1428 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, MAY 2008 Digital Average Current-Mode Controller for DC–DC Converters in Physical Vapor Deposition Applications Milan Ilic, Member, IEEE, and Dragan Maksimovic, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract—A dc power supply in physical vapor deposition (PVD) applications operates as a constant power source during normal operation or as a constant current source during fast micro arcs in the plasma. A two-loop control is usually applied: an external (slower) loop controls the output power, while an internal (fast) loop controls the current. This paper introduces a digital average current mode controller for dc power supplies in PVD applications. The controller provides a current source response to fast disturbances, and enables equal current sharing among buck converter modules operating in parallel. Adaptive adjustments of the compensator gain in the digital current control loop enable operation over wide ranges of output power and voltage. The proposed control strategy is robust and noise insensitive. The current and power control algorithms are implemented on a digital signal processor/field-programmable gate array-based digital control platform using a low-cost 10-bit 500 kS/s analog-to-digital converter. The performance is verified on a 25 kW experimental prototype. Index Terms—Current-mode control, DC–DC converters, digital control, physical vapor deposition. I. INTRODUCTION P HYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (PVD) processes, often called plasma processes, are used for materials deposition in diverse industries, including manufacturing of semiconductor circuits, flat panel displays, data storage media, optical components, architectural glass –, and thin-film photovoltaic modules , . The dc power supplies for PVD processes typically provide 10 to 50 kW of power during normal operation. The deposition thickness depends on the power supply output power, which has to be precisely controlled (within 1%). The power supply must behave as a power source during normal operation or as a constant current source during fast discharge (known as arc) in the plasma , which results in a temporary near-short-circuit condition at the output. An arc can last less than 100 ns (known as micro arc), or it can cause additional cathode emission (known as hard arc) that requires turn off of the power supply for tens of s to stop further cathode damage. During arc condition, the output voltage changes very rapidly 100 kV/ s). Hence, noise immunity is a very im( portant practical requirement. A two-loop control is usually applied: an external (slower) loop controls the output power (or Manuscript received August 15, 2006; revised September 15, 2007. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor S. Y. Hui. M. Ilic is with Advanced Energy, Fort Collins, CO 80525 USA (e-mail: milan. [email protected]). D. Maksimovic is with the Colorado Power Electronics Center, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA (e-mail: [email protected]). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2008.920880 Fig. 1. Interleaved ZCT buck converter . voltage in some special plasma applications), while an internal (fast) loop controls the current . The zero current transition (ZCT) converter shown in Fig. 1 has been proposed in  for high-power, high-voltage dc–dc applications, such as the PVD processes. In this converter topology the switch turn-on losses and the diode recovery losses are significantly reduced. In addition, the two switches, which are operated out of phase, share the power. As a result, efficient operation at relatively high switching frequency is possible. Averaged switch modeling of the interleaved ZCT buck converter has been discussed in . The main objectives of this paper are to present the control design challenges, digital controller implementation techniques and experimental results for the ZCT converter of Fig. 1 in a 25 kW PVD power supply operating at 31.25 kHz switching frequency. In a conventional design, the external power-control loop, which is usually based on a digital integral compensator, receives a set point command from a system controller in a digital format. A digital-to-analog (D/A) converter then converts the calculated set point for the current loop to an analog current reference. Average current mode control , which offers a degree of immunity against the noise due to plasma arcing or switching transitions, is the most frequently applied control method for the inner loop. The challenges in the design of the inner current control loop are to achieve wide bandwidth and robust operation over a wide range of operating conditions (output voltage range 50–650 V, power range 250 W to 25 kW, output current up to 83 A). In a digital control implementation, parameters can be adaptively adjusted to meet the control requirements over the entire ranges of operating conditions. An important concern, however, is the bandwidth limitation due to delays associated with analog to digital (A/D) conversion, computation, and pulsewidth modulation (PWM). To address this issue, various predictive or dead-beat digital current control techniques have been proposed 0885-8993/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. ILIC AND MAKSIMOVIC: DIGITAL AVERAGE CURRENT-MODE CONTROLLER 1429 Fig. 2. Block diagram of the digital average current-mode controller. –. However, in these approaches the current is sampled once per switching cycle, which is not suitable for PVD applications where the noise levels are high due to fast arc events and switching transients, especially in systems where multiple power supplies are connected in parallel and the duty cycle can vary in a wide range (from less than 10% to more than 90%). Digital current control approaches based on multiple samples per period have been discussed in the context of charge control emulation  and emulation of hysteretic current control . Multiple samples per switching period can lead to effectively shorter response delay, at the expense of a faster current A/D converter. For the application considered in this paper, benefits of digital emulation of the average current control include shorter delay and improved noise immunity. Since the switching frequency is relatively low, multiple samples per period can be obtained using a relatively low-cost A/D converter. The system model and the proposed control method are introduced in Section II. Section III describes compensator design, including adaptive adjustments of the compensator gain in the digital current control loop to enable operation over wide ranges of output power and voltage. Simulation results and results of experimental verification on the 25 kW prototype are described in Section IV. Conclusions are given in Section V. II. SYSTEM MODEL AND DIGITAL AVERAGE CURRENT-MODE CONTROLLER The most important requirements for the inner current control loop are as follows. • Noise immunity. The plasma power supply operates in a very noisy environment due to arcs in the plasma, the rate of which can be as high as 1000 arcs/s. • Wide bandwidth of the current control loop is necessary to obtain sufficiently high output impedance. Plasma in newer PVD processes can behave as a large incremental negative impedance in the frequency range of 0.5–20 kHz. Designing the power supply for high output impedance is one way to ensure system stability. • Robustness over a very wide range of operating conditions. In the experimental prototype described in this paper, the output voltage range is 300–650 V (full output power is available), the output power range is 2.5 to 25 kW, and the output current is up to 83.3 A. To address these challenges, we consider realization of a digital average current-mode controller. The system block diagram is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Timing diagram of the predictive average current-mode control  and the averaging method described in this paper. GD1 and GD2 are the gate drive signals for the switches S1 and S2, respectively, in the converter of Fig. 1. A. Current Sensing and Averaging is sensed using a Hall-effect sensor The inductor current (LEM). The sensed current signal passes through an antialiasing , and is converted to digital form analog lowpass filter using a 10-bit 500 kS/s A/D converter. Implementation of the inductor current sampling and processing deserves attention. In predicitive current mode control approaches – the inductor current is sampled once per switching period, which means that a low-cost, low sampling-rate and low-power A/D converter can be used. In the predictive average current-mode control , , a triangle-wave PWM enables sampling of the current signal in the middle of the switch on time (or in the middle of the switch off time), which is advantegous for noise immunity. Unfortunately, these approaches are not well suited for current-mode control in power supplies for PVD applications because it is not possible to ensure noise immunity by selecting a single sampling point during a switching period. The duty cycle variations are very wide, and the environment is very noisy due to plasma arcs and switching disturbances from power stages operated in parallel. In order to improve noise immunity, after passing through the , the current signal is sampled multiple antialiasing filter times per switching period and a digital averaging filter computes the average current. In the experimental prototype, the switching frequency is 31.25 kHz, and the switching period is s. The current is sampled at the rate of 500 kS/s, and the sampling period is 2 s. Sixteen samples per switching period are averaged to produce a digital equivalent of the average inductor current. Since the switching frequency is relatively low, a relatively low-cost A/D converter meets the requirement for multiple samples of the inductor current per switching period. Fig. 3 compares the timing diagrams of the predictive control algorithm described in  with the timing diagram of the averaging approach described in this paper. In the predictive control implementation, the current is sampled once per switching period and the next duty cycle value is calculated during the next switching period (corresponding to s in our prototype). If, for example, a short-circuit arc transient occurs immediately after the sampling, the change will be observed after a delay equal to a switching period, and the control action will be executed as , i.e., as much as two switching periods (64 s) after the transient. This delay in reaction can potentially damage the plasma process. In the timing Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 1430 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, MAY 2008 Fig. 5. Small-signal model of the interleaved ZCT buck converter with the proposed average current-mode controller. Fig. 4. Frequency responses of the averaging filter and the Bessel filter approximation. diagram of the method described in this paper, the averaging filter outputs the average current value just before executing the next switching pulse and the updated duty cycle is computed with a delay of only 2 s. In frequency domain, the effects of the delay associated with the averaging filter can be inferred starting from the discretetime transfer function of the averaging filter (operating with the sampling period of 2 s, or 1/16 of the switching period): (1) The magnitude and phase responses of the averaging filter are shown in Fig. 4. Since the sampling is synchronized with the switching frequency (with 16 samples per switching period) the filter provides very high attenuation for the first seven harmonics of the switching frequency and significantly removes the effects of the switching noise from the computed average value. To account for the averaging filter responses in the current control loop that operates at the sampling rate equal to the switching period, we approximate the filter low-frequency response as a fourth-order Bessel filter with 31.5 kHz cut-off frequency. As shown in Fig. 4, this filter approximates the averaging filter response very well up to one-half of the switching frequency. It can be observed that the phase response corresponds to the effective delay of one-half of the switching period. Given the averaging filter that operates at the rate equal to 16 times the switching frequency, the antialiasing filter is implemented as an analog second-order Bessel filter with a cut-off frequency of 63 kHz. This filter provides 25 dB attenuation at one half of the sampling frequency (500 kS/s) of the averaging filter, which further improves the system noise immunity without significant increases in the phase delay. B. System Model and Current Loop Requirements The complete equivalent continuous-time small signal model of the system is shown in Fig. 5. It is a modified version of the models described in –. is the analog antialiasing filter, is the constant current-sensing gain (including A/D converter gain), is the approximate continuous-time Fig. 6. Small signal averaged switch model for the switch network of the interleaved ZCT buck converter. model of the digital averaging filter, models the delay of the A/D converter (conversion time) as well as the loop calculation time, and is the transfer function of the discrete-time digital current-loop compensator . The small-signal averaged model of the switch network in the interleaved ZCT buck converter shown in Fig. 1 is shown in Fig. 6, where the model parameters are as follows : (2) is the dc conversion ratio where From the model, the converter can be found as . transfer functions (3) (4) where (5) (6) From (3) and (4) it follows that the ZCT converter responses are similar to the responses of a conventional buck converter except for a reduced -factor associated with lossless damping due to zero-current transitions . Also, from (4) and (6) we note that the control-to-current gain is inversely proportional to the load resistance . Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. ILIC AND MAKSIMOVIC: DIGITAL AVERAGE CURRENT-MODE CONTROLLER Fig. 7. Frequency responses of the control-to-current transfer function two extreme operating points. G , for The parameters in the experimental ZCT buck converter of Fig. 1 are as follows: H F V V kW H s The load changes in a very wide range, from the minimum V and kW to the maxvalue of 3.6 at imum value of 169 at V and kW. Wide load variations result in wide variations of the control-to-current responses, as shown in Fig. 7. The low output load resistance results in high gain, low factor, and two real poles with a dominant pole at 1.16 kHz. The high output load resistance results in low gain (32 dB lower), high factor, and relatively high peaking at the resonant frequency of the LC filter. As mentioned earlier, because of the possibility that the plasma behaves as a relatively large incremental negative resistance, it is important to consider the current control loop requirements in terms of the output impedance. From the small-signal model in , the open-loop output impedance can be found as 1431 Fig. 8. Magnitude and phase responses of the open-loop output impedance Z . the output impedance is too low, the negative load impedance can result in instability and oscillations. It is therefore desired to achieve a current-loop bandwidth of several kHz, and a closed-loop output impedance of at least 6 at lower power levels. From Fig. 5, the equivalent -domain current loop gain can be found as (8) includes the current sensing gain and the where A/D converter gain, and the filter transfer functions are shown in (9), at the bottom of the page. Using the system model and the loop gain (8), the next section describes a design of the digital current-loop compensator to address the challenges of wide-bandwidth operation over the very wide range of operating conditions. III. CURRENT-LOOP COMPENSATOR DESIGN A. PI Compensator Design Consider a standard PI digital current-loop compensator based on the continuous-time PI template (7) (10) The magnitude and phase responses of the open-loop output impedance are shown in Fig. 8. At frequencies up to about 1.5 kHz, the magnitude of the open-loop output impedance is less than 6 . In experiments with different processes, negative impedances as high as 6 have been observed at lower power levels (less than 5 kW) in the frequency range of 0.5–20 kHz. If The compensator is applied to the error between the comset by the puted average current and the current reference outer power control loop. To provide some phase boost, the compensator zero is placed at 600 Hz, below the power stage (9) Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 1432 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, MAY 2008 TABLE I OUTPUT LOAD LOOK-UP TABLE value for the output power . The look-up table is shown in Table I. Between the values listed in Table I, a linear interpolation is used to determine the estimated load resistance as (12) where and refer to the indexes of the power and voltage entries, respectively, in Table I. The calculation in (12) can be further simplified by storing the multiplicative constants in a table. , the table includes For example, in addition to Fig. 9. Magnitude and phase responses of the loop gain T for two operating points. (13) Similarly, in addition to , the table includes the constant dominant pole frequency. The compensator pole is placed at 5 kHz, well above the target crossover frequency. The gain is . Using standard zero-order hold mapping , (10) is converted to a discrete-time compensator, which is implemented as (11) where the current error signal is calculated as the difference between the current set point and the computed inductor current . average value, The magnitude and phase responses of the current loop gain (8) with the PI compensator (11) are shown in Fig. 9 for the two extreme operating points. For the minimum-load resistance V, kW, the loop crossover frequency case of is 2.6 kHz and the phase margin is about 40 . Unfortunately, since the gain is inversely proportional to the load resistance, as discussed in Section II, very different results are obtained V, for the maximum load resistance case of kW. The crossover frequency is only 43 Hz, and therefore the closed-loop bandwidth is very low in this case. B. Adaptive Gain Adjustments To correct for the wide variations in the loop gain, it is desirable to adaptively adjust the compensator gain in proportion to . In adaptive control theory, the the load resistance approach of adjusting the compensator parameters in response to changes in operating conditions is known as “gain scheduling” . In the implementation described in this paper, the is estimated using a look-up table based on load resistance the measured value of the output voltage and the set-point (14) using Table I and The maximum error in computing (12)–(14) is 3%–4% at light load. found from (12), the compensator template (10) is With modified to have the gain proportional to and equal to V, kW, 3.967 at the maximum power point ( ). Then, using , a discrete-time compensator with adaptively adjusted gain is obtained (15) The magnitude and phase responses of the loop gain with adaptively adjusted gain of the compensator are shown in Fig. 10. Note that the low-frequency responses are now almost the same for the two extreme operating points. However, because of the increased factor in the maximum resistance case, the loop gain does not cross zero, which results in instability of the current loop at light load. C. Improved Compensator Design To correct for the stability problems at light loads, the compensator template (10) is further modified by adding a pole at 1.7 kHz , and by reducing the adapin order to maintain adetively adjustable gain to quate phase margins for all loads. The additional pole approxwhen the load resistance is imately cancels the zero in Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. ILIC AND MAKSIMOVIC: DIGITAL AVERAGE CURRENT-MODE CONTROLLER 1433 Using the system model in Fig. 5 and the power stage smallsignal model in Fig. 6, a small-signal model for finding the closed-loop output impedance is shown in Fig. 12. From Fig. 12, the closed-loop output impedance is found as (18) where (19) Fig. 10. Magnitude and phase responses of the loop gain T with adaptively adjusted gain of the PI compensator, for two operating points. The magnitude and phase responses of the closed-loop output impedance are shown in Figs. 13 and 14 for the two extreme operating points, respectively. At low frequencies and low power, the closed-loop output impedance is significantly higher than open loop impedance. IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Fig. 11. Magnitude and phase responses of the loop gain T with adaptively adjusted gain of the improved compensator, for two operating points. very high. The modified continuous-time compensator template is (16) which, using the zero-order hold mapping  together with the , results in the following adaptive gain adjustments, discrete-time realization (17) The resulting magnitude and phase responses are shown in Fig. 11. The crossover frequency and therefore the closed-loop bandwidth vary from 1.12 kHz for the minimum load resistance case to about 2.79 kHz for the maximum load resistance case. The phase margins are 47 and 70 , respectively. The controller has been implemented using a TI DSP TMS320C2407 and a XILINX Spartan 3 FPGA. DSP runs the external power loop, handles user I/O communication, and for adaptive gain calculations. estimates the load impedance The power loop includes a simple integral compensator, and has a closed-loop bandwidth of less than 300 Hz. As a result, the power control loop does not affect the closed-loop output impedance in the range of frequencies of interest (0.5–20 kHz). The FPGA processes current samples including digital averaging filter, computes the duty-cycle command based on the improved compensator (16) with adaptively adjusted gain, and implements the digital PWM (DPWM). The compensator calculations on the FPGA are performed in fixed-point arithmetic using 18-bit built-in hardware multipliers. The switching period is 32 s and the DPWM time resolution is 20 ns, which gives 11 bits of DPWM resolution, sufficient to avoid limit cycling oscillations , . The experimental prototype has been tested with plasma load. Fig. 15 shows the output voltage and output current waveforms obtained with the simple PI controller (10), at a low output kW). At this operating point, the plasma power set point ( incremental negative impedance is estimated at . Since the current loop crossover frequency is very low, as shown in Fig. 9, the power supply output impedance is low (less than 3.2 ). The resulting instability leads to oscillations at about 800 Hz, which can be observed in Fig. 15. Fig. 15 also shows how arcs result in temporary short-circuit conditions at the output. Under the same conditions, the improved compensator (16) with adaptive gain adjustment results in stable operation, as shown in Fig. 16. In plasma applications, the anode (positive terminal) is grounded, which is why the voltage and current waveforms are shown as negative values. Comparisons of predicted and measured frequency responses of the current loop gain in Figs. 17 and 18 provide further verification of the power supply performance using the improved compensator with adaptive gain adjustment. Fig. 17 shows a comparison between simulated and measured results for the magnitude and phase responses of the current loop Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 1434 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, MAY 2008 Fig. 12. Model for output impedance calculation. Fig. 13. Closed-loop output impedance: V = 300 V, P = 25 kW. Fig. 15. Experimental waveforms (2 ms/div) illustrating instability at P = 5 kW set point with plasma load, for the power supply using the simple PI compensator (11). Fig. 14. Closed-loop output impedance: V = 650 V, P = 2:5 kW. gain for the output load of , and the output power of kW, while Fig. 18 shows the corresponding results for the output load of and the output power of kW. The measured results are consistent with the model predictions: the proposed approach results in sufficiently high Fig. 16. Stable operation at P = 5 kW set point with plasma load (2 ms/div), for the power supply using the improved compensator (16) with adaptive gain adjustment. crossover frequencies and phase margins over the wide range of output power levels. Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. ILIC AND MAKSIMOVIC: DIGITAL AVERAGE CURRENT-MODE CONTROLLER Fig. 17. Magnitude and phase responses of the loop gain T with adaptively adjusted gain of the improved compensator, for R = 3:6 , P = 25 kW: simulated versus measured results. Fig. 18. Magnitude and phase responses of the loop gain T with adaptively adjusted gain of the improved compensator, for R = 167 , P = 2:53 kW: simulated versus measured results. 1435 Fig. 20. Current loop transient response for load change from 10 (0.2 ms/div). to 5 Fig. 21. Transient response for a power set point change from 1 kW to 15 kW (2 ms/div). Fig. 20 shows a transient response of the inner current loop for the load change from 10 to 5 . The settling time of about 0.5 ms is in agreement with the designed current loop bandwidth, which is greater than 1 kHz at all operating points. A step transient output power response (power set point changed from 1 to 15 kW) of the system with resistive load is shown in Fig. 21. V. CONCLUSION Fig. 19. Current loop transient response for load change from 5 (0.2 ms/div). to 10 Fig. 19 shows a step load transient response of the inner current loop: the current set point is constant (approximately 30A) and the resistive load is changed from 5 to 10 . Similarly, In this paper we present a digital average current mode controller suitable for power supplies in PVD applications where challenges include very wide ranges of operating conditions, and a noisy environment due to arc transients or operation of multiple converters in parallel. The current control loop uses an averaging filter to enhance immunity in the noisy environment. The current loop calculation is executed in less than 2 s on a TI DSP TMS320C2407/Spartan 3 combination, which results in fast response times to arc transients. The current loop crossover frequency is between 1 and 3 kHz using a PI compensator with adaptive gain adjustments to address operation over very wide ranges of output voltage and load. An outer power control loop Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. 1436 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, MAY 2008 and the inner adaptive average current control loop are implemented on a digital signal processer/field-programmable gate array digital control platform and the performances are verified on a 25 kW (300 V, 83.3 A) experimental interleaved zero current transition buck prototype.  A. de Castro, P. Zumel, O. Garcia, T. Riesgo, and J. Uceda, “Concurrent and simple digital controller of an AC/DC converter with power factor correction based on an FPGA,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pt. 2, pp. 334–343, Jan. 2003.  W. Stefanutti and P. Mattavelli, “Fully digital hysteresis modulation with switching-time prediction,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 763–769, May/Jun. 2006.  R. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.  W. Tang, F. C. Lee, and R. B. Ridley, “Small-signal modeling of average current-mode control,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 112–119, Apr. 1993.  Y. S. Jung, J. Y. Lee, and M. J. Youn, “A new small signal modeling of average current mode control,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, 2004, vol. 2, pp. 1118–1124.  G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell, and M. L. Workman, Digital Control of Dynamic Systems, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.  K. J. Åström and B. Wittenmark, Adaptive Control, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1994.  A. V. Petrechev and S. R. Sanders, “Quantization resolution and limit cycling in digitally controlled PWM converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 301–308, Jan. 2003.  H. Peng, A. Prodic, E. Alarcon, and D. Maksimovic, “Modeling of quantization effects in digitally controlled dc–dc converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 208–215, Jan. 2007. REFERENCES  J. S. Chapin, “Sputtering Source and Apparatus,” U.S. Patent 4 166 018, Aug. 28, 1979.  H. E. McKelvey, “Magnetron Cathode Sputtering Apparatus,” U.S. Patents 4 422 916 and 4 356 073, Dec. 27, 1983, Oct. 26, 1982.  G. Herklotz and H. Eligehausen, “Technological advances in physical vapor deposition,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 173–180, Jun. 1983.  D. Bonnet, B. Henrichs, and H. Richter, “High-rate deposition of highquality CdTe films for high-efficiency solar cells,” in Proc. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., 1991, pp. 1165–1168.  J. A. Zapien, “Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry of thin film CdTe deposition by magnetron sputtering for photovoltaic applications,” in Proc. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., 2005, pp. 461–464, and all.  Y. P. Raizer, Gas Discharge Physics. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.  P. Boniger, “Power Supply Unit for a Plasma Plant,” U.S. Patent 4 224 662, Sep. 23, 1980.  M. Ilic and D. Maksimovic, “Interleaved zero current transition buck converter,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1265–1271.  M. Ilic and D. Maksimovic, “Averaged switch modeling of the interleaved zero current transition buck converter,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, 2005, pp. 2158–2163.  L. H. Dixon, “Average current mode control of switching power supplies,” in Unitrode Power Supply Design Seminar Handbook, 1997.  S. Buso, S. Fasolo, and P. Mattavelli, “Uninterruptible power supply multiloop control employing digital predictive voltage and current regulators;,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1846–1854, Nov. –Dec. 2001.  A. Borisavljevic, M. R. Iravani, and S. B. Dewan, “Digitally controlled high power switch-mode rectifier,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 913–924, Nov. 2002.  P. Athalye, D. Maksimovic, and R. Erickson, “Variable-frequency predictive digital current mode control,” IEEE Power Electron. Lett., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 113–116, Dec. 2004.  S. Bibian and J. Hua, “High performance predictive dead-beat digital controller for DC power supplies,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 420–427, May 2002.  S. Bibian and J. Hua, “Time delay compensation of digital control for DC switch mode power supplies using prediction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 835–842, Sep. 2000.  C. Jingquan, A. Prodic, R. W. Erickson, and D. Maksimovic, “Predictive digital current programmed control,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 1, pt. 2, pp. 411–419, Jan. 2003.  H. Peng and D. Maksimovic, “Digital current-mode controller for dc–dc converters,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 899–905.  S. Chattopadhyay and S. Das, “A digital current-mode control technique for dc–dc converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1718–1726, Nov. 2006.  W. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, and B. Wu, “A new duty cycle control strategy for power factor correction and FPGA implementation,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1745–1753, Nov. 2006. Milan Ilic (M’91) received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1984 and 1987, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Colorado, Boulder, in 2007. From 1984 to 1994, he was with the Department of Electronics at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade as a Teaching and Research Assistant. From 1997 to 2001, he was with Corporate Research and Development, General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY where he was involved in design of medical electronics. Since 2001, he has been with Advanced Energy Industries, Fort Collins, CO. His current research areas include high frequency high power supplies, digital control techniques, and power supplies for special applications. Dragan Maksimovic (SM’05) received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1984 and 1986, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in 1989. From 1989 to 1992, he was with the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Since 1992, he has been with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, where he is currently a Professor and Director of the Colorado Power Electronics Center (CoPEC). His current research interests include digital control techniques and mixed-signal integrated circuit design for power electronics. Dr. Maksimovic received the NSF CAREER Award in 1997, the Power Electronics Society TRANSACTIONS Prize Paper Award in 1997, the Bruce Holland Excellence in Teaching Award in 2004, and the University of Colorado Inventor of the Year Award in 2006. Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Downloaded on September 9, 2009 at 14:15 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project