The Book of Camp Lore and Woodcraft

The Book of Camp Lore and Woodcraft
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The book of camp- lore
and woodcraft
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CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
THE BOOK OF GAMP-LORE
AND WOODCRAFT
BY
-
DAN BEARD
FOUNDER OF THE FIRST BOY SCOUTS SOCIETY
WITH 377 ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR
GARDEN CITY PUBLISHING
Co., INC.
GARDEN CITY
NEW YORK
COPYRIGHT, I92O, BY BEATBICB ALICE BEARD
THE RIGHTS OF TRANSLATION ARE RESERVED
THE NEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY
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PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
TO
GEORGE
Du PONT
PRATT
COMMISSIONER OF CONSERVATION, STATE OF NEW YORK
SCOUT, SPORTSMAN AND OUTDOOR MAN
.
FOREWORD TO THE SECOND
EDITION
BOYS, if this foreword is too "highbrow" for your taste,
skip it, but the author don't believe you will, and even if
he has used some dictionary words he feels that you will
forgive him after he tells you that he did so only because of
the lack of time to think up more simple terms. What he
wants to say
Boyhood
is
is
that
.
.
.
a wonderful and hi valuable asset to the nation,
boy there is a divine spark, matethe "urge of youth," others call it the "Christ
in man," the Quakers call it the "inner light," but all view
it with interest and anxiety, the ignorant with fear and the
for in the breast of every
rialists call it
wise with understanding sympathy, but also with a feeling
akin to awe.
"
Those of us who think we know boys, feel that this inner
light" illuminating their wonderful powers of imagination,
is the compelling force culminating in the vigorous accomplishments of manhood. It is the force which sent Columbus
voyaging over the unknown seas, which sent Captain Cook
on his voyage around the world, the same force which carried Lindbergh in his frail airship across the Atlantic.
it is
Yes,
the sublime force which has inspired physicians and
laymen to cheerfully
risk
and
sacrifice their lives in search
of the cause of Yellow Fever, Anthrax,
other communicable diseases
.
.
.
Hydrophobia and
no, not for science but
for
HUMANITY!
FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION
As a boy, the author dreamed
of wonderful municipal
playgrounds, of organizations giving the boys opportunity
to camp in the open, of zoological and botanical gardens
planned and adapted to the understanding of youth. His
busy life as a civil engineer, surveyor, and work in the open
gave him no opportunity to develop his dreams, but at the
end of a five year tour of the United States and Canada,
made over fifty years ago, he drifted into New York City
and was shocked beyond expression by the almost total lack
of breathing spaces for our boys, in the greatest of American
cities.
True, it then had Central Park; but fifty years ago
Central Park was out among the goats, only to be reached
by a long and tiresome horse car journey.
This lamentable state of
much
real pain
affairs
caused the writer so
and concern that he then and there
in-
augurated a personal crusade for the benefit of the boys, a
crusade with the avowed object of winning for them the
peoples' interest in the big outdoors.
The most difficult part of
men of the swivel chairs that
his task
was to convince the
be spent
the only proper roof for a
normal boy's playground; also that the open spaces are the
places where God intended young people to live, work and
in the
open; that the blue sky
boys' leisure should
is
play.
No great crusade, no great movement of any kind is one
man's work, nevertheless, every successful movement must
have one enthusiast in the front rank, one who knows the
and comprehensively envisions the objective objectum
quad complexum. Others may and will join him, and occasionally spurt ahead of the leader, like the hare in the fable,
trail
but the enthusiast keeps right on just the same.
Pray do not understand by this that the writer claims
FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION
that he alone
his
No, no,
is
responsible for thfs bloodless revolution.
propaganda work did however win for him the
moral support of the editorial staff of St. Nicholas, Youth's
Companion and Harpers. Later he was openly backed and
encouraged by such distinguished sportsmen as President
Roosevelt, his chief forester Governor Pinchot, and his Chief
Major General
of Staff
Camp
him,
Bell.
Fire Club of America
all
While the stalwart men of the
worked hand and glove with
not in voicing their
similar organizations failed
Furthermore he was always helped by his loyal
friends of the daily press. Many famous writers lent their
approval.
working consciously or unconsciously to help
the great cause of boyhood.
The author only claims that, in all these fifty long years,
influence, all
he has never ceased to work for the boys, never wavered in
his purpose, and now?
well, when he marched at the head
of fifty
camp
thousand Scouts
in the great
muddy
outdoor Scout
at Birkenhead, England, he realized that his ephemeral
had settled down to a firm foundation upon
Mother Earth.
Yes, boys we have won a great victory for boyhoodl We
have won it by iteration and reiteration, hi other words, by
air castles
shouting
outdoors,
talking
and above
outdoors,
picturing
outdoors,
by writing about the outdoors, and constantly hammering on one subject and keeping one purpose always in view. By such means we have
singing outdoors
all
at last, not only interested the people of the United States
in the open,
and the
hymn:
but stampeded the whole world to the forests
So let us all join in singing the old Methodist
fields.
FOREWORD TO THE SECOND EDITION
*'
Shout, shout,
we
are gaining ground,
Glory, Hallelujah!
Devil's kingdom we'll put down,
The
Glory, Hallelujah!"
The
kingdom in this case is the ill-ventilated
and courts.
It is well to note that the work in this book was not done
the library, but either in the open itself or from notes and
Devil's
school rooms, offices
in
made
sketches
cooking
fire,
in the open.
When
telling
how
to build a
for instance, the author preferred to
make
his
by
by
diagrams from the
friends, than to trust to information derived from some other
fires built
man's books.
It is
much
his wilderness
make pictures of impracThe paste pot and scissors
easier to
than to build them.
tical fires
himself or
occupy no place of honor in our woodcraft series.
So, Boys of the Open, throw aside your new rackets, your
croquet mallets, and your boiled shirts pull on your buckskin leggings, give a
war whoop and be what God intended
This great Re-
you should be; healthy wholesome boys.
public belongs to you and so does this
BOOK OF CAMP-LORE AND
W OODCRAFT.
T
DAN BEARD
Suffern,
New
December
1930.
York,
first,
FOREWORD
HIDDEN
in
moose head
in
a drawer in the antique highboy, back of the
studio, there are specimens of Indian bead
my
made of the teeth of animals,
work, bits of buckskin, necklaces
a stone calumet,
my
old hunting knife with
and
carefully folded in oiled paper
of a grizzly bear!
is
its
rawhide sheath
the jerked tenderloin
But that is not all for more important still is a mysterious
wooden flask containing the castor or the scentgland of a
;
beaver, which
is
carefully rolled
embroidered with mystic Indian
The
flask
was given to
me
up
in
a bit of buckskin
signs.
as "big medicine"
by Bow-
arrow, the Chief of the Montinais Indians. Bow-arrow said
and
I believe
him
that
when one
inhales the odor of the
and body are then
and forever afterwards permeated with a great and abiding
love of the big outdoors. Also, when one eats of the mystic
grizzly bear's flesh, one's body acquires the strength and
castor from this medicine flask one's soul
courage of this great animal.
During the initiation of the members of a Spartan band
of my boys, known as the Buckskin Men, each candidate is
given a thin slice of the grizzly bear meat and a whiff of the
beaver castor.
Of course, we know that people with unromantic and
We
unimaginative minds will call this sentimentalism.
people of the outdoor tribes plead guilty to being sentimentalists;
but we know from experience that old Bow-arrow was
right, because we have ourselves eaten of the grizzly bear and
smelled the castor of the beaver!
FOREWORD
vi
While the writer cannot give each of
of this coveted bear
meat
beaver medicine, direct
his readers a taste
in material form, or
from the wooden
Bow-arrow's own hands,
flask
a whiff of the
made by
the
the author hopes that the
magical qualities of this great medicine will enter into and
form a part of the subject matter of this book, and through
late
still
medium
inoculate the souls and bodies of his readers,
and
them
rejuvenate them with a love of the WORLD
purify
MADE
IT.
AS GOD
that
DAN BEARD
June, 1920
CONTENTS
PAGE
CHAPTER
I.
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
How
1
MAKE
A FIRE-BOARD, Bow, DRILL AND THIMBLE. INDIAN
LEGEND OF THE SOURCE OF FIBE. RECORD FLBB-MAKERS. ROBBINGSTICK OUTFIT. ESKIMO THIMBLE. Bow, BOW-STBING, THIMBLE, FIREBOARD, FIRE-PAN. TINDEB, CHARBED RAGS, PUFF BALLS. FIRE-MAKEBS
TO
OF THE BALKAN. FIRE WITHOUT A Bow, CO-LI-LI, THE FIRE SAW.
FIRE PUMPING OF THE IHOQUOIS. PYBOPNEUMATIC APPARATUS
II.
MAKING BY PERCUSSION
FIRE
21
THE WHITE MAN'S METHOD, How TO USE FLINT AND STEEL. WHERE
TO OBTAIN THE FLINT AND STEEL. CHUCKNUCKS, PUNK BOXES, SPUNKS
AND MATCHES. REAL LUCIFER MATCHES. SLOW MATCH.
CATCH THE SPARK. SUBSTITUTES FOB FLINT AND STEEL
III.
HOW TO
How
TO
BUILD A FIRE
33
TO LAY AND LIGHT A FIRE. AN EXPERIENCE WITH TENDEBFEET.
MODERN FEAR OP DOING MANUAL LABOR. MATCHES. FIRE-MAKERS
AND BABYLONIANS. THE PALPITATING HEABT OF THE CAMP. GUMMT
FAGOTS OF THE PINE. How TO MAKE A FIRE IN WET WEATHEB. BACKWOODSMEN'S FIRE. THE NECESSITY OF SMALL KINDLING WOOD. GOOD
FIREWOOD. ADVANTAGE OF SPLIT WOOD. FIRE-DOGS. How TO OPEN
How TO WHITTLE, How TO SPLIT A STICK WITH A KNIFE.
A KNIFE.
BONFIRES AND COUNCIL FIBES. CAMP MEETING TORCH FIRES. EXPLODING STONES. CHABACTEB IN FIBE. SLOW FIBES, SIGNAL FIBES
How
AND SMUDGES
IV.
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
FIRE
53
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE ON SHORT RATIONS. THE MOST PRIMITIVB
OF COOKING OUTFITS. CAMP POT-HOOKS, THE GALLOW-CROOK, THE POTCLAW, THE HAKE, THE GIB, THE SPEYGELIA AND THE SASTER. TELKGBAPH WIBE COOKING IMPLEMFJTTS, WIBE GBID-IBON, SKELETON CAMP
STOVE.
COOKING FIRES, FIRE-DOGS, ROASTING FIRE-LAY, CAMPFIRE LAY, BELMORE LAY, FRYING FIRE LAY, BAKING FIBE LAY. THB
AUBES CRANE
A
V.
CAMP KITCHENS
79
COWBOY FIRE-HOLE. CHINOOK COOKBARBECUE-PITS. THE GOLD DIGGER'S OVEN. THE
ING FIRE-HOLE.
FERGUSON CAMP STOVE. THE ADOBE OVEN. THE ALTAR CAMPFIBE
PLACE. CAMP KITCHEN FOR HIKERS, SCOUTS, EXPLORERS, SURVEYORS
AND HUNTERS. How TO COOK MEAT, FISH AND BREAD WITHOUT POTS,
CAMP
PIT-FIBES,
BEAN HOLES.
PANS OR STOVES.
LARGE ANIMALS
VI.
DRESSING SMALL ANIMALS.
How
TO BABBECUB
CAMP FOOD
101
TO MAKE ASH CAKE, PONE, CORN DODGERS, FLAPJACKS, JOHNNYCAKE, BISCUITS AND DOUGHGOD. MAKING DUTCH OvENS. VENISON.
BANQUETS IN THE OPEN. How TO COOK BEAVER TAIL, PORCUPINES
AND MUSKRATS. CAMP STEWS, BRUNSWICK STEWS AND BuBGOOS
How
PACKING HORSES
TO MAKE A PACK HORSE OF YOUR OWN. How TO MAKE AW
APAREJO. How TO MAKE A CINCHA. How TO MAKE A LATIGO. How
TO THROW A DIAMOND HITCH. How TO THROW A SQUAW HITCH. How
TO HITCH A HORSE IN OPEN LAND WITHOUT POST, TREE OR STICK OR
STONE. USE OF HOBBLES AND How TO MAKE THEM. How THE TRAVOIS
BUFFALO BILL AND GENERAL MILES. How TO
is MADE AND USED.
THROW DOWN A SADDLE. How TO THROW A SADDLE ON A HORSE. How
TO MOUNT A HOBSE. How TO KNOW A WESTERN HORSE
How
123
CONTENTS
viii
VIII.
THE USE OF DOGS. MAN PACKING ..................
145
HIKING DOGS, PACK DOGS. How TO PACK A Doo. How TO THBOW
THE Doo HITCH. How TO MAKE DOG TRAVOIS. Doa AS A BEAST OP
BURDEN IN EDROPE AND ARCTIC AMERICA. MAN PACKING. PACK RATS.
DON'T FIGHT YOUR PACK. PORTAGE PACK. GREAT MEN WHO HAVE
CARRIED A PACK. KINDS OF PACKS. ALPINE RUCKSACK. ORIGIN OF
BROAD BREAST STRAPS. MAKE YOUR OWN OUTFITS
EX.
PREPARING FOR CAMPING TRIP .....................
165
PORTERS OF THE PORTAGE. OLD-TIME INDIAN FIGHTERS AND WILD
ANIMALS. MODERN STAMPEDE FOR THE OPEN. How TO GET READY
FOR CAMP. CUT YOUR FINGER NAILS. Go TO YOUR DENTIST. GET A
HAIR CUT. A BUCKSKIN MAN'S POCKET. FLY DOPE. PROTECTION
AGAINST BLACK FLIES, MOSQUITOES, MIDGETS AND NO-SEE-UMS. THE
CALL OF THE WILD
X.
SADDLES ...............................................
183
How
TO CHOOSE A SADDLE. EVOLUTION OF THE MEXICAN SADDLE.
BIRTH OF THE BLUFF FRONTED SADDLE. THE COWBOY AGE. SAWBUCKS
OR PACK SADDLES. STRAIGHT LEG AND BENT KNEE. NAMES OF PARTS
OF SADDLE. CENTER FIRE AND DOUBLE CINCH
XI.
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE ..............................
196
"WARE SINGLE TREES OR SMALL GROUPS OF TREES. SAFETY IN WOODS
OR FOREST. KEEP YOUR EYES OPEN FOR GOOD CAMP SITES. CROSS
STREAMS WHILE CROSSING is GOOD. KEEP TO WINDWARD OF MOSQUITO
HOLES. 'WARE ANTS' NESTS. How TO TELL WHEN WIND BLOWS. EVOLUTION OF THE SHACK. How TO SWEEP. How TO MAKE CAMP BEDS.
How TO DIVIDE CAMP WORK. TENT PEGS. How TO PITCH A TENT
SINGLE-HANDED. How TO DITCH A TENT. USE OF SHEARS, GINS
AND TRIPODS
XII.
AXE AND SAW
OUR GREATEST AXEMAN. IMPORTANCE OF THE AXE. WHAT KIND OF
AXE TO USE. How TO SWING AN AXE. How TO REMOVE A BROKEN
AXE HANDLE. How TO TIGHTEN THE HANDLE IN THE HEAD. ACCIDENTS.
THE BRAINS OF AN AXE. ETIQUETTE OF THE AXE. How TO SHARPEN
AN AXE. How TO "FALL" A TREE. How TO SWAMP. How TO MAKE
A BEETLE OR MALL. How TO HARDEN" GREEN WOOD. How TO MAKE A
FIREWOOD HOD. How TO MAKE A CHOPPING BLOCK. THE PROPER
WAY TO CHOP. How TO MAKE SAWBUCKS FOR LOGS. How TO USE A
PARBUCKLE.
XIII.
How
TO SPLIT A LOG.
How
TO USE A SAWPIT
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES ......................
CHEROKEE INDIAN COUNCIL BARBECUE.
245
CAMP MEETING COUNCIL
GROUND. THE INDIAN PALISADED COUNCIL FIRE. INDIAN LEGENDS
OF THE FIRE. STEALING THE FIRE FROM THE SUN-MAIDENS OF THE
EAST. MYTHS OF THE MEWAN INDIANS. TOTEMS OF THE FOUR WINDS,
FOUR MOUNTAINS AND FOUR POINTS OF THE COMPASS. IMPRACTICAL
COUNCIL FIRES. ADVANTAGES OF THE OVAL COUNCIL GROUND. How
TO MAKE AN ELLIPSE. How TO DIVIDE THE COUNCIL GROUND IN FOUR
COURTS. COUNCIL CEREMONIES. GHOST WALK AND PATH OF KNOWLEDGE. WHAT THE DIFFERENT COLORS STAND FOR. PATRIOTISM, POETRY
AND AMERICANISM. CAMP MEETING TORCH FIRES
XIV.
RITUAL OF THE COUNCIL FIRE ....................
PROGRAM OF A COUNCIL FIRE.
OF ALL AMERICANS. APPEAL
INVOCATION.
THE PLEDGE AND CBEED
265
CHAPTER
I
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
HOW
TO MAKE A FIRE-BOARD, BOW, DRILL AND THIMBLB
INDIAN LEGEND OF THE SOURCE OF FIRE
RECORD FIRE-MAKERS
RUBBING-STICK OUTFIT
ESKIMO THIMBLE
BOW, BOW-STRING, THIMBLE, FIRE-BOARD, FIRE-PAN
TINDER, CHARRED RAGS, PUFF BALLS
FIRE-MAKERS OF THE BALKAN
FIRE WITHOUT A BOW, CO-LI-LI, THE FIRE SAW
FIRE PUMPING OF THE IROQUOIS
PTROPNEUMATIC APPARATUS
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
CHAPTER
I
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
WHEN THE
and other
"what-is-its" of Pithecantropus erectus age
like hob-goblin
men were moping around
the
rough sketch of an earth, there were no camp-fires; the
only fire that these creatures knew was that which struck
terror to their
volcanic
when it was vomited forth from
came crashing among them in the
hearts
craters,
or
form of lightning. No wonder that the primitive men looked
upon fire as a deity, no doubt an evil deity at first but one
who
later
became good.
When
the vast fields of ice covered Europe during the
glacier period and forced men to think or die, necessity
developed a prehistoric Edison among the Neanderthal men,
who discovered how
his race
to build and control a
from being frozen in the
ice
fire,
thus saving
and kept on cold
storage,
and elephant of Siberia.
The fire of this forgotten and unknown glacier savage was
the forerunner of our steam-heaters and kitchen ranges; in
fact, without it we could have made no progress whatever,
like the hairy rhinoceros
for
not only the humble kitchen range, but the great factories
and power-plants are all depending upon the discovery made
by the shivering, teeth-chattering savage who was hopping around and trying to keep himself warm among the
European
glaciers.
But we people
primitive
fires just
of the camp-fires are
as the Neanderthal
more interested
men
built
in
them, than
3
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
4
we are
In the roaring furnaces of the steel works, the volcano
blast furnaces, or
of factory
any of the
and commerce.
What we love is
scientific,
commercialized
fires
the genial, old-fashioned camp-fire in the
open, on the broad prairie, on the mountainside, or in the
dark and mysterious forests, where, as our good friend Dr.
Hornaday
says,
We will pile on pine and spruce,
Mesquite roots and sagebrush loose,
Dead bamboo and smelly teak,
And with fagots blazing bright
Burn a hole
into the night
Not
long ago the author was up North in the unmapped
lake country of Canada, and while camping on the portage
between two wild and lonely
himself a
is
lakes,
Scout Joe
consisting of Fig. 1,
Van Vleck made
a thimble made of a
which to hold Fig. 2, the spindle made of balsam.
a bow cut from a standing bush; not an elastic bow,
burl, with
Fig. 3
fire outfit
FIRE
MAKING BY FRICTION
5
such as one uses with which to shoot arrows, but a
bow with
a permanent bend to it. Fig. 4 is the fire-pan which is placed
under the fire-board to catch the charcoal dust as it falls
through the slot when the spindle is twirled.
Fig. 5 is the fire-board, made of a dead balsam tree which
was standing within three yards of the camp-fire.
In order to make his fire it was necessary for our Scout to
have some tinder, and this he secured from the bark of cedar
trees, also within a few yards of our camp. This indeed was
a novel experience, for seldom
is
material so convenient.
The
a few seconds, much to the wonderment of
our Indian guide, and the delight of some moose hunters
who chanced to be crossing the portage on which our camp
was
fire
was
built in
located.
It
was an American, Dr. Walter Hough
National
Museum
modern up-to-date
of Washington,
civilized
white
who
man
rubbing-sticks, as well as the primitive
of the U. S.
proved that a
can make a fire with
first
man.
But
it
was an
Englishman who popularized this method of making fire, introduced it among the Boy Scouts of England and America,
and the sister organizations among the girls.
According to the American Indian legend the animal
people who inhabited the earth before the Redmen lived in
darkness in California.
There was the coyote man, the vulmouse man, and a lot of other
over East somewhere there was light
ture man, the white-footed
fabled creatures.
Away
because the sun was over there, and the humming-bird man
among the animal people of our Indians is the one, according
who stole the fire from the East and carried
chin. The mark of it is still there. The next
to Dr. Merriman,
it
under his
time you see a humming-bird note the
fire under his chin.
brilliant
spot of red
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
6
Now
you understand why the king-phi
ing at your
humming-bird).
If one gets the
fire
record time, then the
title
of
in
fire
mak-
Le-che-che (the
from a fire-board, spindle and bow
title of
Le-che-che
is all
in
the more appro-
was the humming-bird man who hid the
the oo-noo tree, and to this day, when the Indian wants
priate because
fire in
the
deserves
camp
it
he goes to the oo-noo (buckeye) tree to get it; that is,
provided he has no matches in the pockets of his store clothes
fire,
and that some white boy,
like
the Scout previously mentioned,
has taught him how to make fire as did the Indian's own
ancestors. But even then the oo-noo* wood must be
dead and dry.
Austin Norton of Ypsilanti, Michigan, April, 1912, made
fire in thirty -nine and one-fifth seconds; Frederick C. Reed of
Washington, in December, 1912, made fire in thirty-one seconds; Mr. Ernest Miller of St. Paul made fire in thirty seconds, but it was Mr. Arthur Forbush, one of the author's
Scouts of the Sons of Daniel Boone (the scout organization
which preceded both the English Boy Scouts and the Boy
Scouts of America) who broke the record time in making fire
with "rubbing-sticks" by doing it in twenty-nine seconds at
Show at Madison Square Garden, New
York. Mr. Forbush made this record in the presence of the
the Sportsman's
author and
many
own
reduced his
seconds
;
by
this
witnesses.
Since then the same gentleman
world-record to twenty-six and one-fifth
time even that record
t
may have been
broken.
The "rubbing-stick"
is
a picturesque, sensational and
*
It is not the buckeye of the Ohio and Mississippi Valley, but
nut buckeye of California, /Esculus California.
t
The
record
is
now
eleven seconds.
is
the
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
method of building a fire, but to-day it is of little
use
outside of the fact that it teaches one to overpractical
come obstacles, to do things with the tools at hand, to think
interesting
and act with the
primitive man.
vigor, precision
and
self-confidence of a
"RUBBING-STICK" OUTFIT
was a small boy he has read about
making fire by rubbing "two chips" or "two sticks" together,
and he was under the impression then, and is under the impression now, that no one can build a fire in that manner.
Ever
since the writer
When we
slovenly
find reference to rubbing-sticks
manner
of describing the
other similar friction
one requires
first
a
fire
it is
bow and
implements.
probably a
drill
and the
For the bow and
drill
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
8
THIMBLE
is a half round stone
(Figs. 1, 1A, IB, 1C and ID). This
or pebble, a half round burl or knot of wood, or it may be
made of soft wood with an inlay of a piece of stone. In the
bottom of the thimble there is always a shallow hole or socket;
see S on Figs. 1, 1A, IB, 1C, and ID. The thimble is an
invention of the Eskimos (Fig. 1C) they keep the spindle
a hole (S)
upright by holding the pointed upper end of it in
;
a piece of serpentine, or soapstone.
The author has a thimble personally made for him by
Major David Abercrombie. This beautiful implement is
made of hard fine-grained wood carved into the form of a
drilled into
beetle (Fig. IB).
It
is
inlaid
with copper and semi-precious
was drilled into a piece of jade (B),
stones. The
in Fig. 23.
using for the purpose some sand and the drill shown
There was a piece of steel pipe set into the end of the wooden
socket hole
with which to bore a hole into the hard jade. The jade
was then inlaid or set into the middle of the bottom of the
thimble, and cemented there, Fig. IB. The author also
drill
has a thimble
made
for
him by Edmund Seymour
Camp-fire Club of America. This thimble
with a hole drilled in it, Fig. 1A.
is
of the
a stone
fossil
not necessary to tell the reader that when using the
bow for power, the twirling spindle cannot be held down with
the bare hand, consequently the use of the thimble for that
It
is
purpose
is
necessary.
fashioned that
it
may
so
Fig. 1C shows an Eskimo thimble
be held in the fire-maker's mouth.
THE Bow
a stick or branch of wood (Figs. 3, 3E, 3F and 3G) about
a foot and a half long and almost an inch in diameter, which
Is
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
9
has a permanent bend in it the bend may be natural or may
have been made artificially. To the bow is attached a slack
thong, or durable string of some kind. The Eskimos, more
inventive than the Indians, made themselves beautiful bows
them from walrus tusks, which they shaved
a loose strip of walrus hide.
with
strung
of ivory, carving
down and
THE Bow STRING
The
objection to
whang
apt to be too greasy, so
if
string or belt lacing
one can secure a
is
that
buckskin thong about two inches wide, and twist
string, it will
it is
strip of buckskin, a
it
probably best serve the purpose (Fig.
into
a
6).
THE SPINDLE
the twirling stick (Figs. 2, 2A, 2B and 2C)
which is usually about a foot long and was used by our
American Indians without the bow (Fig. 7). The twirling
The
spindle
stick or spindle
is
may be three-quarters
of
an inch
in diameter
at the middle; constant use and sharpening
gradually
shorten the spindle. When it becomes too short a new one
will
must be made.
like
The end
a lead
of the spindle should not be
made
but should have a dull or rounded
pencil,
sharp
end, with which to bore into the fire-board, thus producing
fine, hot charcoal, which in time becomes a spark: that is, a
growing ember.
THE FIRE-BOARD
The
fire-board (Figs. 5
and 5A) should be made
of spruce,
cedar, balsam, tamarack, cottonwood root, basswood,
and
even dry white pine, maple and, probably, buckeye wood. It
should not be made of black walnut, oak or chestnut, or any
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
10
wood which has a gummy or resinous quality. The fire-board
should be of dry material which will powder easily. Dr.
Hough recommends maple for the fire-board, or "hearth," as
it is
called in the
Boy Scout Handbook. Make
the fire-board
about eleven inches long, two inches wide and three-quarters
of an inch thick.
Near the edge of the board, and two inches from the end,
begin a row of notches each three-quarter inch long and cut
down through the fire-board so as to be wider at the bottom.
At the inside end of each notch make an indenture only
deep to barely hold the end of your spindle while
the preliminary twirls which gradually enlarge the
socket to fit the end of your spindle.
sufficiently
you make
THE FIRE-PAN
The
a chip, shingle or wooden dust-pan used
to catch the charred dust as it is pushed out by the twirling
spindle (Fig. 4)
idea,
(Fig.
is
fire-pan
.
The
use of the fire-pan
is
also
an Eskimos
but they cut a step in then* driftwood fire-board
8) to serve as a fire-pan.
itself
TINDER
When you
linen
make
pose
is
can procure them, charred rags of cotton or
excellent tinder, but the best fabric for that pur-
an old Turkish towel.
How TO CHAR A RAG
Find a flat stone
(Fig. 10) ,
a broad piece of board, a smooth,
hard, bare piece of earth; set your cloth afire and after
begins to blaze briskly, smother
it
it
out quickly by using a
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
11
folded piece of paper (Fig. 9) a square section of birch bark
or another piece of board. This napped down quickly upon
,
the flames will
Or with
charred portion (Fig. 10).
your
feet quickly
flames.
in
them without disturbing the
extinguish
trample out the
tinder
Keep your punk or
a water-tight box; a
tin tobacco
good for that purpose, or do
like our ancestors did
keep it in a
horn
(Fig. 30).
punk
box
is
Very
fine
^ fiA f
good
mushroom, known
is
dry grass
tinder, also the
/<T/?
as the puff-ball or Devil's snuffbox.
The
puff-balls, big ones,
may
be found growing about the edges
of the woods and they make very good punk or tinder. They
are prepared by hanging them on a string and drying them
out, after which they are cut into thin slices, laid on the
board and beaten until
mered out
punk or
of them,
all
when
tinder (Fig. 11).
the black dust ("snuff")
is
ham-
they are in condition to use as
In olden times there was a mush-
room, toadstool or fungus imported from Germany, and
used as punk, but woodcraft consists in supplying oneself
with the material at hand; therefore do not forget that
12 and 13), white-footed mice (Fig.
14) and voles, or short-tailed meadow mice, are all addicted
flying squirrels
(Figs.
to collecting good
TINDER
with which to make their
the birds
vireos.
the
summer
warm
yellow
nests
:
bird,
do some of
humming-bird and
So
also
While abandoned humming-birds' nests are too
diffi-
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
12
cult to find, last year's vireos' nests are
more
easily discov-
cups between two branches, usually
of
the
within reach
hand, and quite conspicuous in the fall
ered suspended
when the
like
leaves are off the trees.
Cedar bark, both red
(Fig. 15)
and white, the dry inner
when shredded up very
Whether
fine,
you use the various forms
of rubbing-sticks or the flint and steel, it is necessary to
catch the spark in punk or tinder in order to develop
bark of other
trees,
make good
the flame.
dry birch bark,
tinder.
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
How TO MAKE A FIRE WITH A DRILL
make a
Bow
on which to place your
First find a level solid foundation
fire-board, then
AND
13
half turn with the string of the
bow
around the spindle, as in
the diagram (Fig. 16) now
grasp the thimble with
;
the
left
hand, put one end
of the drill in the socket
hole of the thimble, the
other end in the socket
hole
on the
with your
fire-board,
left
foot hold-
^ '""^
.-,_
IT^
*
-*
ing the fire-board down.
Press your left wrist firmly against your left shin. Begin
work by drawing the bow slowly and horizontally back and
forth until it works easily, work
the bow as one does a fiddle bow
when playing on a bass
draw the bow
each time.
its
When
smoothly, speed
it
Or when you
viol,
but
whole length
it is
running
up.
feel
that
the
biting the wood, press
harder on the thimble, not too
drill
is
hard, but hard enough to hold
the
drill
not
slip
will
continue to bite the wood
firmly, so that it will
out of the socket but
the "sawdust" begins to
show a brown color, later it will
become black and begin to smoke until the thickening smoke
until
appear.
At
first it will
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
14
announces that you have developed the spark. At this stage
you gently fan the smoking embers with one hand. If you
fan
it
too briskly, as often happens, the powder will be
blown away.
As soon as you are satisfied that you have secured a spark,
lift the powdered embers on the fire-pan and place carefully
on top of it a bunch of tinder, then blow till it bursts into
flame (Fig. 8A)
Or fold the tinder over the spark gently,
take it up in your hand and swing it with a circular motion
.
until the flame flares out.
Even
to this
day peasantry throughout the Carpathian
and Balkan peninsulas build their fires with a "rubbingBut these people not being campers have a permanent fire machine made by erecting two posts, one to represent
stick."
the fire-stick and the other the socket thimble.
The
spindle
runs horizontally between these two posts and the pressure
is secured by a thong or cord tied around the two posts, which
tends to pull them toward each other. The spindle is worked
by a bow the same as the one already described and the fire
is
produced in the same manner.
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
FERE WITHOUT A
15
Bow
My pupils in the Woodcraft Camp built fires successfully
a chair for the spindle, a piece of packing
case for a fire-board, and another piece for the socket wood
by using the rung
of
and the string from their moccasins for a bow string. They
used no bow, however, and two or three boys were necessary to make a fire, one to hold the spindle and two others
to saw on the moccasin string (Fig. 17).
CO-LI-LI
is
made
of
two
pieces of
THE FIRE SAW
bamboo, or
This
fish pole.
is
the
making used by the Bontoc Igorot
seldom found among the men of the Philippines.
oldest instrument for fire
and
is
now
Practically all Philippine boys, however,
and use
called
A
know how
to
make
and so should our boys here, and men, too. It is
"co-li-li" and is made of two pieces of dry bamboo.
it
two-foot section of dead and dry
bamboo
is
first
split
lengthwise and in one piece, a small area of the stringy tissue
lining of the tube is splintered and picked until quite loose
(Fig. 18)
.
Just over the picked
bamboo, a narrow groove
is
fibres,
but on the outside of the
cut across
it
(Fig. 18G).
This
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
16
bamboo
now
the stationary lower part or "fireboard" of the machine. One edge of the other half of the
piece of
is
is sharpened like a chisel blade's edge (Fig. 19)
then grasped with one hand at each end and is slowly and
heavily sawed backward and forward through the groove in
original tube
;
it is
the board, and afterwards worked
more
rapidly, thus pro-
ducing a conical pile of dry dust on the wad of tinder picked
from the inside of the bamboo or previously placed there.
(Figs. 20 and 21). Fig. 22 is the fire-pan.
"After a dozen strokes," says our authority, Mr. Albert
Ernest Jenks, "the sides of the groove and the edge of the
piece are burned down; presently a smell of smoke is plain
and before three dozen strokes have been made, smoke may
Usually before a hundred strokes a larger volume of
be seen.
smoke
us that the dry dust constantly falling on the pile
has grown more and more charred until finally a tiny spark
falls, carrying combustion to the already heated dust cone."
tells
The
of dust
hand
then carefully lifted and if the pinch
smouldering it may now be gently fanned with the
fire-board
is
is
until the tinder catches; then it
may be blown
into a
flame.
FIRE PUMPING OF THE IROQUOIS
Fig. 23
shows another form of
drill.
For
this
one
it is
necessary to have a weight wheel attached
to the lower part of the spindle.
A
hole
made through its center and the drill
fitted to this. The one in Fig. 23 is fitted
is
out with a rusty iron wheel which I found
under the barn. Fig. 23 C shows a
pottery weight wheel which I found
years ago in a gravel-pit in Mills Creek bottoms at
Cincinnati, Ohio. It was brick-red in color and decorated
many
FIRE MAKING BY FRICTION
17
with strange characters. For many, many years I did not
know for what use this unique instrument was intended. I
to the Flushing
presented
it
I trust it
still
the
bow up and down
is
where
by moving
STICK (American Indian)
practically the
same
bow and thong
difference: the
Island),
twirled
fire-drill is
instead of backward and forward.
THE TWIRLING
Fig. 7
High School (Long
The
remains.
as Figs. 16
and
17,
with this
are dispensed with and the
spindle twirled between the
palm of the hands, as formerly
the
California
the natives of Australia,
Indians,
practised by
Caroline Islands, China, Africa and India.
Many
manner.
of the
American Indians made
They spun the
thin spindle
by
friction fire in this
rolling it
between
the palms of their hands and as pressure was exerted the
hands gradually slid down to the thick lower end of the
spindle.
