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DANMARKS OG GRØNLANDS GEOLOGISKE UNDERSØGELSE RAPPORT 2012/119
Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland 2012 (LOMROG III) –
Cruise Report
Christian Marcussen and the LOMROG III Scientific Party
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF DENMARK AND GREENLAND
DANISH MINISTRY OF CLIMATE, ENERGY AND BUILDING
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DANMARKS OG GRØNLANDS GEOLOGISKE UNDERSØGELSE RAPPORT 2012/119
Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland 2012 (LOMROG III) –
Cruise Report
Christian Marcussen and the LOMROG III Scientific Party
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF DENMARK AND GREENLAND
DANISH MINISTRY OF CLIMATE, ENERGY AND BUILDING
This page intentionally left blank.
Contents
Summary
7
1.
Introduction
2.
Weather and Ice Conditions
2.1
2.2
3.
4.
5.
GEUS
39
Equipment .......................................................................................................................... 39
Data acquisition .................................................................................................................. 39
Acquisition Period and Personnel Responsible ............................................................. 39
System Settings ............................................................................................................. 40
System/System Setup and Runtime Parameters ........................................................... 40
Ship Board Data Processing .............................................................................................. 40
Raw-file Conversion ....................................................................................................... 41
Data Examples ................................................................................................................... 42
Seismic Survey
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
17
Equipment .......................................................................................................................... 17
Hardware - Kongsberg EM122 Multibeam Echosounder ............................................... 17
Kongsberg Seapath 200 Motion Sensor ........................................................................ 20
Acquisition Software ...................................................................................................... 20
System Settings: Working Set of Parameters for SIS ........................................................ 21
Installation Parameters .................................................................................................. 21
Runtime Parameters ...................................................................................................... 25
Sound Speed Control ......................................................................................................... 29
Depth Modes Used ............................................................................................................ 29
Known Problems with the MBES System .......................................................................... 30
Echo Sounder Limitations .............................................................................................. 30
Software Bugs ................................................................................................................ 30
Line planning ...................................................................................................................... 30
Personnel ........................................................................................................................... 31
Ship Board Data Processing .............................................................................................. 31
Caris HIPS and SIPS Data Processing .......................................................................... 31
Comments on the data collected ........................................................................................ 32
Bathymetry ..................................................................................................................... 32
Seismic .......................................................................................................................... 36
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 36
Subbottom (chirp sonar) Profiling
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.3
4.3.1
4.4
13
Weather .............................................................................................................................. 13
Ice Conditions .................................................................................................................... 14
Multibeam Bathymetry Echo Sounding
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.8.1
3.9
3.9.1
3.9.2
3.9.3
9
45
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 45
Seismic Equipment ............................................................................................................ 45
Operation Experiences Gained During LOMROG III ......................................................... 45
Sonobuoy Operation .......................................................................................................... 47
Acquisition Parameters ...................................................................................................... 49
3
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6.
Processing Parameters...................................................................................................... 50
Results ............................................................................................................................... 51
Staffing ............................................................................................................................... 52
References......................................................................................................................... 52
Single beam Bathymetry Echo Sounding
6.1
6.2
7.
Equipment .......................................................................................................................... 53
Results ............................................................................................................................... 53
Gravity Measurements during LOMROG III
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.
53
59
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 59
Equipment .......................................................................................................................... 59
Measurements ................................................................................................................... 61
Ties .................................................................................................................................... 62
Processing ......................................................................................................................... 63
Sediment Coring
65
8.1
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 65
8.2
Methods ............................................................................................................................. 65
8.3
Results ............................................................................................................................... 67
8.3.1
Core Curation ................................................................................................................ 67
9.
Dredging
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.2
9.4
10.
11.
73
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 73
Equipment and Methods ................................................................................................ 74
Results ........................................................................................................................... 77
Data Processing and Work Flow ................................................................................... 78
Quality Control and Data Accuracy................................................................................ 78
Data Ownership and Access ......................................................................................... 79
Plankton Ecology
11.1
11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.2.4
11.2.5
11.2.6
11.2.7
11.2.8
11.2.9
4
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 69
Procedure .......................................................................................................................... 70
Results ............................................................................................................................... 70
Dredge 1 ........................................................................................................................ 70
Dredge 2 ........................................................................................................................ 71
References......................................................................................................................... 72
Oceanography
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
69
81
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 81
Methods ......................................................................................................................... 83
Net Sampling ................................................................................................................. 83
Water Sampling ............................................................................................................. 84
Incubations .................................................................................................................... 88
Pellet Production Experiments....................................................................................... 88
Gut Analyses ................................................................................................................. 92
Sediment Traps ............................................................................................................. 93
Dissolved Organic Matter .............................................................................................. 94
The Role of Environmental Conditions for Degradation of DOM ................................... 94
Distribution and Characteristics of DOM in the Arctic Ocean ........................................ 94
GEUS
11.3
11.3.1
11.3.2
11.3.3
11.4
12.
Projects Together with Pauline Snoeijs Leijonmalm and Peter Sylvander, Stockholm
University ....................................................................................................................... 96
A Comparison of Astaxanthin and Thiamine Levels in Dominant Arctic and Baltic
Zooplankton Species ..................................................................................................... 96
Trophic Levels of Dominant Arctic Zooplankton Species in Summer: Evidence from
Stable Isotopes Signature .............................................................................................. 96
The Effect of Environmental Stress on Antioxidant Depletion in Calanus hyperboreus 96
References ..................................................................................................................... 98
Microbial communities in the Arctic Ocean and their contribution to global nitrogen
cycling
99
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
12.3.4
12.3.5
12.3.6
12.3.7
12.4
12.5
12.5.1
12.5.2
12.6
12.6.1
12.6.2
12.6.3
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 99
Field Sampling ............................................................................................................. 101
Basic sample characteristics ........................................................................................ 106
Water Temperature and Salinity .................................................................................. 106
Inorganic Nutrient Concentrations in the Water ........................................................... 106
DOC and Isotopic Composition of O and H in Water and of C and N in Particulate
Matter ........................................................................................................................... 106
Cell Size and Density ................................................................................................... 107
Verification of Viable Cells ........................................................................................... 107
Fluorescence and Photosynthetic Performance .......................................................... 107
Pigments ...................................................................................................................... 107
Comparison of Community Composition in Brine and Ice Core ................................... 109
CTD samples ............................................................................................................... 110
N2O and CH4 ................................................................................................................ 110
DMSP ........................................................................................................................... 110
Molecular Field Samples .............................................................................................. 110
RNA Field Samples ...................................................................................................... 110
DNA Field Samples ...................................................................................................... 111
Metagenomics Field Samples ...................................................................................... 111
Biogeochemical Experiments with Stable Isotopes ..................................................... 112
Incubation Experiments for NanoSIMS Studies ........................................................... 113
Diurnal RNA Expression .............................................................................................. 114
References ................................................................................................................... 115
13.
Water Sampling for the Parameters of Oceanic Carbon
117
14.
Structuring of the Sea Ice Environment by Dynamic Ice-algae Activity
119
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.3.1
14.3.2
14.3.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
15.
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 119
Ambient Light Intensity During the Cruise .................................................................... 120
Scientific Methods ........................................................................................................ 121
Field Sampling ............................................................................................................. 121
Fluorescence Imaging .................................................................................................. 123
On-board Laboratory Analyses .................................................................................... 123
Ice Conditions, Irradiance and Fluorescence Imaging ................................................. 124
Perspectives and Future Outlook ................................................................................. 128
Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................... 128
References ................................................................................................................... 129
Characterization of Bioactive Gram-positive Spore-forming Arctic Bacteria
15.1
GEUS
131
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 131
5
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.4.1
15.4.2
15.4.3
15.5
15.6
16.
Aim ............................................................................................................................... 131
Scientific Work on Board ............................................................................................. 131
Work at the National Food Institute, DTU (Denmark) .................................................. 137
Culturing and Identification of Gram-positive Spore Forming Bacteria ........................ 137
Screening of Bacterial Cultures for Bioactive Properties ............................................. 137
Genome Sequencing of Bioactive Bacterial Strains .................................................... 137
Results ......................................................................................................................... 137
References .................................................................................................................. 138
Sea Ice Temperature
16.1
16.2
16.2.1
16.2.2
16.2.3
16.2.4
16.2.5
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
17.
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 139
Instruments and data ................................................................................................... 141
L-band, Thermal Infrared and Photos .......................................................................... 141
Mass Balance Buoys ................................................................................................... 142
Ship Data ..................................................................................................................... 142
In Situ Sampling........................................................................................................... 143
Satellite Data ............................................................................................................... 143
Data Samples .............................................................................................................. 144
Future Work ................................................................................................................. 146
Acknowledgement ....................................................................................................... 146
References .................................................................................................................. 146
Media on LOMROG III
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.6
17.7
17.8
139
147
Introduction .................................................................................................................. 147
TV-documentary .......................................................................................................... 148
News Coverage ........................................................................................................... 148
Other TV-coverage ...................................................................................................... 149
Other Media Products .................................................................................................. 150
Media & Science Relations .......................................................................................... 152
Survey on Science & Media Relations – with Compiled Results ................................. 152
Conclusions ................................................................................................................. 153
18.
Acknowledgements
155
19.
Appendices and Enclosures
157
19.1
19.2
19.2.1
19.2.2
19.2.3
19.3
19.3.1
19.3.2
19.3.3
19.4
19.5
19.5.1
19.5.2
19.5.3
6
Appendix I: List of Participants .................................................................................... 157
Appendix II: TPE (Total Propagated Error) - Multibeam .............................................. 159
SIS Installation Settings ............................................................................................... 159
SeaPath Settings ......................................................................................................... 160
Caris HIPS and SIPS ................................................................................................... 161
Appendix III: Manual for Coring Operation with Dyneema and MacArtney winch on I/B
Oden ............................................................................................................................ 163
Winches (see Figure 53 in Chapter 8) ......................................................................... 163
Coring Preparations ..................................................................................................... 163
Winch Operations ........................................................................................................ 166
Appendix IV: Core Descriptions ................................................................................... 171
Appendix V: Dredging Procedures and Dredging Log Sheets ..................................... 215
Dredging Procedures ................................................................................................... 215
Log Sheet for Dredge: LOMROG2012-D-01 ............................................................... 217
Log Sheet for Dredge: LOMROG2012-D-02 ............................................................... 219
GEUS
Summary
The LOMROG III cruise in 2012 was organized as a joint Danish-Swedish cruise where the
Continental Shelf Project of the Kingdom of Denmark financed 80% of the cost of the cruise.
The cruise started on July 31 in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, where it also ended on September 14.
The primary objective of the Danish part of LOMROG III was to collect bathymetric, seismic and
gravimetric data along the Eurasian flanks of the Lomonosov Ridge and in the Amundsen Basin
in order to supplement the data acquired during the previous two LOMROG cruises. The
LOMROG I to III cruise were organized to document an Extended Continental Shelf beyond 200
nautical miles according to Article 76 in UNCLOS in the area north of Greenland. The Swedish
part of the cruise, consisting of three science projects, was organized by the Swedish Polar
Research Secretariat.
Bathymetric data were acquired using the “pirouette method” developed during LOMROG I in
2007. Further bathymetric data were collected using the ships helicopter along four profiles.
Despite difficult ice conditions, multibeam bathymetric data were collected along four crossings
of the Lomonosov Ridge. The two southernmost profiles filled a gap in the data coverage along
the flank of the Lomonosov Ridge facing the Amundsen Basin. The bathymetric data acquisition
was supported by CTD casts from Oden and ice stations. Gravity data were acquired along the
ships track using the gravimeter on board Oden and from the ice using a portable gravimeter as
spot measurements.
During the cruise a total of 498 km seismic reflection data were collected and 63 sonobuoys
were deployed, hereof 59 successful deployments. Based on the operative experiences gained
during LOMROG II, the seismic lines were acquired by Oden breaking a 20-25 nautical mile
long lead along the pre-planned line, going back along the same lead to make it wider, and
finally to acquire the seismic data while passing through the lead a third time. Due to severe iceconditions data acquisition had to be terminated twice despite a lead had been prepared.
Through the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, three Swedish science projects (sediment
coring, plankton ecology and microbial communities) were integrated in cruise. Furthermore four
Danish science projects (oceanography, ice-algae, bacteria and sea ice temperature)
participated. During LOMROG III, cooperation and synergy between all science projects on
board Oden were developed. As example, the oceanography project provided facilities (portable
CTD) to take water samples and plankton samples on ice CTD stations and the sediment coring
project provided samples for the bacteria project. Water from the CTD casts was also shared
between various projects. Ice coring within the ice-algae project provided water sampling
opportunities for the microbial communities’ project. The helicopter supported very efficiently all
science activities during LOMROG III.
The project “PAWS: Palaeoceanography of the Arctic - water masses, sea ice, and sediments”
retrieved a total of 10 piston cores and 11 trigger cores yielding 61 metres of sediment
altogether. Geographically all cores were taken on the crest of the Lomonosov Ridge except the
second last core which was taken at the North Pole.
The Plankton Ecology project investigated the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton by
multiple opening-closing net hauls from Oden and ice stations reached by helicopter. In total 42
stations along the cruise track were sampled in the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins, on
transects across the Gakkel and Lomonosov Ridges.
GEUS
7
The project “Microbial communities in the Arctic Ocean and their contribution to global nitrogen
cycling” collected water samples from 24 ice stations and 12 CTD stations.
The Oceanography Project sampled a total of 13 unique ship stations and 29 ice stations. Water
was collected at both ship and ice stations.
The project “Structuring of the sea ice environment by dynamic ice-algae activity” collected ice
cores and seawater at 37 stations.
The project “Characterization of bioactive Gram-positive spore-forming arctic bacteria” obtained
in total 120 environmental samples (sediment from coring and dredging, water from CTD casts
and ice cores) with an additional 23 samples obtained from the Microbial Communities Project.
The Sea Ice Temperature Project deployed 8 mass balance buoys between Greenland and the
North Pole, did in situ sampling of snow and ice characteristics at 23 sites and continuously
acquired data using thermal infrared and L-band microwave radiometers and a camera installed
on “Monkey Island” of Oden.
The Danish media team participating in the cruise gathered interviews and other TV-material for
a 30 minutes long TV-documentary on the Continental shelf project. They also produced several
news features for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation and planned for other media products.
During LOMROG III, logistical support was provided to the Norwegian Fram 2012 expedition.
On August 22, 2012 at 21:43 (UTC) Oden reached the North Pole for the 7th time and the 4th
time on its own (Photo: Björn Eriksson).
8
GEUS
1. Introduction
By Christian Marcussen, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS)
The area north of Greenland is one of three potential areas off Greenland for extension of
the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles according to the United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), article 76 (Marcussen et al. 2004, Marcussen &
Heinesen 2010). The technical data needed for a submission to the Commission on the
Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) include geodetic, bathymetric, geophysical and
geological data. Acquisition of the necessary data poses substantial logistical problems due
to the ice conditions in the area north of Greenland.
Data acquisition in the area north of Greenland started in 2006 with the Danish-Canadian
LORITA expedition (Jackson & Dahl-Jensen 2010), during which seismic refraction data
from the shelf area north of Greenland and Ellesmere Island to the Lomonosov Ridge were
collected. In spring of 2009, bathymetric and gravimetric data were collected from the sea
ice in cooperation with Canada, using helicopters in an area north of Greenland covering
the southern part of the Lomonosov Ridge. Furthermore, aero-geophysical data were
acquired on either side of the Lomonosov Ridge. The LOMROG I cruise with Oden and 50
let Pobedy collected bathymetric and seismic data in 2007 (Jakobsson et al. 2008). The
LOMROG II cruise in 2009 cruise continued the work of LOMROG I (Marcussen et al.
2011). More information is available on www.a76.dk.
The LOMROG III cruise was organized in cooperation with the Swedish Polar Research
Secretariat. The costs were split between Denmark (80%) and Sweden (20%). The main
objectives of the LOMROG III cruise were:
UNCLOS related:

Acquisition of bathymetric data on flank of the Lomonosov Ridge facing the
Amundsen Basin supported by CTD casts from both Oden and the sea ice and
supplemented by single beam spot soundings using Oden’s helicopter.

Acquisition of seismic data in the Amundsen basin and on the Lomonosov Ridge

Acquisition of gravity data along Oden’s track

Dredging along the flank of the Lomonosov Ridge facing the Amundsen Basin
Add-on science:

Swedish research projects:
- Sediment Coring
- Plankton Ecology
- Microbial Communities

Research projects from Denmark:
- Oceanography
- Ice-algae
- Bioactive Gram-positive Spore-forming Arctic Bacteria
- Sea Ice Temperature
GEUS
9
The LOMROG III cruise started on July 31 in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, where it also ended
on September 14.
Figure 1. Bathymetric map (IBCAO 3.0 - Jakobsson et al. 2012) showing the LOMROG III ship
track (orange) and field work within the Continental Shelf Project of the Kingdom of Denmark
north of Greenland from 2006 to 2012. Yellow line: LORITA seismic refraction lines (2006);
green line – LOMROG I ship track (2007); red line – LOMROG II ship track (2009), light blue
lines – bathymetric profiles acquired by helicopter during spring of 2009 and during LOMROG II
(2009) & III (2012); yellow lines – seismic lines acquired during LOMROG I and II (2007 and
2009); red crosses – dredging sites; white stippled lines – unofficial median lines.
10
GEUS
By agreement with the Norwegian Fram 2012 expedition led by Yngve Kristoffersen
(University of Bergen) Oden provided fuel and other supplies to the expedition’s hovercraft
Sabvabaa twice during the LOMROG III cruise. One member of the Fram 2012 expedition
boarded Oden on the way back to Longyearbyen on Svalbard.
Figure 2: The hovercraft R/H Sabvabaa from the Norwegian Fram 2012 expedition during
refuelling (Photo: Björn Eriksson).
References:
Jackson, H.R., Dahl-Jensen, T. & the LORITA working group 2010: Sedimentary and crustal
structure from the Ellesmere Island and Greenland continental shelves onto the Lomonosov
Ridge, Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Journal International 182, 11-35.
Jakobsson, M., Marcussen, C. & LOMROG Scientific Party 2008: Lomonosov Ridge off
Greenland 2007 (LOMROG) – cruise report. Special Publication Geological Survey of
Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark, 122 pp.
Jakobsson, M., Mayer, L., Coakley, B., Dowdeswell. J.A., Forbes, S., Fridman, B., Hodnesdal,
H., Noomets, R., Pedersen, R., Rebesco, M., Schenke, H.W., Zarayskaya, Y., Accetella, D.,
Armstrong, A., Anderson, R.M., Bienhoff, P., Camerlenghi, A., Chruch, I., Edwards, M.,
Gardner, J.V., Hall, J.K., Hell, B., Hestvik, O., Kristoffersen, Y., Marcussen, C., Mohammad,
R., Mosher, D., Nghiem, S.V., Pedrosa, M.T., Travaglini, P.G. & Wetherall, P. 2012: The
International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) Version 3. Geophysical
Research Letters 39, LI2609, doi:10.1029/2012GL052219.
Marcussen, C., Christiansen, F.G., Dahl-Jensen, T., Heinesen, M., Lomholt, S., Møller, J.J. and
Sørensen, K. 2004: Exploring for extended continental shelf claims off Greenland and the
GEUS
11
Faroe Islands – geological perspectives. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Bulletin 4, 61–64.
Marcussen, C. & Heinesen, M. 2010: The Continental Shelf Project of the Kingdom of Denmark
– status at the beginning of 2010. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin
20, 51-64.
Marcussen, C. & LOMROG II Scientific Party 2011: Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG
II) – Cruise Report. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport 2011/106,
154 pp.
12
GEUS
2. Weather and Ice Conditions
By Ulf Christensen & Maria Svedestig, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute
(SMHI); Rasmus Tonboe, Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI)
2.1 Weather
Oden left Longyearbyen on July 31 in fair weather with a temperature at about 6ºC. The
second day, when Oden reached the ice edge, temperatures dropped and in the evening it
was near the freezing point.
During most of the expedition temperatures stayed between plus 0.5ºC and minus 2.0ºC.
The highest temperature was about plus 1.5ºC and the lowest minus 8ºC, during the night
between September 10 and 11.
The weather has generally not stopped helicopter operations, though it has been necessary
to adjust plans at times, due to marginal conditions. Only on a few occasions helicopter
operations were delayed or cancelled due to poor visibility, icing conditions or strong winds.
Figure 3. NOAA satellite image August 19, showing the position of the low that created strong
winds which caused ice drift up to 0.8 knots.
GEUS
13
Synoptic weather observations were made at 06, 12 and 18 UTC and were sent via email
to the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, and then further to the
global meteorological community. Fog has been reported in 25 % of these observations
and the figure for a cloud base lower than 300 m is as high as 68 %.
Precipitation during the first 2-3 weeks of the expedition was mostly rain or drizzle. Later
snowfall or freezing rain dominated due to sub-zero temperatures. About 15 % of the
observations report precipitation.
We have had some days - or mostly nights - with sunny weather, mainly during the second
week of the expedition.
On August 19 winds were at 14-16 m/s for several hours due to an unusually deep low
pressure system passing through the Arctic area (Figure 3).
Oden is equipped with an array of meteorological instruments that monitor weather
conditions automatically:
Atmospheric pressure
Temperature and humidity at four points at the vessel
Wind direction and speed
Visibility
Cloud base
Ultraviolet radiation
Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR)
Sea surface temperature
Sea surface salinity
The meteorological instruments have been working well, with only minor problems.
Valuable experience has been gained how to improve the measurements on board Oden.
After the expedition all weather data, including surface weather charts and weather satellite
images, can be retrieved via Swedish Polar Research Secretariat.
2.2 Ice Conditions
On 26 August 2012 the Arctic sea ice reached its lowest areal extent of 4.1 million km2 ever
recorded since systematic satellite measurements began in 1978 with the SMMR
instrument on the American NIMBUS-7 satellite. At the time of writing (12 September 2012)
the total ice extent of 3.6 million km2 is near its absolute minimum for the season and a
record low during the satellite era. However, the area north of Greenland and near the
North Pole along the Oden cruise track on LOMROG III are expected to be where the ice
will disappear last due to global warming.
Nevertheless, the ice conditions along the cruise track were in general lighter than what
could be expected when comparing to climatology. There were only small concentrations of
multiyear ice near 87.5ºN; 45ºW and average ice thickness of first- and second year ice
was not larger than 2 m. When navigating in areas with multiyear ice the snow and daylight
conditions were favourable for visual identification of ice types.
The Oden received satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR), primarily RADARSAT 2 (Figure
4 & Table 1) and Cosmo SkyMed, and occasionally MODIS visual scanner data on a daily
14
GEUS
basis throughout the cruise for detailed planning. In addition, sea ice drift derived from
satellite SAR data and microwave radiometer sea ice concentration maps for overview and
planning. The data have been presented on the screen in front of the officer in charge for
navigation and for overview. The SAR data contain information on the distribution of level
ice, leads and open water and deformation features on a 100 m scale. There are some
differences between the information in the C-band RADARSAT 2 data and the X-band
Cosmo SkyMed data. The contrast between level and deformed ice is slightly greater in Cband than in X-band in general. The data are also used for the identification of large floes,
leads and open water areas. Both X- and C-band is affected the melt freeze cycles which
are common over vast areas in the arctic during August and September. When the snow
surface is melting the scattering mechanisms are dominated by surface scattering which
means that roughness features such as open leads and ridges create the image contrast.
In late summer under dry and cold surface conditions C-band and in particular X-band is
affected by scattering mechanisms within the snow and ice. This is decreasing the contrast
between the level ice and ridges. With a few exceptions, temperature and snow condition
were favourable during the cruise for creating contrast in the SAR images.
Ice drift data derived from the SAR data is used for judging the ice field convergence and
divergence i.e. the ice pressure. Sea ice type information i.e. multiyear ice, first-year ice
and new-ice, is not available in SAR data during summer. This type of information is only
available during winter when radar penetration is sufficient for classifying the distinct
dielectric and volume scattering properties between these three different types. During
summer ice type and ice thickness information is available using sea ice models. These are
operated on scales which are not practical for detailed planning. A few such model
products have been received on board Oden but it has not been used for operations or
planning.
Figure 4. The RADARSAT 2 image on 12 August 2012, 14.44 UTC. Notice the Oden cruise
track from east to west in the central part of the image. The bright stripes going North South are
deformation areas.
GEUS
15
The Oden cruise track was covered very well with ice information and other data types with
information for planning. There is still potential for exploiting this information better for
planning of operations and transit. In particular, planning of the return transit duration could
have been optimized using the information.
Satellite
Date
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
CosmoSkyMed
CosmoSkyMed
CosmoSkyMed
CosmoSkyMed
CosmoSkyMed
CosmoSkyMed
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
CosmoSkyMed
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
Radarsat 2
20120801
20120801
20120802
20120802
20120803
20120804
20120805
20120805
20120806
20120807
20120808
20120810
20120811
20120812
20120814
20120816
20120819
20120821
20120821
20120822
20120823
20120824
20120825
20120826
20120827
20120829
20120830
20120902
20120903
20120904
20120905
20120906
20120907
20120907
20120908
20120910
20120910
20120911
20120912
Total
Time [UTC]
06:43
15:02
06:13
14:33
14:04
13:15
14:47
15:15
14:17
13:48
14:59
14:02
15:03
14:44
13:44
14:27
21:12
21:06
21:25
21:43
21:13
21:06
08:50
09:32
09:03
09:45
-:00:45
14:01
10:10
09:41
14:13
05:11
15:24
14:55
07:16
13:56
15:06
07:58
39
Table 1. The high resolution SAR images provided in near real time to Oden for detailed
planning of operations.
16
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3. Multibeam Bathymetry Echo Sounding
By Richard Pedersen & Morten Sølvsten, National Survey and Cadastre (KMS)
3.1 Equipment
3.1.1 Hardware - Kongsberg EM122 Multibeam Echosounder
The Swedish Icebreaker Oden is equipped with a permanently mounted Kongsberg EM122
12 kHz (1ºx1º) multibeam echo sounder (MBES) and a Kongsberg SBP120 chirp sonar
(sub bottom profiler, SBP). The initial installation was carried out in the spring of 2007,
when a Kongsberg EM120 MBES (serial number 205) was installed. This unit was the
predecessor of the next generation EM122; with both models utilizing the same
transducers. In the spring of 2008, the MBES was upgraded to the current EM122 model
(serial number 110) by exchanging the transceiver electronics. It should also be noted that
the original ice protection of the hull-mounted transducers has been upgraded twice. The
first time was in the spring of 2008 and most recently in the spring of 2009.
The Kongsberg EM122 is a multibeam system featuring a nominal frequency around 12
kHz, which is capable of sounding measurements at the full ocean depth of up to 12 km.
In the 1ºx1º configuration installed on Oden both the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx)
transducers dimensions are about 8 by 1 metre. They are separate linear transducers
installed in a Mill’s cross configuration (Tx in along-ship direction) in the ship’s hull
underneath the ice knife, about 8.1 metre below the water line and 15 cm inside the hull
surface. For ice protection, 12 cm thick polyurethane elements reinforced with titanium rods
are mounted flush to the hull, leaving a few centimetres (water filled) space between their
inside and the transducer elements.
The Rx transducer (with ice protection) is further covered with an additional titanium plate
(Figure 5 & 6).
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17
Figure 5. EM122/SBP120 Rx transducer during with titanium plate covering ice protection
elements
Figure 6. EM122 Tx transducer during installation, with some of the ice protection elements
fitted.
18
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The EM122 MBES provides for a theoretically lateral coverage of up to 2x75º under optimal
circumstances for installation on regular survey vessels. Initially, it was anticipated that the
ice protection would limit the lateral coverage to 2x65º, however the observations made
during LOMROG-II, EAGER and this expedition suggest that this performance is not to be
expected. The current configuration (with existing ice protection) limits the effective
coverage to (at best) 2x60º (corresponding to approx. 3.4 times the water depth). This
performance is only achievable under favourable conditions such as collecting data in open
waters or when drifting with the ice. Furthermore, the generally high background noise level
of the ship and the effects of ice and air bubbles underneath the ship’s hull limit the lateral
coverage even more during “high noise” operations such as heavy ice breaking or fast
open water transits.
The EM122 configuration on the Oden has a minimum beam width of 1º in both along ship
and athwart ship directions. The beams are transmitted in 3-9 distinct sectors (depending
on the water depth), which are distinguished by frequency (11.5 kHz - 13 kHz) and in
certain cases FM modulation. Each sector can be individually compensated for vessel roll,
pitch and yaw. These options however, were not used during this expedition. The system
also has a number of different sounding modes. With the “Equi-Angle” and “In-Between”
modes there is a maximum of 288 bottom detections per swath, however there is a higher
density mode (HD Equi-Distant) that is capable of increasing the sounding sampling per
beam, which makes up to 432 bottom detections possible per swath. The HD equidistant
mode was used for all of the science program work. The EM122 also allows for a frequency
modulated (FM) chirp-like signal to be used in the deeper sounding modes (enabled for this
expedition) and provides the ability to collect the water column information for all beams.
The separate water column files (*.wcd) were logged at all times during LOMROG-III.
These files have the same naming convention as the sounding files (*.all) but with a
different extension, as noted above.
All of the raw files were organized by UTC day. UTC time was used for all sounding data
collection. If a logged line starts before midnight but ends after the start of the next day it is
stored in the day the line started. The convention used to number the lines was as follows:
LineNumber_yyyymmdd_hhmmss_Oden.all (and .wcd)
Where:
LineNumber − the number of the line. The system was set to increment the line each
three hours, but it was often done earlier due to survey requirements
yyyymmdd − yyyy is four digit year; mm is two digit month and dd is two digit date
hhmmss − the time using 24 hour clock (UTC)
e.g. 0005_20120804_132826_Oden.all and 0005_20120804_132826_Oden.wcd
The lines were named by starting the numbering (with linenumber 0000) at midnight. There
was no need to separate the data collected like it was done on LOMROG II cruise in 2009.
All raw data were collected and stored in separate folders (named YYYYMMDD) locally.
When it were time to process using CARIS HIPS and SIPS the data was copied to the
server and the individual lines were then imported to individual folders with the
corresponding Julian date under the project.
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19
3.1.1.1 Calibration
The MBES transducer offsets were last calibrated in a patch test in the period between 19
May 2007 and 24 May 2007 by Christian Smith (Kongsberg Maritime). Calibrations of the
transmitted energy of the different swath sectors in order to achieve an even distribution of
backscatter energy over the entire swath (so-called backscatter calibration) was done by
Christian Smith (echo sounder mode “Deep” and “Shallow single swath”, 04 June 2009)
and Benjamin Hell (echo sounder modes "Deep single swath", "Deep dual swath 2" and
"Very Deep single swath", 09 August 2009).
3.1.2 Kongsberg Seapath 200 Motion Sensor
The Seapath 200 provides a real-time heading, attitude, position and velocity solution by
integrating the best signal characteristics of the two technologies, Inertial Measurement
Units (IMUs) and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The Seapath utilizes the SeaTex
MRU5 inertial sensor and two GPS carrier phase receivers as raw data providers. It is
critical to have good motion sensor, gyro and GPS data in order to achieve optimal
surveying capability. The Seapath replaces three sensors; gyro compass heading
reference, the motion sensor for roll, pitch and heave and GPS for positioning and velocity
determination. By using one instrument to provide this critical data, potential timing and
synchronization problems are virtually eliminated.
3.1.3 Acquisition Software
The Seafloor Information System (SIS) is the software that controls the multibeam system
and logs the data. The most recent version was used during LOMROG-III (see details
below).
Figure 7. Information about the Seafloor Information System (SIS)
During normal operations we observed different issues with the set-up of the system and
the quality of the collected data.

