null  User manual
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
TECHNICAL MANUAL
CLEANING AND CORROSION CONTROL
VOLUME II
AIRCRAFT
This publication supersedes NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2/TM 1-1500-344-23-2, dated 01 March 2005.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE - For unclassified, limited documents, destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure
of contents or reconstruction of the document.
PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER, NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND
/3
15 APRIL 2009
Change 1 - 31March 2010
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES
Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:
Change ....................... 0 ......................... 15 Sep 1993
Original ........................ 0 ..........................15 Apr 2009
Change ....................... x ........................ xx XXX 199X
(Includes IRAC 1)
Change ....................... 1 ..........................31 Mar 2010Change x
xx XXX 199XCha
Insert latest changed pages; dispose of superseded pages in accordance with applicable regulations.
NOTE: On a changed page, the portion of the text affected by the latest change is indicated be a vertical line, or
other change symbol in the outer margin of the page. Change in illustrations are indicated by miniature pointing
hands. Changes to wiring diagrams are indicated by shaded areas.
Total number of pages in this manual is 234, consisting of the following:
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15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................ iv
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................ v
HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL .................................. vii
LIST OF TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS
DEFICIENCY REPORTS (TPDR)
INCORPORATED ............................ TPDR-1
WARNINGS APPLICABLE TO HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS ...................................... HMWS-1
1
3
General ...........................................
Purpose ...........................................
Scope ..............................................
Arrangement of Manual ..................
Related Publications .......................
Consumables and Equipment .........
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-1
2-9.
2-10.
2-11.
2-12.
2-13.
SECTION II. SPECIAL CLEANING .......... 2-33
2-14. Introduction ................................... 2-33
2-15. Cleaning After Exposure to
Volcanic Ash ............................... 2-33
2-16. Cleaning After Desert
Operations or Exposure to
Sand Environments .................... 2-33
General ...........................................
Inspection Methods .........................
Evaluation of Corrosion Damage ....
Degrees of Corrosion ......................
3-1
3-2
3-6
3-7
SECTION II. CORROSION
PRONE AREAS ...................................... 3-9
3-5.
4
Common Corrosion Prone Areas .... 3-9
CORROSION REMOVAL
4-1.
4-2.
4-3.
4-4.
4-5.
4-6.
4-7.
4-8.
4-9.
Purpose ........................................... 4-1
Responsibility .................................. 4-1
Corrective Maintenance .................. 4-1
Paint Removal ................................. 4-1
Mechanical Paint Removal ............. 4-1
Chemical Paint Removal ................. 4-5
Minor Paint Damage Repair ............ 4-8
Corrosion Removal ......................... 4-8
Corrosion Removal Equipment
and Materials ................................ 4-9
4-10. Corrosion Removal Procedures .... 4-17
4-11. Surface Finish ............................... 4-20
SECTION I. CLEANING AND
LUBRICATION ........................................ 2-1
Introduction ..................................... 2-1
Reasons for Cleaning ..................... 2-1
Frequency of Cleaning .................... 2-1
Water Quality .................................. 2-1
Cleaning Compounds ..................... 2-2
Steam Cleaning ............................... 2-5
Cleaning Equipment ........................ 2-5
Equipment Operating
Procedures ................................... 2-8
Cleaning Procedures .................... 2-10
Fresh Water Rinsing ..................... 2-26
Post Cleaning Procedures ............ 2-27
Treatment and Disposal of
Wash Rack Waste ...................... 2-28
Lubricants ...................................... 2-28
INSPECTION AND CORROSION
PRONE AREAS
3.1.
3-2.
3-3.
3-4.
CLEANING
2-1.
2-2.
2-3.
2-4.
2-5.
2-6.
2-7.
2-8.
Page
SECTION I. INSPECTION AND
EVALUATION ......................................... 3-1
INTRODUCTION
1-1.
1-2.
1-3.
1-4.
1-5.
1-6.
2
Chapter
5
SURFACE TREATMENT
5-1.
5-2.
5-3.
5-4.
5-5.
Purpose ...........................................
Surface Preparation ........................
Precautions .....................................
Chemical Conversion Coating ........
MIL-DTL-81706 Chemical
Conversion Coating for
Aluminum Alloys ...........................
5-6. AMS-M-3171 Chemical
Conversion Coating for
Magnesium Alloys ........................
5-7. Troubleshooting ..............................
5-8. Expired Service Life ........................
5-9. Post Treatment ................................
5-10. Temporary Preservation .................
5-1
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-4
5-5
5-5
5-5
5-6
i
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NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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6
TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC AREAS
6-1.
6-2.
6-3.
6-4.
6-5.
6-6.
6-7.
6-8.
6-9.
6-10.
6-11.
6-12.
6-13.
6-14.
6-15.
6-16.
6-17.
6-18.
6-19.
6-20.
7
Introduction ..................................... 6-1
Air Intake Ducts for Jet Aircraft ....... 6-1
Battery Compartments, Boxes,
and Adjacent Areas ...................... 6-1
Beryllium-Copper Alloys .................. 6-2
Cables, Steel ................................... 6-3
Depleted Uranium
Counterweights ............................. 6-3
Electrical and Electronic
Equipment ..................................... 6-3
EMI Seals and Gaskets .................. 6-4
Fasteners and Attaching Parts ....... 6-6
Faying Surfaces, Joints, and
Seams ........................................... 6-7
Fuel Tanks, Integral and External ... 6-7
Hinges, Piano Type ......................... 6-7
Relief Tube Areas ........................... 6-7
Rubber, Natural and Synthetic ........ 6-7
Springs ............................................ 6-8
Surfaces and Components
Exposed to Exhaust Gases,
Gun Gases, and Rocket Blast ...... 6-8
Tanks, Potable Water ..................... 6-8
Thin Metal (0.0625 Inch
Thickness or Less) ....................... 6-8
Tubing, Non-Structural Members
and Assemblies ............................ 6-8
Tubing, Structural Members
and Assemblies .......................... 6-10
SEALANTS
7-1.
7-2.
7-3.
7-4.
Purpose ........................................... 7-1
Reasons for Sealing ........................ 7-1
Sealant Packaging .......................... 7-1
Sealing Compounds and
Materials ....................................... 7-1
7-5. Sealing Equipment .......................... 7-7
7-6. Two Component Sealant Mixing
and Handling .............................. 7-10
7-7. Sealant Application Procedures .... 7-16
7-8. Sealing of Specific Areas .............. 7-20
7-9. Repair of Damaged Sealant .......... 7-25
7-10. Storage and Shelf Life .................. 7-27
8
ii
Introduction .....................................
Operational Preservation ................
Non-Operational Preservation ........
Types of CPCs ................................
Time Limitations of CPCs ...............
Description of CPCs ........................
Preservation of Specific Areas ........
Preservation Application
Methods ........................................
8-9. Application of Polish and Wax ........
8-10. Preservation of Assemblies and
Parts Removed from
Aircraft During Maintenance .........
9
8-1
8-1
8-5
8-5
8-9
8-9
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
9-1.
9-2.
9-3.
9-4.
9-5.
9-6.
9-7.
9-8.
APPENDIX A.
Purpose ...........................................
Responsibility ..................................
Emergency Preparations ................
General Procedures ........................
General Cleaning Procedures ........
Removal of Fire Extinguishing
Agents ...........................................
Treatment After Landing on a
Foamed Runway ..........................
Treatment of Specific Areas............
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-4
9-5
9-6
9-9
9-9
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
FOR NAVY AIRCRAFT
SECTION I. PAINT FINISHES AND
TOUCH-UP PROCEDURES ................... A-1
A-1.
A-2.
A-3.
A-4.
A-5.
A-6.
Scope .............................................. A-1
Safety .............................................. A-1
Storage and Shelf Life .................... A-1
Paint Systems ................................. A-2
Paint Equipment .............................. A-4
General Maintenance
Requirements for Paint
Spray Equipment .......................... A-8
A-7. Preparation of Surfaces for
Painting ......................................... A-9
A-8. General Paint Application
Procedures ................................. A-10
A-9. Touch-Up of Small Areas
(Less Than Two Square Feet) .... A-18
A-10. Specific Paint Application
Procedures ................................. A-21
SECTION II. AIRCRAFT AND
ENGINE CLEANING ............................. A-31
PRESERVATION
8-1.
8-2.
8-3.
8-4.
8-5.
8-6.
8-7.
8-8.
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
A-11. Scope ............................................ A-31
A-12. Aircraft Cleaning ........................... A-31
A-13. Equipment for Engine Cleaning .... A-31
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NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
APPENDIX B. SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
B-1.
Scope .............................................. B-1
SECTION I. AIRCRAFT
FINISH COATING ................................... B-3
B-2.
Painting and Touch-Up of
Army Aircraft, Chemical Agent
Resistant Coating Finish .............. B-3
SECTION II. CLEANING ............................ B-5
B-3.
Frequency of Cleaning .................... B-5
SECTION III. CORROSION REMOVAL
AND SURFACE TREATMENT ............... B-7
B-4.
Chemical Corrosion
Removal and Prepaint
Treatment of Aluminum Alloys ..... B-7
B-5. Chemical Corrosion
Removal and Treatment of
Magnesium Alloys ........................ B-8
B-6. Chemical Corrosion
Removal and Treatment of
Ferrous Metals Other than
Stainless Steel ............................ B-10
B-7. Chemical Corrosion
Removal and Treatment of
Stainless Steel and Nickel
Base Alloys ................................. B-11
B-8. Chemical Corrosion Removal and
Treatment of Copper and
Copper Base Alloys .................... B-13
B-9. Chemical Corrosion Removal and
Treatment of Titanium and
Titanium-Base Alloys .................. B-14
B-10. Chemical Corrosion Removal and
Treatment of Plated and
Phosphated Surfaces ................. B-14
SECTION IV.TREATMENT OF
SPECIFIC AREAS ................................ B-17
B-11. Purpose ......................................... B-17
B-12. Corrosion Treatment of Specific
Type Tubing ................................ B-17
B-13. Corrosion Removal from
Thin Metal ................................... B-19
B-14. Corrosion and Paint Removal from
Metal Components
Removed from Aircraft ............... B-19
B-15. Air Intake Ducts - Jet Aircraft ........ B-19
B-16. Closely Coiled Springs .................. B-19
B-17. Corrosion Treatment of
Steel Cables ............................... B-19
SECTION V. DECONTAMINATION
PROCEDURES FOR SALT WATER AND
MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTH
CONTAMINATION ................................ B-21
B-18. General ......................................... B-21
B-19. Salt Water Contamination ............. B-21
B-20. Microbiological Growth
Contamination of Fuel Cells ....... B-22
B-21. Removal of Microbiological
Growths ...................................... B-24
SECTION VI. IDENTIFICATION
OF METALS .......................................... B-25
B-22.
B-23.
B-24.
B-25.
General ......................................... B-25
Primary Classification ................... B-25
Chemical Spot Analysis ................ B-25
Testing Procedures for
Types of Surface Treatment ....... B-25
B-26. Contents of Metal
Identification Kit .......................... B-25
SECTION VII. PLASTIC MEDIA
BLASTING (PMB) FOR ARMY
AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS ................. B-29
B-27. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB)
for Army Aircraft Components .... B-29
SECTION VIII. CONSUMABLE
MATERIALS .......................................... B-33
iii
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
Title
Page
2-1. Small Portable Foam Generating
Cleaning Unit (20 Gallons) ........................ 2-6
2-2. Large Portable Foam Generating
Cleaning Unit (45 Gallons) ........................ 2-7
2-3. Washing and Rinsing of Aircraft Surfaces .. 2-20
2-4. Use of Aircraft Washing Applicator ............. 2-20
2-5. Aircraft Cleaning Procedure ........................ 2-21
2-6. Automatic Water Spray Nozzle ................... 2-22
2-7. Aircraft at a Taxi-Through Rinse Facility .... 2-27
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
3-4.
3-5.
3-6.
3-7.
3-8.
3-9.
3-10.
3-11.
3-12.
3-13.
3-14.
3-15.
3-16.
3-17.
3-18.
3-19.
3-20.
3-21.
3-22.
3-23.
Fiber Optic Borescope .................................. 3-2
Measuring Corrosion with a Depth Gage ...... 3-3
Optical Depth Micrometer ............................. 3-4
Usage of Straight Edge to
Determine if Suspect Areas Have
Been Previously Reworked ....................... 3-7
Battery Compartment .................................... 3-9
Helicopter Bilge Area .................................... 3-9
Control Cables ............................................ 3-10
Jet Engine Frontal Area .............................. 3-10
Corrosion in Air Intake Duct ........................ 3-11
Corrosion Prone Points of
Air and Engine Inlet ................................. 3-11
Gun Blast Area ............................................ 3-11
Exhaust Trail Area ....................................... 3-12
Corrosion Around Fasteners ....................... 3-12
Galvanic Corrosion of Aluminum Alloy
Sheet Adjacent to Steel Fasteners .......... 3-12
Flaps Lowered to Expose Recess Areas .... 3-13
Hinge Corrosion Points ............................... 3-13
Piano Hinge Lugs ........................................ 3-13
Typical Corrosion Around a
Relief Tube Vent ...................................... 3-14
Spot Welded Skin Corrosion Mechanism ... 3-14
Spot Weld Corrosion ................................... 3-14
Common Water Entrapment Areas ............. 3-14
P-3 Nose Landing Gear Wheel Well ........... 3-15
Wing Fold Joint ........................................... 3-15
4-1. Masking Around Area to be Stripped ............ 4-7
4-2. Bristle Discs Stacked on
Mandrel Assembly ................................... 4-13
4-3. Scotch-Brite™ Flap Brush and Mandrel ..... 4-15
4-4. Abrasive Flap Wheels with Spindle Mount . 4-15
iv
Figure
4-5.
4-6.
4-7.
4-8.
Title
Page
Glove Box Unit Blast Cabinet ......................
Portable Vacuum Blast Equipment .............
Shaping Reworked Areas ...........................
Clean-Up of Pitting Corrosion on
Critical Structure ......................................
4-9. Clean-Up of Limited Clearance Areas ........
4-16
4-16
4-21
4-22
4-22
5-1. A Water Break-Free Surface
Compared with One with Breaks ...............
5-2. Touch-N-Prep (TNP) Pen .............................
5-3. Application of TNP Pen on
Aluminum Substrate ..................................
5-4. Magnesium Treatment Kit .............................
6-1. Beryllium-Copper Spiral Contact with
Environmental Fluorosilicone Seal ............
6-2. Dorsal Longeron EMI Seal ............................
6-3. Stainless Steel EMI Screen ..........................
6-4. Bonding Cable From Airframe to
Graphite/Epoxy Avionics Bay Door ...........
6-5. EMI Bonding Washers in Avionics Bay .........
7-1.
7-2.
7-3.
7-4.
7-5.
7-6.
7-7.
7-8.
7-9.
7-10.
7-11.
7-12.
7-13.
7-14.
7-15.
7-16.
7-17.
7-18.
5-1
5-3
5-4
5-4
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-5
Sealant Decision Tree ................................... 7-4
Pneumatic Sealant Gun ................................ 7-7
Manual Sealant Gun ..................................... 7-7
Sealant Application Nozzles ......................... 7-8
Sealant and Adhesive Smoothing Tools ....... 7-9
Countersink Application Nozzles ................ 7-11
Rivet Application Nozzles ........................... 7-12
High-Pressure Sealant Injection Guns ........ 7-13
Injection Style Semkit .................................. 7-14
Application of Sealant with
Non-Metallic Spatulaa ............................. 7-17
Faying Surface Sealing ............................... 7-20
Typical Fillet Seal ........................................ 7-21
Typical Injection Seal .................................. 7-21
Typical Methods of Sealing Fasteners ........ 7-22
Typical Lap Skin Sealing ............................. 7-23
Sealing Procedures for Typical
Aircraft Fitting .......................................... 7-23
Typical Spar Cap Sealing ........................... 7-24
Sealing of Access Doors ............................. 7-25
8-1. CPC Decision Tree ....................................... 8-8
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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont.)
Figure
Title
Page
A-1. HVLP Spray Gun ........................................... A-4
A-2 HVLP Spray Gun Parts Breakdown .............. A-6
A-3. 3M PPS Mounted on a Spray Gun ............... A-7
A-4. Zahn No. 2 Viscosity Cup ............................. A-7
A-5 Wet Film Thickness Gage ............................. A-8
A-6. Paint Gun Washer ......................................... A-9
A-7. Obtaining Correct Spray Pattern ................. A-11
A-8. Estimating Distance to Work Surface ......... A-14
A-9 Parallel Movement of Spray Gun ................ A-14
A-10. Avoid Arcing the Spray Gun ........................ A-14
Figure
Title
Page
A-11. Spraying Corners ........................................ A-14
A-12. Improper Spray Angle ................................. A-14
A-13. Triggering the Spray Gun ............................ A-14
A-14. Proper Spray Pattern Overlap ..................... A-15
A-15. Sempens (Touch-up Pens) ......................... A-18
A-16. Sempen Parts Breakdown .......................... A-18
A-17. Sempen Application .................................... A-19
A-18. Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart .............. A-31
A-19. Corrosion Control Spray Unit ...................... A-32
LIST OF TABLES
Table
Title
Page
1-1. Outline of Volume II ...................................... 1-2
1-2. Related Navy Publications ............................ 1-3
1-3. Related Army Publications ............................ 1-4
2-1. Water Quality Guidelines .............................. 2-2
2-2. Suggested List of Wash Rack Items ........... 2-12
2-3. Cleaning of Specific Areas and
Components ............................................ 2-14
2-4. Recommended Dilution of
Low Temperature Cleaner ....................... 2-26
2-5. Common Military Greases and
Their Uses ............................................... 2-30
3-1. Inspection Equipment and Techniques ......... 3-2
4-1. Recommended Non-Powered
Abrasives for Corrosion Removal ...........
4-2. Grades of Abrasive Mats ............................
4-3. Grades of Steel Wool ..................................
4-4. Recommended Powered Abrasives for
Corrosion Removal ..................................
4-10
4-11
4-11
4-12
Table
Title
Page
8-1. Time Limitations for CPCs ............................ 8-2
8-2 Aircraft Corrosion Preventive
Compounds ............................................... 8-3
8-3. Preservation of Specific Areas and
Components .............................................. 8-6
9-1. Recommended Priority Removal Guide for
Emergency Treatment of Aircraft .............. 9-2
9-2. Recommended List of Emergency
Reclamation Items ..................................... 9-3
A-1. Primary Coatings Used on U.S. Navy
Aircraft ....................................................... A-3
A-2. Original Coating Systems and
Corresponding Touch-up Systems ............ A-4
A-3. Troubleshooting Faulty Spray Patterns ...... A-12
A-4. Paint Finish Problems ................................. A-16
B-1. Control of the Dissolving Action of
Nitric-Hydrofluoric Acid Solution .............. B-12
B-2. Metal Identification Kit ................................. B-26
B-3. Consumable Materials ................................ B-33
7-1. Sealing Compounds ...................................... 7-2
7-2. Time Requirements for Two
Component Sealants ............................... 7-15
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HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL
1. This manual is one of a set. A complete set of manuals to perform aircraft cleaning and corrosion control functions
consists of Volume I (Corrosion Theory), Volume II (this volume), and Volume IV (Consumable Materials and
Equipment for Aircraft and Avionics).
2. The following major changes have been made in this revision. These changes should be reviewed for
incorporation into local work documents, if applicable.
Addition of Melamine Wash Pads for hard to
clean soils
Chapter 2, Paragraph 2-7.9.2
Page 2-7
Addition of Suggested List of Wash Rack Items
Chapter 2, Table 2-2
Page 2-12
Addition of all-purpose grease, MIL-PRF-32014
Chapter 2, Table 2-5
Page 2-30
Addition of Special Cleaning section for desert
operations and sand environments
Chapter 2, Section II
Page 2-33
Extended authorization of use for Radial Bristle
Disc to include magnesium and titanium
Chapter 4, Paragraph 4-9.2.1
Page 4-11
Addition of Hi-Tak Tape for sealing removable
floor boards
Chapter 7, Paragraphs 7-4.4, 7-7.8, 7-9.4
Pages 7-6, 7-19, 7-26
(Navy Only) Addition of Class N (non-chrome
corrosion inhibited) primer materials
Appendix A, Paragraphs A-10.2 - A-10.4
Pages A-22 - A-25
(Navy Only) Removal of Self-Priming Topcoat,
TT-P-2756, as an authorized paint
Appendix A, Paragraph A-10.5.1.2
Page A-26
(Army Only) Addition of Plastic Media Blast
Section
Appendix B, Section VII
Page B-29
3. Specification and document references have been updated throughout the manual.
4. Cleaning and Corrosion Control questions may be directed to NAVAIR North Island, Code 4.3.4.6, 619-545-9759.
vii
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15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
LIST OF TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS DEFICIENCY REPORTS INCORPORATED
Report Control Number (RCN)
Location
Report Control Number (RCN)
Location
NADEP NORIS
65888 2008 0837
Army Aviation Support Division
PRC #94A0982
Pg B-19, B-22, B-23
Pg HMWS-5
HMM-764
09402 2009 0001
Army Aviation Support Division
PRC #05P01585
Pg B-33
Pg 3-6
VFA-122
09355 2007 0030
Army Aviation Support Division
PRC #05P01586
Pg B-5
Pg A-9
Army Aviation Support Division
PRC #05P02079
Pg B-29
Army Aviation Support Division
PRC #98P01497
Pg B-33
Army Aviation Support Division
PRC #08P01030
Pg A-31
Army Aviation Support Division
PRC #01P01500
Pg 2-1
ix
TPDR-1/(TPDR-2 Blank)
15 April 2009
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THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
xTPDR-2
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
WARNINGS APPLICABLE TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
1. Warnings and cautions for hazardous materials
listed are designed to apprise personnel of hazards
associated with such items when they come in contact
with them by actual use. Additional information related
to hazardous materials is provided in the Navy
Hazardous Material Control Program NAVSUPPINST
5100.27, Navy Safety and Occupational Health (SOH)
Program Manuals, OPNAVINST 5100.23 (Ashore)
and OPNAVINST 5100.19 (Afloat), and the DoD
Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) program, DoDI
6050.05. For each hazardous material used within
the Navy, a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) must
be provided and available for review by users. Consult
your local safety and health staff concerning any
questions regarding hazardous materials, MSDS,
personal protective equipment requirements,
appropriate handling and emergency procedures
and disposal guidance.
4. EXPLANATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
ICONS.
2. Under the heading HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
WARNINGS, complete warnings, including related
icon(s) and a numeric identifier, are provided for
hazardous materials used in this manual. The numeric
identifiers have been assigned to the hazardous
material in alphabetical order by material
nomenclature. Each hazardous material is assigned
only one numerical identifier. Repeat use of a specific
hazardous material references the numeric identifier
assigned at its initial appearance. The approved
icons and their application are shown below.
This rapidly expanding symbol shows
that the material may explode if
subjected to high temperature, sources
of ignition or high pressure.
3. In the text of the manual, the caption WARNING is
not used for hazardous material warnings. Hazards
are cited with appropriate icon(s), the nomenclature
of the hazardous material and the numeric identifier
that relates to the complete warning. Users of
hazardous materials shall refer to the complete
warnings, as necessary.
Fire
Chemical
The symbol of a liquid dripping onto a
hand shows that the material will cause
burns or irritation to human skin or tissue.
Cryogenic
The symbol of a hand in a block of ice
shows that the material is extremely
cold and can injure human skin or tissue.
Explosion
Eye Protection
The symbol of a person wearing goggles
shows that the material will injure the
eyes.
The symbol of a fire shows that the
material may ignite or overheat and cause
burns.
Poison
The symbol of a skull and crossbones
shows that the material is poisonous or
is a danger to life.
Vapor
The symbol of a human figure in a cloud
shows that material vapors present a
danger to life or health.
HMWS-1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS
INDEX
1
MATERIAL
Alcohol, Isopropyl
TT-I-735
WARNING
Isopropyl alcohol, TT-I-735, is toxic, flammable, and a skin and respiratory tract
irritant. It may be fatal if swallowed.
DO NOT use near open flame, sparks or heat. DO NOT use synthetic cloths for
wiping with this solvent. DO NOT smoke, eat or drink when using solvent. Avoid
breathing vapor. Use only in well ventilated areas. Metal containers containing
solvent shall be grounded to prevent sparking and fires. Avoid prolonged
breathing of vapor and skin contact, which can cause dermatitis, irritated nose
and throat, and dizziness.
Protection: Wear butyl gloves and chemical goggles; faceshield and protective
clothing required when splashing is possible or expected; half-mask respirator
with organic vapor cartridge required in poorly ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If ingested, give water to
drink and seek medical attention. Do not induce vomiting. If inhalation occurs,
remove from area to fresh air.
2
Cleaning Compound,
Aircraft, Exterior
MIL-PRF-85570
Type II
Cleaning compound, MIL-PRF-85570 Type II, is an eye, skin, and respiratory
tract irritant.
Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Prolonged contact may cause
dermatitis. Avoid breathing vapors. Avoid contact with strong acids or oxidizing
agents. Use only in well ventilated areas. Wash hands thoroughly after use.
Launder contaminated clothing before re-use. Keep containers closed when not
in use. Store in a cool, dry, well ventilated area.
Protection: Wear chemical goggles, rubber gloves, faceshield, and protective
clothing; half-mask respirator with organic vapor cartridge required in poorly
ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If inhalation occurs, remove
from area to fresh air.
3
Cleaning Compound,
Turbine Engine
Gas Path
MIL-PRF-85704
Type II/II RTU
Cleaning compound, MIL-PRF-85704 Type II/II RTU, is toxic, and an eye, skin
and respiratory tract irritant.
Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Prolonged contact may cause
dermatitis. Avoid breathing vapors. Use only in well ventilated areas. Wash hands
thoroughly after use. Launder contaminated clothing before re-use. Keep
containers closed when not in use. Store in a cool, dry, well ventilated area.
Protection: Wear chemical goggles, rubber gloves, faceshield, and protective
clothing; half-mask respirator with organic vapor cartridge required in poorly
ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If ingested, give water to
drink and seek medical attention. Do not induce vomiting. If inhalation occurs,
remove from area to fresh air.
HMWS-2
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS (Cont.)
INDEX
MATERIAL
WARNING
4
Compound,
Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
Type II and Type III
Corrosion preventive compound, MIL-PRF-81309 Type II and Type III, is toxic,
flammable, and a respiratory tract irritant.
Avoid contact with skin and eyes. DO NOT use near open flame, sparks, or heat.
Vapor accumulations may explode if ignited. Avoid contact with oxidizing agents.
Use only in well ventilated areas. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water
after use. Keep container tightly closed when not in use.
Protection: Wear chemical goggles and rubber gloves; faceshield and laboratory
apron required when working with large quantities; half-mask respirator with
acid/organic vapor cartridge and mist prefilter required during spraying operations
or in poorly ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If ingested, do not induce
vomiting, seek medical attention. If inhalation occurs, remove from area to
fresh air.
5
Compound,
Corrosion Preventive
MIL-DTL-85054
Corrosion preventative compound, MIL-DTL-85054, is toxic, flammable, and a
respiratory tract irritant.
Avoid contact with eyes and skin. DO NOT use near open flame, sparks, or heat.
Use only in well ventilated areas. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water
after use. Keep container tightly closed when not in use.
Protection: Wear chemical goggles and rubber gloves.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If ingested, do not induce
vomiting, seek medical attention. If inhalation occurs, remove from area to
fresh air.
6
Compound,
Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-16173
Grade 1, 2, and 4
Corrosion preventative compound, MIL-PRF-16173, is toxic, flammable, and a
respiratory tract irritant.
Avoid contact with eyes and skin. DO NOT use near open flame, sparks, or heat.
Use only in well ventilated areas. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water
after use. Keep container tightly closed when not in use. Avoid contact with
oxidizing agents.
Protection: Wear chemical goggles, laboratory apron, and rubber gloves;
faceshield and laboratory apron required when working with large quantities; halfmask respirator with acid/organic vapor cartridge and mist prefilter required
during spraying operations or in poorly ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If ingested, do not induce
vomiting, seek medical attention. If inhalation occurs, remove from area to
fresh air.
HMWS-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS (Cont.)
INDEX
MATERIAL
WARNING
7
Conversion
Coating For
Aluminum Alloys,
MIL-DTL-81706
Class 1A or Class 3
Chemical conversion coating MIL-DTL-81706 Class 1A Form III, Class 1A Form
V, or Class 3 Form III, is toxic and flammable. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Avoid breathing vapors; upper respirator tract irritation or damage may occur.
May be harmful or fatal if swallowed. Contains chromic acid, a systemic poison,
which may aggravate pre-existing conditions. Wash hands and face with soap
and water after use and before smoking or eating. Immediately remove
contaminated clothing and launder before re-use. Avoid humidity, strong acids,
alkalies, reducing compounds, flammable or combustible materials. Store in a
dry area in tightly closed containers. Store away from oils, greases, and
corrosives. When mixing: add slowly to water while mixing. Protection: rubber
gloves, chemical goggles, faceshield, and laboratory apron; dust mask required
when mixing MIL-DTL-81706 Class 1A Form V; halfmask respirator with
acid/organic vapor cartridge and mist pre-filter is required during spray operations
in poorly ventilated areas.
8
Conversion
Coating For
Magnesium Alloy,
AMS-M-3171
Chemical conversion material, AMS-M-3171, is toxic and flammable. Avoid
contact with skin and eyes. Avoid breathing fumes. Store in dry, cool but above
freezing temperature area away from acids and organic compounds.
Recommended local exhaust. Protection: chemical resistant gloves/rubber,
chemical safety goggles with side shield, chemically resistant coveralls, hat and
shoes; halfmask respirator with organic vapor cartridges and mist pre-filter
required in poorly ventilated areas.
9
Detergent, General
Purpose
(Liquid, Nonionic)
MIL-D-16791 Type I
Cleaning compound, MIL-D-16791, is an eye and skin irritant.
Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Avoid contact with strong oxidizing or
reducing agents. Store away from heat sources. Material is corrosive to copper
and brass over long storage periods.
Protection: Wear chemical goggles and rubber gloves.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water.
HMWS-4
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS (Cont.)
INDEX
10
MATERIAL
Fluid, Hydraulic
MIL-PRF-83282
WARNING
Hydraulic fluid, MIL-PRF-83282, is a skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant. May
contain small quantities of tricresyl-phosphate, a toxic substance. There is a slight
fire/explosive hazard when fluid is exposed to heat and flames.
Use in well ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed when not in use. Keep
away from heat sparks, open flames, and oxidizing agents. Avoid contact with
clothing, eyes and skin. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after use.
Protection: Wear chemical goggles, butyl gloves, and faceshield; half-mask
respirator with organic vapor cartridge may be required in poorly ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If inhalation occurs, remove
from area to fresh air.
11
Naphtha, Aliphatic
TT-N-95 Type II
Aliphatic Naphtha, TT-N-95 Type II, is toxic, flammable, explosive, and a skin,
eye and respiratory tract irritant.
DO NOT use near open flame, sparks or heat. Vapor accumulation can flash or
explode if ignited. DO NOT use synthetic cloths for wiping with this solvent. Avoid
contact with strong oxidizing agents. Use only in well ventilated areas. Metal
containers containing solvent shall be grounded to prevent sparking and fires.
Avoid prolonged breathing of vapor and skin contact, which can cause dermatitis,
irritated nose and throat and dizziness. Ingestion will cause gastro-intestinal
irritation.
Protection: Wear butyl gloves and chemical goggles; faceshield and protective
clothing required when splashing is possible or expected; half-mask respirator
with organic vapor cartridge required in poorly ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If ingested, give water to
drink and seek medical attention. Do not induce vomiting. If inhalation occurs,
remove from area to fresh air.
12
Sealing and Coating
Compound,
Corrosion Inhibitive,
MIL-PRF-81733
Class Optional
Sealing and coating compound corrosion inhibitive, MIL-PRF-81733 is toxic and
flammable. Avoid prolonged breathing of vapors and prolonged or repeated skin
contact. Keep away from heat, sparks, and open flame. Use with adequate
ventilation to prevent vapor buildup. Protection: rubber gloves, chemical goggles
and protective skin compound.
HMWS-5
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WARNINGS (Cont.)
INDEX
MATERIAL
WARNING
13
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680 Type II
and Type III
Degreasing solvent, MIL-PRF-680 Type II and III, is flammable, and a skin and
respiratory tract irritant. Type II has a lower flashpoint (140° F) than Type III
(200° F).
DO NOT use near open flame, sparks or heat. DO NOT use synthetic cloths for
wiping with this solvent. DO NOT smoke, eat or drink when using solvent. Avoid
contact with strong oxidizing agents. Use only in well ventilated areas. Metal
containers containing solvent shall be grounded to prevent sparking and fires.
Avoid prolonged breathing of vapor and skin contact, which can cause dermatitis,
irritated nose and throat and dizziness. Ingestion will cause gastro-intestinal
irritation.
Protection: Wear butyl gloves and chemical goggles; faceshield and protective
clothing required when splashing is possible or expected; half-mask respirator
with organic vapor cartridge required in poorly ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If ingested, give water to
drink and seek medical attention. Do not induce vomiting. If inhalation occurs,
remove from area to fresh air.
14
Thinner,
Aircraft Coating,
MIL-T-81772
Type I, II or III
Aircraft coating thinner, MIL-T-81772, is toxic and flammable. Avoid prolonged
breathing of vapors. Use adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with skin. Store in
cool, dry, well-ventilated area. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Do not
apply to hot surfaces. Avoid contact with oxidizing agents, corrosives, and
peroxides. Protection: neoprene gloves and chemical goggles.
15
Cleaner,
Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP-Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
Type I and II
Non-aqueous cleaner, MIL-PRF-32295 Type I and II, is a skin, eye, and
respiratory tract irritant. It is flammable if exposed to high heat, sparks, or flames.
DO NOT use near open flame, sparks or heat. Combustion products may be
toxic. Avoid contact with strong oxidizing agents. Use only in well ventilated
areas. Metal containers containing cleaner shall be grounded to prevent sparking
and fires. Avoid prolonged breathing of vapor and skin contact, which can cause
dermatitis, irritated nose and throat and dizziness. Ingestion will cause gastrointestinal irritation.
Protection: Wear chemical impervious gloves (non-latex) and chemical goggles;
faceshield and protective clothing required when splashing is possible or
expected; respirator with organic vapor cartridge and P- or R-series particulate
filter required in poorly ventilated areas.
If eye contact occurs, flush immediately with large amounts of water for
15 minutes and seek medical attention. If skin contact occurs, wash with soap
and water, remove contaminated clothing and shoes. If ingested, seek medical
attention. Do not induce vomiting. If inhalation occurs, remove from area to fresh
air. Seek medical attention if breathing is diffucult and does not improve.
HMWS-6
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
This volume was prepared under the technical cognizance of the
Materials Engineering Division, NAVAIR North Island, San Diego, California.
1-1. GENERAL. Military aviation is recognized for its
unique and complex set of challenges, including maritime
patrol operation requirements and powerful
electromagnetic operating fields. The highly constrained
maintenance infrastructure available to deployed units
to combat corrosion can limit the effectiveness of
prevention and corrosion control. The materials used to
construct military aircraft also contribute to corrosion.
High strength steels used in landing gear and launch/
recovery systems are sensitive to pitting and stress
corrosion cracking, which can lead to catastrophic failure.
Aluminum alloys susceptible to exfoliation and
intergranular corrosion are commonly found on wing
skin and other load carrying structures. Even
magnesium, one of the most corrosion sensitive metals
known, is still used in canopy frames and gear boxes.
Added to this is the ever increasing age of military
aircraft and the need to comply with stricter environmental
regulations. All of these factors combine to make
corrosion prevention and control a significant factor in
the safe and economic operation of military aircraft.
1-2. PURPOSE. The purpose of this manual is to
provide information on materials and procedures to
prevent, control, and repair corrosion damage to aircraft
on land or at sea.
1-3. SCOPE. The material in this manual contains
basic corrosion prevention and corrective maintenance
information to be used at Organizational, Intermediate,
and Depot levels.
1-4. ARRANGEMENT OF MANUAL.
1-4.1. A complete set of manuals to perform aircraft
cleaning and corrosion control functions consists of
Volumes I, II, and IV.
1-4.2. ARRANGEMENT OF VOLUME II. Volume II
consists of nine chapters and two appendices, arranged
as shown in Table 1-1.
1-5. RELATED PUBLICATIONS. Tables 1-2 (Navy)
and 1-3 (Army) list technical publications that may be
used as supplemental references by personnel involved
in cleaning and corrosion control.
1-6. CONSUMABLES
AND
EQUIPMENT.
Procurement information for ordering consumables and
equipment referenced in this volume may be found in
Volume IV (Navy and Army) of this manual.
1-1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 1-1. Outline of Volume II
CHAPTER
TITLE
BRIEF DESCRIPTION
1
Introduction
This chapter presents the scope and layout of this volume.
2
Cleaning and Lubrication
This chapter outlines accepted procedures, methods, and materials to be used in the
maintenance cleaning and lubrication of aircraft.
3
Inspection and Corrosion
Prone Areas
This chapter describes inspection techniques for detecting corrosion (Section I) and
discusses corrosion prone areas (Section II).
4
Corrosion Removal
This chapter outlines the approved methods for the removal of corrosion damage.
5
Surface Treatment
This chapter describes the application of surface treatments.
6
Treatment of Specific
Areas
This chapter describes the recommended procedures for treating and protecting against
corrosion in specific areas.
7
Sealants
This chapter covers recommended materials and procedures for the application of sealing
compounds to aircraft structures.
8
Preservation
This chapter outlines accepted procedures, methods, and materials to be used in the
preservation of aircraft.
9
Emergency Procedures
This chapter outlines emergency procedures to be followed after exposure of aircraft to
salt water, water immersion, or fire extinguishing agents.
Appendix A
Supplementary
Requirements for Navy
Aircraft
This appendix provides information on materials and procedures specific to Navy aviation
equipment. It also describes the approved paint systems that are used on Navy aircraft,
and gives detailed procedures for the touch up system to be used by Organizational and
Intermediate levels of maintenance. Army personnel should refer to TM 55-1500-345-23.
Appendix B Supplementary
Requirements for Army
Aircraft
This appendix provides information on materials and procedures specific to Army aviation
equipment.
Alphabetical Index
1-2
This index locates specific subjects in the Manual.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 1-2. Related Navy Publications
NUMBER
TITLE
DoDI 6050.05
DoD Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) Program
DoDI 6055.06
DoD Fire and Emergency Services Program
FED-STD-595
Colors Used in Government Procurement (Color Fandeck)
MIL-STD-2161
Paint Schemes and Exterior Markings for U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Aircraft
MIL-STD-7179
Finishes, Coatings, and Sealants for the Protection of Aircraft Weapons Systems
NAVAIR 00-80R-14
NATOPS U.S. Navy Aircraft Firefighting and Rescue Manual
NAVAIR 00-80T-121
Chemical and Biological Defense NATOPS Manual
NAVAIR 01-1A-1
General Manual for Structural Repair, Engineering Handbook Series for Aircraft Repair
NAVAIR 01-1A-16
Non-Destructive Inspection Methods
NAVAIR 01-1A-17
Aviation Hydraulics Manual
NAVAIR 01-1A-21
General Composite Repair
NAVAIR 01-1A-35
Aircraft Fuel Cells and Internal/External Tanks, Organizational, Intermediate, and Depot
Maintenance Instructions
NAVAIR 01-1A-520
Anti-icing, Deicing, and Defrosting of Parked Aircraft
NAVAIR 15-01-500
Preservation of Naval Aircraft
NAVAIR 17-1-125
Ground Support Equipment Cleaning and Corrosion Control, Maintenance Instructions,
Organizational and Intermediate Levels
NAVAIR 17-5BM-1
Portable Dry Honing Machine (Vacu-Blast), Operation, Service and Overhaul Instructions
NAVAIR 17-5BM-2
Stationary Dry Honing Machine (Model 12542), Operation and Service Instructions with
Illustrated Parts Breakdown
NAVAIR 17-5BM-3
Dry Honing Machine (Zero Mfg. Co.), C-150-6 and C-150-7, Maintenance Instructions
NAVAIR 17-600-22-6-1
Pre-operational Checklist for Portable Dry Honing Machine (Zero/Vacu-Blast)
NAVAIR 17-600-22-6-2
Periodic Maintenance Requirements for Portable Dry Honing Machine (Zero/Vacu-Blast)
NAVAIR 17-600-191-6-1
Pre-Operational Checklist, Abrasive Media Glove Box (PRC-4848)
NAVAIR 17-600-191-6-2
Periodic Maintenance Requirements Manual, Abrasive Media Glove Box (PRC-4848)
NAVAIR 19-20D-1
Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart, Operation and Service Instructions
NAVAIR 19-20D-2
Spray Unit, Corrosion Control, Trailer Mounted, Operation and Intermediate Maintenance
COMNAVAIRFORINST 4790.2
Naval Aviation Maintenance Program (NAMP)
OPNAVINST 5100.23
Navy Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual
OPNAVINST 5100.8
Navy Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Program
1-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Table 1-3. Related Army Publications
NUMBER
FM 3-5
MIL-HDBK-729
PAM 738-750
Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Decontamination
Corrosion and Corrosion Prevention - Metals
The Army Maintenance Management Systems - Aviation (TAMMS)
TM 55-1500-204-25/1
General Aircraft Maintenance Manual
TM 55-1500-345-23
Painting and Marking of Army Aircraft
TM 743-200-1
1-4
TITLE
Storage and Material Handling
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
CHAPTER 2
CLEANING
SECTION I. CLEANING AND LUBRICATION
2-1. INTRODUCTION. Cleaning is the first step in
preventing aircraft corrosion and wear. Dirt, salt air
deposits, and other contaminants can promote rapid
corrosion and wear of aircraft surfaces, and can have an
adverse impact on aircraft systems performance.
Effective cleaning requires knowledge of the appropriate
materials and methods needed to remove these
contaminants.
2-2. REASONS FOR CLEANING. Aircraft should be
cleaned regularly in order to:
a. Prevent corrosion by removing salt deposits, other
corrosive soils, and electrolytes;
b. Maintain visibility through canopies and windows;
c. Allow a thorough inspection for corrosion and
corrosion damage;
c. Fluid leakage (coolant, hydraulic fluid, or oil)
occurs; or
d. Exposure to salt spray, salt water, or other
corrosive materials occurs.
2-3.1. DAILY CLEANING. When deployed within three
miles of salt water or when flown below 3000 feet over
salt water, daily cleaning or wipe down is required on all
exposed, unpainted surfaces, such as landing gear
struts and actuating rods of hydraulic cylinders.
NOTE
Optimum use of taxi-through rinse facilities is
recommended for removal of salt contamination
and light soils when operating near sea water.
Rinsing does not satisfy aircraft washing
requirements, it only removes readily soluble
matter from exterior surfaces.
d. Maintain turbine engine efficiency;
e. Reduce fire hazards by the removal of
accumulations of leaking fluids;
f. Improve overall appearance;
g. Ensure aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft;
and
h. Maintain special paint scheme characteristics.
2-3. FREQUENCY OF CLEANING. All aircraft shall
be cleaned according to schedules required by the
parent service organization. Navy aircraft shall be
cleaned in accordance with the schedule in the aircraft
specific manual. In the absence of aircraft specific
requirements, Navy aircraft shall be cleaned at least
every 7 days when aboard ship and at least every 14
days when ashore. Army requirements are given in
Appendix B. Under certain conditions, depending on
the type of aircraft and usage, the normal wash cycle
may not be sufficient. More frequent cleaning may be
required for certain types of aircraft when:
a. Excessive exhaust gases or gun blast soils
accumulate within impingement areas;
b. Paint is peeling, flaking, or softening;
2-3.2. IMMEDIATE CLEANING. Affected areas must
be cleaned immediately if:
a. Spilled electrolyte and corrosive deposits are
found around battery terminals and battery area;
b. Aircraft are exposed to corrosive fire extinguishing
materials;
c. Salt deposits, relief tube waste, or other corrosive
contaminants are apparent;
d. Aircraft are exposed to significant amounts of salt
water;
e. Fungus growth is apparent; or
f. Chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR)
contaminants are detected.
2-3.3. Procedures for decontamination of aircraft
exposed to chemical, biological or radiological (CBR)
materials are contained in FM 3-5 (Army) or or NAVAIR
00-80T-121(Navy).
2-4. WATER QUALITY. Cleanliness of water can affect
aircraft cleaning operations. Chlorides and pH have the
most effect on corrosion. Recommended guidelines for
2-1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Table 2-1. Water Quality Guidelines
Parameter
Limits
Chlorides
400 mg/l max
pH
6.5-8.5
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
500 mg/l max
Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
5 mg/l max
Hardness (CaCO3)
75-150 mg/l
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
5 mg/l max
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH)
10 mg/l max
Langlier Saturation Index (LSI)
Slightly above zero
the quality of fresh water used for cleaning and rinsing
are shown in Table 2-1. The limits for chlorides and pH
shown are approximately the same as for potable water.
Adequate disinfection should be provided to control the
growth of microorganisms in the water.
CAUTION
Authorized cleaning agents are listed in this
chapter and Volume IV. Do not use unauthorized
cleaners. Although commercial cleaners may
appear to perform as well or better than
approved products, these materials may be
corrosive to aircraft alloys.
2-5. CLEANING COMPOUNDS. Cleaning compounds
work by dissolving soluble soils, emulsifying oily soils,
and suspending solid soils. There are several types of
cleaning compounds, each of which clean by one or
more of these mechanisms. The following paragraphs
describe the various authorized cleaning materials for
aircraft surfaces. Paragraph 2-9 provides detailed
cleaning procedures.
2-5.1. DILUTION. MIL-PRF-85570 Types I and II,
MIL-PRF-85704 Types I, II and III, and MIL-D-16791
detergent cleaning compounds should be diluted with
water as specified prior to use. Other detergent cleaning
compounds may also require dilution with water. In
general, more concentrated solutions than those
recommended do not clean better and are wasteful;
MORE IS NOT ALWAYS BETTER. In fact, higher
concentrations can interfere with effective cleaning and
rinsing processes. The solution merely becomes
slippery, prevents the washing pad from loosening the
soil and makes rinsing more difficult. Do not exceed the
recommended dilution.
2-2
CAUTION
High strength steels (typically 180 ksi and
above), some high strength aluminums, and
some stainless steels can develop a condition
known as hydrogen embrittlement when
exposed to some highly alkaline materials, such
as unauthorized cleaners. Sudden catastrophic
failure may occur as a result of hydrogen
embrittlement when the part can no longer
sustain the internal and/or applied stresses.
See Volume I for additional information.
NOTE
Ozone depleting substances (ODS) are solvents
such as, but not limited to, 1,1,1 trichloroethane
(MIL-T-81533) and trichlorotrifluoroethane
(MIL-C-81302). These solvents, as well as
products containing them, are still used in some
aircraft maintenance processes, including high
pressure oxygen systems cleaning and some
avionics cleaning. Alternate materials continue
to be identified. Wherever possible,
specifications are being changed to eliminate
their use automatically. Some products that
have been reformulated are now flammable.
Pay close attention to all CAUTION/WARNING
labels on solvents and solvent-based products.
2-5.2. MODERATELY ALKALINE CLEANERS. Highly
alkaline cleaning compounds (pH greater than 10) are
not authorized for Navy or Army aircraft, due to
incompatibility with polyimide wiring insulation.
Moderately alkaline cleaners (pH between 7.5 and 10),
such as MIL-PRF-85570 Types I and II (Exterior Aircraft
Cleaning Compound), are recommended. Both types
contain detergents and foaming agents, and work in the
same way as a detergent solution. Type I is a more
effective cleaner for heavy oils and greases, including
wire rope lubricant, due to its solvent content, but it
should not be used in areas where ventilation is poor.
Type IA is a premixed (1:4 dilution) Type I solution
available in a 16 oz aerosol can. Type II contains no
solvent but is an excellent cleaner for light oils and
hydraulic fluids, and can be used in areas of reduced
ventilation (such as cockpits, cabins, bilges, and
equipment bays). Type II RTU is a premixed (1:4
dilution) Type II solution available in a 32 oz trigger
spray bottle and a five gallon can.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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Change 1 - 31 March 2010
2-5.3. TURBINE ENGINE GAS PATH CLEANERS.
MIL-PRF-85704 (Cleaning Compound, Turbine Engine
Gas Path) is specially formulated for cleaning the
compressor section of gas turbine aircraft engines and
minimizing engine corrosion during wash cycles. Types I,
II, and III are supplied as concentrates and must be
mixed with water prior to use. Types II RTU and III RTU
are premixed and ready to use upon receipt. Types I, II,
and II RTU are intended for use with the engine off-line,
with the starter motoring the engine. Type I (solvent
emulsion concentrate with hydrocarbon solvents) works
by softening oily soils so that they can be emulsified by
the detergent. Local air pollution regulations may restrict
the amount and methods of application of Type I cleaner:
Types II or II RTU (aqueous cleaner without hydrocarbon
solvents) may be used as alternates. Types III and
III RTU are intended for use with the engine on-line
(fired). Because purified water is required to mix the
Type III concentrate and may be unavailable, use of
Type III RTU is recommended for on-line cleaning.
2-5.4. SPOT CLEANERS. The following three cleaners
(to be used without dilution) are approved for specific
localized applications in areas of heavy soil.
2-5.4.1. High Gloss Spot Cleaner. MIL–PRF–85570
Type III is recommended for cleaning exhaust track and
gun blast areas of high gloss paint systems. This
material contains solvents, detergents, and suspended
abrasive matter to remove soil by wearing away the
surface that holds it. It shall not be used on aircraft
painted with tactical paint schemes since it raises the
gloss of the surface.
2-5.4.2. Low Gloss Tactical Paint Scheme Spot
Cleaner. MIL-PRF-85570 Type IV is recommended for
cleaning exhaust track and gun blast deposits, smudges,
boot marks, and other embedded soils on low gloss
coatings. This material contains solvents, detergents,
and suspended rubber particles. When rubbed on a
soiled surface, the rubber particles act like tiny erasers,
removing soil by mechanically entrapping it in the rubber.
The gloss of tactical paint coatings is unchanged. For
more information on tactical paint schemes, see
Appendix A.
NOTE
Solvents in MIL-PRF-85570 Type IV cleaner
may be considered hazardous air pollutants
(HAPs). Consult local regulations before use.
MIL-PRF-85570 Type V may be used as an
alternate.
(Viscous)
Cleaner.
2-5.4.3. Thixotropic
MIL-PRF-85570 Type V is recommended for cleaning
wheel wells and wing butts, and replaces solvent cleaning
where water rinsing can be tolerated. This cleaner
contains solvents, detergents and some thickening
agents. When applied undiluted to an oily or greasy
surface, the cleaner clings long enough to emulsify the
soil (about 5 to 15 minutes) and can then be rinsed away
with fresh water. To perform most effectively, Type V
must be applied to a dry surface. Do not prerinse areas
of the aircraft that require application of Type V.
2-5.5. DETERGENT SOLUTION. MIL-D-16791
(Detergents, General Purpose Liquid Nonionic)
dissolved in water cleans by dissolving soluble salts,
emulsifying low viscosity oils, and suspending easily
removed dirt and dust. It is not very effective on grease,
but is an excellent cleaner for interior lightly soiled
areas, plastics, and instrument glass covers.
2-5.6. NON-AQUEOUS CLEANERS. MIL-PRF-32295
(Cleaner, Non-Aqueous, Low VOC, HAP-Free) is an
environmentally friendly chemical cleaner that is free of
hazardous air pollutants (HAP) and contains a very low
level of volatile organic compounds (VOC<25 g/l).
Because these cleaners do not contain water, they can
be used in areas where water-based cleaners are not
allowed. MIL-PRF-32295 can be used as a substitute
for MIL-PRF-680 in most applications. Type I is
recommended for removal of light soils (oils, dirt, CPCs).
Type II is a more effective cleaner for removal of heavy
soils (greases, carbonized oils, aged CPCs).
2-5.7. SOLVENTS. Cleaning solvents dissolve oils and
greasy soils so that they can be easily wiped away or
absorbed on a cloth. However, solvents differ significantly
in cleaning ability, toxicity, evaporation rate, effect on
paint, and flammability. MIL-PRF-680 Type II
Degreasing Solvent is the most common cleaning solvent
used on aircraft, due to its low toxicity, minimal effect on
paint, and relative safety. Other solvents, such as
alcohols, ketones, and aliphatic naphtha, are specialized
materials restricted for use.
2-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
NOTE
The use of solvents for cleaning operations is
dependent upon stringent environmental and
safety regulations. Determine local
requirements regarding limitations and
restrictions on materials, quantities, and
disposal from your work center supervisor,
safety officer, or industrial hygienist.
Degreasing Solvent, MIL-PRF-680, replaces
Dry Cleaning and Degreasing Solvent, P-D-680.
MIL-PRF-680 has been reformulated to
eliminate Hazardous Air Pollutants, however,
its high VOC content may prevent use in some
locations.
2-5.7.1. Degreasing Solvent (MIL-PRF-680). This
solvent is used as a cleaner and degreaser for painted
and unpainted metal parts. It is also used to remove oily
corrosion preventive compounds. The solvent is
available in four types. Although the degreasing
effectiveness is approximately the same for each type,
the flash points as a measure of flammability differ as
follows: Type I, 100°F (38°C) minimum; Type II, 140°F
(61°C) minimum; Type III, 200°F (93°C) minimum;
Type IV, 140°F (61°C) minimum. A lower flash point
indicates greater flammability; however, all types will
burn intensely once ignited. Type I is not authorized for
use as a general cleaner due to its flammability, but may
be used in parts washers that are designed for such
solvents. Type II is the most common cleaning solvent
used on aircraft, and is intended for use where a solvent
with a higher flash point is required. Type III is intended
for use in confined atmospheric conditions where a very
high flash point is required. Type IV is used where a
higher flash point and strong solvency is desired. The
dwell time for all types should be held to a minimum
(less than 15 minutes) to avoid damage to paint.
2-5.7.2. Isopropyl Alcohol (TT-I-735). This flammable
solvent is used as a disinfectant, and for removing
fungus and mold from aircraft surfaces. It is a poor
degreaser, but is a good solvent for removing fingerprints.
2-5.7.3. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) (ASTM D 740).
This highly flammable solvent is used for cleaning prior
to adhesive bonding. Most locations cannot use MEK as
a wipe solvent for general cleaning or prior to painting
due to restrictions on the use of solvents with vapor
pressures greater than 45 millimeters of mercury (mm
Hg). As an alternate cleaner, use MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
Aircraft Cleaning Compound (diluted 1 part cleaner to
14 parts water), rinse thoroughly with fresh water and
2-4
allow surfaces to dry. Surfaces may be also be cleaned
by solvent wiping with AMS 3166 (Solvents, Cleaning
Prior to Application of Sealing Compounds).
2-5.7.4. Aliphatic Naphtha (TT-N-95). This highly
flammable solvent is used for cleaning oils or greasy
deposits and other soils from aircraft transparencies
such as acrylic canopy materials. Other solvents may
cause crazing and other damage to transparencies. It is
also effective at removing masking or preservation tape
residue. This material may be restricted in many
geographic locations for other cleaning operations due
to its high vapor pressure.
2-5.7.5. Thinner, Aliphatic Polyurethane Coatings
(MlL-T-81772). This highly flammable solvent can be
used for prepaint solvent cleaning as an alternative to
MEK. MIL-T-81772 may be used at locations requiring
a solvent vapor pressure less than or equal to 45 mm Hg.
2-5.8. PARTS WASHER CLEANING SOLUTION.
MIL-PRF-29602 (Cleaning Compounds for Parts Washer
and Spray Cabinets) is the recommended cleaning
agent for use in high pressure cabinet-style parts washers
to remove oils and greases from disassembled
components. It shall not be used for bearings unless
authorized by part specific documentation. Also, due to
the high maximum allowable pH (pH 13.5) of
MIL-PRF-29602 cleaning compound, aircraft cognizant
engineering authority approval is required before
cleaning aluminum alloy parts. MIL-PRF-29602 must
be diluted with water in accordance with manufacturer’s
instructions, and the concentration must be tested
periodically (every 28 days is recommended).
2-5.9. MILDEW REMOVER. NAVCLEAN is a mildew
remover developed by NAVAIR for cleaning mildew,
mold, and fungus from aircraft surfaces. The mildew
remover kit consists of four components (an oxidizing
agent, a detergent, and corrosion inhibitors). The
components are mixed with water immediately prior to
use. The solution is effective for twenty four hours after
mixing. Surfaces cleaned with NAVCLEAN shall be
rinsed thoroughly with fresh water after application to
remove residue.
2-5.10. MISCELLANEOUS CLEANING AGENTS.
2-5.10.1. Plastic polish (P-P-560), which contains mild
abrasives, to polish out scratches in certain canopy
materials.
2-5.10.2. Optical glass cleaner (A-A-59199) for cleaning
lenses.
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
2-5.10.3. Ammonium hydroxide (O-A-451) to neutralize
urine.
2-5.10.4. Sodium bicarbonate (ASTM D928) to
neutralize electrolyte spills from sulfuric acid batteries.
2-5.10.5. Monobasic sodium phosphate (ANSI/AWWA
B504) or boric acid (A-A-59282) to neutralize electrolyte
spills from nickel-cadmium batteries.
2-6. STEAM CLEANING. Steam cleaning is defined
as super-heated water vapor delivered at relatively high
pressure through a nozzle or wand. Steam cleaning can
erode paint, craze plastic, debond adhesives, damage
electrical insulation, and drive lubricants out of bearings.
Due to the potential for damage, it shall not be used on
aircraft/missiles at the Organizational/Unit or
Intermediate levels of maintenance. In addition, steam
cleaning shall not be used on the following items removed
from aircraft/missiles: honeycomb bonded structure,
sealant, fiberglass composites, acrylic windows, or
electrical wiring.
2-7. CLEANING EQUIPMENT. Equipment specific to
one type of aircraft is not covered in this manual. The
following equipment is available for general cleaning.
Ordering information for approved equipment can be
found in Volume IV, Chapter 3. General operating
instructions are found in paragraph 2-8. See specific
operating manuals for detailed instructions on automated
equipment.
CAUTION
No equipment which produces more than
175 psi nozzle pressure shall be used for aircraft
cleaning purposes unless specifically authorized
by the parent service organization. This
restriction includes portable pressure washers.
High-pressure cleaning processes can erode
paint, drive lubricants out of bearings, drive
water into hidden areas, damage electrical
insulation, damage honeycomb bonded
structure and composite surfaces, and damage
sealant.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
2-7.1. SMALL PORTABLE FOAM GENERATING
CLEANING UNIT. The cleaning unit is compact, light,
and ideal for cleaning hard to reach areas. It consists of
a 54 inch applicator wand, 50 feet of hose, and either a
15 gallon stainless steel tank or a 20 gallon carbon steel
tank. The tank assembly moves easily on rubber tire
wheels (see Figure 2-1). The control system allows the
operator to adjust wetness of foam to fit any job. The
cleaning unit provides a foam capable of clinging to
vertical surfaces to soften and dislodge soils. General
operating instructions for the cleaning unit are given in
paragraph 2-8.1.
2-7.2. LARGE PORTABLE FOAM GENERATING
CLEANING UNIT. This cleaning unit is a simplified,
pressure operated, foam-dispensing system (see
Figure 2-2). It uses available air supply for its power
source without using pumps. Air is metered directly
from the pressurized solution chamber into the hose to
create foam. Units are available with a 45 gallon stainless
steel tank or a 50 gallon carbon steel tank. General
operating instructions for the cleaning unit are given in
paragraph 2-8.2.
2-7.3. TURBINE ENGINE COMPRESSOR CLEANING
EQUIPMENT. Equipment used for cleaning Navy aircraft
turbine engines is contained in Appendix A. Army: refer
to specific engine technical manual.
2-7.4. MISCELLANEOUS LARGE CLEANING
EQUIPMENT. Other equipment such as truck or trailer
mounted spray or foam equipment may be available at
certain locations.
2-7.5. SPRAY GUN FOR CLEANING COMPOUNDS.
This spray gun (AMS-G-952 Type I) has an extended
nozzle/tube and requires approximately 14 cfm of air at
50 psi to siphon cleaning compounds from a container.
Do not use with solvents.
2-7.6. PNEUMATIC VACUUM CLEANER. The
air-operated vacuum cleaner is a small, portable unit for
removing debris and water from aircraft (Volume IV,
Chapter 3).
NOTE
2-7.7. UNIVERSAL WASH UNIT. The universal wash
unit is used for general purpose cleaning. General
operating procedures are given in paragraph 2-8.3.
Use only cleaning materials or equipment
authorized by the parent service organization
and as described in this manual.
Experimentation with unauthorized cleaning
materials or equipment may damage aircraft,
reduce reliability and increase maintenance
costs.
2-7.8. CABINET-STYLE
AQUEOUS
PARTS
WASHER. This method of cleaning utilizes an industrial
power washer that is comprised of an enclosed cabinet
equipped with a system of spray impingement nozzles,
cleaning solution heater, fluid pump, skimmer for oil and
2-5
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
PF-17
PF-18
PF-19
PF-22
PF-3
PF-41
PF-1
PF-16
PF-14
PF-40
PF-26
PF-15
PF-23
PF-63
PF-2
PF-20
PF-25
PF-24
PF-64
PF-72
Parts Breakdown
Part No.
Description
Part No.
Description
Part No.
Description
PF-1
Portable Carriage
PF-18
Short Wand
PF-26
Air Bleed Valve
PF-2
Wheel
PF-19
Wand Extension
PF-40
Compound Tank (20 Gal)
PF-3
Curved Handle
PF-20
Application Hose
PF-41
Tank Cap Gasket
PF-14
Pressure Guage
PF-21
Tank Fill Cap
PF-63
Air Metering Valve
PF-15
Air Regulator
PF-22
Safety Valve
PF-64
Compound Metering Valve
PF-16
Air Inlet Valve
PF-23
Check Valve
PF-72
SK Fitting (F)
PF-17
Foam Discharge Valve
PF-24
SK Fitting (M)
PF-73
SS Tubing
Figure 2-1. Small Portable Foam Generating Cleaning Unit (20 Gallons)
2-6
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Figure 2-2. Large Portable Foam Generating Cleaning Unit (45 Gallons)
its residues, and separate reservoirs for cleaning solution
and waste. Cabinet-style parts washers have been
implemented to replace the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane
vapor degreasing and to reduce the dependence upon
MIL-PRF-680 Type II. They are suitable for degreasing
disassembled components. This cleaning process
effectively removes soils, oils/greases, corrosion
preventive compounds and other contaminants by
applying aqueous cleaner at varying combinations of
high temperature and pressure. The washers are
equipped with oil skimming devices and particulate
filtration devices to extend the life of the cleaning
solution. Cognizant aircraft engineering authority
approval is required prior to using cabinet-style parts
washers for cleaning bearings or aluminum alloy parts.
General operating instructions are given in
paragraph 2-8.4.
2-7.9. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT. Accessories
and consumable materials for manual operations, listed
in Volume IV, Chapters 2 and 3, include the following
important items:
2-7.9.1. 3M No. 33 Aircraft Cleaning Pads and 3M No.
261 Pad Holders are replacements for the 3M No. 251M
Washing Kit for Exterior Aircraft Washing Operations.
The wooden handle used with the No. 251M Washing
Kit can also be used with the 3M No. 261 Pad Holder;
however, use of the A-A-1464 Aluminum Handle is
highly recommended because it is more ergonomic and
easily extendable from five to ten feet. The No. 33 pads
are primarily used for general aircraft cleaning.
2-7.9.2. 3M "Jet Pad" Melamine Wash Pads are soft
foam pads with a urethane foam backing and a polyester
attachment layer. These pads have demonstrated
cleaning efficiency that is superior to conventional woven
polyester cleaning pads. The Jet Pads are compatible
with the 3M No. 261 Pad Holder, and are recommended
for hard to clean soils; however, they will degrade over
time and generate debris during use.
2-7.9.3. Non-Metallic Cleaning and Polishing Pads
(A-A-3100) are crimped polyester fiber pads for detergent
and solvent cleaning aircraft surfaces. Do not use with
paint removers.
2-7.9.4. Brushes, Non-Metalic Bristles (MIL-B-23958,
A-A-3080) are used with aircraft detergent cleaners,
such as MIL-PRF-85570.
2-7.9.5. Cheesecloth (CCC-C-440) and non-woven
cloth (CCC-C-46) are used for cleaning critical areas
where an exceptionally clean cloth is required, such as
solvent cleaning prior to painting, adhesive bonding, or
sealing.
2-7.9.6. Plastic spray bottles are used for applying
diluted MIL-PRF-85570 Type I or II or concentrated
Type V.
2-7
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
2-8. EQUIPMENT OPERATING PROCEDURES. This
section contains general operating instructions for the
most commonly used large pieces of cleaning equipment.
2-8.2. LARGE PORTABLE FOAM GENERATING
CLEANING UNIT.
WARNING
2-8.1. SMALL PORTABLE FOAM GENERATING
CLEANING UNIT.
WARNING
Do not service the small portable foam
generating cleaning unit without releasing
pressure.
a. Release pressure prior to servicing.
NOTE
Do not service the large portable foam
generating cleaning unit without releasing
pressure.
a. Release pressure prior to servicing.
b. If tank has been in prior use and is closed, close
cleaning compound valve and air valve, then open air
dump valve to bleed off retained air pressure.
c. Remove cover of tank. The cover is retained by
several draw bolts.
Refer to manufacturer's instructions to mix the
proper ratio of solution to be used.
b. Remove tank fill cap and fill container with
appropriate diluted cleaning compound. Allow adequate
air space at the top of the tank. Replace filler plug.
NOTE
Refer to manufacturer's instructions to mix the
proper ratio of solution to be used.
c. Connect air supply to air inlet valve on air regulator.
d. Fill with cleaning compound in appropriate dilution,
allowing for adequate air space at the top of the tank.
d. Open compound metering valve to full open
position.
e. Replace cover, being sure it is firmly locked in
place.
e. Open air inlet valve and set air pressure regulator
to 30-70 psi.
f. Close air and cleaning compound handle valves.
f. Open foam discharge valve and direct foam at
object to be cleaned.
g. Attach air line to air inlet on side of unit. Fill and
check air regulator to ensure proper pressure (30-70 psi).
h. Open air valve.
g. If foam is too wet, close compound metering
valve slightly.
h. If foam is too dry, open compound metering valve
slightly and close air metering valve slightly.
i. Allow foam to remain on the surface for up to one
minute, but not long enough to dry, then scrub and rinse.
CAUTION
When cleaning task is completed, drain tank
and flush with fresh water to prevent a
concentrated cleaning solution from being used
that could be damaging to aircraft surfaces.
j. When cleaning task is completed, drain detergent
solution from tank and flush with fresh water.
2-8
i. Open cleaning compound valve slowly until
desired foam consistency is reached.
j. Apply foam to surface to be cleaned. Generally,
thin uniform layers perform best. During initial setting of
the unit, air and cleaning compound valves should be
adjusted to give the desired foam consistency.
Combinations of less air and more cleaning compound
make a wet foam. Combinations of more air and less
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
cleaning compound make a drier foam. Dry foams give
greater dwell time and prolong cleaning action, but wet
foams clean better.
2-8.4. CABINET-STYLE
WASHER.
AQUEOUS
PARTS
WARNING
k. Allow foam to remain for up to one minute, but not
long enough to dry, then scrub and rinse.
CAUTION
Insure that tank is drained to prevent a build-up
of highly concentrated solution, which may
damage aircraft surfaces.
l. When cleaning task is completed, drain detergent
solution from tank and flush with fresh water.
2-8.3. UNIVERSAL WASH UNIT.
The materials used and waste generated from
this cleaning process may be hazardous to
operating personnel and the environment. Drain
any entrapped solution back into the washer.
Contact the local industrial hygienist,
bioenvironmental engineer, or Environmental
Office for guidance regarding personal
protective equipment (PPE) and other health
and safety precautions.
Parts will be very hot after the cleaning process.
Handle with thermally protective and water
repellent gloves.
WARNING
CAUTION
Use the universal wash unit in the horizontal
position only.
a. Connect the strainer unit to the intake hose.
b. Connect the wand and nozzle spray to the output
(discharge) hose or connect the discharge quick
disconnect to the aircraft wash manifold quick
disconnect.
c. Insert the strainer unit into a container of water or
cleaning solution.
d. Press and hold the start or remote start switch;
observe the pressure gage. It should immediately
indicate an increase in pressure.
e. After the pressure reaches approximately 10 psig,
release the start switch. The unit should continue to
operate.
f. The unit will deliver approximately 2.5 gallons per
minute at 30 psig.
g. Press the stop or remote switch to stop the unit
from operating.
High pressure parts washers shall not be used
for cleaning bearings unless specifically
authorized. Due to the maximum allowable pH
(pH 13.5) that the required cleaning compound,
MIL-PRF-29602, can reach, cognizant
engineering authority approval is required before
cleaning aluminum alloy and IVD aluminum
coated parts.
a. Determine the reservoir capacity of the parts
washer. Fill the reservoir with a solution of
MIL-PRF-29602 cleaning compound, diluted per
manufacturer’s recommended concentration.
NOTE
Do not use the parts washer until the cleaning
solution has stabilized at the required
temperature. Agitation of the solution prior to
reaching elevated temperatures may result in
excessive foaming of the cleaning solution.
b. Allow cleaning solution to stabilize at
manufacturer’s recommended temperature (usually
140°F to 180°F).
2-9
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
CAUTION
Caution shall be exercised when loading
components with areas which can entrap water.
Position parts in the cabinet and baskets such
that the cavities which can hold or entrap water
are face down. It is imperative that
suitable fixtures and/or baskets are used to
secure components during the cleaning cycle.
Failure to do so may result in damage to the
components being cleaned by the high pressure
impingement spray.
c. Place components to be cleaned into parts washer.
Components shall be secured to the turntable, or placed
in a basket that is secured to the turntable.
CAUTION
Parts shall not be left unattended in the washing
cabinet. Once the cleaning cycle is complete,
the inside environment of the cabinet will
become very hot and humid. Parts left
unattended, or not removed within the required
time, may develop corrosion. Follow the
recommended manufacturer’s instructions for
the removal of cleaned parts.
d. Set the wash cycle timer for 3-30 minutes
depending upon the type of soil to be removed and the
quantity of soil on the parts. For light degreasing, a
3 minute cycle may be sufficient, while heavily soiled
and baked on grease may require a full 30 minute cycle.
Run the wash cycle, and allow components to cool
before handling.
e. If the cleaned part is subjected to an immediate
inline process, i.e., fluorescent penetrant inspection, or
painting, or in cases where precision cleaning is required,
rinse the part with fresh clean water and thoroughly dry.
f. For bare steel parts which have been cleaned/
rinsed and will not be processed immediately, wrap in
VCI film (MIL-PRF-22019) or apply CPCs
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II, followed by MIL-PRF-16173
Grade 4).
2-10
2-9. CLEANING PROCEDURES.
2-9.1. WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS. The following
warnings and cautions shall be observed during aircraft
cleaning operations:
2-9.1.1. Electrical Warnings.
a. Aircraft and/or other equipment shall not be
washed, cleaned, or inspected on an outdoor wash rack
when an electrical storm is in the immediate area.
b. Open all circuit breakers associated with battery
power (refer to applicable aircraft manuals) prior to
application of flammable solvent cleaners.
c. In order to guard against the danger of static
electricity, aircraft shall be electrically grounded during
all cleaning operations and when moored or parked.
d. Before cleaning electrical and avionic equipment,
make sure electrical power is disconnected. Injury or
death may otherwise result.
2-9.1.2. Personal Protection. Consult the local safety
office for personal protective equipment (PPE)
requirements. The following Warnings apply.
a. Wear rubber gloves, chemical or splash proof
goggles, and water resistant boots during cleaning
operations using cleaning compounds MIL-PRF-85570
or MIL-PRF-85704. Wet weather clothing is not required
except during cold weather. If cleaner is splashed in
eyes, rinse thoroughly with fresh water for 15 minutes
and report to medical facility. Remove clothing saturated
with cleaning solution immediately and flush exposed
skin areas with fresh water.
b. Cleaning solutions are slippery. Maintenance
stands shall be used where practical. Safety harness
and safety lines must be used when standing on upper
surfaces of aircraft during cleaning operations.
2-9.1.3. Solvent Warnings.
a. Do not use synthetic wiping cloths with flammable
solvents, such as aliphatic naphtha (TT-N-95), MEK, or
MIL-T-87177 paint thinner. Synthetic cloths can generate
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
static electricity which can result in sparks and fire.
Cotton wiping cloths, such at terry cloth, flannel, or
cheesecloth, are acceptable.
b. Do not wash or rinse aircraft with a solid stream
of water. Use a soft spray pattern to avoid damaging
fragile surfaces or causing water intrusion.
b. Solvents shall not be applied with atomizing spray
equipment. This is not only hazardous, but violates
environmental regulations in most areas.
c. Water must not be directed at pitot tubes, static
ports, or vents. These areas shall be adequately
protected.
c. Keep all solvents away from open flames and any
live electrical circuit or sources of electrical arcing.
Ensure that residual solvent is removed from aircraft,
engine bays, and equipment.
d. Relubricate all fittings and other lube points in
areas to which cleaning compounds have been applied,
such as wheel wells, flap wells, and flight control wells.