To again get the hands to the top of the drill requires
practice
and
skill.
Personally the writer cannot claim any
success with this method.
THE PLOW STICK (American
The
simplest
method
of friction
requires only a fire-board with a
gutter in
it
and a rubbing-stick
up and down the gutter
Belmore
24).
(Fig.
Captain
Browne of Mt. McKinley fame
to push
made a fire by this last method
when his matches were soaked
with water. It is, however, more
difficult to
produce the
way than with
2
fire this
the thong and
is
Indian)
that of the plow, which
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
18
bow.
It
is still
used in the Malay Islands
;
the natives place
the fire-board on a stump or stone, straddle it and with a
pointed drill plow the board back and forth until they
produce
Time: Forty seconds.
fire.
Of course
it is
unnecessary to
tell
anyone that he can
start a fire with a sunglass (Fig. 25) or with the lens of a
,.
camera, or with the lens
old-fashioned
watch
gether.
But
as the
visible,
as
made from two
crystals
held
to-
sun
is not always
not supposed to
grow in the wild woods and were not to
be found in the camps and log cabins of
lenses
are
the pioneers, and as watch crystals have short lives in the
woods, we will pass this method of fire making without
matches as one which properly belongs in the classroom.
THE PYROPNEUMATIC APPARATUS
Before or about the time of the American Revolution some
gentleman invented a
fire
piston (Fig. 26) with which he
ignited punk made of fungus by the heat engendered by the
sudden compression of the air.
The ancient gentleman describes his invention as follows:
"The cy Under is about nine inches long, and half an inch in
diameter;
it
terminates in a screw on which screws the magaand some fungus. A steel rod
zine intended to hold a bougie,
attached to a solid piston, or plunger, not shown in the
figure, it being within the tube. This rod has a milled head
is
and there
is
a small hole in the tube to admit the
air,
when
the piston is drawn up to the top, where a piece unscrews,
for the purpose of applying oil or grease to the piston. I have
found lard to answer the end best."
FIRE
MAKING BY FRICTION
METHOD OF USING
"
IT
piece of fungus, and
on and draw the
the
screw
the
chamber,
tight
piece
place
Hold
the
till
it
the
end,
stops.
piston up by
instrument with both hands in the manner
Take from the magazine a small
it in
represented hi Fig. 26, place the end on a
table or against any firm body, either in a
perpendicular, horizontal or vertical direction,
and force the piston down with as much
rapidity as possible.
This rapid compression
of the air will cause the fungus to take
fire.
Instantly after the stroke of the piston, un-
screw the magazine, when the air will rush in,
and keep up the combustion till the fungus is
consumed. Observe, in lighting the tinder, the
fungus must be lifted up a little from the chamber, so as to
allow the tinder to be introduced beneath
it,
otherwise
it
not kindle.
will
"Here
may be remarked that
it
the instrument thus con-
structed has a decided advantage over the fire-cane, where the
fungus
is
inserted at such a depth as not easily to
But in Burmah they had the same idea.
still
light their cigarettes
on the end
of the piston
air-tight cylinders,
the cotton
with a
is
fire-piston.
The
Philippines
ignite
a wad of cotton stuck
by suddenly
forcing the piston into
same machine and
also use the
be reached."
There the coolies
and when the piston
quickly withdrawn
be that the Colonial
is
found to be aflame, so it may
gentleman had traveled to the Indies and borrowed his idea
from the Burmahs, or the Philippines.
At any rate we do
not use
it
to-day in the woods, but
those
among my
it
finds place here because it
and may be good as a suggestion for
readers of experimental and inventive minds.
belongs to the friction fires
CHAPTER
II
FIRE MAKING BY PERCUSSION
THE WHITE MAN'S METHOD; HOW TO USE FLINT AND STEEL
WHERE TO OBTAIN THE FLINT AND STEEL
CHUCKNUCKS, PUNK BOXES, SPUNKS AND MATCHES
REAL LUCIFER MATCHES
SLOW MATCH
HOW TO CATCH THE SPARK
SUBSTITUTES FOR FLINT AND STEEL
CHAPTER
II
FIRE MAKING BY PERCUSSION
THE
preceding methods of producing fire by friction are
not the white man's methods, and are not the methods
used by our pioneer ancestors. The only case the writer
can remember in which the pioneer white people used
rubbing-sticks to produce fire, is one where the refugees
from an Indian uprising and massacre in Oregon made
fire from rubbing-sticks made of the bits of the splintered
wood
a lightning stricken
of
evidently
left
home
tree.
On
that occasion they
in a great hurry, without their flints
and steels.
But this one instance
in itself
is
sufficient to
show
to
all
outdoor people the great importance of the knowledge and
Like our good friend, the
ability to make friction fires.
explorer and author, Captain Belmore Browne, one
at
may
any time get in a fix where one's matches are soaked,
destroyed or lost and be compelled either to eat one's food
artist,
raw or
It
resort to rubbing-sticks to start a
is
fire.
well, however, to remember that the
flint
and
steel is
THE WHITE MAN'S METHOD
And
notwithstanding the
fire
canes of our Colonial dudes,
or the Pyropneumatic apparatus of the forgotten Mr. Bank,
fire by percussion, that is, fire by friction of flint and steel,
America up to a quite recent date, and
among many of my Camp-fire Club
and among many smokers
was universal here
it is still
friends,
in
in
common
use
23
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
24
How
TO USE FLINT AND STEEL
In the age of flint and steel, the guns were all fired by this
Fig. 33 shows the gun-lock of an old musket; the
hammer holds a piece of flint, a small piece of buckskin is
method.
folded around the inside edge of the flint and serves to give
a grip to the top part of the hammer which is screwed down.
To
fire
the gun the
hammer is pulled back
hammer and is joined
steel sets opposite the
at
full
cock, the
to the top of the
powder-pan by a hinge. When the trigger is pulled the hammer comes down, striking the flint against the steel, throwing
it back and exposing the powder at the same time to the
sparks which ignite the powder in the gun by means of the
touch hole in the side of the barrel of same.
of a
hammer and
lock used
by
all
This
is
the sort
of our ancestors
up to the
a hammer used by
time of the Civil War, and it is the sort of
the Confederates as late as the battle of Fort Donaldson.
In
the olden times some people had flint lock pistols without
barrels, which were used only to ignite punk for the purpose of
But when one starts a fire by means of flint
and steel one's hands must act the part of the hammer, the
back of one's knife may be the steel, then a piece of flint
or a gritty rock and a piece of punk will produce the
fire-building.
spark necessary to generate the flames.
In the good old pioneer days, when
we
wore buckskin
and did not bother about the price of wool, when we
wore coonskin caps and cared little for the price of felt hats,
everybody, from Miles Standish and George Washington to
Abraham Lincoln, used flint and steel. Fig. 27 shows ten
all
clothes
different
forms
of
steel
used
by
our
grandsires
and
granddames.
Flint in
its
natural condition
but, as a rule,
may be found in many states,
any stone which was used by the Indians
for
FIRE MAKING BY PERCUSSION
arrowheads
will
answer as a substitute for
flint,*
27
that
is,
any gritty or glassy stone, like quartz, agate, jasper or iron
pyrites. Soft stones, limestones, slate or soapstones are not
good
for this purpose.
THE STEEL
Most of the old steels were so made that one might grasp
them while thrusting one's fingers through the inside of the
oval steel, Fig. 28 (left handed). Some of the Scoutmasters
of the Boy Scouts of America make their own steels of broken
files, but this is unnecessary because
and
outdoor
man,
woman, too, is supposed to carry a
every
good sized jack-knife and the back of the blade of the jack-
pieces of flat ten-cent
knife, or the
enough
it
back of the blade of one's hunting knife is good
anyone who has acquired the art of using
steel for
as a steel.
But
you must have steels manufactured at the machine
shop or make them yourself, let them be an inch wide, a
quarter of an inch thick, and long enough to form an ellipse
Have the sharp edges
like one of those shown in Fig. 27.
rounded off. If you desire you may have your steel twisted
in any of the shapes shown in Fig. 27 to imitate the ones
if
used by your great granddaddies.
THE CHUCKNTJCK
But the neatest thing in the way of flint and steel which
has come to the writer's attention is shown by Fig. 31. This
*
York
To-day
flint
may
be obtained at Bannermans, 501 Broadway, New
have ancient steels which were used by the U. S.
City, where they also
soldiers.
The
flints
may
also be purchased
Establishment at Rochester,
supply of flints at one of the
New
from Wards Natural Science
York, and the author found a plentiful
Army and Navy stores in New York.
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
28
is
a small
German
silver
box which
still
contains some of the
original fungus used for punk and an ancient, well-battered
piece of flint. Around the box is fitted the steel in the form
of a band,
and the whole thing
is
so small that
it
may be
This was once the property of
Phillip Hagner, Lieutenant, of the City of Philadelphia at the
time of the Revolution, that is, custodian of city property.
carried in one's vest pocket.
He took the Christ Church bells from Philadelphia to Bethlehem by ox-cart before the city was occupied by the British.
Phillip Hagner came from Saxony about 1700 and settled in
Germantown, Philadelphia. This silver box was presented
to the National Scout Commissioner by Mr. Isaac Sutton,
Scout Commissioner for Delaware and Montgomery Counties,
Boy
Scouts of America.
PUNK BOXES
The cowhorn punk box is made by sawing off the small
end and then the point of a cow's horn (Fig. 30). A small
hole is next bored through the solid small end of the horn to
connect with the natural open space further down, a strip
of rawhide or whang string larger than the hole is forced
through the small end and secured by a knot on the inside,
which prevents
it
from being pulled out. The large end of the
by a piece of thick sole leather attached to the
thong, by tying a hard knot in the end and pulling the thong
through a hole in the center of the stopper until the knot is
horn
is
closed
snug against the leather disk; this should be done before the
wet leather is allowed to dry. If the thong and leather stopper are made to fit the horn tightly, the dry baked rags, the
charred cotton, or whatever substance you use for punk,
when placed in the horn will be perfectly protected from
moisture or dampness.
FIRE MAKING BY PERCUSSION
29
SULPHUR HEADED SPUNKS AND MATCHES
These old sulphur "spunks" were nothing more than
wood or tinder, because they would not ignite by
kindling
rubbing but were lighted by putting the sulphur end hi the
According to our modern ideas of convenience they
flame.
appear very primitive.
They were
called
"spunks"
in
Eng-
land and "matches" in America, and varied hi length from
three to seven inches, were generally packed in bundles
from a dozen to two dozen and tied together with bits of
Some spunks made as late as 1830 are considered
straw.
enough to be carefully preserved in the York Museum
England (Fig. 323^). The ones illustrated in Fig. 32 are a
Long Island product, and were given to the author by the
late John Halleran, the most noted antique collector on Long
rare
in
Island.
These are carefully preserved among the antiquities
But they are less than half the length
in the writer's studio.
of the ones formerly used
on the Western Reserve.
With
the ancient matches in the studio are also two old pioneer
tinder boxes with flints and steels. The^tinder boxes are
made
and contain a lot of baked rags. The inside lid
an extinguisher with which to cover up the punk or
tinder in the box after you have lighted the candle in the tin
of tin
acts as
lid of
the box (Fig. 32).
The matches we use today
are evolved from these old
sulphur spunks. When the writer was a little fellow up in
the Western Reserve on the shores of Lake Erie, he was
intensely interested hi an old lady making sulphur matches.
Over the open fire she melted the sulphur in an iron kettle
in which she dipped the ends of some pine slivers.
The
sulphur on the end of the sticks was then allowed to cool
and harden. These matches were about the length of a lead
pencil
and could only be
lighted
by thrusting the sulphur
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
30
into the flame.
So, although having been born in the age of
Lucifer matches, the writer was yet fortunate enough to
see manufactured and to remember the contemporary ancestors of our present-day "safety" match.
THE REAL LUCIFER MATCH
That
is,
the match which lights from friction, is the
M. P. According to the Pall Mall
invention of Isaac Holden,
Gazette, Mr. Holden said, "In the morning I used to get up
at 4 o'clock in order to pursue my studies, and I used at that
time the flint and steel, in the use of which I found very great
inconvenience. Of course, I knew, as other chemists did,
the explosive material that was necessary in order to produce
instantaneous light, but it was very difficult to obtain a
light
on wood by that explosive material, and the idea
curred to
me
oc-
to put sulphur under the explosive mixture.
I did that and showed it in my next lecture on chemistry,
a course of which I was delivering at a large academy."
Because every real woodsman is a student, as well as a
sentimentalist, a brief history is given of these fire imple-
ments to entertain him as we jog along the "trace." All
these things are blazes which mark the trail to the button
in our wall which now produces the electric light. Some of
them, like the clay cylinders found in the ruins of Babylon,
are only useful in a historical sense, but many of them are
essentially practical for woodcraft.
How
TO
MAKE
A CHUCKNUCK
The slow match or punk rope to fit in the brass cylinder
may be made of candle wick or coach wick purchased at the
hardware
wick is about three-eighths of an inch
Scout Commissioner John H. Chase of Youngs-
store; such
in diameter.
FIRE MAKING KY PERCUSSION
31
town, Ohio, suggests that the rope may be made from the
wastes of a machine shop or a garage; but one of the best
woodsmen I know is Mr. Frederick K. Vreeland, and he
uses the apparatus shown by Fig. 34, which is made of the
yellow fuse rope, or punk rope, which may be purchased at
cigar stores. He fastens a cork in one end of the rope by a
wire, he pulls the other end of the rope through the end of
the brass cartridge shell which has been filed off for that
purpose. The end of the fuse rope must be charred, so as
to catch the spark. To get the spark he takes the back of the
blade of his knife (Fig. 35), and strikes the bit of flint as you
would with flint and steel, holding the charred end of the
punk against the
flint,
as
shown by the diagram
Loose cotton and various vegetable
rope soaked in water and gunpowder
when
fibers
will
(Fig. 29).
twisted into a
make good punk
dry.
To GET THE SPARK
Place the charred end of the rope on the flint, the charred
portion about one thirty-second of an inch back of the edge
of the flint
where the
latter is to
be struck by the
steel;
hold the punk in place with the thumb of the left hand, as in
the diagram (Fig. 29) Hold the knife about six inches above
.
at an angle of about forty -five degrees from the flint, turn
your knife so that the edge of the back of the blade will
then come down at an angle about thirty -five degrees
with a sharp scraping blow. This should send the spark into
the punk at the first or second blow. Now blow the punk
strike,
is all aglow and you are ready to set your tinder afire.
Push the punk into the middle of a handful of tinder and
blow it until it is aflame, and the deed is done!
until it
All these pocket contrivances for striking
merly
known
fire
were
as "striker-lights" or "chucknucks."
for-
32
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
A
SUBSTITUTE FOR FLINT AND STEEL
The Malays having neither flint nor steel ingeniously
substitute for the flint a piece of broken chinaware, and for
the steel a bamboo joint, and they produce a spark by striking
the broken china against the joint of the bamboo, just as
we do with the flint and steel.
CHAPTER
HOW TO
III
BUILD A FIRE
HOW TO LAY AND LIGHT A FIRE
AN EXPERIENCE WITH TENDERFEET
MODERN FEAR OF DOING MANUAL LABOR
MATCHES
FIRE-MAKERS AND BABYLONIANS
THE PALPITATING HEART OF THE CAMP
GUMMY FAGOTS OF THE PINE
HOW TO MAKE A FIRE IN WET WEATHEK
BACKWOODSMEN'S FIRE
THE NECESSITY OF SMALL KINDLING WOOD
GOOD FIREWOOD
ADVANTAGE OF SPLIT WOOD
FIRE-DOGS
HOW
HOW
TO OPEN A KNIFE
TO WHITTLE; HOW TO SPLIT A STICK WITH A KNIFE
BONFIRES AND COUNCIL FIRES
CAMP MEETING TORCH FIRES
EXPLODING STONES
CHARACTER IN FIRE
SLOW
3
FIHES, SIGNAL FIRES
AND SMUDGES
CHAPTER
HOW TO
"By
III
BUILD A FIRE
thy camp-fire they shall
know
thee."
A PARTY of twenty or thirty men once called at the author's
and begged that he would go with them on a
studio
hike,
stating that they intended to cook their dinner out-of-doors.
We went on the hike. The author asked the gentlemen to
collect the
and
was
and
and
wood
for the fire; they did so enthusiastically
heaped up about a quarter of a cord of wood. There
no stick in the pile less than the thickness of one's arm,
many as thick as one's leg. A fine misty rain was falling
everything was damp. While all the other hikers gathered around, one of them carefully lighted a match and
applied it to the heap of damp cord wood sticks. Match
match he
after
tried,
then turned helplessly to the writer
with the remark, "It won't
humor
the
Had anyone
thirty
men
light, sir,"
and none there saw
of the situation!
told the writer that from twenty-five to
could be found, none of
he would have
whom
could build a
fire,
considered the statement as highly improbable,
he had been told that any intelligent man would try
wood sticks, wet or dry, by applying a match
to them, he would have branded the story as utterly beyond
belief.
It is, however, really astonishing how few people
but
if
to light cord
there are
even when supplied
and abundant matches.
who know how
with plenty of fuel
to build a
fire
MATCHES
It
that
may be
it
well to call the reader's attention to the fact
takes very
little
moisture to spoil the scratch patch
35
36
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
on a box
of safety
from
igniting.
when one
lights
one's face or
matches and prevent the match itself
The so-called parlor match, which snaps
it and often shoots the burning head into
on one's
clothes,
The
take into the woods.
is
too dangerous a match to
bird's-eye
match
is
exceedingly
on the
trail, but the old-fashioned, ill-smelling
sometimes
called sulphur match, the kind
Lucifer match,
unreliable
one
may
secure at the
that comes
in blocks
Hudson Bay Trading
and
is
Post, the kind
often packed in tin cans,
is
the
match for woodcrafters, hunters, explorers, and hikers.
Most of the outfitting stores in the big cities either have these
matches or can procure them for their customers. When
best
one of these matches
is
damp
it
may
be dried by running
it
through one's hair.
Nowadays manual labor seems to be looked upon by
everyone more in the light of a disgrace or punishment than
as a privilege; nevertheless, it is a privilege to be able to
labor, it is a privilege to have the vim, the pep, the desire
and the
ability to
do things.
Labor
is
a necessary attribute
HOW TO BUILD A
of the doer
FIRE
37
and those who
live in the open; no one need
attempt so simple a thing as the building of a fire and expect
to succeed without labor.
One must use the axe
and 43)
must plan the fire care-
industriously (Figs. 39, 42
in order to procure fuel for the fire; one
with regard to the wind and the inflammable material
adjacent: one must collect and select the fuel intelligently.
fully
The shirk, the quitter, or the side-stepper has no place
in the open; his habitat is on the Great White
among the
Way
Babylonians of the big cities. He does not even know the
joys of a fire; he never sees a fire except when some building
is
His body
burning.
is
heated by steam radiators, his food
cooked in some mysterious place beyond his ken, and
brought to him by subservient waiters. He will be dead and
is
on
flowers growing
his grave
when the
just attaining the full vigor of their
real fire-makers are
manhood.
Captain Belmore Browne says that the
ness are
its arteries;
we may add that
trails of
all trails
the wilder-
proceed from
or lead to camp, and that the camp-fire is the living,
life-giving, palpitating heart of the camp; without it all is
camp
dead and
That
lifeless.
brotherhood
of burning
all
love the
wood
is
is
the reason that
fire;
that
is
of the outdoor
incense to our nostrils; that
that the writer cannot help talking about
be
we
the reason that the odor
it
is
the reason
when he should
telling
How
Do
TO BUILD A FIRE
not forget that lighting a fire in hot, dry weather is
but that it takes a real camper to perform the
child's play,
same act
or
in the
when the
damp, soggy woods on a cold, raw, rainy day,
damp snow is covering all the branches of
first
the trees and blanketing the moist ground with a slushy
Then it is that fire making
mantle of white discomfort!
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
38
and patience of the woodcrafter;
takes proper care neither rain, snow nor
hail can spell failure for him.
brings out
nevertheless
all
the
skill
when he
GUMMY FAGOTS OF THE PINE
of
In the mountains of Pennsylvania the old backwoodsmen,
which there are very few left, invariably build their fires
with dry pine, or pitch pine sticks.
With their axe they split a pine log (Fig. 42), then cut
it into sticks about a foot long and about the thickness of
their
own knotted thumbs,
or
maybe a
trifle
thicker (Fig. 40)
after that they proceed to whittle these sticks, cutting
;
deep
shavings (Fig. 37), but using care to leave one end of the shavings adhering to the wood; they go round and round the stick
with their knife blade making curled shavings until the piece
wooden trees one used
of kindling looks like one of those toy
to find in his
Noah's Ark on Christmas morning
(Fig. 37).
When a backwoodsman finishes three or more sticks he sets
them up wigwam form
(Fig. 38).
been cut from the centre of a pine
three sticks having
log, are dry
and maybe
necessary to start the flame is to touch
to the bottom of the curled shavings (Fig. 38).
resinous, so all that
a match
The
is
Before they do this, however, they are careful to have a
supply of small slivers of pitch pine, white pine or split pine
knots handy (Fig. 36) These they set up around the shaved
.
sticks,
maybe adding some hemlock
it is all
bark, and by the time
ablaze they are already putting on larger sticks of
maple or oak.
ash, black birch, yellow birch, sugar
it known that however handy pitch pine is for
a
it is not the material used as fuel in the fire
fire,
starting
itself, because the heavy smoke from the pitch blackens up
For be
the cooking utensils, gives a disagreeable taste to the food,
HOW TO BUILD A
spoils
the coffee and
Is
FIRE
41
not a pleasant accompaniment
even for a bonfire.
In the North woods, in the land of the birch trees, green
is universally used as kindling with which to start
birch bark
green birch bark burns like tar paper. But whether
fire with birch bark, shaved pine sticks or
miscellaneous dry wood, one must remember that
a
fire;
one starts the
SPLIT
WOOD
Burns much better than wood in its natural form, and
that logs from twelve to fourteen inches are best for splitting
for fuel (Fig. 42) ; also one must not forget that in starting a
the smaller the slivers of kindling wood are made, the
easier it is to obtain a flame by the use of a single match
fire
(Fig. 36), after
fire
which the adding of
must have air to breathe
fuel is
a simple matter.
A
in order to live, that is a draught,
consequently kindling piled in the
little
wigwam shape
is
frequently used.
FIRE-DOGS
For an ordinary, unimportant fire the "turkey-lay"
is handy, but for camp-fires and cooking fires we
(Fig. 54)
use andirons on which to rest the wood, but of course in the
forests
we do not
call
them
andirons.
They
are not
made
of
iron; they are either logs of green wood or stones and known
to woodsmen by the name of "fire-dogs."
While we are on the subject of fire making it may be
worth while to
call
the reader's attention to the fact that
every outdoor person should know how to use a pocket
knife, a jack-knife or a hunter's knife with the greatest efficiency and the least danger.
To those of us who grew
up in the whittling
seem odd or even funny that anyone should deem
age,
it
it
may
necessary
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
how
But today
to open a pocket knife.
I fail to recall
to
tell
to
my mind a single boy of my acquaintance who knows how
to properly handle a knife or
any
degree of
skill,
who can
whittle a stick with
and yet there are few men
in this
world
with a larger acquaintance among the boys than myself.
Not only is this true, but I spend two months of each year
in the field with a camp full of boys, showing them how to
do the very things with
their knives
and
their axes described
in this book.
How
It
is
TO OPEN A KNIFE
safe to say that
when
the old-timers were boys
themselves, there was not a
lad
among them who could
not whittle with consider-
and many a twelve
year old boy was an adept
at the art. I remember with
able
skill
the
K
E.COND
wovr
keenest
pleasure
the
rings, charms and knickknacks which I carved with
a pocket knife before I had
reached the scout age of
twelve. Today, however, the
boys handle their knives so
THIRD MOV*
awkwardly as to make the
run down the back of
an onlooker.
chills
49
FOURTH Movt
Inorder toproperlyopen
a
knife, hold it in
your
left
hand, and with the thumbnail of your right hand grasp the
blade at the nail notch (Fig. 45) in such a manner that the line
of the nail
makes a very
slight angle ; that
is, it is
as near per-
HOW TO BUILD A
FIRE
43
may be (Fig. 46) otherwise you will bend back
thumbnail
until it hurts or breaks. Pull the blade away
your
from your body, at the same time drawing the handle of the
pendicular as
,
knife towards the
movement
body
(Figs.
until the blade
from your body
is
47 and 48).
fully
Continue this
open and points directly
(Fig. 49).
and make it a habit; you will then never
be in danger of stabbing yourself during the process of opening your knife you will open a knife properly and quickly
Practise this
by what
is generally termed intuition, but what
the result of training and habit.
How
is really
TO WHITTLE
The age of whittling began with the invention of the
pocket knife and reached its climax about 1840 or '50, dying
out some tune after the Civil War, probably about 1870.
All the old whittlers of the whittling age whittled
the body.
If
you
practise whittling that
way
it
away from
will become
a habit.
Indians use a crooked knife and whittle towards the body,
but the queer shape of their knife does away with the danger
of an accidental stab or slash. Cobblers use a wicked sharp
knife
and cut towards their person and often are severely
by it, and sometimes dangerously wounded, because
slashed
a big artery runs along the inside of one's
where most of the scars on the cobbler's
leg (Fig.
41^) near
legs appear.
When
you whittle do not whittle with a stick between your legs
as in Fig. 41, and always whittle away from you as in Fig. 44.
How
Fig. 40
a
TO SPLIT WITH A JACK-KNIFE
shows the proper way to use the knife
stick, so that
it will
in splitting
not strain the spring at the back of the
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
44
handle of the knife, and at the same time it will help you
guide the knife blade and tend to make a straight split. Do
not try to pry the stick apart with a knife or you will sooner
or later break the blade, a serious thing for a wilderness
man
to do, for
leaves
it
him without one
of the
most
useful tools.
Remember that fine slivers of wood make a safer and more
certain start for a fire than paper.
All tendprfeet first try
and dry grass to start their fires. This they do
because they are accustomed to the use of paper and naturally
dry leaves
seek leaves or hay as a substitute for paper. But experience
soon teaches them that leaves and grass make a nasty smudge
or a quick, unreliable flame which ofttimes fails to ignite the
is used, small slivers of dry
wood, while, when proper care
wood never
fail
to give satisfactory results.
There are many
sorts of fires used
districts
by campers and
all
are
supply of fuel; in the deforested
of Korea the people use twisted grass for fuel, on
dependent upon the
local
our Western plains the hunters formerly used buffalo chips
and now they use cow chips, that is, the dry manure of cattle,
with which to build their fires for cooking their meals and
boiling their coffee. In the Zurn belt, in Tartary and Central
India cattle manure is collected, piled up like cord wood and
dried for fuel. A few years ago they used corn on the cob
It goes without saying that buffalo
not
are
for
bonfires
or any fire where a big flame
chips
good
or illumination is an object.
for firewood in Kansas.
BONFIRES AND COUNCIL FIRES
Are usually much larger than camp-fires, and may be
made by heaping the wood up in conical form (Fig. 50) with
the kindling
all
ready for the torch in the center of the
pile,
HOW TO BUILD A
or the
wood may be
piled
up
the kindling underneath the
FIRE
45
log cabin style (Fig. 51) with
first floor.
In both of these forms there are air spaces purposely left
between the sticks of wood, which insure a quick and ready
draught the moment the flames start to flicker in the kindling.
The best form
known as the
of council fire
is
shown by
Fig. 52,
and
CAMP MEETING TORCH
was from a somewhat
Because
it
meeting
in Florida, that the author got the suggestion for
similar device at a
camp
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
46
The platform is made of anything handy
covered with a thick flooring of sod, sand or clay for
his "torch fire."
and
is
the fire-place.
The tower
is
built exactly similar to the
Boy Scout
signal
towers but on a smaller scale (Fig. 52).
DANGER or EXPLODING STONES
However tempting a smooth rock may look
as
a con-
venient spot on which a fire may be built, do not fail to spread
a few shovels of sand, earth or clay on the stone as a fire bed,
damp rock on becoming heated may generate steam
and either expand with some violence or burst like a bombshell and scatter far and wide the fragments, even endangerfor the
ing the lives of those gathered around the
fire.
CHARACTER IN FIRE
The
natives of Australia take dry logs, 6 ft. or more in
ft. or 4 ft. apart, set them on
length,
fire in several places.
shorter
logs meet them from
Letting
and laying them down 3
the outside, and placing good-sized pebbles around them, they
then stretch themselves on the ground and sleep between
and when the wood is consumed the
some time to radiate the heat they have
previously absorbed.
Many tribes of American Indians
the two lines of
fire,
stones continue for
have
their
deserted
own
special fashion of fire building, so that a
fire will
camp
by which
of the tribe
it
not infrequently reveal the identity
was made.
SLOW FIRES
The camper's old method of making a slow fire was also
used by housekeepers for their open fire-places, and consisted
of placing three logs with their glowing ends together.
HOW TO BUILD A
As the ends
of the logs
forward, this being
consumed.
or
all
night,
burned
FIRE
47
the logs were pushed
continued until the logs were entirely
off
Three good logs thus arranged will burn all day
but someone must occasionally push them so that
their ends come together, when they send their heat from
one to the other, backwards and forwards, and thus keep the
embers hot (Fig. 53)
But who wants to sit up all night
.
watching a
I prefer to
fire?
use the modern method and
sleep all night.
5
Sharpen the ends of two strong heavy stakes each about
in length, cut a notch in the rear of each near the
top,
ft.
back to key into, drive the stakes into the
6
about
ft.
ground
apart. Place three logs one on the other,
a
wall
for the back of your fire-place. Next take
making log
for the support or
two shorter
logs
and use them
for fire-dogs,
and on these lay
another log and the arrangement will be complete. A fire
of this kind will burn during the longest night and if
skillfully
made will cause little trouble. The fire is fed by placing fuel
between the front log and the
fire-back.
SIGNAL FIRES
When
smoke
the greatest elevations of land are selected the
signals may be seen at a distance of from twenty to
fifty miles.
Signal fires are usually made with dry leaves,
weeds or "wiry willows," balsam boughs, pine
grass and
and cedar boughs, because such material produces great
volumes of smoke and may be seen at a long distance.
The Apaches have a simple code which might well be
adopted by all outdoor people. According to J. W. Powell,
Director of U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, the Indians use
but three kinds of
of smoke.
signals,
each of which consists of columns
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
48
ALARM
Three or more smoke columns reads impending danger
This signal may be communicated
flood, fire or foe.
from one camp to another, so as to alarm a large section of
from
the country in remarkably quick time.
The greater the
haste desired the greater the number of smokes used. These
fires are often so hastily made that they may resemble puffs
of
smoke caused by throwing heaps
of grass
and leaves upon
the embers again and again.
ATTENTION
"This signal
is
uous column and
viz.,
grass
when a band
generally
made by producing one
contin-
signifies attention for several purposes,
had become tired of one locality, or the
may have been consumed by
the ponies, or some other
cause necessitated removal, or should an
enemy be reported
which would require further watching before a decision as
to future action would be made. The intention or knowledge
of anything unusual would be communicated to neighboring
bands by causing one column
of
smoke
to ascend."
ESTABLISHMENT OF A CAMP, QUIET, SAFETY
"When a removal of camp has been made,
after the signal
for ATTENTION has been given, and the party have selected
a place where they propose to remain until there may be a
necessity or desire for their removal, two columns of smoke
are made, to inform their friends that they propose to remain
Two columns are also made at other times
a
continued
residence, to inform the neighboring
during long
still
bands that a camp
exists, and that all is favorable
at that place.
and quiet."
HOW TO BUILD A
THREE
Therefore,
or
more flames at
more smokes
or
night,
signal for attention,
is
Two
FIRE
49
smokes
THREE
ONE smoke a
in daylight, or
a signal of alarm,
tells
us that
all is well,
peaceful and happy.
SMOKE SIGNALS
The
usual
way
of signalling with
smoke
is
to
make a
browse or grass and use a blanket as an extincovering the fire with the blanket and suddenly
smudge
fire of
guisher.
By
removing it, a large globular puff of smoke is made to suddenly
appear, and is certain to attract the attention of anyone who
happens to be looking toward the
How
site of
the
TO BUILD A FIRE ON THE
fire.
SNOW
If it is practical it is naturally better to shovel
away the
snow, but personally I have never done this except in case
of newly fallen snow. Old snow which is more or less frozen
to the ground
may be tramped down
until
it is
hard and then
covered with a corduroy of sticks for a hearth (Figs. 55 and
56) or with bark (Fig. 57) and on top of this flooring it is a
"
simple matter to build a fire. Use the turkey-" lay in which
one of the sticks acts the part of the fire-dog (Fig. 56)
.
to collect a generous supply of small wood
and
then start the fire as already directed (Fig. 58).
(Fig. 58)
The reader will note that in all these illustrations (Figs.
Don't
fail
56 and 57), there
back to the fire-place.
55,
it is
is
perfectly safe to use a log for a
other occasions the log
start a forest fire.
No
will
either a log or stone or a
bank
for a
When everything is covered with snow
may
back
(Fig. 56)
but on
smoulder for a week and then
one but an arrant, thoughtless,
selfish
Cheechako
use a live growing tree against which to build a
fire.
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
50
A
real
woodcraft knows that a
fire
can ruin In a few minutes
a mighty forest tree that God himself cannot replace inside
of from forty to one hundred years.
While we are talking of building fires in the snow, it may
be well to remark that an uninhabitable and inaccessible
summer is often the best of camping places in
the winter time. The water freezes and falls lower and lower,
swamp
in the
leaving convenient shelves of ice (Fig. 57) for one's larder.
offer a splendid barrier to the
The dense woods and brush
winter winds.
Fig.
59 shows an arrangement for a winter
camp-fire.
How
TO
MAKE
A FIRE IN THE RAIN
Spread a piece of bark on the ground to serve as a hearth
on which to start your fire. Seek dry wood by splitting the
log and taking the pieces from the center of the wood, keep
the
wood under cover
of
your tent, poncho, coat or blanket.
Also hold a blanket or some similar thing over the fire while
you are lighting it. After the blaze begins to leap and the
logs to
burn
to extinguish
freely, it will
it.
practically take a cloud-burst
EUBVATJOJf
CHAPTER
IV
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
FIRE
A PERSONA!, EXPERIENCE ON SHORT RATIONS
THE MOST PRIMITIVE OF COOKING OUTFITS
CAMP POT-HOOKS, THE GALLOW-CROOK, THE POT-CLAW, THE HAKE,
THE GIB, THE SPETGELIA AND THE SASTER
TELEGRAPH WIRE COOKING IMPLEMENTS, WIRE GRID-IRON, SKELETON CAMP STOVE
COOKING FIRES, FIRE-DOGS, ROASTING FIRE-LAY, CAMP-FIRE LAY,
BELMORE LAY, FRYING FIRE LAY, BAKING FIRE LAY
THE AURES CBANE
CHAPTER
IV
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
FIRE
No matter where the old
camper may be, no matter how
a
time may have elapsed since last he slept in the open,
long
no matter how high or low a social or official position he
may now
occupy,
open
or one whiff of the
fire,
it
takes but one whiff of the
aroma
smoke
of
an
of frying bacon, to send
him back again to the lone trail. In imagination he will
once more be hovering over his little camp-fire in the desert,
under the shade of the gloomy pines, mid the snows of Alaska,
in the slide rock of the Rockies or mid the pitch pines of the
Alleghenies, as the case
That
may
be.
faint hint in the air of
burning firewood or the delimoment, will not only wipe
cious odor of the bacon, for the
from
and
but
Even the
his vision his desk, his papers
also all the artificialities of life.
his office furniture,
clicking of the
typewriter will turn into the sound of clicking hoofs, the
streets will become canyons, and the noise of traffic the roar
of the
mountain torrent!
is no use talking about
There
no use arguing
witchcraft in the smell of the open fire, and
it, there
all the mysteries and magic of the Arabian
Nights dwell in
the odor of frying bacon.
about
it,
there
is
is
Some
ago Mr. Arthur Rice, the Secretary of the
Club
of America, and Patrick Cleary, a halfCamp-fire
breed Indian, with the author, became temporarily separated
from their party in the Northern wilds. They found themselves
years,
on a lonely wilderness lake surrounded by picture
mountains, and dotted with tall rocky islands covered with
Christmas trees, giving the whole landscape the appearance
55
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
56
on drop-curtains
was grand, everything
everything was built on a generous scale,
of the scenery one sometimes sees painted
for the theatre.
was
beautiful,
Everything
in sight
everything was big, not forge tting the voyagers' appetites!
Unfortunately the provisions were hi the missing canoe;
diligent search, however, hi the bottom of Patrick deary's
ditty bag disclosed three small, hard, rounded lumps, which
weeks before might have been bread; also a handful of tea
mixed with smoking tobacco, and that was all! There was
no salt, no butter, no pepper, no sugar, no meat, no knives,
no
no spoons, no cups, no plates, no saucers and no
cooking utensils; the party had nothing but a few stone-like
lumps of bread and the weird mixture of tea and tobacco
with which to appease their big appetites. But in the lake
the trout were jumping, and it was not long before the
hungry men had secured a fine string of spotted beauties to
add to their menu.
Under the roots of a big spruce tree, at the bottom of a
forks,
on the edge of the lake, a fountain of cold crystal water
spouted from the mossy ground. Near this they built
a fire while Mr. Rice fashioned a little box of birch bark,
filled it with water and placed it over the hot embers by
cliff
resting the ends of the box on fire-dogs of green wood. Into
the water in the birch bark vessel was dumped the tea (and
also tobacco)
!
To
the amazement and delight of the Indian half-breed,
the tea was soon boiling. Meanwhile the half-breed toasted
trout until the fish were black, this being done so that
the charcoal or burnt skins might give a flavor to the fish,
some
a measure compensate for the lack of salt. The hunks
of bread were burned until they were black, not for flavor
this time, but in order that the bread might be brittle enough
and
in
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
to allow a
man
to bite into
it
FIRE
57
with no danger of breaking his
teeth in the attempt.
To-day it seems to the author that that banquet on that
lonely lake, miles from the nearest living human being, was
more
delicious
and more
satisfying
than any of the feasts
of Belshazzar he has since attended in the
New
wonder
city of
York.
Therefore,
when taking up the
subject of cooking fire
and camp kitchen, he naturally begins with
THE MOST
PRIMITIVE OF COOKING OUTFITS
Consisting of two upright forked sticks and a waugan-stick
to lay across from fork to fork over the fire. Or maybe a
speygelia-stick thrust slantingly into the ground in front of
the fire, or perhaps a saster-pole on which to suspend or from
which to dangle, in front of the fire, a hunk of moose meat,
venison, mountain sheep, mountain goat, whale blubber,
skunk, rabbit, muskrat, woodchuck, squirrel or
whatsoever fortune may send.
beaver,
CAMP POT-HOOKS
Are of various forms and designs, but they are not the
S shaped things formerly so familiar in the big open fireplaces of the old homesteads, neither are they the hated S
shaped marks with which the boys of yesterday were wont
and disfigure the pages of their writing books.
one
of the camp pot-hooks had been drawn in the
any
old-time writing book or copybook, it would have brought
to struggle
If
down
the wrath (with something else) of the old-fashioned
school-master, upon the devoted head of the offending pupil.
For these pot-hooks are not regular in form and the shape
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
58
largely depend upon the available material from
which they are fashioned, and not a little upon the individual
fancy of the camper. For instance the one known as
and designs
THE GALLOW-CROOK
name might imply, a human crook too intimately associated with the gallows, but on the contrary it is a
rustic and useful bit of forked stick (Figs. 60, 61, 62 and 63)
Is not, as the
made
Fig. 60
of a sapling.
and where to cut
it
shows how to
select the sapling
below a good sturdy fork.
shows
Fig. 61
the bit of sapling trimmed down to the proper length and
with two forks, one at each end. On the upper fork you
will
note that one prong is a slender elastic switch. Fig. 62
this switch may be bent down and bound with a
shows how
string or tape
made
of green bark,
main stem as to form a loop which
waugan-stick as in Fig. 63.
Fig.
and so fastened to the
will easily slip
over the
62A shows a handy
hitch
make fast the bark binding.
the waugan-stick has been thrust through the loop
of the gallow-crook, the former is replaced in the crotches
with which to
When
of the
two forked
sticks, as in Fig. 63,
and the pot or
kettle,
You will
pail or bucket, is hooked on to the lower fork.
note that the lower fork is upon the opposite side of the
main stick from that from which the switch prong of the
upper fork springs.
This arrangement
make
the pot balance properly over the
holds good for all the other pot-hooks.*
is
not necessary to
the same rule
fire;
THE POT-CLAW
Will be best understood by inspecting the diagrams (Figs.
and 66), which show its evolution or gradual growth.
these
By
diagrams you will see the stick is so cut that the
64, 65
*
The pots
will
balance better
if
the notches are on the
same
side.
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
fork
may
FIRE
61
be hooked over the waugan-stick and the cooking
may be hung over the fire by slip-
utensils, pots or kettles
ping their handles into the notch cut in the stick on the side
opposite to the fork and near the lower end of the pot-claw.
a real honest-to-goodness Buckskin or Sourdough
pot-hook; it is one that requires little time to manufacture
This
is
and one that
"whim"
is
easily
sticks
made wherever sticks grow,
or driftwood
may
or wherever
be found heaped upon
the shore.
THE HAKE
Is easier to
make than
hung on the
nail (Figs.
the pot-claw. It is a forked stick
like the pot-claw, but in place of the notch near the lower
end a nail is driven diagonally into the stick and the kettle
disadvantage of
a supply of
67 and 68)
making
it
.
The hake
possesses the
necessary for the
nails in his kit.
No
camper to carry
Sourdough on a long and
A
hake, however,
perilous trip loads himself down with nails.
is a very good model for Boy Scouts, Girl Pioneers, and hikers
of all descriptions
who may go camping
in the
more thickly
settled parts of the country.
THE GIB
Is possibly
a corruption of gibbet, but it is a much more
It requires a little more time and a little
gib (Fig. 69) than it does to fashion the
humane implement.
more skill to make a
preceding pot-hook.
It
is
a useful hook for stationary camps
where one has time to develop more or less intricate cooking
equipment. Fig. 69A shows how the two forked sticks are
cut to fit together in a splice, and it also shows how this splice
is
nailed together with a couple of wire nails,
nails are clinched.
shows how the wire
and
Fig.
70
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
62
In a book of this kind the details of all these designs are
given not because any one camper is expected to use them all,
but because there are times when any one of them may be just
It is well, however, to say that the most
the thing required.
camp pot-hooks are the pot-claw and the hake.
In making a pot-claw care should be taken to cut the
notch on the opposite side of the forked branch, and at the
practicable
other end of the claw, deep enough to hold the handle of the
cooking utensils securely.
While the author was on an extended trip in the blustering
North land his party had a pot-claw as crooked as a yeggman,
and as knotty as a problem in higher mathematics. While
there can be no doubt that one of the party made this hoodoo
affair it
has never yet been decided to whom the credit
because of the innate modesty of the men no one
belongs
claims the honor.
This misshapen pot-claw was responsible
on several occasions, not to speak of
for spilling the stew
Luckily one of the party was a stolid
member of the Presbyterian church,
one a Scout and one a member of the Society of Friends,
losing the boiled rice.
Indian, one a consistent
consequently the air was not blue and the only remarks made
were, "Oh my!" "Bless my soul!" and "Gee willikens!"
The cook
put the wicked thing in the fire with
muttered hints that the fire might suggest the region where
in despair
such pot-hooks belong. While it burned and its evil spirit
dissolved in smoke, the Indian made a new pot-claw, a respectable pot-claw with a straight character,
and a more secure
This one by its benign presence brought peace and
will
to the camp and showed the necessity of taking
good
pains and using care in the manufacture of even so lowly a
notch.
thing as a pot-claw.
The camp pot-hooks should be
of various lengths; long
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
FIRE
63
where the heat is more
from the fire
not cook but only keep warm;
ones to bring the vessels near the
fire
intense; short ones to keep the vessels further
so that their contents will
and medium ones
for
simmering or slow cooking.
THE SPEYGELIA
Is
not an Italian, but is a long name for a short implement.
speygelia is a forked stick or a notched stick (Figs. 71,
The
is either propped up on a forked stick (Fig.
lower
end held down by a stone in such a manner
the
and
71)
that the fork at the upper end offers a place to hang things
72 and 73), which
over, or in front of the
fire,
sometimes a notched stick
is
used in the same manner as Fig. 73. Where the ground is
soft to permit it, the stick is driven diagonally into the earth,
which
hold
may
it
in place
without other support.
much used by cow-punchers and
speygelia
in places where wood is scarce.
is
The
other people
THE SASTER
The
saster
speygelia.
is
Meat
roast (Figs. 74J^
over the
fire
a long pole used in the same manner as the
is suspended from it in front of the fire to
and
75), or kettles are
suspended from
it
to boil water (Fig. 74).
TELEGRAPH WIRE COOKING IMPLEMENTS
Many campers are fond of making for themselves cooking
from ordinary telegraph wire. In the
old time open fireplaces of our grandsires' kitchen there were
trammels consisting of chains hanging down the chimney on
utensils improvised
which things were hooked by short pot-hooks to hang over
the fire; there were also rakens made of bands of iron with
holes punched in
them
for the
attachment of short iron pot-
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
64
hooks
(Fig. 76).
With these ancient implements
in their
minds, some ingenious campers manufacture themselves
rakens and short pot-hooks from telegraph wire (Fig. 77).
By twisting the wire in a series of short loops, each loop can
be made to serve as a place for attaching the pot-hooks as
did the holes in the old-fashioned rakens. The advantages
they claim for the telegraph wire raken are lightness and its
possibility of being readily packed.
CAMP
On
KITCME.N UTEN5IUS
one of these rakens one
may hook
as low as one chooses (Fig. 78)
(Fig. 79)
it is full
put a small
;
the pail as high or
not only that but one may
pail inside the larger one,
where
later
of water, for the purpose of cooking cereal without
danger of scorching
it.
The disadvantage
of all these
implements
is
that they
goes, and parts are sure to be
or
lost sooner
later, whereupon the camper must resort to
things "with the bark on 'em," like the gallow-crook, the
must be toted wherever one
pot-claw, the hake, the gib, the speygelia, or the saster, or
\
\)
n
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
he
may go back
of a green
to the first principles
wand and impale thereon
FIRE
67
and sharpen the forks
the bacon,
game
or fish
be thus toasted over the hot embers (Fig. 80).
do not put meat over the fire because it will burn on the
that
We
it
may
outside before
it
cooks and the fumes of the smoke will
spoil its flavor.
According to Mr. Seton, away up in the barren lands they
made of a shingle-like piece of wood,
use the saster with a fan
fastened with a hitch to a piece of wire and a bit of string;
the wind when it is good-natured will cause the cord to
and round. But the same result is secured with
a cord which has been soaked hi water to prevent it from
burning, and which has also been twisted by spinning the
spin round
meat with one's hands (Fig. 75). Such a cord will unwind
and wind more or less slowly for considerable time, thus
causing the meat to expose all sides of its surface to the heat
of the roasting fire in front of
note
we say
which
it
in front; again let us impress
hangs. You will
upon the reader's
mind that he must not hang his meat over the flame. In
Fig. 75 the meat is so drawn that one might mistake its
position and think it was intended to hang over the fire,
whereas the intention
is
to
hang it
in front of the fire as in Fig.
In the writer's boyhood days it was his great delight to
hang an apple by a wet string in front of the open fire, and
74.
to watch
spin until the heat sent the juices bubbling through
the skin and the apple gradually became thoroughly roasted.
it
THE GRIDIRON
Campers have been known to be so fastidious as to
demand a broiler to go with their kit; at the same time
there was enough of the real camper in them to cause
them to avoid carrying unwieldy broilers such as are used
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
68
in our kitchens.
Consequently they compromise by packhandful of telegraph wires of even length with
their duffel (Fig. 81), each wire having its ends carefully
ing a
bent in the form of a hook
(Fig. 82),
which
may
be ad-
justed over two green sticks resting upon two log fire-dogs
(Fig. 83), and upon the wires, so arranged, meat and fish
be nicely broiled.
is not a bad scheme, but the campers should have a
little canvas bag in which they may pack the wires, other-
may
This
wise the camper will sooner or later throw them
away
rather
than be annoyed by losing one every now and then.
84, 85, 86, 87 and 88 show a little
Figs.
SKELETON CAMP STOVE
Ingeniously devised by a Boy Pioneer. Two pieces of telegraph wire are bent into a triangular form (Figs. 84 and 85),
and the ends
so that they
of the triangle at
may
A
are left open or unjoined,
readily be slipped through the loops in the
upright wires, B and C (Fig. 87), and thus form a take-a-part
The young fellow from whom this
skeleton stove (Fig. 86)
device was obtained was at the time using an old tin kerosene.
88A) which he forced into the lower triangle of the
stove (Fig. 86), and which the spring of the wire of the tri-
lamp
(Fig.
angle held in position (Fig. 88B).
But if one is going to use the telegraph wire camp stove
there is no necessity of carrying a lamp. The stove is made
so that
it
taken apart and packed easily and the
but a lamp of any kind, or even a lantern,
may be
weight is trifling,
is a nuisance to carry.
The telegraph wire camp stove, however, may be made
the wires as shown in Fig. 90, but the only object
bending
by
in so doing
is
to develop one's ingenuity, or for
economy
sake,
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
otherwise one
camp
may
broilers for
a
FIRE
69
purchase at the outfitter's folding wire
trifle, made on the same principle and
with legs which may be thrust into the ground surrounding
the fire, as in Figs. 88 and 89, and, after the broiler is folded
in the middle, the legs
make a
may
be folded back so that
it will all
package. But leaving the artificialities of telegraph wire let us go back to the real thing again and talk
about laying and lighting a genuine
flat
CAMP COOKING FIRE
The more
is planned and built the more
be accomplished. The first thing to
be considered in laying one of these fires is the
carefully the fire
easily will the cooking
FIRE-DOGS
Which
of
same as andirons in the open fire-places
camp
our homes, and used for the same purpose. But domestic
in
are the
andirons are heavy steel bars usually with ornamental brass
uprights in front and they would be most unhandy for one
to carry upon a camping trip, while it would be the height
of absurdity to think of taking andirons
on a
real
we use green
exploring expedition. Therefore,
stones for fire-dogs in the wilderness.
hunting or
logs, sods or
Frequently we have a
back-log against which the fire-dog rests; this back log is
shown in Fig. 91. In this particular case it acts both as a
back log and a fire-dog.
there are two logs side
In the plan just above
by
side
it
(Fig. 92),
which serve the double pur-
pose of fire-dogs and for sides of the kitchen stove (Fig. 93).
Fig. 94 shows
THE LAY OF A ROASTING FIRE
Sometimes called the round
cabin style and the front
fire.
is left
The back
open.
is
laid
up
log-
In the open enclosure
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
70
the
fire is built
The logs on all
is
by
sticks being laid
in front of this,
hung
up
like those in Fig. 91.
three sides radiate the heat
and thoroughly
(Fig. 743/0, it is easily
and when the meat
suspended from the end of the saster
roasted.
THE CAMP-FIRE
an eye to two purposes one is to reflect heat
open tent in front, and the other is to so construct
When one builds a camp-fire
it that it may last a long time.
one wants to be able to roll up in one's blanket and sleep with
Is
built with
:
into the
the comforting conviction that the fire will last until morning.
The camp-fire is made with two fire-dogs pushed back
A
against a back log (Fig. 95 and B), which form the foundation for the camp-fire. Two upright green sticks C (Fig. 95)
are placed in a slanting position and supported by other
sticks,
in
C
D
the top ends of which rest in notches cut
(Fig. 95) and the bottom ends of which are
(Fig. 95),
stick at
E
,
thrust into the ground. Against the upright sticks C, and
the logs F are heaped to form the back of the fire. The fire
then built on the two fire-dogs AA, and against the F logs,
the latter will burn slowly and at the same time reflect the
heat into the open tent front. This same fire is sometimes
is
used for a baking
made by the
fire,
but the
real fire for this
purpose
is
BELMORE LAY
Figs. 96 and 97. The first sketch shows the plan and the
second the perspective view of the fire. The stove is made
by two side logs or fire-dogs over which the fire is built and
after
it
has fallen
in,
a mass of red hot embers, between the
logs are laid across the dogs and one log is
fire-dogs,
so
that the flame then comes up in front of them
placed atop,
(Fig. 97) and sends the heat against the bread or bannock.
two
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
FIRE
73
At a convenient
distance in front of the fuel logs, a
placed, reaching from one fire-dog to
is
waugan-stick
the other.
In wilderness work the frying pan is about the only
is used as a toaster, a baker,
domestic utensil carried and
a
a fryer, and a stew pan all combined. In it the
man and the Sourdough make their bread, and
broiler,
Buckskin
bread has been baked over the coals on the bottom,
after the
browned nicely on its top by tilting the pans in front of
and resting their handles against the waugan-stick
I have seen the baking fire used from British Co(Fig. 97)
lumbia to Florida, but it was the explorer, Captain Belmore
Browne, who showed me the use of the waugan-stick in connection with the baking fire, hence I have called this the
Belmore Lay.
it is
the
fire
.
A
Is
between two
built
(Figs. 98,
99 and 100)
built, using
;
FRYING FIRE
logs,
two rows of
stones, or
between these logs the
fire is
sods
usually
the sides as fire-dogs, or the sticks may be placed
100), so that the sticks themselves
in the turkey -lay (Fig.
make a
fire is
fire-dog
allow, for a time, a draught until the
burning briskly, after which
embers and
known that
afire,
and
which
is
in the
it settles
down
proper condition for frying.
to hot
For be
it
too hot a griddle will set the grease or bacon
be funny under ordinary circumstances,
shy of bacon it is a serious thing. The
may
but when one
is
ORDINARY BAKING FIRE LAY
shown by Fig. 101. In this instance, the frying pans being
used as reflector ovens are propped up by running sticks
through the holes in their handles.
Is
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
74
THE AURES
a rustic crane made exactly of the same form as are the
cranes of the old-fashioned open fire-places, but ingeniously
Is
fashioned from a carefully selected green stick with two forks
(Fig. 102). The long end of the main branch is severed at A
(Fig. 102), care being
B
(Fig. 102).
stub,
taken not to cut through the green bark,
of the latter, B, is then bent over the
The bark
A (Fig. 102), forming a loop, C
(Fig. 103),
which
is
lashed
with green bark to the main stick and slipped overthe upright,
(Fig. 104). The fork at E braces the crane and holds it in
D
a horizontal position, resting on a stub
How
purpose.
practicable this thing
left
may
on
D
for that
be depends
al-
together upon the time and skill one has at one's disposal.
One would hardly use the Aures for a single night camp, but
if
one were to spend a week in the same camp, it would be
worth while and at the same time very interesting work
well
to manufacture a neat Aures crane for the
The next
step in
kitchen
camp
be termed the pit fires, which
fires will
will
camp
include
kitchen.
what might
be described in the following
chapter.
You have been
told
how
to select the firewood,
make
the
kindling and start a fire in the preceding chapter on how to
build a fire; all you have to remember now is that in certain
particulars all fires are alike; they all
and food to eat or they
In the case of the
we
give
it
will
fire
not
we do not
a free circulation and
the food that the
with indigestion
is
fire
a
eats
fire
must have
and
air to breathe
live.
the air breath, but
a draught. Wood is
must be digestible, a fire
call
call it
it
fed with punky,
damp wood
care-
lessly thrown together in place of well-selected dry split
wood which the fire can consume cleanly, digest evenly, and
at the same time give out the greatest amount of heat.
HOW TO LAY A GOOD COOKING
FIRE
77
To produce a draught the fire must, of course, be raised
from the ground, but do not build it in a careless manner like
a pile of jack-straws. Such a fire may start all right, but
when the supporting sticks have burned away it will fall in a
heap and precipitate the cooking utensils into the flames,
upsetting the coffee or teapot, and dumping the bacon "from
the frying pan into the
Be
it
fire."
man, woman, boy or
to be a camper, he, or she or
it
girl, if
must
he, she or it expects
learn to be orderly
and
tidy around camp. No matter how soiled one's clothes may
be, no matter how grimy one's face may look, the ground
around the camp-fire must be clean, and the cooking utensils
and
fire
wood, pot-hooks and waugan-sticks,
as carefully arranged as
if
all orderly and
the military officer was expected
make an inspection.
must
remember that BY THEIR CAMP-FIRE
my
BE
KNOWN
THEY WILL
and "sized up" as the real thing or
as chumps, duffers, tenderfeet and cheechakos, by the first
the next minute to
All
readers
Sourdough or old-timer who cuts
their trails.
CHAPTER V
CAMP KITCHENS
CAMP PIT-FIRES, BEAN HOLES
COW-BOY FIRE-HOLE
CHINOOK COOKING FIRE-HOLE
BARBECUE-PITS
THE GOLD DIGGER'S OVEN
THE FERGUSON CAMP STOVE
THE ADOBE OVEN
THE ALTAR CAMPFIRE PLACE
CAMP KITCHEN FOR HIKERS, SCOUTS,
EXPLORERS, SURVEYORS AND HUNTEBfl
HOW TO COOK MEAT, FISH AND BREAD
WITHOUT POTS, PANS OR STOVES
DRESSING SMALL ANIMALS
HOW TO BARBECUE LARGE ANIMALS
CHAPTER V
CAMP KITCHENS
REAL camp
kitchens are naught but well arranged firewith
rustic
cranes and pot-hooks as already described,
places
but in deforested countries, or on the plains and prairies,
The pit itself shelters the fire
pit-fires are much in vogue.
on the windswept
plain,
which
of the unprotected nature of such
of the kind of fuel used.
on the Western
The
is
doubly necessary because
camping places, and because
Buffalo-chips were formerly used
plains, but they are now superseded by cattle
was the cooking fire of the Buckand the equally picturesque
cowboy; but the buffalo herds have long since hit the trail
over the Great Divide where all tracks point one way, the
sound of the thunder of their feet has died away forever, as
chips.
buffalo-chip fire
skin-clad long-haired plainsmen
has also the whoop of the painted Indians. The romantic
and picturesque plainsmen and the wild and rollicking cowboys have followed the herds of buffalo and the long lines
of prairie schooners are a thing of the past, but the pit-fires
of the hunters are still hi use.
THE MOST SIMPLE
Is a shallow trench
two
dug
PIT-FIRE
in the ground,
logs are placed ; in the pit
on each
side of
between the logs a
which
fire is built
but probably the most celebrated pit-fire is the
cooker of the camp, known and loved by all under
(Fig. 105),
fireless
the
name
of
THE BEAN HOLE
Fig. 106
stones.
6
shows a half section of a bean hole lined with
The bean
hole may, however, be lined with clay or
81
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
82
simply the damp earth left in its natural state. This pit-fire
is used differently from the preceding one, for in the
place
bean hole the
good and
fire is built
and burns until the sides are heated
is removed and the bean pot put
hot, then the fire
in place, after which the whole thing is covered up with ashes
and earth and allowed to cook at its leisure.
THE COWBOY
PIT-FIRE
The cowboy
pit-fire is simply a trench dug in the earth
with a basin-shaped hole at the beginning. When
obtainable, sticks are laid across the trench and sods laid
(Fig. 107),
upon the top
Fig. 107 shows a section of view
and trench chimney, and Fig. 108 shows the
of the sticks.
of the pit-fire
top view of the same.
In removing the sod one should be careful not to break
them, then even though there be no sticks one may be able
to cover the draught chimney with the sods themselves by
allowing them to bridge the trench. At the end of the trench
the sods are built up, making a short smokestack.
THE CHINOOK
The chinook
fire-pit is
FIRE-PIT
one which
is
used in the north-
western part of the United States, and seems to be a combination of the ordinary camp fire-dogs with cross logs and the
Fig. 109 shows a perspective view of this
110
shows
the top view of plan of the lay. Fig. Ill
lay. Fig.
shows a steeper perspective view than that of Fig. 109, and
cowboy
fire-pit.
shows a sectional view. By examining the sectional
view and also the deeper perspective view, as well as the plan,
you will note that the two logs are placed across the fire-dogs
Fig. 112
with space between. The back-log is placed upon the top
of another back-log A and B (Fig. 112). The fire-dogs have
CAMP KITCHENS
85
shoved against the bottom back-logs B, the two
are
back-logs
kept in place by the stakes C, C. Between the
two top logs
and
(Figs. 112 and 110), the smaller fuel
their ends
D
A
or split wood is placed.
As the fire burns the hot coals drop into the pit, and when
sufficient quantity of embers are there they may be raked
forward and the frying pan placed on top of them (Fig. 112).
The chinook
and
is
fire is good for baking, frying, broiling, toasting,
an excellent all-around kitchen camp stove.
THE HOBO
fire-place usually surrounding a shalthe sides built up with sods or stones. The hobo
answers for a hasty fire over which to boil the kettle (Fig. 1 13) .
Is carelessly built, a
low
pit,
At the old-fashioned
barbecue
where our ancestors
roasted whole oxen, the ox was placed on a huge spit, which
was turned with a crank handle, very similar to the old-
fashioned well handle as used with a rope or chain and bucket.
THE BARBECUE-PIT
Is used at those feasts (Fig. 114), where they broil or roast a
whole sheep, deer or pig. At a late meet of the Camp-fire
Club of America they thus barbecued a pig.
The
about four feet wide and four feet deep and
long enough (Fig. 114) to allow a fire to be built at each
end of the pit, there being no fire under the meat itself for
fire-pit is
is
the very good reason that the melted fat would drop into
fire, cause it to blaze up, smoke and spoil the meat.
the
Homer Davenport (the old-time and famous
some
cartoonist)
years ago gave a barbecue at his wild animal
farm in New Jersey. When Davenport was not drawing
cartoons he was raising wild animals. At the Davenport
The
late
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
86
barbecue there was a
(Fig. 1 15)
;
dug
fire-pit
such an arrangement
in the side of the
known
is
bank
as
THE BANK-PIT
In the diagram
it
will
be seen that the carcass
is
fastened
to a spit of green wood, which runs thru a hole in a cross log
and
fits
114
116
115
117
in the socket
by handles arranged
D
bottom
in the
like
A,
B
or C.
log; the spit
The
pit
is
is
turned
lined with
which are heated by a roaring big
hot enough to bake the meat.
either stones or bricks,
fire until
THE GOLD DIGGER
Is
by
another bank
pit,
in the
bank and using shelves
pieces of iron.
in Montana
made by digging a hole
either made of stones or old
and one that
Japanese railroad hands.
Fig. 116
It
I
have seen used
is
shows the cross section of the Gold
CAMP KITCHENS
87
Digger with the stone door in place. Fig. 117 shows a perspective view of the gold digger with the stone door resting
at one side.
*;
We next come to the ovens,
the
first
of which
is
known
as
THE FERGUSON CAMP STOVE
made by
building a rounded hut of stones or sod
and
covering the same with branches over which
(Fig. 118),
The oven is heated
sod, or clay, or dirt is heaped (Fig. 119).
by building the fire inside of it, and when it is very hot and
the fire has burned down, the food is placed inside and the
opening stopped up so as to retain the heat and thus cook
It
is
the food.
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
88
THE ADOBE
Is
one that the
soldiers in Civil
The boys
to build.
War
in blue generally
days taught the author
used an old barrel with
the two heads knocked out (Fig. 121). This they either set
in the bank or covered with clay (Fig. 120), and in it they
which consumed the barrel but left the baked
The head of the barrel (Fig.
121 A) was saved and used to stop up the front of the oven
when baking was being done; a stone or sod was used to
built their fires
clay for the sides of the oven.
cover up the chimney hole.
Figs. 122,
123,
124 and 125
show how to make an Adobe by
and then covering the same with clay, after which
in the same manner as the preceding barrel oven.
braiding green sticks together
it is
used
THE MATASISO
Is a
camp stove or fire-place, and a form of
Fire-place, the object of
cooking.
The matasiso
and used
like
is
which
built
is
up
the so-called Altar
to save one's
back while
of stones or sods (Fig. 126)
any other campfire.
THE BANK LICK
Is a
who
stove which the boys of the troop of Boone Scouts,
wont to
frequented Bank Lick in old Kentucky, were
camp
to cook the big channel catfish, or little pond
bass or other food. The Bank Lick is made of flat stones and is
build and on
one or two
it
The Boone Scouts
Kenton County, Kentucky, fifty odd years ago.
stories
flourished in
high (Figs. 127 and 128).
THE ALTAR FIRE-PLACE
Is built of logs (Fig. 132) , of stones, of sod, or of logs filled with
sods or stone (Fig. 131), and topped with clay (Figs. 130
and 132). The clay top being wider at one end than the other,
CAMP KITCHENS
91
on the plan of the well-known campfire (Fig. 129), is made
with stones and sometimes used when clay is unobtainable.
THE ALTAR CAMP FIRE-PLACE
The advantage
of the altar fire
and the matasiso
is
that
the cook does not have to get the backache over the fire
while he cooks. All of these ovens and fire-places are suitable
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
92
for
more or
less
permanent camps, but it
is
not worth while to
build these ovens and altar fire-places for quick and short camps.
COOKING WITHOUT POTS, PANS OR STOVES
It is proper and right in treating camp cooking that we
should begin with the most primitive methods. For when one
PRIMITIVE COOKING UTENSILS
has no cooking utensils except those fashioned from the
material at hand, he must, in order to prepare appetizing
food, display a real knowledge of woodcraft.
by spearing the meat on a green twig
of sweet birch, or some similar wood, and toast it before the
fire or pinch the meat between the split ends of a twig (Fig.
Therefore, start
133) or better
still
FORK
In order to do this select a
IT
wand with a
fork to
it,
trim
the prongs of the forks, leaving them rather long (Fig.
134), then sharpen the ends of the prongs and weave them in
off
and out near the edges
of the
meat
(Fig. 135),
which
is
done
CAMP KITCHENS
93
by drawing the prongs slightly together before impaling the
meat on the second prong. The natural spring and elasticity
of the branches will stretch the meat nice and flat (Fig.
135), ready to toast in front of the flames, not over the Uame.
A very thick steak of moose meat or beef may be cooked
in this
back
manner.
Remember
log; there will
have fire-dogs and a good
then be hot coals under the front log and
to
flame against the back log to furnish heat for the meat in
front. Turn the meat every few minutes and do not salt it
until it is
about done.
Any
sort of
meat can be thus cooked ;
bacon among the sportsmen,
way
and I have seen chickens beautifully broiled with no cooking
implements but the forked stick. This was done by splitting
the chicken open and running the forks through the legs and
it is
a favorite
of toasting
sides of the fowl.
PULLED FIREBREAD OR TWIST
Twist
is
a
made
Boy
Scout's
name
for this sort of bread.
The
dough and rolled between the palms of the
hands until it becomes a long thick rope (Fig. 138), then it is
wrapped spirally around a dry stick (Fig. 139), or one with
bark on it (Fig. 137) The coils should be close together but
twist
is
of
.
without touching each other. The stick is now rested in
the forks of two uprights, or on two stones in front of the
roasting
fire.
fire (Figs.
140 and 141), or over the hot coals of a pit-
The long end of the stick on which the
used for a handle to turn the twist so that
browned on
all sides,
or
it
may
twist
it
is
may
coiled
is
be nicely
be set upright in front of
1lie
flames (Fig. 142).
A HOE CAKE
May
that
be cooked in the same manner that one planks a shad
by plastering it on the flat face of a puncheon ar
:
is,
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
94
board, split from the trunk of a tree (Fig. 145), or flat clean
stone, and propping it up in front of the fire as one would
a reflecting oven (Fig. 146) When the cake
is cooked on one side it can be turned over by using a
hunting
knife or a little paddle whittled out of a stick for that purpose,
when cooking
in
.
and then cooked upon the opposite side. Or a flat stone may
be placed over the fire and used as a frying pan (Figs. 116 and
128). I have cooked a large channel catfish in this manner
and found that it was unnecessary to skin the fish because,
there being no grease, the skin adhered firmly to the hot stone,
leaving the white meat flaky and delicate, all ready to be
picked out with a jack-knife or with chopsticks, whittled
out of twigs.
MEAT HOOKS
May be made of forked branches
and 155)
.
Upon
this
(Figs. 151, 152, 153, 154
hook meat may be suspended before
piece of twine made from the twisted
green bark of a milkweed or some other fibrous plant stalk
the
fire (Fig.
153)
by a
or tree bark, or a wet string will do
How
if
you have one.
TO DRESS SMALL ANIMALS
Dressing in this case really means undressing, taking
and removing their insides. In order to prepare
their coats off
for broiling or
baking any of the small fur-bearing animals,
make yourself a skinning stick, using for the purpose a forked
branch; the forks being about an inch in diameter, make the
length of the stick to suit your convenience, that is, long
enough to reach between the knees whether you are sitting
on a camp stool or squatting on the ground, sharpen the
lower end of the stick and thrust it into the ground, then
take your coon, possum, squirrel or muskrat, and punch the
pointed ends of the forked stick thru the thin place at the
CAMP KITCHENS
95
point which corresponds to your own heel, just as the stick
in Fig. 155 is punched through the thin place behind the
Thus hung the
heels of the small animals there sketched.
animal
one
may be
dressed with comfort to the workmen.
If
squatting, the nose of the animal should just clear the
ground. First take off the fur coat. To do this you split
is
the skin with a sharp knife, beginning at the center of the
throat and cut to the base of the tail, being careful not to
cut deep enough to penetrate the inside skin or sack which
contains the intestines; when the base of the tail is reached,
use your fingers to roll back the skin. If skinning for the
pelt, follow directions given later, but do not destroy any
skin as the hide is useful for many purposes around camp.
is removed and all the internal organs taken
remove the scent glands from such animals as have them,
and make a cut in the forearms and the meaty parts of the
thigh, and cut out the little white things which look like
nerves, to be found there. This will prevent the flesh from
After the coat
out,
having a strong or musky taste when
How
it is
cooked.
TO BARBECUE A DEER, OR SHEEP
First dress the carcass
and then stretch
of black birch sticks, for this sweet
it
on a framework
wood imparts no disagree-
able odor or taste to the meat.
Next build a big fire at each end of the pit (Fig. 114), not
body of the animal, but so arranged that when
the melted fat drops from the carcass it will not fall on the
hot coals to blaze up and spoil your barbecue. Build big
right under the
with plenty of small sticks so as to make good red hot
you put the meat on to cook.
First bake the inside of the barbecued beast, then turn
fires
coals before
it
over and bake the outside.
To be well
done, an animal the
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
96
size of a sheep should be cooking at least seven or eight hours
over a charcoal fire. Baste the meat with melted bacon fat
mixed with any sauce you may have or no sauce at all,
for bacon fat itself is good enough for anyone, or use hot
salt water.
much better to use charcoal for this purpose,
One can, however,
is not always handy.
MAKE ONE'S OWN CHARCOAL
Of course, it
but charcoal
A day
fires
is
or two ahead of the barbecue day,
of
wood about the
by building big
thickness of one's wrist.
After the
has been burning briskly for a while, it should be covered
with
ashes or dirt and allowed to smoulder all night, and
up
turn the wood into charcoal in place of consuming it
fire
How
TO
MAKE DOUGH
Roll the top of your flour bag back (Fig. 136), then build
a cone of flour in the middle of the bag and make a crater
in the top of the flour mountain.
In the crater dump a heaping teaspoon or, to use Mr.
Vreeland's expression, put in "one and a half heaping teaspoonfuls of baking powder," to which add a half spoonful
of salt mix these together with the dry flour, and when this
;
thoroughly done begin to pour water into the crater, a
little at a time, mixing the dough as you work by stirring it
around inside your miniature volcano. Gradually the flour
is
will slide
from the
sides into the lava of the center, as the
water
and care taken to avoid lumps.
poured
Make the dough as soft as may be, not batter but very
soft dough, stiff enough, however, to roll between your wellis
in
floured hands.
BAKED POTATOES
Put the potatoes with their skins on them on a bed of
hot embers two or three inches thick, then cover the potatoes
CAMP KITCHENS
97
with more hot coals.
If this is done properly the spuds will
cook slowly, even with the fire burning above them. Don't
be a chump and throw the potatoes in the fire where the outer
rind will burn to charcoal while the inside remains raw.
MUD
COOKING
In preparing a small and tender fish, where possible, the
point under the head, where the gills meet, is cut, fingers
thrust in and the entrails drawn through this opening; the fish
is then washed, cleaned and wrapped in a coating of paper
or fallen leaves, before the clay is applied. Place the fish
upon a pancake of stiff clay (Fig. 147), fold the clay over the
fish (Fig. 148), press the edges together, thus making a clay
dumpling (Fig. 149) cook by burying the dumpling in the
embers of an ordinary surface fire, or in the embers in a pit;
fire (Fig. 150).
A brace of partridges may be beheaded, drawn, washed
out thoroughly and stuffed with fine scraps of chopped bacon
or pork, mixed with bread crumbs, generously seasoned with
pepper and sage, if you have any of the latter. The birds
with the feathers on them are then plastered over with clean
salt,
clay
made
soft
enough to
stick to the feathers, the outside
is
wrapped with stiffer clay and the whole molded into a ball,
which is buried deep in the glowing cinders and allowed to
remain there for an hour, and at the end of that time the clay
will often be almost as hard as pottery and must be broken
open with a stick. When the outside clay comes off the
feathers will come with it, leaving the dainty white meat of
the bird
all
ready to be devoured.
Woodchucks, raccoons, opossums, porcupines, rabbits
had better be barbecued (see Figs. 114, 115 and 155), but
squirrels and small creatures may be baked by first removing
7
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
98
the insides of the creatures, cleaning them, filling the hollow
with bread crumbs, chopped bacon and onions, then closing
the opening and plastering the bodies over with stiff clay
and baking them in the embers. This seals the meat inside
mud wrapper and when it is cooked and the brick-like
broken
off, the skin comes off with the broken clay,
clay
of the
leaving the juicy
meat exposed
to view.
To PLANK A FISH
Cut
off
the head of the
fish
and clean by
splitting it
through the back, in place of the usual way of splitting up
the belly. To salt red meat before you cook it is to make it
dry and tough, but the
with its own juices.
fish
fish
should be salted while
it is
damp
Heat the plank in front of the fire and then spread your
out flat on the hot puncheon or plank, and with your
hunting knife press upon it, make slit holes through the fish
(Fig. 145) with the grain of the wood; tack your fish on with
CAMP KITCHENS
99
wooden pegs cut wedge shape and driven in the slits made
by your knife blade (Figs. 143 and 144) Prop the puncheon
up in front of a fire which has a good back-log and plenty
.
of hot coals to send out heat (Fig. 146).*
HEATING WATER
Water may be
ing up a more or
boiled in a birch bark vessel
made by
fold-
in the
less square piece of bark, bending
corner (Fig. 157) folds and holding them in place by thorns
or slivers (Fig. 156). Or the stomach of a large animal or
piece of green hide
may
made hot by throwing
in the ground,
up
fill
fit
be
filled
with water and the latter
hot stones (Fig. 158) Dig a hole
rawhide
in the hole, bringing the edges
the
in
it
.
down the edges with stones,
the hide with water and heat with hot stones. Figs. 159
so as to overlap the sod, weigh
and 160 show how to make tongs with which to handle the
stones.
*The best plank is made from the oaks grown on the hammocks of
Southern Florida and the peculiar flavor this plank gives to shad has
made Planked Shad famous.
CHAPTER
VI
CAMP FOOD
HOW
TO MAKE ASH CAKE, PONE, CORN DODGERS, FLAPJACKS,
JOHNNY-CAKE, BISCUITS AND DOUGH GOD
MAKING DUTCH OVENS
VENISON
BANQUETS IN THE OPEN
TO COOK BEAVER TAIL, PORCUPINES AND MDSKRAT8
CAMP STEWS, BRUNSWICK STEWS AND BURGOOS
HOW
CHAPTER
VI
CAMP FOOD
PARCHED CORN AS FOOD
WHEN
America gave Indian corn to the world she gave
it a priceless gift full of condensed pep.
Corn in its various
forms is awonderful food power; with a long, narrow buckskin
bag of nocake, or rock-a-hominy, as parched cracked corn
was called, swung upon his back, an Indian or a white man
could traverse the continent independent of
game and never
suffer hunger.
George Washington, George Rodger Clark,
Boone, Kenton, Crockett, and Carson all knew the sustaining
value of parched corn.
How
TO
DRY CORN
The
pioneer farmers in America and many of their
descendants up to the present time, dry their Indian corn by
the methods the early Americans learned from the Indians.
The corn drying season naturally begins with the harvesting
of the corn, but
it
often continues until the
first
snow falls.
Selecting a number of ears of corn, the husks are pulled
back exposing the grain, and then the husks of the several
ears are braided together (Fig. 165). These bunches of corn
are hung over branches of trees or horizontal poles and left
winds to dry (Fig. 166).
account of the danger from corn-eating birds and
beasts, these drying poles are usually placed near the kitchen
door of the farmhouse, and sometimes in the attic of the old
for the
On
farmhouse, the woodshed or the barn.
103
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
104
Of
course, the Indians
owned no corn mills, but they used
and stone pestles like
bowl-shaped stones to hold the corn
crudely
made potato mashers with which
to grind the corn.
The writer lately saw numbers of these stone corn-mills
the collection of Doctor Baldwin, of Springfield, Mass.
in
ILIHT conn
How
TO PREPARE CORN TO EAT
much
from the stone used is unintentionally mixed with the corn, and hence all the elderly
Indians' teeth are worn down as if they had been sandpapered.
But the reader can use a wooden bowl and a potato masher
In the southwest
grit
with a piece of tin or sheet iron nailed to its bottom with
which to crush the corn and make meal without grit. Or he
can make a pioneer mill
The
pestle or
masher
like Figs.
163 or 164, from a log.
in Fig. 164 is of iron.
SWEET CORN
There
still
a way to preserve corn which a few white people
practice just as they learned it from the Indians. First
is
CAMP FOOD
105
they dig long, shallow trenches in the ground, fill them with
dried roots and small twigs with which they make a hot fire
and thus cover the bottom
of the ditch with glowing embers.
The
outer husks of the fresh green corn are then removed
and the corn placed in rows side by side on the hot embers
(Fig. 167).
This practice gave the name of Roasting Ear
Season to July and August.
As the husks become scorched the ears are turned over,
and when browned on all sides they are deftly tossed out of
the ditch by means of a wand or stick used for that purpose.
The burnt husks are now removed and the grains of corn
are shelled from the cob with the help of a sharp -edged, fresh
water "clam" shell; these shells I have often found in the
old camping places of the Indians in the half caves of
Pennsylvania.
The corn is then spread out on a clean sheet or on pieces
"
of paper and allowed to dry in the sun. It is "mighty good
food, as
any Southern born person
keep a supply of
it all
winter
will tell
you.
One can
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
106
PARCHED FIELD CORN
When I was a little shaver in old Kentucky, the children
were very fond of the Southern field corn parched in a frying
pan (Fig. 161), and then buttered and salted while it was still
hot;
we parched
sugar corn and the regular pop
field corn,
corn, but none of us had ever seen cracked corn or corn meal
parched and used as food, and I am inclined to think that the
old pioneers themselves parched the corn as did their direct
descendants in Kentucky, and that said corn was crushed or
ground after it had been parched. Be this as it may, we know
that our bordermen traveled and fought on a parched corn
diet and that Somoset, Massasoit, Pocahontas, Okekankano,
Powhatan,
all
ate corn cakes
and that
it
was either them or
the squaws of their tribes who taught bold Captain Smith's
people on the southern coast, and the Pilgrims further north,
the value of
to
make
com as an article of diet. The knowledge
generally from "roasting-ears" to corn puddings
from the American Indians. It was from them
how
to
of
how
the various kinds of corn bread and the use of corn
make
was gained
we
learned
the
ASH CAKES
This ancient American food dates back to the fable times
which existed before history, when the sun came out of a
hole in the eastern sky, climbed up overhead and then dove
through a hole in the western sky and disappeared. The sun
no more plays such
who once
he
tricks,
stole the sun,
and although the humming-bird,
still
carries the
mark under
his chin,
no longer a humming-birdman but only a little buzzing
is still an ash cake and is made
almost as primitive a manner now as it was then.
is
bird; the ash cake, however,
in
Mix half a teaspoonful
add to
it
of salt with a
cup of corn meal, and
may be
boiling hot water until the swollen meal
CAMP FOOD
worked by one's hand into a
107
bury the ball in a nice bed
and leave it there to bake
like a potato. Equalling the ash cake in fame and simplicity is
ball,
of hot ashes (glowing embers)
PONE
Pone is made by mixing the meal as described for the
ash cake, but molding the mixture in the form of a cone and
baking it in an oven.
JOHNNY-CAKE
Is mixed in the same way as the pone or ash cake, but it is
not cooked the same, nor is it the same shape; it is more in
the form of a very thick pancake. Pat the Johnny-cake into
the form of a disk an inch thick and four inches in diameter.
Have
the frying pan plentifully supplied with hot grease and
drop the Johnny-cake carefully in the sizzling grease. When
the cake is well browned on one side turn it and brown it on
the other side.
brown
If
cooked properly
it
should be a rich dark
and with a crisp crust. Before it is eaten it may
be cut open and buttered like a biscuit, or eaten with maple
syrup like a hot buckwheat cake. This is the Johnny-cake
of my youth, the famous Johnny-cake of
Kentucky fifty
years ago. Up North I find that any old thing made of com
meal is called a Johnny-cake and that they also call ashcakes "hoe-cakes," and corn bread "bannocks," at least they
color
camp corn bread, a bannock. Now since bannocks were
known before corn was known, suppose we call it
call
CAMP CORN BREAD AND CORN DODGERS
In the North they also
cake," but whatever
ing.
it is
call this
called
camp corn bread "Johnny-
it is
wholesome and nourishflour and mix them
Take some corn meal and wheat
fifty-fifty; in
other words, a half pint each; add a teaspoon
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
108
level full and a teaspoon heaping full of baking powder and
about half a teaspoonful of salt; mix these all together,
while dry, in your pan, then add the water gradually. If you
have any milk go
with the water and milk, make the
pour it into a reflector pan, or frying
fifty-fifty
flour as thin as batter,
pan, prop it up in front of a quick fire; it will be heavy if
allowed to cook slowly at the start, but after your cake has
risen you may take more time with the cooking. This is a
fine corn bread to stick to the ribs.
I have eaten it every
day for a month at a time and it
power in it. When made in form
certainly has the food
of biscuits
it
is
called
"corn dodgers."
CAMP BISCUIT
Take two cups full of flour and one level teaspoonful and
one heaping teaspoonful of baking powder and half a teasalt, and mix them together thoroughly while dry.
you add milk and water, if not milk straight water,
mixing it as described for the flapjacks. Make a dough soft
but stiff enough to mold with well floured hands, make it
into biscuits about half an inch thick, put them into a
greased pan, bake them in any one of the ovens already
described, or by propping them up in front of the fire. If the
biscuits have been well mixed and well baked they will prove
spoonful of
To
this
to be good biscuits.
THE VREELAND BANNOCK
tells me that he makes this the same as he would
and bakes it in a frying pan. The frying pan is
heated and greased before the dough is dropped into it,
Fred
biscuits
making a cake about a
half inch thick.
The
frying
pan
is
then placed over the slow fire to give the bannock a chance
to rise and harden enough to hold its shape, then the frying
CAMP FOOD
pan
109
propped up with a stick and the bannock browned by
must be cooked slowly and have "a nice
is
reflected heat, it
have never made bannocks but
eaten some of Vreeland's, and they are fine.
brown
crust."
I
I
have
FLAPJACKS
A
fellow
who cannot throw a
flapjack
is
sadly lacking in
the skill one expects to find in a real woodcrafter. A heavy,
greasy flapjack is an abomination, but the real article is a
joy to
make and a
joy to eat.
large tin cupful of flour in the pan, add half a
ul
teaspoonf of salt, also one heaping teaspoonf ul and one level
Put a
teaspoonful of baking powder mix the salt and baking powder
well with the flour while it is dry. Then build your little
;
mountain or volcano of flour with its miniature crater in the
middle, into which pour water little by little; making the
lava by mixing the dough as you go. Continue this process
until all the flour
is
batter; the batter should be thin
enough
to spread out rapidly into the form of a pancake when
poured into the skillet or frying pan, but not watery.
it is
Grease the frying pan with a greasy rag fastened to the
stick or with a piece of bacon rind. Remember that
end of a
the frying pan only needs enough grease to prevent the cake
from sticking to the pan; when one fries potatoes the pan
should be plentifully supplied with very hot grease, but
flapjacks are not potatoes and too
cakes unfit to eat. Do not put too
either; I tried it
much grease makes the
much batter in the pan,
once and when I flapped the flapjack the
hot batter splattered all over
even hotter than my remarks.
my
face,
and that batter was
Pour enough batter into the pan to spread almost but
not quite over the bottom; when the bubbles come thickly
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
110
in the
middle and the edges begin to smoke a
to flap the flapjack.
bit, it is
time
Do so by loosening the edges with a knife
pan downward and bring
up quickly, sending the cake somersaulting in the air;
catch the cake as it falls batter side down and proceed to
blade, then dip the far side of the
it
cook that
side.
The penalty of dropping a flapjack in the
made to eat it without wiping off the ashes.
fire is
to be
DOUGHGOD
First fry
some bacon or
boil it until it is soft,
then chop
up the bacon into small pieces quite fine, like hash. Save
the grease and set the bacon to one side; now take a pint of
flour and half a teaspoon of salt, a spoonful of brown sugar
and a heaping spoonful of baking powder and mix them all
while they are dry, after which stir in the water as already
described until it is in the form of batter; now add the chopped
bacon and then mix rapidly with a spoon; pour
Dutch oven or a pan and bake; it should be done
five or forty minutes,
it
into a
in thirty-
according to the condition of the
fire.
When your campfire is built upon a hearth made of stones,
you brush the ashes away from the hot stone and place
your doughgod upon it, then cover it with a frying pan or
some similar vessel, and put the hot cinders on top of the
frying pan, you will find that it will bake very nicely and
satisfactorily on the hearthstone.
if
In the old-fashioned open fire-places where our grandparents did their cooking, a Dutch oven was considered
essential.
boys and
Abraham
The Dutch oven is still used by the guides and cowof practically the same form as that used by
is
Lincoln's folks;
it
consists of
a more or
less
shallow
dish of metal, copper, brass or iron, with four metal legs
CAMP FOOD
111
Over that is a metal top
which is made so as to cover the bottom dish, and the edges
of the cover are turned up all around like a hat with its brim
turned up. This is so made to hold the hot cinders which
are dumped on top of it, but a
that
be set in the hot cinders.
may
DUTCH OVEN MAY BE IMPROVISED
From any combination of two metal dishes so made or selected
that the large one will fit over the top and snugly overlap
the smaller dish, so as not to admit dirt, dust or ashes to the
food inside.
bakes, meat,
In this oven bread, biscuits, cakes, pies, stews,
fish, fowl and vegetables may be cooked with
delightful results.
made
to act as a
In camp two frying pans are frequently
Dutch oven. A Dutch oven is sometimes
used in a bean hole (Fig. 106) Firs^build a fire, using sufficient
small wood, chips and dry roots to make cinders enough with
which to fill your bean hole. While the fire is doing its work
.
let
the cook prepare to cook
THE SOURDOUGH'S JOY
Slice bacon as thin as possible and place a layer over the
bottom and around the sides of the Dutch oven like a piecrust. Slice venison, moose meat or bear steak, or plain beef,
medium thin and put in to the depth of 2^ Laches, salting each
layer. Chop a large onion and sprinkle it over the top, cover
with another layer of bacon and one pint of water and put
on the lid. Fill the hole half full of hot embers, place the
Dutch oven in the center and fill the space surrounding the
oven full of embers. Cover all with about 6 inches of dirt,
then
roll
yourself
your breakfast
when you
will
dig for
your blanket and shut your eyes
cook while you sleep and be piping hot
up
it
in
in the morning.
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
112
The bean
hole
far
is
from a modern invention and the
dried droppings of animals, like "buffalo chips," were used
for fuel away back in Bible times; in ancient Palestine they
stewed their meat in a pot set in a hole filled in with stones
over which burned a fire of "chips" gathered where the
flocks pastured.
When
the
wood
is
of such a nature that
it is difficult
to
obtain a bed of live coals for toasting, meat may, in a pinch,
be cooked upon a clean flat stone (Figs. 116, 117 and 128).
Be
a dry one, otherwise the heat may
that it is dry, heat it good and hot and
certain that the stone
burst
it.
If satisfied
is
spread your thick slice of venison, moose, bear or sheep or
even beef upon the very hot stone; leave it there about twenty
minutes and allow it to singe, sizzle and burn on one side,
then turn
it
over and burn the other side until the charred
one-quarter or even a half inch deep. Now remove the
meat and with your hunting knife scrape away all the charred
meat, season it and toast some bacon or pork on a forked
stick and, after scoring the steak deeply and putting the
pork or bacon in the cuts, the meat is ready to serve to your
hungry self and camp mates.
part
is
How
TO COOK VENISON
you want to know how real wild meat tastes, drop a
buck with a shot just over the shoulder no good
sportsman will shoot a doe dress the deer and let it hang
for several days; that is, if you wish tender meat.
Cut a
steak two inches thick and fry some bacon, after which put
the steak in the frying pan with the bacon on top of it, and
a cover on the frying pan. When one side is cooked, turn the
meat over and again put the bacon on top, replace the cover
and let that side cook. Serve on a hot plate and give thanks
If
sleek
CAMP FOOD
113
you are in the open, have a good appetite and you are
privileged to partake of a dish too good for any old king.
'.hat
The
gravy, oh
word! the recollection of
my
it
makes me
have eaten moose meat three times a day for
hungry!
weeks at a time, when it was cooked as described, without
I
losing
my
desire for more.
PERDIX AU CHOUX
Is
a great dish in Canada the bird is cooked this way Chop
fine and highly spice it, then stuff the bird with the
:
;
cabbage
cabbage and nicely cover the partridge or grouse with many
thin slices of bacon, and put bacon also in the baking pan.
When
baked and well basted a more delicious
game dinner you will never eat. Try it; it is an old French
way
this is well
of cooking the partridge or pheasant.
When you
need a real warm fire for cooking, do not forget
that dry roots make an intensely hot fire with no smoke; look
for them in driftwood piles, as they are sure to be there; they
are light as a cork
and porous
and burn like coke.
one with truth may say that he is a real woodcrafter
unless he is a good camp cook. At the same time it is an
as a sponge,
No
error to think that the outdoor
trencher
men
live to eat like
the
men
of old England, or the degenerate epicures of
ancient Rome. Neither are the outdoor men in sympathy
with the Spartans or Lacedemonians and none of them would
willingly partake of the historic and disgusting black broth of
Lacedemonia.
Woodcrafters are really more in sympathy
with cultured Athenians
who
strove to
make
attractive with interesting talk, inspiring
and
delightful recitations
campfire
man would
he might add that
by poets and
say: "That's
like all
me
and
their
banquets
patriotic odes
As a
Mable" and
philosophers.
all
good things on
over,
this earth
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
114
BANQUETS
The word itself is from the French
and Spanish and means a small bench, a little seat, and when
spelled banqueta, means a three-legged stool. It has reference
Originated in the open.
to sitting while eating instead of taking refreshments in
"stand up" fashion. The most enjoyable banquets in the
author's experience are those partaken in the wilderness,
prominent among the wildwood dishes is the
and
LUMBERMAN'S BAKED BEANS
Wash
the beans
first,
then half
fill
a pail with them, put
them over the fire and parboil them until their skins are ready
to come off; they are now ready for the pot. But before putting them in there, peel an onion and slice it, placing the
slices in the bottom of the bean pot.
Now pour hah" of the
beans over the onions and on top of them spread the slices
of another onion. Take some salt pork and cut it into square
and place the hunks of pork over the onions, thus
making a layer of onions and pork on top of the beans. Over
pieces
pour the remainder of the beans, cover the top of the
beans with molasses, on the top of the molasses put some more
this
hunks of pork, put in enough water to barely cover the beans.
Over the top of all of it spread a piece of birch bark, then
force the cover down good and tight.
Meanwhile a
(Fig. 105).
fire
When
should have been built in the bean hole
the
fire of
birch has been burnt to hot
must be shoveled out and the bean pot
after which pack the cinders around the
cinders, the cinders
put into the hole,
bean pot and cover the whole thing with the dead ashes, or
as the lumbermen call them, the black ashes.
If the beans are put into the bean hole late in the afternoon
and allowed
to remain there all night, they will be done to a
CAMP FOOD
115
turn for breakfast; the next morning they will be wholesome,
juicy
and sweet, browned on top and
A bean
beans.
I
hole
delicious.
not absolutely necessary for a small pot of
in the wilderness by placing the
is
have cooked them
pot on the ground in the middle of the place where the fire
had been burning, then heaping the hot ashes and cinders
over the bean pot until it made a little hill there, which I
covered with the black ashes and left until morning. I tried
the same experiment on the open hearth to
it was a wonderful success.
my
studio
and
THE ETIQUETTE OF THE WOODS
Requires that when a porcupine has been killed it be immediately thrown into the fire, there to remain until all the quuls
have been singed
off of
the aggressive hide, after which
it
may be skinned with no danger to the workmen and with no
danger to the other campers from the wicked barbed quills,
which otherwise might be waiting for them just where they
wished to seat themselves.
This
may sound
funny, but I have experimented, unin-
by seating myself upon a porcupine quill. I can
assure the reader that there is nothing humorous in the ex-
tentionally,
perience to the victim, however funny
who look on.
it
may appear to
those
After thoroughly singeing the porcupine you roll it in the
make certain that the burnt quills are rubbed off its
grass to
skin, then with a sharp knife slit
belly from the
and peel
tail
it off.
him up the middle
of the
to the throat, pull the skin carefully
When you come
to the feet cut
back
them
off.
the Thanksgiving turkey of the Alaskan
and British Columbia Indian, but unless it has been boiled
Broiled porcupine
in
is
two or three waters the taste does not
suit white
men.
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
116
PORCUPINE WILDERNESS METHOD
After
it
has been parboiled, suspend the porcupine by its
good roasting fire, or over a bed of hot
forelegs in front of a
coals,
and
found
in the wilderness.
and
most savory;
is
well seasoned
it will
The
like beef
Split the tail
of fat.
meaty
if
tail
be as good meat as can be
particularly
tongue
it is filled
very meaty
with fine bits
is
and take out the bone, then roast the
part.
Porcupine stuffed with onions and roasted on a spit before
the fire is good, but to get the perfection of cooking it really
should be cooked in a Dutch oven, or a closed kettle or an
improvised airtight oven of some sort and baked in a bean
hole, or
baked by being buried deep under a heap of cinders
and covered with
that
is,
one that
smaller one
may
ashes.
is
a
Two iron pans that will fit together,
trifle
larger than the other so that the
be pushed down into
it
to
some
extent, will
the purposes of the Dutch oven. Also two frying
pans arranged in the same manner.
Always remember that after the porcupine is skinned,
answer
all
dressed and cleaned,
it
should be put in a pot and parboiled,
changing the water once or twice, after which it may be
cooked in any way which appeals to the camper. The
NORTH METHOD
Is to place it in the
let
the porcupine
Dutch oven with a few hunks of fat pork
upon some hard-tack, hard biscuit
;
itself rest
or stale bread of any kind, which has been slightly softened
with water.
of the porcupine lay a nice slice or two of fat pork
place another layer of soaked hard biscuit or hard-tack
On top
and
on the pork, put it
in
a Dutch oven and place the Dutch oven
CAMP FOOD
on the hot
put a cover on the Dutch oven and heap
coals,
the living coals over the top of
let it
bake slowly
cooked
117
it
and the ashes atop
until the flesh parts
of that;
from the bones.
Thus
taste something like veal with a suggestion of
it will
The
sucking pig.
tail of
the porcupine, like the
TAIL OF THE BEAVER
Is considered
men hang
Many
a special delicacy.
of the old wilderness
the beaver for a day or
two in the chimney of their shack to allow the oily matter
to exude from it, and thus take away the otherwise strong
the
flat trowel-like tails of
advocated for porcupine meat,
be roasted or baked and the rough
taste; others parboil it as
after
skin
which the
tail
removed before
may
eating.
BEAVER TAIL SOUP
made by stewing the tails with what other ingredients one
may have in camp all such dishes should be allowed to simmer
Is
;
for a long while in place of boiling rapidly.
A man who
I
was hunting
in
North Michigan
said,
"Al-
am a Marylander, and an Eastern Shore one at that,
though
and consequently know what good things to eat are, I want
to tell you that I'll have to take off my hat to the lumber
camp cook
as the discoverer, fabricator
and dispenser
of a
And
that
dish that knocks the Eastern Shore cuisine
dish
is
silly.
When
the beaver was brought into
cook went nearly wild, and so did the lumber-
beaver-tail soup.
camp the camp
men when they heard the news, and
all
because they were
pining for beaver-tail soup.
"The cook took that broad appendage of the beaver, mailed
like
an armadillo, took from
it
the underlying bone and meat
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
118
and from
it
made such a soup
as never
came from any other
stock, at the beck of the most expert and
ever put a kettle on."
that
scientific chef
MUSKRAT
Is valuable also for his flesh. Its name and rat-like appearance have created a prejudice against it as a food, but thousands of persons eat it without compunction. For those to
whom
rabbit"
"
a stumbling-block the euphemism marsh
has been invented, and under this name the
the
name
is
muskrat is sold even hi the Wilmington market and served
on the tables of white country folk. In Delaware, especially, the muskrat is ranked as a delicacy, and personally
the author ranks this rodent with the rabbit as an article
of food.
At Dover the
its
own name;
5
benefit of those
to state that
writer has
so as to
it
who
it is
revolt at the
served at the hotel under
muskrat as food,
one of the cleanest of
carefully washes all its
itself
had
the dish was "muskrats and toast."
own
recommend
all
For the
it is
well
creatures, that
it
food and in every way conducts
even to the most fastidious.
its flesh
As a matter of fact the flesh of the muskrat, though dark,
Stewed like rabbit it looks
is tender and exceedingly sweet.
and tastes like rabbit, save that it lacks a certain gamy flavor
that some uneducated persons find an unpleasant characterBut to the writer's way of thinking, while
istic of the latter.
the muskrat
is
good to
good and
its
is
eat, there are
many
things
much
however, that everything which tastes
not indigestible is good to eat no matter what
better; the point
name may
is,
be.
THE BURGOO
Of all the camp stews and hunters' stews of various names
and flavors, the Kentucky burgoo heads the list; not only is
CAMP FOOD
119
its intrinsic qualities, its food value and
romance and picturesque accompaniment,
but also because of the illustrious people whose names are
One such
linked in Kentucky history with the burgoo.
feast, given some time between 1840 and 1850, was attended
by Governor Owlsley (old stone-hammer), Governor Metcalf,
it
distinguished for
delicious flavor, its
Governor Bob Letcher, Governor Moorhead, General George
Crittenton, General John Crittenton, General Tom Crittenton, James H. Beard, and other distinguished men.
vow they understand
All Kentuckians will
the true mean-
ing of the word "burgoo." But an article in the Insurance
"
Field says, It is derived from the low Latin burgus, fortified
a town) and goo-goo, very good." Hence the word, "burgoo," something very good, fortified with other good things, as
(as
be found in "Carey's Dictionary of Double Derivations":
"Burgoo is literally a soup composed of many vegetables
will
and meats delectably fused together in an enormous caldron,
over which, at the exact moment, a rabbit's foot at the end of
a yarn string is properly waved by a colored preacher, whose
salary has been paid to date. These are the good omens by
which the burgoo
is
How
fortified."
TO
MAKE THE BURGOO
Anything from an ordinary
caldrons, according to the
camp,
pail to
number
will serve as vessels in
one or
many
big
of guests expected at the
which to serve the burgoo. The
excellence of the burgoo depends
more upon the manner of
cooking and seasoning
does on the material used
it
than
it
in its decoction.
To-day the burgoo is composed of meat from domestic
and barnyard fowls with vegetables from the garden,
but originally it was made from the wild things in the woods,
beasts
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
120
bear, buffalo, venison, wild turkey, quails, squirrels
and
all
the
game animals that once roamed through Kentucky.
As this book is for woodcrafters we will take it for granted
that we are in the woods, that we have some venison, moose,
splendid
bear meat, rocky mountain goat, big horn, rabbit, ruffed
grouse, or some good substitutes. It would be a rare occasion
indeed when we would really have these things. If, for instance, we have a good string of grouse we will take their
legs
and wings and necks for the burgoo and save their
and if we have not many grouse we will
breasts for a broil,
put in a whole bird or two.
We
will treat
the rabbits the
same way, saving the body with the tenderloin for broiling.
When cleaned and dressed the meat of a turtle or two adds
a delicious flavor to the burgoo; frogs legs are also good,
with the other meat.
Cut all the meat up into pieces which will correspond,
roughly speaking, to inch cubes; do not throw away the bones
put them in also. Now then, if you were wise enough when
;
you were
outfitting for the trip to secure
some
of the
ill-
imsmelling but palatable dried vegetables, they will add
material
the
all
Put
mensely to the flavor of your burgoo.
in the kettle, that
as vegetables
if
;
unless you are using beans and potatoes
the meats had better be well cooked first,
is,
so,
because the beans and potatoes have a tendency to go to the
bottom, and by scorching spoil the broth.
Fill
your
kettle, caldron or
pot half
full
of water
and
ready to boil get
it over the fire; while
busy
making
with your vegetables, preparing them for the stew. Peel the
dry outer skin off your onions and halve them, or quarter
hang
it is
them, according to their size; scrape your carrots and slice
them into little disks, each about the size of a quarter, peel
size
your potatoes and cut them up into pieces about the
CAMP FOOD
and when the caldron
of the meat,
121
is
boiling
dump
in the
The
vegetables will temporarily cool the water,
which should not be allowed to again boil, but should be put
vegetables.
over a slow
fire
and where
it will
simmer.
When
the stew
is
almost done add the salt and other seasonings. There should
always be enough water to cover the vegetables. Canned
add to the flavor of your broth. In a real
burgoo we put no thickening like meal, rice or other material
of similar nature, because the broth is strained and served
clear. Also no sweet vegetables like beets.
tomatoes
will
When
the burgoo is done dip it out and drink it from tin
Of
course, if this is a picnic burgoo, you add olive
cups.
to
the
stew, while it is cooking, and then place a sliced
juice
lemon and an olive in each cup and pour the hot strained
liquid into the cups.
The burgoo and the barbecue belong to that era when
food was plenty, feasts were generous and appetites good.
These historic feasts still exist in what is left of the open
country and rich farming districts, particularly in Kentucky
and Virginia. In Kentucky in the olden times the gentlemen
were wont to go out in the morning and do the hunting, while
the negroes were keeping the caldrons boiling with the pork
and other foundation material in them. After the gentlemen
returned and the game was put into the caldron, the guests
began to arrive and the stew was served late in the afternoon;
each guest was supposed to come supplied with a tin cup and
a spoon, the latter made of a fresh water mussel shell with a
a handle. Thus provided they all sat round and
split stick for
partook of as
Since
many
helps as their hunger demanded.
we have given Kentucky's
add "Ole Virginny's"
after the
county where
favorite dish,
it
originated.
celebrated dish,
we
will
which has been named
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
122
THE BRUNSWICK STEW
"Take two large squirrels, one quart of tomatoes, peeled
and sliced, if fresh; one pint of lima beans or butter beans,
two teaspoonfuls of white sugar, one minced onion, six potafrom the cob, or a can of sweet
corn, half a pound of butter, half a pound of salt pork, one
teaspoonful of salt, three level teaspoonfuls of pepper and a
toes, six ears of corn scraped
Cut the squirrels up as for fricassee, add
and water and boil five minutes. Then put in the onion,
beans, corn, pork, potatoes and pepper, and when boiling
again add the squirrel.
"Cover closely and stew two hours, then add the tomato
mixed with the sugar and stew an hour longer. Ten minutes
before removing from the fire cut the butter into pieces the
size of English walnuts, roll in flour and add to the stew.
Boil up again, adding more salt and pepper if required."
The above is a receipt sent in to us, and I would give credit
I do know that it
for it if I knew from whence it came.
sounds good, and from my experience with other similar
gallon of water.
salt
dishes, it will taste good.
I
am
not writing a cook book but only attempting to
on his way as a camp chef, and if he succeeds
start the novice
open the dishes here described, he need not
fear to tackle any culinary problem which conditions may
in cooking in the
make
it
necessary for
him
to solve.
CHAPTER
VII
PACKING HORSES
HOW
HOW
HOW
HOW
TO MAKE A PACK HORSE OF YOUR
TO MAKE AN APAREJO
OWN
TO MAKE A CINCHA
TO MAKE A LATIGO
HOW-TO THROW A DIAMOND HITCH
HOW TO THROW A SQUAW HITCH
HOW
TO HITCH A HORSE IN OPEN LAND WITHOUT POST,
TREE OR STICK OR STONE
USE OF HOBBLES AND HOW TO MAKE THEM
HOW THE TRAVOIS IS MADE AND USED
BUFFALO BILL AND GENERAL MILES
HOW TO THROW DOWN A SADDLE
HOW TO THROW A SADDLE ON A HORSE
HOW TO MOUNT A HORSE
HOW TO KNOW A WESTERN HORSS
CHAPTER
VII
PACKING HORSES
going on a real camping excursion where one
will need pack horses, one should, by all means, familiarize
oneself with the proper method of packing a pack horse.
