CHAPMAN TF Series Trailed Feeder Instructions | Manualzz
Health and Safety
Safe use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) in
agriculture and forestry
HSE information sheet
This information sheet gives advice on the safe use of
ATVs. It covers the two main types used in off-road
working in agriculture, forestry and the land-based
industries, namely:
■■ Sit-astride ATVs: Any motorised vehicle designed
to travel on four low-pressure tyres on unpaved
surfaces, with a seat designed to be straddled
by the operator and with handlebars for steering
control (see Figure 1). These vehicles are intended
to be used by a single operator without a
passenger. They may also be referred to as quad
■■ Side-by-side ATVs: Small utility vehicles in which
the driver and passenger sit alongside each other
in conventional (ie sit-in) seats (see Figure 2). Most
side-by-side vehicles are capable of carrying two
occupants in this way; however, some vehicles are
equipped with a second row of seating (and can
therefore carry four occupants), while others have
bench-style seats allowing up to three people to
be seated in a row. The majority of side-by-side
vehicles have four wheels, although six-wheel and
full and partially tracked versions are also available.
There is usually a cargo bed behind the seating
area. Side-by-side ATVs are sometimes referred
to as utility vehicles (UTVs) or rough terrain utility
vehicles (RTVs).
ATVs are usually fitted with a tow hitch and are
capable of towing a load such as a trailer, a trailed
appliance or other equipment.
Both types of ATV are designed to cope with a wide
variety of terrain types, including steep slopes, but if
used outside their safe operating parameters they can
very rapidly become unstable. The main causes of
serious or fatal injury associated with ATVs are from:
■■ being thrown off during vehicle overturns or after
Agriculture Information Sheet No 33 (Revision 1)
■■ collisions with structures, trees, other vehicles etc;
■■ being trapped/asphyxiated under an overturned
■■ pedestrians being struck or run over by ATVs.
Contributory factors/underlying causes of accidents
and injury with ATVs can include:
lack of formal operator training and/or experience;
incorrect/lack of appropriate head protection;
excessive speed;
age of the operator;
carrying a passenger on a sit-astride ATV;
unbalanced loads or overloading;
tipping on a bank, ditch, rut or bump;
loss of control on a steep slope combined with
other factors, eg ground or load conditions;
■■ towing excessive loads with unbraked equipment;
■■ poor maintenance, eg faulty brakes, incorrect tyre
pressures etc.
Control measures for sit-astride ATVs
It is a legal requirement for employers to provide
adequate training for employees who use work
equipment such as ATVs, and to make sure that only
employees who have received appropriate training
in their safe use, including the use of any towed
equipment or attachments, are permitted to ride them.
The same requirements apply to the self-employed.
You can get details of suitable training courses from
franchised ATV dealers, manufacturers’ websites,
Lantra, the Forestry Commission, EASI (European
ATV Safety Institute), the British Off Road Driving
Association (BORDA) and through colleges and
training providers.
When purchasing a new or used machine from a
franchised dealer an industry-led scheme offers
customers free training – see ‘Useful contacts’.
loss of control;
1 of 5 pages
Health and Safety
Always wear suitable
head protection
Don’t overload
a technique known as ‘active’ riding. It is not for
carrying passengers. Manufacturers often display a
sign on machines prohibiting passengers and this
message is also repeated in operator manuals.
Do not carry a passenger in a trailer behind an ATV
as any movement can make the machine unstable,
particularly with independent rear suspension and
trailers with axles wider than the ATV.
Check tyre
pressures regularly
Figure 1 Example of a sit-astride ATV
Personal protective equipment – the importance
of head protection
Sit-astride ATVs are not fitted with either a cab or roll
bar, so your only protection is what you wear. Head
protection is vital. Many ATV fatalities in the UK have
been caused by head injuries. Helmets would certainly
have prevented most of, if not all, these deaths. You
should always wear a helmet when riding an ATV.