Ensure that these areas are adequately drained. Check
the specific aircraft manual to determine lubrication
requirements.
d. Use solvents in well-ventilated areas. Wear rubber
gloves and chemical or splash proof goggles. Avoid
skin contact. Consult the local safety office regarding
respiratory protection.
e. Do not mix cleaning compound with any solvent
(e.g. MIL-PRF-680). The added solvents will create a
fire hazard and a serious disposal problem, and can
cause damage to nonmetallic materials.
2-9.1.4. Cleaning Solution Cautions.
a. Steam shall not be used for cleaning aircraft or
components.
b. Do not apply MIL-PRF-85570 Types I, III, IV or V,
or MIL-PRF-85704 Type I or II cleaning solutions or any
unauthorized solvents to electrical wiring or plastic
aircraft canopies, as it may cause damage to insulation
or crazing of transparent surfaces.
2-9.1.6. Oxygen System Cautions. Observe warnings
and cautions in specific oxygen system manuals.
2-9.1.7. Special Precautions. Use extreme care when
cleaning and related treatment is performed around
radomes, access doors to integral fuel tank cells, light
fixtures, electrical components, and antennas. These
areas may be damaged by cleaning and related
equipment.
2-9.2. PREPARATION FOR AIRCRAFT CLEANING.
A list of recommended wash rack equipment and
consumables is provided in Table 2-2.
WARNING
Open all circuit breakers associated with battery
power (refer to applicable aircraft manuals)
prior to application of any flammable solvent.
c. Do not use cleaning compounds at higher
concentrations than those recommended.
CAUTION
d. Do not allow cleaning solutions to dry on aircraft
surfaces. Such practices will cause streaking and can
damage aircraft finishes and components.
Cover acrylic or polycarbonate canopies during
shore based washing to prevent accidental
scratching or crazing by cleaning compounds.
2-9.1.5. Water Intrusion Cautions.
a. To prevent entrapment of water, solvents, and
other cleaning solutions inside of aircraft parts and
structural areas, all drain holes and flap valves shall be
opened before washing, and checked again after
washing, to ensure that proper drainage occurs.
2-9.2.1. Canopy. Cover canopy with flannel cloth
(A-A-50129 Type II). Cover flannel with barrier material
(MIL-PRF-131 Class 1), and tape to canopy frame or
painted surface near canopy using preservation tape
(AMS-T-22085 Type II) or masking tape (AMS-T-21595
Type III). Do not apply tape directly to transparent
surface.
2-11
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 2-2. Suggested List of Wash Rack Items
Item
Number.
Equipment
(see Volume IV, Chapter 3)
1
Small/Large Portable Foam Generating Cleaning Unit (including
attachments/accessories)
-----
2
Water Hose
-----
3
Water Nozzle
M-70 Pistol Grip, Straham Valves, Inc.
4
Aircraft Wash Pads and Holders
3M No. 33 Wash Pads
3M "Jet Pad" Melamine Wash Pads
3M No. 261 Wash Pad Holder
A-A-1464 Aluminum Handle
5
Scrub Brushes, Nylon Bristle
MIL-B-23958 Type I
6
Utility Pail, Rubber
L-P-65
7
Ground Covers (canopy, wheel, intake, exhaust)
-----
8
Gloves
MIL-G-87066
9
Apron, Rubber, Full Length
A-A-3104
10
Goggles
A-A-1110
11
Face Shield
ANSI Z87.1
12
Boots
A-A-50371
Item
Number.
2-12
Specification/
Part Number
Consumable Materials
(see Volume IV, Chapter 2)
Specification/
Part Number
13
Aircraft Cleaning Detergent
MIL-PRF-85570, Type II and V
14
Water Repellent, Window and Windshield
MIL-W-6882
15
Lubricants (as required by maintenance manuals/cards)
-----
16
Flannel Cloth
A-A-50129 Type II
17
Barrier Material
MIL-PRF-131 Class 1
18
Aircraft Preservation Tape
AMS-T-22085 Type II
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
2-9.2.2. (N) Pre-Wash Lubrication.
CAUTION
a. To protect against cleaning solution entrapment,
inspect all lubrication points that have exposure type
lubrication fittings.
Do not use a direct spray of water or cleaning
compound on carbon brakes, wheels or wheel
hubs.
b. Prior to lubricating any components or parts,
remove all foreign matter from joints, fittings, and bearing
surfaces, using non-woven cleaning cloth. Wipe up all
spilled or excess oil and grease.
d. Cover wheels with locally fabricated covers to
prevent water/cleaning compound contamination of
wheel bearings and carbon brakes. Carbon brakes
have temporarily reduced performance when subjected
to water, deicers, degreasers, and oil. Brakes should be
protected from direct impingement as much as practical
during maintenance, aircraft cleaning or operations.
Weak or spongy brakes (and in some cases, smoke)
may result until the contaminants are burned off (normally
one flight). If contamination, corrosion, or loss of lubricant
in wheel bearings is suspected, remove wheel bearings
and relubricate in accordance with applicable
maintenance instructions. If contamination of carbon
brakes is suspected, decontaminate in accordance with
applicable maintenance instructions.
c. Lubricate all fittings which will be exposed to
wash solutions, in accordance with maintenance
manuals or maintenance cards. If fittings do not accept
lubrication, replace and lube prior to wash.
d. See applicable maintenance manual and
paragraph 2-13 for lubrication of aircraft components.
2-9.2.3. Protection From Water/Cleaning Compound
Intrusion. Take the following steps to prevent water/
cleaning compound intrusion during cleaning:
2-9.3. CLEANING METHODS.
a. Close doors and emergency openings.
WARNING
b. Refer to aircraft maintenance manuals for
locations of drain holes. Check drain holes. Make sure
that all drain holes are clear by inserting a probe (such
as a pipe cleaner), except where pressurized flapper
valves are located.
c. Cover vents, openings, and ports. Refer to aircraft
maintenance manuals for locations of vents to be
masked. Pitot static ports shall be covered. If covers are
not available, barrier material (MIL-PRF-131 Class 1)
may be cut into circular pieces and taped in place with
preservation tape (AMS-T-22085 Type II). Covers must
be removed prior to release of aircraft for flight. Particular
care shall be taken to ensure that static vents are not
fouled by tape adhesive transfer. In the event of
significant adhesive transfer, clean with aliphatic naphtha
(TT-N-95) or degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680 Type II).
Wear rubber gloves, chemical or splash proof
goggles, and water resistant boots during
cleaning operations using cleaning compounds
MIL-PRF-85570 or MIL-PRF-85704. Wet
weather clothing is not required except during
cold weather. Open all circuit breakers
associated with battery power (refer to
applicable aircraft manuals) prior to application
of flammable solvents.
2-9.3.1. The methods for cleaning aircraft vary
depending upon the availability of fresh water. The
following methods should be used for cleaning aircraft
exterior surfaces. See Table 2-3 for instructions on
specific areas and components.
2-13
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Table 2-3. Cleaning of Specific Areas and Components
Type of Soil
Mixing Directions or
Nomenclature
Cleaning Agent or Material
Cleaning Procedures
NOTE
Cleaning procedures are listed in this table. Ordering information for approved materials can be found in Volume IV, Chapter 2. Ordering
information for approved equipment can be found in Volume IV, Chapter 3.
ACRYLIC PLASTIC PARTS (EXCEPT CANOPIES)
NOTE: Refer to specific aircraft manual to determine acrylic plastic parts.
Light soil and
smudges
MIL-D-16791
A-A-50129
1 oz. detergent in
1 gallon water
Cloth, Flannel
Wipe with cloth wet with cleaning solution and
follow with a cloth wet with fresh water. Dry with a
clean cloth.
ARRESTING GEAR AND WHEEL WELLS
Dirt, grease,
hydraulic fluid
MIL-PRF-85570 Type V
Use undiluted
Apply MIL-PRF-85570 Type V with spray or
brush. Allow a 5-15 minute dwell. Brush, if
necessary. Rinse thoroughly with fresh water.
Repeat rinsing with brushing to remove cleaner
residues.
Degreasing Solvent
Alternate procedure:
Brush on solvent to loosen stubborn soil. Apply
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I or 1A, then brush and
rinse.
or
MIL-PRF-680 Type II or III
and
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type 1A
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
Use undiluted
BATTERY COMPARTMENTS
NOTE: See paragraph 6-2 for detailed instructions.
Lead-acid
acid battery
electrolyte
deposits
Nickel-cadmium
battery
electrolyte
deposits
ASTM D928
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
AWWA B504
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
2-14
Sodium bicarbonate,
6 oz. in 1 gallon water
WARNING
Never use a wire brush to clean a battery.
Corrosion Preventive Compound
Remove spilled electrolyte immediately by
flushing with fresh water. Neutralize the area by
sponging with sodium bicarbonate solution. Apply
generously until bubbling stops. Let it stay on
5 minutes, but do not allow to dry. Brush with a
fiber brush, then flush with fresh water. Dry with
clean wiping cloths. Keep the cell vents open.
Preserve compartment with MIL-PRF-81309 Type
II. Do not paint or preserve batteries.
Monobasic sodium phosphate
6 oz. in 1 gallon water
Remove spilled electrolyte immediately by
flushing with fresh water. Neutralize the area by
sponging generously with sodium phosphate
solution. Brush with a fiber brush, then flush with
fresh water. Dry with clean wiping cloths. Keep
the cell vents open. Preserve compartment with
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II. Do not paint or preserve
batteries.
Corrosion Preventive Compound
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Table 2-3. Cleaning of Specific Areas and Components (Cont.)
Type of Soil
Cleaning Agent or Material
Mixing Directions or
Nomenclature
Cleaning Procedures
BILGE AREAS
Algae
contamination
Hydraulic fluid,
water, dirt,
metallic debris
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
RTU
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type IA
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type V
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
or
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
MIL-PRF-680 Type II
or
MIL-PRF-32295 Type I
Degreasing Solvent
Mold/Mildew/
Fungus
NAVCLEAN
Use undiluted
For Type I or II, mix cleaner and water in a pump
spray bottle. Spray cleaner on contaminated area
and allow to dwell at least 2 minutes. Wipe off with a
sponge and dry with a clean cloth.
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
Use undiluted
Use undiluted
1 part cleaner 14 parts water
Vacuum clean liquids and debris and dry. Wipe area
with a sponge dampened in cleaning solution. Rinse
by sponging with fresh water. Wipe dry with a clean
cloth.
Wipe with cloth dampened with solvent or cleaner.
Wipe dry with a clean cloth.
Non-Aqueous Cleaner
Mix in accordance with
manufacturer's instructions
Apply solution to mold/mildew/fungus growth using
cotton cheesecloth or a soft bristle brush. Let stand
5-15 minutes. Rinse thoroughly with fresh water to
remove residue.
CANOPY EXTERIOR, PLASTIC AND GLASS PANELS
Dust, dirt,
grime, salt
spray, paint
overspray
P-P-560
Plastic Polish Compound
A-A-50129
Oil, grease
TT-N-95
Aliphatic Naphtha
P-P-560
Plastic Polish Compound
Cloth, Flannel
A-A-50129
Flush with fresh water to remove loose dirt. Rub
gently with bare hands or clean cloth while applying
fresh water. Dry with soft, clean cloth. Follow by
applying polishing compound with a soft, clean cloth
using a circular motion until clean. Polish with
another soft, clean cloth.
CAUTION
Do not use synthetic (non-cotton) cloths with
naphtha. Do not rub dry plastic panel with dry cloth.
Cloth, Flannel
Apply naphtha with a soft, clean flannel cloth. Blot
gently: solvent will evaporate and not leave a film.
Apply polishing compound. Rub using a circular
motion until clean and polish with another soft, clean
cloth.
Degreasing Solvent
WARNING
Open all circuit breakers before cleaning.
CONTROL CABLES
Dust, dirt, oil,
grease
MIL-PRF-680 Type II
or
MIL-PRF-32295 Type I
Non-Aqueous Cleaner
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
Corrosion Preventive Compound
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4
Corrosion Preventive Compound
Wipe with clean cloth dampened with solvent or
cleaner. Apply MIL-PRF-81309 Type II. Recoat
cables with MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4.
DOORS, LINKAGES, CYLINDER
Dust, dirt, oil,
grease
MIL-PRF-680 Type II
or
MIL-PRF-32295 Type I
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4
or
MIL-DTL-85054
Degreasing Solvent
WARNING
Open all circuit breakers before cleaning.
Non-Aqueous Cleaner
Corrosion Preventive Compound
Corrosion Preventive Compound
Brush surfaces as necessary with solvent or cleaner.
Cover rod ends and springs with
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4. Where lubrication is not
required, MIL-DTL-85054 may be applied.
EJECTION SEATS
Refer to specific ejection seat maintenance manuals.
2-15
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Table 2-3. Cleaning of Specific Areas and Components (Cont.)
Type of Soil
Cleaning Agent or Material
Mixing Directions or
Nomenclature
Cleaning Procedures
ELASTOMERIC SEALS
MIL-D-16791
Dust, dirt, oil,
and grime
1 oz. detergent in 1 gallon
water
CCC-C-440
Wipe with cloth wet with cleaning solution and rinse
with a cloth wet with fresh
water. Dry with a clean cloth.
Cheesecloth, Cotton
ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS AND AVIONIC COMPONENTS
Dust, dirt, lint,
and other loose
foreign matter,
grease, oil
smudges, light
tarnish,
corrosion, or
fungi
Refer to Volume III.
ENGINES, RECIPROCATING
Dust, dirt, or oil
MIL-PRF-680 Type II
or
MIL-PRF-32295 Type I
A-A-3100
Degreasing Solvent
Apply solvent or cleaner with cleaning pad or brush.
Repeat application and dry. Collect solvent runoff
and dispose in accordance with local
regulations.
Cleaning Pad
EXTERIOR SURFACES, PAINTED
Light soils
(dirt, dust,
mud, salt,
loose soot)
Moderate soils
(hydraulic fluids,
lube oils, light
preservatives)
Heavy soils
(carbonized oil,
aged
preservatives,
grease, gun
blast & exhaust
deposits)
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
1 part cleaner in 9 parts water
or
Apply cleaner solution with foam generator, spray,
sponge, soft brush, or cloth. Allow cleaner to dwell
5-10 minutes. Scrub and then rinse with fresh water
and dry.
Apply cleaner solution with foam generator, spray,
sponge, soft brush or cloth. Allow cleaner to dwell 510 minutes. Rub gently with a circular motion for up
to one minute. Rinse with fresh water and dry.
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
1 part cleaner in 9 parts water
MIL-PRF-85570 Type V
or
Use undiluted
Spray or brush on cleaner. After 5-10 minutes, brush
and rinse thoroughly.
MIL-PRF-680 Type II
Degreasing Solvent
CCC-C-440
Cotton Cheesecloth
Preclean by wiping or solvent brushing soiled area
with MIL-PRF-680. Then apply cleaner solution with
foam generator, spray, sponge or cloth. Allow the
cleaner to dwell for up to 1 minute without
scrubbing then scrub for up to 1 minute. Rinse
thoroughly, then dry. Do not allow cleaning solutions
to dry on surfaces, or streaking will occur.
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type IA
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II RTU
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
Use undiluted
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
Use undiluted
Stubborn soil
on gloss
painted aircraft
(scuff marks,
exhaust)
MIL-PRF-85570 Type III
Use undiluted
Apply cleaner with a damp cloth. Rub with a circular
motion. Rinse thoroughly, then dry. Do not allow the
cleaner to dry on surfaces or rinsing may be difficult.
Stubborn soil on
Tactical Paint
Scheme aircraft
(scuff marks,
exhaust)
MIL-PRF-85570 Type IV
Use undiluted
Apply cleaner with a non-abrasive cleaning pad.
Allow 1-3 minutes dwell time. Rub with a circular
motion. Rinse thoroughly, then dry. Do not allow the
cleaner to dry on surfaces or rinsing may be difficult.
2-16
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Table 2-3. Cleaning of Specific Areas and Components (Cont.)
Type of Soil
Cleaning Agent or Material
Mixing Directions or Nomenclature
Cleaning Procedures
EXTERIOR SURFACES, UNPAINTED
Gunblast
residues,
carbonized
exhaust
CAUTION
Do not allow MIL-PRF-85570 Type I or 1A cleaning
solutions to contact canopy plastic panels.
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type IA
or
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
Use undiluted
Wet surface with fresh water. Apply cleaning solution
and scrub briskly with abrasive mat
(MIL-A-9962 Type 1 Grade A or B). Rinse with fresh
water and dry.
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
Corrosion Preventive Compound
For stubborn deposits, spray area with
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II, then scrub with flap brush.
FABRIC PARTS, SOUNDPROOFING AND UPHOLSTERY
Light soil and
oil spots
MIL-D-16791
1 part detergent in 16 parts water
Remove loose dirt with vacuum cleaner. Apply soap
solution with sponge and scrub briskly.
1 part cleaner in 9 parts water
Rinse with clean, dampened cloth or sponge using
clean, fresh water. Allow area to dry.
Raise nap by brushing.
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
GAS TURBINE ENGINE EXTERIOR, ENGINE BAY AND ENGINE BAY DOORS
Oxidized oil,
dust, carbon,
salt deposits
MIL-PRF-85704 Type II
RTU (preferred)
Do not dilute, this is a ready
to use form
or
MIL-PRF-85704 Type I
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
Apply mixed cleaning solutions
(MIL-PRF-85704 Type I or Type II RTU or MIL-PRF85570 Type II) with a brush. Scrub, then rinse with
fresh water. When using MIL-PRF-85570 Type V,
apply concentrate with a brush, allow cleaner to remain
on surface for 5 minutes, then brush and rinse
thoroughly. Dispose of waste cleaner in accordance
with local regulations.
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type V
Use undiluted
GAS TURBINE ENGINE INTERIOR, GAS PATH
Oxidized oil,
dust, carbon,
salt deposits
MIL-PRF-85704 Type II
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
Use in accordance with applicable engine maintenance
manual instructions. Dispose of waste cleaner in
accordance with local regulations.
Do not dilute, this is a ready to use
form
Navy: Refer to Appendix A for
additional information.
1 part cleaner in 9 parts water
CAUTION
Do not use strong alkaline cleaners or concentrated
abrasive compounds when cleaning rotor tip cap areas.
Refer to aircraft technical manuals for specific cleaning
instructions.
or
MIL-PRF-85704 Type II
RTU
HELICOPTER AND PROPELLER BLADES
Grime, oil,
grease,
exhaust
stains
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
A-A-3100
Cleaning Pad
Apply cleaning solution with a cleaning pad or brush.
Rinse with fresh water.
HELICOPTER CARGO AND RESCUE HOIST CABLE, AND END FITTINGS
Salt,
salt water
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
A-A-50129
Corrosion Preventive Compound
Cloth, Flannel
Flush thoroughly with fresh water. Blow dry with clean,
compressed air or thoroughly dry with a cotton cloth.
Spray with MIL-PRF-81309 compound as cable is
being rewound. Remove excess with clean dry flannel
cloth.
HELICOPTER CARGO AND RESCUE HOIST DRUM
Salt,
salt water
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
Rinse with fresh water. Apply cleaning solution with
sponge or clean cloth. Rinse thoroughly with fresh
water. Blow dry with clean compressed air or dry with a
clean dry cloth.
2-17
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 2-3. Cleaning of Specific Areas and Components (Cont.)
Type of Soil
Cleaning Agent or Material
Mixing Directions or
Nomenclature
Cleaning Procedures
HELICOPTER RESCUE SLING
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
Salt,
salt water
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
or
MIL-D-16791
1 part detergent in 14 parts
water
Rinse with fresh water. Apply cleaning solution with
sponge or clean cloth. Rinse thoroughly with fresh
water. Blow dry with clean compressed air or
suspend and allow to dry. If suspended to dry
ensure water will drain away
from the buckle.
INTERIOR AREAS
COCKPIT INTERIOR
Dust, dirt,
mud, and
light debris
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
or
MIL-D-16791
1 oz. detergent in 1 gallon water
Loosen any accumulations of mud on control
pedals, floor, or other cockpit equipment with brush
and remove with vacuum cleaner. Wipe with cloth
wet with cleaning solution and follow with a cloth
wet with fresh water. Dry with a clean cloth.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL DUCTING
Light debris,
dust, and
grime
A-A-50129
Cloth, Flannel
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
or
MIL-D-16791
1 oz. detergent in 1 gallon water
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
(preferred)
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
Refer to applicable
maintenance manuals.
FLOOR AND DECK
Dirt, debris
Remove loose dirt with vacuum cleaner. Wipe with
cleaning compound, rinse with fresh water.
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
(alternate)
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
O-A-451
Ammonium Hydroxide,
1 part in 20 parts water
ASTM D928
Sodium Bicarbonate, 6 oz. to
1 gallon of fresh water
USDA Reg 100-12-1
Germicidal Tablets
LAVATORIES
Urine residue
CAUTION
When using Ammonium Hydroxide, do not allow
any solutions to contact aircraft wiring. Flush
immediately with fresh water if spillage occurs.
Sponge with a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
Flush with fresh water or wet surface with sodium
bicarbonate solution, allow to dry, rinse with fresh
water. Dry with a clean cloth.
Use germicidal tablets as toilet and urinal
deodorants.
RADOME AND EQUIPMENT COMPARTMENT (INTERIOR)
Dust, dirt, oil
and debris
MIL-D-16791
A-A-1491
1 oz. detergent in 1 gallon water
Cotton Cheesecloth
CAUTION
Avoid use of compressed air to clean electronic
equipment. Do not use abrasives in radome
compartment.
Remove loose dirt with vacuum cleaner. Wipe
fiberglass with a cloth wet with cleaning solution
and rinse with cloth wet with fresh water. Dry with
a clean cloth.
2-18
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Table 2-3. Cleaning of Specific Areas and Components (Cont.)
Type of Soil
Cleaning Agent or
Material
Mixing Directions or
Nomenclature
Cleaning Procedures
INTERIOR PLASTIC AND GLASS PANELS
Dust, dirt
A-A-50129
Cloth, Flannel
Vacuum and then dust with soft, clean,
damp cloth. Keep cloth free of grit by
rinsing frequently in water and wringing out.
LANDING GEAR EXPOSED PISTON SURFACES
Sand, dirt, salt
deposits, and
other foreign
particles
MIL-PRF-83282
Hydraulic Fluid
CCC-C-440
Cotton Cheesecloth
Clean exposed surfaces with clean cloth
dampened with hydraulic fluid. Take care
not to scratch the surface. Wipe away from
seals.
A-A-59199
A-A-50129
Optical cleaner
Cloth, Flannel
Spray cleaner onto flannel cloth and
carefully wipe the lens surface. Wipe dry.
OPTICAL GLASS
Dust, grease, oil
ORGANIC MATERIALS (Fabric, Rubber, Paint)
Fungi (mold)
TT-I-735
CCC-C-440
Isopropyl Alcohol
Cotton Cheesecloth
or
NAVCLEAN
Mix in accordance with
manufacturer's instructions
Wipe with clean cheesecloth wet with
isopropyl alcohol. To prevent recurring
fungus growth, keep area dry and clean.
For treatment of fuel system fungus contact
appropriate engineering authority.
Apply solution to mold/mildew/fungus
growth using cotton cheesecloth or a soft
bristle brush. Let stand 5-15 minutes. Rinse
thoroughly with fresh water to remove
residue.
OXYGEN LINES (EXTERIOR SURFACES)
Oil, grease
Refer to specific system manuals.
RELIEF TUBES (EXTERIOR)
Human waste
(urine)
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
1 part cleaner in 14 parts water
Wash thoroughly with solution using a soft,
bristle brush, then rinse thoroughly with
fresh water.
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
Navy: use MIL-PRF-85570 in accordance
with procedures in NAVAIR 01-1A-35.
Army: use system specific manuals.
REMOVABLE METAL FUEL TANKS
Fuel residue,
grease, exhaust
deposits
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type IA
Use undiluted
WHEELS AND BRAKES
Oil, dirt, sand,
and other
foreign matter
MIL-PRF-85570 Type I
1 part cleaner in 4 parts water
or
MIL-PRF-85570 Type IA
Clean exposed areas with cleaner solution
by brushing. Rinse thoroughly with fresh
water. Relubricate as required.
Use undiluted
2-19
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
2-9.3.2. Detergent Cleaning (Preferred Method). The
following procedure shall be used where fresh water is
available for rinsing purposes. Dilute cleaner as
recommended in Table 2-3. Where high outdoor
temperatures are encountered (80°F (27°C) and above)
and where shade is not available, cleaning operations
should be scheduled for early morning and late afternoon
or night. Wetting aircraft exteriors with fresh water
before cleaning will cool surfaces and help prevent fast
evaporation during hot weather. For cold weather
procedures, refer to paragraph 2-9.3.8.
CAUTION
Do not use abrasive mats (A-A-58054) for
cleaning painted surfaces.
Figure 2-3. Washing and Rinsing of Aircraft Surfaces
a. Rinse aircraft surfaces where necessary to reduce
skin temperature. Streaking will occur if cleaning
solutions drip down hot painted surfaces.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
CAUTION
Do not use the 3M "Jet Pad" Melamine Wash
Pads for cleaning transparency/canopy
materials such as plastic or glass.
NOTE
3M "Jet Pad" Melamine Wash Pads do not have
the durability of the traditional wash pad. It is
recommended that a thorough post-wash
inspection be completed to ensure that no
small pieces of foam remain on the aircraft.
b. Apply
diluted
cleaning
compound
(MIL-PRF-85570 Type I or II) from a bucket, spraying
equipment, or foaming equipment (see Figure 2-3).
Scrub surfaces with 3M No. 33 Aircraft Cleaning Pad or
3M Jet Pad attached to the 3M No. 261 Pad Holder (see
Figure 2-4). Use nylon bristle scrub brushes
(MIL-B-23958) or the 3M Jet Pad for hard to remove
soils. To prevent streaking, start at the lower surfaces,
working upward and out (see Figure 2-5). Surfaces
being cleaned should be exposed to cleaning solution
for 5 to 10 minutes.
2-20
Figure 2-4. Use of Aircraft Washing Applicator
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
WARNING
See applicable aircraft MIMs for no-step and
water intrusion areas.
CAUTION
Canopies, windscreens and transparencies must
be covered during washing to prevent
scratching or crazing from aircraft cleaning
detergents.
LEGEND
Direction
of Steps
Direction
of Spray
Wash &
Rinse Area
Covered
Area
NOTE
Open doors and flaps to flapwells,
intercoolers, oil coolers, speed brakes,
spoilers, and controllable leading edges to
permit cleaning of hidden areas.
STEP 1
Clean the underside of the fuselage and tail
section. Wash (allow detergent to dwell) and rinse,
starting from the main landing gear and moving
toward the forward and aft ends of the aircraft.
STEP 2
Clean the underside of the wings. Wash (allow
detergent to dwell) and rinse, starting from the
mid-section and moving outward to the wing tips.
STEP 3
Clean the center section of fuselage and topside
of the wings. Wash (allow detergent to dwell) and
rinse, starting from the center section of the
fuselage and moving outward to the wing tips.
STEP 4
Clean the remaining topside area of the fuselage
(except canopy). Wash (allow detergent to dwell)
and rinse, starting from the mid-section and
moving toward the forward and aft ends of the
aircraft fuselage. Wash and rinse the tail section,
starting at the bottom and moving up toward the top.
Figure 2-5. Aircraft Cleaning Procedure
2-21
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Mist
Light
Spray
Coarse
Spray
Solid
Stream
Figure 2-6. Automatic Water Spray Nozzle
c. Rinse away the loosened soil and cleaner with
fresh water. For rinsing, a rubber padded shut-off spray
nozzle is recommended (see Figure 2-6). Rinse the
cleaner and loosened soil from aircraft surface with a
fan spray nozzle, directed at an angle between 15 and
30 degrees from the surface. Continue rinsing until all
evidence of cleaner and soils have been removed from
aircraft.
d. For aircraft with gloss paint surfaces, ground-in
soils (boot marks, smudges) can be cleaned with
MIL-PRF-85570 Type III. Apply undiluted cleaner with a
damp cloth. Rub area with a circular motion. Rinse
thoroughly, then dry with a clean cloth. Do not allow
cleaner to dry on surface.
2-22
NOTE
The 3M Jet Pad, used with MIL-PRF-85570
Type I or Type II, will also adequately remove
boot marks, smudges, and ground-in soils.
e. For aircraft painted with a tactical paint scheme,
ground-in soils (boot marks, smudges) can be cleaned
with MIL-PRF-85570 Type IV spot cleaner. Blot undiluted
cleaner on using a cleaning pad or sponge. After
1-3 minutes, scrub these areas with the pad in a circular
motion. When the rubber particles in this cleaner are
rubbed with the pad, removable soils are erased from
the pores in the paint. Rinse thoroughly, then dry with a
clean cloth. Do not allow cleaner to dry on surface.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
f. Wheel wells, flap wells and other heavily soiled
areas which can tolerate water rinsing can be cleaned
with MIL-PRF-85570 Type V gel cleaner. This cleaner
may be sprayed on using a hand operated pump spray
or applied with a brush. Allow cleaner to dwell for five
minutes. Brush if necessary, then rinse thoroughly with
a coarse spray (see Figure 2-6).
2-9.3.3. Waterless Wipe Down. Waterless wipe down
procedures for spot cleaning shall be used only when
water is not available for rinsing, or when cold weather
prevents the use of water. The preferred waterless wipe
down method for removing soils and corrosive salt
residues is as follows:
2-9.3.5. Detergent Cleaning With Limited Water. Use
the following procedure, only when sufficient rinse water
is not available:
a. Mix either of the following in a bucket:
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
(1) One part MIL-PRF-85570 Type II and
14 parts water or
(2) One part MIL-PRF-85570 Type I and
14 parts water.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
a. Using a plastic spray bottle, apply MIL-PRF-85570
Type I or II (one part cleaner to 14 parts water) to the
exterior surfaces of the aircraft (several square feet at
a time).
b. After 30 seconds, scrub, then wipe cleaner and
soil from the surface with a clean cloth.
c. Rinsing with a cloth wet with fresh water following
the use of cleaner is desirable.
d. Rinse the cleaned surface with fresh water when
it becomes available.
2-9.3.4. Alternate Waterless Wipe Down. Use only
when water is not available for rinsing or when cold
weather prevents the use of water. The following is an
alternate method of waterless wipe down:
b. Apply the cleaner with a cleaning pad, sponge,
cloth, or cleaning brush. Apply to one small area at a
time.
c. Scrub the area and wipe clean with a soft cloth.
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
d. For stubborn soils, clean with degreasing solvent
MIL-PRF-680 Type II. Then scrub with one of the
solutions below:
(1) One part MIL-PRF-85570 Type II and four
parts water.
(2)
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II RTU.
(3) One part MIL-PRF-85570 Type I and four
parts water.
(4)
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
Water-Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
13
MIL-PRF-85570 Type IA.
4
a. Apply a film of a water displacing corrosion
preventive compound (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II).
b. Wipe with a cloth to remove the loosened soil.
c. Apply a second coat of MIL-PRF-81309 Type II.
d. Wipe the surface with a clean cloth.
e. Wipe clean with a soft cloth.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
Water-Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
4
f. Apply MIL-PRF-81309 Type II and wipe with a
clean, dry cloth.
2-23
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
WARNING
Do not use synthetic wiping cloths with
flammable solvents. Synthetic cloths can
generate static electricity which can result in
sparks and fire. Cotton wiping cloths, such at
terry cloth, flannel, or cheesecloth, are
acceptable.
2-9.3.6. Solvent Cleaning. The use of MIL-PRF-85570
for stubborn or exceptionally oily areas on exhaust
tracks, landing gears, wheel wells, and engine nacelles
will normally be sufficient. When this material has not
completely cleaned these areas, MIL-PRF-680 Type II
or MIL-PRF-32295 Type I can be used in small quantities.
The quantity used shall be limited to the minimum
necessary to accomplish the required cleaning. In using
MIL-PRF-680 for cleaning, remember that it will burn
intensely once ignited. Solvent available at the aircraft
or equipment shall not exceed three gallons under the
use or control of each person authorized to accomplish
the cleaning involved. The authorized person shall be
thoroughly familiar with applicable safety precaution
and disposal information. The time (dwell) the solvent is
allowed to remain on painted surfaces shall be held to
a minimum (10-15 minutes maximum) to prevent
softening of the paint. Control drain off of dirty solvent
resulting from the cleaning operation to prevent
unauthorized entry into the sewer. Minor spillage (less
than one gallon) is not considered significant; however,
solvent spillage should be cleaned up according to local
regulations. In no instance shall the solvent be allowed
to drain into or enter a public sewer or otherwise be
allowed to contaminate streams or lakes.
2-9.3.6.1. The following guidelines shall be followed in
using MIL-PRF-680 Type II:
a. Use only in areas approved by the local safety
office.
b. Ensure that the area within 50 feet of the solvent
cleaning operation is clear and remains clear of all
potential ignition sources.
c. Use only explosion-proof electrical devices and
power equipment. Power units used in servicing shall
be placed upwind and beyond the 50 feet clearance.
Ensure that the aircraft or equipment is grounded.
d. No smoking shall be allowed in the solvent cleaning
area.
2-24
e. Mixing of solvents with other chemicals, cleaning
compounds, or water is strictly prohibited except as
specified by this manual.
f. Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be
available to the solvent cleaning area.
g. Wear ANSI Z87.1 Type II goggles, protective wet
weather clothing, solvent resistant gloves, boots, and
head covering. Use a respirator fitted with organic vapor
cartridges when working in an enclosed area. Ensure
that good ventilation is maintained. Consult the local
safety office for PPE requirements
2-9.3.6.2. Clean the area as follows:
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
15
a. Apply MIL-PRF-680 Type II (or MIL-PRF-32295
Type I) using pad, cloth, or brush. Clean up spills as
they occur.
b. Ensure that no solvent/cleaner is trapped or has
entered the equipment interior. Remove by wiping with
clean cotton wiping cloths or by blowing dry with clean,
low pressure air (10-15 psi).
c. Collect waste solvent/cleaner and wiping rags
and dispose in accordance with local regulations.
d. After cleaning with MIL-PRF-680, rewash the
area using procedures in paragraph 2-9.3.2. to remove
residue left by the solvent.
2-9.3.7. Interior Cleaning. Dirt, dust, small loose objects,
and paper can be removed from an area by use of an
industrial or domestic vacuum cleaner. A soft bristle
brush on the inlet of the vacuum cleaner will aid in
removal of soils.
a. Floor boards and areas underneath the floor
boards (bilge) shall be inspected at depot-level
maintenance and as necessary for cleaning and/or
corrosion treatment. Particular attention shall be given
to urinal areas and other areas that may trap water.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
CAUTION
CAUTION
Accidental spills shall be investigated
immediately after occurrence to determine if
ingredients are corrosive. Neutralize corrosive
spills by using procedures in Table 2-3. Failure
to comply can result in extensive corrosion
damage and possible unsafe operation of the
equipment.
Before starting the following cleaning operation,
be sure that the spray or other methods of
application will not result in moisture damage to
any components, especially electrical. Before
using the spray methods, ensure all drain holes
are open, that the material will drain and that the
cleaning solution will not be forced into
inaccessible areas. Do not apply the solution to
any moisture absorbing material such as
insulation, sponge rubber (open cell), or felt.
b. When it is determined that harmful contamination,
(e.g. dirt spillage, foreign material) is present, remove
the floor boards as necessary to allow proper cleaning
of the area.
c. Clean area by vacuuming all loose foreign
material, dirt, or spillage. The vacuum removal of dirt or
soil may be aided by agitating with the brush. Be careful
not to sweep or wipe the dirt into oily or wet areas.
WARNING
Use MIL-PRF-680 Type II with adequate
ventilation and be sure bilge and/or other areas
are properly ventilated (blown out) before floor
boards are reinstalled or closed. Warning signs
shall be conspicuously placed at all aircraft
entrances to indicate that combustible materials
are being used. The guidelines cited in
paragraph 2-9.3.6.1. for solvent cleaning
procedures apply.
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
13
15
d. Oily areas and/or spots may be cleaned by wiping
area with a clean cloth dampened with solvent,
MIL-PRF-680 Type II or cleaner, MIL-PRF-32295 Type I,
followed by immediate drying with a clean dry cloth. Do
not over-saturate the cloth used for applying the solvent
because this may result in the solvent puddling or
entering recessed areas and creating a fire hazard.
Precautions to prevent entry shall be taken when using
the solvent around electrical equipment.
e. If further cleaning is required, use 1 part
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II mixed with 14 parts fresh water.
The cleaning solution can be applied by spraying or with
a mop, sponge, or brush, provided that the solution can
be adequately rinsed and/or removed from the surface.
f. After applying the cleaning solution with a
non-metallic bristle brush, allow dwell time of
approximately 10 minutes and flush or rinse with clean
water. Check drain holes to assure that they are open
and the water is draining properly. Remove any
remaining water using clean cloths. The surface shall
then be thoroughly dried using warm air or clean dry
cloths.
g. In those areas where the above procedures cannot
be used due to lack of drainage, or possible damage to
components, hand cleaning procedures shall be used.
Apply 1 part MIL-PRF-85570 Type II mixed with 14
parts water, by wiping or agitating the surface with a wet
rag or sponge. Immediately following the application of
the solution, wipe the same area with a rag wetted with
clean water and then with a dry rag. The procedure may
have to be repeated several times on extremely soiled
areas.
h. Where corrosion is encountered or paint is
removed, treat in accordance with this manual and the
applicable maintenance instruction manual before the
floor boards are replaced or area is closed.
2-9.3.8. Low Temperature Cleaning. Routine
scheduled cleaning should not be performed at
temperatures below 40°F (5°C). Instead, aircraft should
be cleaned in an indoor wash rack. If such a facility is not
available and aircraft are contaminated by corrosive
materials (such as runway deicer or salt water),
contaminated areas shall be cleaned even if the
temperature is below 40°F (5°C). Normal cleaning
solutions cannot be used in freezing weather. When the
temperature is below or could drop below 32°F (0°C),
clean as follows:
2-25
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 2-4.
WARNING
Deicing fluid (AMS 1424) is mildly toxic. Contact
with skin and eyes shall be avoided. Do not
inhale deicing fluid mist. Operators should stay
on the windward side of the aircraft during
spray or brush application. Chemical or splash
proof goggles shall be worn by all maintenance
personnel.
Recommended Dilution of
Low Temperature Cleaner
Ambient Temperature
Dilution
(parts mixture : parts water)
+30° F and above
1:4
+20° F to +30° F
1:2
+10° F and below
1:1
CAUTION
Isopropyl alcohol (TT-I-735) or any other alcohol
shall not be used for deicing acrylic canopies.
Use deicing fluid (AMS 1424) for these
applications.
Deicing fluid (AMS 1424) is glycol-based and
may damage electrical/electronic circuitry with
noble metal (gold, silver) coatings.
a. If necessary, deice aircraft according to NAVAIR
01-1A-520 (Navy), TM 55-1500-204-25/1 (Army), or
applicable maintenance manuals.
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
b. Solvent clean heavily soiled areas of aircraft by
wiping or brushing with degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II).
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF--85570
2
c. Dilute aircraft cleaning fluid (MIL-PRF-85570
Type II) with diluted deicing fluid (AMS 1424) to make a
low temperature cleaner. If necessary, both materials
should be warmed until the detergent can be poured
into the deicing fluid. Mix thoroughly.
d. Dilute this mixture as required by Table 2-4.
e. Scrub the aircraft using a brush or aircraft washing
2-10. FRESH WATER RINSING. The purpose of fresh
water rinsing is primarily to remove salt from aircraft
surfaces that have become contaminated due to
operations near salt water. Most salt deposits are readily
dissolved and/or dislodged and flushed away by rinsing.
Rinsing can be done in a taxi-through facility or by direct
manual spraying.
CAUTION
Water in wheel wells, flap wells, or flight control
wells, necessitates relubrication. Ensure that
these areas are adequately drained and check
the specific aircraft manual to determine
lubrication requirements.
NOTE
Fresh water rinsing does not satisfy aircraft
washing requirements.
2-10.1. TAXI-THROUGH RINSING. Deluge rinse
facilities are automatic installations located in a taxiway
area for use by aircraft after flight through salt air (see
Figure 2-7). These installations provide multiple jet
sprays of fresh water to cover the entire aircraft and
rinse off salt and water soluble contaminants. Such
facilities should be used as frequently as possible.
CAUTION
Do not rinse aircraft with a solid stream of water.
Use a soft spray pattern to avoid damaging
fragile sections or causing water intrusion. Water
must not be directed at pitot tubes, static ports,
vents, or openings. Critical areas shall be
adequately protected with ground plugs, covers,
or barrier material.
kit.
f. Rinse by deicing as in paragraph a. Heated
deicing fluid mixtures will speed up the rinsing process.
2-26
2-10.2. MANUAL RINSING. The manual application
of fresh water is accomplished through the use of a
hand held hose or some piece of spraying equipment.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
The force or pressure used to apply the water is not as
critical as the amount of water. Satisfactory results are
achieved with an amount of water that will create a full
flowing action over the surface. This will require a
minimum flow rate of eight gallons per minute (gpm) of
water at not less than 25 psi or standard pressure.
Maximum nozzle pressure shall not exceed 175 psi.
Rinse as follows:
a. Direct water at an angle of 15-30 degrees from
the surface. Ensure that sufficient water flow is achieved
on all surfaces.
b. Begin rinsing on lower surfaces and work upward
(see Figure 2-5). Then rinse from the top down starting
with vertical stabilizer, then upper fuselage, upper wing
surfaces, and horizontal stabilizers. Lower areas will be
rinsed in the same order and manner as upper surfaces.
2-11. POST CLEANING PROCEDURES. Corrosion
prevention depends on carrying out the prescribed
preservation and lubrication procedures. Strict
compliance with the following procedures is essential.
Post-cleaning procedures shall be done in the following
order.
a. Remove covers and masking from all static vents,
pitot tubes, air ducts, heater ducts and openings.
b. Remove tape from all other openings sealed with
masking tape.
WARNING
Do not use synthetic wiping cloths with
flammable solvents. Synthetic cloths can
generate static electricity which can result in
sparks and fire. Cotton wiping cloths, such at
terry cloth, flannel, or cheesecloth, are
acceptable.
Naphtha, Aliphatic
TT-N-95
11
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
c. Remove all tape adhesive residues with aliphatic
naptha (TT-N-95) or degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680
Type II).
d. Clean all drain holes by inserting a probe, such as
a pipe cleaner.
e. Ensure that all areas accumulating water have
been drained. Whenever this is a recurring problem,
procedures shall be developed and implemented to
remove entrapped water and prevent accumulation.
Figure 2-7. Aircraft at a Taxi-Through Rinse Facility
2-27
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
CAUTION
Lubrication must be accomplished as soon as
possible to prevent/minimize the occurrence of
corrosion.
f. Upon completion of all cleaning operations,
lubricate in accordance with applicable maintenance
manuals to displace any entrapped water or cleaning
materials. Water which is not displaced can cause
corrosion and failure of lubricated parts.
g. Apply operational preservatives (Chapter 8) when
necessary. Cleaning compounds tend to remove
preservatives, making previously protected surfaces
vulnerable to corrosion.
2-12. TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WASH
RACK WASTE.
NOTE
Cleaning solutions which remove greases and
surface contamination from aircraft and
components may exceed discharge
concentration limits on oil and grease (especially
where oil/water separators are not installed or
not operating properly), naphthalene (from
cleaners containing aromatic hydrocarbons),
chromium, cadmium, nickel or other heavy
metals (from cleaning operations involving
engines or plated parts). If the wash rack is a
source of hazardous waste, consult the base
safety or environmental office to determine
corrective action.
a. Precautionary measures shall be taken to prevent
wash rack waste from contaminating lakes, streams, or
other natural environments. Some of the chemicals
used for cleaning require treatment or other special
control prior to disposal.
b. The disposal of materials shall be accomplished
in accordance with applicable directives and in a manner
that will not result in the violation of local, state, or
Federal pollution criteria.
c. To mimimize the problems associated with
disposal and the actual cleaning process, all work shall
be accomplished on an approved wash rack. The only
exception to this requirement shall be for those facilities
which are temporarily established to support combat
operations or special missions.
2-28
d. Aircraft wash rack cleaning waste shall receive
the equivalent of secondary sewage treatment. When
MIL-PRF-85704 Type I solvent emulsion cleaning
solution is used, waste shall be released so that the total
effluent entering the waste treatment plant does not
contain more than the amount limited by local
environmental regulations or 100 parts per million (ppm)
of cleaning compound.
2-13. LUBRICANTS. Lubrication performs a dual
purpose. It not only prevents wear between moving
parts, but also fills air spaces, displaces water, and
provides a barrier against corrosive media. The
lubrication requirements contained in maintenance
manuals and maintenance cards are usually adequate
to prevent corrosion of most lubricated surfaces under
normal operating conditions at shore bases. However,
these required intervals shall be shortened when
operating aboard ship, especially under foul weather
conditions. Aircraft lubrication shall be accomplished by
personnel qualified in lubrication procedures. In the
event that the specified lubricant is not available, request
substitutions through the chain of command.
NOTE
Comply with relubrication time frame
requirements outlined in the system specific
manual or maintenance cards.
2-13.1. CONVENTIONAL LUBRICANTS (GREASES).
CAUTION
Not all lubricating materials are compatible.
Some are known to promote corrosion or cause
paint or acrylic plastics to deteriorate. The use
of the correct lubricating material is critical. Use
only lubricants specified by appropriate manuals
or maintenance cards.
2-13.1.1. Conventional Lubricants shall not be used in
the following circumstances:
a. Do not use greases or oils with solid film lubricants.
b. Do not lubricate Teflon bearings and bushings.
Clean Teflon bearings and bushings with degreasing
solvent MIL-PRF-680 Type II.
c. Lubricants containing graphite, either alone or in
mixture with any other lubricants, shall not be used,
since graphite is cathodic to most metals and will cause
galvanic corrosion in the presence of electrolytes.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
CAUTION
The use of the correct lubricating material is
critical. Use only lubricants specified by the
applicable manual or maintenance card.
2-13.1.2. Table 2-5 contains the title, specification,
intended use, and temperature range of the most
frequently used conventional lubricating materials.
2-13.2. APPLICATION OF CONVENTIONAL
LUBRICANTS. The proper method of application is
important. Apply lubricant as specified in the appropriate
maintenance manual. Lubricants can be applied by one
of the following methods:
a. Grease guns: lever or pressure type;
b. Oil, squirt, and aerosol spray cans; or
2-13.2.4.4. When applying grease to a flush type (high
pressure) fitting, make sure that the grease gun is fitted
with a flush type adapter and held perpendicular to the
surface of the fitting before applying pressure. If the
fitting does not accept lubrication, replace the fitting and
lubricate.
2-13.2.4.5. Wipe excess grease from fitting with a
clean, dry cloth.
2-13.3. SOLID FILM LUBRICANTS. These lubricants
prevent galvanic coupling on close tolerance fittings
and reduce fretting. Solid film lubricants are used where
conventional lubricants are difficult to apply or retain, or
where other lubricants may be contaminated with dust,
wear products or moisture. Typical applications of solid
film lubricants are sliding motion components such as
flap tracks, hinges, turnbuckles and cargo latches. Solid
film lubricants shall not be used in the following
circumstances:
c. Hand or brush.
2-13.2.1. When lubricating hinges and pinned joints,
apply MIL-PRF-81309 Type II or MIL-PRF-63460 before
applying lubricant.
2-13.2.2. Always apply generous quantities of lubricant,
and actuate the joint several times to make sure that the
lubricant penetrates all crevices thoroughly.
CAUTION
Excess lubricant can attract dust, dirt, and other
foreign material during aircraft service.
2-13.2.3. Wipe away any excess lubricant.
2-13.2.4. Grease Gun Application.
2-13.2.4.1. When applying lubricants through pressure
type fittings with a grease gun, clean grease fitting with
degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680) and a clean cloth
before applying lubricant.
2-13.2.4.2. Be certain the grease gun is properly
attached to the fitting prior to applying pressure.
2-13.2.4.3. Make sure the lubricant has emerged
around the bushing. If no grease appears, check the
fitting and grease gun for proper operation.
a. Do not use solid film lubricants in areas subject to
rotational speeds above 100 rpm under heavy loads.
b. Do not use solid film lubricants on roller bearing
elements.
c. Do not use solid film lubricants in conjunction with
oils or greases.
d. Do not use where there is a potential contact with
liquid oxygen.
2-13.3.1. Surface cleanliness and preparation is
extremely important to the service wear life of solid film
lubricants. They may be applied over bare metal
surfaces, or over surfaces that have been pre-coated
with other films, such as anodized aluminum and
phosphated steel. They have also been successfully
applied over organic coatings such as epoxy primers.
2-13.3.2. SAE AS 5272 (Lubricant, Solid Film, Heat
Cured, Corrosion Inhibiting). This lubricant is a heat
cured, corrosion-inhibiting solid film lubricant with
extended wear life. AS 5272 Type I and Type II replaces
MIL-L-46010 Type I and Type II. It can be used on
aluminum, copper, steel, stainless steel, and titanium.
AS 5272 Type II must be cured at 400°F (204°C) for
one hour. If metallurgical damage is done at this
temperature, AS 5272 Type I, which cures at 300°F
(149°C) for one hour, must be used. Due to the
temperature requirements, this lubricant is not
suitable for all applications. AS 5272 is recommended
for use under the following conditions:
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Table 2-5. Common Military Greases and Their Uses
Specification and Nomenclature
Intended Use
Recommended
Temperature Range
AMS-G-4343
Grease, Pneumatic System
(NATO Code G-392)
Lubrication between rubber and metal parts of pneumatic
systems; pressurized cabin bulkhead grommets and other
mechanisms requiring rubber to metal lubrication.
-65° F to 200° F
(-54° C to 93° C)
AMS-G-6032
Grease, Plug Valve, Gasoline
and Oil Resistant
(NATO Code G-363)
Tapered plug valves; gasket lubricant or seal; general plug
valve and fitting use where gasoline, oil, alcohol, or water
resistance is required.
-32° F to 200° F
(0° C to 93° C)
Heavily loaded steel sliding surfaces, accessory splines, or
MIL-G-21164
Grease, Molydenum Disulfide,
antifriction bearings carrying high loads and operating in wide
for Low and High Temperatures temperature ranges where grease will prevent or delay
(NATO Code G-353)
seizure in the event of inadequate lubrication.
-100° F to 250° F
(-73° C to 121° C)
MIL-PRF-23827
Grease, Aircraft and Instrument,
Gear and Actuator Screw
(NATO Code G-354)
Sliding and rolling surfaces of such equipment as instruments,
cameras, electronic gear and aircraft control systems that are
subject to extreme marine and low temperature conditions;
ball, roller and needle bearings; gears; low torque equipment;
general use on aircraft gears and actuator screws.
-100° F to 250° F
(-73° C to 121° C)
MIL-G-25013
Grease, Aircraft, Ball and
Roller Bearing
(NATO Code G-372)
Lubrication of ball and roller bearings that operate at extreme
high or low temperatures under low torque conditions,
especially in applications where soap-type greases and oils
cannot be used.
-100° F to 450° F
(-73° C to 232° C)
MIL-G-25537
Grease, Aircraft, Helicopter,
Oscillating Bearing
(NATO Code G-366)
Lubrication of aircraft bearings having oscillating motion of
small amplitude.
-65° F to 160° F
(-54° C to 71° C)
MIL-PRF-27617 Type III
Grease, Aircraft Fuel and
Oil Resistant
(NATO Code G-399)
Lubrication of taper plug valves, gaskets, and bearings in fuel
systems; lubrication of valves, threads, and bearings in liquid
oxygen systems. Do not use on aluminum or magnesium
dynamic bearings due to possible ignition hazard.
-30° F to 400° F
(-34° C to 204° C)
MIL-PRF-32014
Grease, Aircraft and Instrument
Mutipurpose, water resistant, high speed grease for
lubrication of aircraft wheel bearings, internal brake
assemblies, antifriction bearings, gearboxes, plain bearings,
engine and instrument bearings. May be used as a
replacement for MIL-PRF-81322 grease with engineering
approval. Not for use in torque sensitive applications
(increased resistance in lower temperature range).
-65° F to 350° F
(-54° C to 177° C)
MIL-PRF-81322
Grease, Aircraft,
General Purpose,
Wide Temperature Range
(NATO Code G-395)
2-30
Lubrication of aircraft wheel bearings and internal brake wheel
assemblies, antifriction bearings, gearboxes, and plain
bearings.
-65° F to 350° F
(-54° C to 177° C)
15 April 2009
a. Sliding motion applications, such as plain spherical
bearings, flap tracks, hinges, threads, and cam surfaces;
b. Where conventional lubricants are difficult to apply
or retain, or where other lubricants may be easily
contaminated by dirt or dust;
c. Where a solvent resistant lubricant is required.
d. If mechanisms are operated at infrequent intervals
or are lubricated for life.
e. When long term corrosion protection is required
under static conditions (2 years outdoor storage or 5
years indoor storage).
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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2-13.3.3. MIL-PRF-46010 (Lubricant, Solid Film, Heat
Cured, Corrosion Inhibiting, Low VOC Content). This
lubricant is a heat cured, corrosion-inhibiting solid film
lubricant with extended wear life. MIL-PRF-46010
replaces MIL-L-46010 Type III. Limitations and uses
are the same as described for AS 5272 Type I above. In
addition, engineering authorization to substitute
MIL-PRF-46010 for AS 5272 is required prior to use.
2-13.3.4. MIL-L-23398 (Lubricant, Solid Film, Air Cured,
Corrosion Inhibiting). This lubricant is an air-cured,
corrosion-inhibiting solid film lubricant which may also
be used to repair surfaces originally coated with AS 5272/
MIL-PRF-46010. It can be used on aluminum, steel and
titanium. It provides moderate wear life and corrosion
protection in areas where it is not feasible to use a solid
film lubricant that requires curing at elevated
temperatures.
2-31/(2-32 Blank)
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CHAPTER 2
CLEANING
SECTION II. SPECIAL CLEANING
2-14. INTRODUCTION. This section describes the
special cleaning procedures required if an aircraft has
been exposed to volcanic ash (paragraph 2-15) or
sand/desert environments (paragraph 2-16).
2-15. CLEANING AFTER EXPOSURE TO
VOLCANIC ASH. The primary concern in removing
volcanic ash is the extreme abrasiveness of the ash. It
is not a significantly corrosive material. Aircraft that
have been exposed to volcanic ash shall be cleaned
using the following procedures after exposure and
before the next aircraft operation or flight:
a. All static ports, fuel vents, engine inlets, and air
conditioning inlets should be vacuumed to remove as
much ash as possible and then suitably covered to
preclude additional ash entry. Special emphasis should
be placed on ducting supplying cooling air to avionics
equipment.
b. After covering all openings where ash may enter,
the exterior of the airframe or equipment shall have ash
removed initially using vacuum, low-pressure air, or by
lightly dusting with clean rags. Avoid rubbing since this
may damage surfaces due to the abrasiveness of the
ash.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
c. Wash entire aircraft or equipment using one part
aircraft cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in
14 parts water and rinse thoroughly with low-pressure
water. Ensure that critical parts, such as flap screws,
tracks, and exposed hydraulic actuators are adequately
cleaned. Caution should be taken when washing to
avoid rubbing since ash is even more abrasive when
combined with water as slurry.
d. Wiper blades should be checked to ensure that all
contaminants are removed prior to operation.
e. If ash penetration is evident in the cockpit, cargo,
or any other accessible interior areas, it should be
thoroughly vacuumed.
f. Check lower aircraft structures for volcanic ash
and water entrapment.
g. Clear all drains and air dry structures as much as
possible.
h. Uncover all openings that were covered during
paragraphs a. and b.
i. After washing, the aircraft shall be lubricated in
accordance with applicable maintenance instruction
manuals (MIMs).
2-16. CLEANING AFTER DESERT OPERATIONS
OR EXPOSURE TO SAND ENVIRONMENTS.
Environmental conditions in desert operations introduce
salt-laden sand and other corrosive substances to the
interior of the aircraft. These substances, if allowed to
remain, can accelerate the corrosion process and lead
to premature corrosion damage. Aircraft that have been
exposed to sand/desert environments shall be inspected
and cleaned no later than 60 days after leaving the
desert environment, or as necessary during deployment.
2-16.1. VISUAL INSPECTION.
a. Open all access doors and remove all nonpermanently installed panels and fairings. Visually
inspect structural surfaces such as skins, frames, ribs,
bulkheads, longerons, fittings, and stringers, for sand
intrusion. Borescopes may be used to inspect interior
surfaces not accessible to visual inspection.
b. Inspection should also include the following
general areas and/or components: acrylic plastic parts,
arresting gear and wheel wells, avionics components,
battery compartments, bearings, bilge areas, brakes,
canopy exterior, cockpit ducting, control cables, doors,
ejection seats, elastomeric seals, electrical connectors,
engines, equipment compartments, exterior surfaces,
flap screws, hinges, hydraulic actuators, landing gear
exposed piston surfaces, linkages, optical glass, oxygen
lines, radomes, tracks, wire bundles, and wheels.
c. Inspect all drain holes and verify that they are
open and free of obstruction.
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Change 1 - 31 March 2010
2-16.2. GENERAL CLEANING PROCEDURES.
a. Vacuum clean all loose sand and contaminants
from all accessible areas inspected in accordance with
paragraph 2-16.1.
b. Ensure sand is vacuumed from avionics bays,
storage bays, and other enclosed compartments, such
as battery compartments and battery vent openings.
Pay particular attention to air inlets.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
b. Arresting Gear and Wheel Wells. Clean using
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II RTU or mix one part aircraft
cleaning compound, MIL-PRF-85570 Type II, to 4 parts
water. Rinse thoroughly with fresh water.
c. Use a soft bristle brush and air pressure (not to
exceed 10 psi) to dislodge sand between close-fitting
components. Repeat vacuum cleaning.
c. Battery Compartments. Neutralize acid in
accordance with paragraph 6-2, using sodium
bicarbonate for lead acid batteries and sodium phosphate
for nickel-cadmium batteries. Rinse with fresh water
and dry with wiping cloths.
d. Hand wipe residual sand/dust film adhering to
surfaces with isopropyl alcohol (TT-I-735), degreasing
solvent (MIL-PRF-680 Type II), non-aqueous cleaner
(MIL-PRF-32295 Type I), or cleaning compound (MILDTL-16791 or MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) on a clean cloth.
If cleaning compound is used, dilute according to
instructions for light soil, use sparingly and ensure that
all areas are thoroughly dried.
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
e. Dry with wiping cloths or blow dry with air pressure
less than 10 psi.
f. Wash aircraft exterior in accordance with
paragraph 2-9. Remove all standing water and allow
aircraft to dry thoroughly.
g. After washing, the aircraft shall be lubricated in
accordance with applicable maintenance instruction
manuals (MIMs).
13
d. Bearings. Clean sand from exposed bearings
with degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680 Type II). Inspect
bearings for sand damage. Contact cognizant bearing
engineer for specific disposition if necessary.
e. Canopy Exterior. Flush with water to remove
loose sand/dust. Clean using plastic polish (P-P-560)
and flannel cloth (A-A-50129).
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
15
2-16.3. TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC AREAS.
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
Detergent, Non-Ionic
MIL-D-16791
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-16173
6
h. Inspect for any remaining sand and re-clean until
all sand is removed.
9
a. Acrylic Plastic Parts (except Canopies). Wipe
with cloth wet with cleaning solution (MIL-DTL-16791
1 oz cleaner per 1 gallon water) and follow with a flannel
cloth wet with water. Dry with a clean cloth (A-A-50129).
f. Control Cables. Clean using degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or non-aqueous cleaner
(MIL-PRF-32295 Type I) and a clean wiping cloth.
Preserve with CPC (MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4) or as
specified by the applicable maintenance instruction
manuals.
g. Ejection Seats. Refer to specific Ejection Seat
Manual.
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Detergent, Non-Ionic
MIL-D-16791
9
Cleaning Compound
Turbine Engine Gas Path
MIL-PRF-85704
3
h. Elastomeric Seals. Wipe with cheesecloth
(CCC-C-440) wet with detergent (MIL-DTL-16791 1 oz
cleaner in 1 gallon water.) Rinse with cheesecloth wet
with water. Dry with clean cheesecloth.
j. Engines. Wash engine with cleaning compound
(MIL-PRF-85704) in accordance with the applicable
maintenance instruction manuals.
Alcohol, Isopropyl
TT-I-735
Fluid, Hydraulic
MIL-PRF-83282
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
Water-Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
1
4
i. Electrical Connectors and Avionics Components.
If contamination is suspected, use an acid brush
(A-A-289) to apply isopropyl alcohol (TT-I-735) liberally
to the internal and external sections of the connectors,
both male and female. Mate and unmate connector
several times to clean. Rinse again with isopropyl
alcohol and allow to dry. Preserve with CPC
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type III) or as specified by the
applicable maintenance instruction manuals.
10
k. Landing Gear. Clean all sand from exposed
reciprocating portions of landing gear shock struts by
wiping with a clean, soft cloth (A-A-59323 Type II)
moistened with hydraulic fluid (MIL-PRF-83282). Use
care not to scratch exposed piston shafts or damage
seals.
l. Optical Glass. Spray cleaner (A-A-59199) onto a
clean flannel cloth (A-A-50129) and wipe lens surface.
Wipe dry.
m. Oxygen Lines. Refer to specific maintenance
instruction manual.
2-16.4. CORROSION INSPECTION. Perform corrosion
inspections as specified by the applicable maintenance
instruction manuals.
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CHAPTER 3
INSPECTION AND CORROSION PRONE AREAS
SECTION I. INSPECTION AND EVALUATION
3-1. GENERAL.
3-1.1. PURPOSE. Frequent corrosion inspections are
essential to the overall corrosion control program. The
costs resulting from corrosion can be minimized by
early detection, identification, and treatment. Without
regular systematic inspections, corrosion will seriously
damage aviation equipment. This chapter describes
procedures for basic visual inspection for corrosion and
illustrates some of the signs of corrosion damage.
3-1.2. RESPONSIBILITY. Corrosion detection is
everyone’s responsibility. Since corrosion can occur
almost anywhere on aviation equipment, all maintenance
personnel must be able to identify and report corrosion
problems. Personnel performing any scheduled
inspections shall be qualified in corrosion detection and
shall have attended appropriate corrosion prevention
and control courses as established by the parent service
organization.
3-1.3. FREQUENCY OF INSPECTIONS. The minimum
frequency and extent of these inspections are
established by the aircraft programs of the parent service
organization. However, during scheduled or
unscheduled maintenance actions on aviation
equipment or components, the area involved as well as
those within 3 feet or 36 inches (18 inches on each side)
of the repair or treatment area shall be visually inspected
for corrosion. Additional inspections may be necessary
in areas which are particularly prone to corrode, such as
magnesium gear boxes, wheel and flap wells, and bilge
areas. Areas which are corrosion prone are discussed
in Section II of this chapter.
3-1.4. GENERAL INSPECTIONS. A general inspection
of aviation equipment or components is performed as
follows:
CAUTION
Prior to removing any access covers or panels
primed with TT-P-2760 flexible primer, score
the sealant at the edges of the cover/panel with
a sharp plastic tool to prevent fraying the paint
finish when the panel is removed.
b. If corrosion is suspected, examine the area with
a 10X magnifying glass and flashlight. Examine edges
of skin panels, rivet heads, and corrosion prone areas.
If there are blisters, bubbles, or other coating irregularities
present, attempt to dislodge the paint by scraping with
a sharp plastic tool. If paint does not easily dislodge and
corrosion is not suspected, the irregularity is probably
confined to the paint film itself and no further action
should be taken. When corrosion is suspected but no
irregularities are present, apply a strip of ASTM D6123
Type II flatback masking tape over the clean, dry area.
Hand rub the tape for several strokes in order to assure
good adhesion, and remove the tape with an abrupt
lifting motion. Where paint is removed, inspect and
determine the degree of corrosion (see paragraph 3-4).
c. Remove corrosion (Chapter 4), clean and treat
the surface (Chapter 5), and paint (Appendix A).
3-1.5. DETAILED INSPECTIONS. A detailed inspection
of aviation equipment or components shall be performed
as a result of damage found during general inspections
if extensive or severe corrosion is suspected, and as
specified in appropriate aircraft maintenance manuals.
Parts shall be carefully inspected for signs of corrosion
using the tools and procedures listed in Table 3-1. See
Section II of this chapter for information on common
corrosion prone areas.
a. Clean the area thoroughly (as described in
Chapter 2) or, for water sensitive areas, wipe the area
with a clean cloth dampened with an approved solvent.
3-1
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Table 3-1. Inspection Equipment and Techniques
Equipment
Corrosion Type Detected or
Evaluated
(See Type Below)
Borescope
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10
Depth Gage
1, 4, 5
Optical Depth Micrometer
1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9
Fluorescent Penetrant
3, 4, 5, 7, 8
Eddy Current
1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8
Ultrasonic
1, 3, 4, 7, 8
Radiography (can detect
thickness loss of 2% or more
1, 5
Type of Corrosion
1
Uniform surface corrosion
2
Galvanic or dissimilar metal corrosion
3
Intergranular attack (general)
4
Intergranular attack (exfoliation)
5
Pitting
6
Fretting corrosion
7
Stress corrosion cracking
8
Corrosion fatigue
9
Filiform corrosion
10
Hot corrosion
3-2. INSPECTION METHODS.
3-2.1. VISUAL INSPECTION. Visual inspection is the
most widely used method for the detection and evaluation
of corrosion. It is very effective for detecting surface,
exfoliation, pitting, and intergranular corrosion if done
carefully and with knowledge of where and what to look
for. Read Volume I, Chapter 3 (Corrosion Theory) before
performing a corrosion inspection, paying particular
attention to Table 3-1 of Volume I (Corrosion of Metals Type of Attack and Appearance of Corrosion Products).
3-2.1.1. The following tools can be used to find and
evaluate the extent of corrosion damage:
a. Flashlight.
b. 10X Magnifying Glass.
c. Plastic Scraper.
3-2
Figure 3-1. Fiber Optic Borescope
d. Borescope.
e. Depth Gage, Pin Micrometer Type.
f. Optical Depth Micrometer.
3-2.1.2. Evidence of Corrosion. Aluminum corrosion
products will be white, gray, or black and may appear as
a paste when wet, or a hard, adherent film or easily
crumbled deposits (i.e., powder) when dry. Magnesium
corrosion products are white and form in large amounts
with significant losses to the base metal. Steel corrosion
products are red, brown, or black rust deposits which
are easily detected. Copper corrosion products are blue
or blue-green and are also easily detected. Titanium
and stainless steels do not produce significant amounts
of corrosion products but can exhibit stress corrosion
cracking. When corrosion occurs beneath a paint system,
the surface of the paint often appears blistered or
distorted.
3-2.2. VISUAL INSPECTION WITH BORESCOPE. A
borescope is an instrument with a small, high intensity
light that can be used in the inspection of interior
surfaces (e.g. tubing, ducts, and pipes) which are not
accessible by any other method (see Figure 3-1).
Examples of the different kinds of borescopes include
flexible, rigid, micro, video, and fiberscopes. Insert the
head assembly into any cavity having a large enough
opening. With the cavity illuminated, visually inspect its
interior for defects, such as damage to the paint system
and corrosion.
3-2.3. DEPTH GAGE. Depth gages are tools for
measuring the depth of corrosion pits and reworked
areas to determine the extent of corrosion present and
the amount of metal removed during rework.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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NOTE
Dial Indicator
Measures
0.001 Inch/Division
On thin sheet material, waviness in the material
may result in false depth readings. Several
readings may be necessary, or it may be
necessary to improvise another method for
determining the depth of the corrosion damage.
The depth gage is not suitable for determining
the depth of a corrosion crack due to the
relatively large size of the indicator pin.
3-2.3.1. Use of Depth Gage. Several depth readings
shall be taken in the affected area. Select the deepest
reading as the depth of the corrosion damage. Where
there are several damaged areas in the same skin panel
or component part, plot or sketch a diagram of the depth
and location of each damaged area. This diagram will
be used for further evaluations, along with the applicable
aircraft manuals, or when engineering assistance is
required. The diagram should be forwarded to the
engineer when requesting engineering assistance. The
base of the depth gage shall be flat against the
undamaged surface on each side of the corrosion
damaged area. When taking measurements on concave
or convex surfaces, place the base perpendicular to the
surface (see Figure 3-2).
3-2.3.2. If the pits or depth of rework are within allowable
tolerances, as given in the specific aircraft manuals or
as described in paragraph 4-8.3, the pits can be
acceptably cleaned, and the reworked area will require
the re-application of a protective coating system. If the
pits or depth of rework are not within allowable tolerances,
the part must be replaced or repaired, if allowed, or a
request for engineering assistance must be made.
NOTE
Wearing eyeglasses makes it difficult to place
the eye at the ideal distance from the eyepiece
and the view is distorted by external glare and
reflections. Rubber eyeshields on optical
instruments (e.g. borescope, optical
micrometer) are designed to shut out external
light, but are not as effective when glasses are
worn. For these reasons, it is desirable that the
inspector be able to adjust the instrument without
wearing glasses to compensate for variations
in visual acuity.
3-2.4. OPTICAL DEPTH MICROMETER. This
inspection tool measures the depth of scratches, cracks,
and pits and the height on spurs and other protrusions
0
5
5
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
Indicator Pin
Wing Skin
A
B
C
INSTRUCTIONS
1. Take measurement readings
at both edges (A and B)
adjacent to groove.
2. Take measurement at
maximum groove depth (C).
3. Subtract maximum groove
depth (C) from average of
edge measurements to obtain
groove depth reading.
Groove =
Depth
C - (A + B)
2
Figure 3-2. Measuring Corrosion with a Depth Gage
(see Figure 3-3). The micrometer is first focused on the
highest surface in the area of interest and a reading is
taken. A second reading is taken when the lowest
surface is in focus. The difference between the readings
is the distance between the two surfaces. Optical
micrometers are available with 100 and 200 power
magnification, reticle eyepieces, and accessory lighting.
The procedures outlined below are to be used for
determining the depth of corrosion pits and/or areas
reworked due to corrosion damage on any surface.
a. Select the appropriate base to be used for the
surface (e.g., flat, curved, round, or inside/outside angle
surfaces) on which the measurement is to be made.
b. Position the micrometer solidly over surface A
(undamaged surface close to surface B) with the lens
directly over the area to be read. When the micrometer
is set over the surface, a pinpoint of light will cover the
area to be measured.
3-3
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Eyepiece
9 7 5 3
10 8 6 4 2
Thimble
Thousandths
Scale
Ten
Thousandths
Scale
9 7 5 3
10 8 6 4 2
Hundred
Thousandths
Scale
Enlarged View of Vernier Scales
Distance A
Distance B
Tripod Base for
Flat Surfaces
Surface A
Flat Surface
Objective Lens
Surface B
Optical Depth Micrometer
Partial View of Optical Depth Micrometer
Showing Only the Optic and Base
INSTRUCTIONS
1. Place micrometer on an undamaged surface near the area of interest.
NOTE
For best results, the micrometer tripod
should be stable and remain stationary
when measuring distances.
2. Focus on undamaged surface by adjusting the thimble on the micrometer.
3. Take reading from Vernier scales. This reading is Distance A.
4. Move micrometer and center over corrosion pit.
5. Focus on bottom of pit by adjusting the thimble on the micrometer.
6. Take reading from Vernier scales. This reading is Distance B.
7. Pit Depth = Distance B - Distance A
Figure 3-3. Optical Depth Micrometer
3-4
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c. Look through the eyepiece of the micrometer and
rotate the micrometer thimble clockwise or
counterclockwise until surface A comes into sharp
focus. Extreme care should be taken when focusing on
the surface to be measured in order to reduce inaccuracy
in the measured values.
d. Obtain the reading for surface A located on the
vernier scale. Since a vernier scale is not one that can
be easily read, an experienced, trained technician should
read the scale or supervise/check the readings of less
experienced personnel.
e. Position the micrometer over surface B (corrosion
pit or area reworked due to corrosion damage) to be
measured. When measuring the depth of corrosion pits
or reworked areas, ensure that the surface being
measured has a large enough area to be focused in
order to obtain an accurate reading.
f. Repeat procedures c. and d. on surface B.
g. Take the distance readings from surface A and
surface B and subtract the surface A reading from the
surface B reading to obtain the depth of the corrosion
damaged surface. Calculate the pit depth using the
following equation:
Pit Depth = Distance B - Distance A
h. Take several readings from the corrosion
damaged surface and select the deepest reading as the
pit depth.
3-2.5. FLUORESCENT PENETRANT INSPECTION
(FPI). In fluorescent penetrant inspections, the
component is cleaned and then treated with a fluorescent
penetrating liquid which is capable of entering surface
cracks or flaws. After removing the penetrant from the
surface, a developer (water-soluble, dry powder, or
non-aqueous) is applied to absorb penetrant trapped in
cracks. Under ultraviolet light, the absorbed penetrant
is visible directly above the cracks from which it was
drawn.
3-2.5.1. The penetrant inspection method is used to
detect stress corrosion cracking and special cases of
intergranular corrosion. Intergranular corrosion attacks
the metallic grain boundaries and forms a network of
very fine cracks. In the early stages, the crack indications
are visible only under 10X or greater magnification.
Penetrant indications of intergranular corrosion appear
as a residual background and are resolved only under
magnification. Developer is not used when evaluating a
penetrant indication using a magnifying glass.
3-2.5.2. In addition, penetrant inspection is often used
to monitor the surface for adequacy of corrosion removal
by grinding. Caution must be exercised because
mechanical removal methods cause smearing which
may obscure indications of remaining corrosion attack.
In monitoring corrosion grind-out areas, a developer is
not used: following removal of excess surface penetrant,
the area is examined using a low power magnifying
glass (10X). The examination should be repeated after
a minimum five minute dwell. When corrosion is no
longer detected, the inspection process shall be repeated
using non-aqueous developer.
CAUTION
The apparent simplicity of the penetrant
inspection is deceptive. Very slight variations in
performing the inspection process can invalidate
the inspection by failing to indicate serious
flaws. It is essential that personnel performing
penetrant inspection be trained and experienced
in the penetrant process.
NOTE
The following inspection methods are to be
accomplished only be NDI qualified and certified
personnel (see COMNAVAIRFORINST 4790.2
and AIA/NAS 410). Refer to NAVAIR 01-1A-16,
TM 1-1500-335-23, or specific NDI manual for
more detailed inspection procedures.
3-2.5.3. Limitations of Fluorescent Penetrant
Inspection.
3-2.5.3.1. Flaw Location. Penetrant inspection is
applicable to all solid, nonporous materials provided
that the flaw is open to the surface of the part. To detect
subsurface flaws, another inspection method must be
used.
3-2.5.3.2. Restricted Flaw Openings. The penetrant
inspection process depends upon the ability of the
penetrant to enter and exit the flaw opening. Any factor
that interferes with the entry or exit reduces the
effectiveness of the inspection. Organic surface coatings,
such as paint, oil, grease, and resin are examples. Any
coating that covers or bridges the flaw opening will
prevent penetrant entry. Even when the coating does
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not cover the opening, the material at the edge of the
opening affects the mechanism of penetrant entry and
exit and greatly reduces the reliability of the inspection.
Coatings at the edge of the flaw may also retain penetrant,
causing background fluorescence. An inspection method
other than penetrant must be used if the organic coating
cannot be stripped or removed from the surface to be
inspected.
WARNING
Chemical etching shall only be performed by
personnel trained and certified in the proper
handling and application of the materials due to
their hazardous nature.
3-2.5.3.3. Smeared Metal. Mechanical operations,
such as shot peening, machine honing, abrasive blasting,
buffing, wire brushing, grinding, or sanding, will smear
or peen the surface of metals. This mechanical working
closes or reduces the surface opening of any existing
discontinuities. Mechanical working (smearing or
blending) also occurs during service use when parts
contact or rub against each other. Penetrant inspection
will not reliably indicate discontinuities when it is
performed after a mechanical operation or service use
that smears or peens the surface. Chemical etching
(e.g. Flicks on aluminum alloys and Shantz on Inconels)
prior to penetrant operations is recommended to improve
test sensitivity when smeared metal is present.
3-2.5.3.4. Porous Surfaces. Penetrant inspection is
impractical on porous materials with interconnected
subsurface porosity. The penetrant rapidly enters the
pores and migrates through the network. This results in
an overall fluorescence or color that masks any potential
discontinuity indications. In addition, removal of the
penetrant may not be possible after the inspection.
3-2.6. EDDY CURRENT INSPECTION. The eddy
current inspection method may be used to detect or
evaluate surface and subsurface corrosion. This method
can detect and evaluate uniform surface pitting,
intergranular, exfoliation (corrosion around fasteners),
and stress corrosion. Detection of corrosion with eddy
current techniques is used on aircraft skins where
corrosion may occur on inaccessible interior surfaces.
Corrosion usually occurs in areas where moisture is
entrapped. If relatively uniform thinning is expected,
corrosion detection may be simply a matter of thickness
measurement. In most instances, corrosion is confined
to smaller localized areas of relatively small diameter.
3-6
As skin thicknesses increase, sensitivity to small areas
and shallow depths of corrosion is reduced. Corrosion
on either member of a faying surface may be detected.
Eddy current can also be used for corrosion removal
inspections, but is less sensitive than liquid penetrant.
3-2.7. ULTRASONIC INSPECTION. Ultrasonic
inspection provides good resolution to evaluate material
loss and thickness. This method may be used to detect
exfoliation, intergranular, uniform surface, and stress
corrosion. Ultrasonic thickness gaging is included in
this method. Ultrasonic inspection for far side pitting
and internal exfoliation corrosion may be accomplished
using shear ("S") wave and longitudinal ("L") wave
techniques. The use of a delay line transducer is
recommended for "L" wave inspection. The delay will
improve resolution of both near and far surface corrosion.
Technique development is required for specific
applications.
3-2.8. RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION. Radiographic
inspection provides the best resolution for detection of
surface and subsurface corrosion flaws when no other
method can accomplish the inspection. The drawback
of radiography is the high equipment cost and the high
man-hour requirements to perform an on-aircraft
radiographic analysis. Radiographic inspection is used
in combination with ultrasonics to determine the condition
of aluminum honeycomb.
3-3. EVALUATION OF CORROSION DAMAGE.
Visually determine if corrosion is in an area which has
previously been reworked. If the corrosion damage is
located in an area that has been previously ground out,
measure the damage to include the material which has
previously been removed. A straight edge and a 10X
magnifying glass may be used to assist in determining
if an area has previously been reworked. Place the
straight edge across the area being examined at various
angles and check for irregularities, low spots, or
depressions (see Figure 3-4). If any irregularities, low
spots, or depressions are found, and a visual
determination cannot verify previous rework, closely
examine the suspected area and the surrounding area
using a 10X magnifier. After determining that the area
has been previously reworked, evaluate the depth of
the previous rework (i.e., grind-out) to determine if
further metal removal will exceed grind-out limits
specified in the applicable aircraft manuals or as specified
in paragraph 4-8.3. Depth measurements can be made
using the depth gage as described in paragraph 3-2.3.
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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Figure 3-4. Usage of Straight Edge to Determine if Suspect Areas Have Been Previously Reworked
3-4. DEGREES OF CORROSION. Corrosion must be
evaluated after the initial inspection and cleaning to
determine the nature and extent of repair or rework
needed. It is difficult to draw a distinct and specific
dividing line among the degrees of corrosion.
Consequently, the first requirement for a reliable
evaluation is sound maintenance judgment. Use the
following categories in reporting degrees of corrosion.
3-4.1. LIGHT CORROSION. At this degree, the
protective coating is scarred or etched and the condition
of the metal is characterized by discoloration and pitting
to a depth of approximately one mil (0.001 inch)
maximum. This type of damage can normally be removed
by light hand sanding.
3-4.2. MODERATE CORROSION. This appears similar
to light corrosion, with the addition of blistering or
evidence of scaling and flaking of the coating or paint
system. The pitting depths may be as deep as 10 mils
(0.010 inch). This type of damage is normally removed
by extensive hand sanding or light mechanical sanding.
3-4.3. SEVERE CORROSION. Its general appearance
is similar to moderate corrosion, with the addition of
severe intergranular corrosion, blistering, exfoliation,
scaling, or flaking. The pitting depths are deeper than 10
mils (0.010 inch). This damage must be removed by
extensive mechanical sanding or grinding.
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CHAPTER 3
INSPECTION AND CORROSION PRONE AREAS
SECTION II. CORROSION PRONE AREAS
3-5. COMMON CORROSION PRONE AREAS.
There are certain corrosion prone areas common to all
aircraft. Corrosion prone areas should be cleaned,
inspected, and treated more frequently than less
corrosion prone areas. The following paragraphs
describe the areas and contain illustrations to aid in
inspections. However, the list is not complete and
should be expanded by referencing the maintenance
manuals and maintenance cards for each specific
aircraft, which will show other possible trouble spots.
3-5.1. BATTERY COMPARTMENTS AND BATTERY
VENT OPENINGS. In spite of protective paint systems,
corrosion preventive compounds, and venting
provisions, battery compartments are severe corrosion
problem areas (see Figure 3-5). Fumes from overheated
battery electrolyte will spread to adjacent internal cavities
causing rapid corrosion of unprotected surfaces. If the
battery installation has an external vent opening to the
aircraft skin, include this area in battery compartment
inspection and maintenance procedures. Frequent
cleaning and neutralization of deposits will minimize
corrosion. Leakage of aircraft batteries with electrolytes
of either sulfuric acid or potassium hydroxide will cause
corrosion. Consult the aircraft maintenance manuals to
determine which type of battery is used. Refer to
Figure 3-5. Battery Compartment
Chapter 6 and specific aircraft maintenance manuals
for instructions on cleaning and neutralizing battery
electrolytes.
3-5.2. BILGE AREAS. These areas are natural
collection points (i.e., lower point/areas of aircraft) for
water, dirt, loose fasteners, drill shavings, and other
debris (see Figure 3-6). Keeping bilge areas free of
debris and fluids, and application of recommended
corrosion preventive compounds (CPCs) are the best
protection against corrosion.
3-5.3. CONTROL CABLES. Control cables present a
corrosion problem whether they are made of carbon
steel or stainless steel. As shown in Figure 3-7, the
presence of bare spots in the protective coating is one
of the main contributing factors to the corrosion of
cables. Dirt, dust, and grime that collect will lead to
corrosion and cable failure.
Figure 3-6. Helicopter Bilge Area
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Figure 3-7. Control Cables
3-5.4. ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS. Some electrical
connectors are potted with a sealant compound to
prevent the entrance of water into the areas of connectors
where wires are attached to pins. Rubber O-rings are
also used to seal moisture out of the mating area of pin
connections. Moisture will get into electrical plugs and
cause failure. It is necessary that such plugs be
disconnected periodically for inspection and corrosion
treatment. The use of unauthorized sealants or potting
materials can cause severe damage to affected
connectors or components. Refer to Volume III for
authorized avionic materials and procedures.
3-5.5. ENGINE FRONTAL AREAS AND AIR INLET
DUCTS. Since these areas are constantly abraded by
dirt, dust, and gravel, and eroded by rain, special
attention shall be given to:
a. Engine frontal areas (see Figure 3-8).
b. Leading edges of engine and air inlet ducts,
including hardware inside ducts (see Figures 3-9 and
3-10).
c. Due to heat dissipation requirements, oil cooler
cores are not usually painted. Engine accessory
mounting bases may have small, unpainted areas on
the machined mounting surfaces. With moist, salt-laden
air flowing over these surfaces, they are vulnerable to
corrosion.
3-5.6. EXHAUST IMPINGEMENT AREAS. Exhaust
impingement areas include areas exposed to engine,
rocket, and missile exhausts, gun blast, or any other
3-10
15 April 2009
Figure 3-8. Jet Engine Frontal Area
surface that is exposed to exhaust gases of installed
equipment. Exhaust gases cover the surface finish with
deposits (e.g. corrosive ash and residual solids) and
damage the finish. Surfaces located in the path of rocket
and gun blasts, including gun compartment systems
and spent ammunition collection chutes, are particularly
susceptible to deterioration and corrosion (see
Figure 3-11). In addition to the corrosive effect of the
gases and exhaust deposits, the protective finish is
often blistered by heat, blasted away by high velocity
gases, or abraded by spent shell casings or solid
particles from gun and rocket exhausts (see Figure 3-12).
These areas require more attention during inspection
cycles.
3-5.7. FASTENERS. There are thousands of fasteners
on aircraft exterior surfaces, and areas around these
fasteners are trouble spots (see Figure 3-13). These
areas are subject to high operational loads, moisture
intrusion, and susceptibility of the skin material to
corrosion (see Figure 3-14). High operational loads
cause the paint around the fasteners to crack, which
provides a path for moisture intrusion. All paints will
crack to some degree around fasteners.
3-5.8. FAYING SURFACES AND CREVICES. Similar
to corrosion around fasteners, corrosion in faying
surfaces, seams, and joints is caused by the intrusion of
salt water and other corrosive agents. Entry of fluids by
capillary action causes corrosive liquids to flow into the
tightest of joints. The effect of corrosion resulting from
fluid intrusion is usually detectable by bulging of the skin
surface.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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Figure 3-9. Corrosion in Air Intake Duct
Figure 3-11. Gun Blast Area
Figure 3-10. Corrosion Prone Points of Air and
Engine Inlet
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Figure 3-13. Corrosion Around Fasteners
Figure 3-12. Exhaust Trail Area
Moisture
Entrance
Points
Entrapped
Moisture
(Electrolyte)
Galvanic
Corrosion
Products
2
3
Cathode
Anode
1
Figure 3-14. Galvanic Corrosion of Aluminum Alloy Sheet Adjacent to Steel Fasteners
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3-5.9. FLAP AND SLAT RECESSES. Flap and slat
recesses (see Figure 3-15) and equipment installed in
these areas, which are normally closed, may corrode
unnoticed unless special inspections are performed.
3-5.10.HINGES. Hinges (see Figures 3-16 and 3-17)
are highly susceptible to corrosion because of dissimilar
metal contact that results from wear and damage of
protective metallic coatings. They are natural traps for
dirt, salt, and moisture. Piano hinges, which are
extensively used on aircraft, are especially vulnerable
to attack.
3-5.11.MAGNESIUM PARTS. Magnesium parts are
extremely corrosion prone. Special attention must be
given to proper treatment of their surfaces, insulation,
and paint coatings. Magnesium is commonly used for
transmission and gearbox housings, and throughout
avionic systems (antennas and frames).
3-5.12.RELIEF TUBE AREAS. Human waste products
are very corrosive (see Figure 3-18). These areas should
be cleaned frequently and the paint finish kept in good
condition. The relief tubes are usually made of plastic
and should not present a corrosion problem.
3-5.13.SPOT WELDED ASSEMBLIES. Spot-welded
assemblies are particularly corrosion prone. As shown
in Figure 3-19, corrosion is the result of the entrapment
of corrosive agents between the parts of the assemblies.
Corrosive attack causes skin buckling or spot weld
bulging (see Figure 3-20) and eventual spot weld
fracture. Skin and spot weld bulging in their early stages
may be detected by sighting or feeling along spotwelded seams. The only way to prevent this condition is
by keeping the potential moisture entry points, including
gaps, seams, and holes created by broken spot-welds,
filled with a sealant or suitable corrosion preventive
compound (CPC).
Figure 3-15. Flaps Lowered to Expose Recess Areas
Hidden corrosion
occurs here. Joint
freezes and lugs
break off when
hinge is actuated.
Steel Hinge Pin
Aluminum Alloy
Extrusions
Figure 3-16. Hinge Corrosion Points
NOTE
Organizational and Intermediate levels shall
not drill drain holes unless authorized by the
Aircraft Controlling Custodians (ACC) or System
Program Manager (SPM) of the parent service
organization.
3-5.14.WATER ENTRAPMENT AREAS. Figure 3-21
shows common water entrapment areas. Design
specifications require that aircraft have drains installed
in all areas where water may collect. However, in many
cases, these drains are ineffective either because of
improper location or because they are plugged by
Figure 3-17. Piano Hinge Lugs
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15 April 2009
Figure 3-20. Spot Weld Corrosion
Figure 3-18. Typical Corrosion Around a
Relief Tube Vent
Corrosive agents enter
at unsealed skin edges
Spot Weld
Corrosive agents travel
between skins, around
rivets and welds
Corrosion build-up
causes bulging of
outer skin
Figure 3-19. Spot Welded Skin Corrosion Mechanism
3-14
Figure 3-21. Common Water Entrapment Areas
15 April 2009
sealants, fasteners, dirt, grease, and debris. Plugging a
single drain hole or altering the attitude of the aircraft
can cause a serious structural defect if salt water or
other corrosives remain for any appreciable length of
time in one of these entrapment areas. Daily inspection
and cleaning of low point drains is a standard
requirement. These areas may accumulate water
following washing or rinsing of aircraft. Where this is a
recurring problem, procedures shall be developed to
prevent water accumulation.
3-5.15.WHEEL WELL AREAS. Wheel well areas
probably receive more abuse than any other area on the
aircraft (see Figure 3-22). They are exposed to mud,
salt, gravel, and other flying debris from runways during
taxiing, takeoff, and landing, and they are exposed to
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
salt water and spray when aircraft are parked aboard
ship. Because of the many complicated shapes,
assemblies, and fittings in the area, complete coverage
with protective coatings is difficult to maintain.
3-5.16.WING-FOLD JOINTS AND LEADING EDGES
OF WINGS AND CONTROL SURFACES.
a. Because wing and fin-fold areas are vulnerable to
corrosive attack when the wings are folded, they require
special attention (see Figure 3-23).
b. Both leading edges of wings and control surfaces
are constantly exposed to salt laden air, thus special
attention should be given to these areas which are
vulnerable to corrosion.
Figure 3-23. Wing Fold Joint
Figure 3-22. P-3 Nose Landing Gear Wheel Well
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CHAPTER 4
CORROSION REMOVAL
4-1. PURPOSE. This chapter covers instructions for
corrosion and paint removal. When corrosion is detected,
a specific and immediate program for corrective action
is required. Each type of corrosion has its own
peculiarities and will require special treatment. Complete
treatment involves thorough inspection of all corroded
and adjacent areas and evaluation of the corrosion
damage (Chapter 3), paint and corrosion removal (this
chapter), application of chemical surface treatments
(Chapter 5), sealing (Chapter 7), and application of
paint finishes: Appendix A (Navy) or TM 55-1500-345-23
(Army). For additional procedures specific to Army
maintenance, see Appendix B.
4-2. RESPONSIBILITY. Personnel assigned to
corrective maintenance tasks must be specially trained
in the use of chemical paint remover, abrasive materials,
powered tools, and damage limits. Inadequate training
will lead to further damage of equipment and poses a
safety hazard to the individual.
4-3. CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE.
4-3.1. Corrective maintenance depends on: (1) the
type of surface involved (metallic or composite); (2) the
area of damage (small corrosion spot or large heavily
corroded area); and (3) the degree of corrosion, as
determined in Chapter 3.
4-3.2. Corrosion shall always be removed by the mildest
effective technique. Since composite materials do not
corrode, corrosion removal techniques are not applicable
and shall not be used.
4-4. PAINT REMOVAL.
4-4.1. COMPOSITE SURFACES.
CAUTION
Propellers and helicopter blades have critical
balance requirements. Refer to the appropriate
propeller or blade manual for evaluation and
repair limits of corrosion, erosion, and abrasion
damage.
graphite, and Kevlar using only mechanical paint removal
equipment and techniques, unless specific exceptions
are provided in the appropriate maintenance manuals.
Due to the irregularities in composite surfaces, removal
of the complete paint system (e.g. topcoat and primer)
can damage fibers in the surface layers. Therefore,
paint removal by scuff sanding shall not go beyond the
primer coat unless repair is required.
4-4.1.2. Repair. Paint removed from composite
surfaces for the purposes of performing repairs shall be
performed by hand sanding or by using an orbital
sander in accordance with NAVAIR 01-1A-21. The use
of other types of powered sanders is prohibited due to
the high potential for causing laminate damage. Paint
system removal (to include removal of the majority of
the primer) is required to prevent the compromising of
the adhesive bond. Use extreme care during topcoat
and primer removal to prevent sanding into the laminate.
If the surface is to be subsequently prepared for structural
adhesive bonding, prepare surface in accordance with
NAVAIR 01-1A-21.
4-4.2. METAL SURFACES. For areas of several square
inches, paint may be removed mechanically using
abrasive mats or flap wheels and brushes, taking care
not to remove underlying metal. Chemical paint removal,
as specified in paragraph 4-6, may be used for areas
larger than several square inches. Plastic media blasting,
as specified in paragraph 4-5.4, may be used at
Intermediate and Depot level maintenance activities to
remove paint.
4-5. MECHANICAL PAINT REMOVAL. Paint removal
is authorized when corrosion is suspected/verified prior
to magnetic particle or fluorescent penetrant inspection,
or to replace damaged paint systems. For paint removal
from small areas (less than several square inches), use
of medium grade abrasive mats is authorized. Use
caution to remove as little metal as possible to properly
finish the repair work. Abrasive wheels and brushes not
specified in this manual shall not be used for removing
paint.
4-4.1.1. Paint Removal. Paint shall be removed from
composite materials, such as fiberglass, carbon/epoxy,
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WARNING
Primers and paints may contain toxic materials
such as chromates and lead. Use eye protection,
gloves, and cartridge respirator during
mechanical paint removing operations. Contact
the local safety and health office for proper
personal protection equipment (PPE).
4-5.1. ABRASIVE MATS, FLAP WHEELS AND
BRUSHES. See paragraph 4-9 for a complete
description of authorized materials, equipment, and
procedures.
4-5.1.1. Composite Surfaces. Use medium grade
(Grade C) abrasive mat (A-A-58054) for scuff sanding.
The abrasive mat may be wet with fresh water or diluted
cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570) to prevent
clogging. See paragraph 4-4.1.1 for removal limits.
4-5.1.2. Metal Surfaces. Use a fine (Grade B) or very
fine (Grade A) abrasive mat on an orbital sander, or fine
or very fine flap brushes on a pneumatic drill, for scuff
sanding.
4-5.1.3. Cadmium Plated Steel Surfaces. Sanding to
smooth or remove paint from cadmium plated high
strength steel components shall be done with great care
to avoid penetrating the cadmium, which can be
extremely thin. If unprotected, high strength steel aircraft
parts can experience detrimental levels of corrosion
within just a few hours. Hand sand with 240 grit or finer
abrasive paper or cloth until the primer coat is reached,
then switch to 400 grit or finer paper or cloth.
CAUTION
Radial bristle discs are authorized for use only
on aluminum, magnesium, high-strength steel,
and titanium surfaces as a replacement/
substitute for abrasive wheels and brushes
cited in this chapter. Use of the discs on other
metallic or composite surfaces is not authorized
and may result in damage to the surface or
structure.
4-5.2. 3M™ RADIAL BRISTLE DISC. The 3M™ radial
bristle disc has been proven to be effective and less
aggressive than abrasive wheels and brushes and is
intended for spot paint removal. The 400 grit (orange)
disc may be used for spot paint removal and will leave
IVD aluminum or cadmium plating mostly intact on highstrength steel surfaces. Refer to paragraph 4-9.2.1 for
operating instructions.
4-2
4-5.3. PORTABLE VACUUM SANDING SYSTEMS.
Air quality regulations mandate containment of airborne
particulates from sanding and grinding operations on
metallic and composite surfaces. Vacuum sanding
systems are suction-type equipment used for collecting
paint, metal, and carbon/epoxy dust from grinding and
sanding operations. If appropriate filters (e.g. activated
carbon) are used, then vapor, mist, gases, fumes, and
odors can also be captured. Because the systems are
portable, they allow for work to be done on location
rather than in a booth. These compact, self-contained
units are equipped with sanders, abrasives, adjustment
tools, air supply and vacuum hoses, vacuum hose
connectors, supply air hose fittings and a high efficiency
filter vacuum system for dustless sanding.
CAUTION
Abrasive blasting using glass beads or
aluminum oxide shall not be used for removing
paint. Glass bead and aluminum oxide blasting
may be damaging to the underlying metal.
4-5.4. PLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING (PMB). PMB is an
abrasive blasting method used to remove paint coatings
on metal surfaces. PMB is a quick and environmentally
preferred alternative to most types of chemical paint
removers, but it can cause damage to underlying metal
and injury to personnel if not performed by trained
operators using approved methods. PMB of Army aircraft
components and parts shall be performed using the
requirements and controls in Appendix B, Section VII.
4-5.4.1. PMB Training. Prior to using any PMB
equipment, operators shall receive specialized
on-the-job training conducted by qualified operators.
Operators with limited training or who are newly trained
shall only perform PMB processes under the direct
supervision of properly trained personnel.
a. Training shall include familiarization with the
specific equipment manufacturer’s operating and
maintenance manuals, and the guidelines and
parameters as outlined in this chapter.
b. Training shall also include lectures and
demonstrations on equipment operation and
maintenance, masking and blasting techniques, process
parameters, damage recognition, media contamination
prevention and removal, and safety requirements.
c. Training shall be documented in accordance with
local requirements.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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4-5.4.2. PMB Restrictions. The following restrictions
apply to PMB operations:
Instructions for reapplication of these protective coatings
must also be provided by the engineering authority.
a. PMB of aircraft component surfaces is authorized
for use ONLY at Intermediate and Depot level
maintenance activities.
WARNING
b. PMB is NOT authorized for use at Organizational
level maintenance activities.
c. PMB in a walk-in booth (open blasting) is not
authorized at Intermediate level maintenance activities.
At the Intermediate level, only the PMB of aircraft
component surfaces in a blast cabinet (glove box)
designed for plastic media is authorized.
d. PMB of aircraft component surfaces at
Intermediate maintenance level activities is restricted to
metallic surfaces 0.032 inch thick or greater.
e. Nonmetal surfaces, such as composites or
fiberglass, and metal bonded structures are not
authorized for PMB at the Intermediate level.
f. Corroded steel components shall not be
processed in equipment used for aluminum and
magnesium components without first removing all
corrosion products (rust). Plastic media used to remove
paint from rusted steel parts should be completely
purged from blasting equipment, and the equipment
should be thoroughly cleaned prior to blasting aluminum
or magnesium parts. Best practice is to maintain and
use separate equipment for steel components.
g. Plastic media used to remove non-slip, walkway
coatings (such as A-A-59166), is considered
contaminated and the media must be replaced prior to
blasting aluminum or magnesium parts.
4-5.4.3. Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Limitations.
Because PMB can peen or smear soft metals, it shall
not be used to remove paint from aluminum or
magnesium components requiring subsequent
fluorescent penetrant inspection for cracks (see NAVAIR
01-1A-16) unless specifically directed by the engineering
authority for that component. Distortion caused by PMB
can limit crack detection. PMB is permitted prior to eddy
current inspection. Chemical etching may be used to
reopen cracks after PMB by removing distorted metal,
however, this process shall be performed only in
accordance with specific engineering authority, approval,
and written detailed process and application instructions.
Chemical etching also removes protective coatings
such as anodize and chromate conversion coatings.
Hearing protection and air respirator shall be
worn during plastic media blasting operations.
Contact the local safety and health office for
proper personal protection equipment (PPE).
4-5.4.4. Operator Safety. Operational safety
compliance shall be in accordance with local regulations
and the following:
a. PMB creates airborne particles which may be
hazardous if inhaled or allowed to contact eyes or skin.
Both eye protection (goggles) and respirator are required
for all operating personnel. Do not allow unprotected
personnel to come in contact with dust. Wash hands
thoroughly before eating or smoking.
b. The PMB process is noisy; typically greater than
80 decibels. Hearing protection is mandatory.
c. All PMB equipment and components being blasted
shall be properly grounded to dissipate static electricity.
4-5.4.5. PMB Equipment. The blast cabinet (glove
box) shall be specifically designed for use with plastic
media meeting the requirements of NA 17-600-191-6-2.
The blast cabinet shall be the pressure pot design,
capable of maintaining constant blast pressure and
media flow using a 1/4 inch to 3/8 inch I.D. nozzle. The
blast cabinet shall be equipped with an air pressure
regulator and pressure gage to provide easy adjustment.
The equipment shall allow for several successive cycles,
and shall be equipped with a dust collection system to
remove dust particles (recommend 60 mesh or finer).
The dust collection system shall be accessible for
removal of the collected dust to facilitate proper waste
disposal. A magnetic particle separator shall be an
integral part of the system to remove ferrous particles
from recirculated media.
4-5.4.6. PMB Preparation.
4-5.4.6.1.Prior to PMB, all components to be blasted
shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove dirt, oil, grease,
and other soils. Refer to Chapter 2 for cleaning methods
and materials. If not removed, these soils will contaminate
the plastic media, causing possible damage to the
surface(s) being blasted and leading to malfunction of
the blasting equipment. Allow the surfaces to dry
completely prior to blasting.
4-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
4-5.4.6.2.Surfaces or areas which are sensitive to
contamination or impact damage from PMB shall be
masked or covered to prevent damage. These surfaces
include precision bearings and gears; grease fittings;
fuel, oil, and hydraulic lines; tanks, pumps, passages,
and actuators; nonmetal surfaces (i.e., glass, plastic,
fiberglass); electrical wiring and connectors; and avionics
components. Masking may be accomplished using one
or more of the following materials:
d. Nozzle angle shall be 80 degrees from horizontal.
CAUTION
Particulate residues from PMB operations can
lead to catastrophic failure of aircraft systems.
4-5.4.8. Post-PMB Cleaning. All PMB residue must be
removed following blasting operations to prevent
damage.
CAUTION
CAUTION
Hydraulic, oil, pneumatic, and fuel system lines
shall be protected from contamination as
specified in NAVAIR 01-1A-20.
a. Plastic, rubber, or metal plugs and caps, as
specified in NAVAIR 01-1A-20.
b. Aluminum or paper backed masking tapes, kraft
paper, and plastic sheeting. These materials are not
resistant to direct impact by PMB.
c. Impact resistant tape (3M No. 500 or Intertape
BT-100).
d. Hot glue and hot glue gun to seal edges of impact
resistant tape.
4-5.4.7. PMB Procedures.
4-5.4.7.1. Conduct pre-operational inspection of glove
box in accordance with NAVAIR 17-600-191-6-1.
4-5.4.7.2. To prevent surface damage during blasting,
the blast nozzle shall be kept moving at all times in a
sweeping motion and shall not be allowed to dwell in
one place. Do not continue blasting if any surface
damage is suspected.
4-5.4.7.3. The following parameters shall be adhered
to in the operation of PMB cabinets:
a. Plastic bead media shall conform to MIL-P-85891
Type V (acrylic), size 20-30 mesh material.
b. Blasting pressure shall be no higher than 50 psi
output pressure, which corresponds to approximately
40 psi at the blast nozzle.
c. Distance from nozzle tip to surface being blasted
shall be greater than 10 inches. A distance of less than
10 inches may damage the surface and reduce the rate
of coating removal.
4-4
Do not use compressed air to blow off parts
outside of a glove box or with the glove box
doors open.
a. Inspect all openings to ensure no internal residues
remain. Remove internal residue using a HEPA vacuum
or oil-free compressed air. Reclean as necessary.
b. Surface residue may impact downstream
processing, such as painting operations. Clean surface
residue using detergent washing methods and materials
specified in Chapter 2. Reclean as necessary.
4-5.4.9. PMB Quality Control. Heavy particles, such as
sand, steel or rust particles, and glass beads, shall be
kept out of the plastic media. PMB with heavy particle
contamination may decrease the overall fatigue life of
fatigue critical materials. If contamination is suspected,
an impact test may be performed to confirm
contamination. The impact test is performed by blasting
a bare (unclad) 2024 aluminum (AMS QQ-A-250/4)
panel, approximately 3 inches x 5 inches x 0.040 inch,
once over to simulate paint removal. Inspect the panel
for evidence of nicks/pitting. If nicks/pitting are visually
evident (without magnification), the media is considered
contaminated and must be replaced prior to further
blasting. Additionally, to prevent buildup of contaminants,
blast cabinets will be thoroughly cleaned prior to each
addition of new plastic media. Information concerning
detection of contamination and equipment maintenance
is provided in paragraph 4-5.4.2. and NAVAIR
17-600-191-6-2.
4-5.4.10. PMB Waste Disposal. Due to toxic materials
commonly found in paint, residue generated from PMB
processes must be considered a hazardous material
unless otherwise directed by local environmental office.
Dispose of used PMB in accordance with local
environmental regulations.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
4-6. CHEMICAL PAINT REMOVAL. Paint removal is
authorized when corrosion is suspected/verified prior to
magnetic particle or fluorescent penetrant inspection,
or to replace damaged paint systems. Larger areas of
metal aircraft surfaces shall be stripped using TT-R-2918
Type I or MIL-R-81294 Type I paint removers. The use
of TT-R-2918 Type I is recommended if the use of
methylene chloride, phenol, and/or chromate based
paint removers is restricted/prohibited. Aircraft
components (except honeycomb and composite parts)
may be stripped by tank immersion using AMS-C-19853,
which contains methylene chloride, phenol, and
chromates. Alternatively, MIL-PRF-83936 (NMP and
monoethanolamine based) hot tank paint remover may
be used. This product requires a heated stripping tank.
CAUTION
Use of acid based paint strippers is not
authorized.
Hydrogen embrittlement. When high strength
steels (typically 180 ksi and above), some high
strength aluminum, and some stainless steels
are exposed to acid paint removers, plating
solutions, and other acidic chemicals and some
alkaline materials, a cathodic reaction on the
metal surface produces hydrogen. If the part is
under load or contains residual manufacturing
stresses, sudden catastrophic failure may occur
when the part can no longer sustain the internal
and/or applied stresses. See Volume I for
additional information.
4-6.1. TYPES OF CHEMICAL PAINT REMOVERS.
4-6.1.1. MIL-R-81294 Remover, Paint, Epoxy,
Polysulfide, and Polyurethane Systems. This material
is a methylene chloride based paint remover that is
applied using a nylon bristle brush or by immersing the
part into a small covered metal tank. Use this chemical
in accordance with paragraphs 4-6.2 through 4-6.4.
MIL-R-81294 is not suitable for paint removal from
composite materials as it attacks the resin, resulting in
loss of strength in the composite fibers. MIL-R-81294
covers the following types of paint removers, which
have been established for specific types of paint.
NOTE
Types I and II are available with phenols
(Class 1) and without phenols (Class 2). Class 1
products remove paint slightly quicker than
Class 2 products, but may present a greater
disposal problem because of the phenol content.
a. Type I. For epoxy primer and polyurethane topcoat
systems.
b. Type II. For polyurethane topcoat systems.
c. Type III. For polysulfides (sealants).
d. Type IV. For paint systems with an elastomeric
polyurethane intermediate coat.
4-6.1.2. TT-R-2918 Remover, Paint, No HAPs. This
material is a nonhazardous air pollutant (non-HAPs)
paint remover, ideal for use in areas where methylene
chloride is restricted or prohibited. Type I is used for
removing epoxy/polyurethane systems, while Type II
products are designed to remove polysulfide based
(sealant) systems. Comply with manufacturer’s
guidelines. TT-R-2918 is not suitable for paint removal
from composite materials.
4-6.1.3. AMS-C-19853 Immersion Tank Paint
Remover. This material is a liquid carbon remover used
in immersion tank applications. Type I (phenolic) of this
product can also function effectively as a paint remover.
The material has a water seal top layer which prevents
rapid evaporation of the methylene chloride. Dry blistered
paint can be removed by brushing with a heavy nylon
bristle brush and then rinsing with water. Spent stripper
and rinse water are hazardous waste and shall be
processed accordingly.
4-6.1.4. MIL-PRF-83936 Hot Tank Paint Remover. This
material is a di-phase n-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP)
and ethanolamine based hot tank paint remover with a
mineral oil seal top layer. MIL-PRF-83936 is limited to
intermediate level and above maintenance activities.
The following shop practices shall be observed:
4-5
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
CAUTION
Do not attempt to use MIL-PRF-83936 if shop
facilities do not have heated (minimum 140°F)
stripping tanks. Do not introduce water into the
stripping tank, as MIL-PRF-83936 is extremely
sensitive to water. Parts should be thoroughly
dry before they are allowed into the stripping
tank. Deviations from the following shop
practices will degrade the performance of this
chemical.
a. Use in a heated tank with a thermostat temperature
controller.
paint remover that is within 3 years of the manufacture
date may be used. As a general rule, if there is evidence
that the paint remover has separated into distinct layers
or has become liquefied, do not use. Dispose of remover
as hazardous waste.
4-6.3. PROTECTIVE MEASURES. Contact the local
safety and health office for proper personal protective
equipment (PPE).
WARNING
Containers of chemical paint removers are under
pressure, even when cold. If pressure is not
bled off slowly, remover may splatter violently.
WARNING
Never
exceed
the
manufacturer’s
recommended temperature for heating and
maintaining stripper solution.
b. Use per manufacturer’s instructions.
c. Blistered paint can be removed by brushing with
a heavy nylon bristle brush and then rinsing with water.
d. Spent stripper and rinse water may be hazardous.
Check with local hazardous waste management office
prior to disposal.
Chemical strippers are toxic and contain
ingredients harmful to skin and eye tissues. No
eating, drinking, or smoking is allowed in areas
where paint removers or solvents are being
used or stored. Prolonged breathing of vapors
from organic solvents or materials containing
organic solvents is dangerous. In addition to
good tank ventilation, use cartridge respirator
and ensure good ventilation when in confined
areas.
4-6.3.1. When opening a can of chemical remover or
when applying chemical remover, the following items
shall be worn:
CAUTION
a. Chemical and splash proof goggles;
Chemical paint removers shall be stored in a
protected area, out of direct sunlight, in a
temperature controlled environment maintained
between 40°F and 100°F to prevent freezing or
exposure to excessively high temperatures. At
temperatures out of the aforementioned range,
chemical removers rapidly deteriorate, cannot
be remixed to form a homogeneous solution,
and will become corrosive/acidic.
4-6.2. SHELF LIFE. Chemical paint removers with an
expired shelf-life can seriously degrade the structural
properties of high strength metals, through hydrogen
embrittlement resulting in a loss of ductility and cracking
of the metal. On high strength steel aircraft components
and structural fittings, do not use MIL-R-81294
(methylene chloride based) or TT-R-2918 (benzyl alcohol
based) paint removers that are more than 12 months
past the manufacture date unless otherwise authorized.
On aluminum components and structures, MIL-R-81294
4-6
b. Rubber gloves;
c. Protective clothing (e.g. rubber apron and rubber
boots); and
d. Cartridge-type respirator with organic vapor
cartridge.
4-6.3.2. When opening, cover the cap or bung of the
container with a rag to reduce splatter and turn cap only
far enough to break the seal. Allow internal pressure to
release slowly and completely before removing cap.
4-6.3.3. First Aid.
4-6.3.3.1. If chemical remover is splashed on the skin,
proceed immediately as follows:
a. Rinse affected area with water.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
b. Wash affected area thoroughly with soap and
water.
c. Flush affected area again with fresh water for at
least three minutes.
d. Get medical aid. Do not apply salves or other
medications without specific medical department direction.
4-6.3.3.2. If chemical remover is splashed in the eyes,
immediately do the following:
a. Flood the eyes with water for at least 15 minutes.
b. Get medical attention immediately.
4-6.4. CHEMICAL PAINT REMOVAL PROCEDURES.
The following procedures shall be followed when using
paint removers MIL-R-81294 and TT-R-2918:
WARNING
Whenever possible, paint removal shall be
accomplished in a corrosion control facility
designed for paint removal. If not available,
ensure adequate ventilation. Army and Navy
personnel shall read paragraphs 4-6.2 and
4-6.3 prior to using any chemical remover.
Figure 4-1. Masking Around Area to be Stripped
c. Prior to application of paint remover, remove
excess sealant with a sharp plastic scraper. Then
remove the remaining residue using the paint remover.
d. Application.
(1) MIL-R-81294: Apply a thick, continuous
coating of paint remover to cover the surface to be
stripped using a nylon bristle brush or equivalent.
(2) TT-R-2918: Apply a thin coating of paint
remover using an acid or paintbrush. Keep material wet
by reapplying thin coats of additional TT-R-2918 paint
remover periodically.
CAUTION
NOTE
Paint removers shall not be used on plastics,
fiberglass or graphite composites, or other
organic matrix structural composite surfaces.
Keep paint removers away from fuel or watertight
seam sealants, since they will tend to soften
and destroy the integrity of sealants. Synthetic
rubber parts, aircraft tires, fabrics, and acrylic
plastics must be completely protected against
possible contact with paint removers.
Parts which are only coated with an epoxy
primer are very difficult to strip and need to be
scrubbed with nylon brushes. Parts coated with
an epoxy primer and a topcoat are easier to
strip.
a. Mask acrylic and plastic surfaces, rubber hoses
and tubing, exposed wiring, and any other surfaces that
can be damaged from contact with the paint remover.
Use barrier material (MIL-PRF-131 Class 1) and
aluminum foil tape (AMS-T-23397 Type II).
b. To chemically paint strip small surface areas,
mask around the area to be stripped using barrier
material and aluminum foil tape. Raise the tape about
1
⁄2 inch along the bottom of the area as shown in
Figure 4-1.
e. Allow paint remover to remain on the surface for
a sufficient length of time to wrinkle and completely lift
the paint, usually 10-40 minutes depending on the
temperature, humidity, and type of paint being removed.
Paint removal rates may vary with temperature and
humidity. The strip rate of the TT-R-2918 material is
slower than that of MIL-R-81294. Reapply paint remover
as necessary in the areas where paint remains tight or
where the material has dried. Micarta scrapers, abrasive
pads (A-A-58054) or fiber brushes (A-A-3118) may be
used to assist in removing persistent paint. Do not rinse
with water until all paint has been loosened. Water
greatly reduces the paint stripping efficiency of the
remover.
4-7
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
WARNING
Rinsing of epoxy paint removers shall be
conducted in a suitable area specified by local
safety and environmental directives.
f. Remove loosened paint and residual paint
remover by washing and scrubbing the surface with
fresh water and a stiff nylon bristle brush or an abrasive
pad. If water spray is available, use a low pressure
stream of water applied directly to the surface while it is
being scrubbed. Do not allow rinsed paint remover or
contaminated rinse water to contact other painted
surfaces.
g. After thorough rinsing, remove masking materials
and thoroughly clean the area in accordance with the
cleaning processes outlined in Chapter 2, using
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II (general cleaning) or
MIL-PRF-29602 (aqueous parts washer).
h. Disposal. Process spent stripper and rinse water
as hazardous waste in accordance with local regulations.
4-7. MINOR PAINT DAMAGE REPAIR. Minor nicks
and scratches in paint films can be easily and quickly
repaired as follows:
a. Clean the area around the damage to ensure that
all traces of oil, dirt, salt, or other contaminants have
been removed. Use a cleaning cloth dampened with
MIL-T-81772 paint thinner or an approved solvent.
b. Remove any paint film not firmly adhering to the
surface using a nonmetallic scraping tool.
c. Lightly abrade the area around the damage with
a fine abrasive mat (A-A-58054 Grade B) or 320 grit
abrasive cloth (ANSI B74.18). Feather the edge of the
paint film while using care to prevent removal of metal,
especially aluminum cladding.
d. Clean the area to be refinished using
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II (diluted one part cleaner to
14 parts water) and rinse thoroughly with clean, fresh
water. Ensure that all traces of oil and other contaminants
have been removed from the metal skin For water
sensitive areas, use an approved cleaning solvent.
e. Apply chemical conversion coating (use of
Touch-N-Prep Pen is recommended) to the clean, bare
aluminum surface as described in Chapter 5.
4-8
f. Apply primer coating using a small, touch-up
brush, a Sempen™, or an approved aerosol touch-up
paint system as described in Appendix A (Navy) or TM
55-1500-3554-23 (Army).
g. Apply topcoat paint film, using the same
techniques as described for primer. Two or three thin
coats are preferred, rather than one heavy coat. The
repaired area should have the same paint thickness as
the surrounding area.
4-8. CORROSION REMOVAL. There are certain factors
that must be considered prior to starting any corrosion
removal operation. The most important of these
considerations is that the removal of the corrosion products
must be completed while not causing additional damage
during the process. This can be accomplished by first
removing all corrosion visible through a 10X magnifying
glass, then removing an additional two mils (0.0020 inch) to
ensure that all deposits have been eliminated. Failure to
remove all the corrosion may allow the corrosion to continue
after affected surfaces are refinished.
4-8.1. CLEANING. Before attempting to remove
corrosion products, the surface must be stripped of
paint and cleaned. Surface contaminants will interfere
with corrosion removal procedures and increase the
difficulty of the operation.
4-8.2. PROTECTION. Adjacent components and parts
must be protected from corrosion residue and possible
damage that could be caused by the removal operation.
Corrosion residue can cause additional corrosion and
damage the surface finish of the surrounding area. An
accidental slip of a corrosion removal tool can quickly
result in additional damage.
4-8.3. DAMAGE LIMITS. Complete removal of
corrosion products may result in metal removal that
exceeds the amount allowed by specific aircraft or
equipment repair handbooks. Prior to corrosion removal,
the allowable limits specified in aircraft and equipment
manuals and technical orders must be checked. Metal
removal damage is cumulative: prior metal removal,
including areas on the opposite side of the part, must be
considered when assessing corrosion damage. When
removing corrosion on critical aircraft structure, the
following steps shall be taken:
a. If allowable metal removal or damage limits will
not be exceeded, remove corrosion completely.
15 April 2009
b. If allowable limits will be exceeded, repair or
replacement of the part shall be coordinated with the
Aircraft Controlling Custodians (ACC) or System
Program Manager (SPM).
c. If a critical structural component is affected, repairs
shall be coordinated with the ACC/SPM in order to
determine if the part should be repaired or replaced.
4-8.4. METHODS OF REMOVAL. There are various
methods of mechanical corrosion removal from metal
surfaces. Chemical corrosion removal techniques are
not authorized for Navy organizational or intermediate
level maintenance. Army: refer to Appendix B, Section III,
for chemical corrosion stripping procedures.
4-8.4.1. The method used will depend on the type of
metal, the location and accessibility of the corroded
area, the degree of damage, and the type of corrosion
involved. These factors will determine the types of tools
and equipment selected for the removal operation. It is
very important that the removal method and the tools
and equipment selected be compatible with the metal
surface. Compatibility involves two considerations:
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
4-8.5. NOTES ON MECHANICAL CORROSION
REMOVAL.
4-8.5.1. Aluminum. Intergranular exfoliation corrosion
is not removed by abrasive blasting; however, blasting
may be used in conjunction with powered corrosion
removal to determine whether all exfoliation corrosion
has been removed.
4-8.5.2. High Strength Steel. Use only the radial bristle
disc, flap brush and wheel, or abrasive mat to remove
corrosion on high strength steel parts. Other power
tools are prohibited because of the danger of local
overheating and the formation of notches which could
lead to failure. Refer to specific maintenance manuals
for additional corrosion removal procedures.
4-8.5.3. Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys. Use
abrasive blasting only on heavily corroded parts as a
precursor to acid pickling.
4-8.5.4. Fasteners. Corrosion occurring on installed
fasteners shall be removed using dry honing machine
(i.e., vacu-blaster) or hand held abrasive materials
a. The mechanical effect of the equipment on the
surface and
4-9. CORROSION REMOVAL EQUIPMENT AND
MATERIALS.
b. The compatibility of metallic particles worn off the
removal equipment which might become trapped in the
metal surface.
4-9.1. NON-POWERED TOOLS AND MATERIALS.
Refer to Table 4-1 to determine the correct non-powered
abrasive to use on various aircraft metals.
4-8.4.2. Mechanical Compatibility. Mechanical
compatibility refers to the selection of the right tools and
equipment to prevent additional damage from occurring
as a result of the removal process. Often it is necessary
to select a series of removal techniques involving the
use of different grades or classes of equipment and
material to effectively remove the corrosion products.
The initial use of a rapid and coarse removal method
followed by a slower and finer removal method will
produce a smooth metal surface finish (for example, the
use of a vacuum blaster at first, and, once the surface
is exposed, the use of a fine abrasive cloth or paper).
4-9.1.1. Abrasive Mats. Abrasive mats (9" x 11" sheets)
are nylon webs containing various grades of aluminum
oxide abrasive material (A-A-58054 Type I Class 1
Grade A - Very Fine, Grade B - Fine, Grade C - Medium).
These mats are used by hand or with mandrels to
remove small areas of corrosion and/or paint where the
use of powered tools would be impractical or prevented
by the shape or accessibility of the area. Table 4-2 is a
guide to grades of abrasive materials.
4-8.4.3. Material Compatibility. Material compatibility
refers to using a cleaning medium during brushing,
abrading, or blasting, that will not be the cause of
additional corrosion. Material compatibilities are assured
by using like metals during corrosion removal operations.
For example, only aluminum wool shall be used to
remove corrosion from aluminum alloys. Using steel
wool is prohibited because it can embed in the surface
and cause galvanic corrosion of the aluminum alloy.
4-9.1.2. Abrasive Cloth. Aluminum oxide and silicon
carbide (ANSI B74.18) grit bonded to cloth are used for
dry sanding of light to moderate corrosion products. The
cloth is available in sheets (9"X11") and rolls (2" or 3"
wide X 150" long) in 240 grit (Fine) and 320 grit (Very
Fine) grades. Use of aluminum oxide is prohibited on
composite surfaces.
4-9.1.3. Abrasive Paper. Silicon carbide grit bonded to
heavy paper (ANSI B74.18) is used for wet or dry
sanding of light to moderate corrosion products. It is
available in sheets in 240 grit (Fine) and 320 grit (Very
4-9
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Table 4-1. Recommended Non-Powered Abrasives for Corrosion Removal
Alloy
Non-Woven
Abrasive
Abrasive
Cloth/Paper
Aluminum Alloys
Abrasive Mat
Aluminum Oxide,
Silicon Carbide
Aluminum Wool
Stainless Steel,
Aluminum
Pumice Paste,
Carbide-Tipped Scrapers
Magnesium Alloys
Abrasive Mat
Aluminum Oxide,
Silicon Carbide
None
Stainless Steel,
Aluminum
Pumice Paste,
Carbide-Tipped Scrapers
Ferrous Metals
(other than
Stainless Steel)
Abrasive Mat
Aluminum Oxide,
Silicon Carbide
Steel Wool
Carbon Steel,
Stainless Steel
Carbide-Tipped Scrapers
Stainless Steel
and Nickel Alloys
Abrasive Mat
Aluminum Oxide,
Silicon Carbide
Stainless Steel Wool
Stainless Steel
None
Copper Alloys
Abrasive Mat
Aluminum Oxide
(400 grit),
Silicon Carbide
(400 grit)
Copper Wool
Brass
None
Titanium Alloys
Abrasive Mat
Aluminum Oxide,
Silicon Carbide
Stainless Steel Wool
Stainless Steel
Pumice Paste,
Carbide-Tipped Scrapers
Cadmium or Zinc
Plated Surfaces
Abrasive Mat
Aluminum Oxide,
Silicon Carbide
None
None
None
Chromium, Nickel,
Tin, or Copper
Plated Surfaces
Abrasive Mat
Aluminum Oxide,
Silicon Carbide
None
Stainless Steel
None
Phosphated
Surfaces
Composites
Metallic
Wool
Brushes
Others
USE METHOD RECOMMENDED FOR BASE METAL
Abrasive Mat
Silicon Carbide
REFER TO NAVAIR 01-1A-21
Fine) grades. Use of aluminum oxide is prohibited on
composite surfaces. Silicon carbide is usually more
effective than aluminum oxide on harder metals such as
ferrous alloys. Other abrasives are available on paper
or cloth (emery and flint) but suffer from poor efficiency
and short working life.
alloys, magnesium, and magnesium alloys; copper
wool is used on copper alloys, bronze, and brass; and,
stainless steel wool is used on stainless steel.
4-9.1.4. Metallic Wools. Metallic wool is an abrasive
material used for removing corrosion that is not tightly
bonded to a metal surface. The four major types of
metallic wools are: aluminum, copper, stainless steel,
and steel. Metallic wools are available in five grades,
ranging from very fine to extra coarse. Table 4-3 is a
guide to help select the correct grade of metallic wool.
These materials are very good for corrosion removal on
tubing or extruded parts.
The use of metallic wools which are not
galvanically compatible with the metal surface
being treated is not authorized.
4-9.1.5. Wire Brushes. Wire brushes are used to
remove heavy corrosion deposits or paint that is not
tightly bonded to the metal surface. They are available
with aluminum, steel, stainless steel, or brass bristles.
Thick, short, and/or stiff bristles are more effective for
rapid corrosion removal. The brushes must be
compatible with the metal surface to prevent galvanic
corrosion. Stainless steel can be considered to be
neutral, and can be used on all aviation equipment. Do
not use a wire gage or diameter above 0.010 inch, as
gouging of the surface may occur. Remove the corrosion
with a linear motion; do not cross-hatch. This will
unnecessarily damage the surface. After wire brushing
soft metal (such as aluminum or magnesium) the surface
areas must be polished with fine abrasive paper.
a. The type of corroded metal must be known before
using metallic wool. Steel wool is used on ferrous
metals; aluminum wool is used on aluminum, aluminum
4-9.1.6. Pumice Powder. Pumice powder is a very fine
and soft abrasive used to remove stains or to remove
corrosion on thin metal surfaces where minimum metal
CAUTION
4-10
b. After using metallic wools, remove all residue
from the metal surface with a vacuum cleaner.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 4-2. Grades of Abrasive Mats
Table 4-3. Grades of Steel Wool
Grade
Coated Abrasive (CA) Equivalent
Type
Grade
Use
Extra coarse
80 - 100
I
Very Fine
Final smoothing
Coarse
100 - 120
II
Fine
Most commonly used
Medium
120 - 150
III
Medium
General purpose
Fine
180 - 220
IV
Coarse
Rough work
Very Fine
280 - 320
V
Extra Coarse
Restoration work
Super Fine
320 - 400
Ultra Fine
400 - 500
Flint
500 - 600
removal is allowed. It is mixed with water and then
rubbed over the area with a soft cloth. After drying, the
powder is wiped off.
4-9.1.7. Scrapers. Scrapers are used primarily for the
initial removal of heavy corrosion deposits in corners
and crevices that cannot be reached with other
equipment. Scrapers of this kind may be locally
manufactured from phenolic plastic, fiberglass
composites, aluminum or carbide-tipped steel. Plastic
scrapers may be used on any metal surfaces; aluminum
scrapers shall be used only on aluminum or magnesium
surfaces; and steel scrapers shall be used only on steel
surfaces. Failure to use the correct metal scraper can
lead to galvanic corrosion after the part is returned to
service. Normally, surface areas must receive further
finishing after corrosion removal with scrapers due to
the gouging action of scrapers and the difficulty in
determining complete corrosion removal.
CAUTION
Corrosion removal accessories, such as bristle
discs, flap brushes, or rotary files, shall only be
used on one type of metal. For example, a flap
brush used to remove aluminum shall not be
used to remove magnesium or steel.
4-9.2. POWERED TOOLS AND MATERIALS. Power
tools are used to remove heavy corrosion from metal
surfaces, or mild to severe corrosion over large surface
areas. Their use results in savings of time and money.
However, care must be exercised when using power
tools. Application of excessive pressure can easily
damage metal surfaces and cause internal metallurgical
changes in the metal due to excessive heat buildup.
Powered tools are an aggressive method which shall
only be used when authorized by cognizant aircraft
engineering authority and where the extent of corrosion
makes non-powered corrosion removal impractical. The
indiscriminate use of powered corrosion removal
methods will result in damage to protective surface
finishes and excessive metal removal. Refer to Table 4-4
to determine the correct powered tools to use on various
aircraft metals.
WARNING
CAUTION
Power tool operations create toxic airborne
particles often containing heavy metals, such
as chromium (in the form of chromates), titanium,
nickel, and beryllium, depending on the surface
being treated. Eye protection, ventilation, and
an adequate respirator for dust control is
required. Do not use hands to probe for air
pressure leaks, as injury can result. Before
using any powered equipment, remove clothing
which might become entangled in the
equipment, as well as rings and other jewelry.
Always wear proper personal safety equipment,
such as goggles, faceshield, and/or respirator.
Ensure that all electrical equipment is grounded.
Radial bristle discs are authorized for use only
on aluminum, magnesium, high-strength steel,
and titanium surfaces as a replacement/
substitute for abrasive wheels and brushes
cited in this chapter. Use of the discs on other
metallic or composite surfaces is not authorized
and may result in damage to the surface or
structure.
4-9.2.1. 3M™ Radial Bristle Disc. Bristle disc
technology has been proven to be effective and less
aggressive than abrasive wheels and brushes and is
intended for small corrosion repairs and paint removal.
Other commercial off-the-shelf radial bristle discs are
available, however, they have not been approved for
4-11
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 4-4. Recommended Powered Abrasives for Corrosion Removal
Alloy
Flap Brush,
Abrasive
Wheels
Abrasive
Cloth/Paper
Aluminum alloys
(Clad)
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Glass beads
(Sizes 10-13)
30-40 (Note 1)
None
Aluminum alloys
(No cladding)
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Glass beads
(Sizes 10-13)
40-45 (Note 1)
Rotary files (fine fluted),
Radial Bristle Disc
Magnesium alloys
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Glass beads
(Sizes 10-13)
10-35 (Note 1)
40-50 (Note 1)
Rotary files (fine fluted),
Radial Bristle Disc
Ferrous metals
(other than
stainless steel)
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Aluminum oxide
(Type I, A or B)
Glass beads
(Size 13)
40-50 (Note 1)
Rotary files,
Wire wheels (steel or
stainless steel),
Radial Bristle Disc (high
strength steel only)
Stainless steel and
Nickel alloys
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
(See Note 2)
Glass beads
(Sizes 10-13)
40-50 (Note 1)
Wire wheels
(stainless steel),
Rotary files (fine fluted)
Copper alloys
Titanium alloys
Plated and
phosphated surfaces
Abrasive Blasting Parameters
Media
(Note 3)
Other
Tools
Pressure
(PSI)
DO NOT USE POWERED ABRASIVE METHODS DUE TO TOXICITY
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Aluminum oxide or
silicon carbide
Glass beads
(Sizes 10-13)
Aluminum oxide
(Type I, A or B)
40-50 (Note 1)
40-50 (Note 1)
Radial Bristle Disc
DO NOT USE POWERED ABRASIVE METHODS DUE TO TOXICITY
AND PLATE THICKNESS
Composites
REFER TO NAVAIR 01-1A-21
NOTES:
(1) Indicated pressure is for direct pressure equipment. For suction equipment, use 50% higher pressure.
(2) Use only on heavily corroded parts prior to acid pickling.
(3) Media specifications: Glass beads: MIL-PRF-9954
Aluminum oxide: A-A-59316
NAVAIR use. Thus, they are strictly prohibited for use
on Navy aircraft. Use of non-approved discs on aircraft
may result in serious damage to the substrate. It is
recommended that only one disc be utilized at a time on
the mandrel assembly. However, for larger surface
areas, discs can be ganged/stacked on the mandrel
assembly up to 4 discs thick (see Figure 4-2).
4-9.2.1.1. Two types of radial bristle discs with a
diameter of 3 inches are available for corrosion repair
and paint removal from aluminum, magnesium,
high-strength steel, and titanium surfaces: 3M SPA
(orange in color) is designed for light surface corrosion
discrepancies such as filiform corrosion, and 3M 360
(green in color) is designed for heavier corrosion
discrepancies, light sealant removal, and light to
moderate surface pitting.
4-12
4-9.2.1.2 Radial Bristle Discs on High-Strength Steel
(HSS). The 360 grit green disc is for removing light
surface oxidation and corrosion, but it will also remove
the IVD aluminum or cadmium plating. The 400 grit
orange disc will leave the IVD aluminum or cadmium
plating mostly intact. Therefore, it is recommended that
the 400 grit orange disc be used where only paint
removal is required, and the 360 grit green disc be used
as a replacement for abrasive wheels and flap brushes
to perform small corrosion repairs down to bare metal.
Examples of high-strength steel material locations on
aircraft include the nose and main landing gears, launch
bars, and tail/arresting gear assemblies.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Figure 4-2. Bristle Discs Stacked on Mandrel Assembly
WARNING
Improper mounting of the radial bristle disc on
the grinder-mandrel assembly can cause
personal injury due to separation of the disc
fingers from the tool hub. Additionally, damage
to the substrate and disc can occur.
4-9.2.1.3. Disc Mounting Procedures. Note the
directional rotation arrow on the disc hub. The disc must
be positioned on the mandrel assembly with the arrow
pointing in the direction of the tool’s rotation (clockwise).
Also, note the angle of the tips of the disc fingers. The
disc fingers should be angled away from the direction of
the grinder rotation. Placing the disc on the mandrel in
a counterclockwise direction will damage the aluminum
substrate and the tool. Also, if the disc fingers are
angled toward the direction of the grinder rotation, they
will separate from the disc hub. Operating the tool in this
manner will damage the substrate and personal injury
will result from disc finger separation.
WARNING
Utilization of the radial bristle disc generates
dust particles that may contain chromates from
primers. Therefore, eye protection is required
when operating this tool. Consult with the local
Industrial Hygienist (IH) concerning proper
respiratory protection equipment.
4-9.2.1.4. Operation of Radial Bristle Disc. Disc
operation requires an air source of 90-110 psig, along
with a high-speed pneumatic grinder rated from
20,000-25,000 rpm and a 3M™ No. 990 mandrel
assembly. The mandrel assembly includes two different
end caps, one silver and one black, for thin or thick
stacks. The silver cap is used to mount one or two discs
and the black cap is used to mount three or four discs.
Operating the grinder at its maximum rated speed is
required to ensure maximum efficiency and effectiveness
of the radial bristle disc. In addition to speed, light hand
pressure during operation is required to achieve optimum
stripping results. The tips of the bristles are the working
element of the tool. Therefore, to achieve the best
overall result, maintain a light pressure on the grinder
and move the grinder over the affected area on the work
surface. Exerting hand pressure on the disc at a force of
2 pounds or greater will fold the bristle tip fingers making
the tool inoperative. The disc is no longer effective when
the bristle fingers are worn down to the disc hub. At this
point, the disc must be replaced with a new disc.
4-9.2.2. Pneumatic Drill Motors. Pneumatic drill motors
are the preferred power tools for removing heavy
corrosion or reworking large surface areas. The drill
motor is normally used with wire brush wheels, rotary
files, flap brushes, sanding pads, abrasive wheels, or
buffing wheels. These drills are available in many shapes
and sizes to satisfy almost any requirement. Prior to
use, check all pneumatic equipment air hoses for breaks
or bulges in the coverings. The maximum chuck capacity
of the portable powered drill is usually 1/4 inch. Insert
the tool shank and tighten chuck securely with the chuck
key prior to use. When it is difficult or impossible to
reach the work area with a straight drill, use a flexible
shaft or angle adapter. The flexible shaft permits working
around obstructions with a minimum of effort.
a. To prevent the rotary file, abrasive wheel, or
sanding disc from digging into the metal, keep the tool
off the metal when initially starting the drill. When the
abrading stroke is finished, lift the tool from the metal
before releasing the power to the motor.
b. Holding the drill motor with both hands, apply
moderate pressure while holding the rotary file, sanding
disc, or abrasive wheel against the work. When using
the pneumatic tool as a sander, be sure to check the
size and type of the abrasive disc. Ensure that the type
of disc is compatible with the metal. Keep the sanding
disc tilted to approximately a 10 degree angle so that
only one side of the disc is in contact with the metal
surface. If the entire disc surface is in contact with the
surface, a "bucking" effect will occur. Excessive pressure
will cause a "chattering" effect.
c. Move the tool over the surface with slightly
overlapping strokes. Do not grind, sand, or file in one
area for any length of time without stopping and allowing
the metal to cool. Excessive heating of the metal will
alter its metallurgical structure.
4-13
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
4-9.2.3. Pneumatic Sanders. The proper technique for
using pneumatic sanders with oscillating heads shall
include the following:
a. To prevent the sander from digging into the metal,
start the sander before it touches the metal. When the
sanding strokes are finished, lift the sander from the
metal before engaging the stop switch. Do not lay the
unit down with the motor running.
b. For best results, apply moderate pressure while
holding the sander against the work. Move the sander
over the surface with parallel and slightly overlapping
strokes. Move it as slowly as possible without overheating
the metal. Generally, the cleaning rate should be about
two square feet per minute.
CAUTION
Do not use flap brushes down to within 2 inches
of core. Continued use beyond this limit may
cause gouging due to loss of flexibility of fiber.
Excessive pressure on flap brushes will cause
polyurethane paint to melt, gum up, and streak
around the area being worked. Do not use on
nonmetallic surfaces.
4-9.2.4. Scotch-Brite™ Finishing Flap Brushes. Flap
brushes are made of non-woven, nylon, aluminum
oxide webbing. The brushes are very effective for
removing mild surface corrosion and prepping surfaces.
They can also be used for mechanical removal and
feathering of paint systems. The brushes are comprised
of a series of flaps attached to a mandrel, with each flap
impacting the surface as it spins. When used correctly,
the brushes will lead to minimal metal removal. The flap
brush and mandrel (see Figure 4-3) shall be assembled
so that the arrow, painted on the brush, is facing the
operator or the arrow is pointed in the direction of
rotation (clockwise). When using flap brushes, apply
minimal pressure to remove maximum paint and
minimum metal. To achieve maximum effectiveness,
use the specified RPM.
4-9.2.5. Abrasive Flap Wheels. Flap wheels
(MIL-W-81319) are made of nylon paper impregnated
with aluminum oxide abrasives (Figure 4-4). These
wheels usually come with a spindle mount. Depending
on grit size, the flap wheels can be used to remove
medium to severe corrosion from thick materials. The
wheels will also remove metal. Thus, caution must be
used to minimize the amount of metal removal. For the
most effective use of this equipment, use the specified
RPM.
4-14
4-9.2.6. Abrasive Cloth and Paper. Aluminum oxide
and silicon carbide cloth and paper can be used with
sanders and buffers by cutting suitable pieces from
stock.
CAUTION
Unless authorized by the cognizant aircraft
engineering authority, rotary wire brushes are
not authorized for corrosion removal on soft
metals, such as aluminum and magnesium.
4-9.2.7. Rotary Wire Brushes. Powered wire brushes
are available with various types of wire (straight, twisted,
or crimped), various lengths of wire (short, medium, or
long), and various wire densities (light, medium, or
heavy). Different actions can be obtained by varying
wire type, trim length, and density.
CAUTION
Improper use of the rotary file can damage
aluminum structure by creating thin spots
exceeding damage limits. Use of rotary files is
authorized only for severe granular or exfoliation
corrosion removal by qualified structural repair
technicians. Do not use rotary files to remove
corrosion from installed fasteners.
4-9.2.8. Rotary Files. Since it is one of the fastest ways
to remove corrosion and underlying metal, a rotary file
should be only handled by an experienced structural
repair technician. This tool is a tungsten carbide cylinder
or cone into which cutting edges have been machined.
When installed in the chuck of a pneumatic drill, rapid
metal removal can be achieved.
4-9.3. ABRASIVE BLASTING. During abrasive blasting,
abrasive media is propelled toward the work piece with
air pressure (conventional or vacuum blasting) or water
(wet blasting).
WARNING
Abrasive blasting operations create airborne
particles which may be hazardous to the skin
and eyes. A hood, gloves with gauntlets, and
adequate ventilation are required.
4-9.3.1. Conventional Equipment. Two types of
equipment are used to propel dry abrasives: direct
pressure feed and suction feed. In direct pressure
equipment, the abrasive holding tank is a pressure
vessel from which abrasive media is forced, through a
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Wheel
Flange
Flap
Brush
Washer
(Optional)
Wheel
Nut
Wheel
Flange
Washer
(Optional)
Use Limit
2 Inches
Mandrel
Figure 4-3. Scotch-Brite™ Flap Brush and Mandrel
metering device, into the pressurized blast line to the
blast nozzle. In suction equipment, the abrasive holding
tank is unpressurized and provides media, through a
metering device, into a passing airstream which then
propels it through the blast hose to the blast nozzle.
Blast cabinets (Figure 4-5), built to accommodate small
parts, have a recycling system which removes dust and
light particle contaminants, such as paint or corrosion
products. Blasting rooms, designed for large
components, use a recycling and ventilating system.
The operator works within the room, using a blast gun.
NOTE
Suction feed (also known as venturi equipment)
requires higher nozzle pressure than direct
pressure equipment to obtain the required
abrasive action.
Figure 4-4. Abrasive Flap Wheels with Spindle Mount
4-9.3.1.1. Blast Media. A wide variety of materials and
sizes (usually measured by mesh size) are available for
blasting applications. Some of the recommended
abrasives include aluminum oxide (A-A-59316) and
glass bead (MIL-PRF-9954). Table 4-4 specifies the
correct material, mesh size, and air pressure at the blast
nozzle to be used in blasting each type of alloy. Pressures
4-15
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Figure 4-5. Glove Box Unit Blast Cabinet
given in Table 4-4 are for direct pressure equipment. As
a general rule, increase the nozzle pressure by 50%
when using suction feed equipment.
4-9.3.1.2. Air Hoses. The nozzle pressure of the blast
stream is affected by the length and inside diameter of
the air hoses. It is best to use the shortest hose possible,
so that there will not be an excessive pressure drop. If
it is necessary to couple lengths of hose, quick connect/
disconnect external couplers are recommended.
4-9.3.1.3. Blast Nozzles. In general, larger nozzle sizes
are preferable to smaller ones, because more area can
be cleaned per hour with the same amount of labor.
High efficiency nozzles (e.g. tungsten carbide) should
be used, since they have a longer use life, require less
replacement time, and direct the blasting particles more
efficiently. Nozzles should be periodically inspected for
wear and discarded when the orifice is worn to a
diameter which is 50 percent greater than the diameter
when new. A worn nozzle, like a larger nozzle, will
require a larger volume of air flow from the compressor
to sustain the needed pressure at the nozzle.
4-9.3.1.4. Air Supply. Frictional losses in the hoses
reduce the pressure at the nozzle, and nozzle wear
increases the volume of air needed to maintain the
desired nozzle pressure. To allow for nozzle wear, it is
generally good practice to have a compressor capable
of twice the pressure required for a new nozzle. Moisture
and oil in the air stream is collected in the abrasive
during blasting operations and gradual accumulations
will cause the abrasive to clog the blaster. A water and
oil separator must be used in the compressed air supply
line to reduce excessive moisture or oil.
4-9.3.2. Portable Vacuum Blast Equipment. Also known
as a vacu-blaster or dry honing machine, these devices
4-16
Figure 4-6. Portable Vacuum Blast Equipment
are portable machines designed to recover the abrasive
as it rebounds from the work piece. Vacu-blasters have
an abrasive hopper, a reclaimer, a dust collector, a
vacuum pump and a blast gun which contains both a
blast nozzle and a vacuum duct for recovery of the
media (Figure 4-6). This equipment is most effective on
flat or slightly curved surfaces so that the media rebounds
near the vacuum duct surrounding the blast nozzle.
Refer to NAVAIR 17-5BM-1, 17-5BM-2, and 17-5BM-3,
for Navy equipment and TM 55-1500 series manuals for
Army equipment.
4-9.3.3. Wet Abrasive Blasting. Wet blasting is a
technique using high pressure water as the medium for
the delivery of abrasives. This method is not as harmful
to the base metal as dry abrasive blasting, due to the
cushioning effect of the water medium. Unfortunately,
this effect inhibits the speed with which coatings and
corrosion products are removed. The abrasive material
is normally not recoverable in wet blasting operations,
and only sand (MIL-A-22262), aluminum oxide
(A-A-59316), or No. 13 glass beads (MIL-G-9954) shall
be used. A corrosion inhibitor solution must be added to
the water or applied to the blasted surface immediately
after blasting to give some protection from rusting until
the part can be painted.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
4-10. CORROSION REMOVAL PROCEDURES.
4-10.1. WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS. The following
warnings and cautions shall be observed during
corrosion removal operations.
4-10.1.1. Personal Protection.
WARNING
Many materials, such as copper alloys
(especially beryllium-copper), cadmium plate,
chromate conversion coatings, paints containing
chromates, lead, barium, and strontium, are
toxic. Use approved respirators, eye protection,
and skin protection. Take proper safety
precautions to avoid inhalation or ingestion
during corrosion removal. Wash hands
thoroughly before eating or smoking.
4-10.1.1.1. All powered corrosion removal procedures
create airborne particles. Respirators and eye protection
are required. Consult with the local Industrial Hygienist
(IH) concerning proper respiratory protection equipment.
Wear leather gloves when using metallic wools to
prevent hand injuries.
4-10.1.1.2. Do not use flap brushes, abrasive wheels,
or wire brush wheels above their authorized RPM.
These tools can fly apart, causing serious injury. Exercise
caution when using sharp or pointed tools to prevent
injury.
4-10.1.1.3. Depleted uranium is extremely toxic and
shall be worked only under a license from the Nuclear
Regulatory Agency (NRA). Machining or other work,
such as surface sanding, may be done only by the
licensee. No drilling, sanding, or other mechanical work
is permitted on depleted uranium by any service
maintenance activity. If the protective finish (plating)
which covers the depleted uranium is chipped, peeled,
or otherwise removed so the dark gray or black depleted
uranium (or uranium oxide) is visible, the part must be
returned to the licensee for rework or disposal. Packaging
and shipping procedures shall conform to current
regulations for handling radioactive materials. Abrasive
cleaning or sanding shall not under any circumstances
be applied to depleted uranium.
4-10.1.2. Mechanical Damage.
WARNING
Use extreme care to ensure that blast media
does not contaminate hydraulic, fuel, oil, coolant,
or oxygen systems. Blockages in flight critical
components caused by abrasive media particles
can result in loss of life and aircraft.
CAUTION
Do not use flap brush down to within two inches
from the center of the hub. Continued use
beyond this limit may cause gouging due to loss
of flexibility of the fiber. Follow direction of
rotation, as indicated by arrow imprinted on
side surface of core.
4-10.1.2.1. Excessive pressure on the flap brush will
cause polyurethane paint to melt, gum up, and streak
around the area being worked.
4-10.1.2.2. When using abrasive blasting on aluminum
or magnesium alloys, do not allow the blast stream to
dwell on the same spot longer than 15 seconds. Longer
dwell times will cause excessive metal removal.
4-10.1.2.3. Use of rotary files on aircraft or missile skin
thinner than 0.0625 inch is prohibited unless authorized
by the ACC/SPM.
4-10.1.2.4. Vigorous, heavy, continuous rubbing (such
as with power driven wheels, discs, or flap brushes) can
generate enough heat to cause metallurgical damage.
Protect surfaces from severe abrasive action. Do not
use rotary files to remove corrosion from installed
fasteners.
4-10.1.2.5. Mechanical removal of corrosion from
depleted uranium shall not be attempted at
Organizational unit or Intermediate level maintenance
activities.
4-10.1.2.6. Protect areas adjacent to corrosion removal
operations from chips, dust, and other debris which
could produce dissimilar metal corrosion on previously
uncorroded surfaces.
4-17
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
4-10.1.2.7. Use only the materials recommended in
Tables 4-1 and 4-4. Dissimilar metal particles may
become embedded in surfaces, leading to rapid galvanic
corrosion.
4-10.1.2.8. Be careful when removing corrosion from
soft plated surfaces (such as zinc or cadmium). Soft
plating is easily damaged or removed by mechanical
methods.
4-10.2. NON-POWERED CORROSION REMOVAL.
This method is accomplished by hand rubbing the
corroded surface with tools or abrasives to remove the
corrosion. This method is normally used to remove mild
surface corrosion by scraping or wearing away the
corrosion products and some base metal. The basic
steps are:
a. Prior to removing corrosion, determine whether
corrosion can be removed without exceeding the
authorized allowable damage limits. See paragraph
4-8.3.
b. Protect adjacent components from scale, chips,
corrosion products, and chemical agents. Mask lap
joints, hinges, faying surfaces, access doors, air scoops,
and other openings which would allow chips, dust, or
other debris to enter interior areas. Use barrier paper
(MIL-PRF-131) and masking tape.
c. Clean the affected area to remove grease and
soil (see Chapter 2).
d. Using materials in Table 4-1, remove all corrosion
using the mildest effective method. To determine whether
corrosion has been completely removed, inspect with a
10X magnifier. A more sensitive evaluation can be
made using fluorescent penetrant with a 10X magnifier.
15 April 2009
method is normally used to remove heavy corrosion by
wearing away the corrosion products. Part of the base
metal is abraded away with the corrosion products
using this procedure. The basic steps in corrosion
removal are:
WARNING
All powered corrosion removal procedures
create airborne particles. Adequate ventilation,
respiratory protection, and eye protection are
required.
a. Prior to corrosion removal, determine whether
corrosion can be removed without exceeding the
authorized allowable damage limits. See paragraph
4-8.3.
b. Protect adjacent components from scale, chips,
corrosion products, and chemical agents. Mask lap
joints, hinges, faying surfaces, access doors, air scoops,
and other openings which would allow chips, dust, or
other debris to enter interior areas. Use barrier paper
(MIL-PRF-131) and masking tape.
c. Clean the affected area to remove grease and
soil (see Chapter 2).
d. Using only recommended materials in Table 4-4,
remove all corrosion using the mildest effective method.
To determine whether corrosion has been completely
removed, it may be necessary to use fluorescent
penetrant inspection with a 10X magnifier.
e. When complete corrosion removal has been
attained, blend or fair out the edges of the damaged
areas using fine abrasive paper or cloth (see paragraph
4-11)..
e. When complete corrosion removal has been
attained, blend or fair out the edges of the damaged
areas using fine abrasive paper or cloth.
f. After removal of all corrosion, ensure the allowable
damage limits have not been exceeded.
f. After removal of all corrosion, ensure that the
allowable damage limits have not been exceeded.
g. Treat the surface in accordance with Chapter 5
and apply protective coatings in accordance with
Appendix A (Navy) or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army).
g. Treat the surface in accordance with Chapter 5
and apply protective coatings in accordance with
Appendix A (Navy) or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army).
4-10.3. POWERED CORROSION REMOVAL.
Powered corrosion removal is generally done using
pneumatic drills with bristle disc, flap brush, rotary file,
sanding pad, or abrasive wheel attachments. This
4-18
4-10.4. ABRASIVE BLASTING.
4-10.4.1. Safety Precautions. Before beginning
abrasive blasting operations, observe the following
safety precautions. Failure to comply with these
precautions may result in harm to personnel and
equipment.
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
WARNING
Use extreme care to ensure that blast media
does not contaminate hydraulic, fuel, oil, coolant,
or oxygen systems. Blockages in flight critical
components caused by abrasive media particles
can result in loss of life and aircraft.
4-10.4.1.1. Operators shall be adequately protected
with complete face and head covering equipment, and
provided with pure breathing air meeting the
requirements of AFOSH Standard 161-1 and NAVOSH
Standard A1-NAVOSH-SAF-000/P-5100-1 when
blasting in confined areas.
4-10.4.1.2. Finely divided dry particles of many
materials (metallic, organic, and inorganic) can form
explosive mixtures with air. In dust form, certain metallic
materials, notably titanium and magnesium, are capable
of igniting spontaneously when exposed to air. Due to
potential fire and explosion hazards, one should be
careful with these materials when dry abrasive blasting.
4-10.4.1.3. Dry abrasive blasting of titanium alloys
and high strength steel creates sparking. Take care to
ensure that there is no hazardous concentration of
flammable vapors present.
4-10.4.1.4. After blasting in confined areas, it is
essential that all blasting media and other residue be
completely removed. The blasting media can be very
slippery and can cause dangerous falls.
4-10.4.2. Abrasive Blasting Procedures. The blasting
operation should be accomplished in the following steps:
CAUTION
When blasting aluminum alloys or magnesium
alloys, do not allow the blast stream to dwell on
the same spot longer than 15 seconds. Longer
dwell times will cause excessive metal removal.
a. Inspect areas and surfaces to be blasted and
decide what techniques will be used. Clean oil and
grease from surfaces with diluted MIL-PRF-85570 Type
II or an approved cleaning solvent (e.g. MIL-PRF-680
Type II or MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
(1) Blasting shall not be used in areas or under
conditions that would allow any escaped abrasive
particles to contaminate any system, engine, or other
component.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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(2) Examine all corroded areas for corrosion
blisters. If intergranular exfoliation is present, use other
recommended mechanical removal methods.
(3) Blasting shall not be performed on surfaces
where there is a danger of warping or distorting the base
material. Sheet metal, 0.0625 inch (16 gage, U.S.
Standard) or thinner, shall not be blasted without
engineering approval. See the applicable aircraft
manuals for limits on metal removal for the particular
part.
b. Determine what areas should be protected from
the blast stream and from entrapment of the media, and
take action to mask or seal these areas. Composite
surfaces and those requiring a high gloss surface finish
must be effectively protected from the blast. Use impact
resistant PMB tape (3M No. 500 or Intertape BT-100).
c. Static ground the blaster and equipment to be
blasted.
d. Blast corroded areas using the pressures and
materials given in Table 4-4. Do not attempt to use
pressures higher than those specified, since higher air
pressures tend to smear the metal and entrap corrosion
products. When cleaning nonferrous (e.g. aluminum,
magnesium) alloys, never use media which has been
used for cleaning ferrous metals. Abrasives used for
cleaning ferrous metals will contain many particles of
metal which will remain in the abrasive and will
contaminate any nonferrous metal being cleaned. Refer
to applicable abrasive blasting equipment instructions.
(1) Direct the blast stream at an angle to sweep
across the surface being cleaned (30-40 degrees from
the surface). Several short passes over the corroded
area with the blast nozzle are more effective than one
sustained effort. The passes should start a few inches
before and end a few inches beyond the area to be
cleaned.
(2) Maintain the nozzle distance from the surface
being cleaned wherever the best cleaning is obtained.
The normal nozzle distance range is from two to six
inches.
(3) Continue blasting with short passes over the
corroded area to be cleaned until a near-white blast
cleaned surface is obtained. A near-white blast cleaned
finish is a surface finish from which all oil, grease, dirt,
mill scale, rust, corrosion products, oxides, paint, or
other foreign matter have been removed.
4-19
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15 April 2009
CAUTION
Refer to the individual aircraft manuals for limits
on metal removal. Do not exceed these limits
without engineering approval.
(4) In critical areas it is necessary to fair out and
smooth edges of pits to reduce stress concentrations
(see paragraph 4-11). The most effective manner is to
rotate the blast nozzle around the outer edge of the pit,
keeping the nozzle at a constant distance from the work
piece and moving at a constant rate. Several short
passes over the corroded area with the blast nozzle are
more effective than one sustained effort.
e. Upon completion of blasting, inspect for the
presence of corrosion in the blasted area. It may be
necessary to use fluorescent penetrant inspection with
a 10X magnifier. Particular attention shall be given to
areas where pitting has progressed into intergranular
attack. This is necessary because abrasive blasting has
a tendency to close up streaks of intergranular corrosion
rather than remove them if the operator uses an improper
impingement angle. If corrosion has not been removed
in a total blasting time of 60 seconds on any one specific
area, other mechanical methods of removal should be
utilized.
f. Ensure that the limits of metal removal have not
been exceeded, thereby affecting the structural integrity
of the piece.
g. Completely clean all residue from the surface and
exposed areas using a vacuum cleaner or low pressure
air. The vacuum cleaner nozzle shall be plastic or
covered with masking tape to protect surfaces from
mechanical damage. Clean surface using materials
4-20
and procedures recommended in Chapter 2. Treat and
protect all blasted areas as soon as possible after
blasting in accordance with the procedures outlined in
Chapter 5.
4-11. SURFACE FINISH. All depressions resulting from
corrosion removal shall be blended smoothly and evenly
with the surrounding original surfaces. In critical and
highly stressed areas, all pits remaining after removal of
corrosion products, by any method, shall be blended
out to prevent stress risers which may cause stress
corrosion cracking.
4-11.1. PITTING ON A NON-CRITICAL STRUCTURE.
On noncritical structure it is not necessary to blend out
pits remaining after removal of corrosion products since
this results in unnecessary metal removal. Check specific
aircraft manuals for maximum allowable depth of
depressions. The general guidelines for shaping and
blending corrosion grindouts are shown in Figure 4-7.
For additional information, contact ACC/SPM for
blendout procedures.
4-11.2. PITTING ON A CRITICAL STRUCTURE. On
critical structure having a large number of closely spaced
pits, intervening material may be removed to minimize
surface irregularity or waviness. The resulting depression
shall have no sharp corners and shall be saucer-shaped,
wherever clearance permits, with its major axis running
spanwise on wings and horizontal stabilizers,
longitudinally on fuselages, and vertically on vertical
stabilizers (Figure 4-8). In areas where a true saucer
shaped depression cannot be formed due to inadequate
clearance, blend out a depression as nearly as possible
to that shape so that there are no abrupt or sharp edges
(see Figure 4-9).
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Corrosion Damage Before Rework
Pit has been cleaned up to the extent that all
loose corrosion products have been removed.
Depression After Corrosion Removal
Rough edges have been smoothed and all
corrosion has been removed.
However, depression has not been shaped.
Dish-Out After Blending
Blending has been accomplished.
Figure 4-7. Shaping Reworked Areas
4-21
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Stiffener
Edge Face
Location of Corrosion Pits
A. Pitting Corrosion
Stiffener
Edge Face
Width of Clean Up Area
(10 Times Pit Depth, Min.)
Do Not Grind
Into Adjacent
Structure or Weld
Blended Area
Blended Area
Figure 4-9. Clean-Up of Limited Clearance Areas
Top View
Depth of
Clean Up
Area
Length of Clean Up Area
Cross Sectional View
B. Acceptable Clean Up
Blended Area
Top View
Cross Sectional View
C. Non-Acceptable Clean Up
Figure 4-8. Clean-Up of Pitting Corrosion on
Critical Structure
4-22
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CHAPTER 5
SURFACE TREATMENT
5-1. PURPOSE. A critical step in the corrosion
prevention and control process is treating the surface of
the metal with a prescribed chemical to form a protective
oxide film. Properly applied chemical treatment imparts
considerable corrosion resistance to the metal, and
greatly improves the adhesion of subsequently applied
paints or other coatings. Epoxy primers, for example,
which do not adhere well to bare aluminum, adhere very
well to chemical conversion coatings.
5-2. SURFACE PREPARATION. After completing
corrosion removal in accordance with Chapter 4, proceed
as follows:
a. Feathering Edges of Paint. Feathering of paint
along the edge of areas that have been chemically or
mechanically stripped is required prior to pre-treatment
and repainting to ensure a smooth, overlapping transition
between the old and new paint surfaces. A smooth,
overlapping paint film will ensure the absence of a
rough, soil accumulating junction between the old and
new paint films. Feathering shall be accomplished using
240 or 320 grit aluminum oxide abrasive cloths (ANSI
B74.18), fine or medium aluminum oxide abrasive mats
(A-A-58054), or a fine or very fine powered finishing
brush (3M Radial Bristle Disc with 240 or 320 grit
aluminum oxide abrasive).
Figure 5-1. A Water Break-Free Surface
Compared to One with Breaks
d. After abrading the surface, rinse the area by
flushing with clean, fresh water. Particular attention
should be given to fasteners and other areas where
residues may become entrapped. At this stage of the
cleaning process, the surface should be water breakfree (see Figure 5-1). A surface showing water breaks
(water beading or incomplete wetting) is indicative of
contamination, which will later interfere with conversion
coating, sealing, plating, and/or painting.
NOTE
Aircraft that have been waxed, particularly with
silicone based material, may require special
cleaning to obtain a surface free of water breaks.
When silicone wax is suspected, solvent clean
using an approved cleaning solvent.
b. Clean surface with MIL-PRF-85570 Type II aircraft
cleaning compound (dilute 1 part cleaner to 14 parts
water) and an abrasive mat, then rinse with clean water.
For water sensitive areas, use an approved cleaning
solvent.
c. Lightly abrade the bare or clad surface with a fine
or very fine abrasive mat (A-A-58054) to remove the
oxide layer and any residual chemical conversion
coating. This is the most effective means of preparing
the surface so that it will accept a new chemical
conversion coating. Care shall be taken to ensure that
clad surfaces are not compromised during mechanical
cleaning, as this can reduce the overall corrosion
resistance of the alloy.
e. If the surface is not free of water breaks, reclean
the area by repeating paragraphs b, c, and d.
5-3. PRECAUTIONS. Observe the following
precautions when applying chemical conversion coating
solutions on aluminum or magnesium surfaces:
5-3.1. Chemical conversion coating materials are acidic
and require the use of chemical resistant gloves and
chemical or splash proof goggles by personnel during
handling and application. If the material accidentally
contacts the skin or eyes, flush immediately with plenty
of clean, fresh water. Report to dispensary and/or
consult a physician if eyes are affected or skin is burned.
5-3.2. Mixing and application should be done in an
adequately ventilated area. Avoid prolonged breathing
of vapors.
5-3.3. Some chemical conversion coating materials
are strong oxidizers and a fire hazard when in contact
with combustible materials. Therefore, oxidizers must
5-1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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be stored separately. Rags and other materials
contaminated with conversion coating materials should
be containerized and properly disposed of as soon as
possible.
5-3.4. Do not use chemical conversion coating materials
on high-strength steel. Catastrophic failure may occur
due to hydrogen embrittlement.
5-3.5. Do not allow any aluminum or magnesium
chemical conversion coating materials to enter faying
surfaces or other areas where the solutions cannot be
adequately removed by rinsing as the residue can
cause corrosion.
5-3.6. Do not use steel, lead, copper, or glass containers
for holding/storing chemical conversion coating
materials. Use only acid-resistant plastic, rubber, or
stainless steel. Brushes with tin plated steel handles or
ferrules may be used, but contact with the treatment
solution should be minimized.
5-4. CHEMICAL CONVERSION COATING. Also
known as conversion coating, chemical film, paint
pretreatment, "Accelagold", or "Alodine", these
treatments are aqueous acid solutions of active inorganic
compounds that convert aluminum or magnesium
surfaces to a corrosion resistant film. This film improves
the adhesion of paint coatings. The process specification
governing aluminum conversion coating is
MIL-DTL-5541, and MIL-DTL-81706 is the material
specification for aluminum conversion coating materials.
The process and material specification for pretreatment
and prevention of corrosion on magnesium alloys is
AMS-M-3171.
5-4.1. APPLICATION METHODS. Chemical
conversion coating application methods include spray,
brush-on or wipe-on, immersion, and applicator pens or
pre-saturated applicator devices.
5-4.2. APPLICATION TOOLS. Chemical conversion
coatings may be applied by Touch-N-Prep pens, presaturated wipes, acid resistant brushes, sponge stick
moisteners, non-atomizing sprayers, or dip tank
immersion.
5-5. MIL-DTL-81706 CHEMICAL CONVERSION
COATING FOR ALUMINUM ALLOYS. MIL-DTL-81706
is a chemical treatment for both bare and clad aluminum
5-2
15 April 2009
surfaces, including touch-up of scratched/damaged
anodized aluminum. MIL-DTL-81706 has two types
(Type I and II) and two classes (Class 1A and 3), and six
forms. The majority of aircraft chemical conversion
coating requirements are Type 1 Class 1A.
5-5.1. TYPES. Type I
chromium and Type
hexavalent chromium.
substituted for Type 1
authorization.
materials contain hexavalent
II materials do not contain
Type II coatings may not be
coatings without engineering
5-5.2. CLASSES. Class 1A coatings provide maximum
protection against corrosion when left unpainted and
superior adhesion when paint systems are applied.
Type 1 Class 1A coatings can be iridescent yellow,
golden brown or iridescent blue in color and rarely
exceed 0.005 mils in thickness. Class 3 coatings are
intended for use as a corrosion preventative film for
electrical and electronic applications where low
resistance contacts are required. Class 3 coatings are
often much thinner than Class 1A coatings and usually
lighter in color. Type II coatings are the same thickness
as Type I, but are an iridescent blue to gray color for
both Class 1A and Class 3.
5-5.3. FORMS. Aluminum chemical conversion
materials are available in the following forms:
NOTE
Form I concentrate and Forms II and V powder
shall be mixed in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions.
a. Form I (Concentrated Liquid). When water,
preferably deionized (DI), is mixed with the concentrate,
a solution equivalent to Form III is created. The unused
portions of the mixed solution may be stored in a
container and used as required. Once mixed, service
life is six months if the solution is not contaminated.
Service life may be extended if solution successfully
passes the test in paragraph 5-8.
b. Form II (Powder). When water, preferably
deionized (DI), is mixed with the powder, a solution
equivalent to Form III is created. The unused portions of
the mixed solution may be stored in a container and
used as required. Once mixed, service life is six months
if the solution is not contaminated. Service life may be
extended if solution successfully passes the tests in
paragraph 5-8.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
c. Form III (Premixed Liquid). Ready to use liquid for
brush (wipe-on/wipe-off), spray, and immersion
applications. The premixed liquid is the most commonly
used form of MIL-DTL-81706.
d. Form IV (Premixed Liquid, Thixotropic).
Thickened, ready to use liquid for touch-up brush
applications on vertical or underlying surfaces.
e. Form V (Premeasured Powder, Thixotropic). After
addition of water, a thickened liquid is created that is
equivalent to Form IV.
f. Form VI (Premixed Liquid). Ready to use liquid
for touch-up in a self-contained applicator device (e.g.
Touch-N-Prep pens or pre-saturated wipes).
Figure 5-2. Touch-N-Prep (TNP) Pen
5-5.4. APPLICATION OF MIL-DTL-81706 FORMS I-V.
Expiration dates for the Alodine 1132 Touch-NPrep (TNP) pens are noted on the individual
pens. As a general rule for pens stored at room
temperature, it is usually two years from the
date of manufacture or one year after it is first
used. However, the cap must be on the pen
when not use to prevent evaporation.
NOTE
Cleaning shall take place immediately before
application of the chemical conversion coating
solution because oxides will form on the
aluminum surface and interfere with the
chemical reaction.
a. Surfaces to be treated must be clean and free of
oils, greases, fingerprints, dirt, and corrosion products
prior to treatment. Refer to paragraph 5-2 for surface
preparation.
Coating, Chemical Conversion
MIL-DTL-81706
7
b. Immediately following cleaning, apply aluminum
conversion coating material to surface. Keep the surface
wet with treatment material until a color change or
iridescence is noted (approximately 2-6 minutes).
Depending upon the aluminum alloy, the color change
will vary from a light iridescent color to a darker golden
brown in color for Type I. The color will range from a faint
iridescent to a light blue, gray, or purple for Type II.
c. After the color change, rinse treated surfaces with
clean, fresh water and allow to dry completely before
painting.
NOTE
5-5.5. APPLICATION OF MIL-DTL-81706 FORM VI
(TOUCH-N-PREP (TNP) PENS). The repair of damaged
chemical conversion coatings on aluminum surfaces
can be accomplished by using Touch-N-Prep (TNP)
pens (see Figure 5-2). The TNP pens are authorized for
touching-up small surface areas requiring either
Class 1A or Class 3 solution. Use of TNP pens does not
require water rinsing or wiping-off following applications,
thereby minimizing hazardous waste generation. Empty
pens can be returned to manufacturer for recycling
using the self-addressed adhesive label and the original
box.
5-5.5.1. To use the TNP pen, remove cap and charge
the tip by firmly pressing tip against a flat surface for
10-15 seconds. The conversion coating solution in the
pen will saturate the tip. Do not over-saturate tip. Refresh
solution during use by pressing tip against the surface.
The acrylic tip of TNP pen can be modified or altered to
form any shape to allow touch up of hard to reach areas.
5-5.5.2. Repair damaged coating as follows:
a. Clean the damaged area and prepare the surface
to be repaired in accordance with paragraph 5-2. Surface
must be water break free and dry prior to using the TNP
pen.
5-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Figure 5-3. Application of TNP Pen on
Aluminum Substrate
Coating, Chemical Conversion
MIL-DTL-81706
7
b. Immediately following cleaning, use the TNP pen
to apply a chemical conversion coating solution in
overlapping parallel strokes (see Figure 5-3). Do not
over apply the solution or allow puddles, drips, or runs
to form.
c. Apply one coat of solution and allow coating to dry
for 5-10 minutes.
CAUTION
The newly formed conversion coating is soft
and can be easily damaged. Do not disturb the
coated surface until coating is completely dry.
d. The treated surface does not require rinsing or
wiping-off, and can be air or forced dried with hot air.
Maintain drying temperatures below 140°F to avoid
compromising the integrity of the film. Minimum dry time
is one hour. Once completely dried, the coating is ready
for subsequent priming and/or painting.
e. If bare surface areas still exist, repeat paragraphs
b through d.
f. If treated surface does not turn to an iridescent
yellow color shortly following application, re-clean
surface and re-apply (paragraphs a through d).
5-4
Figure 5-4.Magnesium Treatment Kit
5-5.6. POWDERY CONVERSION COATING. Allowing
the chemical conversion coating to dwell too long on the
aluminum surface can result in a powdery coated surface.
Aluminum prepaint treatments shall be rinsed
immediately after the allotted pretreatment time. A
brownish color, or dry/matte finish indicates too long a
dwell time and produces a powdery coating. This will not
provide a good surface to which the paint system can
adhere. If a powdery coating is formed, clean the
surface in accordance with paragraph 5-2 and reapply
the solution with a shorter pretreatment time.
5-6. AMS-M-3171 CHEMICAL CONVERSION
COATING FOR MAGNESIUM ALLOYS.
CAUTION
Aluminum conversion coating solution (MILDTL-81706 Type I) is not authorized for treating
magnesium surfaces.
5-6.1. AMS-M-3171 TYPE VI. This material, also known
as Dow #19, is a brush-on chemical surface treatment
for magnesium alloys that provides corrosion protection
and improved paint adhesion. This material is primarily
used to touch-up and repair small areas on magnesium
parts such as transmission housings and gearboxes. It
is available in ready-to-use plastic bottle kits (see
Figure 5-4). Each kit contains an 8 ounce bottle of
premixed magnesium surface treatment solution, two
250 ml polyethylene beakers for dispensing material to
prevent contamination of the 8 ounce bottle, a 16 ounce
trigger spray bottle for water rinsing, and two reusable
nylon brushes. If the premixed AMS-M-3171 Type VI
solution is not readily available, the solution may be
prepared using the mixing instructions provided below.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Contact the Materials Engineering Laboratory at a depot
level maintenance activity for assistance if necessary.
a. Obtain a clean container made of stainless steel,
aluminum, or acid-resistant plastic (such as polyethylene
or polypropylene) that is at least one gallon in capacity.
b. Add 1⁄2 gallon of water, preferably distilled or
deionized (DI) water, to the container.
color change is noticed (approximately 1-3 minutes).
Depending upon the magnesium alloy, the color can
change to golden-brown, greenish-brown, brassy or
gray.
c. After the color change, rinse treated surfaces with
clean, fresh water and allow to dry completely before
painting.
WARNING
5-7. TROUBLESHOOTING. If chemical conversion
coatings do not form properly, check for one of the
following causes.
Chromic acid can cause burns of the skin, eyes,
and mucous membranes, including irritation
and ulcers of the nasal septum. Use rubber
gloves, goggles, and a dust filter mask when
mixing.
a. The metal surface is insufficiently cleaned.
Cleaning must provide a water break-free surface.
Refer to paragraph 5-2.
Chromic acid is a strong oxidizer and may ignite
on contact with organic materials and reducing
agents.
c. Add 11⁄3 ounces (37.8 grams) of chromic acid
(A-A-55827) to the water and allow to dissolve
completely.
d. Add 1 ounce (28.3 grams) of calcium sulfate
(O-D-210) to the chromic acid/water mixture.
e. Top off with enough distilled or DI water to bring
total volume to one gallon. Mix solution thoroughly until
chromic acid and calcium sulfate are completely
dissolved. Once mixed, the solution has a service life of
about two years if not contaminated. The solution can
be service life extended if it has not changed color,
separated into different layers, and is tested successfully
on a scrap part (see paragraph 5-8).
5-6.2. APPLICATION OF AMS-M-3171 TYPE VI.
a. Surfaces to be treated must be clean and free of
oils, greases, fingerprints, dirt, and corrosion products
prior to treatment. Refer to paragraph 5-2 for surface
preparation.
Chemical Conversion Coating
for Magnesium Alloy
SAE AMS-M-3171
8
b. Immediately following cleaning, apply magnesium
conversion coating solution to surface using a brush.
Keep the surface wet with treatment solution until a
b. There was insufficient dwell time. As the solution
approaches its one year service life, or at temperatures
below 50°F (10°C), more time may be required to form
good films.
c. The pretreatment solution has been allowed to
contact lead, steel, copper, glass, or other incompatible
materials that can reduce the effectiveness of the solution
and may prevent adequate pretreatment.
5-8. EXPIRED SERVICE LIFE. The following test may
be performed to determine if a chemical conversion
solution is acceptable for use.
a. Apply test solution to a small aluminum or
magnesium coupon.
b. Allow solution to react for up to five minutes.
c. For aluminum, if a yellow to gold coating is
produced the material is still usable. For magnesium, a
color change to golden-brown, greenish-brown, brassy
or gray indicates that the solution is acceptable for use.
d. If the solution has separated into different layers
or a color change is not noticed after five minutes, the
solution is not acceptable for use and shall be disposed
of in accordance with local hazardous material
regulations.
5-9. POST TREATMENT. Allow the chemical
conversion coated surface to dry for a minimum of one
hour before applying paint or other coatings. More time
may be required at low temperature or high humidity.
The coating is soft until completely dried. Do not wipe
the area with a cloth or brush when coating is still wet,
since wiping will remove the coating.
5-5
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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5-9.1. To avoid contamination of the treated surface,
apply primer according to procedures in Appendix A
(Navy) or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army) within 72 hours
after conversion coating or perform temporary
preservation procedures (see paragraph 5-10) as soon
as possible.
5-9.2. If the surface becomes dirty or accumulates oil,
grease, fingerprints, or other contaminants, wipe prior
to painting with clean cheesecloth (CCC-C-440) and an
approved solvent.
5-6
15 April 2009
5-9.3. If the surface is scratched or the conversion
coating is damaged, clean (refer to paragraph 5-2) and
retreat the surface before applying paint coatings or
sealants.
5-10. TEMPORARY PRESERVATION. Under adverse
conditions or when the restriction of operations will not
permit the application of a chemical conversion coating,
apply a temporary corrosion preventive compound (CPC)
in accordance with Chapter 8.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
CHAPTER 6
TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC AREAS
6-1. INTRODUCTION. This chapter describes the
procedures recommended for treating and protecting
against corrosion in specific, corrosion prone areas.
The following paragraphs describe the treatment of
these areas. The information in this chapter is general,
and should be amplified and expanded by reference to
the applicable maintenance instruction manuals for
specific aircraft.
WARNING
Observe precautions listed in other chapters or
references when using cleaning compounds,
solvents, surface treatments, sealants, and
paints.
6-2. AIR INTAKE DUCTS FOR JET AIRCRAFT. Air
intake ducts are fabricated from materials (usually
5000 series aluminum) which have high corrosion
resistance. Certain components of these ducts may be
cast aluminum or magnesium. Frequent cleaning of the
ducts is usually sufficient to preclude attack by corrosion.
Activities operating aircraft performing low level missions
or take-off and landings over salt water or in highly
saline atmospheres may need to paint the ducts to
reduce corrosion attack. A requirement for a coating as
determined by the operating activity shall be coordinated
with the parent service organization. The standard
epoxy primer/polyurethane topcoat paint system is
recommended for painting the ducts.
6-3. BATTERY COMPARTMENTS, BOXES, AND
ADJACENT AREAS. The battery, battery cover, battery
box, and adjacent areas (especially areas below the
battery compartment where battery electrolyte may
have seeped) are subject to the corrosive action of the
electrolyte. Two different types of batteries are
encountered on aviation equipment: lead acid, having
a sulfuric acid electrolyte; and nickel-cadmium, having
a potassium hydroxide electrolyte.
6-3.1. PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS FOR
CLEANING AND NEUTRALIZING BATTERY
ELECTROLYTES. Neutralizing solutions are required
for cleaning areas contaminated with battery electrolyte.
6-3.1.1. Sodium Bicarbonate Neutralizing Solution. For
small areas, pour one pint of fresh water into a 500 ml
polyethylene wash bottle. Add two ounces of sodium
bicarbonate (ASTM D928) and mix thoroughly. For
large areas, pour one gallon of fresh water into a
bucket. Add six ounces of sodium bicarbonate (ASTM
D928) and mix thoroughly.
6-3.1.2. Boric Acid Neutralizing Solution. For small
areas, pour one pint of fresh water into a 500 ml
polyethylene wash bottle. Add one-half ounce of boric
acid powder (A-A-59282) and mix thoroughly. For large
areas, pour one gallon of fresh water into a bucket. Add
four ounces of boric acid powder (A-A-59282) and mix
thoroughly.
6-3.1.3. Monosodium Phosphate Neutralizing Solution.
For small areas, pour one pint of fresh water into a
500 ml polyethylene wash bottle. Add two ounces of
monosodium phosphate (AWWA B504) and mix
thoroughly. For large areas, pour one gallon of fresh
water into a bucket. Add six ounces of monosodium
phosphate (AWWA B504) and mix thoroughly.
6-3.2. CLEANING AND NEUTRALIZING PROCEDURES.
WARNING
When handling electrolytes, splash proof
goggles, rubber gloves, and rubber aprons
shall be worn. If any electrolyte contacts the
skin or eyes, flood the affected area immediately
with water and consult the Base Medical Service.
An emergency shower and an eye wash station
in the area where work is being performed are
required.
CAUTION
Both lead acid and nickel-cadmium battery
electrolytes will cause severe corrosion of
metallic structure. Do not allow contaminated
gloves, rags, or sponges, to come in contact
with aircraft structure. Place all items
contaminated with electrolyte in a leak-proof
plastic container prior to removing them from
the aircraft. Remove any battery box which
contains spilled electrolyte from the aircraft
prior to cleaning it. Electrolyte spilled on aircraft
structure shall be cleaned up as soon as possible
after it has been detected.
a. Apply the proper indicator to the spill area. For
spills from lead-acid batteries, apply a strip of blue
litmus paper to the wet surface. A color change to red
6-1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
indicates an acid contaminated area. For spills from
nickel-cadmium batteries, apply a strip of red litmus
paper to the wet surface. A color change to blue indicates
an alkaline contaminated area.
b. Apply the correct neutralizing solution to the areas
where the litmus paper has been applied. Use a 10
percent sodium bicarbonate solution (see paragraph
6-3.1.1) to neutralize sulfuric acid from lead acid
batteries. Use a boric acid solution (see paragraph
6-3.1.2) or a monosodium phosphate solution (see
paragraph 6-3.1.3) to neutralize potassium hydroxide
from nickel-cadmium batteries. Ensure that the area is
well-saturated including all seams and crevices where
electrolyte could collect. Use care to prevent neutralizing
solutions from spreading to adjacent areas, and ensure
that bilge area drains are open to allow fluids to flow
overboard. Allow the neutralizing solution to remain on
the surface for at least five minutes or until all bubbling
action ceases, whichever is longer.
c. Rinse the area thoroughly with a liberal amount of
clean water.
d. Remove any standing liquid or puddles with a
squeeze bulb type syringe, absorbent cloth, or sponge.
Place the used items in a leak-proof container for
disposal to prevent the contamination of other areas.
e. Reapply the litmus paper, as in paragraph a. If
the litmus paper does not change color, rinse the area,
as in paragraph c, and dry the areas with clean cloths or
rags. If the litmus paper changes color, repeat
paragraphs b and c.
f. Apply chemical conversion coating treatment
(Chapter 5), sealant (Chapter 7), or paint coatings
(Appendix A), as required.
6-3.3. PAINT SYSTEMS. Special acid and/or alkali
resistant coatings are usually required for battery
compartments, boxes, and areas. Refer to the applicable
aircraft manuals.
6-4. BERYLLIUM-COPPER ALLOYS. Surface
discoloration of beryllium copper alloys is normal and
removal is not advised. If removal is required, minimize
the generation of fine beryllium dust particles as much
as possible.
a. Wear disposable coveralls, gloves, hood, and
cartridge respirator. Consult local safety office for
requirements.
6-2
15 April 2009
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
b. Dampen abrasive mat (A-A-58054) with
degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680).
WARNING
Dust, corrosion products, and other fine particles
generated by beryllium and beryllium-copper
alloys are toxic when inhaled or allowed to
contact the skin. Severe poisoning can result if
beryllium dust is inhaled. Beryllium-copper
alloys shall be cleaned only in strict accordance
with the following procedure or the procedure of
the applicable maintenance manual.
c. To prevent the spread of toxic dust, keep mat wet
throughout the corrosion removal process.
d. Clean fitting with disposable towels dampened
with MIL-PRF-680 after the completion of corrosion
removal.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
Water Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
4
e. Apply corrosion preventive compound,
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II, on bushings, or MIL-PRF-81309
Type III, on contacts.
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
f. Wipe work area clean with disposable towels
dampened with degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680).
g. Place disposable towels, abrasive mats, and
coveralls in a plastic bag marked "Beryllium
contaminated waste".
h. Seal plastic bag with tape (AMS D6123 Type II).
i. Discard plastic bag in accordance with local
environmental protection directives.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
j. Wash hands with soap and water immediately
after completion of task.
6-5. CABLES, STEEL.
6-5.4. After thorough cleaning, apply MIL-PRF-16173
Grade 4 corrosion preventive compound (CPC) liberally.
Wipe off excess. If excessive CPC is allowed to build up,
it will interfere with the operation of cables at fair-leads,
pulleys, or grooved bellcrank areas.
WARNING
6-6.
Consult maintenance manuals for cable
detensioning and tensioning requirements prior
to performing any maintenance.
6-5.1. If the surface of a cable is corroded, relieve cable
tension and carefully force the cable open by reverse
twisting. Visually inspect the interior. Corrosion on the
interior strands constitutes failure, and the cable must
be replaced.
CAUTION
Do not use metallic wool to clean installed
cables. The use of metallic wool will cause
dissimilar metal particles to become embedded
in the cables and create further corrosion
problems (galvanic corrosion).
6-5.2. If no internal corrosion is detected, remove loose
external rust and corrosion with a clean, dry,
coarse-weave rag or fiber brush.
CAUTION
Excessive solvent will remove internal cable
lubricant and allow cable strands to abrade and
further corrode.
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
13
15
6-5.3. To clean control cables, use a clean cloth
dampened with degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680
Type II) or cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-16173
6
DEPLETED URANIUM COUNTERWEIGHTS.
6-6.1. Some aircraft have depleted uranium balance
weights incorporated in the airframe. Refer to applicable
maintenance manuals (Scheduled Depot Level
Maintenance) to determine the location of depleted
uranium parts.
WARNING
Do not abrade or sand depleted uranium under
any circumstances. Depleted uranium is
extremely toxic and shall be worked only under
a license from the Nuclear Regulatory
Commission. Machining or other work, such as
surface sanding, may be done only by the
licensee. No drilling, sanding, or other
mechanical work is permitted on depleted
uranium by any service maintenance activities.
If the protective finish (plating) which covers the
depleted uranium is chipped, peeled, or
otherwise removed so the dark gray or black
depleted uranium (or uranium oxide) is visible,
the part must be returned to the licensee for
rework or disposal. Packaging and shipping
procedures shall conform to current regulations
for handling radioactive materials.
6-6.2. Mechanical removal of corrosion from depleted
uranium shall not be attempted at Organizational/Unit
or Intermediate level maintenance activities. If corrosion
occurs, apply a liberal, continuous coat of AMLGUARD
(MIL-DTL-85054) and contact the local radiation safety
officer immediately.
6-7. ELECTRICAL
AND
ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT. Avionic and electrical equipment are
easily damaged by contamination with corrosion removal
debris and by application of improper corrosion control
materials. Many of the conventional corrosion treatment
methods used on airframe components are also used
on areas adjacent to or supporting avionic equipment,
electrical equipment, wire bundles, and other electrical
parts. Personnel performing airframe corrosion control
tasks shall be familiar with avionic corrosion control
materials and procedures to ensure that no damage to
electrical or avionic equipment will occur. For more
specific information, refer to Volume III, as well as the
specific equipment maintenance manuals.
6-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
AND
BONDING
6-7.1. GROUNDING
CONNECTIONS. After the grounding or bonding
connection has been made, overcoat the entire
connection, including all bare areas on the metal surface,
with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant.
6-7.2. CONDUIT AND JUNCTION BOXES. If
corrosion is found, remove by mechanical methods
outlined in Chapter 4. Before applying primer, reworked
and bare metal areas shall be treated with
MIL-DTL-81706 for aluminum alloy parts or AMS-M-3171
for magnesium alloy parts. Electrical conduit (exterior)
and junction boxes (interior and exterior) shall be primed
with two coats of epoxy primer (MIL-PRF-23377 or
MIL-PRF-85582) in accordance with Appendix A (Navy)
or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army).
6-7.3. WIRES AND CABLES. Electrical wires and
cables having plastic jacket insulation or braided wire
exterior shielding shall not be painted except as required
for moisture and fungus proofing (see Volume III).
6-7.4. ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS AND LEAD-IN
ATTACHMENT POINTS. Almost all corrosion problems
on electrical and electronic equipment are caused by
moisture intrusion at the connector or lead-in attachment
points on cases and covers. While the design of this
equipment is fixed, corrosion can be prevented by
spraying MIL-PRF-81309 Type III corrosion preventive
compound into the pin and/or pin receptacle end of
connectors prior to mating the connector halves and on
the connector shells after mating the connector halves.
External electrical connectors and clamps that are
cadmium plated may become discolored or tarnished
during service. This is normal for cadmium plate and
should not be removed. Loss of cadmium plating is
evident by rusting or pitting. Consult Volume III for
additional information.
6-7.5. MOISTURE AND FUNGUS PROOFING OF
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT. See
Volume III.
6-7.6. ANTENNAS. Dissimilar metal corrosion
(galvanic corrosion) often occurs at antenna attachment
points. Refer to Volume III for repair and replacement
information on conductive gaskets and sealants, and to
the maintenance instruction manuals for information on
paint touch-up and finishing.
6-8. EMI SEALS AND GASKETS. To prevent
malfunctions caused by electromagnetic interference
(EMI), electrically conductive shielding is either built
6-4
15 April 2009
into the avionic device or must be added to access
panels, doors, or covers to: 1) prevent emission of EMI
from its own circuits and; 2) prevent susceptibility to
outside EMI. EMI seals and gaskets may also act as
environmental seals in certain locations, especially
around doors and access panels. However, since the
seals must provide a conductive path to an aluminum or
graphite/epoxy skin, corrosion often occurs at the
junction of these dissimilar metals. When corrosion
occurs, the conductive path is lost and so is the EMI
protection, making the aircraft susceptible to electrical
malfunctions caused by external radiation. Refer to
Volume III for additional information on EMI causes and
effects.
6-8.1. EMI SHIELDING MATERIALS. The following
are typical EMI shielding materials: elastomeric seals
and gaskets with an embedded or attached conductor
(Figure 6-1), conductive elastomer gaskets (Figure 6-2),
metallic screens installed under composite covers
(Figure 6-3), bonding cables for access doors
(Figure 6-4), and bonding washers for avionics enclosure
(Figure 6-5).
6-8.2. TREATMENT OF EMI SEALS AND GASKETS.
When corrosion is observed in such areas, disassemble
only the affected area and remove the corrosion using
the mildest available method.
Alcohol, Isopropyl
TT-I-735
1
a. Carefully clean the area with cloths wet with
isopropyl alcohol (TT-I-735). Dry with a clean cloth.
b. If replacement seals are available, install them in
accordance with aircraft maintenance instructions or
bulletins.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
Water Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
4
c. If replacement seals are not available or do not
exist, spray the contacting surfaces with a light coating
of MIL-PRF-81309 Type III, then reassemble.
Periodically inspect repaired areas and areas known to
be chronic problems.
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure 6-3. Stainless Steel EMI Screen
Figure 6-1. Beryllium-Copper Spiral Contact with
Environmental Fluorosilicone Seal
Figure 6-4. Bonding Cable From Airframe to
Graphite/Epoxy Avionics Bay Door
Figure 6-2. Dorsal Longeron EMI Seal
Figure 6-5. EMI Bonding Washers in Avionics Bay
6-5
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
6-9.
15 April 2009
FASTENERS AND ATTACHING PARTS.
a. Scrub with a brush wet with solution of one cup of
sodium bicarbonate (ASTM D928) per gallon of water.
NOTE
The following does not apply to parts which are
lubricated in the joint areas immediately before
or after installation, or to close tolerance bolts
and parts which are removed frequently for
maintenance requirements. Additional
information concerning wet installation with
sealant can be found in Chapter 7, and wet
installation with primer can be found in
Appendix A.
6-9.1. Attaching parts, such as nuts, bushings, spacers,
washers, screws, self-tapping screws, sleeves for
shake-proof fastener studs, self-locking nuts, speed
nuts, clamps, and bolts, do not need to be painted
except when dissimilar metal contact is involved with
the materials being joined. However, all parts shall be
installed wet with sealant. For permanent installations,
use MIL-PRF-81733 sealant and coat the entire mating
surface of the parts. For removable installations, use
AMS 3284 sealant and coat only the lower side of the
heads of screws and bolts with sealant. For removable
installations, coat the threads and shanks of screws and
bolts or the holes into which they are inserted with a
corrosion preventive compound (see Table 8-3).
6-9.2. CLOSE TOLERANCE PARTS. Close tolerance
bolts and parts shall be coated with corrosion inhibiting
solid film lubricant. Use AS 5272 (heat curing) on
non-aluminum parts when 400°F (204°C) ovens are
available. Use MIL-L-23398 (air curing) on aluminum
parts and on all types of metallic parts when 400°F
ovens are unavailable. The solid film lubricant shall be
applied and completely cured prior to assembly. Bolts
shall be coated on shanks and threads only. A thin bead
of sealant shall be applied under the bolt head to impart
a wet seal. If possible, bolt head, nut, and end shall be
fillet sealed with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant after
installation.
6-9.3. RIVETS, GENERAL. All rivets shall be installed
wet with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant, except those in fuel
contact areas.
6-9.4. RIVETS, MONEL. Corrosion of nickel-copper
alloy (Monel) is evidenced by green corrosion products.
Removal of this corrosion is not required. If desired,
corrosion may be removed as follows:
6-6
b. Thoroughly rinse the affected area with fresh
water and dry with clean cloth or oil free, low pressure
air.
6-9.5. FASTENERS AND MAGNESIUM. All machine
screws, countersunk fasteners, bolts (head end) and
nuts which are used in contact with magnesium shall be
installed with 5056 aluminum alloy washers. These
parts and washers shall be installed wet with
MIL-PRF-81733 sealant and shall be completely fillet
sealed with the same material after installation.
6-9.6. ADJUSTABLE PARTS. Adjustable parts, such
as tie rod ends and turnbuckles:
a. If possible, surfaces and threads shall be lubricated
and protected before assembly with corrosion inhibiting
solid film lubricant (AS 5272 or MIL-L-23398) which
shall be completely cured prior to assembly. After
installation, apply a thin coating of DOD-L-25681
lubricant to all surfaces of these parts located in high
temperature areas, or a thin coating of water displacing,
corrosion preventive compound (MIL-PRF-81309 Type
II) to all surfaces of these parts located in other areas.
b. If solid film lubricants cannot be applied, use a
thin coating of DOD-L-25681 lubricant on all surfaces
before and after assembly when located in high
temperature areas. Apply a thin coating of water
displacing lubricant (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) before
and after assembly, when parts are located in other
areas.
6-9.7. SLIP FIT PARTS. Slip fit parts shall be assembled
with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant between the mating
surfaces. If this is not possible, coat the ID of the hole in
the receiving part, which is normally the larger structure,
with MIL-L-23398 and coat the OD of the mating part
with AS 5272 or MIL-L-23398. The solid film lubricant
shall be applied and completely cured prior to assembly.
6-9.8. PRESS FIT PARTS. Press fit parts shall be
installed with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant between the faying
surfaces, and the edges of these parts shall be fillet
sealed with the same sealant after installation. The
sealant should also be applied to the ID of the hole into
which the part will be installed.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
6-9.9. CUT EDGES AND HOLES. All cut edges and
holes drilled or reworked for bolts, screws, rivets, studs,
and bushings of aluminum and magnesium structure or
parts shall receive chemical conversion coating
treatment prior to the installation of the fasteners or
bushings and prior to installing or refinishing the structure
or parts. Apply MIL-DTL-81706 to aluminum parts and
AMS-M-3171 to magnesium parts in accordance with
Chapter 5.
6-10.4. The coating system on all attaching parts shall
be touched up after installation to match the surrounding
structure in accordance with Appendix A (Navy) or
TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army).
6-9.10.SEVERELY
CORRODED
(RUSTED)
HARDWARE. Severely corroded screws, bolts, and
washers shall be replaced. When a protective coating,
such as cadmium plating on bolts or screws is damaged,
immediate action shall be taken to apply an appropriate
protective finish to prevent further corrosion (rusting).
Refer to Chapter 8 for proper corrosion preventive
materials.
6-12. HINGES, PIANO TYPE. Corrosion inhibiting
solid film lubricants are often applied to hinge pins and
nodes to provide lubrication and to reduce corrosion
problems. See Chapter 2 for procedures on touch-up
and replacement of these lubricants when hinges are
disassembled.
6-11. FUEL TANKS, INTEGRAL AND EXTERNAL.
For Navy materials and procedures, see NAVAIR
01-1A-35. For Army materials and procedures, see TM
55-1500-204-25/1 or applicable maintenance manuals.
6-12.1. Each time equipment is washed, make sure all
hinges are cleaned in accordance with Chapter 2.
6-10. FAYING SURFACES, JOINTS, AND SEAMS.
NOTE
Treat and process faying surfaces of parts,
components, or structures which are assembled
by adhesive bonding in accordance with the
applicable equipment structural repair manual
for adhesive bonding.
6-10.1. When repairs are made on equipment or
accessories, or when components are installed or
structures are reinstalled, the attaching or faying surfaces
shall be protected by sealing all metal-to-metal contacts
and composite-to-metal contacts.
6-10.2. REMOVABLE STRUCTURES. All removable
structures (components requiring frequent removal for
maintenance requirements) shall be installed at the
faying surfaces with AMS 3284 sealant. Fillet seal all
exterior seams on removable structure with AMS 3284
sealant (see Chapter 7 for details on sealant application).
6-10.3. PERMANENT STRUCTURES. All permanent
structures shall be installed with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant
at the faying surface. Fillet seal all exterior seams (those
exposed to the outside environment) of permanent
structures to make it flush with the adjoining surface.
6-12.2. After washing, apply a coating of a water
displacing corrosion preventive compound. Apply either
MIL-PRF-63460, or MIL-PRF-81309 Type II and
MIL-PRF-32033, to the node and hinge pin areas of all
piano hinges, including those coated with solid film
lubricants.
6-13. RELIEF TUBE AREAS. Interior and exterior
relief tube areas shall be inspected and cleaned after
each flight. Cleaning shall be accomplished in
accordance with procedures outlined in Chapter 2. After
cleaning, the areas shall be treated with a disinfectant
(O-D-1435 or TT-I-735). After cleaning and disinfecting,
if the treated areas have exposed bare metal, apply
chemical conversion coating material for the specific
metal or alloy as outlined in Chapter 5.
6-14. RUBBER, NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC.
Natural and synthetic rubber shall not be painted or
oiled. As a general rule, grease should not be applied to
rubber parts, but some parts, such as "O" rings, require
a grease coating (consult the appropriate maintenance
manual). Many types of rubber are subject to fungus
growth (e.g. mold, mildew) which can cause deterioration
of the rubber and corrosion of surrounding metal
surfaces. If fungus is noted on rubber parts, clean the
parts and remove the fungus in accordance with
Chapter 2.
6-7
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
CAUTION
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
Water Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-16173
4
6
6-15. SPRINGS. Springs which are so tightly coiled
that the areas between the coils cannot be plated or
painted for corrosion protection shall be coated with
water displacing corrosion preventive compound
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) by spraying or dipping, and
allowed to dry for at least one hour. After drying, apply
a coating of MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 to the springs by
spraying or dipping. These requirements do not apply to
springs operating in oil or hydraulic fluids.
6-16. SURFACES AND COMPONENTS EXPOSED
TO EXHAUST GASES, GUN GASES, AND ROCKET
BLAST. Residues from exhaust gases, gun gases, and
rocket blast are very corrosive and can cause
deterioration of paint systems. Frequent cleaning of
these areas to remove residue is required and shall be
accomplished in accordance with Chapter 2.
6-17. TANKS, POTABLE WATER. The interior
surfaces of aluminum alloy potable water tanks shall not
be painted or conversion coated. Remove corrosion by
using the mechanical methods outlined in Chapter 4.
Flush thoroughly with clean fresh water and ensure all
debris is removed.
6-18. THIN METAL (0.0625 INCH THICKNESS AND
LESS).
6-18.1. Severe pitting, intergranular, and exfoliation
corrosion on thin metal requires removal by mechanical
methods specified in Chapter 4 as appropriate for the
type of metal involved. Use extreme care and consult
the applicable maintenance manual for structural
damage limits when removing corrosion from thin metal.
When stains, surface corrosion, and mild to moderate
pitting are found on thin structural skins (i.e., aircraft and
missile skins), chemical methods, as appropriate to the
type metal involved, are authorized for Army personnel
(see Appendix B). Chemical methods are not authorized
for Navy use. A convenient and effective mechanical
method for the removal of minor corrosion or stains on
all metals is as follows:
6-8
Do not allow metallic or corrosion particles to
build up around the polishing area or polishing
tool (cloth or grit paper) during the polishing
operation. Damage to thin metal may result.
a. Mix ground pumice abrasive (SS-P-821) with
clean tap water to form a paste. Using a clean, soft cloth
(such as cheesecloth, CCC-C-440), apply the paste to
the area being treated and abrade the area with a light
rubbing motion.
b. When pumice has dried to a white powder, wipe
off with a clean, dry, soft cloth. If corrosion products
(observed as stubborn stains) still exist, use number
600 grit wet or dry abrasive paper and water to remove
the remaining corrosion. Wipe clean with a clean, soft,
dry cloth.
c. Refer to Chapter 5 for the required surface
treatment, and paint in accordance with Appendix A
(Navy) or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army).
6-19. TUBING, NON-STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
AND ASSEMBLIES. Non-structural tubing is tubing
that transfers a functional fluid (e.g. oxygen, hydraulic
fluid, engine oil). Use the same procedures and materials
specified for corrosion removal on structural tubing
members and assemblies specified in paragraph 6-20.
6-19.1. ALUMINUM TUBING.
WARNING
Due to the possibility of combustion, do not use
degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680) or other
solvents that are not oxygen compatible on
areas of oxygen storage, transfer systems, or
surfaces of missiles using liquid propellant.
Failure to observe these precautions can result
in serious or fatal injury to personnel.
6-19.1.1. Treat aluminum tubing according to the
following procedure.
a. Clean in accordance with Chapter 2.
b. Remove corrosion using non-powered mechanical
methods specified in Chapter 4. Polish to a smooth
surface.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
c. Apply
chemical
conversion
coating
(MIL-DTL-81706) to the interior and exterior surfaces of
tubing (see Chapter 5). Do not apply chemical conversion
to the interior of oxygen tubing. Apply conversion coating
after fabrication and prior to the installation of new
tubes. If corrosion has been removed from tubing, apply
conversion coating to all bare, reworked areas.
CAUTION
Use extreme care to prevent the contamination
of interior surfaces of hydraulic, oxygen, and air
speed indicator tubing during painting
operations.
d. Paint or corrosion preventative compound shall
not be applied to the interior surfaces of non-structural
tubing. Apply the specified exterior finish system to all
exterior surfaces or reworked areas of tubing exposed
to the environment. Take necessary precautions to
prevent primer or paint from entering the interior areas
of tubing. Where double flares are used (e.g. oxygen
systems), cap the end and apply the finish system after
the flaring operation. Paint end fittings after installation
on the aircraft or equipment. Touch-up any coating
systems damaged during tubing installation. Paint in
accordance with Appendix A (Navy) or TM
55-1500-345-23 (Army).
6-19.2. STAINLESS STEEL TUBING. Austenitic (3XX
series) stainless steels are highly susceptible to pitting,
crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking when
exposed to moist, salt-laden air and when deposits of
dirt and debris are allowed to collect on tubing areas
covered by metal brackets or parts. Treat stainless steel
tubing according to the following procedure.
WARNING
AMS 3166 wipe solvent is flammable and toxic
to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Eye and
skin protection is required. Use only in a well
ventilated area. To control solvent odor, used
rags should be immediately placed in sealed
bags or covered containers and disposed per
local directives.
c. Immediately before painting, wipe areas which
will be painted with a lint free cloth moistened with AMS
3166 or an approved wipe solvent, and dry with a clean
cloth. Do not allow drying by evaporation, since soils will
redeposit on the surface.
d. Apply the specified finish system for stainless
steel tubing (consult the applicable maintenance
manual). Paint in accordance with Appendix A (Navy)
or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army).
6-19.3. CADMIUM PLATED STEEL TUBING. Bare
cadmium plating deteriorates rapidly when subjected to
abrasion, most bases (alkali) and acids, and marine,
industrial, and very humid environments. It should always
be protected with a paint system to prevent corrosion.
Treat cadmium plated steel tubing according to the
following procedure.
a. Clean in accordance with Chapter 2.
b. Remove deteriorated plating and corrosion on
base metal (steel) using non-powered mechanical
methods specified in Chapter 4. Polish to a smooth
surface.
WARNING
WARNING
Due to the possibility of combustion, do not use
degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680) or other
solvents that are not oxygen compatible on
areas of oxygen storage, transfer systems, or
surfaces of missiles using liquid propellant.
Failure to observe these precautions can result
in serious or fatal injury to personnel.
a. Clean in accordance with Chapter 2.
b. Remove corrosion using non-powered mechanical
methods specified in Chapter 4. Polish to a smooth
surface.
AMS 3166 wipe solvent is flammable and toxic
to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Eye and
skin protection is required. Use only in a well
ventilated area. To control solvent odor, used
rags should be immediately placed in sealed
bags or covered containers and disposed per
local directives.
c. Immediately before painting, wipe areas which
will be painted with a lint free cloth moistened with AMS
3166 or an approved wipe solvent, and dry with a clean
cloth. Do not allow drying by evaporation, since soils will
redeposit on the surface.
6-9
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
d. Apply the specified finish system for steel tubing
(consult the applicable maintenance manual). Paint in
accordance with Appendix A (Navy) or TM
55-1500-345-23 (Army).
6-19.4. TUBING FITTINGS AND SLEEVES. Corrosion
often occurs on sleeves and their fittings or on the tubing
in contact with them, due to the crevices present at the
attachment points. Galvanic corrosion often occurs
because the type of sleeve or fitting chosen is not
electrochemically compatible with the tubing. When
corrosion is found on these areas, or when tubing,
fittings, or sleeves are replaced, consult the applicable
maintenance manual to determine the proper types of
sleeves and fittings. Fittings located in areas which are
inaccessible for inspection and refinishing during
operational service shall be fillet sealed at the joint area
with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant at the time of installation
and prior to painting. After the sealant is tack-free, paint
the tubing, fittings, and sealant in accordance with
Appendix A (Navy) or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army).
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
Water Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
4
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-16173
6
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-DTL-85054
5
c. Except for oxygen line fittings, apply water
displacing, corrosion preventive compound
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) by spray or brush to all fitting
surfaces after they are tightened, including the exposed
areas of the sleeves and the unfinished areas of the
tubing. Allow the CPC to dry for at least one hour, and
apply MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 or MIL-DTL-85054 over
the same area by spraying or brushing.
d. After installation, apply the exterior paint system
to exposed tubing, sleeves, and back portions of the B
nuts of the fittings.
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
15
a. Clean all old preservative coatings and dirt from
the fitting, sleeves, and tubing ends with degreasing
solvent (MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or cleaner
(MIL-PRF-32295 Type I) before reinstalling tubing and
tightening fittings.
b. Do not apply the finish system on fittings and
adjacent tubing for a distance of one inch from the back
end of the fittings on tubing areas requiring periodic
removal and/or opening during service.
WARNING
Do not use corrosion preventive compounds on
oxygen line fittings. These materials contain
petroleum solvents which are not liquid oxygen
(LOX) compatible. Explosion may occur if
oxygen contacts these materials.
6-10
6-20. TUBING, STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND
ASSEMBLIES. Structural tubing is used as a supporting
member in a structure. It does not transport fluids. Only
non-powered mechanical procedures and materials
specified in Chapter 4 shall be used to remove corrosion
on structural tubing. Reworked areas shall always be
polished to a smooth surface, using 400 to 600 grit
abrasive paper or cloth, as the final step in the corrosion
removal procedure. The following steps outline general
practices for the protection of structural tubing.
6-20.1. STRUCTURAL ALUMINUM ALLOY TUBING.
6-20.1.1. Apply chemical conversion coating (see
Chapter 5) and paint to the exterior and interior surfaces
15 April 2009
of structural tubing in accordance with the finish system
designated in the applicable maintenance manual. Paint
in accordance with Appendix A (Navy) or TM
55-1500-345-23 (Army). All bolted or riveted caps or
components shall be installed with faying surfaces and
fasteners wet using MIL-PRF-81733 sealant.
6-20.1.2. Interior surfaces of tubing having closed
end(s) shall be coated with corrosion preventive
compound (MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 2 or 4) using the
fill-and-drain method of application through holes located
near each end of the tubes. These holes shall
subsequently be closed by installing blind rivets using
MIL-PRF-81733 sealant and overcoating the rivet head
with the same after installation.
6-20.2. STRUCTURAL MAGNESIUM ALLOY TUBING.
All surfaces of tubing shall be treated with magnesium
conversion coating (AMS-M-3171) in accordance with
Chapter 5 and painted with the finish system designated
in the applicable maintenance manual. Install all parts
onto the tubing with all faying surfaces and fasteners
wet with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant.
6-20.3. STRUCTURAL COPPER ALLOY, STAINLESS
STEEL ALLOY, AND HEAT RESISTANT ALLOY
TUBING. The interior and exterior surfaces of these
types of tubing do not require a finish system. However,
to prevent galvanic corrosion of other metals with which
these types of tubing are in contact, install parts and
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
attach tubing with faying surfaces and fasteners wet
using MIL-PRF-81733 sealant, or AMS 3374 sealant
for high temperature areas.
6-20.4. STRUCTURAL CARBON STEEL TUBING.
6-20.4.1. Exterior. All exterior surfaces of steel tubing
assemblies shall be finished with one coat of
MIL-PRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582 primer, followed by
two coats of MIL-PRF-85285 polyurethane topcoat.
The topcoat color is specified in the applicable
maintenance manual. Apply primer and topcoat materials
in accordance with Appendix A (Navy) or TM
55-1500-345-12 (Army).
6-20.4.2. Interior. For tubing assemblies without welded
or crimped ends, coat all interior surfaces with
MIL-PRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582 primer using a
fill-and-drain procedure. Where practical, in lieu of
fill-and-drain procedure, two coats of primer may be
spray applied to interior surfaces of all assemblies.
6-20.4.3. After coating the interior, clean the exterior
surfaces to remove any residual primer. Seal all holes
in tube walls by installing blind rivets wet with
MIL-PRF-81733 sealant in the holes and overcoat the
rivet heads with the same after installation. Assemble
all tubing assemblies manufactured by riveting or bolting
members together on fittings with faying surfaces and
fasteners wet with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant.
6-11/(6-12 Blank)
6-11
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
6-12
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
CHAPTER 7
SEALANTS
7-1. PURPOSE. This chapter covers recommended
materials and procedures for the application of sealing
compounds to aircraft structures. Sealants prevent the
intrusion of moisture, rain, salt water, dust, and aircraft
fluids, which can lead to extensive corrosion and possibly
equipment failure. Sealants are one of the most important
tools for corrosion prevention and control. For sealants
to be effective, it is critical that the correct sealant be
chosen for a specific area/situation and that it be applied
correctly. Only qualified personnel thoroughly familiar
with sealants and their application shall be permitted to
handle and apply them.
7-2. REASONS FOR SEALING. Sealants are used for
the following purposes:
a. Fuel sealing (integral fuel tanks).
b. Pressure area sealing (cabin areas and access
doors).
c. Weather sealing (exterior skin surfaces).
7-3. SEALANT PACKAGING. Sealants are generally
packaged and available as three different units of issue
(U/I):
CAUTION
Sealants are sensitive to mix ratio and will not
cure or perform properly if incorrectly mixed.
a. Two Part Can Kit (KT): Package consists of a
curing agent (part A) and a base compound (part B) that
are pre-measured into separate containers. The entire
contents of both containers are intended to be mixed at
one time. Accurate weighing equipment shall be used to
achieve the correct mix ratio for smaller mixes.
b. Semkit Cartridge (CA): A complete plastic
cartridge assembly that stores, mixes, and applies
sealant materials. Semkit packages are convenient
because they eliminate the need to measure and handle
materials, prevent contamination when opening and
closing can kits, and reduce air entrapment which
causes voids in mixed sealant.
d. Firewall sealing (engine and ordnance areas).
e. Electrical insulation and sealing (bulkhead wiring,
electrical connectors, and electrical components).
f. Acid-resistant sealing (battery compartments and
relief tanks).
g. Window sealing (windshield and canopy).
h. High temperature sealing (engine areas, anti-icing
ducts, and some electronics).
i. Aerodynamic smoothing (void filling) and sealing
(exterior skin surfaces).
j. Sealing conductive gaskets (communication and
navigation antennas and static wicks).
k. Corrosion inhibition.
c. Premixed and Frozen (PMF): Sealant that is
pre-measured, mixed, and frozen at extremely low
temperatures. PMF sealants are the most convenient
package configuration for high usage applications;
simply thaw material according to manufacturer’s
instructions and use. PMF sealants are available in a
variety of sizes, but the 21⁄2 ounce and 6 ounce are the
most common.
7-4. SEALING COMPOUNDS AND MATERIALS.
Table 7-1 lists approved sealing compounds, available
types, classes, groups, properties, and intended use.
Refer to the applicable aircraft/equipment maintenance
manual and paragraph 7-7 for specific information
concerning proper application of sealing compounds.
Also, observe the warnings and cautions in paragraph
7-7 when using any sealing compound. If use of a
sealant is required, and no specific instructions are
available, the Sealant Decision Tree (Figure 7-1) may
be used as a guideline to determine the most appropriate
sealant.
7-1
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Table 7-1. Sealing Compounds
SPECIFICATION
PROPERTIES
INTENDED USE
TWO COMPONENT SEALANTS
MIL-PRF-81733 Class 1
Sealing and Coating Compounds,
Corrosion Inhibitive
Polysulfide sealant
Room temperature cure
Service temp: -65° to 250° F
Peel strength: 15 lb/in (min)
Contains corrosion inhibitors
Resists fuel, oil, & hydraulic fluid
Sealing faying surfaces and wet installation
of fasteners on permanent structure. Not
intended for use as an integral fuel tank
sealant.
AMS-S-8802
(supersedes MIL-S-8802)
Sealing Compound, Temperature
Resistant, Integral Fuel Tanks
and Fuel Cell Cavities,
High Adhesion
Polysulfide sealant
Room temperature cure
Service temp: -65° to 250° F
Peel strength: 20 lb/in (min)
No corrosion inhibitors
Resists fuel, oil, & hydraulic fluid
Faying surfaces sealing, overcoating
fasteners, sealing joints and seams, fillet and
brush sealing of integral fuel tanks and fuel
cell cavities. Should not be exposed to fuel
or overcoated until tack-free. Type I is the
most commonly used.
AMS 3265
Sealing Compound, Polysulfide
Rubber, Fuel Resistant, NonChromated Corrosion Inhibiting,
for Intermittent Use to 360° F
Polysulfide sealant
Room temperature cure
Service temp: -65° to 250° F
Peel strength: 20 lb/in (min)
Contains corrosion inhibitors
Resists fuel, oil, & hydraulic fluid
Cabin pressure sealing, aerodynamic
smoothing, fillet sealing, overcoating
fasteners, sealing joints and seams. Prior to
sealing, treat bond surfaces with AMS 3100
adhesion promoter to enhance sealant
adhesion. Can be used as an alternate to
MIL-PRF-81733.
AMS 3276
(supersedes MIL-S-83430)
Sealing Compound, Integral Fuel
Tanks and General Purpose,
Intermittent Use to 360° F
Polysulfide sealant
Room temperature cure
Service temp: -65° to 250° F
Peel strength: 20 lb/in (min)
No corrosion inhibitors
Resists fuel, oil, & hydraulic fluid
Fuel tank sealing, cabin pressure sealing,
aero-dynamic smoothing, faying surface
sealing, wet installation of fasteners,
overcoating fasteners, sealing joints and
seams, and non-structural adhesive bonding.
Prior to sealing, treat bond surfaces with
AMS 3100 adhesion promoter to enhance
sealant adhesion.
AMS 3277
(supersedes MIL-S-29574)
Sealing Compound, Polythioether
Rubber, Fast Curing for Integral
Fuel Tanks and General Purpose,
Intermittent Use to 400° F
Polythioether sealant
Low and ambient temperature cure
Service temp: -80° to 320° F
Peel strength: 20 lb/in (min)
No corrosion inhibitors
Resists fuel, oil, & hydraulic fluid
Multi-purpose aircraft structure and integral
fuel tank sealant with rapid ambient and low
temperature curing capability. Type 1 must
be used with recommended adhesion
promoter. Not recommended for use with
plastics.
AMS 3284
(supersedes AMS 3267)
Sealing Compound, Low
Adhesion, Corrosion Inhibiting, for
Removable Panels and Fuel Tank
Inspection Plates
Polysulfide sealant
Room temperature cure
Service temp: -65° to 250° F
Peel strength: 4 lb/in (min)
Type 1: No corrosion inhibitors
Type 2: Non-chromated corrosion inhibitors
Resists fuel & aviation gas
Fillet and faying surface sealing of
removable structure, such as access doors,
floor panels and plates, removable panels,
and fuel tank inspection plates. Not for high
temperature areas or permanent structure.
7-2
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Table 7-1. Sealing Compounds (Cont.)
SPECIFICATION
PROPERTIES
INTENDED USE
ONE COMPONENT SEALANTS
MIL-A-46146
Adhesive - Sealants, Silicone, RTV,
Non corrosive
Silicone sealant
Room temperature cure
Service temp:
Group I & II: -70° to 400° F
Group III: -70° to 600° F
No corrosion inhibitors
Not fuel or oil resistant
Convenient sealant for use with sensitive
metals and electronic equipment. Do not
use where resistance to fuels, oils, or
hydraulic fluids is required.
Each group comes in two types:
Type I: paste
Type II: self-leveling liquid
AMS 3374
(supersedes MIL-S-38249)
Sealing Compound, Aircraft Firewall
Silicone sealant
Room temperature cure
Service temp: -65° to 400° F
Peel strength: 10 lb/in (min)
No corrosion inhibitors
Resists fuel, oil, & hydraulic fluid
Sealing firewall structures exposed to very
high temperatures against the passage of
air and vapors. Can withstand flash
temperatures up to 2000° F. Type I is the
most commonly used.
AMS 3255
Sealing Tape, Polytetrafluoroethylene,
Expanded (ePTFE)
Preformed tape with adhesive
No mixing, masking, or curing
required
Service temp: -65° to 450° F
No corrosion inhibitors
Resists fuel, oil, & hydraulic fluid
Sealing of faying surfaces, access panels,
floorboards, and windscreens where
gaskets are required. Non-hazardous
material alternative to two component
sealants. Tape intended for areas exposed
to aircraft fluids (fuel, oils) should be
applied with fluid resistant rubber cement.
Available in two classes:
Class 1: Continuous, ribbed
Class 2: Continuous, non-ribbed
Reinforced Polyurethane Gel Sealing Tape
(HI-TAK Tape® TufSeal™)
Preformed tape
No mixing, masking, or curing
required
Service temp: -65° to 250° F
No corrosion inhibitors
Not fuel or oil resistant
Environmental sealing of floorboard faying
surfaces. Not for fuel or hydraulic fluidsoaked or high temperature applications.
Non-hazardous alternative to standard two
component sealants and an alternative to
ePTFE Sealing Tapes for floorboards.
SPECIALTY SEALANTS
7-3
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
START
Aircraft
or GSE?
GSE
Refer to
NAVAIR 17-1-125
Ground Support
Equipment Manual
Refer to
NAVAIR 01-1A-509
Volume 3, Chapter 6
AIRCRAFT
Avionics?
YES
NO
YES
Structure or
Component?
COMPONENT
Antennas?
YES
External
Lighting
Systems?
NO
YES
NO
Electrical
Connectors?
NO
STRUCTURE
Refer to
Component
Manuals
Rotodome?
Radome
or Antenna
Cover?
NO
YES
Weapon
Systems?
YES
Refer to
NAVAIR 01-1A-75
Airborne Weapons
Manual
YES
Refer to
NAVAIR 01-1A-22
Aircraft Radomes &
Antenna Covers Manual
NO
Refer to
T/M/S Structural
Repair Manuals
NO
Airframe or
Component?
AIRFRAME
COMPONENT
Canopy,
Windscreen or
Window?
NO
Access Door/
Form-In-Place
(FIP)?
YES
YES
Refer to
YES
T/M/S Structural
Repair Manuals
Conductive?
NO
Fastener
Installation?
NO
YES
Faying
Surfaces?
YES
MIL-PRF-81733
(preferred),
AMS 3265,
AMS 3276 or
AMS 3277
NO
AMS 3255
YES
Sealing Tape?
MIL-PRF-81733 YES
(preferred) or
AMS 3265
NO
AMS 3284
Figure 7-1. Sealant Decision Tree (Sheet 1 of 2)
7-4
Corrosion
Inhibiting?
NO
AMS 3277
(preferred),
AMS 3276 or
AMS-S-8802
NO
1
15 April 2009
1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Fuel Cell
or Tank?
YES
NO
Aerodynamic
Smoothing?
NO
YES
Firewall
High Temp
areas?
NO
Floorboards?
YES
Refer to
NAVAIR 01-1A-35
Aircraft Fuel Cells
and Tanks Manual
AMS 3374
(preferred) or
MIL-A-46146
NO
Refer to
2T/M/S Structural
Repair Manuals
YES
Sealing Tape?
NO
AMS 3284
YES
Corrosion
Inhibiting?
YES
MIL-PRF-81733
(preferred) or
AMS 3265
AMS 3255 or
HI-TAK Tape®
TufSeal™
NO
AMS 3277
(preferred) or
AMS 3276
Figure 7-1. Sealant Decision Tree (Sheet 2)
7-5
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
7-4.1. POLYSULFIDE AND POLYTHIOETHER
SEALING COMPOUNDS. These materials consist of
two components: the base compound (containing the
prepolymer) and the accelerator (containing the curing
agent). When thoroughly mixed, the accelerator cures
the prepolymer to a rubbery solid. Rates of cure depend
on the type of prepolymer, accelerator, temperature
and humidity; full cure may not be achieved for as long
as 7 days.
CAUTION
MIL-A-46106 materials shall not be used on
aircraft or components. MIL-A-46106 can be
identified by its vinegar-like smell. If RTV
sealants are required by the structural repair
manual (SRM), ensure that the sealant conforms
to MIL-A-46146, or is a noncorrosive, authorized
sealant.
7-4.2. SILICONE SEALING COMPOUNDS. Room
temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicones generally
consist of one component which cures by reacting with
moisture in the air. If silicones are applied too thickly or
in such a way as to prevent moisture from entering the
material, they may not cure at all. In addition, many
unauthorized silicone sealing compounds produce acetic
acid (identified by a vinegar smell) while curing, which
can lead to severe corrosion problems. There are two
silicone sealant specifications, MIL-A-46146 and
MIL-A-46106. Only MIL-A-46146 materials are
noncorrosive.
NOTE
Use of the ePTFE sealing tape requires
authorization from the cognizant Type, Model,
Series (TMS) engineering authority for the
aircraft.
7-4.3. ePTFE SEALING TAPE (AMS 3255). The ePTFE
(expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) sealant tape
consists of an extruded gasket with a pressure sensitive
adhesive backing. No mixing is required and there are
no application life constraints or cure times. The sealing
tape does not require removal and replacement unless
damaged. The adhesive backing is only required to hold
the sealing tape in place until an access panel is
(re)installed. Tapes may be special ordered without
adhesive backing for use in areas where fluid exposure
(e.g. hydraulic fluid or fuel) is expected; such tape is
applied with a fluid resistant rubber cement such as
MMM-A-189.
7-6
7-4.4. REINFORCED POLYURETHANE GEL
SEALING TAPE. These tapes consist of a preformed
polyurethane gel reinforced with a loose fiberglass
weave and a thin translucent backing. No mixing is
required and there are no application life constraints or
cure times. The sealing tape does not require removal
and replacement unless damaged. Integrity of the tape
is affected by long-term exposure to hydraulic fluids and
oils, which cause swelling and softening. Exposure to
fluids will not degrade corrosion protection but may
reduce reusability and make removal messy. Tapes
may be ordered in a variety of widths, indicated by the
last three numbers in the part number (i.e. IS-HT3000015 is 11⁄2 inches wide).
7-4.5. CONDUCTIVE GASKETS. Sealants and
conductive gaskets used for weather sealing antennas
and static discharge wicks and materials for weather
sealing mated connectors are discussed in Volume III.
CAUTION
Use only those primers or adhesion promoters
recommended by the manufacturer for their
products.
NOTE
Solvent based adhesion promoters are
hygroscopic (absorb moisture) and must be
kept away from moisture. Discard material if it
becomes cloudy or a precipitate is formed.
7-4.6. ADHESION PROMOTERS. Some sealing
compounds require the application of a special primer
or adhesion promoter prior to sealant application in
order to develop a good adhesive bond with the surface.
Adhesion promoters are one part, water or solvent-based
compounds which, after drying, leave behind coupling
agents which promote adhesion with certain sealants.
Adhesion promoters are especially important when
using AMS 3277 Type I, AMS 3276, and most silicone
based sealants. It is essential that AMS 3100 adhesion
promoter be used before new sealant is applied over
aged, fuel soaked polysulfide sealant. In all cases
where polythioether sealants (e.g. AMS 3277) are
applied over polysulfide sealants (e.g. AMS-S-8802),
especially in integral fuel tanks, a polythioether adhesion
promoter is required for use at the sealant interface.
7-4.7. RELEASING/PARTING AGENT. VV-P-236
(Petrolatum) or MIL-PRF-32033 (light lubricating grease)
can be used as release agents for sealant applications
by applying a very thin film. Do not allow release agent
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
2.5 oz. Metal Retainer
2.5 oz. Disposable Plastic Cartridge
(incl. plunger, seal, and cap)
2.5 or 6 oz.
Metal Retainer Barrel
Typical Application Nozzles
1
3
1
16
" Orifice (No. 252)
32
" Orifice (No. 430)
8
" Orifice (No. 480)
Knob
Assembly
6 oz. Disposable Plastic Cartridge
(incl. plunger, seal, and cap)
6 oz. Metal Retainer
Gun Handle
Assembly
Model 250-A Pneumatic Sealant Dispensing Gun (With Handle)
Available in 2.5 oz. or 6 oz. Metal Retainers
Air Hose (5, 10, 20, or 25 feet)
Notes:
1. All parts interchangeable.
2. Plastic cartridge and metal retainer determine capacity. All other
parts are identical.
3. Pistol grip handle may be removed to convert to lever throttle for
more clearance, better manipulation, and use in confined areas.
4. 2.5 oz. capacity recommended for most field repairs.
Hansen Quick Disconnect
Figure 7-2. Pneumatic Sealant Gun
to contact any surface(s) where sealant is to adhere.
Sealant will not adhere to surfaces coated with release
agent. If contact surface to be sealed becomes
contaminated with the release agent, remove
contaminant using a clean cloth moistened with an
approved solvent. Reapply adhesion promoter as
necessary.
7-5. SEALING EQUIPMENT. The following sealing
equipment is available.
7-5.1. SEALANT GUN. Sealant guns are available for
both pneumatic and manual application of sealants,
adhesives, and potting compounds (see Figures 7-2
and 7-3). The Semco Model 250-A gun, or equivalent,
is fitted with one of the nozzles from Figure 7-4 and
used for the application of fillet seals. When using a
sealant gun, the nozzle tip must be pointed into the
seam and maintained at a 45 degree angle to the line of
travel, forcing the bead of sealant to precede the gun tip
to minimize entrapment of air. Use fairing/smoothing
tools (i.e., spatulas and spreaders) shown in Figure 7-5
to work sealants into seams.
Model 850 Manual Sealant Dispensing Gun
Notes:
1. Requires no air or power supply.
2. Rugged, heavy guage metal construction.
3. Easy to operate.
4. Dipenses a wide range of sealants, adhesives, or other materials.
5. Handles thick, viscous materials.
Figure 7-3. Manual Sealant Gun
7-7
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure 7-4. Sealant Application Nozzles
7-8
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure 7-5. Sealant and Adhesive Smoothing Tools
7-9
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
CAUTION
Care should be taken when using rivet nozzles
to prevent sealant material from filling fastener
holes.
7-5.2. APPLICATION NOZZLES. In addition to the
standard, fillet, and ribbon nozzles in Figure 7-4, the
countersink and rivet nozzles in Figures 7-6 and 7-7,
respectively, can also be used with the sealant guns.
Countersink nozzles are used to apply sealants into the
countersink of fastener holes prior to fastener installation.
Rivet nozzles are used to apply sealants through the
hole prior to fastening parts with rivets. The rivet nozzles
have a spring-loaded tip, which serves as a check valve
and allows for dispensing a precise amount of sealant
material.
7-5.3. HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION GUN. Figure 7-8
illustrates injection guns used for injecting sealant into
confined holes, slots, structural voids, and joggles,
including channel sealing. Follow the procedures outlined
in the aircraft SRM for the proper preparation and use
of these guns. For hard to reach areas, attach an
extension nozzle to the injection tip.
7-5.4. SEALANT KITS (SEMKIT OR TECHKIT). Most
sealants are available as ready to use kits (Semkits or
Techkits). These kits are compact, two-part mixing
application units designed for convenient storage, easy
mixing, and proper application of the sealant in small
quantities. The base sealant is packaged in standard
21⁄2 ounce and 6 ounce cartridges which are placed in a
sealant gun for application. There are two styles: the
Barrier style, which holds proportioned amounts of the
two components separated by an aluminum barrier;
and the Injection style, which stores the accelerator
material within the injection rod to separate it from the
base compound prior to use (Figure 7-9). When using
Semkits or Techkits, note that the handle or dasher
contains a pre-measured amount of accelerator and
should be retained until the ramrod has been operated
to release the seal at the bottom of the dasher. All of the
material contained inside the two-component Semkit or
Techkit package is mixed within the cartridge.
7-5.5. SEALANT APPLICATION TOOLS. When
applying or fairing out sealants and adhesives, use the
smoothing tools shown in Figure 7-5. These tools are
7-10
commonly used in sealing maintenance work, but other
tools may be manufactured/fabricated as needed to fit
a specific situation. Only phenolic/plastic material shall
be used to manufacture sealant application tools.
7-6. TWO COMPONENT SEALANT MIXING AND
HANDLING. The proper weighing and mixing of
components is essential to assure proper curing and
adhesion of sealants. Use a weight scale to accurately
measure the materials before mixing. Mixing shall be
accomplished in one central area in each organization.
Polysulfide and polythioether sealants consist of two
separately packaged components, a base compound
(part B) and an accelerator (part A) in 6 ounce, 12 ounce,
and 24 ounce kits. The base-to-accelerator ratio varies
with different manufacturers. It is important, therefore,
to mix the material according to the manufacturer’s
instructions. The accelerator should be added to the
base in the correct ratio and mixed until a uniform color
is obtained. Difficulties with polysulfide and polythioether
sealants are frequently caused by incomplete mixing or
inaccurate weighing. The two-part sealants are
chemically cured and do not depend on solvent
evaporation for curing. Slow mixing by hand is
recommended for two-part can kits. A high speed
mechanical mixer should not be used as internal heat
will be generated, reducing application life and
introducing air into the mixture. Mix Semkit or Techkit in
accordance with manufacturer's mixing instructions.
CAUTION
Do not use any two-part sealant after it has
been mixed and its rated application time has
expired, as poor adhesion may result.
7-6.1. APPLICATION TIME AND CURE TIME. Sealant
application time and cure time are dependent upon
ambient environmental conditions. Maintenance
personnel should be aware of the effects of temperature
and humidity on the application time of a sealant. Mix
only the amount of material that can be applied during
the rated application (work) time of the sealant. This
time (in hours), known as a dash number, is denoted as
the last number in a sealant designation (e.g.
MIL-PRF-81733 Type II-2 has an application time of
two hours). Table 7-2 indicates application times, tackfree times, and full cure times for each sealant type and
dash number at 75°F (24°C) and 50% relative humidity.
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure 7-6. Countersink Application Nozzles
7-11
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure 7-7. Rivet Application Nozzles
7-12
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Semco Model #507-A
Semco Model #510
Figure 7-8. High-Pressure Sealant Injection Guns
7-13
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure 7-9. Injection Style Semkit
7-14
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Table 7-2. Time Requirements for Two Component Sealants
Application or
Assembly
Time (hr) **
Tack-Free
Time (hr)
Cure Time
(hr)
I-1/2
I-2
II-1/2
II-2
II-4
III-1
IV-12
IV-24
IV-48
1/2
2
1/2
2
4
1
12
24
48
16
24
16
24
---8
----------
7 days
7 days
14 days
14 days
14 days
7 days
14 days
21 days
56 days
Brush
Brush
Gun or
Gun or
Gun or
Spray
Gun or
Gun or
Gun or
A-1/2
A-1
A-2
B-1/2
B-1
B-2
B-4
C-8
C-24
1/2
1
2
1/2
1
2
4
8 (20)
24 (80)
10
20
40
10
20
40
48
-------
40
55
72
30
55
72
90
168
28 days
Brush
Brush
Brush
Gun, spatula, brush,
Gun, spatula, brush,
Gun, spatula, brush,
Gun, spatula, brush,
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
AMS 3265
B-1/2
B-2
C-8
C-48
1/2
2
8 (24)
48 (168)
12
24
96
----
32
72
168
56 days
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
Gun, spatula, brush, or roller
Gun, spatula, brush, or roller
AMS 3276
(supersedes
MIL-S-83430)
A-1/2
A-2
B-1/4
B-1/2
B-2
B-4
B-6
C-1/2
C-2
C-8
1/2
2
1/4
1/2
2
4
6
1/2
2
8(20)
10
24
6
10
24
36
48
10
24
96
30
72
16
30
72
90
120
30
72
----
Brush
Brush
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
Brush or spatula
Brush or spatula
Brush or spatula
AMS 3277
(supersedes
MIL-S-29574)
A-1/4
A-1/2
A-2
B-1/4
B-1/2
B-2
C-4
1/4
1/2
2
1/4
1/2
2
4
1
3
12
1
3
12
24
2
4
16
2
4
16
30
Brush
Brush
Brush
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
Brush or spatula
AMS 3284
(supersedes
AMS 3267)
A-1/2
A-2
B-1/2
B-2
1/2
2
1/2
2
10
24
10
24
24
72
24
72
Brush
Brush
Gun or spatula
Gun or spatula
Specification
MIL-PRF-81733
Class 1
AMS-S-8802
(supersedes
MIL-S-8802)
Type or
Class*
Application Method(s)
spatula
spatula
spatula
spatula
spatula
spatula
or
or
or
or
roller
roller
roller
roller
* The number after the letter indicates the room temperature application time (in hours) of the sealant after it is mixed.
** Assembly time in ( ). If not noted, the application time and the assembly time are the same.
NOTE: Times apply to environmental conditions of 75° F (24° C) and 50% RH.
See paragraph 7.6.1 for time adjustments for other environmental conditions.
7-15
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
7-6.1.1. Effect of Temperature. Increases in
temperature will shorten application and cure time.
Conversely, lower temperatures will lengthen application
time and cure time. For polysulfide sealants, each 18°F
(10°C) increase in the temperature above 75°F (24°C),
cuts the application time by approximately half, with a
similar reduction in tack-free and cure time. Similarly,
for each 18°F (10°C) decrease in the temperature
below 75°F (24°C), the application time is approximately
doubled with a similar increase in tack-free and cure
time. Tack-free and cure times may increase for
polyioether sealants (e.g. AMS 3277) at temperatures
below 40°F (4°C).
7-6.1.2. Effect of Humidity. When sealants, especially
polysulfides, are applied in an environment where the
humidity is greater than 50% RH, application time is
shortened to some degree; when humidity is less than
50% RH, application time and cure time may be
extended. Polythioether sealants (e.g. AMS 3277) cure
independent of humidity conditions.
7-6.1.3. Tack-Free Condition. Sealant is considered to
be in a tack-free condition if, when lightly touched, the
sealant does not transfer onto the skin.
7-6.2. STORAGE INSTRUCTIONS. When large
quantities of sealant are used, it may be advantageous
to pre-mix and freeze the sealant to provide a ready
supply of mixed sealant when it is needed.
7-6.2.1. Two-part kits and Semkit or Techkit package
sealants should be stored according to instructions on
the container.
7-6.2.2. Polysulfide sealants in a pre-mixed and frozen
(PMF) form should be stored in a freezer at -40°F
(-40°C) or below for optimal retention of application
properties.
7-6.2.3. Polythioether sealants (e.g. AMS 3277) require
extremely low temperature refrigeration at -80°F (-62°C)
or below for optimal retention of application properties.
7-6.2.4. Thawing of PMF can be accomplished in two
ways.
a. For ambient temperature thaw, place the PMF
cartridge in a vertical position. Let stand at ambient
temperature for approximately 30 minutes. Dry any
condensation from the exterior of the cartridge prior to
use.
7-16
b. For water bath thaw, place the PMF cartridge
upright in a 120°F (49°C) water bath for approximately
4-6 minutes with plunger cup out of water bath. Upon
removal from the bath, carefully dry the exterior of the
cartridge before using.
WARNING
MIL-T-81772 Type I thinner solvent is
flammable. Never store, open, or apply near
ignition sources (e.g. lighted cigarettes, sparks,
electrical arcing, or heat sources).
7-6.3. MIXING
MIL-PRF-81733
TYPE III.
MIL-PRF-81733 Type III has a tendency to settle out
during storage. The base compound must be thoroughly
mixed, using a standard paint shaker, to obtain a
uniform consistency before the addition of the
accelerator. After both components, base and
accelerator, have been mixed separately, add the proper
amount of accelerator to the base compound and mix
the combined materials, preferably with a paint shaker,
for at least five minutes. For proper application time and
cure, the base compound and accelerator must be
combined in the proper ratio and mixed prior to the
addition of any thinners (solvents). After mixing, the
sealant may be thinned for spraying to a viscosity of 20
to 25 seconds in a Zahn No. 2 cup (refer to Appendix A)
using MIL-T-81772 Type I. A 20 to 30 volume percent
addition is usually required. The application time and
tack-free time will not change using this solvent blend.
7-7. SEALANT APPLICATION PROCEDURES.
WARNING
To control solvent odor, used rags should be
immediately placed in an appropriate HAZMAT
container and disposed of per local directives.
7-7.1. CLEANING. If the surfaces to be sealed have
been contaminated following surface treatment, clean
the area with a clean cheesecloth (CCC-C-440), cleaning
cloth (AMS 3819), or nonwoven cleaning cloth
(CCC-C-46) saturated with solvent (AMS 3166,
A-A-59281 Type I or II, or equivalent), beginning at the
top of the area to be sealed and working downward.
Always pour solvent on the cloth to avoid contaminating
the solvent. Dry the surfaces immediately with a clean
cloth. Do not allow surface to air dry, as the oil or dirt may
remain on the surface and is impossible to remove with
a dry cloth. Use a stiff bristle brush to clean around bolts,
rivets, or fasteners. Always use a clean cloth as each
new area is cleaned.
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
NOTE
Always pour solvent onto a new cloth to avoid
contaminating the solvent supply. Clean one
small area at a time. Reclaimed solvents or
soiled cleaning cloths shall not be used.
Figure 7-10. Application of Sealant with
Non-Metallic Spatula
7-7.4. ADHESION PROMOTER. If adhesion promoter
is required, the surfaces shall be cleaned with a solvent
(AMS 3166, A-A-59281 Type I or II, or equivalent)
immediately before applying adhesion promoter.
Contaminants such as dirt, grease, and/or lubricants
must be removed to insure good adhesion. Apply a very
thin coat of the adhesion promoter to the solvent cleaned
surface with a clean cloth (AMS 3819), wipe off any
excess with a clean cloth, and allow the surface to dry
for 30 minutes to one hour. If surface becomes
contaminated or sealing is not accomplished within an
hour after application and drying of adhesion promoter,
repeat cleaning procedure and reapply adhesion
promoter.
WARNING
7-7.2. PRIMING. All surfaces to be sealed, with the
exception of internal fuel tank surfaces, shall be primed
with MIL-PRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582 in accordance
with Appendix A (Navy) or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army),
and allowed to dry one to two hours at ambient
temperatures before sealing.
Sealants, with the exception of ePTFE sealing
tapes, are toxic; therefore, rubber or
polyethylene gloves and goggles shall be worn
when using these materials. Wash hands
thoroughly with soap and water before eating or
smoking.
CAUTION
7-7.5. BRUSH, SPATULA, OR SEALANT GUN
APPLICATION. Prior to masking and sealing, prepare
surface in accordance with paragraphs 7-7.1 and 7-7.2
After surface treatment and primer application,
do not contaminate areas to be sealed with
hands or tools.
7-7.3. MASKING. To prevent sealant from contacting
adjacent areas during application and smoothing out
operations, the surrounding area not being sealed can
be masked off with AMS-T-21595 Type I masking tape
(Figure 7-10). In cases where the tape is likely to remain
in place for more than two days on items exposed to
direct sunlight and where tape residue on the surface
cannot be tolerated, use AMS-T-22085 Type II
preservation and sealing tape. An example where
masking tape may be useful is during fillet sealing of
exterior surface lap and butt seams.
CAUTION
After surface treatment and primer application,
do not contaminate areas to be sealed with
hands or tools.
a. To prevent sealant from contacting adjacent areas
during application and smoothout, outline the areas
being sealed with masking tape (AMS-T-21595 Type I)
so that each tape strip is 1⁄8 to 1⁄4 inch from the edge of the
seams (see Figure 7-10).
b. If required, apply adhesion promoter in accordance
with paragraph 7-7.4.
c. Apply sealant between tape strips.
7-17
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
(1) Paste sealants may be applied with a
nonmetallic spatula or spreader as shown in Figure 7-10.
Avoid the entrapment of air. Work sealant into recesses
by sliding the edge of the spatula firmly back over the
recesses. Smoothing will be easier if the nonmetallic
spatula is first dipped in water.
(2) Sealant applied with a brush is applied and
smoothed until the desired thickness is reached.
(3) Sealant applied with a sealant gun will not
usually require masking and is especially adaptable to
filling seams or the application of form-in-place gaskets.
d. Remove masking tape after the sealant has been
applied and before it becomes tack-free. Cure time will
depend upon the application life of the materials used.
e. If tape residue on these surfaces is excessive,
remove residue using aliphatic naphtha (TT-N-95
Type II) or equivalent.
f. When sealant no longer feels tacky, prime with
MIL-PRF-23377, MIL-PRF-85582 or other primers as
specified. Apply topcoat if specified.
7-7.6. SPRAY GUN APPLICATION. Prior to masking
and sealing, prepare surface in accordance with
paragraphs 7-7.1 and 7-7.2.
CAUTION
After surface treatment and primer application,
do not contaminate areas to be sealed with
hands or tools.
NOTE
The dried film of the spray sealant shall have a
minimum thickness of 6 mils (0.006 inch).
a. Mask off adjacent areas with barrier material
(MIL-PRF-131) held in place with masking tape
(AMS-T-21595 Type I).
7-18
Sealing and Coating Compound
Corrosion Inhibiting
MIL-PRF-81733
12
b. Apply MIL-PRF-81733 Type III sealant in a solid,
continuous pattern when spraying over seams whose
configuration is less than 14 inches apart. On seam
connections greater than 14 inches apart, minimize
overspray to adjacent areas.
c. Allow at least four hours for the spray sealant to
dry before subsequent processing.
7-7.7. ePTFE SEALING TAPE (Skyflex™), PEEL AND
STICK APPLICATION. Prior to application, prepare
surface in accordance with paragraphs 7-7.1 and 7-7.2.
CAUTION
After surface treatment and primer application,
do not contaminate areas to be sealed with
hands or tools.
a. Examine faying surfaces to be sealed and build
up any uneven areas on the aircraft frame with
compensation tape (P/N: GSC-21-95158-011 or
equivalent) to create a level faying surface for panel
sealing.
b. Select from Skyflex™ P/Ns: GSC-21-95201-0111,
GSC-21-95241-011, GSC-21-95261-011, GSC-21-98006021, GSC-21-95811-022, GUA-1059-1, GUA-1301-1,
or equivalent. The sealant tape should cover the full
width of the faying surface to be sealed.
c. Measure and cut the desired length of ePTFE
sealant tape that is required. Excess tape width should
be trimmed to the width of the faying surface.
d. For corners on aircraft/panels, cut ends of tape at
approximately a 30 degree angle so that the sealant
tape from the converging side will overlap by a minimum
of one quarter to one half inch. The overlap is required
to assure a complete perimeter seal; butt joints are not
acceptable and will allow moisture intrusion and potential
corrosion. Do not fold the tape in corners. This will result
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
in triple layer thickness which may adversely affect
environmental sealing capability.
e. Tape may be applied to either the aircraft frame
or panel faying surface. Application of tape to the panel
faying surface is recommended, especially for panels in
corrosion prone areas of the aircraft, for ease of
subsequent airframe corrosion inspections.
h. After applying the full length of the sealant tape,
run fingers back and forth on the sealant to press tape
against the aircraft structure/panel surface to activate
adhesive and identify fastener holes. No curing time is
required.
i. Puncture all fastener holes using an object with a
sharp point such as an awl/scribe or scissors.
CAUTION
NOTE
Use care not to pull or stretch the ePTFE tape
as it is applied. The stretched ePTFE tape will
retract even if it is clamped between faying
surfaces which may reduce or eliminate overlaps
and allow water intrusion.
As fasteners are installed, the ePTFE sealant
material pushed into the fasteners will help to
seal against moisture intrusion.
f. Peel the nonstick backing paper off the sealant
tape a little at a time as the tape is applied to the aircraft/
panel.
(1) Applying extra pressure to the sealant tape
will cause the pressure sensitive adhesive to better
adhere to the faying surface and will create indentations/
discoloration at the fastener holes allowing for easy
identification.
(2) For some areas and fasteners, it may be
necessary to pre-punch holes in the sealant tape at the
fastener locations. To locate holes and avoid mismatch,
either use the panel as a template for hole locations or
hold sealant tape in place and use pressure to create
discoloration at fastener holes. Pre-punch using a leather
punch with a diameter no greater than 1⁄4 inch more than
the fastener hole diameter.
g. If sealant without adhesive backing has been
ordered for use in areas where fluid exposure is expected,
MMM-A-189 plastic adhesive, or equivalent, may be
used to hold the ePTFE sealing tape in place. Apply
adhesive to airframe sill or panel and apply ePTFE
sealing tape within 20 minutes or before adhesive is
tack free.
j. Install access panel. All fasteners should be wet
installed with corrosion preventive compound
(MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 or equivalent) as specified in
the aircraft maintenance manual.
7-7.8. REINFORCED POLYURETHANE GEL
SEALING TAPE (HI-TAK TAPE® TUFSEAL™), PEEL
AND STICK APPLICATION. These materials are
currently approved only for floorboard applications on
platforms where their use has been authorized. Prior to
application, prepare surface in accordance with
paragraphs 7-7.1 and 7-7.2.
CAUTION
After surface treatment and primer application,
do not contaminate areas to be sealed with
hands or tools.
Sealing and Coating Compound
Corrosion Inhibiting
MIL-PRF-81733
12
a. Examine surfaces to be sealed and build up any
uneven areas on the floorboard frame with
MIL-PRF-81733 Type II-1/2 sealant (preferred),
AMS 3255 compensation tape (P/N GSC-21-95158-011
or equivalent), or AMS 3277 sealant to create a level
faying surface for sealing.
7-19
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Complete fastener
installation within
work life of sealant
Apply sealant
to entire faying
surface approximately
1/32 inch thick
Sealant must be
extruded continuously
along entire joint
Application of Faying Surface Seal
Finished Faying Surface Seal
Figure 7-11. Faying Surface Sealing
b. The reinforced polyurethane gel sealant tape
should cover the full width of the surface to be sealed.
Apply tape directly from supplied roll onto floorboard
support structure/spar.
c. Install tape with the tacky polyurethane side of the
tape applied to the surface. The top side of the tape is
covered with a translucent protective film that remains
on the tape.
d. Create butt joints at floorboard spar joints. Do not
overlap tape sections, but make sure gaps greater than
1
⁄8 inch are not created at butt joints. A slight excess of
tape (1⁄8 to 1⁄4 inch) is preferred over insufficient tape to
cover mating surface.
e. There is no need to pre-punch fastener holes
prior to installation of floorboard panels.
NOTE
As fasteners are installed, the polyurethane gel
will help to seal against moisture intrusion.
f. Install floorboard panels. All fasteners should be
wet installed with corrosion preventive compound
(MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 or equivalent) as specified in
the aircraft maintenance manual. Fasteners may be
pushed through the tape by applying pressure to the
fastener with the installation tool.
7-20
7-8. SEALING OF SPECIFIC AREAS.
CAUTION
Do not use any two-part sealant after it has
been mixed and its rated application time has
expired, as poor adhesion may result.
To determine if a sealant is suitable for a
specific application, review the guidelines
provided in Table 7-1 and Figure 7-1.
7-8.1. FAYING SURFACE SEALING. Faying surfaces
are sealed by applying sealants to the contacting
surfaces of two or more parts (Figure 7-11). It is a very
effective seal and should be used for all assembly or
reassembly. When possible, it should be used in
conjunction with fillet sealing. There are two types of
faying surface seals, removable and permanent.
Removable seals are used around access doors,
removable panels, and inspection plates. A removable
seal can be formed using a standard sealant on one
surface and a parting agent on the mating surface.
Permanent seals are created using sealants between
permanently fastened structures. To create a permanent
seal, coat both mating surfaces with sealant before
assembling part. Apply enough sealant to force a bead
to squeeze out along the joint after assembly. Assemble
parts and torque fasteners within the rated application
life of the sealant.
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure 7-12. Typical Fillet Seal
Figure 7-13. Typical Injection Seal
NOTE
Avoid air bubbles as much as possible during
the sealing operation. Allow the sealant to cure
to, at least, the tack-free stage before moving
the assembly.
Sealing and Coating Compound
Corrosion Inhibiting
MIL-PRF-81733
12
a. All faying surfaces, seams, and lap joints shall be
protected with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant (or sealant
specified in aircraft specific manual). Apply the sealing
compound to one or both surfaces and squeeze the part
together to ensure the complete coating of the entire
surface. Excess material squeezed out shall be removed
so that a fillet seal remains. The fillet width shall not be
less than 1⁄4 inch. Joint areas which could hold water
shall be fillet sealed with MIL-PRF-81733 (or aircraft
specific) sealant (see paragraph 7-8.2). If sealing is
impossible because of mechanical or other factors,
prime both surfaces with two coats of MIL-PRF-23377
or MIL-PRF-85582 in accordance with Appendix A
(Navy) or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army).
b. Faying surfaces that are to be adhesively bonded
shall be treated and processed as specified by the
approved bonding procedure in the applicable
maintenance manual.
c. For plastic components, the joint shall be suitably
sealed and faired into the adjacent surfaces with
MIL-PRF-81733 sealant, unless otherwise specified in
the applicable maintenance manuals, to stop the
formation of pockets which will entrap moisture and dirt.
MIL-PRF-81733 sealant shall be used for rivets that
require wet installation on plastic components.
7-8.2. FILLET SEALING. The fillet, or seam seal, shown
in Figure 7-12, is the most common type found on an
aircraft. Fillet seals are used to cover structural joints or
seams along stiffeners, skin butts, walls, spars, and
longerons, and to seal around fittings and fasteners.
This type of seal is the most easily repaired. Fillet
sealing shall be used in conjunction with faying surface
sealing, or alone if the assembly sequence restricts the
use of faying surface sealing.
7-8.3. INJECTION SEALING. This type of seal, shown
in Figure 7-13, is used primarily to fill voids created by
structural joggles, gaps, and openings. Use only those
sealants recommended by the aircraft/equipment
manufacturer. Force sealant into the area using a
sealant gun. This method produces a continuous seal
when it becomes impossible to lay down a continuous
bead of sealant while fillet sealing. Clean the voids of all
dirt, chips, burrs, grease, and oil before injection sealing.
7-21
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Manufactured
Head
Head
End
Bucked
Head
Collar
End
A. Rivet
C. High Shear Rivet
Head
End
Collar
End
B. Bolt
D. Huck Lock
Figure 7-14. Typical Methods of Sealing Fasteners
CAUTION
AMS 3284 may only be used for wet installation
of fasteners. Do not use AMS 3284 sealants in
high temperature areas or for structural
installations.
c. Corrosion damaged areas in the countersinks
around removable and fixed fasteners may be filled with
the fastener in place. Cadmium coated fasteners that
have been blasted or abraded during corrosion removal
shall be primed in accordance with Appendix A (Navy)
or TM 55-1500-345-23 (Army) and coated with
MIL-PRF-81733 sealant.
7-8.4. FASTENER SEALING. Figure 7-14 illustrates
techniques used to seal different types of fasteners.
Fasteners are sealed either during assembly or after
assembly.
WARNING
a. To seal during assembly, apply the sealant to the
hole or dip the fastener into sealant, and install fastener
while sealant is wet. Fasteners in permanent structures
shall be wet installed in accordance with the aircraft
maintenance manual. For removable parts, coat the
lower side of the fastener head only. Do not coat the
hole or the fastener shank or threads, as this makes
future removal almost impossible without damage to
the part.
b. To seal after assembly, cover the pressure side of
the fastener with sealant after installation. As a general
rule, sealant should be approximately 1⁄8 inch thick over
the top of the fastener, and extend a minimum of 1⁄4 inch
from the edge of the fastener onto the surface of the part
(see Figure 7-14).
7-22
MIL-PRF-81733 is not suitable for use on the
insides of integral fuel tanks and shall not be
used for these applications. AMS-S-8802 or
AMS 3276 is the authorized sealant for the
insides of integral fuel tanks of most aircraft
platforms. AMS 3277 may be used for repair of
integral fuel tanks only if recommended
adhesion promoter is used during the repair.
Adhesion of repair sealant is critical as disbond
of repair sealant during aircraft operation could
cause clogging of fuel filters and result in loss of
aircraft or personnel.
CAUTION
AMS-S-8802, AMS 3276, or other fuel tank
sealants should not be exposed to fuel or
overcoated until tack-free.
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
1
MIL-PRF-81733
3
1
1. Remove corrosion and surface treat
in accordance with Chapter 4 and 5.
2
1. Assemble lap joint with MIL-PRF-81733 in faying surfaces
2. Install fasteners wet with MIL-PRF-81733
3. Fillet seal all external seams with MIL-PRF-81733
4. Apply appropriate paint system
NOTE:
Fill all voids
2
3
A. Where Skins Have Been Lifted
1
2. Apply MIL-PRF-81733 sealant to all faying surfaces.
3. Install all fasteners wet with MIL-PRF-81733.
4
2
1. Fillet seal all external seams with MIL-PRF-81733
2. Install fasteners wet with MIL-PRF-81733
3. Apply appropriate paint system
3
4
B. Where Joints Have Not Been Opened
Figure 7-15. Typical Lap Skin Sealing
4
5
4. Fillet seal all external joints with MIL-PRF-81733.
5. Coat with appropriate paint system.
7-8.5. FUEL CELLS. Refer to NAVAIR 01-1A-35,
TM 55-1500-204-25/1, or applicable Structural Repair
Manual (SRMs) for sealant procedures.
7-8.6. EXTERNAL AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE. If, during
normal maintenance, it becomes necessary to remove
and replace components (wing planks, skin, spar caps,
fasteners, or fittings), they shall be sealed when
reinstalled, even if they were not sealed originally. The
only exception to this requirement is temporary repair
accomplished for a one time flight to a Depot or overhaul
facility. See Figures 7-15 through 7-18 for typical sealing
methods.
7-8.7. DEPRESSIONS. When the thickness of metal
is reduced by more than 15 mils (0.015 inch) during
removal of corrosion damage, fill the depression with
Figure 7-16 Sealing Procedures for
Typical Aircraft Fitting
MIL-PRF-81733 Type II sealant after applying chemical
conversion coating (MIL-DTL-81706) and priming
(MIL-PRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582). Depressions on
surfaces that will be sealed with AMS 3255 sealing tape
require filling with compensation tape (see paragraph
7-7.7). Depressions on the inside of integral fuel tanks
do not require filling.
7-8.8. EXTENSIVE CORROSION REPAIR. If
corrosion damage is so extensive that structural repair
is necessary, all faying surfaces between patches (or
doublers) and skins shall be painted with one coat of
7-23
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure 7-17. Typical Spar Cap Sealing
MIL-PRF-23377 or MIL-PRF-85582 primer. When the
primer is dry, coat with MIL-PRF-81733 sealant prior to
installation of patch. Permanently installed fasteners
shall be wet installed with MIL-PRF-81733 prior to
installation. Removable panel fasteners shall be wet
installed with AMS 3284.
7-8.9. HIGH TEMPERATURE AREAS. In areas where
high temperatures are expected, MIL-A-46146 Group III,
AMS 3374 Type I, or AMS 3277 Type I should be used
7-24
for sealing. Adhesion promoter is required when sealing
with AMS 3277. Application of these sealants is similar
to spatula-applied sealants (refer to paragraph 7-7.5).
7-8.10. LOW TEMPERATURE CURING. When cold
climates interfere with sealing operations by prolonging
the sealant curing reaction, use AMS 3277 Type I.
Adhesion promoter is required when sealing with
AMS 3277. AMS 3255 (ePTFE sealing tape) may be
used in approved applications, as it does not require
curing.
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
7-9. REPAIR OF DAMAGED SEALANT.
1. Install all fasteners wet with AMS 3284,
under head only
2. Seal edge with AMS 3284 as shown below
AMS 3284
Dry bay/other
access doors,
semi-permanent
fittings (fillet seal
after tightening
fasteners)
AMS 3284
"O" Ring
Fuel tank
access door
with "O" ring
(install "O" ring
and fillet seal)
7-9.1. DAMAGED SEALANT. Many areas on aircraft
are sealed either at the factory or by Depots during
rework. Fresh sealant shall be applied whenever the
previously applied sealant is damaged. Remove the
damaged sealant with a plastic scraper or mechanical
sealant removal tool (paragraph 7-5.5.) and, if necessary,
prepare the metal surface in accordance with Chapter 5.
Slightly roughen a strip of the undamaged sealant
approximately one inch wide around the boundary of
the stripped area using an abrasive cloth and then clean
with solvent (AMS 3166 or approved equivalent) using
a clean cloth (AMS 3819) or cheesecloth (CCC-C-440).
Apply the new sealant by brush or spatula (see paragraph
7-7.5) onto smaller areas, or by spraying (see paragraph
7-7.6) onto larger areas. The new sealant should overlap
the existing coating onto the roughened area.
7-9.2. FORM-IN-PLACE SEALANT REPAIR. After
removal of all loose sealant material, thoroughly clean
the area to be resealed (see paragraph 7-7.1). Areas of
old seal to which new sealant will be added must be
cleaned and abraded using an abrasive mat or abrasive
cloth to expose a clean, fresh surface.
Sealing and Coating Compound
Corrosion Inhibiting
MIL-PRF-81733
AMS 3284
Fuel tank
access door
without "O" ring
(seal faying
surfaces and
fillet seal)
12
a. Apply MIL-PRF-81733 Type II-1/2 or aircraft
specific sealant, preferably with a sealant gun. The new
sealant should match the configuration of the removed
sealant but should be of sufficient depth to ensure
contact with the mating surface.
b. Apply a very thin film of release agent (VV-P-236
or MIL-PRF-32033) to the nonstick mating surface and
close the access door.
Figure 7-18. Sealing of Access Doors
c. Do not open the door for a minimum of 24 hours
or the published tack free time of the aircraft specific
sealant, if applied at 75°F (24°C) and 50% relative
humidity (RH).
7-25
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
7-9.3. ePTFE SEALING TAPE (Skyflex™) REPAIR. In
order to preserve sealant integrity, it is necessary to
inspect the sealant tape each time an access panel is
removed.
NOTE
The main function of the adhesive backing is to
hold the ePTFE sealant tape in place. Peeling/
delamination of the adhesive from the aircraft
structure/panel requires replacement of any
section of the sealant tape that is not located in
the faying surface.
f. If sealant without adhesive backing is used for
repair in areas where high fluid exposure is expected,
MMM-A-189 plastic adhesive or equivalent may be
used to hold the ePTFE sealing tape in place. Apply
adhesive to entire length of repair section and apply
ePTFE sealing tape within 20 minutes or before adhesive
is tack free.
g. Puncture any affected fastener hole with a sharp
pointed object such as an awl/scribe or scissors.
NOTE
a. Visually inspect ePTFE sealant material for nicks,
cuts, gouges and delamination/separation.
As fasteners are installed, the ePTFE sealant
material pushed into the fasteners will help seal
against moisture intrusion.
b. Cut and remove only the damaged section of the
sealant tape. Lift damaged tape section from surface to
cut with scissors; do not cut tape directly on surface to
avoid damage to airframe.
h. Install access panel. All fasteners should be wet
installed with corrosion preventive compound
(MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 or equivalent) as specified in
the aircraft maintenance manual.
c. Measure and cut a new piece of sealant tape
approximately one inch longer than the removed section.
7-9.4. REINFORCED POLYURETHANE GEL
SEALING TAPE (HI-TAK® TAPE TUFSEAL™)
REPAIR. In order to preserve sealant integrity, it is
necessary to inspect the sealant tape each time a
floorboard is removed.
CAUTION
Ends of repair splice must overlap the existing
sealant to ensure sealant integrity. Use care
not to pull or stretch the ePTFE tape as it is
applied. The stretched ePTFE tape will retract
even if it is clamped between faying surfaces,
which may reduce or eliminate overlap and
allow water intrusion.
d. Install new sealant tape so it overlaps the
previously installed sealant by 1⁄4 to 1⁄2 inch on each side
of the repair site.
e. Once sealant tape is applied, run fingers back
and forth on tape to further activate the adhesive. No
curing time is required.
(1) Applying extra pressure to the sealant tape
will cause the pressure sensitive adhesive to better
adhere to the faying surface and it will create indentations/
discoloration at the fastener holes allowing for easy
identification.
(2) For some fasteners, it may be necessary to
pre-punch holes in the sealant tape at the affected
fastener locations. Locate holes in repair section and
pre-punch using leather punch with diameter no greater
than 1⁄4 inch more than the fastener hole diameter.
7-26
a. Visually inspect reinforced polyethane gel sealant
tape on floorboard spars for nicks, cuts, gouges, dry
appearance, missing gel, and other indications of
damage which might compromise sealing integrity.
b. Cut and remove only the damaged section of the
sealant tape. Lift damaged tape section from surface to
cut with scissors; do not cut tape directly on surface to
avoid damage to airframe.
c. Clean any residue from the surface using a solvent
(AMS 3166, A-A-59281 Type I or II, or equivalent) and
cheesecloth (CCC-C-440) or a clean cloth (AMS 3819
or equivalent).
d. Measure and cut a new piece of sealant tape
approximately the same length as the removed section.
e. Install new sealant tape, creating a butt joint with
remaining tape sections. Gaps greater than 1⁄8 inch shall
not be created at butt joints. A slight excess of tape
(1⁄8 inch to 1⁄4 inch) is preferred over insufficient tape to
cover the exposed surface.
f. If the repaired section is over a fastener hole,
there is no need to pre-punch fastener holes prior to
installation of floorboard panels.
15 April 2009
7-10. STORAGE AND SHELF LIFE. All sealants have
a specified shelf life. The date of manufacture and the
expiration date or inspect/test date are listed on each
container. The shelf life is dependent on storing the
sealant in its original, unopened container in an area
where the temperature does not exceed 60°F (27°C),
unless otherwise specified on the package. Prior to use,
sealant containers shall be visually inspected to
determine if the material has exceeded its expiration
date. If the sealant has exceeded the expiration date,
dispose of the container in accordance with local
regulations. If the sealant has exceeded its inspect/test
date, then it shall not be used until update testing has
been performed. Procedures for update testing are
usually provided in the sealant specification. No sealant
shall be used if it fails testing. Minimum update testing
can be performed as follows:
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
of the opened sample and all kits from that batch of
sealant in accordance with local regulations.
c. If the sample can be blended to form a
homogeneous mixture, determine whether the
application time is suitable for the intended purpose by
applying the mixture to a clean piece of scrap aluminum
at the application time of the sealant (i.e., B-1/2, apply
after 30 minutes). If the sealant is too thick or does not
stick to the metal at application time, the sealant is not
acceptable. Dispose of the opened sample and all
others from that batch in accordance with local
regulations.
a. Select one sample of sealant from each
manufacturer’s batch of material to be tested for updating.
d. If the application time is acceptable, periodically
check the applied sealant for cure time by checking its
hardness. The batch of sealant represented by the
applied sealant can be extended if it achieves
approximately the same hardness as sealants which
are not overaged.
b. Visually examine the content of each component
in the sample. No separation, layering, or settling that
will not disperse to a homogeneous mixture when mixed
is allowed. If the base compound is lumpy, partially
cured, or cannot be mixed with the curing agent, dispose
e. This updating process may be repeated for a
maximum of three extensions (1⁄2 original shelf life,
1
⁄3 original shelf life, and 1⁄6 original shelf life). Affix an
extension label to the container in accordance with
FED-STD-793.
7-27/(7-28 Blank)
7-27
15 April 2009
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THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
7-28
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
CHAPTER 8
PRESERVATION
8-1. INTRODUCTION. Corrosion preventive
compounds (CPCs), or preservatives, are used to protect
metal aircraft parts and components. They function by
preventing corrosive materials from contacting and
corroding bare metal surfaces. Many of these
compounds are also able to displace water, sea water,
and other contaminants from the surfaces to be
protected. Some provide lubrication, as well as corrosion
protection. Generally, CPCs are mixtures of special
additives in petroleum derivative bases (special oils or
greases). CPCs range in appearance and consistency
from the thick, black types, such as MIL-PRF-16173
Grade 1, to light oils, such as MIL-PRF-32033 (formerly
VV-L-800). The thicker CPCs provide the best corrosion
protection, are longer lasting, and are more difficult to
remove. The thinner materials provide some lubrication
and do not crack, chip or peel but must be removed and
replaced regularly to provide continuing protection.
Navy: refer to NAVAIR 15-01-500 for detailed information
on preservation of aircraft and components.
8-2. OPERATIONAL PRESERVATION. The day to
day application of CPCs to prevent corrosion on
operational aircraft is known as operational preservation.
Areas which are corrosion prone or where paint has
been damaged should be routinely protected by CPCs
until more permanent treatment (such as paint touchup
or sealing) can be accomplished.
8-3. NON-OPERATIONAL
PRESERVATION.
Preservation of aircraft or components during periods of
prolonged inactivity, storage, or shipment is known as
non-operational preservation.
8-4. TYPES OF CPCS. CPCs can be separated into
two major categories: water displacing and non-water
displacing compounds.
8-4.1. WATER DISPLACING COMPOUNDS. Water
displacing CPCs can be used to remove water, sea
water, or other electrolytes from metal surfaces.
MIL-PRF-81309, MIL-DTL-85054, MIL-PRF-63460, and
MIL-PRF-32033 are examples of water displacing CPCs.
These CPCs are able to penetrate into cracks, crevices,
voids in faying edges, around fastener heads, and into
hinges. They usually provide very thin coatings, one mil
(0.001 inch) or less in thickness (a dollar bill is five mils
thick), and are usually clear or translucent. Most water
displacing compounds are soft, oily compounds which
cannot provide long term protection outdoors or in
areas which are frequently handled. MIL-DTL-85054
differs from the other water displacing compounds by
forming a relatively hard, dry film, and can be used for
protection outdoors and in areas of frequent handling.
8-4.2. NON-WATER DISPLACING COMPOUNDS.
Non-water displacing CPCs may be used on dried
surfaces or on surfaces which have been first treated
with a water displacing CPC. MIL-PRF-16173, Grades 1,
2 and 4, are examples of non-water displacing CPCs.
They are heavier bodied oils or greases which provide
long term corrosion protection. These CPCs provide
thicker coatings and are light brown to very dark brown
in color, with a waxy greasy appearance. They provide
good corrosion protection in areas where large amounts
of water collect on or run off of structures. MIL-L-87177
Grade B is a corrosion inhibiting and lubricating CPC
that provides longer outdoor protection than
MIL-PRF-81309 and MIL-PRF-32033 and can be used
for corrosion protection when ultra-penetrating properties
are not required.
8-5. TIME LIMITATIONS OF CPCS. Because of their
temporary nature, CPCs must be regularly removed
and replaced to provide continuing corrosion protection.
Table 8-1 provides the recommended time intervals for
indoor and outdoor CPC application. Navy: Refer to
NAVAIR 15-01-500 for further information on usage of
CPCs.
8-6. DESCRIPTION OF CPCS. A list of CPCs and
their intended uses is summarized in Table 8-2.
WARNING
MIL-PRF-81309 and MIL-DTL-85054 have been
revised to eliminate Ozone Depleting
Substances (ODS). Some products that have
been reformulated are now flammable. Pay
close attention to all CAUTION/WARNING
labels on solvents and solvent-based products.
8-6.1. MIL-PRF-81309 (CORROSION PREVENTIVE
COMPOUND, WATER DISPLACING, ULTRA THIN
FILM). MIL-PRF-81309 is a general purpose corrosion
preventive compound which can be used whenever a
CPC or a water displacing compound is called for but no
specification is referenced. MIL-PRF-81309 is used for
8-1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 8-1. Time Limitations for CPCs
CPC
Soft Thin Films
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
MIL-PRF-81309 Type III
Lubrication and Protection
MIL-PRF-32033
MIL-PRF-63460
Hard or Thick Films
MIL-L-87177 Grade B
MIL-DTL-85054
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 2
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 1
Outdoor1
Indoor2
Indoor Covered3
14 days
5 days
30 days
14 days
180 days
90 days
5 days
5 days
30 Days
30 Days
180 days
180 days
28 days
90 days
90 days
90 days
210 days
60 Days
210 days
210 days
210 days
365 days
180 days
365 days
365 days
365 days
365 days
1. Outdoor: Without cover; exposed to elements in a mild climate; absence of rain and other washing forces;
free from air and water borne pollutants.
2. Indoor: Hangars, shop areas, storage or parts accumulation areas, warehouses.
3. Indoor covered: Items are wrapped or sealed in a water-resistant material, and stored indoors in a hangar,
warehouse, or shop area. Soft thin film CPCs were designed for indoor use and ease of removal.
indoor protection and short term protection where
surfaces can be recoated when required.
MIL-PRF-81309 materials are excellent water displacing
compounds which provide an ultra thin (0.5 mil or less),
soft film. The specification covers two types, both of
which can be applied by dipping, spraying, brushing, or
aerosol container. They provide temporary protection
from corrosion and are easily removable with a solvent.
They should not be used around liquid oxygen fittings.
8-6.1.1. Type II. A soft, thin film for general use,
particularly on moving or sliding parts where some
lubrication is needed, such as hinges or bomb racks. It
may be washed away by rain or wash procedures. Type
II shall be used to protect areas which cannot be
properly drained or contain recesses that are particularly
difficult to reach.
8-6.1.2. Type III. An ultra thin, soft film primarily for use
on avionics and electronic equipment. Although this
coating is nonconductive, it will allow electrical contact
because it is soft and very thin.
8-6.2. MIL-DTL-85054 (CORROSION PREVENTIVE
COMPOUND (AMLGUARD)). AMLGUARD is a water
displacing CPC which forms a clear, dry, flexible film. It
is intended for use as a protective coating until painting
is practical. Because of its paint-like characteristics, it
provides no lubrication.
8-2
CAUTION
Ensure that all areas where MIL-DTL-85054 is
applied are fully dried before sealing an area.
Although MIL-DTL-85054 is a corrosion
preventive compound, its solvent vapors may
cause corrosion if not allowed to dissipate.
8-6.2.1. AMLGUARD can be applied by dipping,
brushing, spraying, or from aerosol containers; however,
dipping provides a very thin coating with less corrosion
protection. AMLGUARD is primarily applied by spraying
from aerosol cans. After each use of an aerosol can,
invert the can and spray until spray tip (nozzle) is clear
of entrapped material. If an aerosol can does not spray,
invert and depress the spray tip several times to clear
the delivery tube and spray head. If the can still does not
spray, remove and clean the plastic spray head then
spray again to clear the delivery tube.
8-6.2.2. AMLGUARD should be removed if it is
damaged due to abrasion, when there are cracks in the
coating, or if there is evidence of corrosion below the
coating. Since AMLGUARD buildup is difficult to remove,
especially after prolonged exposure to direct sunlight,
previously applied coatings should be removed before
reapplication. If the solvents do not remove old films of
AMLGUARD, spraying on fresh AMLGUARD to soften
the film and wiping or rubbing while wet is often effective.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 8-2. Aircraft Corrosion Preventive Compounds
Specification and
Nomenclature
Intended Use
Type of Coating
WATER-DISPLACING CPCs
MIL-PRF-32033
Lubricating Oil General
Purpose, Preservative (Water
Displacing, Low Temperature)
Lubrication of hinge areas and wherever a low
temperature, water displacing lubricant is required;
requires frequent reapplications.
MIL-PRF-63460
Lubricant, Cleaner, and
Preservative for Weapons and
Weapons Systems
Thin, corrosion
Lubrication and short term preservation of aircraft
hinges and small and large caliber weapons; facilitates preventive lubricant
the effective removal of firing residues, gums, and
other contaminants from weapons components.
MIL-PRF-81309
Corrosion Preventive
Compounds, Water Displacing,
Ultra-thin Film
Type II
Displacement of water; short term corrosion protection
of metal surfaces during shipment, storage, and inservice use; corrosion protection of moving parts
where some lubrication is required, such as hinge
areas, bomb racks, and sliding parts. Also used as a
waterless cleaner.
Soft, very thin
(0.5 mil) translucent,
light amber color
Type III
Displacement of water; corrosion protection of avionic
equipment, electrical connector plugs and contact
pins.
Soft, ultra thin film
(0.2 mil),
translucent, light
amber color
MIL-DTL-85054
Corrosion Preventive
Compound, Water Displacing,
Clear (AMLGUARD)
Soft, oily coating
Dry, thin (1.0 mil),
Corrosion protection and water displacement for
nonmoving parts, such as skin seams, installed
clear, colorless
fastener heads where paint has cracked, access panel
edges, and areas with damaged paint.
NON-WATER DISPLACING CPCs
MIL-PRF-16173
Corrosion Preventive
Compound, Solvent Cutback,
Cold Application
MIL-L-87177 Grade B
Lubricants, Corrosion
Preventive Compound, Water
Displacing, Synthetic
Grade 1
Protection of metal surfaces against corrosion when
exposed with or without covering indoors or outdoors.
Hard, tack-free,
thick (4.0 mils), dark
brown or black color
Grade 2
Protection of metal surfaces against corrosion during
rework or storage.
Soft, non-drying,
thick (2.0 mils), light
brown color
Grade 4
Protection of metal surfaces against corrosion during
indoor storage when a transparent coating is required;
coating of interior cables.
Soft, tack-free, thick
(2.0 mils), light
brown color
Corrosion protection of components with moving parts
requiring minimal lubrication. Not as water-displacing
or penetrating as MIL-PRF-81309 or MIL-PRF-32033.
Soft, translucent,
non-tacky film
(2.0 mils)
8-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
8-6.3. MIL-PRF-16173 (CORROSION PREVENTIVE
COMPOUND, SOLVENT CUTBACK). MIL-PRF-16173
covers five different grades of CPCs which can be
applied by brushing or dipping. Grades 1, 2, and 4 do not
displace water and must be applied to dried surfaces or
to surfaces which have first been treated with
MIL-PRF-81309.
8-6.3.1. Grade 1. A thick, hard, black CPC which can
be removed with difficulty using mineral spirits or paint
removers. It offers the most corrosion protection of all
the CPCs indoors and outdoors, and may be used at
temperatures down to 0°F (-18°C).
8-6.3.2. Grade 2. A thick, soft, greaselike, brown CPC
that remains tacky and can be removed with mineral
spirits. It protects under relatively severe conditions
and, given adequate maintenance touch-up as
necessary, can be used for most maximum protection
requirements. It may be used at temperatures down to
-40°F (-40°C).
8-6.3.3. Grade 3. A thin, soft film, water-displacing
CPC. It is not recommended for use on aluminum or
magnesium parts. Use MIL-PRF-81309 Type II as a
substitute.
NOTE
Remove MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 with
degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680 Type II) if
the coating is dark and prevents visual inspection
of the underlying surface for cracks and hydraulic
leaks.
8-6.3.4. Grade 4. A thin, relatively dry, semitransparent
film through which identification can be read. It may be
used at temperatures down to -40°F (-40°C).
8-4
CAUTION
If MIL-PRF-63460 is used in an area which will
later be sealed, allow at least 4 hours for the
solvent to evaporate prior to sealing. Although
MIL-PRF-63460 is a corrosion preventive
compound, its solvent vapors may cause
corrosion if not allowed to dissipate.
Do not use MIL-PRF-63460 on rubber or other
elastomeric parts. MIL-PRF-63460 contains
solvents which attack rubber "O" rings and
other elastomeric parts. Do not use as a direct
substitute for MIL-PRF-32033.
8-6.4. MIL-PRF-63460 (LUBRICANT, CLEANER, AND
PRESERVATIVE FOR WEAPONS AND WEAPON
SYSTEMS). MIL-PRF-63460 is a thin, water displacing,
protective, penetrating lubricant used for cleaning,
lubrication, and preservation of aircraft hinges and
small or large caliber weapons. This material has good
lubricating properties between -65° and 150°F (-54°
and 65°C). It may be applied by brushing, dipping,
spraying, or from an aerosol container.
CAUTION
MIL-PRF-32033 suffers a loss of viscosity at
very low temperatures; therefore, it shall not be
used when temperatures can drop below -40°F
(-40°C).
8-6.5. MIL-PRF-32033 (LUBRICATING OIL,
GENERAL PURPOSE, PRESERVATIVE (WATER
DISPLACING,
LOW
TEMPERATURE)).
MIL-PRF-32033 (supersedes VV-L-800) is a general
purpose, water displacing, lubricating oil with
preservative properties, and is intended for the lubrication
and preservation of aircraft components. It may be
applied by brushing, dipping, spraying, or from an
aerosol container. It should not be used in fuel cells or
fuel systems.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
NOTE
WARNING
Current formulation of MIL-L-87177 Grade B
contains Halon 141B, which may be subject to
environmental restrictions in some locations.
CPCs and solvents can produce toxic vapors.
Use only in well ventilated areas. Avoid contact
with skin. Consult local safety office for personal
protective equipment requirements. Do not use
synthetic wiping rags or cloths with these
materials. Keep CPCs and solvents away from
open flames or sparks.
8-6.6. MIL-L-87177 (LUBRICANTS, CORROSION
PREVENTIVE COMPOUND, WATER DISPLACING,
SYNTHETIC). MIL-L-87177 Grade B is a synthetic
lubricant with added corrosion inhibitor. This material
creates a non-tacky film on the surface. MIL-L-87177
does not displace water or penetrate as thoroughly as
MIL-PRF-81309 or MIL-PRF-32033 and should only be
used on surfaces that have been wiped dry. Tight
crevice locations should have a coating of
MIL-PRF-81309 applied prior to use of MIL-L-87177 to
ensure proper protection.
CAUTION
Do not use corrosion preventive compounds on
the interior of fuel tanks or fuel cells, engines, or
engine fuel systems.
Do not use corrosion preventive compounds on
engine parts or accessories which exceed 800°F
(427°C). Hot corrosion reactions may occur.
CPCs are not compatible with liquid oxygen
and should not be used on oxygen equipment,
lines, fittings or storage bottles.
NOTE
Use only corrosion preventive compounds
(CPCs) authorized by the parent service
organization and described in this manual.
8-7. PRESERVATION OF SPECIFIC AREAS.
Table 8-3 provides procedures for the preservation of
specific areas and components where the use of a CPC
on exposed metal surfaces is generally recommended
for reducing corrosion. This list does not constitute
authority to use CPCs on specific equipment. The use
of some or all types of CPCs in certain areas or on
equipment may be detrimental. Therefore, consult the
appropriate corrosion and maintenance manuals before
applying a CPC in a new area and determine which, if
any, compounds should be used in that area. If
application of a CPC is required, and no specific
instructions are available, the CPC Decision Tree
(Figure 8-1) may be used as a guideline to determine
the most appropriate CPC.
8-8. PRESERVATION APPLICATION METHODS.
CPCs can be applied by brushing, dipping, or spraying.
The area of application, viscosity of the material, and
conditions under which they need to be applied are
factors which determine which method of application to
use. Low viscosity (thin) materials are best applied by
spraying, whereas high viscosity (thick) materials are
more suited for brushing or dipping. Dipping can be
used for all types of materials, but the thickness of the
coating obtained with low viscosity materials may be too
thin to provide adequate corrosion protection. Prior to
application of preservatives, remove old preservative
coatings, then apply using one of the following methods.
8-8.1. BRUSHING. Brushing may be accomplished
using an ordinary paint brush. This method is most
appropriate for applying thick materials, for use on small
areas, or where it is necessary to prevent material from
getting on surrounding areas or nearby equipment.
8-8.2. DIPPING. Dipping may be accomplished using
any suitable container for the CPC. It is most suitable for
smaller disassembled parts. It cannot be used for
assemblies which contain any part or area adversely
affected by the CPC.
CAUTION
For spray application, do not thin or dilute bulk
preservative unless absolutely necessary. Do
not use synthetic wiping cloths. Mask off
adjacent areas to prevent overspray.
8-8.3. SPRAYING. Spraying may be accomplished
using paint spraying equipment, various types of trigger
sprayers, or aerosol containers. This method is very
effective for application to large areas and where
confinement is not a problem. The viscosity of the
material will determine which type of spraying equipment
to use.
8-5
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Table 8-3. Preservation of Specific Areas and Components
Area or Component
CPC
Appliction Instructions
Removal Instructions
NOTE
Prior to the application of preservatives, ensure removal of old coatings.
ARMAMENTS
CONTROL CABLES
(INTERIOR)
EJECTION SEATS
Refer to specific instruction manual.
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II Apply a continuous coating of
and
MIL-PRF-81309 using aerosol can
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 or wiping with cloth wet with CPC.
Follow with a coating of
MIL-PRF-16173 applied with a
cloth.
Refer to specific ejection seat maintenance manuals and ACC/SPM instructions.
ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
PINS (ALL)
Connector pins and sockets.
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
SHELLS (EXTERIOR)
Connector shells located
in flap wells, wheel wells, bilge
areas.
Refer to Volume III.
MIL-PRF-81309 Type III
MIL-DTL-85054
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
and
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4
ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR
SHELLS (INTERIOR)
Connector shells located in
aircraft interior.
Use an acid brush with nonsynthetic bristles to apply
degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II). Lightly
dab all pins and blot dry. Repeat
using isopropyl alcohol
(TT-I-735).
Wipe off dirt and excess moisture.
When disassembly is infrequent,
apply a thin coat of AMLGUARD.
Do not allow CPC to contact
internal surfaces. Allow to dry onehalf hour. Apply a second coat.
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
wet with degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or paint
thinner (MIL-T-81772).
For stubborn AMLGUARD, refer
to paragraph 8-6.2.2.
Wipe off dirt and excess moisture.
When disassembly is frequent,
apply coating of MIL-PRF-81309,
followed by a coating of
MIL-PRF-16173.
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
wet with degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or
cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
NOTE
For additional information refer to Volume III.
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
8-6
Apply a continuous thin, wet coat.
If handled or exposed to water,
reapply.
NOTE
For additional information refer to Volume III.
or
EXTERIOR SURFACES NOT
REQUIRING HIGH
PERFORMANCE LUBRICANT
OR HYDRAULIC FLUID
Sliding or moving parts requiring
only minor lubrication (bomb
racks, hinges, door locks).
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
dampened with degreasing
solvent (MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or
cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
MIL-PRF-63460
or
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
and
MIL-PRF-32033
Wipe off dirt and excess moisture.
Apply a thin, uniform coating of
CPC.
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
wet with degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or
cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
Apply a continuous wet coat of
MIL-PRF-63460. If handled,
reapply.
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
wet with degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or
cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
Apply a coating of
MIL-PRF-81309, followed by a
coating of MIL-PRF-32033. If
handled, reapply.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
Table 8-3. Preservation of Specific Areas and Components (Cont.)
Area or Component
CPC
Appliction Instructions
EXTERIOR SURFACES NOT
REQUIRING LUBRICATION
Unpainted areas and areas with
damaged paint which do not
require lubrication (fastener
heads, faying surfaces, access
panel edges, doors and frames,
attachment points, non-moving
attachment hardware, wheel well
areas, ram air ducts, flap/slat
cavities).
MIL-DTL-85054
Wipe off dirt and excess moisture.
Apply thin coating of AMLGUARD.
Allow to dry one-half hour. Apply a
second coat.
HELICOPTER CARGO
HOIST DRUM
or
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II Wipe off dirt and excess moisture.
and
Apply a coating of
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 MIL-PRF-81309, followed by a
coating of MIL-PRF-16173.
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
or
MIL-DTL-85054
HYDRAULIC PISTON
SURFACES
THREADED SURFACES
Screws, various fasteners.
System Hydraulic Fluid
MIL-PRF-63460
or
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
Removal Instructions
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
wet with degreasing solvent
(MIL- PRF-680 Type II) or paint
thinner (MIL-T-81772).
For stubborn AMLGUARD, refer
to paragraph 8-6.2.2.
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
wet with degreasing solvent
(MIL- PRF-680 Type II) or
cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
Spray with MIL-PRF-81309. Wipe
with a clean cloth to remove
excess.
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
wet with degreasing solvent
(MIL- PRF-680 Type II) or
cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
Spray MIL-DTL-85054, with a
continuous film. Allow to dry one
half hour. Apply a second coat.
Use a non-synthetic wiping cloth
wet with degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or paint
thinner (MIL-T-81772).
For stubborn AMLGUARD, refer
to paragraph 8-6.2.2.
Wipe exposed surface with low lint
cloth dampened with hydraulic
fluid, wiping away from seals.
Take care not to scratch surfaces.
Do not remove.
Reapply as necessary.
When disassembly is frequent,
use MIL-PRF-63460 or
MIL-PRF-81309. Dip screws or
fasteners in CPC and install.
Immerse screws or fasteners in
degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or
cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I)
and blot or blow dry.
or
When disassembly is infrequent,
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II spray fastener with
and
MIL-PRF-81309. Wipe with a
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 clean cloth to remove excess.
Follow with a coating of
MIL-PRF-16173 for long term
protection.
or
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4 DEPOT ONLY: When
disassembly is infrequent, use
MIL-PRF-16173 for long term
protection. Dip screws or
fasteners in CPC and install.
8-7
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
START
15 April 2009
Storage or
Operational?
STORAGE
OPERATIONAL
GSE?
Airframe &
Component
or GSE?
AIRFRAME &
COMPONENT
Refer to
NAVAIR 15-01-500
Preservation Manual
GSE
Refer to
NAVAIR 17-1-125
Ground Support
Equipment Manual
YES
NO
YES
Avionics?
Use
MIL-PRF-81309
Type III
Electrical
YES
Connectors, Canon Plugs
or Contact Points/
Pins?
NO
NO
YES
Electrical Shells,
Housings or Boxes?
Use
MIL-DTL-85054
NO
Refer to
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-3
Weapon
Systems?
Refer to
NAVAIR 01-1A-75
Airborne Weapons
Manual
YES
Use
MIL-PRF-16173
Grade 4
NO
Airframe or
Component?
NO
AIRFRAME
COMPONENT
Interior or
Exterior?
Water
Displacing
Required?
INTERIOR
YES
Use
MIL-PRF-81309
Type II
EXTERIOR
Small paint damaged
areas, use
MIL-DTL-85054
Fasteners?
YES
Frequent disassembly, use
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II.
Infrequent disassembly, use
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II then
MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4.
NO
Moving Flexing
Parts?
NO
Use
MIL-PRF-16173
Grade 2
YES
Water
Displacing
Required?
YES
Lubrication
Required?
NO
Use
MIL-PRF-81309 Type II
then MIL-PRF-32033
THIN
Use
MIL-PRF-81309
Type II
NO
Use
MIL-PRF-32033
Thick or Thin
Film?
THICK
Use
MIL-PRF-16173
Grade 3
Figure 8-1. CPC Decision Tree
8-8
YES
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
8-9. APPLICATION OF POLISH AND WAX. Polishing
and waxing of aircraft exterior surfaces is prohibited
unless authorized by parent service organization
directives.
8-10. PRESERVATION OF ASSEMBLIES AND
PARTS REMOVED FROM AIRCRAFT DURING
MAINTENANCE.
8-10.1. SHORT TERM STORAGE (30 DAYS OR
LESS). Short term storage shall be defined as any
period up to 30 days for the purposes of this manual.
When assemblies or parts are removed from the aircraft
for repair, or to gain access to areas of the aircraft for
maintenance, they shall be treated to prevent corrosion
prior to placement into short term storage. All items shall
be stored indoors in a covered area to protect them from
the elements. Navy shall refer to NAVAIR 15-01-500 or
to the applicable maintenance or equipment storage
manuals for specific details on storage of a particular
part or assembly. In the absence of other requirements,
the following procedures apply:
a. Clean part or assembly in accordance with
Chapter 2.
b. Assemblies or parts having bare metal surfaces,
such as internal and working surfaces on landing gear
components, shall be properly lubricated with the aircraft
greases or oils normally applied in service.
c. High strength steel components which are stripped
of their protective coatings shall be protected using one
of the following methods:
Compound, Corrosion Preventative
Water-Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
4
(1) Apply a film of CPC (MIL-PRF-81309 Type
II) to all bare surfaces whenever there is a lapse of two
hours or more in the repair cycle. The part shall then be
loosely overwrapped with barrier material
(MIL-PRF-131 Class 1).
(2) Wrap part in VCI film, MIL-PRF-22019 or
VCI paper, MIL-PRF-3420, and seal with tape, SAE
AMS-T-22085.
d. Completely painted parts need no other special
protective measures, except in marine or high humidity
environments. In these cases, the part shall be loosely
overwrapped with barrier material (MIL-PRF-131
Class 1).
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
15
e. Prior to rework or reapplication of protective
coatings, remove CPC with degreasing solvent (MILPRF-680 Type II or III) or non-aqueous cleaner
(MIL-PRF-32295 Type I) as required. Reapply the
appropriate aircraft lubricant to areas requiring
lubrication. CPCs shall not be used for lubrication in lieu
of the lubricant specified for use on a particular part or
assembly.
8-10.2. LONG TERM STORAGE (OVER 30 DAYS). If
the storage of assemblies or parts will exceed 30 days,
increased protective measures are required, particularly
on critical parts and high strength steel components. All
items shall be stored indoors in a covered area to
protect them from the elements. Refer to the following
manuals, or to the applicable maintenance or equipment
storage manuals, for specific details on storage of a
particular part or assembly: NAVAIR 15-01-500 (Navy)
or TM 743-200-1 (Army). In the absence of other
requirements, the following procedures apply:
a. Clean part or assembly in accordance with
Chapter 2.
b. All bare metal surfaces, and surfaces with
damaged plating or paint, shall be protected using one
of the following methods:
8-9
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
d. Depending upon the length of time in storage,
reapplication of protection may be required.
Compound, Corrosion Preventative
Water-Displacing
MIL-PRF-81309
4
(1) Refer to Table 8-1 for time limitation
information on CPCs.
(2) Replace torn or damaged VCI film or paper.
Intact VCI film or paper has a storage limit of one year.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-16173
6
(1) Apply
water
displacing
CPC
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) followed by long term CPC
(MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4). The part shall then be
overwrapped with barrier material (MIL-PRF-131 Class
1) and sealed with tape (SAE AMS-T-22085 Type II).
(2) Wrap part in VCI film, MIL-PRF-22019, or
VCI paper, MIL-PRF-3420, and seal with tape, SAE
AMS-T-22085.
c. Completely painted parts need no other special
protective measures, except in marine or high humidity
environments. In these cases, the part shall be
overwrapped with barrier paper (MIL-PRF-131 Class 1)
and sealed with tape (SAE AMS-T-22085 Type II).
8-10
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
15
e. Prior to returning the part or assembly to service,
remove CPCs with degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680
Type II or III) or non-aqueous cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295
Type I) as required. Reapply the appropriate aircraft
lubricant to areas requiring lubrication. CPCs shall not
be used for lubrication in lieu of the lubricant specified
for use on a particular part or assembly.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
CHAPTER 9
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
9-1. PURPOSE. This chapter describes the emergency
procedures to be followed after aircraft incidents or
accidents involving exposure to vast amounts of salt
water or fire extinguishing agents. The procedures
described herein are used to prevent further damage
and will usually require further treatment at a higher
level of maintenance.
firefighting equipment. Naval Air Systems Command’s
PMA-251 has sole responsibility and authority to
establish policy for all aircraft fire fighting programs for
the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. PMA-251
serves as the Navy and Marine Corps technical authority
for aircraft fire fighting and manages this program in
accordance with OPNAVINST 5100.8G and DODI
6055.06.
9-2. RESPONSIBILITY.
CAUTION
Exposure of metal surfaces to salt water, PurpleK-Powder (PKP), and protein foam requires
immediate action to prevent serious corrosion
damage.
9-3. EMERGENCY PREPARATIONS. In preparation
for an emergency, priority lists shall be developed for
removal of equipment, emergency reclamation planning,
and the required materials and equipment.
9-3.1. PRIORITY REMOVAL LIST OF AIRCRAFT
COMPONENTS.
NOTE
CAUTION
In cases involving aircraft accidents, permission
must be obtained from the senior member of
the accident investigation board prior to the
initiation of emergency procedures.
Magnesium parts are particularly susceptible
to corrosion attack when exposed to salt water
or fire extinguishing materials. Avionic, electrical,
and ordnance equipment known to contain
magnesium components shall be given high
priority for cleaning.
9-2.1. Under emergency conditions, all personnel shall
assume responsibility for minimizing damage. Removal
of equipment shall be supervised by the Maintenance
Officer (MO). Each reporting custodian shall designate
a Corrosion Prevention and Control Program Manager
to supervise the emergency reclamation team.
Maintenance control shall direct the team to accomplish
salvage operations or corrosion control action. The size
and composition of the team depends on the urgency of
the situation and/or workload. If required, additional
squadron personnel shall be selected and placed under
the direction of the Corrosion Prevention and Control
Program Manager. In case of fire damage, the Materials
Engineering Division of the Fleet Support Team (FST)
shall be contacted to determine the effects of heat or
excessive salt water contamination prior to continued
use or repair of affected parts or components.
9-2.2. (N) AIRCRAFT FIREFIGHTING. Firefighting in
and around crashed aircraft is highly specialized. Refer
to NAVAIR 00-80R-14 (NATOPS U.S. Navy Aircraft
Firefighting and Rescue Manual) for approved fire
extinguishing agents, methods of application, and
9-3.1.1. Table 9-1 is a list of aircraft component groups
arranged in order of recommended priority for treatment.
Among the factors to be considered when removing
equipment are dollar value, corrosion rate, availability
of replacement parts, and probability of successful
salvage. Whenever manpower or facility shortages
prohibit simultaneous processing of all components,
treatment shall be given in the order of the priority
listing. The table should be considered as a guide, and
operations may deviate from the assigned priority when
directed by qualified production planning or engineering
personnel or the cognizant maintenance officer.
9-3.1.2. Variations in aircraft designs, configurations,
and mission equipment installations may make it
necessary to contact custodians of the aircraft to obtain
a listing of equipment and the preferred priority of
removal and treatment. Priority of removal and treatment
should always be oriented toward recovery of
salvageable equipment.
9-1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 9-1. Recommended Priority Removal Guide for Emergency Treatment of Aircraft
Priority
Number
Gas Turbine or Reciprocating
Engine Aircraft
Turboprop/Turboshaft
Engine Aircraft
Propeller drive gear mechanisms
1
Engine and accessories
2
Avionic and fire control equipment Engine, propeller, and accessories Engine, rotors, and accessories
3
Instruments
Avionic and fire control equipment
Avionic and fire control equipment
4
Fuselage, wings, and empennage
Instruments
Instruments
5
Turrets and rocket and missile
launchers
Fuselage, wings, and empennage
Fuselage
6
Drained fuel and oil systems
Turrets and rocket and missile
launchers
Drained fuel and oil systems
7
Photographic equipment
Drained fuel and oil systems
Photographic equipment
8
Landing and arresting gear
Photographic equipment
Landing gear or floats
9
Safety and survival equipment
Landing and arresting gear
Safety and survival equipment
10
Electrical equipment
Safety and survival equipment
Electrical equipment
11
Armament equipment
Electrical equipment
Armament and rescue equipment
12
Fixed equipment (seats, etc.)
Armament equipment
Fixed equipment (seats, etc.)
13
Miscellaneous equipment
Fixed equipment (seats, etc.)
Miscellaneous equipment
9-3.2. INTERMEDIATE LEVEL EMERGENCY
RECLAMATION TEAM. The intermediate level
emergency reclamation team shall provide expertise
and facilities for processing equipment received from
operational activities. This team shall be responsible for
processing equipment received from Organizational/
Unit activities. The size of the team, its organization,
and the specific equipment requirements will be geared
to the needs of the units supported. Recommended
equipment includes wash/rinse facilities, drying ovens,
dip tanks (for water displacing compounds and
preservatives), and cleaning compounds.
9-3.3. EMERGENCY RECLAMATION EQUIPMENT.
The availability of the necessary tools, materials, and
equipment for prompt removal, cleaning, and drying will
significantly aid in reducing damage. Refer to material
and equipment lists (see Table 9-2) and Volume III.
Additional items of equipment that may be useful are:
a. Drying ovens.
b. Portable air blowers.
9-2
Helicopters
Rotor dynamic components
c. Heaters.
d. Dehumidifiers.
9-3.4. PRODUCTION PLANNING. Whenever possible,
all salvageable components of the aircraft shall be
treated simultaneously. To minimize damage and ensure
that the work is accomplished in a thorough and
competent manner, the most experienced personnel
available shall be assigned to disassemble and process
the aircraft. Whenever possible, examination and
evaluation personnel shall be assigned to work with the
disassembly and preservation crew in order that those
items obviously beyond reclamation may be scrapped
immediately; and that only those areas exposed to
corrosive water or fire fighting chemicals are
disassembled and treated. The time saved by this
procedure may be utilized in preserving salvageable
components.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table 9-2. Recommended List of Emergency Reclamation Items
Item
Number
Consumable Materials
(see Volume IV, Chapter 2)
Specification/
Part Number
1
Aircraft Cleaning Compound
MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
2
Aircraft Preservation Tape
AMS-T-22085 Type II
3
Barrier Material
MIL-PRF-131 Class 1
4
Cleaning & Scouring Pads, Non-metallic
A-A-3100
5
Cleaning Sponges
A-A-2073
6
Corrosion Preventive Compound, Water Displacing (5 gal minimum)
MIL-PRF-81309 Types II & III
7
Degreasing Solvent
MIL-PRF-680 Type II
8
Drying Rags, Flannel Cloth
A-A-50129
9
Engine Gas Path Cleaner
MIL-PRF-85704 Type II RTU
10
Fire Extinguishing Agent (AFFF)
MIL-F-24385
11
Full Facepiece Respirator & Cartridges
-----
12
Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)
TT-I-735
13
Leather Chamois
KK-C-300
14
Water/Crash/Fire Damage Labels
NAVAIR 4035/13
15
Water/Crash/Fire Damage Tags
NAVAIR 3750/1
Item
Number
Equipment
(see Volume IV, Chapter 3)
Specification/
Part Number
16
Aircraft Grounding Straps
-----
17
Aircraft Washing Kits (Pad, Pad Holder, Handle)
3M No. 261, 3M No. 33,
A-A-1464
18
Air Hose Assembly
Z-H-500/Z-H-521
19
Air Nozzle Gun
A-A-55543
20
Backpack Pump (5 gallon)
P/N: 5100-254B
21
Disposable Coveralls, “ Bunny Suit”
A-A-55196 Type I
22
Face Shield, Industrial
ANSI Z87.1
23
Goggles, Chemical Resistant
A-A-1110
24
Heat Gun, Electric
A-A-59435
25
Large Trash Cans & Plastic Liners
-----
26
Leather Palm Gloves (for handling composite materials, medium size only) A-A-50016
27
Rubber Apron
A-A-3104
28
Rubber Gloves, Industrial
MIL-G-12223
29
Soft Bristle Scrub Brushes
A-A-2074
30
Spray Gun, Pneumatic
MIL-G-952 Type I
31
Utility Pails, Rubber
L-P-65
32
Vacuum Cleaner, Pneumatic (Wet/Dry Vac)
-----
33
Water Hose
A-A-59270
34
Water Nozzle
A-A-50461
9-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
9-4. GENERAL PROCEDURES.
WARNING
Before starting emergency treatment,
particularly in those instances where fuel cells
have been ruptured and fuel or fuel vapors are
present, it is imperative that a GFE, GFET, or
the safety officer supervise purging or inerting
procedures and certify that the aircraft is fire
and explosion safe. Qualified ordnance
personnel shall be assigned to handle all
ordnance and associated items, such as
ammunition and pyrotechnics.
9-4.1. For cases involving aircraft accidents, permission
for any treatment shall be obtained from the senior
member of the accident investigation board prior to
initiating procedures for emergency reclamation. Failure
to obtain permission will jeopardize the ability of the
accident investigation team to determine the cause of
the incident.
NOTE
Procedures for decontamination of aircraft
exposed to chemical, biological, or radiological
(CBR) materials are contained in
NAVAIR 00-80T-121 (Navy) or FM 3-5 (Army).
a. The fire department shall determine which
extinguishing agent was used on the aircraft. A review
of photographs taken by public affairs or other media
personnel may provide information concerning areas
that had corrosive extinguishing material exposure.
b. Ensure that the aircraft is safe for maintenance.
Electrically ground the aircraft. Attach the ground lead
to the aircraft at a point outside the area which could
contain explosive vapors. Turn off all electrical power
and disarm aircraft, including the ejection seat.
c. Closely inspect the aircraft to determine areas
affected. Traces of foam type extinguishing agents may
not be present; however, moist residues often indicate
previous foam application. Dry powders may be present
in joints and faying surfaces, so a careful examination
will be necessary.
9-4
d. Wherever possible, remove components from
affected areas. Open, loosen, or remove covers, access
plates, and inspection doors. Allow accumulated salt
water to drain thoroughly wherever possible. If dry
chemical fire extinguishing materials have been used,
refer to paragraph 9-6.
e. Remove gross amounts of contaminants by
flushing with fresh water and draining.
f. Remove components in accordance with
paragraphs 9-4.2 and 9-4.3.
g. Clean the aircraft in accordance with paragraph
9-4.4.
h. Inspect the aircraft and determine whether it can
return to flight status following local maintenance action
or whether additional maintenance will be necessary.
9-4.2. REMOVAL OF CONTAMINATED EQUIPMENT.
After salt water immersion, salt water entry, or exposure
to any corrosive agents, equipment must be cleaned
promptly and thoroughly. Follow the procedures in this
chapter for decontaminating specific areas and
equipment. Refer to Table 9-1 for assigning priority to
equipment removal and treatment.
9-4.3. REMOVAL OF COMPONENTS.
9-4.3.1. The mechanical cutting of fuel, hydraulic and
oil lines, and electrical leads, and other drastic operations
necessary to expedite removal of components are left
to the discretion of the MO directing the operations.
9-4.3.2. When aircraft are involved in water crashes, it
shall be assumed that all components, including hollow
structural and mechanical members, are contaminated
internally. All components shall be disassembled and
treated or forwarded to the next highest level of
maintenance for disassembly and treatment as required.
It shall be established that contaminants have been
removed and that all corroded surfaces have been
effectively inhibited against further attack prior to
returning to operational status.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
9-4.4. CLEANING. Equipment and components shall
be cleaned by the team, in accordance with paragraphs
9-5, 9-6, and 9-8, and then delivered to the designated
shops for further inspection and maintenance.
Equipment that cannot be removed shall be cleaned in
place and inspected.
9-4.5. TAGGING. All parts and components removed
from the aircraft shall be tagged for identification (see
Volume IV for Water/Crash/Fire Tags and Labels).
Indicate preservation method (e.g. CPC) used on
component.
9-4.6. PROCESSING. All equipment subject to
emergency reclamation team procedures must be
certified operationally ready before returning to
serviceable status. Inspect equipment for corrosion,
cracks and heat damage. Obtain the maximum available
engineering assistance to determine evaluation of
damage. Particular attention shall be given to dissimilar
metal joints. Avionic electrical equipment will most likely
contain dissimilar metals.
9-5. GENERAL CLEANING PROCEDURES.
CAUTION
Do not expose plastic items, avionic
components, wiring, or other components
susceptible to heat damage to temperatures in
excess of 130°F (54°C) during emergency
cleaning procedures. Also, do not expose any
other areas to temperatures in excess of 150°F
(66°C) during emergency cleaning procedures.
NOTE
The mildest chemical and cleaning cycle which
will assure proper decontamination shall be
used at all times. Even though fresh water/
detergent wash should not significantly affect
accident investigations, permission must be
obtained from the senior member of appointed
accident investigation board before cleaning.
9-5.1. Use the specified methods in paragraph 9-8 for
emergency treatment of specific areas. Do not use the
following general procedures when specific methods
are available.
9-5.2. Contaminated areas may be cleaned by several
methods. The primary method is fresh water flushing.
Alternate methods may be used when fresh water is not
available.
9-5.3. PRIMARY CLEANING METHOD. The primary
method of removing salt water is as follows:
a. Immerse removed unit or component in clean,
fresh water whenever possible.
b. Flush all areas with clean fresh water and allow to
drain.
c. Dry the item or areas by vacuum cleaning excess
water, blotting with cloth or paper, or blow-drying with air
pressure not greater than 10 psi. If visual evidence of
salt remains, a second cleaning should be accomplished
as follows:
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
(1) Mix a solution of one part aircraft cleaning
compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts water.
(2) Apply the solution to the affected areas and
scrub with soft bristle brushes, sponges or cloths.
(3) Flush thoroughly with clean fresh water and
drain thoroughly.
(4)
Dry the item or areas as before.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
d. After flushing and drying, apply water displacing
preservative (MIL-PRF-81309 Type III) on all avionic
components and connectors. Ensure that all areas and
crevices are coated. Liberally apply water displacing
CPC (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all other areas that
cannot be properly drained or contain recesses which
are difficult to reach. Ensure that all surfaces are coated.
9-5
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
NOTE
9-6. REMOVAL OF FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS.
Water displacing CPC (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II)
will deposit a thin, non-conductive film that
must be removed prior to use for proper function
of contact points and other electro-mechanical
devices where no slipping or wiping action is
involved. Water displacing CPC is easily
removed using degreasing solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or non-aqueous cleaner
(MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
NOTE
9-5.4. ALTERNATE CLEANING METHODS. Use only
when fresh water is not available or is available only in
limited supply or when time prevents immediate flushing
with fresh water.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
9-5.4.1. Method One (Preferred). Spray, brush, or wipe
the exterior of the affected areas and components with
liberal amounts of water displacing CPC
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II).
Refer to NAVAIR 00-80R-14 for approved fire
extinguishing agents usable on aircraft.
9-6.1 PURPLE-K-POWDER (PKP) AND OTHER DRY
CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS.
9-6.1.1 Purple K Dry Chemical Powder. The principal
base chemical for Purple-K-Powder (PKP) is potassium
bicarbonate. Since it is a purple powder, the PKP fire
extinguishers are marked with a purple band around the
tank. PKP is primarily used to extinguish flammable
liquid and gas fires such as gasoline, greases, oils, and
paints. When combined with water, PKP could corrode
or stain surfaces. As soon as possible, PKP should be
completely removed from all surfaces.
9-6.1.2. Removing Purple K Powder (PKP) and Other
Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Agents. To remove
powdered extinguishants, proceed as follows:
a. Remove as much extinguishant as possible by
vacuum cleaning.
b. Use a soft bristle brush and air pressure not
greater than 10 psi to dislodge contaminants between
close-fitting components.
9-5.4.2. Method Two (Alternate).
c. Vacuum clean again.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
a. Apply a solution of one part aircraft cleaning
compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts water.
b. Brush over affected areas until contaminants and
cleaner become intermixed or emulsified.
c. Wipe-off thoroughly with clean cloth, removing
both contaminants and cleaner.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
d. Remove the residual film of dry powder adhering
to the surface by wiping, brushing, or spraying with a
solution of one part aircraft cleaning compound
(MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts of water.
e. Rinse thoroughly with fresh water.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
d. Liberally apply water displacing
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to affected areas.
9-6
f. Dry with cloths or paper towels, or blow dry with
air pressure not greater than 10 psi.
4
CPC
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
g. Liberally apply water displacing
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to affected areas.
CPC
9-6.2.2. Removing Aqueous Film Forming Foam
(AFFF). To remove residues of salt water solutions of
AFFF fire extinguishing agent, proceed with paragraphs
a. through h. below. To remove residues of fresh water
solutions of AFFF, use the same procedure but omit
paragraphs b. through d.
NOTE
h. Enter location of affected areas and list
components that were exposed to PKP fire extinguishing
agent in the appropriate section of the aircraft logbook,
corrosion folder, or other appropriate documents to
ensure that the area is re-inspected in the future as a
corrosion prone area.
9-6.1.3. Treatment Procedures for Engines Exposed
To or Contaminated with Fire Extinguishing Powder
(i.e., PKP).
a. With the ignition off/disconnected, vacuum clean
all excess and loose material, then crank the engine and
rinse thoroughly with water.
The following procedure applies to AFFF and
salt water mixtures normally used aboard ship.
AFFF and fresh water mixtures usually do not
present a corrosion problem. However, cleanup
of all residues after a fire is required for corrosion
prevention due to water intrusion into gaps,
joints, cracks, and crevices.
a. Flush all affected areas with clean, fresh water
while draining. Whenever possible, units or components
which have been removed should be immersed in fresh
water and then flushed thoroughly with fresh, clean
water. Drain away the water.
b. Mix a solution of one pint of AFFF fire extinguishing
agent in 10 gallons of fresh water.
Cleaning Compound
Turbine Engine Gas Path
MIL-PRF-85704
3
c. Apply solution to affected areas using one of the
following methods:
b. Flush all surfaces and passages with either a
solution of one part engine gas path cleaner
(MIL-PRF-85704 Type II) in four parts fresh water or
use the ready-to-use form of the cleaner
(MIL-PRF-85704 Type II RTU).
(1) Use any type of spray equipment such as a
foam generator, solvent wash gun, or back pack.
(2) Use an applicator such as aircraft washing
pads, sponges, or low lint cloths, or pour AFFF solution
directly over affected areas if foaming equipment is not
available.
c. Drain engine lubricant and refill.
d. At the next inspection, re-check previously
contaminated areas and, if necessary, repeat the above
procedure.
9-6.2. AQUEOUS
(MIL-F-24385).
FILM-FORMING
FOAM
9-6.2.1. Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF). AFFF is
a specially formulated synthetic concentrate made from
surfactants, solvents, and additives. When mixed with
either fresh or salt water, it will form a dense foam over
the liquid fuel to rapidly smother and cool hydrocarbon
fuel fires such as gasoline, kerosene, and diesel.
d. Keep affected areas wet with AFFF solution for 3
to 5 minutes.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
e. Clean surfaces with a solution of one part aircraft
cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts
of water. Scrub affected areas and rinse with clean,
fresh water. Drain away excess water.
f. Dry with cloths, paper towels, or air pressure not
greater than 10 psi.
9-7
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
15 April 2009
4
g. Apply water displacing preservative
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type III) to all avionic components
and electrical connectors. Liberally apply water
displacing CPC (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all other
areas that cannot be properly drained or have recesses
which are difficult to reach.
h. Enter location of affected areas and list
components that were exposed to AFFF fire
extinguishing agent in the appropriate section of the
aircraft logbook, corrosion folder, or other appropriate
documents to ensure that the area is re-inspected in the
future as a corrosion prone area.
9-6.3. CARBON DIOXIDE, HFC-125, AND HALON
FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS.
9-6.3.1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is a
dry, non-corrosive, inert gas that is used on flammable
liquids and electrical fires because it does not leave any
residues which might further harm the damaged electrical
equipment. Also, CO2 is ideal for use on fires when it is
important to avoid water damage. CO2 works by reducing
the amount of oxygen available for combustion by
smothering it. Although CO 2 is non-poisonous,
asphyxiation can result from breathing it and supplied
air must be worn when CO2 is used below decks or in
confined spaces.
9-6.3.2. HFC-125 (Pentafluoroethane). HFC-125 is a
fluorocarbon fire extinguishant that is electrically nonconductive, non-corrosive, free of residue, has zero
ozone depletion potential (ODP), and is an
environmentally approved replacement for Halon
systems. HFC-125 works by absorbing the heat
generated from the combustion reaction.
9-6.3.3. Halon 1211 (Bromochlorodifluoromethane)
and Halon 1301 (Bromotrifluoromethane). Halons are
colorless, odorless gases. They will extinguish most
type of fires without leaving a residue and are suitable
for discharge in confined spaces. Typically, they are
used in areas that contain sensitive or irreplaceable
equipment that could be damaged or destroyed by
water, foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide. Like PKP,
Halons do not extinguish by smothering or cooling,
instead they interrupt the chemical reaction of the fire as
9-8
it decomposes upon contact. Halons have been found
to be an ozone depleting agent; however, some Halons
are still required for aircraft and shipboard applications
as no safe and effective alternative exists. Halon 1211
extinguishers are marked with a reflective silver band
around the tank.
NOTE
Carbon Dioxide, HFC-125, or Halon fire
extinguishing agents will not leave residues.
However, smoke, smudges, or other grime
from a fire is corrosive and shall be removed
from affected items that are to be retained for
future use.
9-6.3.4. CO2, HFC-125, Halon 1211 and Halon 1301
evaporate rapidly. Therefore, no cleanup is required
unless moisture or high temperature was present at the
area of application. However, ventilation should always
be provided to remove the vapors. If moisture or high
temperature was present, use the following clean-up
procedures.
a. After fire has been extinguished, purge area and
surface with clean, dry air (dust free, low moisture
content, compressed air).
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
b. Clean surfaces with a solution of one part aircraft
cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts
of water. Scrub affected areas and rinse with clean,
fresh water. Drain away excess water.
c. Dry with cloths, paper towels, or air pressure not
greater than 10 psi.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
d. Apply water displacing preservative
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type III) to all avionic components
and electrical connectors. Liberally apply water
displacing CPC (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all other
areas that cannot be properly drained or have recesses
which are difficult to reach.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
e. Enter location of affected areas and list
components that were exposed to fire extinguishing
agent in the appropriate section of the aircraft logbook,
corrosion folder, or other appropriate documents to
ensure that the area is re-inspected in the future as a
corrosion prone area.
9-6.4. PROTEIN FOAM AND SODA ACID.
9-6.4.1. Protein Foam. A general category of fire
extinguishing agents that use protein based foam
concentrate. When mixed with water, protein foam is
highly effective on fuel fires and provides excellent heat
resistance. Types of firefighting foams include AFFF,
AR-AFFF, Protein Foams, Fluoroprotein Foams, Class
A Foams, and Training Foams.
9-6.4.2. Soda Acid. Soda acid and other inverted foam
extinguishers are not approved portable fire fighting
equipment for use on or around aircraft because they
are very corrosive. Soda acid type extinguishers operate
by turning the extinguisher upside down. Acid spills out
of a glass jar and reacts with the soda contents.
9-6.4.3. Removing Protein Foam and Soda Acid. The
residues left from the use of these materials can be
extremely corrosive to aircraft and equipment. Remove
residues as follows:
a. Thoroughly flush the affected area with fresh
water. Ensure that the rinse water is completely flushed
from the aircraft or equipment.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
b. Clean surfaces with a solution of one part aircraft
cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts
of water. Scrub affected areas and rinse with clean,
fresh water. Drain away excess water.
c. Dry with cloths, paper towels, or air pressure not
greater than 10 psi.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
and electrical connectors. Liberally apply water
displacing CPC (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all other
areas that cannot be properly drained or have recesses
which are difficult to reach.
e. Enter location of affected areas and list
components that were exposed to fire extinguishing
agent in the appropriate section of the aircraft logbook,
corrosion folder, or other appropriate documents to
ensure that the area is re-inspected in the future as a
corrosion prone area.
9-7. TREATMENT AFTER LANDING ON A FOAMED
RUNWAY. Materials used to foam runways are corrosive
to aircraft. As soon as possible after a landing on a
foamed runway, exterior areas, wheel wells, any interior
areas exposed, and engines shall be cleaned. Clean
the exterior and wheel wells, interior areas, and engines
in accordance with Chapter 2.
9-8. TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC AREAS.
9-8.1. SPECIFIC INTERNAL AREAS. The following
internal areas require special emergency cleaning.
9-8.1.1. Avionic and Electrical Equipment. Effective
cleaning ensures that salt water, fire fighting chemicals,
and other corrosive agents are completely removed to
prevent corrosion damage. Refer to Volume III for
specific cleaning procedures.
9-8.1.2. Cockpit Area. Emergency cleaning procedures
for the cockpit are as follows:
a. If the interior is undrainable, drill out fasteners at
low point. If still undrainable, drill a hole at the low point.
b. Remove avionics equipment, relay boxes, circuit
breakers, and switches, and clean as specified in
accordance with Volume III.
c. Turn over avionic equipment to the activity that
has the authority and capability to disassemble.
d. Dry equipment that has been cleaned as much as
possible with air pressure (less than 10 psi), drying
machines, electric fans, or hand fans in a hot room of
150°F (66°C) maximum, or in a well ventilated room
where the humidity is low.
4
d. Apply water displacing preservative
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type III) to all avionic components
9-9
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
e. Apply water displacing CPC (MIL-PRF-81309
Type II) by spraying or brushing onto all areas that
cannot be properly drained or contain recesses which
are difficult to reach.
9-8.1.3. Ejection Seats. The following emergency
cleaning procedure shall be used for cleaning ejection
seats.
WARNING
Disarm ejection seat mechanism before
cleaning. Ensure that only authorized personnel
disarm seats and perform cleaning operations.
a. Remove parachutes, drogue parachutes (where
applicable), and seat pans. Return to local work center
for cleaning or replacement.
b. Remove ejection seat in accordance with the
applicable maintenance manual.
c. Rinse seat thoroughly with fresh water. Continue
rinsing while directing water into crevices and close
fitting parts until contaminants are removed.
d. Wipe down cartridge activated devices, rockets,
and inertia reels with a clean cloth wet with fresh water.
Disarm and remove from seats. Metal cap all gas lines
and ports.
e. Remove as much water as possible from
equipment with vacuum or low-pressure, clean, dry air.
f. Dry excess water deposits with clean cloth or
clean paper towels.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
g. Apply water displacing CPC (MIL-PRF-81309
Type II) by either spray or brush application to critical
metal surfaces and recess areas that may not be
completely dry. Water displacing CPC will protect
equipment during necessary inspections and during
transfer to repair custodian.
9-10
h. Wash all survival gear and pilot safety equipment
with fresh water and dry thoroughly. Refer to applicable
maintenance requirements for detailed preservation
procedures. Lubricate and control corrosion in
accordance with maintenance cards.
i. If necessary, send ejection seat to next highest
level of maintenance.
j. Aircraft mounted escape system components
(mechanically activated CADS) shall be wiped and
dried with a clean cloth and fresh water. If internal
contamination is suspected, remove and replace.
Forward to a Depot Level Maintenance Activity for
further disassembly, inspection, and repair.
9-8.1.4. Fluoroelastomer (Viton™) Hazards. Viton is a
rubber-like compound used in aircraft applications for
its excellent resistance to heat, abrasion, and aircraft
fluids. It is used as an engine duct coating for fire
suppression, and as gaskets on the backside of doors
and access panels (e.g. F/A-18s). Viton poses no harm
under normal temperature conditions. However, at
temperatures encountered during an aircraft fire, Viton
will break down and produce small amounts of toxic
hydrogen fluoride gas. Hydrogen fluoride can combine
with water to produce hydrofluoric (HF) acid, which is
extremely corrosive to human tissue. Refer to NAVAIR
00-80R-14 and/or aircraft specific maintenance
instruction manuals for guidance as to the appropriate
PPE, handling, clean-up, and first aid procedures when
dealing with decomposed Viton or contaminated
equipment.
9-8.1.5. Photographic Equipment. The following
procedure is applicable for cleaning photographic
equipment.
a. Immediately rinse with fresh water, drain, and
rinse again.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
b. Apply water displacing
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type III).
4
preservative
c. Return to the appropriate photographic technician
for prompt servicing.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
9-8.2. SPECIFIC EXTERNAL AREAS. The following
external aircraft areas require special emergency
cleaning.
9-8.2.1. Airframes. The following procedure is
applicable for cleaning airframes:
a. If the aircraft fuselage, hull, or wings are in a
salvageable condition, drain holes may be made for
draining water by drilling out rivets at the lowest points.
All repairable/reusable parts shall be collected and
returned with the aircraft when shipment is made.
b. Flush all areas with clean, fresh water while
draining. If possible, units or components that have
been removed should be immersed in fresh water and
then flushed thoroughly with fresh water. Drain away
the water and dry the areas with cloths, paper towels, or
air pressure less than 10 psi.
9-8.2.2. Antennas. Remove the antenna according to
instructions in the aircraft maintenance manual. Treat in
accordance with Volume III. In-place cleaning may be
accomplished as follows:
a. Check antenna insulators for damage or cracks.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
b. Brush or spray a solution of one part aircraft
cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts
water onto the affected area.
c. Scrub the area with a small, soft brush or wiping
cloth dipped in the above cleaning solution.
d. Rinse with clean, fresh water.
e. Dry the area with a clean, dry cloth.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
c. Clean surfaces with a solution of one part of
aircraft cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in
14 parts of water. Scrub affected areas using the solution.
Flush thoroughly with fresh water and drain away the
excess water. Dry with cloths, paper towels, or air
pressure less than 10 psi.
9-8.2.3. Armament. The following instructions are for
initial treatment of armament equipment that has been
immersed in salt water or subjected to fire extinguishing
chemicals.
9-8.2.3.1. Safety Precautions. Before performing any
cleaning tasks, make certain that preliminary safety
precautions are followed:
a. Ensure that the aircraft is safe for maintenance.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
d. To aid in the removal of water, liberally apply
water displacing CPC (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all
other areas that cannot be properly drained or have
recesses which are difficult to reach.
e. All repairable/reuseable parts shall be collected
and returned with the aircraft when shipment is made.
b. Disconnect all electrical power and ensure that all
armament switches are in the OFF or SAFE positions.
NOTE
For removal of armament equipment, refer to
the applicable manual for the respective aircraft.
c. Remove all ordnance from the armament
equipment and dispose of contaminated ammunition as
required.
9-8.2.3.2. Cleaning Procedure. After completion of
safety precautions, clean armament equipment as
follows:
a. Rinse equipment with clean, fresh water.
9-11
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
Cleaner, Non-Aqueous,
Low VOC, HAP Free,
MIL-PRF-32295
15 April 2009
Change 1 - 31 March 2010
13
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
15
i. If shipment to a higher level of maintenance is
required, reassemble parts and apply water displacing
CPC (MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to the outer surfaces.
Permit excess CPC to drain off, then wrap gun in barrier
material (MIL-PRF-131 Class 1) sealed with tape
(AMS-T-22085) and prepare for shipping.
b. Disassemble as required and remove excess oils
and greases using a clean cloth dampened with
degreasing solvent (MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or
non-aqueous cleaner (MIL-PRF-32295 Type I).
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
c. Immerse and agitate parts in a solution of one part
aircraft cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II)
in 14 parts of fresh water.
4
9-8.2.4. Composite Materials, Graphite or Carbon/
Epoxy.
WARNING
The inhalation of carbon composite fibers
resulting from aircraft fires and/or aircraft
material damage may be harmful to personnel.
Wear a full facepiece respirator when exposed
to these materials, and, in addition, wear close
weave cotton gloves when handling these
materials.
CAUTION
d. Rinse with fresh water to ensure complete removal
of contaminants.
e. Wipe away excess water with clean, dry cloth.
f. Blow dry the cleaned equipment as thoroughly as
possible with clean, dry air pressure less than 10 psi.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
g. Liberally apply water displacing CPC
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to disassembled parts.
h. Inspect disassembled parts to determine whether
the equipment can be returned to service or should be
forwarded to a higher maintenance activity for rework.
Aircraft construction utilizing carbon/epoxy fiber
composite materials and metal structure or
substructure creates a high potential for
establishing galvanic corrosion cells. This can
result in corrosion of the metal components if
the structure is exposed to an electrolyte
medium, such as salt water.
9-8.2.4.1. The carbon fibers of composite materials
may be released into the atmosphere if their epoxy
binder burns; this occurs at temperatures in excess of
600°F (316°C). In addition, fibers may be released by
an explosion or a high impact crash. The procedures for
treating fire damaged composite materials are listed in
NAVAIR 01-1A-21 (Navy) or TM 55-1500 series (Army).
NOTE
Appropriate ship maneuvering, to direct the
smoke and debris away from parked aircraft
and the island structure, can materially reduce
fiber contamination and reduce the cleanup
process.
9-8.2.4.2. Cleanup. When damaged aircraft have
composite surfaces that are broken or burned, the
following procedures should be followed.
9-12
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
NOTE
f. If wrapping and secure taping of the aircraft
wreckage is not possible, transportation of the wreckage
must be planned. Bypass heavily populated and
industrial areas. Aircraft parked along the planned route
must have their canopies and access doors closed and
engine inlet and exhaust covered. In addition, the doors
and windows of surrounding buildings should be closed
to minimize the probability of having wind-blown fibers
enter areas containing electrical and electronic
equipment.
It is recommended that industrial hygiene/safety
personnel be contacted to provide specific
information regarding hazards to personnel
during cleanup.
9-8.2.5. Composite Materials, Boron/Tungsten. The
extinguishing, containing, and cleaning practices for
boron fibers are the same as those for carbon/epoxy
fibers.
WARNING
Do not put power to or start up aircraft or
electronic/electrical equipment that has been
exposed to debris until decontamination by
vacuuming and/or washing is completed. Failure
to observe these procedures may result in
electrical short circuits and fires.
a. If ventilation inlets are known to be exposed to
debris, take immediate action to ensure that the filtration
system is properly operating. If the system is not
operating properly, shut down the system and provide
temporary filtration at outlets leading to compartments
with electrical and electronic equipment.
b. Warn adjacent aircraft and ships that the smoke
may contain hazardous electrical contaminants.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
9-8.2.6. Engines, Reciprocating.
a. Determine the extent of contamination.
b. Drain all fluids. Partial disassembly is authorized
to accomplish thorough draining. Ensure that pressure
systems and cylinders are drained.
c. Thoroughly flush all surfaces and passages with
clean, fresh water.
4
c. Spray water displacing CPC (MIL-PRF-81309
Type II) on damaged composite surfaces. This will
prevent the spread of carbon fiber contamination by
causing the fibers to stick to the damaged surface.
Cover damaged surfaces securely with thick plastic
sheets (A-A-3174) and seal with tape (AMS-T-22085
Type II).
d. Aircraft, equipment, clothing and facilities that
have been exposed to carbon fiber or other debris from
an aircraft fire must be vacuumed and/or washed down
prior to reuse or prior to moving to another location.
e. Decontamination of the immediate area of the
aircraft wreckage may require vacuuming, washing,
and bagging of composite material fragments. Use a
sealed industrial vacuum cleaner. Store collected debris
in sealed, plastic bags for the accident investigation.
Dispose of in accordance with applicable environmental
and safety regulations when so directed by the
investigation team.
Solvent, Degreasing
MIL-PRF-680
13
d. Apply dry cleaning solvent (MIL-PRF-680 Type II).
Cleaning Compound
Turbine Engine Gas Path
MIL-PRF-85704
3
e. Flush all surfaces and passages with either a
solution of one part engine gas path cleaner
(MIL-PRF-85704 Type II) in four parts fresh water or use
the ready-to-use form of the cleaner (MIL-PRF-85704
Type II RTU).
f. Thoroughly rinse all areas with fresh water.
g. Allow to drain thoroughly. Dry using paper towels,
cloths, or air pressure less than 10 psi.
9-13
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
15 April 2009
4
h. Liberally apply water displacing CPC
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all surfaces. This may be
accomplished by fill and drain (preferred), flushing, or
spraying. Rotate the propeller shaft to coat cylinder
walls. Drain excess CPC.
i. Reassemble engine finger tight.
j. Lubricate any pressure lubrication points to
completely displace all contaminated lubricant.
k. For shipping, place engine in an approved
dehydrated metal container, using twice the normal
amount of desiccant.
9-8.2.7. Engines, Turbine. Engines that are
contaminated with small amounts of seawater entering
the intake shall be cleaned using engine gas path
cleaner (MIL-PRF-85704) in accordance with Table 2-3.
For engines which have been completely submerged in
water or seawater, decontaminate as follows:
a. Drain all fluids. Partial disassembly is authorized
to accomplish thorough draining.
b. Thoroughly flush all surfaces and passages with
fresh water.
Cleaning Compound
Turbine Engine Gas Path
MIL-PRF-85704
3
c. Flush all surfaces and passages with either a
solution of one part engine gas path cleaner
(MIL-PRF-85704 Type II) in four parts fresh water or use
the ready-to-use form of the cleaner (MIL-PRF-85704
Type II RTU).
d. Thoroughly rinse all areas with fresh water.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
f. Liberally apply water displacing CPC
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all surfaces. This may be
accomplished by fill and drain (preferred), flushing, or
spraying. Drain excess CPC. Repeat this procedure
until all traces of water have been removed.
g. Lubricate any pressure lubrication points to
completely displace all contaminated lubricant.
h. For shipping, install in an approved dehydrated
metal container, using twice the normal amount of
desiccant. Notify the Aircraft Controlling Custodians
(ACC) or System Program Manager (SPM) to arrange
special handling as required.
9-8.2.8. Helicopter Blades, Main and Tail Rotor.
Helicopter blades that have been exposed to an
excessive amount of salt water or fire fighting chemicals
shall be treated as follows:
a. Thoroughly flush all contaminated surfaces with
clean, fresh water. Pay particular attention to recesses
that tend to trap debris such as mud, dirt, or salt
deposits.
CAUTION
Some rotor blades have areas commonly known
as pockets or blade boxes with very small drain
holes. If blades have been immersed in salt
water, the drain holes may require enlargement
to facilitate decontamination of the blade spar.
Enlarging drain holes destroys the affected
pockets or blade boxes and requires repair at a
Depot Level Maintenance Activity before the
blade can be reused.
b. Allow water to drain. Enlarge drain holes in pocket/
blade box if required. Enlargement of pocket/blade box
requires authorization from the appropriate ACC/SPM
for each blade involved.
e. Drain thoroughly.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
9-14
2
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
c. Wash with a solution of one part aircraft cleaning
compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts fresh
water.
d. Rinse thoroughly with fresh water.
e. Dry with cloth, paper towels or air pressure less
than 10 psi.
9-8.2.9.2. Internal Surface Contamination. If internal
surface contamination of helicopter transmission rotor
heads and gearboxes is suspected, immediately contact
the appropriate ACC/SPM for assistance and
decontamination procedures. Treat helicopter
transmissions, rotor heads, and rotor hubs having
internal contamination as follows:
a. Drain all fluids. Partial disassembly is authorized
to accomplish thorough draining. Ensure that pressure
systems are drained.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
4
b. Thoroughly flush all surfaces and passages with
fresh water.
f. Where possible, flush with water displacing CPC
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II). Preserve and package blade
before sending to the appropriate ACC/SPM for
engineering evaluation and repair.
9-8.2.9. Helicopter Transmission, Rotor Head, and
Rotor Hub. Helicopter transmission, rotor head, and
rotor hub cases are often constructed of magnesium.
Magnesium parts exposed to salt water or fire fighting
chemicals require immediate and thorough
decontamination and preservation.
9-8.2.9.1. External Surface Contamination. Treat
helicopter transmissions, rotor heads, and rotor hubs
with external surface contamination as follows:
a. Rinse with fresh water.
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
2
d. Thoroughly rinse all areas with fresh water.
e. Allow to drain thoroughly.
4
f. Liberally apply water displacing CPC
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all surfaces. This may be
accomplished by fill and drain (preferred), flushing, or
spraying. With the housing full of CPC, rotate the main
shaft approximately five revolutions. After the CPC has
remained in the housing for 4 hours, drain and replace
plugs.
g. Service transmission in accordance with
maintenance instruction manuals (MIMs) if going back
in service or leave as preserved if shipping out.
4
c. Liberally apply water displacing
(MIL-PRF-81309 Type II) to all affected areas.
2
c. Flush all surfaces and passages with a solution of
one part aircraft cleaning compound (MIL-PRF-85570
Type II) in 14 parts fresh water.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
b. Wash with a solution of one part aircraft cleaning
compound (MIL-PRF-85570 Type II) in 14 parts fresh
water and rinse thoroughly.
Compound, Corrosion Preventive
MIL-PRF-81309
Compound, Aircraft Cleaning
MIL-PRF-85570
CPC
d. Lubricate all pressure lubrication points to
completely displace all contaminated lubricant.
h. Lubricate all pressure lubrication points to
completely displace all contaminated lubricant.
9-8.3. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEMS. For emergency
treatment of aircraft fuel systems contaminated with
seawater through means other than water, crash, or fire
damage, refer to NAVAIR 01-1A-35 (Navy) or
Appendix B, Section V (Army).
9-15
9-15/(9-16 Blank)
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THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
9-16
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APPENDIX A
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NAVY AIRCRAFT
SECTION I. PAINT FINISHES AND TOUCH-UP PROCEDURES
A-1. SCOPE. This section describes materials and
procedures used for applying protective paint finishes
to interior and exterior surfaces of Navy and Marine
Corps aircraft. This information is intended for use in
conjunction with system specific paint finishing
instructions. This section describes the following:
a. Safety precautions when storing and handling
paint materials;
b. Storage and shelf life considerations;
c. Paint systems used on Navy and Marine Corps
aircraft;
Contact the local Industrial Hygiene Activity or
Occupational Safety and Health Office for proper
selection of respiratory protection equipment. Refer to
Volume IV for ordering information for various respirators
and supplied air devices.
A-2.2. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. Eye and skin contact
with paint materials and solvents shall be avoided.
Wear protective goggles or face shield, rubber gloves,
and coveralls. If paint materials or solvents contact the
eyes, rinse with fresh water for 15 minutes and seek
immediate medical attention. If contact with the skin
occurs, wash affected area with soap and water; if there
is excessive exposure or a severe reaction, seek medical
attention immediately.
d. Paint application equipment;
e. Preparation of surfaces prior to painting;
f. Paint application techniques; and
g. Specific mixing and application information for
standard paint finishing materials.
A-2. SAFETY. Paint materials, including primers and
solvents, are toxic and flammable. It is essential to
properly store, handle, and apply these materials to
prevent fires and to minimize exposure to solvent
vapors and paint overspray mist. All personnel involved
with paint operations shall read, understand, and follow
OPNAVINST 5100.23. Consult the local Occupational
Safety and Health Office or Industrial Hygiene Activity
for these references and appropriate safety precautions
pertinent to specific sites. Consult applicable material
safety data sheets (MSDSs) supplied by the
manufacturer for information on specific material
hazards. Additional safety information may be obtained
from the Hazardous Material Users Guide (HMUG) and
DoDI 6050.05.
A-2.1. RESPIRATOR USE. Respiratory protection
programs shall be established per OPNAVINST
5100.23. Whether painting operations are performed
indoors or outdoors, it is necessary to avoid inhalation
of vapors and dust. Solvents and thinners used for paint
processes, including those used for equipment cleanup,
are harmful if inhaled for prolonged periods and should
be handled with the same care as paint materials.
A-2.3. VENTILATION. Adequate ventilation shall be
provided in all painting and storage areas to prevent the
buildup of solvent vapors. Painters and all other
personnel involved in the paint operation shall take
appropriate precautions to minimize exposure to solvent
vapors and paint overspray mist.
A-2.4. FIRE PREVENTION. Paint materials are
extremely flammable. These materials shall be stored,
mixed and applied in approved areas away from heat,
flame, sparks, and other sources of ignition. Ensure that
fire fighting equipment is readily available and in working
order. Consult the local Fire Department, Fire Marshall,
or Occupational Safety and Health Office for specific
fire prevention and safety requirements during painting
operations.
A-3. STORAGE AND SHELF LIFE. All paint materials
shall be stored in tightly closed containers away from
excessive heat and cold. As a general rule, store paint
materials between 40°F and 100°F, away from direct
sunlight. Extreme storage temperatures can degrade
material quality and will reduce the effective shelf life of
paint materials.
A-3.1. IDENTIFICATION. All paint materials shall be
properly identified when stored. Containers should be
relabeled when necessary to ensure legibility. Previously
opened containers shall be closed and sealed tightly.
Paint thinners shall be stored with the same care as
paints.
A-1
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
A-3.2. SHELF LIFE. The shelf life or storage life of paint
materials can vary from several months to several
years. The manufacturer’s recommended shelf life is
usually printed on the container label. However, if
properly stored, material usability may exceed these
recommendations. Additional shelf life information may
be obtained from https://www.shelflife.hq.dla.mil.
15 April 2009
d. Corrosion protection;
e. Dissipation of static charge;
f. Resistance to abrasion, rain erosion, fungus, and
operational fluids;
g. High visibility requirements; and
A-3.3. SHELF LIFE EXTENSION. Shelf life action codes
determine how long the shelf life can be extended if the
material passes testing.
A-3.3.1. If the inspect/test date of the material has been
exceeded, shake the container, or containers as in the
case of multicomponent paint materials, and examine
the contents. The material shall be homogenous with no
skinning and lumps. The resin component of
multicomponent materials shall be clear with no visible
cloudiness, white precipitate, or sediment. Containers
shall be free from rust and other contaminates. Discard
any unsuitable materials according to local regulations.
A-3.3.2. If the material appears satisfactory, mix and
apply it to aluminum test coupons. Periodically check
the coating on the test specimens for appropriate drying
and film characteristics.
a. If the material dries properly, the shelf life may be
extended for a period of six months (first extension),
four months (second extension), or two months (third
extension). Affix an extension label to the container in
accordance with FED-STD-793.
b. If the coating does not dry in the specified time,
dispose of the material according to local regulations.
A-3.3.3. Shelf life for paint-type materials can be
extended three times if the material is found suitable, for
a total extension period of 12 months.
A-4. PAINT SYSTEMS. The primary objective of any
paint system is to protect exposed surfaces against
corrosion and other forms of deterioration. Operational
uses for particular paint schemes include:
a. Flat (lusterless or non-specular) coatings for glare
reduction;
b. Special finishes for heat reduction and thermal
protection;
c. Camouflage/stealth (LO) and other detection
countermeasures;
A-2
h. Identification markings.
A-4.1. PAINT SYSTEM MATERIALS. Aircraft paint
systems usually consist of a primer and topcoat
combination applied over a properly prepared surface.
The primer contains corrosion inhibitors and also
promotes adhesion of the paint system. The primer may
also provide low infrared reflectance properties. The
topcoat provides durability to the paint system, including
weather and chemical resistance, along with coloring
necessary for tactical requirements. On some aircraft,
spray sealant is applied between primer and topcoat to
improve paint system flexibility and to add additional
corrosion protection. Aircraft paint systems often make
use of specialty coatings, such as conductive paints
and low-observable coatings. Consult specific
maintenance instructions for guidance on specialty
coatings application and repair.
A-4.1.1. Environmentally Compliant Coatings. The
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), along with
many local and state air pollution control districts, has
implemented rules that limit the volatile organic
compound (VOC) content, or solvent content, of paints
applied to aircraft. VOC content is reported as grams of
solvent per liter of paint or "g/l". Currently, the national
maximum permissible VOC content is 340 g/l for aircraft
primers, and 420 g/l for aircraft topcoats. These limits
may be less in certain local or state air pollution control
districts. It is the responsibility of the user activity to
ensure that applicable rules are understood and obeyed.
Failure to comply with current rules can result in large
fines and revocation of air emission permits. Consult
the local Environmental Affairs Office or appropriate
permitting authority for guidance.
A-4.1.2. Common Materials. Table A-1 lists the primary
coatings used on Navy aircraft and some specific material
characteristics.
A-4.2. PAINT COLORS. FED-STD-595 (color fandeck)
provides a list of paint colors represented by five digit
numbers. The first digit describes gloss value:
1 = high gloss, 2 = semigloss, and 3 = flat (lusterless).
The second digit describes the color family: 0 = browns,
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table A-1. Primary Coatings Used on U. S. Navy Aircraft
Specification
Material Description
VOC, (g/l)
maximum
Dry Film Thickness
(mils)
Drying Time (hours)
TACK FREE
DRY HARD
PRIMER
MIL-PRF-23377
Epoxy Primer, High-Solids
340
0.6 - 0.9
1/2 - 2
8
MIL-PRF-85582
Epoxy Primer, Waterborne
340
0.6 - 0.9
1-2
6
TT-P-2760
Polyurethane Primer, Elastomeric
340
1.5 - 2.0
5
8
MIL-PRF-22750
Epoxy Topcoat, High-Solids
34 0
1.7 - 2.3
2-6
8
MIL-PRF-85285 Type I
Polyurethane Topcoat
420
1.7 - 2.3
4
12
TOPCOAT
1 = reds, 2 = oranges, 3 = yellows, 4 = greens,
5 = blues, 6 = grays, 7 = blacks, whites, and metallics,
and 8 = fluorescent. The remaining three digits describe
the color value or hue. For example, color number
36440 is a flat, gray color and color number 17925 is a
high gloss, white color. See Volume IV for information
on ordering a color fandeck.
A-4.3. PAINT SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION. Paint finish
materials, application date, and application activity are
identified by decal or stencil located on the aft starboard
side of the aircraft fuselage, and should be used as a
guide for selection of materials when paint system
repair is necessary. Refer to MIL-STD-2161 or system
specific instructions for paint color schemes, aircraft
markings/MODEX, and specific material requirements.
A-4.4. TOUCH-UP. Table A-2 lists original coating
materials and specified touch-up materials used for
common aircraft paint systems. All activities shall be
familiar with paint scheme requirements, particularly
the importance of using appropriate materials. Refer to
MIL-STD-2161 and system specific instructions for paint
finishing details.
A-4.5. COSMETIC PAINTING. Repainting solely for
the sake of cosmetic appearance is not authorized.
Since common paint materials may take as many as
seven days to completely cure, a faded or stained but
well-bonded paint finish is more durable than a fresh
touch-up treatment. Refinishing shall be performed
only when existing paint finishes have deteriorated or
have been damaged, or when removal of the existing
paint system is necessary for corrosion corrective
actions.
A-4.6. TEMPORARY MARKINGS. Where local
environmental regulations permit, lacquer paint such as
MIL-PRF-81352 Type I may be used for temporary
markings. Lacquer can be easily removed using solvents,
such as MIL-T-81772 Type I Aircraft Paint Thinner,
without affecting the underlying paint system. In
instances where local environmental regulations do not
permit the use of lacquer, use only the prescribed
environmentally compliant coatings listed in Table A-2.
NOTE
Non-approved aerosol coatings are not
authorized for aircraft touch-up and painting.
A-4.7. AEROSOL COATINGS. Aerosol paint delivery
systems using approved coatings are recommended
for small touch-up processes. Refer to Table A-2 and
paragraph A-9 for authorized materials. Non-approved
aerosol coatings do not provide adequate corrosion
protection, weather resistance, and durability, nor are
they resistant to operational fluids.
A-4.8. WET INSTALLATIONS. Fasteners and bushings
are often wet-installed with corrosion inhibiting primer
or sealant to provide additional corrosion protection.
Waterborne materials, such as MIL-PRF-85582
Waterborne Epoxy Primer, shall not be used for wet
installation of fasteners and bushings since entrapped
moisture may promote corrosion. In general,
MIL-PRF-23377 Epoxy Primer and MIL-PRF-81733
Polysulfide Sealant are preferred materials for wet
installation purposes. Consult specific maintenance
instructions for appropriate selection of materials.
A-4.9. SPECIAL SURFACES. Some aircraft surfaces
require specialized coatings to satisfy service exposure
and operational needs. Radomes, antenna covers, and
parts with similar elastomeric coatings shall be repaired
in accordance with NAVAIR 01-1A-22 and
system-specific repair instructions. Coatings on propeller
blades, helicopter rotor blades, leading edge erosion
resistant coatings, and anti-chafe coatings shall also be
repaired in accordance with system-specific repair
A-3
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Table A-2. Original Coating Systems and Corresponding Touch-up Systems
Paint System and Description
TACTICAL PAINT SCHEME or
LAND CAMOUFLAGE PAINT SCHEME
A color scheme designed for specific aircraft types to reduce visual detection by matching
the reflectance of operational surroundings.
Tactical paint schemes are comprised mainly of flat gray colors (35237, 36081, 36118,
36231, 36320, 36375, or 36495).
Original Coatings
Touch-Up Coatings
Primer
MIL-PRF-23377 Type II or
MIL-PRF-85582 Type II
Primer
MIL-PRF-23377 Type II or
MIL-PRF-85582 Type II
Topcoat
MIL-PRF-85285 Type I
Topcoat
MIL-PRF-85285 Type I,
MIL-PRF-22750, or
MIL-PRF-81352 Type III
Primer
MIL-PRF-23377 Type I,
MIL-PRF-85582 Type I,
or TT-P-2760 Type I
Primer
MIL-PRF-23377 Type I,
MIL-PRF-85582 Type I,
or TT-P-2760 Type I
Topcoat
MIL-PRF-85285 Type I
Topcoat
MIL-PRF-85285 Type I,
MIL-PRF-22750, or
MIL-PRF-81352 Type III
Primer
MIL-PRF-23377 Type I,
MIL-PRF-85582 Type I,
or TT-P-2760 Type I
Primer
MIL-PRF-23377 Type I or
MIL-PRF-85582 Type I
Primer
MIL-PRF-23377 Type I,
MIL-PRF-85582 Type I,
or TT-P-2760 Type I
Primer
MIL-PRF-23377 Type I or
MIL-PRF-85582 Type I
Topcoat
MIL-PRF-85285 Type I,
or MIL-PRF-22750
Topcoat
MIL-PRF-85285 Type I,
MIL-PRF-22750, or
MIL-PRF-81352 Type III
Land camouflage paint schemes are comprised of flat green (34095),
gray (36375), and black (37038).
HIGH GLOSS PAINT SYSTEM
The traditional, highly reflective glossy paint scheme, usually composed of insignia white
(17925) and gull gray (16440), with other colors and markings.
INTERIOR SURFACES (WITHOUT TOPCOAT)
Many hidden interior surfaces do not require protective topcoats since they are not
exposed to direct sunlight, heavy soils, or overly corrosive conditions.
INTERIOR SURFACES (WITH TOPCOAT)
Many interior surfaces require a topcoat due to operational necessity. This includes
surfaces requiring frequent cleaning or additional corrosion protection.
instructions. Refer to Volume III for touch-up of avionics
equipment. Refer to NAVAIR 17-1-125 for touch-up of
ground support equipment.
A-5. PAINT EQUIPMENT. Paint coatings are typically
applied using brushes, touch-up pens, rollers, and
spray guns. Selection of an appropriate application
method depends upon the size of the area to be painted,
where the paint is to be applied, and what equipment is
allowed. Specific coating application procedures are
controlled by environmental and safety regulations, and
some equipment may be prohibited. Therefore, anyone
performing painting operations shall be knowledgeable
about local, state, and federal regulations governing
equipment and procedures. Consult the local
Environmental Affairs Office for specific requirements.
A-5.1. HIGH-VOLUME LOW-PRESSURE (HVLP)
GUN. HVLP spray equipment (see Figure A-1) atomizes
paint into a soft pattern of low speed particles using an
air cap pressure up to 10 psi maximum. Due to the low
velocity of the coating particles, more of the coating is
deposited on the intended object with less overspray.
A-4
Figure A-1. HVLP Paint Spray Gun
15 April 2009
Since there is less overspray, it is easier to see the
surface being coated. Film build is faster than with
conventional spray equipment due to higher transfer
efficiency. Benefits include less material usage and less
paint booth maintenance due to less overspray. The
proper working distance of an HVLP gun is usually
closer than with a conventional paint spray gun. Due to
environmental regulations, an HVLP system must not
be operated at air cap pressures exceeding 10 psi.
Refer to manufacturer’s literature supplied with the
paint gun for proper operation and adjustment.
Figure A-2 illustrates the components of a typical HVLP
paint spray gun. Refer to Volume IV for ordering
information of the HVLP paint spray guns.
A-5.1.1. Transfer Efficiency. Application methods shall
be selected to minimize the amount of paint waste and
solvent emissions. Transfer efficiency is used to gage
the effectiveness of paint equipment and is represented
as a percentage of the amount of paint deposited on the
surface compared with the total amount of paint used.
Spray painting produces overspray and has much less
transfer efficiency than brush or roller application, but
produces a more uniform, higher quality paint film. The
EPA has established specific requirements for paint
spray equipment used on aircraft surfaces. High-volume
low-pressure (HVLP) spray equipment or electrostatic
spray equipment is recommended since they have
higher transfer efficiencies than conventional
high-pressure spray equipment. In addition, conventional
high-pressure spray equipment is no longer allowed in
most localities for use on aircraft surfaces due to
environmental restrictions. Consult the local
Environmental Affairs Office for guidance on selection
of proper paint spray equipment.
A-5.1.2. HVLP Equipment Options. HVLP spray guns
are suitable for painting both large areas and small
components. These guns can be fitted with a small cup,
usually a pint or quart capacity, or a pressure pot. A
pressure pot holds two or more quarts of paint and is
pressurized to force paint through a hose to the paint
spray gun. The amount of pressure supplied to the pot
is determined by the paint viscosity and length of paint
supply hose. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations
to set pot pressure.
A-5.2. TOUCH-UP SPRAY GUN. A touch-up spray
gun is used to apply paint to small areas using a small
spray pattern. Since these guns are used for small
areas, they are often acceptable under environmental
regulations. Consult the local Environmental Affairs
Office for guidance on the use of touch-up spray guns.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
A-5.3. 3M PAINT PREPARATION SYSTEM (PPS).
PPS is a closed paint system that connects to both
siphon and gravity feed HVLP spray guns, allowing
mixing and spraying of paint materials from the same
disposable liner bag (see Figure A-3). Adapters are
available to convert existing spray guns to use PPS.
Instead of traditional rigid cups made of polyethylene,
aluminum, or stainless steel, the PPS includes a
collapsible liner bag in a plastic cup fitted with a lid and
built-in filter. As paint is sprayed, the liner bag collapses,
allowing the spray gun to function at any angle (i.e.,
sideways, upside down). This multi-angle capability is
especially useful for painting inside compartments, under
wings, or the bottom of the fuselage. Collapsed liner
bags and lids with built-in filter are disposable, leaving
only the spray gun and adapter to be cleaned. Unused
paint can be sealed in the liner with a sealing cap and
stored appropriately. PPS provides an efficient means
of applying paint materials, thus reducing paint waste
and minimizing time and cleaning solvents required for
cleaning paint spray gun assemblies.
A-5.4. ELECTROSTATIC EQUIPMENT. Electrostatic
paint spray equipment deposits paint on surfaces by
means of static electric attraction. The surface to be
painted and the coating material have opposing charges
which causes the coating to be attracted to the surface.
Electrostatic painting is useful for painting large areas
and, if used properly, produces little overspray with high
transfer efficiency. Due to electrical conductivity
requirements, this equipment is highly dependent upon
the type of coating (i.e., waterborne vs. solvent based)
and substrate conditions (i.e., metallic or nonmetallic).
Follow manufacturer’s recommendations and safety
precautions when operating this equipment.
A-5.5. BRUSH AND ROLLER. Brushes and rollers are
environmentally preferred alternatives for touch-up
painting since they produce little paint waste and do not
require solvent clean up. However, spray painting is
preferred where allowed by local regulations and
availability of proper personal protective equipment
(PPE), since the quality and uniformity of the paint film
is better than that achieved by brush or roller application.
Brushes and rollers must be constructed of durable
materials that will not be affected by solvents in the
coatings. Do not use foam brushes or foam rollers since
they are not solvent resistant. Refer to Volume IV for
appropriate brushes and rollers. Note that in addition to
the standard 1" wide brush, there are "acid brushes"
and "artist brushes" available for small or hard to reach
areas. Use rollers with the shortest nap possible in order
to achieve the best surface finish. Brushes and rollers
A-5
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
ITEM NO.
DESCRIPTION
ITEM NO.
DESCRIPTION
1
Retaining Ring (Metal)
24
Air Connection
2
Air Nozzle
25
Plug
Fluid Inlet (Stainless Steel)
3
Fluid Nozzle
26
4
Head Insert
27
Gland Adapter
5
Gun Body Assembly
28
Needle Seal
Seal Backup
6
Trigger Stud & Screw Kit
29
7
Side Port Control Assembly #6
30
Spring
8
Control Stem
31
Packing Nut
9
Guide Bushing
32
Valve Spindle Cap
10
Retaining Ring
33
Gasket
Plug
11
Control Body
34
12
O-Ring
35
Trigger
13
Control Screw
36
Adjustable Fluid Inlet
(Assembly For Mach 1 W/Adj Fluid Inlet)
14
O-Ring (Teflon)
40
Vitreous Fluid Inlet
15
Seal Retainer
16
O-Ring (Buna)
42
Packing Spacer
Spring (Yellow)
17
Spindle Assembly
18
Spring (Blue)
19
41
43
Nut Assembly
44
Seal Cartridge Assembly
(For Adjustable Fluid Inlet)
Housing
20
Needle Assembly (Stainless Steel)
45
Gun Brush
21
Needle Lock Nut
46
Gun Brush
22
Needle Cap
47
Wrench
23
Fluid Control Knob
Figure A-2. HVLP Paint Spray Gun Parts Breakdown
A-6
15 April 2009
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
Figure A-3. 3M PPS Mounted on a Spray Gun
Figure A-4. Zahn No. 2 Viscosity Cup
are considered disposable. As such, they should not be
cleaned or reused.
values will vary among coatings. Primers are usually
applied at lower viscosities (15-25 seconds), and
topcoats, such as MIL-PRF-85285, are usually applied
at higher viscosities (18-30 seconds). Refer to the
application instructions for specific coating requirements.
To avoid exceeding VOC limits, do not add additional
paint thinner unless specifically authorized by the
manufacturer’s instructions.
A-5.6. ZAHN NO. 2 VISCOSITY CUP. Viscosity of
paint materials can be checked by measuring the time
required for the material to flow from a cup with a
specified volume through a specified orifice size in the
bottom of the cup (see Figure A-4). A Zahn No. 2 Cup
is constructed of corrosion resistant steel. This cup will
hold 44 milliliters (1.47 ounces) of material and has a
calibrated orifice in the bottom. The cup must not be
damaged or altered to ensure consistent volume; the
size of the orifice must also remain the same. Do not use
abrasive materials or metallic objects to clean the cups
since damage to the volume or orifice may occur.
Viscosity is measured using the Zahn No. 2 Cup as
follows:
a. Prepare the paint to be tested. Mix and strain per
manufacturer’s recommendations.
b. Fill the cup by submerging it into the material.
Make sure that enough material is available to completely
fill the cup.
c. When the cup is full, raise it completely out of the
material and immediately start a stopwatch. Carefully
observe the flow of paint from the orifice.
d. When the constant stream or flow of the material
breaks, stop the watch. The time required (in seconds)
for the stream to break is the viscosity value. Viscosity
A-5.7. WET FILM THICKNESS GAGE. Wet film
thickness of coatings is used to estimate the dry film
thickness. Wet film thickness is easily obtained using a
comb-type thickness gage (refer to Figure A-5). As a
general rule, dry film thickness will be approximately 50
percent of the wet film thickness. Wet film thickness is
obtained as follows:
a. Place gage on wet paint film at a 90° angle. This
is done on test panels sprayed at the same time as the
actual component or on masking tape adjacent to the
actual component just after the coating is applied.
b. Press gage into film. Withdraw and note deepest
tooth having paint on it and next higher tooth that is not
coated.
c. The wet film thickness lies between these two
readings.
d. Clean gage with a suitable solvent immediately
after use.
A-7
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Figure A-5. Wet Film Thickness Gage
A-5.8. DECAL MARKING EQUIPMENT. The Gerber
Edge adhesive stencil making system and Avery
Techniflex adhesive vinyl are the recommended products
for aircraft decal markings; however, any equivalent
system may be used.
A-6. GENERAL MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
FOR PAINT SPRAY EQUIPMENT. Proper maintenance
is necessary to preserve the life of the paint spray
equipment and ensure high quality results. The spray
gun requires little maintenance if kept clean. Two part
catalyzed coatings cure or harden by chemical reaction
in addition to solvent evaporation. The curing process
begins when the two components are mixed. Over a few
hours, the coating will gel and harden regardless of
whether or not it is exposed to air. If catalyzed materials
are allowed to remain in the equipment too long, the
equipment will become inoperative. For this reason,
paint equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned immediately
after use or at least every four hours.
A-6.1. PAINT EQUIPMENT CLEANING. Paint spray
equipment cleanup procedures are controlled by EPA
regulations. Local and state pollution control districts
may also have specific requirements. Consult the local
Environmental Affairs Office for specific requirements.
Generally approved cleaning solvents and methods are
listed below.
A-6.1.1. Paint Cleaning Solvent. To effectively remove
residue, paint equipment cleaning solvents must be
A-8
compatible with the type of coating material. In general,
residue from polyurethane coatings such as
MIL-PRF-85285 and TT-P-2760 can be removed using
MIL-T-81772 Type I Thinner. Residue from epoxy
coatings such as MIL-PRF-22750 and MIL-PRF-23377
can be removed using MIL-T-81772 Type II Thinner.
Uncured residue from waterborne coatings such as
MIL-PRF-85582 can be removed using a combination
of water and TT-I-735 (Isopropyl Alcohol). To prevent
corrosion, do not allow water to remain in the paint
equipment. Consult specific manufacturer's instructions
for guidance on cleaning solvents for each individual
coating.
WARNING
Eye protection and solvent proof gloves (no
latex) must be worn during use and maintenance
of the paint gun washer.
Rags and other cleaning materials saturated
with waste solvent are a potential fire hazard
and therefore shall be deposited in a suitable
container immediately after use. The container
shall be covered with a tight fitting lid and kept
closed except when depositing or removing
cleaning materials.
A-6.1.2. Paint Gun Washers. These washers consist of
an automated, close-loop spray system that flushes
and cleans both interior and exterior of HVLP paint guns
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
spray gun may be cleaned by completely dismantling
and soaking metal components, such as the air nozzle,
fluid nozzle, and needle assembly, in MIL-PRF-83936
tank-type paint remover (see Chapter 4). Do not immerse
the entire paint spray gun or any plastic components
into a paint remover tank.
A-7. PREPARATION OF SURFACES FOR
PAINTING. Much of the effectiveness of a paint finish
depends on careful preparation of the surface prior to
applying the coatings. Surface preparation includes
scuff sanding of old existing paint, cleaning, and chemical
conversion coating of any bare metal.
WARNING
Figure A-6. Paint Gun Washer
and other painting equipment (refer to Volume IV for
recommended units). These stainless-steel tank
washers (see Figure A-6) provide an alternative to the
labor intensive method of manually cleaning paint guns,
and minimize worker exposure to potentially harmful
solvents. The only exposure is during loading and
unloading of paint guns, solvent replenishment, and
replacing and disposing of the spent filters. A filtration
system allows the cleaning solvent to be reused
numerous times before disposal is required, thereby
reducing the quantity of spent solvent and rags that
must be disposed of as hazardous waste. Solvents
selected for use in the unit should be based on the type
of coatings to be removed. Operate and service system
per manufacturer’s instructions. Lid shall be kept closed
at all times except for loading and unloading paint spray
equipment or servicing system. Do not use this
equipment if leaks are present. Spent solvents shall be
disposed as necessary to ensure proper equipment
operation.
A-6.1.3. Non-Atomized Cleaning. Clean the paint spray
gun by placing solvent into the pressure pot or cup and
forcing solvent through the spray gun into a suitable
waste container. Do not atomize/spray the cleaning
solvent. The waste container shall be closed when not
in use to prevent solvent evaporation.
A-6.1.4. Manual Gun Cleaning. Clean the disassembled
paint spray gun by hand or by soaking the parts in a
container filled with solvent. Brushes may be used to
assist in cleaning detailed parts. The container shall be
closed while parts are soaking and when not in use. Do
not immerse the entire paint spray gun.
A-6.2. REMOVAL OF DRIED PAINT. After several
months of use or when clogged with dried paint, the
Some coatings contain chromium compounds,
lead compounds, and other heavy metal
pigments. Wear eye and respiratory protection
and ensure adequate safety precautions are in
place to prevent exposure to dust during sanding
operations. Contact the local Industrial Hygiene
Activity or Occupational Safety and Health Office
for guidance on the proper selection of
respiratory protection and other personal safety
requirements.
CAUTION
When scuff sanding and feathering paint
coatings, avoid damage to metal and composite
substrates. Abrasion of substrate materials can
damage structural integrity.
NOTE
Proper surface preparation is essential. Most
poorly adherent paint coatings are caused by
poor surface preparation. Carefully follow all
cleaning, corrosion removal, surface treatment,
and solvent wipe-down procedures before
applying any coatings.
A-7.1. PREPARATION OF AGED PAINT. Aged paint
coatings (those allowed to cure seven days or more)
must be scuff sanded prior to repainting to ensure
adhesion of additional paint coatings. Scuff sand using
150 grit or finer aluminum oxide cloth (ANSI B74.18),
abrasive mat (A-A-58054), or random orbital sander
with aluminum oxide paper. Scuff sanding requires a
complete roughening of the paint surface; however,
avoid aggressive scuff sanding, which can expose the
substrate and promote corrosion of metal and
degradation of composite materials. Unevenly matched
A-9
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
faying surface joints or fasteners and sharply protruding
objects or corners shall be scuff sanded by hand to
avoid sanding through the coating. After scuff sanding,
remove dry residue using clean cheesecloth
(CCC-C-440) dampened with water, followed by wiping
with clean cheesecloth dampened with thinner
(MIL-T-81772 Type I).
A-7.2. DRYING. All surfaces to be painted shall be
thoroughly dry prior to painting. After cleaning, special
precautions shall be taken to assure proper drainage of
all liquids from between faying surfaces, crevices, and
pockets, preferably by permitting the aircraft or
component to stand for a sufficient time to permit such
drainage. If necessary, isopropyl alcohol (TT-I-735)
may by sprayed into seams or fastener patterns after
cleaning to ensure displacement of water in these
areas. Ensure that areas surrounding the area to be
painted, especially crevices and faying surfaces, are
also dried prior to painting to prevent drainage onto the
work surface.
A-7.3. FINAL INSPECTION AND PREPARATION.
a. Inspect surface to be painted to ensure all
corrosion has been properly removed. Surfaces must
be cleaned and properly treated using chemical
conversion coating (see Chapters 2 and 5, respectively).
If chemical conversion coating is scratched or damaged,
the area must be retreated in accordance with Chapter 5.
15 April 2009
A-7.4.2. Environmentally Compliant Solvents.
Environmental regulations in most locations prohibit the
use of wipe solvents with vapor pressures greater than
45 millimeter of mercury (mmHg). The vapor pressure
of MIL-T-81772 Type I and AMS 3166 is approximately
35 mmHg or less.
A-8. GENERAL
PAINT
APPLICATION
PROCEDURES. The following procedures are general
rules to be followed when applying paint. For more
detailed information on the application of paint finishes,
refer to MIL-STD-7179 (Finishes, Coatings, and Sealants
for the Protection of Aerospace Weapons Systems).
WARNING
Aircraft shall be electrically grounded during all
painting procedures in order to guard against
the danger of fire from static electricity.
A-8.1. GENERAL SPRAYING TECHNIQUES.
a. Prior to spraying, the gun should be checked to
ensure that it produces the proper spray pattern.
Figure A-7 shows correct spray patterns and tips on
how to achieve them. Table A-3 shows incorrect patterns,
causes, and suggested remedies.
b. Always have the spray gun in motion before
spraying.
b. Replace any seam sealants if necessary, as
described in Chapter 7.
c. Keep the spray gun at a consistent distance from
the work during application.
c. Mask surrounding areas to protect from paint
overspray. Paint masking tape (AMS-T-21595 Type I)
and brown masking paper (A-A-203) are suitable for
most masking requirements. For touch-up spray
applications, it is often desirable to mask to a seam or
line to prevent the appearance of a paint edge after
masking material is removed.
d. Move the spray gun across the work at a consistent
speed.
e. For large surfaces, trigger the spray gun after
beginning and before ending each stroke.
f. Start the first stroke at the same point on each
similar object.
A-7.4. SOLVENT WIPE. Surfaces must be completely
clean prior to painting. Failure to remove all oils, greases,
aircraft fluids, fingerprints, or other contaminants will
lead to coating adhesion problems and premature
corrosion.
g. Always overlap half of the pattern of the previous
stroke.
A-7.4.1. Clean surfaces immediately prior to painting
by solvent wiping with clean cheesecloth (CCC-C-440
Class 2) or cleaning cloth (AMS 3819 Grade A or
equivalent) dampened with an approved solvent
(MIL-T-81772 Type I, AMS 3166, or equivalent).
i. End the last stroke in the same place on similar
objects.
A-10
h. On similar pieces of work, always try to use the
same number of strokes or passes.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Figure A-7. Obtaining Correct Spray Pattern
A-8.2. SPRAY GUN DISTANCE.
A-8.3. SPRAY APPLICATION.
a. Keep the spray gun at the same distance from the
work during application. The proper distance of the
spray gun from the work varies with the spray pattern
and type of application. When the spray gun is close to
the surface being painted, it must be moved more
rapidly to prevent runs and sags. For most processes,
spray gun distance from the work should be
approximately 6-10 inches (see Figure A-8).
a. Hold the paint gun parallel to the work surface so
that the spray is always perpendicular to the surface
being painted (see Figure A-9).
b. A full coat of paint through which most materials
cannot be seen is called a full wet coat. For a wet, heavy
coat, move the spray gun closer to the surface or move
the gun more slowly across the surface to increase the
volume of paint being applied.
c. A light coat of paint through which most materials
can be seen is called a mist coat. For a light film build or
for a mist coat, move the spray gun further away or
move the gun more quickly across the surface to
decrease the volume of paint being applied.
b. Move the spray gun parallel to the surface to
maintain the same distance from the surface. Move
both your arm and shoulder, along with the paint gun, to
avoid "arcing" and tilting the spray gun (see Figures A-10,
A-11, and A-12). Overlap approximately half of the
pattern of the previous stroke.
c. Slow gun travel gives a wet, heavy film build; fast
gun travel gives a light film build.
d. Trigger the spray gun after the stroke has been
started (see Figure A-13). Release the trigger before
the end of the stroke. This reduces paint loss, prevents
heavy build up of paint on the corners and edges of
work, and prevents runs and drips at the beginning and
end of the stroke. If the trigger is not completely pulled,
only air will flow through the gun.
A-11
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
Table A-3. Troubleshooting Faulty Spray Patterns
Condition
Heavy Top or
Bottom Pattern
Heavy Right or Left
Side Pattern
Possible Causes
Correction
Horn holes plugged.
Clean. Ream with non-metallic point.
Obstruction on top or bottom of fluid tip.
Clean.
Cap and/or tip seat dirty.
Clean.
Left or right side horn holes plugged.
Clean. Ream with non-metallic point.
Dirt on left or right side of fluid tip.
Clean.
Remedies for the top-heavy, bottom-heavy,
right-heavy and left-heavy patterns:
1. Make a test spray pattern to determine if the obstruction is on the air
cap or the fluid tip. Then, rotate the cap one-half turn and spray another
pattern. If the defect is inverted, obstruction is on the air cap. Clean the air
cap.
2. If the defect is not inverted, it is on the fluid tip. Check for a fine burr on
the edge of the fluid tip. Remove with #600 wet or dry sand paper.
3. Check for dried paint just inside the opening. Remove paint by washing
with approved solvent.
Heavy Center
Pattern
Split Spray Pattern
Jerky or Fluttering
Spray
Fluid pressure too high for atomization
air (pressure feed).
Balance air and fluid pressure. Increase spray pattern width with spreader
adjustment valve.
Material flow exceeds air cap's capacity.
Thin or lower fluid flow.
Atomizing pressure too low.
Increase pressure.
Material too thick.
Thin to proper consistency.
Fluid adjusting knob turned in too far.
Back out counterclockwise to achieve proper pattern.
Atomization air pressure too high.
Reduce at air regulator.
Fluid pressure too low (pressure feed only).
Increase fluid pressure.
Spreader adjusting valve set too high.
Adjust by turning in clockwise.
Suction And Pressure Feed may have:
Loose or damaged fluid tip/seat.
Tighten or replace.
Material level too low.
Refill.
Container tipped too far.
Hold more upright.
Obstruction in fluid passage.
Backflush with solvent.
Loose or broken fluid tube or fluid inlet nipple.
Tighten or replace.
Dry or loose fluid needle packing nut.
Lubricate or tighten.
Suction Feed Only may have:
Unable to Get
Round Spray
A-12
Material too heavy.
Thin or replace.
Container tipped too far.
Hold more upright.
Air vent in cup lid clogged.
Clear vent passage.
Loose, damaged or dirty lid.
Tighten, replace or clean coupling nut.
Dry or loose fluid needle packing.
Lubricate or tighten packing nut.
Fluid tube resting on cup bottom.
Tighten or shorten.
Damaged gasket behind fluid tip.
Replace gasket.
Fan adjustment screw not seating properly.
Clean or replace.
Air cap retaining ring loose.
Tighten.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Table A-3. Troubleshooting Faulty Spray Patterns (Cont.)
Condition
Will Not Spray
Starved Spray
Pattern
Excessive
Overspray
Excessive Fog
Dry Spray
Fluid Leaking from
Packing Nut
Fluid Leaking or
Dripping
from Front of
Pressure
Feed Gun
Thin, Sandy Coarse
Finish Drying Before
it Flows Out
Possible Causes
Correction
No air pressure at gun.
Check air supply and air lines.
Internal mix or pressure feed air cap and tip
used with suction feed.
Change to proper suction feed air cap and tip.
Fluid pressure too low with internal mix cap
and pressure tank.
Increase fluid pressure at tank.
Fluid needle adjusting screw not open enough.
Open fluid needle adjusting screw.
Fluid too heavy for suction feed.
Thin material or change to pressure feed.
Inadequate material flow.
Back fluid adjusting screw out to first thread, or increase fluid pressure
at tank.
Low atomization air pressure (suction feed).
Increase air pressure and rebalance gun.
Too much atomization air pressure.
Reduce pressure.
Gun too far from work surface.
Adjust to proper distance (6 -10 inches).
Improper stroking (arcing, gun motion too fast).
Move at moderate pace, parallel to work surface.
Too much, or too fast-drying thinner.
Remix properly.
Too much atomization air pressure.
Reduce pressure.
Air pressure too high.
Decrease air pressure.
Material not properly reduced (suction feed).
Reduce to proper consistency.
Gun tip too far from work surface.
Adjust to proper distance (6 -10 inches).
Gun motion too fast.
Slow down.
Gun out of adjustment.
Adjust.
Packing nut loose.
Tighten, do not bind needle.
Packing worn or dry.
Replace or lubricate.
Packing nut too tight.
Adjust.
Dry packing.
Lubricate.
Fluid tip or needle worn or damaged.
Replace tip & needle with matched sets.
Foreign matter in tip.
Clean.
Fluid needle spring missing or broken.
Replace.
Wrong size needle or tip.
Replace.
Gun too far from surface.
Check distance: normally 6 - 10 inches from surface.
Too much air pressure.
Reduce air pressure and check spray pattern.
Improper thinner being used.
Follow paint manufacturer's mixing instructions.
A-13
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Figure A-11. Spraying Corners
Figure A-8. Estimating Distance to Work Surface
Figure A-9. Parallel Movement of Spray Gun
Figure A-12. Improper Spray Angle
Figure A-10. Avoid Arcing the Spray Gun
Figure A-13. Triggering the Spray Gun
A-14
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Figure A-14. Proper Spray Pattern Overlap
e. To achieve the desired film thickness, primers
can usually be applied in one spray coat; topcoats
usually require two coats with specific dry time between
coats to allow proper solvent evaporation, film leveling,
and curing properties. The second coat should be
applied in a cross coat to ensure adequate coverage
(see Figure A-14). A paint thickness gauge should be
used to check the actual film thickness. Many
manufacturers' primer products have different levels of
opacity when applied at the proper 0.6-0.9 mils dry film
thickness (DFT).
For spray touch-up processes, an exact color or gloss
match is extremely difficult to obtain and shall not be
used as criteria for quality control. Slight orange peel
that does not affect operational conditions or
aerodynamic smoothness (as defined in MIL-STD-7179)
is also acceptable. If unacceptable defects in the paint
film are found, repair the defects as follows:
A-8.4. SPRAY PAINTING DEFECTS. During spray
application of paints, certain defects may appear on the
finish due to faulty application methods or poor
application conditions. The most common defects,
probable causes, and remedies are listed in Table A-4.
b. For wet, freshly painted surfaces, remove
defective paint by wiping with a cloth dampened with an
approved solvent. In general, residue from polyurethane
coatings such as MIL-PRF-85285 and TT-P-2760 can
be removed using MIL-T-81772 Type I Thinner. Residue
a. For dried defective paint, scuff sand per paragraph
A-7 and refinish in accordance with instructions provided
in this section for the specific coating being used.
A-15
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Table A-4. Paint Finish Problems
Appearance
Chalking
(Loss of gloss;
powdery surface)
Probable Cause
Weathering of paint films (particularly
epoxy topcoats); insufficient paint
agitation during mixing
Prevention
Polyurethane topcoats are not as prone to chalking;
use epoxy topcoats only when necessary; ensure
coating materials are thoroughly mixed prior to
application.
Insufficient drying of films prior to
Checking, Crazing,
Cracking
recoating; extreme temperature
(crowfoot separation,
changes during drying; coats applied
irregular line separation, mud too heavily; ingredients not thoroughly
cracking)
mixed; incorrect thinner; solvent
softening of lacquer undercoats
Allow sufficient drying time before recoating; avoid
extreme temperature changes while applying coating
and while coating is drying; avoid heavy coats; mix
coatings thoroughly before applying; avoid
incompatible additives; do not apply polyurethane or
epoxy topcoats over lacquer paint (lacquer is easily
softened with MIL-T-81772 Type I thinner).
Blistering
(broken edge craters; small,
swelled areas similar to
blisters on human skin)
Contamination or corrosion under
coatings; trapped solvents;
exposure of film to constant or
repeated high humidity; water in spray
gun air line
Ensure surfaces are clean and free of corrosion prior
to applying coatings; avoid applying coatings in
extremely hot weather; routinely drain water from
spray gun air lines; allow sufficient drying time
between coats.
Peeling, Lifting (separation
of coating from undercoats
or substrate)
Improper surface preparation;
improper undercoats; inadequate dry
time between coats
Ensure surfaces are clean prior to coating; use
recommended primers; allow sufficient dry time
between primer and topcoat. Ensure that the proper
chemical conversion coating is present on the
substrate.
Fish Eyes, Poor Wetting
(separation of the wet film;
undercoat can be seen in
spots)
Improper cleaning of surface prior to
painting; oil or water in spray gun air
line.
Clean surface properly; ensure spray gun air supply
has oil and water separator.
Dirt or Particles in Finish
(foreign particles dried in the
paint film)
Lack of proper cleaning, blowing off,
Clean surface thoroughly; blow out cracks and seams;
tack ragging; dirt in air supply line or
clean equipment thoroughly; clean up spray area;
spray gun; dirty working area;
replace air inlet filters; strain coatings prior to
defective or dirty air inlet filters; coating application; keep containers closed.
not properly strained
Runs, Sags
(running of wet paint in
rivulets; partial slipping of
paint)
Too much thinner; cold surface;
gun at improper angle or too close to
surface; too much coating applied at
one time; improper gun adjustment
Do not add excessive thinner to coatings (refer to
specific instructions later in this chapter); ensure
surface is at proper temperature; hold gun at proper
angle and distance; avoid heavy coats; refer to gun
manufacturer's instructions for proper adjustment.
Orange Peel
(ball peen hammer dents in
coating surface; resembles
the skin of an orange)
Inadequate dry time between coats;
surface drying too fast; improper gun
adjustment
Allow proper dry time between coats; ensure
temperatures of material and surface are within the
specified range; refer to gun manufacturer's
instructions for proper adjustment.
Pin Holes/Hazing,
Particularly in Gloss
High-solids Polyurethane
Paints (tiny bubbles or holes
widespread in the dried
coating)
Paint applied too thickly; insufficient
dry time between coats; ambient
temperature too high
Avoid heavy coats; avoid applying paint when ambient
temperature exceeds 90° F.
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from epoxy coatings such as MIL-PRF-22750 and
MIL-PRF-23377 can be removed using MIL-T-81772
Type II Thinner. Residue from waterborne coatings
such as MIL-PRF-85582 can be removed using a
combination of water and TT-I-735 (Isopropyl Alcohol).
Consult the local Environmental Affairs Office for
guidance on pertinent regulatory requirements.
A-8.5. BRUSH AND ROLLER APPLICATION. Brush
or roller application of paint may be used when painting
small areas or when spray painting is not convenient or
permitted. The advantage of brush and roller application
is that the paint does not become atomized and airborne,
thus minimizing safety and health concerns.
A-8.5.1. Brush Application. Brush application shall be
limited to small nicks, chips, or scratches. When brushing,
the coating should be applied in one direction, then
cross brushed to completely cover the area. Near the
end of each stroke, the brush should be gradually lifted
to prevent excessive roughness from brush marks. The
coating material should be stirred frequently during use
to avoid settling. A brush applied coat should be allowed
to dry completely before applying subsequent coats.
A-8.5.2. Roller Application. In roller application, the
coating material should be placed in a paint tray having
a sloping bottom. The tray must be sized to accommodate
the roller and coating material. The roller is dipped into
the tray and rolled back and forth until it is coated.
Excess material on the roller is removed by rolling out
on the tray grid. The coating is applied by slowly rolling
it back and forth across the surface until uniform coverage
is obtained. Once a uniform coating is achieved, allow
it to dry completely before applying additional coats.
During roller application, adjacent strips should be
overlapped as in other methods of painting. Since the
roller will not fit into corners or other tight areas, these
surfaces may be coated using a brush before beginning
the roller application. The roller should follow the brushing
promptly to avoid lap marks. When applying paint by
roller, several coats may be necessary to achieve
adequate film thickness.
A-8.6. ADHESION TESTING. Adhesion testing may
be used for quality control of newly applied coatings
when it is directed by aircraft/component specific manual
or local directives, or when poor adhesion or poor
surface preparation is suspected. Adhesion testing can
also be used to evaluate quality characteristics of old/
existing coatings. If the primer coat is the only coat
applied, then this test applies to the primer. If the primer
coat is to be topcoated, then this test applies to the
topcoat only. This test is applicable to primed/painted
areas greater than 2 square feet in total area.
A-8.6.1. Wet Tape Adhesion Test. Allow the primer/
paint to dry at least 48 hours before performing the tape
test. Use 4" X 4" square cut cheesecloth (CCC-C-440)
layers to equal a pad 1/8" thick. Saturate the pad in
water and place it against the surface to be tested.
Overlay a larger sheet of polyethylene (A-A-3174 Type I
Class 1) over the wet pad and tape the edges down,
using AMS-T-21595 Type I masking tape or equivalent.
Mark the polyethylene sheet with the date and time.
Allow 24 hours dwell time and then remove the cloth and
wipe the area dry with clean, dry cheesecloth. Before
one minute passes, apply a one inch wide by six inches
long piece of ASTM D6123 Type II flatback masking
tape (adhesive side down) across the test area. Ensure
that four inches of the tape covers the test area and
two inches are left unattached for gripping purposes.
Press the tape down in the test area with a firm hand
pressure (use of tape and decal applicator is also
authorized). Grip the two inch loose end of the tape and
remove the tape in one abrupt motion.
A-8.6.2. Pass/Fail Criteria. If no paint/primer was
removed, the adhesion test passed. If more than one
square inch (total) of paint/primer was removed, the test
failed and the entire surface must be stripped and
re-coated in accordance with this manual. If paint/
primer was removed but the total area removed was
less than one square inch, then a retest must be
performed in accordance with the following paragraph.
NOTE
It may be more economical to strip and recoat
rather than retest.
A-8.6.3. Retest of Failed Area Less Than One Square
Inch. Perform three additional wet tape tests in adjacent
areas to the failed area. All three tests must pass (no
coating removed). The coating is considered to have
failed adhesion requirements if any coating was removed
in the three retests. If this is the case, the surface must
be stripped and re-coated in accordance with this
manual. If no coating is removed in the retest, touch up
the removed coating from the first test and continue
processing.
A-8.6.4. Adhesion Testing for Touch-up Areas. In order
to test for proper adhesion of small areas of touch-up
coating (less than two square feet, total), a dry tape test
is authorized. Allow the coating (primer/paint) to dry for
A-17
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48 hours before testing. Apply a 1 inch wide by 6 inches
long piece of ASTM D6123 Type II flatback masking
tape across the touch-up area and proceed with the test
as described in paragraph A-8.6.1. Any coating removal
defines a test failure. Strip and re-coat the touch-up
area in accordance with this manual.
A-9. TOUCH-UP OF SMALL AREAS (LESS THAN
TWO SQUARE FEET). The following paragraphs
provide instructions and guidelines for touch-up of small
areas using touch-up pens, aerosol sprays, and brush
applicators.
A-9.1. TOUCH-UP PEN (SEMPEN™). MIL-PRF-23377
(Epoxy High Solids Primer), MIL-PRF-85582 (Epoxy
Waterborne Primer), and MIL-PRF-85285 Type I
(Polyurethane Coating) are available in touch-up pens
(see Figure A-15). These self-contained touch-up
applicators are available by national stock numbers
(refer to Volume IV for ordering information). The
applicator is designed for convenient storage, mixing,
and application of pre-measured two component coating
materials, and is ideal for touch-up of small areas where
spraying is impractical or not allowed. Each applicator
contains 10 milliliters (1/3 fluid ounce) of material and
will cover an area of approximately 1 to 2 square feet.
The two components are separated by a barrier (see
Figure A-16). The material is mixed and applied as
follows:
Figure A-15. Sempens (Touch-Up Paint Pens)
a. Before mixing, ensure the applicator is at room
temperature. Read and follow manufacturer’s
information, including MSDS, supplied with the
applicator.
b. Slide the collar all the way to the back of the
applicator to displace the barrier between the two
components.
c. With the brush cap in place, shake the applicator
vigorously by hand until the two components are
thoroughly mixed (approximately one minute).
d. After mixing, remove the brush cap and press the
applicator against a scrap surface to bleed off any
internal pressure that may have formed during storage.
Make sure the applicator is not pointing toward anyone.
e. Depress the applicator brush against the work
surface. This opens the spring-loaded valve that allows
the coating material to flow when the tube is gently
squeezed. Use the brush to apply a uniform coating to
the surface. See Figure A-17.
A-18
Figure A-16. Sempen Parts Breakdown
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A-9.2. TWO COMPONENT AEROSOL. Two
component aerosols provide spray gun performance
from a can using approved coatings, such as
MIL-PRF-23377 (Epoxy High Solids Primer) and MILPRF-85285 Type I (Polyurethane Coating). These
aerosol cans are ideal for small touch-up processes as
they minimize many of the problems associated with
hazardous waste disposal, equipment clean up, and
related safety hazards. The aerosol can has a 48 hour
pot life once mixed. Refer to Volume IV for the two
component aerosol can ordering information. The
material is mixed, applied, and cleaned as follows:
a. Remove red button from the cover cap and put it
on the plastic pin at the bottom of the aerosol can.
Figure A-17. Sempen Application
f. Replace the brush cap when the applicator is not
being used. The useful pot life of the mixed material is
approximately 8 hours. Do not store the applicator in a
shirt pocket or any other clothing article.
g. If a different size brush is required, follow
manufacturer’s instructions for changing brushes.
Change brushes only after the material in the applicator
has been mixed.
WARNING
Prior to application, observe all safety
regulations and use proper personal protective
equipment (PPE) such as gloves, eye protection,
and respirator. Contact the local Industrial
Hygiene Activity or Occupational Safety and
Health Office for guidance on the proper
selection of respiratory protection and other
personal safety requirements.
NOTE
Two component aerosols are not authorized for
spraying large areas. These sprayers are
intended only for small repairs of less than two
square feet.
Do not remove red button or cap until product is
used. Red button is required to activate the
aerosol can.
b. Place can upright on a flat surface and push down
completely on the red button to break the inner seal.
After red button is removed, if done correctly, the plastic
pin (at the bottom of the can) should move easily when
pushed with finger. Properly dispose of red button to
avoid FOD.
c. Invert can and shake contents vigorously for two
minutes to mix the catalyst and base materials. Allow 30
minutes to elapse before use. Shake can prior to each
use to insure complete mixing.
d. After proper surface preparation (refer to
paragraph A-7), apply coating in a manner similar to that
used in conventional spray gun painting processes.
Standing distance from surface should be 6 to 10 inches.
Make full sweeps across and stop spraying at the end
of each sweep.
e. Use an overlap stroke pattern for uniform
application. Delivery of paint is faster than other aerosols
and the fan is larger. Rotate spray tip to select either
vertical or horizontal spray fan.
f. After use, invert aerosol can and spray until clear.
This will keep the feed tube from clogging during next
use.
g. The remainder of the can must be used within
48 hours. After that time, the contents of the can will gel
and will no longer be sprayable.
h. Properly dispose of used paint cans in accordance
with local environmental regulations.
A-19
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NOTE
WARNING
PreVal sprayers are not authorized for painting
large areas. These sprayers are intended only
for small, spot repairs.
The PreVal sprayer has an air vent on the
coupling. To avoid leakage and personal injury,
never shake the sprayer once it has been
attached to the bottle. Eye protection and proper
protective equipment are required when
handling, mixing and applying coatings using
PreVal sprayers.
A-9.3. PREVAL AEROSOL TOUCH-UP PAINT
SYSTEMS. PreVal sprayers provide a simple method
of applying approved coatings for small, touch-up
processes. These sprayers minimize many of the
problems associated with hazardous waste disposal,
equipment cleanup, and related safety hazards. Many
of the commonly used primers and topcoats
(MIL-PRF-23377, MIL-PRF-85582, MIL-PRF-85285
Type I, and MIL-PRF-81352 Type III) are available in
small 2 ounce bottles that attach directly to the PreVal
sprayer. Refer to Volume IV for ordering information.
NOTE
Primers and topcoats in 2 ounce bottles may
also be applied by brush for small, touch-up
applications.
A-9.3.1. PreVal Aerosol Touch-Up Primers. Both
MIL-PRF-23377 and MIL-PRF-85582 Epoxy Primers
are available in small 2 ounce kits that can attach
directly to PreVal sprayers. These kits are supplied as
two part materials (catalyst and base components) that
must be mixed prior to use. Follow manufacturer’s
instructions printed on the container label for proper
mixing procedures. See paragraph A-9.3.3 for additional
mixing and application instructions.
A-9.3.2. PreVal Aerosol Touch-Up Topcoats. Both
MIL-PRF-85285 Type I polyurethane coating and
MIL-PRF-81352 Type III one component aircraft
touch-up coating are available in small 2 ounce kits that
can attach directly to PreVal sprayers.
NOTE
To prevent leaking, do not tilt PreVal sprayers
beyond a 45 degree angle. Spray angles of
45 degrees or less will ensure the proper
discharge of coatings. During any continuous
spray application, PreVal sprayers may "freeze
up" and cause irregular spray patterns. To
avoid freezing up, limit each spray application
to a pattern of 36 square inches (6" X 6"), then
pause and continue with spraying. Repeat as
necessary until repair area is properly coated.
A-9.3.3. Two Component Primer and Topcoat Mixing
and Application Instructions.
a. Two component primers and topcoats must be
mixed carefully prior to use. Follow manufacturer’s
instructions printed on the container label for proper
mixing procedures for base and catalyst components.
Some vendors supply two separate bottles for the two
components, others supply the catalyst in a small internal
bottle (as a bottle within a bottle) under the cap. Mix
entire contents of each kit.
b. Replace cap on larger bottle and shake mixture
thoroughly for two minutes. After shaking, allow coating
to rest for two minutes to dissipate any air bubbles.
c. Attach pick-up tube to the PreVal sprayer.
a. MIL-PRF-85285 Type I topcoat kits are supplied
as two part materials (catalyst and base components)
that must be mixed prior to use. Follow manufacturer’s
instructions printed on the container label for proper
mixing procedures. See paragraph A-9.3.3 for additional
mixing and application instructions.
d. Remove cap from coating bottle and attach
bottle to the PreVal sprayer. To prevent leakage, do not
shake the bottle once it is attached to the PreVal
sprayer.
b. MIL-PRF-81352 Type III is supplied as a single
component topcoat that is ready to use. See paragraph
A-9.3.4 for additional mixing and application instructions.
e. After proper surface preparation (refer to
paragraph A-7), apply coating in a manner similar to
conventional spray gun painting processes, making full
sweeps and stopping the spray at the end of each
sweep.
f. Clean PreVal sprayer after each use. Refer to
paragraph A-9.3.5 for cleaning procedures.
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g. Properly dispose of empty PreVal sprayers and
coating bottles in accordance with local environmental
regulations.
A-9.3.4. One Component Topcoat Mixing and
Application Instructions.
a. With screw cap firmly attached, shake topcoat
bottle thoroughly for two minutes. After shaking, allow
coating to rest for two minutes to dissipate any air
bubbles.
b. Attach pick-up tube to the PreVal sprayer.
c. Remove cap from topcoat bottle and attach
bottle to the PreVal sprayer. To prevent leakage, do not
shake the bottle once it is attached to the PreVal
sprayer.
Isopropyl Alcohol. Spray just enough cleaner through
the sprayer to disperse the remaining coating material
and produce a clear spray pattern. Alternatively, clean
the pick-up tube by hand with cleaning solvent, then
invert the sprayer head and depress button to clear the
sprayer.
A-9.4. ONE OUNCE PAINT BRUSH TOUCH-UP
APPLICATOR. TT-P-1757 (Alkyd Base Primer) and
MIL-PRF-81352 Type III (Aircraft Touch-Up Coating)
are available in small, one ounce brush-top bottles
(similar to "White-Out" bottles). These materials are
appropriate for very small touch-up processes that can
usually be done concurrently with other maintenance
operations. Consult the local Industrial Hygiene Activity
or Occupational Safety and Health Office for detailed
safety requirements.
WARNING
d. After proper surface preparation (refer to
paragraph A-7), apply coating in a manner similar to
conventional spray gun painting processes, making full
sweeps and stopping the spray at the end of each
sweep.
e. Clean PreVal sprayer after each use. Refer to
paragraph A-9.3.5 for cleaning procedures.
f. Partially used one component topcoat bottles
may be recapped and stored for later use.
g. Properly dispose of empty PreVal sprayers and
coating bottles in accordance with local environmental
regulations.
A-9.3.5. Cleaning of PreVal Sprayer. The PreVal
aerosol sprayer is a small, hand-held canister containing
enough propellant to spray two, 2 ounce bottles of
primer or topcoat, provided the sprayer is cleaned
immediately after each use. Clean as follows:
a. Remove the sprayer head from the coating bottle.
b. Cap and properly store the unused coating.
Catalyzed, two part coatings have a limited pot life once
mixed. In general, these coatings must be used within
4-8 hours after mixing.
Appropriate safety precautions must be taken
when working with coating materials. Refer to
paragraph A-2 for additional safety information.
Consult the local Industrial Hygiene Activity or
Occupational Safety and Health Office for
detailed safety requirements.
A-10. SPECIFIC
PAINT
APPLICATION
PROCEDURES. The following are instructions and
guidelines for specific materials, primers, topcoats, and
commonly used specialty coatings.
A-10.1. AIRCRAFT PAINT THINNER (MIL-T-81772).
This specification covers three types of paint thinners
compatible with various coating materials. Due to
chemical incompatibility, no single paint thinner is
acceptable for all types of coatings. Environmental
regulations restrict the amount of thinner that can be
added to aircraft coatings. Fortunately, newer coatings
and application technologies do not usually require
additional thinner. As stated in paragraph A-4.1.1, aircraft
coatings must meet strict VOC requirements. Do not
add thinner to coatings unless specifically indicated on
the container label or on manufacturer’s literature
supplied with the material. MIL-T-81772 Thinner is
available in the following types:
a. Type I – Polyurethane coating thinner;
c. Clean the sprayer head by placing the pick-up
tube into a small amount of MIL-T-81772 or other
approved cleaning solvent. When using a waterborne
coating (e.g. MIL-PRF-85582 Epoxy Waterborne
Primer), remove residual material with deionized or
distilled water first, followed by rinsing with TT-I-735
b. Type II – Epoxy coating thinner; and
c. Type III – Acrylic and alkyd coating thinner.
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A-10.2. EPOXY
(MIL-PRF-23377).
HIGH
15 April 2009
SOLIDS
PRIMER
A-10.2.1. Description. MIL-PRF-23377 is a VOC
compliant (340 g/l maximum) epoxy high solids primer
with corrosion inhibitors. This specification covers two
types and three classes of materials. Type I, Class C1
or C2, is the standard yellow or light green primer used
primarily in high gloss paint systems and on interior
components and surfaces. Type II, Class C1 or C2, is
the dark green low infrared reflective primer used in
tactical paint schemes on exterior surfaces. Each type
is available in three classes: Class C1 (barium chromate
based corrosion inhibitor), Class C2 (strontium chromate
based corrosion inhibitor), and Class N (non-chromate
based corrosion inhibitor). Class N materials, especially
Type I, may be a variety of colors, such as white, tan,
blue, black, or bright green. They will not have the same
coloration as Type I, Class C1 or C2 materials. Consult
specific maintenance instructions for guidance on the
selection of primers for each weapons system. Class
C1 shall be selected when no class is specified. Class
N shall not be substituted for Class C1 or C2 unless
authorization for its use is given by the engineering
authority for the system or item to which the primer
coating is to be applied. These primers can be applied
to properly treated metal surfaces and to cured, scuff
sanded primers and topcoats. They dry to durable,
chemical resistant films and offer excellent protection
against corrosion, particularly when coupled with a
compatible topcoat.
A-10.2.2. Temperature Requirements. Ensure the
temperature for each primer component is between
60°F and 90°F before mixing and application. Surface
temperature of the area to be coated must be between
50°F and 95°F. Do not apply this material if the ambient
temperature is below 50°F.
A-10.2.3. Material Preparation. MIL-PRF-23377 primer
is supplied as a two component kit. The two components
must be mixed together in the proper proportions prior
to use. One component contains the pigment within an
epoxy vehicle, while the other component contains the
resin solution. These components are packaged
separately and have excellent storage stability. Once
mixed, however, the two components undergo a
chemical reaction to achieve proper film characteristics.
Over a few hours, the coating will gel and harden
regardless of whether or not it is exposed to air. Pot life
is a measure of the length of time a catalyzed coating
remains useful for application. In general, the pot life of
epoxy primer is 4 hours. During hot or humid conditions,
the pot life will decrease. Only mix the amount of
A-22
material that can be used within two hours. Do not add
thinner to attempt to compensate for thickened coatings
that are beyond useful pot life. Mix the primer as follows:
a. Mix the pigmented component thoroughly to
ensure that the solids are completely dispersed. Use a
paint shaker for approximately 10 minutes if possible. If
a paint shaker is not available, use a clean metal or
wooden paddle to stir the contents. After mixing, check
the bottom of the container to ensure that all of the
pigment is dispersed.
b. Pour the pigmented component into a clean,
empty container. The empty container must be at least
two times the capacity of the pigmented component.
CAUTION
Only mix materials from the same manufacturer.
Never mix materials from different
manufacturers. Mix the two components in the
volume ratio specified by the manufacturer.
Refer to the container label.
c. Pour the required amount of resin component
slowly into the container with the pigmented component.
Stir thoroughly with a metal or wooden paddle. To
remain compliant with environmental regulations, do
not add thinner to this material unless specifically
required by the manufacturer’s instructions.
A-10.2.4. Spray Application. After the primer is
thoroughly stirred, strain the material through a
disposable paint strainer to remove coarse particles.
Prior to spraying, allow the mixed primer to stand for
approximately 30 minutes. This induction period is
necessary to allow components to partially react. Spray
the mixed primer in accordance with paragraph A-8.
A-10.2.5. Brush or Roller Application. For brush or
roller application, strain the primer and allow it to stand
for 30 minutes as per paragraph A-10.2.4. Apply the
primer uniformly to the surface in one coat (refer to
paragraph A-8.5).
A-10.2.6. Touch-Up Pen Application. For convenient
touch-up of small areas, MIL-PRF-23377 Epoxy Primer
is available in touch-up pens. Refer to paragraph A-9.1.
A-10.2.7. Aerosol Application. For convenient touch-up
of small areas less than two square feet, MIL-PRF-23377
Epoxy Primer is available in aerosol containers. Refer
to paragraphs A-9.2 and A-9.3.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
A-10.2.8. Film Thickness. The total dry film thickness of
primer shall be 0.6 to 0.9 mils (0.0006 to 0.0009 inch)
which is slightly more than a mist coat. After the coating
has dried, the substrate should be barely visible through
the film. Dry film thickness can be estimated using a wet
film thickness gage (refer to paragraph A-5.7). Dry film
thickness will be approximately 50 percent of the wet
film thickness. Primer thickness shall be doubled if no
topcoat is to be applied.
A-10.2.9. Drying Time. Tack-free drying time of
MIL-PRF-23377 primer depends upon the temperature,
but is generally between 30 minutes and 2 hours.
Tack-free means that the coating can be touched lightly
with the fingertip without noticeable tackiness. Do not
apply topcoat until the primer is tack-free. At this stage
of drying, the primer is not completely cured and can be
easily marred. MIL-PRF-23377 primer will dry hard in
approximately 8 hours at 70°F, which means the coating
is fairly durable and can be handled. The primer dries
more slowly at lower temperatures. Topcoat is generally
applied within 24 hours after primer application.
A-10.2.9.1. If the primer has dried for over 24 hours but
not longer than 7 days, proceed as follows:
a. Clean the surface by wiping with clean cheesecloth
dampened with an approved solvent (see paragraph
A-7.4).
b. Apply a thin (mist) coat of MIL-PRF-23377 epoxy
primer.
c. Allow primer to dry tack-free and then apply the
specified topcoat.
A-10.2.9.2. If the primer has dried longer than 7 days,
it must be lightly scuff sanded prior to proceeding with
paragraph A-10.2.9.1, to ensure proper adhesion.
A-10.3. EPOXY
(MIL-PRF-85582).
WATERBORNE
PRIMER
A-10.3.1. Description. MIL-PRF-85582 is a VOC
compliant (340 g/l maximum) waterborne epoxy primer
with corrosion inhibitors. This specification covers two
types and three classes of materials. Type I, Class C1
or C2, is the standard yellow or light green primer used
primarily in high gloss paint systems and on interior
components and surfaces. Type II, Class C1 or C2, is
the dark green, low infrared reflective primer used in
tactical paint schemes or exterior surfaces. Each type is
available in three classes: Class C1 (barium chromate
based corrosion inhibitor), Class C2 (strontium chromate
based corrosion inhibitor), and Class N (non-chromate
based corrosion inhibitor). Class N materials, especially
Type I, may be a variety of colors, such as white, tan,
blue, black, or bright green. They will not have the same
coloration as Type I, Class C1 or C2 materials. Consult
specific maintenance instructions for guidance on the
selection of primers for each weapons system. Class
C1 shall be selected when no class is specified. Class
N shall not be substituted for Class C1 or C2 unless
authorization for its use is given by the engineering
authority for the system or item to which the primer
coating is to be applied. These primers can be applied
to properly treated metal surfaces and to cured, scuff
sanded primers and topcoats. They dry to durable,
chemical resistant films and offer excellent protection
against corrosion, particularly when coupled with a
compatible topcoat.
A-10.3.2. Material Compatibility. MIL-PRF-85582 epoxy
waterborne primer is generally interchangeable with
MIL-PRF-23377 epoxy high solids primer for most
applications. Since MIL-PRF-85582 primer contains
water, to prevent possible corrosion it shall not be used
for wet installations (refer to paragraph A-4.8) or for
direct application to bare steel (e.g. landing gear
components).
A-10.3.3. Temperature Requirements. Ensure the
temperature for each primer component is between
60°F and 90°F before mixing and application. Surface
temperature of the area to be coated must be between
55°F and 95°F. Do not apply this material if the ambient
temperature is below 55°F.
A-10.3.4. Material Preparation. MIL-PRF-85582 primer
is supplied as a two component kit. The two components
must be mixed together in the proper proportions prior
to use. Distilled or deionized water is also required in
most cases as an additional component. One component
contains the pigment within an epoxy vehicle, while the
other component contains the clear resin solution. These
components are packaged separately and have excellent
storage stability. Once mixed, however, the two
components undergo a chemical reaction to achieve
proper film characteristics. Over a few hours, the coating
will gel regardless of whether or not it is exposed to air.
Pot life is a measure of the length of time a catalyzed
coating remains useful for application. In general, the
pot life of epoxy waterborne primer is 4 hours. During
hot or humid conditions, the pot life will decrease. Only
mix the amount of material that can be used within two
hours. Do not add thinner or water to attempt to
compensate for thickened coatings that are beyond
useful pot life. Mix the primer as follows:
A-23
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
a. Consult manufacturer’s instructions printed on
the container label for proper mixing procedures. If
distilled or deionized water is specified, do not add tap
water. Tap water will have an adverse affect on film
properties. Only add the specified amount of water. Do
not add excess water.
CAUTION
Only mix materials from the same manufacturer.
Never mix materials from different
manufacturers. Mix the two components in the
volume ratio specified by the manufacturer.
Refer to the container label.
b. Following manufacturer’s instructions, mix the
components as necessary to ensure that solids are
completely dispersed. If using a paint shaker, do not
exceed manufacturer’s specified agitation time since
excessive shaking can cause the coating to gel
prematurely. If no shake time is specified, agitate the
material for 10 minutes maximum. If a paint shaker is
not available, use a clean metal or wooden paddle to stir
the contents. After mixing, check the bottom of the
container to ensure that all solids are dispersed.
A-10.3.5. Spray Application. After the primer is mixed
per manufacturer’s instructions, strain the material
through a disposable paint strainer to remove coarse
particles. No induction time is necessary prior to spraying
this primer. Spray the mixed primer in accordance with
paragraph A-8.
A-10.3.6. Brush or Roller Application. For brush or
roller application, strain the primer and apply it uniformly
to the surface in one coat (refer to paragraph A-8.5).
A-10.3.7. Touch-Up Pen Application. For convenient
touch-up of small areas, MIL-PRF-85582 Epoxy
Waterborne Primer is available in touch-up pens. Refer
to paragraph A-9.1.
A-10.3.8. Aerosol Application. For convenient touch-up
of small areas, MIL-PRF-85582 Epoxy Waterborne
Primer is available in aerosol containers. Refer to
paragraph A-9.3.
A-10.3.9. Film Thickness. The total dry film thickness of
the sprayed primer shall be 0.6 to 0.9 mils (0.0006 to
0.0009 inch) which is slightly more than a mist coat.
After the coating has dried, the substrate should be
barely visible through the film. Dry film thickness can be
estimated using a wet film thickness gage (refer to
paragraph A-5.7). Dry film thickness will be
A-24
approximately 50 percent of the wet film thickness.
Primer thickness shall be doubled if no topcoat is to be
applied.
A-10.3.10. Drying Time. Tack-free drying time of
MIL-PRF-85582 primer depends upon temperature and
humidity, but is generally 1 to 2 hours. At 70°F and 50%
relative humidity, the primer will be tack-free in 1 hour.
Tack-free means that the coating can be touched lightly
with the fingertip without noticeable tackiness. Do not
apply topcoat until the primer is tack-free. At this stage
of drying, the primer is not completely cured and can be
easily marred. MIL-PRF-85582 primer will dry hard in
approximately 6 hours at 70°F, which means the coating
is fairly durable and can be handled. The primer dries
more slowly at lower temperatures and higher humidity.
Topcoat is generally applied within 24 hours after primer
application.
A-10.3.10.1. If the primer has dried for over 24 hours
but not longer than 7 days, proceed as follows:
a. Clean the surface by wiping with clean cheesecloth
dampened with an approved solvent (see paragraph
A-7.4).
b. Apply a thin (mist) coat of MIL-PRF-85582 epoxy
primer.
c. Allow primer to dry tack-free and then apply the
specified topcoat.
A-10.3.10.2. If the primer has dried longer than 7 days,
it must be lightly scuff sanded prior to proceeding with
paragraph A-10.3.10.1, to ensure proper adhesion.
A-10.4. POLYURETHANE, ELASTOMERIC, HIGH
SOLIDS PRIMER (TT-P-2760).
A-10.4.1. Description. TT-P-2760 is a VOC compliant
(340 g/l maximum) flexible polyurethane primer with
corrosion inhibitors. This material is designed for use
wherever high flexibility is required. This specification
covers two types and two classes of materials. Type I is
the standard primer used primarily with high gloss paint
systems. Type I primer is the natural color of the
corrosion inhibiting pigments used. Type II is the dark
green, low infrared reflective primer used with tactical
paint schemes. Each type is available in two classes:
Class C (strontium chromate based corrosion inhibitor)
and Class N (non-chromate based corrosion inhibitor).
Consult specific maintenance instructions for guidance
on the selection of primers for each weapons system.
Class C shall be selected when no class is specified.
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Class N shall not be substituted for Class C unless
authorization for its use is given by the engineering
authority for the system or item to which the primer
coating is to be applied. These primers can be applied
to properly treated metal surfaces and to cured, scuff
sanded primers and topcoats. They dry to flexible,
chemical resistant films and are usually coupled with
MIL-PRF-85285 Polyurethane Topcoat.
A-10.4.2. Temperature Requirements. Ensure the
temperature for each primer component is between
60°F and 90°F before mixing and application. Surface
temperature of the area to be coated must be between
60°F and 90°F. Do not apply this material if the ambient
temperature is below 60°F.
A-10.4.3. Material Preparation. TT-P-2760 primer is
supplied as a two component kit. The two components
must be mixed together in the proper proportions prior
to use. One component contains the pigment within a
vehicle, while the other component contains the clear
resin solution. These components are packaged
separately and have excellent storage stability. Once
mixed, however, the two components undergo a
chemical reaction to achieve proper film characteristics.
Over a few hours, the coating will gel regardless of
whether or not it is exposed to air. Pot life is a measure
of the length of time a catalyzed coating remains useful
for application. In general, the pot life of this primer is 4
hours. During hot or humid conditions, the pot life will
decrease. Only mix the amount of material that can be
used within two hours. Do not add thinner to attempt to
compensate for thickened coatings that are beyond
useful pot life. Mix the primer as follows:
a. Following manufacturer’s instructions, mix the
pigmented component as necessary to ensure that
solids are completely dispersed. If using a paint shaker,
agitate the material for approximately 10 minutes. If a
paint shaker is not available, use a clean metal or
wooden paddle to stir the contents. After mixing, check
the bottom of the container to ensure that all solids are
dispersed.
b. Pour the pigmented component into a clean,
empty container. The empty container must be at least
two times the capacity of the pigmented component.
CAUTION
Only mix materials from the same manufacturer.
Never mix materials from different
manufacturers. Mix the two components in the
volume ratio specified by the manufacturer.
Refer to the container label.
c. Pour the required amount of clear resin component
slowly into the container with the pigmented component.
Stir thoroughly with a metal or wooden paddle. To
remain compliant with environmental regulations, do
not add thinner to this material unless specifically
required per manufacturer’s instructions.
A-10.4.4. Spray Application. After the primer is mixed
per manufacturer’s instructions, strain the material
through a disposable paint strainer to remove coarse
particles. No induction time is necessary prior to spraying
this primer. Spray the mixed primer in one wet cross
coat in accordance with paragraph A-8.
A-10.4.5. Brush or Roller Application. For brush or
roller application, strain the primer and apply it uniformly
to the surface in one coat (refer to paragraph A-8.5).
A-10.4.6. Film Thickness. The total dry film thickness of
primer shall be 1.5 to 2.0 mils (0.0015 to 0.0020 inch).
After the coating has dried, the substrate will not be
visible through the film. Dry film thickness can be
estimated using a wet film thickness gage (refer to
paragraph A-5.7). Dry film thickness will be
approximately 50 percent of the wet film thickness.
A-10.4.7. Drying Time. Tack-free drying time of
TT-P-2760 primer depends upon temperature and
humidity, but will generally be within 5 hours. Tack-free
means that the coating can be touched lightly with the
fingertip without noticeable tackiness. Do not apply
topcoat until the primer is tack-free. TT-P-2760 primer
will be dry hard in approximately 8 hours at 70°F, which
means the coating is fairly durable and can be handled.
The primer dries more slowly at lower temperatures.
Topcoat is generally applied between primer tack-free
time and 24 hours after primer application.
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A-10.4.7.1. If the primer has dried for over 24 hours but
not longer than 7 days, proceed as follows:
allergic sensitization of personnel. Specific details are
provided in OPNAVINST 5100.23.
a. Clean the surface by wiping with clean cheesecloth
dampened with an approved solvent (see paragraph
A-7.4).
A-10.5.2.1. Sensitization. Isocyanate sensitization is
characterized by bronchial constriction, causing difficulty
in breathing, dry cough, and shortness of breath.
Individual susceptibility appears to be a controlling
factor. Once sensitized, many personnel cannot tolerate
even minimal subsequent exposure to isocyanates,
and must thereafter avoid work areas where such
exposure could occur. In addition, solvents employed
with polyurethane coatings tend to increase the rate of
absorption and severity of the physiological effect.
b. Apply a thin (mist) coat of TT-P-2760 primer.
c. Allow primer to dry tack-free and then apply the
specified topcoat.
A-10.4.7.2. If the primer has dried longer than 7 days,
it must be lightly scuff sanded prior to proceeding with
paragraph A-10.4.7.1, to ensure proper adhesion.
A-10.5. POLYURETHANE AIRCRAFT COATING
(MIL-PRF-85285).
A-10.5.1. Description.
A-10.5.1.1. MIL-PRF-85285 Type I, Polyurethane
Coating is a VOC compliant (420 g/l maximum) topcoat.
This specification covers three types of materials. Type I
is intended for aircraft use. Type II is intended for use on
ground support equipment (GSE) and is not for use on
aircraft surfaces. Type III is a low VOC (50 g/l) coating
intended for use on both aircraft and GSE. Type III shall
not be substituted for Type I or Type II without
authorization from the aircraft engineering authority.
Type I material is available in gloss, semigloss, and flat
(lusterless) colors. It is intended for use over properly
applied primers conforming to MIL-PRF-23377,
MIL-PRF-85582, or TT-P-2760. The resulting paint
system is durable, flexible, weather resistant, corrosion
resistant, and chemical resistant.
A-10.5.1.2. Self-Priming Topcoat, TT-P-2756, is no
longer approved for use on Navy aircraft or equipment.
A-10.5.2.2. Medical Examinations. All personnel
assigned duties involving the mixing and application of
polyurethane coatings that contain free isocyanates
shall receive a baseline medical examination following
the guidance of the current edition of the
NAVENVIRHLTHCEN Medical Surveillance Procedures
Manual to include the protocols for mixed solvents and
isocyanates. Periodic medical examinations are required
if the results of the industrial hygiene survey recommend
them.
A-10.5.2.3. Protective Clothing. Protective clothing
listed shall not be substituted without specific approval
by the local industrial hygienist. Personnel applying
polyurethane coating that contains free isocyanates
shall wear gloves (MIL-G-12223 or meeting OSHA
requirements), chemical or splash-proof goggles,
coveralls (A-A-55196 or MIL-C-2202) and respiratory
protection as specified by the local Industrial Hygiene
activity. When this polyurethane coating is applied in
confined spaces (i.e., intake ducts), contact the local
Industrial Hygiene activity for guidance on proper
respiratory protection. Consult OPNAVINST 5100.23
for further information.
NOTE
A-10.5.2. Safety Requirements for Polyurethane
Coatings Containing Free Isocyanates. Some
polyurethane coatings used on Navy and Marine Corps
aircraft, such as MIL-PRF-85285, require special
handling during mixing, application, and curing to avoid
exposure to free isocyanate vapors. Adequate ventilation
and approved respiratory protection are mandatory.
Polyurethane coatings generally present no special
health hazards when cured (dried), however,
isocyanates are an integral part of the polyurethane
reaction and can be released while the coating is still
wet. Isocyanate vapors, even in very small
concentrations, can produce significant irritation of the
skin, eyes, and respiratory tract and may also induce
A-26
Personnel wearing respirators are required to
receive initial and annual fit testing.
A-10.5.2.4. Unprotected Personnel. The hangar area
shall be cordoned off during paint application to prevent
exposure to unprotected personnel. Safe distances for
unprotected personnel, as determined by the local
Industrial Hygiene activity, must be maintained at all
times.
A-10.5.2.5. Facility Requirements. Polyurethane
painting operations employing free isocyanates shall
be conducted in an area which has received a workplace
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15 April 2009
evaluation by the local Industrial Hygiene activity. This
area shall be sufficiently isolated to prevent exposure to
unprotected personnel, as described above.
Intermediate maintenance activity production-type spray
painting operations or squadron paint touch-up
operations employing paint spray equipment shall be
conducted only in well ventilated areas approved by the
local Industrial Hygiene activity and in accordance with
pertinent environmental regulations. Routine Industrial
Hygiene evaluations must be obtained by contacting
the Occupational Health Office or Medical Clinic. Each
facility will maintain a hard copy of the initial and periodic
industrial hygiene evaluation. Refer to OPNAVINST
5100.23 for frequency of Industrial Hygiene Evaluations/
Surveys.
A-10.5.3. Temperature and Humidity Requirements.
Extreme temperature and humidity conditions will
adversely affect film-forming properties of polyurethane
topcoats. Ensure the temperature for each coating
component is between 60°F and 90°F before mixing
and application. Surface temperature of the area to be
coated must be between 60°F and 90°F. For best
results, apply this material only when the ambient
temperature is between 60°F and 90°F, and relative
humidity is between 30 and 75 percent. Temperature
and relative humidity can be obtained using a sling
psychrometer (Volume IV). If applied when temperature
or humidity is low, the coating will not properly cure. If
applied when temperature or humidity is high, the
coating will dry too fast and exhibit pinholes,
microblisters, or hazing in gloss films, and gloss variation
(streaking) in lusterless films.
A-10.5.4. Material Preparation. MIL-PRF-85285 topcoat
is supplied as a two component kit. The two components
must be mixed together in the proper proportions prior
to use. One component contains the pigment within a
polyurethane vehicle, while the other component
contains the clear resin solution. These components
are packaged separately and have excellent storage
stability. Once mixed, however, the two components
undergo a chemical reaction to achieve proper film
characteristics. Over a few hours, the coating will gel
and harden regardless of whether or not it is exposed to
air. Pot life is a measure of the length of time a catalyzed
coating remains useful for application. In general, the
pot life of polyurethane topcoat is 4 hours. During hot or
humid conditions, the pot life will decrease. Only mix the
amount of material that can be used within two hours.
Do not add thinner to attempt to compensate for
thickened coatings that are beyond useful pot life. Mix
the topcoat as follows:
a. Mix the pigmented component thoroughly to
ensure that the solids are completely dispersed. Use a
paint shaker for approximately 10 minutes if possible. If
a paint shaker is not available, use a clean metal or
wooden paddle to stir the contents. After mixing, check
the bottom of the container to ensure that all of the
pigment is dispersed.
b. Pour the pigmented component into a clean,
empty container. The empty container must be at least
two times the capacity of the pigmented component.
CAUTION
Only mix materials from the same manufacturer.
Never mix materials from different
manufacturers. Mix the two components in the
volume ratio specified by the manufacturer.
Refer to the container label.
c. Pour the required amount of clear resin component
slowly into the container with the pigmented component.
Stir thoroughly with a metal or wooden paddle. To
remain compliant with environmental regulations, do
not add thinner to this material unless specifically
required per manufacturer’s instructions.
A-10.5.5. Spray Application. After the topcoat is
thoroughly stirred, strain the material through a
disposable paint strainer to remove coarse particles.
After mixing and straining, the material is ready for
application. No induction time is required. Spray the
mixed topcoat in accordance with paragraph A-8. Two
coats are necessary to achieve adequate film thickness.
The first coat shall be a light (mist) coat. Allow the first
coat to set for 30 to 60 minutes before applying the
second coat to permit solvent evaporation. The second
coat shall be a full wet coat to achieve the desired film
thickness (refer to paragraph A-10.5.9). Apply
MIL-PRF-85285 topcoat within 24 hours of primer
application.
A-10.5.5.1. If the primer has been allowed to dry longer
than 24 hours but not more than 7 days, proceed as
follows:
a. Clean the surface by wiping with clean cheesecloth
dampened with an approved solvent (see paragraph
A-7.4).
b. Apply a thin (mist) coat of MIL-PRF-23377 or
MIL-PRF-85582 epoxy primer.
c. Allow primer to dry tack-free and then apply the
specified topcoat.
A-27
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15 April 2009
A-10.5.5.2. If the primer has dried longer than 7 days,
it must be lightly scuff sanded prior to proceeding with
paragraph A-10.5.5.1, to ensure proper adhesion.
epoxy topcoat to chalk. MIL-PRF-22750 epoxy topcoat
can be applied over primers conforming to
MIL-PRF-23377, MIL-PRF-85582, and TT-P-2760.
A-10.5.6. Brush or Roller Application. For brush or
roller application, strain the topcoat per paragraph
A-10.5.5. Apply one uniform coat to the surface (refer to
paragraph A-8.5) and allow it to dry tack-free before
applying an additional coat (if needed) to achieve the
desired thickness.
A-10.6.2. Temperature Requirements. Ensure the
temperature for each coating component is between
60°F and 90°F before mixing and application. Surface
temperature of the area to be coated must be between
50°F and 95°F. Do not apply this material if the ambient
temperature is below 50°F.
A-10.5.7. Touch-Up Pen Application. For convenient
touch-up of small areas, MIL-PRF-85285 Polyurethane
Coating is available in touch-up pens. Refer to paragraph
A-9.1.
A-10.6.3. Material Preparation. MIL-PRF-22750 topcoat
is supplied as a two component kit. The two components
must be mixed together in the proper proportions prior
to use. One component contains the pigment within an
epoxy vehicle, while the other component contains the
clear resin solution. These components are packaged
separately and have excellent storage stability. Once
mixed, however, the two components undergo a
chemical reaction to achieve proper film characteristics.
Over a few hours, the coating will gel and harden
regardless of whether or not it is exposed to air. Pot life
is a measure of the length of time a catalyzed coating
remains useful for application. In general, the pot life of
epoxy topcoat is 4 hours. During hot or humid conditions,
the pot life will decrease. Only mix the amount of
material that can be used within two hours. Do not add
thinner to attempt to compensate for thickened coatings
that are beyond useful pot life. Mix the topcoat as
follows:
A-10.5.8. Aerosol Application. For convenient touch-up
of small areas less than two square feet, MIL-PRF-85285
Polyurethane Coating is available in aerosol containers.
Refer to paragraphs A-9.2 and A-9.3.
A-10.5.9. Film Thickness. The total dry film thickness of
MIL-PRF-85285 topcoat shall be 1.7 to 2.3 mils (0.0017
to 0.0023 inches). Dry film thickness can be estimated
using a wet film thickness gage (refer to paragraph
A-5.7). Dry film thickness will be approximately 50
percent of the wet film thickness.
A-10.5.10. Drying Time. Tack-free drying time of
MIL-PRF-85285 topcoat depends upon the temperature,
but is approximately 4 hours at 70°F. Tack-free means
that the coating can be touched lightly with the fingertip
without noticeable tackiness. At this stage of drying, the
coating is not completely cured and can be easily
marred. The topcoat will dry hard in approximately 12
hours at 70°F, which means the coating is fairly durable
and can be handled. The coating dries more slowly at
lower temperatures. Complete coating system cure
requires approximately 7 days. In general, the aircraft
shall be handled and taxied as little as possible during
the first week after painting of exterior surfaces.
A-10.6. EPOXY
HIGH
(MIL-PRF-22750).
SOLIDS
b. Pour the pigmented component into a clean,
empty container. The empty container must be at least
two times the capacity of the pigmented component.
COATING
A-10.6.1. Description. MIL-PRF-22750 epoxy topcoat
is a VOC compliant (340 g/l maximum) high solids
coating suitable as an alternate touch-up material when
polyurethane topcoats are not available or cannot be
used. This topcoat has excellent chemical resistance,
however, it is not as flexible as polyurethane topcoat
and will chalk when exposed to sunlight. Exact color
matching of epoxy topcoat to polyurethane topcoat is
usually poor and is aggravated by the tendency of
A-28
a. Mix the pigmented component thoroughly to
ensure that the solids are completely dispersed. Use a
paint shaker for approximately 10 minutes if possible. If
a paint shaker is not available, use a clean metal or
wooden paddle to stir the contents. After mixing, check
the bottom of the container to ensure that all of the
pigment is dispersed.
CAUTION
Only mix materials from the same manufacturer.
Never mix materials from different
manufacturers. Mix the two components in the
volume ratio specified by the manufacturer.
Refer to the container label.
c. Pour the required amount of clear resin component
slowly into the container with the pigmented component.
Stir thoroughly with a metal or wooden paddle. To
15 April 2009
remain compliant with environmental regulations, do
not add thinner to this material unless specifically
required per manufacturer’s instructions.
A-10.6.4. Spray Application. After the epoxy topcoat is
thoroughly stirred, strain the material through a
disposable paint strainer to remove coarse particles.
Prior to spraying, allow the mixed topcoat to stand for
approximately 30 minutes. This induction period is
necessary to allow components to partially react. Spray
the mixed topcoat in accordance with paragraph A-8. To
achieve the desired film thickness, two coats are usually
required. The first coat shall be a light (mist) coat. Allow
the first coat to set for 30 to 60 minutes before applying
the second coat to permit solvent evaporation. The
second coat shall be a full wet coat to achieve the
desired film thickness. Refer to paragraph A-10.6.6.
Apply the epoxy topcoat within 24 hours of primer
application.
A-10.6.4.1. If the primer has been allowed to dry longer
than 24 hours but not more than 7 days, proceed as
follows:
a. Clean the surface by wiping with clean cheesecloth
dampened with an approved solvent (see paragraph
A-7.4).
b. Apply a thin (mist) coat of MIL-PRF-23377 or
MIL-PRF-85582 epoxy primer.
c. Allow primer to dry tack-free and then apply the
epoxy topcoat.
A-10.6.4.2. If the primer has dried longer than 7 days,
it must be lightly scuff sanded prior to proceeding with
paragraph A-10.6.4.1, to ensure proper adhesion.
A-10.6.5. Brush or Roller Application. For brush or
roller application, strain the epoxy topcoat and allow it
to stand for 30 minutes as per paragraph A-10.6.4.
Apply one uniform coat to the surface (refer to paragraph
A-8.5) and allow it to dry tack-free before applying an
additional coat to achieve the desired film thickness.
A-10.6.6. Film Thickness. The total dry film thickness of
epoxy topcoat shall be 1.7 to 2.3 mils (0.0017 to 0.0023
inch). Dry film thickness can be estimated using a wet
film thickness gage (refer to paragraph A-5.7). Dry film
thickness will be approximately 50 percent of the wet
film thickness.
A-10.6.7. Drying Time. Tack-free drying time of
MIL-PRF-22750 topcoat depends upon the temperature,
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but is generally between 2 and 6 hours. At 70°F, the
material will be tack-free in less than 5 hours. Tack-free
means that the coating can be touched lightly with the
fingertip without noticeable tackiness. At this stage of
drying, the coating is not completely cured and can be
easily marred. MIL-PRF-22750 Epoxy Topcoat will dry
hard in approximately 8 hours at 70°F, which means the
coating is fairly durable and can be handled. Epoxy
topcoat dries more slowly at lower temperatures.
TOUCH-UP
A-10.7. AIRCRAFT
(MIL-PRF-81352 TYPE I).
COATING
A-10.7.1. Description. MIL-PRF-81352 Type I is a VOC
compliant (340 g/l maximum) acrylic lacquer coating
that can be used for application of temporary markings/
MODEX. Lacquer coatings dry by solvent evaporation.
These coatings are easily applied; however, they are
not very durable and are not resistant to operational
fluids and some cleaning compounds. For application of
markings, lacquer is generally applied over clean, lightly
scuff sanded topcoats. In areas where lacquer is not
permitted, use MIL-PRF-85285 Type I polyurethane
topcoat or MIL-PRF-22750 epoxy topcoat. Lacquer
coatings do not provide sufficient durability for use as a
touch-up material for conventional coatings.
A-10.7.2. Material Preparation. MIL-PRF-81352 Type I
acrylic lacquer is available in quart, gallon, and aerosol
(pint) containers. Quarts and gallons should be
thoroughly mixed, using a paint shaker if possible, to
completely disperse the solids. Refer to manufacturer’s
instructions for obtaining the appropriate spray viscosity.
A-10.7.3. Spray Application. Dry film thickness of
lacquer shall be 1.5 to 2.0 mils (0.0015 to 0.0020 inches),
which can be obtained by applying two wet coats. Allow
approximately 15 minutes dry time between coats. The
underlying paint coating should not be visible through
the dried film. These coatings will dry hard within two
hours.
A-10.7.4. Brush and Roller Application. Application of
lacquer by brush or roller is not recommended but can
be used when spray application is not permitted.
A-10.8. SPECIALTY COATINGS. Many aircraft require
the use of specialty coatings for operational or functional
requirements beyond the scope of standard primer/
topcoat paint systems. Specialty coatings include Rain
Erosion Resistant Coating, Teflon Filled Anti-chafe
Coating, Electrically Conductive Coating, Non-slip
Walkway Coating, and Heat Resistant Coating. Refer to
specific maintenance instructions for coating
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requirements applicable to individual weapons systems.
Some of the more common specialty coatings are
described below.
A-10.8.1. Rain Erosion Resistant Coatings
(AMS-C-83231 and MIL-PRF-85322). Antistatic rain
erosion resistant coatings are two component, room
temperature curing polyurethane elastomer coatings.
They are designed to protect fiber-reinforced plastic
surfaces (e.g. radomes, antennas, and leading edges)
from rain impact at high speed while preventing static
charge buildup. Many of these materials consist of
polyurethane resins and, therefore, may pose health
risks due to isocyanates. As stated in paragraph A-10.5.2,
free isocyanate vapors, even in very small
concentrations, can produce significant irritation of the
skin, eyes, and respiratory tract and may also induce
allergic sensitization of personnel. Personnel using
these materials shall consult OPNAVINST 5100.23 for
specific details. Refer to specific maintenance
instructions for information concerning the selection
and use of rain erosion resistant coatings. Consult
manufacturer’s data supplied with the material for safety,
mixing, and application instructions.
A-10.8.2. Anti-Chafe Coatings. Anti-chafe polyurethane
topcoats are primarily used on surfaces where low
friction and abrasion, impact, and chemical resistance
are required to reduce chafing and wear. Examples of
these areas are slats, flap tracks, interference areas,
and exit door areas. They are generally proprietary
materials that often contain additives such as
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon). These coatings
are available in several colors, including common gray
colors used with tactical paint schemes. They are usually
supplied as two component kits that must be mixed
together in the proper proportions prior to use. Also,
anti-chafe topcoats are designed to be applied over a
primer to provide maximum performance. Refer to
specific maintenance instructions for information
concerning the selection and use of anti-chafe coatings.
Consult manufacturer’s data supplied with the material
for safety, mixing, and application instructions.
A-10.8.3. Black Conductive Coating (P/N: 8-B-6). This
material is used as a protective coating on
fiber-reinforced plastic parts, such as radomes and
helicopter rotor blades, to provide erosion protection
and dissipate static electricity. Refer to specific
A-30
15 April 2009
maintenance instructions for information concerning
the selection and use of black conductive coatings.
Consult manufacturer’s data supplied with the material
for safety, mixing, and application instructions.
A-10.8.4. Non-Slip Walkway Coating (A-A-59166).
Walkway coatings contain grit (e.g. pumice, aluminum
oxide) to provide a nonskid surface for improved footing
on specific aircraft surfaces. Examples of these areas
are leading edge extensions (LEX) and upper walkway
surfaces. This polyurethane topcoat is supplied as a
single component material and is available in two types:
Type I has a smooth texture; Type II has a rough, gritty
texture. Both types are usually applied by brush or roller
and are available in a variety of colors, including many
of the common gray colors used with tactical paint
schemes. Refer to specific maintenance instruction
manuals for information concerning the selection and
use of non-slip walkway coatings. Consult
manufacturer's data supplied with the material for safety,
mixing, and application instructions.
A-10.8.5. Heat Resistant Coating (TT-P-28 Type I).
This is a VOC compliant (250 g/l maximum) aluminum
pigmented coating resistant to temperatures up to
1200°F. It is generally used on steel surfaces exposed
to temperatures in excess of the tolerance of standard
paint systems. It is supplied as a single component and
can be applied by brush or spray. After application,
allow the coating to air dry for 30 minutes followed by
baking at 400°F (204°C) for one hour. If baking is not
possible after air drying, the coating may be cured
during component use at elevated temperature. Refer
to specific maintenance instructions for information
concerning the use of heat resistant coating. Consult
manufacturer's data supplied with the material for safety
and application instructions.
A-10.8.6. Decals. Traditional painted stencils tend to
wear off due to weather and flight wear. The use of vinyl
decals instead of painted stencils has several
advantages: elimination of hazardous air pollutants
(HAPS) and hazardous waste, less frequent application,
and reduced labor requirements. Decals should not be
used in areas regularly exposed to temperatures above
150°F. Comply with MIL-STD-2161 requirements for
color and location of decals. Consult manufacturer's
data supplied with the material for safety and application
instructions.
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APPENDIX A
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NAVY AIRCRAFT
SECTION II. AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE CLEANING
hose and applicator storage area on the right hand side.
Two air cylinders are mounted on the left hand side to
supply the air pressure needed to discharge the water
solution from the solution tank. The instruction plate and
schematic diagram are mounted on the left hand side to
provide information about operating the unit. The
33 gallon capacity solution tank is divided into two
separate compartments: a 7 gallon preservative
compartment at the front end of the unit and the 26 gallon
water compartment at the rear end of the unit. On top of
each compartment is a filler opening and at the bottom
of each compartment is a plug for drainage purposes.
The operational instructions of the cart are listed in
NAVAIR 19-20D-1 (Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart).
Washing with MIL-PRF-85704 (Gas Path Cleaner) shall
be performed as follows:
a. Fill the 7 gallon forward tank with 1 gallon of
MIL-PRF-85704 Type II and 4 gallons of fresh water, or
with 5 gallons of MIL-PRF-85704 Type II RTU (ready
to use). Then fill the 26 gallon aft tank with fresh water.
Figure A-18. Jet Engine Corrosion Control Cart
A-11.
SCOPE. This section discusses aircraft and
engine cleaning. For corrosion charts of the specific
aircraft, refer to the applicable maintenance instruction
manual (MIMs), or contact the Fleet Support Team
(FST) for the aircraft.
A-12. AIRCRAFT CLEANING. Cleaning compounds
and materials which appear only in Appendix B
(Supplemental Requirements for Army Aircraft) are not
authorized for cleaning Navy aircraft. See Chapter 2 for
detailed information on aircraft cleaning procedures
and authorized materials and equipment.
A-13. EQUIPMENT FOR ENGINE CLEANING.
A-13.1. JET ENGINE CORROSION CONTROL CART.
The corrosion control cart, P/N 65A102-J1-1, is designed
for cleaning and rinsing the compressor section of
turbine engines. It is a trailer mounted, self contained
mobile unit designed for shipboard use and shore
based operations (see Figure A-18). The cart consists
of a 33 gallon capacity solution tank and a work platform
area on top of the solution tank. There is a water supply
b. Prepare the aircraft for turbine engine washing in
accordance with the applicable maintenance
requirements.
c. Spray the cleaning solution or fresh water as
required (see Table 2-1 for additional information).
A-13.2. CORROSION CONTROL SPRAY UNIT,
TRAILER
MOUNTED.
The
spray
unit,
P/N 76E04000-30A, stores and controls the delivery of
water, preservative oil, and cleaning solutions to the
compressor section of turbofan, turbojet, and turboshaft
engines. It is a self contained sprayer mounted on a
towable trailer (see Figure A-19). The spray unit consists
of a 200 gallon water tank and a 10 gallon oil/cleaning
solution tank. Compressed air from the compressor
assembly pressurizes the tanks for delivery of fluids.
The solution tank is a reservoir for storage of preservative
or cleaning solutions. Fresh water from the water tank
is usually used during corrosion control for rinsing. The
4:1 mixer assembly mixes four parts water to one part
chemical in the solution tank. The unit can also supply
compressed air directly to the aircraft being serviced.
The unit is secured to an aluminum chassis mounted on
a four wheel running gear. Operating instructions for
the unit are listed in NAVAIR 19-20D-2 (Corrosion
Control Spray Unit).
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Figure A-19. Corrosion Control Spray Unit
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APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
B-1. SCOPE. This appendix consists of eight sections.
Section I deals with aircraft finish coating. Section II
describes frequency of cleaning. Section III covers
chemical corrosion removal and pre-paint treatment of
aluminum alloys. Section IV encompasses the treatment
of specific areas. Section V contains decontamination
procedures for salt water and microbiological growth
contamination. Section VI details the identification of
metals. Section VII contains procedures for plastic media
blasting. Section VIII lists a table of consumable
materials.
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APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
SECTION I. AIRCRAFT FINISH COATING
B-2. PAINTING AND TOUCH-UP OF ARMY
AIRCRAFT, CHEMICAL AGENT RESISTANT
COATING FINISH.
B-2.1. U.S. Army personnel will adhere to the Detail
Specification, MIL-DTL-53072, Chemical Agent
Resistant Coating (CARC) System Application
Procedures and Quality Control Inspection when
performing painting or finish touch-up tasks on aircraft
having CARC finish.
B-2.2. This document covers the general requirements
for application and inspection of the chemical agent
resistant coating (CARC) system used on tactical military
equipment. It is intended for use as a guide in selection
of the appropriate materials and procedures, and as a
supplement to information available in cleaning, pretreating, and coating specifications. The document also
includes information on touch-up/repair, health and
safety guidelines, environmental restrictions, national
stock numbers (NSN) for CARC and CARC-related
materials, and application equipment and techniques.
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APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
SECTION II. CLEANING
B-3. FREQUENCY OF CLEANING. The frequency of
cleaning of army aircraft shall be 30 days, with the
following exceptions, unless aircraft are stationed within
two miles of salt water. Extended or low level operations
over salt water require daily fresh water rinsing. Cleaning
procedures and materials shall be in accordance with
Chapter 2 of this manual with the addition of the following
Army approved exterior aircraft cleaners for helicopters:
Hurrisafe 8015 and Hurrisafe 8065. Hurrisafe 8015 is
approved as substitute for MIL-PRF-85570 Type II
cleaner for cleaning exterior surfaces that are painted.
Dilute Hurrisafe 8015 with water in the same equivalent
parts ratio as the MIL-PRF-85570 Type II cleaner is
diluted per Chapter 2, Table 2-2, Exterior Surfaces,
Painted Surfaces, for light to heavy soils. Hurrisafe
8065 is to be used for moderate to heavy soils as
defined by Chapter 2, Table 2-2, Exterior Surfaces,
Painted, and requires no dilution. See Section VIII for
ordering information.
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APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
SECTION III. CORROSION REMOVAL AND SURFACE TREATMENT
B-4. CHEMICAL CORROSION REMOVAL AND
PREPAINT TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS.
WARNING
Wear acid-resistant gloves, chemical or splash
proof goggles, protective mask, and protective
clothing when working with acidic compounds.
If acid accidentally contacts the skin or eyes,
flush off immediately with clean water. Report
to the medical facility if eyes are affected or if
skin is burned.
Magnesium surfaces should be protected and
subsequently treated as prescribed in Chapter 5
of this manual.
CAUTION
Corrosion removal compound (SAE AMS 1640)
is for use on aluminum alloys only and shall not
be used on or rinsed over magnesium. It shall
be used on aircraft only when required to remove
corrosion as a pre-paint treatment and shall not
be used solely for the purpose of enhancing the
appearance of the aircraft or equipment. The
use of this compound under the premise of
general corrosion removal is also prohibited.
When this compound is accidentally splashed
or spilled, remove immediately by rinsing with
water or wiping with a wet rag. Keep a wet rag
on hand at all times for the removal of spills or
splashes.
When working with any acidic solution for
corrosion removal, keep the solution confined
to the area being treated. The acidic solution
shall be kept away from operating mechanisms,
magnesium alloys, and steel parts, especially
steel screws and fasteners in stressed panels
(e.g. wing).
B-4.1. MASKING. All parts and assemblies, especially
cadmium plate items and hinges susceptible to damage
by the acidic compound, shall be masked and/or
protected. Mask all openings leading to the primary
structure and any other openings which might allow the
solution (uncontrolled) to get into the aircraft or equipment
interior. Specific examples of extremely critical areas on
most aircraft are the landing gears, engines, main
framing and support members of the landing gears,
engines, elevons, elevators, rudder, and wings and
wing stubs. Masking can be accomplished by using
waterproof barrier paper (MIL-PRF-131 Class 1) and
masking tape (AMS-T-21595 Type I).
B-4.2. CLEANING. Surfaces should be thoroughly clean
before application of the corrosion removal compound
(see Chapter 2). For pitted or heavily corroded areas
the compound will be more effective if applied warm
(140°F (60°C) maximum) followed by vigorous agitation
with a nonmetallic acid-resistant brush (H-B-643) or an
aluminum oxide abrasive nylon mat (A-A-58054). The
application of the remover on the heavily corroded
areas may have to be repeated several times to
completely remove the corrosion. When using the acid
remover, be sure to allow a sufficient dwell time (12 to
15 minutes) before rinsing.
B-4.3. INSPECTION. After each application, examine
the pits and/or corroded area with a 10 power magnifying
glass to determine if another application is required.
Corrosion still on the area will appear as a powdery
crust slightly different in color from the uncorroded base
metal. Darkening of the area due to shadows and
reaction from the acid remover should not be considered.
B-4.4. CORROSION
(SAE AMS 1640).
REMOVAL
COMPOUND
CAUTION
When using corrosion removal compound on
aluminum alloy surfaces, take particular care to
keep acid out of faying surfaces, butt joints,
seams, and crevices.
When using the flap brush to remove corrosion,
take action to control the particles or abrasives
that break away and prevent them from
contaminating systems or components. Prior to
accomplishing corrosion removal from severely
pitted areas, check the component or item
against the applicable aircraft or overhaul
manual for authorized or allowable metal
removal limits.
B-4.4.1. The corrosion removal compound
(SAE AMS 1640) material is basically intended for use
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as a pretreatment prior to the application of a protective
coating. However, it also can be used to remove corrosion
products from aluminum alloy materials or items (e.g.,
skins, stringer, ribs in wings, tubing, or ducts). The wipeoff technique is recommended for ducting, tubing,
stringer, and similar parts, followed by a thorough
rinsing of the treated area with clean water. In cases of
severe pitting, the chemical method of removal may be
aided by hand agitating (lightly) the pits with a corrosion
resistant steel wire (0.005 to 0.006 inch maximum
diameter of filament wire) brush (MIL-B-15319) or by
agitating with a power driven nylon flap brush, Density 5,
Type A, grade fine or very fine (3M Corp. or equal).
NOTE
The final protective paint system or primer shall
be applied only on a completely dry surface
within 48 hours after applying the conversion
coating. A second conversion coating shall be
applied over the previous application if more
than 48 hours has elapsed since the first
conversion coating was applied.
B-5. CHEMICAL CORROSION REMOVAL AND
TREATMENT OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS.
WARNING
B-4.4.2. General Application Procedure.
a. Pre-clean surfaces in accordance with Chapter 2.
b. Survey or inspect equipment and determine
area(s) that should be treated with the corrosion removal
compound, using criteria cited in Chapter 3. Pitted
surfaces and/or aluminum surfaces with a powdery
metallic residue which was not removed by cleaning
should be treated. If the aircraft is being prepared for
complete painting or repainting, prepare all cleaned
bare aluminum surfaces for treatment.
B-4.4.3. Mask Applicable Areas (see B-4.1.).
c. Set up application equipment, put on protective
clothing, and prepare corrosion removal and prepaint
solution by diluting Type I material with an equal volume
of water before using. Mix the compound in wood,
plastic, or plastic lined containers only. Follow the
manufacturers mixing instructions.
NOTE
SAE AMS 1640 Type I corrosion removal
solution has a one year shelf life; therefore, it
shall not be used after one year from the date
of manufacture. SAE AMS 1640 Type II material
should be used within 90 days after dissolution.
d. Apply the corrosion removal solution by spray,
mop, sponge, or brush. When applying a the solution on
large surface areas, begin application on lower surface
and work upward, with a circular motion, brushing
enough to loosen the surface film. Allow the solution to
remain on the surface for approximately 12 minutes,
then rinse away with clean tap water. Chromate
conversion coating (MIL-DTL-81706) shall be applied
immediately thereafter. Refer to Chapter 5 for prepaint
treatment application instructions.
B-8
When preparing the chromic acid pickle solution,
add chromium trioxide to water; do not add
water to chromium trioxide.
B-5.1. The chromic acid pickle solution described herein
may be used to remove surface oxidation and light
corrosion products from magnesium surfaces. It is not
considered adequate where deep pitting or heavy
corrosion has occurred, which require mechanical
methods, nor is it satisfactory for removing sand or the
effects of blasting. The chemical method causes less
reduction in section thickness. This method shall not be
used for parts containing copper based inserts unless
the inserts are masked off. Excessive amounts of anions,
such as chlorides, sulfates, and fluorides, must not be
allowed to build up in the solution, as these anions tend
to coat or etch the metal rather than clean the surface.
B-5.2. CHROMIC ACID PICKLE SOLUTION. Mix 24
ounces of chromic acid and enough water to make one
gallon in a container constructed from lead lined steel,
stainless steel, or 1100 aluminum.
B-5.3. APPLICATION PROCEDURE.
a. Mask off nearby operating mechanisms, cracks,
and plated steel to keep the solution from attacking
them.
b. Heat the solution to 190° to 202°F (88° to 94°C).
The solution can be applied at room temperature for a
longer reaction time, if desired.
c. Carefully apply the chromic acid solution to the
corroded area with an acid resistant brush (H-B-643).
Allow the solution to remain on the surface for
approximately 15 minutes.
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d. Thoroughly rinse the solution from the surface
with plenty of clean water.
e. Repeat the preceding sequence as necessary
until all corrosion products have been removed and the
metal has a bright appearance.
f. Apply the chemical pretreatment and final
protective finish recommended for the area.
B-5.4. PRE-TREATMENT PROCESSES (BRUSH
APPLICATION). Chemical pre-treatment, such as the
chromic acid brush- on solution, provides a passive
surface layer with an inhibitive characteristic that resists
corrosive attack and also provides a bond for subsequent
coatings. Properly applied magnesium pre-treatment
tend to neutralize corrosion media in contact with the
surface. Numerous type treatments are available;
however, for the purpose of this manual, the following
brush-on treatment corresponding to Type VI of
Specification AMS-M-3171 is given. The pre-treatment
shall be applied immediately after paint removal and
washing in order to prevent corrosion and surface
deterioration.
B-5.4.1. Chromic Acid Brush-On Pretreatment. The
chromic acid brush-on pretreatment may be applied to
all magnesium parts that require touchup. This treatment
is generally used in refinishing procedures or when
parts and assemblies are too large to be immersed. This
treatment is less critical to apply than the other brushon treatments, is relatively inexpensive, not as harmful
when trapped in faying surfaces and does not present
the toxicity hazards of the other brush-on treatments.
Ensure that all contaminants, grease, and oil are removed
prior to the treatment process.
B-5.4.1.1. Preparation.
WARNING
When preparing the chromic acid brush-on
pretreatment, add the chemicals to the water in
the order shown below, stirring the solution
vigorously, either mechanically or by agitation,
for at least 15 minutes. Avoid skin contact or
inhalation of acid fumes.
B-5.4.1.2. Add 1-1/3 ounces (37.8 grams) of technical
grade chromic acid (A-A-55827) and one ounce (28.3
grams) of calcium sulfate (CaSO4-2H20) to enough
water to make one gallon in a container constructed
from stainless steel, aluminum, vinyl, polyethylene, or
rubber. The operating temperature range is 70° to 90°F
(21° to 32°C). After mixing, the pH of the solution should
be between 1.1 and 1.6. Adjust with acid if the pH is
greater than 1.6 and with water if the pH is less than 1.1.
B-5.4.1.3. Application Procedure.
a. Clean the surfaces to be treated (see B-4.2). A
water break test is recommended if the cleanliness of
the surface is in doubt.
b. Apply the coating solution by brush, swab, or a
low pressure, non-atomizing spray. Keep the receiving
surfaces wet throughout the treatment operation until
the required or specified coating film is produced. Under
optimum conditions (i.e., at temperatures of 70°F (21°C)
or above, and using fresh materials), the time required
is usually one to five minutes; up to one to two minutes
of treatment should produce a brassy film, and three to
five minutes should produce a dark brown coating.
Under adverse conditions, and if the desired or specified
finish color is not produced in the specified time, the
treatment may have to be prolonged (up to 20 to 30
minutes in some instances) until the proper finish is
obtained. For good paint adhesion, a dark brown color
free of powder is considered best. The color may vary
in using different manufacturers materials.
NOTE
Too long an exposure to the brush-on solution
produces coatings which will powder and impair
adhesion of applied paint finish and films.
c. The coating should be closely observed during
the treatment for color changes, rinsed with cold running
water when the desired condition or color is reached,
and air dried. The preparation and use of test panels,
made of the same material and under the same
conditions, prior to starting the actual treating operation
may be used as an aid in determining the application
time required to produce the necessary coating. A good
coating is uniform in color and density, adheres well,
and is free of loose powder.
d. Apply wash primer (MIL-C-8514) to the treated
surface as soon as practical after thorough drying.
e. Apply recommended final protective finish.
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B-5.5. PAINT SYSTEMS. Use paint systems which are
recommended for aluminum (see TM 55-1500-34523). Treat touch-up of broken conversion films or
magnesium as described in paragraph B-5.6. prior to
the application of any paint system.
NOTE
The final protective paint system or primer shall
be applied on a completely dry surface and
shall be applied within 48 hours after application
of the AMS-M-3171 or chromic acid brush-on
pretreatment. A second pretreatment coating
shall be applied over the previous if more than
48 hours have elapsed since the previous
application.
B-5.6. REPAIR OF MIL-M-45202 COATINGS. Some
magnesium parts in current aircraft have been originally
protected by proprietary electrolytic processes. The
HAE process can be identified by the brown to mottled
gray appearance of the unpainted surface. DOW 17
coatings have a green to grayish-green color. Coatings
of the electrolytic type are thicker than those applied by
immersion or brushing. Electrolytic finishes cannot be
restored in the field. When failure occurs, remove
corrosion products, touch-up bare magnesium with
chemical treatment solution (AMS-M-3171), and repaint
the part. Take care to minimize the removal of these
coatings.
B-6. CHEMICAL CORROSION REMOVAL AND
TREATMENT OF FERROUS METALS OTHER THAN
STAINLESS STEEL.
WARNING
The phosphoric acid-type corrosion remover
(MIL-C-10578 Type III) contains a strong acid.
Protect hands, face, and eyes, wear protective
clothing, and avoid prolonged inhalation of
vapors. Corrosion removing compound, sodium
hydroxide base (A-A-59261) is highly alkaline,
and, therefore, harmful to the skin and eyes.
Operators should wear rubber gloves, aprons,
and chemical or splash proof goggles and use
adequate ventilation when working with this
material.
CAUTION
Do not use the phosphoric acid-type corrosion
remover (MIL-C-10578 Type III) if the danger
of trapping the material in crevices or recesses
exists. Steel parts heat-treated above Rockwell
C40 (180,000 psi) tensile strength are subject
to hydrogen embrittlement; therefore, the use
of the phosphoric acid-type corrosion remover
(MIL-C-10578 Type III) is prohibited.
Do not use the sodium hydroxide base corrosion
removing compound (A-A-59261) to remove
corrosion from aluminum alloys. Do not process
dissimilar metals in the solution.
B-6.1. Chemical corrosion removal is recommended
for use where there is no danger of the chemicals
becoming, trapped in crevices or recesses. Chemical
rust remover is either acid or alkaline. The acid type
(MIL-C-10578 Type III) is intended for removal of red
rust and black oxide formations by either immersion or
brush application of the chemical. The alkali type
(A-A-59261) is intended for removing red rust by
immersion treatment.
B-6.2. APPLICATION PROCEDURES.
B-6.2.1. Brush-On Method. Phosphoric acid-type
corrosion remover (MIL-C-10578 Type III) is used to
remove rust and condition the metal surface prior to
painting. Type III material should always be rinsed off
with water after application.
a. Protect adjacent components to prevent damage
by scale, chips, corrosion products, or chemicals.
b. Remove any grease or soil by method outlines in
Chapter 2 of this manual.
c. Remove heavy rust by chipping and/or wire
brushing.
d. Add one part of the concentrated material as
received to one part of water by volume, adding the acid
to the water. Use acid resistant mixing tanks.
e. After proper dilution, apply the material to the
corroded area with brush or swab. Allow the material to
remain long enough loosen the rust (usually two to 10
minutes, depending on the degree of rusting).
f. Remove the by with hot water. The material must
be completely rinsed from the part.
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g. If corrosion is still evident, repeat paragraphs e.
and f.
h. Dry the part and immediately apply the protective
paint or other corrosion preventive finish.
B-6.2.2. Immersion Method (Acid Type). Use inhibited
phosphoric acid-type rust remover (MIL-C-10578
Type III) for small parts. Corrosion resistant steel tanks
are preferred for the immersion treatment.
a. Remove grease and oil as outlined in Chapter 2
of this manual.
b. Remove heavy rust by chipping and/or wire
brushing.
c. Mix the rust remover as described above.
d. Immerse the parts in the solution only long enough
to loosen the rust. For removal of heavy rust, the
solution can be heated to 140°F (60°C) maximum.
Agitate the parts in the solution to further increase the
rate of rust removal.
e. Rinse in a continuously overflowing cold water
rinse tank, if water rinse tank is available, or spray with
clean, preferably hot, water.
f. Dry the parts and immediately apply the final
protective paint or other corrosion preventive finish.
B-6.2.3. Immersion Method (Alkali Type). Use an alkali
type corrosion remover for removing corrosion from
small parts with or without attendant paint, grease, or
other surface coating. Corrosion removing compound,
sodium hydroxide base (MIL-C-14460) is suitable for
rust removal by simple immersion of the parts. The
compound will also remove grease, paint, and rust from
the parts, and may be used to clean copper and brass
and strip phosphate coatings. In addition, rust can be
removed from critical or machined surfaces with the
compound without causing dimensional change of the
part.
g. Prepare alkaline rust remover in accordance with
manufacturers instructions as printed on the container.
The usual concentration employed for Type I material is
five pounds per gallon of water. Carbon steel or corrosion
resistant steel tanks may be used.
h. Immerse parts in the rust remover solution. Rust
removal time varies with the extent of the rust.
Temperatures up to the boiling point of the solution may
be used to increase the rate of rust removal.
i. Rinse thoroughly in clean (preferably hot) water.
j. Dry thoroughly and immediately apply final
protective finish or other corrosion preventive compound.
B-6.3. PAINT SYSTEMS. See TM 55-1500-345-23 for
paint systems applicable to aircraft in general. In addition,
see the aircraft maintenance manuals overhaul manuals,
or parts drawings for specific paint systems.
B-7. CHEMICAL CORROSION REMOVAL AND
TREATMENT OF STAINLESS STEEL AND NICKEL
BASE ALLOYS.
CAUTION
Take care to protect surrounding unaffected
areas next to area being treated by avoiding
leakage of chemicals into recesses or
inaccessible area in order to prevent additional
damage from corrosion attack.
The heat-treatable straight-chromium alloys,
such as AISI Types 403, 410, and 420 are
susceptible to cracking when placed in pickling
solutions; therefore, corrosion removal by
brushing or grinding is recommended.
B-7.1. Chemical removal of corrosion is recommended
for severely corroded areas where there is no danger of
the chemicals becoming entrapped in recesses or
structural complexities or the possibility of damaging
surrounding metals and plating.
B-7.2. Corrosion removal procedure for installed
components which are not readily removable.
a. Protect adjacent unaffected areas not being
treated to prevent additional corrosive attack. When
internal corrosion is evident, the components shall be
removed and processed through an overhaul facility in
accordance with the specific directives.
b. Protect nearby non-corrosion-resistant steel
alloys, plated areas, copper-bronze alloys, aluminum
alloys, braided flexible lines, and operating mechanisms
to prevent the chemical treating solution from coming in
contact with those areas.
c. Remove all loose corrosion by brushing with
stainless steel wool or No. 400 carborundum paper.
Remove loose particles by wiping with a clean cloth
dampened with approved compliant cleaning solvents.
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Table B-1. Control of the Dissolving Action of Nitric-Hydrofluoric Acid Solution
Dissolving or Pickling Action is MORE Severe
Dissolving or Pickling Action is LESS Severe
When the nitric acid content is decreased.
When the hydrofluoric acid content is increased.
When the nitric acid content is increased.
When the hydrofluoric acid content is decreased.
When the temperature is increased.
When the temperature is decreased.
When immersion time is increased.
When immersion time is decreased.
d. In areas where there is no danger of liquid oxygen
spillage, corrosion may be removed with phosphoric
acid base rust remover (MIL-C-10578).
coils to heat the solution. The heating coils should be
installed so that they are easily replaced since they will
be corroded by the solution.
e. Thoroughly rinse all chemical corrosion remover
from the area.
c. Optimum pickling conditions (temperature, time,
and acid concentration) shall be determined by exposure
of test panels to all conditions of the cleaning cycle.
Excessive etching or intergranular attack of the base
metal shall be avoided.
f. Allow the area to dry, then apply final protective
finish or other corrosion preventive if required.
B-7.3. PICKLING FOR CORROSION REMOVAL.
WARNING
The scale loosening solution, the pickling
solution, and the passivating solution all contain
strong acids. Observe the standard safety
precautions for handling acids. Wear protective
clothing, avoid inhaling fumes, provide adequate
ventilation, and always add acid to water.
Hydrofluoric acid is exceptionally hazardous.
a. Mixtures of nitric acid (O-N-350) and hydrofluoric
acid (MIL-A-24641) in water are recommended. The
correct percentage content of the two acids for a given
corrosion removal job shall be determined by testing.
(See B-7.2.c). The nitric acid content may vary from 5 to
50% and the hydrofluoric acid from 0.5 to 5%, both by
volume. Normally, an aqueous mixture containing 12 to
15% nitric acid and 1% hydrofluoric acid is used to
remove light scale or corrosion. The percentage of
hydrofluoric acid may be increased to remove heavier
scale or corrosion. The more nitric acid present with
respect to hydrofluoric acid, the less rapid the corrosion
or scale removal. Nitric acid acts to inhibit the action of
hydrofluoric acid. Rubber lined or Koroseal tanks may
be used to hold the solutions.
b. The pickling temperature may be adjusted from
room temperature to 140°F (60°C). Higher temperatures
shall be avoided to reduce evaporation loss of
hydrofluoric acid. Temperatures below 120°F (49°C)
should be used if intergranular attack is experienced in
localized areas, such as weld zones. Type 300 series
stainless steels may be used to manufacture steam
B-12
(1) Make test panels, 1 x 4 inches, of the same
material as that of the compound being cleaned. Process
the test panels through the complete cleaning and
pickling cycle.
(2) If etching, intergranular attack, or metal loss
is excessive (i.e., would cause component to be
condemned), or if cleaning is not complete, adjust the
acid concentration, immersion time, or solution
temperature until the desired result is obtained.
Table B-1 shows the effect of the variables (acid
concentration, immersion time, and solution
temperature) on the pickling action of the solution.
d. The following procedures are merely guidelines
for acid pickling. Competent operators must establish
specific procedures by test as outlined in paragraph c.
above. A scale loosening procedure is included for use
only if severe scale is encountered and it is desired to
loosen the scale by chemical means. Normally, heavy
scale may be removed by mechanical means prior to
acid pickling. A passivating procedure is also included
and may be used following pickling. Solvent or vapor
degreasing shall precede the following procedure:
(1) If necessary, remove severe scale by a
mechanical method.
(2) If necessary, loosen severe scale by
immersing parts in an 8-10% (by weight) solution of
sulfuric acid (A-A-55828) in water at 150° to 160°F (66°
to 71°C) for approximately five minutes. Observe results
and repeat if required. Scrub as required to remove
sludge.
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(3) Rinse parts quickly and thoroughly in clean,
hot water.
(4) Transfer parts to the nitric-hydrofluoric acid
pickling bath. A typical bath consists of 15% nitric acid
(O-N-350), 2 to 3% hydrofluoric acid (MIL-A-24641),
and 82 to 83% clean water, all by volume.
(5) Immerse parts for five to 15 minutes at a
temperature of 60° to 140°F (16° to 60°C). Scrub or
agitate as required.
and should ordinarily have no effect on the function of
the part. Copper corrosion is evidenced by the
accumulation of colored products. Corrosion can be
removed from copper with phosphoric acid base rust
remover (MIL-C-10578), provided that there is no danger
of trapping the acid in the crevices or recesses.
B-8.1. CORROSION REMOVAL FROM IMMOVABLE
AREAS.
a. Protect adjacent components to prevent damage
by chemical agents.
NOTE
The required acid concentration, temperature,
and time shall be determined by test prior to
starting pickling operations (see B-7.2.c). New
welds should be mechanically vibrated during
the pickling operations.
(6)
water.
Immediately rinse thoroughly in clean, hot
(7) Transfer the parts to a passivating solution
for treatment as follows:
(a) Immerse parts in an aqueous solution
containing 20 percent by volume nitric acid (O-N-350) at
ordinary room temperature for 30 minutes.
(b) Rinse in clean, hot water.
(c) Immerse parts for one hour in a hot
aqueous solution (140° to 160°F (70° to 71°C)) containing
5% sodium dichromate.
(d) Rinse thoroughly.
B-7.4. PAINT SYSTEMS. Stainless steel parts normally
are not painted. However, where extreme corrosive
conditions are encountered or where organic finishes
are required for decorative purposes, finishing systems
may be found in TM 55-1500-345-23, the overhaul
manuals, or on the parts drawings.
B-8. CHEMICAL CORROSION REMOVAL AND
TREATMENT OF COPPER AND COPPER BASE
ALLOYS. Copper and copper alloys are relatively
corrosion resistant, and attack on such components will
usually be limited to staining and tarnish. Generally
such changes in surface conditions are not dangerous
b. Remove grease or soil from the area to be treated
with cleaner and/or solvent (see Chapter 2).
c. Remove corrosion with phosphoric acid base rust
remover (MIL-C-10578).
d. Rinse the area thoroughly, dry, and apply final
protective paint or other finish if required.
B-8.2. CORROSION REMOVAL FROM REMOVABLE
COMPONENTS.
a. Components which can be disassembled can be
treated in immersion tanks. The tanks should be
manufactured from or lined with stainless steel, lead,
ceramic, glass, or acid resistant rubber. Immersion
racks should be manufactured from stainless steel or
Monel. The proper conditions (time, temperature, and
acid concentration) for the process should be determined
by test, using panels of the same material which is to be
treated.
b. Disassemble the component as necessary. Do
not simultaneously process dissimilar metals in the acid
bath.
c. Degrease parts by immersion, spray, or vapor
cleaning.
d. Immerse parts in a solution containing 5 to 10%
sulfuric acid (A-A-55828), by volume, in water; add the
acid to the water, not the water to the acid. Maintain
solution between 60° and 120°F (15° and 49°C). The
required temperature, immersion time, and acid
concentration shall be determined by test.
e. Rinse thoroughly.
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f. If a red stain appears on the parts following the
above treatment, remove the stain by immersing parts
in a solution containing sulfuric acid (A-A-55828), 4-10%
by volume, sodium dichromate, 4 -8 ounces per gallon
of solution, and water, remainder.
g. Maintain the above solution at 60° to 120°F (15°
to 49°C). The required temperature, immersion time,
and acid concentration shall be determined by test.
h. Rinse thoroughly. This will remove any residual
acid, which could cause staining of the metal surface.
i. Dry rapidly, preferably with hot air. Rapid drying
will prevent water stains on the metal surface.
B-8.3. PAINT SYSTEMS. Normally copper and copper
alloys are not painted. However, if paint is required for
decorative or other purposes the finishing systems are
listed in TM 55-1500-345-23, the aircraft maintenance
manuals, overhaul manuals, or parts drawings.
B-9. CHEMICAL CORROSION REMOVAL AND
TREATMENT OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM-BASE
ALLOYS.
CAUTION
Titanium is susceptible to hydrogen
embrittlement in acid solutions; therefore, the
acid pickle should be used only when other
corrosion removal methods are not adequate.
Assign competent operators to monitor the
process.
B-9.1. An acid pickle will remove most oxide coatings
from titanium, provided that the scale was formed at
temperatures below 1000°F (540°C). Gray or black
oxides should be removed by a mechanical method,
such as abrasive blasting, prior to the acid pickle to
prevent pitting of the titanium.
a. If present, remove gray or black oxide by
mechanical means.
b. Remove soil as outlined in Chapter 2.
B-14
WARNING
Hydrofluoric acid is extremely hazardous. Follow
all MSDS safety precautions and ensure use of
all required PPE.
NOTE
The required acid concentration and immersion
time shall be determined by test prior to the
pickling operation.
c. Immerse parts in a solution normally containing
20% nitric acid (O-N-350) and 3% hydrofluoric acid
(MIL-A-24641) in water, by volume. Maintain the solution
at the normal room temperature. Allow the parts to
remain in the solution only long enough to remove the
oxide coats. Intermittent wiping with a brush or cloth
during the pickling operation will facilitate oxide removal
with a minimum of pitting.
d. Rinse thoroughly in cold running water, air dry, or
dry in air oven at 180° to 240°F (82° to 116°C).
e. Apply final protective finish, if required.
B-9.2. PAINT SYSTEMS. Titanium does not require a
paint system for corrosion protection. Where organic
finishes are required for decorative or other purposes,
finishing systems may be found in TM 55-1500-345-23,
aircraft maintenance manuals, overhaul manuals, or
parts drawings.
B-10. CHEMICAL CORROSION REMOVAL AND
TREATMENT OF PLATED AND PHOSPHATED
SURFACES. Chemical corrosion removal is
recommended for use where there is no danger of the
chemicals becoming trapped in crevices or recesses.
Acid-type chemical rust removers are recommended.
The acid type is intended for removing red rust and
other types of corrosion from the base metal by brush
application of the chemical. The acid rust remover is
intended for use following removal of heavy corrosion
by mechanical means. The acid will remove any
remaining corrosion and condition the metal surface to
improve paint adhesion.
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B-10.1. TOUCH-UP OF CORRODED AREAS ON
CADMIUM OR ZINC PLATED SURFACES. Cadmium
and zinc plate provide cathodic protection to the
underlying base metal. If, during normal use, the plated
surface is broken, the cadmium or zinc plate will be
anodic to the base metal (usually steel or copper alloy):
therefore, the plate will corrode and sacrificially protect
the base metal. Removal of corrosion from cadmium or
zinc plated surfaces shall be limited to the removal of
the corrosion products from the underlying base metal.
Mechanical corrosion removal methods shall be used.
B-10.2. TOUCH-UP OF CORRODED AREAS ON
PLATED PARTS (EXCEPT THOSE PLATED WITH
CADMIUM OR ZINC). When a break occurs in the
surface of plates such as chromium, nickel, tin, or
copper, corrosion of the base metal will follow. The
corrosion will normally be accelerated because the
above plates are cathodic to most base metals.
a. Protect adjacent components from scale,
corrosion products, and chemical agents.
b. Clean the area to remove grease or other soil.
a. Protect adjacent components for scale, corrosion
products, and chemical agents.
b. Clean the area with dry cleaning solvent
(MIL-PRF-680 Type II) or other approved materials to
remove grease or other soils (see Chapter 2).
c. Remove corrosion products from the base metal
with abrasive paper or abrasive nylon pad. Avoid
removing undamaged cadmium or zinc plate adjacent
to the corroded area. Corrosion removal shall be limited
to the immediate area of the corrosion on the base
metal.
d. Remove any remaining corrosion and condition
the metal surface with phosphoric acid base rust remover
(MIL-C-10578). Allow the acid to contact the surface
only long enough to remove the corrosion.
e. Allow the area to dry, and immediately apply final
protective paint or other corrosion preventive finish.
NOTE
The above procedures are intended only for
touchup of corroded areas on cadmium or zinc
plated surfaces. Where service temperatures
preclude the use of organic finishes or the
thickness of the organic finish will impair
operation of the part, severely corroded parts
must be replaced. Where facilities are available,
severely corroded cadmium plated parts may
be replated.
c. Remove heavy corrosion by mechanical means,
such as wire brushing.
d. Remove any remaining corrosion and condition
the metal surface with phosphoric acid base rust remover
(MIL-G-10578). Allow the acid to contact the surface
only long enough to remove the corrosion.
e. Thoroughly rinse the acid from the surface with
clean water.
f. Allow the area to dry and immediately apply final
protective paint or other corrosion preventive finish.
B-10.3. PAINT SYSTEMS. Paint may be used to prevent
further corrosion on plated or phosphated surfaces,
provided that the part does not operate at temperatures
which preclude the use of organic finishes and that the
finish will not prevent the part from performing its
intended function. Organic finishes shall not be used
on: bearings or wearing surfaces of gears, cams, or
slides; where an electrical conducting surface is required;
where the reflective properties of the plates are essential,
and, other areas where the finish will prevent the part
from performing its intended function. Finishes consistent
with the requirements for corrosion protection of the
base metal should be used. Refer to TM 55 1500-34523, the aircraft maintenance manuals, overhaul manuals,
or parts drawings for specific paint systems.
f. Small corroded areas can be brush plated in
accordance with instructions in Depot Maintenance
Work Requirements (DMWRs).
B-15/(B-16 Blank)
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APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
SECTION IV. TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC AREAS
B-11. PURPOSE. This section covers preventive and
corrective procedures and materials for specific aircraft
parts or areas.
B-12. CORROSION TREATMENT OF SPECIFIC
TYPE TUBING.
WARNING
Do not use Specification MIL-PRF-16173
material on any oxygen line fittings. This material
contains petroleum solvents which are not
oxygen compatible. Explosion may occur if
oxygen contacts this material and the resulting
mixture is subjected to sudden pressure or
impact. After installation, apply the exterior
paint system to the exposed tubing, sleeve, and
back portion of the B nut of these fittings.
B-12.1. No paint coating shall be applied to the interior
surface of airspeed indicator tubing, oxygen tubing, or
other plumbing lines. Interior and exterior surfaces of
other aluminum alloy tubing shall be treated with
MIL-DTL-81706, except oxygen lines which shall be
treated on external surfaces only. Tubing in
methylbromide or trifluorobromoethane fire extinguishing
systems shall be finished with baked resin coating
conforming to MIL-PRF-3043. The process shall be in
accordance with MIL-C-5056.
B-12.2. If possible, the interior surfaces of structural
aluminum alloy tubing shall be protected in accordance
with the general schedule for aircraft interior surfaces.
The interior surfaces of structural aluminum alloy tubing
sealed by welding need not be painted on land planes.
On amphibian aircraft, however, the interior of such
members shall be coated with epoxy polyamide primer
(MIL-PRF-23377) or corrosion preventive compound
(MIL-C-11796 Class 3), applied through appropriately
drilled holes when permitted by aircraft maintenance
manuals.
B-12.3. The interior surfaces of structural magnesium
alloy tubing shall be painted in accordance with the
general schedule for aircraft interior magnesium
surfaces. Interior surfaces of sealed structural
magnesium tubing shall be coated with epoxy polyamide
primer (MIL-PRF-23377) or corrosion preventive
compound (MIL-C-11796 Class 3), applied through
appropriately drilled holes when permitted by aircraft
maintenance manuals.
B-12.4. The interior and exterior surfaces of copper
alloy, corrosion resistant alloy (stainless steel), and
heat resistant alloy tubing need not be painted except
as required for protection against dissimilar metal
contact.
B-12.5. The interior of structural carbon steel tubular
assemblies not closed by welding shall be finished in
the same manner as exterior surfaces as possible.
Assemblies completely closed by welding or to which
application of primer is not practicable or not effective,
such as crimped-end tubing not closed by welding or
tubing heat treated after assembly, shall be treated after
assembly, (and heat treatment, if performed) with hot
linseed oil (ASTM D260) in lieu of the zinc chromate
primer coats. The liquid shall be applied by forcing it into
the hollow member under pressure through holes drilled
therein or by immersing the part in a bath of the liquid.
For a large structure, interconnecting holes may be
drilled between various members in order that the liquid
will circulate. The presence of the hot material in each
member may be checked by noting the increase in
temperature of the member. Parts that are immersed
shall be manipulated to ensure that no airpockets are
formed, and the parts shall remain in the bath until all
bubbling has ceased. The members shall be thoroughly
drained after treatment, and all exterior surfaces shall
be wiped free of oil. All access holes drilled in the
members shall be closed with cadmium plated selftapping screws or equivalent. Solder shall not be used
to close the holes.
B-12.6. Aluminum tubing which is normally exposed to
the combined direct action of climatic elements either
during flight or on the ground shall be protected with the
complete exterior paint system. Climatic elements
include humidity extremes, rain, hail, snow, sleet, saltladen air, industrial atmospheres, windblown sand, and
dust. Tubing in areas such as wheel wells and their
fairings, speed-brakes, wing flaps, and unsheltered
tubing at missile sites is categorized as exposed tubing.
B-17
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a. Clean tubing in accordance with paragraph
B-4.4.1.
b. Condition surface by the method outlined in
B-4.4.1.
c. Apply
chromate
conversion
coating
(MIL-DTL-81706) to the interior and exterior surfaces;
treat only the exterior surfaces of oxygen lines.
NOTE
Use dry cleaning solvent (MIL-PRF-680) to
remove the preservative coatings from fittings
installed on painted tubing.
B-12.7. Often corrosion occurs on or near sleeves used
under fittings on tubing. When corrosion is encountered
and/or tubing is replaced, determine what type sleeve
(type metal and/or plate) is installed.
NOTE
Apply only the conversion coating if tolerances
will not allow the application of the primer coat.
Take precautions to exclude primer from internal
tubing areas.
d. For permanent installations, apply two coats of
epoxy polyamide primer (MIL-PRF-23377) and two
coats of paint. (See TM 55-1500-345-23 for typical paint
systems). The chromate conversion coating and primer
shall be applied over the entire external surface of the
tubing including under the sleeve. After fabrication and
prior to installation, the complete exterior paint system
shall be applied to all lines and fittings. Coating damaged
during installation shall be retouched. Fittings that are
inaccessible for inspection and refinishing as may be
required in service or are so oriented that fluid can
collect on or behind the fittings shall have exposed
surfaces between parts sealed with a corrosion inhibitive
sealing and coating compound (MIL-PRF-81733). After
sealing, the seals and the surfaces adjacent to them
shall receive the prescribed paint finish.
NOTE
Where double flares are used, such as in oxygen
systems, the ends must be capped, and paint
must be applied after the flaring operation to
prevent coating the inside face of the flare
(sealing surface) which mates with the seat of
the fitting. To prevent contamination, end fittings
shall not be painted until after installation on the
aircraft.
e. Paint coating shall be omitted for a distance of
one inch from each fitting of lines which are known to
require periodic removal in service. After installation,
apply MIL-PRF-81309 Type II water displacing corrosion
preventive compound with a small brush to the unpainted
portion of the tubing, the exposed part of the sleeve, and
the back portion of the B nut. Do not apply to fitting
threads. Allow to dry for a period of at least one hour and
then coat the same area with MIL-PRF-16173 Grade 4
corrosion preventive compound.
B-18
B-12.8. Stainless steel tubing which is normally exposed
to the direct action of climatic elements may also require
an organic finish for corrosion protection. Austenitic
stainless steels are particularly susceptible to pitting
and/or stress corrosion cracking when exposed to
combinations of salt-laden air and dust particles (metallic
or nonmetallic) or other materials which can cause
concentration cells to form on the stainless steel surface,
Where severe deteriorating conditions cause frequent
replacement of stainless steel tubing, the tubing shall
be protected as follows:
a. Remove all foreign soils, oils, and grease by hand
cleaning.
b. Remove corrosion products (see Chapter 4 and
paragraph B-7.).
c. Wipe down immediately before painting with an
approved solvent cleaner.
d. Apply wash (DOD-P-15328).
e. Apply two coats of epoxy polyamide primer
(MIL-PRF-23377).
f. Where appearance is a consideration as an
alternate to paragraph e., apply one coat of primer
followed by a topcoat of the exterior coating being used
in the surrounding area. Ensure that primer and topcoat
are compatible (see TM 55-1500-345-23).
B-12.9. Cadmium plate may deteriorate under exposure
to certain chemicals, abrasion, or environmental
conditions. Until such time as the tubing can be replaced
or replated, the following method of touchup will be
used:
a. Clean the tubing thoroughly.
b. Mechanically remove the deteriorated cadmium
and/or corrosion.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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c. Wipe thoroughly with an approved solvent cleaner.
d. Apply wash (DOD-P-15328).
e. Apply two coats of epoxy MIL-DTL-53022
(corrosion inhibitor, lead and chromate free).
f. As an alternate to paragraph e., apply one coat of
primer followed by a topcoat to match surrounding area.
Ensure that the primer and topcoat are compatible (see
TM 55-1500 345-23).
B-13. CORROSION REMOVAL FROM THIN METAL.
When corrosion and stains are to be removed from
airframe structure skins thinner than 0.0625 inch and an
abrasive method of removal is required, the following
procedure applies:
a. Prepare pumice paste by mixing pumice powder
(SS-P-821) and water to form a slurry. Use a clean, soft
cloth such as cheesecloth to apply the paste to the stain
and rub gently.
CAUTION
Do not allow metallic or corrosion particles to
build up on the polishing area or polishing tool
(cloth or grit paper) during polishing. Damage
to the metal may result.
b. When pumice has dried to a white powder, wipe
off with clean, dry, soft cloth. If corrosion products still
exist (stubborn stains), use number 600 grit, wet or dry,
abrasive paper and water to remove the remaining
corrosion. Wipe clean with clean, dry, soft cloth.
B-14. CORROSION AND PAINT REMOVAL FROM
METAL COMPONENTS REMOVED FROM
AIRCRAFT. Metal components removed from aircraft
(except control surfaces, precision components, and
close tolerance fittings) and taken to repair shops for
routine rework may be cleaned free of paint and corrosion
by abrasive blasting. See Chapter 4 and the specific
alloy sections for detailed information.
B-15. AIR INTAKE DUCTS-JET AIRCRAFT. Air intake
ducts are fabricated from materials (usually 5000 series
aluminum) which have high corrosion resistance. Certain
components of these ducts may be cast aluminum or
magnesium. Coating of these castings and frequent
cleaning of the duct is usually sufficient to preclude
attack by corrosion. Aircraft performing low level missions
or take-off and landings over salt water or in highly
saline atmospheres may need the ducts painted to
reduce corrosion attack. Such a requirement must be
determined by the operating activity. A polyurethane
paint system as outlined in TM 55-1500-345-23 is
recommended.
NOTE
When the history of an aircraft reveals duct
cracking and rivet shear, a coating is not
desirable. Painting of such ducts will make
detection of failures difficult, and often
impossible, without removal of the paint.
B-16. CLOSELY COILED SPRINGS. Springs that are
closely coiled, preventing the application of plating to
internal surfaces, shall receive two coats of
MIL-DTL-53022 (corrosion inhibitor, lead and chromate
free) or MIL-PRF-23377.
NOTE
These requirements do not apply to springs
made of corrosion resistant steel or beryllium
copper, or to springs in oil or hydraulic fluids.
B-17. CORROSION TREATMENT OF STEEL
CABLES.
a. Inspect cable for damage in accordance with
TM 1-1500-204-23-1, paragraph 9-12e, and appropriate
aircraft manuals.
b. Move surface controls of the particular cable to
the extremities to reveal the cable in the pulley contact,
fairlead area, or drum. If the surface of the cable is
corroded, relieve cable tension and carefully force the
cable open by reverse twisting and visually inspect the
interior.
c. Corrosion on the interior strands of the cable
constitutes failure, and the cable must be replaced. If no
internal corrosion is detected, remove loose external
rust and corrosion with a clean, dry, coarse-weave rag
or fiber brush.
d. After thorough cleaning, apply MIL-PRF-16173
Grade 1 corrosion preventive compound sparingly. Do
not apply the material so thick that it will interfere with
the operation of cables at fairleads, pulleys or grooved
bellcrank areas.
B-19/(B-20 Blank)
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APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
SECTION V. DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES FOR SALT WATER AND
MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTH CONTAMINATION
B-18. GENERAL.
This
section
describes
decontamination procedures to be followed after it has
been determined that a fuel system is contaminated
with salt water or microbiological growth. It is extremely
important that fuel system decontamination procedures
be initiated as soon as possible following evidence of
contamination, particularly if salt water contaminated,
because serious corrosion damage to metallic
components can begin within a few hours. Defueling,
depuddling and purging are required as part of
decontamination of the fuel system. Defueling shall be
done in accordance with instructions contained in the
applicable aircraft maintenance manual.
B-18.1. COMPONENTS REQUIRING SPECIAL
TREATMENT. Components such as cork floats, wiring
bundles, braided hose covering and capacitance type
fuel quantity indicators may require special treatments
which include removal and soaking in a hot cleaning
solution followed by scrubbing to remove residual salt
deposits and/or microbiological growth. When ultrasonic
cleaning equipment is available, cleaning time can be
shortened considerably.
B-18.2. WATER
EMULSION
CLEANING
COMPOUNDS. Water emulsion cleaning compounds
are specified to assist in cleaning grossly contaminated
systems. Since residues from these cleaning compounds
provide food for microorganisms leading to
microbiological growth, it is essential that thorough
fresh water rinsing follow their use.
B-19. SALT WATER CONTAMINATION. Salt water
contamination of the aircraft fuel system does not
necessarily result in immediate engine fuel system
contamination. Therefore, fuel samples shall be obtained
from the engine fuel system beginning with main filters
and working downstream until the extent of salt water
penetration into the fuel system can be established. If
there is no evidence of salt water in the engine fuel
system, the system shall be disconnected and/or blanked
off to prevent possible contamination during fuel cell
and aircraft plumbing system decontamination.
B-19.1. DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES.
WARNING
Sodium dichromate crystals (A-A-59123) are
toxic to the skin and eyes. Chemical or splash
proof goggles, rubber gloves (MIL-G-12223),
coveralls (MIL-C-2202), and a respirator
(GGGM-125/1) shall be worn when handling
these crystals.
CAUTION
To prevent possible damage to fuel system
nonmetallic components, the solution
temperature shall not exceed 120°F (49°C).
Do not allow sodium dichromate solution to dry
out on any metallic surface during treatment.
Ensure that cellulose sponges are in good
condition (i.e., not coming apart or shredding)
when used inside a fuel cell or tank. Also, to
prevent a fire hazard, cellulose sponges and
cheesecloth used for cleaning fuel cells or
tanks shall be disposed of in accordance with
local safety instructions.
B-19.2. To decontaminate the fuel system, proceed as
follows:
a. While the fuel system is still assembled, defuel
aircraft and drain remaining fuel using low point drains.
Include draining the engine fuel systems, if contaminated.
b. Prepare an inhibitor solution by adding 35 to 40
pounds of sodium dichromate crystals (A-A-59123) to
each 50 gallons of fresh water. To improve flushing
ability, use warm water (100° to 120°F (38° to 49°C)), if
available. The inhibitor solution will dissolve and remove
most of the residual salts, thus providing temporary
corrosion protection for metallic components.
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15 April 2009
c. To treat systems by flushing, remove tank or cell
access plates and removable components, as
necessary, to provide maximum access to contaminated
areas. Using a pump (5100-254B) and rubber hose,
pump and circulate the sodium dichromate solution
throughout the tanks and cells, keeping all surfaces wet
for at least 30 minutes. Allow tanks and cells to drain into
receptacles during this operation.
d. As soon as treatment by flushing is completed,
drain all inhibitor solution from system. Immediately
begin rinsing with fresh water and continue rinsing until
rinse water is clear or has only a slight orange tint.
NOTE
B-20. MICROBIOLOGICAL GROWTH CONTAMINATION OF FUEL CELLS.
WARNING
Solutions containing isopropyl alcohol
(TT-I-735) are flammable and shall be drained
into safety containers and disposed of in
accordance with local safety instructions.
CAUTION
To prevent possible damage to fuel system
nonmetallic components, the solution
temperature shall not exceed 120°F (49°C).
Fuel system components contaminated with
salt water that cannot be thoroughly inspected
"in place" for corrosion damage shall be removed
and disassembled sufficiently to establish
internal conditions and for damage correction.
For metering devices and other items, remove
and flush with fresh water, drain, dry, and
preserve internally with water displacing,
corrosion preventive compound (MILPRF-81309 Type II Class 1), tag with the
notation "CONTAMINATED INTERNALLY
WITH SEA WATER", and forward to the
designated maintenance facility for rework.
a. Defuel aircraft in accordance with instructions
contained in the applicable maintenance manual.
e. As soon as possible after flushing and inhibiting
treatment, open all cells and tanks by removing access
plates, probes, pumps, fittings, etc., for maximum visual
inspection of interior areas.
c. Make up a water emulsion cleaning solution by
adding one part by volume of MIL-PRF-85704 Type I
cleaning compound to nine parts of fresh water.
f. Remove residual fuel and sodium dichromate
solution using an explosion-proof vacuum cleaner or
cellulose sponges (A-A-2073) and cheesecloth
(CCC-C-440). For cells which are impossible to enter,
use an explosion-proof vacuum cleaner or attach the
cellulose sponge or cheesecloth to a wooden handle for
reaching remote areas.
d. For electrical wiring, fuel quantity indicator probes,
fittings, plumbing lines, and any intricate components
that cannot be effectively cleaned with the water emulsion
cleaning solution and scrubbing with a hog bristle brush
(H-B-420), immerse in water emulsion cleaning solution
for approximately one to three hours. If possible, the
solution should be heated and maintained at
approximately 120°F (49°C).
g. Inspect fuel cells for corrosion and evidence of
microbiological growth. Treat corrosion in accordance
with Chapter 6. If microbiological growth is found proceed
to and comply with paragraph 2-4c of TM 1-1500-20423-3.
h. Test fuel system for leaks as outlined in paragraph
2-5g of TM 1-1500-204-23-3.
B-22
b. Remove capacitance type fuel quantity indicator
probes, internal plumbing, valves, electrical wiring, float
switches, etc., as necessary to gain access to all areas
where salt water or microbiological growth may have
collected, or where hidden corrosive attack may have
occurred. Except for fuel quantity indicator probes (which
shall always be removed and cleaned), the extent of
further component removal shall be determined by the
evidenced need for a more in-depth inspection of a
component.
e. When all residues have been loosened, rinse
thoroughly with water until items are clean. Drain as well
as possible, rotating items to get complete draining.
Place items in drying ovens maintained at 120°F (49°C)
maximum for 12 hours. If ovens are not available dry by
immersing items in undiluted isopropyl alcohol (TT-I-735)
for approximately one minute and blow dry with clean
compressed air at a pressure of no more than 10 psi.
Install new fuel quantity probes if these cleaning
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
procedures prove to be ineffective when processed
probes are tested electrically in accordance with
applicable maintenance instruction manuals.
NOTE
When cleaning bladder and self-sealing cells,
look for evidence of cell liner porosity,
deterioration, punctures, tears, etc., which may
allow salt water, sodium dichromate solution or
fuel to leak from the fuel cell into the airframe
cavity and cavity liners. If leaks are suspected,
inspect airframe cavity liners and cavities when
the cell is removed for repair or replacement. If
authorized repair does not require removal,
disassemble and loosen cell sufficiently to
examine for liquid entrapment and corrosion
damage. If cavity liner or cavity is wet, remove
residual fuel/water using an explosion-proof
vacuum cleaner, cellulose sponges (A-A-2073),
and cheesecloth (CCC-C-440). Treat corrosion
in accordance with Chapter 6.
f. Clean fuel cells or tanks by scrubbing
contaminated areas with water emulsion cleaning
solution (see paragraph B-20.c.). Efficient scrub brushes
may be prepared by trimming bristles of paint brushes
(H-B-420) to approximately one half the normal length.
Brushes may be attached to wooden handles for reaching
remote areas. Thoroughly scrub all interior areas until
all residues have been loosened.
g. Ensuring that lower sections of fuel cells and
tanks are open to permit free drainage, thoroughly flush
and rinse interior of fuel cells with fresh (warm water, if
available) to remove all foreign matter and cleaning
compound residues. Continue rinsing until all evidence
of cleaning compound is removed or until discharge
water is clear.
h. To assist in cleaning, flush fuel cells with a mixture
of one part isopropyl alcohol (TT-I-735) and one part tap
water. A pump (5100-254B) and extension hose may be
used to apply the water/alcohol solution.
i. Flush the hidden area with the 50% water/alcohol
solution. Remove residual water/alcohol solution with
an explosion-proof vacuum cleaner, cellulose sponges
(A-A-2073) and cheesecloth (CCC-C-440). To facilitate
drainage of hidden or inaccessible areas formed by
bulkheads, baffles, stiffeners, etc., alter attitude of aircraft
by inflating and deflating gear struts or by using jacks in
accordance with applicable maintenance instructions
manuals.
j. Remove all visible traces of water: alcohol solution
by passing warm (120°F (49°C) maximum), dry air
through fuel cells for approximately eight to 12 hours.
This can be accomplished by closing a cell except for
two openings: one for entry and one for exit of hot air.
The entry and exit openings should be as far apart as
possible. The exit opening should be large enough to
allow water and alcohol vapors to readily escape and
prevent pressure buildup in fuel cells. When possible,
during the last part of the drying operation, close off the
exit opening and direct the drying air through the installed
fuel boost and transfer pump ports to ensure adequate
drying of these parts.
k. After drying, inspect fuel cells and tanks for
evidence of salt crystals or remaining sodium dichromate.
Remove any such residues by swabbing with sponges
dampened with the 50% water: alcohol solution. Unless
the deposits are so extensive that reflushing with water
is needed, it will not be necessary to perform additional
forced air drying.
l. Inspect for corrosion and treat all corroded areas
in accordance with Chapter 6.
m. For integral type fuel cells, inspect the condition
of sealants. Repair or replace, as necessary, all sealant
coatings in accordance with paragraph 2-5f of
TM 1-1500-204-23-3.
n. Functionally check all electrical equipment in
accordance with applicable maintenance instructions
manuals before installation.
o. As soon as possible after cleaning, drying, and
any replacing of sealant, reassemble fuel system and
change all fuel filters and fuel aircraft to normal operating
capacity in accordance with applicable maintenance
instructions manuals. After fueling wait a minimum of
four hours and then take fuel samples from the low point
drains.
p. Test fuel system for leaks in accordance with
paragraph 2-5g of TM 1-1500-204-23-3.
q. A test flight or maintenance operational check in
accordance with applicable aircraft maintenance
manuals shall be performed following the performed
maintenance.
r. Inspect fuel storage tanks and trucks for possible
sources of fungus and/or water contamination.
B-23
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
s. To avoid future fungus contamination, use only
military specification turbine fuel, which contains a
biocidal agent (MIL-DTL-85470), or add this agent
according to accepted commercial methods noted on
the biocidal container when refueling with non-military
fuel.
B-21. REMOVAL
GROWTHS.
OF
MICROBIOLOGICAL
ounces by weight of detergent (P-D-410) per gallon of
water. Plastics are polished by rubbing with ground
abrasive technical pumice (SS-P-821). Other cleaning
methods can be used for certain types of plastics.
B-21.2.1. Acrylate and Methacrylate Resin Plastics
(Plexiglas). These plastics are cleaned by washing with
a solution containing one ounce of general purpose
detergent (MIL-D-16791) in one gallon of water. Wipe
area with a flannel cloth.
WARNING
Open all circuit breakers associated with battery
power (refer to applicable maintenance
manuals) prior to application of isopropyl alcohol
(TT-I-735). Do not use synthetic wiping cloths
with flammable solvents such as isopropyl
alcohol. Observe personal precautionary and
protective measures. Use chemical or splash
proof goggles and rubber gloves when working
with tri-basic sodium phosphate (O-S-642).
When solution is splashed into eyes,
immediately flush thoroughly with water and
report to dispensary.
B-21.2.2. Plastic Electrical Insulation. Clean plastic
electrical insulation by wiping with a lint-free cloth or
sponge moistened with isopropyl alcohol TT-I-735).
B-21.3. PAINTED
SURFACES.
AND
UNPAINTED
METAL
B-21.3.1. Fungus Growth. Fungus growth is removed
from painted and unpainted metal surfaces by scrubbing
with a solution of two ounces by weight of detergent
(P-D-410) per gallon of water. When fungus cannot be
removed from unpainted surfaces by scrubbing with
detergent, mechanical removal is recommended in
accordance with Chapter 4 of this manual.
CAUTION
The use of strong tri-basic sodium phosphate
(O-S-642) is not recommended for removing
paint from wood surfaces, since the solution will
attack the fibers, causing swelling and
discoloration.
B-21.1. Fungus growth such as mildew and mold occur
on organic materials (plastic and oil), and on organic
coatings (paints) or deposits on the surface of inorganic
(metal and concrete) materials, particularly in damp,
warm climates.
B-21.2. MICROBIOLOGICAL
GROWTH
ON
PLASTICS. Since the term plastics includes compounds
of different chemical compositions varying widely in
chemical and physical properties, one type of plastic
may be cleaned by a method which may be destructive
to another type of plastic. In general, organic solvents,
including petroleum solvents such as dry cleaning solvent
and mineral spirits paint thinner, should not be used to
clean plastics or allowed to come in contact with plastics.
Plastics are cleaned by wiping with a lint-free cloth or
sponge moistened with clean water or a solution of two
B-24
B-21.3.2. Mildew. Mildew may be produced by fungus
growing on organic matter adhering to a soft paint film
or on the paint oil itself. Remove mildew by scrubbing
with a water solution of tribasic sodium phosphate
(O-S-642).
a. A strong phosphate solution (three pounds per 10
gallons of water) is most effective, but the solution
should be applied to small areas of the surface at a time,
rinsed off immediately with clean water, and dried with
a wiping cloth. When allowed to remain on the painted
surface for several minutes, the solution will loosen the
paint and may attack the wood fibers.
b. Scrubbing the surface with a mild phosphate
solution (21⁄2 ounces by weight per 10 gallons of water)
will not loosen the paint and is less effective in removing
the mildew. Rinse the surface thoroughly to remove
residue.
c. To prevent recurrence of mildew, the old paint
system should be removed in accordance with
TM 55-1500-345-23.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
SECTION VI. IDENTIFICATION OF METALS
B-22. GENERAL. The metal identification kit (FSN
6630-831-5932) shall be used to determine the types of
metal(s) used in the construction of aircraft. The use of
this kit employs two methods of identification: (a) primary
classification of metals; and (b) chemical spot analysis.
See Table B-2.
NOTE
Before proceeding with test, remove paint (if
present) from a one inch square area with cloth
soaked in an approved compliant solvent
cleaner.
B-23. PRIMARY CLASSIFICATION.
a. For a preliminary identification, compare metal
strips in the kit with unknown metal on aircraft.
b. Place a magnet on the metal surface. Magnetic
attraction classifies the base metal as a ferrous magnetic
material (i.e., iron or steel).
B-24. CHEMICAL SPOT ANALYSIS. Chemical tests
are used to identify a base metal and/or plating. If the
base metal is plated and its identification is desired, the
plating must be mechanically removed by abrasion
before tests are made. Surrounding surface treatments
of the metal will not interfere with these tests.
B-25. TESTING PROCEDURES FOR TYPES OF
SURFACE TREATMENT.
B-25.1. PHOSPHATE TREATMENT. To confirm the
presence of a phosphate treatment on steel, zinc,
cadmium, or aluminum, place a drop of 20% nitric acid
solution on the surface and follow this with two drops of
ammonium molybdate solution. If the metal surface has
had a phosphate treatment, a yellow precipitate will
form.
B-25.2. CHROMATE TREATMENT. Surface chromate
treatments on zinc, cadmium, aluminum, or magnesium
are highly colored and are indicative of the application
of these treatments. A bleached chromate treatment
may have been applied, however, and then coated with
lacquer to mask any residual iridescence for the sake of
appearance. If so, visual detection of the chromate is
impossible. To test for this lacquer, proceed as directed
in the following paragraph.
B-25.2.1. Test for Lacquer. Place a drop of
concentrated sulfuric acid on the surface. If lacquer is
present, the spot will rapidly turn brown with no
effervescence. If lacquer is not present, the spot will not
turn brown. If the metal is zinc, there will be a rapid
effervescence; if cadmium, there will be no reaction.
B-25.2.2. Test for Chromate Film on Zinc Chromium.
Place a drop of 5% aqueous solution of lead acetate on
the surface. If the metal has been treated, the surface
will show no discoloration for 10 seconds. If there is no
surface treatment, an immediate dark spot will appear.
NOTE
A bleached chromate treatment is not approved
because the bleaching process lowers corrosion
resistance of metal.
B-26. CONTENTS OF METAL IDENTIFICATION KIT.
This kit consists of metal strips (1.0 x 6.0 x 0.063 cubic
inches) to be used for visual comparison and practice,
and reagents to be used for performing a chemical spot
analysis. Conduct the following test procedures:
NOTE
Where tests have been conducted, it will be
necessary to remove the test chemical,
neutralize the surface, and apply the original
paint coating. Where plating has been removed,
recoat with two coats of epoxy primer
(MIL-PRF-23377).
B-26.1. IRON AND STEEL. Place a drop of 10%
hydrochloric acid on the metal surface. The acid will not
noticeably react on iron or steel. Place a drop of sodium
sulfide over the drop of hydrochloric acid. This will
cause a black ring to form around a white precipitate. To
confirm this test, a drop of 20% nitric acid on iron or steel
will cause a black spot, and a drop of sodium sulfide
over the nitric acid will cause a black precipitate. If the
steel or iron has been bonderized, the spot will appear
as a black ring around a white spot in both tests. This is
not a test for bonderizing process.
B-25
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
Table B-2. Metal Identification Kit
Material (1)
Specification
Aluminum (7075)
QQ-A-250/12
Aluminum (7075, anodized)
QQ-A-250/12 anodized IAW MIL-A-8625 Type I
Aluminum (7076, conversion-coated)
QQ-A-250/12 conversion coated IAW MIL-DTL-81706 and MIL-C-5541
Aluminum (2024)
QQ-A-250/1
Copper
ASTM B 152
Copper (chromium-plated)
QQ-C-576 chromium plated IAW QQ-C-320
Copper (nickel-plated)
QQ-C-576 nickel plated IAW QQ-N-290
Copper (silver-plated)
QQ-C-576 silver plated IAW QQ-S-365
Magnesium (AZ31 B) (chromated)
AMS 4375, 4377 or 4376
Steel (AISI 1025)
MIL-S-7952
Steel (AISI 1025, phosphatized)
MIL-S-7952 phosphated IAW TT-C-490 Type I
Steel (AISI 1025, zinc-plated)
ASTM B 633
Steel (18-8) (stainless)
AMS 5901, 5517, 5518, 5902, 5519 for CRES 301 annealed, 1/4H, 1/2H, 3/4H and Full Hard,
respectively
AMS 5516, 5903, 5904, 5905, 5906 for CRES 302 annealed, 1/4H, 1/2H, 3/4H and Full Hard
respectively
AMS 5513, 5910, 5911, 5912, 5913 for CRES 304 annealed, 1/4H, 1/2H, 3/4H and Full Hard
respectively
AMS 5524 or 5907 for CRES 316 annealed and 1/4H, respectively
Reagents (2)
Volume
Acetone: Technical
16 ounces
Acid, Hydrochloric: ACS 10% aqueous solution
16 ounces
Acid, Nitric: ACS 20% aqueous solution
4 ounces
Acid, Sulfuric: Technical purity
2 ounces
Ammonium Hydroxide: ACS
2 ounces
Ammonium Molybdate: ACS, saturated
2 ounces
Cadmium Chloride: 10% aqueous solution
2 ounces
Cupric Chloride: 10 grams to 100cc HCL
8 ounces
Dimethylglyoxime:
ACS, saturated solution in 98% alcohol (2)
4 ounces
Lead Acetate: ACS 5% aqueous solution
4 ounces
Sodium Sulfide: ACS, saturated solution
16 ounces
Sodium Hydroxide: 10% aqueous solution
8 ounces
Miscellaneous Items
Cheesecloth (CCC-C-440)
Quantity
1 yard
Dropper, Medicine
6
Labels, Gummed
1
Magnet Permanent, 2 x 1/2 x 1/2 cubic inches
1 box
(1) Metal strips will be individually packaged in polyethylene envelopes large enough for the strips to be repackaged and isolated from each other
after each use. The strips will be marked by stencil showing the alloy and coating system used.
(2) Will deteriorate with age. Keep tightly closed and away from light. Reagents will be packaged in polyethylene bottles and marked appropriately.
B-26
15 April 2009
B-26.2. CHROMIUM. Place a drop of 10% hydrochloric
acid on the metal surface, followed by a drop of
concentrated sulfuric acid. If the plating is chromium,
the solution will turn green within one to two minutes.
B-26.3. ZINC. Place a drop of 10% hydrochloric acid on
the metal. If the metal is zinc, reaction will be rapid. A
drop of sodium sulfide over the hydrochloric acid will
cause a white precipitate. To confirm this test, a drop of
20% nitric acid also will cause a rapid reaction, and the
addition of sodium sulfide will form a white precipitate.
B-26.4. CADMIUM. Place a drop of 10% hydrochloric
acid on the metal. If the plating is cadmium, there will be
no noticeable reaction. The addition of a drop of sodium
sulfide over the drop of acid; however, will cause a
yellow ring to form around a white precipitate. To
confirm this test a drop of 20% nitric acid will react with
the metal but there will be no color change. A drop of
sodium sulfide over the drop of acid will cause a yellow
precipitate.
B-26.5. TIN. The hydrochloric acid-sodium sulfide test
will have the same reaction on tin as on cadmium. If the
metal is tin, a drop of 20% nitric acid on the surface will
cause a rapid reaction and a black spot to form. When
a drop of sodium sulfide is added to the acid, the result
is a black precipitate.
B-26.6. SILVER. Place a drop of 20% nitric acid on the
surface and let it react for 10 seconds. Then add a drop
of 10% hydrochloric acid. If the metal is silver, there will
be an immediate formation of a white precipitate.
B-26.7. NICKEL. Place a drop of dimethylglyoxime
solution on the metal and follow it with a drop of
ammonium hydroxide. The result will be pink-red
coloration. Both the 10% hydrochloric acid-sodium
sulfide and the 20% nitric acid-sodium sulfide tests will
cause a black ring around a white precipitate.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
B-26.8. MAGNESIUM. A drop of 10% hydrochloric acid
on magnesium will cause a violent reaction and a black
spot to form. To confirm that the metal is magnesium,
place a drop of 10% sodium hydroxide on the surface.
There should be no reaction.
B-26.9. ALUMINUM. Unlike its reaction on magnesium,
10% hydrochloric acid will have no noticeable reaction
on aluminum. A spot of 10% solution of sodium hydroxide
(caustic soda) on the surface, however, will cause a
rapid reaction.
B-26.10.
HEAT-TREATABLE AND NONHEATTREATABLE ALUMINUM ALLOYS. Place a drop of
10% solution of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) on the
metal. Pure or nonheat-treatable aluminum will not
discolor, but heat-treatable aluminum alloys will turn
black.
B-26.11.
CLAD ALUMINUM ALLOYS. Clad alloys
must be tested on the unclad edge. A drop of 10%
cadmium chloride solution on a clean unclad surface of
the metal will produce a dark discoloration on 7076 and
7178 aluminum alloys within two minutes. No
discoloration will appear on 2024 aluminum alloy within
two minutes.
B-26.12.
COPPER AND BRASS. If plating is
present, remove it by abrasion with sandpaper.
Determine whether the metal is copper or brass by
noting the typical brass or copper color. Similarly
determine copper plating by its typical color.
B-26.13.
STAINLESS STEEL (18-8). Mix 10 grams
of cupric chloride in 100 milliliters of hydrochloric acid
and place one drop of the mixture on the metal. After two
minutes, follow this with three or four drops of water,
then dry the surface. If a brown spot appears, the metal
is 18-8 stainless steel.
B-27/(B-28 Blank)
B-27
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THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
B-28
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15 April 2009
APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
SECTION VII. PLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING (PMB) FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS
B-27. PLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING (PMB) FOR
ARMY AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS.
B-27.1. SCOPE. The purpose of this section is to
establish the requirements and controls for the PMB
process for use at intermediate and depot level
maintenance of Army aircraft components of rotary
wing aircraft.
B-27.1.1. Application.
a. This section provides the requirements and
procedures for removing organic coatings (paints,
primers, or lacquers); surface cleaning and removal of
light surface corrosion and carbon deposits; removal of
sealants and adhesives; and assist in removal of any of
these after chemical soaking, from parts and components
of aircraft using PMB techniques.
b. PMB is authorized only for parts and components
where PMB is specified by the applicable aircraft
component Depot Maintenance Work Requirement
(DMWR) or Technical Manual (TM). Comply with any
additional processing instructions required by these
authorizing documents. The applicable technical data
shall be used when additional processing, such as
etching to remove metal flow, flushing, solvent cleaning,
stripping, etc., is used in conjunction with the PMB
processing.
c. Request for processing Flight Safety Parts (FSP)
with internal oil, grease, air, or other fluid passages, will
be coordinated and approved via official written
correspondence by the AMCOM Aviation and Missile
Research Development Engineering Center (AMRDEC)
before authorizing PMB.
d. For purposes of this section, PMB shall be used
on metal surfaces and the following composite surfaces
only: fiberglass, carbon fiber, boron and graphite/epoxy,
and Kevlar. Proper masking shall be in place where
other types of surfaces are present.
b. Elastomeric rubber surfaces.
c. Cadmium plated parts and other plated or
contaminated parts where the PMB may generate
airborne hazards controlled by safety, health, or
environmental regulations.
d. Parts made of Beryllium Copper.
e. Bearings and assemblies with exposed seals and
gaskets unless these can be properly masked and post
examination reveals zero intrusion of media in active or
lube wetted surfaces.
f. Teflon lined surfaces and small threaded holes
and inserts.
B-27.1.3. Classification.
B-27.1.3.1. Critical Parts. Parts with Internal air or
fluid flow passages, or FSP where any portion of the
PMB is considered a Critical Inspection Point.
B-27.1.3.2. Soft Metal Parts. Parts made of Aluminum
or Magnesium Alloy.
B-27.1.3.3.
Alloy.
Ferrous Parts. Parts made of Ferrous
B-27.1.3.4.
Alloy.
Titanium Parts. Parts made of Titanium
B-27.1.3.5. Non-metal Parts. Non-metal parts or
surfaces approved for PMB.
B-27.2. DOCUMENT CONFLICTS. In event of conflict
between the requirements of this section and the
applicable aircraft component DMWR or TM, the aircraft
component DMWR or TM shall take precedence. The
requirements of this section shall take precedence over
any other specifications or standards referenced herein.
B-27.3. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
B-27.1.2. Limitations. The PMB shall not be authorized
for the following surfaces:
a. Engineering plastics and glass that must remain
clear.
B-27.3.1. The plastic media type used for the PMB
process shall be in accordance with MIL-P-85891
Type V, 20-40 particle size. Optional media and particle
size is not authorized unless approved by the aircraft
component DMWR or TM.
B-29
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
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15 April 2009
B-27.3.2. Media used on ferrous alloys shall not be
used on parts made of aluminum, magnesium, or
titanium.
g. Compressed air supply to the PMB equipment
shall be dry and filtered, 60% maximum relative humidity.
Dedicated source is recommended.
B-27.3.3. Media having a high density level of 200 parts
per million (ppm) or more of any type of contamination
can cause mechanical damage. Purge and dispose of
contaminated media.
h. Preventative maintenance shall be in accordance
with the manufacturer's recommendations, including
allowable nozzle ID wear. Annual PM program for the
PMB equipment shall include replacing worn nozzles,
lines, and valves; recalibrating pressure and flow gages
on the equipment; and re-certification for full capability
for the intended PMB operation.
CAUTION
PMB with heavily contaminated media may
permanently damage substrate surfaces.
B-27.4. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS.
B-27.4.1. General.
a. PMB equipment used to remove organic coatings
from aircraft components shall be a direct pressure feed
abrasive blasting unit capable of propelling a controlled
and continuous stream of plastic media from 15-40 psi
and 0-500 pound per hour media flow. The equipment
shall be equipped with setting indicators and regulation
devices. A blast cabinet (glove box) or walk-in type
facility may be used.
b. Siphon fed abrasive blasting equipment shall not
be used for plastic media blasting.
c. PMB equipment shall have a recovery system,
consisting of a cyclone separator, a rotary airlock, a
magnetic particle separator, and a screen separator.
The recovery system shall be capable of producing
media cleanliness levels as described in B-27.4.1.f.
Alternate recovery system configurations require
engineering approval prior to use.
d. The blast cabinet or walk-in facility shall have
lighting capable of producing a minimum of 55 foot
candles illumination at the work surface. Portable lighting
may be used to eliminate shadows at the work surface.
All lighting shall meet the requirements of the National
Electric Code for Class II Division 1 locations (dust
ignition proof). Reference Army Regulation 11-27.
e. Nozzles shall be venturi type, 1⁄4 to 1⁄2 inch in
diameter, constructed of a material with an abrasive
resistant characteristic of tungsten carbide or better.
f. PMB equipment shall be capable of maintaining
acceptable levels of media size per MIL-P-85891 and
cleanliness of 200 parts per million or less of heavy
particle contamination.
B-30
i. Equipment certification shall include calibration
of air pressure gages, verification of pressure at nozzle
exit, and flow rate.
j. Re-certification shall be required of any equipment
that was repaired or is deemed responsible for failure to
produce consistent results, including supply air, operator,
or media deficiencies, prior to returning to production.
k. There shall be sufficient PMB units to support the
PMB operations so that processing Ferrous Alloys,
Titanium, Magnesium, Thorium, etc., are each done in
their own dedicated separate units (designed for that
purpose), different from the units used for all other work.
If this is not feasible, the media shall be completely
purged when switching between these different
processes.
B-27.4.2. Glove Box Cabinet Type Equipment. Glove
Box Cabinets shall be specifically designed for use with
plastic media meeting the general requirements above.
All aircraft component parts shall be processed using
the Glove Box Cabinets unless the equipment is not
capable or the part will not properly fit inside the cabinet.
B-27.4.3. Walk-In Facility. This processing is
authorized when the part or component exceeds the
size limitations of the Glove Box Cabinet. The Walk-In
Facility (open blasting), in addition to the general
requirements, shall meet the requirements of
OSHA 29CFR1910.9:
a. Ventilation. A minimum cross-draft ventilation
rate of 75 cubic feet/minute per square foot of open face
area shall be provided.
b. Dust Collector. The dust collector system shall be
capable of removing 99.97% of the particles 0.3 (three
tenths) micron or greater in size from re-circulation
systems.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
c. Dust Monitor. The dust monitor equipment shall
be capable of continuously monitoring explosive
conditions of air in the facility.
d. Safety. Walk-in room operator safety equipment
shall include a carbon monoxide monitor, respiratory
equipment, blast hood and hearing protection. Safety
equipment shall be as specified by the cognizant Safety
and Industrial Hygiene Department.
e. Maintenance. The Walk-In Facility shall be
operated and maintained in accordance with the
equipment manufacturer's instruction manual.
i. Post processing cleaning, inspection, flow.
j. Special instructions.
NOTE
The aircraft component DMWR or TM may
exclude certain parameters as stated above,
as required.
B-27.5.1.4. The air pressure selected for removal of
organic coatings shall be within 25-40 psig, unless
otherwise specified in the aircraft component DMWR or
TM.
B-27.5. PMB PROCESS.
B-27.5.1. General Requirements.
B-27.5.1.1. The PMB blast shall be kept moving in an
even sweeping motion and not allowed to dwell over
one spot while maintaining stand off distance and
nozzle angle.
B-27.5.1.2. The PMB operator shall stop the process
immediately when any abnormality in the process is
observed or damage to the substrate is noticed.
Sometimes the coating scheme may be different than
expected, media characteristics may change, air
pressure may fluctuate, etc. The anomaly shall be
corrected or appropriate changes made before
proceeding.
B-27.5.1.3. An operating procedure or processing
sheet shall be developed for each part and shall include
the following:
a. P/N, substrate (including plating), and
identification of film to be removed (indicate limitations).
b. Part preparation, including cleaning and masking.
B-27.5.1.5. The air pressures selected for general
cleaning and removal of oxides and carbon deposits
shall be within 15-25 psig, unless otherwise specified in
aircraft component DMWR or TM.
B-27.5.1.6. The angle of impingement shall be within
45-90 degrees, unless otherwise specified in aircraft
component DMWR or TM.
B-27.5.1.7. The minimum stand off distance of nozzle
to work place shall be 2 inches unless otherwise specified
in aircraft component DMWR or TM.
B-27.5.1.8. Metal parts with wall thickness less than
0.032 inch shall not be PMB processed.
B-27.5.1.9. Parts and components must be free of oil,
grease, dirt, or other contamination, and shall be air
dried prior to PMB blasting.
B-27.5.1.10. Masking of aircraft component parts shall
be as required in order to protect sensitive areas, areas
that do not require PMB, or that require a different PMB
process, and to avoid media intrusion in internal
passages or bearing surfaces. The following masking
methods are acceptable as required.
c. Media type, specification.
d. Air pressure.
e. Flow rate.
a. Tape, impact resistant, 3M 500, BT 100, or
equivalent.
b. Plugs, oversize, tapered, made from Neoprene
rubber are recommended.
f. Stand off distance.
c. Bags.
g. Angle of impingement.
d. Fixtures and covers.
h. Maximum dwell time.
e. BER mating parts.
f. Molds.
B-31
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
B-27.5.1.11. Masking used shall be made to adequately
withstand the blasting force, prevent media intrusion,
and protect from mechanical damage. The effectiveness
of the masking shall be verified by visual and fiber optic
inspection before approving initial production.
15 April 2009
conversion coating, anodize, or resin coating shall be
re-applied before re-painting.
B-27.5.4. Titanium Parts. Titanium parts may be
stripped to bare metal. Any chemical conversion coatings
or soft metal platings removed shall be re-applied.
B-27.5.2. Critical Parts.
B-27.5.2.1. All parts with internal air or fluid passages
or areas that may entrap PMB media that could remain
entrapped until assembly and/or cause cross
contamination of other subsequent processing of the
end item, will be masked to prevent media intrusion.
B-27.5.2.2. Thoroughly clean excess PMB media from
the parts by vacuuming or blowing with dry/filtered
compressed air before removing the masking. Then
vacuum or blow air through the internal passages to
remove any entrapped media.
B-27.5.2.3. Flush with solvent or detergent as required
by the applicable aircraft component DMWR or TM to
clear internal passages.
B-27.5.2.4. FSP with Critical Inspection Points shall
be Fiber Optic inspected after PMB, cleaning, and
flushing, and evidence of the inspection shall be
maintained on file.
B-27.5.3. Soft Metal Parts.
B-27.5.3.1. Unless otherwise specified in the aircraft
component DMWR or TM, aluminum and magnesium
parts shall only be stripped to the primer layer applied
to the anodized or chemical surface treatment. They
may exhibit a haze of primer after stripping.
B-27.5.3.2. Magnesium parts coated with Rock Hard®
resin coating or MIL-R-3043 resin coatings shall be
stripped only to the resin coatings if subsequent penetrant
inspection is required.
B-27.5.3.3. If the chemical conversion coating,
anodize, or resin coating has been completely removed
exposing the bare metal substrate, etching to remove
flowed metal shall be required after PMB and before
NDI. Refer to applicable aircraft component DMWR or
TM for etching chemicals and process. The chemical
B-32
B-27.5.5. Ferrous Parts. Ferrous alloy parts may be
stripped to bare metal if these are not cadmium plated.
Any chemical conversion coatings or soft metal platings
removed shall be re-applied.
B-27.5.6. Non-Metal Parts.
B-27.5.6.1. Non-metal surfaces may be stripped to
the primer layer. The lowest effective air pressure
setting should be used to avoid damaging the surface.
B-27.5.6.2. A rough haze or exposed fibers is
unacceptable.
B-27.5.7. Post Processing.
B-27.5.7.1. All parts blasted by PMB shall be
thoroughly cleaned by blowing with dry/filtered air or
vacuuming. If masking was applied, masking shall not
be removed prior to blowing with air. Other media
cleaning methods, such as ultrasonic cleaning or solvent
flushing, may be used as per the applicable aircraft
component DMWR or TM.
B-27.5.7.2. After removing the masking, clean the
part per the applicable aircraft component DMWR or TM
to remove lingering PMB media and masking residue.
B-27.5.7.3. Parts susceptible to corrosion that have
been stripped to bare metal shall be coated with a
corrosion preventive compound if subsequent
processing is delayed.
B-27.6. TRAINING
AND
CERTIFICATION
REQUIREMENTS. Personnel performing and
supervising media blasting of organic coatings from
aircraft component surfaces shall complete a training
program leading to certification. An AMCOM authorized
source shall be used for the initial training and
certification. Operators shall be re-certified every two
years.
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
APPENDIX B
SUPPLEMENTAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ARMY AIRCRAFT
SECTION VIII. CONSUMABLE MATERIALS
Table B-3. Consumable Materials
Item
Nomenclature
Specification
NSN
QTY
1
Coating Compound Metal Pre-treatment
MIL-C-8514
8030-00-082-2425
KT
2
Primer, Wash
DOD-P-15328
8030-00-535-2726
KT (1 OZ)
3
Corrosion Removing and Metal Conditioning
MIL-C-10578
6850-00-854-7952
DR (5 GL)
4
Corrosion Removing Compound
A-A-59261
6850-00-935-5853
DR (425 LB)
5
Sulfuric Acid
A-A-55828
6810-00-227-1845
BT (5 PT)
6
Hydrofluoric Acid
MIL-A-24641
6810-00-543-4012
GL
7
Sodium Dichromate
A-A-59123
6810-00-262-8566
BT (5 LB)
8
Resin Coating
MIL-PRF-3043
8030-00-200-6946
CN (75 LB)
9
Corrosion Removal Compound
SAE AMS 1640
6850-00-527-2426
CN (5 GL)
10
Brush Platers. Hard Swab (1.5" wide)
H-B-178/1-2
7920-00-244-7431
EA
11
Chromium Trioxide, Technical Grade
A-A-55827
6810-00-264-6517
CN (5 LB)
12
Epoxy Primer, Lead and Chromate Free
MIL-DTL-53022
8010-01-193-0517
KT (1 GL)
13
Washing Compound
P-D-410
7930-00-880-4454
BX (6 - 1 GL)
14
Tribasic Sodium Phosphate
O-S-642
6810-00-141-6078
LB
15
Inhibitor, Icing, Fuel
MIL-DTL-85470
6850-01-057-6427
6850-01-377-5074
6850-01-089-5514
GL
CN (5 GL)
DR (55 GL)
16
Aqueous Cleaning Solutions
HURRISAFE 8015
6850-01-426-6682
5 GL
HURRISAFE 8065
6850-01-434-6556
6850-01-434-6557
6 - 1 GL
12 - 32 OZ
Trig Sprayers
B-33/(B-34 Blank)
B-33
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
15 April 2009
THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
B-34
NAVAIR 01-1A-509-2
TM 1-1500-344-23-2
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15 April 2009
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General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
5-3+00& -11-2
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
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PIN: 082931-000
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