20
Missing PPS pulse.
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



At the beginning of the expedition the PPS pulse from the Seapath was not
received in the MBES Processing Unit (PU). After reconnecting all cables it
suddenly appeared and the synchronization of time was back to normal.
A patch to SIS was received and installed.
The depth from the MBES centre beam was initially not transmitted on the
Ethernet. After installing the patch the issue was solved.
Artefacts are still present in deep water areas with a soft bottom.
This error was already reported to Kongsberg during the EAGER 2011 project.
Martin Jakobsson, Stockholm University has reported that it is a
software/firmware related problem.
On-line sound speed measurements not reliable.
The Valeport Mini SVS/T sensor often showed an incorrect sound velocity. From
time to time the error was more than 20 m/s. The practical work-around was to
manually input the correct value in SIS based on the sound velocity converted
from the CTD probes.
The service provided by Kongsberg prior to the cruise has not been satisfactory.
The service report is more or less just a listing of serial numbers. Martin
Jakobsson, Stockholm University has been informed and will take action in
relation to future service visits.
3.2 System Settings: Working Set of Parameters for SIS
3.2.1 Installation Parameters
Figure 8. Installation parameters – PU Communication Setup – Input Setup: COM 1
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21
Figure 9. Installation parameters – PU Communication Setup – Input Setup: COM 2
Figure 10. Installation parameters – PU Communication Setup – Input Setup: UDP5
22
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Figure 11. Installation parameters – PU Communication Setup – Input Setup: SIS Logging
Figure 12. Installation parameters – Clock Setup
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23
Figure 13. Installation parameters – Sensor Setup – Settings
Figure 14. Installation parameters – Sensor Setup – Locations
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Figure 15. Installation parameters – Sensor Setup – Angular Offsets
3.2.2 Runtime Parameters
Actual settings are shown with comments to settings that were changed during the survey
period.
3.2.2.1 Sounder Main
Figure 16. Runtime parameters – Sounder Main
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25
Max/Min angle:
Min/Max depth:
Ping Mode:
Pitch stabilization:
Normally 40º. When collecting data with the pirouette
technique or drifting during various operations the angles
where set to 60º.
As close around the seafloor as necessary and possible
Auto.
Off.
3.2.2.2 Sound Speed
Figure 17. Runtime parameters – Sound Speed
Sound Speed at Transducer: Because of some minor problems with the sensor a manual
value was entered whenever the difference between the profile and the actual value were
more than a few m/s. This was the case almost the entire cruise.
26
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3.2.2.3 Filters and Gains
Figure 18. Runtime parameters – Filter and Gains
3.2.2.4 Data Cleaning
Figure 19. Runtime parameters – Data Cleaning
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27
3.2.2.5 GPS and Delayed Heave
Figure 20. Runtime parameters – GPS and Delayed Heave
3.2.2.6 Survey Information
Figure 21. Runtime parameters – Survey Information
28
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3.3 Sound Speed Control
Every time a sound velocity profile (SVP) was obtained, either from a ship CTD or a CTD
taken at an ice station, the data were checked by operators from the Danish Meteorological
Institute (DMI). When any errors had been corrected the accepted data (profile) were
copied to a common directory on the ship’s RAID system.
Figure 22. Sound velocity profiles
The data were then sub-sampled using a Python script, that converted the original data to
depths and corresponding sound velocity pairs (max 999 lines).
The SIS software however requires the profile to be extended to 12 km so this was also
done at the same time (again using a Python script). It should be noted that the profiles
were very stable and changed little over the duration of the survey.
The sound speed from the Valeport Mini SVS/T sensor was used for sound speed at the
transducer at the beginning of the cruise. Because of some problems with the sensor
showing the wrong value (or nothing at all), it was decided to enter a manual value into the
multibeam acquisition software based on the converted values from the actual CTD
profiles.
3.4 Depth Modes Used
Below is a list of modes and the suggested depth range that they are designed to support.
This is also the depth intervals used by the automatic mode selection.
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29

Shallow (< 350 m)

Medium (350 m-1000 m)

Deep (1000 m-9000 m)

Very Deep (> 9000 m)
It should be noted that the ping mode was set to run automatically at all times.
3.5 Known Problems with the MBES System
3.5.1 Echo Sounder Limitations

Like on earlier expeditions the Kongsberg multibeam is prone to Erik’s horns.

Generally during transit the maximum across track beam angle were set to ±40º
due to noise in the data. Furthermore a higher setting resulted in a lower ping rate.
3.5.2 Software Bugs

As reported on the LOMROG II and EAGER expeditions - when working in
projection, COG - Projection rotation at present position = DTK (Desired Track)
(western LON negative). This means that the DTK must be corrected for latitude in
order to work with the auto pilot. This bug affects in the Helmsman displays and the
COG arrow in the geographical window. How to reproduce this bug: Set geographic
window to projection. Plan line at some high longitude. The Helmsman DTK will
then show the line course offset by the longitude.

Probably related to the previous bug – still a problem: The ship heading arrow
points into the wrong direction when working in a projection with True North not
equal Map North. Even working in UTM projection it is offset depends on where the
ship is presented on the screen.

Depth scale of water column display does not match the depth scale in the e.g.
cross track display because the water column data is not SVP corrected. It would
be very useful to have a function for “locking” the digitizing of the sea floor from
within the water column display, as it is often possible to “see” the seafloor and it
appears that no bottom detections are logged.

The display of detections in the Cross track/Beam intensity, Water column and
Geographical windows are not always synchronized.
3.6 Line planning
Whenever possible the transit lines were chosen to pass over any “interesting” features
found on (or nearby) the route to the next area of interest. This was done in order to
determine if there was an actual feature on the sea-floor or if the IBCAO (version 3.0) chart
just had an artefact left in its model data.
30
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Some discrepancies with the newest version of the IBCAO chart were found (see Chapter 5
for further details).
3.7 Personnel
MBES measurements were carried out continuously during the entire expedition, with a
team of six people working according to the following watch scheme.
Time
Name
Affiliation
Log
sheet
initials
0-4 and 12-16
Rezwan
Mohammad
Stockholm University, Sweden
RM
Francis Freire
Stockholm University, Sweden
FF
Morten Sølvsten
National
Denmark
MS
Niki Andersen
GEUS, Denmark
Richard Pedersen
National
Denmark
Nina Kirchner
Stockholm University, Sweden
4-8 and 16-20
8-12 and 20-24
Survey
Survey
and
Cadastre,
NA
and
Cadastre,
RP
NK
Table 2. Watch scheme for the multibeam crew.
The watch time was “Ship Time”, which was UTC +2 during the entire expedition. The data
time used everywhere was UTC.
3.8 Ship Board Data Processing
All ship board processing of echo sounding data was carried out using CARIS HIPS and
SIPS (version 7.1, SP2). A log sheet was kept and filled out using an OpenOffice Calc
spreadsheet in order to get an overview of the actions taken regarding the processing of
the data.
For visualization and additional control of the bathymetric data (cleaned in CARIS),
Fledermaus (version 7) from IVS 3D was used. The new data could be combined (and
compared) with both data from previous expeditions and the IBCAO model data.
During the cruise an inventory of all collected data was built in an Intergraph GeoMedia
Professional (version 6.1) geographical information system.
3.8.1 Caris HIPS and SIPS Data Processing
Data conversion: The echo sounder raw data, in ALL format, were converted into Caris
HDCS data using the Caris HIPS and SIPS conversion wizard.
Apply tide: Zero tide was applied to all data.
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31
Compute TPU: The total propagated error was computed. The surface sound speed was
assumed to be within ±5 m/s and sound speed profile were assumed to be within ±10 m/s,
all other values were set to zero. See CARIS Vessel Configuration File (Appendix 2,
section 19.2.3) for more settings.
Merge: The data were merged. This process assigns geographic positions to all soundings
and reduces them for tide and any other specified corrections such as new sound velocity
profile.
Create field sheet: Field sheets were generated to the most appropriate resolution based
on depth. The cube surfaces varied between 50 m and 100 m. An overall field sheet with a
100 m cube surface was used for quality check.
Data cleaning and gridding: Manual data cleaning was performed throughout the survey
using the subset editor (after data were merged). The data cleaning was done as an
iterative process by different persons each time. Sometimes deciding about the quality of
single soundings can be difficult given the sometimes bad data quality (especially during
ice breaking).
Quality control, final field sheets and bathymetric grids: Fledermaus (version 7) was
used on a daily basis for quality control and any spikes found using Fledermaus were then
cleaned in CARIS – and hence a new surface was exported. The field sheets set up were
used as both working sheets. The final layout was determined at the end of the cruise (see
section 3.9.3).
3.9 Comments on the data collected
3.9.1 Bathymetry
In general, the profiles measured while crossing the Lomonosov Ridge match the latest
IBCAO model (version 3) very well. However, at some locations some bathymetric highs
are underestimated in the model.
32
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Figure 23. The main part of the bathymetric data collected during the LOMROG-III expedition
The detailed bathymetric mapping at the first crossing of the Lomonosov Ridge, marked as
number 1 (in Figure 23), has shown that the ridge itself actually consists of several en
echelon ridges. This conclusion is also supported by the adjacent single beam soundings.
Figure 24. Details of crossing 1.
The front of this elevation shows a very steep slope towards the deep ocean seafloor. The
shoalest depth measured were approximately 2445 m rising from the ocean seabed at
3850 m water depth. It may also be noted that the feature was not present in the IBCAO
model. On the same location the IBCAO model shows a depression in the seafloor.
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33
The second crossing, marked as number 2 (in Figure 23), of the Lomonosov Ridge show
(like the first crossing) what is believed to be the end of one of the en echelon ridge
systems. The front of this elevation does not show quite as steep a slope towards the deep
ocean seafloor as the first crossing. The shoalest depth measured were approximately
2700 m rising from the ocean seabed at 4000 m water depth. It may also be noted that the
feature was present in the IBCAO model but not as high as measured on this expedition.
Figure 25. Details of crossing 2.
The third crossing, marked as number 3 (in Figure 23), of the Lomonosov Ridge also show
the same type of en echelon ridge system. The forefront of this elevation shows a steep
slope towards the ocean seafloor (approx. 31º). The shoalest depth measured were
approximately 2000 m rising from the ocean seabed at 4000 m water depth.
Figure 26. Details of crossing 3.
To the north of the shown profile it may be seen that the data does not match the IBCAO
model. The new data is more pronounced than the model data indicates. It looks like the
most northern point of en echelon ridge system is reached.
Mapping the area around the most eastern part of the Lomonosov Ridge (marked as no. 4
in Figure 23) it may be noted that the outcrop in the IBCAO model of the Lomonosov Ridge
34
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to the west does not exist. The FOS and BOS will therefore be moved to the east by
approximately 13 km. The southernmost point on this part of the Lomonosov Ridge is
consistent with the IBCAO model.
Figure 27. IBCAO model overlain with LOMROG-III multibeam data on the Lomonosov Ridge.
On the transit south, a small isolated elevation of a rounded shape (approx.400 m high) in
the IBCAO model, was investigated to prove (or rather disprove) its existence. On the
position a pirouette was carried out to get the best coverage in the area. The collected
multibeam data show that the small feature does not exists on the location indicated in the
model. Therefore it is advised to remove this feature from the current IBCAO model.
Figure 28.The small feature in the IBCAO model overlaid with LOMROG-III multibeam data.
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35
3.9.2 Seismic
Seismic data acquisition was planned during the third crossing of the Lomonosov Ridge.
Due to difficult ice conditions with an unfortunately high drift, multibeam data acquired on
this crossing are sparse.
For each seismic line Oden first had to break a lead twice in order to be able to acquire
seismic data along a pre-planned line without a risk for damage or loss of equipment.
Under normal drift conditions the planned seismic line would therefore be surveyed with the
multibeam system three times resulting in reasonably good (and dense) data.
Figure 29. Details of crossing 3 – multibeam data acquired along the seismic line.
Multibeam data collected during passage along all the seismic lines were supplied daily to
the seismic team in order to facilitate proper geometry in seismic processing.
3.9.3 Summary
During LOMROG-III Oden travelled a total of 3.672 nautical miles. Multibeam data were
acquired during the entire cruise.
A total of 10 final field sheets were created in Caris covering all data collected during the
LOMROG-III expedition (Figure 30):

3 field sheets in the Amundsen Basin

2 field sheets on the Lomonosov Ridge

5 field sheets for the transit to/from Longyearbyen and between areas mentioned
above.
It should be noted that the bathymetric data acquired during the LOMROG-III cruise will be
incorporated in the IBCAO database.
36
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Figure 30. Regional map showing all field sheets created during the LOMROG-III cruise.
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37
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38
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4. Subbottom (chirp sonar) Profiling
By Nina Kirchner & Richard Gyllencreutz, Stockholm University
4.1 Equipment
The icebreaker Oden is equipped with a Kongsberg SBP120 3ºx 3º subbottom profiler
primarily used for the acoustic imaging of the topmost sediment layers beneath the sea
floor. The SBP120 subbottom profiler is an add-on to the EM122 multibeam echo sounder
installed on Oden, and operates at a frequency range of 2.5-7 kHz. It uses an extra
transducer array, whereas one single broadband receiver transducer is used for the EM
122 multibeam echo sounder and the SBP120 system. A frequency splitter directly after the
receiver staves separates the ~12 kHz multibeam signal from the lower-frequency chirp
sonar signal.
The normal transmit waveform is a chirp signal in the form of a frequency modulated (FM)
pulse, either swept linearly or hyperbolically. Beyond these standard FM pulse forms, the
SBP120 provides a number of additional pulse forms (non-chirp signals) to choose from
(for a description of those, cf. Kongsberg SBP120 operator manual). Chirp signals have a
vertical resolution roughly given by the inverse of the sweep range (difference between
sweep high frequency fH and sweep low frequency fL ). With fH= 7 kHz and fL = 2.5 kHz, the
system provides a maximal vertical resolution of approximately 1/ 4.5 milliseconds (ms) =
0.3 ms.
The SBP120 is capable of providing beam opening angles down to 3º, and up to 11 beams
in a transect across the ship's keel direction with a spacing of usually 3º. The system is fully
compensated for roll, pitch and heave movements of the ship by means of the Seatex
Seapath 200 motion sensor used for the multibeam echo sounder.
4.2 Data acquisition
4.2.1 Acquisition Period and Personnel Responsible
The SBP120 chirp sonar was continuously operated during the entire cruise from
20120731-20120913 (45 days), with occasional pauses in logging, e.g. during coring. A
handwritten log (updated by the operators on watch) was used to document as accurately
as possible any logging pauses, problems encountered in connection with the multibeamand chirp sonar data acquisition, or temporary changes made in system settings. Data
acquisition was performed by the multibeam technicians (Table 2), and using UTC time
throughout as data time.
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39
4.2.2 System Settings
The general settings for the SBP120 system are loaded via the configuration file. Due to
initial problems with the NMEA readers, different versions of the configuration file were
used in the beginning of the cruise. After the initial complications were resolved, the system
ran
stable
with
the
settings
provided
in
the
file
SBPConfig_LOMROG3_120811_SERIAL_POS.xml. For convenience, this file is archived
along with all acquired chirp data. When in use, the path to the config.file is C:\Program
Files\Kongsberg Maritime\KM SBP OPU\.
The subdirectories C:\Program Files\Kongsberg Maritime\KM SBP OPU\config_files\ and
C:\Program Files\Kongsberg Maritime\KM SBP OPU\Old Config files\ contain earlier, but no
longer used, versions of the configuration file.
4.2.3 System/System Setup and Runtime Parameters
The following specific system settings were used as defaults for the SBP120 during the
cruise:
Transmit mode:
Synchronisation:
Acquisition delay:
Acquisition window:
Reduce Em <> SBP crosstalk:
Pulse form:
Sweep frequencies:
Minimize pulse shape:
Pulse shape:
Pulse length:
Source power:
Beam width Tx/Rx:
Number of beams:
Beam spacing:
Calculate delay from depth:
Automatic slope correction:
Slope along/across:
Slope quality:
Normal
EM trigger
Depending on water depth as received from the multibeam echo sounder;
between 1000 milliseconds (ms) and 6000 ms
300 ms. Note that there is a bug in the SBP120 since the true acquisition
window is always 100 ms larger than the specified one. With the default
setting of 300 ms, data was thus acquired in a 400 ms window.
ticked on
Hyperbolic chirp up (best trade-off of energy/penetration and resolution)
2500 Hz (low), 7000Hz (high)
ticked off
10%
100 ms
0dB (always needs to be set to this manually after start-up)
Normal
5
3º
ticked off
ticked off
0.0
0.0
4.3 Ship Board Data Processing
All shipboard processing of the chirp sonar data was carried out by Nina Kirchner and
Richard Gyllencreutz using the Kongsberg SBP120 software version 1.4.6.
The SBP120 raw-files were screened during a replay in the SBP120 software. For
replaying and subsequent conversion of the raw-files into jpg-files, the configuration file
SBP120Config_DataProcessing_NKRG_LOMROG2012.xml was used. A documentation of
which raw-files were/were not converted into jpg-files, and from how many raw-files an
40
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individual
jpg-file
is
made,
is
given
in
the
processing
log
file
README_LOMROG12_SBP.txt. For easy reference, both files are archived together with
the raw-data. The jpg-files are stored using the same per-day structure as the raw-files.
Further post-processing of the data could not be performed during the cruise. SBP profiles
at or as close as possible to the coring sites, are shown in section 4.3 for the sites where
good quality data was obtained.
4.3.1 Raw-file Conversion
During LOMROG III, a total of 999 raw files containing data acquired with the SBP120 were
created. The raw-data files are archived per day, with the (automatic) naming convention
including the date of acquisition.
To convert the raw-files into jpg-files, the following standard settings were used:
System/Printers/JPEG printer (2)
Source: 'Print from now on' ticked on
Colours: 'View mode' normal, 'Polarity' +/-, 'Scale' Logarithmic, 'Colour map' INVGRAY,
'Upper threshold [dB]' -8, 'Lower threshold [dB]' -53, 'Maximum value [dB]' 0.0, 'Dynamic
range [dB]' 60.0, 'Scale unit' dB
Annotation: 'Manual' empty, 'Automatic': 'Interval (sec/trace)' 300, 'Print time' ticked on,
'Print position' ticked on, 'Number of grid lines' 5, 'Font size' 10
Drawing: 'Reverse data' ticked on, 'Mirror text' ticked off, 'Trace zooming' ticked on, 'Fixed
range' ticked on, 'Print start' to be adjusted for each raw-file after screening/inspection,
'Print length' 300
Note: The following scheme/procedure has proven very practical in order to efficiently
merge individual jpg-files to long lines displaying subbottom data:
1. Given the print length and the number of gridlines, the printed window will contain 6
(viz. number of gridlines + 1) 'boxes' of vertical length 'print length/ (number of
gridlines +1)'. (Example: For print length = 300 ms and number of gridlines = 5, the
printed window will contain 6 boxes of length 300 ms/6 = 50 ms.)
2. After screening each raw-file, decide for a print start that is a multiple of 'print
length/ (number of gridlines +1)'.
3. Merging of the resulting individual jpg-files can now be done accurately and easily
in a drawing or image software (i.e. Adobe Illustrator or Photoshop) because only
the gridlines need to match.
Observed problems: Note that in the settings for the JPEG printer (2), the option 'Print
selected beam only' needs to be ticked off. Whenever 'Print selected beam only' is ticked
on, and a beam is specified (for 5 beams the available options are -2, -1, -0, 1, 2, where 0
is the centerbeam and +/-1 and +/-2 are the outer two starboard and port beams), the
resulting jpg file is not properly written (in essence, only a small fraction of the raw-file is
printed).
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Systematic tests using different raw-files and different beams all resulted in truncated jpgfiles when 'Print selected beam only' was ticked, but with correct result if ticked off.
4.4 Data Examples
Figure 31a. SBP profile near coring site PC03
b. SBP profiles near coring sites TC04 - PC05
Figure 32a. SBP profiles near coring site PC07
b. SBP profiles near coring site PC08
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Figure 33a. SBP profile near coring site PC09
b. SBP profile near coring site PC10
Figure 34a. SBP profiles near coring site PC11
b. SBP profile at coring site PC12
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5. Seismic Survey
By Thomas Varming, Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum; Per Trinhammer, University of
Aarhus; Thomas Funck, John Hopper & Christian Marcussen, Geological Survey of
Denmark and Greenland( GEUS)
5.1 Introduction
Acquisition of seismic data in the Amundsen Basin and on the Eastern flanks of the
Lomonosov Ridge was the second priorities of the LOMROG III cruise. A comprehensive
Seismic Acquisition Report has been prepared separately (Varming et al, 2012). The
following is a short account on some of the experiences and results gained during the
LOMROG III cruise regarding acquisition of seismic data in ice filled waters.
5.2 Seismic Equipment
Harsh environmental conditions in the Arctic have played a crucial role in the design of the
seismic equipment and the modifications done to the setup. These modifications were
made in cooperation with the Department of Earth Science at the University of Aarhus,
based on previous experiences with seismic data acquisition in ice-filled waters and the two
previous LOMROG expeditions in 2007 and 2009.
The use of a short streamer section of 200 m and a seismic source considerably smaller
than what is often used in open water is some of the key elements of the seismic system.
Another important element is the use of only one cable, trough the umbilical, onto which
both the streamer and the airgun is attached making deployment and recovery simple. Both
the gun and the streamer are towed at 20 m, typically twice the depth as for surveys in
open water.
Compared to the previous cruise a larger airgun array is used consisting of two 520 cu.
inch Sercel G-gun in order to increase the penetration of the seismic array.
5.3 Operation Experiences Gained During LOMROG III
The operative experiences gained during the first two LOMROG expeditions were the basis
for the deployment of the seismic equipment on the LOMROG III cruise, but in addition, two
new improvements in the deployment phase have been implemented.
The first is the use of a drag anchor (Figure 35) attached to the end of the streamer acts as
an efficient weight in the deployment of the streamer, keeping the streamer at a near
vertical position during the deployment. While Oden increases its speed, the drag of the
drag anchor exceeds the breakage point of the strings attached and the anchor sinks to the
bottom, while the streamer raises itself in the water column.
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Figure 35. Photo showing the drag anchor attached to the tail end of the streamer (left) and on
the right the drag anchor just before deployment.
The second improvement is the use of new connection jumpers used for attaching the
streamer to the jumper cable (Figure 36). The use of these jumpers makes it easier to
connect the two cables in a critical period of deployment. The connectors have been
developed from specifications given by Per Trinhammer.
Figure 36. Photos of the new connection jumpers. On the left photo is the jumper cable side,
while on the right photo is the streamer cable side. With these new connectors, it is easier to
connect the jumper cable and the streamer section for the people working at the tail fan of
Oden.
From the operative experiences gained during LOMROG II, the seismic lines were acquired
by Oden breaking a 20-25 nautical mile long lead or track along the pre-planned line, going
back along the same lead to make it wider, and finally to acquire the seismic data while
passing through the lead a third time (Figure 37). Some of the obvious advantages of this
technique are that data can most likely be acquired along pre-planned lines since ice
conditions can be evaluated during the first pass and changing ice conditions can be
evaluated during the second pass. However, ice drift during preparation of the lead can
cause the track to move considerably away from the pre-planned line before data
acquisition commences, which happened at several occasions during LOMROG III. Data
quality is better since Oden does not need full engine power on the third pass and can keep
a more steady speed. In addition, the risk of losing or damaging the seismic equipment is
reduced considerably. However, data acquisition is more time consuming when employing
this method.
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Figure 37. Oden acquiring seismic data along a pre-sailed track.
5.4 Sonobuoy Operation
The sonobuoy operation was an integrated part of the reflection seismic data acquisition.
To avoid damage by the heavy ice in the Arctic, the length of the streamer was limited to
200 m. This is not sufficient to obtain seismic velocities of the sedimentary layers at a water
depth of generally >4300 m. However, knowledge of the P-wave velocities in the sediments
is essential for the Continental Shelf Project of the Kingdom of Denmark, as the main
objective of the seismic program was the documentation of the sediment thickness in
Amundsen Basin. To record seismic signals at greater distances, sonobuoys were
deployed from the ship and by helicopter. The velocity information obtained from the
refracted and reflected energy can then be used to convert the reflection seismic record
from two-way travel time to depth.
A total of 63 sonobuoys (type AN/SSQ-53D(3) from ULTRA Electronics) were deployed
during the LOMROG III expedition, of which 59 were transmitting data back to the ship
(Figure 38). The general procedure was to deploy one buoy from the afterdeck of the ship
at the start of each seismic reflection line. After the start of the airgun shooting, the
helicopter would fly along the 9-to 25-NM-long prepared track (NM – Nautical Mile) to
deploy another three buoys in open water close to the track (Figure 39). Gravity data
collected during the preparation of the track were used to guide the deployment positions of
the buoys. Gravity lows in Amundsen Basin generally indicate thick sedimentary
sequences, which were the prime target of the seismic program.
The sonobuoys transmitted their signals back to the ship, where a Yagi and a dipole
antenna received the signals. These antennas were mounted on top of the bridge at a
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height of 27-29 m above sea level. Data were then recorded by a Taurus seismometer and
on the auxiliary channels of the seismic recording system (Geometrics). With the Yagi
antenna, seismic signals could be recognized up to a distance of 34 km from the ship, the
dipole antenna generally worked in ranges up to 18 to 24 km. To determine the exact
distance to the drifting sonobuoys, the travel time of the direct water wave was modelled
with the water velocity function obtained from the onboard CTD measurements.
The overall quality of the data is excellent and will allow for a high-resolution definition of
the velocities within the sedimentary column employing semblance analysis or more
sophisticated two-dimensional ray tracing methods. In addition, many records show crustal
refractions and sometimes even reflections from the Moho discontinuity. Since the setup of
most lines was similar to classic wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction experiments, the
crustal velocity structure beneath the Amundsen Basin and the flank of the Lomonosov
Ridge can be determined.
Figure 38. Bathymetric map (IBCAO 3.0) with the location of the LOMROG III (2012) seismic
reflection lines (red lines). White circles indicate the deployment positions of the 59 sonobuoys
that transmitted seismic data.
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Figure 39. Deployment of sonobuoy in open water close to the prepared track for the seismic
line (left). After activation by salt water, an orange buoy inflates, which holds the antenna that
transmits the hydrophone signals to the ship (right).
5.5 Acquisition Parameters
Source
Chamber volume
Gun pressure
Mechanical delay
Nominal tow depth
2*Sercel G-Gun
2*520 cu. inch
180 bar (2600 psi)
Automatically adjusted to 0 ms
20 m
Streamer
Length of tow cable
Length of stretch section
No of active sections
Length of active sections
No of groups in each section
Total no of groups
Group interval
No of hydrophones in each group
Depth sensors
Nominal tow depth
Geometrics GeoEel
30 m
53 m
4
200 m
8
32
6.25 m
8
in each section
20 m
Acquisition system
Sample rate
Low-cut filter
High-cut filter
Gain setting
No of recording channels
No of auxiliary channels
Shot interval
Record length
Geometrics GeoEel controller
1 ms
Out
Anti-alias (405 Hz)
0 dB
32
8
14 s ± 1 s
12 s
Table 3. Summary of acquisition parameters
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5.6 Processing Parameters
Processing the seismic reflection data collected during LOMROG III follows the procedures
developed during LOMROG II in 2009 (Hopper and Marcussen, 2010) and EAGER
(Marcussen et al., 2012). The computer setup and details are identical to EAGER except
that the Linux Centos 4.7 virtual machine was ported from Parallels to VMWare Fusion.
The scripts and processing flows from the previous cruises were used with only small
modifications. See Appendix C of the LOMROG II processing report for the key scripts
(Hopper and Marcussen, 2010). The basic processing was done in ProMAX 2003.19.1.
In the LOMROG II processing report it was mentioned that some of the techniques
recommended in Jokat et al. (1995) should be tried on the LOMROG data sets. Jokat et al.
noted that a key problem with processing data collected in the Arctic is that noise, in
particular noise from ice hitting the equipment, is especially difficult to eliminate. They
addressed this by using a median stack. Median stacking suppresses noise by giving less
weight to outlier amplitudes associated with random bursts of energy. To work effectively,
the mid-point bin size should be sufficiently large to ensure good data fold and sampling
statistics.
The natural bin size for a streamer with 6.25 m group interval is 3.125 m. The average data
fold for the LOMROG and EAGER cruises is around 4 with this bin size (shooting interval of
25-30 m and 32 active channels). During LOMROG II and EAGER, tests on increasing the
bin size to give higher fold had only minimal impact on the imaging quality using simple
averaging for producing the stack. In part, this is because trace mixing and combining
CDP's for plotting and display has the net effect of increasing the fold to the same as would
be achieved with a 12.5 or 25 meter bin. Because the results of this could be quite different
for median stacking, some tests were run on this cruise by assigning geometry with 12.5
and 25 meter bins. The data were stacked with both median and mean methods and no
significant difference between the stacks was found. Therefore the median stacking method
was not used and the binning and processing flow here follows that of the previous cruises.
For all seismic reflection lines on this cruise, the ice adapted towing arrangement was
used. The seismic source consisted of two 520 cu. in. G-Guns roughly double the volume
used in 2009. The larger array easily penetrated to basement in all areas surveyed. In
some cases, reflections below basement may be indicated. Depth transducers were initially
placed at the near end of each section. Prior to shooting Line 4, the depth transducer of the
far section was moved to the far end of the streamer. During Line 10 acquisition, the
streamer developed leakage problems and was replaced with the spare sections. During
this change, depth transducers were again placed at the beginning of each section
(beginning with Line 10D). Shots were fired on randomised time and auxiliary channels
were used to record the sonobuoys.
The basic processing sequence is as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
50
SEG-D read with trace dc bias removal;
Bandpass filter;
User defined spectral shaping filter;
Spike and noise burst editing;
Shot gather f-k filter and resample to 2 ms.
Geometry assignment, including gun and cable statics;
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7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Trace equalization;
Velocity Analysis (Lines 5 and 6 only)
Trace mixing on shot gathers;
Midpoint sort and stack;
Final geometry and amplitude recovery;
Post-stack constant velocity migrations;
Seafloor mute;
SEG-Y output;
grd conversion and plot.
5.7 Results
Planning of the seismic lines in the Amundsen Basin was based on available data, primarily
compilations of the LOMGRAV 2009 gravity data and older seismic data. The purpose of
these lines was to map the sediment thickness and therefor gravity minima were
investigated.
During the LOMROG III cruise a total of 497.5 km of seismic data were acquired, with no
loss of equipment during the cruise. However, there was one incidence where the airgun
array was hit by an ice floe causing damage to the cabling of the airgun (Figure 40). Repair
was done within a couple hours. Due to severe ice-conditions data acquisition had to be
terminated twice on the Lomonosov Ridge despite a lead had been prepared.
Figure 40. Photos of the damage done to the airgun array from hitting an ice floe. Note the
piece of ice still stuck to left side of the airgun array.
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5.8 Staffing
The seismic operations were carried out by ten members of the scientific crew on-board
Oden as listed in Table 4.
Name
Affiliation
Function
Thomas Funck
GEUS
Geophysicist in charge of sonobuoy
operations
John R. Hopper
GEUS
Processing geophysicist
Thomas Varming
BMP
Geophysicist
Per Trinhammer
Aarhus University
Chief technician
Simon Ejlertsen
Aarhus University
Technician
Lars Georg Rödel
GEUS
Technician
Jack Schilling
NIOZ
Technician
Trine Kvist-Lassen
GEUS, Aarhus University
Watch keeper and deck hand
Marie Lykke Rasmussen
GEUS, Aarhus University
Watch keeper and deck hand
Sofie Ugelvig
GEUS, Aarhus University
Watch keeper and deck hand
Table 4. Staffing of the seismic operation during LOMROG III
5.9 References
Hopper, J. R. & Marcussen, C. 2010: Seismic Processing Report – LOMROG II in 2009.
Acquisition of reflection and refraction seismic data during Oden’s Lomonosov Ridge
Off Greenland (LOMROG II) cruise in 2009. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske
Undersøgelse Rapport 2010/36, 99 pp. + 3 DVD’s (confidential).
Jokat, W., Buravtsev, V. Y. & Miller, H. 1995: Marine seismic profiling in ice covered
regions. Polarforschung 64 (1), 9-17.
Varming, T., Funck, T., Hopper, J. R., Trinhammer, P., Ejlertsen; S., Rödel, R., Schilling, J.,
Kvist-Lassen, T., Rasmussen, M. L., Ugelvig, S. & Marcussen, C. 2012: Seismic
Acquisition Report – LOMROG III in 2012. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske
Undersøgelse Rapport 2012/120, 77 pp. + 5 Appendices + 1 DVD.
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6. Single beam Bathymetry Echo Sounding
By Morten Sølvsten and Richard Pedersen, National Survey and Cadastre
Bathymetric spot soundings have been collected to supplement the multibeam data
acquisition. This was done in combination with the acquisition of gravimetric data at the
same locations.
6.1 Equipment
The equipment used during LOMROG III was the same as used on earlier expeditions with
good results. A modified Reson Navisound 420-DS echo sounder (serial no. 97037) was
mounted in a flight case and installed in the helicopter. The echo sounder was controlled by
a GETAC M220-5C21 ruggedized notebook using the Reson NaviSound Control Center
software (which also logged the digital data). The echo sounder’s paper trace was enabled
and annotated as a backup/supplement to the digital data. The echo sounder used an
Airmar M175 (12kHz-C) transducer that had been fitted with handles. Positioning was done
by connecting a battery powered Thales Mobile Mapper stand-alone GPS receiver (handheld) to the echo sounder. The helicopter provided 28V DC to the echo sounder.
6.2 Results
The single beam team consisted of Morten Sølvsten and Niki Andersen. The team was
deployed by the ship’s helicopter to pre-planned positions well outside of Oden’s multibeam
coverage. The lines were typically planned to be approximately 9 nautical miles distance
from the ship’s track. With a five kilometre interval between soundings, 4 profiles of the up/down slope of the Lomonosov Ridge were made (Figure 41). These profiles were made
parallel to the ship’s track.
Figure 41. The four single beam lines collected by helicopter.
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The positions were chosen such that the depths acquired would include the 2500 metre
contour and the FOS (Foot of Slope) location.
Line_01:
The measured depths correlate well with the IBCAO model. It may be noted that the inner
part of the slope is measured to be steeper and closer to the Amundsen Basin.
Figure 42. Single beam Line_01. Depths are plotted at the 5 kilometre interval as the depths
were observed. The IBCAO Version 3.0 grid data are shown for comparison.
Line_01a:
The measured depths correlate well with the IBCAO model. It may be seen that a small
depression in the seafloor shows up close to the Amundsen Basin.
Figure 43. Single beam Line_01a. Depths are plotted at the 5 kilometre interval as the depths
were observed. The IBCAO Version 3.0 grid data are shown for comparison.
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Line_02:
The measured depths correlate reasonable with the IBCAO model. The outermost high
close to the Amundsen Basin is almost 300 metres higher than the IBCAO model.
Figure 44. Single beam Line_02. Depths are plotted at the 5 kilometre interval as the depths
were observed. The IBCAO Version 3.0 grid data are shown for comparison.
Line_02a:
The measured depths correlate with the IBCAO model.
Figure 45. Single beam Line_02a. Depths are plotted at the 5 kilometre interval as the depths
were observed. The IBCAO Version 3.0 grid data are shown for comparison.
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The bathymetry data were acquired at a fixed average sound speed of 1500 m/s and the
field values were later corrected (during post-processing) using the appropriate average
sound speed at the given depth based on CTD casts made from either Oden or station on
the sea ice.
A zero tide value was applied (as it was done with all of the multi-beam data). Hand written
notes were also made in the field at each sounding position. This documentation will be
used as part of the quality control and include position, time and registered depth.
During the LOMROG-III expedition a total of 69 successful singlebeam soundings were
made ranging from 1172 meters to 4024 meters.
At all the sounding positions gravity measurements were simultaneously acquired by Indriði
Einarsson from DTU Space.
An ice-dampened Lacoste & Romberg land gravimeter (serial no. G932) was used for the
gravity measurements. This set-up had proved its durability during previous expeditions in
temperatures down to minus 40ºC.
Below a comparison is shown between the corrected bathymetry and the measured gravity
done by Indriði Einarsson for each profile.
Figure 46. Comparison between bathymetry and gravity data along line 1.
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Figure 47. Comparison between bathymetry and gravity data along line 1a.
Figure 48. Comparison between bathymetry and gravity data along line 2.
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Figure 49. Comparison between bathymetry and gravity data along line 2a.
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7. Gravity Measurements during LOMROG III
By Indriði Einarsson, National Space Institute (DTU Space)
7.1 Introduction
Marine gravity data reflect the bathymetry and the density distribution of the oceanic crust
and mantle. Low gravity values are related to low densities, submarine canyons, and
trenches at the bottom of the sea. High gravity values are related to high densities,
seamounts, and ocean ridges. Gravity increases generally towards the poles due to the
flattening and rotation of the earth. After removal of this effect, gravity anomalies can be
identified. Variations in gravity anomalies are expressed in mGal (1 mGal = 10-5 m/s2), and
a 1mGal change in gravity corresponds roughly to 7 meters bathymetry in the “free air
anomalies”.
Coincident measurements of gravity and water depth makes it possible to compute so
called Bouguer anomalies. Thereby, the gravity effect of the bathymetry is calculated and
removed from the measured gravity values, under the assumption of constant density. This
makes it possible to remove the bathymetric contribution from the gravity signal, and isolate
the non-bathymetric signal, which indicates density variations below the seabed. This can
be used as an aid in estimation of sediment thickness.
During the LOMROG III cruise the gravity acceleration has been measured by staff from
the National Space Institute (DTU Space). Coincident high resolution observations of the
bathymetry obtained from multi- and single beam sounders (see Chapter 3 and 6) give the
unique opportunity to support the interpretation of seismic data. Further, the data can be
used to improve existing gravity models of the Arctic Ocean, i.e. the Arctic Gravity Project
(ArcGP).
7.2 Equipment
A marine gravimeter, an Ultrasys LaCoste and Romberg (serial no.: S-38) was installed in
the pump room near the centre-of-mass of the ship (the same location as during LOMROG
I and II) to minimize the effect of the ship’s movement (Figure 50).
The instrument is in principle an ultra-precise spring balance with a “proof mass”, which is
mounted on a gyro-stabilized platform. Levelling is maintained by a sophisticated feedback
mechanism. The accuracy of the marine gravimeter is about 1 mGal with 200-500 m
horizontal resolution in the final map. This variation is however dependent on ice conditions
and the speed of the Oden.
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Figure 50. Ultrasy S38 marine gravimeter mounted in Oden’s pump room.
To complement the marine gravity measurements, measurements were made on the ice
using a helicopter. For this phase of the program, a LaCoste and Romberg relative
gravimeter (serial no.: G-867) owned by DTU Space was used (Figure 51). This gravimeter
has the option to operate in a dampened mode. This is especially suited for measurements
on sea-ice, where wave movements make the use of traditional, undampened landgravimeters impossible. The estimated relative accuracy of the measurements is 0.2 mGal
under average conditions. On few occasions, the accuracy was reduced by strong
movement of the ice or by ice-floes colliding into each other. This will be documented in
more detail in the detailed gravity acquisition and processing report.
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Figure 51. LaCoste Romberg G867 damped land gravimeter
7.3 Measurements
The marine gravimeter operated in “marine mode” during the entire cruise and logged data
every 10 seconds along Oden’s entire track. In addition, a total of 77 gravity readings were
measured on the ice.
Of the 77 gravity measurements, 69 were measured along 4 lines parallel to the ship track
across the Lomonosov Ridge (Figure 52). The distance between successive
measurements along a line is 5 km. At each location the depth was measured using a
single beam sounder (see Chapter 6). Each such measurement takes 5-10 minutes under
ideal conditions.
The other 8 readings were done along Oden’s route, as close to Oden as possible: two by
helicopter, the others by use of one of Oden’s cranes. Water depth measurements were not
taken at these locations, since they serve the sole purpose of comparing the gravity
readings of S-38 and G-867 and tying the ice-measurements to the S38-measurements.
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Figure 52. Oden’s track, measured gravity points (coloured) and control-points (red).
7.4 Ties
Both the S-38 and G-867 are relative gravimeters. Therefore, they do not give absolute
gravity values but only relative differences between measurement points. Most importantly,
both instruments are subject to drift of the measured value, which for the timeframe of the
LOMROG III cruise may be assumed to be linear with time. In order to correct for drift, the
gravity readings of both the gravimeters need to be tied to known gravity values before and
after the cruise. In order to calculate absolute gravity values from the relative
measurements, a tie to the International absolute reference system is necessary. Such
gravity reference points can be found in Longyearbyen, but unfortunately Oden was not
able to dock at the beginning of the cruise and is not expected to do so at the end of the
cruise either. Therefore, only the G-867 instrument could be tied to a reference point, while
alternative methods have to be used to obtain a tie for the S-38 marine instrument. This
has been done by taking a reading at Oden’s anchor position at Adventfjorden just off
Longyearbyen, and comparing this to results of previous cruises, where a proper port tie
was possible. This has been proven to give satisfactory results for the LOMROG II cruise.
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7.5 Processing
At time of writing, preliminary data processing has been done by using the G-867 gravity
reading at the gravity reference point in Longyearbyen as well as the reference gravity
value in Longyearbyen fjord for the S-38 instrument. Since the gravity tie at the end of the
cruise is yet to be done, no drift corrections can be made at this point. However, the
preliminary results should give a good idea on the gravity field in this area. The positions of
Oden were logged every 5 seconds with a Javad high precision dual frequency geodetic
GPS receiver, which was mounted on top of a container on top of the bridge. This system
serves as a backup system for Oden’s own GPS system, which provides positions on 10
seconds intervals. Once the gravity values are calculated, the gravity changes related to
changes in bathymetry can be removed by using coincident data obtained from the singleor multibeam soundings. The remaining gravity signal originates from the different
geological compositions below the sea bed, and is left for later interpretation to support the
seismic work.
In cooperation with Thomas Funck and Morten Sølvsten, an experimental ad-hoc
processing of gravity and bathymetric data was initiated in order to support the seismic
measurements. While Oden prepared the lead in the ice for the seismic line (see Chapter
5), gravity, GPS and bathymetric data is acquired. When the lead has been prepared, Oden
heads back to the start of the line, before seismic acquisition starts. Immediately after
heading back, the gravity data are processed to gravity anomalies. Subsequently, the
gravity anomalies can be used to obtain information on structures below the seabed, most
importantly to locate possible sediment basins. This information is of use for refraction
seismic measurements where sonobuoys are deployed, since those are preferably
positioned above thick sediment layers. Since the gravity information is the only information
on sediment highs and lows prior to seismic measurements, they have proven to be a
useful help in positioning the sonobuoys, which are deployed by helicopter or ship prior to
seismic measurements.
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8. Sediment Coring
By Richard Gyllencreutz, Ludwig Löwemark, Jerker Eriksson & Nina Kirchner, Stockholm
University
8.1 Introduction
The project “PAWS: Palaeoceanography of the Arctic - Water masses, Sea ice, and
Sediments” focuses on the critical role of the Arctic in the global climate system from the
Eemian interglacial (approx. 125 000 years) to the present. We study the long climate
archives in sediment cores to better understand the governing processes and feedback
mechanisms of the declining Arctic sea ice cover. Based on the LOMROGIII coring
program, together with our in-house access to ~40 cores from previous Arctic expeditions,
we will focus on the following questions:

How has the coverage and circulation of sea ice changed over time? We will use
the sea ice proxy IP25, a newly developed biomarker from sea ice-living diatoms,
together with complementary proxy data to study the variability in sea ice coverage
with time.

How has the deep water structure and exchange between the basins varied over
time? We will use neodymium (Nd) isotopes to reconstruct past variations in water
column structure, with special focus on the inflow of warm Atlantic water. Ndisotopes will also be used to assess the effects of the drainage of a huge icedammed lake into the Arctic Ocean about 50 000 years ago.

Can multibeam backscatter be used to map Arctic surface sediment distribution?
Multibeam backscatter analysis offers a new, cost-effective method for the detailed
semi-automated remote mapping of surface sediments in areas prohibiting dense
seabed sampling. Ground truthing of this method in deep Arctic environments will
be performed against measured properties of sediment samples obtained during all
three LOMROG expeditions.
8.2 Methods
For LOMROG III, the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (SPRS) provided a brand new
winch from MacArtney to replace the old one, which had a terminal break-down during
OSO0910 causing the old piston corer to be lost at sea. New coring equipment was
manufactured from the same blueprints as the old one, with small modifications.
Improvements included making 30 lead weights of 45 kg each instead of 20 ones of 68 kg
to facilitate the handling, and galvanizing of the steel pipes to prevent rusting. The
remaining corer parts were painted for rust protection. However, the paint was too thick and
had to be removed from all moving parts using a needle hammer before assembling the
corer.
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Figure 53. (Left) Winch setup during LOMROG III with the coring winch on top of the seismic
winch and the auxiliary winch uppermost. (Right) Note the large block in the A-frame consisting
of a plastic wheel in order to protect the Dyneema cable (Photos: Christian Marcussen).
The new winch featured a Dyneema cable instead of a steel wire. Dyneema is a synthetic
Kevlar-like material with the advantage of floating in water, adding no unnecessary weight
on the winch. Besides the obvious advantage of lesser stress on the winch motor and
increased security in case of rupture, the tension meter in the winch shows exactly when
the piston corer is triggered as a distinct drop in tension (typically from about 15 kN to
about 3-4 kN, for a 9-m core with full lead weights). The tension can be logged during
operation; however logging worked only at the last two coring stations. The new winch
control system was excellent, as it was easy to control the payout speed exactly from 1.7
m/s to about 0.01 m/s. However, because of an error in the automatic winder adjustment,
the winder motor axle was mechanically damaged at the first piston coring attempt. The
axle was repaired by the Oden crew- and SPRS technicians, but the original error in the
winder adjustment control could not be fixed despite satellite communication with the
MacArtney tech-support. Therefore the Dyneema winch needed constant supervision by an
SPRS-technician inside the winch container during the entire winch operations.
A serious drawback with the Dyneema cable was that it is sensitive to abrasion, and
therefore requires a plastic wheel in the A-frame. This wheel is, in turn, too delicate for the
steel piston wire. Therefore, the piston corer had to be lifted in and out of its cradle using an
auxiliary winch, adding several wire reconnections to the procedure (Figure 53). This
complication may in the future be overcome by modifying the block to have dual
steel/Dyneema capabilities. It is also very important to keep ice floes away while the
Dyneema is in the water, to protect it from abrasion. This was done by a person standing
on Oden’s fan tail using a long steel rod to push away the ice. The new coring operational
scheme, which developed under way by the leadership of the technician Jack Schilling
66
GEUS
(NIOZ, The Netherlands), was documented by the coring team with photos and sketches,
and a new coring manual was written (see Appendix III).
8.3 Results
At the first coring attempt, a 6-m gravity core at the foot of the Lomonosov Ridge slope
came up empty, apparently because it hit a hard gravel layer (the corer tip was damaged
and contained small gravel remains). During the fourth coring attempt, the piston corer
never trigged and came up still armed – a potentially dangerous situation, because the
mechanism may be trigged by a bump in the ship’s hull or an ice floe, whereby the 1.5 ton
heavy corer would fall freely several metres and crash stop at the end of the piston wire.
We tried to trigger it by sending the corer back to the seafloor several times, but eventually
we had to carefully bring the still armed corer up and put it back in the cradle, which went
well. The reason for faulty operation was found to be that the hydrostatic safety release pin
had been bent, probably due to a bump during launching. To prevent future similar events,
the welded mounting bracket for the hydrostatic release was reinforced, and larger
mounting screws (M8 instead of M6) were used.
Core Name
Date
Time UTC
Depth (m)
Latitude
Longitude
Length (m)
Sections
Comment
LOMROG12-GC01
LOMROG12-PC02
2012-08-10
2012-08-10
11:04:29
19:01:42
3838
3274
87º46'25 N
87º47'20 N
42º47'53 W
42º56'28 W
0
0.525
Empty
1
Hard gravel
LOMROG12-PC03
LOMROG12-TC03
2012-08-11
19:53:51
1607
87º43'29 N
54º25'31 W
3.73
0.525
1, 2, 3
1
LOMROG12-TC04
2012-08-12
08:32:50
1322
87º49'10 N
59º35'24 W
0.705
1
LOMROG12-PC05
LOMROG12-TC05
2012-08-12
14:10:53
1321
87º49'14 N
59º37'55 W
6.29
0.29
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1
LOMROG12-PC06
LOMROG12-TC06
2012-08-15
11:34:11
2923
88º15'04 N
46º23'50 W
6.595
0.55
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1
LOMROG12-PC07
LOMROG12-TC07
2012-08-15
19:44:08
2522
88º11'51.5 N
55º41'04.3 W
6.83
0.53
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1
LOMROG12-PC08
LOMROG12-TC08
2012-08-16
11:20:37
1355
88º20'22.4 N
68º43'42.4 W
6.58
0.21
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
1
Top imploded
LOMROG12-PC09
LOMROG12-TC09
2012-08-18
19:56:48
1318
89º01'36.2 N
73º44'04.0 W
6.48
0.155
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1
Top imploded
LOMROG12-PC10
LOMROG12-TC10
2012-08-19
09:44:51
1312
89º01'20.8 N
73º45'58.8 W
7.11
0.1
Not split
Not split
LOMROG12-PC11
2012-08-23
02:05:01
4228
89º58'06 N
58º27'37.68 W
6.04
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
LOMROG12-PC12
LOMROG12-TC12
2012-08-24
22:12:17
1366
88º06'30.8 N
134º38'42.5 E
7.27
0.485
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1
Disturbed?
Top imploded
Table 5. Sediment cores retrieved during LOMROGIII 2012: GC – gravity core, PC – piston core
and TC – trigger core.
8.3.1 Core Curation
A total of 10 piston cores and 11 trigger cores (from the 1-m gravity corer in the piston core
trigger weight) were retrieved, yielding 61 metres of sediment altogether (Table 5 and
GEUS
67
Figure 54). Of the piston cores, three imploded in their upper parts, obviously caused by a
too large under-pressure from the retracting piston. The reason for this is very difficult to
determine, as the maximum under-pressure is a complex function of the weight of the
corer, the resistance (diameter) of the piston, the slack in the piston wire (= delay in start of
suction), the length of the trigger rope (= height of free fall above seafloor) and the shear
strength of the sediments, together with the possibility of quality differences in the core liner
material.
After each coring, the sediment-filled core liner was cut into 1.5-m pieces and sealed with
endcaps. The core sections were stored vertically, until they were split using a circular saw
and piano wire. Directly after splitting, the cores were described in the on-board main
laboratory with respect to colour, grain size, structures, carbonate occurrence, disturbances
and other notable features. The core descriptions were entered into a computer
spreadsheet and plotted using the software Strater and are included in Appendix 4.
Figure 54. Map of the coring sites during LOMROG III in 2012: GC – gravity core, PC – piston
core and TC – trigger core.
68
GEUS
9. Dredging
By Jack Schilling, NIOZ, Per Trinhammer, Aarhus University & Christian Marcussen, GEUS
9.1 Introduction
During the LOMROG II cruise one attempt was attempted to dredge the Lomonosov Ridge,
however no rock samples were retrieved (Marcussen et al. 2011). Prior to the LOMROG III
cruise a new large winch has been purchased by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat
(see Chapter 8). The new winch uses a Dyneema cable which has no weight in water. Jack
Schilling from NIOZ (consultant for GEUS and participant of the LOMROG III cruise)
therefor recommended a revised dredging procedure which involved the use of a steel
weight of 500 kg, 500 meters of steel wire and an auxiliary winch (see Figure 53 & 55).
Figure 55. Box Dredge from Marinetechnik Kawohl in Germany and steel weigh of 500 kg on
the fan tail of Oden.
It was planned to conduct 2 to 3 dredges along designated parts of the flank of the
Lomonosov Ridge facing the Amundsen Basin. Experience gathered by the US icebreaker
Healy showed that the slope of the sea bed should at least be 25⁰ in order to conduct
successful dredging. During LOMROG II suitable locations were found with slopes
exceeding 25⁰.
GEUS
69
9.2 Procedure
Before the dredging commenced the dredging procedure was discussed in detail with the
ship’s crew. It was decided to use the ice drift for our attempts to dredge which had the
obvious advantage that Oden had not to break a lead beforehand. A detailed description of
the procedure used during dredging is included in Appendix V (Section 19.5). The most
important issue of the procedure is to pay out cable with the same speed as the ships is
doing and not faster to avoid too much cable on the seabed.
9.3 Results
9.3.1 Dredge 1
Dredge 1 started on 19 August 2012 at 16:51 (UTC) and lasted for approx. 5½ hours. A log
is included in Appendix V (Section 19.5). The dredge covered a depth range from approx.
3400 m to 2020 m (Figure 56). Operations went very smoothly and approx. 100 kg of rock
samples were gathered. Based on a first visual inspection the rock samples are believed to
be from an outcrop. Nearly all samples are covered by some kind of ferromanganese (?)
crust (Figure 57). One or two dropstones were found. All samples were cleaned
superficially and packed in 12 bags for shipment.
Figure 56. Bathymetric map based on multi beam data with Oden’s track during dredge 1. The
direction of the ice drift up-dip on the flank of the Lomonosov Ridge was favourable for
dredging. For location of the dredge see Figure 1.
70
GEUS
Figure 57. Retrieval of dredge 1 and some examples of the rock samples gathered.
9.3.2 Dredge 2
Figure 58. Bathymetric map based on multi beam data with Oden’s track during dredge 2. The
direction of the ice drift up-dip on the flank of the Lomonosov Ridge was not as favourable for
dredging as for dredge 1; nevertheless the dredge was successful. For location of the dredge
see Figure 1.
GEUS
71
Dredge 2 started 20 August 2012 at 11:26 (UTC) and lasted for approx. 4½ hours. A log is
included in Appendix V (Section 19.5). The dredge covered a depth range from approx.
3500 m to 2000 m (?) (Figure 58). Operations went very smoothly and approx. 200kg of
rock samples were gathered. Mud in the dredge was flushed out. Based on a first visual
inspection the rock samples are believed to be from an outcrop. Nearly all samples are
covered by some kind of ferromanganese (?) crust (Figure 59). One large stone
(“LOMROCK”, approx. 80 kg) was encountered. All samples were cleaned superficially and
packed in 10 bags for shipment. The large rock was handled separately.
Figure 59. Retrieval of dredge 2 and some examples of the rock samples gathered. The photo
in the lower right shows a large rock (“LOMROCK”) sampled during dredge 2.
9.4 References
Marcussen, C. & LOMROG II Scientific Party 2011: Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland
(LOMROG II) – Cruise Report. Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse
Rapport 2011/106, 154 pp.
72
GEUS
10. Oceanography
By Steffen M. Olsen & Rasmus Tonboe, Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI)
10.1 Introduction
The oceanographic program carried out during the LOMROG III 2012 cruise includes
collection of water column profiles with CTD (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) and
water sampling. Measurements have served a twofold purpose:

to support the seismic and hydrographic activities of the Continental Shelf Project of
the Kingdom of Denmark

to assist and support the Swedish research projects organized by the Swedish
Polar Research Secretariat and when possible, the Danish science of opportunity
projects.
Knowledge of water mass distribution affecting the water column sound-velocity profile is
required for proper interpretation and correction of the seismic data. The sonar mapping of
the seafloor bathymetry also builds on this oceanographic information from the water
column. The primary purpose of the oceanographic work is to supply representative, near
real time water column profiles of sound velocity derived from CTD measurements.
Data are collected mainly from ice-stations (Figure 60) making use of Oden’s helicopter
and modular, portable equipment. Ship stations (Figure 61) have also been conducted on
an opportunistic basis. Water sampling at a number of ocean depth levels has also been
part of the program, both for ship and ice station. Expendable CTD probes capable of
measuring while steaming have been used twice during periods of transit. Their
performance is not accessed.
The area of interest of the LOMROG III expedition spans the gradual transition towards
more freshwater entrained upper water-masses crossing from the Amundsen Basin to the
transition zone along the Lomonosov Ridge. At the same time, the deeper structure varies
with the ageing of warmer water below and with different admixtures of basin specific deep
waters. Frontal structures are typically not sharp in these regions of the Arctic and eddy
features are relatively rare. In summer, the upper stratification is very complex with highly
stable interfaces which are challenging to measure and with characteristics and spatial
extent known to vary strongly inter-annually. The position of most stations has been
planned ad-hoc taking into account the advance of Oden and the target area of the day.
The overall strategy has been to form sections of station spacing of 20-40 NM with larger
spacing on the abyssal plain. Denser cross isobath spacing is needed near bathymetric
features known to guide ocean dynamics. This strategy has to some extent been
successful and the station net spans the area of study and transit routes (Figure 63).
Oceanographic data acquired during the cruise are expected to contribute to the
understanding of the processes maintaining the climatically important upper ocean
halocline structure of the Arctic Ocean and yield valuable insight to “the state of the Arctic”.
Of particular interest to the science team from DMI is the contribution of individual water
GEUS
73
masses to the layering between the upper mixed layer below the sea ice and the layer of
warm, saline Atlantic inflow below. For this purpose, additional sensors (Oxygen,
Fluorescence) have been added to the CTD probe. In order to facilitate a detailed analysis,
bottle samples at a predefined set of depths levels has been recovered and stored for post
cruise analysis. Data describe the physical environment and will also be integrated in the
work of a number of the Danish and Swedish bio-science projects participating in LOMROG
III.
10.2 Equipment and Methods
Ice stations reached by helicopter made use of a modular, portable system supplied by the
Section for Polar Oceanography, Danish Meteorological Institute (Figure 60). The system
consists of a self-contained SBE19plusV2 pumped CTD configured in profiling mode (4Hz)
in combination with a portable winch with 2000 m non-conductive Dyneema© line, an
electric motor, controls and generator. Auxiliary sensors include a SBE 43 Oxygen probe
and a SeaPoint Fluorometer. The system is depth rated to 3500 m. Water bottle samples
were collected using a single 2.7 l Niskin type water sampler by drop-messenger triggering.
On ice, the system is assembled and placed with the boom reaching over a lead.
After deployment, the SBE19 rests at 7 m for up to 10 minutes before being raised to the
surface and starting the descent to a maximum depth of 2020 m. At shallower stations,
care is exercised not the get contact with the bottom. The descent rate for the full profile
was adjusted to approximately 30 m/min. The setup allows to profile up to the ice-ocean
interface and into the brackish waters of the leads. Profiles resolve the layering in the
undisturbed water column starting 70 cm below surface, and in this respect the setup is
superior to ship based station work. Water bottle samples were drawn from the Niskin for
isotopic composition (δ18O) and nutrient (N) at seven predefined depths down to 200 m
covering the Arctic mixed layer and halocline.
Measurements of water mass distribution were done at full depth from Oden making use of
a SBE911plus CTD-rosette system (Figure 61). The instrumentation were partly owned by
DMI and partly by the University of Gothenburg and made available for the Continental
Shelf project.
This ship based system consists of a SeaBird rosette water-sampler equipped with 24 l
Niskin type bottles, a SBE9plus CTD (24Hz) and a SBE11plus Deck Unit. The dual sensor
sets includes pumped Temperature-Conductivity packages (TC duct and 3000 rpm pump)
and a Benthos 200kHz altimeter.
After deployment, the CTD rested in the surface layer (10 m) for approximately 5 minutes
after the pump turned on and sensor readings equilibrated. Hereafter the CTD and water
sampler were raised to 1-2 m where data acquisition was started. Profiles were retrieved
with a descent rate of 30 m/min in the upper 400 m, roughly across the strong upper ocean
stratification and through the Atlantic Layer characterized in regions by sharp interleaving
features. Below strong gradients in water mass properties, the descent rate was increased
to 50 m/min in consideration of the limited station time available. Water samples were taken
at predefined depths during the up-cast waiting 2 minutes at each depth before closing of
bottles. Up-cast winch speed was 70 m/min. On deck, samples were drawn from the bottles
for salinity, isotopic composition (δ18O) and nutrients.
74
GEUS
Station work was only attempted within the sea ice and made use of the a-frame and winch
system on the fore deck. Engines were stopped and Oden typically drifted with a speed of
0.1-0.3 knots over ground with the ice drift. Thrusters were used to keep the area in front of
Oden free from ice. All systems worked well during all stations but the line feed on the
winch is still not fixed (Figure 62), a problem also realized during LOMROG II 2009 and
EAGER 2011. Noise from the winch indicates that the ball bearings are damaged too.
Figure 60. Ice station, CTD and plankton sampling. From left, Pilot and bear watch Sven
Stenwall, Rasmus Tonboe and Kajsa Tönnesen.
GEUS
75
Figure 61. Ship station with CTD and water sampling using a 24 bottle rosette. Winch and
frame operated by Rasmus Tonboe.
Figure 62. Close up of the CTD winch above the main lab showing evolving problems
towards the end of the cruise with the adjustment of the wire guide.
76
GEUS
10.3 Results
Date
Time UTC
Longitude
Latitude
Cast
Type
Sensors
Station ID
LR12s01
dd-mm-yyyy
02-08-2012
hh:mm
11:35
ddd:mm.mm
014:55.98 E
dd:mm.mm
82:57.48 N
m
2625
Ship
T/S
LR12h01
03-08-2012
15:30
013:20.25 E
84:32.14 N
1889
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h02
04-08-2012
12:21
006:27.48 E
85:33.07 N
2012
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12s02
05-08-2012
17:03
001:57.31 E
86:44.59 N
4248
Ship
T/S
LR12h03
06-08-2012
14:40
003:27.35 W
87:02.38 N
1996
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h04
07-08-2012
23:20
013:27.91 W
87:19.50 N
2006
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h05
08-08-2012
21:23
026:58.48 W
87:44.27 N
1996
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12s03
09-08-2012
13:09
037:45.45 W
87:46.20 N
3746
Ship
T/S
LR12h06
10-08-2012
12:19
047:44.52 W
87:45.14 N
2014
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h07
11-08-2012
12:01
058:53.27 W
87:39.47 N
1209
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h08
12-08-2012
15:00
068:55.88 W
87:38.35 N
1128
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h09
13-08-2012
19:27
043:10.52 W
88:15.93 N
2010
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h10
14-08-2012
17:30
029:57.05 W
88:14.09 N
2018
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h11
15-08-2012
14:20
058:01.00 W
88:16.32 N
1507
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12s04
16-08-2012
05:10
069:24.69 W
88:20.80 N
1197
Ship
T/S
LR12h12
17-08-2012
17:49
057:33.00 W
88:38.10 N
1993
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h13
18-08-2012
12:30
079:18.13 W
89:00.80 N
1084
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12s05
20-08-2012
05:10
058:50.83 W
89:15.90 N
3731
Ship
T/S
LR12h14
20-08-2012
14:08
068:01.76 W
89:08.16 N
1924
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h15
21-08-2012
18:24
090:53.25 W
88:53.78 N
1223
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h16
22-08-2012
17:21
155:31.52 E
89:59.55 N
2003
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h17
23-08-2012
13:22
133:12.10 E
89:30.44 N
2006
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12x01
24-08-2012
10:37
136:54.11 E
88:42.43 N
1166
XCTD
T/S
LR12h18
24-08-2012
15:15
149:59.50 E
88:24.73 N
1850
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h19
24-08-2012
22:07
145:16.56 E
88:03.58 N
1243
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12x02
25-08-2012
03:31
135:19.47 E
87:57.31 N
495
XCTD
T/S
LR12h20
25-08-2012
08:09
124:55.48 E
87:56.07 N
1992
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h21
25-08-2012
18:12
114:41.68 E
87:52.88 N
1981
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h22
26-08-2012
17:53
104:30.29 E
87:59.35 N
1994
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12s06
27-08-2012
11:21
078:14.56 E
88:08.96 N
4354
Ship
T/S
LR12h23
29-08-2012
15:29
070:10.86 E
88:17.53 N
1991
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h24
30-08-2012
15:52
056:02.99 E
88:45.11 N
2009
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12s07
31-08-2012
13:56
053:06.18 E
88:47.43 N
4351
Ship
T/S
LR12h25
02-09-2012
08:30
025:17.19 E
88:16.87 N
2022
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h26
03-09-2012
13:20
011:21.11 E
88:09.54 N
2003
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h27
04-09-2012
10:25
027:16.14 E
87:49.71 N
2004
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12h28
05-09-2012
08:26
018:58.52 E
87:28.24 N
1991
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12s08
07-09-2012
06:44
005:16.63 E
85:25.59 N
3093
Ship
T/S
LR12s09
08-09-2012
07:36
003:43.29 E
84:22.21 N
3779
Ship
T/S
LR12s10
09-09-2012
06:46
015:10.37 E
83:49.41 N
4000
Ship
T/S
LR12h29
09-09-2012
15:00
014:59.31 E
83:28.32 N
1999
Heli
T/S/O/Chl
LR12s11
10-09-2012
06:23
014:44.67 E
82:46.12 N
1457
Ship
T/S
LR12s12
11-09-2012
06:16
008:45.12 E
82:11.75 N
719
Ship
T/S
LR12s13
11-09-2012
16:01
008:35.89 E
81:51.81 N
747
Ship
T/S
Table 6. CTD stations acquired during LOMROG III
GEUS
77
In total 29 ice stations (Table 6 & Figure 63) were all completed successfully using 4 hours
on the ice at each station. Despite the latitudes of operation, conditions were not harsh
compared with areas and seasons where the system has also been operated with success.
Ice drift of up to 0.6 knots has been experienced and required careful selection of the
station location. Helicopter pilots from Kalax Flyg (SE) very skilfully identified suitable floes
for landing.
13 ship stations were completed during the cruise (Table 6 & Figure 63). A number of
science projects sampled the rosette and were involved in the water budget planning at
each station.
10.4 Data Processing and Work Flow
Using SeaBird SeaSoft software, raw data from the CTD (HEX format) are converted into
engineering units including pressure, in situ temperature and conductivity. Pressure
readings are initially high pass filtered two ways in order to smooth high frequency data and
to obtain a uniform descent history of the cast. The applied cut-off period for the SBE9plus
and SBE19plusV2 are 0.15 sec and 1 sec, respectively. For the SBE19plusV2, also
temperature and conductivity are filtered with a cutoff of 0.5 sec. Inherent misalignment due
to time delay in sensor responses and transit time delay in the pumped pluming line are
corrected by advancing conductivity 0.073 sec relative to pressure for the SBE9plus
(programmed in the SBE11 unit) and +0.5 sec for the SBE19plusV2 unit. By this alignment,
measurements refer to same parcel of water and the procedure eliminates artificial spikes
in the calculated salinity which is dependent on temperature, pressure and conductivity. A
recursive filter was hereafter applied to remove cell thermal mass effects from the
measured conductivity according to the specifications for the individual sensors of the CTD
systems. This correction of salinity is significant in the upper layers with steep temperature
gradients, but otherwise negligible. The last modification of the data removes scans with
slow descent rate or reversals in pressure.
Processed data are averaged into 1 m bins and derived parameters include salinity and
sound velocity. Data files are immediately uploaded to a shared archive and hydrographers
notified and advised on the bridge. Daily graphics files were prepared with emphasis on the
evolution of the sound velocity along Oden’s track. An example is given in Figure 22.
10.5 Quality Control and Data Accuracy
From ship CTD station samples were taken for on-board bottle salinity reference
measurements. With replicates, 40 individual samples have been measured onboard
yielding satisfactory statistics for performing post cruise corrections of the raw data files if
needed. Bottle salinities were measured using an Autosal Guildline 8410 portable lab
salinometer with a nominal precision of 0.003 PSU. IAPSO standard seawater references
were used purchased prior to the cruise from OSIL (www.oscil.co.uk): Batch: P153,
K15=0.99979, Practical Salinity 34.992 and to be used by 8 March 2014. The salinometer
was placed in stable temperature environment of 21ºC and left to warm up 24 hours prior to
reference setting, zero calibration and standardization procedures immediately preceding
78
GEUS
the analysis. Bath temperature (23ºC) was set to two degrees above ambient temperature.
The bottle samples were analysed in one series near the end of the cruise. Negligible drift
(0.002 PSU or less) could be identified during the sequence of analysis. Three readings
were performed for each bottle and the mean error between CTD salinity and bottle
salinities could be estimated with at precision of 0.004. The slope correction determined for
the SBE911 system based on the bottle data statistics yields corrections smaller than the
nominal error of the salinometer and conductivity sensor (+/-0.002). On this basis, it has not
been considered to correct the calibration coefficients for conductivity. Nominal temperature
sensor accuracy is +/- 0.001ºC with an instrument resolution of about 0.0003ºC. The real
accuracy is likely better than the nominal temperature accuracy judging from the weak drift
of the sensor between calibrations. We obtained acceptable near zero pressure readings
on deck and consider the relevant uncertainty for the dataset to increase to from zero to
approximately 1.2 m at 4000 m depth.
Correspondence between SBE9plus and SBE19plus sensors can only be evaluated by
comparing neighbouring stations (e.g. S07 and H27). Differences below 1000 m are less
than 0.004 PSU and 0.02K which is also within expected real ocean variability. This may be
taken as an upper estimate of the data uncertainty for the compiled dataset. It is
emphasized that all sensors have recently been calibrated at SeaBird facilities. This
estimate does not include XCTD measurements.
10.6 Data Ownership and Access
The dataset is owned by the Continental Shelf Project and held by the Danish
Meteorological Institute with the right to use and publish the dataset in scientific literature.
Data may not be published or distributed without permission from DMI (contact
[email protected]).
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79
Figure 63. CTD station map showing ship (S), expendable probes (X) and helicopter (H) ice
stations recovered during LOMROG III.
80
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11. Plankton Ecology
By Kajsa Tönnesson, University of Gothenburg & Tanja Statmann, Aarhus University
11.1 Introduction
The effect of environmental changes on the biological pelagic system in the central Arctic
Ocean is difficult to estimate due to limited available data. The central Arctic Ocean is
characterized by the most extreme seasonal light regime of all marine systems (Auel &
Hagen 2002). The primary production, which is mainly composed of ice algae and pelagic
phytoplankton, forms the base of the food web thus supporting organisms at higher trophic
levels. The amount and distribution of phytoplankton is therefore likely to affect the
behaviour and distribution of zooplankton. Herbivorous zooplanktons are the primary
grazers on the phytoplankton biomass. Previous investigations of the central Arctic Ocean
have found two Calanus (C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus (Figure 62)) and one Metridia
species (M. longa) to account for a substantial part of the zooplankton biomass (Mumm
1993; Kosobokova and Hirche 2000; Auel and Hagen 2002). In particular Calanus species,
with high energy content in the form of lipids (Swalethorp et al. 2009), are important prey
items for larger carnivorous zooplankton, fish larvae, fish, birds and whales (Falk-Petersen
et al. 2007; Laidre et al. 2007).
Carnivorous zooplankton might have a substantial impact on prey communities. The large
carnivorous copepod Pareuchaeta is common in the central Arctic Ocean (Mumm 1993;
Kosobokova & Hirche 2000; Auel & Hagen 2002) and could play an important role in the
predation on small copepods.
Zooplankton, both herbivores and carnivores, modify the prey community by grazing and
predation. Zooplankton will also have an impact on the benthic-pelagic coupling through
sedimentation of organic aggregates. The trophic structure of the heterotrophic community
is important in determine what fraction of the primary production is exported from the
surface to the deep ocean and the sediment. One of the main mechanisms is the vertical
flux of zooplankton fecal pellets. Due to their high sinking speeds, large particles are not
consumed or remineralised in the water column as readily as small, suspended particles.
Therefore, these organisms may represent an important mechanism coupling the pelagic
system with the benthic community. Apart from fuelling the benthos part of the organic
material is buried thus this fecal pellet flux also acts as a carbon sink from the atmosphere
to the deep sea sediments.
The primary focus of most previous studies has been to describe the mesozooplankton
species composition, abundance and vertical distribution in relation to different water
masses and basins or with a temporal resolution to describe seasonal changes.
Investigations including phytoplankton, protozooplankton, mesozooplankton and the
predatory interaction between or within them are however scarce. The relatively importance
of the different components of the Arctic zooplankton community for grazing, predation and
sedimentation is not very well investigated. Data on how these trophic interactions
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81
responds to environmental change are also required for better understanding the dynamics
of Arctic pelagic ecosystems.
Figure 64. Calanus hyperboreus. Photo: Pauline Snoeijs Leijonmalm.
During the cruise sampling of plankton was carried out in the Nansen, Amundsen and
Makarov basins, on transects across the Gakkel and Lomonosov Ridges. By sampling and
experiments we will:
82