Helmet types suitable for ATV operations, depending
on the circumstances, are motorcycle helmets,
equestrian helmets, specialist ATV helmets, cycle
helmets and mountaineering helmets. All helmets
should be manufactured and tested in accordance
with the current relevant EN/BS standard, have a
chinstrap and be capable of being used with suitable
eye protection. The type of helmet chosen should
be based on an assessment of the circumstances in
which the ATV will be used, eg the types of surface
travelled over and anticipated speeds. The harder the
surface and higher the speed the greater the degree
of protection needed. NB: Forestry helmets and
industrial hard hats are not acceptable for any ATV
Wear clothing that is strong and covers your arms and
legs. Gloves are useful for protection and handlebar
muffs can help to keep hands warm in cold weather
for good control of the ATV. Wear sturdy, anklecovering footwear, eg boots or wellingtons that are
strong, supportive and have good wet grip.
Protect your eyes from insects and branches with
either a visor or goggles.
The long seat on a conventional sit-astride ATV
is to allow operators to shift their body weight
backwards and forwards for different slope conditions,
Some machines have received European Community
Whole Vehicle Type Approval, allowing them to
be ridden on the public highway. Some of these
machines are designed to carry passengers. Such
machines may not be suitable for carrying a passenger
when used in off-road situations, eg on sloping
ground, as the operator may not be able to use active
riding techniques to maintain machine stability. Such
machines may not have a locking differential and may
not provide an acceptable level of traction to ensure
safety in certain off-road conditions.
Before using an ATV you should assess the suitability
of the machine for the intended tasks and working
Route planning and stability
Accidents can occur where ATVs are driven on
new routes over steep ground for the first time, or
are carrying or dragging destabilising loads. When
travelling over rough terrain, get to know your own
ground and stick to planned routes where possible.
Walk new routes if necessary to check for hidden
obstructions, hollows or other hazards. Allow for
changes in ground conditions and for the destabilising
effect of loads or attachments.
Safety checks and maintenance
Off-road use is especially harsh on equipment
so it is essential to carry out safety checks and
maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. In particular, pre-ride safety checks
should always include:
■■ tyre pressures. These are low, eg typically around
2–7 psi, so even a 1 psi (0.07 kg/cm2) difference
in pressure can cause vehicle control problems.
Use a gauge that is designed for measuring and
displaying low pressures – usually supplied with
the ATV;
■■ brakes and throttle. Check that the brakes give a
safe straight stop and that the throttle operates
smoothly in all steering positions. Brakes can
have a relatively short life in farming or forestry
environments and need frequent cleaning, regular
adjustment and proper maintenance.
2 of 5 pages
Health and Safety
Safe riding methods
On sit-astride ATVs rider positioning is vital to operate
them correctly. The position of the rider on the
machine needs to be changed depending on the
terrain and motion. Riders must have the ability to
move and balance the momentum of the ATV with
their own body weight. Plan routes (and review the
plan if a route is used regularly) to assess risks.
■■ When selecting trailed equipment look for:
The following advice is no substitute for formal
■■ Most ATVs have no differential and so do not
handle in the same way as other machines. This
means that when you turn, the ATV tries to keep
going in a straight line.
When cornering on an ATV with no differential, or
with the differential lock engaged, where your body
weight needs to be positioned depends on how
sharp the corner is and on how fast you are going.
Correct body position allows you to transfer weight
to the outside of the turn through the footrests
while maintaining balance with the torso. This lets
the inside wheels skid slightly allowing the ATV to
make the turn properly.
You must understand how the transmission system
of your machine will affect engine braking for both
riding on slopes and recovery of stalled ATVs.
When riding across a slope, keep your weight on
the uphill side of the ATV.
When going downhill, slide your weight backwards,
select a low gear and use engine braking, reducing
the need to use the brakes.
When going uphill, it is important to review the
route before starting the climb. Move your weight
forwards and maintain a steady speed. It is
important to shift your body weight forwards as
much as possible. If necessary, stand up and lean
forward, keeping both feet on the footrests at all
times and always maintain momentum.
