CANCELLED UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC) ARCHITECTURE

CANCELLED  UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC) ARCHITECTURE
UFC 3-101-01
28 November 2011
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UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
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ARCHITECTURE
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED
UFC 3-101-01
28 November 2011
Change 1, 19 November 2015
UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
ARCHITECTURE
U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
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Any copyrighted material included in this UFC is identified at its point of use.
Use of the copyrighted material apart from this UFC must have the permission of the
copyright holder.
NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND (Preparing Activity)
AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY
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Record of Changes (changes are indicated by \1\ ... /1/)
Change No. Date
Location
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1 Nov 2015
1. Acoustics criteria added: paragraph 3-7, 4-8,
Figures 4-1, 4-2, 5-3.3, Appendix B-6.6.
2. Added Appendix C Daylighting Best Practices.
This material was revised and relocated from
UFC 3-530-01. Referenced from 3-3.
3. Added requirements of ETL 04-3, Design Criteria
for Prevention of Mold in Air Force Facilities,
which is rescinded upon publication of this UFC:
2-5.2 (moved to 3-5.4), 2-6, 3-2, 3-5.2.1, 3-5.2.3,
3-5.2.4, 3-6.1.3, and 4-6 .
4. Other editorial and formatting changes
throughout (replaced “shall” with “must”).
Paragraphs 2-2.2, 2-6, 3-1, 3-4, 3-5.2, 3-5, 3-6.3,
4-2, 4-6, 4-7, 5-3.3, 5-3.5, and Appendix A,
Appendix B, B-6.6, Appendix D, and Appendix E.
5. Aligned with 1-200-02. Removed dates from
energy standards, dates are in Appendix A.
Modified 5-3.3 12
6. 2-5.1 Added reference to OPNAV M5090.1 for
Radon.
7. Revised underslab insulation 3-4.
8. Incorporated ccr responses: 1619, 1731, 1752,
1753, 1755, 1800, 1840, 1841, 2677, 2736,
3190, 3416, 3442, 3852, 3943, 3992, and 4731.
This UFC supersedes UFC 3-100-10, Architecture (Navy Draft), dated July 2006; MIL HDBK 1190,
Facility Planning and Design; the Atlantic Division Architectural Design Guide and Interior Design
Guide, dated July 2002; SODIV-TG-1001, dated March 1997; and SODIV-TG-1007, dated August 1997.
UFC 3-101-01
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FOREWORD
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The Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) system is prescribed by MIL-STD 3007 and provides
planning, design, construction, sustainment, restoration, and modernization criteria, and applies
to the Military Departments, the Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities in accordance
with USD (AT&L) Memorandum dated 29 May 2002. UFC will be used for all DoD projects and
work for other customers where appropriate. All construction outside of the United States is
also governed by Status of Forces Agreements (SOFA), Host Nation Funded Construction
Agreements (HNFA), and in some instances, Bilateral Infrastructure Agreements (BIA.)
Therefore, the acquisition team must ensure compliance with the most stringent of the UFC, the
SOFA, the HNFA, and the BIA, as applicable.
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UFC are living documents and will be periodically reviewed, updated, and made available to
users as part of the Services’ responsibility for providing technical criteria for military
construction. Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), Naval Facilities
Engineering Command (NAVFAC), and Air Force \2\ Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC) /2/ are
responsible for administration of the UFC system. Defense agencies should contact the
preparing service for document interpretation and improvements. Technical content of UFC is
the responsibility of the cognizant DoD working group. Recommended changes with supporting
rationale should be sent to the respective service proponent office by the following electronic
form: Criteria Change Request. The form is also accessible from the Internet sites listed below.
UFC are effective upon issuance and are distributed only in electronic media from the following
source:
• Whole Building Design Guide web site http://dod.wbdg.org/.
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AUTHORIZED BY:
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Hard copies of UFC printed from electronic media should be checked against the current
electronic version prior to use to ensure that they are current.
JOSEPH E. GOTT, P.E.
Chief, Engineering and Construction
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Chief Engineer
Naval Facilities Engineering Command
TERRY G. EDWARDS, P.E.
MICHAEL McANDREW
Director, Air Force Center for
Engineering and the Environment
Department of the Air Force
Director, Facility Investment and
Management
Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of
Defense (Installations and Environment)
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JAMES C. DALTON, P.E.
UFC 3-101-01
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UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC)
NEW SUMMARY SHEET
Document: UFC 3-101-01 unifies the architectural criteria for DOD.
Superseding: None
Description: Provide a brief description of purpose, scope, and applicability.
Reasons for Changes :
Maximizes use of industry standards to meet DOD requirements.
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Incorporates critical architectural text from Military Handbook 1190,
“FACILITY PLANNING AND DESIGN GUIDE”, dated September, 1987.
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Incorporates additional building envelope criteria that will help meet EPAct
2005, EISA 2007, ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1, and portions of
ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES 189.1 requirements
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Impact: There will be some initial construction cost impacts to meeting the new building
envelope criteria, but there should be long-term life cycle cost savings in reduced
energy usage and building maintenance. The following additional benefits should be
realized.
Assists the government in meeting EPAct 2005 and EISA 2007
requirements.
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By using the industry standards, on-going revision due to industry
changes will minimize the need for future revisions.
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Unification Issues
Referenced space planning criteria is contained in service specific
publications : For Air Force use AFMAN 32-1084, “Facility
Requirements”; for the Army use TM 5-803-5, “Installation Design” and
model design-build RFP and standard designs, as applicable; and for the
Navy use UFC 2-000-05N (P-80), “Facility Planning Criteria for
Navy/Marine Corps Shore Installations” .
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Radon identification guidance is service specific.
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The building envelope must be designed to comply with or exceed
ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES 189.1 paragraph 7.4.2.1. For Air Force
projects, the building envelope must be designed to comply with or exceed
ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1.
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Service differences in Air Barrier Testing criteria are noted in this UFC.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 1
PURPOSE AND SCOPE. .......................................................................... 1
1-2
APPLICABILITY. ....................................................................................... 1
1-3
GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS. ................................................ 1
1-4
REFERENCES. ......................................................................................... 1
1-5
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS. .............................................................. 1
1-6
GLOSSARY ............................................................................................... 2
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1-1
CHAPTER 2 PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING .......................................................... 3
SPACE PLANNING CRITERIA. ................................................................ 3
2-2
BUILDING AREA CALCULATIONS. ........................................................ 3
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2-1
2-2.1
Scope Changes. .................................................................................... 3
2-2.2
Calculation of Gross Building Area. ....................................................... 3
2-3
BUILDING ORIENTATION. ....................................................................... 7
2-4
ARCHITECTURAL STYLE AND CHARACTER. ...................................... 7
Installation Exterior Architectural Guidelines.......................................... 7
2-4.2
Historic Architecture. .............................................................................. 7
2-4.3
Projects in the National Capital Region (NCR). ..................................... 7
HAZARD PREVENTION. .......................................................................... 7
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2-5
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2-4.1
2-5.1
2-6
Radon. ................................................................................................... 8
MECHANICAL/ELECTRICAL/TELECOMMUNICATION ROOMS. .......... 9
CHAPTER 3 BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS ............................................. 11
INTRODUCTION. .................................................................................... 11
3-2
CONTINUITY OF BARRIERS. ................................................................ 11
3-3
FENESTRATION. .................................................................................... 11
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3-1
3-3.1
Selection of Windows and Glazing. ..................................................... 11
3-3.2
Fenestration Design. ............................................................................ 11
3-3.3
Daylighting. .......................................................................................... 12
3-4
INSULATION. .......................................................................................... 12
3-5
MOISTURE BARRIER............................................................................. 12
3-5.1
Water-Resistive Barriers (WRB). ......................................................... 12
3-5.2
Vapor Retarders. ................................................................................. 13
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3-5.3
Waterproofing. ..................................................................................... 15
3-5.4
Mold Mitigation and Prevention............................................................ 15
3-6
AIR BARRIER REQUIREMENTS. .......................................................... 15
New Construction. ............................................................................... 15
3-6.2
Renovations. ........................................................................................ 16
3-6.3
Inspection and Testing. ........................................................................ 16
3-6.4
Mock-ups. ............................................................................................ 17
3-7
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3-6.1
ACOUSTICS - OUTSIDE TO INSIDE NOISE CONTROL ....................... 17
CHAPTER 4 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS................................................................... 19
INTRODUCTION. .................................................................................... 19
4-2
ABOVE-GRADE FINISHED FLOOR ELEVATION. ................................ 19
4-3
PAINT SELECTION................................................................................. 19
4-4
MASONRY .............................................................................................. 19
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4-1
Masonry Control and Expansion Joints. .............................................. 19
4-4.2
Expansion Joint Position and Location. ............................................... 19
4-4.3
Masonry Water-Repellent Coatings. .................................................... 19
4-4.4
Plastic and Membrane Through-Wall Flashing. ................................... 20
4-4.5
Clearance Between Masonry and Back-up Construction. .................... 20
4-4.6
Flashing at Penetrations and Projections. ........................................... 20
4-4.7
Location of Weep Holes. ...................................................................... 20
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4-4.1
EXTERIOR FINISH SYSTEMS (EFS) AND EXTERIOR INSULATION
AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS)............................................................. 20
4-6
GYPSUM BOARD CONSTRUCTION ..................................................... 21
4-7
FIRE-RESISTIVE RATED ASSEMBLIES ............................................... 21
4-8
INTERIOR ACOUSTICS. \1\.................................................................... 21
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CHAPTER 5 PRE-DESIGN, DESIGN AND POST-DESIGN SERVICES...................... 25
5-1
GENERAL. .............................................................................................. 25
5-2
PRE-DESIGN SERVICES. ...................................................................... 25
5-3
DESIGN SERVICES. ............................................................................... 25
5-3.1
Functional Analysis Concept Development (FACD) and Design
Charrettes. ........................................................................................... 25
5-3.2
Architectural Compatibility Submittal. .................................................. 25
5-3.3
Architectural Basis of Design. .............................................................. 27
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5-3.4
Specifications....................................................................................... 29
5-3.5
Architectural Drawings. ........................................................................ 29
5-3.6
Color Boards and Binders. ................................................................... 32
APPENDIX A REFERENCES ....................................................................................... 34
APPENDIX B BEST PRACTICES ................................................................................ 43
INTRODUCTION. .................................................................................... 43
B-2
WHOLE BUILDING DESIGN GUIDE ...................................................... 43
B-3
PLANNING ISSUES. ............................................................................... 43
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B-1
B-3.1
Building Orientation. ............................................................................ 43
B-3.2
Design for Flexibility. ............................................................................ 43
B-3.3
Design for Function and Life Cycle. ..................................................... 44
LANDSCAPING INTERFACE. ................................................................ 44
B-5
LOCAL CONSTRUCTION METHODS, MATERIALS AND SKILLS....... 44
B-6
BUILDING ENVELOPE. .......................................................................... 44
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Heat. .................................................................................................... 45
B-6.2
Air. ....................................................................................................... 46
B-6.3
Moisture. .............................................................................................. 47
B-6.4
Air Barrier Renovations. ....................................................................... 48
B-6.5
Light/Radiation. .................................................................................... 50
B-6.6
Noise.................................................................................................... 50
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B-6.1
B-7
AIR BARRIER MOCK-UP TESTING ....................................................... 50
B-7.1
Guidance on When to Test \1\Mock-ups/1/ .......................................... 50
B-7.2
On Site Mockups. ................................................................................ 50
EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM (EIFS). ...................... 53
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APPENDIX C DAYLIGHTING BEST PRACTICES. ..................................................... 54
C-1
DAYLIGHTING ........................................................................................ 54
C-1.1
Benefits of Daylight. ............................................................................. 54
C-1.2
Maximize Daylight Potential ................................................................. 55
C-1.3
Building Shape..................................................................................... 56
C-1.4
Project Types that Benefit from Daylight .............................................. 57
C-1.5
Economics ........................................................................................... 57
C-2
GLAZING ORIENTATION ....................................................................... 58
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C-3
C-3.1
C-4
C-4.1
C-5
C-5.1
Considerations ..................................................................................... 59
GLAZING CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................. 59
Considerations ..................................................................................... 59
QUANTITY OF GLAZING ....................................................................... 60
Considerations ..................................................................................... 63
GLARE AND CONTRAST CONTROL .................................................... 64
Considerations ..................................................................................... 64
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C-2.1
C-6
AUTOMATED SHADING ........................................................................ 65
C-7
ACTIVE DAYLIGHTING .......................................................................... 66
C-7.1
Solar-adaptive shading ........................................................................ 66
PHYSICAL MODELING .......................................................................... 67
C-9
COMPUTER SIMULATION ..................................................................... 67
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APPENDIX D GLOSSARY ........................................................................................... 69
D-1
ACRONYMS ............................................................................................ 69
D-2
DEFINITION OF TERMS ......................................................................... 72
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FIGURES
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Figure 2-1 Sample Gross Building Area Calculation ....................................................... 5
Figure 2-2 Sample Block Plan ......................................................................................... 6
Figure 3-1 Building Façade Sound Isolation.................................................................. 18
Figure 4-1Interior Acoustic Requirements for Typical Figure Spaces ........................... 22
Figure 4-2 Acoustic Requirements for Typical Facilities ................................................ 23
Figure B-1 Construction Mock-Up Guidance Matrix ...................................................... 52
Figure C-1. Effects of Building Massing on Daylight Availability.................................... 56
Figure C-2 Examples of Daylighting Strategies ............................................................. 57
Figure C-3. Building Orientation Can Maximize Daylight Exposure .............................. 58
Figure C-4. Example of Architectural Shading Devices ................................................. 58
Figure C-5 Diagrams of Toplighting Strategies ............................................................. 61
Figure C-6 Examples of Toplighting Applications .......................................................... 62
Figure C-7 Example of Clerestory Application............................................................... 62
Figure C-8 Examples of Sidelighting Applications ......................................................... 63
Figure C-9 Examples of Roof Shapes ........................................................................... 64
Figure C-10 Example of Splayed Skylights ................................................................... 64
Figure C-11 Example of an Active Daylighting System that Tracks the Sun and Directs
Daylight into the Building. ....................................................................................... 66
Figure C-12 Example of Solar-Adaptive Shading .......................................................... 67
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TABLES
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Table C-1 Comparison of Glass Types (from AlpenGlass Heat Mirror) ......................... 59
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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1-1
PURPOSE AND SCOPE.
1-2
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This UFC provides technical guidance and outlines technical requirements for typical
aspects of architectural design services. Architects must use the information in this
document in the development of plans, specifications, calculations, construction
contract documents, and Design-Build Requests for Proposals (RFP). The information
in this guide serves as the minimum architectural requirements. Project conditions may
dictate the need for designs that exceed these requirements.
APPLICABILITY.
GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS.
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This UFC applies to all agencies of the U.S. Armed Services and their contractors that
are preparing construction contract documents for all Department of Defense-owned
facilities. These criteria are applicable in the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto
Rico, U.S. territories and possessions, and as far as practical, at installations in foreign
countries. This UFC applies to all types of construction regardless of funding, including
properties listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places, as well
as National Guard and Reserve projects constructed on military installations or nonmilitary DoD property. Certain specialized facilities, such as health facilities, carry more
stringent requirements. See UFC or other criteria that are applicable to the respective
specialized facility that is being designed. This UFC is applicable to the traditional
architectural services customary for Design-Bid-Build design services and for DesignBuild construction contracts.
