residential_lighting_design_guide

residential_lighting_design_guide
Residential Lighting
Design Guide:
Developed bythe California Lighting TechnologyCenter
New Residential Lighting Standards in 2005
The California Energy Commission (CEC) has
adopted new residential energy standards:
2005 Building Energy Efficiency Standards for
Residential and Nonresidential Buildings. These
updates to the Title 24 energy code include
comprehensive changes to residential lighting
for new and remodeled homes obtaining
permits. These standards will significantly
reduce lighting energy consumption by
requiring the use of new energy-efficient
technologies.
The code changes were adopted in response
to California’s energy crisis in order to reduce
energy bills, increase the reliability of energy
delivery, and contribute to an improved
economic condition for the state. The new
code was based on how much energy a
technology can save as well as the technology’s
reliability, availability, and cost-effectiveness.
The code emphasizes energy efficiency measures that save energy during peak periods
of power generation, such as hot summer
days when air conditioners are running. It
incorporates recent publicly funded research
and increases the collaboration with California
utilities to incorporate results of appropriate
market incentive programs for specific technologies.
The 2005 standards go into effect
October 1, 2005.
When a builder’s permit is applied for prior to
October 1, 2005, the 2001 code applies; when a
permit is applied for on or after October 1, 2005,
the new 2005 code applies, with no exceptions.
A word from our sponsors
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
The upcoming changes represent a significant
opportunity for increased energy savings and
reduced maintenance in residential lighting.
However, these changes also represent
new challenges for builders and installation
professionals—new technologies and designs
that differ from current practice.
The 2005 code revisions were developed
through a consensus process, incorporating
changes that require minimal disruption to
current practice. Given this collaborative
approach and the potential for implementation challenges, a consortium representing
broad interests developed this design guide
for the builder community.
This guide provides a practical “cookbook”
approach to lighting code compliance and
design, including a broad array of example
designs as well as technical and compliance
information organized in a step-by-step format. The guide aims to assist in the process
of developing compliant, quality lighting
designs.
We believe that this guide will greatly help
the building community deliver highperformance, energy-efficient lighting
systems to homeowners in a cost-effective
manner for homebuilders.
California Energy Commission - EPA ENERGY STAR - Pacific Gas and Electric
Sacramento Municipal Utility District - San Diego Gas & Electric
Southern California Gas & Electric - Southern California Edison
Table of Contents
Overview of Title 24 Changes in 2005
Pages 2-3
How to Use This Guide
Page 4
Purchasing & Selection Guide
Page 5
Technology Overview
High-Efficacy Luminaires
Pages 6-7
Sensors
Page 8
Dimmers
Page 9
Design Guide
Kitchens
Pages 10-13
Bathrooms
Pages 14-17
Other Spaces: Dining, Bedrooms, Hallways
Pages 18-19
Outdoor Lighting
Pages 20-21
Multi-Family Applications
Page 22
Page 23
Inspection & Compliance Guide
Pages 24-25
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 1
Glossary
Overview of Title 24 Changes in 2005
Kitchen
2005 Standards
2001 Standards
High efficacy
OR
Up to 50% of the total wattage can be
low efficacy.
General lighting must be high
efficacy (fluorescent) and must be
controlled by the primary switch at
the kitchen entrance.
All high-efficacy and low-efficacy
lighting must be controlled separately.
Additional luminaires used for
decorative effects need not meet
this requirement.
Page 2 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
Switch location requirement removed
Each bathroom containing a shower
or bathtub must have at least one
fluorescent luminaire.
OR
Fluorescent lighting may be
installed in a utility room, laundry
room, or garage instead of a
bathroom
AND
All other lighting must be
fluorescent or equipped with a
motion sensor.
Bathroom
High efficacy
OR
Manual-on occupancy sensor
Garage
High efficacy
OR
Manual-on occupancy sensor
Laundry Room
High efficacy
OR
Manual-on occupancy sensor
Utility Room
High efficacy
OR
Manual-on occupancy sensor
If using the alternative option, each
additional bathroom must have at
least one fluorescent luminaire.
All other interior
rooms (e.g., living
room, dining
room, bedrooms,
hallways) except
closets less than
70 sq. ft.
High efficacy
OR
Manual-on occupancy sensor
OR
Dimmer
No requirements
Outdoor lighting
attached to
buildings
High efficacy
OR
Controlled by motion sensor +
photocontrol
No requirements
High efficacy
OR
Occupancy sensor
No requirements unless used as an
alternate for fluorescent bathroom
lighting
Must meet nonresidential lighting
standards
No requirements
Common areas of
low-rise residential
buildings with 4 or
more dwelling units
Residential parking
lots and garages for
8 or more vehicles
Overview of Title 24 Changes in 2005
The following is the 2005 Title 24 residential lighting code, quoted directly from the
California Energy Commission’s 2005 Building Energy Efficiency Standards, Section 150
(www.energy.ca.gov/title24).
Kitchens
Section 150 (k) 2: Permanently installed luminaires in kitchens shall be high-efficacy luminaires.
Exception: Up to 50 percent of the total rated wattage of permanently installed luminaires in
kitchens may be in luminaires that are not high-efficacy luminaires, provided that these luminaires
are controlled by switches separate from those controlling the high-efficacy luminaires. The
wattage of high-efficacy luminaires shall be the total nominal rated wattage of the installed highefficacy lamp(s).
Bathrooms, garages, laundry rooms, and utility rooms
Section 150 (k) 3: Permanently installed luminaires in bathrooms, garages, laundry rooms, and
utility rooms shall be high-efficacy luminaires.
Exception: Permanently installed luminaires that are not high-efficacy shall be allowed provided
that they are controlled by an occupant sensor(s) [sic] certified to comply with Section 119 (d). Such
motion sensors shall not have a control that allows the luminaire to be turned on automatically or
that has an override allowing the luminaire to be always on.
Other spaces
Section 150 (k) 4: Permanently installed luminaires located other than in kitchens, bathrooms,
garages, laundry rooms, and utility rooms shall be high-efficacy luminaires.
Exception 1: Permanently installed luminaires that are not high-efficacy luminaires shall be allowed
provided they are controlled by a dimmer switch.
Exception 3: Permanently installed luminaires that are not high-efficacy luminaires shall be allowed
in closets less than 70 square feet.
Porches and outdoor lighting
Section 150 (k) 6: Luminaires providing outdoor lighting and permanently mounted to a residential
building or to other buildings on the same lot shall be high-efficacy luminaires.
Exception 1: Permanently installed outdoor luminaires that are not high-efficacy shall be allowed
provided that they are controlled by a motion sensor(s) [sic] with integral photocontrol certified to
comply with Section 119 (d).
Exception 2: Permanently installed luminaires in or around swimming pools, water features, or other
locations subject to Article 680 of the California Electric Code need not be high-efficacy luminaires.
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 3
Exception 2: Permanently installed luminaires that are not high efficacy shall be allowed provided
that they are controlled by an occupant sensor(s) [sic] certified to comply with Section 119 (d). Such
motion sensors shall not have a control that allows the luminaire to be turned on automatically
or that has an override allowing the luminaire to be always on.
Back to top
How to Use This Guide
This guide is a resource to help builders
understand the new 2005 residential lighting
requirements and integrate these changes into
new home plans. The guide demonstrates ways
to meet the new code with multiple lighting
design examples on common floor plans.
The code specifically mentions six categories for
residential buildings: (1) kitchens, (2) bathrooms,
laundry rooms, utility rooms, and garages,
(3) other spaces, (4) outdoor spaces, (5) parking
lots and garages, and (6) common areas of lowrise buildings. The remainder of this guide will
explore these categories in greater depth, with
helpful illustrations of ways to meet the 2005
code.
In each section, the code will be dissected
into bullet points with reference to the floor
plans. The sections will include design tips,
technology tips, and caution notes.
This guide is to aid homebuilders in lighting
design. It is not intended to be used in lieu of the
actual Title 24 code.
Design Tip
Design tips are interwoven throughout this
guide to show how new technologies can create
aesthetically pleasing lighting designs and also
be code compliant.
Technology Tip
Technical tips are interwoven throughout this
guide to help you apply new technologies.
Caution Note
Caution notes are interwoven throughout this
guide to alert you to potential misapplications
of technologies or the code.
Page 4 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
Bright ideas
Create a warm glow
Light output is not always equal
Color temperature is important in homes.
Use warm-color fluorescent lamps: typically
2700K/3000K for compact fluorescent lamps
(CFLs) and 3000K for linear fluorescent lamps.
A high-efficacy light fixture may replace
a non-high-efficacy light fixture. Be
aware that the high-efficacy light fixture
may actually produce more lumens, or
light output, than the previous lowefficacy fixture.
Four to one
Most incandescent lamps may be replaced
with a CFL that is 1/4–1/3 the wattage. The
following list shows common incandescent
wattages and their CFL equivalents:
Incandescent
vs.
CFL
40 watt
13 watt
18 watt
60 watt
100 watt
26 watt
Four-pin not two-pin
There are two configurations of CFLs:
four-pin and two-pin. Four-pin units
require an electronic ballast (lighter
weight, no blinking or humming) while
two-pin units require a magnetic ballast,
which is not allowed by the new code in
most cases.
Back to top
Purchasing & Selection Guide
Fixture labels for compliance and quality
Now more than ever, it is the
responsibility of the builder
to fully specify compliant
fixtures to the contractor.
With the changes in the
code, manufacturers are
trying to make it easier for
builders and contractors to
specify compliant fixtures.
The following labels may
be helpful in specifying
high-quality and compliant
fixtures. Be aware that Title
24 applies not only to the
fixture itself but also to the
application and installation.
Here is what to look for:
ENERGY STAR: The ENERGY STAR label guarantees a minimum
standard of quality as well as energy performance. The updated
ENERGY STAR standards, also going into effect October 2005, have
been written to fit the new Title 24 requirements to help builders
specify high-efficacy fixtures. ENERGY STAR fixtures manufactured
prior to October 2005 may not be Title 24 2005 compliant. During
this transition period, be sure to verify that, regardless of label or
manufacturer, fixtures meet the high-efficacy requirements.
Title 24 Label: Some fixtures may feature
a Title 24 label to help builders and inspectors determine whether a fixture meets
the 2005 definition of high efficacy.
Airtight: Title 24 requires that recessed fixtures installed in an
insulated space be certified airtight in accordance with ASTM
E283. If the label on the fixture installed in an insulated space does
not specify ASTM E283 testing, additional documentation will be
needed to indicate the fixture has been tested and certified in
accordance with ASTM E283.
Note: The ASTM E283 certification is a laboratory procedure
intended to measure only the leakage of the luminaire housing or,
if applicable, of an airtight trim kit, and not that of the installation.
For complete airtight compliance, the installation must also be
airtight with either sealed gasket(s) or caulking, to ensure all air
leaks are sealed between the ceiling and fixture. For more
information see the Residential Compliance Manual, Chapter 6.10.
Make sure manufacturers “Stand By Their Can”
However, there is still concern that, in a very
competitive market, some manufacturers might
attempt to cut costs in a manner that would lead
to elevated ballast temperatures, and thus premature ballast failures. This could be a nightmare
scenario for homebuilders. Even if the ballast
failures occurred within the manufacturer’s
warranty period, the homebuilder would still be
responsible for the costly labor fees associated
with replacing failed units. Thus, even a few ballast failures would quickly erode any cost savings
from cheaper downlights.
To address this concern some manufacturers are
now offering a “parts and labor” warranty. This
warranty will minimize the risk to builders by
providing replacement components as well as
compensation for costs associated with installing
these components. We strongly urge builders to
specify high-output CFL downlights that carry
a parts and labor warranty, ideally for five years or
longer.
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 5
Nearly all new high-output CFL downlights
should operate for years without any problems.
Although concerns have been raised about
shortened ballast life due to the elevated
temperatures experienced in insulated ceilings,
several manufacturers have shown that, with
proper fixture design, ballast temperatures
can be maintained well within manufacturer
guidelines.
Back to top
Technology Overview
Understanding the three key energy-efficient lighting technologies
In general, homebuilders will comply with the new Title 24 requirements by installing a mixture of three
energy-efficient lighting technologies. This section is intended to familiarize homebuilders with these
three technologies. We explain how these systems work, what features to look for when purchasing or
specifying them, and which applications are most appropriate for each technology.
The three key energy-efficient lighting technologies for complying with the new code are:
High-efficacy luminaries: These lighting fixtures are designed and built to
operate only energy-efficient light sources, such as fluorescent T8 lamps,
compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps.