Avoid sudden increases in speed. This is a
common cause of rearward overturning accidents,
even from a standing start on flat ground where
there is good grip.
Never put your foot onto the ground to stabilise an
ATV when riding, but shift your weight across the
ATV away from the imbalance.
Always read the owner’s manual.
Trailed equipment and loads
Ensure all riders know the manufacturer’s
recommended towing capacity and drawbar loading
limit. Always operate within these requirements.
Remember that your ability to control the ATV by your
body movements will be considerably reduced when
carrying a load or towing a trailer.
–– over-run brakes;
–– a swivel hitch drawbar;
–– bead lock rims on wheels;
–– a low centre of gravity and a wide wheel track;
–– a long drawbar;
–– attachment points for securing a load.
Check the weight ratio between your ATV and its
trailed load. This needs to be assessed for each
operation. As a general guide, on level ground
braked trailed equipment can be a maximum
of four times the unladen weight of the ATV. For
unbraked trailed equipment the maximum should
be twice the unladen weight. These loads should
be reduced when working on slopes, uneven
ground or poor surface conditions. Follow the
manufacturer’s advice for your particular machine.
Weight transfer is also important. Stability and
resistance to jackknifing is improved if some load is
transferred onto the ATV’s drawbar. Approximately
10% of the gross weight of the loaded trailer is
recommended, but this should not exceed the
manufacturer’s drawbar loading limit. Remember
that weight transfer can change dramatically when
you start going up or down hill.
When selecting mounted equipment, make sure it
is within the manufacturer’s approved weight limit,
with a low centre of gravity and controls which are
easy to operate but do not create a hazard. Where
equipment is added to one end of the machine,
add ballast at the other end to maintain stability.
Loads carried on racks must be well secured,
eg with ratchet straps, and be evenly balanced
between the front and rear, except where they
are deliberately altered to aid stability when going
up or down a slope. Maximum weights that can
be carried should be specified in the operator’s
manual and may be marked on the machine.
These should not be exceeded.
Only tow a load from the hitch point. Loads towed
from other points, such as the rear rack, have
caused sudden rear overturning even on slight
slopes or with slight acceleration. Do not use ropes
or chains to drag a load; they can become caught
on a wheel. This may lead to entanglement with
the brake cable, causing unexpected braking.
Using sprayers
■■ Sprayers should be fitted with an induction hopper
unless the filling point is less than 1.5 m from the
ground and within 0.3 m from the edge of the
sprayer. A separate clean water tank for washing
must be provided containing at least 15 litres of
clean water and a tap that allows the water to run
without being continuously pressed.
■■ When buying a sprayer look for a low centre of
gravity and internal baffles to reduce liquid surge
and improve stability when turning on slopes.
3 of 5 pages
Health and Safety
■■ ATVs should only be used with rear-mounted spray
booms or other equipment that reduces the risk of
pesticide exposure to the operator.
■■ Do not hold a spraying lance while riding your ATV
as you need two hands for safe control.
conditions of use before fitting any such structure
and consult the manufacturer for information.
Side-by-side ATVs
ROPS fitted
Beware of the potential dangers of accessories which
are not approved by manufacturers, eg home-made
gun racks and boxes. Either use accessories supplied/
approved by manufacturers or seek their advice as to
the suitability of those sourced elsewhere.
Don’t overload
cargo bed
Any weight added above the centre of gravity will
decrease the ATV’s stability, eg feed hoppers/
dispensers fixed above the rear rack.
■■ Never carry a child as a passenger. It is illegal and
will reduce your ability to control the ATV.
■■ Children under 13 years old are prohibited from
using an ATV for work. Over-13s should only ride
ATVs of an appropriate size and power after formal
training on a low-power ATV.