Describe the structure, distribution and biomass of phytoplankton, protozooplankton and meso-zooplankton in the surface water (0-250 m).

Determine the grazing pressure of the most dominating copepods, Calanus
finmarchicus, C. hyperboreus and Metridia sp. as well as the whole community.

Determine the diet and the predation impact of invertebrate predators
(chaetognaths and predatory copepods).

Quantify zooplankton’s contribution to the vertical flux.

Measure the astaxanthin and thiamine levels in dominant Arctic copepods (C.
glacialis, C. hyperboreus, M. longa). Study conducted together with Pauline Snoeijs
Leijonmalm and Peter Sylvander.

Examine specific predator prey relationships, through stable isotopes used as
trophic markers in C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus, M. longa and Pareuchaeta sp. as
well as in their possible food sources (Phytoplankton and Protozooplankton). Study
conducted together with Pauline Snoeijs Leijonmalm and Peter Sylvander.

Study whether environmental stress such as unfavourable levels of light,
temperature and salinity increase the demand of thiamine and astaxanthin
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compounds in the copepod C. hyperboreus. Experiments together with Pauline
Snoiejs Leijonmalm and Peter Sylvander.

Investigate the distribution and characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in
the Arctic Ocean and in particular if degradation of DOM in the deep oceans are
controlled by the conditions in the deep oceans or governed by the low quality of
the DOM at great depth.
11.2 Methods
11.2.1 Net Sampling
The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton was investigated by multiple opening-closing
net hauls from Oden and ice borne stations reached by helicopter. In total 42 stations along
the cruise track were sampled in the Nansen and the Amundsen basins and across the
Gakkel and Lomonosov Ridges (13 times from the ship and 29 times from ice borne
stations, Table 7a & Figure 63). Stratified samples were collected in 0-50, 50-100, 100-150,
Figure 65. The MultiNet used for sampling of Meso-zooplankton in five different depth intervals
(Photo: Ragnar Jerre).
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83
150-200 and 200-250 m depths intervals from the ship (MultiNet, mesh size 45 µm, Figure
63) and 0-50 and 0-100 m from the ice borne stations (WP-2 net¸ mesh size 45 µm and 450
µm, Figure 66 and 67). All samples were preserved in a 4% formaldehyde/seawater
solution and will be analysed with regard to abundance, biomass and species composition
after the cruise.
Figure 66. Ice station. Rasmus Tonsboe and Steffen M. Olsen checking the integrity of the ice.
11.2.2 Water Sampling
From the ship, water was collected from eight depths (10, 20, 40, 60, 100, 150, 200 and
300 m) using a 24-bottle rosette sampler equipped with 7.5 l Niskin bottles (13 stations,
Table 7b). Seven of these depths (10, 20, 40, 60, 100, 150 and 200 m) have also been
sampled from ice borne stations with a 2.7 l Niskin bottle (Figure 66, Table 7b). Water was
drawn for total nitrogen and phosphorous, inorganic nutrients, protozooplankton
(dinoflagellates and ciliates) and chlorophyll a. In addition, at 9 stations (Table 8)
suspended fecal pellets were collected at 3 depths (10, 20 and 40 m). The samples for
inorganic nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and silicate) were collected directly
from the water sampler and immediately frozen (-18⁰C) for post cruise analyses. Samples
for protozooplankton were taken at 5 depths (10, 20, 60, 100 and 200 m) at all 42 stations
and preserved with 2% acidified Lugol’s solution for analyses after the cruise. Water
samples were taken at 42 stations for chlorophyll a measurements. Water (500 – 1500 ml)
was filtered onto filters (GF/F, 11 μm and 50 μm) which then were extracted in 5 ml 96%
ethanol for 24 hours and kept frozen for post cruise fluorometrical analyses.
84
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Figure 67. Ice station. Zooplankton sampling 0-100 m with the WP-2 net. In the photo: Kajsa
Tönnesson, Steffen M. Olsen and Rasmus Tonboe (Photo: Sven Stenvall).
Figure 68. Ice station. Steffen M. Olsen is preparing the Niskin bottle for water sampling.
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85
LOMROG III
Station ID
Date
Longitude
Integrated sampling: Zooplankton biomass
Latitude
yyyy‐mm‐dd ddd:mm.mm dd:mm.mm 0‐100m
LR12s01
02‐08‐2012
014:55.98 E
82:57.48 N
LR12h01
03‐08‐2012
013:20.25 E
84:32.14 N
0‐50m
M
WP
WP
WP
LR12h02
04‐08‐2012
006:27.48 E
85:33.07 N
WP
LR12s02
05‐08‐2012
001:57.31 E
86:44.59 N
WP
LR12h03
06‐08‐2012 003:27.35 W 87:02.38 N
WP
LR12h04
07‐08‐2012 013:27.91 W 87:19.50 N
WP
WP
08‐08‐2012 026:58.48 W 87:44.27 N
WP
WP
LR12s03
09‐08‐2012 037:45.45 W 87:46.20 N
M
LR12h06
10‐08‐2012 047:44.52 W 87:45.14 N
WP
WP
LR12h07
11‐08‐2012 058:53.27 W 87:39.47 N
WP
WP
LR12h08
12‐08‐2012 068:55.88 W 87:38.35 N
WP
WP
LR12h09
13‐08‐2012 043:10.52 W 88:15.93 N
WP
WP
LR12h10
14‐08‐2012 029:57.05 W 88:14.09 N
WP
WP
LR12h11
15‐08‐2012 058:01.00 W 88:16.32 N
WP
WP
LR12s04
16‐08‐2012 069:24.69 W 88:20.80 N
LR12h12
17‐08‐2012 057:33.00 W 88:38.10 N
WP
WP
LR12h13
18‐08‐2012 079:18.13 W 89:00.80 N
WP
WP
LR12s05
20‐08‐2012 058:50.83 W 89:15.90 N
M
M
LR12h14
20‐08‐2012 068:01.76 W 89:08.16 N
WP
WP
LR12h15
21‐08‐2012 090:53.25 W 88:53.78 N
WP
WP
LR12h16
22‐08‐2012
WP
WP
89:59.55 N
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
WP
LR12h05
155:31.52 E
50‐100m 100‐150m 150‐200m 200‐250m
LR12h17
23‐08‐2012
133:12.10 E
89:30.44 N
WP
WP
LR12h18
24‐08‐2012
149:59.50 E
88:24.73 N
WP
WP
LR12h19
24‐08‐2012
145:16.56 E
88:03.58 N
WP
WP
LR12h20
25‐08‐2012
124:55.48 E
87:56.07 N
WP
WP
LR12h21
25‐08‐2012
114:41.68 E
87:52.88 N
WP
WP
LR12h22
26‐08‐2012
104:30.29 E
87:59.35 N
WP
WP
LR12s06
27‐08‐2012
078:14.56 E
88:08.96 N
LR12h23
29‐08‐2012
070:10.86 E
88:17.53 N
WP
WP
M
LR12h24
30‐08‐2012
056:02.99 E
88:45.11 N
WP
WP
LR12s07
31‐08‐2012
053:06.18 E
88:47.43 N
M
M
LR12h25
02‐09‐2012
025:17.19 E
88:16.87 N
WP
WP
LR12h26
03‐09‐2012
011:21.11 E
88:09.54 N
WP
WP
LR12h27
04‐09‐2012
027:16.14 E
87:49.71 N
WP
WP
WP
WP
LR12h28
05‐09‐2012
018:58.52 E
87:28.24 N
LR12s08
07‐09‐2012
005:16.63 E
85:25.59 N
M
M
M
M
M
LR12s09
08‐09‐2012
003:43.29 E
84:22.21 N
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
LR12s10
09‐09‐2012
015:10.37 E
83:49.41 N
LR12h29
09‐09‐2012
014:59.31 E
83:28.32 N
LR12s11
10‐09‐2012
014:44.67 E
82:46.12 N
WP
WP
M
LR12s12
11‐09‐2012
008:45.12 E
82:11.75 N
M
M
M
M
M
LR12s13
11‐09‐2012
008:35.89 E
81:51.81 N
M
M
M
M
M
Table 7a. Station list (Ship stations (LR12s) and Ice stations (LR12h)), Zooplankton samples
from the water column: Sampling with WP-2 net (WP) and MultiNet (M) (see also Figure 61 for a
map with all stations).
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LOMROG III
Station ID
Sampling
10m
20m
40m
60m
100m
150m
200m
300m
C/N/D
LR12s01
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h01
C/N/P/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h02
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/D*
C/N/P/D
LR12s02
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h03
C/N/P/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/D
C/N/P/D*
LR12h04
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/D*
C/N/P/D
LR12h05
C/N/P/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/D
C/N/P/D*
LR12s03
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h06
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/D*
C/N/P/D
LR12h07
C/N/P/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/D*
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D*
C/N/D
C/N/P/D*
LR12h08
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h09
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h10
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h11
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12s04
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h12
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h13
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12s05
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h14
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h15
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h16
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h17
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h18
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h19
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h20
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h21
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h22
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12s06
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h23
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h24
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12s07
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h25
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h26
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h27
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h28
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12s08
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
LR12s09
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/D
C/N/D
C/N/D
C/N/D
C/N/D
C/N/D
C/N/D
LR12s10
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12h29
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
LR12s11
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
LR12s12
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
LR12s13
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
C/N/P/D
C/N/D
Table 7b. Samples from the water column: Chlorophyll a (C), Nutrients (N), Protozooplankton
and Phytoplankton (P), Dissolved Matter (DOM) and optical properties (D). D* means
No CDOM samples taken. For dates and position of the stations see Table 1a.
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87
11.2.3 Incubations
To understand how organic material and nutrients are channelled through the food web, it
is important to quantify the rates (production, grazing, predation and sedimentation).
Quantitative information on feeding rates is particularly important since they represent the
major transfers of biomass within ecosystems. The methods to quantify grazing (predation)
of zooplankton are numerous and during the LOMROG III cruise several methods (gut
fluorescence, gut content analyses and pellet production) have been used. Most methods
have strengths and weaknesses. The choice of which method to use is depending on the
type of zooplankton and the ingested food (herbivory, omnivory and carnivory). The
combination of several methods will give us important information on different aspects of
food and feeding. Though some methods are more laborious than others (e.g. analyses of
stomach contents) they are important since they can give information about food selection
and prey-size preferences (or limitations).
Animals for experiments (Table 8 and 9) were obtained from the upper 60 m using a WP-2
net with a 450 µm mesh size. The content of the cod-end was then transferred to a thermo
box and brought to the main laboratory on the fore-deck. Following experiments were
conducted: Fecal pellet production, In situ pellet production (fecatron) and experiments to
test the effect of environmental stress. Water used in incubations was collected with a
Niskin bottle from the ice (10 m) or tapped from the seawater system (pumped from 10 m
depth) located in the main laboratory on board Oden. Animals for chemical analyses
(carbon, nitrogen, isotopes) were collected from the same net hauls.
11.2.4 Pellet Production Experiments
Pellets (egested material) are the part of the food that has not been absorbed by the
digestive system of the animal. For copepods, which have pellets covered by a membrane,
collection of fecal pellets is possible. Moreover, the number of pellets must show a clear
relationship with feeding intensity and be independent of the type of food. To quantify
ingestion, information about the pellet production rate and the relation between egested
pellets and ingested food or absorption efficiency is needed.
11.2.4.1 Pellet Production and Feeding Rates for Three Dominating Copepods
We conducted fecal production experiments with three dominating copepods (Calanus
hyperboreus, C. glacialis and Metridia longa) on several stations during the cruise (38
stations with C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis, and 8 stations with M. longa). C. hyperboreus
and C. glacialis females were individually transferred to 620 ml polycarbonate bottles
containing 64 µm filtered seawater. M. longa females were transferred to 1500 ml fecatrons
(with false 200 µm mesh bottom). The bottles/fecatrons were then incubated for 24 hours at
in situ temperature (approximately -1 to -1.7ºC). After incubation the females length was
measured and produced fecal pellets were counted and measured (Figure 69).
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Figure 69. Tanja Stratmann is taking down one of the 38 fecal pellets experiment.
11.2.4.2 In Situ Fecal Pellet Production
The fecal pellet production of the copepod community was measured through short time
incubations conducted at 8 stations (Table 8). On deck subsamples of the cod-end was
immediately distributed into 4 fecatrons (PVC tubes with 400 µm false mesh bottom) filled
with filtered sea water (Figure 68). The copepods were incubated 1-2 hours where after
copepods and produced fecal pellets were preserved in acidic Lugol’s solution. At 9
stations, water samples for quantification of suspended fecal pellets were collected at 3
depths (10, 20 and 40 m). The water samples were concentrated on a 20 μm sieve, fixed in
2 % acidic Lugol’s solution for post cruise analyses.
11.2.4.3 Feeding Rates for Pareuchaeta sp.
Feeding rates for Pareuchaeta sp. were measured indirectly by estimating pellet production
since experimental studies have shown a linear relationship between food intake and
number of pellets defecated. Within 1 hour of collection, individual Pareuchaeta sp. females
or copepodites were transferred by pipette into 620 ml polycarbonate bottles filled with 64
μm filtered seawater. The bottles were incubated at 72 hours at in situ temperature (-1 to 1.7ºC). At the end of the incubations, the content was gently poured through a 45 μm sieve
to collect animals and fecal pellets. The length of females or copepodites and the
dimensions of the pellets were measured using a dissection microscope. Complementary
studies to show possible selectivity will be performed through gut content analyses after the
cruise. The experiments were conducted at 36 stations.
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Table 8. List of experiments and in situ measurements conducted at different stations. Stations sorted by date. FP stands for fecal pellet production.
Figure 70. The four fecatrons used to measure the fecal pellet production of the whole copepod
community.
11.2.5 Gut Analyses
11.2.5.1 Gut Fluorescence
The principle of the gut fluorescence method is that pigments of ingested algae can be
quantitatively recovered (i.e. extracting pigments from algae in an organic solvent) from the
animal. This gives a measurement of the amount of gut content, and knowing the turnover
rate of the gut contents, the ingestion rate can be calculated. The main weakness of the
method is the uncertainty about pigments destruction and its restriction to phytoplankton
prey. Gut fluorescence were measured on females of Calanus glacialis, C. hyperboreus
and Metridia longa at 36 stations (Table 8). After the collection, a sub-sample of copepods
was immediately concentrated on a piece of 450 μm plankton net and frozen (-50ºC). The
samples were then stored in the freezer (-18ºC) for further handling and analyses after the
cruise. The rest of the cod end was poured into a tray and C. hyperboreus were gently
collected and transferred into vials containing 5 ml 96% ethanol (1 per vial) extracted for 24
hours and frozen (-18ºC) for post cruise analyses. After the cruise frozen C. glacialis and
M. longa will also be transferred into vials with 96% ethanol (5 per vial). All samples will be
analysed for pigment (chlorophyll a) as described above.
11.2.5.2 Gut Analyses
The diets of the chaetognaths (arrow worms), e.g. Sagitta spp. and Eukrohnia hamata, will
be determined in the biomass samples collected from 42 stations along the cruise track
(Table 7a). To estimate the stomach content, each chaetognath will be dissected under
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microscope, and prey organism will be identified to species level and stage. Analyses of
stomach contents of field sampled zooplankton are a common method for estimating
ingestion rate of carnivorous zooplankton. Prey composition and production will be used to
estimate predation pressure and selectivity.
11.2.6 Sediment Traps
Vertical carbon flux depends as heavily on hydrography, variations of nutrients and primary
production (bottom-up) as on the dynamics of the zooplankton (top-down). One of the main
mechanisms is the vertical flux of zooplankton faecal pellets. Zooplankton can consume a
large fraction of the daily primary production and as a consequence contribute significantly
to the downward carbon flux, through the production of carbon-rich fecal pellets with high
sinking rates. Due to their high sinking speeds, large particles are not consumed or
remineralised in the water column as readily as small, suspended particles.
We determined the fecal pellets carbon content and sinking rates, and combine this
information with measured feeding rates and abundances to estimate pellet fluxes to
different zones in the water column. The vertical flux of pellets were measured by using in
situ free floating sediment traps 6 times from ice borne stations and from the ship (Table 8).
The traps were deployed at three different depths (10, 20 and 40 m), with a deployment
time of 4 hours (Figure 71). Prior to deployment, the traps were filled with 0.2 μm filtered
seawater with added salt to increase the salinity by 4-5 psu. Hereby, advective diffusive
exchange between the higher density, particle-free water and the ambient seawater was
reduced in the traps during deployment. No preservative was added. Immediately after
recovery, the sedimentation traps were sealed with a clean lid and the trap content carefully
mixed. In the laboratory, subsamples for chlorophyll a and fecal pellets analyses were
taken.
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93
Figure 71. Ice station. Recovery of the sediment traps (Photo: Steffen M. Olsen).
11.2.7 Dissolved Organic Matter
The aim of the project is to investigate the distribution and characteristics of dissolved
organic matter (DOM) in the Arctic Ocean and in particular if degradation of DOM in the
deep oceans are controlled by the conditions in the deep oceans or governed by the low
quality of the DOM at great depth.
11.2.8 The Role of Environmental Conditions for Degradation of DOM
The objective for this experiment is to test if degradation of DOM in the deep ocean is
governed by characteristics of the DOM-pool or by environmental conditions. This will be
tested in the laboratory after the cruise by manipulating temperature and other conditions.
During the cruise large volumes of water were collected from the deeper part if the Arctic
Ocean at 5 stations (Table 8) for degradations experiments during the winter 2012/2013.
Samples for bacteria community analyses have also been taken at 5 stations.
11.2.9 Distribution and Characteristics of DOM in the Arctic Ocean
The objective is to describe the distribution of the following parameters:
94