Sensors: Occupancy sensors, vacancy sensors, motion sensors, and daylight
sensors are all devices that automatically turn off the lights in response to
conditions that they “sense” or “see.”
Dimmers: Dimmers, which are already common in many residential
applications, allow the room occupants to lower the room lighting
(and thus the power used) as desired.
Homebuilders who have a solid understanding of these three technologies should have little problem
designing and specifying lighting plans that meet the new Title 24 guidelines.
Page 6 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
High-efficacy luminaires
While the formal definition is somewhat complicated
(see glossary), high-efficacy luminaires are generally
synonymous with energy-efficient fixtures. The code’s
requirements for high-efficacy luminaires are that “the
lumens per watt for the lamp be above a specified
threshold [see chart below] and that electronic ballasts be
used in certain applications.” Most ENERGY STAR fixtures
will qualify as high-efficacy luminaires, although some
lower-efficacy or magnetically ballasted ENERGY STAR
products may not be compliant. Each fixture has to qualify
with the Title 24 standards on its own merit regardless of
what it is labeled.
Four-pin CFL
(high efficacy and
code compliant)
In general, the following are high-efficacy luminaires:
Fluorescent and CFL fixtures with electronic
ballasts
Fixtures with HID lamps
In general, the following are NOT high-efficacy
luminaires:
Any fixtures with incandescent sockets
(regardless of the installed lamp)
Most fluorescent and CFL fixtures with
magnetic ballasts
High-Efficacy Lamps
Lamp power
Required lamp efficacy
Less than 15 watts
40 lumens/watt
15–40 watts
50 lumens/watt
More than 40 watts
60 lumens/watt
Note: Ballast wattage is not included when determining
lamp efficacy
Back to top
High-Efficacy Luminaires
High-efficacy luminaire anatomy: Recessed cans and surface mounts
Thermally enhanced electronic
ballast
Electronic ballast
CFL lamps
Junction (“J”) box
Housing: If installed in a ceiling with
insulation, it must be rated to be airtight
(AT-rated) and insulation contact (IC-rated)
Diffuser
What to specify
Rule of thumb: You should be able to “lumen
match” the incandescent fixtures by specifying
fluorescent systems that use one-third or onefourth as much power.
Specify the appropriate color:
Unlike incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps
come in a wide variety of colors, from “cool
white” to “warm white.” For most residential
applications it is most appropriate to specify a
warmer lamp color (CCT = 2700K–3000K), as it
gives a warmer feel and more closely matches
the look of incandescent lighting.
Specify electronic ballasts:
Electronic ballasts, which are mandated in all
high-efficacy luminaires of 13 watts or higher,
should improve lighting quality by eliminating
the flicker and hum associated with some
magnetically ballasted systems.
Specify thermally managed fixtures:
Higher CFL wattages can lead to hotter
operating temperatures for the electronic
ballasts, which if not property controlled
could dramatically shorten ballast life. This
is particularly true in ICAT (IC-rated, AT-rated)
applications where the heat produced by the
downlight is trapped by ceiling insulation.
Several lighting manufacturers have developed high-wattage ICAT systems by employing
ballasts with higher-rated operating ranges
(usually up to 90 C) and by heat-sinking the
ballast to the downlight housing. The bottom
line is that high-wattage downlights can be an
effective choice in insulated ceilings, but only if
the products have been properly designed for
this application.
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 7
Specify the appropriate light output:
Replacing incandescent with fluorescent
fixtures will often not be a “one-for-one”
replacement. In some cases you may install
fewer fixtures, while other installations may
require more.
Back to top
Sensors
Occupancy/vacancy sensors
With the exception of kitchens, occupancy
sensors can be used in lieu of high-efficacy
luminaires in most applications throughout
the house.
To help ensure the installed sensors will function
properly, follow these design tips:
Install sensors so they can ”view” the space
or area that is to be occupied.
“Vacancy sensor” is a term some manufacturers
are using to describe a manual-on, automaticoff occupancy sensor because the primary
function of the sensor is to turn the lights off
when the room is vacant.
Avoid using wall box occupancy sensors
in three-way applications, which can
become overly complicated. Wall box
sensors are not recommended for
these applications without a thorough
understanding of the technology.
Although the new code does not allow the
sensor to turn the lights on automatically
when a person enters a space, the sensor may
feature a grace period which will allow the
lights to automatically turn back on within 30
seconds after they have been automatically
turned off. This helps minimize disturbance
by allowing a homeowner to activate the
lights if they have been turned off due to lack
of motion (e.g., during a relaxing bath).
Feel free to use sensors in bathrooms, toilet
rooms, closets, laundry and utility rooms,
and garages.
Ensure that the sensor’s electrical load
requirements are met. For example, if the
occupancy sensor has a minimum load
rating of 25 watts and the homeowner
changes the lamp to a 13-watt CFL, the
switch may no longer operate the load.
Sensor anatomy and what to specify
A compliant sensor must have all of the following
features:
Page 8 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
Must be manual-on/automatic-off (can
also be turned off manually)
Time delay cannot be greater than 30
minutes
On/off switch
Cannot be locked in a permanent “on”
state (no “on” override)
Outdoor sensors can be automaticon/off but must also include a photocell
that keeps the lights off during daylight
hours
Optional features to consider when choosing an
occupancy or vacancy sensor:
Occupancy/vacancy
sensor
Energy-efficient LED nightlight
Impact-resistant lens and switch
Back to top
Dimmers
Dimmers
Dimmers can be used in lieu of high-efficacy luminaires or sensors in many applications throughout
the house. This may often be the least costly code-compliant measure and will increase the lighting
quality by allowing residents much greater control over their environments. The following are some
considerations when using dimmers:
Standard incandescent dimmers will not work with most high-efficacy luminaires or
fluorescent luminaires. Dimming is possible with fluorescent luminaires, but they need to
have special dimming ballasts and compatible dimmers rated for such use.
Compliant applications for dimmers include dining rooms, living rooms, and bedrooms.
Failure to correctly match the dimmer with the electrical lighting load of a fixture may
result in early equipment failure of the dimmer, transformer, ballast, or lamp.
When dimming a low-voltage (e.g., halogen) fixture, additional components are required
in the dimmer to avoid overheating the transformer.