■■ Children under 16 years old are prohibited from
using most adult-sized machines. Check and
adhere to the manufacturer’s minimum age
recommendations for your ATV; this information
may be displayed on the machine and in operator
manuals. Similar restrictions apply to side-by-side
■■ The ratio of a child’s weight to that of the ATV is
significant, as weight transfer is the key to safe
■■ In the event of an overturn, a child may be crushed
by the weight of an adult-sized ATV. They may be
unable to lift it off unaided.
Roll-over protective structures (ROPS)
■■ HSE’s current advice is that roll-over protective
structures (ROPS or crush protection devices) are
not recommended for sit-astride ATVs. Research
has shown that they may lead to an increased
risk of injury in the event of an overturn by either
preventing the operator from separating from the
machine or striking the operator as the machine
■■ Lap straps/seat restraints should not be fitted.
They prevent active riding and would be potentially
lethal without a full cab or roll cage.
■■ Weather cabs on sit-astride ATVs restrict a rider’s
ability to jump clear in an overturn. The rider is
likely to be crushed within the cab unless it is
strong enough to withstand the forces involved.
Carefully assess the risks for your particular
Lap belts/seat
restraints fitted
Figure 2 Example of a side-by-side ATV
Utility side-by-side ATVs are used for many of the
same purposes as tractors and designed for similar
work activities, ie off-road use on difficult terrain. They
have conventional sit-in seats, and the main controls
comprise a steering wheel and pedals. The driver does
not need to use weight transfer to steer or to control
stability. Nevertheless, the correct distribution of
weight on-board the vehicle is important, particularly
when carrying a load or on uneven surfaces. Loads
carried on the cargo bed should not exceed the
recommended weight and should be secured against
The legal requirements for training are the same as for
the sit-astride ATVs.
ROPS and seat belts
The requirements for these machines are quite
different to those of sit-astride ATVs:
■■ To reduce the risk of injury in the event of a roll-
over or other incident, side-by-side vehicles
require lap belts/seat restraints as well as ROPS
that essentially form a protective structure around
the seating area. The compartment is usually
open, although some vehicles are fitted with a
windscreen and/or side doors. The driver and all
passengers should be protected by ROPS and
wear lap belts.
■■ Where a machine is amphibious and used on deep
water as opposed to marshland, then the seat
restraints (and possibly ROPS) could increase the
4 of 5 pages
Health and Safety
overall risk rather than reduce it. In this case, do
not use seat restraints while on the water. Assess
the risk from the roll frame according to its design
and the likelihood of trapping the occupants if the
machine should sink.
© Crown copyright If you wish to reuse this
information visit for
details. First published 05/99.
If you have to park on a slope, always park across it
unless it is too steep. Accidents have occurred when
machines have run down slopes because of poor
brake maintenance or application, particularly while
they are being loaded and movement or the increase
in weight has set the machine in motion.
Useful contacts
EASI®, the European All-Terrain Vehicle Safety
Institute, is a not-for-profit organisation which provides
safety training courses for ATV riders.
EASI’s UK operation is sponsored by a number of
ATV manufacturers and delivers a programme of
specialist ATV training courses which are designed to
improve rider skills, safety levels and awareness of the
capabilities of ATV machines.
Buyers who purchase a new or used ATV from one of
these manufacturers via an authorised UK dealer are
eligible for free or highly subsidised training, subject to
qualifying terms, conditions and availability. See for details.
Training is also available from other organisations,
such as Lantra ( and the British
Off Road Driving Association (BORDA)
Further information
For information about health and safety, or to report
inconsistencies or inaccuracies in this guidance, visit You can view HSE guidance online
and order priced publications from the website. HSE
priced publications are also available from bookshops.
This guidance is issued by the Health and Safety
Executive. Following the guidance is not compulsory,
unless specifically stated, and you are free to take
other action. But if you do follow the guidance you
will normally be doing enough to comply with the law.
Health and safety inspectors seek to secure compliance
with the law and may refer to this guidance.
This leaflet is available at:
Published by the Health and Safety Executive AIS33(rev1)
5 of 5 pages
Was this manual useful for you? Yes No
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF