English - SEBU8191
SEBU8191-01
November 2011
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
4012-46A Industrial Engine
S12 (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8191-01
Table of Contents
3
Table of Contents
Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 74
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Safety Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 5
General Hazard Information ................................... 5
Burn Prevention ...................................................... 7
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 7
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .......... 9
Mounting and Dismounting ..................................... 9
Before Starting Engine .......................................... 10
Engine Starting ..................................................... 10
Engine Stopping ................................................... 10
Electrical System ................................................... 11
Engine Electronics ................................................. 11
Product Information Section
General Information .............................................. 12
Model Views ......................................................... 13
Product Identification Information ........................ 17
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 19
Features and Controls .......................................... 20
Engine Starting ..................................................... 23
Engine Operation .................................................. 25
Engine Stopping ................................................... 26
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 27
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 40
Warranty Section
Warranty Information ............................................ 73
4
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions.
In addition, this section identifies hazardous,
warning situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
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Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of
the original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual except
for the interval and the maintenance items in that
interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by
Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience
a major engine failure, there are also numerous
after failure overhaul options available. Consult with
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
SEBU8191-01
5
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
(2) Hot Coolant
i03835895
Safety Messages
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loose the cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off of the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your
distributor can provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Illustration 2
g01231165
i02328435
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
General Hazard Information
Illustration 3
Illustration 1
g01231164
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you
repair the equipment.
6
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
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When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Illustration 4
g00702020
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Report all necessary repairs.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Illustration 5
g00687600
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the
OEM information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.
Always use a board or cardboard when you check
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Pressure Air and Water
Containing Fluid Spillage
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting
fluids.
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7
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
• Only use the tools that are suitable for containing
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing
fluids.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
i02334785
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine.
Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance is
performed on the engine.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
i02320721
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60
seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or in
the cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Illustration 6
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your
Perkins distributor for additional information about
suitable protection devices.
8
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
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Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
manual for more information.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Illustration 7
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60
seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses
must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must
have adequate support and secure clamps.
Illustration 8
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
SEBU8191-01
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
9
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an
explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers
(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Lines, Tubes and Hoses
Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i02235492
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
Mounting and Dismounting
• High pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area
before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
• End fittings are displaced.
Face the engine in order to mount the engine or
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
controls as handholds.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
parts, and excessive heat.
Do not stand on components which cannot support
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.
• Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
10
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
SEBU8191-01
i02813489
Before Starting Engine
Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i02414669
Engine Starting
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
is working correctly, check the water temperature
gauge (if equipped) and/or the oil temperature gauge
(if equipped) during the heater operation.
Note: Do not use Lube oil heaters.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
i02414676
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping” in order to avoid overheating of the engine
and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button ONLY in an
emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an
engine that has been overhauled. In the event of
an overspeed condition, the air shutoff valves will
operate. After operation, the air shutoff valves must
be manually reset.
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11
Safety Section
Electrical System
i02414678
Electrical System
• Setpoint adjusters (if equipped)
• Sensors
• Wiring Harness
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the negative “−” terminal of
the starting motor.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that
are loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with
a wire that is adequate to handle the full charging
current of the alternator.
i02414684
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
The engine is controlled by a digital Pandoras
governor. The control system includes the following
components.
• Control unit
• Actuator
System Description
The system is controlled by an Electronic control Unit
(ECU). The ECU contains a microprocessor that has
an Electronic Programmable Read Only Memory
(EPROM). The operating parameters for the governor
are stored in the EPROM. The actuator is connected
to the fuel injectors via a mechanical linkage.
A laptop computer is used to set the operating
parameters of the governor. The laptop computer is
connected to the governor via an interface cable. The
operating parameters for the governor should only be
modified by a trained Perkins representative. Refer to
the Special Instruction, “Pandoras Digital Governor”
for more information.
12
Product Information Section
General Information
SEBU8191-01
Product Information
Section
General Information
i02640420
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order
to avoid damage to the engine's ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the component. If removal of the component is not possible,
the following procedure must be followed when you
weld with a unit that is equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld a component. This procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage to
electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
3. Disconnect the connectors from the ECM.
Illustration 9
g01324562
Use the example above. The current flow from the welder to
the ground clamp of the welder will not cause damage to any
associated components.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Engine
Welding rod
Keyswitch in the OFF position
Battery disconnect switch in the open position
Disconnected battery cables
Battery
Electrical/Electronic component
Maximum distance between the component that is being
welded and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
4. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to bearings,
hydraulic components, electrical components, and
ground straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used
as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
5. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
and spatter.
6. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
SEBU8191-01
13
Product Information Section
Model Views
Model Views
i03754026
Model View Illustrations
4012-46A
The following model views show typical features of
the engine. Due to individual applications, engines
may appear different from the Illustrations.
Note: Only serviced components are identified on
the following Illustrations.
14
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8191-01
g02090055
Illustration 10
Typical example
Left side view of engine
(1) Radiator cap
(2) Thermostat housing
(3) Coolant temperature switch
(4) Air cleaner
(5) Restriction indicator for air cleaner
(6) Air shutoff valve
(7) Timing inspection hole
(8) Inspection covers for crankcase
(9) 3x Oil filters
(10) Oil cooler
(11) Oil drain plug
(12) Oil level gauge
(13) Oil filler
(14) Crankshaft damper
(15) Engine crankcase breather
SEBU8191-01
15
Product Information Section
Model Views
g02090056
Illustration 11
Typical example
Right side view of engine
(1) Air shutoff valve
(2) Restriction indicator for air cleaner
(3) Air cleaner
(4) Electronic governor control unit
(5) Coolant temperature switch
(6) Thermostat housing
(7) Aftercooler
(8) Radiator
(9) Engine crankcase breather
(10) Alternator
(11) Primary fuel filter/water separator
(12) Oil pump
i03754051
Engine Description
The 4012-46A Engine model is designed for power
generation. The engine is available with turbocharged
aftercooled aspiration.
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
Fuel priming pump
Oil pan drain plug
Oil cooler
3x Oil filters
Starter relay
2x Starting motors
Engine Specifications
Note: The number 1 cylinders are to the front. The
front of the engine is farthest from the flywheel.
Bank A cylinders are on the right-hand side of the
engine. Bank B cylinders are on the left-hand side of
the engine. To determine the left and right sides of
the engine, stand behind the flywheel and face the
dampers.
16
Product Information Section
Model Views
SEBU8191-01
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gear-driven
pump. The lubrication oil is cooled and filtered.
Bypass valves provide unrestricted flow of lubrication
oil to the engine parts when oil viscosity is high.
Bypass valves can also provide unrestricted flow
of lubrication oil to the engine parts if the oil filter
element should become plugged.
g01210840
Illustration 12
4012-46A Engine model
(A)
(B)
(X)
(Y)
Bank
Bank
Inlet valves
Exhaust valves
Table 1
4012-46A Engine Specifications
Cycle
4 Stroke
Number of
Cylinders
12
Configuration
Vee-form
Bore
160 mm (6.299 inch)
Stroke
190 mm (7.480 inch)
Displacement
45.84 L (2797.328 in3)
Compression
Ratio
13:1
Rotation
(flywheel end)
Counterclockwise
Firing Order
1A-6B-5A-2B-3A-4B-6A-1B-2A5B-4A-3B
Inlet Valve Lash
(Cold)
0.40 mm (0.016 inch)
Exhaust Valve
Lash (Cold)
0.40 mm (0.016 inch)
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
• Gear-driven water pumps
• Water temperature regulators which regulate the
engine coolant temperature
• Gear-driven oil pump (gear type)
• Oil coolers
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
SEBU8191-01
17
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Product Identification
Information
Table 3
Type of engine (Diesel)
F
TG
L
TAG
A
TAG1
B
TAG2
D
TAG3
M
TWG
Engine Identification
K
TWG2
N
TWG3
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
P
TRG1
R
TEG2
S
TEG3
W
TRW2
X
TRW3
i03754093
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
A typical example of an engine serial number is
DGB M**** U00001V.
D _________________________________________Made in Stafford
G ____________________________________Application (Table 2)
Table 4
B ________________________________Type of engine (Table 3)
M ________________________Number of cylinders (Table 4)
***** __________________________________Fixed build number
U ____________________________Built in the United Kingdom
00001 ____________________________________Engine Number
V _____________________________________Year of Manufacture
Table 2
Application
G
Genset
Number of Cylinders
F
6
H
8
M
12
R
16
Perkins dealers and Perkins distributors require all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included in the engine. This permits
accurate identification of replacement part numbers.
18
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
SEBU8191-01
Serial Number Plate
Illustration 13
g01266904
Serial number plate
The engine serial number plate contains the following
information:
• Place of manufacture
• Telephone number of manufacturer
• Fax number of manufacturer
• Type of engine
• Engine serial number
• Rated speed
• Power output
• Engine timing
• Rating
Illustration 14
g01229580
The location of the serial number plate for vee-form engines
The serial number plate (1) on a vee-form engine is
located on the rear face of the cylinder block (bank
A). See Illustration 14.
SEBU8191-01
19
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
Operation Section
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes
that are on the engine. If necessary, remove engine
components in order to avoid damage from the lifting
device.
Lifting and Storage
i02414727
Engine Lifting
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that correct lifting devices are provided. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding fixtures for correct engine
lifting.
i03781209
Engine Storage
Refer to Perkins Engine Company Limited, Stafford,
ST16 3UB for information on engine storage.
There are three different levels of engine storage.
Level “A, B and C”.
Level “A ”
Level “A” will give protection for 12 months for diesel
engines and for gas engines. This level is used for
engines that are transported in a container or by a
truck.
Level “B ”
This level is additional to level “A”. Level “B ” will
give protection under normal conditions of storage
from −15° to +55°C (5° to 99°F) and “90%” relative
humidity, for a maximum of 2 year.
Level “C ”
This level is additional to level “B”. Level “C” will
give protection for five years in tropical or in arctic
climates. Level “C” also meets MOD NES 724
Level “J” for Europe, when engines are stored in an
unheated building or in the open under a waterproof
cover.