UFC 1-200-01, “General Building Requirements”, provides applicability of model
building codes and government-unique criteria for typical design disciplines and building
systems, as well as for accessibility, antiterrorism, security, sustainability, and safety.
Use this UFC in addition to UFC 1-200-01 and the UFCs and government criteria
REFERENCES.
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Other technical criteria may apply and must be followed as appropriate for each project.
Confirm the most recent required criteria with the Project Manager/Design Manager.
Furthermore, Appendix A of this UFC contains the list of references used in this UFC.
These other publications, standards, and technical data referenced herein form a part of
these criteria to the extent referenced.
1-5
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS.
When performing work for different Activities within the U.S., additional regional or
service-specific requirements apply. Confirm with the Authority Having Jurisdiction
(AHJ) the applicability of any regional requirements. \1\
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GLOSSARY
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Appendix D contains acronyms, abbreviations, and terms./1/
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CHAPTER 2 PLANNING AND PROGRAMMING
2-1
SPACE PLANNING CRITERIA.
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Program non-standardized facility sizes based on a functional analysis of activities to be
accommodated to determine the actual amount of space required. Facility planning
must be based on specific requirements for each project, to include all functional,
technical, and economic considerations, instead of arbitrary allowances. To obtain the
most economical and efficient use of space, design facilities based on the functional
organization of adequately sized spaces. The following publications contain tables of
allowances for general planning purposes, but the final size of each project must be
based on actual requirements:
AFMAN 32-1084, “Facility Requirements”
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TM 5-803-5, “Installation Design” and model design-build RFP and
standard designs, as applicable
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UFC 2-000-05N (P-80), “Facility Planning Criteria for Navy/Marine Corps
Shore Installations”
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The documents above are used to determine general facility requirements. Other
facility-specific UFCs may have more detailed requirements.
2-2
BUILDING AREA CALCULATIONS.
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Include in the Basis of Design the gross floor area calculation to confirm scope and
criteria compliance. Include a block diagram indicating the building outline and all areas
that contribute to the building area. Gross area definitions and calculations must
conform to this UFC. Provide calculations in accordance with Chapter 5 paragraph
Architectural Basis of Design of this document, applying the appropriate factor for full or
half area to each area as defined herein. Figures 2-1 and 2-2 illustrate a sample gross
building area calculation and block diagram.
2-2.1 Scope Changes.
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Changes to scope are governed by Title 10 USC 2853.
2-2.2 Calculation of Gross Building Area.
Other UFCs for specialized facilities such as medical facilities, \1\family housing, or
unaccompanied housing/1/ dictate how to calculate the gross area of those facilities.
For all other facilities, calculate the gross area of a building using the following:
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Enclosed spaces: The gross area includes the total area of all floors,
including mezzanines, basements, penthouses, and other enclosed
spaces as measured from the exterior faces of the exterior walls or from
the centerline of walls separating joined buildings. Enclosed stairwells,
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elevators, utility chases, and mechanical rooms are included as part of the
area of each floor that they occupy. \1\
Unenclosed programmed facilities: For covered outdoor facilities with no
exterior walls, where the area is programmed by the space function (i.e.
walls are not required and only a roof is necessary to perform its
designated function) the facility gross square footage is the total area
measured under the roof. Refer to individual service component planning
documents for programmed areas of these spaces./1/
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One-Half Spaces: Include one-half of the gross area of paved or finished
covered areas, such as balconies and porches, covered but not enclosed
entrances, covered raised loading platforms, covered ground level or
depressed loading facilities, covered but not enclosed walks or
passageways, covered and uncovered but not enclosed exterior stairs,
and covered ramps.
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Excluded Spaces: Exclude the following when the average ceiling height
is less than 7 ft (2.1 m) measured from the underside of a structural
system and with perimeter walls measuring a minimum of 59 in. (1500mm)
in height: mezzanines; interstitial spaces; penthouses; and enclosed crawl
and utility spaces such as tunnels, raceways, and trenches. Also exclude
from the gross area the following: catwalks; mechanical platforms; stairs
on the roof; exterior uncovered walks; ramps; stoops; uncovered loading
platforms or facilities, either depressed, ground level, or raised; open
courtyards; open paved terraces; and roof overhangs, shading devices,
and soffits. Prefabricated enclosures housing equipment are considered
equipment and are also excluded. The void areas of atria are also
excluded. Only include the floor area of the lowest level of atria.
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Figure 2-1 Sample Gross Building Area Calculation
PROJECT TITLE
PROJECT LOCATION
GROSS FLOOR AREA CALCULATION * (SEE BLOCK PLAN EXAMPLE)
124’-6” x 52’-4” =
6515.5 sf
6515.5 sf
605.3 sm
AREAS A1 thru A5 TOTAL
AREA B
Area B
59.5 sf
148.0 sf
79.0 sf
59.5 sf
47.0 sf
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AREAS A1 thru A5 (Exterior Covered – ½ Area)
Area A1
17’-0” x 7’-0” / 2=
Area A2
42’-3” x 7’’-0” / 2=
Area A3
22’-8” x 7’-0” / 2=
Area A4
17’-0” x 7’-0” / 2=
Area A5
10’-6” x 9’-0” / 2=
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AREA A
Area A
AREA A TOTAL
9’-0” x 32’-4” =
AREA B1 (Exterior Covered – ½ Area)
Area B1
9’-0” x 5’-3” / 2=
AREA B1 TOTAL
393.0 sf
36.5 sm
291.0 sf
27.0 sm
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24.0 sf
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24.0 sf
2.2 sm
BUILDING TOTAL GROSS
7,223.5 sf
670.9 sm
SCOPE TOTAL MAX. ALLOWABLE GROSS AREA*
7,224 sf
671 sm
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(PER DD FORM 1391)
*Calculations may be in metric or Inch-pound, as directed by the Government Project
Manager.
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Figure 2-2 Sample Block Plan
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2-3
BUILDING ORIENTATION.
Building siting must be established in consonance with the Base Development Plan and
land use compatibility respective of mission requirements. Building layout and
orientation must optimize site opportunities with regard to functional arrangement,
access, exterior appearance, \1\and views, present and expected future site acoustic
conditions, and other considerations./1/
ARCHITECTURAL STYLE AND CHARACTER.
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Building shape, orientation and design must utilize the site seasonal environmental
factors to minimize annual facility energy use and to optimize daylighting. Coordinate
building and glazing orientation and architectural shading with seasonal solar angles
and prevailing winds to enhance energy performance of the building within the sitespecific micro climate. \1\See Appendix B Best Practices and Appendix C Daylighting
for additional information. /1/
Facilities must be designed in harmony with the surrounding base architecture,
judiciously employing the style and character of architecturally and historically
significant facilities, as appropriate. Constructability, maintainability, and sustainability
must be considered in design in attaining architectural compatibility.
2-4.1 Installation Exterior Architectural Guidelines.
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Most military installations and/or service design agencies have published design
guidelines that contain criteria relative to achieving, maintaining and emphasizing a
positive exterior visual environment. Follow the design guidance contained in these
documents carefully since these are published under the authority of the Secretaries of
the military services. In the absence of such guidelines, design facilities to harmonize
with the character of existing facilities considered historically or architecturally significant
to the area.
2-4.2 Historic Architecture.
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Repair or renovation of historic facilities and new construction near historic facilities
must follow the Secretary of Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for
Rehabilitating Historic Buildings.
2-4.3 Projects in the National Capital Region (NCR).
In accordance with the National Capital Planning Act of 1952, as amended, submit all
master plans and designs for proposed construction projects in the NCR to the National
Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) for appropriate reviews and approvals consistent
with the timelines issued by the NCPC.
2-5
HAZARD PREVENTION.
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Design facilities to comply with 29 CFR Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA).
Pay particular attention to lead and asbestos particulates, which may be lying on top of
materials to be removed, or Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that are part of caulking
and sealant materials that may have been absorbed into adjacent building materials and
need grinding.
2-5.1 Radon.
2-5.1.1
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Evaluate and mitigate Radon per the appropriate Service and Installation regulations.
\1\For Navy requirements follow OPNAV M-5090.1 paragraph 25-3.2 Radon, including
Navy’s Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program (NAVRAMP). /1/
Identification of Radon
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Army and Navy. Check the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA's)
Map of Radon Zones (by state), EPA 402-R-93-071, to determine the radon priority
area.
2-5.1.1.2
Navy \1\. NAVRAMP provides for compliance with the procedural
requirements of the Toxic substances Control Act (TSCA) related to radon. For existing
buildings check the results of the NAVRAMP survey by contacting the NAVFAC Facility
Engineering Command (FEC) Air Pollution Engineer. /1/
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2-5.1.1.3
Air Force. Check the results of the AF Radon Assessment and Mitigation
Program (RAMP) study of 1987. During that study, all Air Force Installations were
screened for radon in existing structures. Installations were classified as being of low,
medium or high risk. Incorporate radon reduction measures in the construction of new
facilities at those installations designated as medium or high risk. See AFI 48-148. For
installations not assessed during the RAMP study of 1987 and for all new, permanent
operating locations, a random sampling of the site’s structures must be assessed for
radon. Consult with the Air Force Institute of Environment, Safety, Occupational Health
and Risk Analysis (AFIERA) for guidance on designing an appropriate sampling
program. Any Installation or operating location found to have a single structure with
radon concentrations greater than the threshold limit listed in AFI 48-148 must undergo
a detailed radon assessment.
2-5.1.1.4 If no data is available for the area or site to make a prediction of radon levels,
then a radon survey must be done or a passive radon mitigation system installed.
2.5.1.2
Radon Mitigation System Design. Provide passive under-slab
depressurization systems for projects located in Priority Areas No. 1 (predicted
average radon level is greater than 4/pCi/L). Change the system to active, if needed,
based on follow-up testing. Check the following EPA documents available from the
EPA Radon Information Center, \1\(703) 356-5345, http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/./1/
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2-6
•
EPA's Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New
Residences, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation
(6604-J), EPA 402-R-94-009,.
•
Radon Prevention in the Design and Construction of Schools and Other
Large Buildings, EPA/625/R-92-016,
•
Radon Measurement in Schools, EPA/402/R-92-014.
MECHANICAL/ELECTRICAL/TELECOMMUNICATION ROOMS.
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Design adequate area for mechanical equipment rooms, electrical rooms, and
telecommunication rooms. \1\Provide sufficient floor-to-floor height, vertical distribution
space, and mechanical equipment space to accommodate a ducted system to supply
preconditioned ventilation air (when a ducted system is used.) /1/ Provide an adequate
volume of space for all building distribution systems and provide access for
maintenance. For mechanical equipment room sizing, coordinate with the mechanical
designer at the earliest stage to ensure the required clearances for maintenance,
servicing, and safety are included. For telecommunications rooms, coordinate with the
electrical designer. \1\ For noise control, refer to Chapter 4 paragraph, Interior
Acoustics./1/
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CHAPTER 3 BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS
3-1
INTRODUCTION.
The building envelope must be designed to comply with or exceed
ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES 189.1 paragraph 7.4.2.1 \1\ and 7.4.2.2./1/ For Air Force
projects, the building envelope must be designed to comply with or exceed
ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1.
3-2
CONTINUITY OF BARRIERS.
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Design the building envelope to control the transfer of the following elements: heat, air,
moisture, light/radiation, and noise. Design each control strategy holistically and use an
integrated approach.
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There are several functions that a building enclosure must fulfill. In order to do so
effectively, the following barriers in the building enclosure must be continuous: the rain
screen or water deflection layer, the insulation or thermal barrier, the air barrier, the
water drainage plane, and the waterproof barrier. It is desirable to have the vapor
retarder as continuous as possible, but unlike the other barriers, it can function
adequately with minor imperfections in continuity. Sometimes it is possible to combine
functions in a single layer, for example, medium density spray polyurethane foam can
be the air barrier, the thermal insulation, the water drainage plane and the vapor
retarder. Continuity of the barriers must be traced through all details of the building
enclosure.
FENESTRATION.
3-3.1
Selection of Windows and Glazing.
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Fenestration is the least energy-efficient component of the building enclosure. Based
on a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA), select windows and glazing with the best possible
performance from a U-factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) and Visible
Transmittance (VT) for the fenestration. Optimize the emissivity coatings to control both
heat gain into the building due to solar radiation and heat loss from the building. Select
framing that includes advanced thermal breaks of polyester-reinforced nylon. Wherever
possible, select systems that incorporate pressure-equalized technology—face-sealed
systems eventually break down and leak. Include flashings under fenestration in an
appropriate manner. \1\Fenestration must meet both code and UFC 4-010-01 Antiterrorism Force Protection (ATFP) requirements./1/
3-3.2
Fenestration Design.
Develop a comprehensive design that considers both exterior shading devices,
including horizontal sunscreens and vertical fins (beneficial in hot southern climates),
and interior shading devices (necessary to control glare when direct solar intrusion is
inevitable). Optimize the window-to-wall ratio to (1) reduce lighting energy when using
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daylighting controls and (2) avoid the glare and added energy consumption that can
result from large window areas. Glazing areas above 7 ft. (2135mm) high are useful in
increasing daylight penetration, especially when coupled with light-reflecting shelves.
\1\Base design on life cycle cost effectiveness. /1/
Selection between windows, storefront and curtain wall must be coordinated with the
structural design. Final fenestration design must be coordinated with the mechanical
and electrical engineers to comply with overall facility energy requirements\1\
Daylighting.
ED
3-3.3
Daylighting must comply with UFC 1-200-02 paragraph 2.5.3. See Appendix C for
daylighting best practices. Use Appendix C-5 for strategies to optimize daylight entering
the space while minimizing the effects of solar heat gain and glare.
INSULATION.
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Where 3-1 Introduction requires insulation for slab-on-grade floors, use high-density
(40-100 psi depending on floor loading with a safety factor of 5) extruded polystyrene
under the vapor retarder. Apply requirements of ASCE 32-01 to keep soils thawed to
minimize frost action in cold regions. Coordinate final assembly U-Factors with the
mechanical engineer to comply with overall facility energy requirements. /1/
MOISTURE BARRIER.
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Protect all insulation from weather, including rain, ultra-violet solar radiation, mechanical
abuse, compression, or accidental or deliberate movement from its location during its
service life. Coordinate insulation and its installation with the moisture analysis
described in Chapter 3, Vapor Retarders.
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A building should be wrapped on all “six” sides with a moisture barrier to deflect water
from its surface. A moisture barrier may be a waterproof layer or a water-resistant
material shingled to shed water, depending on the slope. Water-resistive barriers
(WRBs) may not perform as a waterproofing material if subjected to hydrostatic water
pressure. Some WRBs can be vapor permeable, some can be vapor retarders and
some can be air barriers. Seal all penetrations of the moisture barrier.
Establish the specific functions of the membrane and its position relative to the other
materials in the assembly determined so that its properties can be correctly selected
and a “moisture balance” (more drying than increase in moisture content) will occur in
the building assemblies.
3-5.1
Water-Resistive Barriers (WRB).
Wall assemblies must incorporate a WRB (meeting the requirements of Chapter 14 of
the International Building Code (IBC) as a minimum) in the back-up wall behind the
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cladding, with flashings to lead water out. This is true for all claddings, including
exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS). \1\
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3-5.1.1
Flashing. All copings and sills must receive through-wall flashing under
them. /1/In order to direct moisture out of a cavity through weep holes, provide
continuous flashing at the bottom of the cavity and wherever the cavity is interrupted
by elements such as shelf angles, lintels and penetrations. Extend flashing through
the outer masonry face and turn down at 450 to form a drip. Do not terminate throughwall flashing behind the exterior face. Install through-wall flashing over all openings,
sills, spandrels, shelf angles and parapet copings. Where flashing is not continuous,
such as over openings and at sills, extend flashing ends beyond the lintel on both
sides and turn up into the head joint two inches at each end to form an end dam.