Concentrations of DOC, DON and DOP

DOM absorption – 300 to 700 nm
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
DOM fluorescence from excitation – emission scans
Samples were taken from all stations and depths (Figure 70, Table 7b). We followed the
sampling scheme already decided on LOMROG II (10, 20, 40, 60, 100, 150, 200 and 300
m) with addition of deeper samples (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 m ...). All depths are not
shown in Table 7b. Samples will be analysed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and
optical properties (scanning absorption and excitation-emission fluorescence). Data will be
analysed for relationships to physical, chemical and biological parameters and can acts as
supporting data for other experiments/projects.
Figure 72. Tanja Stratmann is taking samples for DOM and absorption in the clean laboratory.
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95
11.3 Projects Together with Pauline Snoeijs Leijonmalm and
Peter Sylvander, Stockholm University
11.3.1 A Comparison of Astaxanthin and Thiamine Levels in Dominant
Arctic and Baltic Zooplankton Species
Our hypothesis is that the dominant phytoplankton and zooplankton species in the Arctic
Ocean have higher levels of astaxanthin (antioxidant) and thiamine (vitamin and
antioxidant) than those of the Baltic Sea. Copepods were obtained from the upper 60 m
using a WP-2 net with a 450 µm mesh size (Table 8). Direct after sampling, 20 females of
the dominant species (Calanus hyperboreus, C. finmarchicus and Metridia longa) were
measured and frozen (-80ºC) for post cruise analyses. Filters for phytoplankton were taken
simultaneously. Samples were taken at 14 stations.
11.3.2 Trophic Levels of Dominant Arctic Zooplankton Species in
Summer: Evidence from Stable Isotopes Signature
The trophic position of an organism within a food web and its basic carbon source may be
derived from nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios. Our hypothesis is that the dominant
zooplankton species in the arctic belong to different trophic levels (trophic level ranking of
dominant species). Even if different factors affect this (e.g. season, levels of food), the
δ13C, δ15N markers indicates the trophic level very well with different species in the same
area and the same season are compared.
At 35 stations (Table 8), females of Calanus hyperboreus, C. glacialis, Metridia longa and
Pareuchaeta sp. (not all species at all stations) were gently collected and transferred into
bottles with filtrated water for 24 hours. The females were then washed in Milli-Q water and
frozen at -80ºC, each in a separate eppendorf tube for post cruise analyses. A number of
phytoplankton filters were taken simultaneously.
11.3.3 The Effect of Environmental Stress on Antioxidant Depletion in
Calanus hyperboreus
Thiamine (vitamin B1) and astaxanthin are both compounds which act as antioxidants and
are involved in basic stress response in plants and animals. Animals are not capable of de
novo synthesis of these compounds and therefore depend on nutritional sources of either
the complete compound (thiamine) or precursors (astaxanthin) to maintain body
concentrations. In several aquatic systems, animals have shown signs of deficiency of
these compounds of reasons not yet fully elucidated. In this project we studied whether
environmental stress such as unfavorable levels of light, temperature and salinity increase
the demand of these two compounds in the copepod Calanus hyperboreus. Since de novo
synthesis is not possible without a food source we incubated the herbivore C. hyperboreus
in filtered seawater devoid of phytoplankton. Decreased body concentrations can therefore
be considered to be a result of increased depletion rather than decreased synthesis/uptake.
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We hypothesize that C. hyperboreus subjected to environmental stress will deplete
thiamine and astaxanthin at a higher rate than individuals subjected to more favorable
conditions.
Calanus hyperboreus was collected from the ship or ice borne stations with a WP-2 net
with a 450 µm mesh size from a depth of 60 m (Table 8). 24 adult females were measured
and transferred to -80ºC to later be used as control samples (Figure 73). 72 adult females
were then measured and transferred to 500 ml bottles containing GF/F filtered seawater,
one individual per bottle. 36 of the collected individuals were incubated in darkness at 3ºC
by covering the bottles in black plastic and putting them in refrigerators. The remaining 36
individuals were subjected to a stress treatment. In total, 6 experiments were carried out
with three different kinds of stress factors. As stress treatment, high light, high temperature
or decreased salinity was used (Table 9). Light stress was acquired by excluding the black
plastic cover over the bottles. Temperature stress was acquired by incubating bottles in at
room temperature. Salinity stress was acquired by diluting filtered sea water with fresh
water. 12 individuals of both the stressed and the non-stressed females were collected 12,
24 and 24 hours after the experiment was set up, by pouring the bottle content through a
small hand held sieve. At the same time, the water of the bottles was filtered over a GF/F
filter and fecal pellets were counted. Both the female and the GF/F filters were transferred
to -80ºC. Astaxanthin and thiamine content of both the collected females and filters will be
analysed by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at the Department
of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University. Analysis of the animals will show the thiamineand astaxanthin content of the body tissues at sampling time while the analysis of the GF/F
filters will show if any significant amounts have been excreted in e.g. fecal pellets or eggs.
Figure 73. Experimental work in the main laboratory. Peter Sylvander and Pauline Snoeijs
Leijonmalm are setting up one of the experiments.
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97
Experiment Sampling
position
1
87º46.20 N
37º45.45 W
2
89º15.90 N
58º50.83 W
3
88º47.43 N
53º06.18 E
4
87º28.24 N
18º58.52 E
5
85º25.59 N
05º16.63 E
6
83º49.41 N
015º10.37 E
Used stress
factor
Light
Light
(µmol m-2 s-1)
0/150
Temperature
(ºC)
3
Salinity
(psu)
35
Light
0/150
3
35
Temperature
0
3/16
35
Temperature
0
3/14
35
Salinity
0
3
26/35
Salinity
0
3
30/35
Table 9. List of the experiments as well as levels of light, temperature and salinity used. In each
experiment, the factor listed in the column “Used stress factor” was different between stressed
and non-stressed treatments while other conditions were identical.
11.4 References
Auel, H. & Hagen, W. 2002: Mesozooplankton community structure, abundance and
biomass in the central Arctic Ocean. Marine Biology 140, 1013-1021.
Falk-Petersen, S., Pavlov, V., Timofeev, S. & Sargent, J. R. 2007: Climate variability and
possible effects on arctic food chains. The role of Calanus. In: Ørbaek, J.B et al. (eds.):
Arctic Alpine Ecosystems and People in a Changing Environment. Springer-Verlag
Berlin Heidelberg, 147-166.
Kosobokova, K. & Hirche, H. J. 2000: Zooplankton distribution across the Lomonosov
Ridge, Arctic Ocean: species inventory, biomass and vertical structure. Deep-sea
research. Part I, Oceanographic research papers 47, 2029-2060.
Laidre, K. L., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. & Nielsen, T. G. 2007: Role of the bowhead whale as
a predator in West Greenland. Marine Ecology Progress Series 346, 285-297.
Mumm, M. 1993: Composition and distribution of mesozooplankton in the Nansen Basin,
Arctic Ocean, during summer. Polar Biology 13, 451-461.
Swalethorp, R., Kjellerup, S., Dünweber, M., Nielsen, T. G., Møller, E. F. & Hansen, B. W.
2009: Production of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus in Disko
Bay, western Greenland, with emphasis on life strategy. MSc Thesis.
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12. Microbial communities in the Arctic Ocean and
their contribution to global nitrogen cycling
By Pauline Snoeijs Leijonmalm and Peter Sylvander, Stockholm University; Beatriz Díez,
Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago & Laura Farías, Universidad de Concepción, Chile
12.1 Introduction
Microbial communities inside the sea ice dominate the huge offshore sea-ice habitat in the
Arctic. When ice forms, salts from seawater are expulsed and a hypersaline solution (>35
psu) is formed in channels and pores of the ice. In the Arctic summer the ice partly melts
and the brine channels are opened to the seawater and the atmosphere and connect both
reservoirs. They are then filled with brackish water in a gradient from nearly fresh melting
water (0-6 psu) in the upper part of the ice cover to seawater (34-35 psu) in the lower part.
The microbial communities in the brackish brine regulate nutrient fluxes to the marine food
web beneath the ice and release gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, N2O) into the atmosphere. Still, the
functional diversity of these microbial communities, and thereby their roles in the Arctic seaice habitat and the concomitant global biogeochemical cycles, is poorly known.
Figure 74. The Microbial group of LOMROG III, from the left: Peter Sylvander, Pauline Snoeijs
Leijonmalm, Beatriz Díez and Laura Farías.
An example of how little is known about the ecosystem functions of sea-ice microbes is our
recently published discovery of high nifH gene diversity in Arctic seawater and sea ice brine
(Díez et al. 2012). The nifH gene encodes the iron protein of the nitrogenase enzyme
complex, which is essential for biological N2 fixation, a process that globally significantly
contributes to the nitrogen cycle by adding new nitrogen. In our study we distinguished
cyanobacteria (mostly Oscillatoriales and Chroococcales) with known marine planktonic
and benthic distributions, alongside a mix of metabolically versatile eubacteria (nifH
Clusters I and III). Our previous results suggest that the diversity of diazotrophic (N2-fixing)
organisms in the Arctic region is larger than previously known. Marine N2 fixation has
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generally been associated with warmer tropical and subtropical surface waters, but the
process of N2 fixation is not intrinsically inhibited by temperature as was thought and it can
occur at temperatures near 0ºC. While they are frequently reported from Arctic and
Antarctic terrestrial systems (including freshwater lakes), they may thus be widespread also
in the marine system associated with sea ice. As the sea ice habitat covers ~5% of the
planet, it potentially could be a significant source of new nitrogen to the global nitrogen
cycle, and stimulate the nutrient fluxes toward the microbial communities living there.
We found the nifH genes in DNA samples taken during two previous cruises with Oden in
May 2002 (“Arctic Ocean 2002”). Cyanobacterial DNA, although not further identified, was
also found in melted sea ice during an Oden cruise in 2009 (“LOMROG II”) by Bowman et
al. (2012), but may indicate diazotrophy as well since many cyanobacteria are able to fix
N2.
To verify that the nifH genes associated with Arctic sea ice are metabolically active, we
returned to the Arctic Ocean in August-September 2012 with Oden (“LOMROG III”) to
measure nifH-gene expression and biological N2-fixation rates. N2 fixation is only one of the
important ecosystem functions that may be performed by the ice-associated microbial
communities. In our project we also study the full functional diversity (metagenomics) and
gene expression (metatranscriptomics) of the microbial communities along a transect in the
Arctic Ocean from Svalbard to the area north of Greenland (pack-ice) and back. This will
generate massive sequencing data, which we intend to use in two ways: (1) Sequencedriven by comparing gene clusters for different community functions between habitats,
potential and expressed, (2) Activity-driven by targeting genes involved in microbial
metabolism. Also we measured in the some transect, microbiological activities in terms of C
and N cycling. This includes photo- chemoautotrophic (light and dark bicarbonate uptake)
and heterotrophic activities (use of glucose) and also N2 fixation, NH4+ and NO3- uptake.
We have received funding to perform a similar study in the Antarctic in 2013 or 2014 to
compare both polar ecosystems. The data obtained in the project will increase our
knowledge on the ecological role of the offshore sea-ice microbial communities in the Arctic
and Antarctic ecosystems. We will also be able to model polar marine ecosystem functions
that are likely to change biogeochemical cycles with the predicted global climate change if
open seawater will replace the now still ice-covered oceans. Our overall aim is to contribute
with scientific information that will help realize a proper ecosystem-based management of
the Arctic Ocean area.
Further sample elaboration will take place in six laboratories in Sweden, Chile, the USA
Germany and Spain in 2012 and 2013. In short, we will examine community composition by
addressing the 16S rRNA gene as well as genes involved in nitrogen metabolism (the nifH
gene and others). We will measure the potential and realized metabolic activities of the icemicrobes with focus on the nitrogen cycle through metagenomics, gene expression (RNA)
and the uptake of carbon and nitrogen during on-board incubation experiments.
Besides the four cruise participants (Figure 74), five other scientists participate in this
project. These are Anna Edlund (J. Craig Venter Institute, San Diego, USA), Martin Polz
(Massachussetts Institute of Technology, MIT, Boston, USA), Rachel Foster (Max-Planck
Inst for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany), Ellen Dam (Alfred Wegener Institute,
AWI, Bremerhaven, Germany) and Antonio Delgado (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
Científicas, CSIC, Granada, Spain). This research is funded by the Swedish Research
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Council (www.vr.se) and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (www.polar.se) for
participation in the LOMROG III cruise, and the Carl Trygger Foundation for Natural
Sciences, the Instituto Antártico Chileno (INACH) and our respective universities and
research institutes for additional sampling costs and analyses after the cruise.
12.2 Field Sampling
We took samples from 24 ice stations, which were reached by helicopter. Altogether we
collected 6000 l of water (Table 10), which was immediately filtrated or first incubated and
then filtered. During sampling we collaborated with two Danish research groups (Lars
Chresten Lund Hansen & Brian Sorrell and Gorm Dybkjær & Rasmus Tonboe). They
needed the ice cores for photobiological studies and ice temperature measurements,
respectively, and we needed the holes to get large volumes of brine water and seawater
with microbial communities. So this was an excellent constellation for the field work and
effective use of the helicopter.
Atmosphere
”Brine sample” 3‐15 psu
”Seawater sample” 33‐35 psu
Snow 5‐20 cm
~0‐5 psu
~ 5‐10 psu
~ 10‐15 psu
Sea ice 110‐250 cm
~ 15‐25 psu
Seawater 33‐35 psu
Figure 75. As soon as a hole was made with the ice corer, the hole was filled with ice brine
from the surrounding ice. We collected brine water from a 1 m deep hole in the ice and
seawater was collected from immediately under the ice with a hand-operated membrane pump.
At 22 ice stations we sampled brine or seawater (Table 10). At all stations holes were made
in the ice with a Kovacs ice core drill of 9 cm in diameter. Brackish brine water was
sampled from 1-m deep holes in the ice at the bottom of the hole (Figures 75 & 76). When
the brine channels were cut by the ice corer the brine water ran out from the surrounding
ice and filled the hole. We needed to make four to five holes to get enough brine. How well
the brine flows out of the ice depends on the porosity of the ice and the air temperature.
Seawater was sampled from immediately beneath the ice from a hole all the way through
the ice (Figure 75). The water was pumped up by a hand-operated membrane pump
connected to a 3 m long tube of 25 mm in diameter (Figure 76). At the end of the tube a
200 µm net excluded organisms larger than 200 µm from the sample. The water was
transported to the ship in 20 l containers. About 40-50 l was used for basic sample
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101
characteristics, 10-20 l for DNA and RNA samples, 90-150 l for metagenomics, and 80-100
l for incubation experiments. We also took triplicate 40 or 80 ml water samples of for NH4
analyses.
At 6 ice stations we took samples of both the upper meter brine water and the upper meter
ice core to compare the biomass and the species composition in the brine and that of the
part of the microbial community that was left in the ice core. The ice cores were transported
to the ship in previously ethanol-disinfected polycarbonate boxes and left to melt in these
boxes which took ca. 70 hours (Table 10; Figure 76).
At 12 CTD stations we collected water samples from the rosette to study the distribution of
compounds involved in microbial processes (N2O, CH4, DMSP) in the water column (Tables
11 & 12; Figure 77).
All stations are shown in a map in Figure 78.
Ice core
Lab
Field water
Date
Time
Position N
Position E/W
nr
L
L
length cm
salinity
temp °C
m
cm
03/08/2012
09:30 ‐ 13:00
N 84o 09.604'
E 014o 57.893'
1
0
280
0
15
‐0.9
2.5
15
04/08/2012
09:15 ‐ 12:30
N 85o 18.630'
E 006o 47.397'
2
0
280
0
15
‐0.6
1.6
20
06/08/2012
09:00 ‐ 12:00
N 86o 51.906'
E 000o 12.612'
3
280
0
0
34.9
‐1.6
1.5
10
07/08/2012
12:30 ‐ 15:00
N 87o 03.820'
W 006o 46.669'
4
280
0
0
34.7
‐1.5
1.5
7.5
09/08/2012
09:00 ‐ 12:30
N 87o 45.130'
W 034o 41.960'
5
0
280
0
15
‐1.0
1.5
5
10/08/2012
09:00 ‐ 12:00
N 87o 47.304'
W 042o 31.823'
6
280
0
0
33.7
‐1.4
1.5
10
12/08/2012
09:10 ‐ 12:00
N 87o 50.742'
W 059o 38.684'
Ice station Seawater Brine water
Ice depth Snow depth
7
0
280
0
6
‐0.5
1.3
5
13/08/2012
09:30 ‐ 12:30
N 88 11.745'
W 053o 35.926'
8
0
280
0
9
‐0.5
1.5
5
15/08/2012
09:00 ‐ 11:30
N 88o 11.744'
W 049o 33.588'
9
280
0
0
33.1
‐1.4
1.6
5
17/08/2012
13:00 ‐ 16:00
N 88o 19.509'
W 066o 44.409'
10
0
280
0
5
‐0.5
1.5
3
19/08/2012
19:30 ‐ 22:00
N 89o 11.388'
W 070o 50.089'
11
280
0
0
33.3
‐1.5
1.5
10
21/08/2012
15:00 ‐ 18:00
N 89o 56.112'
W 073o 41.687'
o
12
0
280
0
9
‐0.5
1.5
10
23/08/2012
10:00 ‐ 13:00
N 89 50.322'
E 135o 55.486'
13
280
0
0
34.0
‐1.5
1.2
10
25/08/2012
13:30 ‐ 16:00
N 87o 58.544'
E 122o 09.066'
14
0
280
0
2.5
‐0.5
1.6
15
28/08/2012
16:00 ‐ 18:30
N 87o 56.546'
E 073o 29.387'
15
0
280
0
7
‐0.5
1.6
20
29/08/2012
15:00 ‐ 18:00
N 88o 15.639'
E 072o 51.762'
16
0
20
150
9.6
‐0.5
1.5
15
30/08/2012
13:30 ‐ 16:00
N 88o 27.286'
E 068o 26.976'
17
200
40
400
35.2 / 5
‐1.4
1.1
20
31/08/2012
09:00 ‐ 12:30
N 88o 42.748'
E 055o 56.346'
18
0
40
425
3.2
‐0.5
1.6
12
02/09/2012
09:00 ‐ 12:00
N 88o 28.188'
E 022o 18.720'
19
0
240
400
19
‐0.8
1.7
5
03/09/2012
14:00 ‐ 17:00
N 88o 24.303'
E 023o 50.964'
20
240
0
0
34.9
‐1.4
1.6
5
04/09/2012
16:00 ‐ 19:00
N 87o 44.353'
E 030o 05.521'
21
0
240
410
5.2
‐0.6
1.4
7.5
05/09/2012
14:30 ‐ 17:00
N 87o 35.896'
E 020o 32.982'
22
260
0
0
35.0
‐1.7
2.2
7.5
07/09/2012
08:30 ‐ 11:30
N 85o 25.653'
E 005o 15.952'
23
0
260
415
4.5
‐0.6
1.5
7.5
09/09/2012
Sum
09:00 ‐ 11:30
N 83o 49.449'
E 015o 08.015'
24
260
2640
0
3360
0
2200
34.8
‐1.7
1.1
10
o
Table 10. Ice stations of the microbial group during LOMROG III.
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Figure 76. As soon as a hole was made with the ice corer, the hole was filled with ice brine
from the surrounding ice. We collected brine water from a 1 m deep hole in the ice and
seawater was collected from immediately under the ice with a hand-operated membrane pump.
At some sites also the ice core was sampled and melted in the lab (Upper photograph by Lars
Chresten Lund Hansen).
Date
02/08/2012
05/08/2012
09/08/2012
16/08/2012
Time
11:35
17:03
13:09
05:10
Position N
N 82o 57.48'
N 86o 44.59'
N 87o 46.20'
N 88o 20.80'
Position E/W
E 014o 55.98'
E 001o 57.31'
W 037o 45.45'
W 069o 24.69'
CTD station
1
2
3
4
20/08/2012
27/08/2012
31/08/2012
07/09/2012
08/09/2012
09/09/2012
10/09/2012
11/09/2012
05:10
11.21
13:56
06:44
07:36
06:46
06:23
06:16
N 89o 15.90'
N 88o 08.96'
N 88o 47.43'
N 85o 25.59'
N 84o 22.21'
N 83o 49.41'
N 82o 46.12'
N 82o 11.75'
W 058o 50.83'
E 078o 14.56'
E 053o 06.18'
E 005o 16.63'
E 003o 43.29'
E 015o 10.37'
E 014o 44.67'
E 008o 45.12'
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Table 11. CTD stations of the microbial group during LOMROG III.
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CTD station
1
Depth
m
10
Depth
m
20
Depth
m
40
Depth
m
60
Depth
m
100
Depth
m
150
Depth
m
200
2
3
10
10
20
20
40
40
60
60
100
100
150
4
10
20
40
60
5
6
10
10
20
20
40
40
7
8
10
10
20
20
9
10
10
10
11
12
10
10
Depth
m
Depth
m
500
Depth
m
1000
Depth
m
1500
Depth
m
2000
Depth
m
2500
200
200
500
500
1000
1000
1500
1500
2000
2000
2500
100
200
500
1000
1200
60
60
100
100
200
200
500
500
1000
1000
1500
1500
2000
40
40
60
60
100
100
200
200
500
500
1000
1000
1500
1500
20
20
40
40
60
60
100
100
200
200
500
500
1000
1000
1500
1500
20
20
40
40
60
60
100
100
200
200
500
500
1000
1000
1451
1451
300
300
Depth
m
Depth
m
Depth
m
Depth
m
3000
3500
2500
3000
3000
3743
3353
2000
2000
2500
2500
3000
3000
3500
4000
4460
2000
2000
2500
2500
3000
3000
3778
3500
4000
Table 12. Sampling depths of the CTD stations. All depths were sampled for N2O and CH4 and
the depths indicated in blue were sampled for DMSP.
Figure 77. Sampling from the CTD for the analysis of N2O, CH4 and DMSP in water column
profiles.
104
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Figure 78. Map showing the ice stations (in green) and the CTD stations (in yellow) of the
microbial group during LOMROG III. Ice station 23 and CTD station 8 are at the same position,
as well as Ice station 24 and CTD station 10 (Map prepared by Rezwan Mohammad).
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105
12.3 Basic sample characteristics
12.3.1 Water Temperature and Salinity
Water temperature and salinity were measured with an YSI Pro30 handheld conductivity
meter during field sampling. Salinity was measured again in the laboratory before the water
was filtered.
12.3.2 Inorganic Nutrient Concentrations in the Water
The concentrations of NH4 in the water were measured directly on board with a Perkin
Elmer LS 55 Fluorescence Spectrometer according to the method of Holmes et al. (1999)
with incubation time extended to 12 hours. The NH4 concentrations varied between below
detection level (ca. 5 nM) and 290 nM (Figure 79). The highest concentrations were found
in the brine where the NH4 concentrations showed the highest variation. For analyses of
NO3, NO2, PO4 and SiO2 concentrations four replicate 12 ml water samples per sampling
station were filtered over a 0.45 µm membrane filter and frozen at -20ºC for later analysis at
Stockholm University.
350
300
NH4 concentration (nM)
250
200
150
100
50
0
Figure 79. Results of the on-board NH4 measurements. Blue = brine, green = seawater.
12.3.3 DOC and Isotopic Composition of O and H in Water and of C and N
in Particulate Matter
For DOC analysis a water volume of 40 ml was fixed with HgCl2 and stored in dark bottles
at 4ºC. For the isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen water volumes of 15 ml were
taken in Falcon tubes and stored at 4ºC. For the analysis of POC and PON and their
isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N), particulate matter >0.7 µm was filtered on precombusted GF/F filters (Table 13, Figure 80) and are stored at -80ºC. These samples are
will be analyzed at the Universidad de Concepción (δ13C and δ15N in t=0 samples of the
experiments) and at CSIC (O, H, δ13C and δ15N in field samples).
106
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12.3.4 Cell Size and Density
For flow cytometry a water volume of 5 ml was fixed with glutaraldehyde (1.0%) onboard
and stored at 4ºC (Table 13). These samples will be analysed at the Universidad de
Concepción.
12.3.5 Verification of Viable Cells
To check the viability of the cells and record the dominant algal species, ca. 1 l of water
was filtered on a 45 mm 0.2 µm membrane filter and observed under a light microscope onboard. Small subsamples were also taken from selected metagenomics filters. Both types
of samples were fixed with glutaraldehyde (2.5%) in an Eppendorf tube onboard and stored
at 4ºC. The verification of viable bacterial cells (including phototrophs) in the samples will
be performed by optical and epifluorescence light microscopy staining with DAPI and
acridine orange (Hobbie et al. 1977). These samples will be analysed at the Universidad
Católica de Chile.
12.3.6 Fluorescence and Photosynthetic Performance
The photosynthetic properties of all water sampled were analysed with a PhytoPAM
Phytoplankton analyser, Model Phyto US, Walz, Germany (Figure 81). Measurements
included maximum fluorescence (Fm), which can be interpreted as a measure of biomass,
photosynthetic yield (Fv/Fm), a measure of photosynthetic capacity. PI-curves were made
as well to assess the initial rate of photosynthesis (), light compensation point (Ik) and
electron transport rate (ETR). The data will be further calculated at the University of
Stockholm.
12.3.7 Pigments
For HPLC analysis of chlorophylls (a,b,c) and ca. 20 carotenoids, particulate matter >0.7
µm was filtered on pre-combusted GF/F filters (Table 13, Figure 80) and are stored at 80⁰C. These samples will be analysed at the University of Stockholm.
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107
Figure 80. Equipment used for filtering microbial communities on GF/F filters Upper filter =
seawater from Ice station 20, lower filter = brine from Ice station 23.
Figure 81. The PhytoPAM Phytoplankton analyzer PhytoPAM Phytoplankton Analyzer, Model
Phyto US (Walz, Germany) used for measuring fluorescence and photosynthetic performance
during the cruise.
108
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Ice station
Water
Filter
Number of
Litres
nr
type
Numbers
GF/F filters
per filter
1
Brine
1 ‐ 24
24
1.5
2
Brine
24 ‐ 48
24
0.5 ‐ 0.7
Notes
Sample for
Sample for
cytometry
microscopy
1
1
Yes
3
4
1
1
Yes
3
4
Very slimy
Photosynthesis
NH4
PAM fluorescence Analyzed on board
NO3, NO2, PO4, SiO2
Samples frozen
3
Seawater
49 ‐ 72
24
2.0
1
2
Yes
3
4
4
Seawater
73 ‐ 96
24
1.0 ‐ 2.0
1
1
Yes
3
4
4
5
Brine
97 ‐ 120
24
1.5
1
2
Yes
3
6
Seawater
121 ‐ 144
24
1.5
1
2
Yes
3
4
7
Brine
145 ‐ 168
24
1.5
1
2
Yes
3
4
8
Brine
169 ‐ 192
24
2.0
Blackish green colour
1
2
Yes
3
4
9
Seawater
193 ‐ 216
24
1.9 ‐ 2.0
Light yellow colour
1
2
Yes
3
4
10
Brine
217 ‐ 240
24
1.5 ‐ 2.0
Blackish brown‐green colour
1
1
Yes
3
4
11
Seawater
241 ‐ 264
24
2.0
Greenish‐brown colour
1
2
Yes
3
4
12
Brine
265 ‐ 300
36
0.5 ‐ 2.0
Slimy, Yellow‐green colour
1
3
Yes
3
4
13
Seawater
301 ‐ 324
24
2.0
Dark yellow‐brown colour
1
2
Yes
3
4
14
Brine
325 ‐ 348
24
1.5 ‐ 2.0
Greyish green‐brown colour
1
2
Yes
3
4
1.5 ‐ 1.7
Blackish bluegreen‐brown colour
1
1
Yes
3
4
1
1
Yes
4
4
Brownish colour
15
Brine
349 ‐ 372
24
16
Seawater
373 ‐ 384
12
16
Brine
385 ‐ 390
6
1.5
1
1
Yes
16
Melted ice 70 h
391 ‐ 394
4
1.0
1
1
Yes
17
Seawater
397 ‐ 420
24
1.5
Light yellow‐green
1
1
Yes
17
Brine
421 ‐ 426
6
1.5
Light greyish colour
1
1
Yes
4
17
Brine 70 h
427 ‐ 432
6
1.5
Yes
2
17
Melted ice 70 h
433 ‐ 438
6
0.75
1
1
Yes
18
Brine
439 ‐ 444
6
1.5
1
1
Yes
18
Brine 70 h
445 ‐ 450, 445a ‐ 447a
9
0.5 ‐ 1.5
Yes
2
18
Melted ice 70 h
451 ‐ 456, 451a ‐ 453a
9
1.0
1
1
Yes
4
1
2
Yes
0.35 ‐ 0.48 Very slimy, Melosira arctica
19
Brine
457 ‐ 480
24
1.5
19
Brine 70 h
469a ‐ 478a
10
1.0
19
Melted ice 70 h
457a ‐ 466a
10
1.0
20
Seawater
481 ‐ 504
24
2.0
Greyish yellow‐brown colour
Light yellow‐brown colour
4
3
4
4
3
3
Yes
4
4
2
1
1
Yes
Golden‐brown colour
1
2
Yes
3
4
4
Light greyish geen‐yellow colour
3
4
21
Brine 505 ‐ 528
24
2.0
1
2
Yes
21
Melted ice 70 h
505a ‐ 516a
12
1.0
1
1
Yes
22
Seawater
529 ‐ 534
24
2.0
1
2
Yes
3
4
3
4
23
Brine
553 ‐ 576
24
1.4 ‐ 1.5
1
2
Yes
23
Melted ice 70 h
553a ‐ 563a
11
0.9 ‐ 1.0
1
1
Yes
24
Seawater
577 ‐ 600
24
1.5
1
2
Yes
3
4
32
49
ca. 200
69
134
Sum
Light yellow, red cysts
4
647
4
Table 13. Samples taken for basic characteristics of the samples.
12.4 Comparison of Community Composition in Brine and Ice
Core
At six ice stations samples were taken of both brine water and the upper 1 m of the ice core
(Tables 10 & 14). The biomass (C, chla, flow cytometry) and the community composition
(flow cytometry, carotenoids and chlorophylls, DNA) in the two types of samples will be
compared. These analyses will be performed at the Universidad Católica de Chile and
Stockholm University.
Ice station
Brine water Ice core Melted ice
nr
Position N
Position E/W
(L)
length cm core (L)
o
o
16
N 88 15.639' E 072 51.762'
20
150
8.5
17
N 89o 27.286' E 068o 26.976'
o
o
Quote
17.6
40
400
21.9
18.3
18
19
N 88 42.748' E 055 56.346'
N 88o 28.188' E 022o 18.720'
40
240
425
400
19.8
18.8
21.5
21.3
21
23
N 87o 44.353' E 030o 05.521'
N 85o 25.653' E 005o 15.952'
240
260
410
415
18.8
22.7
21.8
18.3
Table 14. Details of the sampled ice cores.
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109
12.5 CTD samples
12.5.1 N2O and CH4
Altogether 572 samples (134 station/depths) were taken from the CTD for the analysis of
the gases N2O and CH4 in the seawater column. Duplicate water samples of 20 ml were
collected in GC gas-tight vials for each of the gases, preserved with 50 µl saturated HgCl2
and stored at room temperature (ca. 20ºC) in the dark. These samples will be analyzed at
the Universidad de Concepción.
12.5.2 DMSP
Altogether 120 samples (60 station/depths) were taken from the CTD for the analysis of
dimethylsulfoniopriopionate (DMSP) in the seawater column. Only the upper 100 m was
sampled as this is gas is produced by algae. Duplicate water samples of 20 ml were
collected in GC gas-tight vials, preserved with 50 µl 50% sulphuric acid and stored at room
temperature (ca. 20ºC) in the dark. These samples will be analysed at the AWI in
Bremerhaven.
12.6 Molecular Field Samples
12.6.1 RNA Field Samples
In the field one 20-L container was filled immediately before the helicopter lifted from the
ice. It reached the laboratory within 20-30 minutes during it was kept at 0ºC and was
immediately filtered for RNA analyses. For this, 2.5 - 4 l were sequentially filtered (Figure
80) on 45 mm 20 µm Millipore nylon filters, 45 mm 8 µm Millipore polycarbonate filters and
0.2 µm Millipore Sterivex filters using a Cole Palmer System peristaltic pump Model No
7553-70 (6-600 rpm). This was done in duplicate. The six RNA filters were preserved in
RNAlater and stored at -80ºC (Table 15). The samples will be analysed at the Universidad
Católica de Chile. They will be extracted using commercial kits, and PCR amplification will
be performed for nifH gene analyses of the active diastrophic community. The nifH gene
fragments present in each sample will be resolved and compared by the DGGE
fingerprinting technique and clone libraries. All DGGE bands and clones will be sequenced
and the identity and the relative abundance of the active diastrophic community will be
obtained for each station. Q-PCR will be also performed to obtain and compare the
quantitative abundances of diastrophic organisms present in the samples.
110
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12.6.2 DNA Field Samples
From the same container as used for the RNA samples, 5-11 l were sequentially filtered
(Figure 82) on 45 mm 20 µm Millipore nylon filters, 45 mm 8 µm Millipore polycarbonate
filters and 0.2 µm Millipore Sterivex filters using a Cole Palmer System peristaltic pump
Model No 7553-70 (6-600 rpm). The three DNA filters were stored at -80ºC (Table 15). The
samples will be analysed at the Universidad Católica de Chile. They will be extracted
following standard protocols and PCR amplification will be performed for the 16S rRNA and
nifH genes of the prokaryotic community. These gene fragments present in each sample
will be resolved and compared by the DGGE fingerprinting technique and clone libraries. In
addition, 16S tag sequencing with Solexa technology will be performed at MIT (Boston) for
all samples to study the diversity and relative abundances of the taxa in the prokaryotic
community at each station in more detail.
12.6.3 Metagenomics Field Samples
One sample for DNA/RNA metagenomics/transcriptomic analysis was collected at each
station. Between 90 and 150 l were sequentially filtered (Figure 82) on 293 mm Millipore
Supor filters of 3 µm, 0.8 µm and 0.1 µm pore size, respectively, with the help of an air
pump (Flojet industrial air pump Model G575215) and a compressor (Meec tools, 2Hp 50 L,
10 bar). The air pressure was kept below 5 Bar and 50 PSI. After filtration the filters were
put in 50 mL sterile Falcon tubes and 200 µL TE buffer, 400 µl EDTA, 400 µl EGTA, 10 ml
of RNAlater and 10 ml of molecular water. The tubes were stored at -80ºC (Table 615).
DNA/RNA will be extracted from the samples following standard protocols at the Venter
Institute (SanDiego), and then sequenced by 454-technology for metagenomic/transcriptomic analysis in San Diego or Stockholm Genomic Centre in the
Karolinska Institute.
Ice station Water
nr
type
1
Brine
2
Brine
3
Seawater
4
Seawater
5
Brine
6
Seawater
7
Brine
8
Brine
9
Seawater
10
Brine
11
Seawater
12
Brine
13
Seawater
14
Brine
15
Brine
16
Seawater
16
Brine
17
Seawater
17
Brine
17
Melted ice 70 h
18
Brine
18
Melted ice 70 h
19
Brine
19
Melted ice 70 h
20
Seawater
21
Brine 21
Melted ice 70 h
22
Seawater
23
Brine
23
Melted ice 70 h
24
Seawater
Number of filters
RNA1
20‐200 µm
2.6
2.8
3.2
4.0
3.4
2.7
2.5
4.1
3.2
2.6
3.6
3.0
2.2
2.3
3.0
1.4
3.2
3.4
3.2
RNA1
8‐20 µm
2.6
2.8
3.2
4.0
3.4
2.7
2.5
4.1
3.2
2.6
3.6
3.0
2.2
2.3
3.0
1.4
3.2
3.4
3.2
RNA1
0.2‐8 µm
2.6
2.8
3.2
4.0
3.4
2.7
2.5
4.1
3.2
2.6
3.6
3.0
2.2
2.3
3.0
1.4
3.2
3.4
3.2
RNA2
20‐200 µm
3.0
3.0
3.6
4.1
2.9
3.2
2.1
4.0
2.7
2.1
3.1
3.0
2.5
2.6
3.1
RNA2
8‐20 µm
3.0
3.0
3.6
4.1
2.9
3.2
2.1
4.0
2.7
2.1
3.1
3.0
2.5
2.6
3.1
RNA2
0.2‐8 µm
3.0
3.0
3.6
4.1
2.9
3.2
2.1
4.0
2.7
2.1
3.1
3.0
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.0
3.2
3.0
3.2
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.1
3.1
3.1
2.4
2.4
2.4
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.1
3
3.1
3
3.1
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
3.5
3
4
3
4
3
4
3
1.6
26
1.6
26
1.6
26
2
24
2
24
2
24
DNA
55‐200 µm
12.0
6.0
16.5
12.5
10.0
18.5
5.0
10.0
16.0
8.0
14.0
1.0
7.0
7.0
8.0
2.4
7.5
11.0
9.0
6.0
8.0
5.4
7.0
6.0
12.0
8.0
6.0
15.0
7.5
4.5
3.0
31
DNA
8‐55 µm
12.0
6.0
16.5
12.5
10.0
18.5
5.0
10.0
16.0
8.0
14.0
1.0
7.0
7.0
8.0
2.4
7.5
11.0
9.0
6.0
8.0
5.4
7.0
6.0
12.0
8.0
6.0
15.0
7.5
4.5
3.0
31
DNA
0.2‐8 µm
12.0
6.0
16.5
12.5
10.0
18.5
5.0
10.0
16.0
8.0
14.0
1.0
7.0
7.0
8.0
2.4
7.5
11.0
9.0
6.0
8.0
5.4
7.0
6.0
12.0
8.0
6.0
15.0
7.5
4.5
3.0
31
Metagenome Metagenome Metagenome
3‐200 µm
0.8‐3 µm
0.1‐0.8 µm Note
140
140
140
*
70
70
70
*
110
110
110
130
130
130
120
120
120
110
110
110
120
120
120
100
100
100
110
110
110
130
130
130
150
150
150
130
130
130
**
90
90
90
100
100
100
100
100
100
***
140
140
140
160
160
160
160
140
160
140
160
140
160
110
160
110
160
110
160
22
160
22
160
22
****
Table 15. Details of the RNA, DNA and metagenomics samples. * = 55 µm filters were used for
the RNA and DNA samples instead of 20 µm filters, ** = extra samples taken for RNA and DNA,
* = 12 µm filters were used for the RNA and DNA samples instead of 8 µm filters, **** = 45 mm
0.2 µm filters were used instead of Sterivex filters.
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111
Figure 82. Filtration of the molecular samples on different types of filters.
12.7 Biogeochemical Experiments with Stable Isotopes
Eleven experiments were carried out, seven with brine and four with seawater (Table 16).
In these experiments different C and N tracers were added in order to measure a wide
spectrum of biogeochemical processes occurring in seawater and brine. Regarding N
metabolisms, phototrophic and heterotrophic N2 fixation was measured under bicarbonate
or glucose additions, respectively. In addition, nitrate and ammonium uptake along with
bicarbonate uptake were assayed with samples incubated under light and dark condition.
Thus, with these experimental setup, photo (light C assimilation) and chemolithotrophic
(dark C assimilation) activities can be determined. Finally, N2O fixation (15N2O additions)
was assayed as an alternative and not yet well studied substrate for N2 fixation.
To achieve this, water (brine or seawater) samples were incubated with different stable
isotopes in a refrigerator with glass doors and illumination outside (Figure 83), filtered on
pre-combusted GF/F filters and frozen at -20ºC. The incubations with 15N2 (3 ml of 99%
15
N2) and 15N2O (1 ml of 99% 15N2O) were carried out in gas-tight flasks of 2.75 l, while for
the incubations with 15NO3 (20-80 µl of 500 µM NO3-) and 15NH4 (20 µl of 500 µM 15NH4+)
were carried out in gas-tight flasks of 0.58 l.
However, when 15NO3 and 15NH4 incubations were carried out in conjunction with RNA
expression (see section 12.9) these were also carried out in the larger flasks (2.75 l). The
zero samples (without isotopes), the incubations with 15N2 and 15N2O (gases) and with
15
NO3 and 15NH4 were performed in three different labs to avoid potential contamination.
These samples will be analysed at the Universidad de Concepción. During the last day of
experiments extra filters were taken for inter-calibration between the laboratories in
Concepción and Bremen.
112
GEUS
No isotopes Isotopic treatments, 13C‐bicarbonate in all, all treatments in triplicate
Ice station
Water
nr
type
in triplicate
15
15
1
Brine
0 h
6, 12, 18 h
6, 12, 18 h
6, 12, 18 h
6, 12, 18 h
39
3
Seawater
0 h
6, 12, 18 h
6, 12, 18 h
6, 12, 18 h
6, 12, 18 h
39
5
Brine
0 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9, 18, 24 h
9, 18, 24 h
45
6
Seawater
0 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9, 18, 24 h
9, 18, 24 h
45
8
Brine
0 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9, 18 h
9
Seawater
0 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
39
10
Brine
0 h
24 h
24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
33
24 h
24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
33
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
12, 24 h
27
11
Seawater
0 h
12
Brine
0 h
15
Brine
0 h
23
Brine
0 h
Total number of filters
33
N2 Light
N2 Dark
15
N2O Light
15
N2O/DMS Dark
15
NO3 Light
15
NO3 Dark
9, 18 h
15
NH4 Light
15
NH4 Dark
9, 18 h
39
6, 12, 18, 24 h 6, 12, 18, 24 h 6, 12, 18, 24 h 6, 12, 18, 24 h
48
48
18
18
Nr of filters
51
8, 16, 24 h
8, 16, 24 h
8, 16, 24 h
8, 16, 24 h
39
87
45
87
45
429
Table 16. Overview of the biogeochemical experiments with stable isotopes. Exact incubation
times, amounts of isotopes added and filter numbers are noted in the lab protocols. All
experiments were carried out in light conditions of 192  10 µmol photons m-2 s-1 (average 
95% CI, n=24 measurements in different places in the incubation fridge). The temperature of the
incubated water was 3.4  0.2ºC (average  95% CI, n=105 measurements in different places in
the incubation fridge).
Figure 83. Incubations of the 2.75 L flasks (left) and the 0.58 L flasks (right).
12.8 Incubation Experiments for NanoSIMS Studies
Three experiments were carried out with brine (Stations 2 and 7) and seawater (Station 4)
(Table 17). Water samples of 2.75 l were incubated with stable isotopes in a refrigerator
with glass doors and illumination outside (Figure 83), filtered and frozen at -20ºC.
Nanometre-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) will be used to study N2
fixation and C uptake by single cells within the microbial populations. Simultaneous isotopic
measures of up to five different masses (ions) on ultra-fine scales (50-100 nm) are
possible. We will use a well-developed method, HISH-SIMS, which uses a 19F tagged
FISH probe with the nanoSIMS so that we can match a 16S rRNA phylotype with uptake
rates of 15N and 13C. The zero samples (without isotopes) and the isotopic incubations were
elaborated in different labs to avoid contamination. These samples will be analysed at the
Max-Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology (Bremen). During the last day of experiments
extra filters were taken for intercalibration between the laboratories in Concepción and
Bremen.
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Treatment
Time
Bulk on pre‐combusted GF/F filters
nanoSIMS on gold‐coated 3 µm filters
nanoSIMS on gold‐coated 0.2 µm filters
No isotopes
0 h
3 x 2.20 L
1 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
15
N2‐gas +13C‐bicarb
6 h
3 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
15
N2‐gas +13C‐bicarb
12 h
3 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
15
N2‐gas +13C‐bicarb
18 h
3 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
15
N2‐gas +13C‐glucose
6 h
3 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
15
N2‐gas +13C‐glucose
12 h
3 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
15
N2‐gas +13C‐glucose
18 h
3 x 2.75 L
1 x 2.75 L
Total nr of filters
21 filters
4 filters
7 filters
Table 17. Basic set-up of the three nanoSIMS experiments (Stations 2, 4 and 7). Exact
incubation times and filter numbers are noted in the lab protocols. The isotopic additions were 3
ml of 15N2-gas, 500 µl of 500 mM 13C-bicarbonate and 70 µl of 100 mM 13C-bicarbonate. All
experiments were carried out in light conditions of 192  10 µmol photons m-2 s-1 (average 
95% CI, n=24 measurements in different places in the incubation fridge), except for Station 2
when the glucose treatment was in the dark (wrapped in aluminium foil). The temperature of the
incubated water was 3.4  0.2ºC (average  95% CI, n=105 measurements in different places in
the incubation fridge).
12.9 Diurnal RNA Expression
Four experiments were performed to analyse diurnal RNA expression in seawater and ice
brine communities (Table 18). Water samples were incubated in gas-tight flasks of 2.75 l
with and without stable isotopes, and with and without illumination, in a refrigerator with
glass doors and illumination outside (Figure 83). These experiments were carried out in
conjunction with the incubation experiments summarized in Table 16. The different
treatments included no additions of isotopes and additions of 15N2, 15NO3 and 15NH4 (Table
18). After different incubation times the samples were sequentially filtered (Figure 82) on 45
mm 20 µm Millipore nylon filters, 45 mm 8 µm Millipore polycarbonate filters and 0.2 µm
Millipore Sterivex filters using a Cole Palmer System peristaltic pump Model No 7553-70 (6600 rpm). The filters were preserved in RNAlater and stored at -80ºC.
These samples will be analysed at the Universidad Católica de Chile. RNA will be extracted
from the samples using commercial kits and Q-PCR analysis will be performed for nifH
gene quantifications of the diastrophic community activity with time, as well as other genes
involved in the combined nitrogen uptake. The RNA expression will be compared with the
N2 fixation and DIN uptake rates, which were measured simultaneously (Table 16).
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No isotopes No isotopes No isotopes Isotopic treatments, 13C‐bicarbonate in all, all treatments in triplicate
Ice station
Water
nr
type
in duplicate
9
Seawater
0 h
13
Seawater
0 h
6, 12, 18, 24 h6, 12, 18, 24 h
6, 12, 18, 24 h6, 12, 18, 24 h
18
15
Brine
0 h
6, 12, 18, 24 h6, 12, 18, 24 h
6, 12, 18, 24 h6, 12, 18, 24 h6, 12, 18, 24 h6, 12, 18, 24 h
26
23
Brine
0 h
8, 16, 24 h
8, 16, 24 h
8
11
11
Total number of filters
Light
Dark
15
N2 Light
12, 24 h
2
15
N2 Dark
12, 24 h
2
15
NO3 Light
12, 24 h
15
NO3 Dark
12, 24 h
15
NH4 Light
12, 24 h
15
NH4 Dark
12, 24 h
Nr of filters
14
8, 16, 24 h
8, 16, 24 h
8, 16, 24 h
8, 16, 24 h
20
9
9
13
13
78
Table 18. Overview of the RNA-expression experiments. Exact incubation times, amounts of
isotopes added and filter numbers are noted in the lab protocols. All experiments were carried
out in light conditions of 192  10 µmol photons m-2 s-1 (average  95% CI, n=24 measurements
in different places in the incubation fridge). The temperature of the incubated water was 3.4 
0.2ºC (average  95% CI, n=105 measurements in different places in the incubation fridge).
12.10 References
Díez, B., Bergman, B., Pedrós-Allio, C., Antó, M. & Snoeijs, P. 2012: High cyanobacterial
nifH gene diversity in Arctic seawater and sea ice brine. Environmental Microbiology
Reports, doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2012.00343.x.
Bowman, J.S., Rasmussen, S., Blom, N., Deming, J.W., Rysgaard, S. & Sicheritz-Ponten,
T. 2012: Microbial structure of Arctic multiyear sea ice and surface seawater by 454
sequencing of the 16S RNA gene. The ISME Journal 6, 11-20.
Holmes, R. M., Aminot, A., Kérouel, R., Hooker, B. A., Peterson, B. J. 1999: A simple and
precise method for measuring ammonium in marine and freshwater ecosystems.
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56, 1801-1808.
Hobbie, J. E., Daley, R. H., Jasper, S. 1977: Use of Nuclepore filters for counting bacteria
by fluorescence microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 33, 1225-1228.
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13. Water Sampling for the Parameters of Oceanic
Carbon
By Peter Sylvander, Stockholm University
Water samples were collected from one CTD station in the Amundsen basin on behalf of
Ellen Druffel and Sheila Griffin, University of California, as a part of a project aiming at
globally determine natural levels of 14C in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved
inorganic carbon (DIC). Sampling was performed by Peter Sylvander.
Depth (m)
4354
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
500
300
200
150
100
60
20
Table 19. Sampling depths
Since 14C samples are sensitive to contamination, all surfaces equipment and bottles were
in contact with were covered in clean plastic before sampling. All equipment used was
cleaned and sterilized prior to departure and never handled without laboratory gloves.
Equipment that by accident came into contact with a non-covered, possibly contaminated,
surface was considered contaminated, discarded and replaced.
Water samples were collected from 14 depths (Table 19) using a CTD rosette operated by
Steffen Olsen at CTD station LR12s06 at longitude E 78º 14.56’, latitude N88º 08.96’. To
avoid contamination, the nipples of the Niskin bottles on the CTD rosette was cleaned with
10% hydrochloric acid and rinsed with MQ-water prior to sample collection. DOC-samples
were collected in 1000 ml borosilicate bottles which were rinsed three times with sample
water before sample collection. DOC-samples from a depth <1000 m were filtered through
a GF/F filter at the time of collection from the rosette using a small filter holder attached
directly to the Niskin bottles on the CTD rosette. From the same Niskin bottles, DICsamples were collected in 500 ml polycarbonate bottles which were rinsed three times with
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sample water before sample collection. Since it is needed for the analyses, additional water
samples for alkalinity measurements were collected in the same way as DIC-samples.
DOC-samples were stored in -20ºC after collection. DIC-samples were fixated with 50 µl
HgCl2 per bottle and stored in room temperature. Alkalinity samples were stored in
darkness in 4ºC. Upon de-mobilization in Helsingborg, all samples and equipment will be
sent to University of California for analysis.
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14. Structuring of the Sea Ice Environment by
Dynamic Ice-algae Activity
By Lars Chresten Lund-Hansen & Brian Sorrell, Aarhus University
External Collaborators: Ian Hawes (University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand);
Hans Ramløv (Roskilde University) & Erik Askov Mousing (Copenhagen University)
14.1 Introduction
Photosynthesis by green plants is the basis of almost all life on earth. In the marine
environment, microscopic phytoplankton are responsible most of the photosynthesis and
hence plant material available to ecosystem food webs. However, the presence of sea ice
greatly complicates understanding of how photosynthesis and growth function in polar vs.
non-polar waters. Ice cover makes the observation and sampling of phytoplankton in the
water column difficult, preventing for example the use of satellite images to monitor
biomass and production, and can greatly reduce the amount of light available for
photosynthesis, especially when covered by snow. Furthermore, the ice is itself colonised
by algae, as liquid brine channels in the base of the ice can provide a habitat where light
and nutrients are as or more plentiful than the water (Lavoie et al. 2005). The contribution
of ice algae to the global environment is difficult to estimate, but they may be responsible
for up to 5% of all photosynthesis and primary production. Understanding their biology is
hampered by the lack of appropriate methods for studying them in intact ice, and most
research projects have been forced to derive production estimates from thawed ice, which
is a highly unnatural environment for the algae. The overarching aim of our research group
has therefore been to investigate biological processes carried out by ice algae in intact ice,
including studying them at realistic light intensities, developing approaches that address
their condition in intact ice, and investigating how their activity may modify the surrounding
ice environment.
Recent work on Arctic primary production suggests that total primary production is high,
despite the short growing season (Gradinger 2009), and that ice algae may contribute as
much as 60% of the net marine carbon fixation in some regions (Gosselin et al. 1997).
However, many issues concerning the nature of ice algal photosynthesis and habitat in sea
ice are unresolved, especially in the Arctic. In particular, we are concerned with interactions
in the physical and chemical factors that control photosynthesis and growth – light,
temperature, salinity, and nutrient availability, and improving understanding of how algae
are limited by and respond to their variability in time and space. For example, temperature
has direct effects on plant metabolism, but also controls porosity and brine volume of sea
ice via freezing processes and brine salinity. Algal biomass may be limited by temperature
effects on brine volume, but recent research also suggests they can actively increase the
available volume through the excretion of anti-freeze proteins that modify ice structure
(Krembs et al. 2011). Participation in LOMROG III has allowed us to use the extensive
sampling opportunities provided by the prolonged nature of this cruise to greatly extend
understanding of these processes in the Arctic region, and determine their importance for
the spatial variation in algal biomass and activity.
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The aims of our work on the LOMROG III cruise were therefore to determine:

Gradients in algal biomass and adaptation to light quantity and quality along the
surface light transect of the Arctic Ocean;

The transmission and attenuation of light through the snow-ice column and how this
is related to variations in snow cover and ice thickness, and variations in spectral
composition of light below the ice;

Which pigments Arctic Ocean ice algae are using for light absorption in
photosynthesis;

The spatial distribution of algae in sea ice in relation to ice structure and antifreeze
protein production.
14.2 Ambient Light Intensity During the Cruise
Light and temperature are the most important immediate factors affecting photosynthesis in
the field, and diurnal and day-to-day variations in the light climate can be critical in
determining the photosynthetic condition of marine algae, including ice algae. Hence, we
continuously logged ambient air temperature and light intensity throughout the cruise, with
shipboard-mounted temperature and PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) sensors,
connected to a Campbell CR10X datalogger. PAR (i.e. the photon flux density in µmol m-2
s-1 of visible light (400–700 nm wavelength) is the most relevant measure of available light
to photosynthesis. Readings were taken every minute and averaged over 5-min intervals to
provide the full record of light and temperature.
Figure 84 shows ambient light intensity during the LOMROG III cruise. For much of the
cruise there was very little diurnal fluctuation in PAR, although day-to-day and within-day
variation was large due to weather conditions. Daily average light intensities decreased
during the voyage, and a clear diurnal signal only developed during the last few sampling
days in early September. The sea ice was continuously exposed to > 100 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR
for most of the sampling period, with lower incident irradiances only late in the cruise during
September.
Figure 84. Record of ambient light intensity (PAR) during LOMROG III cruise. Some time
periods missing due to logger failure. Note decreasing irradiance over time and development of
a diurnal signal late in the cruise.
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14.3 Scientific Methods
14.3.1 Field Sampling
Ice cores and seawater were collected daily on the cruise, from 2 August 2012 (Julian Day
215) to 11 September 2012 (Julian Day 255). Sampling was by helicopter, with sampling
locations identified from the air to avoid areas associated with pressure ridges and other
obvious distortion of the ice. Each station was fixed by GPS and sampling identified
thereafter by Julian Day number. Sampling was not possible on five days of the cruise due
to poor weather, resulting in a total of 37 stations (Table 20). The ice drift on many days
was ca. 0.5 – 1.0 km/h, so the ice sampling locations in Table 20 are accurate only for the
Figure 85. Use of motorised Kovacs ice corer to collect ice cores.
time of collection. The minimum sampling programme for each sampling day was two ice
cores, (one for physico-chemical conditions, one for ice algal biology) taken in close (< 10
m) proximity; seawater sampling immediately under the ice for phytoplankton, zooplankton
and water chemistry; a CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) cast to 25 m; and
measurement of PAR in the air and immediately under the ice. Snow and ice thickness,
ambient weather conditions and seawater freeboard (i.e. depth of seawater in coring holes)
were also recorded on every visit. Additional sampling on certain days (see Table 1)
included collections for ice-algal active substances (primarily on days when ice algae were
present in quantities visible to the naked eye), and spectral distribution of light attenuation.
We also collected ice cores on behalf of Søren Rysgaard (Arctic Centre, Aarhus University)
and Nikolai Sørensen (PhD student, Copenhagen University) for studies on CO2
distribution in ice and picoeukaryote biology, respectively (external research work not
directly associated with our project), as identified in Table 20. Ice cores were collected with
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a standard 9 cm internal diameter Kovacs ice corer (Figure 85).The lower 2-3 cm of the
biology core routinely used for fluorescence imaging was immediately sectioned and placed
in a circular frame with the bottom surface upright (Figure 86), and wrapped in black cloth
to protect it from ambient light and place the algae in a dark-adapted state. Routine use of
the lower 2-3 cm was justified by fluorescence images on cross-sections that revealed that
very little algal development was present higher in most cores (see below). The core
section was darkened for at least 30 min before imaging. Temperature profiles were
recorded in chemistry cores immediately after collection, using a needle thermistor inserted
into holes drilled into the core at 5 cm intervals, and the core then sectioned in 10 cm
intervals for return to the laboratory.
Figure 86. Bottom surface of ice core with visible patches of algae. The lower 2 cm of an ice
core has been sectioned from the core and mounted bottom upwards in the circular frame used
to position it for imaging.
Seawater was pumped from core holes below the ice and stored in the dark at ambient field
temperature (ca. 0ºC) for return to the laboratory for chemical and biological analysis.
Phytoplankton samples were collected by filtering 20 l seawater through a 10 µm
phytoplankton net, and zooplankton samples by filtering 20 l seawater through a 60 µm
zooplankton net, for return to the laboratory and preservation with LUGOL.
CTD profiles were measured with a SIS Ltd CTD logger at 10 cm depth intervals through
one of the core holes. Light attenuation was measured with calibrated Li-Cor air and
underwater sensors, as PAR above and below the ice to calculate transmission of light.
PAR was measured from below the ice to a depth of about 1.60 m at 10 cm depth intervals
to derive the diffuse attenuation coefficient. The spectral distribution of light between 320
and 920 nm was measured with a TRIos spectroradiometer, which provides information on
which wavelengths of light undergo greater or lesser attenuation through the ice and snow.
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14.3.2 Fluorescence Imaging
Fluorescence imaging of sea ice was performed in the field, to ensure minimum time
between collection and imaging of algae. The instrument used for imaging is a Walz
Imaging PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulated) fluorometer (Walz Mess- und Regeltechnik,
Germany) fitted with a lens imaging an area of 30 x 23 mm (Figure 87). Figure 87 also
shows how we mounted the instrument in a light-proof box with an adjustable stage,
allowing easy focusing of the image and maintaining the sample dark-adapted throughout
measurements. Details of the principles and operation of the Imaging-PAM fluorometer are
available in Hawes et al. (2012); briefly, we use the saturation pulse method to determine
the two-dimensional distribution and activity of algal pigments in the ice, measuring the
minimum (F0) and maximum (Fm) fluorescence of dark-adapted samples to a pulsed blue
light. Measurements were performed at various settings of instrument light intensity and
gain, depending on the amount of algae present in samples, and to ensure comparability of
F0 and Fm between images, we calibrated and corrected their response to different
instrument settings using both the manufacturer’s fluorescence standard and control sea
ice with no algae. From images we also determined the maximal photochemical yield, (Fm F0)/Fm or Fv/Fm, which provides an index, ranging from 0 to 1, that represents the ‘condition’
of the algal photosynthetic machinery. Maximal values of ca. 0.8 indicate ‘healthy’ active
photosynthetic metabolism, with lower dark-adapted Fv/Fm observed when the
photosynthetic condition becomes limited or stressed by unfavourable conditions. As Fv/Fm
proved to be very low in most samples (see below), we did not use the imaging PAM to
perform any light response curves for the ice algae. We made images of both the surface of
the ice, and of cross-sections through the bottom 2 - 3 cm. After measurements, the
imaged ice sample was returned to the dark at 0ºC for transport to the ship within 30 min.
14.3.3 On-board Laboratory Analyses
The 10-cm sections of the physico-chemistry core were weighed, thawed overnight at room
temperature, and salinity and conductivity (temperature-corrected) measured. Water from
the bottom 0-10 cm section was then filtered (0.22 µm) and frozen for nutrient analysis, and
a 300 mL sub-sample filtered for analysis of spectral absorption properties of the ice (i.e.
the extent to which material in the ice absorbs different wavelengths of light). The filtrate
from this sample was then stored at 4ºC for analysis of CDOM (chromophoric dissolved
organic matter). On some occasions the bottom slice was thawed in air-tight sealed
containers for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) analysis. DIC sampling involved taking 2
mL of thawed ice and injecting it into glass tubes containing 0.4 ml 1N HCl for later analysis
by infrared gas analysis. The imaged ice section from the biology core was thawed
overnight at 0ºC in 0.22 µm-filtered seawater (50:50 v:v) to avoid osmotic shock before
Phyto-PAM analysis, and a sub-sample taken and fixed with LUGOL for algal species
identification. 300 ml of this thawed ice was filtered (GF/F) for chlorophyll analysis. The
seawater from immediately under the ice was processed identically for the same analyses
on the day of collection, except that 4 l was used for chlorophyll. On some days, additional
filters were made for later analysis of algal pigments (by HPLC), PN:PP (particulate
nitrogen : particulate phosphorus), and PN:PC (particulate nitrogen : particulate carbon).
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Figure 87. Fluorescence imaging set-up (left) with the Imaging-PAM Fluorometer. The principle
of the method is that algae emit (fluoresce) red light into the camera when irradiated with blue
light from the light source. Images were taken of the bottom surface of the ice, as shown in this
diagram, or of cross-sections through the ice core section. The apparatus is enclosed in a lightproof box (right) to protect the core section from sunlight and ensure low light intensities
relevant for sea ice throughout measurements.
All these analyses (nutrients, spectral absorption, CDOM, DIC, species identification and
chlorophyll) will be completed in Denmark after de-mobilisation. They are all parameters
that either affect the growth conditions of algae or describe the algal community, and will be
important for providing a full explanation of the physiological studies carried out during the
cruise. The ice core length, weight, temperature and conductivity data allow us to calculate
porosity and brine volumes in the ice, so that concentrations can be expressed per unit
brine volume and per unit area of sea ice.
Variable chlorophyll fluorescence of the thawed sample was measured using a Walz PhytoPAM instrument. Three subsamples of the thawed ice were assayed in the cuvette of the
Phyto-PAM instrument, taking care to maintain samples in darkness or very dim light. Darkadapted minimum fluorescence yield (Fo) was first determined, followed by a measure of
maximum fluorescence yield (Fm) during the application of a 0.6 s saturating irradiance
pulse. Care was taken to ensure that the saturating pulse was the minimum required to
obtain Fm. Fv /Fm was determined as with the imaging-PAM. In addition, rapid light curves
(see Ralph and Gademan, 2005) were made for each sample.
14.4 Ice Conditions, Irradiance and Fluorescence Imaging
The ice thickness varied from 1.07 m to 3.00 m amongst the stations sampled, with no
trends in ice thickness along the transect of the cruise (Table 20). Snow thickness ranged
from 5 to 15 cm, and temperatures at the bottom of the ice varied from -1.9ºC to -2.6ºC. A
few cores had visible signs of recent ice growth, with very even, crystalline bases, but most
cores had apparently older lower surfaces which had been stable or even thawing prior to
collection. Almost all cores were annual sea ice rather than multi-year ice, and Figure 88
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shows a typical example with variation in vertical structure due to short-term temperature
differences during the ice growth season.
Station ID
(= Julian Day)
215
Latitude
Longitude
82º 57.484’ N
14º 58.300’ E
Ice
thickness
(m) Range
1.18 – 1.26
Additional sampling for:
216
84º 09.004’ N
14º 57.290’ E
2.34 – 2.50
217
85º 18.658’ N
06º 47.779’ E
1.60 – 1.70
Ice-active substances, NS, SR
218
86º 42.921’ N
01º 45.609’ E
1.64 – 1.68
NS
219
86º 51.939’ N
00º 05.231’ E
1.60 – 2.30
SR
220
87º 04.720’ N
05º 25.808’ W
1.50 – 3.00
221
87º 27.036’ N
16º 22.996’ W
1.40 – 1.45
SR
222
87º 45.196’ N
34º 50.193’ W
1.60 – 1.64
NS
223
87º 47.283’ N
42º 33.961’ W
1.80 – 1.97
SR
224
87º 43.295’N
52º 00.242’ W
1.33 – 1.63
SR
225
87º 50.762’ N
59º 36.777’ W
1.26 – 1.30
Ice-active substances
226
87º 11.694’ N
53º 35.519’ W
1.41 – 1.50
NS
227
88º 20.795’ N
30º 45.963’ W
1.50 – 1.63
TRIos, Ice-active substances
Ice-active substances
228
88º 11.827’ N
49º 35.087’ W
1.60
229
88º 20.849’ N
69º 36.417’ W
1.55 – 1.60
SR
TRIos
231
89º 15.357’ N
56º 16.462’ W
1.41 – 1.50
232
89º 11.388’ N
70º 50.089’ W
1.31 – 1.35
233
89º 16.794’ N
65º 27.154’ W
2.64 – 2.65
234
89º 56.112’ N
73º 41.687’ W
1.44 – 1.49
SR
235
89º 37.186’ N
62º 16.442’ W
1.41 – 1.44
TRIos
236
89º 50.232’ N
135º 55.389’ E
1.15
Ice-active substances, NS
237
88º 30.061’ N
135º 34.562’ E
1.53 – 1.75
238
87º 58.544’ N
122º 09.066’ E
1.60 – 1.64
239
88º 13.145’ N
109º 25.264’ E
1.32 – 1.36
241
87º 56.546’ N
73º 29.387’ E
1.64 – 1.69
SR
242
88º 15.639’ N
72º 51.762’ E
1.30 – 1.49
Ice-active substances, NS
243
89º 27.286’ N
68º 26.976’ E
1.15
244
88º 42.748’ N
55º 56.346’ E
1.48 – 1.68
246
88º 28.188’ N
22º 18.172’ E
1.50 – 1.57
247
88º 24.370’ N
23º 50.827’ E
1.54 – 1.55
*247X
88º 02.587’ N
16º 52.762’ E
1.48 – 1.61
248
87º 44.353’ N
30º 05.512’ E
1.40 – 1.42
249
87º 35.955’ N
20º 37.563’ E
2.19 – 2.20
251
85º 25.633’ N
05º 15.952´E
1.49 – 1.54
252
84º 07.265´N
09º 11.022’ E
1.24 – 1.30
253
83º 49.449’ N
15º 08.015’ E
1.07 – 1.09
255
82º 11.688’ N
08º 41.813’ E
1.45 – 1.58
TRIos
TRIos, SR
Ice-active substances, NS
TRIos, SR
Table 20. List of all 37 ice sampling stations including latitude and longitude. Ice thickness is the
range of core lengths (n = 2 – 4) each day. The minimum sampling program (see “Field
Sampling”) was performed on all days. Additional sampling was performed as noted. Samples
for ice-active substances and cores for S. Rysgaard (SR) were frozen for return to Denmark,
and picoeukaryote samples for N. Sørensen (NS) were filtered on-board and frozen for return to
Denmark.
* = Additional field sampling on Day 247 with journalists Martin Breum and photographer
Kenneth Sorrento. Under-ice video recordings made at Stations 246-255.
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Figure 88. Photo of a typical ice core, with variation in structure including denser ice (darker
layers) and less dense, crystalline layers. Bottom of the ice to the left. Scale bar = 1.60 m.
The incident irradiance at the sampling stations varied considerably from day to day due to
daily weather conditions, but was generally low, ranging from 100 µmol m-2 s-1 up to 200
µmol m-2 s-1 on the clearest, sunniest days. Light attenuation in the snow-ice column
reduced PAR to just 1–10 µmol m-2 s-1 immediately under the ice. The spectral distribution
was also clearly affected, as seen in Figure 89, an example of change in spectral
distribution of light between air and below sea ice, as recorded with the TRIos
spectroradiometer. The figure shows that not only is PAR reduced to < 10% of the surface
value, but also that the snow-ice column removes all of the red and infrared light from the
spectrum, leaving primarily blue light. This further reduces the light energy available to
photosynthesis, as chlorophyll has its maximum absorption in the red part of the spectrum.
Figure 89. Light attenuation with depth and change in spectral composition on Day 227, as
recorded with the TRIos spectroradiomenter. Note differences in y-axis scales in right-hand
graph.
Ice algae were present in cores at every station, but the amount of algal development and
its distribution in cores varied considerably. In many stations the algal development was too
low to be visible or was only scarcely visible to the naked eye, but occasionally large
irregular patches of high algal biomass were present (Figures 86 & 90). These patches
were encountered at random intervals throughout the cruise, with no clear trend in space or
time. Generally they were restricted to the lower 20 mm of the ice, but occasionally isolated
patches were found higher in ice cores.
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Spatial variations in algal biomass and Fv /Fm within these patches were easy to document
with fluorescence imaging. Figure 90 shows both surface and cross-sections of a typical
visible patch, showing the high biomass but limited penetration of algae up into the core. Fv
/Fm was very low in most patches (< 0.1), but rose to 0.2 – 0.4 when measured in the
Phyto-PAM after thawing of the core slice; this was still considerably lower than Fv /Fm in
seawater phytoplankton (Fv /Fm > 0.5).
Figure 90. Examples of images of F0 (minimum variable fluorescence) obtained in the field with
the Imaging-PAM fluorometer, from ice cores with high biomass patches. Colour scales from red
(low biomass) to blue (high biomass), but is not comparable between images due to different
instrument settings. Left: Surface view of bottom of an ice core with a high biomass patch.
Middle: Cross-section through a patch, showing algal development limited to the lower 15 - 20
mm of the ice. Right: Cross-section of a patch isolated ca. 5 – 7 cm from the bottom of a core, in
which the lower 5 cm lacking algae appeared to be recent ice growth. Circles are AOIs (‘Areas
of Interest’) used to quantify aspects of algal photobiology at specific areas of the image. All
pictures 30 x 23 mm.
Unlike the large visible patches, the ‘background’ algal community, almost invisible to the
naked eye but usually distributed very evenly across the width of cores, showed a strong
trend during the cruise. Biomass was initially high during transit across the Gakkel Ridge
and into the south-western corner of the Amundsen Basin, fell to low levels over the
western Lomonosov Ridge and past the North Pole, and then rose dramatically again in the
eastern Lomonosov Ridge stations. The distribution of this type of algal development is
shown in Figure 91, in which the algal material is visible in its brine channels, amongst the
non-fluorescing ice crystal structure, and again is primarily restricted to the lower 10 – 15
mm of the ice core. Although high sensitivity settings were required in fluorescence imaging
to detect algae in the stations with lowest biomass, the method successfully resolved both
the spatial and vertical distribution of these populations at all stations.
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127
Figure 91. Examples of images of F0 (minimum variable fluorescence) obtained in the field with
the Imaging-PAM fluorometer in cores without large visible patches. Colour scales from red (low
biomass) to blue (high biomass). (Left) Surface view of a core showing extensive algal
development throughout. Circles are AOIs (‘Areas of Interest’) used to quantify aspects of algal
photobiology at specific areas of the image. (Right) Cross-section of the bottom of a core, with
the depth of algal development identified in rectangular box. All pictures 30 x 23 mm.
14.5 Perspectives and Future Outlook
Although a full understanding of the patterns in algal distribution and photobiology awaits
analysis of samples being returned to Denmark, some preliminary conclusions from the
fluorescence imaging and other on-board work are possible. Our data suggest that the late
summer-early autumn ice algae in the region of the Arctic Ocean covered by LOMROG III
are patchy in distribution, often present in low amounts but almost always with measurable
biomass and activity. The fluorescence data, especially when imaged in intact ice, suggest
that algal photosynthetic metabolism had been subject to considerable resource limitation
and stress prior to the cruise, and the limited recovery of Fv /Fm in thawed ice suggests this
stress has been chronic. Lavoie et al. (2005), in modelling Arctic Ocean ice algal biomass,
have suggested that ice algal growth is light-limited early in the season, and becomes
nutrient-limited later in the season. Nutrient limitation is certainly a prime candidate to
explain our results, and this will be determined by our nutrient analyses. However, light
intensities are very low in situ, and our photosynthesis data suggest that the algae are
probably light-limited also, with light and nutrient co-limitation occurring at most sampling
stations.
14.6 Acknowledgements
We thank the crew of Oden for their hospitality, help and patience throughout the cruise,
and the support staff who made sampling possible, especially our helicopter pilots and
meteorologists. We also thank all LOMROG III participants for useful discussions and
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constructive feedback that improved our understanding of the Arctic system, and express
our particular gratitude to Chief Scientist Christian Marcussen for providing the unparalleled
ice sampling opportunities on LOMROG III. The authors’ research on sea ice algal
photobiology is supported by grants from the Carlsberg Foundation and Brødrene
Hartmann’s Fund.
14.7 References
Gradinger, R. 2009: Sea-ice algae: major contributors to primary production and algal
biomass in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas during May/June 2002. Deep Sea Research
56,1201–1212.
Gosselin, M., Levasseur, M., Wheeler, P.A., Horner, R.A. & Booth, B.C. 1997: New
measurements of phytoplankton and ice algal production in the Arctic Ocean. DeepSea Research II, 44, 1623-1644.
Hawes, I., Lund-Hansen, L.C., Sorrell, B.K., Nielsen, M.H., Borzák, R. & Buss, I. 2012:
Photobiology of sea ice algae during initial spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, West
Greenland: insights from imaging variable chlorophyll fluorescence of ice cores.
Photosynthesis Research, doi: 10.1007/s11120-012-9736-7.
Krembs, C., Eicken, H. & Deming, J.W. 2011: Exopolymer alteration of physical properties
of sea ice and implications for ice habitability and biogeochemistry in a warmer Arctic.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 3653–3658.
Lavoie, D., Denman, K. & Michel, C. 2005: Modeling ice algal growth and decline in a
seasonally ice-covered region of the Arctic (Resolute Passage, Canadian Archipelago).
Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C11009, doi:10.1029/2005JC002922.
Ralph, P.J. & Gademan, R. 2005: Rapid light curves: A powerful tool to assess
photosynthetic activity. Aquatic Botany 82, 222–237.
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15. Characterization of Bioactive Gram-positive
Spore-forming Arctic Bacteria
By Nikolaj Grønnegaard Vynne, National Food Institute (DTU Food)
15.1 Introduction
There is currently an increasing awareness of the need for novel antibiotics to combat
emerging multiresistant pathogens, and natural products of bacterial origins have a long
history of contributing biologically active compounds for the clinical pipeline. The
actinobacteria are considered one of the most prolific sources of biologically active natural
compounds (Bull & Stach, 2007), and recent studies have confirmed the existence of
actinobacterial species which require seawater for growth (Jensen et al., 2007). Very few
studies of Arctic actinobacteria exist; however based on our experience from the LOMROG
II expedition we believe such bacteria might represent an untapped source of novel
bioactive compounds. In order to investigate this, samples were collected in the high Arctic
to establish bioactive potential among Arctic Gram-positive spore forming marine bacteria,
specifically aimed at detection of novel bacterial diversity and accompanying novel
antagonistic chemical compounds.
15.2 Aim
The aim of this project was to collect samples from hitherto under-explored areas in the
Arctic Ocean, with a focus on obtaining novel Gram-positive spore forming bacteria,
specifically actinobacteria. The bioactive potential of these bacteria will be investigated,
with a focus on antibiosis. The physiology of selected strains of interest will be studied in
detail with the aim to understand how different nutrient sources impact secondary
metabolism, e.g. by growth on ‘natural’ substrates such as chitin. Work to increase the
culturability of bacteria from Arctic environmental samples may also be included.
15.3 Scientific Work on Board
On board icebreaker Oden, samples were collected from sediment, dredged mud, ice cores
and the water column (Table 21). Sediment samples were obtained from piston coring from
a depth of 5-7 m below the sea floor (Figure 92). The piston coring was performed by a
team from Stockholm University led by Richard Gyllencreutz.
Mud samples were obtained from rocks retrieved during dredging. These samples were
impossible to handle aseptically, and thus are not suited for ecology-related studies.
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131
Figure 92. The 'Core catcher' of the piston corer from which surplus sediment is sampled for
microbial analyses (Photo: Ragner Jerre).
Seawater samples were obtained from CTD stations. Ship-based CTD stations used a
rosette equipped with 24 7 l Niskin bottles, and water was sampled for this project at 10 m,
300 m and the bottom (ca. 20 m above the sea floor). Helicopter CTD stations provided
water samples from 10 m and 200 m. All CTD work was performed by Steffen Olsen and
Rasmus Tonboe of DMI. Kajsa Tönneson performed water sampling on helicopter stations.
Ice core samples were retrieved using a Kovacs ice corer (Figure 93). The bottom 2 cm of
each ice core was placed in an ethanol washed plastic bag and stored at -20ºC.
Figure 93. Nikolaj Vynne (left) and Gorm Dybkjær on the Arctic ice, preparing to drill an ice core
(Photo: Markus Karasti).
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In total 120 environmental samples were obtained (Table 21), with an additional 23
samples obtained from the Microbial Communities project led by Pauline Snoeijs (see
Table 10 in Chapter 12. No sample was obtained from station 1). The samples were
processed for safe storage until detailed analyses in a bacteriological laboratory are
possible. Two strategies for storage were pursued in order to allow for retrieval of as much
culturable bacterial diversity as possible. Samples were split in two fractions, and glycerol
was added to 17% for one fraction to allow storage at -80ºC which is a routine storage
protocol for bacterial cultures. The rest of the sample was held at 4ºC to allow for
investigation of the fraction of bacteria which may not respond well to storage at -80ºC, e.g.
due to crystalline formations in the cell membrane during the freezing process. Ice core
samples were stored at -20ºC with no processing.
Long-term incubations at low temperature (10ºC) were initiated aboard Oden using two
growth substrates. Both substrates were oligotrophic; one consisted of seawater
supplemented with agar, the other of seawater with 100 mg l-1 peptone and 500 mg l-1
mannitol. Both substrates were supplemented with 5 µg ml-1 rifampicin and an antifungal
agent. The low temperature incubations will be continued for a minimum of 3 months. All
sediment and mud samples were inoculated on plates (Figure 93), as was a subset of CTD
water samples.
Figure 93. Arctic sediment samples inoculated on nutrient poor growth substrate.
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133
Table 1. Environmental samples obtained during LOMROG III for studies of bioactive Grampositive spore forming bacteria.
Sample
ID
Date
Latitude
dd:mm.mm
Longitude
dd:mm.mm
Bacterial
Source
project station
L3-1
02-08-2012
82:57.48 N
14:55.98 E
Ship CTD 1
CTD 10 m
L3-2
02-08-2012
82:57.48 N
14:55.98 E
Ship CTD 1
CTD 300 m
L3-3
02-08-2012
82:57.48 N
14:55.98 E
Ship CTD 1
CTD 2625 m
L3-4
03-08-2012
84:32.14 N
13:20.25 E
Ice CTD 1
CTD 10 m
L3-5
04-08-2012
85:33.07 N
6:27.48 E
Ice CTD 2
CTD 10 m
L3-6
05-08-2012
86:44.59 N
1:57.31 E
Ship CTD 2
CTD 10 m
L3-7
05-08-2012
86:44.59 N
1:57.31 E
Ship CTD 2
CTD 300 m
L3-8
05-08-2012
86:44.59 N
1:57.31 E
Ship CTD 2
CTD 4248 m
L3-9
06-08-2012
87:02.38 N
3:27.35 W
Ice CTD 3
CTD 10 m
L3-10
07-08-2012
87:06 N
6:46 W
Ice station 1
Ice, top (10 cm)
L3-11
07-08-2012
87:06 N
6:46 W
Ice station 1
Ice, middle (80 cm)
L3-12
07-08-2012
87:06 N
6:46 W
Ice station 1
Ice, bottom (180 cm)
L3-13
07-08-2012
87:06 N
6:46 W
Ice station 1
Melt water pond
L3-14
07-08-2012
87:06 N
6:46 W
Ice station 1
Ice core, at 150 cm
L3-15
07-08-2012
87:19.50 N
13:27.90 W
Ice CTD 4
L3-16
08-08-2012
87:39 N
23:40 W
Ice station 2
L3-17
09-08-2012
87:46 N
37:39 W
Ice station 3
CTD 10 m
Ice core, bottom 10 cm of
300 cm
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 145
cm
L3-18
09-08-2012
87:46.20 N
37:45.45 W
Ship CTD 3
CTD 10 m
L3-19
09-08-2012
87:46.21 N
37:45.45 W
Ship CTD 3
CTD 300 m
L3-20
09-08-2012
87:46.22 N
37:45.45 W
Ship CTD 3
L3-21
10-08-2012
87:79.69 N
43:02.74 W
Coring 1
L3-22
10-08-2012
87:46 N
52:53 W
Ice station 4
CTD 3500 m
Sediment coring, top 10 cm
of 0,5 m core
Ice core, at 330 cm of 345 cm
ice
L3-23
10-08-2012
87:39.47 N
58:53.27 W
Ice CTD 6
L3-24
11-08-2012
87:72.44 N
44:51.44 W
Coring 2
CTD 10 m
Sediment coring, bottom 10
cm of 4 m core
L3-25
11-08-2012
87:45.14 N
54:41.54 W
Zooplankton
Sea water
L3-26
11-08-2012
87:39.47 N
58:53.27 W
Ice CTD 7
L3-27
12-08-2012
87:49.28 N
59:38.20 W
Coring 3-1
L3-28
12-08-2012
87:49.28 N
59:38.20 W
Coring 3-2
CTD 10 m
Sediment coring, top 10 cm.
Failed core.
Sediment coring, bottom of 7
m core
L3-29
08-08-2012
87:44.27 N
26:58.48 W
Ice CTD 5
L3-30
12-08-2012
87:49 N
63:28 W
Ice station 5
CTD 10 m
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 345
cm core
L3-31
12-08-2012
87:38.35 N
68:55.88 W
Ice CTD 8
CTD 10 m
L3-32
13-08-2012
88:15.93 N
43:10.52 W
Ice CTD 9
L3-33
15-08-2012
88:12 N
46:03 W
Ice station 6
L3-34
15-08-2012
88:15.04 N
46:23.50 W
Coring 4
CTD 10 m
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 150
cm core
Sediment from core catcher,
6,5 m core
L3-35
14-08-2012
88:14.09 N
29:57.05 W
Ice CTD 10
CTD 10 m
L3-36
15-08-2012
88:16.32 N
58:01.00 W
Ice CTD 11
L3-37
15-08-2012
88:11.52 N
55:41.04 W
Coring 5
CTD 10 m
Sediment from core catcher,
6,8 m core
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GEUS
L3-38
16-08-2012
88:20.80 N
69:24.69 W
Ship CTD 4
CTD 10 m
L3-39
16-08-2012
88:20.80 N
69:24.69 W
Ship CTD 4
CTD 300 m
L3-40
16-08-2012
88:20.80 N
69:24.69 W
Ship CTD 4
L3-41
16-08-2012
88:19 N
72:48 W
Ice station 7
L3-41-b
16-08-2012
88:19 N
72:48 W
Ice station 7
L3-42
16-08-2012
88:20.22 N
68:43.42 W
Coring 6
CTD 1200 m
Ice core no. 7, bottom 2 cm
of 160 cm core
Ice core no. 7, sampled at
150 cm
Sediment from core catcher,
7 m core
L3-43
17-08-2012
88:28.10 N
57:33.00 W
Ice CTD 12
CTD 10 m
L3-44
17-08-2012
88:28.10 N
57:33.00 W
Ice CTD 12
CTD 200 m
L3-45
18-08-2012
89:01.36 N
73:44.4 W
Core 7
Sediment core 7, 6,5 m.
L3-46
18-08-2012
89:00.80 N
79:18.13 W
Ice CTD 13
CTD 10 m
L3-47
18-08-2012
89:00.80 N
79:18.13 W
Ice CTD 13
L3-48
19-08-2012
89:01.20 N
73:45.58 W
Core 8
L3-49
20-08-2012
89:07 N
69:16 W
Dredging 1
CTD 200 m
Sediment from piston core
head, 7,1 m core
Mud scraped off dredged
rocks
L3-50
20-08-2012
89:15.90 N
58:50.83 W
Ship CTD 5
CTD 10 m
L3-51
20-08-2012
89:15.90 N
58:50.83 W
Ship CTD 5
CTD 300 m
L3-52
20-08-2012
89:15.90 N
58:50.83 W
Ship CTD 5
CTD 1200 m
L3-53
20-08-2012
89:15.90 N
58:50.83 W
Phytoplankton
L3-54
20-08-2012
89:17 N
60:04 W
Dredging 2
Phytoplankton bloom
Crude mud sample,
aseptical
L3-55
20-08-2012
89:08.16 N
68:01.76 W
Ice CTD 14
CTD 10 m
L3-56
20-08-2012
89:08.16 N
68:01.76 W
Ice CTD 14
CTD 200 m
L3-57
21-08-2012
88:53.78 N
90:53.25 W
Ice CTD 15
CTD 10 m
L3-58
21-08-2012
88:53.78 N
90:53.25 W
Ice CTD 15
CTD 200 m
L3-59
22-08-2012
89:59.55 N
155:31.52 E
Ice CTD 16
CTD 10 m
L3-60
22-08-2012
89:59.55 N
155:31.52 E
Ice CTD 16
CTD 200 m
L3-61
23-08-2012
89:30.44 N
133:12.10 E
Ice CTD 17
CTD 10 m
L3-62
23-08-2012
89:30.44 N
133:12.10 E
Ice CTD 17
L3-63
23-08-2012
89:58.06 N
58:27.37 W
Core 9
L3-64
24-08-2012
88:06.30 N
134:38.42 W
Core 10
CTD 200 m
Sediment core 6 m, from core
catcher
Sediment core 7,3 m, from
core catcher
L3-65
24-08-2012
88:24.73 N
149:59.50 E
Ice CTD 18
CTD 10 m
L3-66
24-08-2012
88:24.73 N
149:59.50 E
Ice CTD 18
CTD 200 m
L3-67
24-08-2012
88:03.58 N
145:16.56 E
Ice CTD 19
CTD 10 m
L3-68
24-08-2012
88:03.58 N
145:16.56 E
Ice CTD 19
CTD 200 m
L3-69
25-08-2012
87:56.07 N
124:55.48 E
Ice CTD 20
CTD 10 m
L3-70
25-08-2012
87:56.07 N
124:55.48 E
Ice CTD 20
CTD 200 m
L3-71
25-08-2012
87:52.88 N
114:41.68 E
Ice CTD 21
CTD 10 m
L3-72
25-08-2012
87:52.88 N
114:41.68 E
Ice CTD 21
CTD 200 m
L3-73
26-08-2012
87:59.35 N
104:30.29 E
Ice CTD 22
CTD 10 m
L3-74
26-08-2012
87:59.35 N
104:30.29 E
Ice CTD 22
CTD 200 m
L3-75
27-08-2012
88:08.96 N
78:14.56 E
Ship CTD 6
CTD 10 m
L3-76
27-08-2012
88:08.96 N
78:14.56 E
Ship CTD 6
CTD 300 m
L3-77
27-08-2012
88:08.96 N
78:14.56 E
Ship CTD 6
CTD 4353,5 m
L3-78
29-08-2012
88:17.53 N
70:10.86 E
Ice CTD 23
CTD 10 m
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not
135
L3-79
29-08-2012
88:17.53 N
70:10.86 E
Ice CTD 23
CTD 200 m
L3-80
30-08-2012
88:45.11 N
56:02.99 E
Ice CTD 24
CTD 10 m
L3-81
30-08-2012
88:45.11 N
56:02.99 E
Ice CTD 24
L3-82
31-08-2012
88:05 N
50:09 E
Ice station 8
CTD 200 m
Bottom 2 cm of 130 cm ice
core
L3-83
31-08-2012
88:47.43 N
53:06.18 E
Ship CTD 7
CTD 10 m
L3-84
31-08-2012
88:47.43 N
53:06.18 E
Ship CTD 7
CTD 300 m
L3-85
31-08-2012
88:47.43 N
53:06.18 E
Ship CTD 7
L3-86
02-09-2012
88:22 N
23:49 E
Ice station 9
L3-87
03-09-2012
88:04 N
16:16 E
Ice station 10
CTD 4350 m
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 130
cm core
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 130
cm core
L3-88
02-09-2012
88:16.87 N
25:17.19 E
Ice CTD 25
CTD 10 m
L3-89
02-09-2012
88:16.87 N
25:17.19 E
Ice CTD 25
CTD 200 m
L3-90
03-09-2012
88:09.54 N
11:21.11 E
Ice CTD 26
CTD 10 m
L3-91
03-09-2012
88:09.54 N
11:21.11 E
Ice CTD 26
L3-92
04-09-2012
87:40 N
27:03 E
Ice station 11
L3-93
05-09-2012
87:30 N
18:37 E
Ice station 12
CTD 200 m
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 135
cm
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 210
cm
L3-94
05-09-2012
87:28.24 N
18:58.52 E
Ice CTD 28
CTD 10 m
L3-95
05-09-2012
87:28.24 N
18:58.52 E
Ice CTD 28
CTD 200 m
L3-96
07-09-2012
85:25.59 N
5:16.63 E
Ship CTD 8
CTD 10 m
L3-97
07-09-2012
85:25.59 N
5:16.63 E
Ship CTD 8
CTD 300 m
L3-98
07-09-2012
85:25.59 N
5:16.63 E
Ship CTD 8
L3-99
07-09-2012
85:23 N
5:45 E
Ice station 13
CTD 3000 m
2 cores: Bottom 2 cm of 2 x
110 cm ice cores
L3-100
04-09-2012
87:49.71 N
27:15.14 E
Ice CTD 27
CTD 10 m
L3-101
04-09-2012
87:49.71 N
27:15.14 E
Ice CTD 27
CTD 200 m
L3-102
08-09-2012
84:22.21 N
3:43.29 E
Ship CTD 9
CTD 10 m
L3-103
08-09-2012
84:22.21 N
3:43.29 E
Ship CTD 9
CTD 300 m
L3-104
08-09-2012
84:22.21 N
3:43.29 E
Ship CTD 9
L3-105
09-09-2012
83:42 N
15:07 E
Ice station 14
CTD 3779 m
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 110
cm core
L3-106
09-09-2012
83:49.41 N
15:10.37 E
Ship CTD 10
CTD 10 m
L3-107
09-09-2012
83:49.41 N
15:10.37 E
Ship CTD 10
CTD 300 m
L3-108
09-09-2012
83:49.41 N
15:10.37 E
Ship CTD 10
CTD 3500 m
L3-109
10-09-2012
82:46.12 N
14:44.67 E
Ship CTD 11
CTD 10 m
L3-110
10-09-2012
82:46.12 N
14:44.67 E
Ship CTD 11
CTD 300 m
L3-111
10-09-2012
82:46.12 N
14:44.67 E
Ship CTD 11
CTD 1457 m
L3-112
11-09-2012
82:11.75 N
8:45.12 E
Ship CTD 12
CTD 10 m
L3-113
11-09-2012
82:11.75 N
8:45.12 E
Ship CTD 12
CTD 300 m
L3-114
11-09-2012
82:11.75 N
8:45.12 E
Ship CTD 12
L3-115
11-09-2012
81:51 N
8:30 E
Ice station 15
CTD 500 m
Ice core, bottom 2 cm of 265
cm core
L3-116
06-09-2012
83:28.32 N
14:59.31 E
Ice CTD 29
CTD 10 m
L3-117
11-09-2012
81:51.81 N
8:35.89 E
Ship CTD 13
CTD 10 m
L3-118
11-09-2012
81:51.81 N
8:35.89 E
Ship CTD 13
CTD 300 m
L3-119
11-09-2012
81:51.81 N
8:35.89 E
Ship CTD 13
CTD 500 m
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15.4 Work at the National Food Institute, DTU (Denmark)
15.4.1 Culturing and Identification of Gram-positive Spore Forming
Bacteria
Culturable counts on standard growth substrate (Marine Agar 2216) will be determined. A
range of alternative substrates will be used to selectively isolate Gram-positive spore
forming bacteria. The isolated actinobacteria will be identified by 16S rRNA gene
sequence, phenotypic tests and morphological features to allow comparison of
actinobacterial diversity in the Arctic with that in previously studied areas such as tropical
Pacific sediments (Jensen et al., 2005).
The ability to grow bacteria in pure cultures is an essential prerequisite for many methods
within bacteriology; yet standard laboratory procedures only allow for growth of 0.1-1% of
the bacterial cells found in environmental samples. Growth substrates based on energy
sources found in the natural environment, such as chitin, will be tested for their influence to
increase culturable counts or change the culturable fraction of environmental samples.
15.4.2 Screening of Bacterial Cultures for Bioactive Properties
All isolated bacterial strains will be screened for antagonism against multiple target strains,
including Staphylococcus aureus and the fish pathogenic marine strain Vibrio anguillarum
90-11-287. Antivirulence activity will be detected by testing for influence on the agr
signaling system in S. aureus. Other biological activities may also be pursued, for instance
cytotoxic effects. In an effort to further understand the interactions within bacterial
populations, the isolated strains may be included in mixed culture incubations to investigate
the effect on production of antagonistic compounds.
15.4.3 Genome Sequencing of Bioactive Bacterial Strains
To investigate the genomic potential for production of bioactive compounds, some isolated
strains will be whole genome sequenced. Through ‘genome mining’, this will allow an
assessment of the potential for secondary metabolite production by the sequenced strains,
and may provide clues on the type of compounds that are produced and under which
growth conditions production takes place. Additionally, whole genome sequences are of
great use if targeted cloning and expression of biosynthetic pathways in a heterologous
host is pursued.
15.5 Results
Most of the analyses of the obtained samples require working aseptically, which is not
possible given the conditions on board Oden. Additionally, specialized equipment and
hazardous chemicals are not appropriate for use in field work. Hence, further analyses of
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the collected samples will be carried out at the National Food Institute, DTU (Denmark). No
results were available at the time of writing this report.
15.6 References
Bull, A.T. & Stach, E. (2007): Marine actinobacteria: new opportunities for natural product
search and discovery. Trends in Microbiology 15, 491-499.
Jensen, P.R., Gontang, E., Mafnas, C., Mincer, T.J. & Fenical, W. (2005): Culturable
marine actinomycete diversity from tropical Pacific Ocean sediments. Environmental
Microbiology 7, 1039-1048.
Jensen, P.R., Williams, P.G., Dong-Chan, O., Zeigler, L. & Fenical, W. (2007): Speciesspecific secondary metabolite production in marine actinomycetes of the genus
Salinispora. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73, 1146-1152.
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16. Sea Ice Temperature
By Gorm Dybkjær & Rasmus Tonboe, Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI)
16.1 Introduction
Temperatures of snow and ice are vital parameters for understanding the freezing and
melting of sea ice. Measurements of these temperatures are not available through
traditional observations, but only as proxy measurements from a scarcely distributed Arctic
observation network that mainly consist of air temperature sensors on drifting buoys.
Information of the snow and ice temperatures from satellite observations can provide
important information about the vertical thermodynamics and thereby be essential for
calculation of ice growth and melt and also assist in calibrating and validating the multilayer
sea ice models in e.g. ocean and weather models.
Figure 95. Oden seen from helicopter. On Monkey Island above the Bridge, Infra-Red and
Microwave instruments are placed to measure sea ice temperatures (red arrow).
However, it is not trivial to measure snow and ice temperatures from satellite because a
number of conditions have to be accounted for. In order to obtain reliable snow and ice
temperatures from space, it is necessary to account for different states of snow and ice, the
presents of melt ponds and the fraction of open water inside the footprint of the satellite
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measurement. To quantify these contributions, detailed and simultaneous sampling of the
parameters of interest can provide vital knowledge to understand this interaction.
The aim of the Sea Ice Temperature project participating in the LOMROG III cruise is to
collect a large data set to investigate the influence and correlation between actual snow
and ice temperatures, satellite measurements and the variables that influence these
measurements. This will provide valuable knowledge for both thermodynamically modelling
and algorithm development in remote sensing based applications.
The parameters that are measured simultaneously and that subsequently will be collocated
are:

L-band microwave and thermal infrared brightness temperatures from identical
satellite and ship borne instruments (Figure 95).

Photos of the ship borne L-band and TIR instrument footprints (Figure 101).

Synoptic ship data: air temperature, cloud height and wind speed (recorded by
SMHI).

Continuous snow and ice temperature profiles from 8 mass balance buoys
deployed between Greenland and the North Pole (Figure 97, 98 & 99).

In situ measurements of snow and ice characteristics recorded throughout the
cruise (Figure 98): temperatures, salinity, density and snow characteristics.
The application of this collocated data set is to develop and improve sea ice temperature
measurements from satellite. Daily distributed temperature fields from satellite instruments
can improve the initial conditions of numerical ocean and atmosphere models, by adding
large amount of valuable information to the sparsely distributed traditional observation
network that Arctic ocean and atmosphere models rely on today.
The project scientists have large experience in fieldwork and data sampling (Tonboe and
Hansson, 2006; Dybkjær et al., 2011), modelling (Tonboe et al., 2011), monitoring and
calibration/validation processes (Dybkjaer et al., 2012; Høyer et al., 2012).
Figure 96. Field work on the ice – a mass balance buoy has been deployed (left) and an ice
core is being analysed (right). It takes patience to measure a temperature profile … 
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16.2 Instruments and data
16.2.1 L-band, Thermal Infrared and Photos
On the top deck of Oden, on “Monkey Island”, we have deployed instruments that are
identical to some operating satellite instruments that cover the Arctic Ocean on a daily
basis (Figure 95). The instruments are thermal infrared and L-band microwave radiometers
that measure the surface brightness temperatures. The calibrated infrared radiometer can
be directly compared to a satellite based infrared sea ice temperature product that is
running operational at DMI. The collocation of the satellite product with the identical ship
borne instrument and in situ observations will provide valuable information for future
development, calibration and validation of this product.
The microwave radiometer is identical to the instrument on board the SMOS satellite that
originally is designed to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity. This instrument has also
proven valuable for estimation of sea ice thickness of new ice (Kaleschke, 2006). This work
is still at research level. The TIR and microwave instruments in combination provide
information on both the skin temperature and of the internal snow and sea ice temperature
and properties. The collocation of these data along with other measurements recorded
during the LOMROG expedition will be subject to future research on, e.g. the potential of
estimating fraction of open water in sea ice regions.
Along with these instruments we have also mounted an ordinary camera that continuously
provides information of the fraction of water inside the field of view of the instruments. The
Figure 97. Sea ice mass balance buoy number 4 deployed on August 14, at position 88.35N
30.77W. The yellow box contains data logger, satellite communication and battery pack. The
white stick holds the top of the thermistor string above the snow/ice surface, so that the
temperature profile is measured from approximately 0.5m above the surface and down through
the snow, ice and water.
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141
satellite and ship borne instruments will be matched up with ice/water fraction values
calculated from the photos and the in situ measurements of snow and ice properties carried
out from numerous helicopter sites during the cruise.
Figure 98. Positions of the 8 deployed mass balance buoys (coloured circles) and in situ sites
(red crosses) until September 5.
16.2.2 Mass Balance Buoys
To investigate melting and freezing processes of sea ice in details we deployed 8 drifting
buoys (Figure 97 & 98) which are constructed to measure the snow/ice temperature profile
continuously. A temperature string attached to the buoys measure temperature at a 2 cm
resolution from the air above, through the snow and ice and into the ocean water. Via an
iridium telephone connection the buoys report bi-hourly on their position and temperature
measurements.
16.2.3 Ship Data
Throughout LOMROG III, the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI)
has recorded synoptic data. Of special relevance for this project are cloud information,
irradiation/radiation, air temperature (Figure 100), wind speed and direction and
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occasionally also sea surface temperature. These data will also be part of the collocated
Sea Ice Temperature data set.
Figure 99. Twenty-one temperature profiles for buoy number 6. The large temperature
variations on the left of the temperature profile are air temperatures and on the far right side of
the figure, one sees the temperature of the ocean/ice interface.
16.2.4 In Situ Sampling
In situ sampling of snow and ice characteristics are done approximately every second day
– at 23 sites. The in situ work consists of a snow description: grain size, layer description,
density, salinity and temperature profile. The sea ice description consists of temperature
and salinity profiles. In situ works is illustrated in Figure 96 & 102 shows salinity profiles
from 14 ice core analyses. Parallel to this in situ work, Lars Chresten Lund-Hansen and
Brian Sorrell from the ice algae project (Chapter14) perform frequent ice core analysis
including density profiling. These data are kindly made available for the ice temperature
project.
16.2.5 Satellite Data
Multiple daily Arctic coverage of satellite borne L-band and TIR data are received and
stored at DMI, along with an operational TIR based Ice and Sea surface temperature
product. These satellite data will be part of the collocated matchup data set that will be
prepared after the expedition.
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143
Figure 100. Collocated air temperature measurements from ship (red curve), portable infra-red
(green curve), ISAR - high precision infra-red (blue crosses) and L-band microwave polarisation
(purple dots). The recording is from day 242.
16.3 Data Samples
A few raw data samples from the sea ice temperature data sets are presented here. No
post processing has been performed at this time.
Figure 101 [1-15]. A 15 minute photo sequence of the L-band and TIR radiometer footprint. The
photos are recorded on day 242 between 12:00z and 12:15z.
In Figure 98 the in situ sites are plotted as red crosses. The thick coloured lines represent
the 8 drifting buoys deployments and drift tracks. All buoys were deployed at an in situ site
during the first 3 weeks of the cruise. In Figure 99, 21 temperature profiles from buoy
number 6 are plotted to illustrate the temperature variability in the air, snow and sea ice
cover a few days. As expected the largest variation is observed above the snow layer. At
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the time of writing all buoys were reporting as planned and the battery pack of the buoys
are dimensioned to last for approximately 6 month.
A 12 hour sampling sequence of some essential data are plotted in Figure 100, showing
collocated air temperatures, 2 types of TIR measurements and the associated polarization
of the L-band radiometer data (Vertical/Horizontal brightness temperature ). Where the air
temperature and the corresponding TIR ice skin temperatures show highly correlated
behaviour and large changes over the 12 hours displayed, the L-band polarization is less
sensitive to the immediate weather situation. The polarization rather responds to the
surface type and the water-sea ice ration. This is due the deep penetration depth and very
different emissivity properties of water and ice for L-band. There is no easy way to measure
the ice and snow properties along with the ice/water ratio when the ship is moving, but
ordinary photos of the L-band field of view provide good information about the ice/water
ratio. A 15 minute sequence of the automated photo setup that is associated with the Lband and TIR radiometer is shown in Figure 101. For all photos the ice/water ration value
will be calculated and associated with the corresponding measurements in the match up
data base. By collocating air temperatures, TIR and L-band brightness temperatures we get
interesting information of both surface and internal snow and ice properties.
Finally, in Figure 102, multiple ice core salinity profiles are plotted. The typical profile show
increasing salinity with depth and occasionally slight dilution in the bottom of the ice core.
This is expected as the frozen salt water tends to concentrate salt in cavities of the ice, the
so called brine pockets, and with time to drain the concentrated salt water from the ice.
Profile 21 behaved different than the others. It displayed extremely low salt content and the
core was porous like a Swiss cheese.
Figure 102. Ice core – salinity profiles.
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16.4 Future Work
These more or less synchronous measurements will be gathered in a match up data base
after the expedition. The subsequent analysis of data will improve our understanding of
snow and sea ice temperatures and the melting/freezing processes in the Arctic. New
insight in Arctic snow and ice properties will improve the interpretation of satellite based
temperature measurements and eventually result in higher quality temperature data input to
ocean and weather models.
16.5 Acknowledgement
We wish to thank The Continental Shelf Project of the Kingdom of Denmark, the crew of
Oden and all scientist of the LOMROG III expedition for giving us the opportunity to perform
this field work in a fine and inspiring environment and with pleasant company.
This research is sponsored by a wide range of national and international R&D projects:
EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSISAF), ESA SMOSice and
EU cost action SMOS MODE, Greenland Climate and research centre (the Danish Agency
for Science, Technology and Innovation), EU MyOcean project, NAACOS project (Danish
Strategic Research Council), GHRSST and ESA Climate Change Initiative.
16.6 References
Dybkjær, G., Tonboe, R. & Høyer, J. 2012: Arctic surface temperatures from Metop
AVHRR compared to in situ ocean and land data. Ocean Science Discussions 9, 1009–
1043, doi:10.5194/osd-9-1009-2012.
Dybkjær, G., Høyer, J., Tonboe, R., Olsen, S., Rodwell, S., Wimmer, W. & Søbjærg, S.
2011: QASITEEX 2011 – The Qaanaaq sea ice thermal emission experiment - Field
report.
Danish
Meteorological
Institute
Technical
Report
11-18
(http://www.dmi.dk/dmi/tr11-18.pdf), 27 pp.
Høyer, J.L., Karagali, I., Dybkjær, G. & Tonboe, R. 2012: Multi sensor validation and error
characteristics of Arctic satellite sea surface temperature observations. Remote
Sensing of Environment 121, 335-346, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2012.01.013.
Kaleschke, L., Maaß, N., Haas, C., Hendricks, S., Heygster, G. & Tonboe, R. T. 2009: A
sea ice thickness retrieval model for 1.4 GHz radiometry and application to airborne
measurements over low salinity sea ice. The Cryosphere Discussion 3, 995-1022,
doi:10.5194/tcd-3-995-2009.
Tonboe, R.T., Dybkjær, G. & Høyer, J. L. 2011: Simulations of the snow covered sea ice
surface and microwave effective temperature. Tellus 63A, 1028-1037, doi:
10.1111/j.1600-0870.2011.00530.x.
Tonboe, R.T. & Hanson, S. 2006: Microphysical measurements important for microwave
remote sensing of sea ice - Field guide. Danish Meteorological Institute Scientific
Report 06-03 (http://www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr06-03.pdf), 26 pp.
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17. Media on LOMROG III
By Kenneth Sorento (Kenneth Sorento Film & Photography) & Martin Breum, Danish
Broadcasting Corporation (DR)
17.1 Introduction
The media team included cinematographer Kenneth Sorento and Martin Breum, a journalist
with DR, the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. The media team was not formally a part of
the LOMROG III-expedition, but invited to cover the expedition and science on board as
independent observers. During the cruise, Kenneth Sorento and Martin Breum
implemented joint as well as individual projects.
Figure 103. Kenneth Sorento, right, and Martin Breum at the North Pole 22 August 2012.
The team brought its own equipment including an Iridium satellite-connection, on loan from
Polaris, for transmission of telephone calls and data. Prior to the expedition certain
conditions for media coverage of the expedition were agreed between the Danish Ministry
of Education, Science and Innovation and the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. Among
other things, it was agreed that:

Privacy on board the icebreaker Oden would be respected

The media coverage should not divulge scientific data from the cruise or
interpretations hereof that might harm the Kingdom of Denmark’s negotiating
position vis-à-vis the CLCS or neighbouring states
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147

Media productions should be offered to Swedish broadcasters on normal
conditions, since the cruise was a joint Danish-Swedish cruise.

It was also agreed that the Ministry would have the option of screening media
material gathered during the cruise to ensure that the agreed conditions were met.
17.2 TV-documentary
The main media project was to gather interviews and other TV-material for a 30 minutes
TV-documentary on the Continental Shelf Project of the Kingdom of Denmark
commissioned by DR, the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, NRK, the Greenlandic,
KNR, and the broadcaster in the Faroe Island, FVK. The documentary is one of three
documentaries on the Arctic commissioned. The final product will be delivered to the
broadcasters before 2013.
This production included a number of interviews with scientists and technicians on board,
including several with the chief scientist, and with members of the crew.
At an early stage and with the consent of the chief scientists the media team addressed all
on board and explained their project and how they intended to go about it. Anyone not
willing to appear on TV was asked to say so in order that this wish could be
accommodated. No one came forward and it was thus assumed that all on board agreed
that they might appear and potentially be identified by television viewers in the planned
documentary.
In total six-seven scientists/ technicians from the continental shelf project and 2-3 members
of the Oden crew were interviewed for the documentary. They were all informed that their
interview would be edited and appear as part of the planned documentary.
17.3 News Coverage
The media team produced news coverage for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, and for
KNR, the broadcaster in Nuuk. A background report on the cruise by Martin Breum was
published in the Danish newspaper Politiken prior to departure. Also prior to the cruise and
at the North Pole the media team facilitated international news coverage of the expedition
by Reuters’ news agency.
During the cruise Martin Breum appeared live on radio and TV via satellite-telephone
approximately 12 times. Programs included P1Morgen, P3Morgen, Orientering, Deadline
and TV-avisen. He also wrote six articles for the webbased news of DR
(www.dr.dk/nyheder). The media team also produced an edited radio piece on the cruise
that was transmitted to a server at DR in Copenhagen from the Amundsen Basin from a
position about 88⁰N.
Twice the media team transmitted edited TV-items for news broadcasts in Denmark. A first
item was transmitted to Copenhagen prior to departure from Svalbard. A second 2:30
minutes edited news-piece covering the expedition’s arrival at the North Pole on 22 August
2012 was subsequently broadcast in Denmark, Sweden, Greenland, Finland, Iceland,
France and Yemen. The transmission of TV-material from the North Pole entailed moving
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large data files via the media team’s Iridium-connection to a server in Copenhagen. This
was not easy, but with a few repeats it worked. It may have been the first time edited TVmaterial has been transmitted from this latitude.
The successful transmission from the North Pole was reported on by the in-house media
within DR (Figure 104).
Figure 104. From DR’s in-house website.
17.4 Other TV-coverage
Kenneth Sorento produced several packages of TV-material to other broadcasters in
Scandinavia. Footage was shot specifically for “Vetenskapens Värld”, a science program
on Swedish SVT.
The Danish web based science hub “Videnskab.dk” and Nordic science website,
“ScienceNordic.com” will receive short films about the scientific projects on board.
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Figure 105. Kenneth Sorento shooting on aft deck.
17.5 Other Media Products
During the cruise Martin Breum updated his book on Arctic developments and the Danish
continental shelf project, “Når isen forsvinder” (“When the Ice Disappears”), to be published
in its revised format in early 2013.
Kenneth Sorento and Martin Breum gathered material for an article in the magazine of the
Danish Railways, “ud&se”, with one of the larger readerships in Denmark. The article is due
to appear in November 2012.
Kenneth Sorento will deliver text and photos for a six pages article on the continental shelf
project for “Illustreret Videnskab / Science Illustrated”, the largest popular science
magazine in Scandinavia. The article will be published in early 2013.
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Figure 106. Article from Sermitsiaq - a Greenland newspaper, 6 September 2012.
Kenneth Sorento delivered text and photos for an article about the technical challenges in
AudioVisuelle Media, a Danish magazine about the film and broadcast industry, and to the
web based magazine Iridium 360.
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17.6 Media & Science Relations
Only rarely do scientists and media people spend seven weeks on a boat together. In order
to learn from this experience and share lessons learned with those interested within the
Danish Broadcasting Corporation, Martin Breum conducted a small survey among the
scientists of the continental shelf project on board Oden.
The survey was meant as a check on how the scientists perceived their cooperation with
the media team. Were they disturbed in their work? Were they comfortable with the media
presence? Or did we fail to establish the necessary conditions?
The results of the survey are seen below.
17.7 Survey on Science & Media Relations – with Compiled
Results
Dear participant on LOMROG III / The Continental Shelf Project:
Only rarely do media-people and scientists spend seven weeks on a boat together. We would like to
learn from the experience. Please help by answering these ten questions. No need to write your
name. Please hand back the form to Martin or Kenneth before Sunday 9.9.The results will be in the
media team’s expedition report.
Strongly I
Don’t I
Strongly
agree
agree know Disagree disagree
1
The media team was well prepared
4
11
1
1
2
The media team informed me on what they were
planning
I felt comfortable talking to the media team
6
10
6
8
4
The media team took an interest in me and my
work
3
8
2
3
5
The media team kept me updated on their
progress
4
7
3
3
6
The media team listened and adjusted their
approach as they learned
The media team was careful not to
inconvenience my work
The media team made me look at my work in
new ways
The terms of my co-operation with the media
team were clear to me
I trust the media team to publish only what I
have agreed to
1
6
9
1
6
8
2
1
3
12
1
3
7
8
9
10
1
1
2
4
10
2
3
10
4
1
There was room for additional comment, but only few made any comments. 18
questionnaires were distributed, 17 were returned.
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17.8 Conclusions
The media team completed the planned working program during the cruise. News coverage
took on unexpected proportions.
Scientists, technicians and crew alike met the many requests from the media team with
impressive patience and cooperation. The small science&media survey indicates that most
of the scientists had a clear perception of the terms of our cooperation and trusted that we
would only publish what was agreed. In retrospect, it might have added to better
understanding of the media team if we had:

Clarified the precise nature of our documentary and its three main dramatic flows.

Distributed a small written introduction to our overall plans & terms of cooperation
also to crew members.
Media work was greatly facilitated by the chief scientists who readily availed himself and
the expeditions’ resources, including a full office container and several helicopter flights.
On-going news coverage took up more time and effort than anticipated. Editors in
Copenhagen showed increasing interest in the expeditions as media coverage picked up.
The conditions imposed by the Ministry of Education proved to be only a minor hindrance
for coverage of the expedition. It caused no breach of professional ethics. A commitment
not to reveal information harmful to the interest of the state differs little from conditions
accepted by media working, for instance, with the armed forces during conflict. The media
team avoided questions and the filming of conversations that could involve sensitive data.
This did not significantly obstruct coverage.
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18. Acknowledgements
The many results obtained during the LOMROG III cruise could not have been achieved
without the excellent cooperation between the crew of Oden, the helicopter crew and the
science party. The cooperation between the different science groups made it possible to
exploit the resources on board Oden and provided by the helicopter in a very efficient
manner.
All members of Oden’s crew, the helicopter crew and the scientific party are thanked for
their large commitment for making this cruise so successful.
LOMROG III was the last cruise of the Continental Shelf Project of the Kingdom of
Denmark to the area north of Greenland and therefore represents the end of a very
successful cooperation between GEUS and the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat. It is
hoped that the experience gained during the three LOMROG cruise and the EAGER cruise
can be useful for future cruises of Oden to the Arctic Ocean.
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19. Appendices and Enclosures
19.1 Appendix I: List of Participants
Master
Ch. Officer
2:nd Officer
2:nd Officer
Bosun
Able Seaman
Able Seaman
Able Seaman
Ch. Engineer
1.st Engineer
2:nd Engineer
2:nd Engineer
Oiler
Oiler
Oiler
Ch. Cook
Messman
Cook
Elec. Eng.
Fitter
2:nd Officer
Erik Andersson
Ivan Öström
Patrik Johansson
Kristian Nordström
Lars-Åke Hansson
Ralph Björklund
Einar Sjöbom
Kenneth Nilsson
Dahn Joelsson
Jörgen Rundqvist
Aron Leth
Alexander Hall
Johan Persson
Jonas Lindén
Lennart Pettersson
Lars Andersson
Anki Hålldin
Peter Ekman
Jörn Johansson
Per Blad
Karl Herlin
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
Oden
MD
*
Science Coordinator
SPRS Tech.
IT-Tech
Hkp. Pilot
Hkp. Pilot
Hkp. Tech
Meteorologist
Meteorologist
Multibeam op.
Multibeam op.
Ragnar Jerre
Joakim Lindström
Erik Hellberg
Björn Eriksson
Sven Stenvall
Arild Ystanes
Nils Eriksson
Ulf Christensen
Maria Svedestig
Nina Kirchner
Rezwan Mohammad
SPRS
SPRS
SPRS
SPRS/ IGV, Stockholm University
Kallax Flyg, Sikfors, Sweden
Kallax Flyg, Sikfors, Sweden
Kallax Flyg, Sikfors, Sweden
SMHI
SMHI
SPRS/ INK, Stockholm University
SPRS/ IGV, Stockholm University
*
for the Swedish research projects
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157
Chief Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Media
Media
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Scientist
Christian Marcussen
Richard Pedersen
Morten Sølvsten
Thomas Funck
John Hopper
Per Trinhammer
Simon Ejlertsen
Lars Rödel
Jack Schilling
Martin Breum
Kenneth Sorento
Richard Gyllencreutz
Ludvig Löwemark
Pauline Snoeijs Leijonmalm
Kajsa Tönnesson
Trine Kvist-Lassen
Marie Lykke Rasmussen
Sofie Ugelvig
Markus Karasti
Peter Sylvander
Niki Andersen
Beatriz Diez
Laura Farias
Tanja Stratmann
Jerker Eriksson
Francis Freire
Indriði Einarsson
Thomas Varming
Nikolaj Grønnegaard Vynne
Brian Sorrell
Lars Lund-Hansen
Gorm Dybkjær
Steffen Olsen
Rasmus Tonboe
AU
AWI
BIOENV
Aarhus University, Århus, Denmark
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg,
Gothenburg, Sweden
Greenland Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum, Nuuk, Greenland
Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
Danish Broadcasting Corporation, Copenhagen, Denmark
Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University,
Stockholm, Sweden
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm
University, Stockholm, Sweden
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, Netherlands
Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Arlanda/ Norrköping, Sweden
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, Stockholm, Sweden
BMP
DMI
DR
DTU
Ecology
GEUS
IGV
INK
NIOZ
SMHI
SPRS
158
GEUS
KMS
KMS
GEUS
GEUS
Geoscience, AU
Geoscience, AU
GEUS
NIOZ
DR
DR/ Kenneth Sorento Film & Photography
IGV, Stockholm University
AWI
Ecology, Stockholm University
BIOENV, University of Gothenburg
GEUS/ Geoscience, AU
GEUS/ Geoscience, AU
GEUS/ Geoscience, AU
IGV, Stockholm University
Ecology, Stockholm University
GEUS
Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago
Universidad de Concepción, Chile
Bioscience, AU
IGV, Stockholm University
IGV, Stockholm University
National Space Institute (DTU-Space)
BMP
National Food Institute (DTU Food)
Bioscience, AU
Bioscience, AU
DMI
DMI
DMI
GEUS
19.2 Appendix II: TPE (Total Propagated Error) – Multibeam
Background Information to the settings used in the software during Multibeam Acquisition:
The convention for the Cartesian coordinate system for the EM122 is as follows:
X = Positive Forward
Y = Positive Starboard
Z = Positive Down
The convention for the Cartesian coordinate system for CARIS HIPS/SIPS is as follows:
X = Positive Starboard
Y = Positive Forward
Z = Positive Up
The settings in the rest of this section are just a documentation of the values that were
entered into the system during LOMROG-III. A quick examination of these values shows
inconsistencies with these numbers. There is also not an obvious way to enter the ship’s
physical draught (which was 8.1 meters at the start of the trip). It is a fact that as some of
the 4,500 tonnes of fuel is used the draft will decrease significantly. It is reported that the
range in draught values due to fuel usage is 6.7 to 8.7 meters.
It also appears that the X & Y values of the MRU to Transducer in the HIPS VCF file have
been transposed. This will not affect any sounding positions unless a different sound
velocity is re-applied in HIPS.
19.2.1 SIS Installation Settings
Figure 1: Installation parameters: Locations
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159
Figure 2: Installation parameters: Angular Offset
19.2.2 SeaPath Settings
(Extracted from Configuration Report)
Vessel
Geometry
Vessel dimensions:
Length: 107.00
Width: 30.00
Center Of Gravity (CG) location:
CG-X: -60.00
CG-Y: 0.00
Height: 30.00 [m]
CG-Z: 8.00 [m]
Description
Vessel data:
Type: Ice Breaker
Name: Oden
Sensor
GPS Geometry
Antenna Lever Arm
From CG to antenna #1:
X: 3.973
Y: -3.050
Owner: Sjöfartsverket (Swedish Maritime Administration)
Country of origin: Sweden
Z: -33.152 [m]
GPS Antenna Configuration
Baseline length: 2.500[m] Heading offset: -1.68[deg] Height difference: 0.099[m]
Attitude Processing
Max pitch and roll angles: 15.00
Max average pitch and roll angles: 7.00
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GEUS
MRU Geometry
MRU Lever Arm
From CG to MRU:
X: 0.000
Y: 0.000
MRU Mounting Angles:
Roll: -179.77
Z: 0.000 [m]
Pitch: -0.15 Yaw: 0.30 [deg]
19.2.3 Caris HIPS and SIPS
From the VCF (Vessel Configuration File), settings for TPE:
Comments Estimated after installation
Offsets
Motion sensing unit to the transducer 1
X Head 1 17.590
Y Head 1 -2.370
Z Head 1 -9.460
Motion sensing unit to the transducer 2
X Head 2 0.000
Y Head 2 0.000
Z Head 2 0.000
Navigation antenna to the transducer 1
X Head 1 14.860
Y Head 1 -1.500
Z Head 1 -42.600
Navigation antenna to the transducer 2
X Head 2 0.000
Y Head 2 0.000
Z Head 2 0.000
Roll offset of transducer number 1 0.000
Roll offset of transducer number 2 0.000
Heave Error: 0.050 or 0.100'' of heave amplitude.
Measurement errors: 0.000
Motion sensing unit alignment errors
Gyro:0.000
Pitch:0.000
Roll:0.000
Gyro measurement error: 0.020
Roll measurement error: 0.020
Pitch measurement error: 0.020
Navigation measurement error: 10.000
Transducer timing error: 0.000
Navigation timing error: 0.000
Gyro timing error: 0.000
Heave timing error: 0.000
PitchTimingStdDev: 0.000
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161
Roll timing error: 0.000
Sound Velocity speed measurement error: 0.000
Surface sound speed measurement error: 0.000
Tide measurement error: 0.000
Tide zoning error: 0.000
Speed over ground measurement error: 0.000
Dynamic loading measurement error: 0.500
Static draft measurement error: 0.000
Delta draft measurement error: 0.500
StDev Comment:
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19.3 Appendix III: Manual for Coring Operation with Dyneema
and MacArtney winch on I/B Oden
19.3.1 Winches (see Figure 53 in Chapter 8)

MacArtney MASH 8000/14-90-RA Traction w/ Dyneema (SWL: 9000 kg)

Cormac Oceanographic Winch MASH 5000-10-17Kn (SWL: 1700 kg) on top of
MacArtney

Seaproof H07R5D s/n 3565 (SWL: 600 kg) in seismic winch container
19.3.2 Coring Preparations
1. Attach and secure the rail on the aft deck (done by Oden crew). Make sure the
necessary blocks are in place in the A-frame (Note! Special plastic block for the
MacArtney/Dyneema – see Figure 53). Take care that the sheave of the block for the
auxiliary wire has a diameter at least of 250 mm and that it is a wide body block.
2. Attach and secure the cradle onto the rail using the large crane (done by Oden crew).
Note! The winged brass screws on the hinged plate under the cradle’s attachment MUST
BE OPEN during coring operations (see figure above).
3. Put the lead weights onto the corer head. Full load is 1360 kg (30 x 45 kg or 20 x 68 kg).
This goes easier if the corer head is put on one EU-pallet placed upside down on top of
another EU-pallet with the lead-end sticking out a bit. Secure it with straps during and after
assembly. Attach the lifting hook with 2x2 shackles to the corer head. Put lead weights onto
the trigger corer, 1/10 of the weight of the corer (6*22.5 kg = 136 kg on trigger for full
weight). Place the piston stop in the connection point for the barrel head.
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163
4. Put the corer head in the cradle using the large crane (done by Oden crew).
5. Assemble the trigger corer and the rest of the corer and with desired number of pipes (up
to 4 pipes = 12 m), spliced together with muffs held by 4 screws in each pipe end. Use a
pointed crowbar to align the tube holes with the muff holes. Use copper paste on the screw
threads.
6. Prepare core liner: If coring more than 6 m; make sure that there is one tube of each
male/female endings. Mark liners with core name/number, centre line, 1.5 m marks and
letters (A B) (C D) etc. per 1.5 m section starting from the tip (lowermost end is ”A”).
Topmost end (nearest the head) should be flat (no male/female). Also prepare a 1 m liner
for the trigger core.
7. Push the piston wire from the head through the corer so the end clamp protrudes
through the pipe end. Do NOT attach the piston yet.
8. Push in core liner from the tip through the pipes with the piston wire staying in place
inside the liner. If splicing is needed, tape the joint with as much electrical tape as possible
while maintaining a small enough diameter to allow sliding through the pipe.
9. Attach the piston to the clamp (hex key needed). Insert the piston into the liner. The
piston should be just possible to push through the liner by hand force (there should be
notable resistance). Adjust the piston’s rubber diameter by rotating the bolt at the lower end
of the piston.
10. Mount a core catcher with the tip pointing inwards (make sure it is not too deformed) in
the liner. The piston should stay just inside of the core catcher.
11. Attach the tip as done with the muffs. Tape all joints and screw holes with electrical
tape to prevent sediment from entering.
12. Assemble the trigger mechanism, and make sure all screws have the right length to
permit free motion of all moving parts while being tightened hard (see figure above).
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13. Attach the trigger mechanism to the desired position on the piston wire, usually about 46 m from the head (the longer slack, the later start of suction; suction should start at
sediment surface).
14. Prepare the trigger rope (from end of trigger arm to trigger corer) with tied nooses at
appropriate lengths to permit a desired free-fall height, which should be longer than the
piston-wire-slack. IMPORTANT: The parameters free-fall-height and piston-wire-slack
determine the start of suction. Divide the trigger rope in two pieces; connect the first piece
(2 meter) on the trip-arm. The second pieces should be the length of the head + 6 meter
barrel + free-fall (minus 2 meter of first piece). The free-fall length depends of the sediment,
stiff sediment need longer free-fall than soft sediment. For extra barrel length, prepare extra
3 meter pieces. To make changing the free-fall easier, prepare pieces of rope with a length
of ½ meter, 1 meter and 2 meter. On LOMROG III we used a free-fall between 2.3 and 1.6
meter and a loop between 3 and 6 meters. Take care that you have 2 eyes on the upper
part of the second piece, one for connecting to the 2 meter piece, and the second for
connection and disconnection to the A-frame.
15. Attach the trigger mechanism to the head’s lifting hook in the slot by the trigger arm.
(see figure above). Gather the slacking piston wire to a loose roll and use a little electrical
tape to hold the wire slings together. Tie a piece of string around the piston wire and attach
it to the shackle that is connected to the head in order to prevent the piston from moving
inside the liner before trigger release.
16. Before EACH piston coring: test that the hydrostatic release mechanism can be pushed
in with hand force until only about 1 cm sticks out, and that it springs back out the full length
again, before attaching it to the trigger mechanism.
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165
17. Attach the hydrostatic release mechanism to the trigger mechanism. IMPORTANT:
Make sure that the screws sit tightly and do not have damaged threads.
18. Important! Attach and keep a long sling connected to the extendable part of the cradle
and keep it accessible from the fan tail, so that the lowermost part of the cradle can be
uplifted in case Oden needs to run the propellers to push away the ice.
19.3.3 Winch Operations
19.3.3.1 Launching
1. Attach wires: Attach Dyneema to the cradle with a long sling (1.5 m). The sling should
stay on the cradle during the entire coring operation. Attach the seismic winch wire to the 2
cradle top holes with a long sling (1.5 m).
2. Move out the cradle: Pull out the cradle slowly (ca 0.1 m/s) by paying in the Dyneema
(red) while holding back and paying out continuously with the seismic winch (blue). Stop
when the cradle begins to rise. NOTE: Beware of the tension in the Dyneema at all
times, because the winches are pulling against each other. If tension goes above 3-4
kN: STOP IMMEDIATELY, then pay out Dyneema. Fill the core liner with sea water to
prevent under pressure pushing the piston up when the corer is submerged into the water.
Continue to slowly pull out the cradle with the Dyneema (red) while holding back with the
seismic winch (blue) until the cradle has reached the rail end and has risen to vertical.
3. Lift the trigger corer with the auxiliary winch and attach it to the cradle using a 2-m
rope. Then pay out with the auxiliary winch until slack and disconnect it from the trigger
corer. Connect the second part of the trigger rope to the wire of the auxiliary winch and lift
the trigger core up, and then move the A-frame out a little so that the trigger core can pass
the aft. Payout until the second eye can connect to the cradle, and disconnect the wire.
This leaves the trigger weight hanging on the frame.
4. Connect the auxiliary winch to the piston wire (green). Be sure the shackle is
connecting on the right way; the shackle into the eye of the piston wire and the bolt into the
eye of the auxiliary wire. Pay in the auxiliary winch until the wire is straight up. Connect the
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first eye on the 2 meter piece of the trip arm. Lift up the main core slowly and take care that
the core comes out of the cradle and stops when the trigger core is lift up by the main corer
via the trip arm. Disconnect the first eye from the cradle. Be sure the whole system is free
from the cradle and move out the A-frame so far that the main corer and the trip arm are far
enough from the stern. Pay out the auxiliary winch until the connection between auxiliary
wire/ piston wire is in a good work height. Move the A-frame in so that you can connect the
Dyneema to the piston-core wire eye. Here a Quick link should be used. Pay in the
Dyneema a little so that there is tension on the Dyneema. Pay out the auxiliary wire until
you can unscrew the bolt of the special shackle. Take of the auxiliary wire and give enough
slack so the A-frame can move out completely.
5. Lift the piston corer out of the cradle using the auxiliary winch.
6. Lower the piston corer until the trigger arm is at a proper working height at Oden’s fan
tail. Connect the trigger arm to the trigger core rope while the trigger corer is still hanging
from the cradle. Keep slack on the rope.
7. Connect the Dyneema to the trigger corer, and pay in the Dyneema until it lifts the
trigger corer.
8. Pay in with the auxiliary winch until it lifts both piston corer and trigger corer, and there
is slack on the Dyneema. Disconnect the Dyneema.
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167
9. Pay out with the auxiliary winch until the shackle for the piston core wire is at a proper
working height. Connect the Dyneema to the piston core wire.
10. Pay in the Dyneema until the auxiliary winch wire is slacking. Disconnect the auxiliary
winch wire. You are now ready for coring. Report to Bridge that corer is in the water.
19.3.3.2 Coring
Push out the A-frame and pay out Dyneema to descend the corer to the sea floor. Note the
water depth (contact the Bridge via radio). Pay out with about 1.5-1.7 m/s until a few
hundred metres from the sea floor. Then slow down to 0.5 m/s until trigger releases (seen
as sharp drop in tension and sudden jerk in the Dyneema). Wait a few seconds to let the
corer sink in fully. When the corer has reached the sea floor, contact Bridge and note the
depth. Slowly (0.3-0.5 m/s) pull out the corer, and note the maximum pull-out tension
(usually 25-29 kN). Pay in the Dyneema at about 1.5-1.7 m/s until a few hundred metres
from the surface. Then slow down to 0.5 m/s. Stop when the Dyneema’s swivel is visible at
the surface. Make sure no ice comes near the Dyneema, which is sensitive to abrasion.
19.3.3.3 Retrieval
1. Connect the auxiliary wire to the piston wire. It is a good idea to mark the Dyneema
at 100 meter from the end termination with brightly coloured tape in case the payout
indicator is not working properly.
2. Pay out Dyneema until the piston corer hangs in the auxiliary wire. When the connection
between the Dyneema and the piston wire is at the right height, move in the A-frame and
take care that the Dyneema isn’t damaged by ice floes or the cradle. Connect the auxiliary
wire on the eye of the piston core wire. Again be sure the shackle is connected in the right
way. Lift the auxiliary wire so that there is tension on the wire. Pay out the Dyneema until
the big swivel still is hanging loosely by the Dyneema. Unscrew the quick link and take out
the link of the eye of the piston core wire. Pay out enough length of the Dyneema so the Aframe can be moved freely.
168
GEUS
3. Pay in the auxiliary wire until the trigger mechanism is well above the water. Attach the
Dyneema to the trigger corer rope. Move out the A-frame until the trip arm and main weight
are free from the stern. Pay in the auxiliary wire until the trip arm is on working height.
Move the A-frame in so you can work easily on the trip arm. Unscrew the two bolts so that
you can take of the trip arm and the moving part. Unscrew the clamp.
4. Pay in the Dyneema until it lifts the trigger corer. Remove the trigger mechanism
(wrench needed). Move out the A-frame and pay in the auxiliary wire until the coring head
is high enough to fit in to the cradle. Move the A-frame till the core barrel is close to the
cradle. Pull the barrel with a rope and move the A-frame inwards slowly to guide the barrel
into the cradle. On the starboard side use a wood bar to give extra guiding to the barrel.
When the weight is in the right position stop the A-frame. Pay out the auxiliary winch slowly
and take care that the weight slides softly into the cradle. Give a little bit extra slack.
5. Pay in Dyneema to lift up the trigger corer on deck. Connect the Dyneema on the free
eye of the trigger core rope. Pay in the Dyneema a little bit, so far the tension from the eye
connected to the cradle is tension free. Take off the eye and move out the A-frame, so far
the trigger core is free from the stern. (Take care the auxiliary winch wire/piston wire has no
tension). Pay in the Dyneema and move in the A-frame when the trigger core can come in
freely from the aft deck. The trigger weight core is opened and reloaded on the fan tail
deck.
6. Pay in auxiliary wire and use the A-frame to lift the piston corer into the cradle.
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169
7. Pay in on the small winch to raise the cradle in the rail and pull back fully (H).
170
GEUS
19.4 Appendix IV: Core Descriptions1
1
No descriptions are available for LOMROG12-PC10 and for LOMROG12-TC03, 07, 08, 10 &
12, PC – piston core, TC – trigger core.
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19.5 Appendix V: Dredging Procedures and Dredging Log
Sheets
19.5.1 Dredging Procedures
Dredging procedures developed for LOMROG III
Launching
1.
Dredge and weight on the fan tail
2.
Connect auxiliary winch to dredge and deploy 500 meters wire (manual level winder
needed – two persons)
3.
At first end termination connect the weight with chain and shackle
4.
Lift weight and pay 12 meter wire out with Aux winch
5.
Connect to dyneema
6.
Deploy until dredge is at the bottom (pay close attention to the tension meter) - 1 to
1.5 m/sec
7.
Pay out 500 meter with the same speed as ship moves until weight is at the bottom –
use eventually the ice drift
0.1 knots = 0.05 m/sec
0.2 knots = 0.10 m/sec
0.3 knots = 0.15 m/sec
0.4 knots = 0.21 m/sec
0.5 knots = 0.26 m/sec
0.6 knots = 0.31 m/sec
0.7 knots = 0.36 m/sec
0.8 knots = 0.41 m/sec
0.9 knots = 0.46 m/sec
1.0 knots = 0.51 m/sec
1.1 knots = 0.57 m/sec
8.
Pay out at least 1000 meters of dyneema with the same speed as the ship sails or
drifts (depends on water depth) – THIS STEP WAS NOT USED DURING THE TWO
LOMROG III DREDGES.
2000 to 2500
800 meters
2500 to 3000
1000 meters
3000 to 3500
1200 meters
3500 to 4000
1400 meters
GEUS
215
Dredging and Retrieval
1.
Move the ship 0.5 mile
2.
Stop the ship as much as possible (might be drifting)
3.
Start paying in with 30 meters per minute (0.5 meters per second) until the total cable
length is less ( - 100 meters) than the water depth
4.
Start paying in with 60 to 90 meters per minute (1.0 to 1.5 meters per second)
5.
Connect the Aux winch and disconnect the dyneema
6.
When the weight is coming up use the seismic winch to place the weight on the fan
tail and disconnect it
7.
Pay in 500 meters using the Aux winch
8.
Lower the dredge on fan tail with A-frame and Aux winch
9.
Check the content of the dredge on the fan tail
NO OTHER PEOPLE ALLOWED ON AFT DECK WHILE DREDGING
Person on the aft deck during deployment
Fan tail: Jack and Lars
Aux winch: Per (two person for the level winder)
Geo winch: Erik (on deck with remote control), Per can take over
A-frame: Ivan
Persons on the aft deck during recovery
Fan tail: first only Jack (disconnect dyneema and connect the weight on the seismic winch
and place it on the aft deck), later with Lars (to assist retrieval of the dredge)
Aux winch: Per/Lars (two persons for the level winder)
Seismic winch: Lars
Geo winch: Erik (in the geo winch container to adjust level winder), Per
A-frame: Ivan
Communication between aft deck and bridge:
Per communicates with the bridge on VHF.
Jack is in command on the aft deck.
216
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19.5.2 Log Sheet for Dredge: LOMROG2012-D-01
Dredge Name: LOMROG2012-D-01
Date/Time (UTC):19.08.2012 16.50
Latitude: 89 08’19” N
Longitude: 67 40’56” W
Location: Lomonosov Ridge
Water Depth (m): 3760
Ice Conditions: 10/10 drifting approx. 0.5 knots in a westerly direction (250˚/220˚)
Weather Conditions: wind 8 m/s, -0.7 ˚C
Weight of dredge: 400 kg
Comments
Time
(UTC)
Tension
Weight: 500 kg
Speed
Wire
length
Latitude N
Longitude
W
Water
depth (m)
89 08’19”
67 40’56”
3760
42 m –
212 m
89 08’17”
67 52’54”
3630
2120
89 08’15”
68 05’45”
3424
3397
89 08’14”
68 11’ 03”
3370
3715
89 08’09”
68 23’12”
3183
Dredge in
water
16:51
Weight in
water
17:25
0.9
0.0
1.2
18:02
9
1.2
Dredge on
bottom
18:19
6
Weight on
bottom
19:00
2
Oden
moves
ahead with
0.5 knots
20:10
7
2809
20:18
8
2771
20:22
9
20:29
10
0.5
20:31
Sudden
shift
10-17
0.5
Higher
tension,
Oden
stops
engines,
start
retrieval
GEUS
0.15
–
89 07’54”
68 46’42”
217
20:43
2690
20:46
Fairly
stable
10-11
20:55
11
Weight off
bottom
21:19
Stable
11
Dredge off
bottom
21:28
10
89 07’54”
68 49’32”
2661
3000
89 07’52”
68 51’11”
2599
2280
89 07’47”
68 55’27”
2475
2020
89 07’45”
68 57’11”
2424
21:39
1000
89 77’42”
68 59’34”
2357
Dyneema
at surface
21:50
76
89 07’40”
69 01’38”
2261
Weight out
of water
22:02
89 07’37”
69 03’55”
2170
Dredge on
deck
22:19
89 07’32”
69 07’10”
2032
1.5
Estimate of material in dredge: 100 kg +
Number of sample bags: 12
218
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19.5.3 Log Sheet for Dredge: LOMROG2012-D-02
Dredge Name: LOMROG2012-D-02
Date/Time (UTC):20.08.2012 11.26
Ships speed: 0.5 knots in a southerly
direction
Weight of dredge: 400 kg
Comments
Time
(UTC)
Dredge in
water
11:26
Weight in
water
11:43
Water Depth (m): 3760
Weight: 500 kg
Tension
9
9
Speed
1.0
1.2
12:24
Latitude N
Longitude
W
Water
depth (m)
89 17’42”
60 08’16”
3853
130
250
89 17’35”
60 06’33”
3725
3100
89 17’12”
60 04’08”
3495
Wire
length
Dredge on
bottom
12:35
6
3530
89 17’07”
60 04’10”
3466
Weight on
bottom
13:07
4
4033
89 16’50”
60 05’42”
3326
Dredge
13:34
5
89 16’37”
60 08’05”
3164
Dredge
13:48
6
89 16’31”
60 09’32”
3108
14:05
7
89 16’23”
60 11’41”
3011
14:08
8-9
0.1
0.5
89 16’22”
60 12’07”
2984
14:09
7-8
0.5
14:09
13!
14:12
20-2122-23,
27.
Peak at
28
GEUS
–
4000
2896
2983
89 16’20”
60 12’36”
2815
219
Weight off
bottom
Dredge still
on sea
bottom
Tension 910, varies
with 3 kN
No change in
tension, not
clear when
dredge left
sea bottom
14:12
9
14:16
9-10 ->
13
14:23
12
15:08
11
15:15
0.3
89 16’20”
60 12’42”
2880
2931
very
unstable
depth
from MB
3600
2859
0.3
2300
2623
11
Increa
sing
from
0.3 to
1.5
2000
89 15’55”
60 20’37”
2607
15:18
13
1.5
1800
89 15’54”
60 21’04”
2586
15:32
12
760
89 15’49”
60 22’35”
2433
98
89 15’47”
60 23’30”
2511
89 15’43”
60 24’43”
2517
89 15’37”
60 26’56”
2463
Dyneema at
surface
15:38
Weight out of
water
15:48
Only steel
wire left
15:53
Dredge on
deck
16:08
Estimate of material in dredge: 200 kg + (a lot of mud)
Number of sample bags: 10 + 1 large stone
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