Illustration 15
g01230422
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use a
lifting beam (A) to lift the engine. All supporting
members (chains and cables) should be parallel
to each other. The chains and cables should be
perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
20
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8191-01
Features and Controls
i02415217
Monitoring System
The engine is equipped with sensors or switches to
monitor the following parameters:
• Coolant temperature (Switch)
• Oil pressure (Switch)
• Intake manifold boost pressure (Sensor)
• Exhaust temperature (if equipped)
• Engine speed (Sensor)
Illustration 16
• Engine overspeed (Sensor or Switch)
g01231519
Right side view of engine
i02415219
Sensors and Electrical
Components
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Electronic control unit (ECU)
Coolant temperature switch
Boost pressure sensor
Speed sensor
Oil pressure switch
Sensor Locations
Illustrations 16 and 17 show the typical locations
of the sensors on the engine. Specific engines
may appear different from the illustrations due to
differences in applications. Illustration 16 shows the
location of the Electronic Control Unit (ECU).
Illustration 17
Left side view of engine
(2)
(3)
(5)
(6)
Coolant temperature switch
Boost pressure sensor
Oil pressure switch
Overspeed sensor
g01231520
SEBU8191-01
21
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Coolant Temperature Switches
Illustration 18
g01231514
Speed Sensor
Illustration 20
g01231517
Coolant temperature switch
Speed sensor
The coolant temperature switches (2) monitor the
engine coolant temperature. The switches are
supplied for connecting to an OEM supplied panel.
The speed sensor (4) should be serviced at
the required maintenance interval. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Speed Sensor,
Clean/Inspect”.
Boost Pressure Sensors
Failure of the Speed Sensor
If the ECU (1) does not receive a signal from the
speed sensor (4), the engine cannot run.
If the ECU does not receive a signal from the speed
sensor (4), the engine will shut down. A faulty speed
sensor should be replaced.
Note: Intermittent failure of the speed sensor will
cause the engine to run erratically. This may also
cause overspeed.
Illustration 19
g01231515
Boost pressure sensor
The boost pressure sensor (3) measures the
pressure in the inlet air manifold. A signal is sent to
the ECU (1).
22
Operation Section
Features and Controls
SEBU8191-01
Engine Oil Pressure Switch
Illustration 21
g01278615
Engine oil pressure switch
The engine oil pressure switch (5) is mounted in the
main oil gallery. The engine oil pressure switches are
supplied for connecting to an OEM supplied panel (1).
Overspeed Sensor
Illustration 22
g01231518
Overspeed sensor
The signal from the overspeed sensor (6) is
connected to the overspeed switch or the overspeed
circuit in the OEM supplied panel.
SEBU8191-01
23
Operation Section
Engine Starting
Engine Starting
i02415220
Before Starting Engine
Before the engine is started, perform the required
daily maintenance and any other periodic
maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” for more information.
Note: Do not start the engine or move any of the
controls if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning
tag or similar warning tag attached to the start switch
or to the controls.
b. Turn the keyswitch to the START position.
Hold the keyswitch in this position until
the oil pressure gauge indicates 100 kPa
(14.5040 psi). Continue to hold the keyswitch
in the START position for an additional 10
seconds.
Note: The keyswitch is part of the OEM supplied
panel. The exact procedure for starting may vary.
Refer to OEM supplied instructions for the correct
starting procedure.
c. Turn the keyswitch to the STOP position.
d. Reconnect the speed pickup connector.
The engine is now ready to run.
i02415221
1. Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
Starting the Engine
2. If the engine has not been started for several
weeks, fuel may have drained from the fuel
system. Also, when fuel filters have been changed,
some air pockets will be trapped in the engine.
In these instances, prime the fuel system. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
System - Prime” for more information.
Normal Engine Starting Procedure
Note: When possible, ensure that the engine is not
started under load.
1. Turn the keyswitch to the START position. The
engine should start immediately.
2. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
If the engine does not start after 10 seconds,
return the keyswitch in the RUN position for 10
seconds. Then repeat Steps 1 and 2.
Note: If the engine fails to start after three attempts,
investigate the cause.
Illustration 23
g01230837
3. Ensure that the two air shutoff valves (1) are in
the OPEN position.
4. If the engine has not been started for more than
three months, the engine oil system must be
primed. Follow Steps 4.a through 4.d in order to
prime the engine oil system.
a. Ensure that the governor stays in the STOP
position by disconnecting the speed pickup
connector on the governor control.
3. After the engine has started follow Steps 3.a
through 3.d.
a. Check the oil pressure.
b. Inspect the engine for leaks.
c. Ensure that the batteries for the engine are
receiving a charge.
d. After the engine has run for five minutes, check
the engine monitoring systems. Ensure that the
engine is operating correctly before the load
is applied.
24
Operation Section
Engine Starting
SEBU8191-01
i02415223
Cold Weather Starting
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Startability will be improved at temperatures below
+10 °C (+50 °F) from the use of a jacket water heater
or extra battery capacity.
SEBU8191-01
25
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i02415226
Fuel Conservation Practices
i02415225
Engine Operation
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
Gauge readings (if equipped) should be observed
and the data should be recorded frequently while
the engine is operating. Comparing the data over
time will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in order to attain optimum performance for the life
of the engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel. Fuel expands when the fuel is
warmed up. The fuel may overflow from the fuel
tank. Inspect fuel lines for leaks. Repair the fuel
lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels.
• Avoid unnecessary running at a low load. If the
engine is not under load, the engine should be
shut down.
• Observe the air cleaner service indicator frequently.
The air cleaner elements should be replaced when
the air cleaner elements are dirty.
• Maintain the electrical systems. One damaged
battery cell will overwork the alternator. This will
consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted.
The drive belts should be in good condition.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
26
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
SEBU8191-01
Engine Stopping
i02415231
After Stopping Engine
i02415227
Stopping the Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Allow the
engine to run off load for five minutes in order to
cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position.
If necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
i02415230
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
controls for normal stopping procedure.
The engine should be equipped with an emergency
stop button. For more information about the
emergency stop button, refer to the OEM information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
In the event of an overspeed condition, the air shutoff
valves will operate. After operation, the air shutoff
valves must be manually reset.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that
is in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the engine oil level gauge.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks from the low pressure fuel system and
from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Coolant Specifications that are in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual. Failure to do so can cause
engine damage.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• Check the coolant for correct antifreeze protection
and the correct corrosion protection. Add the
correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
SEBU8191-01
27
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
Table 7
Engine
Refill Capacities
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
i03754130
Minimum Capacity of Fuel
Tank
4012-46A
14000 L (3000 Imp gal)
Refill Capacities
i04328169
Fluid Recommendations
Lubrication System
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Section” for more information on
Lubricant Specifications.
General Lubricant Information
Table 5
The “Engine Manufacturers Association
Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil” is
recognized by Perkins. For detailed information
about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA
publication, “EMA DHD -1”.
Engine
Refill Capacities
4012-46A
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
(1)
178 L (39.2 Imp gal)
These values are the total capacities for the crankcase oil
sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters
and oil coolers. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require
additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity
of the auxiliary oil filter.
Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will be
needed in order to determine the amount of coolant
and antifreeze that is required for the Total Cooling
System.
The following lubricant recommendations must be
followed.
Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)
Oils
API Oils
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the “API publication
No. 1509”. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
authorized by API.
Table 6
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
External System Per
(1)
Liters
OEM(1)
The External System includes a radiator with the following
components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM
specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of the External
System in this column.
Illustration 24
g00546535
Typical API symbol
Fuel System
Refer to the OEM specifications for additional
information on the capacity of the Fuel System.
Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have
not been API authorized classifications since 1
January 1996. Table 8 summarizes the status of the
classifications.
28
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8191-01
Table 8
API Classifications
Current
Obsolete
CH-4, , CI-4
CE, CC, CD
(1)
CD-2
(1)
The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Perkins does not
sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil.
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
“SAE J754”. Some classifications follow “SAE J183”
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
“EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine
Oil”. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found
in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/Engine
Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
The performance of commercial diesel engine
oils is based on American Petroleum Institute
(API) classifications. These API classifications are
developed in order to provide commercial lubricants
for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at
various conditions.
Only use commercial oils that meet the following
classifications:
• API CG-4
• API CH-4
• API CI-4
In order to make the correct choice of a commercial
oil, refer to the following explanations:
EMA DHD-1 – The Engine Manufacturers
Association (EMA) has developed lubricant
recommendations as an alternative to the API oil
classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended
Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for
these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke
cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may
be used in Perkins engines when the following oils
are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API
CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior
performance in comparison to API CG-4 and API
CF-4.
DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance
Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many
applications. The tests and the test limits that are
used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API
CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also
meet the requirements for diesel engines that require
low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the
harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance
and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.
These oils will also provide superior piston deposit
control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons
or aluminum pistons.
All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program
with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of
the finished commercial oil. The use of “API Base
Oil Interchange Guidelines” are not appropriate for
DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in
performance that can occur when base stocks are
changed in commercial oil formulations.
DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change interval programs that optimize the life of the
oil. These oil change interval programs are based
on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for
conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
API CH-4 – API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of the new high performance
diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to
meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel
engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use
in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that
use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be
used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API
CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the
performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:
deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear
of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control,
and corrosion.
Three new engine tests were developed for the API
CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits
on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.
This test (piston deposit) also measures the control
of oil consumption. A second test is conducted
with moderate oil soot. The second test measures
the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of
cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third
new test measures the following characteristics with
high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,
resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter, and
control of sludge.
SEBU8191-01
29
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have
tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that
generate high soot. The oils also have improved
oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an
additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use
aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is
also established for engines that operate in areas
with high sulfur diesel fuel.
All of these improvements allow the API CH-4
oil to achieve optimum oil change intervals. API
CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended
for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
Some commercial oils that meet the API
classifications may require reduced oil change
intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely
monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear
metal analysis.
NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or
excessive wear.
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel
Engines
The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on
the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that
use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil
must be ten times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is
defined by “ASTM D2896”. The minimum TBN of the
oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 25
demonstrates the TBN.
Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that
exceed 1.5 percent:
• Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one
of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.
• Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil
change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the
oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and a
wear metal analysis.
Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil
with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss
of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing
of the cylinder bore.
NOTICE
Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel
sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened
oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate
wear protection.
Table 9
Percentage of Sulfur in
the fuel
Oil change interval
Lower than 0.5
Normal
0.5 to 1.0
0.75 of normal
Greater than 1.0
0.50 of normal
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during
cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to Table 10 (minimum temperature) in order
to determine the required oil viscosity for starting a
cold engine.
Refer to Table 10 (maximum temperature) in order
to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
Illustration 25
g00799818
(Y) TBN by “ASTM D2896”
(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight
(1) TBN of new oil
(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of
the original TBN.
