null  null
-JANUARY, 1962
50¢
States Audio Magazine about the New Empire 980 ... world~s most perfectly balanced
playback arm. "We tried to induce acoustic feedback by placing the turntable on top of our
large speaker system and turning up the gain: we were unsuccessful." - This is the new
Empire 980! Featuring: the sensational Dyna-Lift* self lifting device which eliminates stylus
abuse and undesirable run out groove sound at the end of the record: fundamental resonant
frequency at 8 cps; cartridge overhang adjustment; exact stylus force ca1ibrations; precise
Itl
lateral and vertical ball bearing suspension; 5 wire plug in shielded cable
assembly; tracks as low as Y2 gram. Empire 980 Arm with Dyna-Lift, $50
em pre
SCI[NTlflC CORP.
"'Patent Pending
CARD[N CITY. N ,Y.
JANUARY,1962
Successor to
Vol. 46, No.1
~,
m. 1917
C. G . MCPROUD - Publisher
DAVID SASLAW
Editor
000 only for those w ho want t he ultimate in
JANET M. DURGIN
Production Manager
Contributing Editors
HENRY A. SCHOBER
Representatives
EDWARD TATNALL CANBY
Business Manager
Bill Pattis & Associates,
JOSEPH GIOVANELLI
SANFORD L. CAHN
4761 West Touhy Ave.,
Lincolnwood 46, Ill.
James C. Galloway,
6535 Wilshire Blvd.,
Los Angeles 48, Calif.
HAROLD LAWRENCE
Advertising Director
EDGAR E. NEWMAN
Circulation Director
CHARLES A. ROBERTSON
CHESTER SANTON
HERMAN BURSTEIN
AUDIO Articles
Filterless Detection of FM-Stereo signals
J9
35
Feedback-Head Cook and Bottle Washer
40
Audio Measuring Equipment
FM
Stereo Broadcast Reception
and
Stereo Record Reproduction
.
$-8000 FM j MX 64 Watt Stereo Receiver
16Y4 " x 4" x 14" deep. $299.50
Mannie Horowitz
Theodore Bially
Norman H . Crowhurst
AUDIO Reviews
8 Chester Santon
48 Edward T atnall Canby
Jazz and All That 54 Chades A . Robertson
Light Listening
Record Revue
Telefunken Tape Recorder
Pilot FM-Stereo Receiver
44
Magnetophon 97
44 602M
AUDIO in General
Audioclinic
Letters
Audio ETC
Publisher's Review
Tape Guide
New Products
This Month's Cover
NEW! NEW! NEW! ~ Audio Teasers
About Music
Industry Notes
Advertising Index
2
6
J2
16
32
60
62
63
64
73
74
Joseph Giovanelli
Edward T atnall Canby
Herman Burstein
Norman H. Crowhurst
H arold Lawrence
TEST EQUIPMENT ROUNDUP ...... . ... . .... ... ... . . ..... . . .. ..
23
Voltmeters ....... .. ........... 23
Oscilloscopes... . .... ... .... ... 28
Audio signal generators .... . .... 24
Miscellaneous
............ ... .. 30
-MEMBER·
UUT"UII
or
i!~~
w:
Q
c:
S
~
~
""
' INC'
c,~
'"'"
,"'"ITenry
"" .c,,,"
, , '"
"'., •C.,~'""
",,"",
~ ".c,Executive
. ....
zi nes, Inc.,
A. Schober,
President;
G. McProud,
Secretary.
and Editorial omccs. 204 Front St.• Mineola. N. Y. Subscription rates-U. S.,
Possessions, Canada, and Mexico, $4.00 for one year, $7.00 for two years; all
other countrics $5 .00 per year. Single copies 50¢. Printed In U.S.A. at 10
McGovern Ave, Lancaster. Pa. All rights reserved. Entire contents copyrighted
1962 by Radio Magazines, Inc. Second Class postage paid at Lancaster, Pa.
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC., P. O. Box 629, MINEOLA, N. Y.
Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to AUDIO, P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
With FM Stereo broadcasting (multiplex) an
established reality, Sherwood proudly offers
every component you need for superb stereo
reception. Sherwood stereo amplifiers and
tuners are pre-eminent in the field, and now
- in the S-8000 Receiver - the ultimate in
compact reception quality is achieved. The
exciting new Ravinia Model SR3 3-speaker
system features extremely low intermodulation distortion and unusually flat frequency
response. Cabinet is hand-rubbed walnut. The
perfect setting for hi fi components is
Sherwood's Correia ire contemporary furniture
modules- in hand·rubbed Walnut and Pecan.
Sherwood Electronic Laboratories, Inc., 4300
N. California Ave., Chicago 18, Illinois.
For complete technical details,
write Dept. A·I.
AUDIOclinic
JOSEPH GIOVANELLI':'
Note:
Here we are in 1962. Many of you have
made resolutions. For my part, I hereby
resolve to maintain my present standards
of service to all of you who have so kindly
expressed confidence in my column and in
me. It is sometimes difficult to help some
of you j do you know why' It's because you
either omitted your address or printed · it
so badly that it could not be read. Sometimes it is impossible to determine just
what you wish to know. Those of you afflicted with this particular problem, please
resolve. to let me read your letters by writing more clearly hereafter.
While resolving, please resolve to enclose
a stamped, self-addressed envelope with
you r questions; that makes me able to
write out more letters during the time I
now must spend on envelopes.
One further point and I shall get down
to the work at hand. Many of you have
stated that you hesitated to write to this
column because you needed immediate help
and did not want to wait for the publication of the questions in the column. All
that can be said is "don't hesitate." I answer all letters by mail, regar dless of their
suitability for use in "A 1tdioclinic." It
sometimes takes a long time before a particular question is used, and the writer of
the question need not wait around all of
that t ime for his answer. Many questions
received and answered by me are not used
in the magazine for some reason or other.
These questions are given the same treatment as the material which does find its
way into print. I anSWe7' them all!
Now, to work.
HOW DO YOU ANSWER THIS ONE?
Note : The following two questions belong in this categOl·y.
COMPONENT SELECTION
Q, I am now in the p,'ocess of assemb ling
a high fidelity syste1n. I have nan'owed my
choice of amplifiers to the Marantz Model 7
and the Citation 2,
Which would you choose?
Sho~tld I buy the A 1tdio Empire tU1"ntable or the Ga1Ta,'d Type A ohange,'?
J ohn Smith, Here and eVe1'ywhe,'e,
A, Since I receive many questions of this
so rt, I did not want to choose one particular letter, I will, therefore, try to give all
of you the only answer possible,
* 3420 Newkirk Ave" Brooklyn 3, N,Y,
2
Equipment is available today for use in
home music systems which contains a wide
variet y of features and is available in a
wide price range,
Some installations require equipment
which features inputs complete with level
adjusts for each output, Others require
perhaps no more tha n one single input
circuit,
The problem of evaluating the r elative
merits of a record changer versus a turntable poses other difficulties, Does the user
hold many parties ' At such gatherings it
is bothersome to change records, If the
user is one who listens to complete symphonies or other works requiring more than
a single record side to perform, however,
he will find it necessary to turn the record
over in order to hear the fin al por tion of
t he performance, It is obvious that in the
first instance the use of the changer would
be indicated. In the second instance, the
automatic f eatures are not necessary and
a turntable would be suitable,
Along with operating flexibility, operating convenience and price of the equipment, attention must be paid to t he space
to be occupied by the entire system, Modern homes are compact, The space demanded by the equipment producing stereophonic sound may be as important a determining factor as the previously mentioned
points,
Last, but certainly not least, is the question of the sound produced by any single
component of the system and the sound of
the system as a whole, No two people heal'
t he same sound system in t he same way,
The quality of reproducti on produced by
the components of your sound system may
sound ideal. To obtain the same degree of
pleasure, your neighbor may need to choose
entirely diffe rent components, Whose judgment is more accurate-yours or your neighbor's ' The answer is that you are both
right .
If you think that such discussions do not
pertain to live music, listen to those sitting
near you at a concert as they discuss orchestral balance as heard at that concert.
There again all ears do not tell the same
story,
Well, then, how do you- you aloneselect your components' I n the first place,
what do you want your system to do for
yo u ~ You do not know' Read as much as
you can about high fidelity, Note the various forms in which a sound system may be
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Here, in its brilliant tone arm, you see a striking example of the calibre of
Garrard design and engineering. For up to now, you would have had to buy
this type of arm as a separate component . .A cast aluminum tubular tone
arm, dynamically balanced and counter·weighted-it is a professional arm
in every respect-yet it comes integrated with the AT6, assuring perfect
installation. This is just one of th'e precision features that enable the AT6
Now . . . you fix the tra cking force de red,
on the built·i n sty lu s press ure sca le ca n·
veniently mounted in upr ig ht posi tion at
the si de of the arm.
The AT6 arm is balanced and trackin g
force adju sted in two easy ste ps: First .. .
it is se t on zero tracking pressure, by
moving the counter·weight until the arm
is level, in pe r fe ct equal balance .
. ,
#
to deliver the quality performance required of a Garrard Automatic Turn ·
table, built for knowledgeable, critical listeners. All the skill, the experience
and the established facilities which the Garrard Laboratories have put
behind the development of the Type A (most desired of all record players)
have also gone into the AT6 . Yet this new automatic turntable is
so compact in design that it has been possible to price it at only
S5450
The AT6 will now tra ck each side of the
ste reo grooves accurately at th e lowes t
pre ssure specified, even fo r ca rtrid ges
labe led "p rofessional" , and eve n if th e
playe r is intentionally t il t ed .
The plu g· in shell will accommodate any
stereo ca rtrid ge you favor, and th e bayo·
net fitting wi th threaded colla r, ass ures
ri gidity, bani shes resonanc e.
.•
accept
size . any
in addition to it s other
AT6 is an inter mi x changer,
co mplete record · playing luxury.
Garrard "s Laborato ry Series ' motor, in a
ve rsio n desi gned and built espe ci ally for
th e AT6, delivers perfect speed wi th co m·
plete si lence - and it' s doubl e·shi elde d
agai nst magnetic hum .
Th e turntable is oversized, heavy, and bal·
anced. Torque is hi gh, yet there is no
nOise, no wow, no waver, no interference
with the so und of yo ur records.
FOR LITERATURE WRITE DEPT. GA-12
GARRARD SALES CORP., PORT WASHINGTON , NEW YORK .
There's a Garrard for every high fidelity system ... all engineered and wired for Stereo and Monaural records.
¢
Type A
;:!)
~
.
Automatic"'''-'
Turntable
$79.50
¢
'
AT6
<'-)\utomatic
Turntable
<!>
.
$54.50
.!
~
Autoslim
Interm ix
Changer
$39.50
_
o
~
.'.
Modell ill
Manual
Player
$32.50
Canadian inquiries to Chas. W. Painton, Ltd.,66 Racine Road, Re xdal e, Onlario Territories other than U. S. A. and Canada to Garrard Engineering & Mfg. Co., Ltd., Swindon, Wilts., England
the Weathers Moderne Trio
. . . a complete , three
cha nnel stereo speaker
system wh ich gives full
stereophonic reproduction
in every part of any size
room. It consists of two
full range speakers and a
unique Hideaway
non·directional speaker
that is completely concealed
from view. You can place
it anywhere - and still
be sure of superb
performance. The Moderne
Trio is the smallest and
~most efficient stereo ·
speaker system yet devised.
It fits any size room and
blends with any decor.
It produces to perfection
all stereophonic recordings
and adds greater depth
to monaural discs.
A super/ative
instrument with the
finest performance
per cubic inch of any
speaker yet devised.
One without the other is
excell ent . .. BUT . ..
Combine the speakers
and the Professional
Pic kup System and the
results are far beyond
all you 've ever
hoped for .
we
guarantee
I"t .I
the finest performance
per unit of cost
in stereo cartridges.
66 E. GLOUCESTER PIKE
BARR INGTON, N. J.
built. Examine typical home music systems
at your dealer. By now, you should have an
idea of your own requirements.
From what you have learned, select the
various sets of components which you believe will meet your needs. Make your selections of components with the space limitations of your home in mind, as well as
the limitations of your budget. Never test
systems or components which do not conform either to your space or budget limitations. Go back to your dealer. Have him
connect one of your chosen systems for
you. Then have him change one of the components of the system- Le., the cartridge.
Using the same recording, note which of
the two cartridges sounds better to your
ears. Compare the one which sounds better
to you with a third cartridge. Again select
the cartridge which sounds best to you.
(I do not attempt to compare all three
cartridges at once.) After your final choice
of cartridge, use this cartridge in testing
all other components of your music system.
Proceed in like manner when selecting the
units for the rest of your system. I n other
words, if the speaker is the next thing to
be selected, compare one speaker to another and select the one which sounds best.
Then compare that one with a third one,
and so forth until you find one which suits
you.
After making your selections of components according to what sounds best to you,
pay for them, take them home and enjoy
them.
TO PLAY MONOPHONIC RECORDS
I have a high-quality monophonic a'mplifiel' and high-quality speaker system.
This system is 1tsed to play monophonic
records only. I have about 1000 99Ys-rpm
high-fidelity monophonic recordings, all
purchased 'in 1955 or aftel·. The automatic
change?' I use has a 'magnet'ic monophonic
ca?·t?·idge ($20 with diamond variety),
about 1958 design. I t tmcks at about 5
gmms. I intend to buy a later model automatic change?' with l'emovable spindle for
single or auto'matic playing. With the new
changer (which ww track at 2 or 2.5
gmms) I want to buy a better cartridge
($30 to $35 with diamond val'iety) and
with the stylus replaceable by the user.
In checking I find that available cartridges a?'e mostly stel·eo. Everybody tells
me that the stereo cartridge of 1960 or 1961
design ($30-$35 variety) will give better
monophonic l'ep?'oduction with the two outputs pal'alleled than my 1958 $20 monophonic unit. When asking about a 0.001 or
0.0007 1nil diamond stylUS to use in a
stereo cartl'idge for monophonic records
only, I get d'ifferent anS1vel·S.
My spec'ific questions are :
1. Will a 1960-1961 design ($95) stereo
cartridge give better repl'oduction than my
p?'esent 1958 $20 monophonic cartridge?
Do you know of a quality magnetic unit?
2. The $90-$35 stereo variety cartridges
can be had with eithel' 0.001 01' 0.Od07 mil
mdius stylus. Bearing in mind that I will
1tSe this cartridge only for monophonic
?'ecol'ds which radius stylus should I get?
Sa'ntuel Podell, NewbU?'gh, N. Y .
A. Even in the days of monophonic
sound, cartridges suffered from the effects
(Continued on page 68)
4
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Langevin
SINGLE
/
2·GANG
ROTARY MIXERS
Fi~st basic improvements in mixer design in 20 years • Smooth
instrument-type action with feathertouch • Available in single, dual
and triple gangs for modern stereo use • Compact design allows
replacement of single controls with 2 gang units in FM Stereo
conversions • New balanced circuitry for complete cut-off • No
maintenance - no cleaning required for decades of noise-free use
SMOOTH ACTION FOR EFFORT·FREE CONTROL
Only four grams of static friction need be overcom e to accomplish
rotation ·of Langevin Mixers. Effortless control is the result of long
research into the mechanical requirements of friction ·free bearings and
brushes along with the employment of modern printed circuit techniques
for the contact rows.
SUPER ACCURACY THROUGH PRINTED CIRCUITS
Correct contact positioning is guaranteed through printed circuitry
derived from master layouts made on dividing heads. This insures satin ·
smooth, low·drag, bump·free action as the control is rotated.
LONG, TROUBLE-FREE LIFE IN EXCESS OF 100,000 CYCLES
Langevin controls have a noise·free life expectan lOY in excess of 100,000
cycles. Low, uniform contact pressures decrease wear and give decades
of servi ce without cleaning.
SEALED AGAINST DIRT AND CORROSION
Langevin Mixers are pre·lubricated and sealed against moisture, cor·
rosion and dirt for life·time use. Cycling and accelerated agin g tests
prove quiet operation for the life of the control.
GOLD PLATED CONTACTS FOR LOW NOISE OPERATION
All contacts in Langevin Controls are gold · plated . Gold is a noble
metal and does not form noise producing oxides. Alloys such as nickel,
nickel silver and brass do 'form oxides, which are insulators and produce
noise as time passes. Contrary to popular belief, the gold does not wear
off of the contact, but, rather, galls and works its way into the pores
of the base metal through usage. This increases conductivity and
smoothness with age.
Model
MX·201
MX·202
MX·203
MX·204
MX·601
MX·604
MX·602
MX·605
Circuit
ladder
Balanced ladder
ladder
Balanced Ladder
"T"
Balanced "HOI
"T"
Balanced " H"
Steps
20
20
32
32
20
20
32
32
DB/step
2
2
1'12
1'12
2
2
1'12
1'12
Curve
A
A
B
B
A
A
B
B
3·GANG
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Langevin Rotary Mixers and Attenuators are available in three diameters,
as well as in single, double and triple gangs for two and three channel
stereo use. Printed circuitry is employed throughout for precision and
uniformity. Contact decks are formed of non ·hygroscopic phenolic, type
FBE. Stainless steel shafts and brass bearings are used for long life,
non·seizin g properties, and to give friction · free action. Frames are
formed of satin ·black anodized alum inum . A universal mounting bracket
allows repla cement of all attenuators and mixers of alternate make
because of three different mounting centers provided . These are 1%",
11,4 " and }liz" . All connection s are conveniently made to solder ter·
minals at the rear of the control, facilitating wiring and making a
neater appearance. An extra "C" center or common terminal is pro·
vided on each control to eliminate two wires to the usual " common ".
This also gives balanced circuitry on the interior of the control, alloY'S
maximum cut·off, and eliminates crosstalk. In addition, this makes for
easy test and wiring changes. Case grounds on all Langevin controls
appear on another terminal, completely separated from signal ground,
or "C" common . Controls are sealed against dirt, moisture and corrosion.
All units are availabl e with and without detents or Cue Circuit.
POPULAR TYPES OF ROTARY MIXERS-ALL OTHER TYPES AVAILABLE
The "MX" suffix on these units . listed below denotes "mixer" function
and these attenuators are not supplied with detents unless specified (no
added charge for detents) . Units are tapered to infinity, come supplied
complete with knob, dial plate etched to suit and universal mounting
SINGLE
Insertion Diameter Length
uA u
Loss in DB
"S"
6
1'12 "
6
2'14 "
6
1'12"
1%
6
2'14 "
0
2'14 "
27/8
0
2'14"
0
21/4 "
15/s
2'14"
0
Price,
Net
12.00
24.50
19.50
2B.OO
24.50
57 .00
2B .00
60.00
2·GANG
Model
MX·201 ·2
MX·202·2
MX·203·2
MX·204·2
MX·601·2
~,~~h
21's
MX·602·2
3·GANG
Price,
Net
22 .50
45.00
36.00
51.00
45 .00
Length
Model
MX·201·3
MX·202·3
MX·203·3
MX·204·3
MX·601·3
51.00 MX·602·3
Price,
Net
US"
~
~
4
~
...l1:QQ.
...M:QQ..
-=-:--
...l1:QQ.
-
' Wi th de luxe K·lll WE typ e mi xe r knob or K·IOB RCA typ e knob , add $1.50 (please specify).
BRUSH CONTACT IS GOLD PLATED
Brush contacts are also formed of gold . Thus, no electrolysis takes
place between the contacts and brushes, further insuring quiet operation .
QUIET OPERATION IN LOW·LEVEL SERVICE
The combination of accurate printed circuitry for uniform contact, non·
oxidizing gold and low brush pressures give noise free 'operation at
-130 dbm . This means satisfactory operation before preamplification
for low· level service.
"Over thirty·five years of audio progre ss "
'*MN~
A Division of Sonotec Incorporated
bracket. Standard impedance unless otherwise specified is 600 ohms in
and out. Other standard impedances of 150, 200, 250, 500 and 600
ohms in or out supplied in any combination if specified at no addi·
tional charge ; add 15% for impedances in or out not standard to
prices shown . Specify if cue position is desired ; charge is $3.00 single,
$6.00 dual and $9.00 triple gang. If no knob or dial is desired,
please specify; deduct allowance of $0.75
for knob and $0.75 for dial.
See your Langevin Professional .Audio Distributor
or write today to Langevin.
FREE to professional users-write today on your
letterhead. $1.00 Value 76 page catalogue and
instructions on how to buy.
503 SOUTH GRAND AVENUE • SANTA ANA, CALIFORNIA
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
5
LETTERS
MASTER
5
Sineward Distortion Agai n
SIR:
I
L
I ________
~
I
YOU WON'T FIND J'!
r--------------------I THIS CONTROL
-----------------------,
ON ANY OTHER P. A. !
I
,
r----------------------~
i AMPLIFIER IN
I
L ________ ~ ------------- ~
THIS PRICE CLASS!
I
r------------l
Old "Demagogue John" has certainly
made an intriguing point in his article on
"Sineward" distortion in the November
issue. Even if only a refocussing of emphasis ("Oh, we knew that all the time"), any
concept t hat can lead to the results Mr.
Campbell describes . is worthy of serious
consideration.
I am eagedy awaiting the reactions to
this article from you "regulars," the prof essional audiomen. There ought to be some
nice fireworks_
JONATHAN S. ROOT
206 East 25th St.,
New York 10, N. Y.
(Th el'e was, too. In fact, too much fO?- this
column. N ext month a full roundup of the
comments. B1tt following is one mOI'e. ED.)
SIR :
m a t are you trying to do, start a fighH
John Oampbell's "Sineward" article in
th e November issue could do just that.
For mOl'e t han thirty-one years the writer
has made his living in the field of high
quali ty sound, Mr. Oampbell is a fine writer
but I find it hard to believe he is serious_
If he is-and if he is right-I've been an
a wfnl fraud for a long, long time_
WILLIAM N. GREER,
William N . Greer Associates,
Radio Engineering Oonsultants,
511 El Imparcial Building,
San Juan, Puerto Rico
(Y 01t said it, we didn't. ED.)
Electronic Organs
I"II"EIII
6
kardon
"j
TIME PAYMENTS AVAILABLE
Up to 2 years to payl
Jim Lansing "
Altac Lanling
Electrovoice
Jensen
Hartley*
University
Acou stic Research
Janszen
Wharfedale
USL Citixen Band
Gonset. Hallicrafte r
Texas Crystals
Conce-:tone • Viking
Bell. G .E_
Weathers
Harman-Korda"
Eico • Pilot. TEC
Send Us
Your List Of
Components
For A
Package
Quotation
I
A /REX
WON'T BE
UNDERSOLD
AU m",h"d;" ;,
brand new, factory
frc,h &
~lIarall leed.
Free HI-FI Catalog
AIREX
RADIO
Sherwood *
ESL • Fraxier
Superscope
Dual Changer
Bogen . Leak
Dynakit _ Fisher
H. H. Scott
Thorens ·
Conroe
DeWald
Sony. Roberts
Challenger
Wollensak
G'p rrard • Nore lco
Miracord
Glaser-Steers
Rek-O-Kut
Components
Tandberg *
Fairchild
Pickering • G ra y
Audio Tape
Mognecord *
Rockford Cabinets
Artizan Cabinets
CORPORATIPN
• Fair Traded
85-AMCortlancltSt., N. Y. 7, WO 4·1820
CIRCLE 6B
SIR:
Mr. Wolkov's article on the electronic
organ certainly does not tell t he complete
and unvarnished story of the instrument
nor of its many drawbacks and limitations,
but holds the pipe organ up to ridicule and
scorn.
In the first place, which of the various
electronic organs is high fidelity' I have
examined many of them and have yet to
find one which has harmonics higher than
7500 cps, and this is true only with some
That's a fact. But all Harman-Kardon COMof t he b etter vacuum-tube oscillator types.
MANDER Series public address amplifiers inThe chromatic magnetos, using their own
corporate a master volume control. These
higher frequencies as additives, have an
unique, popular-priced units include fe atures
upper frequency limit of slightly over 5000
cps. Oel·tainly the accepted definition of
generally foun'd on much costl ier " deluxe"
high fidelity implies a frequency spectrum
equipment. For instance: Outputs for tape
recorder, booster amplifiers and both 25 and , greater than this. Ooupling an electronic
organ into a really high fidelity amplifier
70 volt speaker lines ; input for magnetic carand speaker system is a serious mistake,
tridge ; DC on filaments of hi-gain stages ; lockas it shows up all of the inherent defects
ing covers, etc. PLUS COMMANDER exc lusives
of the instrument and reproduces the insuch as: multiple inputs for greater install aharmoni c distortion products and keying
tion flexib ility and optional single-control
noises which are most distressing_
vVhy does an electronic organ have to be
mixing of two program sources for convenience
a cheap imitation of the real thing ~ Why
and ease of operation . Di scove r why sound
do all of the manufacturel's strive to p r omen are switching to COMMANDER for all their
duce a facsimile of the pipe organ, when
needs. Write today, Commercial Sound Divith e electronic should emerge as an instrusion, Harman-Kardon, Plainview, L.I., N.Y.
ment in its own right '?
The article fails to state that the tone
: color of a particulat stop is seldom uniform
t hl'(;mghout its compass. The reeds, for example, may sound passable in the middle
I Name
I octaves,
but they will go "flntey" in the
,
N I
I Address
bass. This is not true in the pipe organ.
Those electronics with locked oscillators
I City '
State
! I are
totally lacking in ensemble, and are
sterile sounding because this is an unnatural condition for complex wave forms to
be heard.
True, the electronics designers have made
CIRCLE 6A
(Contin1!ed on page 10)
i Sen;tr~ det~~;;;IOgS~:;;-;-i
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" Delivery January 15, 1962
AUDIO-
JANUARY, 1962
The PRITCHARD PICKUP SYSTEM comes com.
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Now Audio Dynamics has gone a step further •.• they have designed a remarkable tone arm and combined it with the ADC-l in an entirely new pickup system.
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Although the ADC-l raised stereo
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AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Because of its low inertia the systern will track each side of the groove
perfectly even if the record is warped.
To stabilize the force created between
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CHESTER SANTON '"
The symbol 0 indicates the United
Stereo Tapes 4-track 7 V2 ips tape
number.
Don Baker: The Sound of 94 Speakers
Capitol ST 1626
This stereo disc will' interest anyone who
has been following the fortunes of the electronic organ. The ninety-four speakers heard
In this release are part of the three-manual,
600-note Rodgers organ. L ast J"uly, Capitol
sent Don Baker and a recording crew to Portland, Oregon with instruction s to stay there
until they had figured out a way to record
the speaker arrays of the Rodgers organ located in that city's ultra-modern, I 4,OOO-seat
Coliseum.
In order to distribute sound to every seat
in the house, the Coliseum technicians had
moun ted the 94 speakers In 32 enclosures_
These, together with 26 amplifiers, were
placed in a two-ton "basket" suspended from
the center of the arena ceiling. Pointing
slightly downward, the enclosures form a
huge square whose sides radiate sound
throughout the entire arena.
After considerable trial and error, the final
microphone placement agreed upon consisted
of two mikes suspended from the ceiling at
opposite sides of the "basket" and about
35 feet away from it. For best stereo results,
the speakers were rewired so that the voice
famllies wou ld be gr ouped at left and right.
The organ itself is quite a unique affair_ It
i s completely electrified, using neither simple
pneumatic nor electrical-pneumatic action.
Housed within t h e console, a r e 600 separate
rna tCh-box-sized transistorized etched circuits
--one for each tone the orga n produces. Don
Baker, who has played every type of organ
elaims the Rodgers is the only electronic job
with authentic pipe organ tone. He may be
right alt hough it i s not easy to judge the full
capabili ty of this organ in the program of
movie tunes played by Baker . The dynamic
range of the music offers no great challenge
to the instrument. Adequate variety is displayed in the voicing considering the limitation imposed by themes u sed for background
in motion pictures. Any low-distortion recording made under these circumstances is an
impressive achievement. I'd like to hear the
same live acoustics put to more exciting use
in some future r elease devoted to some of
the showpieces in the organ repertory.
spreading the popularity of stereo recordings
as "South Pacific" an d "Kiss Me Kate" did
in converting to LP the show public of an
earlier day.
Tossing of hats in the air at this date may
be anticlimactic after the theatre critics have
already plastered the ceiling with theirs but
this r ecording rates a place with the very
top show a lbums. The book by Shepherd
Mead becomes a sharp-pointed stepping stone
to an even more cutting script by Abe Burrows, J"ack Weinstock, and Willie Gilbert.
The lyrics and sly music of Frank Loesser
are in a class with h is great score for "Guys
and Dolls." Two years in preparation, the
show was pu t together under the working
system that director Abe Burrows has found
successful in past shows. The mocldng humor
of this spoof of big business hits its mark so
unerringly because Burrows did not start
work on the lines until he had selected the
key actors who would deliver them. To play
the role of the deftly scrambling hero, J.
Pierpont Fin ch , Burrows and Loesser chose
Robert Morse whose work in "The Matchmaker," 'Say Darling," and "Tnke Iv[e A long"
had caught t heir fancy. Rudy Vallee was a
n atural ~hoice for the part of J . B. Biggley,
the preSIdent of World Wide W ickets Company, because Burrows became closely familiar with the Vallee comedy talent back in
the days when he wrote the hilarious radio
shows that star red Rudy and John Barrymore. Vallee appears in only two songs on
the record-Love From a Heart oj Gold and
a college-type song Grand Old I vy . He is A-I
in both of them. Morse carries most of the
plot with The Oompany Way, B een a Long
Day, and I Believe in You. The last item is
delivered to the reflection of his own face in
the mirror of the executive's washroom.
Joining the sound of the orchestra at that
point is the buzz of a group of electric shavers
wielded by the unhappy executives Morse has
bypassed in his climb up the corporate ladder.
In producing the recording for RCA Victor,
George Avakian a nd J oe Linhart have taken
special pains in capturing each word of the
ch orus-an important point in this show since
most lines h ave a witty twist that deserves
to be heard.
Congratulations are very m uch in order for
all those concerned in one of Broadway's
brightest undertakings.
Milk and
Cast)
Honey (Original
Broadway
RCA Victor LSO 1065
How To Succeed in Business Without
Really Trying (Original Broadway Cast)
RCA Victor LSO 1066
In the latest Frank Loesser-Abe Burrows
show, Broadway has its first smash hit in
several seasons. You can sense it immediately
in the morale of the cast as soon as the
overture is over. You realize t hen what a
troublesome item the lack of applause the
night before can be when the company assembles for a recording session. From the
first words of "How To", this cast is really
on the ball and rides it with Virtuosity to the
last shout of the finale. Stereo itself takes
on fresh glitter in the process. "How To Succeed in , Business" should do as much in
* 12 Forest Ave., Hastings-on-Hudson,
N .Y_
8
I~
its stereo version, this new Broadway
musleal based on presen t-day life in I srael
marl,s a min or landmark in show a lbums
"Milk and Honey" was selected by RCA a~
the first recording project to simulate th e stage
action of the principals in tbe actual Broadway production of the show. The idea is certainly a lauda ble one. I go along with those
listeners who contend that most stereo original
cast recordings have not been venturesome
enough in the use of motion on the part of the
players. Perhaps it is asking a lot to saddle
a busy r ecording director with an extra chore
of this kind when he already has his hands
fu ll trying to get rea sonably consistent levels
on the meters from cast members facing a
mike for the first time. Partly as a solu tion to
problems facing a control room crew on such
occasions, RCA decided to move this cast by
means of electronic gear similar to th at used
in its Stereo Action series of pop recordings.
How does it work out in practice? The "mot ion" of the actors, as you can imagine, has a
mechanical smoothness not immediately associated with hum an behavior. The movement
is plausible enough so long as t he Singer
moves gradually across the stage. The effect
becomes artificial when the shift of sound
is sudden and hasty. I assume the motion
appears less abrupt and rapid if the singer
moves only three feet when going f rom one
luudspeal,er to another in the course of a
phrase. I'll content myself with an assumpt ion because I don't intend to go out and
buy a narrow console in order to find out.
Where speakers are six feet apart, t he shift
is too abrupt for my taste. There can be
no objection on the part of the listener if
more stage action is incorporated into future original Broadway cast recordings . . _
provided the movement of the cast is under
the strict control of the stage director. It is
hard to believe that th e man who staged
"Milk a nd Honey" attended the recording
session and heard a ll the n umbers of the show
on a normally-spaced stereo monitoring system. Just as no Broadway producer would
permit a record company to change the lyrics
of his show, so too will the producer begin
to insist on recording proceedures that are
faithful to the action s of his player s.
I n theatr ical terms, "MUk and Honey" Is
another example of a Broadway show with
a refreshing idea that is not quite developed
to its full potentia l. Here was a chance to
undertake a really colorful score yet only
t hree of the thirteen numbers on the record
draw upon the music and dances of I srael
fo r source material. These include Shalom and
The Weddin g as sung by Met stars Robert
Weede and Mimi Benzel! in the leading roles.
The wildly in fectious rhythms of the Independence Day Hora provide the only other
highlight amid a large number of average
love songs. Molly P icon, for fifty years the
first lady of the Yiddish theater, makes her
~rst .Broadway musical comedy appearance
III thIS show and seems to steal a good part
of it on the basis of her two songs on the
rec?rd. Jerry Herman's music has a strong
lYriC line for a 30-year-Old composer invading
t he Main Stem for the first time but the
Manhattan influence is too prominent in a n
Israeli locale.
There was no suggestion of milk or honey
in the preSSing RCA sent out fo r review. I
assume future copies of the disc will have
less sibilance than mine did.
Ella in Hollywood
Verve
0
VSTC 259
With the exception of Paul Smith ( r eplaced
a t the keyboard by Lou Levy) E lla works
here with t h e same group that accompanied
her in a recen t Eu ropean tour. J im Hall,
guitar; Wilfred Middlebrooks, bass ; and Gus
Johnson at t h e drums take part in this perfo rm a nce before an appreciative audience at
the Crescendo in Hollywood. The powerhouse
arrangements melt down at least the first
layer of audience sophistication as E lla tears
into a typical program that includes one of
her newer hits-M,-. Paganini . You're Driving
Me Crazy starts out with a L atin flavor and
t hen dissolves into a reali stic demonstration
by Ella of a torment generally found only
in the mind of a song writer. A soft hued It
Might As Well Be Spring is followed by a
double-deckered "A" Train that runs for a
full n ine-and-one-ha lf minutes with E lla supplying most of the fuel. In this tu ne and in
Ai,' Mail Special, the presence of a hep a udiell ce encourages a n extension of some of the
typical F itzger ald antics. The blistering
tempo of Air Mail has E ll a confessin~ in an
aside to the crowd: "I a lmost bit my" ton aue
that time." The by-play throughout the alb~m
sets up a relaxed mood that many listeners
w ill prefer to the u sual formal studio session.
Manny Albam: More Double Exposure
RCA Victor LSA 2432
If this release isn't the last word in stereo
motion on records, it will certainly do for a
month or two until the next RCA Stereo
Action extravagan za comes along. Not only
does the sound slide from speaker to speaker
on a more frequent schedule than we've been
used to in the past; the twenty tunes in the
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
If you can't afford
a Fisher tuner...
build G·ne!
Introducing the newest Fisher Strata Kit:
the KM-60 FM-Stereo-Multiplex Wide-Band Tuner
Fisher FM tuners have always been reasonably priced considering their unsurpassed sensitivity and matchless overall designbut, even so, not everyone can afford them . If economics have
thus far deterred you from buying the very finest, the new
Fisher KM-60 Strata Kit solves all your problems in exchange for
a few evenings of entertaining and instructive work. It incorporates Fisher FM engineering at its most advanced, including
built-in Multiplex and sophisticated wide-band circuitry-yet it
costs almost one-third less than the nearest equivalent Fisherbuilt tuner, which it also matches in physical appearance.
This spectacular saving involves absolutely no risk, even if you
are 'all thumbs.' The Strata Kit inethod of kit construction has
eliminated the difference between the expert technician and a
totally unskilled person as far as the end result is concerned.
You assemble your StrataKit by easy, error-proof stages (strata),
each stage corresponding to a particular page in the Instruction Manual and to a separate transparent packet of parts.
Major components come already mounted on the chassis, and
wires are pre-cut for every stage-which means every page!
You can check your work stage-by-stage and page-by-pOge,
before you proceed to the next stage. There can be no lastminute 'surprises'-success is automatic.
In
the KM-60 Strata Kit, the front-end and Multiplex circuits
come pre-aligned. The other circuits are aligned by you after
assembly. This is accomplished by means of the tuner's labo.ratory-type d'Arsonval signal-strength meter, which can be
switched into each circuit without soldering.
The KM-60 is the world's most sensitive FM tuner kit,
requiring only 0.6 microvolts for 20 db quieting! (IHFM-standard
sensitivity is 1.B microvolts.) Capture ratio is an unprecedented
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
2.5 db; signal-ta-noise ratio 70 db. The famous Fisher 'Golden
Cascode' RF stage, plus four IF stages and two limiters, must take
most of the credit for this spectacular performance and for the
superb rejection of all spurious signals. Distortion in the audio
circuits is virtually non-measurable.
An outstanding feature of the Multiplex section is the exclusive
Stereo Beam, the Fisher invention that shows at a glance whether
or not an FM station is broadcasting in stereo. It is in operation
at all times and is completely independent of the tuning meter.
Stereo reception can be improved under unfavorable conditions
by means of the special, switchable sub-carrier noise filter,
which does not affect the audible frequency range.
Everything considered, the Fisher KM-60 Strata Kit is very close
to the finest FM stereo tuner that money can buy and by far the
finest you can build . Price $169.50. *
The ideal companion unit is the Fisher KX-200 BO-watt stereo
control amplifier Strata Kit, $169.50. *
.Wolnut or Mahogany caoine f. $24.95. Melol cabinet $15.95 . Prices sl ightly higher in the Far West.
r---------------------USE THIS COUPON FOR FURTHER INFORMATION
Fisher Radio Corporation
21-29 44th Drive, Long Island City 1, N. Y.
Please send me without charge the complete Fisher
Strata Kit catalogue.
~~
Address
City
Zone_State__
________________________
I
I
I
II
~E_~
9
album are played two at a time. This isn't
the first time that popular tunes have been
paired in this fashion. It is, however, my
first encounter with dual melodies that are
made to crisscross in Manny Albam arrangements. At the start of things, Stompin' at the
Saovy emerges f r om the right speaker with
Johnson ]lag cropping up in the left speaker.
'l'he t rombones in Stompin' lead the way to
the left speaker-the reeds then take Johnson
ilag to the right.
Manny Albam, one of the busier arrangers
0 11 the New York recording circuit, has written for th ree groups in this release, each
reco rded at a different session. A standard
(lance band is nsed for classics of the swiug
era such as Duke Ellington's 0 Jaon BZues
and Count Basie's famous theme song One
O'Olook Jump. Another Albam ban(l features
five fintes. 'rhe third group places much of
its trust in thirteen strings and harp.
Interlocldng melodies of this kind present
a sizeable challenge to a system's ability to
maintain the identity of each instrument as
it moves through the ranks of the instruments goiug in the opposite direction. One
quirk in the instrumental sound has me
puzzled. The trumpets, although stationary,
tend to break up in the upper frequencies on
a ,,·ide·range system.
How To Be Terribly Funny
Riverside RLP 7516
Shelley Berman: A Personal Appearance
Verve 15027
ORTOFON SPUjGT
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ORTOFON High F idelity Cartridge
and Tone Arms reflect the ultimate in
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of national pride for centuries. These
Cartridge and Tone Arms are imported
into the U. S. exclusively by ELPA .
All guaranteed for one f ull year. S ee
them at your franchised dealer or
write us direct.
ORTOFON DIVISION
llPA MARKElING INDUSTRIES, Inc.
New Hyde Park. R '( .
10
IIU.. PA
~.
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--
Working on the theory that one comedian
Illay wear thin before a record is over, Riverside has put together a comedy bill that offers
six humori sts. Peter Ustinov a nd Henry Morgan carry off the major honors in an album
that also features the highly diverse talents
of Stanley Holloway, Louis Nye, Ronnie
Graham, and George Crater. Ustinov and
l\Jorgan have the advantage of distinctive
comedy accents. In his two appearances, Peter
Ustinov is heard in samples of his sports car
material. His sl y gibes at the jargon of racing
is rated tops by many impartial connoisseurs
of higher-grade comedy. The story of Little
Red Riding Hood is a perennial Henry
]\forgan favorite. In earlier recordings he has
done it in French style; this time it is a
modern Russian fable. Madison Avenue slogans are the backbone of Louis Nye's material
and Sta nley Holloway digs further into the
vein of stories dealing with Albert and the
li on. George Crater's wry slant on jazz is all'eady well Imown to readers of his column in
Down Beat. Here he develops further his pla n
to invent Wind·Up Dolls representing leading
ja zz figures .
Shelley Berman's latest recording includes
more than average pantomine for the benefit
of the audience heard on the disc. In some
of his stories, he still relies on speed of deIh'ery to reap bis laughs. Tbe Berman "phone
ca lls" would lose much of their punch if he
actually waited for the other half of the conversation allegedly taking place. Unlike many
record comics, Berman gears his pace to the
sharpest segment of the live audience. In a
s(>nse, this is a fiattering gesture toward the
r~ co rd audience as well. Berman is really
carried away by some of his stories in this
release. 'rhe home listene r will be puzzled
on more than one occasion by the fever pitch
of his anecdotes.
Sound Effects Library
Offbeat 5702/4
These thrce records form the nucleus of a
new library of sound effects now being offered
through channels of distributiou that are open
to the public. Although material of this type
has been available to the trade for decades,
few record shops carried in their stocks the
speCialized sounds once used in quantity by
radio and television stations. Offbeat 5702
I. limited to carn iva l sou uds. 5703 and 5704
cover n broad field and should prove useful
to tape fans looking for lllusical bridges to
accompany the showing of home movies and
color slides. These two discs offer a total of
eighty backgrounds, bridges, and effects of
every conceivable description, played on an
electronic organ by Paul Renard. With a
choice that great, the possibilities for straight
presentation or levity in a background tape
are almost limitless. Sound is more than adequate for dubbing to 7.5-ips tapes.
Glen Gray: Shall We Swing?
Capitol ST 1615
It was arranger Billy May who sold the
Casa Loma head man on the idea of this al·
bum devoted to swing arrangemen ts of the
classics. The spark that set off the project was
Billy's modern big-ban (I arrangement of a
melody from' Cesar FranCk'S w~ll.known
"Symphony in D Minor." Upon hearmg what
May had done t o a s omber theme with trombones and saxes, Glen Gray encouraged BHly
to take on a cross-section of the classical and
near classical repertory. Usually, a gambit of
this nature seldom ventures beyond the best·
lmowu tidbits of Tchaikowsky and Rachmaninoff. Here the Franck piece served as a
springboard
to
Dvorak's
"Humoresque,"
Brahms' "Hungarian Dance No.5," and Rubinstein's "Melody in F." Billy May saved his
heaviest ammunition for Ponchielli's "Dance
of the Honrs," and Von Suppe's "I!oet and
Peasant Overture." These two favontes offer
the best example of Billy's proficiency in
handling a heavy mass of sound in an effortless manner. Brasses and reeds occupy their
own channels without the loss of contact
that occasionally occurs when directionality
is uppermost in the mind of the recordiug
(Ii rector.
Whittemore and Lowe: Immortal Music
from the Movies
Capitol ST 1599
Normally aSSOCiated with Capitol's classic.al
releases, the duo-piano team of Arthu.r Whl.t·
temOl·e and Jacl{ Lowe h as chosen mOVIe musIc
for the first pop release on that label. ,:!,he
r esults are several notches above the tYPIcal
movie a lbum and far more enjoyable than
most of the percussion arrangemen~s that
have burdened Hollywood's tunes durlDg the
past year. In making their selection from. the
top films of the past twenty years, WhIttemore and Lowe are treading on the safest
~ round withi n the movie capitol. Just about
~very important name in the roster of major
film composers is represented here. Backing
the two concert grands are three di~erent
orchestral grou ps. In the more drama tIC se·
lections, harp, timpani an~ a quartet of
French horns fill out the strlllg orchestra. A
wordless choir, with string quartet and Eng·
li sh horn emphasizes the folk-like quality of
"How Gr~en Was My Valley" and "The High
and the Mighty." "Ruby" gets a soft Latin
treatment with discreet bongos. An ensemble
of woodwinds, acco rd ian and rhy~h~l . deli."ers
t he lighter touch r equired for H't-L-,lt, H,·Lo.
Throughout the album. Whlttemor~ and ~owe
justify their position in the spotl1ght WIth a
~tandard of taste t hat doesn't crop up ever,
month in material from Hollywood.
JIll
LETTERS
(from page 6)
great progress in imitating the . pipe or·
gan, and some of the newer desl.gns have
eliminated the blurps and key clicks. One
company is even injecting white ;nOise .to
simulate the chiff of the baroque pIpe VOIC·
ing, but why must ~hey. devote all .of this
e ne rgy to being imItative when WIth the
wonderful world of electronics before them
they could do something origina~'
.
All of their stop nomenclature IS denved
f rom the pipe organ,. and eve"; after .30
year s the work of LOUIS Theremlll remallls
as th~ only original work in musical elec·
tronics.
It all adds up to the fact that "wheezing
a i r pipes" still sound the best, and after
a ll, the ea r i s the final judge.
RICHARD
C.
SIMONTON,
Toluca Lake, California
(But l·eally, Mr. Simonton, not all of us
',ave two pipe organs in 01tr homes! ED.)
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
*TRIPLE TREAT SPECIAL
ONE FULL HOUR
OF PRE-RECORDED
4-TRACK STEREO
MUSICAL ENTERTAINMENT
Silk Satin and Strings
Jalousie
laura
Falling in love
From This Moment On
Holiday for Strings
Sleepy lagoon
It's All Right With Me
Stella by Sta rJight
Out of My Dreams
EI Choclo
Blues in The Night
Jazz Pizzicato
Gigi
Title Song
Waltz at Maxim's
Thank Heaven for little Girls
The Parisians
I Remember It Well
The Night They Invented Champagne
Reprise: Gigi
My Fair Lady
On the Street Where You live
*
*
Original Broadway arra ngements of 13 top tunes from both "'Gigi"
and "My Fair Lady," re-creating the sparkle of opening night for
thirty entertaining minutes
PLUS "Silk Satin and Strings," a half-hour of all-time favorites
including "Blues in the Night," "Holiday for Strings," and ten more
memorable melodies ... two current catalog albums (Concertapes No.
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AUDIO - .
JANUARY, ' 1962
11
ETC.
tdward latnaliCanby
PHASES OF THE HI FI MOON
I. HEADPHONES
VVhat about headphones '
I am still unable to get over my astonishment at the dramatic rise of the lowly
headphone, after all these years of r eputational degradation. Suddenly, phones are
a sensation, and in these last months dozens
of brands of "hi fi" phones have been made
availa ble for the purpose of home listening, where a half-dozen years ago phones
were still mainly used by telephone operators, tank crews, airplane pilots, r adio men,
and a handful of hi fi cranks who were
obviously out of their minds. Headphones?
VVho could imagine, a half-dozen years ago,
that advertisers today would be billing
headphones as. more desirable than loudspeakers!
It's clear, whatever the billing, that
phones are heading toward the top in the
Bcale of desirability, if it is a somewhat
zany and decidedly diffnse top right now.
Headphones are wonderfnl but nobody is
really quite sure what they are supposed to
be for-though they are for "hi fi," naturally. VVhat ar ea of hi fi ~ Home use mainly'
Professional use ' Both, via the same
model1 (Natch. Any sensible manufacturer
will try to play both sides of that sort of
selling appeal, if his equipment warrants
it.) One-channeH Two-channeH For records and tape ' For radio broadcasts' For
voice' For music '
For home recording, monitoring and
playback '! For professional recording, the
same' For ster eo ' For binauraH F or
mono'
And so headphones are billed for everything, so long as it can be called hi fi.
Headphones for the living room and headphones for the patio_ Headphones, (maybe
tomorrow) for the swimming pool and for
the skin diver's hi-fi helmet. H ea dphones
for the bedroom (while your husband, or
wife, snores beside you). H eadphones for
the ba throom and the living room and
maybe the kitchen. Keeps out that noisy
frying sound. Headphones for "stereo"
listening, with or without a Bauer Circuit.
(VVe've been through all that. ) Headphones
for the tape machine as well as the phono
player. Above all (I say) headphones for
the greatest recording hobby ' of all and
the only area where headphones are essential as well a s desira ble-tl'ue-bin anral
home recording.
All this and more, and along with such
omnivorously joyous thinking goes an
equally inspirational approach to headphones design; for you must fit your
phones to their purpose, match them to
the situation in view and, especially, to
the equipment with which they will have
to operate.
12
Plug Them in-to What?
Now at this stage of our hi fi development, practically no home equipment provides specifically for two-channel headphone listening. If it does, then the phones
are assumed to be high-impedance, as
phones mostly have been these dozens and
dozens of years back. Even the professional
tape r ecorders have monitor phone j acks
intended for high-impedance phones, or at
most middle-impedance.
But virtually all the new home-style
(and professional) hi fi phones, even so,
are low impedance-very low. They range
in r atings fI'om 4 to 8 ohms. They will not
work out of "conventional" phone j acks,
whether mono or twin-channel, even if the
plugs ha ppen to fit. (They often don't.
There ar e several sizes of phone plugs and
they come in sever al contact styles, inclnding three-contact and four-contact as well
as two.)
Moreover, those phones that do happily
find a hom e at your amplifier's speaker output, with matching j ack and the right impedance, ar e likely to go up in smoke the
instant you try them. Headphones are
more sensitive than loudspeakers and their
tolerance of hefty outpnts is extremely
limited_ Just plug them into your (low
impedance) amplifier output and turn up
the volume control if you want to eli scovel'
what ha ppens. Short of a quick burnout,
I've heard my phones sq uawking right out
loud in horrible distress from as far away
as twenty or thirty feet-if they had been
on my ears, I would have lost a far more
valuable pair of transducers than any pair
of phones.
No, most won't work off those very useful in-between output circuits, the cathode
follower and its relatives, which provide
a medium-high impedance match that is
low enough to allow for long cables and
no shielding, an immensely helpful factor
ill the front-end area of all sorts of sound
equipment. Low enough to obviate shielding, but not low enoug h, alas, to drive a
low-impedance headphone properly. Yes,
you can hear t he music, with loudness that
varies from brand to brand among th e hi fi
phones but never anywhere near · loud
enough to please. VVOl'se, if you turn th e
volume up (when there is a volume control) you will inevitably r each a point
where the amplifier is severely overloaded,
drained dry, with resulting violent distortion in your phone sound. (On one tape
r ecorder ,vith st er eo meters, I found that
the visu al playback level suddenly fell to
zero on the VU scales as the phones' lowohm circuits were brought all the way in,
with the expected accompanying violent
distortion. )
So what do you do with your fancy hi fi
phones when you've bought them '! It all
depends. One thing is clear- you'll have
to do something drastic. As of now, you
simply cannot just "plug them in."
One brand, the expensive Beyer phones
from Germany, provides an envelope full
of resistors and a big circuit diagram
showing how to teal' your equipment apart
and install a double-pole, double-throw
switch (not provided ) along with the variously mounted r esistors, the net r esult
being that you can flip the switch directly
from loudspeakers to phones, a t approximately t he same apparent volume and with
everything correctly mat ched.
Fine! But who among our hi fi friends
is likely to jump with joy at this prospectf
The hi fi serviceman- yes. But the heat
genetated among the living room hi fi users
is likely t o be considerable.
Professionals '! They are rela ti vely well
taken care of, at a good price. Transformers are available for the better phones, in
order to match them to standard GOO-ohm
lines. Also resistors, and so forth _ Professionals know all about this sort of thing.
But I wonder-to turn the tables the other
way-how many professionals with GOOohm lines are going to want their headphones with streamlined styling in decorat or colors ' VVell, that's what they'll get
before long, if things go on as is_ That is,
unless the headphone p eople make up their
minds as to whether they ar e aiming for
the pro 01' the non-pro market, and act
accordingly .
Actually, the phone is on the other ear
- I mean the shoe is on the other foota t th e moment; most of the new phones
either lo ok vaguely like the old telephoneradio operator type, clumsy, uncomfortable,
the earpieces always t angling up in the
wires or turning inside out and upside
down; 01' else they are strictly compromised
half-way adaptations of the time-honored
system, often much bulkier and clumsier
in order to get the r equir ed near-sealing
of the space between phones and ears that
hi fi demands for its bass.
Only one set of phones I have tried
seem really comfortable to me-light in
weight, neatly shaped and non-cl ammy,
without unpleasant side-pr ess ure on the
ears an d minu s those steel knife-edge cutting blades that weal' away the top of
your head. Also, I a dd quickly, minus confusion in the donning- they go on righ t
ever y time and never t urn inside out or
upside down or backside formost, nor do
their springs double up and cross the
phones into a knot, nor do the wires entangle t hemselves in everything in sight.
These phones are really nice (though not
very small ) and they even look nice. They
lack only one feature-really top soun d.
But this is anticipating my detailed account of a preliminar y group of hi fi headphones tha t I have been assembling an d
trying out, as the occasion for this writing.
It is clear, then, that the present production of hi fi headphones is in a burgeoning but unsettled evolutionary stage.
Much enthusiasm, lots of good designing,
a noble new ar ea of worthwhile development-but at the same time, an absence
of coordination between brands, in the details and, in the over-all, a confusion of
t he clear purpose that should lead logically
toward those details.
This situation won't last. It can't. If
phones a r e to be assimilated into hi ti,
t here must be a regular place for them,
and there will be, just as soon as the
proper p eople get together and work things
out. The phone makers between themselves.
The phone makers and the amplifier people,
plus the t ape-recorder makers. Matter of
industry st andardization.
In no time a t all, in coming new equip-
AU DIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
__MULTIPLEX
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5T96: FM and AM stereo tuners on one com·
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Exclusive precision prewired EYETRONIC®
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FM TUNER: Switched AFC (AUtomatic Fre·
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±ldb. Multiplex·ready: Regular and MX out·
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AM TUNER: Switched "wide" and "narrow"
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Sensitivity: 3uv for 1.0V output at 20db SIN
ratio. Frequency Response: 20·9,000 cps
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BOTH AMPLIFIERS: Complete stereo centers
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5T70: Cathode-coupled phase inverter circuitry
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Harmonic' Distortion: less than 1 % from 25·
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listen to the EICO Hour, WABC·FM, N.Y. 95.5 MC, Mon .-Fri:, 7:15·8 P.M.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Designed for all EICO FM equipment (HFT90.
HFT92, ST96) and any other component qual.
ity, wide-band FM tuners having multiplex
outputs, the new MX99 incorporates the best
features of both matrixing and sampling tech·
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provides the required , or better·than-required.
suppression of all spurious signals including
SCA (67kc) background music carrier, reo
inserted 38kc sub-carrier, 19kc pilot carrier and
all harmonics thereof. This is very important
for high quality tape recording, where spurious
signals can beat aga inst the tape recorder bias
oscillator and result in audible spurious tones
in a recording. This adaptor will synt;hronize
with any usable output from the FM tuner and
will demodulate without significant distortion
tuner outputs as high as 7 volts peak·to·peak
(2.5 volts RMS) .
The MX99 is self· powered, provides entirely
automatic stereo/mono operation and includes
low impedance cathode follower outputs to per·
mit long lines. An indicator lamp turns on when
the station selected is broadcasting multiplex
stereo. A separation of 35db between channels
is typical across the entire audio spectrum. An
over·all gain of unity is provided from input to
output on both stereo and mono.
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A-J
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13
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ment, ' we should have standard twin-channel outputs for low-impedance phones- all
phones. Just switch the knob, or push the
button, to PHONES and you're in business.
(With or without simultaneous loudspeaker sound, of course.) Just unplug one
brand of phones and plug in another-it'll
work equally well, just as two brands of
loudspeaker, or two brands of magnetic
pickup, now operate interchangeably; or
two radio tuners, or a brace of different
tape recorders.
That happy stage is next in line for
headphones. It is very definitely not here,
as of now. The headphone set in other
words, is going through its own version of
a generally typical manufacturing evolution which I would like to call Phase 2.
In headphones, Phase 2 is surprisingly like
the corresponding Phase 2 in many another
type of newly introduced product.
Phase 2 is the commercial break-in
period, the shakedown. It's a time for
agony and confusion and excitement as
well. You can't get to Heaven without
Phase 2 first-but H eaven (Phase 3, a
smooth, stable, bug-free continuing production and sales) is worth it.
Phase 2 is like the out-of-town tryout
for a Broadway show or a play; Phase 3
-if and when-is the successful long-term
run on Broadway itself. But in hi fi we
don't have any out-of-town place for our
tryouts. We're on Broadway right from
the beginning.
Let me digress and elaborate.
II. PHASES OF PRODUCTION
I can think of four phases in a typical
hi fi production, from start to finish. Like
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14
the moon. New, first quarter, full, last
quarter. A good analogy, if slightly loony,
and it is the "first-quarter" phase that
is most on my mind_ Phase 2.
You can guess that Phase 1, like the
new moon, is that stage in which the new
type of product is virtually invisible to
the world at large. The development stage.
Everything is behind the scenes. Designers
hard at work, mock-ups being worked out,
and discarded, bugs and gremlins of all
sorts plaguing everybody-and being killed
off, before things get rolling. There's much
secrecy and many a leak, to the rumor circuits. Something New is Coming Out Soon.
The rest of the industry knows all about
it before you can say boo, and pretty soon
the wise guys outside, who always have
the latest inside dope, seem to know all
the det ails too. But J. Q. P., Mr. Public,
is still in the dark. And his cash is still
safely in his pocket.
Then, at last, Phase 1 draws to an exciting close. Prototypes. More prototypes.
The prototypes, handmade to look as if
they weren't_ Demos, small, medium, large,
for the bigwigs, then the smaller wigs, and
finally for the eagerly awaiting dealers (so
you hope) and- bang! the big press show,
and the news is out! The ads proclaim!
The public demonstrations begin and
everything works like a charm! We're off,
and into Phase 2.
Phase 1 means no sale- yet. P hase 2
means sales, or else. And it means, at
last, a public tryout, for cash. Natch,
every known "exhaustive" test has already
been made on the new prodncts in every
imaginable way with all the ingeuity that
experience can summon up. The product
is perfect-it has to be. But for all that,
it still isn't b om. It hasn't been tested in
the only way that counts-via sales, for
money. That test is the Purgatory, bordering on Hell, that determines the real worth
of a new type of product- and shapes that
product to fit reality.
Phase II Symptoms
This second and most impOl-tant of the
quarters in my hi fi moon-cycle, then,
comes after the new product is irrevocably
launched in public, but before it reaches
a time-tested, stable, confident, bug-free,
standardized, reliable, "even keel" prod.uction and a solid place in the larger hi fi
scene, the much-hoped-for Phase 3. ~tereo
amplifiers, for example, are now deCIdedly
as a group in, Phase 3. So are stereo cartridges, in spite of individual new developments and continuing changes_
Phase 2, alas, is inevitable, in spit~ of
all the pre-testing and pre-de-buggmg.
Phase 2, according to calculations, should
not exist-it wouldn't if men were infallible. Somehow, every major new product
lives out its variably hectic Phase 2 period,
and most of them move on into the blissful
relaxation (relatively speaking) of a longterm Phase 3.
Here are some of the juicier characteristic of Phase 2 hi fi production, as I've
observed them with my own somewhat
jaundiced eyes these many years. The
symptoms are plenty familiar, if you'll
stop to apply these thoughts to specific
products and product-types.
1. Though the advertisers have been enthusing for weeks and even months over
the new models, co~plete with blow-up
pictures and detailed specs model for
model, oddly enough there don't seem to
be any of the lovely things in the stores.
Vast shipments are on the way, due any
day now, any moment. But when it comes
down to fact, there are only trickles here
and there. Supply lines are strangled,
though nobody quite knows where. Occasionally there is a small flood, when some
smart operator gets his production into
high gear, but mostly, Phase 2 is the era
of the Unaccountable Trickle. And of the
Big Promise.
In Phase 2, the harried promo tors go
around with sickly grins of outrageous optimism on their faces, making promises
they know they aren't going to be able
to keep. Can't help it. Even the best of
them have to. Some day (they think to
themselves) the log jams will break-it
might be tomorrow, after all. And sooner
or later, it is tomorrow. But that's Phase 3.
2. P hase 2 products, especially in their
earlier production, are notoriously unstandardized, and it isn't anybody's fault.
Everybody has been too busy fighting his
own problems to bother about his rivals
an d colleagues.
During the earlier and semi-secret design period of Phase 1, each maker follows up his own best hunches, hoping the
other guy won't think of the same thing
(he isn't going to asle his whether he has
or not . . . ) . Thus, whatever the product
may be, it is sure to be highly individual.
Competition behind the scenes. Thus the
Phase 2 products emerge into the light of
the commercjal day in a typically dizzy
variety of sjzes, shapes, and specs. All
sorts of specific'a tions are at odds and
especially the minor non-essentials that
are so important to the home owner- who
doesn't know a thing about the insides.
Plugs, sockets, electrical levels, impedances,
equalizations, groove depths (as in the
variable early LP's), wiring requirements,
mounting facilities, they all display a typical Phase 2 rash of inspirational individualism.
Now-suddenly-the manufacturers look
upon each other's "finalized" production
models-and wring their collective hands,
for it's too late j the chaos is built-in,
production is already booming.
But in no time at all something has to
(Conti nued on page 46)
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
WHAT-NO EARMUFFS?
She hears the bass without ear cushions. How come?
This unique quality is just one of the bass·ic advances that
are putting AKG (Vienna) K 50 dynamic headphones on the
prettiest heads - and keenest ears - this season .
The K 50 is a first·order transmitter " . This means that, like
a fine loudspeaker, it delivers a full , true bass without help.
It does not need a resonant cavity (formed by bulky ear
cushions) to simulate the low notes, but re·creates them
faithfully all by itself. With K 50, you need the small ear
cush ions only to shut out the noise of your environment.
The bass is all there, without earmuffs! So is every other
tone and shading from 30 to beyond 20,000 cycles, with
inputs as low as 0 .156 mill iwatts . Even with 90 milliwatts
input they won't blast.
AUD IO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Connect K 50 direct into your preamp output for low·imped ·
ance matching, or through a U 50 transformer for high
impedance. For use in your power·amplifier output, connect
a 20·ohm resistor across the terminals . That 's your admis·
sion ticket to a new world of musical realism .
K 50s remain cool and comfortable after hours of listening . .
They weigh less than three ounces and only you don't
know you ' re wearing them. For mono or stereo, $22.50.
For a unique ex perience in listening, hear
K 50 at your audio dealer's. For informa ·
tion write Electronic Applications, Inc ., 80
Danbury Road , Wilton , Connecticut or
phone (203) POrter 2·5537 .
;' Patented
1.5
PUBLISHER'S REVIEW
NEW TITLES
HE NEW TITLE at the top of this page is only one of
new titles around AUDIO commencing with this
issue. Because of the acquisition of Communication Engineering, announced last month in the advertising pages, several changes in duties of the staff
have had to be made. David Saslaw, managing editor
for the past eighteen months, is now Editor of AUDIO,
a post which we have confidently expected him to fill
ever since he joined us. The former editor and publisher continues as publisher of AUDIO and Lectrodex,
and takes on additional duties as editor and publisher
of Communication Engineering. No part of these
"changes" is expected to have any effect upon the
scope and character of AUDIO, and it is unlikely that
readers would ever know the difference if they did
not happen to notice the masthead on page 1.
Magazine publishing differs from the usual business
or manufacturing organization in a number of ways.
The major difference is that a business organization is
usually presided over by one" chief executive officer,"
who is likely to be the president of the company, and
he is in control of all functions of his company's operation. A magazine, however, is actually two separate
organizations- one which handles the purely business
aspects and one which creates the magazine itself.
The head of the business section is usually known as
the Business Manager, and he is principally concerned
with the more mundane parts of the operation such as
getting money in, directing circulation, and finding
out where the magazine can be published most economically. In most small magazines, his corporate
position is that of president.
The head of the editorial section is the Publisher,
and he and the Business Manager form the broad
policy decisions affecting the entire operation, and
then each carries out those policies affecting his section. He works closely with the Editor, and co-ordinates editorial and advertising production. When a
company has several magazines in its "stable," both
the publisher and the business manager may serve on
all of them.
The Editor is the person who actually creates the
magazine as the reader sees it, and he must be a
veritable jack-of-all-trades. In such a magazine as
AUDIO, he must be technically capable, able to write
clearly and convincingly, and able to recognize other
writing and to edit it in accordance with the style of
the magazine. He must be able to judge photographsand sometimes to take them and possibly retouch them
-as to suitability and content, check drawings, proof-
T
16
r ead, and- occasionally-sweep out his office. Mr. Saslaw has already proved his capability in all of these
capacities, and we are pleased with the realignment
of duties.
In spite of this digression from the usual contents
of this page for this one issue, it will be the normal
EDITOR '8 REVIEW again next month.
NEW FISHER PLANT
Located in the heart of Pennsylvania, the brand
new 50,000-sq.-ft. plant of Fisher Electronics was
opened on the first of December. Modern as tomorrow,
it will provide the much-needed factory space for
Fisher products and it is said to be the largest high
fidelity plant in 'the country.
The ceremonies began with a luncheon in Lewistown,
attended by many of the local townspeople, some large
Fisher dealers, representatives, and the press. Pennsylvania's Governor Lawrence was guest of honor and
spoke briefly. The party then moved to the plant site
at Milroy where the Governor cut the ribbon which
signified the official opening. Fisher employees and
their families attended, as did the local high school
band, and even the weather co-oper ated by being fair
and pleasant.
Weare pleased to see sufficient growth in the industry to warrant the new plant-and we hope that
Fisher will have to expand again onto some of its 20acre site.
HI FI SHOWS
The usual two high fidelity shows on the West Coast
appear in March-the combined San Francisco Home
and High Fidelity Show in the Cow Palace from March
7 to 11, and the Los Angeles High Fidelity Music
Show at the Ambassador Hotel from March 21 to 25.
The first show will be sponsored again by the Magnetic
Recording Industry Association, and is under the
direction of James Logan. The Los Angeles show is
presented by the Institute of High Fidelity Manufacturers.
The Fourth International Exhibition of Electronic
Components will be held in Parc des Expositions,
Porte de Versailles, in Paris from February 16 to 20.
This is the oldest show which has specialized in electronic products, having started as the National French
Exhibition in 1934. The 1961 show featured some 450
exhibitors, and still more are expected in 1962.
Is everybody ready 1
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
COMPARES ...
to his ...
stereo f-luxvalve P.ickup-
PICKERING & COMPANY INC. offers the stereo fluxvalve pickup in the following models: the
Calibration Standard 381, the Collector's Series 380, the Pro-Standard Mark II and the Stereo 90.
Priced from $16.50 to $60.00, available at audio specialists everywhere.
'''FOR
THOSE
WHO
CAN
HEAR
THE
DIFFE1tENCE
u
Pickering and Company-Plainview, Long Island, New York
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
17
HOW THE OCEAN GREW "EARS" TO PINPOINT MISSILE SHOTS
A quarter of the world away from its launching
pad an experimental missile nose cone enters its ocean
target area.
How close has it come to the desired impact point?
Where actually did the nose cone fall?
To answer these questions quickly and accurately,
Bell Laboratori~s developed a special system of deepsea hydrophones-the Missile Impact Locating System
(MILS) manufactured by Western Electric and installed by the U. S. Navy with technical assistance from
Western Electric in both the Atlantic and Pacific Missile
ranges. MILS involves two types of networks.
• One is a long-distance network which utilizes the
ocean's deep sound channel. It monitors millions of
square miles of ocean. The impacting nose cone releases a small bomb which sinks and explodes at an
optimum depth for the transmission of underwater
sounds. Vibrations from the explosion are picked
up by hydrophones stationed at the optimum depth
and carried by cables to shore stations. Time differences in arrivals between these vibrations at different
hydrophones are measured and used to compute location of the impact.
• The other is a " bull's-eye" network that monitors a
restricted target area with extraordinary precision.
This network is so sensitive it does not require the
energetic explosion of a bomb but can detect the
mere splash of a nose cone striking the ocean's
surface - and precisely fix its location .
The universe of sound-above the earth, below the
ocean-is one of the worlds of science constantly being
explored by Bell Laboratories. The Missile Impact
Locating System reflects the same kind of informed
ingenuity which constantly reveals new ways to improve the range of Bell System services.
BELL TELEPHONE LABORATORIES
World center of communications research and deve lopment
Audio Measuring Equipment
MANNIE HOROWITZ'::
Any audiofan interested in maintaining and improving his audio setup will, at one time or an other, consider purchasing measuring instruments. In this article Mr. Horowitz discusses the type of in stru ments
needed, plus their essential characteristics. Future articles will discuss how these instruments are used.
have
long been involved, in the battle of
specifications. Har'd ly p,n amplifier
is sold today that does not have a long
list of specifications which define (and
sometimes tend to hide) its characteristics. Practically all amplifiers have been
checked and reported on by various testing laboratories which have either confirmed or denied the published specifications.
The data presented to the consumer
by the manufacturer or independent
laboratory requires the use of specialized
instruments and careful measuring techniques. Although medium-quality instruments may be used to compare two
different units with reasonably reliable
results, excellent-quality instruments
must be used for absolute measurements.
The type of instruments required, and
available, for measuring audio equipment will be discussed in this section. A
comparison of different types of instruments used to perform the same group
of tests, as well as the characteristics
and requirements of a good instrument,
will be discussed in some instances. The
meaning of the various pieces of data
will be discussed in future sections. For
example-how peak power differs from
rms power and, in turn, how do they
both differ from music power~ Does the
peak power or music power specification have any significance, or is it just
a bigger number than rms power which
is used primarily for advertising purposes ~ Do we need as much as 50-watts
rms power for true hi-fi reproduction 7
Is a damping factor of 20 more desirable
than a damping factor of 4?
Answers to many of these questions
are subjective. However, it is frequently
worthwhile reading many opinions before deciding for oneself"':"especially if
these opinions are based on accepted
physical concepts.
This and subsequent articles are intended for the audiofan. For maximum
benefit, a good working knowledge of
electronics is desirable. Mathematics will
be used where required but may be bypassed without loss of continuity.
H
IGH FIDELITY AUDIO AJI{PLIFIERS
* 1035 Clarkson Ave., Brooklyn 12, N. Y.
Fig. 3. Wein Bridge used as freq uencyselective network.
AUDIO
•
JA.NUARY, 1962
INSTRUMENTS FOR
THE LABORATORY
Several specialized pieces of equipment are used in the audio laboratory.
These include a low distortion audio
signal generator, a square wave generator, a harmonic distortion meter, an intermodulation distortion meter, and
sometimes a wow and flutter meter. More
general instruments found in practically
every laboratory-audio or otherwiseare a YOM, a VTVM, an a .c. VTVM
and an oscilloscope.
The various manufacturers supply
each of these instruments in different
forms . Just as is the case when describing an audio amplifier, claims are preSIGNAL GENERATOR
AC VTYM
MONITOR S
OUTPU T
Fig. 1. Divider network arranged to get
a 2-mv outpu t with low noise and hum
from a 20-volt signal source.
COMPLETION OF POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP
SELECTIVE
NETWORK
"0" OR
MULTIPLE OF
2. PHASE
SHIFT
I INPUT
AMPLIFIER
PROVIDI NG
MULTIPLE S OF
2. PHASE SHIFT
AND GAIN
I OUTPUT
Fig. 2. Conventional audio oscillator
scheme.
sented. The modes of operation and
comparisons of the available types of instruments should help determine the
reliability and limits of a particular unit
Signal Generator
A source of audio signal is essential
in any laboratory dealing with high fidelity amplifiers. Because the characteristics of a sine wave are easily defined
and measured, a generator producing
waveshapes of this type has become the
universal signal source.
An oscillator must meet several obvious basic specifications to be suitable
in high fidelity test and design applications. These can be enumerated briefly
as follows :
1. The distortion should be low. A
ma::!:imum over-all harmonic distortion
of 0.1 per cent between 20 and 20,000
cps is usually satisfactory. The percentage of distortion acceptable is only a
function of the severity of the test to
be performed. Furthermore, the distortion should not be substantially affected
by the load presented to the generator.
2. The available frequencies should
range from a few cps to several hundred
thousand cps. This will provide the flexibility required to check the amplifier's
rolloff chara;,cteristics at both ends of the
audio spectrum.
3. Frequency stability and calibration
accuracy can be lumped together although they are in reality two separate
characteristics. Exact frequencies are required when checking marginal and critical equipment, such as a tape deck.
Large errors can also result in incorrect
filter measurements.
4. A reasonably flat output over the
complete frequency range is convenient.
Absolute flatness is not required since
the output can (and should) be carefully
monitored with a wide-range a.c. voltmeter or oscilloscope.
5. A low output impedance is a necessity. 600 to 1000 ohms is perfectly acceptable. The frequency selective networks should be independent of the
output load.
6. Any hum present in the signal will
be measured as distortion on an harmonic distortion meter. Hum and noise
must be maintained at a minimum. Hum
specifications are usually stated as being
19
FEEDBACK LOOP
OUTPUT
t
Fig. 4. Wein Bridge used in commercial signal generator.
guess is that both loops are involved
along with some others that are not
quite as obvious. Whatever the cause,
the cabinets or chassis of both instruments should be separated physicallythey must not touch each other.
The basic component of an oscillator
is an amplifier, as shown in Fig. 2. Positive feedback around the amplifier causes
the circuit to oscillate. A frequency
selective network inserted in either the
amplifier or feedback loop determines
the frequency of oscillation. Any properly arranged and proportioned amplifier circuit will oscillate if several criteria are satisfied.
1. At the frequency of oscillation, the
amplifier and feedback network must
have zero (or multiples of 231:) phase
shift.
2. The gain of the over-all circuit
(amplifier and feedback factor) must be
equal to or greater than 1. This is referred to as the Barkhausen criterion.
3. The output voltage is limited by the
nonlinearity of the amplifier.
SINE
WAVE
INPUT
SQUARE
WAVE
OUTPUT
Cl~
B+
(A)
-y
f""'''
(B)
CATHODE OF Vl
Fig. 5. (A) Circuit used to convert a sine wave into a square wave; and (B) equivalent
diode circu it of grid and cathode of Vl.
below the full rated output because absolute hum voltages are not substantially
affected by the setting of the output control. The best signal-to-noise ratios are
achieved at maximum or near maximum
setting of the attenuator control.
When extremely low voltage signals
are needed, a divider network is usually
placed at the output of the generator.
The network shown in Fig. 1 can be used
effectively for the 2 mv, 1000-cps signal
usually required at the tape-head input
of an amplifier. In this illustration it is
assumed that the maximum output at
the generator terminals is 20 volts. In
order to minimize hum and noise pickup
from nearby sources, the leads of both
resistors must be kept short and the connecting cables should be well shielded.
Low-loss cable as well as a low-value resistor in the bottom half of the divider
network should be used to miniinize
high-frequency attenuation. The output
should be monitored at the amplifier with
an a.c. meter.
Rum may be due to the way the instruments are hooked up rather than a
poor signal-generator.
The a.c. meter used to monitor the
output voltages from the signal generator may be partially at fault. Assume
20
the signal generator to be connected to
the a.c. meter, as shown in Fig. 1. Usually these instruments are designed so
that the primary of neither power transformer is grounded to the chassis. It is
thus expected that the cabinets of both
units will be "floating." This is not the
case. The instrument chassis and cabinets are at some actual fixed potential
with respect to the line and the secondary because of the capacity between the
transformer windings and the chassis.
The two chassis and cabinets (signal generator and monitoring a.c. voltmeter) are
connected together through these capacitive couplings to the common a.c. line.
If the two cabinets should touch, a loop
is formed with the a.c. line. The a.c. current in this loop is induced into the signal leads, causing hum to appear on the
signal. Separating the two illstruments
will eliminate this loop and the resulting
hum.
Another possible source of hum can
be the loop formed on the one hand when
the two chassis are connected together,
and on the other hand when the commons of the two instruments are joined
by leads. This also f orms a complete
loop susceptible to induce hum. Choose
whichever explanation you like best. My
The conventional audio oscillator uses
the Wien Bridge circuit shown in Fig. 3
as the frequency selecting network. The
output from the amplifier, E im is fed to
the input of the bridge. The output voltage, E ont , from the bridge is fed to the
input of the amplifier, completing the
positive feedback loop.
In order to satisfy Criterion 1, at the
oscillating frequency Eout must be in
phase with E in . That this is true can be
surmised as follows:
Fig. 6. Multivibrator circuit used to generate a square wave.
The output voltage, Eout=ER£ -Eu.
If both E R2 and E Z2 are in phase with
E in , E out is in phase with E in . ER! is
definitely in phase with E in, for E R! =
E in X R 2/ (R 1 + R 2 ), a pure resistance.
That EZ2 is in phase with E i n can be
derived simply as follows:
At the angular frequency Ol = l/RG,
Zl =R - j/OlG = (OlRG - j)/OlG = (OlBGj)R/OlRG= (l-j)R/l, a pure resistance. Also, 1/Z2 = l / R - OlG/j = (jROlG) / jR. Z! is then equal to jR/
(j - ROlG) =
jR(j -1)
FR - jR
-:-'---:'-7-:---'-:- :=
j - l(j-l)
l+l
(R-jR}/2= (1-j)R/2, a pure resist-
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
ance.
Because
EZ2=EinxZ2/ZI+Z2=
Ein(1- j)R/2
1 E in
(1- j)R/2 + (1- j)R/l == - 3 - '
there is no phase shift in the EZ2 factor.
Criterion 1 has been fully met.
From bridge theory, we know that
when the bridge is balanced, there will
be a zero voltage at E out • For the oscillator to operate, E out must not be equal
to zero. Therefore, the bridge is slightly
unbalanced when it is used in an oscillator circuit. Instead of R2/ (R 1 + R 2 ) =
Z2/(ZI +Z2) =1/3, the ratio of R2/
(RI + R 2) is made slightly smaller than
1/3.
The circuit has been used fairly consistently in many commercial audio signal
generators as illustrated by the circuit
shown in Fig . 4.
Here the voltage E in is fed from the
output of V 2 and the voltage Eoltt is applied between the cathode and the grid.
The two capacitors in the ZI and Z2
arms are varied simultaneously to maintain Re relationships with their respective resistors, avoiding phase shift while
selecting the required frequency. The R
components of ZI and Z2 are changed
when different ranges are needed. A variable resistor in the form of a lamp filament is substituted for R z to maintain
amplitude stability over the various
switched ranges as well as guard against
variations due to component aging. RI
is adjusted for best waveform. R J serves
a dual function. First, it completes the
bridge circuit. Second, it is incorporated
in a negative feedback loop from the
plate of V 2 to the cathode of VI' reducing distortion and maintaining stability
with tube variations.
Another frequency-selective circuit
which is used in many commercially
available oscillators is the bridged-T network. In one commercial application of
this type of circuit, negative feedback
is supplied to the amplifier through a
"notch" network which is a capacitorshunted bridged-To The resultant oscillation occurs at the "notch" frequency
where the negative feedback is at a minimum and the phase shift is zero. Although the bridged-T network is characterized by low distortion and good stability, there has been some tendency to use
the Wien Bridge configuration because
of the somewhat more practical value
of the resistors used. In reality there is
no basic advantage of one circuit over
the other insofar as performance is
concerned.
There are frequency limits imposed on
the Wien Bridge oscillator by its very
nature. At high frequencies, the resistors
in the bridge arms are too small. They
load down the output tube excessively as
well as introduce phase shift. The lower
frequencies are limited by the practical
size of the capacitor , e} and the resistors,
R . Too high a resistor in the Z z arm
may cause the grid of VIto be over-
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
biased due to grid leak action, as well
as make the circuit susceptible to stray
field pickup.
The sine wave output from the signal
generator can easily be converted into a
square wave signal, useful for many
audio tests. The circuit shown in Fig. 5
has been used for this purpose in a commercial generator.
On the positive half cycle of ' the sine
wave, grid current flows through RI and
R 2 • The voltage across R z acts as a fixed
bias for the diode formed by the grid
and cathode of VI . The equivalent circuit
of this is shown in (A) of Fig. 5. When
the signal is applied to this diode, only
the positive peaks of the signal will be
at the grid of VI} where it is amplified.
The negative portion is clipped by the
tube when it is driven to cutoff by the
high bias voltage.
The phase of the signal has been
shifted 180 deg. in the plate of VI. It is
fed to V z} where the tube is cutoff for a
portion of the cycle and the negative end
of the signal is clipped. The rise time is
good because the signal has gone through
two stages of amplification and clipping.
Other and more direct means are frequently employed to get a square wave.
The popular multivibrator circuit shown
in Fig. 6 is quite common. Here, one
tube conducts while the second tube is
driven to cutoff. The frequency is determined by the time it takes the voltages
across the capacitors to leak off through
the associated grid resistors and the voltage required to cut off the tubes. Symmetrical signals are obtained if both RC
pairs are equal.
Excellent rise time and good square
waveforms can be obtained using either
configuration.
The Harmonic Distortion Meter
=
Fig . 7 . Wein Bridge used in distortion
analyzer.
sufficient to overcome the bias voltage
and cause the diode to conduct. The conducting diode will be a short for these
peaks, resulting in a clipped positive
portion. This clipped form will appear
IZI
.\
Fig . 8. Phase splitter drives dividing network to get proper voltage ratio and
zero output when (j) = l / Re.
60 cps
The details of the Wien Bridge circuit
apply to harmonic distortion meters as
well as to audio oscillators.
The operation of a conventional distortion meter is straightforward. The
complete signal is fed from the device
under test to a meter, and the voltage is
measured. The fundamental is eliminated from the signal under test, with
the result that only harmonics remain.
These are now measured on the same
voltmeter. The ratio of the harmonics to
the total voltage is the amount of distortion in the signal being tested. The
Wien Bridge is often used as the selective network for the elimination of the
fundamental component.
The circuit in F'ig. 7 shows how tbe
Wien Bridge eliminates the fundamental
frequency wbile passing the harmonics.
Unlike the circuit used in a signal generator, the bridge here is completely balanced for the fundamental frequency,
(j) = l/Re.
Then ZjZz = RJR z. Under
this condition, EOltt = 0 for the fundamental (fo) frequency. It is not zero at
all other frequencies due to pbase shift
~"""I\I\,._
7000 cps -.1\1\11,1\1\_
OUTPUT
60 cps
(A)
(B)
Fig . 9. Networks for mixing 2 frequencies: (A) Adding network, and (B) Bridge
network.
21
in the bridge. Thus, these harmonic voltages are passed on to the next tube. It is
interesting to note that E i " is frequently
obtained from a cathode follower and
that there is a considerable amount of
feedback around the bridge circuit. This
is important in increasing the rejection
of the fundamental frequency.
A variation of this is shown in Fig. 8,
where a phase splitter is used to drive
the circuit. As indicated in the discussion of the oscillator, the ratio of Z 1 to
Z . is 1: 3. Thus if voltages of proper
bucking phase, but of this 1: 3 amplitude ratio are fed to this network, there
would be a null between the junction of
Z. and ground only at the fundamental
frequency, fOJ while all other frequencies
are passed. This method is inferior to
the bridge circuit because the null cannot be quite as pronounced.
Using an instrument employing either
circuit can be misleading unless the resulting harmonics are observed on an
oscilloscope. The meter measures everything except the fundamental. The reading will include hum along with the harmonics. The significance of the hum, as
well as the frequency of the undesirable
harmonics, can be observed and evaluated on the scope.
The characteristics of a good harmonic
distortion meter are many, but a few are
quite significant to the operator.
the excellent correlation with actual listening tests.
To test intermodulation distortion,
two signals of different amplitude and
frequency are passed through the amplifier under test. These two signals will
appear at the output of an undistorted
amplifier. If nonlinearity does exist in
the unit under test, the two input signals will heterodyne and produce " sum
and difference frequencies along with the
original two frequencies.
A. C.
~OO.C.
~ METER
O UTPUT FROM PEAK RECTIF IER
T\ 7'\
Fig . 10. Pea k re ading circui t for use w it h
d.c. meter.
A. C.
:m
Cl -
02
Ol
C2-
R
+
TO O. C.
METER
(A)
1. The instrument must he capable of
measuring harmonics of fundamental frequencies from 20 to 20,000 cps. The voltmeter must then be capable of linear response to 60,000 cps.
2. The fundamental frequency must
be reduced by a considerable amount.
For measurements with up to 0.1 per
cent distortion, the fundamental must
be down about 80 db. However, the closest harmonics, such as the second, should
not be reduced by more than 3 db. This
is best achieved when the bridge circuit
of Fig. 7 is used.
3. The instrument must introduce
negligible amounts of distortion and
hum.
4. It should be sensitive enough to
read 0.1 per cent distortion on a 1 volt
signal with reasonable accuracy.
A better method of measuring distortion requires the use of a wave analyzer. Here, a voltmeter measures the
relative harmonic components in the signal. Thus, the amount of second or third
harmonic component is checked, rather
than the composite sum of all compo nents. In this type of instrument, only
one frequency component at a time is
fed to, and read, on the voltage measuring instrument.
Although harmonic distortion characteristics are practically always stated in
the list of audio amplifier specifications,
intermodulation distortion measurements
have gained in significance because of
22
+~+
Cl _
(B)
.
(C)
Ol
El~'n ut
+
C l_
~(----,
. X D2
El sin (Wt+TT) _ ~
+
+ T2El
Fig . 11 . Pe a k-to-pe a k output of this circu it (Al, to be rea d o n d.c. meter. (Bl
Cond itio n dur ing posit ive ' hal f of cycle,
and (Cl cond it ian du ring neg a t ive half
cycle.
B+
O. C. IN PUT
1
Fig . 12. D.c. read ing meter in balanced
ci rcui t.
,The conventional intermodulation distortion meter supplies these two signals
in a 4-to-l amplitude ratio. The frequencies commonly used are 60 cps and
7000 cps respectively. Two methods are
generally used to combine these frequencies in the analyzer before they are
fed to the amplifier. The first mixes the
two frequencies in the type of adding
network shown in (A) of Fig. 9. The
combined signal appears across the potentiometer. A second method, shown in
(B) of Fig. 9, uses a bridge for mixing.
The latter configuration is usually
preferred because in the first method the
signals can interact with each other. On
the other hand, the balanced bridge isolates the two signals. Balance is maintained only if the signal is attenuated
by means of a T-pad at the output. The
bridge will then be balanced at any output level.
The operation of the rest of the instrument is straightforward. The combined signal is connected to the input
of an amplifier. The output from the amplifier is sent through a high-pass filter
eliminating the 60 cps component. If the
amplifier has introduced distortion, the
remaining 7000 cps will appear to be
modulated by a low frequency. The am plitude of the total modulated 7000-cps
signal is measured. The signal is then
detected with only the modulating frequency remaining. This is in turn measured and compared with the amplitude
of the 7000 cps. The ratio of the two is
the percentage of intermodulation distortion.
This section of the analyzer is quite
important. The accuracy of the measuring instrument and the quality of the
filters determine the accuracy of the
measurements. Low hum circuitry is necessary to eliminate any stray signals. The
analyzer input impedance must be relatively high (500,000 ohms will do) to
avoid putting an excessive load on a
preamplifier that may be under test.
The Oscilloscope
The oscilloscope is a visual voltmeter
used to observe the output of the equipment under test. Unfortunately, low
percentages of distortion are not too obvious on the 'scope screen and the measuring instruments described previously
must be used. A 'scope can be used as an
effective indication of some amplifier
characteristics. It can also be used to
supplement the information gained from
other instruments.
The heart of the oscilloscope is the
cathode ray tube. In this tube, a potential difference between the cathode and
one of the other electrodes starts the
electrons in motion towards the fluorescent screen. Two groups of deflection
plates are arranged so that each pair is
perpendicular to the other. A potential
applied to these individual pairs of
(Conti nued on page 71)
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Test Equipment Roundup
DAVID SASLAW
For t he audiofan, fulfilling New Year's Resolutions may well require audio measuring equipment. In order to simplify the
task of fi ndi ng "the" piece of test equipment to satisfy your needs, Audio has rounded up the specifications and descript ion of most of the ava ilable equipment although some manufacturers are not represented because we could not get the
information in ti me for t his issue. The types of equipment we concentrated on are the mainstays of any audio measurin g endeavo r: au dio signal generators, oscilloscopes, and voltmeters. Also included are more specialized equipment such
as ha rmon ic distortion analyzers, I M analyzers, flutter and wow me ters, and an electronic switch . The price (and performa nee) ran ge presented varies from the most inexpensive kit intended for the beginner up to the very expensive
la boratory instru me nt. The specifications .Iisted for each instrument have not been verified by Audio; they are t he ratings
provided by t he manufacturer. Happy hunting.
VACUUM TU BE VOLTMETERS
B (7 K INSTRUMENTS, INC.
• True B MS VTV M. A professional instrument designed for use in the audi o labo ratory, the Bruel & Kjaer Model 2409
VTVM is especially val uable for the measurement of distorted sinu soidal or nonsinusoidal voltages. A.c. measu remen ts are
possible in the frequency r ange from 2
cps to 200,000 cps with an over-all accuracy of ± 3 per cent over the full scale.
scale is visib le at a time. T he 375 measures rms and peak a.c. volts, and d.c.
volts, in seven ranges up to 1500 volts .
Over-all accu racy is given as 3 per cent
over the full scale for either a.c. or d.c.
measurements. The unit a lso measures
direct current up to 500 ma and resistance
up to 1000 megohms. A singl e probe is
provided for d.c., a.c., and res istance
measurements. Price of the Model 375 is
$89.95 . B & K Mfg. Co., Chicago, I ll.
A-2
EICO
• A.C. VTVM Kit. T h e E I CO Model 255
a.c. VTVM kit is a high- sensitivity unit
at a mo d est pri ce. It measu res a.c. voltage
from 100 'lA,v to 300 volts in 12 ranges.
The 255 responds to the average value of
a n applie d wave and ind icates the rms
val ue of a sin e wave. The db ran ge is
Freq u ency response is within 0.2 db from
2 cps to 2 00, 00 0 cps. T he 2409 also reads
peak and average val ues from 1 mv to
1000 vol t s. Sim ul taneou s ly, it operates as
a calibrated amplifier with u p to 45 volts
peak und istorted outpu t. Other features
of the Mod el 2409 are s low and fast meter
damping, b u ilt-i n calibration standard,
and comple t e overl oad protection. The
Model 24 09 costs $315 and is a l so availab le
in a rack-panel version. B & K I nstruments . Inc., C leveland, Ohio.
A-I
GENERAL RADIO
• Laboratory VTVM. The General Radio
Model lS00 -B V T VM combi n es t h e acc u racy of the laboratory instrument with
the d u rability necessary for production
u se. It meas u res alter nat ing voltage at
frequencies u p to several h u ndred Mc,
as well as d.c. voltages of eith er polarity .
T he voltage range is 0.1 to 150 volts a .c.
an d d.c. in six ranges. Accuracy on both
t h e a.c. a n d d.c. measu rments are ± 2 per
cent of f ull scale. The freq u ency response
is essentially fla t , ± 1 d b from 5 cps to
500 Mc. On t h e higher a.c. vo l tage r anges
the i nstru ment operates as a peak volt meter, calibrated to read rms values of
a sine wave, or 0.707 of the peak val ue
of a comp lex wave. Features of the Model
1 BOO-B i nclude stable calibration which
is s u bstan t ia lly i ndependen t of t u be characteristics, a nd an illum inated mirror-type
scale. P r ice of t h e 1B OO-B is $49 0.00.
General Radio Company, West Concord,
Massachu setts.
A-4
HEATH
• Low-cost VTVM Kit . Featu ring the
same basic circuit as the we ll-k n own
Heathkit V-7A, p l us new improvements,
B (7 K MFG. CO .
• Direct-Beading VTVM. The B & K Mfg.
"Dy namatic" 375 is an a u tomatic V T VM
t hat provid es direct readings witho u t multiplying or converting in any way. An in dividual scale is provided for each range,
all scales are the same size, and onl y one
from - 80 to + 52 db in 12 scales. Freq u ency respon se i s ± 0 db from 10 cps to
600 ,000 cps. Accuracy is ± 3 per cent of
f ull scale. Other features incl ude a two
stage RC- cou p led amplifier and a full
bridge meter circuit, stab ilized power suppl y incorporatin g a voltage reg ulator, and
d.c. -biased filaments and h u m-adjust potentiometer. Hum and noise is 30 ~v on
any range. Price of the Mod e l 255 kit i s
$44.95. mICO E lectronic Instrument Co.,
Long Is lan d City, N. Y.
A-3
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
23
the Model IM-11 measures a.c. volts rms,
a .c. volts pea k-to- peak, d .c. volts, resistance, and db. The d .c. a nd a .c. rms scales
measure to 1500 vol ts full s cale. The a .c.
peak- to-pea k scale goes to 4000 volts in
seven ranges. The resistance r a nge is
from 0.1 ohm to 1000 megohms in seven
range s. Frequency response is ± 1 db from
25 cps to 1 Mc with a 600 -ohm source.
Accu racy is ± 3 per cent d .c. for the d. c.
measu rements and ± 5 per cent for the
a.c. measurements. The IM-ll is supplied
with a slim, all-pu rpose te st probe. A
switch on the probe body prov ides simple
selection of a .c. ohms or d .c. f unction s,
and is equipped with a hook which enables
clipping the probe to the circuit for
"hands free" opera tion. The price of the
IM- ll Kit is $29.95. H eath Company,
Benton Harb or, Michiga n.
A -5
HEWLETT-·PACKARD
• L a.bora.to·r y VTVM. Th e H ew lett-Packa rd Mod e l 400-D VTVM is a rela tiv el y
low-pri ced laboratory voltmeter, offering
wide voltage r a nge, 2-pe r- cent accuracy
and broad frequency coverage. The voltage
r a nge is 1.0 m v to 300 volts full scale
in twelve ranges. The frequency ran ge
is 10 c ps to 4 Mc, a nd t he accuracy is
± 2 per ce nt full scale from 20 c ps to 1
Mc. The Model 400-D i s calibrated to read
rms val ue of sine w aves. Other f eatur es
inclu de overload protec tion which guards
the instruments again st peaks of up
to 600 vo lts, special circuitry to minimize
transients during switchin g, and outp u t
circu itry which permits the voltmete r to
be used as a broad-band, high-gain amplifier throughout its full freq u e ncy range.
The price of the Model 400-D is $2 50.00.
Hew le tt- Packard Company, Inc. P a l o Alto,
California.
A-6
reading db scale. Two a.c.-range groupings
a re provided-a low a.c. r a nge fo r a udio
applications a nd a regular a. c. r a nge. Th e
l ow range provides rms r eadings up t o
50 0 mv, peak-to- pea k voltage r eadings up
t o 1400 mv, with a n accuracy of ± 5 per
ce nt of full scale. Frequency r espon se in
this r a nge is ± 1 db from 20 cps to 250,000
cps, with a 600 - ohm source. Th e regular
a .c. range provides rms readings up to
1500 volts a nd peak-to-p eak r eadings up
t o 4200 volts, a lso with a n accuracy of
± 5 per cent. F req u e n cy r es ponse in this
range is ± 1 db from 20 cps to 4 Mc. Th e
d.c. voltmeter prov ides ranges up t o 1500
volts with an accu racy of ± 2 per cent.
The ohmmeter section r ead s up to 1000
megohms in seven ranges. Other feat u r es
of the KT-174 a re special a ll- in- one probe,
external ca libration contro ls, an d t e rminals which pe rmit m onito r in g directly
with a n oscilloscope while making a.c.
measurments. The KT -174 se lls for $26.95.
Lafayette R a dio E lectroni cs Corp. J a m a ica
33, New York.
A-7
db range i s f r om - 65 to + 52, a l so in
e leven r a nges. Th e freq u e ncy res ponse is
db from 20 c p s to 2 Mc. The over-a ll
accurac y is ± 3 per cen t of f ull scale.
Th e stab le 3- stage amp lifier h as a cath o defo llower output t h a t may b e connected to
a n oscilloscope for s imulta n eo u s waveform observation while makin g measurements . The price of the M odel 83 YU978
kit is $8 9.95 . Allied R a dio, Chicago,
Illin ois
A-8
±1
RCA
• Senior VoltOhmyst. The RCA Senior
VoltOhmyst M od e l WV-98B is a n allel ectroni c voltmeter design ed t o measure
d.c. voltages, resistance, rms ' va lu es of
s in e w aves an d peak-to-peak valu es of
compl ex waves. Rms a .c. and d.c. voltages
up to 1500 volts a r e measured in seven
ranges with a n acc uracy of ± 3 p e r cent
KNIGHT
• A .C. VTVM K it. F eaturing the same
c irc uitry a nd accuracy of the Knight
automatic a.c. VTVM kit, this new manual
a.c . VTVM kit, Model 83YU978, provides
a se nsitive, accurate in strum e nt at a
modest price. The unit m eas ures up to
300 volts in eleve n scale ranges, a nd the
LAFAYETTE
• Peak-t o-PeaJt VTVM K it. de s i g n ed f or
ease of construction and versatility, the
Lafa yette KT- 174 VTVM Kit mea sures
a .c. peak-to-peak, a.c. rms, and d .c. volta ge,
a nd resista nce. In addition it h as a direc t
of full scale. It a lso m easures resistance
val u es up t o 1000 megohms a nd com plex
w a ve forms h aving p eak- t o-peak values
up t o 4200 v o lts. Th e in st rum ent is fr e q u ellcy compensated for a.c. voltage
ranges up to a nd in cl udin g th e 500-volt
range, and can b e u se d at frequencies up
to a bout 3 Mc. All measurements a re m a d e
with a s ing le unit probe. Additiollal feat ures in clude prov is io ns for zero centering of the meter pointer, and two sepa r ate
scales for l ow- vo ltage a.c. meas urm e nts.
The Senior VoltOhymst is availab le as
a ldt at a pl'ice of $62.50 a nd facto r y wired a nd calibrated at a price of $79.50.
Radio Corporation of America, Harrison,
New J ersey.
A-9
AUDIO SIGNAL GENERATORS
B 6' W
• Model 2 00 Audio Os cillator . The Barl<er
& Williamson Model 200 Audio Oscilla tor
is intended for use where a s t a b le, acc ura t el y calibrate d source of frequency
f r om 30 cps to 30,000 cps is r eq uired. The
Mode l 200 achi eves its 30,OO O-cps range
in three steps, each step b e ing continuous.
The output is 10 volts into a 500 - ohm
l oad, with a n atten u a t or available to
r educe the o utput if necessary. The Model
200 utilizes a n RC oscillator c irc u it whose
outp u t ach ieves har monic di stortion of
less tha n 0.5 pe r cen t from 100 c ps to
15,000 cps at 10 volts output. Freque ncy
r esponse bett e r than ± 1 db is claimed
over th e 30 cps to 15,000 c ps r a nge (500o hm loa d ) , with s t a bility exceeding 1
pe r cent. No zero r eset or line calibration
is required a nd dial calibra t i on is acc ura te to ± 3 p e r cent of scale reading.
Barker & Williamson, I n c. , Bris tol, P a .
A-IO
Th e EICO Model 377 sine-square w a ve
gen e rator features versatility and modest
cost. Th e f r equ ency range in the s ine
wave se tting i s 20 c p s to 200,0 00 cps in
EICO
• Sine-Squa.r e W a ve Audio Ge·n era.tor K it.
24
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
PI LOT
PICK YOUR
FM MULTIPLEX TUNER
QUALITY TO FIT THE MOST UNCOMPROMISING TASTE
Model 380 is an FM Multiplex tuner worthy of the most critical audiophile: triode RF amplifier, triode
converter and 3 IF stages provide ultra-sensitive performance ... wide-band detector assures minimum distortion ... temperature-compensated oscillator eliminates drift ... built-in Multiplexer provides 30 db or more
separation on FM stereo broadcasts, without interfering with monaural FM reception.
It's compact, too . .. 5Vs" high, 14%" wide, 8%" deep. Visit your PILOT dealer today, or
.
write for complete information on PILOT'S Model 380, priced at only ..... .... ....... ...... .. ....
PILOT'S
17950
QUALITY TO FIT THE MOST UNCOMPROMISING BUDGET
No other FM Multiplex tuner offers so much performance per dollar as PILOT' S Model 280: complete power
transformer operation .. . wide-band detector for minimum distortion ... high gain IF tubes ... separate logging scale . .. built-in line cord antenna ... the same Multiplex circuitry used in the finest
Multiplexer units .. . and it's just 3%" high, 9%" wide, 71/2" deep. You must hear the PILOT
Model 280 to believe so much quality can be built into a tuner which sells for only ......... .
9995
See and hear PILOT'S complete line of new FM Multiplex Stereo components-sTEREO RECEIVERS: Model
654M, 60 watts, FM I MPX, 329.50 ... Mode1602S, 30 watts, AM I FM I MPX, 299.50 .•. Mode1602M,
30 watts, FM/MPX, 249.50 and MULTIPLEXERS: Model 100, 49.50 ..• Model 200, 79.50
,'1llor
PILOT RADIO CORPORATION, 37·36 36TH STREET, LONG ISLAND CITY 1, NEW YORK
FOUNDED 1,) 1 9
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
25
4 bands and in the square wave setting
the range is 60 cps to 50,000 cps (5 per
cent tilt at 60 cps and 5 per cent rounding at 50,000 cps). Calibration accuracy
is ± 3 per cent. Frequency response is
+ 1.5 db from 60 cps to 150,000 cps. Voltage output is 8 volts into a 500-ohm load,
10 volts into a 1000-ohm load, and 14
volts for l oads of 10,000 ohms or higher.
Distortion is less than 1 per cent. The c i rcuit utilizes a Wi en Bridge in the frequency determining network. Price for the
kit is $31.95 . EICO Electronic Instrument
Co., Inc., Long Island City, N. Y.
A-ll
lapping bands. The 63-inch effective scale
length and 72 dial divisions aid in providing accurate direct frequency setting.
The voltage output of the unit into a
600-ohm load is 24.5 volts, with a maximum distortion of 1 per cent from 20 cps
to 20,000 cps and 2 per cent from 20,000
cps to 40,000 cps. The circuit utilizes an
RC type oscillator with both positive and
negative feedback. Frequency response is
flat + 1 db over the entire frequency range
of the instrument. Calibration accuracy
is ± 2 per cent. Price of the Model 200-AB
is $165 .00. Hewlett-Packard, Inc., Palo
Alto, California.
A -14
PRECISION
• Sine-Square-Wave Gene,r ator. The Pre cision Model E - 310 offers both sine- and
squ are,wave frequencies from 5 cps to
600,000 cps at a moderate price. It achieves
its frequency range in five bands with a
scale accuracy of ± 2 per cent. The sinewave output level is 10 volts rms int o
600-ohm leads and the square-wave output
1s 10 volts peak-to-peak with a 0.2 J.LS rise
time. Distortion is less than 1 per cent
from 5 cps to 600 cps. Special features
incl ude metering terminals at the front
GENERAL RADIO
• Model I302-A Audi() Os cUla.tor. The
General Radio T ype 1302-A Audio Oscillator features wide-frequency range with
excell e n t stability and low-harmonic distortion. It provi des a frequency ran ge
from 10 cps to 100,000 cps in four ranges,
with an accuracy of ± (1'h per cent + 0.2
cps) . The output impedance is a balanced
600 ohms and grounded 5000 ohms and it
provides at least 20 volts open circuit
with the 5000-ohm output and 10 volts
open circuit with the 600- ohm output. The
1302-A is an RC osci llator which employs
an inverse-feedback circuit. The fre quency-determining network is a Wi en
Bridge. Harmonic distortion is less than
1 per cent with normal l oads. The frequency dial has a semi-l ogarithmic scale
which eliminates crowding at the low frequency end. Price of the Model 1302-A
is $500.00. General R a dio Compa ny, West
Concord, Mass.
A -12
KN IGHT
• S ine-W a v e Audio Generator Unit. Knight
Kit Model 83YX137 utilizes a bridgedT RC oscillator circuit and operates into
either high-impedance or 600 -ohm l oads.
It provides 10 volts output from 20 cps
to 1 megacycle ± 1 db in five ranges (into
HEATH
• Audio Generator Kit. The Heath Model
AG-9A A u dio Generator Kit features
switch-selected frequencies, low distortion, and a built -in output meter. Frequency range is from 10 cps to 100,000
cps and can be varied in steps of 1 cps
from 10 cps to 100 cps while a 4-position
multipl ier increases this range in mul-
high impedance). Both a step attenuated
output vol tage control and a continuously
variable level control are provided in the
output stage. Distortion is less than 0.25
per cent from 100 cps up to 15,000 cps
into high impedance load. Price of the
83YX137 is $35 .95 . Allied Radio, Chicago,
Illinois.
A -IS
of the panel for monitoring output level
by means of an external VTVM or VU
meter. A 6-inch diameter tuning dia l
provides scale lengths of 85 inches ove r
the five bands. The price of the Model
E-310 is $199.95. Precision Apparatus
Company, Inc., Glendale 27, New York.
A-17
RCA
LAFAYETTE
• Sine-SQuare-Wa v e G e,n e,r ator. Featuring
an unusually modest cost for factorywired sine-square wave generator, the
Lafayette Model TE-22 combines a sinewave and a square-wave generator on one
chassis. The sine -wave range is 20 cps to
200,000 cps ± 1.5 db in four bands. The
tiples of 10 up to the maximum freq u ency.
Output is indicated on a 4 'h -inch panel
meter, calibrated in volts and db . The
output attenuator operates in steps of
10 db and is calibrated in eight full - scale
meter ranges. Output voltage is up to
10 vo lts into a high impedance l oad and
up to 1 volt into a 600-ohm load. Frequency accuracy is ± 5 per cent and
harmonic distortion is less than the 0.1
per cent from 20 cps to 20,000 cps. A
slide switch allows selection of the builtin 600-ohm load or external load of higher
impedance. Frequency determining network is a bridged-To Price of the AG- 9A
is $39 .95. Heath Company Benton Harbor,
Michigan.
A -1 3
HEWLETT-PACKARD
• Model 2OQ-AB Audio Os cillator. The
Hewlett-Packard Model 200-AB Audio
Oscillator is the basic unit in a series of
laboratory instruments. Frequency coverage is 20 cps to 40,000 cps in fo u r over-
26
usable square-wave response is 20 cps to
25,000 cps. Frequency accuracy is ± 5 per
cent, with less than 2 per cent harmonic
distortion. The output voltage is 7 volts
maximum. The Model TE- 22 incorporates
a large etched dial. A variab le attenuator
prevents overloading test circuits. The
price of the TE-22 is $32.50. Lafayette
Radio E lectronics Corp. , Jamaica, New
York.
A -1 6
• Sine- SQuare-Wa ve A udio Gene r a tor . Th e
RCA WA- 44C Sine-Square-Wave Audio
Generator is designed for general radio
work a nd provides a frequency range of
20 cps to 200,000 cps over four ranges.
The sine-wave output voltage is 8 volts
rms with a maximum total harmoni c
distortion of 0.25 per cent from 30 cps
to 15,000 cps. The square w a ve output
vo ltage is 10 volts peak- to-peak. The dial
calibration accuracy from 20 cps to 20,000
cps is ± 5 per cent. The circu it of the sinewave function cons ists of a bridged-T RC
oscill ator with a cathode follower output
stage. An attenuator circu it, a clipper
c ircuit, a,nd an output cathode follower
are combined to produce the square wave
output. Price of WA- 44C is $98.50 . Radio
Corporation of America, Harrison, New
Jersey.
A-IS
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
The loudspeaker is potentially the weakest
link in a high fidelity system. It is the most
difficult of audio components to choose.
HOW TO
CHOOSE
A
LOUDSPEAKER
The choice should be made primarily on the
basis of prolonged, careful listening to
different speakers, with varied musicaI.program
material used for each. Quick demonstrations
with gimmick records do not provide a
valid basis for evaluation.
Acoustic Research maintains showrooms on the
west balcony of Grand Central Terminal in
New York City, and at 52 Brattle Street in
Cambridge, Massachusetts. There you can listen
at leisure to music reproduced through AR
loudspeakers, from harpsichord concertos to
Dixieland jazz. No sales are made or initiated
at these "Music Rooms." Although attendants
are on hand to answer questions, you may
stay as long as you like without being
approached.
SPEAKER RENTAL PLAN · In line with
the effort to make careful auditioning of
AR speakers possible, Acoustic Research has
now instituted a rental plan. Any model of
AR speaker, or a stereo p air, can be rented from
a participating dealer for a week at a cost of
one dollar per unit.
If the speaker is purchased the dollar is applied
toward the price. If you decide not to buy
the speaker you can feel completely free of
pressure to keep it, since the trial has been
adequately paid for. CAR gives the dealer an
additional sum for his trouble.)
II
.
AR's Cambridge Music Room
AR speakers are priced from $89 to $225. Literature, including a list of dealers in your area
participating in the AR rental plan, is available on request.
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH, INC., 24 Thorndike Street, Cambridge 41, Massachusetts
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
27
OSCILLOSCOPES
EICO
• 5-inch Push-Pull Oscillosco·p& Kit. In tended for service as a general purpose
oscilloscope, the E I CO Model 425 features
push- pull outpu t stages in both vertical
and horizontal amplifiers. Vertical and
horizontal frequency range is 5 cps to
500,000 cps although the vertical response
is usable up to 2.5 Mc. Vertical sensitivity
is 0.05 to 0.1 volts rms per inch; horizontal sensitivity is 0.05 to 0.15 volts rms per
inch. The sweep generator is a multivi brator with a frequency range of 15 cps
to 75,000 cps. Other feat u res include Zaxis inp u t , direct connections to defiection
tures include push-pull output amplifiers,
pOSitive trace-position controls, peak-topeak calib ration reference, 3-step frequency compensated vertical Input, Z-axis
input, and two sw itch-selected preset
sweep frequency positions for those who
u se cert ain frequencies often. Price of the
10 -30 kit is $69.95. Heath Company, Benton
Harbor, Mich.
A-20
HEWLETT-PACKARD
• Mod&l 120A Oscilloscope. The H -P Model
120A 5-in. laboratory oscilloscope features
direct reading calibration, automatic trigger, and a utomatic baseline, The frequency ranges of the vertical and horizontal amplifiers are d ,c. to 200,000 cps for
d .c. measurem ents and 2 cps to 200,000
cps for a .c. measurements. V ertical sensitivity is 10 mv per cm to 100 volts per cm
in 4 calibrated steps accurate within ± 5
per cen t. Horizontal sensitivity is 0.1 volt
per cm to 100 volts per cm in 3 calibrated
steps accu rate within ± 5 per cen t. The
sweep range is from 5 IlS per cm to 200
ms per cm i n 15 calibrated sweeps. A
sweep multiplier expands the sweep rate
5 times on all ranges. Synchronization is
automatic from 50 cps to 250,000 cps. The
Model 120A is supplied with an illuminated graticule and a filter appropriate
for the phospher used. Price of the 120A
is $450,00. Hewlett-Packard Co., Palo Alto,
Calif.
A-21
KNIGHT
't \'"
((IU$I.flO
"Ot
,~~
j-,-...
~
,..
"I~
..-"" . . '~" ' " •
'.
."
... a ,
• 5-inch Oscilloscope Kit. High-frequency
vertical range and high-speed sweep rate
fea t u re t h e Knight Model 83YU144 oscilloscope kit . The vertical amp lifier response
is ± 3 db from 5 cps to 5 Mc. Sensitivi t y
of the vertical amplifier is 25 mv rms per
inch ; sensitivity of the horizontal am-
,,#"
:I'
i
ri.
WilfUt
IIOl. tllH {}
plates of catho de-ray tube availab le at
rear of cabinet, and provision for exter nal
as well as internal synchronization. Price
of the Model 425 k i t is $44.95. EICO E lectronic Instru men t Co., Long Island Ci ty,
N. y,
A-19
•follower
inputs. Other features incl ude
direct reading peak-to-peak voltage calibrator, vertical pattern- reversing switch,
a n d built-in 60 -cps p hasing and b lanking
controls. The price of the Model ES-550B
is $274.95. Precision Apparatus Co., Inc.,
G lendale, L, I ., N. Y.
A-23
RCA
• 3-inch Oscilloscop& Kit. T he RCA Model
WO-33A is a 3-in. oscilloscope designed
for "on location" and service shop use.
The vertical amp lifier freq u ency response
is within 3 db f r om 5.5 cps to 5.5 Mc;
the horizontal amplifier response is within
6 db from 3.5 cps to 350,000 cps. Sensit ivity of the vertical amplifier is 0.10 volts
rms per inch in the wide-band position
and 0,003 volts rms per inch in the highsensitivity pOSition. Sensi tivity of the
horizontal amplifier is 0.9 volts rms per
inch. The sweep range is contin u ously
adjustab le from 15 cps to 75,000 cps with
external and positive or negative internal
synchronization. T he vertical inp u t attenu ator is freq u ency compensated and
voltage calibra ted, and the graph scr een
HEATH
• 5-inch Oscilloscope Kit. Designed to
accomodate those applications where wide
bandwi d th is necessary, the Heath Model
10- 30 5-in. oscilloscope provides a vertical
bandwidth from 3 cps to 5 Mc within
± 3 db. Horizontal bandwidth is ± 3 db
from 1 cps to 400,000 cps. Vertica l sensitivity is 0.025 volts rms per inch at
1000 cps. Horizontal sensitivity is 0.3
volts r ms per inch a t 1000 cps. The sweep
ran ge is 10 cps to 500,000 cps in 5 steps.
Syn ch ronization is a utomatic. Other fea-
plifier is 600 mv rms per Inch. The sweep
range is 15 cps to 600,000 cps and syn chr onization is either internal or extern al.
T h e vertical and horizontal amplifiers are
p u s h-p ull with cathode-foll ower in pu ts.
Ot h er features i nclu de freq u ency compensated inp u t attenuator, 1 volt pea k-to-peak
calibrator, retrace b lanking, and Z-axis inp u t. Price of t h e Model 83YU144 is $69.95.
A llied Radio Corp., Ch icago, Ill.
A-22
PRECISION
• High-Sensitivity 5-inch Oscilloscope.
Featu ring high sensitivity p l us unusual ly
modest price, the Precision Model ES-550B
oscilloscope is intended for u se in ind u strial and service applications. Vertical
freq u ency response is ± 1 db from 10 cps
to 3.5 Mc, a n d ± 3 db to 5 Mc. Horizon t a l
response is ± 1 d b from 10 cps to 1 Mc,
Ver tical sensitivity is 10 mv per inch and
horizontal sensitivity is 100 mv per inch .
Sweep range is 10 cps to 100,0 00 cps with
an auto-synch circu it operating on all
internal sweep ranges. A high-contrast ill uminated graticule is provided. Both am plifiers are push- pull and have cathode-
28
is scaled d irectly in volts. A calibratin g
voltage is automatically applied to t he
vertical a mplifier when the bandwidth
control is set to the calibrate position.
Price of the WO-33A k i t is $79.95. Radio
Corporation of America, Harrison, N. J .
A-24
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
number five
FOR A LIMITED
TIME ONLY!
SAVE $1 50
ON THESE TWO VALUABLE
REFERENCE BOOKS
$421.•
BUY BOTH FOR ONLY
The 5th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY reg. $3.50
The 4th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY reg. $2.95
Both $6.45 reg.
Here's what the 5 th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY contains - . THE BIGGEST AND BEST VOLUME EVER!
. MORE THAN 50 ARTICLES COVERING STEREO RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION;
STEREO MULTIPLEX; MEASUREMENTS; STEREO HIGH FIDELITY TECHNOLOGY;
CONSTRUCTION AND THEORY; etc •
• 144 PAGES WITH COMPLETE ARTICLES BY WORLD FAMOUS AUTHORITIES
IN THE AUDIO AND STEREO HIGH FIDELITY FIELD. .
. ATTRACTIVELY PRINTED AND BOUND FOR EVERLASTING USE. AN IMPORTANT
STEREO HIGH FIDELITY REFERENCE BOOK.
If you've missed the 4th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY •.. here is a wonderful opportunity to buy it at more than
50% off the regular price when you buy the 6th.
This offer good only while the supply of the 4th lasts.
and may be withdrawn without notice.
--~----
Use handy order form below. We pay postage anywhere in the U.S.
add SO¢ for Foreign orden.
--- --- ----
RADIO MAGAZINES INC., Dept. 452.
P.O. Box 629
Mineola, New York
o Enclosed is my remittance for $4.95. Send me both, the 4th and 5th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY Postpaid.
o Enclosed is my remittance for $3.50. Send me only the 5th AUDIO ANTHOLOGY Postpaid.
NAME . .. ..... . . ... . .. . ... .... . ... .. .. . . •...... .. . . . .... ... . .. . .. . .... . . . .......... .
ADDRESS .. ... . . .. . .. . ... ... .. . . .. .. ....... . .... ... .. . . .. .. . . . .. .. . . .. : ... . .... . .... . .
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•
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•
ZONE . . . . ....
STATE .... .... .. . . . . .... . . . .
Miscellaneous
cluding two different writing widths are
provided. The instrument will record rms,
arithmetic average, and peal< a.c. signals.
A chopper is built in for the recording of
d.c. The frequency range on a.c. measurements is 10 cps to 200,000 cps ± 0.5 db.
AMPLIFIER CORP .
• Flutter Meter. Featuring a built-in
three-range filter and test oscillator, the
Amplifier Corp. of America Model 590 -A-1
flutter meter is a sensitive instrument
which complies with IRE standards for
flutter and wow. A built-in preamplifier
and high-impedance input attenuator will
accept voltages from 1 mv to 300 volts.
The built-in 3000-cps oscillator permits
the unit to be used as a complete tape-
._-
"--
.. c;J-.
"
.-=--~
s • • • .,
----
~"- ­
.
t
recorder test instrument. Hum, noise,
switching surges, and other extraneous
transients have no effect upon the reading
or stability of the instrument. Three
scales are calibrated for the measurement
of wow and flutter: 0.3 per cent, 1.0 per
cent, and 3.0 per cent. Significant readings
can be made down to 0.01 per cent.
Controls consist of an input voltage
selector, a vernier calibration adjustment,
a capacitance balancing control to compensate for differences in linear speeds of
the mechanism under test, a filter sel ector,
and a scale selector switch. Price of the
590-A-1 is $495.00. Amplifier Corp. of
America, New York, N. Y.
A-25
AUDIO INSTRUMENT CO.
• Intennodulation Mea suring Ins trument.
The Audio Instrument Company Model 168
Intermodulation Measuring Instrument
features a residual intermodulation of less
than 0.05 per cent, thus making possible
the measurement of modern high-quality
amplifiers which, in many cases, have less
than a few tenths of a per cent of distortion at low power outputs. Minimum
residual intermodulation results from the
use of an accurate bridge-type mixing circuit for the two tones. The l ow-frequ ency
The minimum voltage required to give 0
deflection of stylus is 5 mv rms for a.c.
measurements. For d.c. it is approximately 10 mv. The dynamic range is determined by interchangeable range potentiometers. The resolving power is better than
0.25 mm on scale when adjusted for 50 mm
paper, and 0.5 mm on scale when adjusted
for 100 mm paper. The maximum input
voltage is 100 volts. The writing speeds
are selectable by a control knob and for 50
mm paper they range from 2 to 1000 mm
per second. On 100 mm paper they range
from 4 to 2000 mm per second. A variety
of inks and papers are available. B & K
Instrument Co., Cleveland, Ohio.
A-27
B & W, INC.
B & K INSTR. CO.
• Level Recor der. The Bruel and Kjaer
Model 2305 Level Recorder is a high-speed
graphic recorder for the recording of fre quency response curves, noise levels, and
reverberation decay curves. Adjustable
writing speed and paper-drive speed, in-
• Ele ctronic Switch Kit. The EICO Model
488 Electronic Switch is a useful accessory for audio testing. It permits simul-
30
HEATH COMPANY
• Audi o Ana lys er K it. The Heath Model
AA-1 Audio Analyser Kit combines the
function of an a.c. VTVM, a wattmeter,
and an intermodulation analyser. A highand low-frequency source is built in for
1M tests. Also 8, 16, and 600-ohm load
resistors are built in. The frequency response of the a.c. VTVM is ± 1 db from
10 cps to 100,000 cps. The range of the
VTVM is 0.01 to 300 volts rms full scale.
• Harnlonic Distortion M et er . 'rhe Barker
& Williamson Model 410 Distortion Meter
is designed for general laboratory use in
measuring audio distortion, noise level,
and a.c. voltage level (gain or loss). The
Model 410 suppresses the fundamental frequency and measures the amplitude of all
unwanted frequencies, including noise, as
a percentage of the fundamental. The instrument includes an improved variable
frequency Wien Bridge network, a calib r ated attenuator, and a sensitive VTVM.
The Model 410 measures distortion on
fundamental frequencies from 20 cps to
20,000 cps and indicates harmonics up to
100,000 cps. Scale ranges provided are 1,
3, 10, 30, and 100 per cent. Input signal
levels may be as low as 0.1 volt or up to
30 vo l ts rms. The frequency range of the
VTVM is 20 cps to 200,000 cps, with an
accuracy of ± 5 per cent on measurements
from 0.0005 volts to 300 volts. For noise
and ' db measurements, the voltmeter is
calibrated in 1 db steps from 0 db to
- 15 db. The attenuator provides additional
ranges from - 60 db to + 50 db in 10 db
steps. Voltage meter output termiJlals are
provided for scope monitoring. Barker &
Williamson, Inc., Bristol, Pa.
A-2B
test signal is 60 cps from the internal
source, or any freq u ency from 40 cps to
200 cps from an external oscillator. The
high-frequ ency test signal is 2000 cps,
7000 cps, and 12,000 cps from the internal
oscillator, or any freq u ency from 2000 cps
to 20,000 cps from an external oscillator.
The low-fr equency Ihigh-frequ ency voltage
ratio is 4:1 and 1:1. The signal generator
output is + 8 dbm. The analyser 1M ranges
are 1, 3, 10, and 30 per cent full scale.
The voltmeter measures up to 100 volts.
The accuracy of the voltmeter is 3 per
cent from 40 cps to 40,000 cps. Audio Instrument Company, New York, N. Y. A-26
taneous observation of two patterns on
one scope so that voltage and current
amplitudes, wave forms, frequencies, and
phase relationships may be observed. It
provides continuous variable switching
rates from l ess than 1 0 cps to over 2000
cps. It also may serve as a square-wave
generator over the same range. Price for
the kit is $23.95. EICO E lectronic Instr.
Co., Inc., Long Island City, New York.
A-29
E l eo
The db scale reads from - 65 to + 52 dbm.
The wattmeter reads up to 150 watts f u ll
scale, with a maximum continuous power
of 25 watts and an intermittent power to
50 watts. The 1M Analyser has 1, 3, 10, 30,
and 100 per cent scales. The internal generator frequencies are 60 cps and 6000 cps.
The accuracy of the a .c. VTVM and wattmeter are within 5 per cent of full scale,
and the 1M analyser is within 10 per cent
of full scal e. Price for the Model AA-1
Kit is $54.95. Heath Company, Benton
Harbor, Michigan.
A-30
MEASUREMENTS CORP.
• Intermodula tion Me,t er . The Meas u re ments Corporation Model 31 Intermodul ation Meter is a completely self-contained
test signal generator, d istortion analyser,
and VTVM. The low frequency is 60 cps
and the high frequency is 3000 cps with
(Contin1Led on page 62 )
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 19'62
Frequency Response: 35 to 20,000 cycles
Output Impedance: 30/ 50, 150 /250 and
20,000 ohms (selection by connections
in microphone cable plug)
Output Level: -55 dbm/10 dynes/ cm>
Hum: -120 db (Ref.: 10-' Gauss)
Dimensions : l'1a " diameter at top (1112"
largest diameter) 71(2" long not In·
cluding plug
Weight: 8 oz. (not including cable & plug)
Finish: Two-tone baked enamel, black and
dark green
Mounting: Separate "Slip-On" adapter No.
13338 furnished. Adapter has stand·
ard %" -27 thread.
Concrete visual proof of performance IS now supplied by
ALTEC with each 684A Omnidirectional Dynamic Studio
Microphone. This proof-a soundly scientific and coldly unemotional statement of exact performance capabilities-is
an individual certified calibration curve that you receive free
with each 684A Omnidirectional Dynamic Microphone.
The calibration curve is so precise that the ALTEC
684A is a completely reliable secondary standard for
comparison measurement of other microphones. Can you,
if you are a professional multi-microphone user, safely
operate without such a control standard in your studio?
The ALTEC 684A Professional Microphone shown is
a production model chosen at random. Its calibration
curve is actual and unretouched. It offers dramatic proof
that the exclusive new ALTEC design, incorporating the
highly sensitive ALTEC "Golden Diaphragm" of Mylar®,
results in an omnidirectional dynamic microphone of
remarkable superiority. This superiority will be maintained, year after year, by the exclusive ALTEC sintered
bronze filter that positively bars the entry of iron dust
and foreign matter. And, as proof of superior value, consider the price: the ALTEC 684A costs only $81.00 net!
SUPERIOR PERFORMANCE, SUPERIOR VALUE - THE ALTEC DYNAMIC MICROPHONE LINE:
)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
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ALTEC 681A-$36.00 net-Inexpensive general pur.
pose omnidirectional microphone with smooth,
uniform frequency response from 50 to 18,000
cycles. Includes the new ALTEC "Golden Dia·
phragm" of indestructible [email protected] Available with
150/ 250 or 20,000 ohms output Impedance.
ALTEC 682A-$49.50 net-Featuring uniform frequency response from 45 to 20,000 cycles, the
682A Omnidirectional Microphone incorporates the
new ALTEC "Golden Diaphragm" and exclusive
sintered bronze filter. Output impedances of 30/50,
150/250, and 20,000 ohms easily selected In
microphone plug.
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683A DYNAMIC CARDIOID-$66.00 net-Uniform response from 45 to 15,000 cycles with average
front-to-back discrimination of 20 db. Design In·
corporates the new ALTEC "Golden Diaphragm"
and exclusive sintered bronze filter. Output 1mpedance of 3D/ 50, 150/ 250, and 20,000 ohms
selectable at cable plug.
1__ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ___________________________ : __________________________ _
For specific engineering details, call your nearest ALlEe
: Distributor (listed in your Yellow Pages) or write Dept.A-I-M.
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:
ALTEC LANSING
CORPORATION
I
A SUBSIDIARY OF LlNG ·TEMCO ELECTRONICS, INC.
I
ALTEC 685A STUDIO CARDIOID-$96.00 net-This
:
dynam ic microphone offers f lat frontal response
I
ALTEe 686A LAVALIER - $54.00 net - Unobtrusive I
from 40 to 16,000 cycles with average front-to·
3-ounce Omnidirectional Lavalier Microphone. In- I
back discrimination of 20 db . Design incorporates
the new ALTEC "Golden Diaphragm" and exclusive
corporates the new AL TEC "Golden Diaphragm" I
and exclusive sintered bronze filter for an ex- I
sintered bronze filter. Output impedances of 30/ 50,
150/250, and 20,000 ohms selectable at cable
ceptionally smooth frequency response from 70 I
plug. Individual certified calibration curve is sup·
to 20,000 cycles, equalized for chest position . I
: plied with this model.
I Selectable 30/50 and 150/ 250 ohm impedances_
I
I ___________________________ ___________________________
~
1515 South Manchester Avenue, Anaheim, California
NEW YORK
LOS ANGELES
.
.
© 1961 Altee LanSing
Corporation
L_________________
____
______ II
Complete line of accessories includes: desk and floor stands, switches, wall mounts, boom and shock mounts.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
31
Testing Tape
Q. Many "good buys" in tape continually
appear in the audio magazines. Is there a
simple way or test to compaTe the quality
of cliffe?'ent tapes? I have a good deal of
test eq1Lipment.
HERMAN BURSTEIN'"
Low-Noise Resistors
Q. I am trying to make some improvements in my tape recorder and plan to put
low-noise resistors in the plate load of
the first stage of the tape amplifier. Should
I use low-noise resistors anywhere else?
Are deposited ca?'bon resistors satisfactory
in this connection?
A. Unless the cathode resistor is bypassed by a large capacitor, it is just as
important to use a low-noise resistor here
as in the plate load. While the final amount
of amplifier noise depends largely upon
the amount of noise generated in the first
stage, it sometimes pays to use low-noise
resistors in the second stage as well, which
may yield a slight additional improvement.
My own experience with deposited carbon
resistors has not been very satisfactory.
I prefer to use deposited metal film types,
which are not much more expensive than
the deposited carbon ones, but are substantially cheaper than wirewound resistors and virtually noise-free (that is, tube
noise will predominate over resistor noise).
On the other hand, on rare occasion one
may run into a defective deposited metal
film resistor (as once did happen to me), so
in the last analysis you might decide to go
for wirewound resistors as the safest bet
for minimum noise. Should you decide upon
the latter, be absolutely sure to get the
non-inductively wound type. Some persons
claim to have obtained good noise reduction by using conventional molded carbon
resistors of oversize wattage rating. For
example, they have used a 2-watt conventional resistor where a lh -watt one would
ordinarily do. You might try this expedi·
ent in the second stage, especially as it
is a good deal cheaper than deposited
metal film or wirewound r esistors.
Strange Low-Frequency Sound
Q. My problem is that my tape recorder
records a strange low-frequency sound. If
I use bulk erased tape I hear this only in
the record function. It does not follow a
definite pattern. It may go for several
seconds before a bit of it is heard. The
moment I cut the tape machine to playback the noise stops. I have tried using
another deck with the same oscillator and
the noise continues. I even sent the offending machine to the manufacturer for repair. The manufacturer increased the
frequency response by changing several
capacitors but this was not my trouble.
Some more symptoms might be of help.
I h,ave tried degaussing the heads but this
does not seem to help much if any. The
recorder uses pressure pads, which I have
replaced with new felt but this does not
help. Could it be that electrostatic charges
are being recorded on the tape? These
charges could be generated by the friction
of the tape on the felt pads. The noise
* 280 Twin Lane, E., Wantagh, N. Y.
32
sounds like an irregular low-frequency
flutter.
I keep thinking it is the bias oscillator.
Are such noises inhe?'ent in these oscillators ? It is a push-pull type with disc
ceramic type capacitors. Might not micas
be better? This noise is worse and more
frequent at the faster speed. Having a
monitoring head, I can easily hear the
difference. I have even used this head for
recording. I have g?'ounded all the heads,
but the noise continues. The noise decreased considerably when I disconnected
the erase head, but it is still there.
A. I do not have a specific, sure answer
to your baffling problem, which appears
to be of the type that requires hours of
searching in order to turn up the answer.
However, I am very much inclined to agree
that the noise probably comes from the
oscillator. Let's look at the evidence:
(1) You have used your oscillator in coujunction with the deck and record amplifier of another tape machine, and the
noise continues. (2) The noise abates
when you disconnect the erase head, which
is fed by the same oscillator that supplies
the record head. (3) You state that the
noise gets worse at faster tape speed,
but you do not say that its pitch increases;
by "worse" I assume you mean "louder."
For a given magnitude of signal (noise)
presented to the tape, the magnitude of
the signal ?'ecorded on the tape goes up
as tape speed is increased. If the noise
were due to tape friction, the pitch would
increase with speed.
Possibly th e noise is due to serious distortion in the oscillator waveform. Placing an oscilloscope across the oscillator
output would quickly establish this. The
distortion may be caused by an excessive
load on the oscillator, which could be due
to a faulty record or erase head with
shorted turns. Or there may be something
else in the oscillator and associated circuitry which presents too great a drain
on the oscillator output. Inasmuch as the
noise decreases when the erase head is disconnected- thereby removing an appreciable part of the load-excessive loading
seems to be a likely cause. A defective
oscillator transformer or other components
could also be responsible for the distorted
waveform and consequent noise.
Have you by any change overlooked the
simple expedient of replacing the oscillator
tube ~ Have you tried a second replacement tube ~ Once in a great while a new
tube turns out to be bad. Have you tried
replacing the other tubes in the record
amplifier on the chance that mierophonics
or other noise produced by one of them is
somehow getting through '
To answer your question about the use
of ceramic versus mica capacitors in the
oscillator circuit: Generally, mica capacitors are reco=ended for a bias oscillator,
whereas ceramic ones are not recommended
from the viewpoint of frequency stability.
A. There are many things for which a
tape can be tested, including at least the
following: frequency response; harmonic
and intermodulation distortion (the latter
i~ much more revealing ) at various levels
of tape output j variation of the recordplayback response curve with changes in
bias current to ascertain if the tape is
unduly sensitive to slight changes in bias;
dropouts; constancy of output level from
one end of the reel to the other; warping;
accuracy and constancy of physical dimensions; squeal under varying conditions
of temperature and humidity; printthrough; breaking strength ; elasticity;
recovery from stretching. All told, it would
seem that yonr best course is to rely upon
the reputation of the t ape manufacturer
and the audible results obtained from each
t ape.
The tests most likely to be within your
province are those for frequency response
(including the change in response with
variation of bias current) and distortion.
In checking frequency response, be sure
to record all signals at a level at least 20
db below maximum recording level as shown
by the record -level indicator, for otherwise you will saturate the tape at high
frequencies due to record treble boost,
resulting in a seeming treble loss. When
checking distortion, check this at various
levels of oUtP1Lt signal; after all, you don't
mind pumping in a little bit more signal
if, for the same amount of distortion, you
get out a substantial inc?'ease in signal.
Three Head Machines
Q. I know that having separate Tecord
and playback heads permits one to monitor
the tape as it is being reco?·ded. But are
tlle?'e any advantages so far as quality
of peTfO?'mance is concerned?
A. When separate heads are used, each
one can be designed to do its job as well
as the state of the art permits. A playbackonly head is built with a greater number
of windings than one which must serve
for recording as well as playback. The
larger number of windings results in more
head output, leading to a better signal-tonoise ratio. On the other hand, a large
numb er of windings raises the impedance
of the head to the point where it is not
suitable for recording, because it makes
excessive voltage demands upon the bias
oscillator and the record amplifier. For
recording purposes a low-impedance head
is desirable in order to permit the record
head to be driven by reasonable values
of audio and bias voltage, with accompanying low distortion. Also, a record head
does not require an extremely narrow gap.
which is difficult to manufacture and raises
cost. Instead, the , manufacturer can concentrate on making a gap with very
straight and sharp edges, which is themore important thing for recording purposes.
It should be further taken into consideration that it is much easier to make performance
checks-frequency
response"
signal-to-noise ratio, distortion, and soforth-on a machine with separate record
and playback heads than on a machine·
with a single head for both purposes. Accordingly, it is more likely that such a.
machine will be kept in condition to provide high quality performance.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962:
A Filterless Method for the
Detection of FM-Stereo Signals
THEODORE BIALLY':'
The use of a .demodulator switching waveform of odd symmetry and zero average value may eliminate the need for filters to separate the sum and diference signals as well as the SeA signal.
T
wo PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS in the
design of a multiplex receiving system are:
1. The ability of the system to main-
tain consistent channel separation
over the entire audio spectrum (5015,000 cps) ; and
2. The elimination of audible products
resulting from the detection of signals in the SeA region (60,000 to
74,000 cps) .
The scheme which is commonly employed to recover stereo information
from the composite multiplexed signals
which appear at the ratio detector consists of isolating the L - R (difference)
sidebands and the L + R (sum) channel
from each other through the use of bandpass and low-pass filters. Then the L - R
sidebands are demodulated and matrixed
with the L + R signal to obtain the left
and right channel audio signals.1 It has
been pointed out that even slight errors
in the phase of the L + R channel with
respect to that of the detected L - R
sidebands will place serious limitations
upon channel separation. In order to
preserve proper phase relations severa l
excellent linear phase shift filter designs have been offered by the industry.2
Although the method described is a
solution to the problem, it requires extremely delicate alignment. Stringent
tolerances must be rigidly maintained
if reasonable channel separation is to be
realized. Practical difficulties also arise
f rom the fac t that "linear phase shift"
fi lters are not completely linear thus
making channel separation dependent
upon frequency.
Analysis of the output spectrum which
results when the total composite multiplex signal is applied to a synchronous
demodulator indicates that if the
demodulator switching waveform has
zero average value, then, in the region
* DeSign Enginee?·, EICO, 3300 NOl·th em
Blvd., L.l.C. 1, N.Y.
1 Comments by t he General Electric Company on the FCC docket No. 13506, Appendix L, pg. 87.
2 Comments by the Zenith Radio Corp. on
the FCC docket No. 13506, Appendix 5, pg.
72.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
FROM
RATIO --_>-+-IDEMODULATOR~---""'-I
DETECTOR
LEFT
MAT.RIX
RIGHT
DEEMPHASIS
38 KC CARRIER RECOVERY
Fig . 1. Block diagram of filterless scheme.
L-R
"e
38
19
Fig. 2. Spectral distribution of signal.
\7
~
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I
FM
TUNER
DEMODULATOR
I
fIt) SIt)
TO MATRIX
I
fIt)
Fig . 3. Composite signal after demodulation.
L-R
I
o
i~c +
"0
Fig . 4 . Spectral distribution of the product f(t)AicOS(iwct
f r om 50-50,000 cps, only the demodulated L - R sidebands will appear. (See
spectrum analysis.) Thus, in the spectr al
band of interest, a properly designed
demodulator will deliver exactly the same
signal whether or not it is preceded by a
bandpass filter. The demodulator output
may then be matrixed with the (unfiltered) composite input signal to yield
+ CP.).
the desired left and right stereo channels. Omission of the filters introduces
high frequency components (above 15,000
cps) in the form of suppressed carrier
AM signals into the output wavefor m,
but normal de-emphasis effectively attenuates these undesired products. By
eliminating the major cause of relative
phase shift between main and sub-chan-
35
nels, the inherent separation capability
of the receiving scheme may be substantially increased.
Rejection of SCA Crosstalk
Crosstalk from the SeA channel is a
result of the mixing of SeA components
in the 60,000-74,000 cps region with a
signal between 45,000 and 89,000 cps.
The result is an undesired produ ct in the
0- 15,000 cps band. This mixing occurs
in the L - R sub-channel demodulator
which by virtue of its nonlinear nature
injects, in addition to the required 38,000
carrier, various harmonics of 38,000 cps.
Note that the second harmonic (76,000
cps) lies between the 45,000 and 89,000
limits and is a potential source of SeA
crosstalk. The solution to the problem
lies either in preventing signals in the
60,000- 74,000 cps region from appear-
Spectrum A nalysis
Let the following notations apply:
Wp == 27r x 19 X 10 9 md/ sec == pilot frequency
We == 27r X 38 X 10 3 == 2Wp ?·ad/ sec == sttbcarrier frequency
Wm == 27r X 15 X 10 3 ?·ad/sec == upper audio frequency limit
9
000 == 2.". x 67 X 10
?·acl/ sec == SeA subcarrier frequency
wlL == 27r X 7 X 10 3 1·ad/ sec == upper SeA
audio frequency limit
If the left channel audio signal is
m
:::s A" cos (w"t + <p/,) ,
k=1
the right channel signal is
<p"J + COS [ (We - WIG) t -
:::s An cos (wu t + <Pn) ,
m
:::s A"
n=1
{cos [W'e+w,,) t+<Pn] + cos [(we-oo,,) tIL
<P"J} -1f2 :::s Aj {cos [(wo + Wi) t + <P j] +
;=1
cos ((wo-Wj) t - <P;]}.
The spectral distribution of this signal
is as shown in Fig. 2.
Upon demodulation, the composite signal is effectively multiplied by the demodulator switching function S ( t ) - i.e.,
the demodulator output is the product
f (t)S (t) as shown in Fig. 3.
S (t) in its most generalized form may
be expressed as a periodic waveform
having fundamental frequency We:
m
n;;;: 1
<p,J }- 112
S (t)
=i
Ai cos (iwet + <Pi)
i=o
The spectrum of f (t)S (t) may be determined by algebraically adding the
SYMMETRY
spectra resulting from the individual
AT y
(
c
products of f (t) with each of the spectral
I
components of Set).
I
I
Each such product f (t) Ai cos (iw et +
I
<P;) yields the spectral distribution shown
I
in Fig. 4.
Note that the f(t) spectrum has been
translated to the frequency iWe and is
sy=etrically distributed about this
point. The amplitude of the translated
Fig . 5 . Spe ctr um t ransla te d by we.
spectrum r elative to the original f (I)
spectrum is Ai12.
SCA
The fundamental (we) component of
S (t) translates the f (t) spectrum to the
position shown in Fig. 5.
The portion of the spectrum which
falls in the "negative" frequency region
can be drawn in the "positive" frequency
region as in Fig . 6.
Since the L - R information on the
Fig. 6 . Ne ga tive f re qu e ncy port ion re dra wn in posit ive regio n.
negative frequency axis is the exact mirror image of that on the positive frequency axis, the amplitude (As) of the
SCA
seA
r esultant "positive" L - R spectrum is a
function of the relative phasees of the
l - R
___ ETC
n egative and positive frequency contribu--~--~~~--~~~~~~~--~--~~~------ KC
tions. In particular, the translated L - R
spectrum will vary in amplitude as the
cosine of the phase angle <Pi of the funFig . 7 . The sp e ctrum of t he ou t put si gnal.
damental component of S(t). In order to
obtain maximum sideband recovery, the
phase of the fundamental component of
S(t) should be identical with that of the
ing at the demodulator input (i .e., pass- and the SeA audio signal is
sub carrier at the transmitter.
It is the purpose of the demodulator to
ing the composite signal through a lowIL
pass filter having a cutoff frequency
deliver only the detected L - R sidebands
:::s Ai cos (Wit + <Pi) ,
j;;;: 1
between 53,000 and 60,000) or in elimiin the audio region 0 -7 Wm. This has
nating the secon d harmonic component
been accomplished by the fundamental
of the demodulator switching waveform. then the composite signal (f (t)) which component of S(t). However, it remains
Once again the filter solution is avoided is available at the ratio detector output to be seen whether any of the other specbecause of the phase shift which it intro- is:
tral components of S(t) will deliver outduces in its passband. If the demodulaputs in the 0 to Wm band.
m
m
tor is designed to switch with a waveThe i== 0 (d .c.) component of S(t)
~ A" cos (w"t + <P,,) +:::S A" cos (w"t+<Pm)
form of odd symmetry (i.e., no even har- 1<.=1
effects no translation of the input spec11'= 1
monics) SeA crosstalk ceases to be a
trum but simply -alters its amplitude by
problem.
the factor Aoj the input of the demodum
The block form of the receiving scheme + Ap cos wpt + 1f2 :::s Ak {cos [( We + Wk) t + lator due to the d.c. component (A o) of
/.=1
is shown in Fig. 1 .
S(t) is Aof(t). This contains the L+R
AX IS OF
36
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
JBL goes all the way - with product warranty as well as product quality. It is - and always has been -JBL's
policy to repair or replace without charge, at any time during the life of a product manufactured by James B.
Lansing Sound , Inc., any unit whose performance is impaired by a cause beyond the control of the owner. The,
only limitation is the availability of parts. And , frequently , it is possible to use today's parts to bring a discon·
tinued model up to better-than-new performance. This is another reason why it's a smart idea for the music
enthusiast to invest in the very best loudspeakers available . Like any fine musical instrument, they don't wear
out , are almost always worth restoring to top-notch playing condition. Write for your free copy of the new JBL
catalog and ask us to enclose a copy of the JBL warranty card .
JBL PRECISION TRANSOUCERS ARE MANUFACTURED BY JAME S B LANSING SOUND , INC . , AND ARE MARKETED BY JBL INTERNATIONAL. LOS ANGELES 39, CALIFORNIA
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
37
information in the region between zero
and Wm ' In order to obtain only the demodulated L - R sidebands in this r egion,
the Ao term of S(t) should be zero.
As was previously pointed out, each
spectral component of S(t) produces an
output which is symmetrical about that
component in frequency. In fact, it is
clear that each component of S (t) yields
an output of bandwidth twice that of
(t) . The input signal bandwidth is
OJ o + w'" radians/second, or 74,000 cp s, so
that for each component 'iOJe ther e will
appear at the demodulator output a signal whose spectrum lies between the
r
limits i
We
2~
± 74,000 cps where
We
2~
= 38,000
cps. Those components of S(t) which ar e
sufficiently high iu f requency so that
i
We
2~
-74,000 cps> 15,000 cps will deliver
no output in the 0 to Wm (0 to 15,000 cps)
region. In other words, i Wo rnust be
2~
greater than 74,000 + 15,000 =89,000 cps
in order to produce no audible output
OJ
•
89
signals. Since 2; =38}OOO cps} ." > 38 =
2.35. However, i can assume only integral values so that for i::=O 3 there will be
no audihle r esponse. The second harmonic
( i= 2) of S(t) must be suppressed, since
this component delivers an output in the
o to 15,000 cps region.
The sp ectrum of the output signal of a
demodulator which satisfies the aforementioned r equirements appears in Pig.
7.
Note that the L - R information is the
only audible component of this signal.
Since the matrixing process effects no
spectral translation, the audible output
of a matrixing circuit will be composed
only of the audible components of the input signals. The only audible components
of the original (f(t)) and demodulated
(Continued on page 69 )
+ ISOv
""
u
VI (A)
V 212AT7
RI
-=
.--"If"
. 0 _____- - . , T1 , . - - - - - ,
~
51
117 v.a.c.
FI
IA
Cl ,OS ... f
C2 l.,f, ISv
r.:":",,:,::~-~~~-:":-:JC3 . 03~f, 5%
RI 18k
C4 220pf
R2 2. 2 MEG R26 40k 1% CS 220pf
R3 270
R27 40k 1% C6 l.,f, ISOv
R43 . 9k
R28 40k 1% C7a 2O~, 400 v
RS ISO k
R29 40k 1% C7b 4O~f, 350v
R6 150
R30 lOOk 1% Clc 4O~, 350 v
R7470 k
R31 250k
C8 . 0S~f
R8 I MEG
R3268k
C9 .0S~f
R9 lOOk
R33 33k
CIO .0S~f
RIO lOOk
R34 I.Sk
CII . 0015~f
RII 1.5 k
R3S lOO k 1% CI 2 . 0S.,f
RI2 I.Sk 1% R36 95k 1% CI3 .00lS~f
RI3 I.Sk 1% R37 2.2 MEG CI4 .05.,f
RI4 I.Sk 1% R38 I MEG CIS lO~f 12v
RIS 1.5k 1% R39 9 . Sk 1% CI6 .0Sp!
RI6 I.Sk 1% R40 270 5% CI7 .000~f
RI7 I.Sk 1% R41 9k 1%
CI8 .025~f
RI8 33k
R42 I MEG C I9 . 025~f
RI9 3k Sw
R43 270
C20 . 000~f
R20 3k Sw
R44 2 . 7k
C21 .025~f
R21 2.2 MEG R4S 2.7k
C22 . 025~
R22 9k 1%
R46 270
C2350.,f, ISO v
R23 I.Sk
R47 18k
C24 SO~f, ISO v
R24 9.Sk 1% R48 18k
C2S . 0033~f
25 MAY BE OMITTED WITH WIDE-BAND TUNER5
Fig . 8. Schematic of Eico MX-99 multiplex adaptor.
38
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Feedback-Head Cook 'and
Bottle Washer!
NORMAN H. CROWHURsr'
Feedback can reduce frequency and phase errors, gain, and distortion as well
as improve stability-but rarely can it do all of these things at the same time.
L
in a one-man establishment, feedback can do a lot of things:
reduce distortion, adjust frequency
response, improve stability from variation due to component deviation or
fluctuation, adj ust or control input and/
or output impedance, and variations of
same; but also like the one-man establishment, it is seldom able to do all
these things at once.
This fact is often overlooked in
various ways. We start with some algebra from which we draw a magic factor
-(1 + AB) - generally identified as the
feedback fact01'. More academic people
may prefer JLf3 instead of AB, but it's
the same thing with benefit of fraternity
letters. Some people prefer to write the
factor (J - AB), or (1 - JL(3). While the
difference in sign may confuse, it's
really only a matter of where you start,
and both ways of writing it lead to
the same conclusions.
If B, or 13, is taken to represent a
negatively phased feedback fraction, we
land up with the first expression,
(1 + AB), which is greater than unity.
From this starting assumption, if the
feedback is positive, then B has a negative sign, the expression ' becomes
1 + A ( - B), which results in som ething
less than unity.
Our more academic friends prefer
to say that, if B represents negative
feedback, it should have a negative
sign and if it represents positive feedback it should have a positive sign. To
conform with this rule, the factor should
always be written (1 - AB) .
But most people visualize something
bigger than unity any time they see 1 +
something, so I find it simpler to use
(1 + AB) for negative feedback and
(1- AB) for positive feedback, where B
is the feedback fraction in each case,
without any implied sign to indicate its
phase. We have taken care of that by
designating it as negative or positive
feedback verbally.
So it's really a matter of algebraic
"semantics." I'm not fussy, so long as
it's done right. Most important to the
IKE A. MAN
* 216-18 40th Ave., Bayside 61 , N.Y.
40
whole thing are two facts: first, and
best known perhaps, although it's still
often overlooked, in any practical application the expression is not a simple
scalar quantity. It is complex, or possessed of both magnitude and phase.
Secondly, and this almost always overlooked, it is not constant, but subject to
variation with each of the things feedback is supposed to cont?·ol.
The usual presentation tells us that
gain is reduced by the f actor (1 + AB) ,
distortion is reduced in the same proporB+250V
- -.._ ...... 10-
.'
:? ~
----~
Fig. 1. Cathode follower circuit.
tion, stability of amplification is improved by this same factor, frequency
and phase errors are reduced by the
same magic number, and impedance is
stepped up or down, according to a
convenient table, using the same number
as operator.
The fact is, it just ain't so. Feedback
can do all of these things, but seldom
all at once. To illustrate, let's take some
typical examples.
Cathode Follower
A common fallacy of this type is the
usual understanding of a cathode follower. In this case B is unity, so the
gain degenerates to A/(l +A), which
is usually a fraction slightly less than
unity. Any input impedance connected
virtually between grid and cathode is
multiplied by (1 + A). And the effective
output source impedance is the normal
source impedance of the plate circuit
with the operating condition chosen
(plate voltage and current, and load
resistor), divided by (1 + A). Finally,
the normal distortion for the stage is
divided by (1 + A) .
Let's put in some figures, to see what
all this means. We'll use a half 12AU7.
With a 40,000 ohm coupling resistor,
250 volts plate supply and 5 volts bias,
the plate current is 3.5 mao The bias
resistor should be 1400 ohms (1500 ohms
is near enough for practical purposes,
Fig. 1). With these values a ± 5 volt
grid swing will produce a plate swing
from 125 volts to 45 volts and 182
volts, according to the curves (Fig. 2).
This is a gain, or A, of (182-45)/10:=
13.7, with a second harmonic of 11.5/
137 x 100 per cent = 8.4 per cent distortion. The plate resistance of the tube
at the operating point is 12,000 ohms.
As a cathode follower, working open
circu~t, the degeneration will be 13.7/
14.7 = .93. The distortion will be 8.4/
14.7 = .57 per cent. This is at 137 volts
output, peak to peak, or 48.5 volts rms.
At lower voltages, the distortion will be
proportionately lower. For example, at
the 10 volts rms level, it will be
.57/4.85 = .118 per cent.
If the grid-to-bias-point resistor is
1 megohm the input impedance will be
14.7 meghms. The normal plate circuit
resistance is 12,000 ohms in parallel
with 40,000 ohms, or 9200 ohms. As a
cathode follower, this is divided by
14.7, to give 625 ohms.
From that, it sounds like a good circuit to match a 600-ohm line. But now
suppose you connect it that way. The
load line for' the tube is now 600 ohms
in parallel with 40,000 ohms, or 590
ohms, through the same operating point.
For convenience, we'll take it as 600
ohms. The ± 5 volt swing now produces
a swing from 125 volts to 118 volts and
127 volts.
The gain is now (127-118)/10= .9.
As a cathode follower, the degeneration
will be .9/1.9 = .475. The distortion is
2.5/9 x 100 pel' cent = 28 per cent platecoupled. For cathode coupling, this is
no longer divided by 14.7, but by 1.9,
t() give 14.8 per cent, with a peak-topeak output of only 9 volts, or 3.2 volts
rms. At this output level, the open cir-
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
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Frequency Response: 40 to 15.000 cps at 7'1. ips. ± 2db; 40 to 9500 cps at 3 3", ips. ± 3db.
Signal to Noise Ratio : 50 db below r ecorded " 0" level.
Tape Speeds: 7'1." or 3 %"" per second .
Wow and Flutter: Less than
0 .18 % RMS.
Heads: Inline record / playback head in shielded housing; full track or '/2 track available.
Motor and Drive: Precision balanced hysteresis·synchronous motor, to speed stabilized flywheel/capstan tape drive.
Amplifier: Professional terminal
board wiring used; cast front panel; 6 watts undistorted output.
Equalization : Amplifier record and playback equalization based
on broadcast (NAB) standards .
Inputs and Outputs: Jacks provided for low level , high impedance microphone input; high level
input; au xiliary speaker or line output; input/ output jacks for connecting directly to either or both channels.
Index Counter:
Accurate, three digit type.
V. U. Meter: Illuminated, calibrated -10 to + 3db.
Operating Position: Vertical or horizontal.
Reel
Size: 7" maximum (up to 2400" of tape) .
Dimensions and Weight : 15 %" x 14'1." x 9'", " overall 28 Ibs.
Interlocking Controls:
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Pause Lever: Permits instant
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Power Requirements: 95 to 120
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rAt
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MFRS. OF ROBERTS SONIC-THESIA, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, STEREO HEAD PHONES,
NEGATIVE ION GENERATORS, AUDIO EQUIPMENT AND MAGNETIC RECORDING TAPE
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
ROBERTS ELECTRONICS, INC., Dept. A- I ·e
5920 Bowcroft Ave., Los Angeles 16, Calif.
Please send me :
D Roberts Stereo Tape Instruction Manual
containing stereo and monaural applications.
I enclose 25¢ (cash, stamps) for postage and
handling.
D The name of my nearest dealer.
Name ___________________________
Address ________ __ _ __
City
State _ _ _ __
39
Best by
Blindfold Test
THE WIDELY ACCLAIMED
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In the moment of truth , impartiality
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Be sure to hear the TF-3 and TF-2
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Write for Brochure LG
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
In Canada: Renfrew Electric Co., Ltd., Toronto
In Mexico: Universal De Mexico, S.A., Mexico, D.F.
41
cuit distortion would only be .038 pel'
cent. Also the input impedance is no
longer 14.7 ohms, but 1.9 megohms.
Quite a difference! We might say the
feedback has been "used up" to change
the output impedance, so little 0 1' none
is left for the other functions.
30
11 2Au 7 .1
EAC H SECTION
Bootstrap
Fig . 2 . load lines
on which ca lculations for cathode
follower are
based.
00
100
200
127
400
300
PLATE VO LTS
150V
150 V
Fig . 3 . Essential
features of bootstrap arrangement. One side of
a push-pull circuit
is shown.
l
~-+-
e...,
\
\
\ II
Fig . 4 . Principle of
the bootstra p i 1lustrated by load
lines.
Vo
avo
Vi~
(EFFECTIVE)
7RL
RL
~ EFFECTI VE = 7/ 8 R
RESI STANCE
L
Fig . 5 . Some of
W ITHO UT FEEDBACK
5Vj ~
the quantities discussed in t he complete feedback
amplifier.
Vo
avo
7RL
RL
__
4Vj
FEEDBACK
WI TH FEEDBACK
I-
EFFECTI VE
RESISTANCE
= 7/ 40
R
L
Now let's take a case of positive
feedback: the bootstrap drivel', often
used for unity coupled output circuits.
W e'll assume .the output stage develops
150 volts swing in both cathode and
plate circuit, for 25 volts swing at the
grid. This means we need 175 volts
total swing at the grid (Fig. 3) .
To do this we use a relatively low
plate resistor hom the screen of the
output stage to the driver plate, so
the working plate voltage on the drive
stage can be kept high at a current approaching maximum dissipation (Fig.
4 ). The positive feedback from the
screen conD./'lction effectively multiplies
this actual value to give a higher dynamic load line. If the actual resistor
is 15,000 ohms, its effective value will
be 175/25 = 7 times this, or 105,000 ohms.
Positive feedback has multiplied the
driver load impedance by 7 times. Does
this mean the over-all gain is multiplied
7 times ~ And what happens to the
damping factor ~
Assume the drive stage has a plate
resistance of 12,000 ohms and an amplification factor of 20. Without the
bootstr ap, its gain would be 20 x 15/
(15 + 12) = 11.1. With the bootstrap, thc
gain becomes 20 x 105/ (105 + 12) =18.
The increased gain factor is only
18/ 11.1 = 1.62. Use of the bootstrap
circuit increases available output swing
of the drive stage much more than it
increases gain, but this only a graphical
approach can predict.
Damping factor is a little more involved. Starting with normal pentode
operation, if 25 volts grid swing produces 300 volts total swing in a normal
load value (the condition on which OUL'
earlier figures were based), open circuit
operation would require only about 5
volts swing at the grid to produce the
same 300 volts output swing. So in
unity coupled configuration, to get the
same output voltage, the grid swing
needed drops from 175 (i. e. 150 + 25)
to 155 (i.e. 150 + 5) , representing a
damping factor of about 7.8.
But that's assuming a constant-voltage drive stage, unaffected by feedback.
Now to see what the bootstrap does:
When the load is removed, the positive
feedback to the dl'ive stage plate resistor jumps from 7 times to 155/5 = in
times. So the effective (dynamic) plate
resistor is now 465,000 ohms. The gain
will be 20 x 465/ (465 + 12) = 19.5. (This
(ContVnued on page 66)
42
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
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FOT additional literature and
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write SUjJcrscolJC, Inc. , Dept. 7
Sun Valley, California
The Tapeway to Stereo
SUPERSCOPE
pairs of inputs are provided: two pairs of
low-level inputs and one pair of high-level
inputs. The low-level signals (phono) enter
a preamplifier stage (7025) which incorporates RIAA equalization. After this stage
the high-level signals enter and all follow
the same path from here on. The path then
is through the volume and balance potentiometers ; through a tone driver ( %
12AX7); through the treble and bass networks; to the power driver (% 12AX7);
and then to the push-pull power output
stage (EL84), half the signal going
through a phase inverter (% 12AX7) .
Perf orm ance
PILOT FM-STEREO RECEIVER,
MODEL 602M
The Pilot Model 602M is a complete
stereophonic receiver in that it combines
on one chassis an FM-stereo tuner, a stereo
control center, and a 30-watt stereo amplifier. The 602M incorporates several unusual
features, not the least of which is the
"8impli-Matic" test panel which permits
the amplifier output tubes to be balanced
simply and without the need for special test
equipment. Another built-in feature is the
power-line antenna which we found sufficient to receive FM-stereo signals over a
distance of some 30 miles. Undoubtedly
this really reflects the sensitivity and quality of the tuner more than anything else
but it is a rather neat way to solve the
antenna problem.
The Model 602 is not a new number for
Pilot Radio; there have been several antecedents with essentially the same ingredients. For example the original Model 602
contained the same amplifier and FM tuner
- and it also contained an AM tuner. The
Model 6028 added stereo FM with the inclusion of a multiplex adapter (built-in).
Now comes the Model 602M which keeps
stereo FM but drops the AM section. In
other words, you caR: have it any way you
wish.
the oscillator·mixer (Y2ECC85) where it is
converted to the intermediate frequency.
From there it goes through three i.f. amplifier stages (6AU6) and then to a solid-state
ratio detector (lN542). An "eye" type of
tuning indicator (EM84) is used. After
leaving the ratio detector the signal takes
one of two paths: through a de-emphasis
network if it is a mono broadcast, or
through the multiplex network if it is stereo
(assuming the selector switch is in the corr ect position). We will not describe the
multiplex circuit as this was described in
detail in the December, 1961, issue of AUDIO
in an article by R. Shottenfeld and S.
Abilock.
P1'eamplifier-amplifier section. Three
, I
- .
:.-"
"'"
~
»
"
Pllor
~i-
..
":
...
...
~
The Pilot 602M easily met its published
performance specifications: FM sensitivity
just under 3 !Lv (IHFM); frequency response ± 1 db from 20 cps to 20,000 cps;
harmonic clistortion les than 1 per cent at
full output; and power output at least 15
watts per channel. The power rating is
achieved by operating the output tubes
with a plate voltage of 325 volts which is
just about the maximum rating for an
EL84. Of course this is fairly common
practice. Although we have not seen any
published performance specifications for
the multiplex reception of the 602M we observed better than 20 db of separation,
which is more than adequate. Actually there
are not as yet firm standards for FMstereo reception, but separation of this
o],der is considered important. In any case,
the stereo sound was quite good.
Our total impression is that the Pilot
G02M is a fine performer at a surprisingly
modest price. Oh yes, we forgot to mention it looks good too.
A-40
L
v+O-2f'1$
G~
...
--
'.
!"v
.
TUNElIf_AMl'"LI"' -I£;ft
1;:: I >1
...
..
!~l
-
08
...
:',,'
~--~.
~A.'
{
Circuit Description
FM section. The signal enters the triode
r.f. amplifier (% ECC85) and proceeds to
TELEFUNKEN TA PE RECORDER
MAC N ETOPHON 97
The Telefunken Magnetophon 97 is a 3speed, 4-track, stereo tape recorder which
features pushbutton controls for most functions and an unusually flexible stereophonic microphone. The 97 is a completely
integrated unit in that it can record and
playback stereo without the need for any
further equipment. This inc.ludes two builtin microphone preamps, two 2.5 watt amplifiers, and two speakers. One speaker is
in the front section of the machine proper
and the other speaker is ingeniously
mounted in the plastic lid of the machine.
(The main body of the machine is made of
metal.)
The Magnetophon 97 is a very flexible
machine insofar as operating controls are
concerned. Because of the individual buttons for the recording channels it is possible to record 4-track mono by pressing
one button at a time. To record stereo both
record buttons are pressed simultaneously.
It is also possible to listen to a previously
recorded track while recor ding a secorid
and, by not pressing either of the playback
buttons, mix the end result. Thus you can
record one part of a duet on one track,
44
Fig. 1. Pilot FM-stere o re ce ive r Model 602M.
harmonize with yourself on the second
track, and play them back together as if
they were both on one track.
There are four playback combinations
possible: track 1 alone; track 2 alone;
track 1 and track 2 simultaneously
(stereo); and track 1 and 2 mixed. In addition' the playback facilities may be used
with an external signal source-in other
words as a public address system.
The Model D77 stereo microphone sup-
plied with this machine is rather unique.
It comes as a one piece unit which can be
mounted on the tripod-like legs supplied
with it. There are two microphone elements
mounted inside with their axes normally
about 90 deg. apart although this relationship is adjustable. The two elements can be
separated from each other however by
simply unsnapping the snap fastener
(Continued on page 59)
Fi g. 2 . Te le fu nken Magn etophon 97 tap e reco rder .
AUDIO
•
JAN UARY, 1962
HOW TO BUY YOUR FIRST (OR YOUR LAST) SPEAKER SYSTEM
If you demand magnificent sound ... undistorted bass to beyond the limits of
audibili ty - if yo u demand superb cabi netry
and decor flexibility (with five interchangeable grille frames that snap on and off to
match any decor) ... then consider the
unique University Medallion XII 12"
Three-Way Speaker System. Medallion
owners stay Medallion owners. Let's look
inside the Medallion and see why.
compare
UNIVERSITY
(in every price category)
against all other brands
-smooth and rich-from 28 to 40,000
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Amplifier requirements? Any amplifier
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watts. Medallion dimensions? Only 24/1
x 17/1 X ll~" deep. Available with or
without base-for use as highboy or lowboy . Finishes? Walnut, oiled walnut,
fruitwood, mahogany and unfinished for
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Write for University's "Informal Guide
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~
Integrated within its precisely-matched
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AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
For bookshelf speaker systems with astound·
ing 'big system' so und, look into University' s
RRL speaker systems.
111
For a solution to a really difficult space
problem, investigate the TMS-2 single cabinet
stereo speaker system.
~
A Division of Lins-Temco-Vought, Inc.
TIMELESS BEAUTY AND THE SOUND OF TRUTH
45
AUDIO ETC
(from page 14)
be done. The dealers are in blue funl(s
trying to figure out the differences, vainly
explaining them to the people who buy.
Customers are confused, annoyed, outraged.
(They have no compassion for individualis·
tic engineers at all.)
3. And so in Phase 2 there is inevitably
that frantic, wholly unforseen period of
in-production adjustment that tempers the
product to fit, in the hardest possible way.
Adjustments, right in the middle of crucial
production, that sometimes become so wild
and woolly that the end-result is hardly
recognizeable for what it had been, weeks
before, at the big demos !
Oof! It's astonishing what ingenuity can
go into this drastic sort of modification
after the fact-while out in public all
seems peaceful and happy. (Except for the
unaccountably trickling supply of the new
equipment, and for the changes, which are
always played down as far is humanly
possible.)
In other words, Phase 2 doesn't exist in
the ads, nor is it officially recognized in
public. Everybody in the business makes
like Phase 3- and hopes. Sooner or later,
if they keep it up long enough, they are
rewarded. Phase 2 does lead to Phase 3.
3. As Phase 2 progresses, there is a
strange, unofficial, mutual sliding towards
uniformity and practical standardization.
Again, nobody wants to admit anything.
~ut each manufacturer, now that the game
IS underway, sees acutely saleable things
in his rivals' products that he must have
for himself; and so he hastens to borrow
while the borrowing is good. The results
are ~ealthy_ By a sort of unacknowledged
and mvoluntary cooperation, the individualistic manufacturers are drawn together
towards emerging standards for all. Excellent! Democracy in action in a com~ercial sort of way. This, needless to say,
IS the really constructive aspect of Phase 2.
4. And thus the typical end-of-Phase 2
product can be spotted almost at a glance
whatever it may be. Its history reeks fron::
it. Inevitably it is a highly dickered-up
and fiendishly ingenious bundle of constructive compromises, a patchwork job
but a good one, at last, far more practical
that the neatly theoretical products which
were displayed as prototypes. It may be
ugly,. clumsy, over-s~e~ and over-complex,
but It work~. ~d It lS at least in part
:;d.apted to ItS nvals and neighbors, for
JO.mt usefulness and interchangeability
Wlth. outward facilities that are reasonably
predictable an~ be~inning to approach
some sort of umfol'lmty, wherever possible.
Thus-inste~d of five different types of
plug, .there IS one type, on all rival models.
One lmpedance, perhaps; or one output
level, within sensible limits. And so on.
5. But adjustments in production can
go only so far. Phase 2 products even the
latest. and best, are still basically erratic
and divergent, but never more so than in
~he fundamentals, as opposed to the adJustable superficialities. Phase 2 is the era
of the shor~-lived model, which appears
and then q~etly fades away. Didn't pan
out. By the time a general Phase 3 sets in
half the brands are gone, and a good rid~
dance.
Howcomei First, because of high idealism, because of the elevated one-track
mind. It is in this Phase 2 that the high-
46
minded one-track products, interesting in
theory but in practice not so good, are
sadly derailed and sent sprawling into
commercial limbo. For as always, the practically useful piece of equipment comes
from minds that have whole yardsful of
tracks to work upon.
In Phase 2, thus, much fancy equipment
cracked up as top-quality (and costing it)
turns out instead to be remarkably unsatisfactory. Grossly so, sometimes, and
to no one's greater surprise than the maker
himself.
Often they are idealists, these developers
with too few mental tracks, "pure" scientists who become so involved in a "Principle" that they are blind to its practical
faults. They become obstinate; they cannot admit that their principle itself, so
lovely in its theory, hasn't worked out
very well in practical form; they persist.
But Phase 2 usually finishes them off_
There are, too, those opposite men who
beat themselves at their own game in
Phase 2, by too-quick opportunism. They
get themselves derailed and dumped just as
neatly. They aren't too pure--they are too
"commercial," rushing improvised quickie
models on the market without proper designing and development in order to make
a killing before the novelty wears away.
By the end of Phase 2, they are gone-with or without profit. Funny how the
rigors of Phase 2 hits both of these opposite types, eliminating the crass and the
idealistic failures alike.
All in all, I'd suggest to everybody that
as consumers we should sit out every Phase
2, and hold onto our cash. On the other
hand, if we all did that, there would be
no Phase 3, and an end to our business.
Fortunately for us, Mr . .T. Q. Public is
u~ually anxious to get in on something new,
WIth cash, and so are most "pro" engineers
too. We all of us buy like crazy in Phase
2, against our better judgement and
thereby contribute to later stability, at
our own cost. Good system, I say.
Phase 4 , the Last Quarter
We can skip Phase 3; what happens in
Phase H Well, that's the period when the
bloom is off the peach, when the once-new
produ~t begins to grow old though it still
sells mcely. The last quarter of the waning
moon. Why drop a well-proved line of goods
that still brings in the cash' And so many
a worthy product lives on commercially beyond its time, entering into Phase 4 semiobsolescence, though still "availabl~."
I will not be so indelicate as to suggest
the names of present Phase 4 products
though there are many of them around, a~
you may well figure for yourself. Pickups,
speakers, arms, changers. You'll find Phase
4 items in other fields too-for instance
the old-fashioned but reliable side-valv~
engines used until very recently in some
of the low priced auto models.
*
*
*
Phase 1: design and development. Phase
2: trial by commercial fire, with running
adaptation_ Phase 3: smoothly integrated
perfection. Phase 4: Onset of obsolescence.
Those are the phases of the hi fi mooncycle, the life of a product from birth to
old age. You have surely applied by generalities to many hi fi innovations on your
own. Here are a few specific phase-reminders, to help your memory.
Stereo disc reoords? Phase 2 began in
June, 1958 and ran well into 1959-but
stereo disc settled down to relative stability in a very short time, all things considered. Especially considering the groans
and the dire predictions of failure, at its
beginning.
The LP reoord had i ts Phase 2, a much
more difficult one, from its grand inception in June, 1948 all the way through
1952 at least. For a long while the LP remained a touch and go proposition. The
LP-45 "battle of the speeds" in 1959 was
clearly a macro-symptom, typical of the
Phase 2 chaos of non-standardization, as
between rival products_ You'll note that
later on, as Phase 3 came to the microgroove record, the LP and the 45 discs
rather suddenly came to terms and established a mutually stable relationship that
endured for many years.
FM radio went through a dismal Phase
2 'way back in the late 1940's, at the time
of the shift in the FM band from the 40
Mc region up to the present near-100 Mc
area, thereby putting aU existing tuners
out of business and creating what seemed
at the time to be momenous problems in
tuner design. FM floundered for a number
of years, both in broadcasting and in the
tuner area, until the burgeoning hi fi movement rescued it and allowed for the inevitable dynamic stability of design that
is typical of Phase 3 in any product-and
still exists in FM, as it does in the LP
record.
Ah-but FM multiplex stereo is something else again I There we are right in
the middle of a really hectic Stage 2, complete with the usual confusions, erratic
standards, incompatibilities, unexpected
bugs and unforeseen technical problemswe have everything, including the typical
rapid revampings of models already in
production, the quiet retirement of some
of them, the tell-tale trickle of shipments
and the big optimistic promises. Nothing
to be worried about at all, I say. It was on
the books, though nobody is going to admit such a thing ahead of time.
Indeed, so typically dismal are the professional predictions concerning FM stereo
right now, that I have nothing but the
greatest faith in its future! Haven't these
things been said about every Stage 2 in
every major hi fi developmenH Wasn't the
LP solemnly pronounced hopeless by engineer after engineer' (Well, not in quite
those words; but the implication was the
same.) Wasn't there shaking of heads
about the impossible stereo disc system,
that should never have been adopted'
(Maybe so, but it worked out, nevertheless.)
I guess I should have added a sixth
point to my list of Phase 2 symptoms: You
can always spot Phase 2 in any development by the solemn pronouncements of
doom that issue from those who are working the hardest for its success. It takes
an engineer in the business really to run
down a new product-type, even when he's
right in the middle of it himself. Protective pessimism, I guess.
When Phase 3 arrives, these prophets of
doom quietly look the othel' way. They're
too busy working on some new Phase 1.
.
1£
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Model SM-Q300
SUPERB
TONE
QUALITY!
17W + 17W STEREO AMPLIFIER with AM-AM-FM TUNER
It is derived from the new circuits
A new stereo am plifier with powerful output
and wonderful distortion-free tone quality is
, now offered with pride. SM-Q300 is provided
with a number of new circuits. For example:
1. Switching from stereo to mona ural and
vice versas has been made continuously
variable. Switching from one purpose to
another and the adjustment of the stereophonic sense have become possible with a
single knob.
2. The phase reversible circuit is entirely
unique to the PIONEER; it has reduced
distortion to minimum.
3. The use of silicon diodes with superb regulation for the power supply circuit h as
greatly stabilized the output.
4, The adoption of high-characteristic scratch
and whistle filt ers has made it possible to
reduce unpleasant noise without in the
least sacrificing hi-fi tone.
While its performance has.thus been improved
markedly, its design has also been improved to
make it beautiful and attractive. SM-Q300 is
positively certain to be completely satisfactory
to you in its tone quality, performance and
design.
Specifications:
19 Electron tubes and 6 g e rman ium diodes
Tuner le ft
Tuning reng e , MW 535 to 1,60Ske, SW 3.8 to 12Me
Practical se nsit ivity:
MW lOO uV (1Mc, output 500mW, at 3096 modulation)
SW 100p V (7.SMe, output SOOmW, ot 3096 moduletion)
Tuner right
Tuning reng e , MW 535 to 1,60Ske, FM 80 to 108Me.
Practical se nsitivity: MW id e ntical wirh Tun e.r 1
FM IOp V (95Mc, output SOOmw, at 3090"modulat ion)
Audio se ction '
Circu it: 6BQ5p. p. 2~chonn e ls
Inputs ond gain , MAG PU 3.4mV, MIC 4mV, XTAL PU 3SmV
TAPE (PLAY) 160mV, AUX 160mV
Equalizer, NF type, RIAA curve
Output: For speaker-4, 8, 16 ohm (each channe!), center
channel te rm inal , tape recording terminal
Output powe" 17W X 2
Undi,tart e d output powe r , lSW X 2(di,to r tion below 196 at I KC)
Re sponse: 20 ci S to 50 ke, ± 1 db (main amplifier section, at
SOOmV output)
Outer dimen, ion , 181 / 2 (W) X 14(D) X S 112 (H) in c h
We ight, 26.61 Ib ,
5 Otowacho 6-chome, Bunkyoku, Tokyo, Japan
P1DN'E'ER 'EL'ECTRDN1C CDRPDRAT1DN
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
47
ECOR
Leningrad
Tchaikowsky: Symphony No.4. Le ning rad Philharmonic, Mrawinskij.
Deutsche Grammo phon
1386 57 stereo
of preliminary printer's proofrea~e.rs.
Nicely meaningless statements, POSitive
opinions that were meant to be negativeyou have to rea d for sense to catch these!
If you want to try for yourself, just r ead
the December installment of "Record R e-
view."
There's even more to it because, with
If only the polltical and military fu -
AUDIO' S cooperation, I tend to rewrite in
ture of our world could depend on the
so-called cultural ambassadors- and upon
the economics of a healthy trade! Here
we have arch-Russian music played by
an arch-Soviet orch estra, recorded and
released by a leading German company to
everyone's profit, including ours over
here in the States.
Listening to this really extraordinary
"Fourth," you'll be struck, if you know
the piece well, by a number of interesting thoughts. First-a splendidly disciplined orchestra and no doubt about it.
Such precision attacks, such accurate
roulades of exactly timed string notes,
such perfect wind chords. Shall we chalk
it up to sheer musical discipline, or is it
a party matter? Anyhow, here it is, and
we must l isten a n d be amazed.
Then there is an over-all discipline of
performance that makes this symphony
into a new piece. The outer two movements a re far less hysterical than we
here expect them to be, and yet they go
even faster than our fastes t. Whirlwind
accuracy, claSSically precise, coldly fiery
rath er than hotly so. Strange, and plenty
effective too. Gives you a new concept of
Tchaikowsky and one that to my ear
is decidedly authentic, for he was one
of the finest musical architect-builders of
his time ; his taut, tight structures deserve to be performed with this sort of
economy. We stress the schmal z and the
hysteria entirely too much.
The two middle movements are simply
beyond compare, the sorrowful Andantino
and the famous pizzicato 8cherzo, which
here is played straigh t out of the preceding movement as though the pair
were all one architectural plane. Not
only preciSion , hut extraordinarily careful phraSing and shaping, every note
placed with incredible exactness, as part
of the larger architecture.
Out of curiosity, I suggest it would be
well for every owner of a "Westerntype" Tchaikowsky "Fourth" to buy this
disc as a companion. You will learn a
great deal about music in our two worlds,
and about Russian temperament, merely
by listening here. There's more than
words can tell.
proof, improving my deathless prose via
substitution of brand new words, exactly
r eplacing the old in the same space. I
find it fun, and it makes for better reading, as I trust you'll discover in this
month's fully corrected installment. E .T .C.
Note: Look right now at this department
in last month's issue and you will see an
example of our penultimately edited version of my writing- minus all the final
corrections. In the rush for the printing
deadline the proofsheets got swit ched.
T he final correcting job is a tricky one.
Strange gra=atical aberrations, unfinished sentences, mysterious words in the
wrong places, somehow survive a series
* 780 Greenwich St., New York 14, N .Y.
48
NOBLE EFFORTS
Schu ma nn: Cello Concerto.
Tchaikowsky: Rococo Va riations. Rostropovich; Le ning rad Philha rmo ni c, Roz hd estve ns ky.
Deutsche Gram mophon
1386 74 stereo
This top Soviet cellist was over here a
year or so back and I h eard-and watchedhim in person. The weirdest performance I've
ever looked at, with the month wide open, the
body wriggling, the face red, the eyes popping out; but the cello sound was smooth
as Filk and technically just what it was
cracked up to be. He is a real "international"
cellist, a cellists' cellist too, knowing all the
tricks of the trade both East and West, as
well as possessing a few of his own in the
way of finger dexterity.
Th e Schumann is a devilish piece to make
any sense out of. The somewhat classically
cool Leningrad-Soviet approach is surely as
successful as any-for most of the attempts
to warm the music into lush Romanticism
merely end by being maudlin, ern phasizin g the
peculiarly unhinged quality of the musical
continuity. A tight, disci pled playing Uke this
seems to help it forward through the two
slowish movements until the more lively finale
takes over. As for Tchaikowsky's neat set
of "Rococo" variations, problems are purely
technical and always rewarding when solved;
the cello never sounded so easy to take as
h ere. Again, the discipUned, cool accuracy
of this ensemble of Soviet musicians does good
things.
De Falla: The Three Corne re d Hat (complete b allet). L'O rch . de la Suisse Romande, Anse rmet. Te resa Berganza,
mezzo.
London CS 6224 stereo
(mono: CM 9292)
It is a continuing pleasure to find the complete scores of ballet music on records of this
sort, in place of the familiar concert excerpts
or suites that merely sample the high spots.
Granted that there are parts of virtually
every such work that are head and shoulders
above the bulk of the music, much of which
t ends to be routine thanks to necessary stage
business. (Only Stravinsky and Tchaikowsky,
in very differen t ways, seem to be able to
keep the mu sical fare on a conSistently even
I,eel throughout a ballet.)
Even so, it is better to have the whole of
the music. On LP it is both economically
feas ible and easy in the listening-the dull
spots slide by quite effortlessly and the good
parts make their impressions within the
proper context. Thus a large part of this
music will be quite unfamiliar to most listeners some of it a bit tasteless but a lot clearly
go~d entertaiument; the well known sections
show up in inter esting contrast. Nice singing
by Braganza in her brief fiamenco-like solo
passage.
Beethoven : Missa Solemnis, Op. 123.
Fa rrell , Carol Smith, Lewi s, Borg, Westminster Choir, N.Y. Ph il ha rmo nic, Bernste in .
Columbia M2S 619 stereo
(mono: M2l 270)
The en ormous "Missa Solemnis" Is usually
paired with the "Ninth Symphony," both
works originating in Beethoven's exalted a nd
so mewhat eccentric last period at a time
when he was totally deaf and remarkably
well removed from concern over the petty
necessities of singers, chorus and orchestra. In
the orchestra he seldom miscalculated, deaf
or no. But his knowledge of t he voice, (especially the choral voice) was always limited
a nd simply went out the window in his
later works. The mu sic is singable. It can be
sung, that is. And it is of exalted greatness
in concept, too. But its vocal requ irements
are at times almost nonsensical in terms of
results achieved. Tenors yell like demons,
basses sing tenor-range themes and nearly
strangle in the process, sopranos reach for
whole lines of high notes fit only for colorrtura work. And the solOists-In both this
work and the "Ninth Symphony"-do plenty
of strangling on their own. To this day, these
two works are the most difficult of successful
execution in the entire repertory of concer~
music.
SO- What have we here, on r ecords? A
recording made at the time of a series of
public concerts by these same performers and
presumably taped at a special session after
the "live" performances were complete. For
maximum effectiveness, in these days, there is
no better way to achieve a polished, wellpracticed recorded performance and this one
should be optimum.
Well, it isn't. The fault might be in Bernstein's organizational leadership of the enormously complex forces involved (mostly reo
hearsed separately before the actual comingtogether for performance); or maybe the
weather was bad, or the hour late. Say five
in the morning. Who knows? More likely the
blame Is Beethoven's. After a ll, how many of
us can rise to superhuman heights every time
a recording director gives the high sign?
The music, as I hear it, comes through
with the heights achieved all right-Bernstein has his musical car fixed on the right
sort of ineffable greatness. But it is at the
expense of detail wor k along the way . The
worst trouble (maybe it was recorded at five
in the morning) Is in the tough Gloria section, where Beethoven's violently dramatic
and rapid changes of harmony are too much
for the singers, notably the quartet of soloists,
who come perilously near to atonality in a
couple of passages. They simply do not hear
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
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AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
49
ANNOUNCING A NEW PROFESSIONAL
STEREOPHONIC TEST RECORD
CBS Laboratories STR-IOO f requency-test record is
now available to audiophiles and audio professionals
Fir st intr oduced at t he 1 3th Annual Conventi on of the Audio E ngineering Society last fall and w idely adopted by the leading high-fidelity
pick-up manufacturers, the STR-100 t est record is now being made
available in limited edition to audiophiles by CBS Laboratories in
the interest of better high-fidelity listening;
The STR-100 is the only test record to give you all of the following
featur es:
• Continuous glide-tones f or left and r ight channels, from 40 to 20,000
cps-to check the cor r ectness of speaker placement, smoothness of
r esponse, freedom from r esonances, and channel separation of the system-in less than three minutes.
• Thirty spot-frequency tones for each channel, ranging f rom 20,000
to 20 cps, with voice announcements preceding each tone. This allows
you to verify the t r ue frequency range of your syst em.
• Lateral and vertical tracking test for measur ing compliance and adj usting the tone ar m for optimum t racking capability atlowfrequencies.
• Low frequency glide-tones from 200 to 10 cps, f or left and r ight channels, to det ect loudspeaker and tone arm resonances.
• High frequency signals t o 20,000 cps at outside and inside r a dii of
t he recor d to evaluat e wavelength loss an d stylus wear.
Because the master is cut directly from an oscillator without intermediate use of magnetic t ape, precision and pur ity of the signal is assured.
Detailed instructions explain step-by-step how to use this "recor d in
order to obtain maximum performance from your stereophonic system. Wr ite to CBS Laboratodes for your copy of the limited edition
STR-100 t est r ecor d. $8.50 postpaid.
r-----------------------------------(I
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CBS LABORATORIES, Aud io Products Department, Stamford, Connecticut
Enclosed check or money order for $8-50 postage prepaid
Send C_O_D. $8.50 plus postage
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IL ___________________________________
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Please send me the STR-IOO test record _
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LABORATORIES
HIGH RIDGE ROAD, STAMFORD, CONNECTICUT
A DIVISION OF COLUMBIA BROADCASTING SYSTEM, INC_
50
what they must hear, they lose the thread of
harmonic continuity and sing (with that
typically hysterical sound) via a sort of dead
reckoning, until things straighten out!
Don't let me go too far. I must make It
clear that this is a splendidly heartfelt perfo rman ce of a near-impossible work of genius,
and in the long run I would much prefer a
faulty but inspired performance of this sort
to a technically more perfect but less inwardly inspired job, the sort that is normal in these hard-boiled times. Maybe it's
just as well there are a few strained passages; the tension is thereby increased.
Oddly enough, one performer who seems unperturbed from beginning to end, in spite of
her difficult solo role, is Eileen Farrell. She
can sing placidly when others are apoplectic!
She has the technique and the temperament.
F'or once, a bit of neutral unconcern is an
asset here, where most singers tend audibly
to overheat, and plenty simply go up in musical smoke under the strain. I doubt if her
concept of the part is quite what the wild
Beethoven had in mind but, at least on this
solid earth, hers is perhaps the first performance that has ever put over all of Beethoven's
notes with technical success.
Schoenberg: Verklaerte Nacht .
Loeffler: A Pagan Poem_ leopold Stokow ski and His O rche stra.
Capitol SP 8433 stereo
Here are two big, fat, thick-textured lateRomantic pieces and Stokowski, the unctuous
conductor of so many dripplingly sentimental
"arrangements," tones them down to size as
well as any present conductor can do it. Indeed, those who have enjoyed the semi-hysterical shriekings of the "Transfigured Night"
music in its large orchestral form will be
somewhat surprised at this version, which is
a rranged by Stokowski himself as a kind of
compromise between the original piece for
sextet of stringed instruments and the bloated string orchestra version, Schoenberg's own,
that we normally hear. It is much thinner and
leaner, less wildly passionate, more pensive
and generally a better piece of music in this
form, yet more interesting for most listeners
than the relatively limited chamber music
form of the original conception. Stokowsld's
version retains many solo and solo ensemble
passages, blending them in with string-orchestra elements.
Loeffier was a doughty old Alsacian, Frenchtrained, who lived most of his life in and
around Boston. This is his supposed masterpiece, but for our ears jt is sadly datedthick, blatant, long-winded, complex, subtle
mainly in its orchestral textures, the oncenovel whole-tone-scale harmonies sounding
old-fashion ed and t urgid, an incongruous mixture of Debussy ("Afternoon of a Faun") and
Rachmaninoff. The harmonies are of the Debussy sort, but the poetic mystery of Impressionism is wholly lacking in favor of a sort of
bouncing assertiveness, nea rer to a complicated John Philip Sousa than to Debussy.
Beautifully written for the large orchestra
plus solo E nglish horn, piano and three trumpets offstage, but I found it very hard to take.
Just rubs the wrong way in this nuclea r age.
(I have a feeling that a much earlier recording I used to own, done on 78 by Howard
Hansen and the Rochester forces, put more
poetry in to Loeffler and managed the silvery
so und of the distant off-stage trumpets-who
march triumphantly onto the stage at the
end- in a much more successful way than do
Stokowsld and his Capitol technicians h ere.
But the old set is long since vanished and I
must depend on memories of the older sound.)
ROMEO
Tchaikowsky: Romeo and Juliet Duet.
Glinka: Songs (Solos, chorus, orchestra).
S. lemeshe v, T_ La vrova, '- Kozlovsky;
Orchs. Moscow Philharmonic, Bolshoi
Thea tre . . .
Monitor MC 2055 mono
The gem on this disc, an extraordinary one,
is the Tchaikowsky duet for tenor and soprano, composed as a sketch for a hypothetical opera on "Romeo and Juliet" out of the-
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
matic material taken f r om the famo us "Overture-Fantasy" that everybody kn ows. The d uet
was left incomplete a n d was r oun ded ou t by
another m u sician after T chaikowsky's death
(Ta neiev), who apparently did the orch estration in the style of T cha ikowsky- not h ard ,
what with the "Overtur e-Fantasy" available
as a model.
Such a work of genius! No one bu t t he master himself -I can't hel p u sing the termcould have constructed such a masterful loveduet as t his out of t h ese a lready-familia r i deas
of his earlier piece. It is the daybreak scene
between Romeo and Juliet, which en ds with
the hasty appearance of J uliet's n u rse wh o
u rges Romeo to get away before Mama comes.
The scene is lovely in t he play, a nd it is l ovely
here in mu sic, perhap s rivalling su ch famous
tenor-soprano scenes as t h e love duets in " Die
Walk tire" and " T ristan ." T ypically, Tchaikowsky adds to the familiar "Romeo" materia l a
superb n ew t h eme, su rely as striJdng as those
already available in t he "Overtu re-Fan tasy."
It would have been a glorious oper a , if he h ad
worked it through on this super b level of
musical achievement.
T he singing-Romeo, J Uliet and, briefly, t he
Nur se--has a cur iously distant Russia n flavor ,
what with the ch ar acteristically old-faShioned
Russian acou stic deadness, sounding like something from the Nineteen T hirties (th ough in
perfectly good "hi fi " ) . Excellent perfo rman ces.
As fo r Glinka, on a ny other disc he might
charm, but h er e (for me) h e is an ant iclimax.
Th ese songs, variously arranged for chorus,
solos and fo lksy or chestra, manage to sound
more or less like mu ch Russia n popul ar music
today. On a high level, relatively speaking,
bu t still far beneath the "Romeo" excerp t in
musical impact and, mor e important, sadly out
of style with it. I'd buy the disc any day for
more self-conscious "Romeo and Juliet" and
much of t h e difference, I'm willing to guess,
stems from the anonymous teamwork in the
London version versus the solo, famous-name
casting for t his version. To be su re, t his last
is the normal procedure. If we are to h ave
Dame Edith Evans, let's not fo r ce her into
anonymity- fo r she makes a marvelous n u rse
to J uliet! Here, we have some big names and
many more names that are worthy to be mentioned in the billing, gathered in to an assem bly of individual actors each playing on his
own reputation, present, past, or f uture. Like
competition in the business world, this sort
of thing makes Shakespeare go 'round wit h
gusto and energy.
But what a noisy r ecord! The par ty scenes
really sound like parties here. Loud, boisterous talking, laughter, comings and goings, for
a ll the world like t h at cocktail party next
door the other day. When there's a brawl, it's
a very real one and no token clashing of stage
swords.
As for Juliet, Claire Bloom on the boards,
she is billed as a fourteen-year-old and by
golly, she's going to act her age. She does,
and I find it u ncomfortable. Romeo is a dashing hero, too, matching Juliet. SomehOW, to
my ear, t his doesn 't jelL Did fo u rteen-yearold girls act then as they do now? Did Shakespeare really mean to be li teral-minded? Or
was he merely exagger ating for romantic
effect?
I might be wrong and certainly would not
go so far as to say this version of the great
play err s seriously. B ut it does give us a
mo re outward, less classic, mo re literal and
mo der nized r eading of the story than we fin d
in the classically restrain ed performance by
London's self -effacingly a nonymous team . I nteresting.
EXPLORATIONS
Studies in Improvisation. Lukas Foss, Improvisation Chamber Ensemble :
RCA Victor LSC 2558 stereo
I doubt if this music will thrill the marrow
of your bones on first hearing, but it conld
uRomeo" alone.
Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet. Marlowe
Society and professional players (anonymous).
London OSA 1407 stereo
I reviewed t h e "Hamlet" in this L ondon
Shakespeare series expecting that it would
have to stan d for all t h e rest; but soon afterwards I had guests at home a n d out came
"Romeo." We listened f r om st a r t t o finish and
now I have two of t h ese m onster prod uctions
under my belt, a n d am t h e happier for it.
I'll say only that t h is ver y different play
continues the tradition I fou n d in "Hamlet"
by this com pany, a polished, beautifully proportioned production with a minimum of that
awful Shakespeare mouthiug and puffi ng and
blowing, a maximum of sen sibly spoken, easily intelligible 'poetry, soun ding modern by
virtue of its exper tly u na ffected ma n ner . J uliet
makes no attempt to soun d her s upposed
age--fourteen- nor does Romeo gush like a
schoolboy. Neith er lover, oppositely, is an
elderly actor trying to sound coyly youthfu l.
The sur rou nding characters are similarly natural, well set u p and easily distinguished;
there are few stereo stunts to distract, but
plenty of solid stereo separation where it is
most useful , and the whole takes on a clarity
and economy of purpose t hat- given the somewhat torrid text of t h is play- pr esents the
great love story as con vincingly as I've ever
heard it.
As in "Hamlet ," I find h ere an unusually
penetrating understanding of t h e subtleties in
the Sh akespeare lines, a pr ojection of t h eir
meaning t h at is star tingly real a n d thoughtful. We can cr edit t h is, I'd g uess, to very
careful directing as well as to innate intelligence on the part of t h e anonymous acting
per sonnel.
Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet. Claire
Bloom, Dame Edith Evans, Albert Finney,
and others.
Shakespeare Recording Soc.
SRS 228 stereo
It was h appensta n ce that I picked up L on don's "Hamlet" a nd "Romeo" before starting
in on this series; I've had both waitin g for a
good while. At t he moment I h ave not completed this " Romeo" bu t h asten t o report on
some in teresting differen ces between it and
London 's version t h at have a lready become
apparent, as I listen.
This is a sh owier, m ore outwardl y dramatic,
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JANUARY, 1962
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well stimulate other areas of worthwhile importance; It surely Is Significant and interesting for its very intent.
Don't think that improvisation is an idea
that is going to stick primly within the j azz
and folk music fields. Jazz and folk, after all,
are already thoroughly mixed up with "classical" and the mixing is two-way, or threeway. Not surprising that somebody, say Lucas
Foss, would t ry improvising purely "classical"
modern music, which is to say, music that
doesn't sound either jazzy or folksy, but
strictly chamber-music-y.
And since chamber music (and plenty of
other music) normally requires writing ou t
in advance, being complex and architectural
(one doesn't improvise an office building or
an a partment house), new areas of compromise are in order, between what is made up
an d what isn't. Otherwise-musical chaos,
like five m en Singing in five ha thtuhs, instead
of five men on a concert platform, coordinating their music.
It's the coordinating that takes up everyone's time and energy here. As with John
Cage a nd Co. (see AUDIO, E TC. for October),
Mr. Foss has branch ed away from old-fashioned musical notation into codes and graphs,
suited to the degree of randomness that he
may have in mind. Certain limits, certain free
choices, and these players get their cues
partly from fancy diagrams (with notes, too),
partly from the leader's nodded head, partly
via plain individua lism. As with all these
new-thought pieces, no two versions of the
music are supposed to be exactly alike. When
you have the stn11' nearly memorized, you drop
it quiCk-like and start in on a new graph.
Foss has a big glossary of terms, indicated
by sym bols, to help you listen . In his tricky
diagra ms, a square mark means "take the
foreground," a triangle Indicates "foreground
but responding," a sort of oval, a miniature
race track sign, indicates "ta ke yourself into
the backgronnd-or else." A diamond shape
means "support" a nd you'd better support
hard, if you want to be cooperative in this
music-making.
I might as well suggest the ineVitable, that
it all seems a bit dry and calculated, as of
52
first h earing-and-seeing. The diagrams are out
of this world, and pretty, but they left me
somewhat bored. I want to listen , not to follow complicated graphs and charts. The music
. . . well, let's not be too quickly committed
for or against. The ideas of this group are
obviously constructive a nd useful and, we can
easily guess, will eventually coalesce along
with other such movements into a profitable
break-away from our too-great classical reliance on printed notes. Good Idea.
Gassmann: Electronics (taped ballet
music). Sola: Five Improvisations on
Magnetic Tape.
Westminster WST 14143 stereo
Well, here we go again. Now, with electroniCS, "we h ave inherited a 'brave new
world' of limitless possibilities and unprecedented artistic freedom" which, t he composer's notes here suggest, have released ns
from the restraints of conventional Instruments and performers. Maybe, maybe not.
This music, "composed" on the German
equivalent of the RCA Mark II Music Synthesizer, was the basis of the much-discussed
ballet "Electronics," about which I wrote at
length in an earlier issue, as did Harold Lawrence in the same issue. At the performance,
I found the sound eXCiting, the versatility of
the composing machine quite fabulous, the
e11'ects r emarkably alive and real-but the
music itself seemed to me conventional and
without very much new to say; it sounded
like electron ic Respighi, as of maybe 1910.
It still so unds that way, only more so. Not
r eally at a ll "limitless" in its purely musical
imagination, this music, which merely goes
to show that unlimited freedom in sound itself is no guara ntee whatever of unlimited
inspiration in musical terms. Stlll, for those
who think electron ic sound. "all sounds the
same," the noises in this work should be no
less tha n startling. An extraordinary machine,
the StudiO Tra utonium ; now let's have somebody develop a real language of originality
and force, via its facilities. Give us fifty years
and we'll get it, all right.
Game Calling in Hi-Fi. Art Mercier, Russ
Gaede.
Mercury GC 100 mono
I sent away specially for this one-I just
h ad to hear it. How specialized can you get
on LP? And yet, come to think of it, this
isn't so specialized, what with m!l1ions of
American hnnters barging around through
fields and swamps and what-not, looking for
game. This tells you how to do it-with the
aid of a "call," which is an instrnment into
which yon blow, mostly, to imitate the genuine
calls of crows, ducks, squirrels, and so on.
Related to a clarinet.
What fascinates me, here, is that though
millions of US hunt, millions more of us do
not, and we who don't are apt to find this
sort of instructiona l record slightly spine
chllling. It's not only what the record says,
but even more the questions that it blithely
ignores-like killing for pleasure and spo rt,
or the paradoxes of our silly modern existence
where most of us blanch at the sight of a
wounded mouse, yet step on a cockroach and
eat lambs, steers, and pigs, but never horses.
Illogical, to say the leas t , and the real enthusiasm for the hunt displayed by the professionals on this record can do a lot to make
us seem even more illogical.
The idea, of course, is to deceive, to lure
the unwary animals, fox deer, squirrels, and
the nnfortuna tely gullible wild birds, ducks,
crows, geese, hawks, into your gunshot range
-then, WHAM! and you've got your kill.
The record shows you, with examples, how
to use each type of game call, describing the
h aunts and the ways of the animals and birds
involved; then each band ends up with a little
dramatic sketch, showing how you "talk them
in." The WHAM! of the gun, fortunately, is
miSSing in most ; it would be too much for the
nerves, as well as for the LP stylus. But,
frankly, as a non-hunter I found myself fighting lustily for the birds and the beasts, hoping they'd get away, hating the chicanery, the
deadly lure of those raucous game calls. QUite
a n experience, I tell you .
Worst, for me, was the fox call. You don't
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
call the fox by sounding like a fox; you imitate a small terribly wounded an ima l, to
bring him on with blood in his eye. ThenWHAM! That small wounded a nimal is perfectly awful to h ear, especially if you've hea rd
the real ones, the little ra bbits and squirrels
and mice. Sure, that's one way to work up a
good hate for the bloodthirsty fox, I suppose.
He deserves to be shot, for r espondin g to your
faked squeals of agony.
Quite a r ecord, this, but not fo r an im al
fanciers.
On Location France-A Candid Portrait.
Narration by Pierre Crenesse.
Decca DL 9086 mono
This is a semi-promotional documentary,
which you'll likely find available at such
agencies as Air France, though there are no
commercials as such in its material. Th e assorted sounds, first of Paris (side 1) and then
of a few spots elsewhere in the country (side
2) a r e accompanied by English n arr ation with
a very French accent, just as any good tourist
should expect. Atmosphere.
I like Paris myself, but I fear I'm not a n
Air France tourist. Of cou rse I'll admit t hat
it is hard to find enough intelligible no ise in
a big city to make it "live" in pure sound, and
the musical night life of said city is an obviously easy way to fill things out with onthe-spot entertainment. After all , the Metro's
grinding sounds ver y much like the New York
subway's, only slower, a nd the t raffic is just
as unpleasant to hear- the Fren ch auto horn s
are much more unpleasant than ours, and who
wants to hear them? You've got one on yo ur
own Dauphine, anyhow. So night life it Is,
from one spot, hot, warm or cool, to another .
Best episodes, for me, were some qui te r ealistic exceptions to the night-life routine, quick,
close-u p conver sations in a market. That
sounded liI,e Paris.
OutSide of Paris, it's the foil, festivals. It
always is. The National GeographiC, t h e color
film shor ts (and longs), the travel supplements, a ll featu r e one fo lk fes tival after an-
other, with brightly colored dancers and, of
course, with music. We get numerous bits
here, plus a lot of good natured shouting.
What else, after all, can yo u put on a candid
sound-portra it? Church bells. At least. I'd be
happy to h ave a whole LP side of them here,
but you'll get only a brief sample. Oh yes,
auto races. BI'ooOOOooom! Le Mans. An d oh
yes, Ascent of th e Eiffel Tower, on side 1.
Diagonal elevator s dating fr om the 1870's,
t hat make a n oise like t h e sound of gea rs.
Inter esting to a gear specia list, anyhow.
Rachmaninoff: Piano Concerto No.3.
Byron Janis; London Symphony Dorati.
Mersury SR 90283 stereo
35 mm Mercury has followed Everest into
the extravagantly wide and t hick sprocketed
magnetic fi lm for master recordings, and
this is the first Mercury product via the new
system.
You ca n t ell-t hough it isn't easy to pin
down the difference. As I hear it in this excellent disc, t her e is a clarity, a limpid quality to the sound, a quietuess of background
(with no trace of pre-echo or post-echo), a
r emarkable steadiness of pitch in t he piano
(which is so eas ily subject to noticeable pitch
variation) , an over-all fullness aud an ease of
dynamic range, all of which are factors that
could be the results of the wide-track magnetic film , and probably are. If you can afford
the process, burn ing up tons of bulky, heavy,
ex pen sive film, t hen mO re power to you- it
seems bound to work.
It's a good performance, this, aside from
stunningly effective recording. This time, I'm
all for Dorati, whose disciplined, hard touch
is good for the somet imes too·soggy Rachmanin off. J anis plays warmly, r omantically,
but a lso with , disciplin ed t ension. I usually
quit these concertos halfway through-thi s
one I lasted virt ually to the en d.
Schubert: Symphony No.8 ("Unfinished");
"Rosamunde" Overture and Incidental
Music. Minneapolis Symphony, Skrowaczewski.
Mercury SR 90218 stereo
This is just ordinary Living Presence recording, no 35 mm film; but it is momentous
even so, as the first from Minneapolis with its
n ew young conductor, r eplacing Antol Doratl,
whose records with the orchestra have been
rolling off the Mercury presses for years.
What a change! Immediately, one must
class this "Mr. S." among those new young
performers who have suddenly ,reverted to a
neo-Romanticism, in contrast to the driving
classic spareness of most performance in the
last twenty years or so. Here is an "Unfinished" that is slow, ponderous, a ll leisure,
such as we h ave seldom heard since, say, the
latter days of Koussevitsky. I could hardly
believe my ear s. And the "Rosamunde" music,
for once, tal,es all the time it needs, shows
up its lovely h a rmonic contrasts to full ad·
vantage--a bit too full, for that matter.
Nice playing, but there's a certain tentativeness, a slightly wooden sound in many string
passages that ough t to be more alive, for instance, which probably indicates that this
radically differen t n ew conductor h adn't quite
yet (1960-61) got the feel of his new orches·
tral controls. Th e men must have had some
tall re-learning to do, after the driving Dorat!.
Starlight Concert (Debussy, Brahms Elgar,
Weber, Tchaikowsky, and others) Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orch ., Carmen
Dragon .
Capitol Duophonic DP 8276
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~Te ll , you'll pa rdon me if I doubt that any
performance of these standa rd chestnuts by
t he Hollywood Bowl with Mr. Dragon is a
"once-in-n-lifetime" affair. After all, "Fin·
lan dia," on this r eco rd, must hn ve many
(Continued on page 69)
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AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
53
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STEREO
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Blue Note Ste reo ST84076
Any midnight when one of the late movies
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the day. One of the film's priceless moments
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utters the name of the villainous bank robber.
Our hero in two words somehow outlines a
figure awesome enough to cause Willie Sutton
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The character Fields brings to mind is so formidable and unsavory that the appearance of
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the mental images Fields conjures up, especially when someone sees the role in purely
jazz terms as Horace Silver does in a new
work also named Filthy MoNasty.
Silver's heavy dresses fashionably enough
to fit in with a hip crowd, yet the cut of his
lapels is not so extreme as to offend any local
financiers visited after banking hours. He
swaggers about boldly enough to attract the
admiring glances of passing females, but fast
and shifty footwork always keeps him free of
entangling alliances. An old reprobate like
Fields would certainly approve of the extra
con-man touch which Silver adds on several
soulful piano choruses. McNasty sounds deceptively close to repenting his sins at times,
but the larceny in his heart always wins out
in the end.
While jazz composers are being commissioned to score films in increasing numbers
these days, Silver's idea of writing about an
obscure movie character is something new. A
trend may be in the making, as other odd
personalities are waiting to be uncovered by
jazzmen with the leisure time for late hour
viewing. After all, such comic strip notables
as Barney Google, Popeye, Harold Teen and
Andy Gump were once popular song subjects
along Tin Pan Alley, and the task of impr oving upon the themes created during what was
called the Jazz Age should be less than overwhelming.
Silver and the other quintet members let
last summer' s festival audiences see this slippery article in action, then listed his crimes
for the record before the customers at New
York's Village Gate. Rudy Van Gelder officiated at the ceremonies, and a month elapsed
between the release of the two versions. Stereo
repays the short wait, as the extra space permits a full review of each nefarious activity.
Silver's crew is i n top shape for its first
location recording, and the leader paves the
way with brief introductory remarks. The
title piece hits a furious pace, with Bllly
Mitchell delivering slashing trumpet statements before dropping down in tempo for
lyrical exchanges with Junior Cook's tenor
sax on Kiss Me Right. Gene Taylor, bass, and
drummer Roy Brooks hel p out with the rhythmic Spanish touches on The Gringo, which is
another of Silver's amusing studies in a Latin
velD. Two or three years spent together has
welded a cohesive unit, and Mitchell continu es
* 782 The Pa1'kway, Mamaroneck, N.Y.
54
to develop into a trumpeter able to handle any
solo assignment that comes his way.
Booker Little: Ou t Fron t
Candid Ste re o 9027
Now that the furor over Third Stream music
has died down, the phrase-coiners are searching for a new tag to pin on the latest jazz
developments. Some are talking about "the
new thing," while Nat Hentoff puts forth a
tentative "new wave," in his liner notes, to
describe the fraternity of younger jazzmen to
which the late Booker Little belonged. A trick
label like "the new twist" might do double
duty, first resolving the differences and then
further confusing the frenetic followers of
Chubby Checker. But just as the Twist piled
up quite a history before the public discovered it, so do Little's seven new compositions in this album deal with things that
ba ve concerned the youth of more than one
generation.
Progress to the 23-year·old Little was not
pursuit of the latest jazz fad, and each work
summarizes the whole of his experience as
well as attempting to surmount the next step.
The subject matter is varied enough to create
a total effect similar to the autobiographical
novel all young writers are supposed to have
in their system. Little's trumpet speaks of the
need in jazz for Strength And Sanity, explores the literary life on Man OJ WO"dB, and
suggests a painter at work on Hazy Hues.
Unique rhythmic approaches are tested on
Quiet Please, and Moods In Free Time.
Finally, Little advances his own term for
the onrushing forces in jazz on A New Day.
Max Roach, who employed Little during the
last two years, assists on the date and reveals his most recent theories on adapting
tympani to jazz. Roach has mastered tonal
colorations never displayed before, and the
percussion passages are engineered by Bob
d'Orleans to present a true stereo picture of
a remarkable drummer at work. Julian
Priester, another Roach colleague, is on trombone, and Eric Dol phy plays alto, bass clarinet and fiute. Ron Carter and Art Davis
alternate on bass, and pianist Don Friedman
completes the sextet. In all a fitting testament from Little, who before his death expressed his feeling about the way jazz should
go by stating, "There should be much less
stress on technical exhibitionism and much
more on emotional content, on what might be
termed humanity in music and the freedom
to say all that you want to."
Billy Taylo r: Kw amina
Mercu ry Stereo SR60654
Recordings of unsuccessful Broadway musicals usually come about only because some
company is unable to get out of advance
commitments or hopes to partially recoup an
investment in the show. They rarely meet
with much success, but a different and happier fate seems to be in store for the
short-lived "Kwamina," as all the drama
critics liked Richard Adler's score and expressed regret at the failure of the book to
hold their interest. Capitol decided to produce
an original-cast albuUl, even though it was
known the r un would end the day before the
recording session was scheduled. Mercury
was more adventu rous, putting Billy Taylor
and arranger Jimmy Jones to work last August on a jazz treatment to be released in
time for the October opening. The two albums
should have the combined eeffct of hel ping
each other, as well as the score, get off the
ground. Hollywood may use the music in a
movie yet, after borrowing the plot of "South
Pacific."
Preparing a jazz version prior to a Broadway opening is twice as risky as buying the
album rights before rehearsals begin. Not
only is the show untested, but both the musicians and any purchasers are unfamiliar
with the tunes. Anything in the way of
thematic variation must be handled gingerly,
while the jazz content should be high enough
to withstand competition from latter versions.
The team of Taylor and Jones performs this
feat with consummate ease, first selling the
melody and then picking out various aspects
to illuminate more closely. As the only member of the eleven-piece studio group acquainted
with the score before the three sessions were
held, Taylor solos on each number and buoys
up everyone with sparkling piano passages.
Some measure of the effort expended is indicated by the eleven takes required for
Ordinary People, while sixteen tries went into
What' s Wrong With Me. Both are rescued
through the eloquence of aJto-saxist Phil
Woods, who shares solo honors with Clark
Terry, Jimmy Cleveland and Les Spann.
The score tells a story of modern Africa
without overworking jungle drums or resorting to phony primitiveness. However, the
composer does indulge in perky rhythms on
Coooa Bean Song, and praises the simple life
on Happy Is The Cricket. The urge to hear
the l yrics sung becomes irreSistible, and prospective purchasers should be prepared to invest in the original-cast album as well. Phil
Macy, who engineered the date at Bell Sound
Studios, turns the center of the stereo stage
over to Taylor's piano.
Les McCann : Les McCann Sings
Pacific Jazz Stereo 31
Like many another pianist, Les McCann is
unable to completel y control the urge to sing
while playing and frequently hums with approval over the course of a solo. The vocal
chords are unfettered here, and McCann both
sings and assumes the featured piano role
with Gerald Wilson's big studio band, a
sextet boasting Ben Webster, and his own
trio. The program neglects McCann originals
in favor of such ballads and swingers as I
Cried For You, Deed I Do, and Sweet Georgi a
Brown. Evidently a scheme Is afoot to build
up the McCann personality enough to support a band on tour. Another a l bum or two
of his own brand of gospellzing may turn the
trick, as this seems to be what the customers
want. At least, the change f r om Ray Charles
will be somewhat of a relief. In the event the
pl an fails, a vocal trio consisting of Err'oll
Garuer, Oscar Peterson and McCann should
work out just fine if billed as The Singing
Pianists. The audio aspects of the production
received the careful attention of Dick Bock,
and trio reg ulars Herbie Lewis, bass, and
drummer Ron Jefferson give their leader exceptional support throughout.
Peggy Lee: If You Go
Capitol Stereo ST1630
Ruth Price with Shelly Manne: At The
Manne-Hol e
Contemporary Stereo 57590
Singers are known by the company they
keep, and these two young ladies are heard
in the best surroundings. Peggy Lee's engage·
ments at Manhattan's Basin Street East
brought about an association with Quincy
Jones, whose big band is pretty much a cl ub
fixture. When news circulated that Jones was
fiying to California with a sheaf of arrangements for this date, it l ooked as though the
singer might be reunited with the sound of
a big charging band at last. Such is not the
case, as Jones conducts the usual Hollywood
ensemble of l ush strings, fi u tes and french
horns on a dozen torch songs. The backgrounds are far from routine, however, and
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
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it is singularly clean and smootll. Goes right through the
top limits of audibility without a hint of "break-up" prevalent
in most other (if indeed not all) stereo cartridges.
COLORATION: vi rtu aII y non-existent. Imparts
no false, mechanic<Ll sound of its own to the music. I t is transparen t, clear, hum-free (special
Mu-metal shielding rejects electrically induced hum),
peak-free . • • above all, natural in the extreme.
COMPLIANCE: over 20 x 10-6 cm /dyne! Because of this superb compliance, it tracks as low as 1 gmm ••• without skipping or jumping grooves .. . even on lowes t and/or loudest
passages. Virtually eliminates record and stylus wear. Sepa·
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THE STYLUS: Choice of .0005" or .0007" diamond tips.
Exceptionally rugged. Special plastic grip makes stylus
changing easy as plugging in an electric cord.
PRICES: M33-5 (with .0005" diamond) or M33-7
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AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
55
Miss Lee's emotional flame never glowed
more seductively than during Say It Isn't So,
I Love YOtt Gypsy Hea,·t, and A8 Time Goe8
By. Actually, all any arranger needs to do is
keep out of this artist's way, and Jones anticipates every turn of phrase or change of
mood. Sensuous Latin rhythms add a touch
of variety on the title tune, I Get Along
Without You Very Well, and Maybe It's Because I Love You Too Much. Still, it would
be nice to hear Miss Lee sing with tbe Quincy
Jones band, and a little lend·lease maneuvering may bring it about yet.
Ruth Price made her recording debut about
five years ago with two albums for Kapp,
and the fact that they are still in print is
some token of durability. She was working
with Charlie Ventura at the time, but West
Coast pastures looked deceptively greener for
the pursuit of a career as s inger and dancer.
Closer inspection proved jobs to be scarce
and the inside of a recording stUdio much
harder to reach . Not until Shelly Manne
took h er under his wing did another recording date come along, nnd the Singer is still
on the outside of studio walls. Instead, the
informal proceedings tnke place in the friendlier setting of the drummer's own ManneHole, and Ricbie Kamuca, tenor sax, and
Conte Candoli, trumpet, drop casually by to
augment the house trio. Miss Price is at
home with ballads and swingers, but also
visits such out·of-the-way tunes as They
Say It's Spring, and Listen Little Girl. Assisting the proprietor in the trio are the able
pian ist Russ Freeman and bassist Chuck
Berghoter. Howard Holzinger's engineering
conveys the informal atmosphere of the Hollywood club, and Miss Price's career is now
in the best of hands.
Sauter-Finegan: Inside Sauter-Finegan Revisited
RCA Victor Stereo LSP2473
Following on the heels of Capitol's Dnophonic method of revitnlizing worthy monophonic items for stereo, RCA Victor is
beginning to apply its own system of elec·
tronic reprocessing to a select list of LPs.
Among the first to be refitted with two chan·
nels is this pioneering trip into the world
of percussive sounds. Eddie Sauter and Bill
Finegan were before their time, and their
early experiments in fracturing originals and
pop tunes still serve as models for today's
creators of stereo spectaculars. If the part·
nership was still In force, this pair would be
leading the pack again to the tune of
Doodletown Fi/ers. Some of their ideas of
nearly ten years ago sound fresher than what
is coming off the stereo production line at
present, a nd there should be a whole new
a udience for the venturesome treatments of
Where Or When, Rain, and Moonlight On
The Ganges. Stereo a dds perceptibly to the
depth of sound, and the wild bunch of drummers put to good use the extra stomping
room on Eddie And The Witch Doctors. The
engineers might fo llow s uit and stomp on
undue echo a little harder during the vocals.
The Dukes Of Dixieland featuring Pete
Fountain
RCA Victor Stereo LSP2097
THE DUAL-l006 CUSTOM
We consider the Dual-l006 CUSTOM
to compare more than favorably with
any other record player now on the
market. So much so that we submitted
it for testing to a completely impartial
authority. A copy of this report is now
available upon request. It contains the
facts to be familiar with before considering any purchase of record playing equipment. For your copy write :
Dept. C-l,
.!:l
united «audio
WIGO •
PRODU CTS OF DISTINCTION
•
DUAL
12·14 W. 18th Street, New York 11, N. Y.
56
This particular Dulces of Dixieland set is
piling up mileage, and a third trip to the
preSSing plant should keep it rolling right
along. This time the old carcass comes back
completely retreaded for stereo via RCA
Victor's new system of electronic reprocessing. The first monophonic release appeared
when the Dukes were virtnally unknown outSide their native New Orleans. After Audio
Fidelity spread the group's fame far and
wide, a reissue was placed on the market and
is still in the catalogue. The recording reunites clarinetist Pete Fountain with the
Assunto brothers, Frank on trumpet and Fred
on trombone. All three started out as members
of the Junior Dixieland Band which won a
Horace Heidt amateur contest in 1947, but
nearly a decade went by before this session
brought them together again on snch dixieland favorites as At The Jazz Band Ball,
Tiger Rag, and Tin Roof Blue8.
The stereo r efurbishing is highly success·
ful, mainly because no attempt was made to
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
do the impossible and match t he extreme
dynamics and frequency respon se of the
Audio Fidelity series. The soloists receive
more elbow room a nd a r e heard wi th greater
presence, a factor especially beneficial to
Fountain's liquid tone. The engineers a lso
u se the extra space to give the sextet a better balance t h an before.
Joan Baez, Volume 2
VanguoClrd Stereo VSD2097
Enough critical praise descended u pon J oan
Baez's first collection of folk songs t o turn t h e
head of any girl of twenty. Wisdom beyon d
such tender years steadied her debut, and as
yet she shows no inclin ation to rest on her
laurels or branch out into t he field of television commercials. Eith er pr ospect migh t
seem appealing to a young performer h ailed
as near perfect, but the second volume Indica tes con tin u.e d developmen t on the part
of Miss Baez, who apparently believes she
can learn a lot more about the a rt of folk
singing. One example of a n expanding r epertoires Invol ves a pleasant jour n ey to t h e
French court of a century and a half ago fo r
Mar tini II Tedesco's Plaisir d' Amour. Miss
Baez refuses to become a min ion of t h e
ldng through and a wandering troubadour of
even longer lineage migh t be singing.
The knack of mailing British broadside
ballads sound as fresh and alive as when
they first reached this country is one of Miss
Baez's strong points, and she demonstrates
her skill again on Lily at The West, Barba"a
Allen, an d The Cherry Tree Carol. Her grasp
of native country styles attains a new depth
of perception, and she succeeds in piercing the
thick layer of commerCialism which encrusts
so much of this ' music. A brief exploration
of the bluegrass tradition enlists the Greenbriar Boys as guides on Banks OJ The OhiO,
and Pal OJ Mine. John Herald, Ralph Rinzler
and Bob Yellin combine to achieve a fine
group sound, in stereo, while avoiding the
slick, mechanical twang of the profeSSionals.
The singer's own guitar accompaniments are
a lso Incr easingly varied in scope, and she
beats the Nashville crowd of amplified wonders at their own game on Engine 11,3, and
ala Blue. In fact, the sales of these two
numbers might cause some excitement in the
bastion of country music, if Vanguard decided upon the release of a single and reach ed
the right audience. T his is the sort of country singing and playing Nashville has for gotten about. Chet Atkins, audiophlles, and
a ll "good doggies" will prick up their ears
at the dynamics unleashed to call Olrt Blue.
The Journeymen: Introducing The Journeymen
Capitol Stereo 511929
Fran k Werber, the man wh o promoted the
Kingston T r io before anyone thought three
college boys singing foll' material could sell
records, has taken another trio under his
managerial wing and predicts it will have
a marvelous fu tu r e. Distinctions between the
two coasts have l argely disappeared in jazz,
but the Jou rneymen's dehut indicates that
any slight differences between the two
groups exist because t he Kingstons hail
from Stanford, whlle the new bunch got
underway at New York's F oll, City only a
few months ago . Scott McKenzie, who star ted
singing with pop groups, is lead tenor and
soloist, as well as being the trio's pin-up
per sonality. John Phillips, leader and banjoist, collaborates with guitarist Dick Weissman on the special arrangements needed to
catch t h e ears of t he college crowd. M ake
Me A Pallet, originally a s inful lamea t, n ow
sounds 1IJ<e a cheerful plea from one fraternity brother to another for overn ight
KLH has introduced a new speaker
system - the Model Ten.
We believe the Model T en will serve
as a new standard of value among
speaker systems - a standard beyond
which advance for some time will be
so difficult as to appear impossible. In
the light of known technology , nothing
furth er can be done to lower any
costs without serious losses in performanc e. This performance cannot be
improved without sharply increased
costs.
KLH is qualified to make these statements, because we are the only manufa cturer of loudspeaker systems in the
United States who make in our own
factory every part that in any way
affects the performance of one of our
products. We make the tools, the
machines and the instruments that
make and t est the parts.
This is why we can guarantee - as
no other maker can - that any two
systems of a given model (Model T en
included) will match within +1 ~ db ,
octave by octave and note by note,
throughout their frequency range.
D escripti ve literature, with the name of
your nearest franchised KLH dealer,
is available on request.
AUDIO •
JANUARY, 1962
57
NEW!
THE
AUDIOGUIDE
Featuring
Gene Krupa: Percussion King
Verve VSTC260 (4-track stereo tape)
AUDIO's own Dave Saslaw and Edward Tatnall Canby-a complete compilation of the FM-Stereo articles in the June, July, and August issues.
A percussion extravaganza from the man
who insisted on using a bass drum in 1927
at his studio debut is long overdue, and Gene
Krupa reigns at last over concert bass drum ,
seven asso rted tympani, African rope drum,
or an y other wham able objects his heart desires. Bass dr ums were barred from recording sessions before Krupa broke the sound
barrie r on Okeh with the McKenzie-Co ndon
Chicagoans, but the drummer can scarcely be
blamed for all the thumps that have resulted since. Of course, his booking agency
once outfitted the entire band with lighted
sticks and small Tom Toms for stage shows.
This time Krupa heads a legitimate percussion section composed of Mousey Alexander
and Joe Venuto, two successor s to his post
with Benny Goodman, as well as Doug Allen,
a Juillia rd gr a duate. They all came under
Krupa's influence during the swing era, and
the ability to tell them apart requires more
than stereo separation.
George Williams, who wrote arrangements
for Krupa when the lights played in darl,ened
movie palaces, is baclr with revised copies of
'Va l se T1"iste, and The Galloping Oon,edians.
William s also shines the bright spotlight of
swinging st ereo on s uch old warhorses as
American Bole1'o, Meadowland, and Sabre
Dance. The prancing drummers set a merry
pace for Doc Severinson, Ernie Royal, Urbie
Green, Billy Byers and Toots Mondello, but
the fu ll company of twenty depends upon
bassist Milt Hinton to r emember the beat.
The most exciting passages occur when the
drummers work ad-lib, and Krupa is, in his
own words, "feeling and playing as one mind
controlling eight a rms. Not a centipede, but a
percu8sion section. Each drummer depends
on the other s to blend rhythm s and sou nds,
creating a n ew pulse and excitement."
Everyone remains fairly serious until the
concluding Poet and Peasant Overture, which
turns into a rou t as the whole percussion
craze is unmercifully kidded. Krupa should
look up Malcolm Arnold's score of the first
film a bout Ronald Searle's girls of St. Trinians. When the four drummers are all going
at once, only four-track stereo tape can contain their enthusiasm.
PART
Larry Elgart: The Shape Of Sounds To
Come
MGM STC3896 (4-track stereo tape)
FM-STEREO
.. Eight complete articles about
--
1961-1961
PRODU t1
the most exciting development
since the beginning of high
fidelity . .. written by the
men who worked behind the scenes to
make FM STEREO
PRf.'l\f,'IJ
possible
$1.00 postpaid*
(Approximate ly 160 pages)
HERE'S WHAT YOU CET FOR ONLY $1.00
PART
I_Eight articles with complete schematics and descriptive data by
such authorities as Antal Csicsatka and Robert M. Linz of Gen-
eral Elect ric Co., Daniel R. von Recklinghausen of H. H. Scott, Inc., Fred Mergner of Fisher Radio Corporation, leonard Feldman of Crosby Electronics, Inc.,
Carl G. Eilers 'of Zenith Radio Corporation, Norman H. Crowhurst, and
II_A complete "Buyers Guide" to all of the newest h igh fideli ty
prpducts, some yet to be unve iled at the 1961 New York High
Fidelity Music Show. Truly the most complete directory of FM-Stereo and
components, with all specifications and prices.
-----------------------------------AUDIO,
Dept. AG-2,
P. O. Box 629,
Mineola, New York.
Enclosed is $ .. .... ..... .... , please send me postpaid - .. .......... copies of the new AUDIOGUIDE.
Name
............................................................................................................................................
Address
......•.................................................................................................................................
City ...... ......... ........ ... ........... .. .... ........... .. ...... ..
Zone .. .. ...... ..
State .... .... .. .... .. ....... .. ....... ....... .
· Sent postpaid in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Please add 25¢ for foreign orders.
58
lodging after the big game. The boys a lso
make up their own fo lk legends, with Phill ips
supplying the lyrics on 5 00 Miles, Oh ase The
Rising Su.n, a nd Ride, Ride, Ride. Now embarked on a college tour, the trio is bou nd to
find a ready welcome and a pallet on the
floor at a ny camp us in the land. Th e next
t ime Capitol engineer 's u se a hound's bay on
Oumberland Mount a'in Deer Ohas e, they might
test t he result on a deer, or at least a real
live hound.
At a time when even Ted H eath is making
stereo spectacula rs, L arr y E lgart clings to
the belief that the sounds to come will assume a saner and more natural shape. "Our
goal is to achieve realism," he says. "The
major part of the r ecording industry h as
been going the other way. You can strive to
make something larger than life and not be
inter ested in the original material, or you
can use science and electronic skiJJs to recreate the original material with authenticity."
As far as Elgart is concerned, the most
n a tural sound in the world is a big band
playing for dancers or at concerts. Every
effort is expended to achieve the same effect
in a studio, and the dozen tunes r ecorded
h ere show that E lgart's view of the futur e
excludes interplanetary echo and rocketing
stereo. The band's staff arrangers are imaginative enough at present to activate the
senses a urally while keeping both feet on the
ground. In fact, E lgart thinks standing to
r ecord helps the band's breathing and improves the sound. John Mur taugh , Marty
Holmes, BiJJ Finegan and L ew Gluckin supply the blueprints for building a firm foundation, while Bobby Scott sets it shaking with
his lively original Arkan8as HolZer. The
rhythm section is one of the best in the busi-
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
ness, a nd fo ur-track stereo tape does it full
justice. Ray Hall and Don Miller engineered
the date under the supervision of Mrs. E lgart,
whose feminine ear is golden enough to det ect a ny deviation from h er husband's Idea
of how t he band sho uld sound.
MONO
Joe Newman : Good 'N' Groovy
Prestige/Swingville 2019
If jazz writers often devote more attention
to new discoveries than to established players like J oe Newman, it is because r eleases
such as this should need no recommendation.
After holding a t rumpet chair in the Basie
ban d since 1952, Newman is now leading his
own quintet in clubs, with one eye open fo r
the ol'l'er of a European tour. The group was
still in the formative stage when this session was held, a nd the only r egular member
to appear is Billy English, who deserted the
drum post In the house band a t the Apollo
Th eatr e to join up. Frank Foster, tenor sax,
and bassist Eddie Jones were borrowed from
Basie, and the a lways adaptable Tommy
Flanagan fills in on piano. Newman takes full
advantages of the chance h e never h a d with
Basie to spend some time with Neal H efti's
Li'! Darlin', the number which draws the
most requests from club patrons. The other
stan dard is JU8t Squeeze Me, and four choice
originals complete the set. Foster a lso enjoys
the outing, and no admirer of Basie splinter
groups can afford to pass this one by.
.lIE
EQUIPMENT PROFILE
(fl· om page 44)
which holds th em together. The result is
th at we can record stereo by the European
method (mikes together-axes 90 deg.
apart ) or the separate mike method frequently used in this country. An intelligent arrangement which allows a great deal
of flexibility on the part of the user.
l'he drive method for the Magnetophon
97 was obviously designed to minimize· extraneous vibration. First of all the husky
drive motor is shock-mounted to the main
plate. Secondly the motor spindle drives
the speed-change idler by means of a liat
belt. The speed-change idler in turn drives
a rubber-faced idler which then drives the
capst an flywheel. The rubber-faced idler
contacts the drive idler and flywheel only
during record or playback. We noted that
the capstan bearing is quite good; after
the power was shut off the flywheel continued to rotate for almost a minute. The
t ake up r eel is driven by a flat belt from
the capstan, the belt being tensioned by a
spring-loaded roller only when the tape is
driven.
Tape handling is excellent because of an
unu sually good braking system and the use
of t ape guides and tape tensioning devices.
Over-all, the mechanism is well designed
and construct ed. On the other hand we
could not say that the amplifier circuitry
was equal in calibre to the mechanism although it certainly is good as the amplifiers
fo und in most home tape recorders.
AmeLux is deli ghted to introduce t he Luxor Magnefon stereo tape recorder
from Sweden. The Luxor faithf ully preser ves the timbre of th e original
in strument ... an oboe sounds like an oboe . .. a clarinet like a clarinet. A
tru ly remarkable hi gh fidelity home music system ... you can see and hear
this machine put through its paces at America's finest audio shops. You'll
be amazed and thoroughly pleased with the performance and value of this
new stereo tape r ecorder as an integrated unit relying on its own built-in
amplifiers and speakers; -or as a compon ent thro ugh an external speaker or
amplifier system. Every detai l, every nuance of music and speech is faithf ully
preserved and rendered back at the touch of a switch . We beli eve that at
$279. (slightly high e1· in th e far west) th is is really a significant discovery.
© 1961 AMELU X ELECTRONICS CORP.
Performance
Using a standard flutter tape, the Telefunken Magnetophon 97 exhibited 0.05 per
cent wow, 0.13 per cent flutter, and 0.15
per cent over -all. The frequency response at
77'2 ips is ± 1.5 db from 30 cps to ~5,000
cps. The signal-to-noise ratio at 7% ips is
52 db.
Clearly this machine performs extremely
well in important areas. In addition it is
well built and designed. It is certainly
worth consider ation by the auc1iofan in
need of a home tape machine.
A-41
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
THE MAGNEFON BY
~[JIJhlrnW
-M OTALA. SWEDEN
Sole U.S. Distributors
r---- - - - ---- -- ---,
I
I
I
:
I
•
•I
I
Al I
Pl e a se write for illustra ted d escriptive
"b rochure
I
I
AmeLux Electronics Corporation
I
60 Ea st 4 2 Street. New York 17, N.Y.
Pl e a se se nd your free b rochu re to
NAME _______________________
ADDRESS ______________________
CITY_ _____ _____STATE,______
AmeLux ELECTRONICS CORPORATION IL ___ ___ __ _______
~
~
60 East 42 Street, New York 17, N. Y.
59
NEW PRODUCTS
• Cre denza. Compon ent Ca.bblets With 'Sel ect-A -Styl&, D oors. Dedicated to the belief
that a high fidelity system should look as
beautiful as it sounds, and offer maximum
convenience for its owner, University has
introduced a complete collection of Credenza component cabinets suitable for any
d ecor .. . easily integrated with other fine
furniture of any period .. . featuring furniture-styled doors that can be removed
and replaced with differently styled doors
in seconds. This means-should one ever
wish to redecora t e . .. there is no need to
buy a new component cabine t or to move
it to another room-one simply replaces
the inexpensive doors! Originally developed to complement the University Medallion XII Speaker System, the wide' variety
of Credenza styles enable them to match
virtually any compact speaker system.
Utilizing fine hardwoods an d veneers, Credenza cab inets and doors are availab le in
tridges, features a channel separation of
better than 25 db from 1000 to 10,000 cps,
an d excellent characteristics to 15,000 cps
and beyond. The Mumetal shielding a nd
high output (10 mv at 5 cm / sec) completely eliminates hum. The STS-220 is
merchandised in a presentati on case which
includes the cartridge with diamond 0.7
mil stylus mounted, plus a n extra diamona
stylus, for the a udiophile price of $34.50.
The extra diamond stylus n ot only guara ntees a factory built replacement available to the user when his original needle is
worn, but also provid es continuous listening pleasure, should it b e d esirable to
check the original needle. The Stereotwin
line of cartridges are distributed by the
Benjamin Electronic Sound Corporation,
97-03 43rd Avenue, Corona 68, New York,
exclusive importers of ELAC products.
A-34
• I'M T uner-Amplifie,r K it. The P ACO
Model ST- 26 tuner-amplifier kit features
a self-contained a nd prealigned f ront end
which simplifies con stru c tion a nd ensures
good performance . The circuit features a
wide-b a nd r atio detector and a utomatic
gain control as well as switchable automatic frequency control. IHFM sensitivity
is stated to be 4 I1V. A "magic eye" type
of tuning indicator is provided, a nd the
t u ning is aided by flywhe el action. The
audio amplifier section of the ST-26 contains a switched phono input (for ceramic
cartridge) which permits the unit to be
the center of an inexpensive music system. The ST-26 is available with either a
metal or wooden enclosure. P ACO Electronics Co., Glendale 27, N. Y.
A-3S
the fo llowing furniture styles a nd finishes:
Italian Provincial, French Provincial,
Swedish Modern, and Colonia l-in Walnut,
Oiled Walnut and Fruitwood. Over-all dimension : 36-in. wide x 29~-in. high x 1 9-in.
deep. Tuner and amplifier interior dimensions: 18',i, -in. wide x 12%-in. high x 15%in. deep. The Medallion Credenza Cabinet
is priced at $179.95 with you r choice of
decor doors. Additional doors $42.00. University L oudspeakers, Inc., 80 So. Kensico
Ave., White Plains, N. Y.
A-33
Model 12 50 w hich is an unmounted deck;
the Model 1260 (shown) which is portable;
and the Model 1270 which is a porta bl e
model with built-in pairs of amplifierspeakers. Prices range from $499.50645.00. Ampex Audio Co., Sunnyvale, Calif.
A-36
• Pick u p Sy s tem. A new pickup system
that is said to track at 0/., gram has been
introduced by Audio Dynamics Corp.
Named the Pritchard, the n ew system
combines the ADC-1 stereo cartridge with
a b a la nced tone a rm thus e liminating the
problem of m atching a highly compliant
cartridge with the correct tone a rm. Features of the system include a side-thrust
compensator (anti-skating), a heavy counterweight that occupies very little space
behind the pivot, and a plug-in head which
accommo dates other cartridges. The tone
arm is fabricated from walnut wood an d
is available separately for those who already own the ADC-l or other highly compliant cartridge. Price of the Pritchard
Pickup System, Model ADC-85, is $85;
price of the tone a rm, Model ADC- 40, is
$39. 50. Audio Dynamics Corp., Ridgewood
27, N. Y.
A -37
• Au di<> Equa.lizer. A unique professiona l
audio equ alizer, designed for use in the
recording, broadcast, acoustical measurement, and electronic music fields, has b een
made available by Gotham Audio Corp.
The Gotham EQ-1000 Universal Equalizer
combines a lmost every conceivable function of frequency discrimination without
• 4-Track Ta.pe Rec<>rder Series . The new
Ampex 1200 Series 4-track stereo a nd
mono tape recorder/player features three
newly designe d heads. A new tape tracking and guidance system has also b een
incorporated in the 1200 Series. The com bination of narrow-channel heads, fitted
shielding between channels, a nd other n ew
techniques have been incorporate d to h elp
eliminate reverse-channel cross-talk and
improve the s ignal-to-noise ratio. The
the use of a single inductively tuned circuit. Instead it utilizes a building-block
assembly of RC circuits which provides
band- pass and band-reject functions with
slopes as high as 24 db per octave while
confining distortion levels to below 0.7
per cent tota l rms at an output level of
+ 18 dbm. 50 pushbuttons and 11 selector
switches make it possible to recreate any
settin g. Complete engineering specifications are available. Gotham Audio Corp.,
New York 36, N. Y.
A-3S
• St&reo Ca.rtridge. The Stereotwin STS220 is a new stereo cartridge for the reproduction of both stereo and monophonic
records. This cartridge, t h e latest of the
Stereotwin line of moving magnet car-
• Books h elf Spea.k er System. Featuring
low price and modest size, the new Wilder
Engineering Products "Playmate" speaker
system costs $39.75 and measures 10 x
18 x 8. The enclosure is finished on four
sides in walnut-finish veneer. It is
1200 Series r ecords 4-track stereo and
mono, a nd p lays back 2- and 4-track stereo
and 4-track mono. Speeds are 3
and 7 %
ips. A master selector switch permits centralized control of stereo or mono modes,
choice of a n individual track, sound-onsound recording, and a utomatic s hutoff
of both the motor and the electronics or
either individua !JY. The new erase head
permits separate erasure of each of the
4 tracks. The 1200 S eries consists of the-
*
60
eq uipped with a 6-in. woofer, a 6-in. midrange, and a 4-in. tweeter. A suitable
crossover is included. Impedance is 8-16
ohms. Frequency range is claimed to be
40 cps to 18,000 cps. Wilder Engineering
Products, Chicago 14, Ill.
A-39
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, .-1 962
Richard L. Kaye, Station Manager of WCRB, using Scott Multiplex Tuner for station monitoring.
~~ ... Outstanding
stereo reception ... Scott
surpassed our greatest expectations ..."
Here's What Happy Owners Say:
FM Station WCRB, Boston's leading good music station, has been
broadcasting in multiplex for several months. During this period they
have had the opportunity to evaluate many multiplex tuners and adaptors, Here's what they say:
"This letter is to let you know how pleased all of us at WCRB are with
the H. H . Scott Multiplex Adaptor Model 335 and the H. H. Scott
Multiplex Tuner Model 350. The Scott multiplex tuner and adaptor
have surpassed our greatest expectations. They give outstanding stereo
reception. The stereo separation, frequency response and low distortion
-U/J L. ;((v<E
have proven outstanding."
Rict
Man~
Station
Many leading FM stations have chosen Scott for use in their monitoring
and testing facilities. If you, too, want the finest multiplex equipment
... choose H. H. Scott.
350 FM Stereo IMultiplex) Tuner Scott's widely
acclaimed 350 FM Stereo Tuner has the multiplex
circuitry built right in . You can use it to receive
either FM stereo or regular monophonic FM broad·
casts. Scott's Wide· Band design and unique silver·
plated front end assure fine reception without
distortion , drift, noise or loss of stereo separation.
IHFM sensitivity is 2.5 /JoV and stereo separation
can match exacting FCC transmission specifications.
Exclusive filtering circuits on the 350 and all Scott
multiplex units permit flawless results when used
with any tape recorder. $199.95'
335 FM Stereo IMultlptex) Adaptor You can
instantly convert any Scott tuner, rega rdless of age
or model, to multiplex with the 335 FM Stereo
Adaptor. The combination of the 335 and your
Scott tuner offers the same fle xibility and tape
recording features ~s the 350 FM Stereo Tuner.
Optimum performance can be guaranteed only
when a Scott tuner and the 335 are used together.
$99.95
"Muttiplex comes in beautifully with 350 Tuner. I've
heard stereo before, but never like this."
Kazunori Yonekura, Castro Valley. California
"I a m 50 miles from transmitter and get perfect reception with ju~t my TV antenna. I ha d (competing brand)
multiplex but it didn't work."
John Flower, Concord, California
" ... Here in Newburgh I am 100 miles from WGFM .
I receive them every evening from 8 to 9 PM .... My
hi-fi equipment is all H. H. Scott. My 3lOC tuner is 21
months old and has had no maintenan ce ... not even
t ube replacement. My 272 Amplifier and 335 Mul t iplex
Adaptor have been trouble-free. Your quality control
must be nearly perfect. In my opinion you offer the
finest hi-fi components than can be purchased."
Walter L. Bachman, Newburgh, New York
"Finest separation I ever heard."
D aniel M. l¥olje, Jr., San Francisco, California
"All other equipmen t is H . H. Scott. R eception 40 miles
from station is very good."
W. A. Moss, Mountain View, California
"KPEN stereo terrific on Command R ecords - perfect
channel separation."
L. V. Steel e, B elmont, California
H. H. SCOTT INC., DEPT. 035-01
111 Powdermill Rd., Maynard, Mass.
'Rush me your new Guide to Custom Stereo and complete
information on Scott FM stereo tuners and adaptors.
Name . . . . . . . . . ... .... . . ........ .. ...... ....... .. . .
Address .. ........ . . ....... .. ....... . ..•......•.....•
City . ..... .......... ...... State .... ... ........... .. .
Export: Morhan Exporting Corp., 458 Broadway, N.Y.C.
Canada: Atlas Radio Corp., 50 Wingold Ave., Toronto:
-Prices slightly higher West of Rockies
THIS MONTH'S COVER
UMPas a string!
QUIET as a
1
MICROPHONE
BOOM CABLE
Flexibility is one of the first require~
ments of a microphone cable-particularly when it is used on a mike boom.
Lenz Microphone Boom Cable offers
you the maximum in flexibility-it's as
limp as a piece of twine!
Along with its extreme flexibility, it is
quiet! Twist it into a knot, there's not
t he slightest noise to mar the sound
track.
Because it is designed for the job, this
is the perfect mike cable.
Made in 3 to 7 conductor types to suit
any mike.
Lenz also manufactures "Multiplex"
Double Channel Audio Cable for stereo
broadcast receivers, Hyanode High
Voltage Lead Wire, Cables for Public
Address Systems and other similar
cables for special applications.
Write today for complete details and
sample of Lenz Microphone Boom Cable.
LENZ ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO.
1752 No. Western Ave., Chicago 47, Illinois
IN BUSINESS SINCE 1904
62
Proving that home music systems can
have more uses thau one, this lovely decorator-styled cabinet hou ses most of the
necessities for a pleasant, r elaxing, a nd
convivial evening. Beginning with the
built-in bar, the owner h as made extremely
clever use of the space below it which could
conceivably house more bottle storage
space, a refrigerator, or possibly a sink.
He chose, however, to build his hi-il. installation into this area.
The equipment consists of a Fisher
Model100-R stereo AM-FM tuner, a Fisher
X-202 stereo control amplifier, and two
Fisher Model XP-2 speaker systems, all of
which are visible, and a Garra rd Type A
Automatic Turntable equipped with an
Empire Model 108 stereo cartridge, which
are not.
With all of this equipment, space is still
available for the storage of some 150
records.
TEST EQUIPMENT ROUNDUP
(from page 90)
the voltage ratio between them being 4:1.
The output voltage is 10 volts maximum
into a high impedance, or + 5 dbm into a
600-ohm load. The residual intermodulation is 0.2 per cent maximum. The voltage
scale on the analyser provides four full scale r a nges up to 30 volts rms. The intermodulation sca le provides 3, 10, and
30 per cent full scale ranges. Accuracy of
the analyser section is ± 10 per cent of
f ull scale. Price of the Model 31 is $220.00.
Measurements Corp., Boonton, New Jersey.
A-31
VARO
• Flutter Meter. The Varo Model FL-3D
Flutter and Wow Meter is designed for
use in the maintellance, repair, and calibration of record and ta pe-playing systems. It conforms to the standards for
measuring flutter a nd wow, as determin ed
by th e Standa rds Committee of the LR.E.
An interna l oscilla tor provides a 3000 cps
signal for measurement of tape recorders.
The scale ranges are 2 per cent and 0.5
per cent full scale. Rms calibration is provided on sine-wave fl u tter. Accuracy is 10
per cent within bandwidth restrictions.
The bandwidth of the discriminator is
s ufficient to a llow side bands up to 250 cps
to be demodulated with no more than 3
db attenuation with reference to 75 cps.
Front panel terminals are provided for
observing flutter and wow components on
an oscilloscope. A rear apron termina l
provides d.c. to 150 cps output for gra phic
recording. V ARO, Inc., Santa Barbara,
California.
A-32
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Teasers
NORlI1AN H . CROWHURST
Starting in this issue, AUDIO is providing
a new service which many rea ders have
demanded we provide-a department devoted exclusively t o t echnical puzzlers
wherein t he r eader himself can participat e.
To satisfy this demand we have asked Norman Crowhur st to star t the ball rolling by
selecting questions from amongst the many
which audiofans have a ddressed to him.
After a sufficient number of questions have
been submitted by readers, Mr. Crow hurst
will select those which seem to him to be
most appropriat e. To use his own words
here : "So everyone can 'have fun,' we'll mix
them up a bit, using some that advanced
readers will find obvious, and some that
have puzzled the best of us." So that readers can participate, we will pose the quest ions one month and give the answers the
following month. N a turally we want all
readers t o take a crack at answering. T o
spice t hings up a bit, AUDIO will p ay $5.00
f or each question and answer we use. Of
course, since many readers may arrive at
the "correct" answer, the one we use will
be the most complete and intelligent in our
opinion.
Now what types of questions should they
be' Simply stat ed, these questions should
be of the type which puzzle and engage our
intellectual curiosit y- and not t he t ype
which ask about how t o trouble shoot or
select a piece of high fidelity equipment.
Send your questions and answers to AUDIO
T easers, P .O. Box 629, Mineola, L. I., N. Y.
This Month's Questions:
Question l-A volume control is required
on a musical instrument that uses a ceJ'amic pickup. If a load of 250,000 ohms is
used, there is serious loss of bass. To avoid
this, a value of 5 megohms is tried, which
gives satisfactory bass r esponse, but there
is a buzzy t ype of hum except when the
control is either full on, or off. H ow can
such a control be inst alled to avoid either
of t hese troubles~
Question 2-A push-pull output st age in
which t he screens are connected to t appings on the transformer primary is alternatively called "ultra-linea r" or "distributed loa d" connection. ( a ) Why is a 40 per
cent t ap point sometimes refen ed to as 16
per cent loading (for example)' (b ) What
proportion of the total output power would
come f rom t he screens if the fluctuation in
screen current over the a udio cycle is one
tenth that of the plate current in this
connection '
Question 3- An amplifier is originally
built with a triode input stage, and f eedback connect ed from the out put to its
cathode resistor. B ecause more f eedback is
desired, without sacrifice of over-all gain,
a pentode is substituted f or the first stage.
Although the amplifier is still quite stable,
it is now found that the distortion, with
about t wice the f eedback, is great er than
with the triode input stage. Why ' How
could this be remedied without sacrificing
over-all gain or amount of f eedback '
.1E
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
'Jfu: J-Jrwf£MLonai cSElliu
f~ TV CHASSIS
For Hi-Fi or Custom Installations
Designed for the perfectionist seeking maximum performance!
Available in 19", 23", and 27" Sizes
Also available in KIT form which anyone can assemble.
Designed for all types of Custom
Installation, Walls, Bookcases, Cabi·
nets, etc. Complete line of acces·
sories facilitate custom installation.
2
'MPO R TA NT
TY P ES
FOR HI-FI SYSTEM: L ess Audio S ystem, incorporates
a Ca~h ode Follower Circuit for operation into a H i-Fi
Audio System.
Top view of "Professi onal"
Chassis with controls
in horizontal position.
WITH ITS OWN HI-FI AUDIO: Includes its own
Hi-Fi 10 Watt Push-Pull Audio Amplifier and Dual
Hi-F i Speaker system with 6" x 9" spea ker, 6.8 oz.
magnet, 3" tweeter, condenser crossover, extended
ran ge tone control.
OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES: F ront panels fo r h orizontal or vertical mounting of chassis ( $15.). For ease
of servicing, front panel, tube, and chassis can be u ni·
tized with a "Rigidizing" assem bly for sliding out from
front .
Slides included with "Rigidizing" assembly ( $10.).
TECHNICAL FEATURES:
Ultra-lin ear sweep circuits • D-C r estoration • Newest
Standar d Co il Model PKO Automatic T un er with au tomatic
fine t unin g, proviSions fo r UHF • Special low noi se tubes •
5 microvolt sensitivity • 4 megacycle pi cture bandwidt h •
Heavy-d uty du al 5U4G t ran sformer type power supply •
Ruggedi zed constr uction , ha nd-w ired fo r t r ouble-f r ee long
life ' Tru e FM sound Circui ts.
A ll Part8 are premiltm qltalit y. RCA, Sylvania t ubes, AIlenB radley r eSistors, Cornell-Dubilier condensers. A LL P AR T S
GI£amnteed f o,' F ULL YEAR I
Item Size
PRICES : CHASSIS or KITS
Description
ChaSSis
Kit
(Prices include Tubel
No aud io, for use with HI -FI System $263.00 $ 178.00
With HI·FI Aud io incorporated
293.00
194.00
No audio, for use with HI-FI Syste m
268.00
183.00
With HI -FI Au dio incorporat ed
298.00
199.00
No audio, for use wit h HI -FI System
328.00
243.00
With HI -FI Au dio in corporated
358.00
259.00
1 19"
2 19"
3 23"
4 23"
5 27"
6 27"
Picture tubes are the new bonded tubes. T he protective glass
is fused to the tube face improving p iCture contrast, reducing reflections, and eliminating d ust between glass and t ube.
A ll Chassis are completely factory-wi red , carefu lly tested
and rigidly insp ected. This is t he Ch assis selected by t hou sands of sch ool systems and U.S . gove rnmental agen cies
when premium type performance is required .
Chassis can be mounted
" Horizontally" or " Vertically"
Beautiful Cabinets avai lable .
Dealer Inquiries I nvited.
TRANSVISION ElectroniCS, Inc., New Rochelle, N. Y. Dept. A
Pl ease send more information on 0 TV Wired Chassis 0 TV Kit. Enclosed is 0 $2 5 deposit.
Please send' Item NO. _ __ (Chassis or Kitl, balance C.O.D. Enclosed is $ _ _ payment in full
for Item No ..___ • I understand that freight is prepaid when payment is made in full .
Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---Address- - - - - - - - - - - - - City
Zone
State
63
HAROLD LAWRENCE *
A New Look at Gypsy Music and Musicians
in Vienna,
a Gypsy violinist wearing a brocaded
vest and a florid mustache leans over
your plate of stuffed cahbage and gazes
mournfully into your eyes, while his quivering fingers produce wide vibratos and his
bow digs into the fingerboard, grinding out
a cloud of white rosin dust. In the background, the rest of the ensemble (cimba10m, clarinet, and double bass) support the
soloist with an alternately langourous and
frisky accompaniment. In the eyes of the
gajo (or non-Gypsy), this is the real picture of the Gypsy and his music. B ut the
melodies he hears are no more "pure"
Gypsy than the jazz improvisations of the
great Gypsy guitarist, Django Reinhardt.
Ever since they came to Europe from
Asia in the fifteenth century, Gypsies de·
pended for their livelihood on being tolerated by the Europeans. They therefore
studied the gajo carefully, noted his social
characteristics, and learned his music. In
the process of absorbing the local folk
A
T A HUNGARIAN RESTAURANT
TA-12
$49.95 net
* 26 W. 9th St., New Yo1"7_ City 11, N . Y .
song into their repertoire, Gypsy musicians
imbued them with strangely attractive
qualities: the melodic base remained European, but the rich embroidery had a distinctively Eastern flavor; the emotional
content was broadened often to the point
of exaggeration; and the peppery element
of virtuosity t ransformed the essen tially
simple tunes they worked with. So successful were they at dressing up gajo
melodies t hat the Gypsies became what
might be called musical scribes for the
people. During the heyday of the Gypsy
musician ( 17th- 18th centuries) such violinists as Janos Bihari wel·e raised to the
level of court musicians, and Gypsy bands
perfol·med at royal functions, banquets,
and even in military parades. Franz Liszt
was so taken with Gypsy musicians t hat he
cr edited them with having invented HUllgarian music.
In the G1JPSY in Music, Liszt depicted
the Hungarian peasant as a musical illiterate "who seized upon the melodies
which he heard the Gypsies perform, as a
sort of windfal1." In his own backward
$29.95 net
Gypsy in Transylvan i a
p laying
flu te. Photo: Jan
Yoors.
64
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
fashion, he stripped them of their "elaboration" and reduced them to crude little
ditties. G;ypsy instrumental music, on the
. other -hand, Liszt praised "on the score of
a bold originality full of the most noble
sentiment . . . [and] of exquisite completion of a form as beautifully inspired as
it is happily carried out."
Liszt's theory was demolished some 70
years later by Bart6k, who toured the
Hungarian country-side in 1905, collecting
and classifying folk songs. It was not the
Hungarians who incorporated Gypsy melodies into their national music; the Gypsies
were the appropriaters. Worse than this,
Bart6k lamented, the Gypsies were responsible for corrupting the authentic
Hungarian folk songs : "They worked
their own subtle transformations on everything they played." To complete their musical conquest, the Gypsies put :native village
musicians out of work, and virtually took
over the popular music field.
In 1933, Bart6k finally reached the opposite pole from Liszt when he suggested
that there is no authentic Gypsy music
after all.
The truth about Gypsy music, however,
lies neither with Liszt nor with Bart6k.
For what both composers heard was Gypsy
music meant for gajo ears. Even if Bart6k,
who ferreted out hundreds of remote
Balkan folk tunes, had suspected the
Gypsies of withholding their own songs
from him, it would have required much
more than patience and pleading to uncover them.
For authentic Gypsy music is generally
performed only by Gypsies and for Gypsies.
What are the traits of this exclusive music~ Is it a special musical language or
simply a ·variation of sounds familiar to
the gajo? According to Jan Yoors, a Belgian-American tapestry artist, true Gypsy
music departs completely from stereotyped
conceptions. Mr. Yoors is uniquely qualified to speak with authority on the subject.
Paradoxically, he is both a gajo and a
Gypsy. At the age of twelve, he ran away
from home to live with a band of nomadic
Gypsies who were passing by his native
Antwerp. For the next half dozen years,
he spent about six to eight months out of
each year with the Gypsies, who adopted
him as a fullfledged member of their tribe
(the Lowara) when he was thirteen. He
traveled with them throughout Europe and
learned many things, including how to
speak Romany, a complicated language of
Sanskrit derivation containing 53 characters and an eight-case declension. In constant touch with his Gypsy 'relations'
Yoors recently returned from a threemonth trip to Europe and the Middle East,
visiting Gypsy camps and communities.
Yoors points out that there are five main
tribes of nomadic Gypsies: the Lowara,
the Churara, The Kaldarach, the Matchvia,
and the Sinti.
The Sinti conform closest to the popular
image of the musical Gypsy. They are, for
the most part, professional musicians
(Django Reinhardt was a Sinti) . Because
they play for outsiders, they are looked
down upon by the other tribes and have
earned the name, "outcasts." The other
nomads believe that the Sinti have been
corrupted by their contact with the gajos.
The degeneration of their own musical life
seems to bear out this charge; the Sinti
have no private music- their songs and
pieces today have a faded picture-post-card
quality.
Unlike the Sinti, the other tribes do not
manufacture counterfeit Gypsy music, not
even for the gajos. Surprising to report,
they play no musical instruments at all.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
SONATA NO.1
Bookshelf Speaker Without Compromise
• Robust reproduction from an all ·Bozak
system-wi de·ra nge speaker, two tweeters and
cross·over network. Brightness contro l
t o match room acoust ics
• Fine Furniture reflectin g traditional
Bozak wood craftsman ship. Decorator
styled in cert ified wa lnut or mahogany
• The choice of discrimin ati ng mu sic lovers
Full description of all models in our 32·page
bmchure- you rs for the asking
The Very Best in Mus
587 CONN ECTICUT AVE. • SOUTH NORWALK , CONN.
65
fRevoluiionar'1
rrtewi2(9uJs peakeI'
has been put on t he market
MOTIONAL FEEDBACK TYPE 8"
SPEAKER
model MX- 8P
The feedback theo~y, which has been confin ed to a mplifier assem bling, is now exten ded
to the field of loudspea ker engineering.
What would be th e effect of motiona l fee dback on t he spea ker? The most nota ble
effect is a marked improvement in t he t ra nsient response. The e lim inat ion of transient
distort ion results in cleaner sound. Eve n when hea rd with t he naked ea r, a clearer
reproduction of percussion instrum ents is definitely achieved. Mo re ov ~, even when t he
speake r box is smaller t ha n normal size, control of motional fe edback prevents overreverberat ion or over-booming of t he rep roduce d sound . This is why t he motion a l feedback system is considered as being instrumental in bringing about t he second
revolut ionary change in aud io equipment.
OSAKA
ON KYO
c o.,
L T D.
He ad Office: 42, Om iya Nishino.cho 5-chom e, Asahi -ku,
Osaka Japan
Tokyo Branch: 18, Kondo Mitoshiro-ch9, Chiyodo-ku,
Tokyo, Japan
SEARCHING?
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Reactance Loading
Na m e
A dd ress . . . . . . . . . . . . ... •...•••.••. . .. •• •.• . .••..•••.••••• • •• •• •
66
Zone ..•...
is neglecting the effect of any output
stage grid resistors, which admittedly
would modify the result, and must be
reckoned into complete design calculations). With normal load, the input to
the drive stage, to get full output voltage (150 volts swing at cathode and
p late), is 175/ 18=9.73 volts swing.
With the output stage open circuit, the
input to the drive stage needs to be
155/19.5 = 7.95 volts swing. So the overall damping factor is now about 4.5.
This illustrates the principle that feedback can do different things in different
places, and that different factors are
involved, according to what you are calculating, and how the over-all effects
combine. But so far we've assumed the
simple case where, although (1 + .AB)
may have different valu es according to
purpose involved, .AB is always either
positive or negative: no phase angles.
$ ...... .. .
for a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . issue su bsc ription .
City
Their music is strictly vocal, with handclapping being the only 'instrumental' accompaniment. And here's a twist- the
Gypsies hire gajo bands to play for them
at weddings. Gypsy songs are usually sung
on special occasions such as feasts, weddings, or other social celebrations.
Gypsies rarely perform their own songs
for gajos. Yoors once visited a Gypsy
camp accompanied by a gajo and asked
one of the tribe to sing for him and his
friend. Because of the gajo's presence, the
chief whispered to the others, "No Romany
songs!" On another occasion, Y oors assembled a score of nomadic Gypsies in a
recording studio to tape an LP of Gypsy
songs. The Gypsies sang loud and lustily
to the delight of the recording proclncer
and to the chagrin of Mr. Yom's; not one
of the tunes was authentic Gypsy-they
were instead Hungarian, Roumanian, Serbian, Bosnian, and Bulgarian. As soon as
the gajo record producer left the studio,
however, they burst forth into Romany
song.
To hoodwink a recording executive is
one thing, but to mislead a trained musicologist is something else again. Nevertheless this is precisely what has been taking
place at the University of Budapest for
the past several years. Teams of Hungarian
folk-song investigators have been roaming
the countryside recording what they believe
to be authentic Gypsy melodies performed
by authentic Gypsies. A sampling of the
hundreds of tnnes taped indicates that
the University has succeeded in accumulating a formidable collection of nonGypsy songs performed by Gypsies-which
somehow takes us back to Liszt.
Obviously, this is no job for a gajo
song-collector. Jan Yoors, who is writing
a book on the Gypsies, knows hundreds of
Gypsy songs, and plans to record many of
them in the field later this year. Now at
last the elusive music of the nomadic
J£
Gypsies will be brought to light.
State •.........••
Now let's take the case of a typical
feedback amplifier. We'll assume it has
a midband feedback of 14 db, with
normal resistance load, and uses pentode
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
output stage with plate resistance (without feedback) 7 times load value.
The output shunt resistance, without
feedback, is % times the load value
(Fig . 5). Feedback will reduce this by
5:1 (equivalent of 14 db) to 7/40 times
load value. As part of this is still the
actual load, the effective source resistance is 7/33 times load value, or the
damping factor is 33/7 =4.71. The feedback component, LiB) is % of the external input. Assume distortion is 5 per
cent without feedback. So with feedback it will come down to 1 per cent.
For now we'll assume that stability
criteria have been taken care of, and the
amplifier performs satisfactorily (at
least remaining stable) when a loudspeaker is connected. We'll stay strictly
in the range where amplifier phase shifts
and gain changes are negligible. The
phase shifts we'll talk about are not
those that occur at frequency extremities.
These have been discussed before. But
at about 2000 cps (for one p lace) the
loudspeaker's reactance will about equal
its resistance.
With the resistance load, LiB was 4.
With the resistance load removed LiB
would be (1 + 7) times 4, or 32. With a
loudspeaker load whose impedance is
(1 +j1) times nominal value (or 1.414
at 45°), LiB will be 32(1+j1) = 32(9+
8+ j1
65
j7) = 4.43 + j3.45. The factor (1 + AB)
thus becomes 5.43 + j3.45.
Without feedback, the transfer phase
shift into this reactive load will be
7
tan- 1 "9 =38 deg . With feedback, this
tan- 1
7
6
or 49 deg. by then. This means
the in-phase cancellation will be cos 49
deg. or 0.65 times what it was with resistance load. But there will be a sin 49
deg. component in quadrature, about
0.75 times the no-feedback value. So the
1 per cent will jump to almost 4 pel'
cent.
That's the most optimistic case. If
some of the distortion is due to clipping,
that occurs during a relatively short
part of t he fundamental, the phase shift
will mean the feedback "correction signal" will completely miss the original
distortion kink, and will set up another
one in opposition. This will go round
the loop again, repeating the miss, until
the irregularity dies out-or develops
into a parasitic, depending on the stability margin of the amplifier at the
frequency represented by this repeated
transition time.
If you don't believe this happens, set
up an amplifier with a load impedance
consisting of a variable phase load . As
you vary the phase of the output load,
the amplifier will probably go through
a distortion minimum at the point whertl
output and input voltage are precisely
in phase. For other phase loadings on
the output, the feedback holds the overall transfer characteristic to reduced
phase deviation limits. But the loop gain
phasing is upset, so it cannot at the
reduces to tan- 1 :3=5.5 deg.) which is
a considerable improvement.
Without feedback, the output voltage
would rise, from the value into a resist. 4.43 + j3.45
ance load, in the ratlO
4
' or
by a factor of 1.4. With feedback this
4.43 + j3.45 5
rise is held down to 5.43 + j3.45 . 4'
which evaluates to 1.09, also a considerable improvement. In short, this means
the improved damping factor effect is
realized. But what about distortion'
When the feedback was combined precisely antiphase, the distortion was reduced by the gain reduction factor, 5.
But now the feedback meets the input
at a phase angle of 38 deg. to antiphase.
Actually, the feedback is now more than
14 db; it's just over 16 db. Exactly
what happens to the distortion depends
on the exact distortion components and
on the feedback loop gain and phase
shift at those component frequencies.
Remember the loudspeaker impedance
contributes to the phase shift.
First, assume it's practically all second harmonic, which is one extreme
possibility. The loop gain phase angle
is likely to have risen from 38 deg. to
now you too can say:
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your favorite records: many fine firms specially mention their use of Telefunken microphones. Now, from a very wide range, you
can pick the ideal Telefunken microphone.
Whatever your budget, your acoustics, your
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lVame _______________________________________________________
Add ress______________________________________________________
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
_____________________________ J
City
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
Zone__ State
67
HAVE YOU HEARD
DYDaDlic
BealisDI?
THE EXPERTS HAVE ..•
HERE'S WHAT THEY SAY
ABOUT THE
FAIRCHILD
©®M~~~®m~
" / can state frankly that the COMPANDER
works magnificently. The full effect of even
partially restored power must be heard to
be completely appreciated • • • It does
not seem to introduce any distortion or
other effect to reproduction. It will not in
any way degrade the finest equipment. In
conclusion, I can state that having lived
with a COMPANDER for a couple of
months, I could not possibly go back to
listening to music without it in my system.
I am tempted to say everyone should run
out and buy one."
American Record Guide-Larry Zide
..... It [the Compander J makes a welcome
addition to most any system and puts new
life into many recordings which appear to
be dull and monotonous . • • • There is no
doubt that there is considerably greater
realism to reproduction using the
COMPANDER than there is without - the
best way to see this is to listen with
the COMPANDER in the circuit for awhile
and then to switch it out. • • • But for all
general listening, we feel that the
COMPANDER is a satisfying addition to
any good home system."
Audio Magazine
"The COMPANDER is a fresh approach to
this problem [expansion 1 • • • No significant harmonic or 1M distortion could
be detected * • • It did a very effective
iob on orchestral music where 8 db
expansion definitely added to realism."
Electronics World
Audio Test Report
by Hirsch-Houck Laboratories
"In listening tests the expansion proved very
effective on most orchestral music. The
attack was so rapid as to be inaudible
and the decay was usually masked in the
music * * * The compression mode worked
extremely well * * * As an aid to background music, the COMPANDER is hard
to beat. "
HiFi Stereo/Review
FairchUd Compander $75.00
See your dealer for '-a demonstration of
the remarkable Compander. Write for
complete details.
FAIRCHILD
RECORDING EQUIPMENT CORPORATION
l0-40A 45th Ave., Long Island City 1, N. Y.
CIRCLE 68A
68
same time hold down distortion according to formula.
We have simplified the discussion considerably. We assumed the distortion
would not change according to output
loading, which is seldom true, of course.
R eactive loading itself often causes more
severe distortion. This will further aggravate the over-all effect.
We have shown in this case that
there's no guarantee that the same distortion-reducing factor works for all
purposes.
What's the r emedy7 That's another
story. In short it is to calculate quite
specifically what the feedback effects
are for each purpose in hand. In each
calculation there will be a factor 1 + AB.
But it is unlikely to involve the same
circuit elements or parameters for each
purpose considered. So the relevant factors are not the same for each purpose,
except in the very basic algebra.
IE
AUDIOCLINIC
(from page 4)
of mass versus stylus radius. These effects
are still apparent in stereo reproduction.
I would say that most stereo cartridges
will play back monophonic recordings better than the cheaper variety of monophonic
cartridge. However, the sound from these
monophonic cartridges was pleasing to
many people, which fact accounts for their
popularity. Therefore, if you are accustomed to a crisp sound, you may be disappointed in the sound of some stereophonic cartridges because their reduced
mass makes the brightness seem less.
When the mass of a cartridge is suffi·
ciently great, the resonance resulting from
the mass and compliance of the stylus as·
sembly, together with the plastic resonance
of the record, will fall well within the
audio spectrum. The effect of this resonance is to create the crisp sound characteristic of the older, cheaper monophonic
cartridge under discussion. This condition
does not permit a smooth, fiat, treble reo
sponse. The lower the mass of the moving
elements in the cal'tridge, the higher will
be the resonant frequency of the moving
system. A good cartridge will be designed
so that this resonance falls well outside the
audio spectrum.
What constitutes good sound is a matter
of personal opinion. (Remember that hearing is a subjective experience.) Thus, a
comparison of one cartridge to another is
needed before you can reach a definite de·
cision as to the unit you should obtain. For
a method of comparing cartridges, r ead the
answer to the previous question.
As to the matter of stylus radius, the
mass and compliance of a given cartridge
playa large part in the ability of a stylus
with a given radius to perform properly.
In other words, stylus radius cannot be
divorced from the other parameters which
shape cartridge performance. Therefore we
must revert to the same theme-namely,
consider and compare these units as a
whole because they will function in this
IE
manner in your living room.
qeathe'L~ ..£"le
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HEADPHONE
Available in both monaural and stereo types, in a
large variety of impedances, thi s new addition to
the world renowned PERMOFLUX dynamic head·
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*
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Rugged sturdy construction
Close .coupling to ears
Soft comfortable earcushions (washable)
At popular prices
With or without boom mounted microphones.
Re commended for languoge laboratories, audio·
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Write for further details.
PERMOFLUX CORPORATION
P.O. Box 1449, Clendale, California
Circle 68B
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KEY
ELECTRONICS CO.
120 LIBERTY ST.
NEW YORK 6, N.Y.
Circle 68C
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
FILTERLESS METHOD
(from page 38)
(f(t)S(t)) composite signals are (L + R)
analysis. (L + R) and - (+ R) are availand (L-R) respectively, so that the L able at the plate and cathode of V u ,
and R channels may be obtained from respectively, and these component s are
these by the matrixing process :
added to the output of V 2B in a resistive
matrix.
De-emphasis is accomplished at
(L + R) + ( L - R) = 2L
the matrixing points. Matrixing (L + R)
(L+R) - (L - R) =2R.
and - (L+R) with (L-R) produces
An Example
the outputs Land - R. A phase inverter
The Eico MX-99 adaptor operates on (VSA.) in one channel restores proper
the principles set forth in the preceding phase relations in the output signals,
discussion. s (See Fig. 8.) There are no thus making the unit compatible with
filters in the signal path before the point other stereo equipment (tape decks, etc.)
at which the actual channel separation with respect to speaker phasing.
is effected. Circuit operation is as folChannel separation is controlled by
varying the amount of (L - R) signal
lows:
The composite stereo signal as re- which is injected into the matrix. This
ceived from the ratio detector is ampli- is effected by a gain control in the grid
fied by VIA' In order not to alter the of V 2B • The output signal level under
performance of the ratio detector, the the condition of optimum separation is
input impedance of this stage is made thus determined by the direct (L + R)
exceptionally high.
component and is virtually independent
The 19,000-cps pilot signal is isolated of the phase of the reinjected carrier.
and amplified by V • . Frequency dou- An error in the phase of the injected
bling is accomplished by a full-wave carrier will simply require a higher setrectifier at the p late of V.] and the ting of the separation control to achieve
38,000-cps signal thus obtained is used the same output amplitude and channel
to synchronize a 38,000-cps p ush-pull separation that would be obtained under
oscillator (V 5 ) which drives a ring mod- the optimum carrier phase condition.
ulator. In addition to a strong 38,000-cps
Note that the demodulator is of the
component, the full-wave rectifier deliv- balanced type so that the potentially
ers a negative d.c. voltage when the troublesome 38,OOO-cps carrier does not
19,000-cps pilot carrier is received. This appear in the adaptor output. The presd.c. voltage is used to cut off switching ence of this signal might conceivably intube V 1B] and thus ignite the neon pilot troduce beat notes with tape recorder
light, indicating that a stereo broadcast bias oscillators.
is in progress. VIA also delivers the amCathode follower outputs (V sB, 0) are
plified composite stereo signal to the provided in each channel and filtering of
grid of a split load phase inverter (V 2 A.)' the output wave forms are effected in
VfA. provides two outp uts which differ these stages. F iltering attenuates the
in phase by 180 deg. and which are alter- high frequency components which are
nately sampled by the ring modulator at introduced in the demodulation process,
a 38,000-cps rate. The two sampled out- and which, while substantially attenuputs are added and amplified by V 2B ' ated by the de-emphasis networks, may
Adding the alternately sampled out-of- become objectionable in tape recording.
phase signals effectively produces an In addition, the filters are designed to
output which is the input signal multi- remove the 19,000-cps pilot signal which
plied by a 38,000-cps switching function is usually present to a noticeable degree
of zero average value and odd symmetry. in the output signals.
The audible portion of this signal is
The adaptor is capable of handling
( L - R), as explained in the spectrum
peak signals of 2.5 volts rms, and of pro3 Eico has applied for a patent to cover
viding an essentially flat separation of at
thi s circuit. Information contained in this
article is supplied without prejudice to least 30db over the entire audio spectrum.
1£
Eico's patent rights.
RECORD REVUE
(from page 53)
dozens of playings available, and so too with
"The Flight of a Bumble Bee." Nothing very
exclusive about thi8 music-making. T h at's just
the s tandard Capitol plug fo r Duopbonlc; but
it does leave the question open as to why
these mono recordings should be done over
In to pseudo-stereo.
I don't think It's hard to answer. Duoph onic really wor ks, as a lready suggested in
this column. It does, Indeed, add the n ecessary spread to a mono recording so that it
sounds clearly bigger, wider, more naturally
placed, as heard on a ster eo system. And this
without too-noticeable artificiality.
So- why not bring out any old mono ma-
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
terlal that sells consistently? Classical mood
music, background music, has a way of selling
and selling. Might as well refurbish an item
I!ke this, and surely no pOint going to the
enormous expense of doing the whole thing
over again in "genyoolne" stereo.
I don't suppose the Hollywood Bowl players
are ver y happy- they would prefer the true
stereo product, with Its attendant union-scale
pay for a nice, juicy new recording session.
But the majority of mood-background listen er s
would never notice the difference, since these
are per fectly good hi-fi recordings, technically
up to date except for stereo. So, you see,
Capitol is being very practical.
.l'E
~~(f}][email protected]
il~'
nm ilW
'llillM:1'lli
@@~ITIl~
[email protected]®@Ir~
[email protected]@
®DM:illfi~
[email protected] 'UillD,@fhr
'lli~J])@
[email protected]®@[email protected]@Irooo
P eople actively engaged in the musical
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the Norelco Continental is k llown as the ·Philips' .
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"the best of AU 0 10"
No. 120
No. 124
A new compendium of AU.Dla knowledge.
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No.115
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Prepared and edited by C. G. McProud,
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TAPE RECORDERS AND TAPE RECORDING
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SAVE
TOTAL VALUE OF ALL FOUR BOOKS $10.40
Your cost ONLY $5.00 POSTPAID
This oHer expires March 31, 1962
Cood only on direct order to Publisher
CIRCLE 05200
$5.40
AUDIO Bookshelf
RADIO MAGAZINES, INC.,
P.O. Box 629, MineolCl, New York
Please send me the books I have circled below, I am e n c losing the
full remittance of $________________ (No C .O.D. or billing.)
All U.S.A. and CANADIAN orders shipped postpa id. Add 50¢ for Foreign orders
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BOOKS:
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AD ORES S_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
CITY_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ZON~STAT ...
E _ _ _ _ _ __
A.C. Voltmeters
MEASURING EQUIPMENT
(from page 22)
plates deflect the electron stream. The
pail' of plates that are placed horizontally deflect the electron stream vertically toward the more positive of the
two plates. The pair of plates placed
vertically provide the equivalent horizontal deflection. The electron stream
hits the screen, causing the fluorescent
material to glow. Under proper conditions, the waveshapes applied to the deflection plates will appear on the screen.
The amount of deflection on the screen
is determined by the sensitivity of the
cathode ray tube. This is usually stated
in inches or centimeters of deflection per
volt. The sensitivity of the 'scope can be
increased by providing voltage amplification. Amplifiers employed in a 'scope
useful in audio testing procedures must
provide linear response from d.c. to
about 500,000 cps, respond faithfully to
square waveforms, and present no phase
shift over much of the range. The sensitivity should be great enough to show
the hum components present in a p iece
of audio equipment-IO millivolts per
inch should be satisfactory sensitivity
after amplification.
The vertical amplifier is the more critical of the two although the horizontal
amplifier must also be undistorted and of
wide frequency range. The horizontal
amplifier need not have flat response at
the extremes.
To display a two-dimensional signal
on the screen, a varying voltage must be
applied to the horizontal as well as to
the vertical plates. A sawtooth signal
is applied to the horizontal amplifier so
that the vertically applied signal may
be swept across the screen. This sawtooth
must be linear and variable to about
100,000 cps to be capable of displaying
any signal significant in audio tests.
In general, a good 'scope has a thin
bright trace, the sweep oscillator is easy
to synchronize with the incoming signal,
and will usually provide a signal of
known amplitude to enable easy calibration of the screen in volts per inch of
deflection.
Variations have appeared by the
dozens. One of the most useful is the
dual trace 'scope for displaying two signals at one time. This is particularly applicable in stereo tests.
.
This dual trace 'scope usually has a
self-contained multivibrator in the form
of an electronic switch. It alternately
sweeps two signals applied at the input
and displays them in sequence on the
screen. The persistence of the fluorescent
material makes it appear as if both
traces are being viewed simultaneously
at different vertical positions on the face
of the cathode ray tube.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
The a.c. voltmeter was mentioned
throughout this discussion in several different applications. It is the basic instrument in any test setup. All available
a.c. voltmeters . fall roughly into two
groups.
.
The most common type consists of a
wide band a.c. amplifier. The output
from the amplifier is rectified and fed
to a d.c. meter movement. Although these
meters are calibrated in sinusoidal rms
voltage, they are actually sensitive to
the average values.
A second, and less expensive, type
peak rectifies the signal. The resulting
d.c. voltage is then fed to a d.c. amplifier or bridge. Once again, the scale is
calibrated in rms, but this time the unit
is sensitive to peaks. A variation of this
is the peak-to-peak reading voltmeter.
Both units are useful in the laboratory. The latter types are relatively insensitive and are frequently incorporated as a portion of a general VTVM
used for checking d.c. voltages and r esistance along with the a.c. ranges.
The former type usually consists of
several amplifier stages. Feedback is
provided through the meter circuit,
around all of these stages. This contributes considerably to stability, linearity, and wide frequency range. The
power supplies must be well regulated
to avoid reading variations due to line
voltage fluctuations.
The second type of meter can also
have many variations. One form of peak
reading meter circuit is shown in Fig,
10. Here, the applied voltage is rectified
and the 60-cps ripple passes through the
resistor, R, during positive portions of
the cycle. The capacitor, G, smoothes out
this ripple, so that only the p eaks remain. This may be used as the rectifying
circuit for the a.c. ranges and can be
included as part of any d.c. VTVM.
The peak-to-peak reading meter is
most useful in audio work. A circuit of
this type appears in Fig. 11. The operation is fairly obvious. During the positive half cycle, diode D I conducts, and a
d.c. voltage is built up on G1) as shown,
Dming the negative half cycle, the negative portion of the cycle is added to the
voltage across GI ) through D 2 • The sum
of these appear across G2 and R . These
are in turn fed to the d.c. meter.
The meter movement can be designed
into a d.c. amplifier bridge circuit as
shown in Fig. 12. When the cmrent
through both tubes is equal, the meter
reads zero. The currents are adjusted
by varying resistor R in the cathodes.
This resistor adjusts the relative bias on
the two tubes and consequently the relative p late (or cathode) currents. Once
adjusted, an unknown d.c. input signal
upsets the bias on the first triode only,
resulting in a deflection of the meter.
Both types of meters are useful. The
the new
Miracord
is both
Here's the best of two
worlds in one exciting
package . . . the all·new
Miracord automatic turntable and record changer.
Enjoy perfect record reproduction only a professional turntable and tone
arm offers ... or the convenience of uninterrupted
music, hours on end.
Choose either model: the
STUDIO H with hysteresis
synchronous motor$99.50; or the STUDIO
with heavy-duty, shaded
4-pole motor - $79.95.
For complete info'rmation w1'ite:
~C~W !~o!l'J
Dept. A 1/ 62 -9r-03 43d
Ave., Corona 68, N.Y.
71
~
SONOVOX
average reading type is usually more accurate and more stable, and should be
used for monitoring the input and output. The peak-to-peak reading type is
useful to measure peak amplifier outputs (to be discussed in the future).
One note of caution. Ordinary YOM's
are frequently provided with a.c, scales.
The rectifiers used on these units commonly prevent the use of linear scales,
with a r esultant loss of accuracy. They
are frequency-sensitive and should not
be used where accuracy is essential.
~
The Flulter Meter
MAGNETIC STEREO CARTRIDGE
model SX-l ' .
This is not an audio instrument in the
conventional sense of the term. However,
tape recorders and phono turntables are
important parts of an audio system so
that this type of instrument has become
most common in the audio laboratory.
Flutter and wow are variations in the
speed. For testing tape recorders, a
steady single frequency, usually 3000
cps, is recorded on tape. A speed variation appears as a frequency variation
of the 3000 cps-not unlike the frequency modulated signal. When the test
tape is played ou a tape machine the
output signal of the machine is passed
through a filter where all frequencies
except the 3000 cps pass through. The
remaining signal is then FM-detected
and read on an ordinary a.c. voltmeter.
Once again, there are several important characteristics of a good instrument.
First of all the filters must be sharp. The
circuit must eliminate all extraneous amplitude variations to prevent them from
affecting the final reading. Filters should
be provided to separ ate the wow (slow
speed variations) components from the
flutter (rapid speed variations) components. As always, the power supply must
be extremely well regulated to avoid reading variations with line fluctuations .
Other instruments, which are useful
and are basic components in most laboratories, are the tube tester, the capacitance bridge, the inductance bridge, and
the YOM. Discussion of these might be
of interest, but their application to actual audio measurements on audio equip
ment are strictly limited.
IE
SPECIFICATIONS
Responc •......... ······· ·········· 20-20, 000 cps
Out put ................. 4 mV 15 em I 1. 000 cIs
Channel I solation ..... 20 dB 40- 12.000 cIs
Channel Balance
·±O.5d B atl.UOO c/ s
Compli ance
. 3 X 10 - 6= I dyne
Load ReSistance
...... SO- 70killo ohms
Tracking Force ..................... . ... 3 grams
Stylus
............... 0.7 mil Diamond
Weight .. .. ..
.. ..... 12.Sgrams
SONOVOX
SONOVOX
10 1
CO., L TD ,
Tokiwamolsucno, Shibuyok u . Tokyo , Japan
featuring NEW MULTIPLEX STEREO
and ALL-TRANSISTOR STEREO HI-FI
~
~
t~~
NO MONEY
DOWN
easiest terms
World's largest hi·fi selection, in·
c lu d i ng produ cts a nd values
available only from
ALLIED.
Sa ve
on complete Stereo sys terns, a ll
famous-name components, hi-fi
cabinetry. tape r ecording . Save
most wit h exclusive [email protected]
WANTED: stereo preamplifier, reasonable,
prefer Citation I. Sell: Fisher 90-C, Scott
S30-C, Webcor 2007. J oe Wheeler, 2664 Benny,
Rancho Cordova, California.
components a nd quality buildyour-o wn KNIGRT - KITS @ . Get
our money-saving quo tations for
component system s of your own
selection. Send coupon today for
FOR SALE: Dyna DAM 1 and Mark III.
All new tubes and electrolytics, many spares.
Will operate as super stable 30 watt triode.
Guaranteed six months, $75.00. F. Daniel, 116
Pinehurst Avenue, New York 33, N. Y.
our Free 444-page 1962 Catalog!
SALE: Westrex 3C st ereo disc cutting
head. Serial number 21, converted from 3A.
$1500.00. Equalizer, $100.00, CA-1, AUDIO,
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
I ALLIED
I
RADIO, Dept. 146-A2
100 N. Weste rn Ave., Ch icago 80, Ill.
catalog
I 0 Send FREE 1962 ALLIED Catalog.
I Name -;;=_ __ _ __ _ _ __
I
I Address
PLeASE PRIIIT
~~
______ ~~~~~ __ J
Circle 72B
72
I
I
'---CLASSIFIEDRates: lO¢ per word per Insertion for aOllcom.erclal
advertisements; 25¢ plr word for commercial ad.ertllImonts. Ram are net. and no dllcolnts will 'e
allowed. Copy mast b. accompa.led by reIIlttaII .. In
fill, and milt reach tho IlIw Vork om.. " tile
ftrst of thl month precedlnl the date of la.o.
HIGH FIDELITY SPEAKERS REPAIRED
AMPRITE SPEAKER SERVICE
168 W . 23rd St., New York 11, N. Y. CH 3-4812
ENJOY PLEASANT SURPRISES? Then
write us before you purchase any hi-fi. You 'll
be glad you did. Unusual savings. Key E lectronics, 120 Liberty St., New York 6, N. Y.
CLoverdale 8-4288.
Ampex, Concertone, Crown, Magnecord,
Norelco, Presto, Bogen, T a ndberg, Sherwood,
Rek-O-Kut, Scott, Shure, Dynaldt, others.
Trades. Boynton Studio, Dept. AM, 10 Pennsylvania Ave., Tuckahoe, N. Y.
LOW, LOW quotes: stereo tapes, componen ts, recorders. HIFI, Rosl yn 4, Pa.
PROMPT DELIVERY. Lowest prices. We
will not be undersold. Amplifiers, tape recorders, tuner~etc. No catalogs. Air Mail quotes.
Compare. L. M. Brown Sales Corp., Dept. A .,
239 E . 24 St., New York 10, N. Y.
SELF-HYPNOSIS tape or LP record. Learn
quickly, easily. Free literature. McKinleySmith Co., Dept. ATR, Box 3038, San Bernardino, California.
SALE ITEMS-bulk tapes--eomponent
quotes. Bayla Co., Box 131-0, Wantagh, N. Y.
LEARN WHILE ASLEEP. Hypnotize with
your recorder, phonograph or amazing new
"Electronic Educator" e ndless tape recorder .
Astonishing detalls, sensational catalogue
FREE. Sleep-Learning Research Association,
Box 24-AD, Olympia, Washington.
FOR SALE: R. E. L . 'Precedent' #646C
FM tuner. Top condition. $175.00. Richard
Entringer, 2211 Camino Del Reposo, La Joll a,
California.
19TH CENTURY TUNES. bymns, waltzes.
marches, gayety numbers and others as played
by the outstanding "Regina" music box available on tape. Free Information. Merle Enterprises, Box 145, Lombard, illinois.
FOR SALE: General Radio 1551-A sound
l ever meter. New con dition. $225.00. ElectroVoice 15wK woofer. New In original carton.
$30.00. W. C. Resides, Sherwood Road, Rid gefiel d, ConI).
SPEAKERS: Altec 515, 604 Duplex, pall'
James B. L an sin g 150-4, new, 18" Western
Electri c woofers. crossovers. Sell reasonable
or trade. Otto Fichtman, 600 Timpson Place.
Bronx 55, N. Y.
SHURE M-232 arm , $21.00, Shure M7D/
N21D pickup, $25.50. or both for $46.00,
p. p. Insured with original warranty Inside.
(Scout's Honor-these are new and unopened!) Gordon E. Cain, Audioprocess Laboratories. 15 Manet Circle, Chestnut Hill 67.
Mass.
SELL: Thorens TD-124 turntable. base.
Grado L a bora t ories arm, ADC-l cartridge, National Criterion stereo tuner. All perfect condition . A. Gray. 57-11 255 Street, Little Neck.
N. Y. BA-9-4664.
FOR SALE: Ampex 401 In portable case,
manual control . excellent con dition . $395.00.
Pentron Dynacord 7 lh-1 5 Ips, full track. professional machine. 3 motors. good condition.
ready to go, $185.00 . Mal!'llecord Mechanism
PT6 new record / play h ead, new Idlers, both
motors excellent, some spare p a rts also.
$65.00. Don Warnock, 117 W. 67th Street,
Kansas City, Mo.
WILL TRAIN recording engineer. Expanding New York City studiO, Box CA-2, AUDIO,
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
TANDBERG MODEL SIX tape recorder,
luggage case. two mikes, $275. 00. Major R. B.
Furlong, 1 King Avenue, Fort Leavenworth,
K a nsas.
MAILaTAPE. Reusable 3-inch mailing containers. No wrapping. Supply mailing and ret urn labels insures returns. Four: $2.20. Ten:
$4.30. Quality 150" tapes included. Four:
$4.10. Ten: $8.30. Cbeck with order. Ref undable. Rusco, 108 Brighton Avenue, Boston,
Mass.
WANTED TO BUY: Ferrograph (Ercona)
808 four track or 424 four track recorder ;
Tapesonic 70C four track recorder; Concerton e
fi05 four track recorder: 960 or 970 Am pex
four track recorder; Ampex 620 speaker amplifier: Altec 355A a mplifier. Tom McIntire.
501 Wri ght, Wllmin!:ton, North Carolina.
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
!J~Noied. •••
r5}J!!
Storage cabinets available or do -it- yourself
Elimi nates visibil ity problem of edge-s lacked
albums, s tops jacket-bottom wea r. Inst.alls
anywhere in fi ve minutes wit h Ij sc rews . Sturdy
welded steel constructio n, ball-bearing tracks,
balanced s uspension. 9 models for LP'g & tape,
hold to 125 albums; black or brass, $6.95 up.
.
~ /'
Ii!"
Write for brochure A. Deale'" ·in f/ uhies in.v ited
KERSTING MFG . CO .. 504 S. DATE. AlHAMBRA . CALIF
CIRCLE 73B
SAVE UP TO 40% on
HI-FI COMPONENTS
AND PACKAGES
• 15 Day Money Back Guarantee
• EASY PAY PLAN - UP TO 24 MONTHS
TO PAY
• WE GUARANTEE WE WILL NOT BE
UNDERSOLD
Please write for FREE return mail quotation,
and wholesale catalog. Also pre-recorded tape
caool09 on request.
220-U East 23rd St.
New York 10, N. Y.
CIRCLE 73C
CANADA
High Fidelity Equipment
Complete Lines
•
Complete Service
Hi-Fi Records - Components
and Acces~or ies
t' LECTRO~lJOlCE
U SOUND SYSTEMS
126 DUNDAS ST. WEST. TORONTO. CANADA
CIRCLE 73D
• Westrex Promotes Wight. Promotion
of Ralph W. Wight to Vice President
of the Westrex Recording Equipment
division of Litton Systems, Inc. was announced by Executive Vice President
George T. Scharffenberger. Mr. Wight
will continue to serve as General Manager of the division, which he has been
w ith since 1936. He was named Manager in 1954 after serving as contract
relations manager. Westrex, since becoming a Litton division in 1958, has
carried its recording technology into the
fields of instrumentation data recording
and commercial sound equipment.
• British Industries Corp. Leonard Carduner, President of British Industries
Corp., announced the election of two of
its veteran executives to vice-president.
Franklin S. Hoffman, formerly Sales
Manager for Garrard and other BIC
hig h-fidelity products becomes Vice
President for Sales. Arthur M. Gasman,
formerly Marketing Director, becomes
Vice President for Promotion. Both
men have been associated with B IC for
more than 15 years.
.3M Opens New Plant. Minnesota
Mining and Manufacturing has just
opened a second U.S. magnetic tape
manufacturing plant. Located at Freehold, N . J ., the new plant will boost
3M's magnetic tape capacity by 150 per
cent when it is in full production sometime in 1964.
• James Carroll Joins Fisher. Avery
Fisher, President of Fisher Radio Corporation, has announced the appointment
of James Carroll as component Sales
Manager at Fisher Radio. Mr. Carroll
was audio Sales Manager at Harvey
Radio for twelve years. In his new responsibilities at Fisher Radio Mr. Carroll
will be associated with Jim Parks, VicePre:;ident in charge of sales.
• Eric Appoints Skolnik. Named to the
post of national sales manager for Eric
Electronics Corp., Norman Skolnik
brings to the post experience gained as
fi eld salesman for the E lectronics Division of Ponder and Best.
......."""""
~ ~~ '-'~ 1:!:.:..~,=====
=~
Specializes in SAVING YOU MONEY
;;' FACTORY FRESH COMPONENTS
;;' LOWEST POSSIBLE QUOTATIONS
V' FAST DELIVERY
We are FRANCH ISED DEALERS for most Hi-Fi
lines. Most orders SHIPPED PROMPTlY from
stock. RECORDING TA"E at LOWEST PRICES .
FREE 95 page STEREO CATALOG.
190-A Lex. Ave., Cor. 32
St., New York 16, N. Y. Visit Our Showroom
CIRCLE 73E
TOPS
IN
II
THE FINEST OF ITS KIND • • •
Get more FM stations with the world'. most
powerful FM Yogi Antenna systems.
C. C. GOODWIN (SALES) LTD. (Dept. A)
CIRCLE 73F
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••
:
TAPES:
:At wholesale prices. Shipped within 24-28e
RECORDERS
.hrs. We'll airmail low Quotes on packaged:
: Hi-fi. (Free catalogue.)
•
•• CAR S TON
125-N EAST 88 ST.
•
NEW YORK 28, N. Y. •
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••
CIRCLE 73G
AUDIO
•
JANUARY, 1962
• Patents Applied
A
FOT
DIVI S ION OF ANNAPOLIS
ELECTROACOUSTIC CORP .
241 West'St~ Annapolis, . Md;
CIRCLE 73A
IF YOU ARE MOVINC
Please notify our Circulation D.partment
at least 5 weeks in adnnce. Th. Post OHice
does not forward macuin •••• nt to wrong
destinations unless you pay additional pollage, and we can NOT duplicat. cop I•• se .. t
to you once. To save youn.lf, us, and the
Post Office a headache. won't you pl.a.e
cooperate? When notifyinc U', pl...e !live
your old address and your new addr ....
Circulation Department
RADIO MACAZINES, INC.
P. O. Box 629, Mineola, N. Y.
SAVE YOUR
COPIES OF
7, The Broadway, Wood Green, London, N.22. Eng.
.COMPONENTS
RAVENSWOOD stereo tuners, amps and
pre-amps are also new and exclusive.
Tell him that, too.
• Tandberg Awards Prizes. Winners of
th e Tandberg "Sumfer Sales Jamboree"
were award ed priz es based on th e sale
of Tandberg tape playing equipment.
First prize winner, Ray Bellinson of
Airex Radio, receive d a new Vol vo
Sports Sedan. Second prize, a Norwegian
mink stole, went to Marty Stern of
Grand Central Radio.
ANTENNAE
promptly at minimum cost.
Dr MAIL ORDER HI-FI ~
What's new? Five exclusive, new Reflection Coupler Speaker Systems' of
!!!]stereotyped stereo by RAVENSWOOD,
from $44.95 to $124.95. These amazing stereo systems are designed to
reflect sound from the rear of speaker
enclosures. Your wall is transfo(med
into a veritable concert shell. You
hear the most faithfully r-eproduced
stereo wherever you sit.
ffNfQ~
HI - F I
BRITISH EQUIPMENT from the United Kingdom
Hi-Fi Mail Order Specialists.
Send us details of your needs!
• AMPLIFIERS • MOTORS • TUNERS
• SPEAKERS • PICK-UPS
All goods carefully packed, insured and shipped
:
The Next Time
Someone Asks You ...
To be fully informed,
send 30¢ for book
"Theme And Variations" by L. F. B.
Carini and containing
FM Station Directory.
• Each file holds a
full year's copies.
• Jesse Jones Vol·
ume Files for every
publication.
• Covered in durable
leather like Kivar,
title embossed in 16
Kt gold.
APPARATUS DEVELOPMENT CO.
WETHERSFIELD 9,
CIRCLE 73H
AUDIO
CONN
,
Salisfadlon guaranteed
FREE
Attractive and
practical for your
home or office
3 for $7.00
6 for $13.00
ORDER NOW - send
check or money order
MAGAZINE FILE CO.
520 FIFTH AVENUE
NEW YORK 36, N., Y.
DESCRIPTIVE FOLDER
UPON
REQUEST
73
ADVERTISING
INDEX
•
Acoustic Resea rch, Inc. _ ..... . _ .• __ . _.
Airex Rad io Corporation ., ' .. .. _ ' .. ' ..
Allied Radio . .. ____ . _ , , ' , , . , , " , , . . _
Altec lansing Corporation .... _ . . ... _ _
Amelux Elect'ron ic Corporation . . .. . . _ _
American Elite Corp . .. _ . , . .. .. . , . _ .. _
Ampex Audio Company ." .. ... . . . 33,
Appa ra tus Deve lopment Co __ .. .. " ____
Audio Bookshelf . . , "" , . .. ...... _ . _
Audio Dynamics Corporation _. __ • . _ . _.
Audio Fidelity Records . ' _ . ' . . . •. •... _
Audio Unlimited "'" _ .. _ .... _ . __ . . _
27
6
72
3i
59
67
34
73
70
7
49
73
Bell T elephone laborato ries .......• " _ 1B
Benjamin El ectronic Sound Co rp, .. _ .. , _ 71
Bozak Speakers _, _ . ... ' _ , , .. . . .. _ . ,. 65
British I ndustr ies Corporation .. _ ... _ ' _. 3
1IWli.'" ~,;~.... KT·250A 50·WATt INTEGRATED
STEREO AMPLIFIER
KT·250A
LA·250A
74.50
99.50
in Kit Form
Completely Wired
• 3rd Channel Output
• Separate Bass & Treble Controls
• 50· Watts Monophonicalll - 25 Watts Each Stereo Channel
db (at normal listening 'level)
• Response: 15·40,000 cps ±
Pacesetting quality, performance and design. Features Include: unique "Blend"
control for continuously variable channel separation- from full monau ra l to full
stereo, 4·position Selector, Mode, loudness and Phase switches. Also provides
,outputs for 4, 8, and 16 ohm speakers. Hum·free operation is Insu red by use of
DC on a ll pre-amp and tone control tuhes. Ind ividual bias and balance controls.
Harmonic distortion, less than 0.2S%. 1M distortion, less than _S%. Hum and noise
77 db below full output. 14V2"W x 12%"0 x SV2" H. Shpg. wt., 28 Ibs.
:-s-
Made
in U.S.A.
KT·600A
Criterion
PROFESSIONAL STEREO
EICO _ . .. _ . .. _ .. _ " " " " " _ .. ... _
Electron ic Applications. Inc .. , .. _ .. ' . , _
Electro -Voice, Inc . . ' . _ . .......... 52,
Electro- Voice Sound Systems . .•..... _ .
Garrard Sales Corp. . .... , . ....... ... _ 3
Goodwin, C. C. (Sales) ltd . . . . . . . .. .. • 73
Gotham Audio Corporation ... ... ... .. 51
Grado Laboratories, Inc. ...... . .. . • •.. 2
I
Made
in U.S.A.
KT·550
Made
in U.S.A.
Criterion
100·WATT
BASIC STEREO AMPLIFIER
• bted at 50-Watts per Channel • Response
from 2·100,000 cps; 0·1 db at 1-Walt • Mas·
sive ' Crain Oriented Silicon' steel , Transformers,
• Multiple Feedback Loop Deslrn (aver 50 db)
• Metered Calibration Control panel • Abso·
lutely Stable Under Any Conditions of Load
A new "laboratory Standard" dual SO-watt amplifier
'guaranteed to outperform any basic stereo amplifier
on the market. Advanced engineering techniques plus
the fin est components ensure flawl ess performance. Dist ortion levels so low they are unmeasurable. Hum and noise
betler than 90 db below SO-watts. Compl ete with metal en.
closure. 9V4"H x 12V2" D_ Shpg. wt., 60 Ibs _
f"Mnn'.'.'v Wired
~-~~~~~~.------~~~----------------------------------------------in
I
I '
I
I
I
I
53
73
Fairchild Recording Equipment Corp. . . . 68
Fi sher Radio Corporation ..... _ .. •. ' . _ 9
Lafayette Radio ... .. .... . •.. . . . .... . 74
Langevin, a Division of Sonotec, Inc . .. . 5
lansing, James B" Sound, Inc, ........• 37
Lenz Electric Manufacturing Co.
62
No rth A m erican Philips Co., Inc.
134.50
15
Kerst ing Manufacturing Company . .. . . _ 73
Key Electronics Company ... . ........ 68
KL H Research & Development Corp. . ." 57
Completely Wired
• Response 5·40,000 cps ± 1 db
• Precise "Null" Balancing System
• Bridge Control Provides Variable 3rd Channel output
• Variable Cross Channel Si~nal Feed Eliminates Hole-ln·The·Middle Effects
• Tape Head Playback Equalization for 4· Track Stereo
Sensitivity 2.2 mv for 1 volt out. Dual low impedance "plate followe r" outputs IS00
ohms. less than _03% 1M distortion; less than .1% harmon ic distortion. Hum and
noise 20 db below 2 volts. 14xlO Shx4 1/2"_ Shpg. wt. , 16 Ibs
KT-550
13
Jensen Manufactu rin g Company .. .. . .. 4 1
LA·GOOA
79.50 134.50
In Kit Form
Dynaco, Inc . " " " " " '" _ ... _ . ___ .. 64
Dyna-Empire , Inc. . ... _ . _ . _ ... _ . . . Cov_ II
Ha rman -Ka rdon ..... _ • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 6
Hi Fidelity Center .. . ... . . .. _ . .. , . , ' . 73
CONTROL CENTER
KT-SOOA
Carston ....... . .. ,' _ .. _ .. _ . __ ....• 73
CBS La boratories _ . ............. __ . _ _ 50
Classified _ .. .... . . . . , _ .... .. . ..... _ 72
FREE!
o
69
Ortofon Division , Elpa Marketing
Industri es, Inc . .. .. .... ....... __ .. 10
Osaka Onkyo Co., Ltd. • . . . .. . . _ .. ... _ 68
Permoflux Corporation , ... ... _ . . . . . ..
Pickering & Company, Inc . . .. .. .. . ... .
Pilot Radio Corporation .. . .. . . .. ..• . .
Pioneer Electronic Corporation . . ...•. . .
68
17
25
47
Ravenswood, a Division of Annapo lis
Electro- Acoustic Corpoartion ... ...•• 73
Roberts Electronics, Inc . . . •........ .•• 39
Sarkes Tarzian, Inc . .. •. ....• . . •.. ..•
Scott H. H., Inc . . , ....... ... ... ..• .
Sherwood Ele ctro nic Laborat o ries, Inc. _.
Shure Brothe rs, Inc. . . . .. . . . ... . ... .•
Sonovox Co., Ltd. . ....•.. • .. .. . _ . . • .
Superscope, Inc. ........ ............
11
61
I
55
72
43
RADIO,
Dept. AA-2
P.O_ Box 10
Syosset, L. ,-, N. Y.
Se nd FREE 1962 Catalog fea tu rin g t he complete line of
lafayette Stereo Components.
'
$ Enclosed .. " "" ' .... .... " ' .. ," " ,.... ,'" " .. ,.. ," " .... .. 'for Stack No_ ..... ." ...... .. .... .. ..
Tandberg of Ame rica, Inc. . . . . .. . . . ..• 14
Transis-Tronics, Inc . • .• ..... • . . . Cov. IV
Transvision Electronics, Inc . .. . . . ... . .. 63
Name' _______________________________________________
United Audio Products .' ....... . . ...• 56
Univers ity l oudspeakers, Inc. . ..... . ..• 45
City,------------------_____ Zane_ _ Stat~, -----------------------------
Weathers Industries . _ • _ .. • _ . ....... _ 4
Winegard Antenna Systems . . .. . . Cov. III
I
,
I
I
.•---------------------------------------_._-----------------------_...
74
AUD IO
•
JANUARY, 1962
GUARANTEED FM AND
FM STEREO RECEPTION
FROM
200 MIlESl
NEW ELECTRONIC FM ANTENNA FOR LONG DISTANCE FM AND
STEREO! Now Winegard Guarantees unexcelled FM perform-
ance with the new Winegard electronic Stereo-Tron. Actually
GUARANTEES you will receive 85 % of all FM stations in a
200 mile radius over normal terrain with a rotor. Built in
transistor a mplifies signals, really gets L-O-N-G distance reception. For Multiplex, the added gain of the Stereo-Tron offsets
the power loss of the carrier a nd sub-carrier.
MODEL PF-8 FM STEREO~TRON YAGI-Gold Anodized! This
is the world's most powerful FM antenna. Because Multiplex
requires an antenna with greater sensitivity and gain to offset
the power loss of the carrier and subcarrier, Winegard's PF-8
is the best antenna you can install for Multiplex. When you
hook up a PF -8, weak signals come in like "locals." Recommended for use where signals are under 10,000 microvolts. For
strong signal areas, same antenna without amplifier, Model
FM-8, is recommended.
The PF-8 has a minimum gain of 26 DB over a folded dipole
with a fiat frequency response of ±~ DB from 88 to 108 m .c.
It features a built-in TV-FM coupler and has eight elements
with EXCLUSIVE "TAPERED T" driven element engineered
to perfectly match the powerful transistor, direct coupled,
built-in amplifier. It is available two ways-Model PF-8 for 300
ohm twin lead or Model PF-8C for 75 ohm coax.
Important Features of Winegard Electronic FM Antennas
1. Transistor amplifier is designed as part of the "Tapered T"
driven element (model PF-8) for unprecedented efficiency
and signal-to-noise ratio.
2. At no extra charge, built-in FM-TV coupler allows you to
use one power supply and down lead when used with a
WINEGARD POWERTRON TV antenna.
3. Beautiful gold anodized permanent' finish-100% corrosion
proofed-all hardware irridized. This is the finest finish of
any antenna-has richest appearance-meets U.S. Navy
specifications.
4_ The quality of craftsmanship and fine materials in these
antennas tell their own story-perfect mechanical balance
-100 m.p.h. wind tested.
Winegard makes a complete line of FM antennas. Write for
information and spec. sheets. Also get FREE, Station Log and
FM map of U.S.
·e, Transis·Tron ics has used it to
or the . ntl~~ high fidelity industry. TEC all·
-.no hum , no heat, no microphonics. The transistor,
, 61d.fashioned tube, is a " I if~time " devi ce , therefore, bot , t he TEe ampl ifi er and t he TEe FM tuner come to you with
fyll two-ye;,' uncondit ional guarantees. Regard less of price, the S·15 and FM·15 are the most efficient amplifiers and tuners on the
market to ay. TEC S·15 STEREO AMPLlFI 6R is all sound, rated at 2~ watts of music power per channel with a 4 ohm load. With 8
.
~
and 16 otifn I
·
r is slightly reduced . TEC FM ·15 TUNE , the perfect companion to the TEC S·15, will give you year.s
ing. The low power consumption cha r cte~istic of transistors means that both the TEC amplifier
with either 117 vac at 18 to 24 vdc as the power source. AND, NATURALLY, EQUIPPED FOR MULTIPLEX .
• Trans is·Tronics, Inc .• 1601 W Olympic Blvd ., Santa Monica, Calif.
-1IIII1..
E
•."'''.-
IIIII
n.
T he F M-15 ( top) and the 8 -15 (bottom) are available as separa,te units
or in a handsome walnut or teak
combined package. H ow? No heat
meam ,the tune" ca1!; be stac e4 wi th
~ll& .(k!!Z;P 'tier without ~ger of. 'ari t.
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