SATELLAR Radio Unit Manual
SATELLAR DIGITAL SYSTEM
PART III: RADIO UNIT / 5 W AND 10 W;
SATELLAR-20DS, XT 5R AND XT 5RC
USER GUIDE VERSION. 1.4
RU
USER GUIDE
WIRELESS WORLD – LOCAL SOLUTION
Copyright © 2015 Satel Oy
No part of this document may be reproduced, transmitted or stored in a retrieval system in any form or by any
means without the prior written permission of Satel Oy. This document is provided in confidence and must not be
distributed to third parties without the express permission of Satel Oy.
Contents
Important notice
6
Restrictions on use
7
Product conformity
8
Warranty and safety instructions
9
1.
Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
10
1.1Mounting
14
1.2
14
Terms and abbreviations
2.
Technical specifications
15
3.
Typical setup
18
4.Mounting
4.1
Mounting of the SATELLAR XT 5R
20
20
4.2
Mounting of the SATELLAR-20DS and XT 5RC
4.2.1Cooling
21
23
4.3
25
Front cover
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3
3
5.Interfaces
3
6.
4
26
5.1
Serial data
5.1.1RS-232
5.1.2 RS-485/422 interface (5W radio unit only)
5.1.3 RS-485/422 line length
5.1.4 Unit load
5.1.5 RS-485/422 termination
5.1.6 RS-485/422 connection/termination examples
5.1.7 Failsafe RS-485/422 termination
27
27
28
29
29
29
29
31
5.2Radio
32
5.3
DC supply
32
5.4
Diagnostics, monitoring, changing settings
33
5.5
LED indicators
34
5.6
Function button
36
Data transmission
39
6.1
Basic mode with TX priority
39
6.2
Basic mode with RX priority
41
6.3
Basic mode with repeater
42
6.4
Source routing
42
6.5
Packet routing
6.5.1 Radio access control
45
47
6.6
Data flow control in basic and source routing mode
6.6.1 TX delay
6.6.2Handshaking
48
48
48
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6.6.3 Error control
6.6.4 Pause length
7.Settings
8.
50
50
51
7.1
7.1.1
Network protocol modes
Station addresses and network ID
51
52
7.2
Radio settings
53
7.3
Serial connector configuration
54
7.4
Data port settings
55
7.5
Serial data flow control
56
7.6
Packet mode radio access control
57
Type designation
60
9.Accessories
61
10.
SATEL open source statements
62
10.1
62
AES Encryption
11.Troubleshooting
12.
63
11.1
Error codes
63
11.2
Connection problems
67
Settings selection guide
68
12.1
68
Modem Settings
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3
Important notice
3
All rights to this manual are owned solely by Satel
Oy (referred to in this user guide as Satel). All
rights reserved. The copying of this manual (without written permission from the owner) by printing, copying, recording or by any other means,
or the full or partial translation of the manual to
any other language, including all programming
languages, using any electrical, mechanical,
magnetic, optical, manual or other methods or
devices is forbidden.
Satel reserves the right to change the technical
specifications or functions of its products, or to
discontinue the manufacture of any of its products or to discontinue the support of any of its
products, without any written announcement and
urges its customers to ensure that the information
at their disposal is valid.
Satel software and programs are delivered ”as
is”. The manufacturer does not grant any kind of
warranty including guarantees on suitability and
6
applicability to a certain application. Under no
circumstances is the manufacturer or the developer of a program responsible for any possible
damages caused by the use of a program. The
names of the programs as well as all copyrights
relating to the programs are the sole property
of Satel. Any transfer, licensing to a third party,
leasing, renting, transportation, copying, editing,
translating, modifying into another programming
language or reverse engineering for any intent is
forbidden without the written consent of Satel.
SATEL PRODUCTS HAVE NOT BEEN
DESIGNED, INTENDED NOR INSPECTED TO
BE USED IN ANY LIFE SUPPORT - RELATED
DEVICE OR SYSTEM - RELATED FUNCTION
NOR AS A PART OF ANY OTHER CRITICAL SYSTEM AND ARE GRANTED NO FUNCTIONAL
WARRANTY IF THEY ARE USED IN ANY OF THE
APPLICATIONS MENTIONED.
Salo, Finland 2015
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
Restrictions on use
SATELLAR radio modem has been designed
to operate on 320-520 MHz, the exact use of
which differs from one region and/or country
to another. The user of a radio modem must
take care that the said device is not operated
without the permission of the local authorities on
frequencies other than those specifically reserved
and intended for use without a specific permit.
WARNING! Users of SATELLAR in North
America should be aware, that due to the allocation of the frequency band 406.0 – 406.1 MHz
for government use only, the use of radio modem
on this frequency band without a proper permit is
strictly forbidden.
SATELLAR is allowed to be used in the following
countries, either on licence free channels or on
channels where the operation requires a licence.
More detailed information is available at the
local frequency management authority.
WARNING! Under Industry Canada regulations,
this radio transmitter may only operate using an
antenna of a type and maximum (or lesser) gain
approved for the transmitter by Industry Canada.
To reduce potential radio interference to other
users, the antenna type and its gain should be so
chosen that the equivalent isotropically radiated
power (e.i.r.p.) is not more than that necessary for
successful communication.
Conformément à la réglementation d’Industrie
Canada, le présent émetteur radio peut
fonctionner avec une antenne d’un type et d’un
gain maximal (ou inférieur) approuvé pour
l’émetteur par Industrie Canada. Dans le but de
réduire les risques de brouillage radioélectrique
à l’intention des autres utilisateurs, il faut choisir
le type d’antenne et son gain de sorte que la
puissance isotrope rayonnée équivalente (p.i.r.e.)
ne dépasse pas l’intensité nécessaire à l’établissement d’une communication satisfaisante.
Countries: AT, AU, BE, BG, CA, CH, CY, CZ, DE,
DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HR, HU, IE, IL, IT, LV,
LT, LX, MT, NL, NO, PL, PT, RO, RU, SE, SG, SI,
TR, US and SK.
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3
Product conformity
3
SATELLAR
Satel Oy hereby declares that SATELLAR Radio Unit (referred to in this user guide as RU) radio modem
is in compliance with the essential requirements (radio performance, electromagnetic compatibility
and electrical safety) and other relevant provisions of Directive 1999/5/EC. Therefore the equipment is labelled with the following CE-marking. The notification sign informs users that the operating
frequency range of the device is not harmonised throughout the market area, and the local spectrum
authority should be contacted before the usage of the radio modem is used.
8
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Warranty and safety instructions
Read these safety instructions carefully before using the product:
–– The warranty will be void if the product is used in any way that is in
contradiction with the instructions given in this manual, or if the housing of
the radio modem has been opened or tampered with.
–– The radio modem is only to be operated at frequencies allocated by local
authorities, and without exceeding the given maximum allowed output
power ratings. Satel and its distributors are not responsible if any products
manufactured by it are used in unlawful ways.
–– The devices mentioned in this manual are to be used only according to the
instructions described in this manual. Faultless and safe operation of the
devices can be guaranteed only if the transport, storage, operation and
handling of the devices is appropriate. This also applies to the maintenance
of the products.
–– To prevent damage to both the radio modem and any terminal devices
must always be switched OFF before connecting or disconnecting the serial
connection cable. It should be ascertained that different devices used have
the same ground potential. Before connecting any power cables the output
voltage of the power supply should be checked.
–– It is possible to connect the device to an outdoor antenna or a cable
distribution system. In these cases, in order to conduct the possible over
voltages due to lightings to earth, the equipment should be connected
to protective earth by using the mounting screws of the device. This is a
requirement in order to be in compliance with the electrical safety regulations
(EN 60950-1).
–– To be protected against all verified adverse effects the separation distance of
at least 44 cm must be maintained between the antenna of SATELLAR radio
modem and all persons.
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3
9
1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
SATELLAR is a new generation narrow band radio modem, which consists of separate units:
–– Central unit (CU)
–– Radio units 5W and 10W (RU)
–– Expansion units (XU)
3
1
2
3
RX
RX
RTS
CTS
RD
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
TD
STAT
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
OK
USB
ETH
TD
RD
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
SA00057
PWR
RX
TX
TX
RTS
CTS
Figure 1.1 SATELLAR product family:
1.
SATELLAR-20DS or XT 5RC with display:
Central unit (CU) with display and keypad + radio unit (RU), 10 W or 5 W
2.
SATELLAR-20DS or XT 5RC without display:
Central unit (CU) without display and keypad + radio unit (RU), 10 W or 5 W
3.
SATELLAR-10DS or XT 5R: Radio unit (RU), 10 W or 5 W.
Separately available only the 5 W unit.
Using SATELLAR, customers build their own independent radio data communication network.
This document presents the specifications and the intended use of the RU. The properties of other units
are described in their own manuals. Reading them is necessary to understand the operation of the RU.
Data communication
SATELLAR operates either as a transparent radio link, essentially replacing a cable, for classic RS-232
(10DS / XT 5R), RS-485 / RS-422 (XT 5R) based protocols or as a wireless router in an IP-based network.
When the RU is acting as a router station in an IP network without any local Ethernet connection, it can
be used as a standalone device. In stations where a local Ethernet connection is needed it must be used
together with a CU.
10
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1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
SA00066
3
Figure 1.2 SATELLAR XT 5R: The Radio unit (RU) is used as standalone device router station, where Ethernet is not
needed.
5
6
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
TD
RD
STAT
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
OK
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
SA00067
PWR
Figure 1.3 SATELLAR-20DS / XT 5RC with display (on down left), SATELLAR-20DS / XT 5RC without display (on
down right) include RU and CU. These types are used, when a local Ethernet connection is needed.
Range
In the RU of the SATELLAR the communication range of a point to point link is typically longer than
10 km in urban conditions (some obstacles in the line of sight), and longer than 20 km in line of sight
conditions. The range can be further extended using high gain antennas, 10W radio units and radio
repeaters.
Security
Data security is often a concern when using radio communication. In the SATELLAR a 128-bit encryption on the air-interface ensures privacy in the radio network.
Flexible and expandable
The SATELLAR concept has been designed to be flexible and expandable both in terms of hardware
and software functions. This can also be seen when using the RU alone.
Modulation method
Several different modulation methods are offered. If the customer requires a long-range radio connecSATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
11
1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
tion he/she selects a low level modulation. On the contrary, if a high data rate is the primary concern
a high level modulation must be selected.
3
Channel width
Channel spacings 12.5 and 25 kHz are supported with 10W radio unit and 12.5, 25 and 150 kHz with
5W radio unit, and those can be selected by changing software settings – without a need to modify the
hardware.
FEC (Forward Error Correction) and interleaving
To extend the radio range in a noisy environment (at the expense of the data rate) a forward error
correction algorithm (FEC) can be used. The RU offers two different code rates for forward error correction and it is used together with interleaving to minimize the effect of errors occurring in bursts.
Adjustable output power
RF output power is adjustable within steps defined at factory by manufacturer. Maximum factory set
output power can not be exceeded by customer.
NOTE: It should be noted that modulation, channel spacing, and FEC must be equal in the whole
network.
Expansion units
Due to the modular mechanical structure of SATELLAR it is possible to add hardware expansion units.
The idea is that this could be done as an update after the initial deployment. At the moment, however,
the RU does not support the update. The schedule for this will be informed later.
Related to the RU the most relevant expansion units will be:
–– A serial port extender unit: a unit offering two or more serial ports, possibly
of different types (RS-232, -422, -485)
–– I/O extension (for site monitoring and simple I/O control)
12
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1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
3
Figure 1.4 Modular construction, mounting of the expansion unit XU
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1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
1.1 Mounting
3
SATELLAR can be mounted directly on a flat surface or to a DIN rail. When mounting on a flat surface
a two-piece mounting clip can be used. The mounting clip is delivered in the basic sales package.
DIN-rail mounting is possible either on the backside of the stack of different SATELLAR units or on the
other narrow side of each unit (the latter case so that the LED indicators remain visible for the user).
See chapter 4.
Ruggedized
SATELLAR is constructed of die-cast aluminum to withstand the abuse typical to rough industrial environments. It operates over a wide temperature range and under severe vibration conditions to meet
the requirements of vehicular and process industry applications.
1.2 Terms and abbreviations
Here below are explained a few terms and abbreviations to help the reader of this manual in understanding the basic concepts of SATELLAR.
Abbreviation
Full Name
Description
NMS
Network Management System
SATEL NMS is a combination of features
and firmware running in SATEL modems, a
communication protocol and external software,
together allowing the monitoring, management and
administration of radio modem networks consisting
of SATEL devices.
SATBUS
SATEL Serial Bus
Bus used to interconnect different SATELLAR units,
e.g. the RU and CU.
FPGA
Field Programmable Gate Array
Supervises the board HW and operates as a gateway
between SATBUS and the MCU.
MCU
Master Controller Unit
Main processor of the RU, responsible for DATA
handling and control of the unit electronics.
DSP
Digital Signal Processor
Performs digital signal processing and radio channel
medium access tasks. Issues control commands and
monitor the operation of the radio part.
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receive
Transmit
In standard use in SATELLAR.
Table 1.1 Terms and abbreviations
14
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2. Technical specifications
2. Technical specifications
Common radio parameters
Frequency range
5 W radio unit: 400 – 445 MHz (320 - 520 available in Q4/2015)
10 W radio unit: 400 - 485 MHz
Tuning range MHz
45 (320 - 365/360 - 405/400 - 445/440 - 485/480 - 520 MHz)
Channel width
5 W radio unit: 12.5, 25, 150 kHz selectable by software
3
10 W radio unit: 12.5, 25 kHz selectable by software
Carrier frequency setting
Frequency programmability in 6.25 kHz steps
Carrier frequency accuracy
(over temperature)
+/-2.5 ppm
Carrier frequency long term stability
+/-2.0 ppm/3 years
Latency (in transparent mode)
(25 kHz, serial port speed 19200 bits/s,
over-the-air encryption off, FEC off)
< 18 ms
Modulation methods
2-, 4-, 8- and 16-FSK
Forward error correction (FEC)
Off, code rate 0.67, code rate 0.5
NOTE! FEC not available with 16-FSK modulation
Interleaving
8 x 96 bits
Over-the-air encryption
AES 128 bit (CTR-mode)
Transmitter parameters
Output power
SATELLAR radio unit / 5 W
0.1…5 W adjustable by software, Steps: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5,
1, 2, 5 W
SATELLAR radio unit / 10 W
1 W…10 W adjustable by software, Steps: 1 W
Adjacent channel power:
Typically < -63 dBc (meas. method EN 300 113)
Air speed
2-FSK (only with 10W radio unit)
bits/s @12.5 kHz
bits/s @ 25 kHz
bit/s @ 150 kHz
4800
9600
-
4-FSK
9600
19200
115200
8-FSK
14400
28800
172800
16-FSK
19200
38400
230400
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15
2. Technical specifications
Receiver parameters
Sensitivity / dBm
Channel spacing / modulation
3
BER
10E-3
10E-6
SNR* (minimum)
25 kHz / 9600 bps (2-FSK)
-119
-116
14
12.5 kHz / 4800 bps (2-FSK)
-123
-118
14
25 kHz / 19200 bps (4-FSK)
-116
-112
20
12.5 kHz / 9600 bps (4-FSK)
-119
-115
20
150 kHz / 115200 bps (4-FSK)
-104
-97
20
25 kHz / 28800 bps (8-FSK)
-109
-105
26
12.5 kHz / 14400 bps (8-FSK)
-112
-106
26
150 kHz / 172800 bps (8-FSK)
-96
-89
26
25 kHz / 38400 bps (16-FSK)
-102
-98
32
12.5 kHz / 19200 bps (16-FSK)
-105
-98
32
150 kHz / 230400 bps (16-FSK)
-88
-82
32
* SNR = Detector Signal to Noise Ratio
Common parameters
Power consumption
SATELLAR radio unit / 5 W
17.9 W, 5 W transmission (TX mode)
7.3 W, 100 mW transmission (TX mode)
2.8 W, reception (RX mode)
SATELLAR radio unit / 10 W
35 W, 10 W transmission (TX mode)
4.2 W, reception (RX mode)
Start time (from power off)
< 2.5 s
Interfaces – power
2-pin plug with screw flange, pitch 3.5 mm, type Phoenix Contact
MC 1,5/2-GF-3,5 THT, code 1937318
Interfaces – DTE
RS-232 (TIA-574), D9 female
RS-422/485, D9 female
Up to 57,6 kbps
Interfaces – RF
TNC female, 50 ohm
Temperature ranges
-25 - +55 °C, complies with the standards
-30 - +75 °C, functional
-40 - +85 °C, storage
Humidity
16
< 95 % @ 25 °C, non-condensing
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2. Technical specifications
Vibration
At least 10 – 500 Hz/5g without degradation in data transfer capability
Shock resistivity
Dropping height 1 m, all directions
IP rating
IP 52
DC input range
9V....30V
Mechanical dimensions H × W × D
SATELLAR radio unit / 5 W
130 × 55.5 × 76.5 mm
SATELLAR radio unit / 10 W
130 × 79 × 76.5 mm
Mounting
DIN rail (side or back), two-piece mounting clip, or directly on flat
surface
3
Weight
SATELLAR radio unit / 5 W
680 g
SATELLAR radio unit / 10 W
1020 g
Cooling
SATELLAR radio unit / 5 W
Convection cooling assisted by fan at extreme temperatures
SATELLAR radio unit / 10 W
Convection cooling assisted by fan at extreme temperatures
Standards compliance
Radio requirements
EN 300 113-1, -2, FCC Part 90
EMC
EN 301 489-1, -5, FCC Part 15
RoHS
2002/95/EC, 2002/96/EU, 2011/65/EU
Table 2.1 Technical specifications of SATELLAR radio units / 5 W and 10 W
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17
3. Typical setup
3. Typical setup
The figure below shows a typical setup when transferring data through the RU. When using the RU
together with the CU, the recommended minimum distance between antenna and the CU is 2 m in
order to avoid degradation of the receiver sensitivity due to radiated interference from the CU.
3
SATELLAR XT 5R
Radio unit only
SATELLAR-20DS
CU
USB-A
_
USB-B
E
T
H
+
RU
9-30 VDC RS-485/RS-232
RF
RU
CU
Datainal
termpment
equi
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
PWR
1.
3.
2.
r
Powely
supp VDC
9-30
15 W
+-
STAT
PWR
OK
min
2m
RF
85/
RS -432
2
RS
cable
Data D9
h
it
w le
ma tor
ec
conn
SA00033
ble
RF caNC
T
with ale
m
9-30
VDC
Figure 3.1 Transferring data through the RU, cabling
18
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3. Typical setup
If the user wants to change/view settings the Data terminal equipment needs to be replaced by a PC.
The role of the port must then be changed to accept NMS messages. This can be done by pressing the function button that is located below the RU LED indicators. The functionality of the button is
described in chapter 5.5. When the type of the DTE interface is the standard RS-232, the port can also
be configured so that it is possible to use the Data terminal equipment and PC simultaneously (see
chapter 7.4 for details).
3
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
Function button
SA00034
PWR
Figure 3.2 Location of the Function button
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4. Mounting
4. Mounting
4.1 Mounting of the SATELLAR XT 5R
3
The RU (5W) can be mounted in two different ways:
–– directly on a flat surface using a special two piece mounting clips connected to the side of
the unit
–– on a DIN-rail using SATELLAR specific DIN rail adapters
The mounting clips with the necessary screws are delivered in the sales package. The DIN rail adapter
can be ordered separately.
NOTE!
1. The equipment must be installed in restricted access location due to high
touch temperatures of metal enclosure.
2. The screen of coaxial antenna cable must be grounded to protect from over
voltages from outdoor antenna.
20
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4. Mounting
4.2 Mounting of the SATELLAR-20DS and XT 5RC
The RU+CU can be mounted in two different ways:
–– directly on a flat surface using a special two piece mounting clips
–– on a DIN-rail using SATELLAR specific DIN rail adapters (two pcs needed) connected
at the other edge or at the bottom of the unit. The DIN rail adapter have to be ordered
separately.
3
Figure 4.1 SATELLAR-20DS and XT 5RC, mounting on flat surface with mounting clips (included in delivery).
Please note: the mounting clips for XT 5RC are different than the ones in the picture above.
Figure 4.2 (on next page) SATELLAR-20DS and XT 5RC, mounting on the DIN-rail with mounting clips (to be
ordered separately)
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4. Mounting
3
22
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4. Mounting
4.2.1Cooling
To enhance cooling at extreme temperatures, 10 W version features a 60mm x 60mm cooling fan
attached to the heat sink. It starts operating when the internal temperature sensor reaches 70 degrees
Celsius. The fan will continue to operate until temperature is lowered by 5 degrees. A continuous
transmitting at 10 W RF output power is thus possible even at +60 degrees Celsius ambient temperature. The figure below describes the behavior of internal temperature in room temperature and cyclic
operation of the fan in continuous 10 W transmitting.
Figure 4.3 Internal sensor temperature vs. time
4.2.1.1Fan
Direction of air flow is such that the fan sucks air through the finger guard and hot air is expelled from
the two ends of the heat sink (see figure below). This should be taken into account when installing the
product.
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23
3
4. Mounting
ut
Air o
3
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
Air in
RD
STAT
PWR
SA00064
ut
Air o
Figure 4.4 Direction of air flow
Cooling fan is protected with finger guard to prevent objects interfering mechanically with rotating fan
blades. Cooling fan operates briefly every time the radio unit boots. This is normal and works as a
check that the fan is in good working condition. When conducting other routine maintenance work at
installation site, cooling fan blades and cooling fins should be cleaned from dust with compressed air.
24
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4. Mounting
4.3 Front cover
When the RU is used as standalone it is possible to attach a front cover on the unit. See the figure.
1.
2.
3
RX
TX
RX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
SA00037
STAT
PWR
Figure 4.5 Attaching the front cover on the RU unit, when standalone.
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5. Interfaces
5. Interfaces
The meanings of RU related settings are described in chapter 7 of this manual.
Display
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
Keypad
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00008
3
This chapter describes the external interfaces of the RU how its status can be monitored, how the settings can be checked and modified. If you are using the RU attached with a CU with a display it is possible to see and change settings by the graphical user interface of the CU. With the WWW interface of
the CU it is also possible to change and view the settings from a PC.
Figure 5.1 Display and keypad in CU
Figure 5.2 SATELLAR WWW interface Login view
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5. Interfaces
5.1 Serial data
The 10W RU has one serial data port using D9 connector providing RS-232 communication. The port
can be used for data or data/NMS communication.
The 5W RU provides two ports, both using D9 female connectors. One port is intended for RS-232
communication and hosts a full set of RS-232 signals including handshakes. The other port is intended
for RS-422/485 communication via differential pair data signals. The RS-232 port can be used for
data and / or NMS communication. The RS-422/485 port can be used for data only.
Communication settings can be done by modifying user settings. SATELLAR Y-cable is needed for
simultaneous RS-232 data and NMS connections in RS-232 port.
The serial interface uses asynchronous data format. Data transfer speed of the serial interface can be
set to 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, or 57600 bits per second with 10W radio unit. 5W
unit supports also 115200 bits per second data transfer speed. The length of the data field must be 8
bits. A parity bit may also be used (options none, even, and odd). The number of stop bits is 1 bit.
5.1.1 RS-232
This interface can be used as data and/or NMS interface for RU. RS-232 interface port provides
standard D9 pin-out for DCE (TIA/EIA-574) as shown in the table below.
Pin nr
Pin name
Pin description
1
CD
Explained in chapter 6.6.2
2
RD
Receive Data: data traffic from the RU to the DTE
3
TD
Transmit Data: data traffic from the DTE to the RU
4
DTR
DTR function is not in use in the RU
5
SGND
Signal Ground: the common voltage reference between the DTE and the RU
6
DSR
Data Set Ready: an indication from the RU to the DTE that the RU is powered on
7
RTS
Explained in chapter 6.6.2
8
CTS
Explained in chapter 6.6.2
9
NC
Not Connected
D9 SHIELD
-
Connected to device ground
Table 5.1 RS-232, pin-out of D9 connector
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3
5. Interfaces
5.1.2RS-485/422 interface (5W radio unit only)
3
This interface can be used as data interface for the 5W RU. The selection between RS-422 and 485
can be done by modifying the user settings. The RS-422/485 interface features a galvanic isolation
between the interface signals and the other electronics of the RU. The interface also has a 5VDC output for external failsafe termination (see section on termination). RS-485-422 interface pin-out follows
the standard for RS-485 Profibus-DP, as far as possible.
The pin-out of the D9 connector in different operating modes is shown in the table below.
Pin nr
Pin name
RS-485
Pin description
RS422
Pin description
1
NC
-
-
2
NC
-
-
3
B
Receive/transmit data,
non-inverting
Transmit data, non-inverting
4
Y
-
Receive data, non-inverting
5
SGND
Signal ground, isolated
6
5V_TERM
Isolated 5 V for bus termination
7
NC
-
-
8
A
Receive/transmit data,
inverting
Transmit data, inverting
9
Z
-
Receive data, inverting
D9 SHIELD
-
Connected to device ground (non isolated)
Table 5.2 RS-485/422/232, pin-out of D9 connector
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5. Interfaces
5.1.3RS-485/422 line length
The RS-485/422 specification determines the maximum theoretical line length up to 1200m. For
longer line legths dedicated repeaters should be used. Signal loss and reflections due to improper
cables or improper termination may result to reduced maximum usable line length.
3
5.1.4Unit load
In RS-485 specifications the RS-485 receiver input impedance is specified is specified to be larger
than or equal to 12 kOhm. This 12 kOhm impedance equals to one unit load. RS-485 specification
specifies als othe capability to utilize up to 32 unit loads. In thisi serial interface module the RS-485
receiver has 96 kOhm impedance which is 1/8 of the unit load.
This meands that having bus load of 1/8 of the specified unit load (12 kOhm) allows up to 256
devices (i.e. nodes) to be connected to the bus.
Unit Load
Receiver Input Impedance Max. No. of Nodes
1
12 kOhm
32
1/2
24 kOhm
64
1/4
48 kOhm
128
1/8
96 kOhm
256
5.1.5RS-485/422 termination
For reliable operation, the RS-485/RS-422 differential pair needs to be terminated to known impedance by placing a resistor equal to the cable impedance between the two wires of the signal pair.
Termination is needed to prevent waveform reflections, which can cause data errors if there are long
dangling connections (stubs) in the data line.
A terminating resistor should be placed at both ends of an RS-485/422 chain. For maximum reliability, terminate at least one end of a cable using failsafe termination.
5.1.6RS-485/422 connection/termination examples
Following examples represent the different general connections and terminations of RS-485 and
RS-422 interfaces. Cables with twisted pair signal wiring shall be used for connections between units.
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5. Interfaces
5.1.6.1RS-485: 2-wire connection (half duplex)
3
5.1.6.2R S-485: 4-wire connection (full duplex)
5.1.6.3 RS-422: 2-wire connection (multidrop)
5.1.6.4 RS-422: 4-wire connection (2 units only)
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5. Interfaces
5.1.7Failsafe RS-485/422 termination
When there is no data on the bus (no node is transmitting), the RS-4xx signal pair floats free. In principle
both signals (‘a’ and ‘b’) should be floating at the same potential. However, due to possible outside
disturbances, this is not always the case.
According to the RS-4xx standard, the receiver interprets signals as either logic high or low depending
on the difference in potential between a and b. A potential difference of greater than 0.4 V is required
for the receiver to decide whether the signal is low or high. In practice most receivers make the decision
at greater than 0.2 V level.
3
The RS-485 receiver output is typically logical ‘1’ when the inputs are floating.
When a disturbance causes, the potential difference to increase logic ‘0’ is easily detected. This is
then interpreted as a start bit by the receiver on the RS-4xx bus, resulting in bit errors or garbled extra
characters.
Another method of error due to lack of failsafe termination is that once a node starts transmitting on
the line, the receiver which already senses a ‘0’, misses the transition from stop bit to start bit, needed
to synchronize a UART transmission. Thus the receiver in error will receive the first data byte wrong, and
depending on the number of stop bits and a pause between bytes on the line, might miss also the following bytes or even an entire packet.
This is a potential error mechanism, which can be easily overcome by pulling the ‘a’ line high and the
‘b’ line low by connecting the wires thru a series resistor to the desired potential.
Figure 5.3 Failsafe termination examples
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31
5. Interfaces
5.2 Radio
The RU has a TNC female RF connector with impedance of 50 ohms. The frequency range of the RU
is coded in the type designation, which can be seen on the label back of the RU. The details of this are
explained in chapter 8.
3
The RF frequency can be set in 6.25 kHz steps. The 10W RU supports two different channel spacing
settings, 12.5 and 25 kHz, which can be selected by software, and four different modulation methods,
namely 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-FSK. The output power can be adjusted with 1 W steps. The corresponding
values for 5W RU are 12.5, 25 and 150 kHz and modulation methods 4-, 8- and 16-FSK.
Channel spacing together with the modulation method determines the air speed as clarified in the
technical specification in chapter 2. Air speed can be set independently of the data rate of the serial
port.
The modulation method also affects the receiver sensitivity. The best sensitivity can be obtained by the
lowest level modulation, i.e. 2-FSK in our case. For typical sensitivities in different conditions see the
technical specification in chapter 2.
Another method to improve the sensitivity of the receiver is to use Forward Error Correction (FEC). This
improvement effects the user data rate: the air speed remains the same but the fraction of bits available for the user is as indicated by the code rate of the FEC. The RU offers two different code rates,
0.67 and 0.5. For example, if 4-FSK is used with 25 kHz and the FEC is switched on with the code rate
of 0.5 the user bit rate goes down to 9600 bits/s. The effect of the FEC on the sensitivity depends on
the code rate and the level of BER (Bit Error Rate) at which the radio link is operating.
Changing of the modulation method or using FEC helps to improve the receiver sensitivity in noisy
connections, i.e. the bit errors are mostly evenly distributed over the entire transmission period. If the
errors happen in bursts these methods are not very efficient. For this reason the FEC is used together
with the interleaving method. This means that before transmitting the data from the DTE, the RU collects a certain amount of data to the buffer and rearranges it according to a certain rule. The receiver
knows the rule and recovers the original order of data bits. The receiver then sees the errors scattered
and the FEC can correct the errors. It should, however, be noted that FEC and interleaving increase
the latency and should be avoided in transparent mode in cases where a low latency is a primary
requirement.
5.3 DC supply
The DC connector of the RU is a detachable / lockable screw terminal. The DC voltage range is 9-30
V. The power supply used should be able to deliver at least 15 W of DC power. Please note that the
RU delivers DC power to the entire stack of SATELLAR units. So when using the RU together with CU
the power consumption of the entire stack must be taken into account when selecting the DC power
supply.
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5. Interfaces
5.4 Diagnostics, monitoring, changing settings
The settings of the RU can be viewed and changed by SATEL NMS PC SW. The computer is then
connected to the serial connector of the RU and the connector must be configured to accept NMS
messages. If the basic radio settings have previously been set locally it is also possible to establish a
remote connection to another RU and change and view the settings of that modem over-the-air.
RU
3
SATELLAR XT 5R radio unit
SATELLAR-20DS radio unit
9-30 VDC RS-485/RS-232
RF
RU
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
r
Powely
supp VDC
9-30
15 W
+-
85/
RS -432
2
S
R
SA00040
cable
Data D9
h
it
w le
ma tor
ec
conn
Figure 5.4 The settings of the RU can be viewed and changed by SATEL NMS PC SW
When the RU operates together with the CU with a display and a keypad, the device settings can be
viewed and changed via the graphical user interface of the CU. Alternatively; the Web interface can
be used.
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5. Interfaces
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
3
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00008
PWR
Figure 5.5 RU together with Central Unit (CU) equipped with LCD display and keypad, the main views
Figure 5.6 SATELLAR WWW interface Login view
Settings are described in chapter 7, serial data connector configuration especially in chapter 7.3, and
the use of the PC software is described in its own documentation.
5.5 LED indicators
The RU provides eight LED indicators that are located on the other narrow side of the unit.
They are listed and described in the table below.
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5. Interfaces
Name
Description
RX
Receive data over radio
TX
Transmit data over radio
TX
RTS
Request To Send; more details in chapter 6.6.2
RTS
CTS
Clear To Send; more details in chapter 6.6.2
TD
Transmit Data over the serial interface
RD
Receive Data over the serial interface
STAT
ON: power is on, the RU has been initialized and ready to operate
RX
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
3
OFF: the RU is not ready to operate
PWR
ON: power connected
OFF: power not connected
SA00042
PWR
Figure 5.7 LED indicators
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35
5. Interfaces
5.6 Function button
3
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
Function button
SA00034
PWR
Figure 5.8 Location of the function button
The function button is located below the LED indicators. By pressing the button you can restart or
temporarily configure the serial data connector to accept NMS messages and thereby getting the RU
accessible by NMS PC SW for viewing and changing the settings irrespective of the user settings.*
Example 1:
The RU is connected with the CU and the user has selected the setting ‘MCU UARTs to SATBUS’ (see
chapter 7.3). Now both the data and NMS messages are assumed to flow between the RU and the
CU, so there is no connection at the serial data connector. Then the CU gets broken or is removed
before changing this setting. By pressing the function button it is possible to temporarily configure the
serial data connector to accept NMS messages, which means that the RU is accessible by NMS PC
SW. Thereafter the settings can be viewed and changed irrespective of the serial connector configuration.
Example 2:
The RU is used in the transparent mode of data transmission (serial data connector configuration
‘Data UART to radio D9 RD/TD’) and there is a temporary need to change or view settings using the
CU. By pressing the function button it is possible to temporarily configure the NMS messages to flow
between the RU and CU.
The duration of the button pressing determines to which state the serial data connector is configured
as described in the table below. For the names of the LED indicators, see chapter 5.5. When the button is released the LED indicators return to the normal state.
*At the time of writing SATEL NMS PC does not support SATELLAR.
Please check with your SATEL distributor for availability.
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5. Interfaces
RX
TX
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
RTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
CTS
3
TD
RD
STAT
SA00042
PWR
Figure 5.9 Function button operation by LED indication
Duration of
the press
Indication
LED
Specific to
HW variant
Effect
Typical use case
Less than 1s
All the LEDs
are switched
on (1111 1111)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The serial data connector is
reset to the state defined by
the user (see chapter 7.3)
More than 1s
The uppermost
LED (RX) is
switched off
(0111 1111)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The serial data connector
is deactivated, i.e. the
user data traffic and NMS
messages flow internally
between the Radio and
Central units
Serial port configuration
other than MCU UARTs to
SATBUS (see chapter 7.3).
Need to temporarily connect
the RU to the Central unit.
More than 2s
The two
uppermost
LEDs are
switched off
(0011 1111)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
NMS messages in RD and
TD lines (protocol RS-232),
no user data transfer
Serial port configuration:
Data UART to radio D9 RD/
TD (see chapter 7.3). Need to
temporarily configure the RU
using NMS from a PC.
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5. Interfaces
Duration of
the press
Indication
LED
Specific to
HW variant
RU-xxxx00
Effect
The three
uppermost
LEDs are
switched off
(0001 1111)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
More than 4s
The four
uppermost
LEDs are
switched off
(0000 1111)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
More than 5 s
The lowest
three LEDs
remain
switched on
(0000 0111)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
More than 6 s
The lowest two
LEDs remain
switched on
(0000 0011)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
More than 7 s
The lowest
LED remain
switched on
(0000 0001)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
No effect
More than 8 s
All the LEDs
switched off
(0000 0000)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The RU is restarted and
the serial data connector is
reset to the state defined by
the user
3
Typical use case
NMS messages in RTS and
CTS lines, no user data
transfer
More than 3s
User data transfer in RD and
TD lines (protocol RS-232),
NMS messages between the
Radio and Central units
Serial port configuration:
Data UART to radio D9 RD/
TD (see chapter 7.3). Need to
temporarily configure the RU
using NMS from the Central
unit. Normally this mode is
selected by configuring the
serial port as described in
section 7.3.
RU-xxxx01
NMS messages in RD and
TD lines (protocol RS-485),
no user data transfer
Serial port configuration: RS485 (see chapter 7.3). Need
to temporarily configure the
RU using NMS from a PC.
RU-xxxx01
NMS messages in RD and
TD lines (protocol RS-422),
no user data transfer
Serial port configuration: RS422 (see chapter 7.3). Need
to temporarily configure the
RU using NMS from a PC.
Table 5.3 Function button operation
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6. Data transmission
6. Data transmission
In order to transfer data, the RU must be configured to operate in one of the following modes
––
––
––
––
––
––
Basic, TX priority
Basic, RX priority
Basic, repeater
Source routing, master
Source routing, slave
Packet routing
3
These are called network protocol modes. Basic mode with TX priority is the traditional transparent
mode of data transmission, where the RU is effectively replacing a cable between two Data Terminal
Equipments. In basic mode with RX priority the transmission is disabled as long as there is a reception
ongoing. In repeater mode the data received from the radio path is buffered and then forwarded back
to the radio path. Repeater mode is used to extend the radio coverage.
Source routing is needed when the network topology is more complicated than just a point-to-point
connection between two stations (possibly added by a repeater station). This mode requires polling
type protocols with fixed station address length and position in the message, based on RS-232, -422,
and -485.
Packet routing is typically in use when the RU is working together with the CU. The CU interfaces
with the DTE using the IP protocol stack and acts as an IP router. The RU is seen as a virtual network
interface and does not need to be especially configured for the IP traffic. However, settings related to
medium access control (see explanation later in this chapter) must be done and routing tables must be
filled. As explained earlier, the RU can act as a radio router station without the CU also in cases where
IP data is transferred. Only when a local Ethernet connection is needed the CU must be used.
6.1 Basic mode with TX priority
When the RU operates in basic mode with TX priority, the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) is connected
to the serial data connector (D9). Data transfer starts immediately when the first byte of data comes
from the DTE and stops when the data ends. The RU does not store the data anywhere and does not
rearrange it at all. It just sends the data that it gets as input. The radio link between the two DTE is
done without routers or repeaters in between. This mode is a simple point-to-point connection where
the connecting cable is replaced by a radio link. The DTE is fully responsible for the traffic control: it
decides when to transmit, interprets the incoming data for correctness and decides further transmission is needed.
The basic mode with TX priority offers the shortest possible latency – the time needed for a receiving
DTE to receive the first byte of data from the instant the sending DTE has initiated the transmission.
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39
6. Data transmission
The factors affecting the latency in the RU are:
–– Receive-transmit turn-around time: The RU is normally in reception mode,
i.e. listens to the radio channel. When it recognizes that the DTE wants to
send data it switches to transmission mode, which requires a certain time to
happen in the radio hardware.
–– Delays in filters: Channel filtering both in the transmitter and the receiver
required to meet the radio standards (like EN 300 113) generates a delay in
the radio link.
–– RF power ramp-up time: The RF power cannot be switched on extremely fast
because of the transient spectrum requirements of the radio standards.
–– Synchronization: After the RF power ramp-up there must be a certain
synchronization sequence during which the receiver adjusts to the frequency
and timing of the transmitting radio. It then decides whether the received
signal is a valid transmission instead of an external interferer.
–– In addition the factors affecting the latency are
–– Forward error correction: The principle of forward error correction is to
read a few bits to a data register and generate a codeword based on a
certain mathematical formula and the stored data bits. This at first generates
some delay in the transmitter but especially in the receiver where a longer
bit sequence must be stored before being able to decode the incoming
codeword.
–– Encryption in the radio path: The principle of encryption is to collect a certain
amount of data to a shift register and manipulate it according to a certain
rule. The process of encryption adds delay in the data flow and must be
avoided in the cases where low latency is the most important requirement.
3
Strictly speaking the last two factors violate the principle of transparent data transmission (no modifications to the content of the data). However, this is more or less a matter of definition. More important
is to understand that switching these on affects the latency and must not be done in applications
where low latency is a critical requirement.
To use the RU in basic mode with TX priority:
–– Configure the data port settings as required by the used data transmission
protocol (data rate, number of data bits, number of stop bits, parity).
–– Set the network protocol mode to basic, TX priority
–– If required modify the pause length parameter (see chapter 6.6.4. for explanation)
–– Set the serial port configuration so that Data UART goes to Radio D9 RD/TD
(see chapter 7.3 for explanation)
–– Set all the radio parameters as required (unless already set in the factory):
radio frequency, channel spacing, RF output power, modulation method,
forward error correction, and encryption.
––
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6. Data transmission
6.2 Basic mode with RX priority
Basic mode with RX priority is similar to TX priority. The difference is in how the RU reacts to the
incoming data from the DTE: when the priority is TX the transmission is started without delay even
when there is a reception ongoing while in RX priority the transmission is started just after the reception has been completed.
3
An example of how to use priority settings in a simple network is shown in the figure below.
Station A
(RU+CU)
Priority TX
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
RU-145000
CU-1U210
0
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
SA00043
PWR
Station B
(RU)
Priority RX
No radio
coverage
between B
and C
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
Station C
(RU)
Priority RX
Figure 6.1 Priority settings in a simple network
Station ‘A’ has a radio link to stations ‘B’ and ‘C’. It sends control commands to these. Stations ‘B’ and
‘C’ respond by sending either status information or acknowledgement messages. They cannot hear
each other’s radio transmissions. Control commands from station ‘A’ are of high priority, so station ‘A’
needs to start sending despite it has an incoming message. Therefore station ‘A’ is set to priority TX
while the others are set to priority RX.
Priority settings help if the radio coverage is as described in the figure above, i.e. if station ‘B’ and ‘C’
cannot hear each others’ transmissions. Consider a situation where station ‘B’ is sending to ‘A’ and
‘A’ then needs to send a high priority message to station ‘C’ while it still has reception ongoing from
‘B’. Due to priority setting to TX it is possible but if stations ‘B’ and ‘C’ are within each others’ radio
coverage the two simultaneous messages from ‘A’ and ‘B’ collide at ‘C’ and therefore the message
from ‘A’ is probably not received correctly. This kind of situation cannot be solved with priority settings
but needs a more complicated handshaking procedure, which is explained in chapter 6.6.2. Priority
settings help the important messages get through but must be used carefully keeping in mind that the
stations set to priority RX may not be within each others’ radio coverage.
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6. Data transmission
6.3 Basic mode with repeater
Basic mode with repeater is used to extend the radio coverage by adding one RU operating in this
mode between two basic mode RUs as described in the Figure 6.2.
3
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
RX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
RD
PWR
ETH
STAT
Radio unit A
(RU+CU)
Basic mode
OK
RU-145000
CU-1U210
0
SA00048
USB
PWR
OK
RU-145000
CU-1U210
0
DTE A
Radio unit C
(RU)
Basic repeater
mode
Radio unit B
(RU+CU)
Basic mode
DTE B
Figure 6.2 Basic repeater mode
RU ‘C’ stores all the data it receives and then forwards it to the radio path. There are no station
addresses in the RU, i.e. the DTE, which just sent data gets it back after a while from the repeater station. Therefore the DTE must be able to disregard these messages.
6.4 Source routing
When two or more repeaters are used it is necessary to use addresses to route the data. This is
because otherwise the repeaters would send the same messages to each other again and again in the
network. When using source routing the radio stations are forwarding only the data that belongs to
them, not all the data they hear in the network. The name source routing comes from the fact that only
one station in the network can be used as an entry point, the source, for the routing data. This station
is called a master and the other stations are slaves. Network topology is created with SATEL NMS PC
software and sent to the master station, which then includes the routing data in the messages to the
slave stations. The following picture clarifies the situation.
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6. Data transmission
Radio unit A
(RU+CU)
Master mode,
address: 1
DTE A
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
RU-145000
CU-1U210
0
3
Radio unit D
(RU)
Slave mode,
address: 2
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
RU-145000
Radio unit E
(RU)
Slave mode,
address: 3
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
RD
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
RU-145000
RU-145000
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
CU-1U210
0
Radio unit B
(RU+CU)
DTE B
Slave mode,
address: 4
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
RU-145000
SA00044
CU-1U210
0
Radio unit C
(RU+CU)
DTE C
Slave mode,
address: 5
Figure 6.3 Routing between master station and slave stations
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43
6. Data transmission
RU ‘A’ acts as a master station in this network and has the following routing table in the memory:
3
DTE
Route
B
2, 3, 4
C
2, 3, 5
When DTE ‘A’ sends data e.g. to DTE ‘B’ the RU ‘A’ picks the address of the DTE ‘B’ from the message
and then determines which route to use. In this example the route is the upper one, i.e. 2, 3, 4. Before
sending the message the RU ‘A’ adds the route to the start of the message and in addition tells that the
next receiver is station ‘D’ with address 2. All the other stations (not in the figure) except for ‘D’ that
possibly hear the message ignore it. Station ‘D’ picks the message, copies the routing data, and modifies the next receiver indicator to point to station ‘E’ with address 3. The same procedure is repeated
through the whole chain until the message reaches the destination DTE, ‘B’ in this example.
When DTE ‘B’ replies to ‘A’ the message goes through the router chain in an opposite direction. For
example, when the reply message reaches station ‘E’, that remembers the route and forwards the
message indicating that the next receiver is station ‘D’. The route remains valid as long as the reply
message has reached the original sender. For the next message the routing information must be sent
again.
How the DTE includes the address data in the message depends on the used communication protocol.
Adaptation to different protocols is done by the protocol filters that are available in SATEL NMS PC
software. These filters tell to the RU how to interpret the incoming message. No special protocol support is needed in the RU firmware.
As explained earlier, source routing is used in polling type protocols with fixed station address length
and position in the message, based on RS-232, -422, and -485.
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6. Data transmission
6.5 Packet routing
An important limitation in the implementation of the source routing is that there is no radio access
control behind, i.e. all the traffic must be originated by the master station: DTE ‘A’ sends a query message to DTE ‘B’ that then replies using the same radio route in the inverse order. Thereafter ‘A’ can
send the same query to ‘C’ which also replies. In this way there occur no collisions on the radio channel. This amount of functionality is enough for the so-called polling protocols. A drawback, however,
is that slave stations cannot generate any messages independently, e.g. automatic status reports from
the slave stations are not possible. Another drawback is that the slave stations cannot communicate
with each other.
The mentioned drawbacks can be overcome by using the RU in packet routing mode. This mode
allows each station to be in connection with every other station and there is no master station, which
initiates all the traffic in the network. Also, there is a radio access control to prevent data packet collisions in the radio path. The radio access control is briefly explained in chapter 6.5.1. The routing table
is constructed so that each unit has one or more neighbor (next hop) addresses where to route the
incoming data next. For every neighbor address are listed the addresses of the stations that are found
behind it. Each station selects the correct neighbor station according to the final destination address
and thereafter the data proceeds hop by hop towards the destination. As an example is presented how
the routing table looks like for the network topology seen in the figure on page 46.
The routing table is the following:
Radio Unit
Next hop
Addresses behind
A
2
3, 4, 5
B
3
1, 2, 5
C
3
1, 2, 4
D
1
-
3
4, 5
2
1
4
-
5
-
E
In this example the routing is very simple for RU ‘A’, ‘B’, and ‘C’ because they have only one possible
next hop regardless of the final destination. Units ‘D’ and ‘E’, on the contrary, must select between two
alternatives.
Primarily, packet mode routing is used when transferring data over IP. This requires a CU to be connected together with the RU, except for the radio router stations where the RU can operate alone. How
the IP addresses are configured for IP transmission is explained in the CU user manual.
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3
6. Data transmission
Radio unit A
(RU+CU)
address: 1
DTE A
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
RU-145000
CU-1U210
0
3
Radio unit D
(RU)
address: 2
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
RU-145000
Radio unit E
(RU)
address: 3
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
TD
RD
RD
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
RU-145000
RU-145000
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
CU-1U210
0
Radio unit B
(RU+CU)
DTE B
address: 4
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
RU-145000
CU-1U210
0
SA00045
Radio unit C
(RU+CU)
DTE C
address: 5
Figure 6.4 Routing example
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6. Data transmission
6.5.1Radio access control
The purpose of radio access control is to prevent the data packets to collide with each other on the
radio channel. This is particularly important in IP data transmission where the data packets are sent
forward whenever there are any to be sent. In Ethernet there is a collision avoidance algorithm in use.
However, it is strongly related to the fact that the network is built by using cables, i.e. all the stations
can detect whether there is traffic on the line or not. Particular to the radio transmission is the presence
of the so-called hidden terminals: the terminals, which are transmitting without every other terminal
in the network to be able to detect that. The main purpose of the algorithm implemented in the RU
is to provide a collision free operation also in the presence of hidden terminals. The algorithm is
called CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) and is based on transmitting
handshaking signals (RTS, CTS, ACK) between the stations. A pre-requisite for the algorithm to work
is that each station in the network has an address and that there is a kind of routing table in use. The
routing table tells each individual station which neighboring station to listen to and to which station to
send data.
There are a few settings in the RU that controls the operation of the collision avoidance algorithm.
Those are set in the factory so that the algorithm should perform well at the field as such. However,
to reach the optimum performance for a particular use case the following properties of the network
should be considered
–– Network topology: Are there only point-to-point connections in the network or
are there one or more radio routers in use? If there are routers in the network,
all the stations must remain silent for a while after each transmission, in order
to give a possible radio router station a privilege to forward the message. By
telling each of the RU that there are only point-to-point connections in the
network, helps in saving this additional waiting time and thus increasing the
data throughput. If the user application handles the data retransmission there
is a fast mode setup which does not have the handshaking feature. It has the
fastest data throughput but the tradeoff is that the data packets collide more
often and the hidden terminal rejection feature is switched off. See chapter 7.6
for more information.
–– Retransmissions at the radio protocol level: There might be retransmissions
at the higher protocol layers (e.g. TCP) irrespective of this setting. Normally,
retransmissions at the radio protocol level should be on if the data goes through
one or more radio routers or if the higher protocol layers do not include
retransmissions.
–– Training sequency length: Training sequency length “Half” means half size
of the original sequency length. This mode improves protocol efficiency and the
overall data speed becomes faster.
Protocol efficiency = Payload size
Frame size
–– Back-off counter: This defines the time how long a station must wait before
starting a transmission in the case the radio channel is reserved. If the network
is small, the back-off counter can be low because the probability of collisions is
low. As the size of the network increases the back-off counter should be higher.
The correct value should be found experimentally based on the number of
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3
6. Data transmission
stations and the amount of traffic.
–– Signal threshold: The limit value for the received signal strength, below which
the received signal is interpreted as an external interferer or background noise.
6.6 Data flow control in basic and source routing mode
3
In this chapter is described what ways there are available to add control to the data flow in basic
mode.
6.6.1TX delay
TX delay can be used in a situation where a certain master station sends queries as broadcast messages to many sub-stations. To prevent the replies from the sub-stations to collide at the master
station, you can set different TX delay values to each of the sub-stations. This means that a sub-station
does not reply to the query until the TX delay period has been expired. TX delay is fixed, i.e. the maximum length of the reply message must be approximately known at the network configuration phase in
order to really avoid collisions at the master station. TX delay can be considered as a primitive timeslot mechanism.
6.6.2Handshaking
The handshaking lines of the serial data interface can be used to control the data flow from/to the RU.
There are three different control lines for this purpose, namely CTS, RTS, and CD lines. Handshaking
is available only in HW variant RUxxxx00.
6.6.2.1 CTS (Clear To Send)
The CTS line is normally in the active state, which means that the RU is ready to accept data from the
DTE. When the RU sets the line to the inactive state the data transfer from the DTE to the RU is not
possible.
There are four alternative criteria for the user to select when the CTS line goes to the inactive state.
These are explained in the table below:
Selection
Description
Clear to send
Goes to the inactive state in the following cases:
1) Data reception is ongoing.
2) A pause (packet end) has been detected in the transmitted data
and there is still data in the transmission buffer. The line shifts
back to the active state when the RU has finished the transmission.
3) Transmission buffer is in danger of overflowing.
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6. Data transmission
TX buffer
state
Goes to the inactive state only when the transmission buffer is in
danger of overflowing. This happens typically in cases where the
data rate of the serial interface is higher than the air speed.
RSSI threshold
Goes to the inactive state only when the received signal is
stronger than the pre-defined threshold value.
Always on
The line is always in the active state.
Table 6.1 CTS line in inactive state
3
6.6.2.2 RTS (Request To Send)
The RTS line is normally in the active state, which means that the DTE is ready to accept data from the
RU. When the DTE sets the line to the inactive state the data transfer from the RU to the DTE is not
possible.
There are three alternatives for the user to select how the RU reacts when the RTS line goes to the
inactive state. These are explained in the table below:
Selection
Description
Flow control
The RU continues the reception but buffers the received
data until the RTS line goes back to the active state. This
is typically used in situations where the DTE is too slow to
receive all the data. The size of the receiver buffer is about
1.6 kBytes but must be checked for each particular HW and
SW version if seen critical in the application.
Reception control
The RU stops the whole reception.
Ignore
The status of the RTS line is not followed at all.
Table 6.2 RTS line in inactive state
6.6.2.3 CD (Carrier Detect)
The CD line is an indicator from the RU to the DTE that a signal has been detected on the radio channel. There are three alternative criteria for the user to select when the line goes to the active state.
These are explained in the table below:
Selection
Description
RSSI Threshold
Active when the received signal is stronger than the predefined threshold value.
Data on channel
Active when there is a data reception ongoing.
Always on
The line is always in the active state.
Table 6.3 CD line in inactive state
It depends on the application how the DTE reacts to the information provided by the CD line.
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49
6. Data transmission
6.6.3Error control
For error checking purposes there is a mechanisms in the RU: cyclic redundancy check (CRC).
3
Cyclic redundancy check is possible for the user to switch ON and OFF. The transmitter calculates the
checksum based on the whole data stream, which has been sent and adds the checksum to the end
of the data. If the CRC is on the receiver buffers the data and sends it forward after it has been able
to verify that the checksum corresponds to the received data. A drawback in this is that the latency
increases by the transfer time of the whole packet.
The basic guidelines how to use the error control features are the following:
–– When it is important to be sure that the data is correct but the latency is not critical:
switch the CRC ON. The number of allowed illegal characters is not relevant.
–– When it is important to be sure that the data is correct and the latency is critical:
switch the CRC OFF and set the number of allowed illegal characters to zero.
–– When every received character being correct it is not critical: switch the CRC
OFF and set the number of allowed illegal characters to a certain reasonable
value, e.g. to 10.
6.6.4Pause length
Pauses are used to separate two messages from each other at the serial interface. A typical pause
length, which is interpreted, as the end of the message is three characters. However, non-real time
operating systems used in many DTE easily add random pauses in the data stream. Those pauses are
then seen as message breaking points in the RU. To overcome this situation pause length parameter
has been introduced and must be set higher than the worst-case pause in the data stream. The data
stream from the DTE must then take this setting into account: the RU does not recognize the pauses
that are shorter than the value of the pause length parameter.
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7. Settings
7. Settings
As mentioned in chapter 5.4 settings can be viewed and changed by SATEL NMS PC software or by
the user interfaces of the CU. Settings have been described in earlier chapters in conjunction with the
overall descriptions of the different functionalities. Here below is presented a summary of all the user
related parameters and how they are organized in groups.
7.1 Network protocol modes
As explained in the beginning of chapter 6 the RU can be configured to operate in the following
network protocol modes:
––
––
––
––
––
––
Basic, TX priority
Basic, RX priority
Basic, Repeater
Source Routing-Master
Source Routing-Slave
Packet Routing
Figure 7.1 Network Protocol Mode settings view; WWW interface
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51
3
7. Settings
3
Figure 7.2 Modem Settings, Network Protocol Mode; by CU interface
7.1.1 Station addresses and network ID
If the RU is configured to operate either in source or packet route mode, it must be given an address.
The address is freely selectable between 1 and 4093, see Figures 7.1 and 7.2.
The network ID is used to distinguish the different closely located networks from each other. The network ID is a string with maximum length of eight characters.
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7. Settings
7.2 Radio settings
RX Frequency
RF frequency of the receiver in MHz, e.g. 451.106250 MHz: can be adjusted by a
numeric editor.
TX Frequency
RF frequency of the transmitter in MHz, e.g. 451.106250 MHz: can be adjusted by a
numeric editor.
RF Output Power
RF output power in mW. Adjustable between 0.1 – 5W or 1 - 10W.
Signal Threshold
Received signal threshold level used in handshaking and in packet mode medium
access control (chapters 6.6.2 and 6.5.1).
Over-the-Air Encryption
Can be either OFF or ON.
Forward Error Correction
Can be selected from a predefined list of OFF, rate 67 %, and rate 50 %. Forward error
correction is used together with interleaving. See chapter 5.2 for more information.
Channel Spacing
Can be either 12.5, 25 kHz (10W radio unit) or 12.5, 25, 150 kHz (5W radio unit).
Air Speed
Can be selected from a predefined list that depends on the selected channel spacing
and available modulation methods as explained in chapter 5.2. If the channel spacing
is changed the air speed needs to be changed as well.
3
Table 7.1 Modem Settings, Radio
Figure 7.3 Radio settings view; WWW interface
Figure 7.4 Modem Settings, Radio; by CU interface
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53
7. Settings
7.3 Serial connector configuration
The setting selected here becomes active whenever the RU is switched on. If the setting has been
changed by pressing the function button as described in chapter 5.6, this setting becomes active again
when the function button is pressed for less than a second. The configuration options are the following:
3
Radio unit with RS-232 interface with handshaking
Can be selected from a predefined list of:
–– MCU UARTs (Data and NMS) to SATBUS (normal setting when RU is
permanently operating with the CU).
–– Data UART to Radio D9 RD/TD (standard RS-232 interface, normal setting
when the RU is operating in transparent mode of data transfer).
–– Data UART to Radio D9 RD/TD – NMS to DTR/DSR (RS-232 data transfer
using handshaking, need to simultaneous monitoring using NMS).
–– Data UART to Radio D9 RD/TD – NMS to RTS/CTS (RS-232 data transfer
without handshaking, an alternative to the previous setting).
–– Data UART to Radio D9 RD/TD – NMS to SATBUS (standard RS-232
interface, need to use the CU as a configuration tool).
–– MCU UARTs (Data and NMS) to SATBUS with CAN ( ).
Radio unit with RS-422/-485/-232 interface without handshaking
Can be selected from a predefined list of:
–– RS-422 (only 5W radio unit)
–– RS-485 (only 5W radio unit)
–– RS-232 (RD, TD & SGND only)
In the latter model it is not possible to have simultaneous data and NMS. However, the serial connector can be configured to accept offline NMS messages as explained in chapter 5.6.
Figure 7.5 Serial Connector Configurator view; WWW interface
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7. Settings
3
Figure 7.6 Modem Settings, Serial Connector Configuration; by CU interface
7.4 Data port settings
Data rate
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, and 57600 bits/s @ 10W RU
9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 and 115200 bits/s @ 5W RU
Number of data bits
8 bits
Parity
No Parity Check, Even, and Odd
Number of stop bits
1 bit
Table 7.2 Modem Settings, Data Port Settings
Figure 7.7 Data Port Settings view; WWW interface
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55
7. Settings
3
Figure 7.8 Modem Settings, Data Port Settings; by CU interface
7.5 Serial data flow control
TX delay
0 – 65535 ms. See chapter 6.6.1 for more details.
Error control
CRC: ON or OFF. See chapter 6.6.3 for more details.
Maximum number of accepted errors: See chapter 6.6.3 for more details.
Handshaking lines
CTS: Can be selected from a predefined list of Clear to send, TX buffer
state, RSSI threshold, and Always on. See chapter 6.6.2 for more details.
RTS: Can be selected from a predefined list of Flow control, Reception
control, and Ignore. See chapter 6.6.2 for more details.
CD: Can be selected from a predefined list of RSSI threshold, Data on
channel, and Always on. See chapter 6.6.2 for more details.
Pause length
3 – 255 bytes. See chapter 6.6.4 for more details.
Table 7.3 Modem Settings, Serial Data Flow Control
Figure 7.9 Serial Data Flow Control view; WWW interface
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7. Settings
Figure 7.10Modem Settings, Serial Data Flow Control; by CU interface
3
7.6 Packet mode radio access control
Packet mode radio access control is briefly explained in chapter 6.5.1.
Feature
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
Network topology
Point to point *) – Fast protocol with radio handshaking
and anti-collision protection. No protection against hidden
terminal problem in the radio network. Possibility to use
radio retransmissions. Recommended for systems with only a
couple of stations which can hear each others.
0
430
0
1.2003
0
1.2006
0
2007
Repeater – Slowest protocol with radio handshaking and the
best anti-collision protection. Best protection against hidden
terminal problem in the radio network. Possibility to use radio
retransmissions. For systems with multiple stations, which
cannot directly hear each others.
Fast mode - Fastest protocol without any radio handshaking
(RTS / CTS), anti-collision safety or radio retansmissions. For
systems with only a couple of stations which can hera each
others and where the upper layer handles the data packet
retransmissions.
Retransmissions
ON - usually ON, if data goes through one or more
radio routers, or if higher protocol layers do not include
retransmissions.
OFF - (read above)
Training sequency
length
FULL
Back off counter
Fast mode – 0 value, immediate data transfer.
0 value, maximum raffle time.
* Default setting
)
HALF - Training sequency length is half of the sequency
length. Improves the protocol efficiency and the overall data
speed becomes faster.
>
Point to Point and Repeater - can be selected between
4 - 64, maximum back off time
NOTE1! The settings must be set equally to all radio modems in the same radio network.
NOTE2! The Back Off Counter Value rules the exact time of the transmission. Values for this mode can be set
between 0 and 62.
NOTE3! PER (Packet Error Rate) is greater than in any other network topology mode due to the probable collisions
in the air.
Requires the FW versions RU 5.4.1.9 or later and CU 1.3126 or later.
In addition signal threshold must be set (see chapter 7.2).
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7. Settings
3
Figure 7.11 Packet Mode Radio Access Control view; WWW interface
Figure 7.12Modem Settings, Packet Mode Radio Access Control; by CU interface
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7. Settings
RX
RX
TX
RD
STAT
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
TD
PWR
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
OK
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
Modem A
OK
3
Modem B
Repeater
Network topology: Repeater Setting: Repeater
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
OK
Modem B
Modem A
Network topology: Point to Point Setting: Point to Point or Fast mode
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
OK
Modem B
Modem A
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
SA00065
OK
Modem C
Network topology: Master-Slave Setting: Point to Point or Fast mode
Figure 7.13Examples of the network topologies and corresponding settings
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59
8. Type designation
8. Type designation
Type: SATEL-TA12
Freq: 400-445 MHz
Model: SATELLAR RU
Ser.no: 13xx xxxxxx
DTE Port:
1987 ! Pb
3
9-30V/1.2A
Made by SATEL OY - www.satel.com - Made in Finland
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
SA00046
PWR
Figure 8.1 Labels are located on the backside of the RU
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9. Accessories
9. Accessories
The RU is delivered with the following accessories:
––
––
––
––
A SATELLAR specific two piece mounting clip with the necessary screws
A DC connector
Cable shield for the DC connector
A quick start guide
3
The SATELLAR specific DIN rail adapter can be ordered separately. If the RU is used as a standalone
device, it can be delivered with a plastic front cover.
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61
10. SATEL open source statements
10.SATEL open source statements
ALL OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE used in this product is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY and
is subject to copyrights of one or more respective authors.
3 10.1AES Encryption
This product includes cryptographic “Advanced Encryption Standard” software.
AES implementation copyright (c) 1998-2008, Brian Gladman, Worcester, UK. All rights reserved.
License terms
The redistribution and use of this software (with or without changes) is allowed without the payment of
fees or royalties provided that:
1. Source code distributions include the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer;
2. Binary distributions include the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer in their documentation;
3. The name of the copyright holder is not used to endorse products built using
this software without specific written permission.
Disclaimer
This software is provided ‘as is’ with no explicit or implied warranties in respect of its properties,
including, but not limited to, correctness and/or fitness for purpose.
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11. Troubleshooting
11.Troubleshooting
11.1Error codes
If the RU displays an error state, an error message is displayed for the user as a five digit binary number. The LED indicators will blink slowly, about once in a second, alternating between all indicators on
and the error code on condition. LSB (least significant bit) is in PWR and MSB (most significant bit) in
CTS. In addition by the uppermost LED (RX) there is indicator which a processor will report the error.
If the RX LED is off the error originates from the master processor and if it is on the error report is from
the signal processor. The error codes are presented in the table below.
RX
OFF =error from master processor
ON =error from signal processor
TX
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
RTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
CTS
MSB
(Most Significant Bit)
TD
RD
STAT
LSB
(Least Significant Bit)
SA00041
PWR
Name
Description
Code
ERROR_CAT_FPGA_
VERSION
FPGA is not compatible
with the firmware
version
0 0001
(1)
LED
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Required action
Switch to the previous firmware
version. If not possible the unit
should be sent to service.
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63
3
11. Troubleshooting
Name
Description
Code
ERROR_CAT_FPGA_
COMM
Error in FPGA MCU
communication
0 0010
(2)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Switch to the previous firmware
version. If not possible the unit
should be sent to service.
ERROR_CAT_BOARD_
VERSION
PWB version not
compatible with the
firmware version
0 0011
(3)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Switch to the previous firmware
version. If not possible the unit
should be sent to service.
ERROR_CAT_HW_
INIT_GENERAL
Problem in HW
initialization (other than
memory related)
0 0100
(4)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_VOLTAGE
Internal voltage
monitoring has detected
out-of-limits values for
certain voltages
0 0101
(5)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_PA_
CURRENT_HIGH
RF power amplifier
current has exceeded
the limit and the
transmitter has been
shut down to protect the
electronics
0 0110
(6)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a) Check the antenna impedance
match and if needed improve the
match.
RF power amplifier
temperature has
exceeded the limit and
the transmitter has been
shut down to protect the
electronics.
0 0111
(7)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a) Check the ambient temperature. It
might be too high.
3
ERROR_CAT_PA_
TEMP_HIGH
64
LED
Required action
b) Wait for a while and restart the
data transmission. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
b) Wait for a while and restart the
data transmission. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
11. Troubleshooting
Name
Description
Code
ERROR_CAT_PLL_
LOCK
The RF frequency
synthesizer has not
been locked and
either transmission
or reception is not
possible.
0 1000
(8)
ERROR_CAT_RAM_
CHECK
RAM memory
verification failed during
initialization.
ERROR_CAT_SW_
FAILURE_1
LED
Required action
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
0 1001
(9)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
Watchdog originated
reboot because of a
SW crash
0 1010
(10)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
No actions required. If the same
happens repeatedly the unit should
be sent to service.
ERROR_CAT_SW_
FAILURE_2
The SW has recognized
an error and gone into
error state
0 1011
(11)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_NVM_
COMM
No access to the nonvolatile memory
0 1100
(12)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_NVM_
UNINITIALIZED
Non-volatile memory
has entered an
unformatted state due
to an internal error.
0 1101
(13)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
3
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
65
11. Troubleshooting
Name
Description
Code
ERROR_CAT_NVM_
SETTING
Illegal value in a user or
other setting.
0 1110
(14)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Go through the user settings to
find any illegal value. If there is not
any reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_NVM_
CORRUPT
Corrupted non-volatile
memory
0 1111
(15)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_INTER_
PROCESSOR_COMM
An internal
communication error
between MCU and DSP
processors
1 0000
(16)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_INTER_
SUBUNIT_COMM
Communication
problem between the
subunits, e.g. between
the Radio and Central
units.
1 0001
(17)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_
SUBSYSTEM_USB_
HOST
An error in USB host
system
1 0010
(18)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains the unit should be sent to
service.
ERROR_CAT_
SUBSYSTEM_SERIAL_
PORT
An error in external
serial interface
1 0011
(19)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reboot the unit. If the problem
remains make sure that the error is
not located on the DTE. If the error
seems to be in the RU it should be
sent to service.
3
LED
Required action
Table 11.1 Error codes by LED indication
66
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
11. Troubleshooting
11.2Connection problems
There are some factors that may prevent proper connectivity. In generally it can be said that there are
usually lots of instances in network – both hardware and software – and they all have some effect to
overall performance.
One instance that may prevent traffic is firewall. In example of TCP client SATELLAR tries to send TCP
messages to some target device. If this device has firewall configuration, which prevents messages
from a defined port, the sending of course fails. One good indicator of such case is the blinking
sequence of the radio unit LEDs. Normally when sending e.g. ping message the TX LED blinks first for
sending and then RX LED for receiving and same goes basically for sending TCP messages.
Even the receiving end had no application listening to messages; the sending device should be able to
send messages to receiving end in proper way. If e.g. the configuration is as default - i.e. retry count is
5 and interval is 1000 milliseconds - LEDs in radio unit should blink 5 times with 1 second interval in
such case where no application receives them. This means that SATELLAR is able to communicate with
TCP stack of target device even though no application actually receives the messages. Other options
are e.g. to investigate the traffic with Wireshark or to check the ports with netcat (nc).
But in case the LED blinking is not as systematic as described but instead more incoherent and the
interval tends to get longer, there may be an issue with target device firewall. In such case the target
device firewall configuration should be investigated.
As a summary couple of rules of thumb:
–– Sending of messages to target must succeed even though there is no
application listening to them. This can be observed by e.g. LED blinking.
–– Target device must have the defined ports opened in firewall for
communication.
–– Ping is a good tool for diagnostics in network, but even though ping succeeds
between the devices, it does not ensure that all other communication is
available. There are different tools - such as netcat - that check the status of
defined ports.
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3
12. Settings selection guide
12.Settings selection guide
12.1Modem Settings
3
Menu
Submenu
Value (* = default)
Network
Protocol Mode
NetID
Address (RMAC)
Protocol Mode
Radio
TX Frequency
RX Frequency
RF Output Power
Satel NG * (max 8 characters)
0001 * (1 - 4093)
Basic-RX Priority
Basic-TX Priority
Basic-Repeater
Packet Routing *
460.000000 MHz (Depends on hardware configuration)
460.000000 MHz (Depends on hardware configuration)
5 W radio unit: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1, 2 ... 5 W *
10 W radio unit: 1 W ... 10 W *, steps 1 W
Signal Threshold
Over.the-Air Encryption
Forward Error Correction
Channel Spacing
Air Speed
Serial
Connector
Configuration
Data Port
Settings
68
Radio Unit Port
Assignment
DTE Port Physical
Communication Mode
Rate - 10W RU
- 5W RU
Data Bits
Parity
Stop Bits
-114 dBm *
OFF * / ON
OFF * / ON
12.5, 25 kHz *, in addition 150 kHz with 5W RU
9600, 19200 *, 28800, 38400 bps with 25 kHz Channel
Spacing. In addition 230000 bps with 5W RU with 150 kHz
Channel Spacing
4800, 9600, 14400, 19200 bps
with 12.5 kHz Channel Spacing
NONE
MCU UARTS TO SATBUS *
DATA UART TO RADIO D9 RD/TD
DATA UART TO RADIO D9 RD/TD - NMS TO D9 DTR/DSR
DATA UART TO RADIO D9 RD/TD - NMS TO D9 RTS/CTS
DATA UART TO RADIO D9 RD/TD - NMS TO SATBUS
MCU UARTS TO SATBUS WITH CAN
RS-232
RS-422, RS-485, FD-RS-485 (only with 5W radio unit)
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 *, 38400, 57600 bps
9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps
8 bits *
No Parity Check *, Even, Odd
1 bit *
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
12. Settings selection guide
Menu
Submenu
Value (* = default)
Serial Data
Flow Control
TX Delay
CRC
Handshaking CTS Line
Handshaking RTS Line
Handshaking CD Line
Pause Length
Maximum Number of
Accepted Errors
Network Topology
Retransmissions
Training Sequency Length
Back Off Counter
0 * (0 - 65535)
OFF / ON *
Clear To Send, TX buffer state *, RSSI Treshold, Always ON
Ignored *, Flow control, Reception control
RSSI treshold *, Data on channel, Always ON
3 bytes * (3 - 255)
0 * (0 - 255)
Packet Mode
Radio Access
Control
Point-to-point *, Repeater, Fast mode
OFF / ON *
Full* / Half
8 * (4 - 63)
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
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12. Settings selection guide
70
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
12. Settings selection guide
3
Satel Oy
Meriniitynkatu 17, P.O.Box 142
FI-24101 Salo, Finland
Tel. +358 2 777 7800
[email protected]
www.satel.com
WIRELESS WORLD – LOCAL SOLUTION
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART III // RADIO UNIT / 5W AND 10W // USER GUIDE // V. 1.4
71
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