30
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
SEBU8191-01
Lubricants for Cold Weather
Table 10
Engine Oil Viscosity
EMA LRG-1
API CH-4
Viscosity Grade
Ambient Starting
Temperature
SAE 10W30
Temperatures below
−15 °C (5 °F)
SAE 15W40
−15 °C (5 °F) to
0 °C (32. °F)
SAE 15W40
0 °C (32. °F) to
32 °C (89.5 °F)
SAE 15W40
Temperatures above
32 °C (89.5 °F)
Synthetic Base Stock Oils
Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in
these engines if these oils meet the performance
requirements that are specified for the engine.
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than
conventional oils in the following two areas:
• Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low
When an engine is started and an engine is operated
in ambient temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F), use
multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low
temperatures.
These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE
10W or SAE 15W.
When an engine is started and operated in ambient
temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F), use a synthetic
base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade
or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour
point that is lower than −50 °C (−58 °F).
The number of acceptable lubricants is limited
in cold-weather conditions. Perkins recommends
the following lubricants for use in cold-weather
conditions:
First Choice – Use oil with an EMA DHD-1
Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has
an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20,
SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40
lubricant viscosity grade.
• Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation
Second Choice – Use an oil that has a CH-4
additive package. Although the oil has not been
tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil
must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,
SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40.
Some synthetic base oils have performance
characteristics that enhance the service life of the
oil. Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil.
NOTICE
Shortened engine service life could result if second
choice oils are used.
Re-refined Base Stock Oils
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for
use in Perkins engines if these oils meet the
performance requirements that are specified by
Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils can be used
exclusively in finished oil or in a combination with
new base stock oils. The US military specifications
and the specifications of other heavy equipment
manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base
stock oils that meet the same criteria.
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the maximum service life
of the engine or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
The process that is used to make re-refined base
stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals
that are in the used oil and all the additives that
are in the used oil. The process that is used to
make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the
process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the
used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of
high quality, re-refined base stock oil.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
not be compatible with the additive package of the
finished oil, which could lower the performance of
the finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to
mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge
in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
temperatures especially in arctic conditions.
stability especially at high operating temperatures.
SEBU8191-01
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
• Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets
31
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
• Cetane number_______________________________________50
• Viscosity___________ 1.5 to 5.0 cSt at 40 °C (104 °F)
the “EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel
Engine Oil” or the recommended API classification.
• Carbon residue__________________________________0.20%
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities” table in
• Sulfur content___________ 0.05% of mass, maximum
order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine.
Ramsbottom on 10% reidue
• Distillation___________________56% at 350 °C (662 °F)
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
• Lubricity______________________________460 micrometers
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
Class A2 Fuels
new oil and install a new oil filter.
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
maximum wear scar on “ISO 12156 - 1”
• Cetane number_______________________________________45
Oil analysis
• Viscosity___________ 1.5 to 5.5 cSt at 40 °C (104 °F)
Oil samples should be taken on a regular basis for oil
analysis. Oil analysis will complement the preventive
maintenance program.
• Carbon residue__________________________________0.20%
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using the oil analysis. The oil analysis includes
the following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
metals in the engine. The amount of wear metal
and type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed.
The increase in the rate of engine wear metal in
the oil is as important as the quantity of engine
wear metal in the oil.
Ramsbottom on 10% reidue
• Sulfur content___________ 0.05% of mass, maximum
• Distillation___________________56% at 350 °C (662 °F)
• Lubricity______________________________460 micrometers
maximum wear scar on “ISO 12156 - 1”
Cetane number
This indicates the properties of ignition of the fuel.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root
cause of problems during cold start. This will affect
combustion.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
Viscosity
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss
This is the resistance to flow of a fluid. If this
resistance is outside the limits, the engine and the
engine starting performance in particular can be
affected.
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
of the lubricating properties of the oil. An infrared
analysis is used to compare the properties of
new oil to the properties of the used oil sample.
This analysis allows technicians to determine
the amount of deterioration of the oil during use.
This analysis also allows technicians to verify the
performance of the oil according to the specification
during the entire oil change interval.
Sulfur
Fuel Specifications
High sulfur content of the fuel is not normally found
in Europe, North America or Australasia. This can
cause engine wear. When only high sulfur fuels
are available, it will be necessary that high alkaline
lubricating oil is used in the engine or that the
lubricating oil change interval is reduced.
Fuel Recommendations
Distillation
To get the correct power and performance from
the engine, use a fuel of the correct quality. The
recommended fuel specification for Perkins engines
is shown below:
This is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Class A1 Fuels
Lubricity
32
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump wear.
Diesel engines have the ability to burn various fuels.
These fuels are divided into two general groups:
• Group 1 (preferred fuels)
• Group 2 (permissible fuels)
Group 1 (preferred fuels): Specification
“DERV to EN590”
Note: Only use Arctic fuels when the temperature is
below 0 °C (32 °F). Do not use Arctic fuels when the
ambient temperature is above 0 °C (32 °F). To ensure
that the time period between cranking the engine and
first fire is kept to a minimum, only use fuel of the
correct viscosity and at the correct temperature.
Gas oil to “BS29 Class A2”
Note: If low sulfur or low sulfur aromatic fuels are
used, then fuel additives can be used to increase
lubricity.
Group 2 (permissible fuels): Specification
These fuel specifications are considered acceptable
for issues of warranty. However, these fuels may
reduce the life of the engine, the maximum power of
the engine and the fuel efficiency of the engine.
SEBU8191-01
• Deterioration of emissions and misfire at certain
operating conditions
NOTICE
Water emulsion fuels: These fuels are not permitted
Refer to the following fuel specifications for
North America.
The preferred fuels provide maximum engine service
life and performance. The preferred fuels are distillate
fuels. These fuels are commonly called diesel fuel
or gas oil.
The permissible fuels are crude oils or blended fuels.
Use of these fuels can result in higher maintenance
costs and in reduced engine service life.
Diesel fuels that meet the specifications in Table
11 will help to provide maximum engine service life
and performance. In North America, diesel fuel that
is identified as No. 2-D in “ASTM D975” generally
meets the specifications. Table 11 is for diesel fuels
that are distilled from crude oil. Diesel fuels from
other sources could exhibit detrimental properties
that are not defined or controlled by this specification.
Table 11
Perkins Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel
Specifications
Requirements
ASTM Test
Aromatics
35% maximum
“D1319”
Ash
0.02% maximum
(weight)
“D482”
Carbon Residue
on 10% Bottoms
0.35% maximum
(weight)
“D524”
NOTICE
These fuels should have a wear scar value of 650
micrometers maximum *HFRR to ISO 12156 - 1.*
Cetane Number
40 minimum (DI
engines)
“D613”
Low temperature fuels
Cloud Point
The cloud
point must not
exceed the
lowest expected
ambient
temperature.
-
“ASTM D975 - 91 Class 1D”
“JP7, Mil T38219”
“NATO F63”
Special fuels for use in cold weather may be available
for engine operation at temperatures below 0 °C
(32 °F). These fuels limit the formation of wax in the
fuel oil at low temperatures. If wax forms in the fuel
oil, this could stop the flow of fuel oil through the filter.
Note: These fuels that lack lubricity may cause the
following problems:
• Low engine power
• Difficult starting in hot conditions or in cold
conditions
• White smoke
(continued)
SEBU8191-01
33
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
(Table 11, contd)
Copper Strip
Corrosion
Distillation
Flash Point
API Gravity
Pour Point
Sulfur
No. 3 maximum
10% at 282 °C
(540 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C
(680 °F)
maximum
legal limit
30 minimum
45 maximum
6 °C (10 °F)
minimum
below ambient
temperature
0.2% maximum
(1)
Kinematic
Viscosity (2)
2.0 cSt minimum
and 4.5 cSt
maximum at
40 °C (104 °F)
“D130”
“D86”
“D93”
“D287”
“D3605”
or
“D1552”
“D445”
Water
0.1% maximum
“D1744”
Sediment
0.05% maximum
(weight)
“D473”
Lubricity (4)
(1)
In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the
distillate fuels that are specified in Table 12. However,
the fuel that is selected must meet the requirements
that are specified in Table 11. These fuels are
intended to be used in operating temperatures that
are down to −54 °C (−65 °F).
Table 12
Distillate Fuels
0.1% maximum
(3)
NOTICE
Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Residual fuel, or Blended fuel
must NOT be used in Perkins diesel engines. Severe
component wear and component failures will result if
HFO type fuels are used in engines that are configured
to use distillate fuel.
“D97”
Water and
Sediment
Gum and Resins
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, deposits in the combustion chamber, and reduced service life of the engine.
“D1796”
10 mg per 100
mL maximum
“D381”
0.38 mm
(0.015 inch)
maximum at
25 °C (77 °F)
“D6079”
Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate
on high sulfur fuels. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust
emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential
for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels
above 0.5 percent may significantly shorten the oil change
interval. For additional information, see this publication, “Fluid
Recommendations/Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
(2) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel
is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. If a fuel with a low
viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain
a 1.4 cSt viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high
viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to bring down the
viscosity to a 20 cSt viscosity.
(3) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(4) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur fuel. To
determine the lubricity of the fuel, use either the “ASTM D6078
Scuffing Load Wear Test (SBOCLE)” or the “ASTM D6079 High
Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a
fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your
fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel
supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives
can cause problems in the fuel system.
(1)
(1)
Specification
Grade
“MIL-T-5624R”
JP-5
“ASTM D1655”
Jet-A-1
“MIL-T-83133D”
JP-8
The fuels that are listed in this Table may not meet the
requirements that are specified in the “Perkins Specifications
for Distillate Diesel Fuel” Table. Consult the supplier for the
recommended additives in order to maintain the correct fuel
lubricity.
These fuels are lighter than the No. 2 grades of fuel.
The cetane number of the fuels in Table 12 must be
at least 40. If the viscosity is below 1.4 cSt at 38 °C
(100 °F), use the fuel only in temperatures below
0 °C (32 °F). Do not use any fuels with a viscosity
of less than 1.2 cSt at 38 °C (100 °F). Fuel cooling
may be required in order to maintain the minimum
viscosity of 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not
review all the requirements that are addressed
in this specification. To ensure optimum engine
performance, a complete fuel analysis should be
obtained before engine operation. The fuel analysis
should include all of the properties that are listed in
Table 11.
34
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Recommendations for Biodiesel
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM
D975-09a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification EN590:
2010 includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Specification Requirements
SEBU8191-01
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using biodiesel
or biodiesel blends is related to the typically
lower volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder emissions
control strategies utilized in many of the industrial
latest engine designs may lead to a higher level
of biodiesel concentration in the sump. There is
recent evidence that the unburnt fuel can form
“treacle” like deposits in the engine oil pan. If left to
accumulate the deposits have been shown to block
oil ways leading to engine failure. This reinforces
the need to operate a reduced oil change interval.
• Perkins recommend the use of oil analysis in order
to check the quality of the engine oil if biodiesel
fuel is used. Ensure that the level of biodiesel in
the fuel is noted when the oil sample is taken.
The neat biodiesel must conform to the latest
“EN14214 or ASTM D6751” (in the USA). The
biodiesel can only be blended in mixture of up to
20% by volume in acceptable mineral diesel fuel
meeting latest edition of “EN590 or ASTM D975 S15”
designation.
Performance Related Issues
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause
an increase in fuel system deposits, most significant
of which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends
must be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel
that is BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines to be released
and entrained in the fuel. This effectively cleans
the fuel system. This cleaning of the fuel system
can prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommend that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss. In addition,
over time the power may deteriorate further due to
deposits in the fuel injectors.
• The engine may be difficult to start in cold
conditions.
• The turbochargers may have a reduced service life.
• The engine emissions can deteriorate.
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, while accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby Generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
SEBU8191-01
Perkins strongly recommended that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate anti-microbial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate
fuels, water is naturally more likely to exist in the
biodiesel. It is therefore essential to check frequently
and if necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, lead, tin,
and zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the
biodiesel fuel. The oxidation process can cause
deposits formation therefore these materials must not
be used for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
Cooling System Specifications
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Overheating of the engine
35
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives, and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table
13.
Table 13
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
• Foaming of the coolant
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Local water utility company
• Agricultural agent
• Independent laboratory
36
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Overconcentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
• Reduction of heat transfer
• Leakage of the water pump seal
SEBU8191-01
Table 14
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
111 °C (232 °F)
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
Table 15
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze
Protection
Anti-Boil
Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
106 °C (223 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
engines:
Glycol
Preferred – Perkins Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty coolant that
meets “ASTM D6210” specifications
• Boiling
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive applications.
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −13° C (8.6° F).
Most conventional coolants use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. See
Tables 14 and 15.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as a coolant. This
ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if extra
freezing protection is required.
A mixture of Supplement Coolant Additive (SCA)
and water is acceptable. Perkins recommends
a six percent to eight percent concentration of
SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or
deionized water is preferred. Water which has the
recommended properties may be used.
SEBU8191-01
37
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Engines that are operating in an ambient temperature
above 43 °C (109.4 °F) must use SCA and water.
Engines that operate in an ambient temperature
above 43 °C (109.4 °F) and below 0 °C (32 °F) due
to seasonal variations consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for the correct level of
protection.
Table 16
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or
Three Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Coolant that meets
“ASTM D6210”
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Commercial SCA and
Water
3000 Service Hours or
Two Years
Extended Life Coolant (ELC)
Perkins provides Extended Life Coolant (ELC) for
use in the following applications:
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Use only Perkins Extender with Extended Life
Coolant.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling system components life unless appropriate corrective action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between
the coolant and the additives, you must maintain
the recommended concentration of Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Lowering the proportion of coolant
lowers the proportion of additive. This will lower the
ability of the coolant to protect the system from pitting,
from cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC
has been formulated with the correct amount of
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a 1:1 premixed cooling solution
with distilled water. The Premixed ELC provides
freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F). The Premixed
ELC is recommended for the initial fill of the cooling
system. The Premixed ELC is also recommended for
topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the
part numbers.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA). Only use ELC Extender in cooling systems that
are filled with ELC.
NOTICE
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at
the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
agents are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
After the cooling system is drained and after the
cooling system is refilled, operate the engine while
the cooling system filler cap is removed. Operate
the engine until the coolant level reaches the normal
operating temperature and until the coolant level
stabilizes. As needed, add the coolant mixture in
order to fill the system to the specified level.
38
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty coolant to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are
contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use an appropriate cleaner to clean the system.
Follow the instruction on the label.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the system is
completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
SEBU8191-01
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Use only Perkins ELC extender with
Perkins ELC. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty
coolant or SCA. If the contamination exceeds ten
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable
container according to local regulations. Then, fill
the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should
lower the contamination to less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrision protection system must
not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature regulators.
Check the coolant (glycol concentration) in order
to ensure adequate protection against boiling
or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested
at 500 hour intervals for the concentration of
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA).
SEBU8191-01
39
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant
at the Initial Fill
Use the equation that is in Table 17 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required when the cooling
system is initially filled.
Table 20 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 19.
Table 20
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Table 17
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant At The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 18 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 17.
Table 18
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume
of the Cooling
System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty coolant of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the coolant periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Test the
concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
test. The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 19 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 19
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Coolant
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
40
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
SEBU8191-01
i03789769
Maintenance Interval Schedule
Governor Actuator - Check ................................... 64
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect .............................. 68
Every 5000 Service Hours
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust ................................ 60
When Required
Battery - Replace ..................................................
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ..................
Engine - Clean ......................................................
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace .................
Engine Oil Filter (Auxiliary) - Change ...................
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ..................................
Fuel System - Prime .............................................
Overhaul (Major) ...................................................
Overhaul (Top End) ...............................................
Severe Service Application - Check .....................
43
44
53
53
55
57
60
65
66
67
Daily
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................
Driven Equipment - Check ....................................
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect .....
Engine Oil Level - Check ......................................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ...................................................................
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
52
52
54
56
62
71
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 62
Initial 100 Service Hours
Alternator Pulley - Check ...................................... 42
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 59
Fan Drive Pulley - Check ...................................... 59
Every 500 Service Hours
Engine Oil Filter (Auxiliary) - Change ................... 55
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. 57
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
Actuator Control Linkage - Lubricate ....................
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ...............................
Aftercooler Core - Inspect .....................................
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check ..........................
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ..............................
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ..............................
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean .....................
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ......................
Fuel System Filter - Replace ................................
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ..................
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
41
41
42
43
44
46
54
59
61
64
67
Every Year
Cooling System Coolant - Change ....................... 49
Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 55
Engine Protective Devices - Check ...................... 59
Every 7500 Service Hours
Alternator - Inspect ...............................................
Engine Oil Pump - Inspect ....................................
Fuel Transfer Pump (Lift Pump) - Inspect .............
Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................
Turbocharger - Inspect ..........................................
Water Pump - Inspect ...........................................
42
56
63
69
70
72
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 47
SEBU8191-01
41
Maintenance Section
Actuator Control Linkage - Lubricate
i02471679
Actuator Control Linkage Lubricate
i02415235
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
1. Remove the core. Refer to the OEM information
for the correct procedure.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Illustration 26
g01238418
Typical example
2. Pressurized air is the preferred method for
removing loose debris. Direct the air in the
opposite direction of the fan's air flow. Hold the
nozzle approximately 6 mm (.25 inch) away from
the fins. Slowly move the air nozzle in a direction
that is parallel with the tubes. This will remove
debris that is between the tubes.
3. Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning
purposes must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use
pressurized water in order to soften mud. Clean
the core from both sides.
NOTICE
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic cleaner
can attack the internal metals of the core and cause
leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of
cleaner.
4. Back flush the core with a suitable cleaner.
Illustration 27
g01242298
Typical example
The governor actuator (3) is connected to the fuel
injectors by external linkages (1) and by internal
control rods.
The linkages (1) require periodic lubrication of the ball
joints (2). Use clean engine oil in order to lubricate
the ball joints.
5. Steam clean the core in order to remove any
residue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core.
Remove any other trapped debris.
6. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse the
core thoroughly with clean water.
42
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
SEBU8191-01
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
7. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in
the reverse direction of the normal flow.
8. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.
Pressure test the core. If necessary, repair the
core.
9. Install the core. Refer to the OEM information for
the correct procedure.
10. After cleaning, run the engine. This will help in
the removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop
the engine.
i02415236
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of
the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
i02463737
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
Alternator Pulley - Check
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
1. Isolate the electrical supply to the engine.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
After cleaning, start the engine and run the engine.
This will help in the removal of debris and drying of
the core. Stop the engine.
Illustration 28
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
2. Remove the guard (3) in order to gain access to
the drive pulley (1) for the alternator (2).
g01237956
Typical example
SEBU8191-01
43
Maintenance Section
Battery - Replace
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Illustration 29
g01233693
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
Typical example
3. Tighten the grub screws (4) to a torque of 20 N·m
(15 lb ft).
4. Install the guard (3).
5. Restore the electrical supply to the engine.
i02322315
Battery - Replace
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
8. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal.
i02747977
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal injury or death.
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove
all electrical loads.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
44
Maintenance Section
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
SEBU8191-01
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the
positive connection before the negative connector.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
i03755297
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
(Fan Drive Belts)
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
Inspection
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
1. Isolate the electrical supply to the engine.
i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
2. Loosen the fasteners for the air pipes (not shown).
3. Remove the guards (not shown).
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help
prevent accidental starting.
Illustration 30
g02025316
4. Inspect the belts (1) for cracks. Inspect the belts
for contamination. If necessary, replace the belts.
Refer to “Replacement” for more information.
5. The belt tension must be checked at position
A. Use a suitable spring balance and a suitable
straight edge in order to check the belt tension.
6. The belt tension should be 62 N (14 lb) with
a maximum deflection at position B of 16 mm
(0.63 inch).
7. Adjust the belts if the belt tension exceeds 62 N
(14 lb). Refer to “Adjustment” for more information.
8. Tighten the fasteners for the air pipes (not shown)
to a torque of 120 N·m (88.5 lb ft).
SEBU8191-01
45
Maintenance Section
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
Removal of the Fan Drive Belts
9. Install the guards (not shown).
10. Restore the electrical supply to the engine.
Adjustment
1. If necessary, isolate the electrical supply to the
engine. Loosen the fasteners for the air pipes and
remove the guards.
Illustration 32
g01239588
Typical example
1. If necessary, isolate the electrical supply to the
engine. Loosen the fasteners for the air pipes and
remove the guards.
2. Loosen the locknut (4).
Illustration 31
g01239588
2. Loosen the locknut (4).
3. Rotate the rod (3) in order to achieve the correct
tension of belts (1). Refer to “Inspection” for the
correct specification.
4. Tighten the locknut (4) to a torque of 120 N·m
(88.5 lb ft).
5. If necessary, restore the electrical supply to the
engine. Tighten the fasteners for the air pipes and
install the guards.
Replacement
Note: Fan drive belts must be replaced as a set. Do
not replace individual belts.
3. Rotate the rod (3) until the pulley (2) is toward the
center of the engine.
4. Remove the belts (1).
Installation of the Fan Drive Belts
1. Install new belts (1) over the pulleys.
2. Rotate the rod (3) in order to achieve an initial
tension of 77 N (17 lb). The total deflection should
not exceed 16 mm (0.63 inch).
3. Tighten the locknut (4) to a torque of 120 N·m
(88.5 lb ft).
4. Rotate the pulleys for the fan drive belts three to
four revolutions in order to ensure that the fan
drive belts are correctly installed. Ensure that the
tension is still 77 N (17 lb).
5. If necessary, restore the electrical supply to the
engine. Tighten the fasteners for the air pipes and
install the guards.
6. Operate the engine for 15 to 20 minutes. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Starting the
Engine” for the correct procedure.
46
Maintenance Section
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
SEBU8191-01
7. Stop the engine. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Stopping the Engine” for
the correct procedure.
8. If necessary, isolate the electrical supply to the
engine. Loosen the fasteners for the air pipes and
remove the guards.
9. Loosen the locknut (4).
10. Rotate the rod (3) in order to achieve a final
tension of 62 N (14 lb). The total deflection should
not exceed 16 mm (0.63 inch).
11. Tighten the locknut (4) to a torque of 120 N·m
(88.5 lb ft).
12. If necessary, restore the electrical supply to the
engine. Tighten the fasteners for the air pipes and
install the guards.
i03104621
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace
(Alternator Belt)
Illustration 34
g01239310
4. Apply 15.6 N (3.5 lb) of pressure at point (X).
The total deflection should not exceed 1.5 mm
(0.06 inch).
Replace the belt if the total deflection exceeds
1.5 mm (0.06 inch). Refer to “Replacement” for
more information.
5. Install the guard (3) and bolts (2).
6. Restore the electrical supply to the engine.
Inspection
Adjustment
1. Isolate the electrical supply to the engine.
The alternator belt is a toothed belt. The belt tension
is not adjustable. The belt does not require a preload.
Light tension will ensure that the belt is a snug fit on
the pulleys.
Replacement
Removal of the Alternator Belt
1. If necessary, Isolate the electrical supply to the
engine and remove the guards.
Illustration 33
g01233715
Typical example
2. Remove the bolts (2) and remove the guard (3).
3. Inspect the belt (1) for cracks. Inspect the belt
for contamination. If necessary, replace the belt.
Refer to “Replacement” for more information.
SEBU8191-01
47
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
i03845643
Cooling System Coolant (ELC)
- Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
Illustration 35
g01239580
Typical example
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
2. Remove nut (5) and bolt (4).
3. Loosen nut (7) and push the alternator (6) toward
the engine.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
4. Remove the belt (1).
• The engine overheats frequently.
Installation of the Alternator Belt
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
1. Install the belt (1) over the pulleys.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
Note: Ensure that the teeth on the belt are engaged
with the teeth on the pulleys.
2. Pull the alternator (6) away from the engine. Install
bolt (4) and nut (5).
3. Tighten nuts (5) and (7).
4. Check the tension of the belt. Refer to “Inspection”
for the correct procedure.
5. If necessary, restore the electrical supply to the
engine and install the guards.
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pumps and the water
temperature regulators after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pumps, the water temperature regulators,
and the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
48
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change
SEBU8191-01
4. Open the drain cocks or remove the drain plugs
(3) in the oil coolers.
Illustration 36
g01211179
Typical example
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap (1) slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Illustration 39
g02091597
Typical example
5. Open the drain cocks or remove the drain plugs
(5) in the aftercoolers.
6. Allow the coolant to drain.
Illustration 37
g01211160
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
Typical example
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (2)
in the cylinder block.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
3. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on
the radiator.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug (2)
in the cylinder block. Close the drain cock or
install the drain plug on the radiator. Close the
drain cocks or install the drain plugs (3) in the oil
coolers. Close the drain cocks or install the drain
plugs (5) in the aftercoolers.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Illustration 38
Typical example
g01211161
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
SEBU8191-01
49
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant - Change
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water.
If equipped, loosen the vent screws (4) in the
aftercoolers. Fill the cooling system until coolant
free of air flows from the vent screws. Tighten the
vent screws securely.
Install the cooling system filler cap (1).
4. Start the engine. Run the engine until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap (1) slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug (2) in the cylinder block. Open
the drain cock or remove the drain plug on the
radiator. Open the drain cocks or remove the drain
plugs (3) in the oil coolers. Open the drain cocks
or remove the drain plugs (5) in the aftercoolers.
Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling system
with clean water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug (2)
in the cylinder block. Close the drain cock or
install the drain plug on the radiator. Close the
drain cocks or install the drain plugs (3) in the oil
coolers. Close the drain cocks or install the drain
plugs (5) in the aftercoolers.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life
Coolant (ELC). Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information
on cooling system specifications. Do not install
the cooling system filler cap (1).
3. Start the engine. Run the engine in order to purge
the air from the cavities of the engine block. Stop
the engine.
4. Check that the coolant level is within 25 mm
(1.0 inch) of the bottom of the filler pipe.
Illustration 40
g01239656
Typical example
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap (1) and inspect
the seal (2). If the seal is damaged, discard the
old filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the seal
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
replace the filler cap.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
6. Start the engine and run the engine. Inspect the
cooling system for leaks. Ensure that the cooling
system operates at the correct temperature.
i04328029
Cooling System Coolant Change
(Inhibitor)
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
50
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant - Change
SEBU8191-01
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the inhibitor is drained
and replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pumps and the water
temperature regulators after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pumps, the water temperature regulators,
and the hoses, if necessary.
Illustration 42
g01211160
Typical example
Drain
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (2)
in the cylinder block.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
3. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on
the radiator.
Illustration 43
g01211161
Typical example
Illustration 41
g01211179
Typical example
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap (1) slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
4. Open the drain cocks or remove the drain plugs
(3) in the oil coolers.
SEBU8191-01
51
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant - Change
If equipped, loosen the vent screws (4) in the
aftercoolers. Fill the cooling system until coolant
free of air flows from the vent screws. Tighten the
vent screws securely.
Install the cooling system filler cap (1).
4. Start the engine. Run the engine until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap (1) slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug (2) in the cylinder block. Open
the drain cock or remove the drain plug on the
radiator. Open the drain cocks or remove the drain
plugs (3) in the oil coolers. Open the drain cocks
or remove the drain plugs (5) in the aftercoolers.
Allow the water to drain. Flush the cooling system
with clean water.
Illustration 44
g01239623
Typical example
5. Open the drain cocks or remove the drain plugs
(5) in the aftercoolers.
6. Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. When you recycle used engine coolant for
reuse in engine cooling systems, the full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins
Engines Company LTD to reclaim the coolant.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug (2)
in the cylinder block. Close the drain cock or
install the drain plug on the radiator. Close the
drain cocks or install the drain plugs (3) in the oil
coolers. Close the drain cocks or install the drain
plugs (5) in the aftercoolers.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug (2)
in the cylinder block. Close the drain cock or
install the drain plug on the radiator. Close the
drain cocks or install the drain plugs (3) in the oil
coolers. Close the drain cocks or install the drain
plugs (5) in the aftercoolers.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
2. Fill the cooling system with water and inhibitor.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations” topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap (1).
3. Start the engine. Run the engine in order to purge
the air from the cavities of the engine block. Stop
the engine.
4. Check that the coolant level is within 25 mm
(1.0 inch) of the bottom of the filler pipe.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water.
Illustration 45
g01239656
52
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check
SEBU8191-01
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap (1) and inspect
the seal (2). If the seal is damaged, discard the
old filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the seal
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
replace the filler cap.
Illustration 47
Install the cooling system filler cap.
6. Start the engine and run the engine. Inspect the
cooling system for leaks. Ensure that the cooling
system operates at the correct temperature.
i02415245
Cooling System Coolant Level
- Check
g01239656
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap (1) and inspect
the seal (2). If the seal is damaged, discard the
old filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the seal
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
replace the filler cap.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i02151646
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
Illustration 46
g01211179
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap (1) slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level within 25 mm (1.0 inch)
of the bottom of the filler pipe.
SEBU8191-01
53
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean
i02415247
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high voltage.
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductivity.
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “DO
NOT OPERATE”.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on
the engine.
NOTICE
Water or condensation can cause damage to generator components. Protect all electrical components
from exposure to water.
i03781630
Engine Air Cleaner Element Replace
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Renew the air filter elements if the service indicators
are triggered. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Air cleaner Service Indicator Inspect” for more information.
Some engines are equipped with air intake
precleaners. Clean the precleaners before
maintenance is performed on the air filters. Ensure
that dirt does not enter the housing of the air cleaner.
NOTICE
Failure to protect some engine components from
washing may make your engine warranty invalid.
Allow the engine to cool for one hour before washing
the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended. A
clean engine provides the following benefits:
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction
of cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid
electrical components such as the alternator, the
starting motors, and the ECU.
Illustration 48
g02041513
1. Loosen securing clamp (3) and remove cover (4)
for housing (1).
2. Remove the old element (2) from the housing (1).
Discard the old element.
Note: Ensure that dirt does not enter the housing.
54
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
3. Install a new element (2) into the housing (1).
Install the cover (4) and tighten securing clamp (3).
SEBU8191-01
Service Indicator Reset
i02415251
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
Service Indicator Check
Check the service indicators. Replace the air filter
elements if one of service indicators has been
triggered.
Illustration 51
g01242328
Once the service indicator has been triggered and
when the air filter element has been replaced, the
service indicator must be reset. In order to reset the
service indicator (1), press the button (2).
If the service indicator does not reset easily, the
service indicator should be replaced.
Note: The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
i04631326
Illustration 49
g01242320
When the air filter element is in a serviceable
condition, the center section of the service indicator
(1) is clear.
Engine Crankcase Breather Clean
The engine crankcase breathers are mounted on the
side of the water regulators.
1. Isolate the electrical supply to the starting motor.
Illustration 50
g01242332
When the air filter element requires replacement, the
center section of the service indicator (1) is red.
SEBU8191-01
55
Maintenance Section
Engine Mounts - Inspect
• Loose bolts
• Deterioration of the isolators
Ensure that the mounting bolts are tightened to the
correct torque.
Ensure that the isolators are free of oil and
contamination. Inspect the isolators for deterioration.
Ensure that the bolts for the isolators are tightened to
the correct torque.
Replace any isolator that shows deterioration. For
more information, see the literature that is provided
by the OEM of the isolators.
i04631322
Engine Oil Filter (Auxiliary) Change
Illustration 52
g02775881
Typical example
2. Remove the wing nut (1) and the cover (2).
3. Remove the filter elements (3) from the breather
body (5).
4. Clean the filter elements (3) and dry the filter
elements. Inspect the filter elements for damage
or deterioration. If necessary, replace the filter
elements.
5. Install the filter elements (3) to the breather body
(5).
6. Ensure that the seal in the cover (2) is free from
damage. If necessary, replace the seal.
Note: Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Oil Sample - Obtain” before
performing maintenance.
Change the Filter with the Engine
in Operation
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
7. Align the cover (2) with the dowel (4). Install the
cover to the breather body (5).
8. Install the wing nut (1). Tighten the wing nut
securely.
9. Restore the electrical supply to the starting motor.
i02415257
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Misalignment of the engine and the driven equipment
will cause extensive damage. Excessive vibration
can lead to misalignment. Excessive vibration of the
engine and the driven equipment can be caused by
the following conditions:
• Improper mounting
Illustration 53
Typical example
g02775859
56
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Level - Check
SEBU8191-01
The changeover valve (1) has three positions.
• (A) The oil flow is to both oil filters.
• (B) The oil flow is to the left-hand oil filter.
• (C) The oil flow is to the right-hand oil filter.
1. Rotate the changeover valve to position B. By
using a suitable tool (2), remove the right-hand
oil filter.
Note: Oil flow direction (D and E ).
2. Ensure that the sealing face on the housing is
clean. Fill the new oil filter with clean engine oil.
Install the new oil filter. Rotate the changeover
valve to position A. Check for oil leaks.
Illustration 54
g01236968
Illustration 55
g01165836
3. Rotate the changeover valve to position C. By
using a suitable tool, remove the left-hand oil filter.
4. Ensure that the sealing face on the housing is
clean. Fill the new oil filter with clean engine oil.
Install the new oil filter. Apply hand pressure
only in order to install the oil filter. Rotate the
changeover valve to position A. Check for oil
leaks.
5. Clean any spillage of engine oil.
i02415261
Engine Oil Level - Check
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for ten minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“Max” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark.
1. Maintain the oil level between the “Min” mark (Y)
and the “Max” mark (X) on the engine oil level
gauge (2). Do not fill the oil pan above the “Max”
mark (X).
2. If necessary, remove the oil filler cap (1) and add
oil. Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
i02471700
Engine Oil Pump - Inspect
A failed engine oil pump may result in a seizure of
the crankshaft.
Remove the engine oil pump and disassemble the
engine oil pump. Refer to Operation Manual TSL4165
for more information. Inspect the components of
engine oil pump for wear and for damage. Refer to
Operation Manual TSL4165 for more information.
Replace any components that are worn or damaged.
Alternatively, replace the engine oil pump.
SEBU8191-01
57
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
i02415262
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labelled.
The condition of the engine lubricating oil should be
checked at regular intervals as part of the preventive
maintenance program.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the
oil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
Initiating an Oil analysis Program
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
The First 500 Hours
Oil analysis in the first 500 hours will show higher
levels of iron and copper than acceptable parameters.
As the engine continues to operate the levels will
drop within the specified parameters.
The sample can be checked for the following: the
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in
the oil, and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
Every 250 Hours
i04631317
An oil sample should be obtained at 250 hour
intervals.
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
A trend can be established by analyzing the results
of the oil sampling. Each individual operator can
develop a service program for the engine.
Note: Perkins Engines Stafford must agree to the
maintenance schedule.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
The oil sample must be taken from the mean level in
the engine oil pan. Do not take an oil sample from
the drain plug.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
• The date of the sample
• Engine model
• Engine number
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of
the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
58
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU8191-01
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
g01237431
Illustration 56
Illustration 57
Typical example
g02775854
Typical example
1. Place a suitable container below the engine oil
pan. Remove the drain plug (3). Allow the engine
oil to drain.
Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil.
2. Remove the sealing washer from the drain plug
(3). Discard the sealing washer.
3. Install a new sealing washer to the drain plug (3).
Install the drain plug to the engine oil pan. Tighten
the plug to a torque of 68 N·m (50 lb ft).
Replace the Oil Filter
1. Use Tooling (A) in order to remove the oil filters (4).
2. Ensure that the sealing face of the filter base (6)
is clean.
3. Lubricate the sealing rings (5) with clean engine
oil. Fill the oil filters with clean engine oil. Ensure
that the engine oil that is added to the oil filters
has not been contaminated. Install the new oil
filters (4).
Note: Apply hand pressure only in order to tighten
the oil filters.
Fill the Oil Pan
Table 21
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for information on suitable oils.
Required Tools
Tool
Part
Number
A
-
Part Name
Strap Wrench
Qty
1
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins Engine
Company LTD specifications. Use of an oil filter that is
not recommended by Perkins Engine Company LTD
could result in severe damage to the engine. Large
particles from unfiltered engine oil will cause damage
to the engine. Do not use oil filters that are not recommended by Perkins Engine Company LTD.
Note: All six oil filters must be changed as a set.
1. Remove the oil filler cap.
2. Fill the oil pan with the correct amount of new
engine lubricating oil. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities” for more
information.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manufacture's recommendations. Under filling or over filling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
Note: Before starting the engine, crank the engine on
the starter in order to obtain oil pressure.
SEBU8191-01
59
Maintenance Section
Engine Protective Devices - Check
3. Start the engine and run the engine for 2 minutes.
Perform this procedure in order to ensure that the
lubrication system has oil and that the oil filters
are filled. Inspect the oil filters for oil leaks.
4. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the oil pan for a minimum of 10 minutes.
To prevent damage to the engine, only authorized
service personnel or your Perkins dealer should
perform the tests.
Visual Inspection
Visually check the condition of all gauges, sensors
and wiring. Look for wiring and components that
are loose, broken, or damaged. Damaged wiring
or components should be repaired or replaced
immediately.
i03783789
Engine Valve Lash Inspect/Adjust
(Valves and Valve Bridges)
Illustration 58
g01165836
(Y) “Min” mark. (X) “Max” mark.
5. Remove the engine oil level gauge (2) in order to
check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
the “MIN” and “MAX” marks on the engine oil level
gauge.
i02461963
NOTICE
Only qualified service personel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve lash
can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce engine
component life.
Engine Protective Devices Check
Alarms and shutoffs must function properly. Alarms
provide timely warning to the operator. Shutoffs help
to prevent damage to the engine. It is impossible
to determine if the engine protective devices are
in good working order during normal operation.
Malfunctions must be simulated in order to test the
engine protective devices.
A calibration check of the engine protective devices
will ensure that the alarms and shutoffs activate
at the setpoints. Ensure that the engine protective
devices are functioning properly.
NOTICE
During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be
simulated.
The tests must be performed correctly in order to prevent possible damage to the engine.
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Note: The valve bridges must be equalized before
the valve lash is adjusted.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Valve Lash - Adjust” for the correct procedure.
i02463729
Fan Drive Pulley - Check
1. Isolate the electrical supply to the engine.
60
Maintenance Section
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust
SEBU8191-01
i03783899
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust
NOTICE
Only qualified service personnel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins distributor for the complete procedure in order to inspect or adjust the fuel injectors.
Operation of Perkins engines with fuel injectors that
have not been inspected or adjusted can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce engine component
life.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Fuel Injector Adjustment” for the correct procedures
to inspect and adjust the fuel injectors.
Illustration 59
g01238304
i02415266
Typical example
2. Remove the guards (not shown) in order to gain
access to the fan drive pulley (1).
Fuel System - Prime
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
• The fuel day tank is empty or partially drained.
• The low pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• A leak exists in the low pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
Illustration 60
g01238305
Use the following procedures in order to remove air
from the fuel system.
3. Tighten the grub screws (2) to a torque of 90 N·m
(66 lb ft).
Note: Do not bleed the fuel system from the water
separator (if equipped).
4. Install the guards (not shown).
1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.
Check that the fuel supply from the fuel day tank
is in the “ON” position.
5. Restore the electrical supply to the engine.
SEBU8191-01
61
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Filter - Replace
8. Operate the handle (4) until fuel that is free of air
flows from the connection (5).
9. Tighten the connection (5).
10. Loosen connections (6) and (8).
11. Operate the handle (4) until fuel that is free of air
flows from the connection (6) and (8).
12. Tighten connections (6) and (8).
One cylinder is now primed. An amount of fuel will
have reached the remaining cylinders.
13. Push the handle and twist the handle in order to
return the priming pump to the locked position.
14. Operate the starting motor and crank the engine.
After the engine has started, run the engine for a
minimum of five minutes.
Illustration 61
g01280510
Note: Operating the engine for this period of time will
purge the remaining air from the fuel system.
Typical example
2. Place a suitable container below the tee piece (2)
in order to catch any fuel that might be spilled.
Note: Clean up any spillage of fuel immediately.
i03791032
Fuel System Filter - Replace
3. Loosen the connection (1) at the tee piece (2).
4. Unscrew the handle (4) in order to operate the fuel
priming pump (3). Pump the handle until fuel that
is free of air flows from the tee piece (2).
5. Tighten the connection (1) on the tee piece (2).
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
Fuel Filter with Water Separator
Table 22
Required Tools
Illustration 62
g01237503
Typical example
6. Place a suitable container below the rear of the
fuel rail (7) on A bank, in order to catch any fuel
that might be spilled.
Tool
Part
Number
A
-
Part Name
Strap Wrench
Qty
1
1. Isolate the fuel supply to the engine.
Note: Clean up any spillage of fuel immediately.
2. Place a suitable container under the fuel filter in
order to catch any fuel that might spill.
7. Loosen the connection (5).
Note: Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
62
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SEBU8191-01
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
NOTICE
The water separator can be under suction during normal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is
tightened securely to help prevent air from entering
the fuel system.
Illustration 63
g02775756
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Note: Clean up any spilled fuel immediately.
Typical example
3. Loosen the drain plug (2). Allow the fluid to drain
into the container.
4. Clean the outside of the fuel filter. Use Tooling (A)
in order to remove the canister (1). Dispose of the
canister in accordance with local regulations.
5. Lubricate the O ring seal on the new canister with
clean fuel oil. Install the new canister. Tighten the
canister by hand.
6. Tighten the drain plug (2). Use hand pressure only.
7. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in
accordance with local regulations.
8. Restore the fuel supply to the engine.
9. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
10. Start the engine and run the engine. Check the
fuel system for leaks.
Illustration 64
g01237449
Typical example
2. Loosen the drain plug (1). Allow the fluid to drain
into the container until clean fuel can be seen.
3. Tighten the drain plug (1). Use hand pressure
only. Dispose of the drained fluid in accordance
with local regulations.
i02335436
i02415268
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
SEBU8191-01
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
63
Maintenance Section
Fuel Transfer Pump (Lift Pump) - Inspect
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02471681
Fuel Transfer Pump (Lift Pump)
- Inspect
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Visually inspect the lift pump for leaks. The lift pump
is not a serviceable item. Replace a lift pump that is
faulty. Replace a lift pump that leaks.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Replacement of the Lift Pump
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
the drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Removal of the Lift Pump
1. Isolate the fuel supply to the lift pump.
2. Place a suitable container below the lift pump in
order to catch any fuel that might be spilled.
Note: Clean up any spillage of fuel immediately.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in
order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Service intervals
Illustration 65
• Refill of the tank
3. Remove the fuel priming pump (5).
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
4. Disconnect fuel line (3) and the connection (1).
Cap the fuel line with a suitable cap.
5. Remove the two nuts (4).
g01280509
64
Maintenance Section
Governor Actuator - Check
SEBU8191-01
6. Remove the fuel lift pump (2).
7. Remove the joint from the lift pump (2). Discard
the joint.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
Installation of the Lift Pump
1. Install a new joint to the lift pump (2).
• Cracking
2. Align the drive for the lift pump (2). Install the lift
pump.
Note: Ensure that the oil seal is not damaged as the
lift pump is installed.
3. Install the nuts (4). Tighten the nuts to a torque of
25 N·m (18 lb ft).
4. Remove the cap from the fuel line (3). Connect
the fuel line and the connection (1). Tighten the
fuel line and the connection to a torque of 50 N·m
(37 lb ft).
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
5. Fit the fuel priming pump (5) to the lift pump (2).
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
6. Restore the fuel supply to the lift pump.
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
7. Remove the air from the fuel system. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
- Prime”.
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
i02471680
Governor Actuator - Check
In order for the governor to operate correctly, the
control box must be calibrated to the actuator. The
feedback parameters from the control box must
correspond to the 0% and the 100% positions on the
actuator. Carry out a periodic calibration check of
the governor system. Refer to Special Instruction,
“Pandoras Digital Governor” for more information.
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
i02349879
Hoses and Clamps Inspect/Replace
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
SEBU8191-01
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical method of replacing
coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the coolant system and the
hoses for the coolant system.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pressure.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
65
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (Major)
i02461950
Overhaul (Major)
Scheduling a Major Overhaul
The need for a major overhaul is determined by
several factors:
• An increase of oil consumption
• An increase of crankcase blowby
• A decrease and variation of cylinder compression
Other factors must also be considered for determining
a major overhaul:
• The service hours of the engine
• The wear metal analysis of the lube oil
• An increase in the levels of noise and vibration
An increase of wear metals in the lube oil indicates
that the bearings and the surfaces that wear may
need to be serviced. An increase in the levels of
noise and vibration indicates that rotating parts
require service.
Note: It is possible for oil analysis to indicate a
decrease of wear metals in the lube oil. The cylinder
liners may be worn so that polishing of the bore
occurs. Also, the increased use of lube oil will dilute
the wear metals.
Monitor the engine as the engine accumulates
service hours. Consult Perkins Engines Stafford
about scheduling a major overhaul.
Note: The driven equipment may also require service
when the engine is overhauled. Refer to the literature
that is provided by the OEM of the driven equipment.
Major Overhaul Information
During a major overhaul, all of the bearings,
seals, joints, and components that wear should be
disassembled. The parts should be cleaned. The
parts should then be inspected. If necessary, the
parts should be replaced. The crankshaft should be
inspected and measured for wear. The crankshaft
may require regrinding. Alternatively, the crankshaft
may be replaced.
Inspecting Components
Inspect the following components during a major
overhaul.
66
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (Top End)
SEBU8191-01
• Engine mounted aftercoolers
1. Remove the rocker covers.
• Camshafts
2. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, “Valve Lash - Adjust”.
• Camshaft followers
• Connecting rods and bearings
3. On all engine cylinders, record the clearance
before any adjustments are made.
• Crankshaft and bearings
4. Set the valve bridges.
• Gear train
5. Adjust the valve lash to 0.4 mm (0.016 inch).
• Inlet air piping
The recorded values can be used to identify any
excessive valve seat wear on individual valves. The
recorded values can be used to schedule a top end
overhaul.
• Oil cooler
• Pistons and rings
An example of recorded valve lash
• Cylinder liners
Table 23
Replace the crankshaft vibration damper.
Recorded
clearances on A1
cylinder
Total valve wear
Hours
Inlet
Exhaust
Inlet
Exhaust
500
0.4mm
0.4mm
0
0
1000
0.4
0.4
0
0
Scheduling a Top End Overhaul
1500
0.35
0.35
0.05
0.05
2000
0.35
0.35
0.1
0.1
Top end overhauls should be scheduled according to
the recession of the valve stems. This measurement
provides an accurate indication of the rate of valve
wear. This measurement can be used to predict when
a cylinder head requires replacement.
2500
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
3000
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.3
3500
0.25
0.35
0.5
0.35
4000
0.25
0.3
0.65
0.45
i04328053
Overhaul (Top End)
Note: Generally, cylinder heads wear out at different
rates. In some cases, servicing the cylinder heads at
different times may be the most economic decision.
This depends on the valve stem projection of the
individual cylinders. However, this decision must
include the costs of additional downtime that is
caused by this procedure. Perform an economic
analysis in order to determine if cylinder heads should
be serviced as a group or divided into smaller groups.
Top End Overhaul Information
A top end overhaul involves servicing the cylinder
heads. During a top end overhaul, one piston should
be removed. Inspect the piston, piston rings, and the
cylinder liner. The condition of these components will
determine the period of the major overhaul. Refer to
Service Manual for more information.
Monitoring Valve Seat Wear
Every 500 service hours record the valve lash. The
monitoring of the valve seat wear should be carried
out before any adjustment of the valve lash.
After 4000 hours running, the valve seat wear on
the inlet is 0.65 mm (0.026 inch) and the exhaust is
0.45 mm (0.018 inch).
Note: Maximum permitted valve seat wear is
1.00 mm (0.040 inch).
In this example, the valves are still serviceable after
4000 hours running.
When the valves approach the maximum wear limit,
the rockers can be removed and a measurement
from the cylinder head face to the top of the valve
stems can be taken. When a new valve is installed
the protrusion of the valve stem would be 29.75 mm
(1.171 inch). therefore, a maximum wear limit would
be 30.75 mm (1.211 inch).
SEBU8191-01
67
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
i02415302
Radiator - Clean
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
i02335775
Severe Service Application Check
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
• Fuel quality
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a protective face shield and protective clothing.
• Operational Altitude
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
• Oil selection and maintenance
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
to the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly
move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with
the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris
that is between the tubes.
• Environmental qualities
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Run the
engine. This will help in the removal of debris and
the drying of the core. Stop the engine. Use a light
bulb behind the core in order to inspect the core for
cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
• Maintenance intervals
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
68
Maintenance Section
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect
SEBU8191-01
Environmental Factors
Table 24
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed
to extended operation in an environment that is
dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned
regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Required Tools
Tool
Part
Number
A
SE253
Part Name
Crankshaft Turning Tool
Qty
1
Engine Speed Sensor
The crankshaft position sensor is located in the right
hand side of the flywheel housing.
1. Isolate the electrical supply to the engine.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
Illustration 66
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
g01237852
Typical example
• Extending the maintenance intervals
2. Remove the connection (3). Loosen the locknut
(1).
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
3. Remove the sensor (2).
coolant/antifreeze
i02461940
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect
(Engine Speed Sensor and
Overspeed Sensor)
When the engine is cranked, small metal particles
are produced. These particles will contaminate the
magnetic end of the crankshaft position sensor and
the overspeed sensor. Contamination will distort
the signals that are produced by the sensors. The
sensors should be regularly cleaned and adjusted in
order to ensure a good signal.
4. Use a soft, dry cloth in order to clean any debris
from the sensor (2).
Note: Do not use a wire brush in order to clean the
sensor. Do not use abrasive material in order to clean
the sensor.
5. Install Tooling (A). Use Tooling (A) in order to
rotate the engine. Rotate the engine in order to
align a tooth on the ring gear with the center of
the tapped hole.
6. By hand, carefully install the sensor (2) until light
contact is made with the ring gear.
Note: Do not tighten the sensor.
SEBU8191-01
69
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect
4. Use a soft, dry cloth in order to clean any debris
from the sensor (2).
Note: Do not use a wire brush in order to clean the
sensor. Do not use abrasive material in order to clean
the sensor.
5. Install Tooling (A). Use Tooling (A) in order to
rotate the engine. Rotate the engine in order to
align a tooth on the ring gear with the center of
the tapped hole.
6. By hand, carefully install the sensor (2) until light
contact is made with the ring gear.
Illustration 67
g01237854
Note: Do not tighten the sensor.
7. Unscrew the sensor (2) by one complete turn in
order to obtain a clearance (X) of 1 mm (0.04 inch).
8. Tighten the locknut (1). Do not allow the sensor
(2) to rotate. Connect the connection (3).
9. Remove Tooling (A).
10. Restore the electrical supply to the engine.
Overspeed Sensor
The overspeed sensor is located in the left hand side
of the flywheel housing.
1. Isolate the electrical supply to the engine.
Illustration 69
g01237854
7. Unscrew the sensor (2) by one complete turn in
order to obtain a clearance (X) of 0.5 to 0.8 mm
(0.02 to 0.03 inch).