IF one
is
This can be done in one's own
cellar, attic
or woodshed and
without hiring a horse or keeping one for the purpose. The
horse will be expensive enough when one needs it on the trail.
The drill in packing a horse should be taught in all scout
all Y. M. C. A. camps, and all
where
where anybody goes outevery
training camps;
doors at all, or where anybody pretends to go outdoors; and
after the tenderfeet have learned how to pack then it is the
camps, and
all girl
camps and
in fact,
proper time to learn what to pack; consequently we put
packing before outfitting, not the cart, but the pack before
she horse, so to speak.
When the Boy Scout Movement started in America it
jad the good aggressive American motto, "BE SURE YOU'RE
RIGHT, THEN Go AHEAD," which was borrowed from that
delightful old buckskin man, Davy Crockett.
A few years later, when the scout idea was taken up in
England, the English changed the American motto to "BE
PREPARED;" because the English Boy Scout promoter was
a military man himself and saw the necessity of preparedness
by Great Britain, which has since become apparent to us all.
be prepared to pack a horse, we must
be sure we are right, then "go ahead" and practice pack-
And
first
in order to
ing at home.
One
of the
most
useful things to the outdoor person is
125
a
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
126
PACK HORSE
do not own a horse, but there is not a reader of
book so poor that he cannot own the horse shown by
All of us
this
Fig. 174.
168
There are but few people
in the
United States who cannot
which to build
into possession of a barrel with
honestly come
a pack horse or on which to practice throwing the diamond
They can also find, somewhere, some pieces of board
with which to make the legs of the horse, its neck and head.
hitch.
PACKING HORSES
127
Fig. 168 shows the neck-board, and the dotted lines show
where to saw the head to get the right angle for the head and
ears, with which the horse may hear.
Fig. 169 shows the
head-board, and the dotted line shows how to saw off one
corner to give the proper shape to this Arabian steed's
intelligent head-piece.
Fig. 170
shows how to
nail the
head on the neck.
The
may be procured by knocking them out of old boards;
at least that is the way the writer supplied himself with nails.
nails
He
does not remember ever asking his parents for money
with which to buy nails, but if it is different nowadays, and
if you do not feel economically inclined, and have the money,
go to the shop and buy them. Also, under such circumstances,
go to the lumber yard and purchase your boards.
Fig. 171 shows how to nail two cleats on the neck, and
Fig. 172
barrel.
shows how to
If
you
nail these cleats
find the barrel
onto the head of the
head so tough and
cannot be easily hammered
elastic that
use a gimlet and bore
holes into the cleats and into the barrel head, and then fasten
a
nail
in,
the cleats on with screws.
the nag is made out of an old piece of frayed
rope (Fig. 173), with a knot tied in one end to prevent the
tail from pulling out when it is pulled through a hole in the
The
tail of
other end of the barrel (Fig. 173). The legs of the horse are
made like those of a carpenter's wooden horse, of bits of plank
or boards braced under the barrel by cross-pieces (Fig. 174).
Now you have a splendid horse! "One that will stand
without hitching." It is kind and warranted not to buck,
bite or kick, but nevertheless, when you are packing him
remember that you are doing
pack a real
and kick.
live horse,
it
in order to drill yourself to
a horse that
may
really buck, bite
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
128
There are a lot of words in the English
language not to
be found in the dictionary. I remember a few
years ago
when one could not find "undershirt" or "catboat" in the
dictionary. But in the dictionaries of to-day you will even
find "aparejo"
was
and "latigo," although neither
of these
words
in the dictionaries of
yesterday.
MAKE YOUR OWN APAREJO
Make your own
real
ones are
leather
some
is
made
aparejo of anything you can find. The
but at the present time, 1920,
of leather,
very expensive.
We can,
builders' paper, tar paper,
however, no doubt secure
stiff
wrapping paper, a piece
of old oilcloth, which,
by the way, would be more like leather
and cover these things with a piece of
than anything else,
tent cloth, a piece of carpet, or even
burlap.
The
inside will stiffen the aparejo. At the bottom
can lash a couple of sticks (Fig. 175), or if we
in a real
it
we
want to do it
workmanlike manner, we can sew on a couple of
leather shoes,
we can
oilcloth
edge of
made out
of old shoe leather or
new
leather
and then slip a nice hickory stick through
the shoes, as shown in the diagram (Fig. 176).
The aparejo is to throw over the horse's back as in Fig.
178, but in order to fasten it on the back we must have a latigo
which is the real wild and woolly name for the rope attached
to a cincha strap (Fig. 177)
But when you are talking about
if
secure
it,
.
packing the pack horses
Make your cincha
call it
"cinch," and spell
of a piece of canvas,
and
in
it
"cincha."
one end fasten
a hook a big strong picture hook will do; Fig. 177^ shows
a cinch hook made of an oak elbow invented by Stewart
Edward White, and in the other end an iron ring; to the iron
ring fasten the lash rope (Fig. 177).
For the real horse and outfit one will need
an aparejo,
PACKING HORSES
129
a pack blanket, a lash rope with a cincha, a sling rope, a
bund for the horse, and a pack cover. But here again do not
call it
a pack cover, for that will at once stamp you as a
Assume the superior air of a real plainsman and
tenderfoot.
speak of
it
as a
"manta."
inventions of the Arabians
The
aparejo and pack saddle are
away back in the eighth century.
When the Moors from Africa overran Spain, these picturesque
marauders brought with them pack mules, pack saddles, and
When General Cortez and Pizarro carried the
aparejos.
torch and sword through Mexico in their search for gold,
they brought with them pack animals, pack saddles, aparejos,
latigos, and all that sort of thing with which to pack their loot.
When the forty-niners went to California in search of
gold they found that the Arabian Moorish-Spanish-Mexican
method of packing animals was perfectly adapted to their
purposes and they used to pack animals, the aparejos, the
The lash rope for a
latigos, and all the other kinds of gos.
pack horse should be of the best Manila -|- inch or -finch, and forty feet long; a much shorter one will answer for
real
the
wooden
horse.
EVEN BOYS CAN THROW THE HITCH
Back
hi 1879,
Captain A. B. Wood, United States Army,
introduced a knowledge of the proper use of the pack saddle
and the mysteries of the diamond hitch into the United
Army. The Fourth Cavalry, United States Army,
was the first to become expert with the diamond hitch and
States
taught it to the others; but recently a military magazine
has asked permission, and has used the author's diagrams,
to explain to the Cavalry men how this famous hitch
is
thrown.
It stands to reason that in order to
9
pack one horse one
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
130
must have some packs.
imaginable to secure.
But
A
these are the easiest things
couple of old potato or flour bags,
stuffed with anything that
or paper
When
"one man
hitch.
is
handy
hay, grass, leaves, rags
but stuffed tight (Fig. 179), will do for our load.
packing a horse, except with such hitches as the
"
it
hitch,
The
first
requires
one
is
two men or boys to "throw" the
as the head packer, and the
known
other as the second packer. Remember that the left-hand
side of the horse is the nigh side. The head packer stands
on the nigh
side of the horse
in the left
hand and
lets
and he takes the
the coils
fall
coiled lash rope
astern of the pack
he takes hold of the
animal (Fig. 180) with the right hand
rope about three or four feet from the cincha
;
(Fig. 180) and
hands the hook end under the animal to the second packer,
who stands on the right-hand side of the horse (Fig. 180).
The right hand of the head packer, with the palm upwards,
so holds the rope that the loop will fall across his forearm;
the left hand with the palm downward holds the rope about
half
way between
the loop that goes over the forearm and the
along the back of the pack animal (Fig. 181).
head packer now throws the loop from his forearm across
loop that
The
lies
PACKING HORSES
133
the pack on the back of the animal, allowing the left hand to
The second packer
fall naturally on the neck of the animal.
runs the rope through the hook and pulls up the cincha
end until the hook is near the lower edge of the off side of the
now
aparejo (Fig. 183).
The head packer next grasps the rope A (Fig. 185) and
tucks a loop from the rear to the front under the part marked
B (Figs. 185 and 186), over the inner side pack (Figs. 184
Next the second packer passes the loose end of the
rope under the part marked D (Fig. 187), and throws it on
the nigh (left) side of the pack animals.
The head packer now draws the tucked loop forward and
and
187)
.
under the corners and the lower edge of the nigh
side of the aparejo (Fig. 188), then holds it taut from the rear
corner, and the second packer takes hold of the rope at E
and at F (Fig. 187) with his right
(Fig. 189) with his left hand,
tucks
hand.
it
He
passes the rope under the corners and lower edge
of the off side of the aparejo (G,
H,
Fig. 189,
and G, H,
Fig.
The second packer now
takes the blind off his pack
191).
lead
it
forward a few steps while
to
is
animal and
supposed
the head packer examines the load from the rear to see if it
properly adjusted.
Then the blind is again put upon the animal for the final
tightening of the rope. While the second packer is pulling
is
the parts taut, the head packer takes up the slack and keeps
the pack steady. The tightening should be done in such a
manner as not to shake the pack out of balance or position,
(Figs.
188 and 190).
(or off side) packer grasps the lash rope above
the hook, and puts his knee against the stern corner of the
aparejo, left-hand group (Fig. 188). The head packer takes
hold with his right hand of the same part of the rope where it
The second
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
134
comes from the pack on the inner side, and with the left
hand at J (Fig. 189), and his right shoulder against the cargo
to steady it, he gives the command "PULL!" Without jerks,
but with steady
"W
IS
^C
IS
pulls,
the second packer
now
tightens the
A REAL. C NC MA AND LATlGO
A RtAL 6AW-8UCK >f\DDLE WITH
ALFOR-JAS ATTAJUtEI>~
I
rope, taking care not to let
He gives
slack
it slip
back through the hook.
the loose part to the head packer,
by steady
When
who
takes up the
pulls.
the second packer
is
satisfied that it is all right
he
"Enough!" The head packer then holds steady with
right hand and slips the other hand down to where the
cries,
his
rope passes over the front edge of the aparejo.
There he
PACKING HORSES
135
holds steady; his right hand then takes hold of the continuation of the rope at the back corner of the pad and pulls tight.
Placing his right knee against the rear corner of the pad he
leftpulls hard with both hands until the rope is well home,
hand group
(Fig. 188).
The second packer now takes up the slack by grasping
the rope with both hands, E (Fig. 189).
The head packer steps to the front to steady the pack.
The second packer
pulls taut the parts
on
his side, taking
up
K
This draws the part of the lash rope K,
(Fig.
hitch
center
the
middle
of
the
at
well
back
189),
pack, giving
the diamond shape from which the name is derived,
(Fig.
the slack.
X
191). He then, with the left hand at the rear corner H, pulls
taut and holds solid, while with the right hand in front of G,
he takes up slack. Next with both hands at the front corner
and with
his knee against it (Fig. 188), the second packer pulls
head packer at the same time taking up the slack
the
taut,
on his side and then pulls steady, drawing the part L, L
(Fig. 189), of the rope leading from the hook well forward at
the middle of the pack, finishing off the diamond at X. He
then carries the loose end under the corners and ends of the
aparejo, and draws that taut and ties the
hitch near the cincha end of the lash rope.
end
fast
by a
half
After passing under the corners, if the rope is long enough
to reach over the load, it can then be passed over and made
on the off side by tying around both parts of the lash
rope above the hook and by drawing them well together
fast
(Fig. 191).
Alongside of Fig. 190 are a series of sketches showing how
to lash and cinch two parcels or bags together; one bag is
made
black so that its position can better be understood.
In other words, it makes it easier to follow the different hitches.
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
136
Learn to pack at home and you
on the
will
not lose your packs
trail.
In following these instructions, whenever in doubt forget
the perspective views and keep in mind Figures 181, 183, 185,
187, 189 and 191, which tell the whole story. The perspective
views are principally to show the relative position of the
packers; the position of the rope can best be seen by looking
on top
of the pack.
A
In packing a live horse you will learn by practice not to
pull in such a way as to cause the horse to step on your feet;
you will also learn that a live horse will not stand as still as
a wooden horse, but when you have learned to pack a wooden
horse quickly and well, it will only take you a short time to
become expert with a live horse.
THE SQUAW HITCHES
These are useful when one has no one to help in packing
when one has no pack saddle like Fig. 200.
the animal, and
With
this
squaw hitch you must throw your burden across
made by a blanket (Fig.
the back of the horse, over the pad
PACKING HORSES
137
X
192), then put a loop over the end M, see
(Fig. 192), and
At the end of
another one over the end N, see
192)
(Fig.
the lash rope Z make a loop now pass that loop down under
Y
.
;
Y
the horse's belly and through
(Fig. 193), bring the end Z
down
back again over the horse's back, also pass the end
through X, and bring it back over the horse's back, also pass
T
the end
Z down through Y, and
bring
it
back over the horse's
T
through Z (Fig. 193), cinch tight and fasten on
pack (Fig. 194). Fig. 195 shows another throw in
another squaw hitch. Fig. 196 shows the next position.
back, pass
top of
Fig. 197
shows the thing made fast.
travels with pack horses should know how
Anyone who
to arrange the lead rope in a manner so that it may be quickly
and easily loosened, and at the same time be out of the way,
so that the horse will not get his foot over it when climbing
or descending steep places, which often happens when the
lead rope is fastened to the pack in the usual manner. If
you
will
take the rope and wind
it
loosely
around the horse's
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
138
neck, behind his
left
ear and in front of his right ear (Figs.
198 and 199), then tuck the end under the strands, as shown
in Fig. 198, the thing may be undone in an instant, and in
the meantime the rope is out of the way where it will not
bother either the man or the horse.
on the wooden horse, then it will come
natural when the time comes to handle a real horse. The
Practise
all this
of looping up the lead rope, just described, I learned
from the explorers of the Mt. McKinley expedition, who had
many occasions to test the best, as well as the worst methods
manner
and arranging their duffel. There are a number
of other hitches, some given by Stewart Edward White, in
Outing, called the Miner's Hitch, the Lone Packer's Hitch,
of packing
but possibly we have given the reader enough to start him
on his way; remember for the pack horse the necessary outfit
is a horse blanket, the cincha and lash rope, the sling rope,
the lead rope, the manta, which is a cover for the pack, sometunes called the tarp short for tarpaulin, and the blind,
but as a rule a handkerchief is used for a blinder. The
which goes over the
aparejo is a sort of a leather mattress
horse's back and on which the pack rests, but you will find
about that when you hit the trail with a pack train. The
used on a pack
alforjas is a Spanish name for the saddle-bags
all
horse.
When the reader knows how to pack his horse, knows
the Spanish names for the pack saddle and all that sort
of thing, there may come a time when he will have a horse
all
which needs to be hitched at night, and
he must needs
it
may happen
HITCH THE HORSE
where there are no trees, sticks, or even stones;
but if he is a good woodcraf ter and plainsman, with his hunta hole as
kig knife he will proceed to dig as narrow and deep
On some
trail
PACKING HORSES
141
possible in the earth, then he will tie a knot in the end of the
picket rope and drop the knot to the bottom of the hole
(Fig. 201) (the picket rope in reality should
rope, fifty feet long); the only
the hole
is
way
be one-half inch
to get that knot out of
to stand directly over the opening
and pull the
It will never occur to the horse
knot up perpendicularly.
by taking hold of it with his teeth, so that
it may stand over the hole and pull up the knot, consequently
to shorten the line
the animal will be as securely hitched as
if
tied to
a post.
HOBBLES
For the front
legs
may be
purchased at any
outfitter's (Fig.
Make a
from
a
and
from
a
strand
then
fasten
it
rope
large
loop
round one leg, as in diagram; after that twist the rope to make
the connections between the two loops, tie another knot to
prevent the rope from untwisting, then tie the two ends
202), or
home-made from unravelled rope
(Fig. 203).
around the leg of the horse (Fig. 203) ; the unravelled rope
soft and will not chafe the horse's leg.
is
TRAVOIS
Figs. 204
ing
by
and 205 show the famous Indian mode
of pack-
travois.
How
TO
THROW A SADDLE DOWN
General Miles once told the author that the handsomest
man he had
ever seen came dashing into their camp in a
having ridden right through bands of
cloud of alkali dust;
hostile Indians
took
off his
which surrounded the camp, he dismounted,
it on the ground, put the bridle
saddle and threw
bit, girth, etc., inside
the saddle, put the saddle-cloth over it,
in front of the campfire.
then he calmly stretched himself out
"
Thatman,"saidGeneralMiles,"was Bill Cody, Buffalo Bill !"
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
142
When Cody
its side (Fig.
put the saddle on the ground he placed
206)
;
it
hi placing the saddle in this position
on
it
preserves the curve of the skirts, and thus the form of the
saddle is not destroyed and the reins and the stirrup straps
are protected; at the same tune the saddle makes a good
and
should rain at night the saddle blanket is the
only thing, besides the rider, which gets a ducking, unless
the latter has a good waterproof sleeping-bag.
pillow,
if it
How
TO
THROW A SADDLE ON A HORSE
So manage the saddle that with one swing it will 'light on
the horse's back with the pummel towards the horse's head
(Fig. 207). Grasp with your right hand the horn of the saddle,
and as you swing the saddle on the horse with a graceful
sweep, use your left hand to push the further skirt outward
and thus prevent it from doubling up on the horse's back.
Be careful to throw the girth far enough so that it will hang
down so as to be easily reached under the horse. I once had
an English farm hand who put a western saddle on a horse
with the pummel towards the tail, and was very indignant
him that a pummel should face the bow
me he knew more about horses than I
when
I told
craft;
he told
of a
did,
am
not a horseman; he also said
he
used
to ride to "the 'ounds,"
"hold
in
the
that
country"
all of which goes to prove customs are different in different
which
is
possibly true, as I
countries.
Here we put the pummel
of the saddle towards
the horse's head; we won't argue about it; we may be wrong,
but it is a matter of custom, and right or wrong is the rule
the reader must follow in America, even though the reader
may have ridden to the "'ounds" while abroad. Do not
misunderstand me, some of the best horsemen in the world
are English, but this fellow was not one of them.
PACKING HORSES
How
TO
143
MOUNT A WESTERN HORSE
Years ago when the rider was in Montana on Howard
Eaton's Ranch, near the celebrated ranch of Theodore Roose-
he had
with Western horses, and
and standing in great terror of being called
a tenderfoot, he shyly watched the others mount before he
attempted to do so himself. Each one of these plainsmen,
he noticed, took the reins in his left hand while standing on
velt,
his first experience
being sensitive
the left-hand side of the horse; then holding the reins over
the shoulders of the horse he grasped the mane with the
same hand, and put
the
his left foot into the stirrup;
but to put
the stirrup he turned the stirrup around so
that he could mount while facing the horse's tail, then he
left foot in
grabbed hold of the pummel with
his right
hand and swung
into the saddle as the horse started.
That looked easy; the writer also noticed that just before
the others struck the saddle they gave a whoop, so without
showing any hesitation the author walked up to his cayuse,
took the reins confidently in his left hand, using care to stand
on the left-hand side of the horse; then he placed the left
hand with the
reins
between the shoulders of the horse and
grabbed the mane, then he turned the stirrup around, turned
his back to the horse's head, put his left foot in the
stirrup
and gave a
yell.
On
sober afterthought he decided that he gave that yell
too soon; the horse almost went out from under him, or at
least so it
seemed to him, or maybe the sensation would be
better described to say that it appeared to him as if he went
a mile over the prairie with his right leg waving in the air
like a one-winged aeroplane, before he
finally settled down
into the saddle.
But
this could
not have been really true, because every-
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
144
body applauded and the writer was at once accepted by the
crowd without question as a thoroughbred Sourdough.
Possibly they may have thought he was feeling good and just
doing some stunts.
It
may
interest the reader to state that the
his best to live
up
author did
impression he had made, but
next day, there were some books he
to the
first
he did not go riding the
thought necessary to read; he discovered, however, that even
lounging was not without some discomfort; for instance, he
could not cross his knees without helping one leg over with
both his hands; in fact, he could find no muscle in his body
that could be moved without considerable exertion and pain.
But this is the point of the story Had the author tried to
mount that cayuse in any other way he would have been
left sprawling on the prairie. The truth is that if you mount
properly when the horse starts, even if he begins to buck and
:
pitch, the action will tend to
out of
throw you into the saddle, not
it.
CAUTION
When you approach a horse which has a brand on it, always
approach from the left-hand side, because practically all the
Western horses have brands on them, and you can, as a rule,
count on a branded horse being from the West, with the hale
and hearty habits
be understood.
of the West,
If
your wooden horse,
it will
take
which to be appreciated must
you want to make a real cayuse out of
brand it and any cowboy who then sees
off his hat.
CHAPTER
VIII
THE USE OF DOGS. MAN PACKING
HIKING DOGS, PACK DOGS
TO PACK A DOG
TO THROW THE DOG HITCH
TO MAKE DOG TRAVOIS
HOW
HOW
HOW
DOG AS A BEAST OF BURDEN IN EUBOPE AND ARCTIC AMERICA
MAN PACKING
PACK RATS
DON'T FIGHT YOUR PACK
PORTAGE PACK
GREAT MEN WHO HAVE CARRIED A PACK
KINDS OF PACKS
ALPINE RUCKSACK
ORIGIN OF BROAD BREAST STRAPS
MAKE YOUR OWN OUTFITS
10
CHAPTER VHI
THE USE OF DOGS. MAN PACKING
THERE
is
no good reason why every hiker should not be
accompanied by
A
For
if
soul
it is
HIKING DOG
anything a dog does love better than its own
to hike with its master, and every normal boy and
there
is
and every normal man and woman, loves the company
When they do not love it the fault is not
with the dog but with them; there is something wrong with
girl,
of a good dog.
them that the outdoor world alone will cure.
But if a dog is going to enjoy the pleasure
of a hike with
should be willing to also
you, if it is a good square dog
share the hardships of the hike with you, and to help carry
the burdens on the trail. Any sort of a dog can be trained as
it
A PACK DOG
But the sturdier and stronger the dog is, the greater burden
he can carry and the more useful he will be on the trail.
The alforjas for a dog, or saddle-bags, can be made by anyone
who is handy with a needle and thread. A dog pack consists
primarily of two bags or pouches (Figs. 209 and 210), with a
yoke piece attached to slide over the dog's head and fit across
the chest (Figs. 209, 210, 211 and 212). Also a cincha to
fasten around the waist or small part of the dog's body, back
of
its ribs.
The pouches
(Fig. 210) should
have a manta, or
cover (Figs. 211, 213, and 214), to keep the rain, snow or dust
out of the duffel. Simple bags of strong light material on the
pattern of Fig. 210 are best, because the weight of anything
unnecessary is to be avoided.
147
148
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
THE DOG HITCH
affair as the diamond hitch, and
do up an ordinary parcel can learn
the dog hitch by one glance at Figs. 213 and 214.
Slip the breast band over the dog's head, put the saddlebags well forward on the dog's shoulders, tie the cinch around
Is not as complicated
an
anyone who knows how
to
its waist, after which spread the cover or manta over the bag,
and throw the hitch as shown by Figs. 211 and 214. Fig. 213
shows a bundle with a breast band made of the lash rope, in
which case the lash rope is usually made of cloth like that in
Fig. 211; the whole thing is simplicity itself and a good dog
can carry quite a load packed
A DOG
in this
manner.
TRAVOIS
Can
also be used at times with advantage, as it was used by
our red brothers of the wilderness. Fig. 217 shows a dog
harnessed to a travois,
made
of
two shaft
poles; the harness
used in Northern
and a cincha of leather or canvas and
traces of rope or thong. Figs. 215 and 216 show a rig made
by one of my Boy Scouts; the material used was the green
saplings cut in the woods, the traces were made of rope manufactured from the roots of the tamarack tree, so also was the
cord used to bind the parts of the frame together. The hooks
consists of a
Quebec
padded
collar similar to those
for sled dogs,
to which the traces were fastened were
made
of wire nails
bent over, and the staples to which the collar was fastened
by thongs to the shaft were made of wire nails, the heads of
which were ground off by rubbing them on stones; the nails
were then bent into the proper curve and driven into the
shaft in the form of a staple. Fig. 216 shows the same rig
with a leather harness.
The American Indian used the
THE USE OF DOGS MAN PACKING
151
on dogs the same as they did upon horses and the
sudden appearance of game often produced a stampede of
dog travoises, scattering the duffel, including papooses,
loaded on the travois.
travois
It is not expected that the reader will
these contrivances, but
if
he does he
make every one
How, and
will learn
of
to
be a good woodsman he should know how, so as to be prepared
for any emergency. It is possible to make the whole pack
dog from birch bark, but however it is made, if it
making the dog carry part of the pack,
when you put the bark on the dog's back, you will teach the
animal that there are two kinds of barks; one of which is useful
for the
serves the purpose of
as a duffel bag,
and the other as an alarm.
In Alaska and other parts of the far North, as well as in
Holland and other parts of Europe, the dog is generally used
as a beast of burden;
it
draws
sleds in
North America and
milk carts and market wagons in Holland, but it is not
necessary for us to live in Holland or in the far North in
make use of the dog a good dog will cheerfully carry
packs on the trail, loyally guard the camp at night, and,
order to
the
if
;
necessary, die in defense of
its
master.
an abomination; too heavy a
Any
no
an
is
burden,
unhappy
pack at all is fine until you
pack
reach camp and hunt around for something to answer for a
toothbrush, comb and brush, something on which to sit and
sleep, something overhead to protect you from the rains and
dews of heaven, something to eat and something to eat with
besides your fingers, something from which to drink which
holds water better than the hollow of your hand or the
uncomfortable pack
is
brim of your hat, and, in fact,
comforts that a fellow wants
Without these
all
on
those necessary
an
overnight
useful articles one will wish that he
little
hike.
had
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
152
subjected himself to the slight fatigue necessary to pack a
small pack on his back.
The word "pack"
itself is
a joy to the outdoor man, for
only outdoor men who use the word pack for carry, and
who call a bundle or load a pack. The reason for this is that
it is
the real wilderness man, explorer, prospector, hunter, trapper
all his duffel into a bundle which he carries
or scout, packs
on
his back, in two small saddle-bags which are carried by
husky dogs, or a number of well-balanced bundles which
are lashed on the pack saddle with a diamond hitch over the
his
back of a pack horse.
You see we have pack dogs, pack horses and pack animals,
pack saddles and packers, as well as the packs themselves,
which the packers pack and these animals pack on their
backs, or which the
Then we
also
man
himself packs on his own back.
rat, but the pack rat does not
have the pack
carry things with our consent. The pack rat comes flippityflop, hopping over the ground from the old hermit, Bill
Jones's, packing with
him
Bill Jones's false teeth
which he
has abstracted from the tin cup of water at the head of Bill
Jones's bunk. The pack rat deposits the teeth at the head
of your cot, then deftly picking up your watch, the rat packs
it back to Bill Jones's cot and drops it in the tin cup of water,
where it soaks until morning.
easy to see that however funny the pack rat may be,
and however useful he might be to the Sunday comic paper,
It
is
humor is not appreciated by the campers in the
Rocky Mountains, where it is called a pack rat from its habit
of carrying things. Thus it is that in a newly settled country
the rat's
the word "carry" is almost forgotten; one "packs" a letter
to the post box, or packs a horse to water, or packs a box of
candy to
his best girl, or a pail of water
from the spring.
THE USE OF DOGS MAN PACKING
MAN
153
PACKING
When you, my good reader, get the pack adjusted on
your back and the tump line across your forehead (Fig. 226)
,
remember that you are being initiated into the great fraternity of outdoor people. But no matter how tough or rough
to the casual observer, your roughness is
a
only apparent; boy or man of refinement carries that refinement inside of him wherever he goes at the same tune when
you may appear
;
carrying a pack on one's back and a tump line on
one's forehead (Fig. 226^) , or a canoe on one's head,
one
is
even though a lady should be met on the trail it would
not be necessary for one to take off one's hat, for even
a foolish society woman would not expect a man to doff the
canoe he might be carrying on his head.
stances use
and
common
sense; that
is
Under
all
circum-
the rule of the wilderness
also of real culture.
The most important
trail is
not to
fret
thing that you must learn on the
trifles, and even if your load
and fume over
heavy and irksome, even though the shoulder straps chafe
and the tump line makes your neck ache
is
DON'T FIGHT YOUR PACK
When we
speak of "fighting the pack" we mean fighting
mean getting one's load up against a
the load; that does not
"
and punching it with one's fists or kicking the stuffings
out of it," but it means complaining and fretting because the
tree
load
is
uncomfortable.
There are two kinds of "packs" the pack that you carry
day after day on a long hike, and the pack that you carry
when on a canoe trip and you are compelled to leave the water
and carry your canoe and duffel overland around some bad
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
154
The first-named pack should be as light as
30 and 40 pounds, for on a long tramp
between
possible, say
every pound counts, because you know that you must carry
rapids or
falls.
it as long as you keep going, and there is no relief in sight
except when you stop for your meals or to camp at night.
But the last-named pack, the
PORTAGE PACK,
218 and 223, the kind that you carry around bad pieces
may be as heavy as you can, with safety, load upon
Figs.
of water,
your sturdy back, because your mind is buoyed up by the
fact that you know you will not have to carry that load very
far, the
work
end when you reach the water again, and
the mind has as much to do with carrying
will
strange to say
the load as the muscles.
If
the mind gives up you will
helpless even under a small load; if the mind
will stagger along under a very heavy one.
When
straps on
I asked a friend,
his body,
how
it
is
fall
strong you
who
bears the scars of the pack
was that he managed to endure
the torture of such a load, he replied with a grin that as soon
as he found that to "fight his pack" meant to perish meant
he made up his mind to forget the blamed thing and
when the pack wearied him and the straps rubbed the skin
death
so
!
body, he forced himself to think of the good dinners
he had had at the Camp-fire Club of America, yum! yum!
off his
Also, of all the jolly stories told by the toastmaster,
the fun he had had at some other entertainments.
and
of
Often
while thinking of these things he caught himself laughing out
loud as he trudged along the lone trail, FORGETTING the hate"In this way," said he, with a winning
ful pack on his back.
smile
how
upon
not
his
to fight
manly and weather-beaten face, "I learned
FORGET IT! Then he braced
the pack but to
THE USE OF DOGS MAN PACKING
157
himself up, looked at the snow-capped mountain range ahead,
hummed a little cowboy song and trudged on over the frozen
snow at a
Now
scout's pace.
that you
know what a pack
and what "fighting
is,
a pack" means, remember that if one's studies at school are
hard, that is one's pack. If the work one is doing is hard,
difficult
and
and
or tiresome, that
exacting, that
is
is
one's pack.
one's pack.
If one's boss is cross
If one's
parents are worried
and speak sharply,
that is one's pack. Don't fight your pack; remember that
you are a woodcrafter; straighten your shoulders, put on
your scout smile and hit the trail like a man
forget themselves hi their worry
!
If
you
find that
you are tempted
to break the Scout
Law,
that you are tempted at times to forget the Scout Oath, that
because your camp mates use language unfit for a wood-
a scout, and you are tempted to do the same, if
your playmates play craps and smoke cigarettes, and laugh
at you because you refuse to do so, so that you are tempted
to join them, these temptations form your pack; don't give
in and fall under your load and whimper like a "sissy," or
crafter or
a "mollycoddle," but straighten up, look the world straight
in the eye, and hit the trail like a man
!
Some of us are carrying portage packs which we can dump
our shoulders at the end of the "carry," some of us are
carrying hiking packs which we must carry through life and
off
can never
dump from
our shoulders until we cross the Grand
Portage from which no voyagers ever return. All our packs
vary in weight, but none of them is easy to carry if we fret
and fume and complain under the
We
load.
our load "pack," but our Sunday
School teachers sometimes speak of the pack they bear as a
outdoor folks
"cross."
Be
it so,
call
but don't fight your pack.
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
158
MEN WHO HAVE
CARRIED THE PACK
The whole north country is sprinkled with the bones of
men who fought their packs. Our own land is also
sprinkled with men we call "misfits" and failures, but who
are really men who have fought their packs. But every post
of eminence in the United States is occupied by a man who
forgot his pack; this country was built by men who forgot
the
George Washington carried a portage pack in
weight all through his life, but it was a proud burden and he
stood straight under it. Good old Abe Lincoln had even a
their packs.
heavier pack to carry, but in spite of the weight of it he
always had a pleasant scout smile for everyone and a merry
story to send the visitor away smiling. If Daniel Boone and
Simon Kenton had fought
heard of them
their packs
we would never have
!
In the illustrations are shown
many figures, and one should
not forget that these are sketches of real men hi the real
wilderness, and not fancy pictures drawn from imagination.
Figs. 230, 231
ing big
and 232 show many
game on
methods of carryshows
One has the bag on his
different
one's shoulders or back.
a couple of prospectors on the
trail.
Fig. 232 also
back, held in place by shoulder straps; the other has a bag
thrown over his shoulder like a ragman.
The alpine rucksack will carry
with
it
or to speak more properly
one can pack a camera, notebook, sketching material,
lunch and
all
those things which a fellow wants on an enjoy-
The
alpine rucksack is a many -gored poke about
18 inches wide and about 22 inches long without the gores.
These pokes can be made so that the gores fold in and produce
able hike.
an ordinary-sized pack, or they may be pushed out like an
umbrella so as to make a bag in which one can carry a goodsized boy.
J?
5
5
o
THE USE OF DOGS MAN PACKING
161
THE BROAD BAND
232-D shows the broad band used by the men of
The reader will note that the broad canvas
bands come over the shoulders from the top of the pack;
also that a broad breast band connects the shoulder
Fig.
the far north.
bands, while rope, whang strings or thongs run through
eyelets in the band and to the bottom of the pack. This
most comfortable pack used and has an
interesting history it was evolved from an old pair of overalls.
There was a Hebrew peddler who followed the gold
seekers and he took a pair of canvas overalls and put them
across his breast, and to the legs he fastened the pack upon
his back.
The overalls being wide and broad did not cut
is
said to be the
;
his chest, as
do smaller
But breast straps
by
all
authorities.
straps, thongs or
whang
strings.
of
any kind are not now recommended
It
is
claimed that they interfere with
the breathing and a fellow "mouching" along the trail needs
to have his chest free to expand, for not only his speed
but his endurance depends upon the free action of his lungs.
THE TUMP
and 226^ show the use of the celebrated tump
tump strap is used from Central America to the
strap.
Arctic Circle. The Mexican water carrier uses it to tote his
burden; the Tete Bule Indian and the Montenais Indian in
Figs. 226
This
the Northeast also carry their packs with a tump line.
Fig. 226 1/2 shows how the tump line is made. It is a strap
or lash rope with a broad band to fit over the packer's head,
and thus relieve the weight which the shoulders have to bear.
shows the well-known portage pack basket which
is used by the guides in the Adirondack regions.
Fig. 219
shows the Nessmuk knapsack. Fig. 222 shows a pack harness
Fig. 218
11
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
162
by which two duffel bags are borne on the back.
225
shows a duffel bag which is laced up at one end with
Fig.
of straps
a thong; also the end of the bag open.
THE DUFFEL BAG
The
duffel
bag
is
is
USEFUL
the ideal poke in which to pack one'&
makes a good pillow, a far
It is waterproof, it
belongings.
better pillow than an axe and pair of boots on which I myself
have rested my weary head many a night, and it also makes
a good cushion upon which to
sit.
The
duffel
bag may be
procured from any outfitting establishment. The ones 1
own are now shiny with dirt and grease, gathered from the
camps and
forests extending
from Maine to the State of
Washington, from Northern Quebec to Florida. I love the
old bags, for even though they be greasy and shiny, and black-
ened with the charcoals of many campfires, they are chuck
full of delightful memories.
Fig.
220
is
the old-time poke
made
kerchief, with its ends tied together
the pack, a cut of which
of a bandanna handand swung over a stick.
be found
in all the
old newspapers antedating the Civil War, where
runaway
This
is
may
negroes are advertised. It is the sort of pack respectable
tramps used to carry, back in the times when tramps were
respectable. It is the kind of pack I find represented in an
old oil painting hanging on my dining-room wall, which was
painted by some European artist back in the seventeenth
century.
When
fellows carry the
runaway pack they are
"traveling light."
shows how to construct a makeshift pack. A
rope of cedar bark is arranged with a loop C (Fig. 229), for the
yoke the ends A and B are brought up under the arms and
Fig. 229
tied to the
yoke C, which then makes a breast band.
THE USE OF DOGS MAN PACKING
163
For a long hike thirty pounds is enough for a big boy to
carry, and it will weigh three hundred and fifty pounds at the
end of a hard day's tramp. Heavy packs, big packs, like
those shown in Fig. 223, are only used on a portage, that is,
for short distance. Of course, you fellows know that in all
canoe trips of any consequence one must cross overland
from one lake to another, or overland above a waterfall to
a safe place below it, or around quick water, or to put it in
the words of tenderfeet, water which is too quick for canoe
around tumultuous rapids where one must carry his
canoe and duffel. But these carries or portages are seldom
long. The longest I remember of making was a trifle over
travel,
five miles in length.
Remember
that the weight of a load depends a great deal
mind.
Consequently for a long distance the load
upon your
should be light; for a short distance the only limit to the load
is
the limit of the packer's strength.
BUT
People differ so in regard to how to carry a pack and what
kind of a pack to carry, that the author hesitates to recom-
mend any
particular sort; personally he thinks that a pack
harness hitched on to the duffel bags (Figs. 221, 222 and 224),
is the proper and practical thing.
Duffel bags, by the way,
are water-proof canvas bags (Fig. 225), made of different
which to pack one's clothes, food, or what not. The
sizes, in
portage basket (Fig. 218), is a favorite in the Adirondacks,
but it is not a favorite with the writer; the basket itself is
heavy and to his mind unnecessary, the knapsack (Fig. 219),
is good for short hikes when one does not have to carry much.
The best way for the reader to do is to experiment, see how
much of a load he can carry; fifty pounds is more than enough
164
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
man
and day
and forty pounds is more than he wants to carry, but a
good husky boy may be able to carry forty pounds on his
back. At the Army and Navy stores and at the outfitter's
you can find all sorts of duffel bags and knapsacks, and at
any of the big outfitting stores they will tell you just what
for a big strong
to carry
all
day
long,
day
in
out,
kind of baggage you will need for the particular trip, for someone in the stores has been over the very ground that you
are going over, for
all
the clerks and proprietors of the outBut yes, there is a "but"
fitting stores are sportsmen.
the real genuine American boy will construct his
duffel bags,
mess kit and
tents.
own
outfit
CHAPTER IX
PREPARING FOR CAMPING TRIP
PORTERS OF THE PORTAGE
OLD-TIME INDIAN FIGHTERS AND WILD ANIMALS
MODERN STAMPEDE FOR THE OPEN
HOW TO GET READY FOR CAMP
CUT YOUR FINGER NAILS
GO TO YOUR DENTIST
GET A HAIR CUT
A BUCKSKIN MAN'S POCKET
FLY DOPE
PROTECTION AGAINST BLACK FLIES, MOSQUITOES^
MIDGETS AND NO-SEE-UMS
THE CALL OF THE WILD
CHAPTER IX
PREPARING FOR CAMPING TRIP
MANY people are so accustomed to have other people wait
upon them that they are absolutely funny when you meet
them in the woods; when their canoe runs its prow up upon
the sandy beach and there is a portage to make, such people
stand helplessly around waiting for some red-capped porter
to come and take their baggage, but the only red caps in the
woods are the red-headed woodpeckers and they will see you
in
Germany
before they will help tote your duffel across
the portage.
When one gets into the real woods, even if it is only in
Maine, Wisconsin, the Adirondacks, or the Southern pine
forests, one soon discovers that there are no drug stores
around the corner, the doctor is a long way off, the butcher,
the baker, the candle-stick maker, trolley cars, telephone
taxi cabs are not within reach, sight or hearing; then a
fellow begins to realize that it is "up to" himself to tote his
and
own
luggage, to build his
own
fires,
to
make
his
own
shelters,
and even to help put up the other fellows' tents, or to cook
the meals. Yes, and to wash the dishes, too!
One reason we outdoor people love the woods is that it
develops self-reliance and increases our self-respect by increasing our ability to do things;
we
love the work,
we
love
the hardship, we like to get out of sight of the becapped
maids, the butler and the smirking waiters waiting for a tip,
and for the same reason the real honest-to-goodness American
boys love a camp. Why bless your soul! every one of them
in his inmost heart regrets that he did not live away back in
the time when the long-haired Wetzel, Daniel Boone and
167
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
168
Simon Kenton roved the woods, or at least back when Colonel
Cody, Buffalo Jones and Yellowstone Kelly were dashing
over the plains with General Miles, General Bell and the
Bill
picturesque blond, long-haired General Custer.
Sometimes the author is himself guilty of such wishes,
and he used
boy.
to
dream
days when he was a barefooted
not really too bad that there are
of those
But, honest now,
is it
no longer any hostile Indians? And what a pity that improved firearms have made the big game so very shy that it
is afraid of a man with a gun
!
But cheer up, the joyof camping is not altogether ruined,
because we do not have to fight all day to save our scalps
from being exported, or even because the grizzly bears refuse
to chase us up a tree, and the mountain lions or "painters"
decline to drop from an overhanging limb on our backs.
Remember
that
is,
waiting.
if
that
all
things
come
to
him who
will
but wait:
he works for these things while he is doing the
The Chief has spent his time and energy for the
last thirty odd years hammering away at two ideas the big
outdoors for the boys, and Americanism for all the people.
:
Thank the Lord, he has
lived long enough to see the boys
and
the people for Americanism.
stampede
open
Because of the stampede for the open, in which people
of all ages have joined, there are so many kinds of camps
for the
nowadays: scout camps,
soldier
camps, training camps,
recre-
ation camps,girls' camps and boys' camps, that it is somewhat
difficult for a writer to tell what to do in order to "Be Pre-
pared." There are freight car side-track camps, gypsy wagon
camps, houseboat camps, old-fashioned camp-meeting camps
picnic camps; the latter dot the shores of New Jersey,
the lake sides at Seattle, and their tents are mingled with
and
big black boulders around Spokane;
you
will find
them on the
PREPARING FOR CAMPING TRIP
shores of Devil's Lake,
North Dakota, and
in the
169
few groves
that are back of Winnipeg, Manitoba.
But such camps have little attraction for the real hard-
and have no better claim to being the real
thing than the more or less grand palaces built in the woods,
camouflaged outside with logs or bark, and called "camps" by
boiled camper,
their untruthful
and if they want
owners such people belittle the name of camp
to be honest they should stick to the bungling
;
but wait a minute
bungalow
even that
is
far-fetched; the
bungalow belongs in East India and looks as much like one
of these American houses as a corn-crib does like a church.
When we talk of camping we mean living under bark,
brush or canvas in the "howling wilderness," or as near a
howling wilderness as our money and time will permit us to
reach; in other words, we want a camp in the wildest
place we can find, except when we go to our own scout
camp, and even then we like it better if it is located in a wild,
romantic spot.
How
There are some
TO GET READY FOR CAMP
personal things to which one should
little
If it is
give one's attention before starting on a long trip.
wild
it
is
best
a
real
to
to
be
camping trip
go to the
going
hair
and
a
cut
before
one
starts.
barber shop
get
good
just
Also one should trim one's nails
down as
close as comfort will
Long nails, if they are well manicured, will do for the
drawing room and for the office, but in camp they have a
allow.
and gee willikens, how
habit of turning back (Fig. 232)
will
down
into
the quick (Fig. 233)
hurt
Or
split
they
they
and that hurts some, too So trim them down snug and close;
!
!
do it before you start packing up your things, or you may
hurt your fingers while packing. But even before trimming
your
nails
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
170
Go
TO
YOUR DENTIST
upon him making an examination of every tooth
your head; a toothache is bad enough anywhere, goodness
knows, but a toothache away out in the woods with no help
And
insist
in
in sight will
provoke a saint to use expressions not allowed
The Chief knows what he is talking
by the Scout Manual.
he has been there
about
alongside of a friend
!
He
once rode over Horse Plains
who had a bad
tooth,
and the friend was
His jaw was swelled out like a rubber balloon,
but he did not use one naughty word on the trip, notwithstanding every jolt of that horse was like sticking a knife
a real saint
in
!
him.
The
writer could not help
and he laughed at
it;
he was thoughtlessly cruel
his friend's lugubrious expression
Take
heed, do not be as cruel as was the writer, for sooner or later
you will pay for such thoughtless levity. It was only next
season,
away up
in the
mountains of the British possessions
came to laugh at
the author as the latter nursed an ulcerated tooth. Wow!
on the
Pacific Coast, that the friend's turn
Wow! Wow!
mind the details, they are too painful to talk
remember
the lesson that they teach Go TO THE
about, but
DENTIST and get a clean bill of health on the tooth question
Well, never
before
you
start for a lengthy
A
camp.
BUCKSKIN MAN'S POCKET
When we
speak of his pocket that includes all of his
clothes, because on the inside of his coat, if he wears one,
are stuck an array of safety pins (Fig. 234), but usually the
pins are fastened onto his shirt.
A
safety pin
is
as useful to
man in camp as is a hairpin to a woman, and a woman
camp with no other outfit but a box of hairpins. One
a
can
can
PERSONAL IFEMS
A BUCKSKIN'S POCKET
PREPARING FOR CAMPING TRIP
173
use safety pins for clothespins when one's socks are
drying at
them to pin up the blankets and thus
night, one can use
make a
sleeping-bag of them, or one can use
them
for the
purpose of temporarily mending rips and tears in one's
clothes. These are only a few of the uses of the
safety pin
on the trail. After one has traveled with safety pins one
comes to believe that they are almost indispensable.
In one of the pockets there should be a lot of bachelor
buttons, the sort that
you do not have to sew on to your
but which fasten with a snap, something like glove
buttons. There should be a pocket made in your shirt or
clothes,
vest to
fit
your notebook
(Fig. 244),
and a part
of
it
stitched
to hold a pencil and a toothbrush. Your mother can do
this at home for you before you leave.
Then you should
up
have a good jack-knife;
always carry my jack-knife in my
hip pocket.
pocket compass, one that you have tested
before starting on your trip, should lodge comfortably in one
of your pockets, and hitched in your belt should be your
noggin carved from a burl from a tree (Fig. 235) it should
I
A
;
be carried by slipping the toggle (Fig. 236) underneath the
belt. Also in the belt you should carry some whang strings
(Fig. 237) double the whang strings up so that the two ends
;
come
out
together, tuck the loop through your belt until it comes
at the other side, then put the two ends of the
and the whang strings are fast but
when needed; whang strings are the same
string through the loop
easily pulled out
A small whetstone (Fig. 238) can find a
somewhere
about
place
your clothes, probably in the other
and
it
is
most
useful, not only with which to
hip pocket,
put an edge on your knife but also on your axe.
as belt lashings.
Inside the sweat band of your hat, or around the crown
on the outside of your hat, carry a gut leader with medium-
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
174
attached, and around your neck knot a
gaudy bandanna handkerchief (Fig. 239) it is a most useful article; it can be used in which to carry your game, food
or duffel, or for warmth, or worn over the head for protection
sized artificial
flies
big
;
In the latter case put it on your
hat
and
allow
it to hang over your shoulders
head under your
like the havelock worn by the soldiers of '61.
from
insects (Fig. 240).
Carry your belt axe thrust through your belt at your back
(Fig. 241), where it will be out of the way, not at your side
as you do on parade.
No
camper, be he hunter, fisherman, scout, naturalist,
explorer, prospector, soldier or lumberman, should go into
the woods without a notebook and hard lead pencil (Fig. 242)
Remember that notes made with a hard pencil will last longer
than those made with ink, and be readable as long as the
.
paper
lasts.
and every surveyor knows this and it
is only tenderfeet, who use a soft pencil and fountain pen
for making field notes, because an upset canoe will blur all
ink marks and the constant rubbing of the pages of the book
Every
will
scientist
smudge
all soft
pencil marks.
Therefore, have a pocket especially made
that your notebook, pencil and fountain pen
you
insist
upon including
it
will fit
(Fig. 244), so
(Fig. 243),
if
snugly with no chance
make a separate pocket for your toothbrush which should be kept in an oil-skin bag (Fig. 243).
A piece of candle (Fig. 245) is not only a most convenient
of dropping out; also
thing with which to light a fire on a rainy day, but it has
ofttimes proved a life saver to Northern explorers benumbed
with the cold.
It is a comparatively easy thing to light a candle under
the shelter of one's hat or coat, even in a driving rain. When
PREPARING FOR CAMPING TRIP
one's fingers are
numb
175
or even frosted, and with the candle
flame one can start a life-saving fire; so do not forget your
candle stub as a part of your pocket outfit.
In the black
fly belt it is
(Fig. 251) to one's personal
own
fly
dope have a slow
fire
wise to add a bottle of fly dope
equipment.
and allow
to
you make your
simmer over it
If
3 oz. pine tar
oz. castor oil
2
1 oz.
pennyroyal
or heat 3 oz. of pine tar with two oz. of olive oil and then
stir in 1 oz. of pennyroyal, 1 oz. of citronella, 1 oz. of creosote
and
1 oz. of
camphor.
you propose traveling where there are black flies and
mosquitoes, let your mother sew onto a pair of old kid gloves
some chintz or calico sleeves that will reach from your wrists
If
to above your elbow (Fig. 246), cut the tips of the fingers off
the gloves so that you may be able to use your hands handily,
and have an
top of the sleeve to hold them onto
the
black flies and mosquitoes can
Rigged thus,
bite
the
ends
of
only
your fingers, and, sad to say, they will
soon find where the ends of the fingers are located.
elastic in the
your arm.
A piece
of cheese cloth, fitted over the hat to hang down
over the face, will protect that part of your anatomy from
insects (Fig. 246), but if they are not very bad use
fly dope
(Fig. 251),
and add a
bottle of
it
to your pocket outfit.
One
doesn't look pretty when daubed up with fly dope, but we
are in the woods for sport and adventure and not to look
Our vanity case has no lip stick, rouge or face powder;
only possesses a toothbrush and a bottle of fly dope.
Certain times of year, when one goes camping in the
pretty.
it
neighborhood of the trout brooks, one needs to BE PREPARED,
for one can catch more trout and
enjoy fishing better if pro-
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
176
tected against the attacks of the black
flies,
mosquitoes,
midges and "no-see-ums."
Anything swung by a strap across one's shoulder will in
time "cut" the shoulders painfully unless they are protected
A
few yards of mosquito netting or
by a pad (Fig. 246}/)
cheese cloth occupies little space and is of little weight, but
.
is
very useful as a protection at night. Bend a wand (Fig.
hoop and bind the ends together (Fig. 247A), with
247) into a
safety pins; pin this in the netting
its
center
by a stick
The black
pest, the
fly,
young
C
and suspend the net from
(Fig. 248).
(Fig. 249) , is a
very small hump-backed
249a) live in cold, clear running
the cocoon.
(larvae) (Fig.
water; Fig. 249b is
There are many kinds of mosquitoes; all of them are
Bolsheviks, and with the black flies and other vermin they
argue that since nature made them with blood suckers and
provided you with the sort of blood that they like, they have
an inherent right to suck your blood
and they do
it!
PREPARING FOR CAMPING TRIP
177
But some mosquitoes are regular Huns and professional
carriers, and besides annoying one they skillfully insert
the germs of malaria and yellow fever into one's system.
germ
The malaria mosquitoes
brow name
for the
are
known
as anopheles.
The
high-
United States malaria distributor
"Anopheles quadrimaculatus
"
(Fig.
250 F).
It
is
is
only the
females that you need fear; drone bees do not sting and buck
mosquitoes do not
bite.
250d shows lower and upper side of the anopheles 's
egg.
Fig. 250e is the wiggler or larvae of the anopheles;
the anopheles likes to let the blood run to its head, and any
Fig.
careful observer will
know him
at a glance from his pose
while resting (Fig. 250g).
Of course, you will not need fly dope on the picnic grounds,
and you will not need your pocket compass on the turnpike
hike, and you will not need your jack-knife with which to
eat at the boarding house or hotel, but we Boy Scouts are
the real thing; we go to hotels and boarding houses and picnics
when we must, but not when we can
wilder places.
find real
adventure in
We shout:
There
is life
There
is
in the roar of plunging
streams,
joy in the campfire's blaze at night.
Hark! the elk bugles, the panther screams!
And the shaggy bison roll and fight.
Let your throbbing heart surge and bound,
List to the
whoop of the painted Reds;
Pass the flapjacks merrily round
As the gray wolf howls in the river beds.
We weary
of our cushions of rest;
God of our Fathers, give back our West.
What care we for luxury and ease?
Darn the
12
tall
houses, give us tall trees!
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
178
However crude these verses may be, the sentiment is
But may be it will express our idea better if we do
all right.
not attempt rhyme. Suppose we try it this way
Listen to the whistle of the marmots;
The hooting of the barred owl, the bugling of the elk!
The yap, yap, yap of the coyote, the wild laugh of the loon;
The dismal howl of the timber wolf,
The grunting of the bull moose, the roaring of the torrent,
And
the crashing thunder of the avalanche!
Ah, that's the talk; these are the words and sounds that
veins tingle like ginger ale. Why do
make the blood in one's
all red-blooded men and
real
American boys
like to
hear
The crunching of the dry snow;
The flap, flap, flap of snowshoes;
The clinking of the spurs and bits;
The creaking of the saddle leather;
The breathing of the bronco;
The babbling of the rivulet;
The whisper of the pines.
The twitter of the birds.
And the droning of bees.
Because in these sounds we get the dampness of the
almond-like
odor of twin flowers, the burning drythe
moss,
of
the
the
ness
sand,
sting of the frost, the grit of the rocks
Why?
and the tang of old mother earth! They possess the magic
power of suggestion. By simply repeating these words we
transport our souls to the wilderness, set our spirits free, and
we are once again what God made us; natural and normal
boys, listening to nature's great runes, odes, epics, lyrics,
poems, ballads and roundelays, as sung by God's own bards!
PACKING
When
252)
is
packing, remember that a partly filled bag (Fig.
easy to pack, easy to carry on one's shoulders but a
tightly filled
;
bag
(Fig. 253)
is
a nuisance on the
trail.
When
268
MAKING A PACK
PREPARING FOR CAMPING TRIP
181
MAKING A PACK
ship as baggage, fold the blankets lengthwise (Fig. 254),
place them in the middle of your tarpaulin or floor cloth
To
(Fig. 254); fold the
ends and
roll
255 and 256).
cover over (Fig. 255), then tuck in the
the package into a bundle and cinch (Figs.
A
SLEEPING-BAG
Can be improvised from
pins (Fig. 257).
A
one's blankets
section of the
the blankets are doubled.
bag
by the use
(Fig.
of safety
258) shows how
To make a
BACK PACK
Fold as in Fig. 259, then bend up the end as indicated by
in the two
Figs. 260 and 261, fold again, Fig. 262, then fold
of pack;
sides
edges, Figs. 263 and 264, which show both
bend over the top, Figs. 265 and 266, and strap ready to
carry, Figs. 267 and 268. For a
BLANKET ROLL
Fold as in Fig. 269; bend in the ends and
Strap or lash the ends together (Fig. 271).
roll (Fig.
270).
CHAPTER X
SADDLES
HOW
TO CHOOSE A SADDLE
EVOLUTION OF THE MEXICAN SADDLE
BIRTH OF THE BLUFF FRONTED SADDLE
THE COWBOY AGE
8AWBUCK8 OR PACK SADDLES
STRAIGHT LEG AND BENT KNEE
NAMES OF PARTS OF SADDLE
CENTER FIRE AND DOUBLE CINCH
CHAPTER X
SADDLES
WE
know
that comparatively few of our boys take their
hikes on horseback, especially their camping hikes. But a
lot of their daddies and big brothers do take their horse, and
the pack horse on their hunting and fishing trips, and every
boy wants to know how to do the things his daddy knows
how
to do.
Besides
all
that, the author
is
aware of the fact
that the daddies and the uncles and the big brothers are
reading all the stuff he puts out for the boys. They are constantly quoting to the author things that he has said to the
boys, so that
count them
now
in writing a
book
for the
boys he must
in.
CHOOSE A SADDLE THAT FITS
Everyone knows the misery of an ill-fitting shoe, and no
in his right mind would think of taking a prolonged hike
in shoes that pinched his feet, but everybody does not know
that a saddle should fit the rider; an ill-fitting saddle can
cause almost as much discomfort as an ill-fitting shoe. The
one
best all-around sportsman's saddle in the world is the cowboy
saddle of the West. A writer in the Saturday Evening Post,
who has
written a delightfully intelligent article on saddles,
Western cow-puncher's saddle, says:
"There are many good riders who have never thrown a
on the plains
leg over any other sort of saddle, and for work
would ever
one
who
has
used
man
no
or in the mountains
in speaking of the
care for any other type. It is as much a distinct product of
this continent as is the bircb bark canoe or the American
axe or
rifle."
185
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
186
Like the cowboy hat, the diamond hitch and the
lariat,
the cowboy saddle is evolved from the Spanish adaptation
of the Moorish saddle. The old-fashioned Spanish saddle
with the heavy wooden block stirrups, not the bent wood
stirrups, but the big stirrups made out of blocks of wood
a saddle with stirrups of ten weighed over sixty
These saddles were garnished with silver and gold,
(Fig. 273) ;such
pounds.
and the spurs that the rancheros wore had big wheels with
"bells" on them, and spikes longenough to goad the thick skin
an elephant. I formerly possessed one of the picturesque
old saddles on which all the leather work was engraved by
of
hand, by the use of some tool like a graver, probably a sharpened nail; consequently none of the designs was duplicated.
In the good old cow days there were two sorts of saddles
:
the"California Center Fire" and the "Texas Double Chinch,"
and
all
at the
silver
those that I remember seeing had rather a short horn
bow with a very broad top sometimes covered with a
plate the seat was also much longer than it is to-day.
;
shows a military saddle which is a modified cowboy saddle, and Fig. 274 shows a comparatively modern cowFig. 272
boy saddle. The up-to-date saddle of to-day has a bulge in
front, not shown on the diagram.
In the olden days there were no societies for the prevention
of cruelty to animals, and on the ranges horses were plenty;
therefore, when one of the long-haired plainsmen, with his
long
rifle
in front of
him on the long
saddle,
and the heavy
by
trappings to the horse, killed the horse
Spanish-American
overwork, he simply took off his saddle and trappings, caught
another horse, mounted it and continued his journey; there
were plenty of horses why should he worry?
Later when the cowboy age came in, the cowboys themselves
on the Southern ranges used the Spanish-American
PACK TRAIN OUTFIT
SADDLES
outfit; the only blessing the
189
poor horse had was the blanket
under the saddle.
When the block wooden
stirrups were
abandoned and the
thinner oval stirrups adopted, the latter were protected by
long caps of leather, the dangling ends of which were silver
tipped.
The cowboys themselves wore heavy leather breeches
(an abbreviation of the Spanish chaparejo).
called chaps
Thus with the
feet and legs protected they could ride through
the cactus plants and dash through the mesquite country
withoutfearof being pricked by the thorns,no matter what hap-
pened to the horse. Not only did this leather armor protect
them from thorns and branches, but it also prevented many a
broken leg resulting from kicks by burros, mules and horses.
The rolled coat or blanket, which the bronco busters on
the lower ranges in early times lashed across the horse in
front of their seat, is the thing from which the bucking roll
was evolved, and the buckskin bucking
roll,
we
are told,
is
the daddy of the swell or bulged front saddle now used.
The old-fashioned cowboy saddle has a narrow front, but
about two decades ago
THE
VIDALIA SADDLE-TREE
Migrated slowly from California over the plains, and was the
one to show the bulged front, and to change the narrow
first
bow
of the
cow saddle
to the bluff
bow
of the saddle as used
claimed that while this protects the rider from
injuries more or less, it has a tendency not to give a
fellow the opportunity of as firm a grip with his legs as did
to-day.
It
is
the old narrow bowed cowboy seat. Later, in Oregon, they
began to manufacture "incurved saddles," so that the rider's
legs could
fit
better under the front,
makers caught the
and the Wyoming saddle
idea, so that to-day the vanishing race of
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
190
cowboys are using saddles, which
it
would have taken a brave
man
to straddle in the early days, not because the saddle is
dangerous but because it would have looked funny to the
old-time boys, and they would not have been slow in giving
expression to boisterous and discomforting merriment.
It is an odd thing, this law of growth or evolution, and it
is
a law, and a fixed law, certain peculiarities go together;
if one goes systematically to work to produce
for instance,
fan-tail pigeons,
with feathered
one finds that he
legs.
The
is also producing pigeons
breeders have also discovered that
in producing a chicken with silky white feathers they unwill-
ingly produce a fowl with black meat.
What
has this got
Only that the same law holds good here:
the more the front bulges in the saddle the more the horns
shrivel, developing a tendency to rake forward and upward;
The saddle, which the
the stirrups also dwindle in size.
to do with saddles?
writer possessed, has stirrups made of iron rings covered with
read
leather and the caps were lined with sheep's wool.
We
now
the narrow half-round oval stirrup is a favorite
with the cow-punchers, which the cowboy uses with his foot
that
thrust
all
the
weight of the rider rests
This is as disturbing to the
in so that the
way
upon the middle of the
foot.
European idea of "proper form" as was the Declaration of
Independence, but the Declaration of Independence has
proved
its
efficiency
that for those
who
by
its results;
ride all
to standing on their feet,
feet of the total
the easier
it is
so also has
it
been proved
day long the nearer they can come
and at the same time relieving the
weight of the body byresting
it
on the saddle,
to stay in the saddle for long stretches of time;
in other words, the
one can occupy
a saddle should
it
fit
more comfortable the
saddle, the longer
without discomfort, and that
the rider.
is
the reason
SADDLES
191
WITH WESTERN HORSES
One must use Western ways; remember the horses were
educated in the West if you were not, but it is not necessary
to use the cruel, old jaw-breaking Spanish bits with a ring on
them. I have one, but it only hangs on the studio wall as a
souvenir and a curious object of torture.
But don't
try a
straight bit on a Western horse; he may spit it out and laugh
at you; use the modern Western bits, saddles, and cinch
and you will not go far wrong. Of course
THE PACK HORSE
Is
another proposition, for here you
will
need a pack sawbuck
saddle (Figs. 276, 277, 278 and 279) over this saddle you
can swing your two saddle bags, called alforjas (Fig. 283).
;
Fig. 284
how
is
after Stewart
Edward White's diagram, and shows
the alforjas are lashed fast to the horse's back with a
Fig. 280 is the lash rope which the man
latigo (Fig. 285).
above Fig. 284 is using. In Chapter VII we tell how to
throw the diamond hitch. Fig. 282 shows the cowboy favorite
cooking utensil, the old Dutch oven, and it is practically the
same model as the one once belonging
to
Abraham
Lincoln.
A glance at the cross -section of the cover shows you how the
edges are dented in to hold the hot ashes heaped on top of it
when the bake oven is being used. Fig. 281 is a sketch of
two essentials for any sort of a trip an axe and a frying pan.
Of course, one could write a whole book on horseback
work, saddles and pack saddles. The truth is that one could
write a whole book on any subject or any chapter in this book.
But my aim is to start you off right; I believe that the way
to learn to do a thing Is To Do IT, and not depend upon
your book knowledge. Therefore, when I write a book for
you boys, I do the best I know how to make you understand
:
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
192
what
I
am talking about, and to excite in your mind and heart
a desire to do the things talked of; you must remember, howno one ever could learn to skate from a school of
ever, that
correspondence or a book, but one could gain a great deal
of useful knowledge about anything from a useful book,
knowledge that will be of great help when one is trying to do
the things treated of in the book.
I can tell you with the aid of diagrams
blanket, and you can follow my diagrams
how to pack a
and pack your
skate, swim or dance, you must
book, however, can tell you the
blanket; but in order to ride,
gain the skill by practice. A
names of the part of the things.
NAMES OF PARTS OF SADDLE
For instance
saddle-tree
is
(Fig.
made
T
272),
is
the saddle-tree; a good
cottonwood which
of five stout pieces of
are covered with rawhide
when the rawhide
;
shrinks
it
draws
the pieces together more tightly and perfectly than they could
be fastened by tongue and groove, glue, screws or nails; in
fact, it
makes one
The horn is
and covered with
solid piece of the whole.
fastened on to the tree
by
its
leather or braided rawhide.
branched
legs,
The shanks
are covered
first
and
then attached to the tree and the thongs are tacked to the
saddle-tree, after which the bulged cover is fitted on. When
a good saddle-tree
is
finished
it is
much one
as
the pelvis of a skeleton.
P is the pummel, A is the cantle, S
saddle-tree,
is
a quarter strap
is
B
is-
the side bar of the
the quarter strap
the outer strap safe,
is
side,
is
G
the stirrup buckle, F is
is the cincha cover; the cincha strap isunlettered but it connects the cincha ring with the quarter
cantle,
E
C
piece as
is
the cincha ring,
strap ring
D; J
H
is
the cap or leather stirrup cover,
L
is the.
SADDLES
wooden
stirrup,
K
is
the horsehair cincha.
193
Fig. 275
is
one of
the saddle pads to fit under the saddle. On Fig. 274M is the
the whang leather, which your saddler
the cantle,
horn,
N
O
will call tie strings.
You
in Fig.
skirt of
will
note that in Fig. 274 there are two cinchas, and
You will also note that in Fig. 274 the
272 but one.
your saddle seems to be double, or even
triple,
and
the stirrup rigging comes on top of the skirt, and this is made
up of the back jockey, front jockey, and side jockey or seat.
Now
then,
more
I
you know all about horseback; there is nothing
tell you about the pack horse, but remember
not to swell up with pride because of your vast knowledge,
and try to ride an outlaw horse with an Eastern riding school
bit.
But acknowledge yourself a tenderfoot, a short horn, a
shavetail, a Cheechako, and ask your Western friends to
let you have a horse that knows all the tricks of his trade,
but who has a compassionate heart for a greenhorn. There
are lots of such good fellows among the Western horses, and
they will treat you kindly. I know it because I have tried
them, and as I said before, I make no boast of being a horseman myself. When I get astride of a Western horse I lean
over and whisper in his ear, and confess to him just how green
I am, and then put him on his honor to treat me white, and
so far he has always done so.
18
can
CHAPTER XI
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
'WARE SINGLE TREES OR SMALL GROUPS OF TREES
SAFETY IN WOODS OR FOREST
KEEP TOUR EYES OPEN FOR GOOD CAMP SITES
CROSS STREAMS WHILE CROSSING IS GOOD
KEEP TO WINDWARD OF MOSQUITO HOLE3
'WARE ANTS' NESTS
HOW TO TELL WHEN WIND BLOWS
EVOLUTION OF THE SHACK
HOW TO SWEEP
HOW TO MAKE CAMP BEDS
HOW TO DIVIDE CAMP WORK
TENT PEGS
HOW TO PITCH A TENT SINGLE-HANDED
HOW TO DITCH A TENT
USE OF SHEARS, GINS AND TRIPODS
CHAPTER XI
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
WHEN choosing a camp site, if possible, choose a forest
or grove of young trees. First, because of the shade they
you from storms,
because they protect you from lightning.
give you; secondly, because they protect
and
thirdly,
Single trees, or small groups of trees in open pastures are
exceedingly dangerous during a thunder storm tall trees on
the shores of a river or lake are particularly selected as targets
;
thunder bolts by the storm king. But the safest place
in a thunder storm, next to a house, is a forest. The reason
for
of this
is
that each wet tree
is
a lightning rod silently conduct-
Do not
ing the electric fluid without causing explosions.
at
the
of
a
tall
foot
or
an
old
tree
with
dead
tree,
camp
very
branches on
it, for a high wind may break off the branches
and drop them on your head with disastrous results; the big
tree itself may fall even when there is no wind at all.
Once I pitched my camp near an immense tree on the
A
few days later we returned
As we stopped and looked at the site where
had been pitched we looked at each other solemnly,
Flathead Indian Reservation.
to our old camp.
our tents
but said nothing, for there, prone upon the ground, lay that
giant veteran tree!
But young trees do not fall down, and if they did they
could not create the havoc caused by the immense bole of the
patriarch of the forest when it comes crashing to the earth.
A good scout must "Be Prepared," and to do so must remember that safety comes first, and too close neighborhood to a
big tree is often unsafe.
197
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
198
Remember to choose the best camp
do not travel
site
that can be found
;
day, and as night comes on stop at any old
place but in the afternoon keep your eyes open for likely spots.
all
;
Halt early enough to give time to have everything snug
and
in order before dark.
In selecting camping ground, look for a place where good
water and wood are handy. Choose a high spot with a gentle
slope if possible guard your spring or water hole from animals,
;
the day is hot your dog will run ahead of the party and
jump into the middle of the spring to cool himself, and horses
for
if
and
cattle will befoul the water.
If
in the
camping
stream which
Western states on the shores of a shallow
or
along the trail, cross the stream before
you may not be able to cross it for days.
I
have known of parties
lies
making camp
A chinook wind suddenly melting the snows in the distant
mountains, or a cloud-burst miles and miles up stream, may
suddenly send down to you a dangerous flood even in the
dry
season.
being
detained
for days by one of these sudden roaring floods of water,
which came unannounced, the great bole of mud, sticks and
logs sweeping by their camp and taking with it everything
in its path.
A belt of dense timber between camp and a pond or swamp
As a rule, keep to
mosquito holes the little insects travel with the
wind, not against it. 'Ware ant hills, rotten wood infested
with ants, for they make poor bedfellows and are a nuisance
will act as
windward
a protection from mosquitoes.
of
where the food
;
is
kept.
A
is
bare spot on the earth, where there are no dry leaves,
a wind-swept spot; where the dust-covered leaves lie in
A windy place is generally
heaps the wind does not blow.
from mosquitoes, but it is a poor place to build a fire;
free
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
a small bank
199
a great protection from high wind and twisters.
During one tornado I had a camp under the lee of a small
elevation; we only lost the fly of one tent out of a camp of
is
more exposed places nearby great
were uprooted and houses unroofed.
It must not be supposed that the camping season is past
fifty
or more, while in
trees
because the
summer vacation
is
over.
The
real
camping
season begins in the Wild Rice Moon, that is, September.
Even if school or business takes all our time during the week,
we
still
have week-ends
which to camp. Saturday has
Camping is an American institu-
in
always been a boys' day.
tion, because America affords the greatest camping ground
in the world.
The author
is
seated in his
own
log house, built
by him-
on the shores of Big Tink Pond. Back of him there is
camp of six rows of tents, which are filled with a
joyful, noisy crowd of youngsters.
self,
pitched a
It
is
here in the mountains of Pike County, Pennsylvania,
is stratified in horizontal layers, that one
where the bluestone
may
study the camp from
its
very birth to the latest and
finished product of this century.
mountains there are outcroppings
and wherever the face of a ridge of this
stone is exposed to the elements, the rains or melting snows
cause the water to drip from the earth on top of the stone and
Everywhere
in these
of the bluestone,
trickle
down over the
face of the
cliff.
Then, when a cold
snap turns the moisture into ice in every little crack in the
rock, the expansion of the ice forces the sides of the cracks
apart at the seams in the rock until loose pieces from the
undersides slide off, leaving small spaces over which the rock
projects. The little caves thus made make retreats for whitefooted mice and other small
mammals, chipmunks and cave
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
200
rats.
When
which snakes
these
become deeper they may become dens
in
sleep through the winter.
The openings never grow
smaller,
and
in course of
time
are large enough for the coon, then the fox, and in olden
made dens
times they
for wolves
where the bear would "hole" up
Time
is
not considered by
and panthers, or a place
for the winter.
Dame Nature; she has no trains
to catch, and as years and centuries roll by the little openings
in the bluestone become big enough to form a shelter for a
crouching man, and the crouching man used them as a place
in which to camp when the Norsemen in their dragon ships
were braving the unknown ocean. When Columbus, with
T
his toy boats, was blundering around the
est Indies, the
W
man was camping
under the bluestone ledges of
crouching
old Pike County, Pennsylvania. There he built his campfires and cooked his beaver and bear and deer and elk, using
dishes of pottery of his
own make and ornamented with crude
designs traced in the clay before the dishes were baked.
We know all this to be true history, because within a
short walk of the author's log house there are overhanging
ledges of bluestone, and underneath these ledges we, ourselves, have crouched and camped, and with sharp sticks
have dug up the ground from the layer of earth covering the
floor rock. And in this ground we have found bits of pottery,
the split bones of different wild animals split so that the
savage camper might secure the rich marrow from the inside
of the bones
arrowheads, bone awls and needles, tomahawks,
the skulls of beaver and spearheads; all these things have
been found under the overhanging bluestone.
Wherever such a bluestone ledge exists, one may make a
good camp by closing up the front of the cave with sticks
against the overhanging cliff and thatching the sticks with
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
201
browse or balsam boughs, thus making the simplest form of
a lean-to. The Indians used such shelters before the advent
of the white man; Daniel Boone used them when he first
visited
Kentucky and,
in spite of the great
improvement
in
tents, the overhanging ledge is still used in Pennsylvania by
fishermen and hunters for overnight camps.
But if one uses such a site for his overnight camp or his
week's-end camp, one should not desecrate the ancient abode
by introducing under its venerable roof, modern up-to-date
cooking and camp material, but should exercise ingenuity
and manufacture, as
far as possible, the conveniences
furniture necessary for the
Since the author
he
is
and
camp.
writing this in a camp in the woods,
confront him, even though
will tell the practical things that
he must mention a white man's shop broom.
In the first place, the most noticeable defect in the tender-
work
foot's
is
the manner
in
which he handles
his
broom and
wears the broom out of shape. A broom may be worn to a
stub when properly used, but the lopsided broom is no use
at
because the
all
way
until the
affair,
chump who handled
broom became a
with a permanent
list
it
always used
it
one
useless, distorted, lopsided
to starboard or port, as the case
may
To sweep properly is an art, and every all-around outdoor
boy and man should learn to sweep and to handle the broom
be.
as skillfully as he does his
gun or
axe.
In the
first
place, turn
broom every time you notice a tendency of the latter to
become one-sided, then the broom will wear to a stub and
still be of use.
In the next place, do not swing the broom up
in the air with each sweep and throw the dust up in the clouds,
but so sweep that the end of the stroke keeps the broom near
the
the floor or ground
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
202
Now
a word about making beds. In all books on woodyou are directed to secure balsam boughs from which
to make your beds, and there is no better forest bedding than
the fragrant balsam boughs, but unfortunately the mountain
craft
goose, as the hunters call
to
make your camp
A
bed,
it,
is
from which you pluck the feathers
not to be found in all localities.
with dry leaves, dry grass, hay or straw will
make a very confortable mattress; but we are not always
in the hay and straw belt and dry leaves are sometimes
bag
filled
a scout, however, must learn to make a bed
wherever he happens to be. If there happens to be a swale
nearby where brakes and ferns grow luxuriantly, one can
difficult to secure;
gather an armful of these, and with them make a mattress.
The Interrupted fern, the Cinnamon, the Royal fern, the
Lady fern, the Marsh fern and all the larger ferns are useful
as material.
A camping party should have their work so divided that
each one can immediately start at his own particular job
the moment a halt is made. One chops up the firewood and
sees that a plentiful supply of firewood is always on hand;
usually he carries the water.
tents, clears
away
One makes camp, puts up the
the rubbish, fixes the beds,
etc.,
while a
third attends strictly to kitchen work, preparing the meals,
and washing up the dishes.
With the labor divided in this manner, things run like
clock work and camp is always neat and tidy. Roughing it
is making the best of it; only a slob and a chump goes dirty
and has a sloppy -looking camp. The real old time veteran
and sourdough is a model of neatness and order. But a clean,
camp is much more important than a clean-faced
camper. Some men think so much of themselves and their
own personal cleanliness that they forget their duty to the
orderly
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
One's duty
others.
is
about in
203
this proportion: first to the
if any, secondly to the men, and lastly to oneself.
Before pitching your tent, clear out a space for it to occupy
animals
;
pick up the stones, rubbish and sticks, rake off the ground
with a forked stick. But do not be rude to your brother,
the ground pine apologize for disturbing it be gentle with
the fronds of the fern; do not tear the trailing arbutus vine
;
up by
;
or the plant of the almond scented twin
pardon of the thallus of the lichen which you
its roots,
flowers; ask
are trampling under your feet.
they had
first
right to the place,
Why?
O! well
and because such
because
little civili-
the natural objects around you put your own
in accord with nature, and make camping a much
ties to
enjoyable
mind
more
affair.
When you
feel
you are sleeping on the breast
of your
mother, the earth, while your father, the sky, with his millions
of eyes
is
watching over you, and that you are surrounded by
is no longer lonesome
your brother, the plants, the wilderness
even to the solitary traveler.
Another reason for taking
this point of
view
is
that
it
has a humanizing effect and tends to prevent one from
becoming a wilderness Hun and vandal. It also not only
makes one hesitate to hack the trees unnecessarily, but
encourages the camper to take pride in leaving a clean
As
trip
up
trail.
good friend, John Muir, said to me: "The camping
need not be the longest and most dangerous excursion
my
to the highest mountain, through the deepest
woods or
across the wildest torrents, glaciers or deserts, in order to
be a happy one; but however short or long, rough or smooth,
calm or stormy, it should be one in which the able, fearless
camper
sees the most, learns the most, loves the
leaves the cleanest track;
most and
whose camp grounds are never
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
204
marred by anything unsightly, scarred trees or blood spots
or bones of animals."
It is not the object of this book to advertise, or even
advise the use of any particular type of outfitting apparatus
other than the plain, everyday affairs with which all are
familiar.
then he
own
What we want to do is
may make his own choice,
to start the reader right,
selecting
an
outfit to suit
There are no two men, for instance, who will
of
the
the same sort of a tent, but there is perhaps
sing
praise
no camper who has not used, and been very comfortable in,
his
taste.
the old style wall tent. It has its disadvantages, and so
has a house, a shack or a shanty. As a rule, the old wall
tent is too heavy to carry with comfort and very difficult for
one
man
unless one
to pitch alone
knows how.
TENT PEGS
Are necessary
them
any kind of a tent; you can buy
and lose them on the way to camp;
for almost
at the outfitter's
they even have iron and
expensive, and to
steel tent
pegs to help make camping
scatter through the woods.
a real sourdough you
will
cut your
own
But
if
you are
tent pegs, shaped
according to circumstances and individual taste. Fig. 286
shows the two principal kinds the fork and the notched tent
:
pegs. For the wall tents one will need a ridge pole (Fig. 288),
and two forked sticks, or rods, to support the ridge pole;
the forks on these should be snubbed off close so that they
will not thrust themselves up against the canvas on the
top of the tent and endanger the fabric; these poles should
be of a proper height otherwise if the poles are too long, the
;
tent will not touch the ground at all, or if the poles are too
short, the tent will wrinkle all over the ground like a fellow's
trousers
when
his suspenders break.
l
r.
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
207
comparatively level, but with a
slant in one direction or another so that water will drain off
See that the ground
is
Never, for instance, pitch your tent in a
hollow or basin of ground, unless you want to wake up some
night slopping around in a pool of water. Do not pitch your
in case of rain.
tent near a standing dead tree;
it is liable
to
fall
over and
crush you in the night. Avoid camping under green trees
with heavy dead branches on them. Remember the real
camper always has an eye to safety first, not because he is a
coward, but because the real camper is as brave a person as
you will find anywhere, and no real brave person believes
in the carelessness
which produces accidents.
Do
not pitch
your tent over protruding stones which will make stumblingblocks for you on which to stub your toes at night, or torture
you when you spread your blankets over them to sleep. Use
common sense, use gumption. Of course, we all know that
it hurts one's head to think, but we must all try it, nevertheless,
we are going to live in the big outdoors.
At a famous military academy the splendid cavalrymen
gave a brilliant exhibition of putting up wall tents it required
four men to put up each tent. Immediately following this
some of the scouts took the same tents, with one scout to
if
;
each tent, and in less time than the cavalrymen took for the
same job, the twelve year old boys, single-handed, put up the
same
tents.
How
TO PITCH AND DITCH SINGLE-HANDED
Spread out your tent
all
pole and your two uprights
ready to erect, put your ridge
and then drive some
in place,
tent stakes, using the flat of your axe with which to drive
them, so that you will not split the tops of the stakes (Fig.
287) ; drive the two end stakes A and B (Fig. 289) at au
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
208
angle to the ends of the tent. After the tent stakes are arranged
in a row, like the ones in Fig. 289, adjust the forks of the
uprights two niches from the ends of the ridge pole (Fig. 288)
then make fast the two extreme end guy ropes A and B to
the tent pegs; the others are unimportant for the present
after that is done, raise one tent pole part of the way up (Fig.
push the other part of the way up
290), then
(Fig. 291);
gradually adjust these things until the strain is even upon
your guy ropes. You will now find that your tent will stand
alone, because the weight
is pulling against your guy ropes
hold your tent steady until you can
make fast the guy ropes to the pegs upon the other side, not
too tightly, because you need slack to straighten up your
(Fig. 292).
This
will
tent poles.
Next see that the back guy pole
is
perpendicular, after
a very easy matter to straighten up the front pole
and adjust the guy rope so that it will stand stiff as in Fig. 293.
which
it is
Remember, when you
are cutting the ridge poles
uprights, to select fairly straight sticks,
as free as possible
and the
and they should be
from rough projections, which might
injure the canvas; also the poles should be as
so as not to sag or cause the roof to belly.
stiff
as possible
DITCHING
Just as soon as your tent
is
erected and
you
feel like
the weather
resting, get busy on ditching; no matter how dry
may be at the time, put a ditch around the tent that will
drain the water
away from your
living place.
positive rule for digging this ditch;
it
There
surface of ground, but the gutter should be so
the water will run away from the tents and not to
around
it
(Fig. 294).
Fig. 295
is
no
varies according to
made
it,
that
or stand
shows how to make a tent by
14
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
211
folding a floor cloth or piece of tarpaulin; of course
must
it
have a tent pole to support the top, and the floor pieces may
be drawn together in the center. Make one out of a piece
of writing paper and you will learn how to do it, because
although the paper
as
if it
is
small, the folds
would be
just the
same
was as large as a church.
In sandy or soft ground it often taxes one's ingenuity to
supply anchors for one's tent; an anchor is a weight of some
which the guy ropes may be attached. Fig 296 shows
a tent anchored by billets of wood; these are all supposed
to be buried in the ground as in Fig. 308, and the ground
trampled down over and above them to keep them safe in
their graves. Fig. 297 shows the first throw hi the anchor
sort to
and Fig. 299 the complete
hitch for the anchor. Fig. 303 shows the knot by which the
anchor rope is tied to the main line. Figs. 300, 301 and 302
show the detail of tying this knot, which is simplicity itself,
when you know how, like most knots. Fig. 303 shows the
hitch, Fig. 298 the second throw,
anchor hitch complete.
Stones, bundles of fagots; or bags of sand
anchors; Fig. 304 is a stone; Fig. 305 are half
make
useful
billets of
wood,
all
shows fagots of wood, Fig. 307 a bag of sand. All
be used to anchor your tent in the sands or loose ground.
Fig. 306
may
SHEARS, GINS OR TRIPODS
Are the names used for different forms of rustic supports for
the tents. Fig. 312 shows the ordinary shears, Fig. 313 shows
the tent supported by shears; you will also note that the
guy ropes for the tent (Fig. 313) are made fast to a rod
This has many advaninstead of to the pegs in the ground.
tendency of the rope to tighten or shrink
becomes wet, which often makes it necessary
tages, because of the
whenever
it
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
212
for a fellow to get
guy ropes and
redrive the pegs. When the rain is pouring down, the thunder
crashing and the lightning flashing, it is no fun to go poking
around on the wet ground in one's nightie in order that the
tent pegs
may
up
in the night to adjust the
not be pulled out of the ground by the shrinkof wet canvas allowed to fall
and the cold mass
ing ropes,
upon one's head.
It is always necessary to loosen and tighten
the guy ropes according to the weather; naturally the longer
the guy ropes are the more they will shrink and the more they
will stretch as the weather varies. To prevent this, lay a rod
over the ends of the guy rope between the pegs and the tent
When
(Fig. 316A) and it will be an automatic adjuster.
the ropes are dry and stretch, the weight of this pole will hold
them down and keep them taut; when the guy ropes shrink
they
will lift
the pole, but the latter will keep the tension on
the ropes and keep them adjusted. The arrangement of
Fig. 313 has the advantage of making a clothes rack for your
bed clothes when you wish to air them, while the weight of
the suspended log keeps the tension on the ropes equalized.
Fig. 314 shows the shears made by the use of forked sticks.
and 318 show the ridge pole supported by shears,
and the ridge poles supported by forked sticks the advantage
Figs. 315
;
of the shears in Fig. 315
is
that
it
gives a clear opening to the
Fig. 316 shows an exterior ridge pole supported by
shears to which the top of the tent is made fast. Fig. 317
is the same without the tent.
Fig. 318 shows the famous
tent.
Vreeland tent; in this case the ridge pole is supported by a
crotched upright stick, but may be equally well supported
by the shears as in Fig. 315. Fig. 319 shows the gin or tripod
made by
binding the three sticks together. Fig. 320 shows
the same effect made by the use of the forked sticks; these
are useful in pitching
wigwams
or tepees.
COMMON TENTS OF THE OPEN COUNTRY
f-
P
O,
o
p-
a
I
CHOOSING A CAMP SITE
215
shows some of the ordinary forms of tents, the
the Baker tent and the canoe tent. Fig. 310 shows
Fig. 309
wall tent,
extending out in front, thus giving the piazza
In the background is a tepee tent. Fig. 311
shows two small Baker tents in the background, and the
a tent with a
fly
or front porch.
Dan Beard
These comprise the
tent in the foreground.
principal forms, but the open-front tents to-day are much in
mosquito netting in front will
vogue with the campers.
A
keep out the insects and allow the air to come in freely,
whereas the old-fashioned way of closing the tent flap stops
circulation of air
closed
did in
and makes conditions as bad as that of a
a big house, and the air becomes as foul as it
the little red school houses and does now in the Courts
room
in
of Justice, jails
and other places
of entertainment.
CHAPTER
XII
AXE AND SAW
OUR GREATEST AXEMAN
IMPORTANCE OF THE AXE
WHAT KIND OF AXE TO USE
HOW TO SWING AN AXE
HOW TO REMOVE A BROKEN AXE HANDLE
HOW TO TIGHTEN THE HANDLE IN THE HEAD
ACCIDENTS
THE BRAINS OF AN AXE
ETIQUETTE OF THE AXE
TO SHARPEN AN AXE
TO "FALL" A TREE
HOW
HOW
HOW
HOW
HOW
HOW
HOW
TO SWAMP
TO MAKE A BEETLE OR MALL
TO HARDEN GREEN WOOD
TO MAKE A FIREWOOD HOD
TO MAKE A CHOPPING BLOCK
THE PROPER WAT TO CHOP
HOW TO MAKE SAWBUCKS FOR LOGS
HOW TO USE A PARBUCKLE
HOW TO SPLIT A LOG
HOW TO USE A SAWPIT
CHAPTER
XII
AXE AND SAW
To
good, loyal Americans, the axe is almost a sacred
our greatest American, Abraham Lincoln, was one
of our greatest axemen. When he was President of the United
all
tool, for
by chopping wood, then laughingly
extended his arm holding the axe in a horizontal position by
the extreme end of the handle. This he would do without a
tremor of the muscle or movement of the axe some stunt!
States he used to exercise
Try it and see if you can do it
The American Indians, and practically all savages, used
stone and bone implements, and with such implements the
Redmen were wont to build the most beautiful of all crafts,
!
the birch bark canoe. If an American Indian produced such
wonders with implements made of stones, flint and bones, a
good red-blooded American boy should be able to do the
therefore it should not only be his
to be a skillful axeman.
to
learn
but
his
duty
pleasure
Brother Jonathan, the imaginary character who represented the American people, was almost invariably pictured
same with a sharp axe;
stick, because all early Americans
the use of the jack-knife, but they were also
skilled in the use of the axe, and every boy of twelve years
with a jack-knife whittling a
were
skillful in
of age
knew how
to handle an axe.
IMPORTANCE OF THE AXE
While lecturing at the Teachers' College, Columbia University, I was asked to give a demonstration of the use of the
axe.
It then
and there suddenly occurred to me that
if
219
these
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
220
grown men needed and asked for instructions in the use of
this typical American tool, a talk on the same subject would
be welcomed by the American boys.
The axe
is
the one necessary tool of the woodsmen; the
axe occupies the same position to the wilderness man that
the chest of tools does to the carpenter; with the axe the
woodsman
cuts his firewood; with the axe he
with the axe he
splits
makes
his traps;
the shakes, clapboards, slabs and
which splits
shingles from the balsam tree, or other wood
slabs he
or
the
with
and
shakes,
clapboards,
readily,
or makes the
shingles the roof of his hogan, his barabara,
or
with them
framework to his sod shack or his dugout,
builds the foundation of a bogken.
With
his axe
he cuts
the birch for his birch bark pontiac, for his lean-to or his log
cabin. Without an axe it is most difficult for one to even
build a raft or to fell a tree to get the birch bark for one's
"
canoe, or to "fall the tree to make a dugout canoe. A tree
may be
felled
them, but
by
fire,
this takes a
as the Indians of old used to "fall"
wearisome time.
THE KIND OF AXE TO USB
camp, take along with you a real
Never take an axe which is too large and heavy for
axe.
avoid an axe
to
swing with comfort. It is also best to
you
too much
use
must
tool
a
such
with
which is too light, as
you
select
your own axe
labor to cut the wood. You should
the
according to your strength. Pick up the axe, go through
motions of chopping and see if it feels right, if its balance
suits you; hold up the axe and sight along the top of the
handle as you would along the barrel of a gun to see that
When bound
your handle
is
for
a
real
not warped.
AXE AND SAW
Axes
In
New
223
be had of weight and size to suit one's taste.
England they use short-handled axes which are not
may
popular in the woods. The axe handles should be well
axe has a 19-inch
seasoned, second growth hickory; a
%
^
handle and weighs two pounds. A
axe has a 24-inch
handle and weighs two and a half pounds. A
axe has a
28-inch handle and weighs three pounds. A full axe has a
%
36-inch handle and weighs five pounds.
Probably the best axe for camp work,
carry the axe on your back,
is
when you must
one with a 30-inch second
growth hickory handle, weight about two and three-quarter
pounds, or somewhere between two and three pounds. A
light axe of this kind will cut readily and effectively provided
it
has a slender
bit; that
is,
that
it
does not sheer
off
too
bluntly towards the cutting edge. When you look at the
top of such an axe and it appears slender and not bulky,
it will
cut well and can be wielded by a boy and
light for a
man
Fig. 321
much
in the
is
not too
(Fig. 322).
shows the long-handled Hudson Bay axe used
North country. It is made after the tomahawk
form to save weight, but the blade is broad, you notice, to
give a wide cutting edge. The trouble with this axe is that
it is
too light for satisfactory work.
Fig. 323
shows a belt
axe of a modified tomahawk shape, only three of which are
in existence; one was in the possession of the late Colonel
Roosevelt, one in the possession of a famous English author,
in the possession of the writer.
These axes were
and one
made for the gentlemen to whom they were presented by the
President of a great tool works; they are made of the best
gray steel and are beautiful tools. Fig. 324 is an ordinary
same as those used by the Boy Scouts.
was proposed to arm the Boy Scouts with guns, the
belt axe practically the
When
it
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
224
writer put in strenuous objections and suggested belt axes
in place of guns ; the matter of costume and arms was finally
him
referred to
planned after that of the Scouts of the
and the
The uniform was
as a committee of one.
Boy
Pioneers of Amer-
adopted is the same as that carried by
the Scouts of the Sons of Daniel Boone, which axes are modelled after Daniel Boone 's own tomahawk.
Fig. 325 is a
ica,
belt axe
very heavy axe.
A WORD ABOUT
Grasp the axe with the
SWINGING THE AXE
left
hand, close to the end of the
is shown in the diagram (Fig. 326) ;
with the right hand grasp the handle close to the head of the
axe, then bring the axe up over your shoulder and as you
handle, even closer than
strike the blow, allow the right
(Fig. 327), close to the left
hand
to slide
down
naturally
hand; learn to reverse, that
is,
end of the handle with the right hand
and the left hand near the top, so as to swing the axe from the
learn to grasp the lower
left
shoulder down, as easily as from the right shoulder.
To be a real axeman, a genuine dyed-in-the-wool, blown-inthe-glass type, each time you make a stroke with the axe
you must emit the breath from your lungs with a noise like
Huh That, you know, sounds very professional and will duly
impress the other boys when they watch you chop, besides
!
which
it
always seems to really help the force of the blow.
How
It
TO REMOVE A BROKEN
was from a colored
AXE HANDLE
rail splitter
from Virginia, who
how to burn
worked for the writer, that the latter learned
out the broken end of the handle from the axe head.
the blade of your axe in the moist earth and build a
fire
Bury
over
AXE AND SAW
225
the protruding butt (Fig. 328) ; the moist earth will prevent
the heat from spoiling the temper of your axe blade while
the heat from the
fire will
char and burn the wood so that
it
can easily be removed.
If you are using a double-bitted axe, that is, one of those
very useful but villainous tools with two cutting edges, and
off, make a shallow trench in the dirt, put
over each blade, leaving a hollow in the middle
where the axe handle comes and build your fire over this
the handle breaks
the moist
soil
hollow (Fig. 329).
To TIGHTEN THE AXE HEAD
If your axe handle is dry and the head loosens, soak it
over night and the wood will swell and tighten the head.
Scoutmaster Fitzgerald of New York says, 'Quite a number
'
have trouble with the axe slipping off the helve
and the first thing they do is to drive a nail which only tends
of scouts
to split the helve
and make matters worse.
I
have discovered
a practical way of fixing this. You will note that a wire
passes over the head of the axe in the helve in the side view.
Then
little
in the cross-section in the copper wire
staple driven in to hold
for a belt axe
but the hole
would not be advisable
it
in place."
in the
handle
is
twisted and a
This
will
may answer
weaken
it
and
for a large axe (Fig. 330).
ACCIDENTS
We
have said that the axe
is
a chest of tools, but
it is
a
dangerous chest of tools. While aboard a train coming from
one of the big lumber camps, the writer was astonished to
find that although there were
were many,
15
but few sick men aboard, there
in the car and none, that he
many wounded men
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
226
wounded by falling trees; all were wounded by the
by fragments of knots and sticks flying from
the axe and striking the axeman in the eyes or
could find,
axe
itself
blows of
or
other tender places.
You MUST SUPPLY THE BRAINS
have often warned
I
my
friends to use great care
young
with firearms, because firearms are made for the express
purpose of killing. A gun, having no brains of its own, will
kill its owner, his friends, his brother or sister, mother or
father, just as quickly and as surely as it will kill a moose, a
bear or a panther. Therefore it is necessary for the gunner
to supply the brains for his gun.
The same is true with the axeman. Edged tools are made
for the express purpose of cutting,
and they
and bone as quickly and neatly as they
the user
is skillful
will
will
cut flesh
cut wood, unless
in the use of his tool; that
is,
unless he
supplies the brains which the tools themselves lack.
"
"
So you see that it is up to you boys to supply the brains
your axes, and when you do that, that is, when you
acquire the skill in the use, and judgment in the handling,
for
avoid painful and may be dangerous or fatal acciand at the same time you will experience great joy in
the handling of your axe. Not only this but you will acquire
muscle and health in this most vigorous and manly exercise.
you
will
dents,
We
are not telling
instil into his
all this
to frighten the reader but to
mind a proper respect
for
edged
tools, especially
the axe.
ETIQUETTE OF THE AXE
An
axe to be respected must be sharp and no one
who has any ambition to be a pioneer, a sportsman or a
scout, should carry a dull axe, or an axe with the edge
1.
AXE AND SAW
nicked like a saw blade.
know
that the pencil I
am
notes was sharpened with
It
may
227
interest the reader to
using with which to
my camp
make
these
axe.
No one but a duffer and a chump will use another man's
2.
axe without that other man's willing permission.
3. It is as bad form to ask for the loan of a favorite axe
as
it is
to ask for the loan of a sportsman's best
gun or pet
fishing rod or toothbrush.
AXES AND SHEATHS
To
4.
turn the edge or to nick another man's axe
is
a
very grave offense.
5. Keep your own axe sharp and clean, do not use it to
cut any object lying on the ground where there is danger of
the blade of the axe going through the object and striking a
stone do not use it to cut roots of trees or bushes for the same
;
reason.
Beware of knots
in
hemlock wood and in cold weather
beware of knots of any kind.
When not in use an axe should have
in leather (Figs. 331, 332, 333
and
334), or
its
it
blade sheathed
should be struck
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
228
into a log or
stump (Fig. 335).
the ground or set up against a
feet of the
made and
camper.
be
left
upon
endanger the legs and
how
a firewood hod is
341
shows
Fig.
tree to
used.
How
On
It should never
the
trail
TO SHARPEN YOUR
we have no
grindstones,
AXE
and often have
re-
with which to sharpen our axe; sometimes we
use a whetstone for the purpose. New axes are not always
as sharp as one would wish; in that case if we use a grind-
course to a
file
stone to put on an edge we must be sure to keep the grindstone wet hi the first place, and in the second place we must
be careful not to throw the edge of the blade out of line.
When this occurs it will cause a "binding strain" on the
blade which tends to stop the force of the blow. If the edges
are at all out of line, the probabilities are one will knock a
moon out of the blade in the first attempt to cut frozen
timber. The best axe in the world, with an edge badly out
half
blow on hard frozen
While grinding the axe take a sight along the edge
every once in a while to see if it is true.
of line, cannot stand the strain of a
wood.
THE BEST TIME TO Cur OR PRUNE TREES
Is
when the sap
younger readers
full of juice.
juice
is
in
is
is
dormant, which I will explain for my
that time of year when the tree is not
The reason for this is that when the sap or
the wood when cut, it will ferment, bubble and
the same as sweet cider or grape juice will ferment,
and the fermentation will take all the "life" out of the
fizzle
a tendency to decay; again to translate
younger readers, such wood will rot quicker than wood
lumber and give
for
my
it
cut at the proper season of the year.
AXE AND SAW
231
With pine trees, however, this is not always the case,
because the pitchy nature of the sap of the pine prevents it
from fermenting like beech sap; in fact, the pitch acts as a
preservative and mummifies, so to speak, the wood. Pine
knots will last for a hundred years lying in the soft, moist
ground and for aught I know, longer, because they are fat
with pitch and the pitch prevents decay.
Beech when cut
in
June
is
unfit for firewood the following
winter, but authorities say that the
and
left
days, will
same
trees cut in
August
twenty or thirty
make firmer and "livelier" timber than that cut
with the branches
still
on them
for
under any other conditions.
An expert lumberman in ten minutes' tune will cut down a
hardwood
tree
one foot
in diameter,
and
it will
not take him
over four minutes to cut down a softwood tree of the same
size.
CLEAR AWAY EVERYTHING
Before attempting to chop down a tree; in fact, before
attempting to chop anything, be careful to see that there are
no clothes
lines
overhead,
if
you are chopping
in
your back-
you are chopping in the forests see that there are
no vines, twigs, or branches within swing of your axe. By
yard, or
if
removing all such things you will remove one of the
greatest causes of accidents in the wilderness, for as slight a
thing as a little twig can deflect, that is, turn, the blade of
carefully
your axe from its course and cause the loss of a
or even a leg. This is the reason that swamping
toe,
is
a
foot,
the most
dangerous part of the lumberman's work.
How
TO "FALL" A TREE
If the tree, in falling,
where there
is
must pass between two other
danger of its
trees
"hanging," so cut your kerf that
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
232
the tree in falling will strike the ground nearest the smallest
of the trees, or nearest the one furthest away. Then, as
the tree
falls,
and brushes the
side of the smallest tree or the
one furthest away, it will bounce away, thus giving the fallen
tree an opportunity to bump its way down to the place on
the ground selected for it, in place of hanging by
in the boughs of other trees.
its
bough
Do
not try to "fall" a tree between two others that are
standing close together; it cannot be successfully done, for
the tops of the three trees will become interlaced, and you
will find it very difficult and hazardous work to attempt to
free your fallen tree from its entanglement probably it cannot be done without cutting one or both of the other trees
down. The truth is, one must mix brains with every stroke
;
of the axe or one will get into trouble.
Where
possible select a tree that
may be made
to
fall in
an open space where the prostrate trunk can be easily handled.
Cut your kerf on the side toward the landing place, let the
notch go half-way or a trifle more through the trunk. Make
the notch or kerf as wide as the radius, that is, half the diameter of the tree trunk (Fig. 344), otherwise you will have your
axe pinched or wedged before you have the kerf done and
will find it necessary to enlarge your notch or kerf.
Score
first
at the top part of the proposed no tell* then at the bottom,
as big chips as possible, and hew out the space between, cutting the top parts of the notch at an angle but the
bottom part nearly horizontal. When this notch or kerf
making
is
cut to half or a
little
more than
half of the diameter of the
tree, cut another notch upon the opposite side of the tree at a
point a few inches higher than the notch already cut; when
this notch is cut far enough the tree will begin to tremble
and crack
to
warn you to step
to one side.
Don't get behind
AXE AND SAW
the tree;
it
may
the tree as
it
kick and
it falls;
kill
there are
233
you; step to one side and watch
many
things that
may
deflect
and one's safety lies in being alert and watching
Also keep your eye aloft to watch for limbs which
break off and come down with sufficient force to disable
hi falling,
it fall.
may
you; accidents of this kind frequently happen, but seldom
or never happen where the axeman uses common sense or
due caution.
How
the swampers take charge of it and
the branches, leaving the clean log for the team-
After a tree
cut
away
all
is felled,
"snake."
sters to
TO TRIM OR SWAMP
They do the swamping by
striking the
lower side of the branch with the blade of the axe, the side
tree, what might be called the underand
side,
chopping upwards towards the top of the tree.
Small branches will come off with a single blow of the axe.
When the tree has been swamped and the long trunk lies
naked on the turf, it will, in all probability, be necessary to
towards the root of the
cut
it
into logs of required lengths.
If
the trunk
is
a thick
it is best to cut it by standing on the tree trunk with legs
apart (Fig. 336), and chopping between one's feet, making
the kerf equal to the diameter of the log. Do this for two
one
reasons
:
it is
much
easier to stand
on a log and cut
it in
two
way than to cut it part the way through the top side,
and then laboriously roll it over and cut from the underside
that
;
also
the
when you make the notch wide enough you can cut
way through
the log without wedging your axe.
To
all
split
up the log you should have
A
A
BEETLE OR MALL,
thing usually to be found
among
the tools in the back-
woodsman's hut and permanent camps; of course we do not
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
234
make them
take the time to
for
an overnight camp or a
temporary camping place, but they are very handy at a
stationary camp. To make one select a hardwood tree, which,
when
stripped of its bark will measure about five inches in
diameter. The tree selected should not be one that would
split easily
but
may
with the bark on
is
be a young oak, beech or hickory, which
seven inches in diameter at the butt.
six or
down
stump tall enough from
and while the stump is still
standing hew the top part until you have a handle scant two
In chopping this tree
which to fashion your
leave a
beetle,
feet in length, leaving for the
hammer
head, so to speak, a
butt of ten inches, counting from the part where the roots
Before cutting the stump off above the
join the trunk.
ground, dig all around the roots, carefully scraping away all
stones and pebbles, then cut the roots off close up to the
stump, for this is the hardest part of the wood and makes the
best mall head (Fig. 337).
How
TO
MAKE THE GLUTS OR WEDGES
Farmers claim that the best wedges are made of applewood, or locust wood; never use green wedges if seasoned
ones may be obtained, for one seasoned wedge is worth many
green ones. In the north woods, or, in fact, in any woods,
applewood cannot be obtained, but dogwood and ironwood
make good substitutes even when used green (Figs. 338
and
357).
How
Many
TO HARDEN GREEN
WOOD
of the Southern Indians in the early history of
America tipped their arrows with bits of cane; these green
arrow points they hardened by slightly charring them with
the hot ashes of the fire. Gluts may be hardened in the
same manner; do not burn them; try to heat them
just sufii-
AXE AND SAW
237
clently to force the sap out and harden the surface.
Where
dogwood, ironwood and applewood are not to be obtained,
make your gluts of what is at hand; that is true woodcraft
(Fig. 337).
A
year or two ago, while trailing a moose, we ran across
the ruins of a lumber camp that had been wiped out
by fire,
and here we picked up half a dozen axe heads among the
moose tracks. These axe heads we used as gluts to split
our wood as long as we remained in that camp, and by their
aid
we
built a shack of
Fig. 341
board rived from balsam logs.
shows how to make and how to use firewood
hods on farms or at permanent camps.
How
TO
MAKE
A CHOPPING BLOCK
After you have cut the crotch and trimmed
it
down
into
the form of Fig. 339, you may find it convenient to flatten
the thing on one side. This you do by hewing and scoring;
that is, by cutting a series of notches all of the same depth,
and then splitting off the wood between the notches, as one
would in making a puncheon (Fig. 342). (A puncheon is a
With this flattened
log flattened on one or both sides.)
crotch one may, by sinking another flattened log in the earth
and placing the chopping block on top, have a chopping
block like that shown in Fig. 343. Or one may take the crotch,
spike a piece of board across as in Fig. 339 and use that, and
the best chopping block or crotch block is the one shown in
Fig. 339, with the
puncheon or slab spiked onto the ends of
In this case the two ends of the crotch should be
with a saw, if you have one, so as to give the proper
the crotch.
cut off
flat
surface to which to nail the slab.
wood may be
of the hatchet.
split
Then the
kindling
without danger to yourself or the edge
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
238
CHOP
IT
WAY
THE RIGHT
you are using an ordinary stick of wood for a chopping
block, and the stick you are about to chop rests solidly on
If
top of the block where
strike
you
the axe strikes it will cut all right,
where the
but
stick does not touch the
chopping
block the blow will stun the hand holding the stick in a
very disagreeable manner. If you hold your stick against
if
the chopping block with your foot, there is always danger of
cutting off your toe; if you hold the stick with your hand and
strike it with the axe, there
fingers.
When
scouts cut his
of
my
I say there
thumb
off,
my
I
mean
one
off
it.
off
One
finger,
your
of our
and one
Canada cut off his great
an old camping cave in
Mr.
Elmer
Gregor, made the
companion,
friends in the
Pennsylvania,
danger of cutting
danger
another cut
North woods
In hunting for Indian
toe.
is
is
of
relics in
gruesome find of a dried human
finger near the
embers of an
ancient campfire, telling the story of a
ages ago, but evidently after
introduced.
If
camping accident
white man's edged tools were
you have no chopping block and wish
to cut your fire-
wood into smaller pieces, you can hold the stick safely with
the hand if you use the axe as shown in Fig. 345. This will
give you as a result two sticks, and the upper one will have
some great
splinters.
How
When
first
splitting
blow as
place,
but a
TO SPLIT KINDLING
wood
in Fig. 346,
trifle
WOOD
for the fire or kindling,
and the second blow
make
in the
the
same
slanting as in Fig. 347; the slanting blow
wedges the wood apart and splits it. If the wood is small
and splits readily, the slanting blow maybe made first. These
AXE AND SAW
239
things can only be indicated to the readers because there
are so many circumstances which govern the case. If there
a knot hi the wood, strike the axe right over the knot as
in Figs. 348 and 349.
is
If
you are chopping across the grain do not
pendicularly as in Fig. 350, because
if
the
wood
strike peris
hard the
axe
simply bounce back, but strike a slanting blow as in
Fig. 351, and the axe blade will bite deeply hi to the wood;
again let us caution you that if you put too much of a slant
will
in striking the wood, it will cut out a shallow
without
materially impeding the force of the blow, and
chip
will
swing around to the peril of yourself or anyone
your axe
else within reach; again this is a thing which you must learn
on your axe
to practice.
In using the chopping block be very careful not to put a
log in front of the crotch as hi Fig. 340, and then strike a
heavy blow with the axe, for the reason that if you split the
wood with the first blow your axe handle will come down
heavily and suddenly
upon the front
log,
and no matter how
good a handle it may be, it will break into fragments, as the
writer has discovered by sad experience. A lost axe handle
in the
woods
is
a severe
loss,
and one to be avoided,
for
although a makeshift handle may be fashioned at camp, it
never answers the purpose as well as the skillfully and artistically
made handle which comes with
the axe.
HOLDERS OR SAW BUCKS FOR LOGS
Select
two saplings about
five inches in
butts, bore holes near the butts
end
for legs,
make a
about
diameter at the
six niches
from the
couple of stout legs about the size of
an
old-fashioned drey pin, and about twenty inches long, split
the ends carefully, sufficiently to insert wedges therein, then
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
240
drive the
When
wedge and ends
into the hole bored for the purpose.
the sticks are driven
home
the wedge will hold
them
You now have
a couple of "straddle bugs," that is,
of
small
ends
which
rest upon the ground and the
the
poles,
butt ends supported by two legs. In the top of the poles
in place.
bore a number of holes for pins, make your pins a little longer
than the diameter of the log you intend to saw; the pins are
used exactly like the old-fashioned drey pins, that is, you
roll
the log up the incline to the two straddle bugs and hold
the logs in place by putting pins in the nearest holes. Of
course, the pins should work easily in and out of the holes
(Fig. 357).
With such an arrangement one man can unaided easily
roll a log two feet in diameter up upon the buck; the log is
then in a position to be cut up with a cross-cut saw (Fig. 357).
Another form of sawbuck may be made of a puncheon stool
with holes bored diagonally in the top for the insertion of pins with which to hold the log hi place while it is
(Fig. 358),
being sawed.
heavy
But with
this
logs as with the first
sawbuck one cannot use as
one because of the
difficulty in
handling them.
I
have just returned from a
trip
up
into the
woods where
handling and
they still use the primitive pioneer methods of
cutting timber, and I note up there in Pike County, Pennsylvania, they make the sawbuck for logs by using a log of wood
about a foot in diameter and boring holes diagonally through
the log near each end (Fig. 359); through these holes they
drive the legs so that the ends of them protrude at the top
and form a crotch to hold the wood to be sawed. The saw-
buck
is
about ten or twelve
feet long; consequently, in order
to provide for shorter logs there are two sets of pegs driven
in holes bored for the purpose between the ends of the buck.
AXE AND SAW
241
THE PARBUCKLE
When
one person is handling a heavy log it is sometimes
even
with the lumberman's canthook, to roll it, but
difficult,
if a loop is made in a rope and placed over a stump or a
heavy stone (Fig. 360), and the ends run under the log, even
a boy can roll quite a heavy piece of timber by pulling on
the ends of the rope (Fig. 360).
To
SPLIT A
LOG
The method used by all woodsmen in splitting a log i^ the
same as used by quarrymen in splitting bluestone, with this
difference: the quarryman hunts for a natural seam in the
stone and drives the wedge in the seam, while the lumberman
makes a seam in the form of a crack in the log by a blow from
In the crack he drives the wedge (Figs. 352 and 353).
his axe.
But if the log is a long one he must lengthen the crack or
seam by driving other wedges or gluts (Fig. 353), or he may
do it by using two or more axes (Fig. 352).
he wishes to
If
splits,
A
he
first
split
the logs up into shakes, clapboards or
halves the log, that
is,
splitting
it
across from
B
(Fig. 356), and then quarters it by splitting from
to D, and so on until he has the splits of the required size.
to
A
C
SAWPIT
In the olden times, the good old times, when people did
things with their own hands, and thus acquired great skill
with the use of their hands, boards were sawed out from the
by placing the log on a scaffolding over a sawpit
(Fig. 361)
In the good old times, the slow old tunes, the safe old
times, a house was not built in a week or a month the timber
logs
;
was well seasoned, well
16
selected,
and
in
many
cases such
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
242
On the next block where I live
I
am
where
and from
writing, and across the street, there
stands a house still occupied which was built in 1661. It is
houses are standing to-day
!
the house that Fox, the Quaker, was quartered in when he was
preaching under the spreading oaks on Long Island. The
timbers of this house are
still
sound and strong, although the
in nearby modern houses is decaying.
In the mountains of Kentucky and Tennessee they still
use the sawpit, and the logs are held in place by jacks (Fig.
woodwork
355),
which are branches of
hooked over the log and
then sprung under the sup-
trees
the longest fork of the branch
is
porting cross-piece (Fig. 361).
Of course, the boy readers of this book are not going to
be top sawyers or make use of a sawpit; that is a real man's
know
all
HE
man's work, but the boys of to-day should
these things it is part of history and they can better
work, a big
;
understand the history of our own country when they know
how
laboriously,
cheerily
and cheerfully
their
ancestors
worked to build their own homesteads, and in the building
of their own homesteads they unconsciously built that
character of which their descendants are so proud; also they
built up a physique that was healthy, and a sturdy body for
which their descendants are particularly thankful, because
good health and good physique are hereditary, that is, boys,
if your parents, your grandparents and your great grandparents were all healthy, wholesome people, you started your
life as a healthy, wholesome child.
In this chapter the writer has emphasized the danger of
edged tools for beginners, but he did that to make them care-
not to discourage them in acquiring
must remember that there is nothing in
not dangerous, and the greatest danger of all is
ful in the use of the axe,
skill
life
with
that
it.
is
We
AXE AND SAW
243
not firearms, is not edged tools, is not wild beasts, is not
tornadoes or earthquakes, avalanches or floods, but it is
LUXURY expressed in boy language, it is ice cream, soda water,
;
candy, servants and automobiles
;
it is
everything which tends
make a boy dependent upon others and soft in mind and
muscle and to make him a sissy. But hardship, in the sense
to
of undergoing privation
and doing hard work
like
chopping
and sawing logs, makes a rugged body, a clean, healthy
mind, and gives long life. So, boys, don't be afraid to build
trees
your own
wood
shack, shanty or shelter, to chop the kindling
for your mother, to split up logs for the fun of doing it,
little
show that you know how. Don't be afraid to be a
you may grow up to be a real Abe Lincoln
If I am talking to men, they need no detailed definition of
luxury; they know all about it, its cause and its effect; they
also know that luxury kills a race and hardship preserves a
race. The American boy should be taught to love hardship
for hardship's sake, and then the Americans as a race will
be a success, and a lasting one.
or just to
real pioneer so that
!
CHAPTER XHI
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES
CHEROKEE INDIAN COUNCIL BARBECUE
CAMP MEETING COUNCIL GROUND
THE INDIAN PALISADED COUNCIL FIRE
INDIAN LEGENDS OF THE FERE
STEALING THE FIRE FROM THE SUN-MAIDENS OF THE EAST
MYTHS OF THE MEWAN INDIANS
TOTEMS OF THE FOUR WINDS, FOUR MOUNTAINS AND FOUB
POINTS OF THE COMPASS
IMPRACTICAL COUNCIL FIRES
ADVANTAGES OF THE OVAL COUNCIL GROUND
HOW TO MAKE AN ELLIPSE
HOW TO DIVIDE THE COUNCIL GROUND
IN FOUB COUBTS
COUNCIL CEREMONIES
GHOST WALK AND PATH OF KNOWLEDGE
WHAT THE DIFFERENT COLORS STAND FOR
PATRIOTISM, POETRY AND AMERICANISM
CAMP MEETING TORCH FIRES
CHAPTER
XIII
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES
Now
that
we have
learned about the serious part of
camping, hiking and woodcraft, about fire-building, cooking
and axe work, we will leave the long trail and the hard trail
and dump our duffel bag in a recreation camp, a Boy Scout
camp, a Y. M. C. A. camp, or a school camp, and after we
have pitched our tent and arranged our cot to suit our own
convenience and everything is ship-shape for the night, it is
time for us to get busy on our "good turn" and do something
for the crowd.
Like the great Boy Scout Movement, the council fire is
also a product of America. The council fires were burning
all over this land when Columbus discovered America. It was
fires that the Indians gathered in solemn
conclave to consult and discuss the affairs of their tribes.
around the council
Originally the council ground
sade; that
Around
is,
the
fire
was
this fire the old
was surrounded by a
pali-
a circular
fort.
in the center of
men
of the tribe
made
their eloquent
danced the scalp
and
all their various
buffalo
the
corn
dance,
dance,
dance, the
addresses; also
around
this fire the warriors
religious dances.
Later the Cherokee Indians changed the council
fire
into
a barbecue, where they roasted whole beefs in pits of glowing
coals. This custom was adopted by the politicians in Kentucky, and the Kentucky barbecues became very famous;
they were what might be called a by-product of the old
Indian council
fires
and a European feast combined. But
became camp meetings,
in 1799 the old Indian council fires
247
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
248
and around the blazing fagots the pioneers gathered to engage
It was at one of these meetings that
in religious revivals.
Daniel Boone's great friend, Simon Kenton, was converted
and became a Methodist.
The camp meetings were originated by two brothers by
the name of McGee. Bill McGee was a Presbyterian, and
John McGee a Methodist minister. They came to Kentucky
from West Tennessee. John McGee was such a great backwoods preacher (a pioneer Billy Sunday) that he drew immense crowds of buckskin-clad men, each of whom carried
a cow's horn powder
flask
and a long barreled
rifle.
The small buildings used for churches in the pioneer
settlements could not hold the crowd, so they gathered around
blazing council
fires,
religious revival
and from
this beginning
came the great
which swept the border with a wave of
religious enthusiasm.
It
is
a far
call
back to the old Indian council
fire,
and the
blazing council fires of the pioneer camp meetings, but to-day
all over this land we are holding similar council fires, many of
them conducted with much ceremony, and not a few with
religious fervor. The summer hotels have their council fires;
the great Camp Fire Club of America, composed of all the
famous big game hunters, have lately bought a tract of land
for the purpose of holding their council fires in the open,
and
the writer interrupted the writing of this chapter to attend
one of the club's council fires. The military schools are
holding council
and everywhere the Boy Scouts have
even the girls have fallen in line,
should be, Therefore it is time that some
fires,
their council fires blazing;
and
this is as it
regular plan
was made for these assemblies, and some sugand some meaning given to the council
gestion of ceremony
grounds.
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES
THE INDIAN
249
ORIGINS
have searched the legends of the Red Man for suggestions, and from various sources have learned that the
We
Indian had a general belief that at the north there is a yellow
or black mountain, at the east there is a white mountain of
light, at
the south there
there
a blue mountain.
is
is
a red mountain, and at the west
At the
also holes in the sky, through
east
and west there are
which the sun comes to
light
us by day, and through which the sun disappears so that we
may sleep by night. That is news to most of my readers,
Red Men.
but not to the
In the
"Dawn
a collection of
Me wan
of the
World," Dr. C. Hart Merriam gives
"The Myths and Weird
Indians of California," which are
Tales told by the
full of
poetry and
suggestions useful for the council fire work.
It seems that when the white-footed mouse man, and
some
other of the animal people, were trying to steal the sun, or
the fire from which the sun was made, the robin man, Wittab-bah, suspected these visitors to be sort of German spies,
and so he hovered over the fire, spreading his wings and tail
to protect it. Now if you don't believe this you look at the
robin's breast
marks
we
and you
will see
that he
still
carries the red
fire, which is proof enough for anyone; hence
give the fire-keeper for our council the name of
of the
will
Wit-tab-bah, the robin.
Since the north
presided over
is
by the totem
of the
moun-
we will give the officer occupying that
Indian name of the mountain lion, He-le-jah. The
tain lion, or panther,
court the
totem of the east
color of that court
of the south court
is
the white timber wolf, Too-le-ze; the
is
white, representing light.
is
the badger; the color
is
The totem
red and the
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
250
Indian
name
is
blue and the totem
of the bear,
The
Too-winks.
is
and the
color of the west court
the bear; Kor-le
title of
the
is
is
Indian name
the officer presiding over the
blue totem.
The golden
or yellow court is the throne of the presiding
officer, the scoutmaster of the troop, the headmaster of the
school, the gangmaster of your gang, the campmaster of your
The second
camp, or the captain of your team.
hi
command
occupies the white court, the third the red court, and the
fourth the blue court. If your council is a military school
commandant
the
ant-colonel
the
occupies the yellow court, the lieutenwhite court, the major the red court
and the first captain the blue court. Now that you
have that straight in your heads we will proceed to lay out
the court.
The author
is
aware of the fact that the general reader
be more interested in scout camping, summer camping,
and recreation camps than in real wilderness work, but he
may
has tried to impress upon the boys and
girls,
too, for that
matter, the fact that the knowledge of real wilderness
will
make even
work
the near-at-home camping easier for them,
interesting; it will also cause them to
and very much more
enjoy the council
fire
better
and have a greater appreciation
for everything pertaining to
outdoor
life.
The
wilderness
campfire over which the solitary explorer or hunter hovers,
or around which a group of hunters assemble and spin their
yarns, magnified and enlarged to a big blazing fire becomes
the council fire around which gather all the members of a
recreation camp, the pupils of an outdoor school, a troop or
many troops of Boy Scouts
cil fire
;
we have given the counmost inconvenient as well
therefore
serious study, because the
as the most romantic place to talk
is
at
m
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES
253
THE COUNCIL FIRE
There could be no more impractical plan for a place to
speak than a circle with a big fire in the middle of it, and that
the plan of all the council grounds.
seated on the circumference of the
is
of Ceremonies
must stand
back to part of
fire
and
fire
and consequently
his
The audience must be
circle,
and the Master
necessarily with his face to the
his audience, or his
back to the
also to the part of the audience
on the
Having had occasion over and over
again to address the scouts at a council fire, the writer has
had all the discomforts impressed upon him many times. As
a rule, the boys are enthusiastic, and so are the men, and the
other side of the
enthusiasm
is
fire.
most often displayed by the
size of the fire ; the
bigger the fire the greater the delight of the boys and the
more difficult the position of the orator or Master of CereAll this may be overcome, however, if in place of a
the council grounds are laid out in an oval or an ellipse,
and the fire-place located near one end of the ellipse (Fig. 371).
monies.
circle
How
TO DESCRIBE AN ELLIPSE
After you have decided upon the size of your council
grounds, drive two stakes A and B (Figs. 363 and 365)
firmly into the ground; then take a cord, clothesline, or
some
kind of twine (Fig. 362), and tie the ends together, thus
forming a loop (Fig. 363) put the loop over the two stakes
A and B; next make a marker stake C (Fig. 366), and with it
;
draw the slack of the line taut as in Fig. 364. The ellipse
This is done by taking firm
is marked out as in Fig. 365.
hold of the top of the stake and using care to keep the line
taut while the marker walks around the ground scratching
the earth with the point of the marking stick, and allowing
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
254
the cord to
is
slip
smoothly across the stick while the marking
being done (Fig. 364).
WHAT
An
is
AN ELLIPSE?
might be called a flattened circle. If you take
a tin can and press the two sides of the open end of it inwards,
The dictionary says that an ellipse is
it will form an ellipse.
ellipse
a conic which does not extend to
sections with the
infinity
line of infinity are
and whose
imaginary.
inter-
Now that
a very lucid explanation! I hope you understand it, it is
so simple, but it is just like a dictionary to say such terrible
things about a harmless ellipse. To tell the truth, I thought
I knew all about an ellipse until I read this explanation; but
is
we know what it looks like and
know what it is, we do know that there are a
never mind,
if
we do not
lot of things
besides ellipses that do not extend to infinity, and we also
know that an ellipse is a practical form for a council fire in
hard names the dictionary calls it. This oval is
the
really shaped like the body of a theatre and it gives
audience a chance to see what is doing on the stage, and the
spite of the
people on the stage a chance to see and address the audience.
How
This
TO DIVIDE THE COUNCIL FIRE GROUND
infinity talk
has suggested to us a good idea, so we
must thank our highbrow dictionary while we lay our council
ground out with the major axis (the longest diameter) extending due north and south, and the minor axis (the shortest
diameter) extending due east and west, like any other well
regulated council or lodge, and we will put the fire-place near
the southern end S (Fig. 37l), while around the ellipse
arrange the seats, which
may be
of logs or
we will
stumps or sections
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES
as I used in one of
255
my
camps, or the
seats may be rough plank benches, or they may be ponchos
spread upon the ground with the shiny side down to keep the
of logs set
up on end,
dampness from the audience as
it
squats tailor-fashion upon
the ponchos.
THE FOUR COURTS
Are composed of shacks, such as are shown by Fig. 367.
He-le-jah (Fig. 371), being the Court of Knowledge, is the
only court having an elevated platform, or pulpit, or
speaker's stand (Fig. 368). On each side of each court there
what we
what we will
should be a torch; Fig. 369
is
meeting torch; Fig. 370 is
torch; it must be made by a blacksmith.
will call the
camp
call
the steamboat
It
an iron basket
is
hung down from an iron band at
the latter is shod with an iron point so that
iron chains,
supported by
the top of a staff;
it
may be
thrust into the ground.
used with success in one of
These
fire
baskets I have
my camps. But homemade torches
are to be preferred (see Fig. 369). A hand torch (Fig. 373) may
be made of pine, spruce or cedar slivers and used for processions entering the council grounds; this gives a thrilling effect.
In the diagram (Fig. 370), the staff is short, but it should
be long enough to place the torch as high above the ground
as a chandelier is above the floor at home. Fig. 372 shows
the method of piling up the
wood
for the council
fire.
The
kindling wood is first placed upon the ground ready to light
at a moment's notice; over that the heavy wood is piled,
shown in the diagram. This fire should never be lighted
with a match; that is terrible bad form. The use of flint
and steel or a rubbing stick to make fire is the proper cereas
mony
for such occasions.
Fig. 374
shows how to make a
fire
box of
sticks.
This
is
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
256
an aeroplane view of a
box, that
fire
looking down upon it.
clay or dirt, upon which the
a view from above,
is,
This box should be
how
376 show you
fire is built.
to lash the
filled
with sand,
Fig. 375
and
framework together.
shows how to put up the framework.
Fig. 369
is
Fig.
Fig. 377
the finished
torch.
The
idea of this torch
The
of the campers.
is
to
have the
trouble with a
above the heads
light
fire
upon the ground
is
that while the flames give light they also hide part of the
crowd, and the smoke is always in someone's face. This
a brand new idea for
It will
elevated torch
is
be adopted
over the country and credited to all sorts of
remember that it was
all
this purpose.
sources and people, but you must
designed for the readers of this book.
If milled
four courts,
used in building the shacks for the
should be camouflaged with paint or stain so
lumber
it
as to look rustic.
is
It
may
be roofed with boards and the
boards covered with tar paper, or any of the modern roofing
materials to be had, but in that case the roof should be
camouflaged by laying poles over the top of
are not available, covering the top with sods.
You
or, if poles
this we are having a COUNCIL FIRE
and we want the thing to look wild and
is part of the game, and if we are compelled
see the idea
not something else
rustic because that
it,
is
:
to go to the lumberyard for our material, which most of us
will have to do, then we must conceal this fact as far as possible
is
by camouflage.
the fire-place
made
In front of the South Court on Fig. 371
of flat stones set in the earth.
COUNCIL FIRE CEREMONIES
On
entering the council grounds always enter from the
east, salute Too-le-ze, the white wolf, then go across the
(DETAILS OF CAMP
MET
TORCH STAND .St'SAMD BO
17
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES
259
Ghost Walk with the sun to the West Court, and salute
Kor-le, the bear; about face and march back to the South
Court and salute Too-winks, the badger; then about face and
march up and
salute He-le-jah, the panther; remain standing
at salute until He-le-jah
who
is
the
commanding
officer,
gives you permission to retire, or gives you orders what to do ;
then go back, always moving along these walks like a soldier,
to your seat.
On Sundays
the council ground
is
a splendid place for
holding religious services. On such occasions the minister
the Court of Knowledge, the North Court on the
sits in
right-hand side of the presiding officer, and the two torches
in the daytime are replaced by flags or banners. The one
on the right-hand side of the presiding officer must be Old
Glory, the one on the left the flag of the school, the troop or
the club to which the council fire belongs.
The
center of the council
fire
may be
occupied by a
"Liberty Pole," which is the good old American name for
the flag pole, from which Old Glory flies. Never forget to
respect the colors and greet them with the greatest ceremonial
deference, for those colors possess a magic quality; they
you everything that is grand, noble and inspiryou have any other kind of thoughts, this country
represent to
and if
no place for you. Remember that the council fire is
American, and we are proud to be called Americans.
The walk, or path from the east to the west is the Ghost
Walk, or the Spirit's Walk; it is the path which Indians
believe the spirit takes after leaving the body, an idea which
ing,
is
was consciously or unconsciously adopted by our brave boys
during the recent war and it explains what they meant when,
with bowed heads, they reported that their bunky, pal or
friend had "gone West."
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
260
The Western Court has the totem animal
of the black
not black but blue,
blue from the blue Pacific; the totem object is a blue mountain.
bear; the color of the court, however,
is
The walk from the south to the north is the Path of Knowledge; anyone traveling that trail is seeking further knowledge
of the benefits of woodcraft, nature and the big outdoors;
the totem animal of the North Court
is the American panther,
or
mountain
the
color
of the North Court is
lion;
cougar
or
the
latter
black,
representing the long arctic night.
yellow
The Southern Court has the badger for its totem animal,
and the red mountain
for the
totem object; red
is its
totem
color.
Thus we have white for the totem color of the east, meaning light, peace and purity; red for the south, meaning
violence, disturbance, auction, danger, revolution, love and
life.
This color is both stimulating and disturbing to man,
animal and plant.
Perhaps when we read of the turmoil that is constantly
disturbing our southern border, we may think that the
Indians had a knowledge of the real meaning of red when
they made the totem of the south a red mountain. Red is
the ruling color, the king of color, the dominant color, the
strong color, and symbolizes the blossoming of plants and is
Red
the color of berries and
fruit.
and
In the spring the thickets and tree
stains the fall leaf.
tints the spring leaves
trunks are tinged with red they are blushing, so to speak, as
Ruskin says, "in order to show the waiting of love." Red is
;
emphatically a masculine color, a MAN'S COLOR.
Blue is a feminine color; it stands for sentimental affec-
a depressing effect and creates nervousness.
the ogre among colors; it devours every other
color; sometimes the North Court is black; black stands for
tions, blue light has
Black
is
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES
261
war and death, and yet the path to the north is the path of
knowledge. It may be that some of the Indians used black
for the north because they may have noted that climate
affects the color of birds and animals. According to Frank
Chapman, the famous ornithologist at the Museum of
Natural History in New York, the animals of the humid
climate of the northwest are especially dark in color.
you use yellow for the north color, yellow means
laughter and mirth. Notwithstanding the fact that we use
yellow as a sign for contagious disease, women suffragists and
cowardice, a yellow light makes a gathering cheerful and
merry; so in approaching the North Court you may sing.
The Indian names for the four courts are Too-le-ze, the
east, for the south Too-winks, for the west Kor-le, and for
If
the north Kon-win.
He-le-jah
the Indian
is
name
for the
panther or mountain lion that guards the north mountain.
Now then you have the symbolism in other words, know
what these things stand for, and that will give a meaning
;
to your ceremony around the council fire. Since red means
life and black means death, possibly the Indians have placed
a deep significance on the path from the Red Court to the
Black Court, from life to death! when they call it the Path of
At any
Knowledge.
rate,
we
will
take
it
as
we
find
it
adapt ourselves to the suggestions these meanings give
We
will
claim that colors are the
not who govern the council
the
fire itself
near the Southern or
Wit-tab-bah
fire.
or the fire-place.
Red
spirits, fairies
When
Court,
it
the
is
the
or
and
us.
what
name
fire is built,
of
placed
the
gives the chief,
captain, the superintendent, or the scoutmaster, who occuNorth Court, a space in front of him big enough to
pies the
accommodate
his audience.
light up, the council grounds
The
is
real
way
by having
to illuminate, or
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
262
TORCH FIRES
Erected at each of the four courts.
These
fire
torches at
kept replenished with dry wood, will light
up the council grounds and give a most picturesque and wild
appearance, and at the same time will not interfere with the
the four courts,
if
ceremonies nor will they scorch the back or face of the
speaker. Wit-tab-bah may be used on occasions when the
crowd is not large.
No council fire anywhere within the borders of the United
States should open without the pledge to the American flag,
and the reciting in unison by all present of the American creed.
(See page 268.)
The council should close with the singing of "America."
Especially should these ceremonies be gone through with
when the assembly is composed of many young people,
because what George Washington said in his farewell address
is as true to-day as it was a hundred years ago.
"Against the insidious wiles of foreign influences I conjure
you to believe me, fellow citizens, the jealousy of a free people
ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience
prove that foreign influence is one of the most powerful foes
of republican government."
no reason why we should not have a lot of fun
fires, and at times it may even be riotous fun,
but always American fun, and the patriotic spirit should never
There
is
at the council
for a
moment be
forgotten, nor yet the poetic spirit
which
up in bonds of sympathy with all created things so
that we may, with seriousness, recite the
links us
COUNCIL GROUNDS AND FIRES
263
INDIAN INVOCATION
O Great Mystery,
we
beseech thee,
That we may walk reverently
Beneath Lah-pah our brothers, the
That we may step lightly
On
trees.
Kis-so our kinsmen, the grasses.
That we may walk lovingly
Over Loo-poo-oi-yes our brothers, the
That we may rest trustfully
Where
rocks.
the O-lel-le bird sings
Beside Ho-ha-oe, the talking waters.
or this,
Weave
for us,
O Great Mystery,
A
bright blanket of wisdom;
Make the warp the color of Father Sky,
Let He-koo-las, the sun-womaa.
Lend her bright hair for the weft.
And
mingle with
it
the red and gold threads of evening.
O Great Mystery; O Mother Earth! O Father Sky!
children, love the things you love;
Therefore, let the border of our blanket
We, your
Be bending Ku-yet-tah,
And
the rainbow,
the fringe be glittering Nuk-kah, the slashing rain.
or with abandon we may sing, or chant the song of the elves,
*
Oh, we are the fays, oh, we are the elves.
Who, laughing at everything, laugh at ourselves.
If Fortune's
wheel
is
broke.
Why, we can put a spoke
in
it.
Misfortune hits no stroke.
But we can put a joke in it.
The owl can do our thinking,
As he sits awinking, blinking.
We act from intuition.
Fun and mischief is our mission;
Solemn duty, we have none of it,
What we do
Fun
is
is
for the fun of
none too
Thought
is
naught but fancy's Sight.
Folly's jolly, wit
Laughter after
* From
it;
light to prize,
is
wise.
all is right.
unpublished verses by Captain Harry Beard.
CHAPTER XIV
RITUAL OF THE COUNCIL FIRE
PROGRAM OF A COUNCIL FIRE
INVOCATION
THE PLEDGE AND CREED OF ALL AMERICANS
APPEAL
CHAPTER XIV
RITUAL OF THE COUNCIL FIRE
THE
ceremonies of the Council Fire
may be conducted
with the accompaniment of pageantry to any extent desirable. At the Council Fire of the Dan Beard Outdoor School,
not masquerade costumes but
OF THE NORTH, who attends to the
the officers dress in costume
the real ones.
THE MAN
;
Northern Lights, is garbed hi the blanket clothes of a northern
lumberman and carries an axe. THE MAN OF THE EAST,
who attends the fire where the sun maidens dwell, may be
arrayed in the clothes of one of our Pilgrim fathers. THE
MAN OF THE WEST, who attends the fire of the Blue Moun-
decked in the fringed buckskin clothes of the trapper,
plainsman, or mountaineer. THE MAN OF THE SOUTH, who
tain, is
fire of the Red Mountain, is dressed in the picof a Mexican with a high-crowned sombrero.
costume
turesque
The seats of the different courts are draped with the colors of
guards the
the courts.
PROGRAM OF A COUNCIL FIRE
The guests enter and take their seats, then the Herald
enters dressed in the costume of a scout, a frontiersman, or a
medicine man, according to the plan of the particular Council Fire.
The Herald faces the north from his stand in the
center of the council ground and blows assembly call, or a
blast on a cow's horn, then wheels about and faces the east,
then the south and then the west, and at each he blows
assembly.
With the
last notes
and the
last call
the Scouts,
Woodcrafters, Pioneers or students enter the circle, marching
single-file around until the circle is complete, and they stand
opposite where they are to
sit.
The Herald now blows
a fan-
267,
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
268
and the officers march into the council ground with the
and the color guard. The officers group themselves
around their Chief, the Scout Executive, the Scout Commissioner, the Headmaster or the man in authority at the North
fare
colors
Court.
INVOCATION
The Leader, or head officer, steps forward and throwing
both hands up in a gesture of appeal, in which he is imitated
by the assembly, he repeats:
Weave
Then he
for us,
cries
O Great Mystery, etc.
(as already given).
:
Four Winds of the Earth, we have saluted you!
Wind of the North, from whence come our snow and ice.
Wind of the East, from whence come our clouds and rams.
Wind
Wind
of the West,
from whence comes our sunshine,
from whence comes our warmth.
of the South,
Send us your men to guard the mystic
The Men
fires.
West and South, now step
and he directs them to
of the North, East,
in front of the Chief,
See that the mystic
fires
are blazing.
having already been carefully prepared, are now
lighted by the fire- keepers under the direction of the men of
the Four Winds, and the latter return and report to the Chief
The
fires,
in the following
manner
Chief .... Man of the North,
:
you whose mighty axe
bites to the heart of
the pine,
Are the mystic Northern Lights burning at Kon-win?
Is He-le-jah, the Mountain-lion, on guard on the yellow mountain of the
North?
Man of the North .... Chief,
tain-lion is
the Medicine fire has been lighted, the
guarding the yellow mountain of the North,
All
is well.
Moun-
RITUAL OF THE COUNCIL FIRE
Man of
Chief
Is the
the East,
is
269
the Medicine Fire at Too-le-ze blazing?
White Wolf on guard at the White Mountain, where the sun-maidens
dwell?
Man
of the East
on guard.
Chief, Too-le-ze blazes in the East, the
Wah-tab-bah, the robin, shields the
All
Chief .... Man of the West,
fire at Kor-le blaze?
man of
White Wolf
is
fire,
is well.
the plains and mountains, does the mystic
Bear guarding the Blue Mountain, where the sun sets?
.Chief, Kor-le is ablaze, the Black Bear's growls
be heard in the torrent that guards the Blue Mountain.
Is the Black
Man
of the West.
.
.
may
All is well.
Chief.
. .
Has the
.Man of the South, how blazes the fire at Too-winks?
Red Badger come from its burrow to stand guard on
Mountain?
Man of the South
is on guard.
Chief, Too-winks flames to the sky.
All
The Color Guard now
the
officers
and
all
colors about faces
is
the
Red
The Red Badger
well.
enters,
marches up to
stand at salute.
hi front of
The Color Guard with
and the guests and
all
present recite in
unison:
THE PLEDGE AND CREED OF ALL AMERICANS
*'I believe in the people of the United States, I believe in
the United States form of government, I believe in the pre-
amble
of the Declaration of Independence, I believe that all
men are created equal, that they are endowed by their
Creator with certain inalienable rights, among which are
and the pursuit of Happiness.
"I believe in our Government of the People, by the People
and for the People, a government whose just powers are de-
Life, Liberty,
rived from the consent of the governed, a Sovereign Nation
of many Sovereign States, a Democracy in a Republic, a perfect Union,
one and inseparable.
"A Union which will live because of the vital
principles of
CAMP-LORE AND WOODCRAFT
270
Freedom, Equality, Justice, Humanity and Kindness which
it contains, and for which American Patriots have willingly
sacrificed their lives and fortunes.
"I therefore believe that in order to respect my own manI must love my country, support its Constitution and
hood
obey
it
its
Laws;
all
must respect
also that I
its
Flag,
and defend
enemies."
against
After which
may come
the Scout oath, Pioneer oath or
may be. Then the command is
Camp-fire oath, as the case
"spread ponchos," followed by the command
"squat!" when all the Scouts, Woodcrafters, Pioneers, or
given to
students squat tailor-fashion upon their ponchos, and the
guests seat themselves on the benches which have been pro-
vided for them.
Following this comes the address by the speakers, the
entertainments and exhibitions of woodcraft, scoutcraft, or
handicraft, the games, and other entertainment; then follows
After which all stand to sing
the awarding of honors.
"America." Then the Chief or Leader steps forward and
repeats the following
APPEAL
O
Great Mystery, we beseech thee (as previously given)
in which he uses the Indian
and ends up with the benediction,
phraseology
"May
:
the Great Mystery put sunshine in
Good-night."
CENTRAL CIRCULATION
CHILD
ROC
all
your hearts.
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