one and
leaving another in the computer, follow the steps under
“Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers” on page B-4 first.
0 If you are installing or removing a diskette drive and there is
a hard disk drive installed in the vertical mounting position,
see “Removing a Hard Disk from the Vertical Position” on
page B-24.
0 If you are installing or removing a diskette drive and there is
no hard disk drive installed in the vertical mounting
position, see “Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in the
Horizontal Position” on page B-27.
Additional instructions in each section tell you which steps to
perform next.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-3
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers
You need to check or change the hard disk drive jumper settings
if you are installing or removing any hard disk drives. The
jumpers tell the computer whether you are using one hard disk
drive or two.
Note
You do not need to set these jumpers if you are removing your
only hard disk drive.
If you remove one hard disk drive and leave another in your
computer, you need to change the jumper settings on the
remaining drive to indicate that you now have only one hard
disk drive installed.
If you are installing your first hard disk drive and it is the only
one you are going to install, see “Changing the Jumper Settings”
on the next page to check the jumpers on your drive.
If you’ll be using two hard disk drives, see “Setting the Jumpers
for Two Hard Disk Drives,” below.
Setting the Jumpers for Two Hard Disk Drives
If you install two hard disk drives in your system, you must
change the jumper settings on each drive to indicate which
drive is the “master” drive and which is the “slave” drive.
A master drive is the drive on which you’ll install the operating
system that the computer loads into its memory each time you
turn it on. You can run application programs and store data on
both the master drive and the slave drive, but the operating
system must be contained on the master drive.
Follow the instructions in the next section to change the jumper
settings on both of your hard disk drives.
B-4
Installing and Removing Disk Dives
Changing the Jumper Settings
The hard disk drive jumpers are located on the drive’s circuit
board, near the large cable connector.
The jumpers on your drive may be in a slightly different
location, but you set them the same way.
There are four positions for the jumpers on each hard disk drive.
Jumpers are installed in only two of the positions and the other
two positions are left open.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-5
The following table lists the jumper settings for all the possible
hard disk drive configurations.
X = jumper installed
- = no jumper installed
To move a jumper from one position to the other, use your
fingers, needle-nose pliers, or tweezers to pull it off its pins and
gently move it to the other position. Be careful not to drop the
jumper or damage the pins as you install it.
If you are going to use only one hard disk drive, the jumpers
should be set in positions C/D and ACT. If not, change them to
these settings. Then see “Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical
Position” on page B-7 for instructions on installing your first
hard disk drive.
If you’ll be using two hard disk drives, you have a total of four
jumpers for eight jumper positions. Two jumpers are included
with each drive. Install three of the jumpers on the master drive
in positions C/D, DSP, and ACT. Install the fourth jumper on
the slave drive in position ACT.
If you are installing both of your hard disk drives at one time,
you should install the drive in the horizontal drive bay first. See
“Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal
Position” on page B-27 for instructions.
B-6
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
If one of your hard disk drives is already installed in the
computer, follow the steps under “Removing a Hard Disk From
the Vertical Position” on page B-24 to remove it. Then set the
jumpers on both drives while they are out of the computer. The
steps in that section tell you which instructions to follow next.
Note
If you are removing one hard disk drive and leaving one in
your computer, be sure to set the jumpers on the remaining
drive to indicate that you have only one hard disk drive. See
the table above for the jumper settings. Then follow the
instructions under “Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical
Position’ on page B-24 so you can access the jumpers on the
dr i v e .
Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Position
Follow the instructions in this section to install (or reinstall) a
hard disk drive in the vertical mounting position. You may need
to perform the following procedures:
0 Remove the mounting frames from a new hard disk drive
0 Remove the mounting plate from the computer and connect
it to the drive
0 Install the drive
0 Connect the drive and power cables.
If you are installing a new drive in the vertical mounting
position, you should follow all of the steps in this section. If you
are reinstalling a drive that you previously removed from this
position, see “Installing the Drive” on page B-12.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-7
Removing the Mounting Frames From the Drive
Your hard disk drive comes with 5 1/4-inch mounting frames
attached to each side of the hard disk drive, as shown below.
B-8
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
On one side, there may also be a plastic guide rail. Follow these
steps to remove the mounting frames (and guide rail) from the
drive:
1. If necessary, remove the screws securing the plastic guide rail
and the metal grounding plate to one of the mounting
frames, as shown below.
grounding plate
screws
2. Remove the four screws securing the mounting frames to the
hard disk drive. There are two screws securing each frame, as
shown below.
screws
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-9
Keep the four screws so you can use them to secure the
mounting plate to the hard disk drive. Then set the drive
aside with the component side facing up.
Removing and Attaching the Mounting Plate
If you are installing a new hard disk drive in your computer, you
need to attach a hard disk drive mounting plate to the drive.
This mounting plate is currently attached to the side of the
subassembly, as shown below.
Follow these steps to remove the mounting plate from your
computer:
1. Turn the computer so that the front panel is facing you. The
vertical mounting area is located behind the front panel on
the right side of the subassembly.
B-10
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
2. Using a screwdriver, remove the screw securing the
mounting plate to the computer and set it aside. Then lift up
the mounting plate to remove it.
3. Turn your hard disk drive so the components are facing up
and the connectors at the back of the drive are facing to the
right.
Installing ad Removing Disk Drives
B-11
Then place the flat side of the mounting plate on the hard
disk drive and align the four holes on the mounting plate
with the four holes on the bottom of the drive, as shown
below.
4. Locate the four screws that you removed from the 21/4-inch
mounting frames and use them to secure the mounting plate
to the hard disk drive.
Installing the Drive
Follow these steps to install the hard disk drive in the vertical
mounting position:
1. Locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable that came in the box
with your computer. It is a flat cable with three connectors
on it (one on each end and one in the middle).
B-12
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Note
If the package containing your disk drive came with
instructions for folding the cable before you install it in
the computer, you can ignore the instructions. No special
folding procedure is necessary.
The connector at one end of the cable has two rows of
holes, one of which is blocked with a plug, as shown below.
The ribbon cable socket on the back of the drive has two
rows of pins. In one of the rows, a pin is missing.
ribbon cable connector
ribbon cable socket
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-13
Align the connector with the socket so that the row in the
connector with the blocked hole lines up with the row in
the socket with the missing pin, as shown below.
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push the
connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your hard disk drive when you
push in the connector.
2. Place the hard disk drive on top of the subassembly with the
mounting plate facing up.
B-14
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
3. Locate one of the power supply cables that lead from the
power supply in the computer (behind the horizontal drive
bays). The cables are labelled Pl, P2, or P3. You can use any
of the three cables. As shown below, the end of the
connector has two notched comers.
power supply cable
power supply socket
notched
corners
notched
corners
The power supply socket is on the back of the hard disk
drive, next to the cable you just connected. The socket also
has two notched comers, as shown above.
Align the connector with the socket so that the notched
corners on the connector line up with the notched corners
of the socket.
notched corners
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-15
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push the
connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your hard disk drive when you
push in the connector.
4. Pick up the hard disk drive and hold it above the vertical
mounting area so the mounting plate is facing the
subassembly, as shown below.
Notice that there are two tabs facing downward on the
bottom of the mounting plate. These tabs will fit into two
slots in the right side of the subassembly.
B-l6
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
5. As you lower the drive into the vertical mounting area,
guide the ribbon cable underneath the drive.
As shown above, fit the tabs on the mounting plate into the
slots on the side of the subassembly. Then tilt the drive
toward the subassembly and align the retaining screw hole
on the mounting plate with the hole in the bracket.
6. Secure the drive to the bracket with the retaining screw.
If you used the instructions above to install your drive while
the subassembly is out of the computer, see “Replacing the
Subassembly” on page B-46. Do not follow the steps in the
next sect ion.
lnstalling and Removing Disk Drives
B-17
Connecting the Hard Disk Drive Cables
Follow these steps to lift up the subassembly and connect the
drive cable to the main system board:
1. Remove the front panel from the computer by lifting up
slightly on the three clips at the top of the panel and tilting
it toward you. Then set it aside.
clips
front panel
2. To lift the subassembly from the front of the computer,
place your thumbs under the diskette drive and grasp the top
edge of the computer with the rest of your fingers, as shown
in the following illustration. (If you have a diskette drive
installed in the lower horizontal drive bay, place your
thumbs underneath that drive instead.) Then lift up the
subassembly with your thumbs.
B-18
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
4. Use one of your hands to hold up the subassembly or have
someone do it for you. With your other hand, grasp the hard
disk drive ribbon cable that you tucked beneath the
subassembly. Pull the cable under the subassembly all the
way to its left side.
5. Carefully lower the front of the subassembly onto the
computer, as shown below.
small tabs
B-20
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Guide the tabs on the front of the subassembly over the
opening in the front of the computer so that the two small
tabs sit behind the opening and the large tab with the
~
curved lip sits over the front of the opening. If necessary,
press on the large tab until the subassembly snaps into place.
6. Locate the hard disk drive socket on the main system board
(in front of the socket that holds the diskette drive ribbon
cable). There is a notch on one side of the socket, as shown
below.
notch
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-21
Pick up the hard disk drive cable and notice the connector
on the end of the cable. There is a tab on one side of the
connector, as shown below.
tab
Pull the cable over toward the socket and fold it to align the
connector with the socket. Make sure the side of the
connector with the tab lines up with the side of the socket
with the notch. Then line up the holes over all of the pins
and push the connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your computer when you push in
the connector.
B-22
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7. To replace the front panel, fit the three ridged tabs on its
bottom edge into the three notches on the lower edge of the
computer, as shown below.
notches
tabs
8. Tilt up the front panel until the clips on the top touch the
computer. Then push on the top of the panel until it clicks
into place. Your diskette drive(s) should be flush with the
front of the panel.
9. Follow the steps on page 5-41 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then see “Post-installation Setup” later in Chapter 5
for instructions on configuring your computer for use with
your new hard disk drive.
Note
After you change your computer’s drive configuration, the
computer may take several minutes to complete power-on
diagnostics the next time you turn it on.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-23
Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical
Position
1. Turn the computer so that the front panel is facing you. The
vertically mounted drive is attached to the right side of the
subassembly, as shown below.
vertically mounted
vertically mounted
hard disk drive
B-24
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
2. Remove the retaining screw securing the hard disk drive
mounting plate to the computer and set it aside.
3. Tilt the hard disk drive slightly to the right, away from the
subassembly, and lift it out of the vertical mounting area.
Turn it over and set it on top of the subassembly with the
gray mounting plate facing up. Since the drive is attached to
its cables, make sure you do not try to move it too far away
from the subassembly as you turn it.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-25
4. Disconnect the power supply connector from the socket on
the back of the hard disk drive, as shown below. Firmly pull
the connector straight out from the socket so you do not
bend the pins. Do not pull too hard on the cable; pull on the
plastic connector, if possible.
5. Remove the ribbon cable connector from the back of the
drive in the same manner, as shown above.
If you removed the drive because you are going to install or
remove a drive in a horizontal drive bay, follow the
instructions under “Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in
the Horizontal Position” on the next page. Do not perform
steps 6 through 8.
If you are not going to reinstall the hard disk drive you have
just removed, go to step 6.
6. Remove the four screws securing the hard disk drive
mounting plate to the hard disk drive. Then remove and
store the mounting plate along with the screws.
B-26
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7. Wrap the hard disk drive in its original packing materials
and set it aside. Then carefully arrange the power supply
cable so that it does not interfere with any other cables or
mechanisms.
8. Follow the steps on page 5-41 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then see “Post-installation Setup” later in Chapter 5
for instructions on configuring your computer for use
without a hard disk drive.
Note
After you change your computer’s drive configuration, your
computer may take several minutes to complete power-on
diagnostics the next time you turn it on.
Installing or Removing a Disk Drive in the
Horizontal Position
This section describes how to install or remove a drive in the
lower horizontal drive bay. You can use these same instructions
if you need to install a different diskette drive in the upper drive
bay. (The illustrations show the lower bay.)
If you are installing a second hard disk or diskette drive, you
must install it in the lower horizontal drive bay. If you have a
hard disk drive installed in the vertical mounting position,
remove it before you remove or install a drive in a horizontal
drive bay. See “Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical
Position” on page B-24.
If you do not need to remove a hard disk drive from the vertical
position (or have already done so), follow the steps under
“Removing the Subassembly,” below. You must remove the
entire subassembly from the computer before you can access a
drive in a horizontal drive bay.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-27
Removing the Subassembly
You can remove the subassembly by yourself, but it is easier if
you have someone help you. Follow these steps:
1. Turn the computer so that the front panel is facing you.
2. To remove the front panel, lift up slightly on the three clips
at the top of the panel and tilt it toward you, as shown
below.
clips
front panel
Pull the panel away from the front of the computer.
If you are going to install a hard disk drive in the lower
horizontal position, set the front panel aside and go to
step 4.
If you are installing a diskette drive, remove the slot cover
from the front panel, as described in step 3.
B-28
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
3. Place the front panel face down and use a screwdriver to
remove the screws securing the slot cover to the panel. Lift
out the slot cover, as shown below.
slot cover
Set the front panel, slot cover, and screws aside.
The hard disk drive cable is connected to the main system
board on the left side of the subassembly, as shown below.
hard disk drive cable
‘subassembly
Grasp the connector and pull it straight up to remove it
from the socket. Do not pull only on the cable.
5. The diskette drive cable is connected to the socket just
behind the hard disk drive socket; disconnect it in the same
manner.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-29
6. The subassembly is the large metal casing enclosing the
horizontal drive bays and the power supply, as shown below.
To remove the subassembly, first lift it up from the front
only. Place your thumbs under the diskette drive and grasp
the top edge of the computer with the rest of your fingers, as
shown in the next illustration. (If you have a diskette drive
installed in the lower horizontal drive bay, place your
thumbs underneath that drive instead.)
B-30
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
7. Lift up the front of the subassembly with your thumbs. Raise
it to a slight angle, as shown below.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-31
8. Use one of your hands to hold up the subassembly at an
angle or have someone hold it up for you. With your other
hand, reach back underneath the subassembly and
disconnect the two power supply cables connected to the
back right side of the main system board, as shown below.
Pull each of the connectors straight up. Do not pull only on
the cables.
9. Lift the entire subassembly out of the computer and carefully
place it on your work surface.
If you are installing a drive, follow the instructions under
“Installing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal Position” on the
next page.
If you are removing a drive, see “Removing a Disk Drive
From the Horizontal Position” on page B-43.
B-32
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Installing a Disk Drive in the Horizontal Position
Before you perform the following steps, be sure that you have set
the jumpers on any hard disk drive(s) that you’ll be using. (If
not, see “Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers” on page B-4 for
instructions.)
If you are adding a 3M-inch diskette drive or hard disk drive, you
need to make sure that 51/4-inch metal mounting frames are
attached to the drive so it fits properly in the drive bay. Epson
3 1/2-inch drives come with mounting frames already installed. If
your drive did not come with frames installed, follow the
instructions in the manual that came with it to attach them.
The figures in this section show a diskette drive, but you can use
the same instructions to install a hard disk drive.
Follow these steps to install a disk drive:
1. If you are installing a 51/4-inch diskette drive, turn it so that
the diskette release latch is above the diskette slot.
If you are installing a 31/2-inch diskette drive, turn it so that
the diskette release button is on the right and the drive light
is on the left.
If you are installing a hard disk drive, turn it so that the side
with the components is facing down.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-33
2. There are two or three holes on each side of the disk drive.
When you insert the drive, align the appropriate round
holes in the drive with the two oval holes on each side of
the drive bay, as shown below.
oval holes
3. Insert the drive in the lower drive bay and slide it toward
the back of the subassembly. Watch the oval holes on the
side of the drive bay so you can see when the holes on the
drive are positioned in the middle of them.
If you are installing a diskette drive, adjust its position so
that the front of the drive lines up with the drive in the
upper bay. (A hard disk drive fits all the way into the bay.)
B-34
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
4. After you align the drive, insert two screws into the oval
holes on each side of the drive bay and tighten them with a
screwdriver, as shown below.
If you are installing a diskette drive, go to step 5. If you are
installing a hard disk drive, go to step 6.
5. If you are installing a diskette drive in the lower drive bay,
you may want to turn the subassembly upside down and
place it on your work surface. Then locate the diskette drive
ribbon cable; one end is connected to the top diskette drive
and the other end is free. Use the connector in the middle
of the cable to connect the second diskette drive.
As shown in the next illustration, there is a large slot in this
connector with a small plastic divider near one end of the
slot.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-35
The interface that protrudes from the back of the drive has
gold contacts on both sides. Near one end of the interface,
there is a gap to accommodate the plastic divider on the
connector.
Align the connector with the interface so that the plastic
divider on the connector lines up with the gap in the
interface, as shown below.
Make sure the cable connector fits properly onto the drive
interface and then push it onto the interface.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the connector, you could
severely damage your diskette drive when you push it in.
If you removed a hard disk drive from the vertical mounting
position, go to step 6. If you did not, go to step 8 for
instructions on connecting the power cable.
B-36
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
6. Locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable that you removed
from the drive in the vertical mounting position. Follow the
instructions below to attach the connector on the end of
this cable to the drive that will be mounted vertically.
As shown below, there are two rows of holes in the
connector. One of the holes is blocked with a plastic plug.
7. Pick up the hard disk drive that you removed from the
vertical mounting position. Notice the ribbon cable socket
on the back of the drive; you see two rows of pins. In one of
the rows, a pin is missing.
missing pin
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-37
Align the connector with the socket so that the row in the
connector with the blocked hole lines up with the row in
the socket with the missing pin, as shown below.
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push the
connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your hard disk drive when you
push in the connector.
If you will have two hard disk drives in your system, perform
the procedures in steps 6 and 7 again. This time, however,
attach the connector in the middle of the ribbon cable to the
horizontally mounted hard disk drive you just installed. (If
necessary, turn the subassembly upside down to make it
easier to connect the cable.)
B-38
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
8. Looking at the subassembly, locate one of the power supply
cables that lead from the power supply (behind the
horizontal drive bays). The cables are labelled Pl, P2, or P3.
You can use any of the three cables. As shown below, the
end of the connector has two notched comers.
The power supply socket on the back of the drive is next to
the ribbon cable connector. The socket also has two
notched comers, as shown below.
power supply cable
notched
corners
power supply socket
notched
corners
You must connect a power supply cable to each drive you
install in your system. If you’ll be reinstalling a hard disk
drive in the vertical mounting position, connect the power
supply cable to this drive first. If not, connect the power
supply cable to the drive you just installed in the lower
horizontal drive bay.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-39
Position the power supply cable connector so that the
notched comers on the connector line up with the notched
comers of the power supply socket on your drive.
notched corners
notched corners
Make sure the holes fit over all the pins and then push the
connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your drive when you push in the
connector.
If you do not need to reinstall a vertically mounted hard disk
drive, see “Replacing the Subassembly” on page B-46.
If you just connected the power supply cable to your
vertically mounted hard disk drive, perform step 8 again to
connect the power supply cable to the drive you just
installed in the horizontal drive bay. Then see “Replacing
the Drive on the Subassembly” on the next page for
instructions on reinstalling the vertically mounted drive.
B-40
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Replacing the Drive on the Subassembly
This section describes how to reinstall your hard disk drive in
the vertical mounting position. The following illustrations show
the subassembly installed inside the computer with the front
panel attached. However, if your subassembly is out of the
computer you can install the drive in the manner described
below. Follow these steps:
1. Pick up the hard disk drive and hold it above the right side
of the subassembly with the mounting plate facing the
subassembly, as shown below.
Notice that there are two tabs facing downward on the
bottom of the mounting plate. These tabs will fit into two
slots in the right side of the subassembly.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-41
2. As you lower the drive onto the subassembly, guide the
ribbon cable underneath the drive.
hole
tabs in slots
As shown above, fit the tabs on the mounting plate into the
slots on the side of the subassembly. Then tilt the drive
toward the subassembly and align the retaining screw hole
on the mounting plate with the hole in the bracket.
3. Secure the drive to the bracket with the retaining screw.
4. To replace the subassembly, see the instructions on page
B-46.
B-42
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
Removing a Disk Drive From the Horizontal Position
The figures in this section show a diskette drive in the lower
horizontal drive bay, but you can use the same instructions to
remove a hard disk drive from the lower bay or to remove a
diskette drive from the upper bay.
Follow these steps to remove a drive from a horizontal drive bay:
1. Remove the disk drive ribbon cable from the back of the
drive, as shown below.
ribbon cable
connector
2. Remove the power supply connector from the back of the
drive. It is located near the ribbon cable interface, as shown
in the next illustration.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-43
3. Using a screwdriver, remove the screws securing the drive to
the drive bay. There are two screws on each side, as shown
below.
B-44
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
4. Grasp the disk drive from the front of the drive bay, pull it
completely out, and set it aside.
5. If you have removed one hard disk drive and are leaving
another one in your system, make sure you have set the
jumpers on the remaining drive to indicate that you now
have only one hard disk drive. (If not, see “Setting the Hard
Disk Drive Jumpers” on page B-4 for instructions.)
If you do not need to replace a hard disk drive in the vertical
mounting position, see “Replacing the Subassembly” on
page B-46.
If you need to reinstall a hard disk drive in the vertical
mounting position, follow the steps under “Installing the
Drive” on page B- 12. However, it is easier to replace the
drive while the subassembly is out of the computer. Follow
the steps in that section as if the subassembly was installed.
Then see “Replacing the Subassembly” on page B-46.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-45
Replacing the Subassembly
Follow the steps below to replace the subassembly inside your
computer:
1. Notice that there are four mounting slots on the back of the
subassembly: two in the upper comers and two in the lower
corners.
B-46
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
There are four corresponding tabs on the inside back panel
of the computer which fit into the openings in the
subassembly slots.
tabs
Lift up the subassembly from your work surface and lower
the back end into the computer, fitting the top tabs in the
computer into the openings in the top slots on the
subassembly, as shown in the next illustration.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-47
tabs in slots
2. Hold up the front of the subassembly at a slight angle and
arrange the ribbon cables leading from the back of the drives
so they curve underneath the subassembly toward its left
side.
B-48
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
3. Holding up the subassembly at an angle, reach under it and
grasp the two main system board power supply cables,
labelled P4 and PS. Each connector has six pin holes and a
large tab on one side, as shown below.
There is one 120pin power supply socket on the right side of
the main system board (toward the back) that holds both of
the power supply connectors, as shown below.
power supply socket
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-49
4. Position power supply connector P4 so the large tab on the
connector faces the right side of the computer. Beginning
with the six pins toward the back of the computer, carefully
line up the holes in the connector with the pins in the
socket. Make sure the holes fit over all six pins and then
push the connector onto the pins.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins in the
socket, you could severely damage your computer when
you push in the connector.
5. Connect power supply connector PS to the remaining six
pins in the socket using the same procedure.
B-50
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
6. Carefully lower the front of the subassembly onto the
computer. Make sure that all four tabs on the back of the
computer are inserted into the slots on the subassembly as
you lower it.
small tabs
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-51
Guide the tabs on the front of the subassembly over the
opening in the front of the computer so the two small tabs
sit behind the opening and the large tab with the curved lip
sits over the front of the opening. If necessary, press on the
large tab until the subassembly snaps into place.
7. Locate the hard disk drive and diskette drive ribbon cables.
(The hard disk drive cable is slightly wider than the diskette
drive cable.) Check the back of the drives to make sure you
know which cable is which.
B-52
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
8. Both the diskette drive and hard disk drive sockets are
located on the main system board on the left side of the
subassembly, as shown below.
diskette drive
socket
hard disk drive
socket
subassembly
Both sockets have a notch on one side. The hard disk drive
socket is also a bit longer than the diskette drive socket.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-53
Connect the diskette drive ribbon cable first. As shown
below, there is a tab on one side of the connector.
diskette drive connector
diskette drive socket
Align the connector with the socket so that the tab on the
connector lines up with the notch in the socket. Make sure
the holes in the connector fit over all the pins in the socket
and then push in the connector.
Caution
If you do not correctly align the holes with the pins, you
could severely damage your computer when you push in
the connector.
B-54
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
9. Now locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable. Pull the cable
over toward the socket and fold it so the tab and notch are
aligned. Then connect it in the same manner as the diskette
drive cable.
10. To replace the front panel, fit the three ridged tabs on its
bottom edge into the three notches on the lower edge of the
computer, as shown below.
notches
tabs
11. Tilt up the front panel until the clips on the top of the panel
touch the computer. Then push on the top of the panel
until it clicks into place. The diskette drive(s) should be
flush with the front panel.
(If you removed the slot cover, be sure to store it in a safe
place in case you need to replace it later.)
12. Follow the steps on page 5-41 to replace the computer’s
cover. Then see “Post-installation Setup” later in Chapter 5
for instructions on configuring your computer for use with
your new disk drive configuration.
Installing and Removing Disk Drives
B-55
Appendix C
Performing System Diagnostics
This appendix describes how to use the System diagnostics
program to test the condition of your computer’s main unit and
peripheral devices. The diagnostics program provides tests to
check the following hardware:
CI System board
0 Memory
0 Hard disk drive(s)
Cl Diskette drive(s)
CI Keyboard
Cl Video adapter and monitor
0 Parallel and serial ports.
By changing settings on the System diagnostics main menu, you
can run the tests in several different ways. You can specify a
certain length of time to run a test, select to run it continuously
until you interrupt it, or specify a number of times to run the
test.
If an error occurs during a test, note the error message and
contact your Epson dealer. Your dealer may be able to solve the
problem; if not, he or she can refer you to an authorized Epson
Customer Care Center. If necessary, call the Epson Consumer
Information Center at (213) 782-2600 for the location of your
nearest authorized Epson dealer or Customer Care Center.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-1
Starting the Diagnostics Program
To start the diagnostics program follow these steps:
1. Insert the Reference diskette in drive A.
2. Type A : and press Enter to log onto drive A.
3. Type AMIDIAG and press Enter to run System
diagnostics. You see a title screen.
4. Press any key to continue. You see the Main menu.
The Main Menu Screen
The Main menu screen looks like this:
C-2
Performing System Diagnostics
When you select a test category from the option line at the top
of the menu, you see a submenu of the available diagnostic tests.
For example, the submenu for the System board category appears
when you first see the main menu because the System board
option is selected.
The Run time parameters window, near the bottom of the
display, lets you specify how you want to run the test(s).
The Help window describes how to use these keys to make menu
selections and run diagnostic tests:
Key
Function
+
t
1
t
Enter
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
Move to the next test category
Move to the previous test category
Move to the next test
Move to the previous test
Start the test
Set the run time parameters
Select a test or cancel selection
Select all tests
Cancel all selections
Run all selected tests
A short message describing each test appears at the bottom of
the screen.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-3
Setting the Run Time Parameters
The tests you select will run in the following manner unless you
change the Run time parameters:
0 Each test is performed one time (passbound)
0 The program waits if an error occurs
0 No errors are recorded to the printer, disk, or other device.
If you want to change the default Run time parameters, press F2
to move to the Run time parameters window. Press ESC at any
time to exit and return to the submenu of diagnostic tests.
The first run time parameter specifies the mode in which to run
the test. You see this prompt:
Testing mode: (T)imebound /
(C)ontinuous / (P)assbound ? P
In Timebound mode, the program runs the tests for the amount
of time you specify; press T and then Enter.
In Continuous mode, the tests run until you interrupt them;
press C and Enter.
In Passbound mode, the program runs the tests the number of
times you specify. This is the default setting; press P, if
necessary, and Enter to select the mode.
The next option is:
Wait on error (Y/N) ? Y
Press Y, if necessary, and Enter if you want the program to pause
when an error occurs. This lets you view the error message, make
notes about it, and then press Enter to continue. (Y is the
default setting.)
C-4
Performing System Diagnostics
Press N and Enter if you want the diagnostics program to
continue when an error occurs.
The next option is:
Error logging (Y/N) ?
N
Press Y and Enter to record the errors that may occur during the
test. See “Error Logging,” below, for details.
Press N and Enter if you do not want to create the log. (N is the
default setting.)
Note
If you press N at the Wait on error prompt, you should
press Y for Error logging so you can review any errors
that may occur during the tests.
You may see a prompt requesting additional information the
program needs to perform the test(s).
If you selected Continuous testing, the diagnostics program
needs no additional information. Instead, you see this message in
the Run time parameters window:
Test mode: Continuous
If you selected Timebound testing, you see this prompt:
Period :00l hr 00 min
To specify the amount of time you want to run the test(s), type
the number of hours (from 000 to 999), and press Enter. Then
type the number of minutes (from 00 to 59), and press Enter.
You can use the backspace key to make corrections.
Perfoming System Diagnostics
C-S
If you selected Passbound testing, you see this prompt:
No. of passes : 00001
Specify the number of times (from 1 to 65535) you want the
program to run the test(s). Or press Enter without entering a
number to select the default of one pass. You can use the
backspace key to make corrections.
Note
In most cases, running a test once is sufficient. Multiple
passes test the reliability of essential functions only.
Error Logging
When you request error logging, you see this submenu:*
Log errors on disk
Log errors to printer (LPTl)
Log errors to serial port
No error logging
Press ” or “ to highlight the device on which you want the
program to log the error messages and press Enter. (Press ESC to
exit the menu and return to the Error logging prompt.)
If you select NO error logging, the program changes the
error logging response from Y to N.
If you select the printer (LPTl), the program writes the error
messages to the device connected to the parallel port assigned
LPT1. If you select the serial port, the program writes the error
messages to the device connected to the COMl serial port.
C-6
Performing System Diagnostics
If you select Log errors on disk, the program displays
this submenu:
Floppy disk A:
Floppy disk B:
Hard disk C:
Hard disk D:
Press ” or “ to highlight the disk on which you want to log the
error messages and press Enter. (You do not see drive D unless
you have a second hard disk drive.) The program creates a file
called ERROR.LOG in the current directory of the specified
disk drive. After running the tests, you can open the
ERROR.LOG file to review the errors that occurred during the
tests.
The program uses this device for error logging until you change
it or indicate you do not want error logging. When you specify a
new device, the program erases the existing ERROR.LOG file, if
any.
When you specify the device for error logging, one of these error
messages may appear:
Floppy disk A not present
Floppy disk B not present
Hard disk C not present
Printer port not present
Serial port not present
Error in printer status
Error in serial port status
Error in floppy drive A
Record the error message and select a different device for error
logging.
Once you set the Run time parameters, you are ready to select
the test(s).
Performing System Diagnostics
C-7
Selecting Diagnostic Tests
To start a single test, press ’ or ‘ to highlight the test category
on the Main menu. Then press ” or “ to highlight the particular
test in the submenu and press Enter to run it.
When a test has been completed, you see this prompt:
Press <Enter> to return to Main menu.
Selecting Multiple Tests
To select several tests at one time, highlight each test you want
to perform and press F3. To cancel a selection, highlight the test
and press F3 again.
You can press F4 to select all tests for all devices, and press F5
to cancel all selections.
To run the selected group of tests, press F6. The program
highlights each test name as it runs the test.
You cannot run certain tests along with other tests. The
following table lists the tests that must be run individually.
C-8
Performing System Diagnostics
You can stop testing at any time and return to the main menu by
holding down Ctrl and pressing Break. The program completes
the current test before it stops.
You must enter certain parameters to run the hard disk and
diskette drive tests. If you use F3 to select these tests, the
program prompts you for the parameters immediately. If you
use F4, the program prompts you for the parameters during the
first pass of the test. If you perform the tests more than once, the
program uses the same parameters for each pass.
If you selected Passbound testing, the program displays the pass
number on the right side of the screen above the Run time
parameters window. For example:
Pass :
00001
If you entered Y at the Wait on error prompt, the
program pauses if an error occurs. When you press Enter, the
program continues testing.
Note
Tests selected using the F3 and F4 keys remain selected until
you cancel the selection. Be sure to press F5 to cancel all
selections when you are finished running each set of tests.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-9
Running the Tests
The table below lists all of the available System diagnostic tests
and refers you to other sections in this chapter for additional
information, if necessary.
System diagnostic tests
Component Tests
function
System
board
Tests components such as
instructions, registers, and
flags of CPU
Tests protected mode
instructions such as LSL,
VERR, and LAR
Identifies current clock speed
Tests the coprocessor
Tests memory address and
page registers of DMA
controllers 1 and 2
Tests interrupt mask registers
Compares timer count to RTC
Compares RTC to time 0
interrupt
Tests the CMOS RAM
Basic functionality
CPU protected mode
Processor speed
Coprocessor
DMA controller
Interrupt controller
Timer
Real time clock
CMOS validity
Memory
BIOS ROM
Parity
Pattern
Walking 1
Walking 0
Address
Refresh
C-IO
Performing System Diagnostics
See “Memory Diagnostics”
Tests data path of BIOS ROM
Checks for memory parity
errors .
Tests for memory read/write
faults
Checks data lines for shorts
and bits that are 1
Checks data lines for shorts
and bits that are 0
Checks for address line
shorts
Checks the refresh interval
System diagnostic tests (continued)
Component Tests
Function
Hard disk
drives
Hard disk format
Media analysis
Performance
Seek
Read/verify
Check test cylinder
Force bad tracks
See “Hard Disk Diagnostics”
Floppy disk
drives
Diskette format
Drive speed
Random read/write
Sequential read/write
Disk change line
See “floppy Disk
Diagnostics’
Keyboard
Controller
Scan/ASCII code
Tests the keyboard controller
Tests the scan codes
assigned to the keys (see
“Keyboard Scan/ASCII
Codes”)
Tests the keyboard clock line
Tests the keyboard data line
Keyboard clock line
Keyboard data line
Video
Adapter
Attribute
80 x 25 display
40 x 25 display*
320 x 200 graphics*
640 x 200 graphics*
Page selection’
Color
l
Tests the display adapter
memory
Tests the display adapter
attributes
Tests the 80 x 25 display
Tests the 40 x 25 display
Tests the 320 x 200 graphics
display
Tests the 640 x 200 graphics
display
Tests the paging function of
the adapter
Tests the background and
border color mapping
+ Test appears only if you have installed a color monitor.
Perfming System Diagnostics
C-11
System diagnosric tests (continued)
l
Test appears only if you have installed a color monitor.
Memory Diagnostics
If you have relocated any memory addresses, you must change
the addresses to their original locations before running the
memory tests or they will not work properly.
If an error occurs during a memory test, the program displays this
message:
Press <Enter> to view faulty memory
chip.
Press Enter. The program displays a diagram of the main system
board and highlights the faulty memory chip.
Hard Disk Diagnostics
Hard disk diagnostic tests may be destructive or non-destructive.
Destructive diagnostics destroy data on the hard disk, but nondestructive diagnostics do not. Be sure to back up any data on
your hard disk before performing any destructive tests. The
following table lists which tests are destructive and which are
not.
C-l2
Performing System Diagnostics
Destructive tests
Nondestructive tests
Format
Media analysis
Force bad tracks
Performance
Seek
Read/verify
Check test cylinder
Caution
You should not run any of the destructive tests on an SCSI
type hard disk drive.
Before performing any destructive test, the program displays the
following messages:
W A R N I N G
All data on hard disk you have
specified may be lost...
Do you still want to continue (Y/N)?
Press Y and Enter to begin the test. Press N and Enter to stop
the operation.
Hard Disk Parameters
The program may ask for the following parameters:
Disk drive identifier
Disk drive type
Interleave factor
Bad track list
Start cylinder number
End cylinder number
Start head number
End head number
Each parameter is described below.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-23
Disk drive identifier
The program displays this prompt for the disk drive identifier:
? c
Disk drive (C/D)
If only one hard disk is connected to the computer, the program
assume; it is drive C and does not display this prompt.
Disk drive type
The program determines the type of hard disk drive based on the
type number stored in the CMOS RAM by the SETUP program
and displays the following prompt:
Disk drive type
? 17
A window on the screen lists the possible drive types. If you
need to change the type, use “ or ” to highlight the drive type
that matches your hard disk and press Enter.
If you select the User defined option (type 47), the program
prompts you for the following information:
Number of cylinders
Number of heads
Number of sectors per track
Write precompensation presence
Write precompensation cylinder number
Landing zone
Interleave factor
The interleave factor affects the performance of your hard disk.
You see the following prompt:
Interleave (1-16) ? 3
The default value is 3. Enter a different interleave factor only if
your hard disk documentation recommends it.
C- 14
Performing System Diagnostics
Bad track list
Entering the bad track list is optional. The program displays the
following prompt for the bad track list:
Mark bad tracks (Y/N) ? N
You do not need to enter a bad track list for the hard disk that
comes with the Equity 286 PLUS. Press N, if necessary, and then
press Enter.
If you press Y and then Enter, you see the following submenu:
Add an entry
Revise an entry
Delete an entry
Clear bad track list
Save and Exit
Use ” or “ to highlight a menu option and press Enter. Then
enter the correct track information. When the bad track list is
correct, highlight Save and Exit and press Enter.
Note
When you run the Media analysis test, the program
automatically marks the bad tracks when it formats the hard
disk.
Start and end cylinder numbers
The program displays the following prompts for the starting and
ending cylinder numbers:
Start cylinder number 0 ?
nnn ?
End cylinder number
Performing System Diagnostics
C-15
Enter the first and last cylinder numbers on which you want to
perform the tests. The default for the start cylinder number is 0,
and the default for the end cylinder number is one less than the
highest cylinder number of your hard disk. For example, on a
40MB hard disk, the highest cylinder number is 976.
Start and end head numbers
The program displays the following prompts for the starting and
ending head numbers:
Start head number
End head number
0?
nn ?
Enter the first and last head numbers on which you want to
perform the tests. The default for the start head number is 0, and
the default for the end head number is one less than the highest
head number of your hard disk. For example, the default end
head number for a 40MB disk is 4.
After you specify the hard disk parameters, press Y and Enter at
the Proceed prompt to run the test.
Hard Disk Format
The Hard disk format program performs a low-level format on
your hard disk. If your computer came with a factory-installed
hard disk or if you have installed an optional Epson hard disk, it
has already been formatted for you.
You may need to format the hard disk if you have installed a
new, non-Epson hard disk in your computer that has never
received this type of low-level format and did not come with its
own format utility.
You must still partition and format the hard disk for
MS-DOS after performing, this low-level format. See your
MS-DOS Installation Guide for instructions.
C- 16
Performing System Diagnostics
Caution
The hard disk format procedure destroys any data on your
hard disk.
You may want to reformat a hard disk if you have a serious
problem with the drive. However, before formatting a disk with
data on it, try every other recovery procedure described in your
MS-DOS Reference Manual. Then back up all the data on the
disk before you begin.
Note
If you do not enter a bad track list before you format the disk,
the format program analyzes the surface of the hard disk to
determine the bad tracks.
Media Analysis
This test identifies the bad tracks on the hard disk by analyzing
the surface of the disk to find them. The program uses three
different bit patterns; formatting the disk, marking the bad
tracks, and displaying the bad track list.
Caution
The Media analysis test destroys any data on your hard disk.
Perfoming System Diagnostics
C-27
Performance Test
This test checks the performance of your hard disk by
determining the data transfer rate and track-to-track seek time
based on the transfer size, the seek count, and the amount of
data transferred.
The program measures the data transfer rate in kilobytes per
second. It reads 64KB of data 15 times and counts the number of
timer ticks using this formula:
Transfer rate = (64KB x 15 x 18.2) /# timer ticks
The program measures track-to-track seek time in milliseconds
using this formula:
Seek time = (# timer ticks x 1000) / 18.2 x 200
(The number of seeks is 200.)
A higher data transfer rate and a lower seek time indicate better
disk performance.
Seek Test
This test checks the seek capability of the hard disk on the
specified range of cylinders and heads. The program performs a
series of sequential seeks followed by random seeks and reports
any errors.
Read/Verify Test
This test checks the read and verify capability of the hard disk
on the specified range of cylinders and heads. The program
performs both sequential and random read and verify operations
and reports any errors.
C- 18
Performing System Diagnostics
Check Test Cylinder
This test checks the test cylinder, which is the last cylinder on
the hard disk. You should perform this test if you receive a hard
disk error when you boot the system.
Force Bad Tracks
Use this test to mark bad tracks on the hard disk without
formatting it.
Caution
The Force bad tracks test destroys any data on your hard disk.
Hard Disk Error Messages
The diagnostics program displays two types of error messages
while testing the hard disk: messages the program generates and
those the controller generates.
The following message appears if you try to run the Performance
Test with less than 128KB of available memory:
Insufficient memory for data transfer
Minimum memory required is - 128KB
performing System Diagnostics
C-29
The controller displays one of the following messages when an
error occurs during a diagnostics procedure:
Address mark not found
Attachment failed to respond
Bad ECC on disk read
Bad sector flag detected
Controller has failed
Drive activity failed
ECC corrected data error
Requested sector not found
Reset failed
Seek operation failed
Write fault on selected drive
If you see one of these error messages, check the drive,
controller, cables, and power connectors. If you still get an error,
contact your dealer.
Floppy Disk Diagnostics
Floppy disk diagnostic tests may be destructive or nondestructive. Destructive diagnostics destroy data on the diskette,
but non-destructive diagnostics do not. The following table lists
which tests are destructive and which are not.
C-20
Destructive tests
Nondestructive tests
Format
Random R(ead)/W( rite)
Sequential R(ead)/W(rite)
Drive speed
Drive change line
Performing System Diagnostics
Performing the Tests
The diskette Format test checks the format capability of the
diskette drive and its controller. In order to run the test, you
need a blank diskette that has been formatted using the
MS-DOS FORMAT command and that is not write-protected.
When the program prompts you to insert a diskette, insert the
newly formatted one.
Once the Diskette format test is completed successfully, you
must use the test diskette to run any of the tests in the following
table. These tests will not run properly unless the diskette has
been previously used for the Diskette format diagnostic test.
Tess requiring a specially formatted diskette
Test
Function
Drive speed test
Verifies how fast the diskette
drive rotates a diskette. A
1.2MB, W-inch diskette
drive should rotate a 1.2MB
diskette at 360 RPM and a
360KB diskette at 300 RPM.
A 1.44MB, 31/2-inch drive
should rotate a diskette at
300 RPM. (Tolerance allowed:
one percent.)
Random R(ead)/VV(rite) test
Checks the random seek
capability of a diskette drive
by performing a random
read/write operation.
Sequential R(ead)/W(rite) test
Checks the sequential seek
capability of a diskette drive
by performing a sequential
read/write operation.
Drive change line test
Tests the status of the disk
change line that detects when
you insert or remove a
diskette from a drive.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-21
Note
When you are finished running any of these tests on the test
diskette, you must reformat it using the MS-DOS FORMAT
command before you can use it with MS-DOS.
You see the following prompt before the program performs a test:
Diskette drive (A/B) ?
If necessary, type the drive identifier and press Enter. (If you
have only one diskette drive, drive A is already entered for you.)
Press Y and Enter at the Proceed prompt to begin the test.
Press N and Enter to make corrections.
Note
Be sure to insert a blank diskette that has been formatted
using the MS-DOS FORMAT command before you run the
Diskette format test. Then use that diskette when you run any
of the other destructive tests. Check that you have inserted
the correct diskette before you enter Y at the Proceed
prompt.
Floppy Disk Error Messages
The diagnostics program displays two types of error messages
while testing a diskette drive: messages the program generates
and those the controller generates.
The program may display the following error message during the
Disk change line test:
Warning - Change line inoperational
This message appears if the line is not working properly and may
indicate a problem in the drive or its controller.
C-22
Performing System Diagnostics
You may see the following message if you attempt to run the
Change line test on a drive that does not support a change line,
such as a 360KB or 720KB drive:
Change line not available
The controller displays one of these messages when an error
occurs during a diagnostics procedure:
Bad address mark
Bad CRC error
Bad DMA error
Bad seek error
Diskette write protected
Media change error
Record not found
Timeout error
These errors could occur because of a faulty drive, controller, or
cable, or if you attempt to run a test on a write-protected or
unformatted diskette.
Miscellaneous Diagnostics
These tests are listed in the Miscellaneous diagnostics submenu
to provide a complete check of the parallel and serial ports:
Printer adapter test
Comm. adapter test
Printer Adapter Test
This test checks the parallel port and the printer by sending a
pattern to the printer. If the printer does not print the pattern,
the test has failed.
Performing System Diagnostics
C-23
Before running the test, be sure that the printer is on-line, paper
is loaded, and all connections are secure, or you may see one of
the following error messages:
Error - Printer out of paper
Error - Printer not selected
Error - Printer interface I/O error
Error - Time out on printer
Communication Adapter Test
Before running this test on your serial port, you must connect a
special RS232C, AT-type loopback connector to the port. This
connector enables the test to send out data and receive the same
data back on one line. You can purchase the connector from
most electronic supply stores.
Be sure the connector is configured with the following settings:
0 RD and TD shorted
D DSR and DTR shorted
0 CTS and RTS shorted.
This test resets the computer to check for possible errors. Then
it checks the port by sending and receiving data and testing the
following port parameters:
0 9600 baud rate
0 Odd parity
0
2
stop bits
D 8-bit data length.
C-24
Performing System Diagnostics
If you see one of the following errors, there may be a problem
with the controller or the test cable:
Error
Error
Error
Error
Error
-
Break detected
Framing error
Overrun error
Parity error
Time out!
Check to make sure that the test connector is securely
connected to the port. If the error persists, contact your dealer.
Exiting System Diagnostics
To exit from the System diagnostics program, press ESC You see
the following prompt:
DO YOU want to exit diag (Y/N)? N
Before you press a key, remove the Reference diskette from drive
A. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your MS-DOS Startup
diskette in the drive. Then press Y and Enter to exit the
program. You see this message:
Stand by while system is rebooting.
The computer loads MS-DOS and you see either the C> or A>
prompt.
Performing System Diugnostics
C-25
Appendix D
Troubleshooting
You should not encounter any difficulties as you set up and use
your computer, but if anything out of the ordinary happens, refer
to this appendix. You can correct most problems by adjusting a
cable connection, repeating a software procedure, or resetting
the computer.
Besides trying the suggestions in this chapter, you can run
diagnostics checks on the various components of your computer
system. See Appendix C for instructions.
If the suggestions here or in Appendix C do not solve the
problem, contact your authorized Epson dealer. Your dealer may
be able to solve the problem; if not, he or she can refer you to an
Authorized Epson Customer Care Center for service. If
necessary, call the Epson Customer Information Center at
(213) 782-2600 for the location of your nearest Authorized
Epson Customer Care Center.
Identifying Your System
When you contact your dealer or Customer Care Center, be
ready to provide the serial number of your computer and ROM
BIOS, its configuration (including the type of disk drives,
monitor, and option cards), and the names and version numbers
of any software programs you are using.
You can find the serial number on the computer’s back panel. If
you are able to use your computer, follow the steps below to
obtain information about your configuration, as well as your
ROM BIOS and MS-DOS version numbers.
Troubleshooting D-I
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the MS-DOS Startup
diskette in drive A. Turn on your computer or press the
RESET button. You see the version number of your video
BIOS at the top of the screen as your computer boots. Write
down the number.
2. Then the computer performs a memory test. The version
number of your system ROM BIOS appears at the bottom of
the screen. Quickly write down the version number. If you
do not have enough time to write down the entire number,
press RESET and try again.
3. When you see Press <Del> to start SETUP,
press the Del key to run SETUP. Write down the
appropriate information about your configuration shown on
the main SETUP menu. Then exit SETUP (without saving
the configuration).
4. At the MS-DOS command prompt, type VER and press
Enter to display the MS-DOS version number. Write it
down.
5. Give the information you have gathered to your dealer or
Customer Care Center.
Error Messages
Your computer’s built-in memory (ROM) contains a series of
diagnostics programs, called power-on diagnostics, which your
computer runs automatically every time you turn it on. These
programs check internal devices such as ROM, RAM, the timer,
the keyboard controller, and the hard disk drive. The RAM test
program displays the total amount of memory currently installed
in your system. If the computer finds an error, it displays an error
message on the screen.
D-2 Troubleshooting
Write down the error message and give it to your dealer when
reporting a problem.
If the error is serious, the computer cancels further checking and
halts system initialization. The error message remains on the
screen and the computer locks up. If this happens, contact your
dealer as soon as possible. Report this information and both the
error message and code number to your dealer.
The Computer Won’t Start
If your computer does not start when you turn on the power,
check the following:
1. Is the power light on? If not, remove any diskettes and turn
off the power. Check that the power cord is securely
connected to both the AC inlet on the back panel and an
electrical outlet. Replace the Startup or Reference diskette,
if necessary, and turn on the computer again.
Caution
If you turn off the computer for any reason, always wait at
least five seconds before turning it back on. You can
damage the computer if you turn it off and on rapidly.
2. If the power light still does not come on, check the
electrical outlet for power. Turn off your computer and
unplug the power cord from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp into
the outlet, and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies power.
3. If the electrical outlet is working and all the connections are
secure but your computer still won’t start, call your dealer.
Note
If the computer starts but you can’t see anything on the
screen, see “Monitor Problems,” below.
Troubleshooting D-3
The Computer Does Not Respond
If your computer locks up and does not respond when you type
on the keyboard, follow these steps:
1. Some operations rake longer than others to complete. For
example, the computer takes longer to sort a database than
to accept a single typed character. If your computer still does
not respond after a reasonable length of time, proceed to the
next step.
2. Your computer may take a long time to complete its poweron diagnostics if you have just made a change in your
system’s configuration. The first time you turn on your
computer after making such a change, it can rake several
minutes to finish its self test, depending on what you
changed. If the computer does not display the MS-DOS
prompt after five minutes, press the RESET button and try
again. If that doesn’t work, insert the Reference diskette in
drive A and press the RESET button. If the computer still
does not boot, contact your Epson dealer.
3. Did you enter the correct password? See “Password
Problems,” below.
4. Could your software be causing the problem? If you are
running an application program, see “Software Problems,”
later in this appendix.
5. The problem could be caused by your keyboard. See
“Keyboard Problems,” later in this appendix. If your
keyboard is operating properly, proceed to the next step.
6. If you want to stop whatever the computer is doing and
return to the MS-DOS command prompt, hold down the
Ctrl key and press Break (or press C). See Chapter 3 for
more information on stopping a command or program.
D-4 Troubleshooting
7. If your computer still does not respond, you can reset it using
the Ctfl Alt Del command or the RESET button. See
“Resetting Your Computer” in Chapter 3 for more
information.
8. If resetting the computer does not work, turn it off and wait
at least five seconds. If you do not have a hard disk drive,
insert the Startup or Reference diskette in drive A. Then
turn on the computer. It should load MS-DOS.
9. If you installed a display adapter card in your computer, and
you want to use that adapter as your primary display adapter,
you need to change the setting of jumper J3 on the main
system board to disable the built-in VGA adapter. If you
have not set the jumper, you will not see any display on the
screen. You may also need to set jumpers J1 and J5. See
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 for
instructions.
Password Problems
If you set a password using the SETUP program, you must enter
it before you can use the system. When you turn on the
computer, it runs a memory test. Then the screen displays the
Password : prompt. If you do not enter the correct
password, you cannot use the computer.
If you have any trouble using your password, try the following:
0 If you type the password and press Enter but nothing
happens, type it again and press Enter.
0 If you know the current password but you want to change or
delete it, see Chapter 2 for instructions.
0 If you do not know the current password, follow the steps
below.
Troubleshooting D-5
Accessing Your Current Password
If you have forgotten your current password and cannot use your
computer, follow these steps:
1. Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 to disable the
password function by setting jumper J6 to position A.
Caution
Be sure to ground yourself on the back inside panel of
the computer before touching any of the interior
components. Always replace the cover on the computer
before you turn it on again.
2. Turn on the computer. You do not see the Password :
prompt.
3. When the Press <Del> to start SETUP
prompt appears, press Del.
4. Highlight Run SETUP and press Enter. You see the
SETUP menu. Your current password is displayed near the
bottom of the screen.
If you still want to use the same password, be sure to
remember it or write it down. Then go to step 6.
5. If you want to change or delete your current password,
follow the instructions under “Setting the Password” in
Chapter 2. Be sure to save your SETUP information when
you exit the program.
6. Turn off the computer and follow the instructions under
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 to enable the
password function by setting jumper J6 to position B.
D-6 Troubleshooting
7. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the Startup diskette in
drive A. Turn on the computer.
If you set a new password or kept the same one, you see the
Password : prompt. Enter the password to access your
system. (See "Using the Password” in Chapter 3.)
If you deleted your password, you do not see the
Password : prompt and can access your system
immediately.
Note
Be sure to remember your new password or write it down and
keep it in a safe place. If you forget the password you enter
now, you may have to repeat the procedure above the next
time you reboot your computer.
Keyboard Problems
If you are having trouble with the keyboard, check the
following:
1. If the screen displays a keyboard error when you turn on or
reset the computer, make sure the keyboard is securely
connected to its port. See “Connecting the Keyboard” in
Chapter 1 for instructions.
2. If the cursor keys do not work properly, the num lock
function may be on. When num lock is on, the numeric/
arrow keys on the numeric keypad work only as numbers.
Check to see if the Num Lock indicator in the upper right
corner of the keyboard is lit; if it is, press the Num Lock key
to turn off the function.
3. If nothing happens when you type on the keyboard, see
“The Computer Does Not Respond,” above.
Troubleshooting D-7
Monitor Problems
For monitor problems, check the following:
1. If there is no display on the screen, check that the monitor’s
power switch is on and that the power light on the monitor
is lit. If the power light is on but you still do not see
anything on the screen, check the monitor’s brightness and
contrast controls.
2. If the power switch is on but the power light is not, turn off
the monitor’s power, wait five seconds, and turn the power
back on. Wait to see if the screen displays any text.
3. If the monitor’s power light still does not come on, check
the electrical outlet for power. Turn off your monitor and
unplug it from the wall outlet. Plug a lamp into the outlet
and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies power.
4. If you still do not see anything on the screen, make sure your
monitor is connected to the computer properly. See
“Connecting a Monitor” in Chapter 1 for more details. Also
check the monitor manual for instructions on how to
connect it to the computer.
5. Make sure your monitor and display adapter match, and, if
you installed a display adapter card, be sure any switches or
jumpers on the card are set properly. See “Connecting a
Monitor” in Chapter 1 and the documentation that came
with your monitor and display adapter card for instructions.
6. Be sure you have chosen the correct display adapter type in
the SETUP program. See ‘Setting the Primary Display
Type” in Chapter 2.
7. If you are running an application program, see if you need to
set up the program for the type of monitor and display
adapter you have. Also make sure you are using the
appropriate monitor and display adapter for your software.
D-8 Troubleshooting
Note
If your application program requires a monitor that
supports graphics but you have a monochrome monitor,
the results will be unpredictable.
8. If you installed a display adapter card in your computer, and
you want to use that adapter as your primary display adapter,
you need to change the setting of jumper J3 on the main
system board to disable the built-in VGA adapter.
Otherwise, you will not see any display on the screen. YOU
may also need to set jumpers Jl and J5. See “Changing the
Jumper Settings” in Chapter 5 for instructions.
9. If you are still having difficulty with your monitor, run the
Video diagnostics tests, described in Appendix C. If the
diagnostics program indicates an error, contact the place
where you bought the monitor.
Diskette Problems
If you see an error message or have trouble accessing data on a
diskette, try the following steps:
1. Did you turn down the diskette drive latch on a 5 1/4-inch
drive to secure the diskette in the drive? See Chapter 3 for
more information.
2. You may have inserted the diskette upside-down or it may
not be inserted all the way. Remove the diskette from the
drive and reinsert it with the label facing up. Be sure to turn
down the diskette drive latch. (See Chapter 3 for detailed
instructions on inserting and removing diskettes.)
Troubleshooting D-9
3. If reinserting the diskette does not solve the problem and
you have access to another diskette drive of the same type,
place the diskette in the other drive and repeat the
operation. If this works, the trouble may be in your diskette
drive. See “Diskette Drive Problems,” below.
4. Check to see if you have inserted the right type of diskette.
See “Types of Diskette Drives” in Chapter 3 for more
information.
5. If your diskette is the right type for your drive, see if it is
write-protected. On a 5 1/4-inch diskette, there may be a
write-protect tab over the notch on its side or there may be
no notch. On a 3 l/2-inch diskette, the write-protect switch
may be set to the write-protect position or there may be no
switch. You cannot alter data on a write-protected diskette.
(Some application programs do not function properly if the
diskette is write-protected. Check the program manual.) See
Chapter 3 for information.
6. Is the diskette formatted? A new diskette must be formatted
before you can store data on it. See your MS-DOS
Reference Manual for instructions on formatting diskettes.
7. You may have entered an incorrect diskette drive type when
you ran the SETUP program. Run SETUP again to check
the setting. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
8. Did you receive one of the following MS-DOS error
messages?
Cl Disk Drive Error: Abort, Ignore, Retry?
0 Disk error reading drive d:
0 Disk error writing drive d:
D-10
Troubleshooting
If you see one of these messages, make sure the diskette is
properly inserted in the drive. On a 5 1/4-inch diskette drive,
make sure the drive latch is closed. Try the operation again.
If the problem persists, try removing the diskette and
reinserting it. This may solve the problem if the diskette was
not seated properly in the drive.
If the error message still occurs, you may have a defective
diskette. Use the MS-DOS COPY command to copy the
files from the bad diskette to a new diskette. (See your
MS-DOS Reference Manual for instructions.)
9. If you see no error messages but there is something wrong
with the data in a file, MS-DOS or an application program
may have updated the storage information on the diskette
incorrectly. This is probably the case if you have one of
these problems:
Cl Part of a file is missing
0 A file includes parts of other files
0 An expected output file is missing.
To make the necessary repairs, use the MS-DOS program
CHKDSK. See your MS-DOS Reference Manual for
instructions.
Diskette Drive Problems
If you see an error message or have difficulty with a diskette
drive, check the following:
1. If you are having problems with a new diskette drive that
your dealer installed for you, consult your dealer about the
problem.
Troubleshotting
D-11
2.
If you installed the drive yourself, did you carefully follow all
the instructions in Appendix B of this manual? Review the
instructions and check all the cable connections to make
sure you have installed it correctly.
3. Did you run the SETUP program to define the correct type
of diskette drive as part of the computer’s configuration?
(See Chapter 2 for instructions.)
4. If you are still having trouble with the drive, run the Floppy
disk system diagnostics tests, described in Appendix C. If
the diagnostics program indicates an error, consult your
Epson dealer.
5. If the diskette drive is making loud or unusual noises,
contact your Epson dealer.
Hard Disk Problems
If you are having a problem with your hard disk, it could be the
result of improper installation, incomplete disk preparation, or
corrupted data. The suggestions in this section are divided into
three categories:
0 Installing the drive
LI Preparing the drive for use
0 Accessing data on the drive.
Consult the section that seems most likely to cover the problem
you are having. For example, if you have been able to use data
on your disk in the past but suddenly cannot, see “Accessing
Data on the Drive.”
D-12 Troubleshooting
Caution
If your disk has data on it, be very careful before you perform
any procedure that may erase data (such as formatting the
disk). Consult your dealer if you have any questions. Always
be sure to back up your data before reformatting or
repartitioning the disk drive. See the descriptions of COPY,
XCOPY, and BACKUP in your MS-DOS Reference Manual.
Installing the Drive
If you are having problems with a newly-installed drive, check
the following:
1. If your dealer installed the drive, consult that person about
the problem.
2. If you have installed the hard disk in your computer yourself,
did you carefully follow all the instructions in Appendix B
of this manual? Review the instructions and check all the
cable connections to make sure you have installed it
correctly. Also check the jumper settings on your drive to
make sure they are set correctly.
3. If you installed a non-Epson hard disk drive, was it
physically formatted by the manufacturer? A blank, new
hard disk must be formatted (or “initialized”) before you can
partition it and install an operating system on it. This type
of format is usually done by the manufacturer; if yours was
not, you must do it yourself. If the drive came with its own
format utility, use that program; if not, follow the
instructions in Appendix C under “Hard Disk Format.”
Note that this physical type of format is different from the
software-based type of formatting commands (such as the
MS-DOS SELECT or FORMAT commands. See “Preparing
the Drive,” below, for more information.
Troubleshooting
D-13
Caution
Do not perform the low-level format if your disk contains
data, unless your dealer advises you to do so.
4. If your computer came with a hard disk drive that you are no
longer using, make sure the hard disk drive power cable and
the cable that connected the drive to the main system board
are disconnected.
5. If you installed a hard disk drive with its controller on a
card, did you disable the built-in hard disk drive controller
and select the correct drive type through SETUP? See
Chapter 2 for instructions.
Preparing the Drive
Before you can store data on a new hard disk (which has already
been physically formatted), you must do the following to prepare
it for use:
1.
Run the SETUP program to define your hard disk as part of
the computer’s configuration. (See Chapter 2 for
instructions.)
2. Partition the drive, format it for MS-DOS, and install
MS-DOS. Step-by-step instructions for performing these
procedures are provided in your MS-DOS Installation
Guide. If you are using another operating system, follow the
instructions that came with it.
If you do not prepare the drive correctly, you will not be able to
store data on the disk. For example, if you have partitioned the
drive and formatted it for MS-DOS (or another operating
system) but you do not copy the operating system to the drive,
you will not be able to load the operating system from the hard
disk when you turn on the computer.
D-14
Troubleshooting
If you are sure the hard disk has been installed properly and you
have prepared it for use as described above but you cannot access
the drive, review the instructions in your MS-DOS Installation
Guide. Make sure you performed each step in the installation
processcorrectly for your configuration.
If you cannot identify the problem, consult your dealer.
Accessing Data on the Drive
If you have been using your hard disk drive successfully for some
time and notice a reduction in performance, the data on the disk
may have become fragmented. You may want to back up all your
data and then use a disk compaction utility to reorganize the
files on your disk. Contact your dealer for information.
If you still have trouble with your hard disk, you can back up
your data and physically format the disk. Then you’ll need to
reinstall MS-DOS and copy your files back onto the disk. See
“Hard Disk Format” in Appendix C and your MS-DOS
Reference Manual for instructions.
If you cannot access data on your hard disk or you are receiving
read/write errors, the disk may have a physical problem. Contact
your dealer.
Troubleshooting
D-15
Software Problems
If you are having trouble with an application program, try the
following solutions:
1. If the application program does not start, check that you are
following the correct procedure for starting the program, and
that it is installed correctly. If you have a hard disk and the
program is stored in a directory on that drive, make sure you
are logged onto or specifying the correct directory. If you
don’t have a hard disk, make sure you have inserted the
application program diskette in drive A.
2. Your computer can run at either high speed (12 MHz) or
low speed (6 MHz). While almost all programs work
properly at the faster speed, some must run at the slower
speed. Check your software manual to see if this is the case,
and change the CPU operating speed if necessary. See
“Changing the Processor Speed” in Chapter 4 for
instructions and for information on accommodating copyprotected programs.
3. If you have entered an MS-DOS command that you want to
stop, there are special key combinations you can type to tell
MS-DOS to stop what it is doing. These methods may also
work in your application programs:
Cl Hold down Ctrl and press C
CI Hold down Ctrl and press Break.
4. An application program can occasionally lock the computer,
making it unresponsive to the keyboard. If your computer
does not respond when you type on the keyboard, you can
reset it. Follow the instructions in Chapter 3.
5. If resetting the computer does not help, turn off your system,
wait five seconds, and then turn it back on. Then you can
restart your application program.
D- 16
Troubleshooting
Printer Problems
Below are some general steps to follow if you are having
difficulty with your printer. If the problem persists and you need
more detailed information, check your printer manual.
1. If your printer does not work at all, check that the printer
has power and is properly connected to the computer. (Also,
make sure your printer has paper in it.) See Chapter 1 for
instructions or see your printer manual.
2. Check the printer manual for the printer’s correct DIP
switch or control panel settings. These settings help a
printer communicate properly with the computer.
3. If you are using more than one parallel port or more than
one serial port, the computer must know which port is the
primary port and which is the secondary port. See Chapter 2
for instructions on how to set the parallel and serial ports
using the SETUP program.
4. If your printer is properly set up but is still not functioning,
test it from the MS-DOS level. When the screen displays
the MS-DOS command prompt (such as C> or A>), hold
down Shift and press Print Screen. This should print the
contents of the screen on your printer.
If it does not, you may need to change the internal setting of
the computer’s parallel port for a parallel printer (or serial
port for a serial printer). To do this, use the MS-DOS
MODE or SETMODE command, or the MENU utility. See
your printer manual and the MS-DOS Reference Manual for
more details.
5. Many application programs (such as word processors) must
be set up properly before they can use a printer. Check your
program manual to see what customizing may be required.
Troubleshooting
D-17
6. Try running the Printer adapter diagnostics test if you have
a parallel printer, or the Communication adapter test if you
have a serial printer. Appendix C describes these tests. If the
test indicates an error, contact your printer dealer.
Option Card Problems
If you install an option card and it is not functioning properly,
check the following:
1. Is the option card installed correctly? The most common
problem with option cards is a loose connection. Make sure
the card is well-seated in its slot. Check the installation
procedure described in Chapter 5 and also see the
instructions that come with the card.
2. Did you set the necessary DIP switches or jumpers on the
option card? See your option card manual for instructions.
3. Did you set the necessary jumpers on the main system board?
See Chapter 5 for more information.
4. Did you run the SETUP program to update your
configuration after installing the card? See Chapter 2.
5. If you used the option card to add an external device to your
computer, did you use the proper cable to connect the
device to the option card connector on the back panel?
6. Did you perform the correct setup procedures for the
software you are using with the option card? If necessary, see
your software manual for instructions.
7. Did you install a hard disk drive that has its controller on an
option card? If so, and if your computer came with a hard
disk drive that you are no longer using, be sure the cable
leading from that drive to the main system board and the
hard disk drive power cable are disconnected.
D-18 Troubleshooting
Mouse Problems
If you have trouble with your mouse, check the following:
1. Make sure that your mouse is securely connected to its port
on the back of the computer. Also, be sure you have connected
it to the correct port. See Chapter 1 for more information.
2. If the mouse is connected properly, be sure that jumper J4
on your computer’s main system board is set correctly for
your mouse. See Chapter 5 for more information.
3. If you’re still having trouble with your mouse, check the
documentation that came with it for any troubleshooting
information or contact your dealer.
Memory Module Problems
If you added extra memory to your system by installing SIMMs
and that memory is not operating properly, check the following:
1. If the memory count displayed by the power-on diagnostics
program is incorrect, you or your dealer may not have
installed the SIMMs correctly. The SIMMs may be installed
in the wrong sockets, they may be the wrong type of SIMM,
or they may not be inserted all the way into their sockets.
If your dealer installed SIMMs for you, contact your dealer;
do not attempt to correct the problem yourself. If you
installed them, see “Adding Memory Modules” in Chapter 5
and make sure you followed all the instructions.
2. Be sure to run the SETUP program after you install or
remove memory modules to automatically update your
memory configuration. See Chapter 2 for instructions.
3. If you are still having trouble with your SIMMs, write down
any error messages you see and contact your dealer.
Troubleshooting
D-19
Battery Problems
The battery in your computer is a 3.6 volt, lithium battery. It
should last from three to five years before you need to replace it.
When the battery’s life is exhausted, you may see an error
message.
After you purchase a new battery pack, follow the instructions in
Chapter 5 to install it. (You may want your dealer to install it
for you.)
Math Coprocessor Problems
If your math coprocessor does not seem to be operating properly,
check the following:
1. Run the SETUP program and check to make sure that the
math coprocessor is listed as Insta11ed on the SETUP
display. If it is listed as Not installed, you or your
dealer may have installed the coprocessor incorrectly. See
Chapters 2 and 5 for more information.
Caution
Do not attempt to remove the math coprocessor yourself.
Contact your dealer for information about a special
extraction tool that is needed to remove it.
2. If your math coprocessor is listed as Instal1ed in the
SETUP program but still does not seem to be working,
check the manual that came with it for troubleshooting
information and for any diagnostic procedures you can
perform.
3. Did you or your dealer set jumper J2 to indicate whether the
math coprocessor is 8 MHz or 10 MHz? See Chapter 5 for
more information.
D-20 Troubleshooting
Glossary
Address
A number or name that identifies the location where
information is stored in a computer’s memory.
Analog monitor
A monitor that generates, responds to, or acts upon analog data.
Analog data is transmitted by varying the voltage levels in a
continuous current.
Application program
A software program designed to perform a specific task, such as a
word processing or spreadsheet program.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A
standardized coding system for representing characters, such as
numbers, letters, and graphic symbols. An ASCII character
occupies one byte of storage. Many different computers, printers,
and programs can use files transmitted in ASCII code.
* Asynchronous
A method of data transmission in which one machine sends data
one character at a time to another machine at irregular intervals
that do not need to be synchronized to a timing device.
AUTOEXEC.BAT file
The batch file that is executed automatically when you load
MS-DOS. See also Batch file.
Glossary
1
Automatic speed
The feature that enables the computer to switch automatically
from high speed (12 MHz) to low speed (6 MHz) when
accessing a diskette drive.
Backup
An extra copy of a program, data file, or disk, that is created in
the event your working copy is damaged or lost.
Base memory
The memory in the computer below 1MB that is available to
MS-DOS and application programs-usually 640KB. Also called
conventional memory or main memory.
Batch file
A type of file that lets you execute a series of MS-DOS
commands by typing one command. Batch files are text files
with the filename extension.BAT. When you type the
filename, MS-DOS executes all the commands in that file
sequentially.
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System. Routines in ROM (Read Only
Memory) that handle basic input/output functions of the
operating system.
Bit
A binary digit (0 or 1). The smallest unit of computer storage.
The value of a bit represents the presence (1) or absence (0) of
an electric charge.
Boot
To load the operating system into the computer’s memory.
2 Glossary
Byte
A sequence or group of eight bits that represents one character.
CGA
Color Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that can
generate up to 25 lines of text with 80 characters on each line,
monochrome graphics at 640 x 200 resolution, or four-color
graphics at 320 x 200 resolution.
Character
Anything that can be printed in a single space on the page or
the screen; includes numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and
graphic symbols.
CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A type of
low-power silicon chip.
Code
A system of symbols for representing data or instructions. Also
any software program or part of a program.
Command
An instruction you enter (usually on a keyboard) to direct your
computer to perform a specific function.
Command prompt
The symbol or message that tells you MS-DOS is loaded and
ready to receive instructions. The default command prompt
displays the current drive and directory. If you are logged onto
drive C, the command prompt may look like this: C : >.
Glossary 3
Configuration
The particular setup of a group of components. A typical system
configuration consists of a computer with one diskette drive and
one hard disk drive connected to a monitor and a printer.
Control code
A command (generated when you hold down Ctrl and press
another key on the keyboard) that instructs the computer to
perform a specific function.
Coprocessor
An optional device that enables the computer to process certain
mathematical calculations faster.
Copy-protected program
A type of program that cannot be copied. Some copy-protected
programs require you to leave the program diskette in the drive
while you are using it. Some also require the computer to be
running at low speed (6 MHz) instead of high speed (12 MHz).
See also Automatic speed.
CPU
Central Processing Unit. The primary unit of the computer that
interprets instructions, performs the tasks you indicate, keeps
track of stored data, and controls all input and output
operations.
Cursor
The highlighted marker that shows your position on the screen.
Cylinders
The vertical alignment of tracks in a hard disk that can be lined
up under one read/write head. The number of tracks on a disk is
equal to the number of cylinders times the number of heads.
4 Glossary
Data
Information such as text or graphics stored or processed by a
computer.
Data diskette
A formatted diskette on which you store data files (as opposed to
program files).
Default
Any value or setting that takes effect when the computer is
turned on or reset. A default value stays in effect unless you
override it temporarily by changing a setting or you reset the
default value itself.
Delimiter
A character or space used to separate different parts of an
MS-DOS command.
Device
A piece of equipment that is part of a computer system and
performs a specific task, such as a disk drive, a monitor, or a
printer.
Device driver
A file containing instructions that allow your computer to
recognize and control a device.
Diagnostics
The tests and procedures the computer performs to check its
internal circuitry and set up its configuration.
Glossary 5
DIP switch
Dual Inline Package switch. A small switch on a computer,
option card, or printer that controls a particular function.
Directory
A list of files stored in a particular area on a disk; part of a
structure for organizing files into groups. A directory listing
shows the name, location, and size of the files in the directory. A
directory can contain both files and subdirectories.
Disk
The collective term for diskettes and hard disks.
Disk drive
The physical device that allows the computer to read from and
write to a disk. A diskette drive has a disk slot into which you
insert a diskette. A hard disk is sealed inside a protective unit.
Diskette
A flat piece of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material
used to store data permanently.
Display adapter card
A circuit board that can be installed in one of the computer’s
option slots to provide the monitor interface. A display adapter
card controls the way the monitor displays text and graphics. (In
the Equity 286 PLUS, a VGA display adapter is built into the
system board.) Also known as Video card.
DOS
Disk Operating System. A commonly used operating system that
controls the computer’s input and output functions. See
Operating system.
6 Glossary
Double-density
A type of diskette format that allows you to store twice as much
data as the standard-density format. A 51/4-inch double-density
diskette can store 360KB of data. A 31/2-inch double-density
diskette can store 720KB of data.
Drive designator
The letter name of a disk drive, followed by a colon-for
example, C : .
EGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that
allows you to display high-resolution graphics on a compatible
monitor. It can display up to 43 lines of text with 80 characters
on each line, or it can display monochrome or 16-color graphics
at up to 640 x 350 resolution.
Expanded memory
Memory that specially written MS-DOS application programs
can use with an Expanded Memory Specification (EMS) device
driver such as EMM286.SYS.
Extended Memory
Memory above 1MB that is accessed by the protected mode of
the 80286 microprocessor and is available to some application
programs and operating systems.
Extension
A suffix of up to three characters which you can add to a
filename to better identify it.
Glossay 7
File
A group of related pieces of information called records, or
entries, stored together on a disk. Text files consist of words and
sentences. Program files consist of codes and are used by
computers to interpret and carry out instructions.
Filename
A name up to eight characters long that MS-DOS uses to
identify a file.
Fixed disk
See Hard disk.
Format
To prepare a new disk (or an old one you want to reuse) so that
it can store information. Formatting divides a disk into tracks
and sectors and creates addressable locations on it.
Graphics
Lines, angles, curves, and other nonalphanumeric data.
Hard disk
The enclosed unit used to store large amounts of data. Unlike a
diskette, it is fixed in place. It can process data more rapidly and
store many more files than a diskette. Also called fixed disk.
Hardware
Any physical component of a computer system, such as a
monitor, printer, keyboard, or CPU.
8 Glossary
High-density
A type of format that allows you to store more data than on
single- or double-density diskettes. A 51/4-inch high-density
diskette can store 1.2MB of data. A 3 1/2-inch high-density
diskette can store 1.44MB of data.
Input/output (I/O) port
See Port.
Interface
A physical or software connection used to transmit data between
equipment or programs.
Jumper
A small device that connects two pins on an option card, a disk
drive, or the main system board to activate a particular function.
Key disk
A diskette containing a copy-protected program that must
remain in the diskette drive while you are using the program.
Kilobyte (KB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory or
on a disk. One kilobyte equals 1024 bytes.
LIM 4.0 EMS
Version 4.0 of the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory
Specification-a protocol that allows certain application
programs to use memory that MS-DOS cannot use.
Main system board
The board built into your computer containing the circuitry the
computer requires to operate.
Glossary 9
Math coprocessor
An optional device that enables the computer to process certain
mathematical calculations faster.
MCGA
Monochrome/Color Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter
that runs either a monochrome or color graphics monitor.
MDA
Monochrome Display Adapter. A type of display adapter that
displays text in only one color, such as green or amber.
Megabyte (MB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory or
on a disk. One megabyte equals 1024KB.
Megahertz (MHz)
A unit used to measure oscillation frequency (of a computer’s
internal timing clock). A megahertz is one million cycles per
second. The Equity 286 PLUS operates at 12 MHz or 6 MHz.
Memory
The area where your computer stores data. Memory contents are
stored permanently (in ROM) or temporarily (in RAM).
Memory module
A small circuit board that contains memory chips. You can add
256KB or 1MB memory modules to the main system board
inside the computer to expand the computer’s memory. A
memory module is commonly called a SIMM (single inline
memory module).
10 Glossary
Memory on card
The additional memory on an option card installed in the
computer.
MGA
Multi-mode Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card
that can display monochrome text and color graphics on the
screen.
Microprocessor
A small version of a CPU contained on one semiconductor
chip.
Modem
A device that allows a computer to transmit signals over
telephone lines so it can send and receive data. Modem stands
for MOdulator/DEModulator.
Monitor
The piece of hardware that contains the screen and displays
information.
Monochrome monitor
A monitor that displays in only one color, such as green or
amber, as opposed to a color monitor which can display in
several colors.
Mouse
A hand-held pointing device with one or more buttons. When
you slide the mouse over a flat surface in a certain direction, the
cursor moves in the same direction on the screen.
MS-DOS
Microsoft Disk Operating System. The operating system most
commonly used with your computer. See Operating system.
Numeric keypad
The number and cursor control keys grouped to the right of the
keyboard.
Operating speed
The speed at which the central processing unit can execute
commands. The Equity 286 PLUS can run at 12 MHz or 6 MHz.
Operating system
A collection of programs (such as MS-DOS, OS/2, or Unix)
that manages a computer’s operations. The operating system
determines how programs run on the computer and supervises all
input and output.
Option card
A circuit board you install inside the computer to provide
additional capabilities, such as a modem.
Parallel
The type of interface that transmits all the bits in a byte of data
simultaneously over separate lines. See Interface and Serial.
Parameter
A qualifier added to a command that tells MS-DOS what
particular conditions to look for and specifies information such
as what data to process and where to locate or store a file.
Parity
A method used to verify the accuracy of data transmissions by
adding a bit that makes the total of the byte odd for odd parity
or even for even parity.
Partition
(1) The area defined on a hard disk for use by an operating
system; (2) to divide a hard disk into separate sections or logical
drives. You can define a primary partition and one or more
extended partitions on a hard disk.
Password
The sequence of characters (up to seven) you type after you turn
on the computer in order to access and use your system.
Pathname
The directory name(s) you specify to locate a file. For example,
the pathname for the file SALES, stored in the subdirectory
BUSINESS, is \ BUSINESS \ SALES.
Peripheral device
An external device (such as a printer or a modem) connected to
a computer that depends on the computer for its operation.
Port
A physical input/output socket on a computer where you can
connect a peripheral device.
Power-on diagnostics
Tests that the computer runs to check its internal circuitry and
configuration each time you turn it on.
Glossary 13
Processor speed
See Operating speed
Program
A file that contains coded instructions and tells a computer
what to do and how to do it.
Prompt
A message the screen displays to request information or tell you
what action you need to perform next. See also Command
prompt*
RAM
Random Access Memory. The portion of the computer’s
memory used to run programs and store data while you work. All
data stored in RAM is erased when you turn off or reset the
computer; so you must store any data you want to keep on disk.
Read
To move data from one area to another. For example, when you
open a text file stored on disk, the computer reads the data from
the disk and displays it on the screen.
Read/write head
The physical device inside a disk drive that reads data from and
records data on the magnetic surface of a disk.
Real- time clock
A battery-powered clock inside the computer that keeps track of
the time and date, even when the computer is turned off.
14 Glossary
Reset
To reload a computer’s operating system so you can retry a task
or begin using a different operating system. Resetting erases all
information in RAM.
RGB
Red Green Blue. A type of color monitor.
ROM
Read Only Memory. A portion of memory that can only be read
and cannot be used for temporary storage. ROM retains its
contents even when you turn off the power.
Root directory
The top-level directory in MS-DOS, designated by a \
(backslash). All other directories are subdirectories of the root
directory.
RS-232C
A widely used, standard type of serial interface. You can connect
an RS-232C compatible device to the built-in port on your
computer.
Sector
A contiguous section of a disk track that provides an address at
which the computer can access data.
Self test
The initial diagnostics procedures a system performs to check its
hard ware.
Glossary 15
Serial
The type of interface that transmits data one bit at a time. See
interface and Parallel.
Shadow RAM
The feature provided by the Equity 286 PLUS that enables the
computer to copy the system ROM BIOS and video ROM into
the RAM area of memory to speed up processing.
SIMM
See Memory module.
Software
The programs that enable your computer to perform the tasks
and functions you indicate.
Subdirectory
A directory or group of files that branches down from another
subdirectory or from the root directory.
Switch
An option added to an MS-DOS command that modifies the
way the command works. Switches are usually preceded by a /
(forward slash). For example, if you add the /S switch to a
FORMAT command, MS-DOS installs the operating system on
the diskette as it formats it. See Parameter.
System diagnostics
A series of checks you can perform on the computer to make
sure the hardware is functioning correctly.
System diskette
A diskette that contains the operating system.
16 Glossary
Tracks
Addressable, concentric circles on a disk, resembling the grooves
on a record, which help to divide the disk into separate
accessible areas.
VGA
Video Graphics Array. A type of high-resolution display
adapter. The VGA adapter built into the system board of your
computer can display 16-color graphics at resolutions up to
640 x 480 on a compatible VGA monitor.
Video card
A display adapter card that can be installed in one of the
computer’s option slots to provide a monitor interface. Your
computer comes with a built-in VGA adapter, so you do not
need to install a video card if you are going to use this interface.
Write
To store data on a disk.
Write-protect
To protect the data on a diskette from being changed by placing
a write-protect tab over the notch on a 5 1/4-inch diskette or by
setting the write-protect switch on a 31/2-inch diskette. When a
diskette is write-protected, you cannot erase, change, or record
over its contents.
Glossary 17
I ndex
A
AMIDIAG, C-2
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-l-2
Auto speed, 2-10-l1, 4-2-4
Auxiliary device problems, D-19
Auxiliary interface, A-2
B
Backing up data,
from diskettes, 3-18
on hard disk, 3-18, 3-20
with BACKUP, 3-19
with DISKCOPY, 3-18
BACKUP, 3- 19
Base memory, 2-3
Batch files, 4-l-2
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-l-2
Battery,
cable, 5-10-l1
problems, D-20
purpose, 2-2
replacing, 5-2, 5-8-12
specifications, A-1
Break, 3-4
C
Cable,
battery, 5-10-l1
diskette drive, B-29, B-35-36
hard disk drive, B-12-14,
B-29, B-37-38, D-14
power supply, B-15-l6,
B-49-50
Cards,
display adapter, see Video
cards
memory, 5-1,5-42-45
video, see Video cards
CGA card, see Video cards
CGA emulation, 4-17-18
Clock, real-time, 2-3-4, A-l
Clock speed, 2-10
Clock/calendar RAM, A-1
CMOS RAM, l-18, 2-2, 2-16, 5-2,
5-8, A-1
Color graphics adapter (CGA) card,
see Video cards
Command, stopping, 3-4
CONFIG.SYS, 4-7-10
Consumer Information Center
number, Intro-4, D-1
Connecting,
keyboard, 1-12-13
modem, l-11
monitor, l-4-8
mouse, l-13-14
power cord, 1-15-16
printer, l-8-11
Control codes,
CTRL ALT +, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT-, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT DEL, 3-5
CTRL BREAK, 3-4
CTRL C, 3-4
Controllers, A-2
Coprocessor, see Math coprocessor
COPY, 3-11, 3-18, 4-l-2
index
1
Copying,
diskettes, 3-11,3-18
files, 3-18-20
Copy-protected programs, 2-l1, 4-3
CORFIX, 5-42-44
Cover,
removing, 5-24
replacing, 5-41-42
CPU, A-l
CPU speed, see Processor speed
CPRL ALT +, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT -, 4-4-5
CTRL ALT DEL, 3-5
CTRL BREAK, 3-4
CTRL C, 3-4
Cursor bar, 2-3
D
Date, setting, 2-3-4
Diagnostics,
power-on, D-2-3
system, C-1-14
DISKCOPY, 3-11,3-18
Diskette drive,
cable, B-29, B-35-36
caring for, 3-11-12
compatibility, 3-9-11
configuring, 2-4
controller, 2-15
diagnostics, C-20-23
inserting diskettes, 3-16-17
installing, B-l-55
problems, D-11-12
removing, B-l-55
removing diskettes, 3-16-17
setting types, 2-4
single, 3-15-16
specifications, A-3
tests, C-20-23
types, 3-9-l1
using, 3-7-19
2
Index
Diskettes,
backing up, 3-18
caring for, 3- 11-12
choosing, 3-9-l1
compatibility, 3-9-l1
copying, 3-11,3-18
formatting, 3-10,3-18
how they work, 3-7-9
inserting, 3-16-17
labelling, 3- 12
problems, D-9-l1
read/write slot, 3-12
removing, 3-l6-17
storing, 3- 12
swapping, 3- 15
system, 3-20
types, 3-9-l1
write-protecting, 3-13-14
Display adapter, see VGA port
Display adapter cards, see Video
cards
Display screen, see Monitor
Display type, 2-8-9
Double-density diskettes, 3-10
Double-sided diskettes, 3-9-10
Drives,
see Diskette drive
see Hard disk
E
EDLIN, 4-l-2,4-8
EGA card, see Video cards
EGA emulation, 4-17-l8
EMM286.SYS, 4-7-10
Emulation mode, VGA, 4-17-18
EMS size, 2-11-12
Enhanced graphics adapter, see
Video cards
Environmental requirements,
A-4
Epson Consumer Information
Center number, intro-4, D-l
Error logging, C-6-7
Error messages, 2-2,2-16, D-2-3
system diagnostics, C-7,
C-19-20, C-22-23, C-25
ESPEED program, 4-3-6
Expanded memory, 2-11-12,
4-7-10, 5-43
Extended memory, 2-3, 2-11-12,
4-7-10, 5-44
F
Files,
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4-l-2
backing up, 3-18-20
batch, 4-1-2
CONFIG.SYS, 4-7-10
copying, 3- 18-20
EMM286.SYS 4-7-10
Floppy disk drive, see Diskette
drive
Floppy disks, see Diskettes
FORMAT, 3- 18, C-2l-22
Formatting,
diskettes, 3-18, C-2l-22
hard disk, 3-19, C-16-17
physical, C-16-17
Hard disk,
installing, B-l-55
installing MS-DOS on, 3-l
jumpers, B-4-7
loading MS-DOS from, 3-16
master drive, B-4, B-6
mounting frames, B-7-10
mounting plate, B-10-12
parking the heads, 3-20-21
partitions, 3-19, C-16
physically formatting, C-16-l7
precautions, 3-20
preparing for moving, 3 -20-21
preparing for use, 3-19
problems, D-12-15
removing, B-l-55
setting types, 2-5-8
slave drive, B-4, B-6
specifications, A-3
storage capacity, 3-19
tests, C-12-20
types, 2-5-8
HDSIT, 3-20-21
HELP program, Intro-2
Help, where to get, Intro-4
Hercules card, see Video cards
Hercules emulation, 4-17-18
High-density diskette, 3-9
High speed, 2-10-l1, 4-3-6
H
Hard disk, see also Diskette drive
backing up, 3-20
configuring, 2-5-8
controller, 2-15
diagnostics, C-12-20
drive cable, B-12-14, B-29,
B-37-38, D-14
formatting, 3-19, C-16-17
how they work, 3-7-9, 3-19
I
Identifying your system, D-l-2
Inserting diskettes, 3-16-17
Interfaces, 2-14-15, A-2
J
Jumper settings, 1-8, l-14, 5-2,
5-5-8, B-4-7
Index
3
K
Key disk, 4-3
Keyboard,
adjusting angle, 1-13
cable, 1-12
check, C- 10
connecting, 1-12-13
controller check, D-2
diagnostics, C-11
layout, 3-2, A-4
problems, D-7
special keys, 3-2-3
speed commands, 4-4-5
test function, 2-9
tests, C-11
L
LIM 4.0 EMS, 4-7
Loading MS-DOS, 3-15-16
Location, choosing for computer,
l-l-2
Low speed, 2-10-l1,4-3-6
Low-level format, see Physical
formatting
M
Mass storage, A-3
Master drive, B-4, B-6
Math coprocessor,
configuring, 2-3
installing, 5-2,5-29-32
jumper, 5-5-85-30
problems; D-2d
removing, 5-33
specification, A-1
MDA card, see Video cards
MDA emulation, 4-17-18
4
Index
Memory,
base, 2-3
beyond lMB, 4-7-10
cards, 5-1,5-42-45
configuration, 2-3,2-10-12
diagnostics, C-10, C-12
EMM286.SYS, 4-7-10
EMS sire, 2-11-12
expanded, 2-ll-l2,4-7-10,
5-43
extended, 2-3,2-l 1-12,
4-7-10,544
LIM 4.0 EMS, 4-7
manager, 4-7-10
modules, see SIMMs
problems, D-19
specifications, A-1
tests, C-10, C-12
MENU utility, Intro-2, l-l1
MGA card, see Video cards
MODE, l-11
Modem, connecting, l-11
Monitor,
connecting, l-4-8
diagnostics, C-11-12
interface, A-2
jumper, 5-5-8
multi-frequency, l-4,4-10
problems, D-8-9
selecting type, l-7,2-8-9
tests, C-11-12
Monochrome graphics adapter
card, see Video cards
Mounting frames, hard disk,
B-7-10
Mounting plate, hard disk,
B - 1 0 - 1 2
Mouse,
connecting, l-13-14
port specifications, A-2
problems, D- 19
setting jumper, 5-5-8
MS-DOS,
copying files, 3-1,3- 18-19
diskettes, 3- 1
installing, 2- 16, 3- 1
loading, 3-15-16
Multi-frequency monitor, 1-4,
4-10
N
Num lock mode, 3-3
0
Operating speed, see Processor
speed
Option cards,
configuring, 2-8-9, 5-42-45
instailing, 5-1, 5-12-17
memory, 5-1, 5-42-45
problems, D-18
removing, 5-17-l8
testing, 5-45
video, see Video cards
option slots, 5-12-14, A-2
Options, installing, 5-145,
B-l-55
OS/2, Intro-2,3-l
P
Packing materials, 5-16
Parallel,
cable, l-8-10
interface, l-8-10, 2-14-15,
A-2
port, l-8-10, 2-14-15
port test, C-23-24
Partitions on hard disk, 3-19,
C-16
Password,
changing, 2- 13
deleting, 2- 13
disabling, D-5-7
entering, 3-6
jumper, 5-5-8, D-6-7
problems, D-5-7
setting, 2-12-13
using, 3-6
Physical characteristics, A-4
Physical formatting, C-16-17
Port,
keyboard, l-12, A-2
monitor, 1-4-6, A-2
mouse, l-13-14, A-2
parallel, l-8-10,2-14-15, A-2
serial, l-11, 2-14-15, A-2
Power,
button, l-17
connecting power cord, 1-15-16
source, 1 - 2
supply, A-3
Power-on diagnostics, D-2-3
Power supply cables, B-15-16,
B-49-50
Precautions,
computer, l-16,504
hard disk, 3-20
Primary display type, 2-8-9
Primary port, 2-15-l6
Printer,
adapter test, C-23-24
connecting, 1-8-l1
parallel interface, l-8-10, A-2
problems, D-17-18
serial interface, l-11, A-2
Processor speed, 2-10-l 1,4-2-6,
D-16
Protector card, l-3, 3-21
Index
5
R
RAM check, D-2
Random access memory (RAM),
202, 345, D-2
Read only memory (ROM), 2-1,
2-10, D-2, A-l
Read/write heads, 3-9,3-20-21
Real-time clock, 2-3-4, A-l
Redirecting printer output, l-11
Reference diskette, 3- 18
Removing diskettes, 3-16-17
RESET button, 3-5
Resetting the computer, 3-4-5
ROM, see Read Only Memory
Run time parameters, C-3-9
2-2-3
S
Secondary port, 2-14-15
Sector, 3-8
Serial,
cable, l-l1
interface, l-11,2-14-15, A-2
port, l-11,2-14-15
port test, C-24-25
SETMODE, l-11
Setting up, 1-1-18
SETUP menu, 2-3
SETUP program, 2-1-16
base memory, 2-3
clock, real-time, 2-3-4
cursor bar, moving, 2-3
disk drive controllers, 2-15
diskette drive types, 2-10-12
display type, 2-8-9
EMS size, 2-11-12
error message, continuing from,
2-2,2-16
hard disk drive configuration,
2-5-8
6
SETUP program,
keyboard test function, 2-9
leaving the program, 2-16
math coprocessor, 2-3
memory, 2-3, 2-l 1-12
parallel interface, 2-14-15
password, 2-12-13
primary display type, 2-8-9
processor speed, 2-10-l1
real- time clock, 2-34
running, l-18, 2-1-16, 5-42,
5-44
saving settings, 2-16
serial interface, 2-14-15
shadow RAM, 2-10
starting the program, 1-18,
Index
SETVGA utility, 4-17-18
Shadow RAM, Intro- 1,2- 10, A-l
SIMMs,
configuring memory on,
2-ll-12, 5-44-45
installing, 51,5-22-26
problems, D- 19
removing, 5-26-29
specifications, 5-22-23, A-l
Slave drive, B-4, B-6
SMART, 5-43-44
SNOOZE utility, 4-18
Software problems, D- 16
Speaker, A-2
Special keys, 3-2-3
Specifications, A-1-4
Speed, changing, see Processor
speed
Subassembly,
installing, 5-33-40, B-46-55
removing, 5-18-22, B-28-32
Subdirectories, see Directories
System,
BIOS, 2-10
board tests, C-10
diagnostics, C-l-25
memory, see Memory
setting up, l-1-18
T
Time, setting, 2-3-4
Timer check, D-2
Tracks, 3-7-8
Troubleshooting, D-l-20
TURBO light, 2-10,402
Turning off computer, l-18
Turning on computer, l-16-18
U
Utilities, VGA, 4-10-18
V
VER, D-l-2
VGA emulation mode, 4-17-18
VGA port,
configuring, 2-89
connecting monitor, l-4-6
diagnostics, C-11-12
specifications, A-2
tests, C-12
VGA utilities, 4-10-18
VGAMODE utility, 4-13-17
Video cards,
CGA, l-7, 2-8-9
compatibility, l-7
Video cards,
diagnostics, C- 11-12
EGA, l-7,2-8-9
emulation, 4- 17-18
Hercules graphics card, l-7,
2-8-9
installing, l-7-8, 5-12-17
jumpers for, 2-9, 5-5-8
MDA, l-7, 2-8-9
MGA, l-7, 2-8-9
problems, D-5, D-18
removing, 5-17-18
setting display type, 2-8-9
tests, C-l1-12
VGA, 2-8-9
Video diagnostics, C-ll-12
Video graphics array (VGA),
built-in port, see VGA port
card, see Video cards
Video monitors, see Monitors
Video ROM, 2-10
W
WordPerfect, 4-11,4-13-16
WordStar, 4-11,4-13-15
Write-protect notch, 3-13
Write-protect switch, 3-14
Write-protect tab, 3-13
Write-protecting diskettes, 3-13-14
X
XCOPY, 3-11,3-18-19
Index
7
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