Check the warranty. Most manufacturers offer a one-year warranty. Verify this is true for the
manufacturer you are purchasing from.
Dimmer anatomy and what to specify
Specify for the correct application:
Specific dimmers are created for
line voltage, low voltage and three
way applications, for example in a
hallway or stairway.
Dimming slide
Specify the aesthetic quality:
There are many aesthetic choices
in dimmers. Some have a designated on/off toggle that lets homeowners set the light level and
remains this way until changed.
Other dimmers slide on and off,
allowing homeowners to set the
light level each time they turn on
the lights.
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 9
On/off switch
Specify the correct fixture load:
Universal dimmers may not be
suitable for every application. It is
important to specify a dimmer for
a particular fixture load to preserve
the life of the dimmer and fixture.
Back to top
2005 Requirements
Kitchens in a Nutshell
Kitchen
High efficacy
OR
Up to 50% of the total wattage can be
low efficacy.
All high-efficacy lighting must be controlled
separately from low-efficacy lighting.
Switch location requirement removed
Additional code explanation:
50% of the kitchen’s permanently installed lighting
MUST be high efficacy, typically fluorescent; this can
include downlights, under-cabinets, over-cabinets,
pendants, wall sconces, etc.
Permanently installed lighting fixtures include, but are
not limited to, those lighting fixtures installed in, on, or
hanging from the ceilings or walls. Lighting that is part
of an appliance is not regulated by the code.
Switching should be designed so the homeowner can
automatically turn off 50% of the lighting power, yet
retain illumination throughout the entire kitchen, with
no overly dark areas.
Model Kitchen
DW
Page 10 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
Each and every permanently installed
fixture must be included in the total
wattage and must comply with
the standards.
NOOK
Fluorescent and incandescent light
fixtures MUST be controlled separately,
while different types of light fixtures
may also be controlled separately to
correspond with the use.
The first switch no longer has to control a
fluorescent light fixture.
The number of fluorescent light fixtures
will vary with each kitchen design. The
quantity of light fixtures is not regulated.
Nook lighting must be on a separate
switch to not be counted as part of the
kitchen. Nook lighting is then considered an “other space” and will require a
dimmer, manual-on occupancy sensor, or
high-efficacy lighting.
If a fixture can accept various lamp
wattages, its wattage for the sake of
code compliance is the highest relamping rated wattage designated by the
manufacturer on a permanent, factoryinstalled Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
label (peel-off labels are not permitted).
Kitchen Definition
OVN/
MICRO
REF
PANTRY
As defined by the California Energy
Commission, a room or area used for
cooking, food storage and preparation, and washing dishes, including
associated countertops and cabinets,
refrigerator, stove, ovens, and floor area.
Adjacent areas are considered kitchen if
the lighting for the adjacent areas is on
the same switch as the lighting for the
kitchen.
Back to top
Kitchens: Option #1
Kitchen lit with multiple lighting systems
Guidelines used for the lighting design
shown below:
Further code explanation as applied to the
lighting plan below:
Use 26-watt compact fluorescent recessed
cans on 4’ –5’ centers for even illumination.
Fluorescent and incandescent light fixtures
MUST be controlled separately.
Supplement recessed cans with fluorescent
under-cabinet and/or over-cabinet light
fixtures, on separate switches.
The first switch no longer has to control a
fluorescent light fixture.
Pantries less than 70 sq. ft. have no lighting or
control requirements.
Use 2700K–3000K color temperatures
for fluorescent lamps to ensure a warm,
“incandescent” lighting color.
Minimize the number of fixtures that
extend below the ceiling to help eliminate
visual clutter.
Use aesthetically pleasing light fixtures to
reinforce the design of the kitchen and
obtain a quality appearance.
$
$D
Switch
$D
KEY
DW
NOOK
Dimmer
Surface- or pendant-mounted
incandescent light fixture
Kitchen Fixtures Amount
Fluorescent
5
downlights
Wattage
26 watts
Total Wattage
130 watts
Under-cabinet
fluorescents
Incandescent
pendants
25 watts
50 watts
2
2
60 watts
120 watts
REF
PANTRY
Kitchen Code Compliant?
Fluorescent = 180 watts
Incandescent = 120 watts
Low efficacy less than half
of total wattage =
code compliant
$
OVN/
MICRO
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005
Title 24 high-efficacy requirements
$ $$
Fluorescent under-cabinet
and/or over-cabinet light
fixture with T8 or T5 lamps and
electronic ballast
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 11
26-watt CFL recessed can with
electronic ballast and white or
aluminum reflector and trim
Back to top
Kitchens: Option #2
Kitchen lit with linear fluorescents
Guidelines used for the lighting design
shown below:
Further code explanation as applied to the
lighting plan below:
Pantries less than 70 sq. ft. have no lighting or
control requirements.
Locate linear fluorescents on 6’–8’ centers
for even illumination, approximately 2’ from
cabinets.
Nook lighting on its own switch does not count
as kitchen wattage.
Use 32-watt T8 fluorescent lamps with a
3000K color temperature and a CRI (color
rendering index) of 80 or higher for a warm,
“incandescent” feel.
General lighting on the counter should
maintain an average of 30 footcandles.
Recess the linear fixtures to help maintain
a higher ceiling height and keep the ceiling
uncluttered.
Supplement linear fluorescents with
fluorescent under-cabinet fixtures on
separate switches.
Fluorescent fixtures with electronic ballasts
meet the high-efficacy requirements;
halogen and incandescent do not.
$
$D
$D
KEY
DW
Switch
NOOK
Dimmer
1’ x 4’ recessed or surfacemounted fluorescent light
fixture with 32-watt T8
lamps and electronic ballast
OVN/
MICRO
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005
Title 24 high-efficacy requirements
Kitchen Fixtures Amount
Wattage
Total Wattage
Surface
fluorescents 1’ x 4’
2
64 watts
128 watts
Under-cabinet
fluorescents
2
25 watts
50 watts
REF
PANTRY
$
Fluorescent under-cabinet
light fixture with T8 or T5
lamps and electronic ballast
$ $
Page 12 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
Surface- or pendantmounted incandescent
light fixture
Kitchen Code Compliant?
Fluorescent = 178 watts
Incandescent = 0 watts
Low efficacy less than half
total wattage = compliant
Back to top
Kitchens: Option #3
Kitchen lit with recessed fluorescent cans
Guidelines used for the lighting design
shown below:
Further code explanation as applied to the
lighting plan below:
Use 26-watt compact fluorescent recessed
cans on 4’–5’ centers for even illumination.
Pantries less than 70 sq. ft. have no lighting or
control requirements.
Space recessed cans evenly around the sink
so that an additional light fixture over the
sink is not needed.
All recessed cans installed into insulated ceilings are required to be ICAT rated, i.e., rated for
insulation contact (IC-rated) and airtight (ATrated) to prevent conditioned air loss into the
attic or ceiling. All air leaks must be sealed with
gaskets and caulking between the can housing
and ceiling.
Supplement recessed cans with highefficacy under-cabinet light fixtures on
separate switches.
Locate recessed cans at the edge of the
counter to reduce shadows that may be
caused by the occupant.
Light the countertops more than the
walkway. Place the lighting where it is
needed.
$D
Although only one switch is required,
provide three for versatility.
DW
NOOK
KEY
$
$D
Switch
Dimmer
Kitchen Fixture
Fluorescent
downlights
Under-cabinet
fluorescents
REF
Amount
6
Wattage
26 watts
2
25 watts
PANTRY
$
OVN/
MICRO
$ $$
Surface-mounted
incandescent light
fixture
Total Wattage
156 watts
50 watts
Forget anything? View the check-off list here.
Note: Applicable fixtures must
meet 2005 Title 24 high-efficacy
requirements
Kitchen Code Compliant?
Fluorescent = 206 watts
Incandescent = 0 watts
Low efficacy less than half
of total wattage =
code compliant
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 13
26-watt CFL recessed
(ICAT) can with an
electronic ballast and
white or aluminum
reflector and trim
Back to top
2005 Requirements
Bathrooms in a Nutshell
Bathroom
Garage
Laundry Room
& Utility Room
High-efficacy
OR
Manual-on occupancy sensor
High-efficacy
OR
Manual-on occupancy sensor
High-efficacy
OR
Manual-on occupancy sensor
Code explanation and design suggestions:
Fluorescent and incandescent light fixtures
MUST be controlled separately.
The first switch no longer needs to control a
fluorescent light fixture.
Occupancy sensors must be manual on/off and
automatic off. The maximum time delay to turn
off is 30 minutes after the last detected motion.
Sensors cannot have an override allowing the
light fixture to be continuously on.
Model Master Bath
Each and every permanently installed fixture
must comply with the standards, by means of being
high-efficacy or controlled by a manual-on
occupancy sensor.
Using fluorescent light fixtures with regular
switches for most of the bathroom helps
eliminate any possibility of a homeowner
stranded in a dark bathroom due to a
lack of motion (e.g., during a relaxing bath).
Use 26-watt CFL recessed cans, similar to
the kitchen, so the homeowner will not be
confused when purchasing replacement
parts.
The number of fluorescent/incandescent
light fixtures will vary with each design.
Quantity of light fixtures is not addressed by
the code.
Bathroom Definition
Page 14 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
As defined by CEC, a room containing a
shower, tub, toilet, or a sink that is used
for personal hygiene.
If a sink used for personal hygiene is in
a room other than a bathroom where
no doors, walls, or other partitions
separate the sink area from the rest of
the room, and the lighting for the sink
area is switched separately from room
area lighting, only the luminaire(s) that
are lighting the sink area must meet the
bathroom lighting requirements.
Model Standard Bath
Back to top
Bathrooms: Option #1
Bathroom lit with fluorescent lighting only
Guidelines used for the lighting design
shown below:
General lighting on the counter should
maintain an average of 30 footcandles.
Use a decorative linear fluorescent light
fixture over the mirror.
Use 26-watt CFL recessed cans with electronic ballasts (or exhaust fan combination)
over the toilet area, tub, and walkways.
Use a color rendering index (CRI) greater
than 80 for the light fixture over the
mirror.
Provide separate switches for versatility in
the lighting environment.
Use 2700K or 3000K color temperature
lamps for a warm, “incandescent” feel.
One switch can be used for this layout
instead of two as shown.
Master Bath
KEY
$
Switch
$
Fluorescent vanity light fixture
with T8 lamps and electronic
ballast
$
$
Surface-mounted decorative
incandescent light fixture
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005 Title
24 high-efficacy requirements
Standard Bath
$$
$
Closet
less than 70 sq. ft. = no requirement
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 15
26-watt CFL recessed can with
electronic ballast and white or
aluminum reflector and trim
Back to top
Bathrooms: Option #2
Bathroom lit with incandescent and fluorescent lighting
Guidelines used for the lighting design
shown below:
Further code explanation as applied to the
lighting plan below:
Fluorescent and incandescent light fixtures
MUST be controlled separately.
Over or alongside the mirror, use incandescent
vanity light fixtures controlled with a manualon, automatic-off occupancy sensor.
The occupancy sensor must be in the direct
line of sight of the occupant, not hidden,
around the corner, or in another room.
Use 26-watt CFL recessed cans with electronic
ballasts (or exhaust fan combination) over the
toilet area, tub, and walkways.
The primary switch no longer needs to
control the high-efficacy (fluorescent)
light source.
KEY
Master Bath
$
$oc
Switch
Occupancy sensor
$
26-watt CFL recessed can
with electronic ballast and
white/aluminum reflector
and trim
$o
c
$
Surface-mounted
incandescent vanity light
fixture
Surface-mounted
decorative incandescent
light fixture
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005
Title 24 high-efficacy requirements
$
Closet
Standard Bath
$$oc
Page 16 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
When three-way switching is desired,
use fluorescent lighting with a standard
three-way switch.
less than 70 sq. ft. = no requirement
Back to top
Bathrooms: Option #3
Bathroom lit with incandescent lighting only
Guidelines used for the lighting design
shown below:
Further code explanation as applied to the
lighting plan below:
Use incandescent vanity light fixtures over
the mirror or on the sides of the mirror,
controlled with a manual-on, automatic-off
occupancy sensor.
Use incandescent recessed cans or decorative surface-mounted fixtures controlled by
occupancy sensors over the toilet area, tub,
and walkways.
Control all incandescent lighting with one
occupancy sensor, as long as the sensor can
always “view” or “see” the occupant.
The number of light fixtures will vary with
each design and is not addressed in the
code.
If the occupancy sensor controls all the
light fixtures in the space and turns off
the lights prematurely, the occupant
could be in total darkness.
KEY
Master Bath
$
$oc
$o
Switch
Occupancy sensor
Recessed incandescent can
(ICAT if located in an
insulated ceiling)
c
$o
c
$o
c
The occupancy sensor must be in the direct
line of sight of the occupant, not hidden,
around the corner, or in another room.
Surface-mounted decorative
incandescent light fixture
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005
Title 24 high-efficacy requirements
Standard Bath
$oc
$
Closet
less than 70 sq. ft. = no requirement
Forget anything? View the check-off list here.
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 17
Surface-mounted
incandescent vanity light
fixture
Back to top
2005 Requirements
Other Spaces: Bedrooms & Hallways
All other interior
High efficacy
rooms (e.g., living
OR
room, dining room, Manual-on occupancy sensor
bedrooms, hallways,)
OR
except closets less
Dimmer
than 70 sq. ft.
Note: Each and every permanently installed lighting fixture
must comply with the standards, by means of being high
efficacy, controlled by a manual-on occupancy sensor, or
controlled by a dimmer.
$
Bedrooms
$
Use fluorescent light fixtures with one or more
regular switches.
OR
Use incandescent light fixtures with dimmers or
occupancy sensors.
KEY
$
When using ceiling fans with fluorescent light kits,
provide one regular switch for the fan and one
regular switch for the lights (as shown).
$3
Switch
Switch (three-way switch in
hallway)
When using ceiling fans with incandescent light
kits, provide one regular switch for the fan and one
dimmer for the light.
26-watt CFL recessed can with
electronic ballast and white or
aluminum reflector and trim
Switched outlets (half hots) do not require special
controls.
Ceiling fan with CFLs and fan
motor on separate switches
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005 Title 24
high-efficacy requirements
Entry area, foyer, and hallways
4
When installing a switched ceiling box and no
fixture, provide two switch wires so homeowners
can comply with the 2005 requirements
should they install a ceiling fan with a light
fixture.
$3
$
Page 18 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
Bedroom
Use fluorescent light fixtures with regular
three-way switching (as shown).
OR
Use incandescent light fixtures with
three-way dimmers.
Choose from three types of incandescent
dimmers: line voltage, low-voltage with
magnetic transformers, and low-voltage
with electronic transformers. Specify the
correct dimmer for the incandescent load.
$3
Hallways
Back to top
Living Room, Dining Room & Attic
Living room
Use fluorescent light fixtures with one or
more regular switches.
OR
Use incandescent light fixtures with
dimmers.
When using ceiling fans with fluorescent
light kits, provide one regular switch for
the fan and one regular switch for the
light.
$D
DINING ROOM
When using ceiling fans with
incandescent light kits, provide one
regular switch for the fan and one
dimmer for the light.
Switched outlets (half hots) do not
require special controls.
LIVING ROOM
Dining room
ENTRY
For a more decorative option, use
incandescent light fixtures with
dimmers.
$ $ $D
Enclosed patio
Attic
Regardless of the square footage, attics are considered
“other spaces” and must use fluorescent light fixtures
with a regular switch OR incandescent fixtures with a
dimmer or occupancy sensor. The fluorescent option
is recommended with a normal switch. The occupancy
sensor option is recommended only if the sensor can
“see” the entire attic; otherwise it may be a liability if
the occupant is left in the dark.
Forget anything? View the check-off list here.
KEY
$
$D
Switch
Dimmer
Switched (half hot) outlet
26-watt CFL recessed can
(ICAT in insulated ceiling) with
electronic ballast and white or
aluminum reflector and trim
Surface- or pendant-mounted
incandescent light fixture
Note: Applicable fixtures must meet 2005 Title 24
high-efficacy requirements
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 19
An enclosed (unconditioned) patio is
considered an “other space.” Each fixture
must be high efficacy or controlled by a
dimmer or occupancy sensor.
Back to top
2005
Requirements
Outdoor Lighting
Outdoor lighting
attached to buildings
High efficacy
OR
Controlled by motion
sensor + photocontrol
Note: Each and every
permanently installed lighting fixture
must comply with the standards.
Further code explanation as applied to the
lighting plan below:
This part of the code covers all exterior
lighting EXCEPT landscape lighting not
attached to the building and residential
parking lots or garages for eight or more
vehicles.
Outdoor motion sensors must have
automatic-off operation, but unlike interior
occupancy sensors they may have automaticon operation. In addition, exterior motion
sensors must include a photocontrol to keep
lights off during daylight hours.
$
Page 20 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
In addition to the motion sensor and
photocontrol, the homeowner must still be
provided with a regular switch to turn the
lights on and off manually.
Outdoor sensors must comply with
the 30-minute shutoff requirement.
The sensor must be installed so it
views or covers the area that is to be
illuminated by the fixture.
Pay attention to the electrical load requirements of the sensor selected. If the sensor
rating calls for a minimum load, make sure
that this load is met by all fixtures. If the
homeowner changes the lamp to a lower
wattage, below the minimum load, the
switch may no longer operate.
KEY
$
FRONT PORCH
Switch
Exterior
fluorescent
sconce
Note: Applicable fixtures
must meet 2005 Title 24
high-efficacy requirements
Back to top
Outdoor
Lighting
Outdoor
Lighting
Carefully decide which technology to use in different applications because each has different
advantages and disadvantages.
Benefits of high-efficacy outdoor light
fixtures:
Benefits of incandescent light fixtures
with photocell motion sensors:
Lights can be left on for an extended period
Lights are not left on unintentionally
No need to be concerned with the placement of motion sensors
Lights turn on automatically; no need for a
free hand to flip a switch
No need to worry about motion sensors
turning lights on and off at undesired times
Added home security
Recommended Uses:
Can use standard incandescent lamps
Recommended Uses:
Entry porch: freedom to leave lights on for
an extended period of time
Near bedroom windows: homeowners may
be distracted when lights are triggered by
a motion sensor as a pet walks by in the
middle of the night
Anywhere the light would not be in direct
sight of a bedroom: motion sensors may
be triggered (on/off ) as, for example, a pet
walks by in the middle of the night
Near the garage and trash can: this transitional space benefits from lights being
controlled by motion sensors
Motion sensor coverage should not be
too large, or lights will be triggered by street
traffic or a neighbor’s motion. Most sensors
have a sensitivity control to adjust the degree
of motion and light that triggers them.
Exterior
incandescent
sconce with
motion sensor
and photocell
Trash & Recycling
Side Yard
Note: Applicable fixtures
must meet 2005 Title 24
high-efficacy requirements
Forget anything? View the check-off list here.
Front Yard
$
Garage
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 21
KEY
Back to top
2005
Requirements
Multi-Family Applications
Common areas of
low-rise residential
buildings with 4 or more
dwelling units
Note: Each and every
permanently installed lighting
fixture must comply with the
standards.
High efficacy
OR
Occupancy sensor
Common areas of low-rise
residential buildings with four
or more dwelling units
Additional code explanation:
Do not use occupancy sensors with HID
lamps such as metal halide or high-pressure
sodium.
Buildings three stories or less are classified as
low rise.
“Common areas” of low-rise buildings include
exercise rooms, hallways, lobbies, corridors,
and stairwells.
Use high-efficacy lighting (fluorescent, metal
halide, or high-pressure sodium), preferably on
a photocontrol or time clock.
OR
Use any other light source with an occupancy
sensor.
Occupancy sensors must be in the direct line of
sight of the walkway.
Use passive infrared occupancy sensors
located in the direct line of sight of the path/
people. Use a set point of 15–30 (30 max)
minutes to turn off lights when not in use.
Occupancy sensors should be rated for damp
locations when installed under a canopy
and wet locations when directly exposed to
weather elements.
Page 22 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
Residential parking lots for eight or more vehicles
Additional code explanation:
Lamps rated over 100 watts must have a
lamp efficacy of at least 60 lumens per watt
OR be controlled by a motion sensor.
Fixtures with lamps rated over 175 watts shall
be designated as “cutoff,” limiting the light
emitted upwards. Both “cutoff ” and “full-cutoff ” fixtures can be used to meet this requirement.
Light fixtures must be controlled by a photocontrol or an astronomical time switch that
turns lights off when daylight is available.
The installation must meet the power density
limits for nonresidential lighting standards. For
more information, see 2005 Building Energy
Efficiency Standards, Section 147.
The owner must be able to automatically turn
off 50% of the lighting power in a reasonably
uniform pattern, so that the entire area retains
some illumination (no dark spots).
Uniform lighting helps to eliminate shadows
in corners and provide a sense of safety.
Back to top
Glossary
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials.
ASTM E283: A standard testing method for measuring
the rate of air leakage. As noted in the California Title
24 - 2005 Building Efficiency Standards, Sub-Chapter 7,
Section 150, (K), (5): [Recessed luminaires in insulated
ceilings] “shall include a label certifying air tight (AT) or
similar designation to show air leakage less than 2.0 CFM
at 75 Pascals (or 1.57 lbs/ft2) when tested in accordance
with ASTM E283.”
Bathroom: As defined by CEC, a room containing a
shower, tub, toilet, or a sink that is used for personal
hygiene.
Kelvin (K): The unit of temperature used to designate
the color temperature of a light source. Temperature:
2700K (warm color index), 3000K, 3500K, 4100K (cooler
color index).
Kitchen: As defined by CEC, a room or area used for
cooking, food storage and preparation, and washing
dishes, including associated countertops and cabinets,
refrigerator, stove, ovens, and floor area. Adjacent areas
are considered kitchen if the lighting for the adjacent
areas is on the same switch as the lighting for the kitchen.
Lamp: Light bulb.
CCT: Correlated color temperature. See Kelvin.
Low efficacy: Opposite of high-efficacy lighting.
Typically incandescent, halogen, and mercury vapor.
CEC: California Energy Commission.
LPW: Lumens per watt (efficacy of a light fixture).
CFL: Compact fluorescent lamp.
Lumen: The unit that quantifies the total amount of light
emitted by a source.
CRI (color rendering index): A measure of the degree
of color shift objects undergo when illuminated by the
light source as compared with those same objects when
illuminated by a reference source of comparable color
temperature. Higher CRI ratings indicate better color
rendering. Scale 0–100; 80+ signifies high-quality color
rendering.
Dimmer: A device used to control the intensity of light
emitted from a luminaire by controlling the voltage or
current available to it.
Fluorescent: A low-pressure mercury electric-discharge
lamp in which a phosphor coating transforms some of the
UV energy generated into visible light.
Footcandle: A unit for illuminance (the amount of light
that falls on a surface); equal to the number of lumens
striking a surface, divided by the area of the surface.
Half hot: A switched outlet.
High efficacy: As defined by CEC:
• For lamps 15 watts or less—minimum of 40 lumens
per watt
• For lamps 15 to 40 watts—minimum of 50 lumens
per watt
• For lamps over 40 watts—minimum of 60 lumens
per watt
High-efficacy interior lighting is mostly fluorescent; highefficacy exterior lighting can be fluorescent or HID.
ICAT: A luminaire installed in an insulated ceiling
meeting the insulation contact and airtight rating
requirements.
IESNA: Illuminating Engineering Society of North
America.
Illuminance: Light arriving at a surface.
Maximum rated: The wattage listed on the label of
the light fixture. Fixture with a screw-in base may have a
maximum-rated relamping wattage as high as 300 watts.
Motion sensor: A switching device used to automatically turn on light fixtures with a sensor that automatically
turns off lighting fixtures after 30 minutes (maximum)
from when the last motion is detected (for outdoor
applications only).
Nook: As defined by CEC, an area adjacent to the
kitchen not on the same switch. This area falls under
the “other spaces” code requirements and not under
the wattage requirements for the kitchen.
Occupancy sensor: A switching device used to
manually turn on light fixtures with a sensor that automatically turns off lighting fixtures after thirty minutes
(maximum) from when the last motion is detected (for
indoor applications only).
Other rooms: As defined by CEC these include entry
areas, foyers, hallways, living rooms, dining rooms, family
rooms, bedrooms, attics, and enclosed patios.
Photocontrol: A device used to automatically turn on
light fixtures at dusk and automatically turn them off at
dawn.
Relamping wattage: The maximum allowable wattage
specified by the luminaire label.
Sconce: A decorative wall light fixture.
Watt: The unit of measure for the energy used by a
lamp or fixture.
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 23
HID: High-intensity discharge lamp such as metal halide
or high-pressure sodium.
Luminaire: A complete light fixture consisting of a lamp
or lamps and ballast(s) together with the parts designed
to distribute the light, to position and protect the lamps,
and to connect the lamps to the power supply (reflectors,
housing, lenses, etc.).
Back to top
2005 Title 24: Inspection & Compliance Guide
Kitchen
At least 50% of the total wattage is high efficacy:
Fixture Type
High efficacy
Relamping x Quantity = High-efficacy
(y/n)
wattage
wattage
or
Low-efficacy
wattage
__________
__________
________ x _______ = __________
or
_________
__________
__________
________ x _______ = __________
or
_________
__________
__________
________ x _______ = __________
or
_________
__________
__________
________ x _______ = __________
(Complies if A > B)
Total: A: __________
or
_________
B: _________
Compliant? YES
Additional requirements
YES
NO
N/A
NO
YES
N/A
NO
YES
N/A
NO
YES
N/A
NO
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.
Bathroom(s)
All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.
Laundry Room / Utility Room
Page 24 – Title 24 Lighting Design Guide
All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.
Garage
All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.
Back to top
2005 Title 24: Inspection & Compliance Guide
Bedroom(s)
YES
N/A
NO
YES
N/A
NO
YES
N/A
NO
YES
N/A
NO
YES
N/A
NO
All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors OR dimmer switch.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.
Living Room / Dining Room
All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors OR dimmer switch.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.
Hallway(s)
All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors OR dimmer switch.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.
Entry Area / Foyer
Incandescent fixtures are switched with manual-on/automatic-off occupancy
sensors OR dimmer switch.
Recessed fixtures installed in insulated ceilings are rated ICAT and certified
ASTM E283 or equivalent. Installation is airtight (caulking, gaskets).
High-efficacy and low-efficacy fixtures are switched separately.
Outdoor Space(s)
All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Incandescent fixtures are controlled by motion sensor with a manual-on/off switch
AND photocontrol.
Title 24 Lighting Design Guide – Page 25
All light fixtures are high efficacy.
Back to top
For more information, contact:
Title 24 Background & Reference
California Energy Commission
www.energy.ca.gov/title24
916-654-5200
Residential L
ighting Design Guide
Sponsors
ENERGY STAR
S
www.energystar.gov
888-STAR-YES
Pacific Gas and Electric
www.pge.com
Sacramento Municipal Utility District
www.smud.org
San Diego Gas & Electric
www.sdge.com
Southern California Edison
www.sce.com
Southern California Gas Company
www.socalgas.com
Technical Resources
Advanced Lighting Guidelines
www.newbuildings.org/lighting
California Lighting Technology
Center
www.cltc.ucdavis.edu
Building Industry Research Alliance
www.bira.ws
ConSol
www.consol.ws
California Association of Building
Energy Consultants
Ene
www.cabec.org/abouttitle24.php
California Building Industry Institute
www.cbia.org
ENERGY STAR
www.LightingPlans.com
www.energystar.gov/
(
clickon “Products” then
“Residential L
ight F
ixtures”)
Manufacturers
Cooper Lighting
www.cooperlighting.com
Philips Lighting
www.philips.com
Juno Lighting
www.junolighting.com
Progress Lighting
www.progresslighting.com
Leviton
www.leviton.com
Seagull Lighting
www.seagulllighting.com
Lithonia Lighting
www.lithonia.com
T homas Lighting
www.thomaslighting.com
Lutron
www.lutron.com
Watt Stopper
www.wattstopper.com
T
heC
a
l
i
f
o
r
ni
aL
i
ght
i
ngT
e
c
hno
l
o
gyC
e
nt
e
r
,
e
s
t
a
bl
i
s
he
dt
hr
o
ughaj
o
i
nte
ffo
r
to
ft
he
C
a
l
i
f
o
r
ni
aE
ne
r
gyC
o
mmi
s
s
i
o
na
ndt
he
Uni
v
e
r
s
i
t
yo
fC
a
l
i
f
o
r
ni
a
,Da
v
i
s
,c
o
nduc
t
s
bo
t
hc
o
o
pe
r
a
t
i
v
ea
ndi
nde
pe
nde
nt
a
c
t
i
v
i
t
i
e
swi
t
hl
i
ght
i
ngma
nuf
a
c
t
ur
e
r
s
,
wi
t
he
l
e
c
t
r
i
cut
i
l
i
t
i
e
s
,a
ndwi
t
ht
hede
s
i
gn
a
nde
ngi
ne
e
r
i
ngpr
o
f
e
s
s
i
o
na
lc
o
mmuni
t
y
.
T
he
s
epa
r
t
ne
r
s
hi
psa
r
ef
a
c
i
l
i
t
a
t
e
da
nd
s
uppo
r
t
e
db
ys
t
a
t
e
o
f
t
he
a
r
tl
i
ght
i
ng
a
ndda
y
l
i
ght
i
nga
ppl
i
c
a
t
i
o
nsa
tC
L
T
C
’
s
de
v
e
l
o
pme
nta
ndt
e
s
t
i
ngf
a
c
i
l
i
t
i
e
s
,
c
o
upl
e
dwi
t
hl
i
ght
i
nge
ffic
i
e
nc
yt
r
a
i
ni
ng
a
nde
duc
a
t
i
o
na
lpr
o
gr
a
ms
.
T
h
eResidential L
ighting Design Guide
wa
sd
e
v
e
l
o
p
e
db
yt
h
eC
a
l
i
f
o
r
n
i
aL
i
g
h
t
i
n
g
T
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
yC
e
n
t
e
r
,
wi
t
hs
p
e
c
i
a
l
t
h
a
n
k
st
o
C
o
n
n
i
eBu
c
h
a
nf
r
o
mS
a
c
r
a
me
n
t
oMu
n
i
c
i
p
a
l
Ut
i
l
i
t
yDi
s
t
r
i
c
tf
o
rh
e
rc
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
nt
ot
h
e
d
e
v
e
l
o
p
me
n
to
ft
h
i
sg
u
i
d
e
.
F
o
rmo
r
ei
n
f
o
r
ma
t
i
o
na
n
dg
u
i
d
e
u
p
d
a
t
e
s
,
v
i
s
i
t
:www.
c
l
t
c
.
u
c
d
a
v
i
s
.
e
d
u
Novitas
www.novitas.com
rev080105
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Related manuals

Download PDF

advertisement