8. Tighten the locknut (1). Do not allow the sensor
(2) to rotate. Connect the connection (3).
9. Remove Tooling (A).
10. Restore the electrical supply to the engine.
i02462035
Starting Motor - Inspect
If a starting motor fails, the engine may not start in an
emergency situation. A scheduled inspection of the
starting motors is recommended.
Illustration 68
g01237853
Typical example
2. Remove the connection (3). Loosen the locknut
(1).
3. Remove the sensor (2).
Note: Problems with the electric starting motor can
be caused by the following conditions: malfunction of
the solenoid and malfunction of the electric starting
system.
Inspect the electrical system for the following
conditions:
70
Maintenance Section
Turbocharger - Inspect
SEBU8191-01
• Loose connections
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air inlet and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
• Corrosion
• Wires that are worn or frayed
• Cleanliness
Make repairs, if necessary.
The starting motor pinion and the flywheel ring gear
must be in good condition in order for the engine
to start properly. The engine will not start if the
starting motor pinion does not engage the flywheel
ring gear. The teeth of the starting motor pinion and
the flywheel ring gear can be damaged because of
irregular engagement.
Inspect the starting motors for proper operation.
Listen for grinding when the engine is started.
Inspect the teeth of the starting motor pinions and the
flywheel ring gear. Look for patterns of wear on the
teeth. Look for teeth that are broken or chipped. If
damaged teeth are found, the starting motor pinions
and the flywheel ring gear must be replaced.
Refer to the Operation Manual TSL4165 for
information on removing the starting motors and
installing the starting motors.
i04328054
Turbocharger - Inspect
Periodic inspection and cleaning is recommended
for the turbochargers. Fouling of the turbine wheels
can contribute to loss of engine power and overall
loss of engine efficiency.
If a turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to a
turbocharger compressor wheel could allow parts
from the compressor wheel to enter an engine
cylinder. This can cause additional damage to the
pistons, the valves, and the cylinder head.
Minor leakage of a turbocharger housing under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not occurred.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is repaired or
replaced.
An inspection of the turbochargers can minimize
unscheduled downtime. Also, the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts is reduced.
Note: Turbocharger components require clearances
that are precise. The turbocharger cartridge must be
balanced due to high rpm.
The following conditions can cause a turbocharger to
be out-of-balance:
• The buildup of deposits
• Chipping and/or flaking of deposits
If the turbocharger must be removed for inspection,
use caution. Do not break deposits from the turbine
wheel. Do not attempt to clean the turbine wheel. For
options regarding removal, installation, repair and
replacement, refer to the Service Manual, or consult
a Perkins distributor.
1. Remove the exhaust outlet piping and remove
the air inlet piping from the turbocharger. Visually
inspect the piping for the presence of oil.
2. Turn the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel
by hand. The assembly should turn freely. Inspect
the compressor wheel and the turbine wheel for
contact with the turbocharger housing. There
should not be any visible signs of contact between
the turbine wheel or compressor wheel and the
turbocharger housing. If there is any indication of
contact between the rotating turbine wheel or the
compressor wheel and the turbocharger housing,
the turbocharger should be reconditioned.
3. Check the compressor wheel for cleanliness.
If only the inlet side of the wheel is dirty, dirt
and/or moisture is passing through the air filtering
system. If oil is found only on the back side of the
wheel, there is a possibility of a failed turbocharger
oil seal.
SEBU8191-01
71
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at no load. The presence of oil
may also result from restriction of the inlet air
(plugged air filters). This causes oil to leak past
the seal for the turbocharger compressor.
Note: Deposits of ash and silicone can accumulate
on the turbine wheel. Turbine wheel will become
unbalanced when the deposits flake off. The
turbocharger cartridge must be replaced when the
turbine wheel becomes unbalanced. However,
remove deposits from the housing. Removing
deposits from the housing will prevent wear on the
blades of the new turbine wheel.
4. Inspect the turbine wheel and the housing for
deposits of ash and silicone. If deposits of 1.6 mm
(0.06 inch) thickness are found or if the turbine
is in contact with the housing, the turbocharger
must be disassembled and cleaned. Removal of
the deposits can be difficult.
5. Inspect the bore of the turbine housing for
corrosion and deposits.
6. Clean the turbocharger compressor housing with
standard shop solvents and a soft bristle brush.
7. Fasten the air inlet piping and the exhaust outlet
piping to the turbocharger housing.
i02415322
Walk-Around Inspection
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pumps for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace a water pump. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Water Pump - Inspect” for
more information. If necessary, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
clear.
• Inspect the alternator belt and fan drive belts for
cracks, breaks or other damage.
• Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
72
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU8191-01
i04326852
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. A normal condition is
that a small amount of leakage to occur as the engine
cools down and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pumps for leaks. The water
pumps are not serviceable items. Replace a leaking
water pump. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly
for more information.
SEBU8191-01
73
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
74
Index Section
SEBU8191-01
Index
A
Actuator Control Linkage - Lubricate .....................
After Stopping Engine............................................
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ................................
Aftercooler Core - Inspect......................................
Alternator - Inspect ................................................
Alternator Pulley - Check.......................................
41
26
41
42
42
42
B
Battery - Replace................................................... 43
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 43
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 44
Before Starting Engine .................................... 10, 23
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace (Alternator Belt) .... 46
Adjustment ......................................................... 46
Inspection........................................................... 46
Replacement...................................................... 46
Belts - Inspect/Adjust/Replace (Fan Drive Belts)... 44
Adjustment ......................................................... 45
Inspection........................................................... 44
Replacement...................................................... 45
Burn Prevention....................................................... 7
Batteries............................................................... 7
Coolant................................................................. 7
Oils....................................................................... 7
C
Cold Weather Starting ........................................... 24
Cooling System Coolant - Change (Inhibitor) ........ 49
Drain .................................................................. 50
Fill ...................................................................... 51
Flush .................................................................. 51
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change.............. 47
Drain .................................................................. 47
Fill ...................................................................... 49
Flush .................................................................. 48
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 52
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .......... 9
D
Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 52
E
Electrical System .................................................... 11
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 26
Emissions Warranty Information............................ 73
Engine - Clean....................................................... 53
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace.................. 53
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 54
Service Indicator Check ..................................... 54
Service Indicator Reset...................................... 54
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean...................... 54
Engine Description ................................................ 15
Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 16
Engine Specifications......................................... 15
Engine Electronics.................................................. 11
System Description ............................................. 11
Engine Lifting......................................................... 19
Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 55
Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 57
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil ........................ 58
Fill the Oil Pan.................................................... 58
Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 58
Engine Oil Filter (Auxiliary) - Change .................... 55
Change the Filter with the Engine in Operation.. 55
Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 56
Engine Oil Pump - Inspect..................................... 56
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................... 57
Initiating an Oil analysis Program ...................... 57
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis.................. 57
Engine Operation................................................... 25
Engine Protective Devices - Check ....................... 59
Visual Inspection................................................ 59
Engine Starting ................................................ 10, 23
Engine Stopping .............................................. 10, 26
Engine Storage...................................................... 19
Level “A ” ........................................................... 19
Level “B ” ........................................................... 19
Level “C ” .......................................................... 19
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust (Valves and Valve
Bridges) ............................................................... 59
F
Fan Drive Pulley - Check....................................... 59
Features and Controls ........................................... 20
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 7
Fire Extinguisher .................................................. 9
Lines, Tubes and Hoses ...................................... 9
Fluid Recommendations........................................ 27
Cooling System Specifications........................... 35
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 37
Engine Oil .......................................................... 28
Fuel Specifications............................................. 31
General Lubricant Information ........................... 27
Foreword ................................................................. 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4
Literature Information........................................... 4
Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 25
Fuel Injector - Inspect/Adjust ................................. 60
SEBU8191-01
Fuel System - Prime ..............................................
Fuel System Filter - Replace .................................
Fuel Filter with Water Separator ........................
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain ....................................................................
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain .................
Drain the Water and the Sediment.....................
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................
Fuel Tank ...........................................................
Fuel Transfer Pump (Lift Pump) - Inspect .............
Replacement of the Lift Pump............................
75
Index Section
60
61
61
62
62
63
63
63
63
63
G
General Hazard Information .................................... 5
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 6
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 6
Pressure Air and Water........................................ 6
General Information............................................... 12
Governor Actuator - Check.................................... 64
H
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 64
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 64
I
Important Safety Information ................................... 2
L
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 19
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 40
Maintenance Section ............................................. 27
Model View Illustrations......................................... 13
4012-46A ........................................................... 13
Model Views .......................................................... 13
Monitoring System................................................. 20
Mounting and Dismounting...................................... 9
O
Operation Section..................................................
Overhaul (Major)....................................................
Major Overhaul Information ...............................
Scheduling a Major Overhaul.............................
Overhaul (Top End) ...............................................
Scheduling a Top End Overhaul ........................
Top End Overhaul Information ...........................
19
65
65
65
66
66
66
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations.......................
Engine Identification...........................................
Serial Number Plate...........................................
Product Identification Information ..........................
Product Information Section ..................................
17
17
18
17
12
R
Radiator - Clean ....................................................
Refill Capacities.....................................................
Cooling System..................................................
Fuel System .......................................................
Lubrication System ............................................
67
27
27
27
27
S
Safety Messages ..................................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .......................................... 5
(2) Hot Coolant..................................................... 5
Safety Section ......................................................... 5
Sensors and Electrical Components ..................... 20
Boost Pressure Sensors .................................... 21
Coolant Temperature Switches .......................... 21
Engine Oil Pressure Switch ............................... 22
Overspeed Sensor ............................................. 22
Sensor Locations ............................................... 20
Speed Sensor .................................................... 21
Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 67
Environmental Factors ....................................... 68
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................... 68
Incorrect Operating Procedures......................... 68
Speed Sensor - Clean/Inspect (Engine Speed Sensor
and Overspeed Sensor)....................................... 68
Engine Speed Sensor ........................................ 68
Overspeed Sensor ............................................. 69
Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 69
Starting the Engine ................................................ 23
Normal Engine Starting Procedure .................... 23
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 26
T
Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 70
W
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................
Warranty Information .............................................
Warranty Section ...................................................
Water Pump - Inspect ............................................
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........
71
73
73
72
12
76
Index Section
SEBU8191-01
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
©2011 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.K.
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