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Penetrations such as windows and louvers in the exterior wall assemblies must have
pan flashing installed in the rough opening sill. This pan sill flashing must have end
dams at both jambs a minimum of 2 in. (50 mm) high and a rear dam of 2 in. (50 mm)
high. Comply with ASTM E 2112, the requirements in Chapter 4, Masonry, and the
SMACNA Architectural Sheet Metal Manual recommendations.\1\
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3-5.1.2
Waterproofing, Damproofing, and Waterstops /1/Counteract belowgrade transfer of water through walls by damp-proofing or waterproofing on walls,
depending on hydrostatic pressure and drainage capability. Minimize capillary suction
of water upwards from wet footings can be minimized by troweling a layer of
cementitious crystalline waterproofing into the wet concrete on top of footings or by
including a waterproofing admixture in the footing concrete mix. Footing drains and
under-slab drainage must be incorporated based on the recommendations of the
geotechnical engineering report. Waterstops must be provided at all concrete cold
joints near or below grade. If required to address hydrostatic pressure or as
recommended by the geotechnical report, provide drainage planes combined with
waterproofing material and a footing drain on below- grade walls.
3-5.2
Vapor Retarders.
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3-5.2.1
Building Envelope Vapor Retarders. \1\Design the building envelope
to control the movement of moisture and air with the effective use of water vapor
retarders and air infiltration barriers. Design envelope sections to prevent
condensation on interior surfaces or within wall/roof sections that would support mold
growth. Follow vapor retarder requirements listed in the IBC Section 1405. For
building enclosure systems or environmental conditions not covered by IBC Article
1405, design the enclosure using simplified or transient design tools referenced in the
ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Chapter 25, Heat, Air and Moisture Control in
Buildings, and the following sections. Do not provide multiple vapor retarders that trap
moisture between the retarders. Select vapor retarders in accordance with ASTM C
755. Based on the results of the analysis described in this section, design the
assemblies for appropriate diffusion control.
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3-5.2.1.1
Vapor pressure differential calculation /1/First determine the vapor
pressure difference between indoor and outdoor climates. For exterior vapor
pressure, use the mean outdoor dry bulb and dew-point temperatures for the coldest
and hottest months in UFC 3-400-02, “Design: Engineering Weather Data”. If the
vapor pressure difference is less than 0.25” Hg (847 Pa), place the vapor retarder with
appropriate permeance for the application on the predominantly high vapor pressure
side of the assembly.\1\
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3-5.2.1.2 Vapor pressure differential greater than 0.25 Hg (847 Pa). \1\If the
vapor pressure difference between indoor and outdoor climates is greater than 0.25” Hg
(847 Pa), perform a job-specific \1\simplified or transient/1/ vapor transmission
(hygrothermal) analysis for walls, roofs, and exposed floors (and floors over
crawlspaces) based on project specific climate as defined by UFC 3-400-02, “Design:
Engineering Weather Data,” and the specified components and materials.\1\/1/ Indicate
the temperature and relative humidity for the inside and the outside of the building; a
complete listing of building components, including the vapor retarder, their thickness,
location, thermal resistance and permanence; and building location and use. \1\
3-5.2.1.2.1 Simplified Hygrothermal Analysis. /1/Use the steady state
dewpoint or Glaser methods described in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals
(Chapter 25) using the mean outdoor dry bulb and dew point temperatures for the
hottest and coldest months. \1\
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3-5.2.1.2.2 Transient Hygrothermal Analysis. /1/Use a mathematical model
that simulates transient hygrothermal conditions such as WUFI/ORNL (ASTM Manual
40 reviews these models).\1\ If the WUFI model is selected, use the climate data
included in the WUFI program in lieu of UFC 3-400-02./1/ Users of such methods must
understand their limitations, and interpretation of the analysis results must be done by
a trained person to reasonably extrapolate field performance approaching the design
results. For the mathematical model method, use interior conditions based on a
dewpoint of 53°F (12°C) in summer conditions and a dewpoint of 40°F (5°C) in winter
conditions. The maximum threshold must be a surface relative humidity of 80%
averaged over a period of 30 days to achieve a successful building enclosure
assembly for temperatures between 40°F and 120°F (5°C and 50°C) and other criteria
described in Chapter 6 of ASHRAE Standard 160. These are thresholds above which
mold can grow and building assemblies deteriorate.\1\/1/
3-5.2.2
Floor Slab Vapor Retarders. Floor slabs on grade with non-permeable
floor finishes must always have a vapor retarder of 0.05 perms or less meeting the
requirements of ASTM E 1745 Class A. Non-permeable floor finishes include (but are
not limited to) epoxy, polyurethane, vinyl, linoleum and rubber. Under slab vapor
retarders must be durable enough to withstand construction activity and must be
terminated around the perimeter and penetrations detailed according to the
manufacturer’s instructions. Additionally, specifications must require measurement of
slab relative humidity in accordance with ASTM F 2170 to meet the requirements of
the floor finish manufacturer or must include an application of a topical moisture
mitigation material. Concrete mix for floor slabs on grade with non-permeable floor
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finishes must be normal-weight, moisture-cured, with a water/cement ratio of between
0.4 and 0.45; use a high-range water reducing admixture as necessary.
ED
3-5.2.3
Roof Vapor Retarders. Provide moisture analysis of the roof assemblies
per Chapter 3, Building Envelope Vapor Retarders. Roof assemblies on concrete
slabs must always include a vapor retarder on top of the concrete and a vented metal
deck to control construction moisture in the concrete from affecting roof assemblies.
However, low slope roof assemblies using rigid insulation must be designed without a
vapor retarder whenever possible. \1\ Install vapor retarder in accordance with
guidance in the NRCA Roofing and Waterproofing Manual.
3-5.2.4
Ventilated Spaces. Ventilate spaces created outside the roof/ceiling
vapor retarder. For sloped roofs, ventilation must comply with the IBC Section 1203
Ventilation. Ensure that moisture transfer from ventilated attics into the building is
minimized./1/
Waterproofing.
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3-5.3
Use waterproofing membranes to protect the interior of the building when there is
hydrostatic pressure due to a high water-table below grade or when there is paving,
landscaping or a vegetated roof. \1\/1/
3-5.4
Mold Mitigation and Prevention.
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\1\The presence of moisture in the materials of a project can promote the growth of
fungi or mold and pose a hazard to the occupants, construction workers, and the design
team. During construction, implement protective measures to ensure that the
construction process adequately shelters the materials to prevent mold growth and
material degradation. Remove wet products subject to mold development. See Chapter
3, Moisture Barrier, for more information on designing to prevent mold development./1/
For mold mitigation on Navy projects, refer to Navy Interim Technical Guide FY03-04
NAVFAC Mold Response Manual. \1\/1/
AIR BARRIER REQUIREMENTS.
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3-6.1
New Construction.
3-6.1.1
Design, construct and test the building enclosure with a continuous air
barrier to control air leakage in accordance with the requirements of
ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES 189.1 Normative Appendix B, “Prescriptive Continuous
Air Barrier” as indicated herein. For semi-heated spaces, provide the continuous air
barrier in climate zones 3 to 8. Clearly identify all air barrier components of each
envelope assembly on construction documents and detail the joints, interconnections
and penetrations of the air barrier components. Clearly identify the boundary limits of
the building air barriers and of the zone or zones to be tested for building air tightness
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on the drawings. Include the statement of the calculated six-sided area of the air
barrier envelope on the drawings for each test area.
3-6.1.2
Trace a continuous plane of air-tightness throughout the building
envelope and make flexible and seal all moving joints. Air barrier requirements must be
verified per the requirements noted below in Chapter 3, Inspection and Testing.
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3-6.1.3
Seal all penetrations of the air barrier. Unavoidable penetrations of the air
barrier (such as electrical boxes, plumbing fixture boxes, and other assemblies that are
not airtight) must be made airtight by sealing the assembly and the interface between
the assembly and the air barrier or by extending the air barrier over the assembly. The
air barrier must be durable to last the anticipated service life of the assembly. Do not
install lighting fixtures with ventilation holes through the air barrier. \1\Seal all openings
around doors and windows, lintels, utility penetrations, seams in vapor retarders and air
barriers, intersections of walls, roofs, floors, and foundation walls. Install non-permeable
sill gaskets between floors and the bottom plate of exterior walls. Flash all windows and
exterior doors with corrosion-resistant flashing to prevent water intrusion into the wall
cavity. Provide design details in design drawings for these requirements. Provide details
to minimize thermal bridging, especially at door and window frames and the
intersections of walls and roofs./1/
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3-6.1.4
Provide low-leakage damper when applicable and control to close all
ventilation or make-up air intakes and exhausts, atrium smoke exhausts and intakes,
etc. when leakage can occur during inactive periods. A damper must not be provided
on the vents for battery charging rooms since these vents are provided to prevent
accumulation of hydrogen gas. Coordinate these requirements with the mechanical
engineer.
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3-6.1.5
Compartmentalize garages under buildings by providing vestibules at
building access points. Provide vestibules at building entrances with high traffic.
Compartmentalize spaces under negative pressure such as boiler rooms and laundry
rooms, and provide make-up air for combustion.
3-6.2
Renovations.
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When a building is undergoing a major renovation of the building envelope, see
Appendix B, Air Barrier Renovations, for guidance.
3-6.3
Inspection and Testing.
\1\Continuous air barrier inspection and testing must/1/ be in accordance with the
requirements of ASHRAE 189.1 Normative Appendix B, “Prescriptive Continuous Air
Barrier” with the following exceptions:
•
For Army and Navy projects the building air leakage rate must not exceed
0.25 cfm/ft2 (1.25 L/s-m2) when tested.
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•
For Air Force projects the building air leakage rate must be determined by
testing to 0.2 in. water (50 Pa) and extrapolating the test results to 0.3 in.
water (75 Pa). The building air leakage rate for Air Force projects must
not exceed 0.4 cfm/ft2 (2.00 L/s-m2) when test results are extrapolated to
0.3 inches water (75 Pa). Use of 0.2 inches water (50 Pa) test pressure
allows for the use of the building HVAC system to provide test pressure.
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Other approved method of whole building airtightness testing include: ASTM E741\1\/1/;
for diagnostic air leakage testing, ASTM E1186 and ASTM C1060 or ISO 6781 can be
used. Detailed inspection and testing requirements and acceptance criteria must be
included in the project specifications. \1\Use UFGS Section 07 05 23 Pressure Testing
an Air Barrier System for Air Tightness in the project specifications./1/
The following facility air barriers require inspection only:
Those facility types outside the scope of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1
•
Buildings and conditioned spaces under 5,000 ft.2 (465 m2)
•
Semi-heated buildings
•
Hangar bays, maintenance bays, or similar area
•
Building additions onto non-renovated structures if the interface cannot be
adequately sealed for testing
Mock-ups.
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Mockups for air barrier installation require approval by the AHJ. See Appendix B, Best
Practices for guidance. \1\
ACOUSTICS - OUTSIDE TO INSIDE NOISE CONTROL
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Design the facility to provide a comfortable inside acoustical environment that limits
exterior noise intrusion to noise sensitive spaces. Develop a comprehensive acoustical
design for individual facilities based on the acoustic analysis that uses the tools below.
Identify outside noise sources. Utilize the Air Installation Compatible Use Zones (AICUZ)
map and determine the Day Night Average Sound Level (DNL) or Community Noise
Equivalent Level (CNEL) level of the project site. In addition to the AICUZ map noise
level, determine if other noise sources are near the project site. Other noise sources
include engine test facilities, vehicle traffic, rail line, target ranges, or any site noise
source that can be identified. Determine if any of the following noise sources are within
the following distances:
•
Major Road within 1,000 ft. (305 m) project site
•
Rapid Transit Line or Rail Line within 3,000 ft. (915 m) of project site
•
Engine Test Facility within 3,000 ft. (915 m) of project site
•
Firing Range within 3,000 ft. (915 m) of project site
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ED
If an AICUZ map is unavailable for the project site or a noise generating element
including the above listed items is within specified distances, the project will require an
acoustical engineer to conduct an analysis including a site noise test for a continuous
72 hours to determine the DNL or CNEL. The measurement period shall include 2
weekdays and 1 weekend day to capture typical site activity and conducted in
accordance to ANSI S12.9 Parts 1 & 2 – Quantities and Procedures for Description and
Measurement of Environmental Sound. Based on the AICUZ map and/or testing results,
the table below summarizes the required composite Outdoor Indoor Transmission Class
(OITC) values for the building envelope.
Figure 3-1 Building Façade Sound Isolation
(1)
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Required Composite Isolation of Building Façade and
Roof Construction Based on Interior Background Noise Levels
Interior
Exterior Sound Level at the Site (DNL or CNEL)
Background
(2)
< 65 dBA 65 dBA - 70 dBA 70 dBA - 75 dBA > 75 dBA
Noise Level
NC-25 or Lower
OITC 35
OITC 40
OITC 45
OITC 50
NC-30
OITC 30
OITC 35
OITC 40
OITC 45
NC-35
OITC 28
OITC 30
OITC 35
OITC 40
Above NC-35
OITC 25
OITC 28
OITC 30
OITC 35
1. Composite calculations shall include all envelope elements including doors, windows,
louvers, openings, etc.
2. Equivalent RC Mark II noise levels may be used.
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If the project site has both AICUZ map information and site noise testing
measurements, the more stringent criteria will be applicable.
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CHAPTER 4 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
4-1
INTRODUCTION.
The following requirements address specific design elements. Many of these
requirements represent solutions to specific problems experienced on new and
renovation DoD facility projects.
ABOVE-GRADE FINISHED FLOOR ELEVATION.
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4-2
\1\Provide a minimum of 18 in. (455 mm) clear space above finished grade for light
frame wood or metal floor construction. /1/
4-3
PAINT SELECTION.
4-4
MASONRY
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Base paint selection on Master Painters Institute’s (MPI’s) Detailed Performance
Standards for the coating materials and MPI’s Architectural Painting Specification
Manual for the system. Do not use MPI’s “Intended Use” standards. Refer to the
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standards for painting steel and
concrete structures, particularly in marine and other severe environmental locations.
Coordinate paint selection with Chapter 3, Moisture Barrier.
Masonry Control and Expansion Joints.
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Comply with the Brick Industry Association (BIA) Technote 7, Technote 18A, and
Technote 21 for specific brick masonry recommendations and other topic-specific
technotes as applicable.
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Non-load bearing exterior masonry walls are often thermally isolated from the building
by insulation and are therefore subjected to differential movement. Design a series of
vertical and horizontal expansion joints to permit this differential movement. Masonry
damage occurs most often when sufficient expansion and control joints are not
provided.
4-4.2
Expansion Joint Position and Location.
No single recommendation for positioning and spacing of vertical expansion joints can
be applicable to all structures. Analyze each building to determine the potential
horizontal and vertical movements, and make provisions to relieve excessive stress that
might be expected to result from such movement. Place expansion and/or crack control
joints in accordance with BIA Technote 18A. Place expansion joints symmetrically on
building elevations. Indicate expansion joints on the contract drawings.
4-4.3
Masonry Water-Repellent Coatings.
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The use of a non-breathable, clear masonry water-repellent coating to prevent water
penetration is prohibited. Determine the source or reason for moisture problems before
resorting to a breathable (silane-siloxane-based) clear masonry water-repellent on
repair projects.
4-4.4
Plastic and Membrane Through-Wall Flashing.
Plastic flashings and asphalt-impregnated felt flashings are prohibited.
Clearance Between Masonry and Back-up Construction.
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4-4.5
Provide a 1-in. (25-mm) minimum clear dimension from the face of cavity insulation or
sheathing material to the back of the exterior wythe of masonry. See ACI 530 for
additional information. See BIA Technote 21 for additional guidance.
Flashing at Penetrations and Projections.
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Do not design structural steel frame members to be exposed inside a cavity wall.
Provide flashing at all penetrations exposed into the cavity such as columns or beams,
and at floor slabs, wall projections and recesses, and wall bases. All projections,
recesses and caps must be flashed and sloped away from the wall to ease drainage.
4-4.7
Location of Weep Holes.
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Provide open head joint weeps at all through-wall flashing for brick masonry. Locate
weeps on the same course as the flashing. Space weep holes at 24 in. (610 mm) on
center for brick masonry and 32 in. (815 mm) on center for concrete masonry. Locate
weeps above the level of the finished grade, including landscape mulching, to prevent
the weeps from becoming clogged with foreign material. Weeps must be designed to
be open head joints with corrugated plastic inserts only. Provide masonry vents at top
of walls and below continuous shelf angles. These provide better ventilation of cavity
spaces to prevent buildup of warm, moist air at the tops of cavities.
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4-5
EXTERIOR FINISH SYSTEMS (EFS) AND EXTERIOR INSULATION
AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS).
Selection of EFS and EIFS systems must be based on a LCCA that considers
maintenance requirements and frequency of recoating. \1\Use only self-draining EIFS
systems./1/ Do not install EFS and EIFS within 6 in (150 mm) of grade, or in areas
where it will be subject to abuse by moving vehicles or equipment, such as a loading
dock. Do not use EIFS in areas of heavy pedestrian traffic, or if such use cannot be
avoided, specify high-impact resistant system. Use high-impact systems a minimum of
4 ft. (1220 mm) above grade where subject to damage from pedestrian traffic or lawn
maintenance equipment. Construction documents must provide specific design details
for windows, trim, expansion joints, and drainage planes. Comply with the criteria listed
in the latest version of EIFS Standards & ICC-ES Acceptance Criteria document
produced by the EIFS Industry Members Association (EIMA). Where EIFS is applied to
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a (side) wall which has an eave from the roof, a premolded polypropylene / PVC kickout
flashing will be used to channel the water away from the exterior wall.
4-6
ED
In areas with design wind loads up to 35 psf (170 Kg/m2) (118 mph or 190km/h),
adhered EIFS must only be permitted provided the EIFS assembly includes a minimum
5/8-in.- (16-mm-) thick glass-fiber-faced siliconized gypsum sheathing fastened with
corrosion-resistant screws that have a minimum 3/8-in- (10-mm-) diameter washer
heads fastened to engineered light-gage metal framing spaced 16 in (405 mm) on
center with screws spaced 4 in (100 mm) on center. In areas with higher wind speeds,
the contractor must provide mechanically fastened assemblies and evidence of testing
the proposed assemblies to wind-loads in accordance with ASCE/SEI 7.
GYPSUM BOARD CONSTRUCTION
FIRE-RESISTIVE RATED ASSEMBLIES
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Use glass mat gypsum (paperless or non-cellulose facing) sheathing for exterior
applications, and use \1\ glass mat or moisture/mold resistant gypsum wall board for the
interior face of exterior walls (prevents food source for mold). On exterior walls, use
only interior wall finishes that allow water vapor within the wall to escape into the
conditioned space. Do not use vinyl wall coverings, oil-based paint, and other vaporresistant materials as interior finishes for exterior walls. Use cementitious wall board
as a tile base for wet and high-moisture areas such as showers and commercial kitchen
spaces. Comply with IBC Section 2509 Showers and Water Closets.
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Use the UL Fire Rated Assemblies Directory or Nationally Recognized Testing
Laboratories for design of fire-resistance-rated wall, floor and roof assemblies \1\in
addition to IBC Section 721Prescriptive Fire Resistance and Section 722 Calculated
Fire Resistance./1/
4-8
INTERIOR ACOUSTICS. \1\
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Design for acoustics carefully, in order to coordinate with the architecture, mechanical
and structural design. A comprehensive acoustical design must include considerations
for sound isolation, building mechanical system noise and vibration control, and room
finishes.
There are basically two types of sound transmission; airborne and structure-borne.
Airborne sound is transmitted through the air (i.e., music). Structure-borne sound is
transmitted through a material by vibrations and re-radiated to another point (i.e., upper
floor foot traffic). Sound transmission requirements are performance- based. Refer to
the Glossary in this guidance for added explanations and definitions of acoustical terms
such as STC (Sound Transmission Class), NIC (Noise Isolation Class), etc.
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The following table provides acoustic requirements (required NIC) for common facility
and space types.
Figure 4-1 Interior Acoustic Requirements for Typical Figure Spaces
Space Acoustic Requirements
Sound Isolation
Partitions
(4)
(1)
Doors
(2)
NIC 50 or greater
Unaccompanied
Housing (UH)
NIC 45
NIC 20
Child Care
NIC 45
NIC 20
Clinic/ Health Unit
NIC 45
NIC 20
Conference Room
NIC 45 or greater
25 or greater
NIC 45
NIC 25
Classroom
Reverberation
Time
25
< 1.0 sec
30
n/a
35
< 0.8 sec
35
< 1.0 sec
30
< 0.8 sec
35
< 0.6 sec
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NIC 55 or greater
Auditorium
Background
(3)
Noise Level
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Facility/ Space
Type
NIC 65 or greater
55 or greater
n/a
n/a
Food Service
NIC 50
20 or greater
40
< 1.4 sec
Hearing Room
NIC 50
NIC 30
30
0.6-0.7 sec
Laboratory: Dry
NIC 45
NIC 20
45
< 1.4 sec
Library
NIC 45
NIC 25
40
< 1.2 sec
Open Office
Private Office
(6)
(5)
n/a
NIC n/a
NIC 30-45
NIC 20
35
NIC 50
NIC 30
30
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Place of Worship
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Firing Range
40
< 1.0 sec
n/a
0.8-1.4 sec
(7)
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1. Sound Isolation requirements are stated in terms of Noise Isolation Class (NIC), a field performance
metric.
2. NIC requirements for most doors (NIC 25 and below) can be achieved by using door seals on
standard doors. For higher sound isolation requirements, consider using a vestibule, sound rated
door(s) or a combination of the two.
3. Background Noise Level requirements are stated in terms of Noise Criteria (NC) or RC Mark II
levels. NC and RC Mark II levels are considered equivalent for design purposes; however,
RC Mark II noise levels provide additional means to describe the quality of a sound for assessment
purposes.
4. Assumes space is primarily used for speech functions. Multipurpose auditoria with music
programming shall have criteria established by the Government or project acoustical consultant in
the response to a proposal.
5. Consider a sound masking system if privacy is important in open office areas. A sound masking
system will not alleviate NIC project requirements in other areas of a building. Refer to ASTM E2638
for additional information regarding privacy design considerations in open office areas
6. Criteria dependent on privacy requirements of the occupants.
7. Criteria to be refined by the Government or project acoustical consultant based on specific worship
type.
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If a space type is not included in the above table, the following standards include interior
acoustic requirements for other space/building types.
Figure 4-2 Acoustic Requirements for Typical Facilities
Facility/ Space
Type
Reference Standard to Meet Project
(1, 2)
Acoustic Requirements
Sound
Isolation
Background
Noise Level
Room
Finishes
Mechanical System
Noise & Vibration
ASHRAE Fundamentals
Handbook, Ch. 48 –
Noise & Vibration Control
(see pages 48.42-48.51)
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Housing
• UH
• Multifamily
Residences
• Single Family
Residences
ANSI S12.60
Parts 1 and 2
ANSI S12.60 Parts
1 and 2
IBC 2012
(See Section
1207)
ASHRAE
Fundamentals
UFC 3-450-01,
Handbook, Ch. 48
Noise and
– Noise & Vibration
Vibration Control
Control
(see page 48.3)
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Child Facilities
• Child Care
• Day Care
• Child Development
• K-12 Schools
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Administrative/ Office
ASHRAE
Buildings
GSA
PBS-P100
GSA PBS-P100 ASHRAE Fundamentals
Fundamentals
• Open Offices
(see Section
(see Section
Handbook, Ch. 48
Handbook, Ch. 48 –
• Private Offices
3.13, pages 76- – Noise & Vibration 3.13, pages 76- Noise & Vibration Control
• Conference Rooms
Control
79)
79)
(see pages 48.42-48.51)
• Training Rooms
(see page 48.3)
• Lobbies
ANSI S12.60
Parts 1 and 2
ASHRAE Fundamentals
Handbook, Ch. 48 –
Noise & Vibration Control
(see pages 48.42-48.51)
FGI – Sound &
Vibration: Design
Guidelines for
Health Care
Facilities
FGI – Sound &
Vibration: Design
Guidelines for
Health Care
Facilities
FGI – Sound &
Vibration: Design
Guidelines for
Health Care
Facilities
FGI – Sound & Vibration:
Design Guidelines for
Health Care Facilities
NIH – Design
Requirements
Manual
NIH – Design
Requirements
Manual
(see page 6-96)
NIH – Design
Requirements
Manual
(see Section4-4)
NIH – Design
Requirements Manual
(see pages 5-11 through
5-12 and 6-97 through 6100)
Secure Areas for
Classified Information
Management
ASHRAE 189
Fundamentals
IC Tech Spec for Handbook, Ch. 48
ICD/ICS 705
– Noise & Vibration
Control
(see page 48.3)
GSA PBS-P100
(see Section
3.13, pages
76-79)
ASHRAE Fundamentals
Handbook, Ch. 48 –
Noise & Vibration Control
(see pages 48.42-48.51)
Legal Facilities
• Courts
• Associated Court
Support Spaces
U.S. Courts
Design Guide
(see pages 14-5
and 14-6)
U.S. Courts Design
Guide
(see pages 14-5
and 14-6)
U.S. Courts
Design Guide
(see pages 14-5
and 14-6)
ASHRAE Fundamentals
Handbook, Ch. 48 –
Noise & Vibration Control
(see pages 48.42-48.51)
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Medical Care
•
Hospitals
•
Clinics
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Research Facilities
• Laboratories
• Associated Lab
Support Spaces
1. Page numbers and sections referenced are intended to facilitate quick reference of the above standards
and not exclude the requirements in the rest of the document.
2. Requirements in the above referenced standards do not supersede requirements stated in Figure 4-2 if
there is a discrepancy.
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.
Spaces that handle classified information must comply with specific criteria to maintain
privacy for Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities (SCIF) or other information
sensitive spaces. Specialty spaces including television and radio broadcast facilities,
music auditoria, large lecture halls (50 people or more), network operations centers, or
other spaces will require an acoustical consultant as an integral member of the design
team..
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For additional information, the following references include explanations, guidelines,
design strategies and prediction tools to aid in meeting the above required acoustic
criteria.
UFC 3-450-01 “Noise and Vibration Control”
•
Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition
•
The Noise Guidebook, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Development
•
Sound Matters from General Services Administration
•
ANSI/ASA S12.2, Criteria for Evaluating Room Noise
•
ASTM E1130, Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of
Speech Privacy in Open Plan Spaces Using Articulation Index
•
ASTM E2638, Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of the
Speech Privacy Provided by a Closed Room
•
INSUL Sound Prediction Software, www.insul.co.nz
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/1/
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CHAPTER 5 PRE-DESIGN, DESIGN AND POST-DESIGN SERVICES
5-1
GENERAL.
Provide architectural design services in accordance with this chapter. For the Navy,
also provide architectural design services in accordance with UFC 1-300-09N, “Design
Procedures”
PRE-DESIGN SERVICES.
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5-2
5-3
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This process involves meeting with the using activity and reviewing the requirements for
a new project and the preparation of the programming document, the DD Form 1391,
for presentation to Congress. For Navy projects, the preparation of the DD Form 1391
uses the Electronic Project Generator, EPG. For Army and Air Force projects, use the
DD Form 1391 Processor System. Government personnel normally complete this
process, but often an Architect/Engineer is contracted to provide planning support for
preliminary programming, studying functional adjacencies, providing sketches, and
other design-related support. Often, a charrette-like process is used to define the user's
requirements.
DESIGN SERVICES.
Provide the following design services unless modified by the contract.
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5-3.1
Functional Analysis Concept Development (FACD) and Design
Charrettes.
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FACDs and design charrettes are cooperative efforts by the design team, user/customer
representatives, Government design and contract personnel, and other interested
parties. They may last a few days, or a week or more, and include on-site development
of a consensus conceptual design in response to functional, aesthetic, environmental,
base planning, site, budgetary, and other requirements. For Air Force projects, the
final document is called a Customer Concept Document (CCD). The scope of FACDs,
CCDs, and design charrettes are project specific and will be defined in the Scope of
Work.
5-3.2
Architectural Compatibility Submittal.
If the Scope of Work or Statement of Work for a project requires an Architectural
Compatibility Submittal, it must meet or exceed the requirements herein. On high
visibility projects the A&E may be asked to provide a presentation of this submittal. If a
project does not require a separate Architectural Compatibility Submittal, the Architect
must address exterior building design and compatibility in the Basis of Design, as
defined herein, using installation and major command architectural compatibility
guides/plans.
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When required, the Architectural Compatibility Submittal documents the exterior
architectural design of a new facility or major renovation. Determine architectural
compatibility at the concept stage of the project. This submittal must provide adequate
documentation that indicates that the materials, colors, and design elements used on
the exterior of the building are compatible with other structures nearby and with other
design guidance required by the installation or customer. In addition, it must clearly
show that the design meets the requirements of Chapter 2, Architectural Style and
Character.
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5-3.2.1
Architectural Review Board. An Architectural Review Board reviews
the Architectural Compatibility Submittal. The Architectural Review Board is a panel of
architects, engineers, and landscape architects. The Review Board must include a
member or members of the using activity (user) of the building or facility.
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5-3.2.2
Exterior Finish and Color Schedule. The Architect is responsible for
selection and coordination of all final exterior finish and color selections using
installation architectural guidelines, after obtaining input from the using activity and the
Government’s architectural reviewer. Indicate these selections on a comprehensive
schedule located on the contract drawings.
5-3.2.3
Format. The Architectural Compatibility Submittal consists of the
following four elements:
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5-3.2.3.1
Statement of Compatibility. Provide a brief description of the design,
stating concisely the architectural compatibility of the project with respect to the
existing nearby permanent facilities and the Exterior Architectural Guidelines, if
applicable. Include not only building characteristics, but also a site analysis, visual
environment concept, and appropriateness of construction materials and colors.
5-3.2.3.2
Drawings. Provide the following drawings:
1. Site Plan – Indicate site boundaries, building locations (existing, proposed,
and future), drives and roads, parking, pedestrian circulation, pedestrian
and service entrances, landscaping, and antiterrorism boundaries.
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2. Floor Plans – Indicate main entrances, service areas, room designations,
and exterior stairs and ramps.
3. Elevations – Provide all building elevations, and indicate all exterior
materials, architectural characteristics and design elements. As an option,
also provide concept renderings.
5-3.2.3.3
Exterior Color Boards. Provide actual samples of all exterior materials
and colors. When matching existing materials and colors, it is not sufficient to state,
“match existing.”
5-3.2.3.4
Photographs. Provide sufficient digital photographs to indicate the
character of the existing nearby facilities that have influence on the architectural
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design of the project. Reference photograph locations on the Site Plan or with a key
plan.
5-3.3
Architectural Basis of Design.
The Basis of Design is a written document that describes the project at the Preliminary
Stage and is updated at each subsequent stage. Include the following items:
Scope of Work – State and summarize the architectural program or scope of
work, listing the overall square footage, the function of the facility and a
tabulation of rooms with square footages of each space.
2.
Type of Construction - Describe the type of construction selected and justify
its use relative to building permanency, life cycle cost, functionality, and fire
resistance. Coordinate with the Fire Protection Engineer.
3.
Life Safety Code Analysis - Provide an analysis of the design to include the
required number of exits, travel distances, egress capacity of exits, and fire
area separations. Coordinate with the Fire Protection Engineer.
4.
Gross Floor Area Calculations - Provide complete area breakdown tabulation
for gross and net areas to confirm scope and statutory criteria compliance.
Provide a supplemental drawing keyed to the area take-off and indicating
method of take-off. Calculation and drawing guidance is furnished in Chapter
2.
5.
Accessibility - Describe accessibility features included in the project, and
indicate how the design meets the requirements noted in UFC 1-200-01.
Indicate documentation relating to use of a military exclusion and the status of
a waiver request, if applicable.
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1.
Architectural Compatibility - Identify the design guidelines that pertain to this
project, and describe how the proposed design incorporates these guidelines.
Discuss the approach to achieving architectural compatibility with other
surrounding architecture in accordance with the installation exterior
architectural guidelines. Note: Exterior color boards are required for all
projects. For Air Force projects, refer to the Air Force Architectural
Compatibility Guide.
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6.
7.
Roof System Selection - Indicate the construction of the roof, roof membrane
selection, substrate, roof slope, roof drainage system, and justify the use of
parapets.
8.
Thermal Insulation - Describe the types of insulation to be provided, and
indicate specific “U” values for the wall, roof, and floor construction. Also,
provide a description of all architectural energy conserving and generating
features, including any passive solar systems. Provide a moisture vapor
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analysis in accordance with Chapter 3 of this UFC.
Security Requirements - Describe the physical security or hardening
requirements such as controlled access, SCIF, and Secure Room
requirements that will be used in the design.
10.
Anti-Terrorism – Per UFC 4-010-01, DoD buildings are categorized as low
occupancy, inhabited, primary gathering, high occupancy family housing, or
billeting. Describe the occupancy of the facility, if progressive collapse
avoidance will be included in the design, if the facility is within a controlled
perimeter, and what the standoff distances will be. Include sketches as
required to depict the site of the project and standoff distances. Include a
summary of how the facility meets each of the applicable Standards in UFC 4010-01 and Geographic Combatant Commander (GCC) Antiterrorism
construction standards. Outline any special requirements, including any
requirement for hardening of the facility. The project documents must provide
the construction information necessary for the installation of all applicable
Standards in UFC 4-010-01 and the GCC Antiterrorism construction
standards. However, the documents must not contain information on force
protection methods, philosophy, explosive weights, and design threats, as this
information is considered sensitive and For Official Use Only.
11.
Architectural Acoustics – Include a statement of adherence to the applicable
criteria per Chapters 3 and 4 of this UFC. \1\This statement must include, but
not be limited to:
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9.
Identify design team members responsible for the acoustical engineering.
•
Provide an Acoustical Implementation Plan for consideration and
approval.
•
Provide a detailed identification of conditions, materials, or features which
will impact the acoustic design of the project. Include this in the Acoustical
Implementation Plan.
•
Describe all Testing, Mock-up, Commissioning, and Quality Control
processes and include them in the Acoustical Implementation Plan for
approval.
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•
Upon the completion of a project, if post construction testing is not
included in the project scope, the Government may elect to test the
airborne and/or impact isolation sound isolation, background noise level or
other parameters established as project criteria. Additional modifications
and/or remediation to meet the project acoustical criteria will be at the
expense of Design-Build or Construction team.
12.
Sustainable Design – Include the architectural description of the sustainable
design in the separate chapter “Sustainable Design”. This description must
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encompass the overall sustainability and energy performance of the project,
with the architectural portion leading the process of compliance. Describe the
sustainable design features included in the design. Provide an analysis of
compliance with applicable requirements of UFC 1-200-02; the High
Performance and Sustainable Building (HPSB) Checklist and description of
how targets will be met, or justifications for missed targets; when applicable,
include the sustainable Third Party Certification checklist, and describe how
applicable credits align with the HPSB Checklist requirements, and how the
credits apply to the design of the project. Include updated information with
each required design submittal. /1/
Doors and Windows - Indicate the types of doors and windows selected for
the project and explain the basis for their selection. If feasible, use operable
windows. Indicate any special door requirements such as STC ratings, cipher
locks. \1\ Indicate any special window requirements such as OITC ratings in
order to meet the Building Envelope Requirements as stated in Chapter 3 of
this UFC./1/
14.
Interior Design – Provide per UFC 3-120-10.
15.
Demolition or Deconstruction – Describe the extent of any architectural
demolition or deconstruction and items to be salvaged.
16.
Special Construction Features - Describe the special construction features
built into the facility, such as barred windows, special wall/roof construction,
raised flooring, radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF) shielding,
High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) protection, vaults, etc.
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Specifications.
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5-3.4
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Design-Bid-Build and Design-Build projects have differing specification requirements. In
either case, the specifications must be as concise as possible, definitive, and free of
ambiguities and omissions that may result in controversy and contractor claims for
additional compensation. For Army and Navy design-bid-build specifications, the use
of SPECSINTACT and Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS) is required.
These documents are available from the UFGS website at WBDG. For Air Force
projects, the use of UFGS or other commercial guide specifications is at the discretion
of the Air Force Project Manager. For Navy projects, see also UFC 1-300-09N, and
when preparing a Design-Build Request for Proposal (RFP), see the NAVFAC Design
Build Master website located at http://www.wbdg.org/ndbm.
5-3.5
Architectural Drawings.
Confirm drawing size with the government Project Manager prior to starting drawings.
Provide architectural drawings that comply with the National CAD Standard and Spatial
Data Standard (SDSFIE) for Facilities, Infrastructure, and Environment/ ComputerAided Design and Drafting (SDS/CADD Standards) and sufficiently define and detail all
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architectural work. For projects accomplished using Building Information Modeling (BIM)
use the National BIM Standard along with published Service supplemental standards.
Although this can be adequately accomplished in a number of ways, final drawings must
include, but not be limited to, the following as applicable:
1. Title and General Sheets: Lists all drawings in the set, project title, project
name, location map, and vicinity map.
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2. Floor Plans: Completely dimensioned and referencing other drawings.
Indicate plan orientation. Draw building plans parallel to the sheet border
with north generally up (or to the left \1\ or right /1/edge if better suited).
All discipline drawings must be consistent in orientation. The site plan and
the building plan must be in approximately the same orientation.
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3. Building Code/Life Safety Code Analysis: Conduct a diagrammatic
analysis and indicate code compliance (i.e., remoteness of exits, common
path of travel, compartmentalization, fire extinguisher locations, etc.) to
graphically demonstrate compliance with the Life Safety Code.
Coordinate with Fire Protection Engineer as required.
4. Furniture Placement Plans: Indicate furniture arrangement.
5. Roof Plans: Completely dimensioned and referencing other details.
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6. Reflected Ceiling Plans: Fully coordinated with all disciplines
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7. Building Elevations: For all elevations. Indicate location of control joints
and expansion joints.
8. Building Sections and Wall Sections: For all differing conditions, Identify
air barrier, moisture barrier, and insulation barrier systems.
9. Wall Types: Indicate all wall types on the floor plan.
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10. Air Barrier: Indicate the boundary limits of the air barrier components
(pressurization area for air barrier testing) on the plan and section. Also
indicate the actual area of the pressure boundary (ft.2/m2).
11. Interior Elevations: Indicating all different conditions and coordinated with
other drawings.
12. Door Schedule and Details and Window Types and Details.
13. Room Finish Schedule and Finish Notes: For all finishes.
14. Details: For all differing conditions, especially the moisture barrier system,
flashing details for all wall penetrations, terminations and transitions and
roof ridge, edge, parapet, drainage, and penetration details. Roofing and
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flashing details must be a minimum scale of 1.5 inch equals 1 ft. Fully
detail the continuous air barrier as indicated Chapter 3, Air Barrier
Requirements.
Requirements for the drawings will be suitable for the type of project and the scope of
work for the project.
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5-3.5.1
Structural Interior Design (SID). Provide SID per UFC 3-120-10,
“Interior Design”.
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5-3.5.2
Exterior Finishes and Colors. Provide a comprehensive exterior finish
and color schedule, indicating selections for all exterior materials. Locate this
schedule either on the finish schedule sheet or on the sheet with the exterior building
elevations. When matching existing materials and colors, it is not sufficient to state,
“match existing.” Do not indicate that the Contracting Officer will make color
selections.
5-3.5.3.1
Exterior Dimensions
Provide overall building dimensions.
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5-3.5.3
Dimensioning. Provide floor plans with sufficient dimensions that avoid
construction difficulties for either the construction contractor or Government
construction contract administration staff. Inadequate dimensions require a
contractor’s field personnel do many computations in order to arrive at a room size or
to properly layout a facility. Provide adequate dimensions on each floor plan so that it
is not necessary to refer to other drawings in order to determine dimensions. Provide
vertical dimensions on elevations and sections. Dimensioning guidelines are as
follows:
Provide continuous strings of dimensions of column centerlines that
extend to exterior building faces.
•
Provide a continuous string of dimensions that locate all exterior building
wall line breaks. Wall line breaks must also be dimensioned to column
centerlines.
•
Provide dimensions that show masonry and wall openings. Provide
through-wall dimensions.
•
Provide vertical dimensions for elevations and sections.
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5-3.5.3.2
Interior Dimensions.
•
Dimensions must indicate design intent. For example, if a door is to be
centered on a space, indicate dimensions as “equal-equal.”
•
Indicate all statutory dimensions, such as accessibility requirements,
egress, etc.
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Provide continuous strings of dimensions through the building in each
direction that extend through the exterior wall.
•
Dimension masonry walls and stud partitions to one side of the wall. Wall
thickness may be indicated with dimensions or by wall types.
•
When a dimension string passes through a space that is shown elsewhere
at a larger scale, this space may be provided with an overall dimension.
The large-scale plan must show additional dimensions. To ensure
continuity, take dimensions from the same wall face as shown on the
overall plan.
•
Where a wall or partition aligns with a column, wall opening, window jamb,
or other feature, ensure that all other dimensions to that wall or partition
are to the same face. Additionally, if a dimension is to a particular wall or
partition face, then all other dimensions to that wall must be to that face.
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5-3.5.4
Referencing. Use reference symbols (section and detail cuts) liberally
on the drawings to indicate which section or detail applies. Use material indications to
clearly identify all construction materials. Generally provide the following:
1. Floor Plans – Indicate building and wall sections, major details and areas
of large-scale plans.
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2. Building Elevations – Indicate building and major wall sections, expansion,
control and seismic joints, construction materials.
3. Building Sections – Indicate wall sections, major details, such as air
barrier interfaces, and construction materials.
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4. Details – Indicate all construction materials. Where several sections or
details are provided on the same drawing, it is acceptable to reference a
single section or detail for materials with additional call-outs as needed for
differing conditions.
5-3.6
Color Boards and Binders.
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Exterior finish material color boards or binders displaying actual samples of all proposed
finishes are required during the design of a project. If binders are provided, provide in
accordance with UFC 3-120-10.
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APPENDIX A REFERENCES
ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA
http://asastore.aip.org
ANSI/ASA S12.2, American National Standard Criteria for Evaluating Room Noise
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AMERICAN ARCHITECTURAL MANUFACTURER ASSOCIATION
http://www.aamanet.org
AAMA 501.1, Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Windows, Curtain Walls
and Doors Using Dynamic Pressure
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AAMA 501.4, Recommended Static Test Method for Evaluating Curtain Wall and
Storefront Systems Subjected to Seismic and Wind Induced Interstory Drifts
AAMA 1503, Voluntary Test Method for Thermal Transmittance and Condensation
Resistance of Windows, Doors and Glazed Wall Sections
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AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE (ACI) INTERNATIONAL
http://www.aci-int.org
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ACI 530, Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS
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Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition,
http://aiastore.hostedbywebstore.com/Architectural-Graphic-Standards-11thEdition/dp/B0043TCHRS
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE
http://www.ansi.org/
ANSI S12.9 Part 1, Quantities and Procedures for Description and Measurement of
Environmental Sound, Part 1, Basic Quantities and Definitions
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ANSI S12.9 Part 2, Quantities and Procedures for Description and Measurement of
Environmental Sound, Part 2: Measurement of Long-Term, Wide-Area Sound
ANSI S12.60 Part 1, Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and
Guidelines for Schools, Part 1: Permanent Schools
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS
http://www.asce.org
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ANSI S12.60 Part 2, Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and
Guidelines for Schools, Part 2: Re-locatable Classroom Factors
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ACSE/SEI 7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
ASCE 32-01, Design and Construction of Frost Protected Shallow Foundations
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING
ENGINEERS
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http://www.ashrae.org
ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 2010, Energy Standards for Buildings Except Low
Rise Residential Buildings
AN
ASHRAE Standard 160, Criteria for Moisture-Control Design Analysis in Buildings
ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1 2011, Standard for the Design of High
Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
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ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals 2013
ASTM INTERNATIONAL
http://www.astm.org
ASTM C755, Standard Practice for Selection of Vapor Retarders for Thermal Insulation
ASTM C1060, Standard Practice for Thermographic Inspection of Insulation
Installations in Envelope Cavities of Frame Buildings
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ASTM E90, Standard Test Method for Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound
Transmission Loss of Building Partitions and Elements
ASTM E741, Standard Test Method for Determining Air Change in a Single Zone by
Means of a Tracer Gas Dilution
ASTM E783, Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Air Leakage Through
Installed Exterior Windows and Doors
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ASTM E1105, Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water Penetration of
Installed Exterior Windows, Skylights, Doors, and Curtain Walls, by Uniform or
Cyclic Static Air Pressure Difference
ASTM E1130, Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of the Speech Privacy
in Open Plan Spaces Using Articulation Index
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ASTM E1186, Standard Practices for Air Leakage Site Detection in Building Envelopes
and Air Barrier Systems
ASTM E1745, Standard Specification for Plastic Water Vapor Retarders Used in
Contact with Soil or Granular Fill under Concrete Slabs
ASTM E2112, Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and
Skylights
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ASTM E2638, Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of the Speech Privacy
Provided by a Closed Room
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ASTM F2170, Standard Test Method for Determining Relative Humidity in Concrete
Floor Slabs Using in situ Probes
ASTM Manual 40, Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control in Building Envelopes
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BRICK INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (BIA)
http://www.gobrick.com
BIA Technical Note 7, Water Penetration Resistance - Design and Detailing
BIA Technical Note 18A, Accommodating Expansion of Brickwork
BIA Technical Note 21, Brick Masonry Cavity Walls
http://www.eima.com/
EIFS Standards & ICC-ES Acceptance Criteria
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FACILITY GUIDELINES INSTITUTE
http://speechprivacy.org
Sound & Vibration: Design Guidelines for Health Care Facilities
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GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION
GSA PBS-P100, Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Services (P-100),
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/GSAMAN/p100.pdf
Sound Matters, http://www.gsasoundmatters.com
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U.S. Courts Design Guide, Judicial Conference of the United States,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/GSAMAN/courts.pdf
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
http://www.iso.org
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ISO 6781, Thermal Insulation -- Qualitative Detection of Thermal Irregularities in
Building Envelopes -- Infrared Method
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL
http://www.iccsafe.org
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International Building Code
MARSHALL DAY ACOUSTICS LTD
INSUL Sound Prediction Software, http://www.insul.co.nz
Master Painters Institute (MPI)http://www.paintinfo.com/
MPI Architectural Painting Specification Manual
MPI Detailed Performance Standards
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NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CORROSION ENGINEERS
http://www.nace.org/home.aspx
NACE Standards
NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION
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National Capital Planning Act of 1952, http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fedrecords/groups/328.html
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUILDING SCIENCES, BUILDINGSMART ALLIANCETM
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National CAD Standard (NCS), http://www.buildingsmartalliance.org/index.php/ncs/
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BUILDING SCIENCES, WHOLE BUILDING DESIGN
GUIDE
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Whole Building Design Guide, http://www.wbdg.org
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NATIONAL GYPSUM COMPANY
http://www.nationalgypsum.com/
National Gypsum Construction Guide
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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH
NIH, Design Requirements Manual,
http://orf.od.nih.gov/PoliciesAndGuidelines/BiomedicalandAnimalResearchFacilities
DesignPoliciesandGuidelines/Pages/DesignRequirementsManualPDF.aspx
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF CANADA
http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/index.html
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The Difference Between a Vapour Barrier and an Air Barrier, 1985, R.L. Quirouette,
http://archive.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/obj/irc/doc/pubs/bpn/54_e.pdf
THE OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
http://www.dni.gov
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IC Tech Spec for ICD/ICS 705, Technical Specifications for Construction and
Management of Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities Sheet Metal and Air
Conditioning Contractors’ National Association
http://www.smacna.org/
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SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS NATIONAL
ASSOCIATION
Architectural Sheet Metal Manual
NATIONAL ROOFING CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION
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http://www.nrca.net/
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NRCA Roofing and Waterproofing Manual (Fifth Edition)
UNITED STATES CODE
10 USC 101 (a)(13), Definitions, U.S. Code
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10 USC 2853, Authorized Cost and Scope of Work Variations
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
Air Force Architectural Compatibility Guide, Air Force Center for Engineering and the
Environment, http://www.afcec.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070919-041.pdf
AFI 48-148, Ionizing Radiation Protection, http://static.epublishing.af.mil/production/1/af_ja/publication/afi48-148/afi48-148.pdf
AFMAN 32-1084, Facility Requirements,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/AF/AFM/afm_32_1084.pdf
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ETL 04-3 (Change 1), Design Criteria for the Prevention of Mold in Air Force Facilities,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/AF/AFETL/etl_04_3.pdf
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
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Spatial Data Standard for Facilities, Infrastructure, and Environment/ Computer-Aided
Design and Drafting (SDSFIE), http://www.sdsfieonline.org/Default.aspx
TM 5-803-5, Installation Design,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/ARMYCOE/COETM/tm_5_803_5.pdf
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USACE Air Barrier Continuity Guide
http://www.wbdg.org/pdfs/usace_airbarriercontinuity.pdf
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA
PROGRAM
http://dod.wbdg.org
UFC 1-200-01, General Building Requirements
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UFC 1-200-02, High Performance and Sustainable Building Requirements
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UFC 1-300-09N, Design Procedures
UFC 2-000-05N, (P-80) Facility Planning Criteria for Navy/Marine Corps Shore
Installations
UFC 3-120-10, Interior Design
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UFC 3-201-02, Landscape Architecture
UFC 3-400-02, Design: Engineering Weather Data
UFC 3-450-01, Noise and Vibration Control
UFC 4-010-01, DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings
UFC 4-721-10, Unaccompanied Housing
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
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The Noise Guidebook,
http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/environm
ent/training/guidebooks/noise
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND
HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
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http://www.osha.gov
29 CFR Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
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ITG FY 03-4, NAVFAC Mold Response Manual, Naval Facilities Engineering Command,
http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/NAVFAC/INTCRIT/fy03_04.pdf
OPNAV M-5090.1 Environmental Readiness Manual (10 Jan 2014)
http://doni.daps.dla.mil/SECNAV%20Manuals1/5090.1.pdf
\1\UNITED STATES GYPSUM ASSOCIATION
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http://www.gypsum.org/1/
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UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/
EPA/402/R-92-014, Radon Measurement in Schools
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EPA 402-R-93-071, EPA's Map of Radon Zones (by State)
EPA 402-R-94-009, EPA's Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in
New Residences
EPA/625/R-92-016, Radon Prevention in the Design and Construction of Schools and
Other Large Buildings
UNITED STATES NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Secretary of Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating
Historic Buildings, National Park Service, http://www.nps.gov/tps/index.htm
41
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APPENDIX B BEST PRACTICES
B-1
INTRODUCTION.
This appendix identifies background information, good architectural design practices,
and DoD preferences. The designer is expected to review and interpret this guidance
and apply the information according to the needs of the project.
WHOLE BUILDING DESIGN GUIDE.
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B-2
The Whole Building Design Guide provides additional information and discussion on
architectural practice and facility design, including a holistic approach to integrated
design of facilities. .
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The WBDG provides access to all Construction Criteria Base (CCB) criteria, standards
and codes for the DoD Military Departments, National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA), and others. These include, Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC),
Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS), Performance Technical Specifications
(PTS), design manuals, and specifications. For approved Government employees, it
also provides access to non-government standards.
B-3
PLANNING ISSUES.
B-3.1
Building Orientation.
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In general, minimize east- and west-facing glazing. The orientation for rectilinear
CONUS buildings is with the long axis parallel to the east/west direction for optimum
energy conservation. Typically orient glazing north (south in the southern hemisphere)
to provide day lighting while minimizing glare. South-facing glazing (north in the
southern hemisphere) should be appropriately shaded on the exterior to exclude
summer (winter in the southern hemisphere) sun.
B-3.2
Design for Flexibility.
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Flexibility in architectural design facilitates the change or expansion of an existing
structure to accommodate changing functional requirements with minimum expenditure
of resources. DoD usually owns and operates its facilities from the time of construction
until the end of its useful life. During this long tenure of use, functional requirements of
buildings will change, often drastically. Design facilities to accommodate change in use
with a minimum expenditure of resources. Careful planning for reconfigurable
technology infrastructure and utility distribution, minimizing permanent interior walls and
using systems furniture and demountable partition systems enhances flexibility. For this
reason, flexibility is a significant design requirement for buildings, except for those with
highly specialized functions where adaptive reuse would be cost prohibitive. When
feasible, design facilities to facilitate future expansion in response to mission
requirements.
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B-3.3
Design for Function and Life Cycle.
Permanent Construction. Buildings must be energy efficient, and have
finishes, materials, and systems selected for low maintenance and low life
cycle cost over a life cycle of more than 25 years.
•
Semi-permanent Construction. Buildings must be energy efficient, and
have finishes, materials, and systems selected for an average degree of
maintenance based on life cycle cost of between 5 and 25 years.
•
Temporary Construction. Buildings must use low cost construction, with
finishes, materials, and systems selected with maintenance factors as
secondary considerations to meet a life cycle of 5 years or less.
•
Mobilization and Emergency Construction. Buildings \1\ must /1/minimize
design and construction time and maximize conservation of critical
materials and funds. Maintenance factors and longevity are secondary
considerations.
•
Contingency Construction. Such structures may not be used for the
purpose of satisfying requirements of a permanent nature at the
conclusion of combat or contingency operations.
•
Manufactured and Pre-engineered Buildings. This type of construction
should be considered where it meets the quality, performance, and
functional requirements of the project, when it will be architecturally
compatible with adjacent structures, and when justified by life cycle cost.
Also consider this building technique when there is limited time for on-site
construction erection activities due to weather conditions.
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LANDSCAPING INTERFACE.
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Landscaping is a critical part of good building design and plays a vital role in blending
architecture into its surroundings. Careful coordination between the landscape architect
and the architect is crucial to good design. Comply with UFC 3-201-02.
LOCAL CONSTRUCTION METHODS, MATERIALS AND SKILLS.
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B-5
Design to take advantage of economies resulting from the use of suitable local
construction methods, materials and skills that are consistent with the intent of these
criteria. This is particularly important in overseas locations, where local materials may
not be common to architects from the United States. Construction means and methods
are the responsibility of the construction contractor.
B-6
BUILDING ENVELOPE.
This section provides background on the science of building envelope design and
includes additional design recommendations. Review this section in conjunction with
the requirements in Chapter 3, Building Envelope Requirements.
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The building enclosure functions to control the transfer of the following elements: heat,
air, moisture, light/radiation, and noise.
B-6.1
Heat.
Heat, which is energy, is transferred from warm to cold in one of three ways,
conduction, convection and radiation.
Conduction. Conduction is most effectively resisted by low
conduction materials such as insulation. Highly conductive materials
when inserted through the insulating layer can cause a loss of
efficiency in the overall assembly’s ability to resist heat transfer in a
phenomenon called thermal bridging. Examples of high conduction
materials interrupting insulation include the following:
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B-6.1.1
• steel studs
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• cantilever concrete balconies and projections
• structural steel and aluminum that are outside the thermal envelope
and connected to the building structure
• z-furring supporting cladding interrupting the insulation
• shelf angles attached continuously and directly to the structure.
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Many of these materials can be designed to reduce thermal bridging
by intermittent support through insulation and maintaining them
outside the insulation layer. Others like cantilever balconies or
exterior structure, can be thermally broken by specially designed
structural thermal breaks. Structural steel should be within the
insulated enclosure, unless thermally broken. Thermal bridges impact
energy efficiency and are a likely cause of condensation.
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B-6.1.2
Convection. Convection is the movement of heat transported by
fluids, including air. Air movement can transport heat as well as water
vapor from warm to cold. Surfaces that can cool the air adjacent to
them, such as slabs on grade and basement walls, and cause the air
to become heavier and sink. This draws warm, moist air in to replace
it in a continuous convective loop. Warm air can have a dew-point
higher than the cold surface, which can cause condensation and the
ensuing mold, rot and corrosion. Convection in exterior assemblies is
caused by designing air spaces adjacent to cold materials. This can
happen in a basement on a concrete wall insulated by glass fiber batts
(fibrous insulation is mostly air), or adjacent to glass in fenestration.
Eliminating air gaps or separating them from warm air by an air barrier
is an effective strategy in reducing convective flow of heat and
condensation.
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Radiation. Radiation is the flow of heat across space or fluid or gas
from a warm body to a colder one. One example of radiational heat
transfer is from the interior to a cold glass surface. Radiational heat
gain is direct or reflected solar radiation coming in to a building
through glazing or heating up building materials of the enclosure.
Heat can be radiated from one sheet of glass to the other in insulating
glass. Low emissivity coatings in glass assemblies can be effective in
reducing the radiational transfer of heat from the exterior and from the
interior, improving both the U-factor and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient.
Heat gain from the sun can be effectively reduced by including radiant
barriers such as aluminum foil with an adjacent air gap. Radiant
barriers in wall and roof assemblies will only work with an adjacent air
gap (see above paragraph on air gaps and convection). Quadruple
glazing using Heat Mirror foils, two low emissivity low-e layers and
filled with inert gas such as argon or krypton is the state of the art for
glass selection today and should be considered for extreme climates.
B-6.2
Air.
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B-6.1.3
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Air leakage, or unintentional air movement through the enclosure under a pressure
difference between inside and out, transfers heat (energy loss), water vapor, smoke,
odors, dust, and other pollutants, including chemical, biological and radiological agents,
into and out of buildings. Infiltrating air is unconditioned for temperature and moisture
content and can contain pollutants. It causes discomfort and can unbalance spaces
such as patient isolation rooms, protected environment rooms, or chemical storage
areas that are designed for controlled pressure, thus compromising pollutant control.
Mechanical systems attempt to reduce uncontrolled infiltration by introducing more air
than is exhausted. This theoretically puts the building under positive pressure reducing
infiltration. The success of this strategy is dependent on how leaky the building is. You
cannot inflate a balloon that has a big hole in it.
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Air leakage can be the major source of water vapor transfer through building
enclosures. Unlike the moisture transport mechanism of diffusion due to a vapor
pressure difference, air pressure differentials can transport hundreds of times more
water vapor through air leaks in the envelope over the same period of time (The
Difference Between a Vapor Barrier and an Air Barrier, Quirouette, 1985). This water
vapor can condense within the envelope in a concentrated manner, depending on the
pathway, if the enclosure includes surfaces below the dew-point of the air, causing
building deterioration and mold growth. Internal compartmentalization of a building
(floors and demising partitions) is also a key to the control of the unwanted transfer of
air, pollutants, noise, smoke etc. See the following resources for more information and
sample design details
• Building Envelope Design Guide:
http://www.wbdg.org/design/envelope.php
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• WBDG Resource Webpage for Air Barrier Systems:
http://www.wbdg.org/resources/airbarriers.php
• Also see USACE Air Barrier Continuity Guide
http://www.wbdg.org/pdfs/usace_airbarriercontinuity.pdf. \1\/1/
\1\/1/ Moisture.
B-6.3.1
Moisture in its different forms is the major cause of water intrusion,
condensation, shortening of service life and disruption of operations.
Walls leak when three conditions exist simultaneously: (1) Rain water
is on a wall, (2) Openings exist through which the rain water can pass;
and (3) Forces are present to drive or draw the rain water inward. If
any of these three essential conditions is eliminated, rain water will not
penetrate the enclosure.
B-6.3.2
It is difficult and impractical to keep wind-driven rain off the exterior
walls of a building. Overhangs, cornices, and solar shading can be
effective in minimizing, but will not prevent, wetting of a wall. Thus, it
should be expected that exterior walls will be covered by a film of
water during a rain event and that this film thickens when rain flows
down the building wall. It is virtually impossible to build an exterior
wall without any unintentional openings or leakage paths. Such
openings may be pores, cracks, incompletely filled or poorly adhered
mortar joints, or moving joints between elements or different materials.
A typical masonry wall contains multiple apertures of various types
and sizes yielding many joints between dissimilar materials prone to
movement and joint failure. One square foot of brick masonry
contains 6.75 modular brick, 6 lineal ft. (1830 mm) of mortar joint and
12 lineal ft. (3660 mm) of brick-mortar joint interface. For 20,000 ft2
(1858 m2) of wall surface, this equates to 135,000 modular brick, 22.7
miles (36.5 km) of mortar joint and 45.5 miles (73.2 km) of brickmortar joint interface. Water can penetrate openings as small as
0.005 in. (.1 mm), which is just slightly more than the thickness of a
sheet of bond paper.
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B-6.3
B-6.3.3
Even if a good seal is achieved initially, odds are that the seal will
deteriorate over time under the action of temperature, water,
deterioration due to ultraviolet radiation and differential movement. For
these reasons, a single 4-in. (100-mm) wythe of masonry
conventionally laid up in the field (or any cladding for that matter)
should not by itself be expected to be watertight. It is also why
sealants cannot be expected to keep water out of building enclosures.
There needs to be an underlying drainage plane or WRB and
flashings to lead water that penetrates building assemblies out again.
B-6.3.4
Forces acting on an exterior wall during a rain event that individually
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or in combination can contribute to rain penetration include the
following: (1) raindrop momentum or kinetic energy, (2) capillary
suction; (3) external or internal air pressure; (4) gravity, and (5)
surface tension. Water hits and wets the tops of buildings first, as well
as projections. Water tends to travel over and flow down reveals and
channels in the façade in a concentrated manner.
When the joints are well-pointed, brick masonry tends to absorb
moisture for 4 to 6 in. (100 to 150 mm) depth after a rain event, and to
dry out in dry periods. All masonry mass walls must have ventilation
on the interior face of the exterior wall (and parapets) to assure proper
drying. Single wythe concrete block walls are undesirable because
they do not manage moisture well. Wall design today should be a rain
screen design; in other words cladding should have a WRB in the wall
assembly behind the cladding, with flashings to lead water out. This is
true for all claddings including EIFS; face-sealed assemblies are not
acceptable.
B-6.4
Air Barrier Renovations.
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B-6.3.5
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The need for and reasonableness of destructive analysis of the state of existing air
barriers must be evaluated based on the type of renovation considering related cost
issues. This can be challenging, due to difficulty in accessing gaps through hard or
expensive finishes. Removable ceiling tiles allow easy access to problem areas, and
walls require destructive access through finishes to expose gaps such as those around
windows. If a gap is discovered it may be possible to blind-seal with spray polyurethane
foam injected through holes drilled in the drywall. For large holes, bulkheads can be
built out of studs and drywall sealed with spray polyurethane foam (SPF). Seal gaps up
to 2 in. (50 mm) with one part SPF; seal larger gaps with two-component SPF. Stuffing
glass-fiber insulation in cracks is not an acceptable sealing method because glass-fiber
merely acts as a dust filter and allows air under a pressure differential to pass through it.
Fiber glass insulation will hold moisture that can lead to hidden moisture and mold
problems. Seal air leaks in the following order of priority:
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1. Top of building
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Attics
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Roof/wall intersections and plenum spaces
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Mechanical penthouse doors and walls
•
HVAC equipment
•
Other roof penetrations
2. Bottom of Building
•
Soffits and ground floor access doors
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Underground parking access doors
•
Exhaust and air intake vents
•
Pipe, duct, cable and other service penetrations into core of
building
•
Sprinkler hangar penetrations, inspection hatches and other
holes
•
Seal core wall to floor slab
•
Crawl spaces
3. Vertical shafts
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•
Gasket stairwell fire doors
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Fire hose cabinets or toilet room recessed accessories
connected to shafts
•
Plumbing, electrical, cable and other penetrations within service
rooms
•
Elevator rooms and electric rooms (reduce size of cable holes,
firestop and seal bus bar)
•
Openings
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4. Exterior Walls
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Weather-strip windows, doors, including balcony/patio doors
and seal window trim
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Exhaust fans and ducting
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All service penetrations
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Baseboard heaters
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Electrical receptacles
•
Baseboards
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5. Compartmentalize
•
Garages
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Vented mechanical rooms
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Garbage compactor rooms
•
Emergency generator rooms
•
High voltage rooms
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Shipping docks
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B-6.5
•
Elevator rooms
•
Workshops
Light/Radiation.
B-6.6
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Generally speaking, light is desirable while the accompanying heat (radiation) is not.
They penetrate through the fenestration, which is the least energy-efficient component
of the envelope. In addition to effective glazing design and shade structures, building
orientation plays a large role in managing the light/heat gain balance. See discussions
under Building Orientation and Radiation in this Appendix for more information.
Noise.
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intended to limit noise to the building occupants so that the building function is not
limited due to noise within or around a building. Best practices will be achieved by
meeting the project requirements as stated in Chapters 3, 4 and 5. Standards
referenced in Chapter 4 include best practices and suggestions to provide an
appropriate acoustic environment for most space types. Thoughtful consideration of the
project acoustic requirements is very beneficial early in the design process.
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Proper preparation of the required statement of adherence outlined in Chapter 5 to meet
requirements established in Chapters 3 and 4 of this UFC is an important basis to
understanding the project acoustical requirements; however, the Design or Design-Build
team will still need to be mindful of implementing the requirements during the design
and meeting the requirements during the construction of the project./1/
AIR BARRIER MOCK-UP TESTING
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B-7
B-7.1
Guidance on When to Test \1\Mock-ups/1/
See Figure B8-1, Construction Mock-up Guidance Matrix, for recommendations.
Approximate suggested definitions of sizes to use for the matrix:
Small: Up to 5,000 sf (465 sm)
Medium: 5,000 to 50,000 sf (465 to 4645 sm)
Large (Common): above 50,000 sf (4645 sm)
Large (Unique): above 25,000 sf (2323 sm)
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•
•
•
B-7.2
On Site Mockups.
When approved by the AHJ, a mockup of the wall system will include a representative
wall and window constructed on site, complete with all its components, and must be
tested for air and water infiltration.
Each item that contributes to the moisture control and air barrier performance must be
included in the mockup. The installed fenestration must be tested first using ASTM
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E783 to determine air tightness. ASTM E1105 can then be used to determine if
fenestrations and their connections to walls are meeting liquid water leakage
requirements.
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Figure B-1 Construction Mock-Up Guidance Matrix
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Guidance: The Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) may give consideration to implementing
construction mock-ups based upon the following decision matrix.
FACILITY TYPE
APPLICATION
RECOMMENDED
GUIDANCE
SMALL SIZE FACILITY
SMALL FACILITIES WHICH
RECOMMEND NOT
COMMON FACILITY SUCH
ARE NOT UNIQUE AND
REQUIRING
AS: MECH BUILDING; PUMP
PROVIDE SUPPORT
CONSTRUCTION MOCKHOUSE; SMALL AND MEDIUM FUNCTIONS ON AN
UPS
WAREHOUSES.
INSTALLATION
SIZE RANGE: SQUARE FEET
MEDIUM SIZE FACILITY
MEDIUM SIZE FACILITIES
RECOMMEND NOT
COMMON FACILITY TYPES
WHICH ARE NOT UNIQUE
REQUIRING
SUCH AS MWRS; CHAPELS;
AND UTILIZE TYPICAL AND CONSTRUCTION MOCKCHILD CARE CENTERS;
PROVEN CONSTRUCTION
UPS
SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE
MATERIALS, METHODS
ADMINISTRATIVE FACILITIES, AND PROCESSES. THE
POST OFFICES; POST
APPLICATION OF THESE
EXCHANGES, ETC.
SYSTEMS CARRIES
SIZE RANGE: SQUARE FEET
LITTLES TO NO RISK OF
NOT BEING
CONSTRUCTED
SATISFACTORILY.
LARGE SIZE FACILITY:
LARGE SIZE FACILITIES
RECOMMEND
COMMON FACILITY TYPES
WHICH DO NOT
CONSIDERATION BE GIVEN
SUCH AS BARRACKS
NECESSARILY EMPLOY
TO PROVIDING
BUILDINGS; LARGE DINING
UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION
CONSTRUCTION MOCK-UP
FACILITIES; LABORATORIES; TECHNOLOGY OR
AT CRITICAL
HIGHLY VISIBLE
INNOVATIVE FEATURES
CONNECTIONS FOR
HEADQUARTER’S
BUT DUE TO SIZE,
WINDOWS; ADVANCED
FACILITIES; LARGE
VISIBILITY AND INTEREST
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS;
COMPANY OPERATIONS
ON THE INSTALLATION;
ETC
FACILITIES, MAINTENANCE
FAILURE OF THIS FACILITY
FACILITIES, LARGE
WOULD BE DETRIMENTAL
STORAGE WAREHOUSES,
TO MISSION EXECUTION
ETC.
AND WOULD REFLECT
SIZE RANGE: SQUARE FEET
POORLY ON THE
INSTALLATION COMMAND.
LARGE SIZE FACILITY:
LARGE SIZE FACILITIES
STRONGLY RECOMMEND
UNIQUE FACILITIES WHICH
WHICH EMPLOY UNIQUE
PROVIDING
UTILITZE UN-COMMON OR
CONSTRUCTION
CONSTRUCTION MOCKPROTOTYPE SYSTEMS;
TECHNOLOGY OR
UPS AT CRITICAL
ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
INNOVATIVE FEATURES;
CONNECTIONS FOR
OR INNOVATIVE
MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS WINDOW; ADVANCED
TECHNOLOGY FOR
OR SYSTEMS FAILURE
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS OR
WITHIN THIS FACILITY
OR UNIQUE CURTAIN WALL
WINDOW WALLS, ETC.
WOULD BE DETRIMENTAL
SYSTEMS THAT EMPLOY
SIZE RANGE: SQUARE FEET
TO MISSION EXECUTION
DAYLIGHTING SENSORS
AND WOULD REFLECT
OR INTEGRAL SHADING
POORLY ON THE
SCREENS, ETC.
INSTALLATION COMMAND.
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B-8
EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM (EIFS).
C
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EIFS is not recommended for exterior wall finish, especially in regions where hurricanes
and typhoons are a concern and in other regions where water penetration is a particular
problem. If EIFS is used, follow the guidance provided in Chapter 4 and also consider
the new generations of self-cleaning EIFS finish coatings to reduce maintenance costs.
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\1\
APPENDIX C DAYLIGHTING BEST PRACTICES.
C-1
DAYLIGHTING
ED
The introduction of daylight into interior spaces has a well-documented effect on the
productivity of occupants and the education of students. In a study done by the
Heschong Mahone Group 1, students who worked in daylighted classrooms progressed
26% faster on reading exams and 20% faster on math exams than students working in
a classroom with less daylight. In another study completed by the Heschong Mahone
Group 2, office workers were found to perform 10%-25% better on tests of mental
function when the best daylight views were available to them.
C-1.1
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Daylighting strategies can be divided into passive or active systems. Passive systems
such as overhangs are the most common and refer to the location, profile, orientation,
and shading of glazing on a building. Optimizing these components result in a building
that admits daylight without excessive heat gain or glare. Because all of the devices
and components are stationary, these techniques are categorized as passive. In
comparison, active daylighting systems have moving parts, typically to track the sun
throughout the day. An example of an active system includes a skylight with a moving
mirror that captures direct sunlight and redirects it through the skylight, into the building.
Benefits of Daylight
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Daylight in interior spaces has multiple benefits. Daylighted environments provide a
connection to the outdoors, are healthier for occupants and have the potential to save
energy. Research has shown that children learn better3, retail stores sell more
product 4, and office workers are more productive 5 6 in daylighted environments. Since
daylight also helps to regulate our circadian cycle 7, introducing daylight into interior
spaces is a top priority. Daylight is a natural resource that is more efficient than electric
light and should be utilized to its fullest potential. See
http://www.wbdg.org/references/mou_daylight.php
C
1 The Heschong Mahone Group, “Daylighting in Schools”,
http://www.h-m-g.com/projects/daylighting/summaries%20on%20daylighting.htm
2 The Heschong Mahone Group, “Windows and Office: A Study of Office Worker Performance and the
Indoor Environment”. http://www.h-m-g.com/downloads/Daylighting/A-9_Windows_Offices_2.6.10.pdf
3 The Heschong Mahone Group, “Daylighting in Schools”,
http://www.h-m-g.com/projects/daylighting/summaries%20on%20daylighting.htm
4 The Heschong Mahone Group, “Skylighting and Retail Sales”,
http://www.h-m-g.com/projects/daylighting/summaries%20on%20daylighting.htm#Skylighting_and_Retail_Sales - PG&E
1999
5 California Energy Commission. (2003). Windows and Offices: A study of office worker performance and
the indoor environment (Catalogue No. P500-03-082-A-9).
6 “Design Objectives, Productive”, Whole Building Design Guide, 22 August 2002
http://www.wbdg.org/design/productive.php
7 New Buildings Institute, Inc. “Lighting and Human Performance”, Advanced Lighting Guidelines,
Chapter 2. 2001 Edition, p.2-12-13
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C-1.2
Maximize Daylight Potential
ED
Building orientation, views, side and top lighting, shading devices, and selective glazing
are all critical to maximizing daylight potential. All of the following recommendations are
for the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere, recommendations regarding
north and south orientations are reversed. Also, interior spaces should have high
ceilings and light reflective surfaces to allow deep daylight penetration. Provide
architectural and shading devices for daylight and view windows. In areas of high
threat, lightshelves tend to be discouraged because of blast mitigation. These objects
can become additional projectiles during a blast. Refer to the Whole Building Design
Guide, Balancing Security/Safety with Sustainability Objectives,
http://www.wbdg.org/resources/balancing_objectives.php.
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Over 60% of existing square footage of interior spaces (within the US) has access to
roofs for top-lighting and 25% of existing national square footage has access to sidelighting. 8
C-1.2.1
Considerations
Use the building shape to access daylight
•
Maximize view windows on the north and south facades
•
Provide high ceilings to allow deeper daylight penetration
•
Bring daylight high into the space to maximize penetration
•
Consider external light shelves to provide shading for view windows,
where possible
AN
C
•
Consider internal light shelves to provide shading for clerestories and also
a surface for reflecting light onto the ceiling, where possible
•
Provide separate shading devices for daylight windows and view windows.
•
Use selective glazing to maximize visible transmittance (high Tvis) and
minimize solar radiation (low shading coefficient).
C
•
•
Use high reflectance values on ceiling and wall surfaces to balance out
the daylight.
•
Avoid daylight barriers such as solid walls near the building perimeter.
•
Use clerestory and transom glazing to share daylight from perimeter
windows to interior spaces.
•
Use an automated shading system to control solar gain, daylight
transmittance, and glare. System should be integrated with the electric
8 Heschong, Lisa, “Daylighting Workshop”, Pacific Energy Center, (March 2003).
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lighting control system and building management system and allow
occupants personal control of the shades during key events and times.
C-1.3
Building Shape
ED
The building shape and massing has a significant impact on how much daylight can
reach the occupied spaces and therefore, how well various daylighting strategies will
work in the building. Deep floor plates create dark interior spaces that will necessitate
electric lighting even during the day. Narrower plates allow daylight penetration
throughout the entire building section. See Figure A-1 for the effects of building shape
and massing on daylight availability.
Figure C-1. Effects of Building Massing on Daylight Availability
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These four building footprints have equal floor area but provide very different levels of
daylight availability.
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Figure C-2 Examples of Daylighting Strategies
High
Summer
ED
•
Slope ceiling to
increase ceiling
Low angle sunlight allows
thermal gain, but also
introduces potential for
direct glare.
Lightshelf
reflects light
onto ceiling
and shades
view windows.
C
No overhang
required on
north side.
Low
Winter
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•
•
Toplighting
for
•
interior of the space.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Vertical glass is
shaded by overhang
on south side.
Project Types that Benefit from Daylight
AN
C-1.4
The introduction of daylight into any space has the potential to provide these benefits for
the occupants as well as reduce building energy use. However, some project types are
better suited than others to take advantage of daylight.
Open spaces with high ceilings such as hangars, warehouses, recreation
centers, and maintenance areas offer good opportunities for toplighting
with skylights and clerestories.
C
•
•
C-1.5
Perimeter spaces such as offices, lobbies, classrooms, cafeterias, and
residential areas are all good sidelighting applications.
Economics
The use of daylight can produce more comfortable work environments. This benefit
may be difficult to quantify, but the energy saved by dimming or switching electric light
in response to daylight can be quantified. The implementation of skylights and
clerestories as well as lighting control equipment such as dimming ballasts and
photocells all increase initial cost. Additionally, for DoD facilities in areas of high threat,
Antiterrorism (AT) criteria (see UFC 4-010-01) increase the required strength of all
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glazing. Therefore, the addition of glazing may increase the cost over a commercial
building.
C-2
GLAZING ORIENTATION
ED
Building orientation is critical to maximizing daylight potential. Building orientations that
maximize north and south exposures provide the most effective orientations while East
and West exposures may allow excessive heat gain and are hard to control direct sun
penetration. Southern exposures have the potential of providing over 50% of the
daylight for the building space. The success to daylighting on southern exposures is
controlling the direct sunlight penetration with shading devices. Northern exposures
require minimal shading in the winter months. East and West orientations require
manual shading devices. Vertical blinds control daylight well on this orientation.
Figure C-3. Building Orientation Can Maximize Daylight Exposure
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NORTH
NORTH
AN
C
SOUTH
SOUTH
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Figure C-4. Example of Architectural Shading Devices
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C-2.1
Considerations
Orient building to maximize north and south exposures.
•
North facing windows provide the most even illumination.
•
If orientation is off-axis from north and south, provide shading devices for
south-east and south-west exposures.
•
Provide architectural shading devices for south orientations.
•
Provide manual shading devices for south orientations. Horizontal blinds
best control the high angle light on southern exposures.
•
Provide manual shading devices for east and west orientations. Vertical
blinds best control the low angle light on east and west exposures.
•
In spaces that include daylight harvesting, provide automated shading
devices to maximize the electric lighting energy savings.
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•
C-3
GLAZING CHARACTERISTICS
Use selective glazing to optimize and tune glass based on its purpose and use
(clerestory or vision). Clerestory glass may require high visibility transmittance without
color distortion while minimizing infrared penetration.
Table C-1 Comparison of Glass Types (from AlpenGlass Heat Mirror)
81
0.75
Laminated Glass (1/2" clear)
85
0.72
HM 88/Clear
72
0.57
HM SC75/Clear
62
0.36
HM 55/Clear
47
0.30
C
Total Daylight
Transmittance %
Solar Heat
Gain
Coefficient
C
AN
Sample Glass Types
Clear Double Insulating Glass
(1/8" thick)
C-3.1
Considerations
•
Maximize glazing transmittance (Tvis) for daylight glazing (0.70 or greater)
for clerestories and other daylight fenestrations.
•
Although the visible transmittance selected depends on personal
preference, typically, use Tvis values in the medium range for view
windows (0.40 or greater).
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•
Minimize infrared transmittance by specifying a moderate to low shading
coefficient (SC) or low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) (50% or lower) 9.
•
Use high transmittance glazing greater than 60% to maximize daylight.
Glazing should also have a high thermal resistance ratio in order to
minimize heat gain.
•
Do not use tinted or mirrored coatings. Use clear glazing.
C-4
QUANTITY OF GLAZING
ED
Through simple tools and modeling, glazing quantities can be optimized in order to
provide maximum daylight potential while minimizing economic costs. Bring daylight in
high through clerestories and top-lighting, yet provide view windows for occupant
benefits. Also, bring daylight in from two directions if possible for balanced, uniform
lighting.
C
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Toplighting optimization varies between 3% and 9% skylight to floor area ratio. 10 The
optimal amount of toplighting area factors in daylight contribution, cooling loads, and
potential energy savings. In order to calculate toplighting area optimization, use a
calculation program similar to “SkyCalc” 11. Sunny climates with a cooling load
dominated environment will require less toplighting than cooler overcast climates12.
9 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Glazing Selection”, Tips for Daylighting with
Windows, The Integrated Approach, Section 4, p. 4-1.
10 New Buildings Institute, Inc. “Luminaires and Light Distribution, Daylight Systems”, Advanced Lighting
Guidelines, Chapter 7. 2001 Edition, p. 7-31
11 The Heschong Mahone Group, “Optimizing Your Design”, Skylighting Guidelines, Ch1, 1998, p.1-1-57.
12 The Heschong Mahone Group, “Optimizing Your Design”, Skylighting Guidelines, Ch5, 1998, p. 5-1213.
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Figure C-5 Diagrams of Toplighting Strategies
a.
Vertical glass is shaded by
overhang on south side.
AN
C
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ED
No overhang required on
north side.
Reflective roof directs light onto
horizontal surface.
Roof Monitor
Vertical glass is shaded by
overhang.
High reflectance surfaces redirect
and diffuse sunlight.
Angled Clerestory
C
High reflectance surfaces redirect
and diffuse sunlight.
Splay directs light and reduces
contrast.
Vertical baffles block direct
sunlight.
Horizontal Skylights with Splay
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AN
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Figure C-6 Examples of Toplighting Applications
C
Figure C-7 Example of Clerestory Application
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Photograph: Eric Laignel
C-4.1
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Figure C-8 Examples of Sidelighting Applications
Considerations
Sidelighting windows should be located as high as possible since effective
daylight penetration from windows is 1.5 times the height of the window 13.
•
Use high continuous clerestories for the deepest daylight penetration and
uniformity.
•
Provide glazing at eye level in order to provide exterior views,
•
Use view windows that have minimal wall area between windows. Avoid
small windows located in large wall areas because of the uncomfortable
contrast and glare that result 14.
•
1 sq ft (0.09 m2) of top lighting can provide illumination to about 10 times
the area that sidelighting provides yet does not provide the view 15.
•
Space top lighting apertures approximately one and a half times the
ceiling height for even illumination. Recess and splay (45º to 60º)
skylights to minimize glare 16.
C
AN
C
•
•
Toplighting systems located at least 1.5 times the mounting height on
center can provide even daylight distribution. 17
13 US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, “Sidelighting vs. Toplighting”,
National Best Practices Manual, Daylighting and Windows, p. 73.
14 New Buildings Institute, Inc. “Luminaires and Light Distribution, Daylight Systems”, Advanced Lighting
Guidelines, Chapter 7. 2001 Edition, p. 7-35.
15 US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, “Toplighting”, National Best
Practices Manual, Daylighting and Windows, p. 75.
16 US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, “Design Details”, National Best
Practices Manual, Daylighting and Windows, p. 101.
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•
Skylight area should be between 2% to 9% of the floor area depending on
the climate optimization
C-5
GLARE AND CONTRAST CONTROL
ED
Glare and excessive contrast occur when side and top lighting devices allow direct
sunlight penetration. Quality daylighting allows skylight and only reflected sunlight to
reach the task. Punched openings also can cause uncomfortable contrast ratios.
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Figure C-9 Examples of Roof Shapes
C
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Figure C-10 Example of Splayed Skylights
C-5.1
•
Considerations
Coordinate external and internal shading with architect.
17 The Heschong Mahone Group, “Designing with Skylights”, Skylighting Guidelines, Chapter 2, 1998,
pp. 2-5.
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•
Utilize top-lighting systems with vertical glazing to control direct radiation.
•
If horizontal glazing is designed for top lighting systems, then provide splayed
openings or translucent shielding below the skylight in order to minimize the
contrast.
Avoid punched windows; use continuous or mostly continuous side
lighting.
•
Use high reflectance surfaces for ceiling and walls (90% for ceilings and
60% for walls) 18.
•
Consider integrating use of automated window shading or dynamic glazing
with the electric lighting control system to optimize the amount of daylight
entering the space while minimizing the effects of solar heat gain and
glare.
AUTOMATED SHADING
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C-6
ED
•
Automated shading should be considered in spaces utilizing daylight harvesting to
preserve the functionality of the daylight harvesting system and maximize the energy
savings of the system. The shades may be controlled to reduce glare and unwanted
heat gain while still allowing natural light to enter the space. When utilizing automated
shading the following may be considered:
For ease of use the automated shades will be operated by common
controls (i.e. same appearance and design) with the lighting control
system.
•
For maximum energy savings, the automated shading system should
position the shades based on a combination of time of day, façade
direction, and sky conditions.
AN
C
•
For maximum design flexibility and ease of installation, shade systems
should have the capability to address each shade individually.
•
The shading system may have a manual override that allows the occupant
to temporarily adjust the shades to any desired position. The system will
revert back to automatic control after a specified period of time.
C
•
•
Based on the application and size of the windows or skylights, the shading
system may employ drive (motor) technology that is either line-voltage or
low-voltage in nature; an overall installed cost assessment of the shading
system and the necessary equipment to integrate to the lighting control
and building management systems may be done to determine the overall
best value, installed cost solution for the project.
18 “Lighting for Offices”, Lighting Handbook Reference and Application, Chapter 32, Tenth Edition (New
York: The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2011), p. 32.23.
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C-7
ACTIVE DAYLIGHTING
Active daylighting strategies and devices utilize a mechanical component to collect and
distribute daylight. Such devices differ from the passive strategies that have previously
been discussed which are stationary. The example shown in Figure C-14 turns a series
of reflectors as the sun moves throughout the day. These reflectors catch the direct
sunlight and redirect it through the skylight.
ED
Such devices add extra initial cost and also pose additional maintenance issues.
However, they also can make use of daylight for a longer period of time throughout the
day. With tracking devices, effective daylighting can begin earlier in the morning and
last later in the day than with stationary skylights.
AN
C
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Figure C-11 Example of an Active Daylighting System that Tracks the Sun and
Directs Daylight into the Building.
C-7.1
Solar-adaptive shading
C
Another active daylight control technology is solar-adaptive window shading whereby
shades automatically adjust throughout the day based on sky conditions or the sun’s
location. This type of shading system blocks and reflects direct sunlight during the day
to reduce solar heat gain and demand on the building’s air conditioning system. An
example of solar-adaptive shading is shown in Figure C-15.
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PHYSICAL MODELING
C
C-8
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Figure C-12 Example of Solar-Adaptive Shading
C
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Daylight levels depend on many factors such as window shapes, orientation, shading,
and time of day. Therefore, physical models built to scale can provide information on
light quality, shade, shadows, and actual light levels. By building the model with the
actual proposed materials and orienting it with adjustments for latitude, season, and
time of day, the light quality can be seen in the model. Such models inform the
designer about quality issues including light patterns, shade, shadows, contrast, and
penetration in the space. An illuminance meter inside the model will provide accurate
predictions of expected light levels in the building.
C-9
COMPUTER SIMULATION
A wide range of software programs model the sun’s path and its impact on building
geometry in addition to how it affects heat gain and energy use. In using any of the
software, be aware of its limitations and assumptions, as well as the variables under the
users’ control. These tools provide a prediction of how building components will behave
throughout changing conditions. They do not provide actual light levels or energy use.
The following web sites detail the features of some of these programs and their
applications.
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•
US Department of Energy – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Building Energy Software Tools Directory:
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/
•
Whole Building Design Guide Energy Analysis Tools:
http://www.wbdg.org/resources/energyanalysis.php
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/1/
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APPENDIX D GLOSSARY
D-1
ED
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C
AN
AHJ
AICUZ
ANSI
ASHRAE
ASTM
BEAP
BIA
BIM
C
CADD
CCB
CCD
CFA
CFR
CID
CONUS
DDESB
DoD
E.O.
EFS
EIFS
EPA
EPG
ETL
F
FACD
FEC
FF&E
ft
HQUSACE
Hg
American Architectural Manufacturer Association
Articulation Class
American Concrete Institute
Architectural Compatibility Plan
Air Force \1\
Air Force Civil Engineer Center /1/
Air Force Instruction
Air Force Institute of Environment, Safety, Occupational Health and Risk
Analysis
Authority Having Jurisdiction
Air Installation Compatible Use Zones
American National Standards Institute
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers
American Society of Testing and Materials
Base Exterior Architecture Plan
Brick Industry Association
Building Information Modeling
Celsius
Computer-aided Design and Drafting
Construction Criteria Base
Customer Concept Document
Commission of Fine Arts
Code of Federal Regulations
Comprehensive Interior Design
Continental United States
DoD Explosive Safety Board
Department of Defense
Executive Order
Exterior Finish System
Exterior Insulation Finish System
Environmental Protection Agency
Electronic Project Generator
Engineering Technical Letter
Fahrenheit
Functional Analysis Concept Development
Facilities Engineering Command
Furniture, Fixtures & Equipment
Foot or feet
Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Mercury
C
AAMA
AC
ACI
ACP
AF
AFCEC
AFI
AFIERA
ACRONYMS
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Installation Architectural Guidelines
International Building Code
Intelligence Community Directive
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
Information Handling System
Inch-pound
Inch or inches
Kilogram
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
m
mm
MAJCOM
MPI
NACE
NASA
NAVFAC
NCPC
NCR
NIST
NOSSA
NRC
OCONUS
OMSI
OSHA
Pa
PCAS
psi
PTS
PVC
QA/QC
RAMP
RFP
SCIF
SDSFIE
sf
SHGC
SI
Meters
Millimeters
Major Command
Master Painters Institute
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Naval Facilities Engineering Command
National Capital Planning Commission
National Capital Region
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Navy Ordnance Safety and Security Agency
Noise Reduction Coefficient
Outside Continental United States
Operations and Maintenance Support Information
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Pascal (SI unit of pressure)
Post-Construction Award Services
Pound per square inch
Performance Technical Specifications
Polyvinyl Chloride
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program
Request for Proposal
Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility
Spatial Data Standard for Facilities, Infrastructure and Environment
square feet
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
Le Système International d'Unités/International System of Units (Metric
System)
Structural Interior Design
square meters
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association
Spray Polyurethane Foam
Sound Transmission Coefficient
Unified Facilities Criteria
Unified Facilities Guide Specifications
70
C
AN
C
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IAG
IBC
ICD
IESNA
IHS
IP
in
Kg
LCCA
SID
sm
SMACNA
SPF
STC
UFC
UFGS
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U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
U.S. Green Building Council
Value Engineering Change Proposal
Visible Transmittance
Whole Building Design Guide
water gauge (IP unit of pressure)
Water Resistant Barrier
C
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C
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USACE
USGBC
VECP
VT
WBDG
w.g.
WRB
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D-2
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Air Barrier. The term “air barrier” refers to the “prescriptive continuous air barrier” for
the “opaque building envelope” specified by Normative Appendix B of ASHRAE 189.1.
ED
Building System and Subsystems. An assembly of dimensionally and functionally
pre-coordinated subsystems which, when combined, produces an essentially complete
building. A subsystem is one of many building components designed and manufactured
to be integrated with other subsystems to produce an entire building system.
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Building Information Model (BIM). A BIM is a digital representation of physical and
functional characteristics of a facility. As such it serves as a shared knowledge resource
for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its lifecycle
from inception onward. \1\
AN
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Noise Isolation Class (NIC). NIC is a method for field transmission ratings. The higher
the number the better the noise control. NIC rates a partition's ability to block airborne
noise transfer. NIC testing is preferable to STC testing as it is specified on more specific
space types (such as spaces with operable walls, unaccompanied housing sleeping
rooms to each other or to the adjacent corridor, and the actual work spaces in
administration facilities). For a field STC test, the individual transmission loss
measurements are modified based upon the reverberation time, the size of the room,
and the size of the tested partition. The NIC does not include these modifications and
simply measures the transmission loss between 125 and 4,000Hz. The value of this
rating is that it better tests the performance of the assembly in the field, though it is
highly dependent on field conditions of the tested space.
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Outdoor-Indoor Transmission Class (OITC). OITC is defined as the A-weighted
sound level reduction of a test specimen (or a space) in the presence of an idealized
mixture of transportation noises; aircraft takeoff, freeway, and railroad pass by. It
assigns a single number rating to measure Sound Transmission Loss (TL) data
obtained in accordance with ASTM E-90. The higher the number the better the control.
Sound Transmission Class (STC). STC is a single number developed under
laboratory conditions that represents the effectiveness of materials or construction to
retard the transmission of air-borne sound. It is not as effective for measurement in low
frequency noise sources such as mechanical equipment.
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