Component Focus: pages 2-10 Design Note: pages 11-14

Component Focus: pages 2-10 Design Note: pages 11-14
Component Focus: pages 2-10
Complete solution for implementing 1D and 2D
gesture recognition from NXP Semiconductors
Design Note: pages 11-14
Intersil’s efficient, compact and cost-effective powerconversion circuit with an output of up to 1A
Application Spotlight: pages 15-25
NXP’s KMZ60 gives extremely accurate angle
measurements for the commutation of BLDC motors
Technical View: pages 26-27
CoreSight debug and trace capability in MCUs
based on an ARM® Cortex®-M processor core
Application Spotlight on
Motion
Control
NEWS
IN
BRIEF
OriginGPS unveils world’s
smallest multi-GNSS module
with integrated antenna
OriginGPS has launched the Multi Micro
Hornet, the world’s smallest multipleconstellation antenna module. It is ideal for
devices that require a small form factor, low
power consumption and high sensitivity.
With a tiny outline of 10mm x 10mm and
a height of only 5.9mm, the Multi Micro
Hornet module achieves a rapid time-tofirst-fix of less than 1s and is accurate to
within as little as 1m. By tracking both GPS
and GLONASS constellations simultaneously,
it achieves a high sensitivity of -165dBm.
Intersil’s PowerNavigator 5.2
GUI simplifies design of densely
populated power systems
STAR
PRODUCT
Automotive-grade MCUs with
touch-sensing support address
HMI and LIN applications
ATMEL
STAR
PRODUCTS
The new PowerNavigator™ 5.2 software GUI
allows for configuration and monitoring of
Intersil’s portfolio of digital power products,
including the digital power monitor featured
on page 15.
PowerNavigator version 5.2 includes three
new features: the PowerMap visualisation
tool replicates a system with multiple power
rails delivering point-of-load current to
ASICs, processors, DSPs or FPGAs; Rail
Inspector details the power-supply
parameters; and RailScope plots all device
telemetry for up to four rails at a time.
PFC-regulated modules provide
isolated 24V or 48V outputs at
up to 400W
Vicor has introduced new low-profile,
integrated VIA PFM™ AC-DC front-end
power modules supplying an isolated, PFCregulated 24V or 48V output at up to 400W
from the universal AC input range of 85V to
264V. They achieve peak efficiency of 93%.
With its 9mm profile and 36mm width, the
VIA PFM can be mounted on the sidewall of
any typical 1U chassis, saving valuable
design real estate. The module may be
chassis-mounted and conduction-cooled to
eliminate the need for fans.
©Copyright 2015 Future Electronics Ltd. All trademarks contained herein are the
property of their respective owners. Applications for product samples, badge
boards, demonstration boards, Future Electronics’ boards and other advertised
materials from Future Electronics are offered subject to qualification.
150701:
2
For more information e-mail
[email protected]
Atmel has launched
its next generation of
automotive-qualified
microcontrollers based
on the ARM® Cortex®-M0+
core, featuring an
integrated Peripheral Touch
Controller (PTC) for
capacitive-touch applications.
The new SAM DA1 is the first series in
this Atmel | SMART automotivequalified MCU family.
The SAM DA1 parts operate at a maximum
frequency of 48MHz, achieving a Coremark/MHz
score of 2.14 and up to 45DMIPS. Ideal for
capacitive touch-button, slider, wheel and
proximity-sensing applications, they also offer
excellent analogue performance to give
designers more flexibility in the design of their
applications’ front-ends.
Qualified to AEC Q100 grade 2, the SAM
DA1 MCUs are expected to find many uses in
vehicles’ Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) and
in peripheral devices connected to a LIN bus.
Devices in the SAM DA1 series come with
between 32 and 64 pins, up to 64kbytes of
Flash, 8kbytes of SRAM and 2kbytes of readwhile-write Flash. The smallest part is a 5mm x
5mm QFN package with wettable flanks for
automated optical inspection.
Atmel has also released another MCU series
aimed at designers who traditionally use an 8- or
16-bit MCU, but who are now looking for 32-bit
performance and an ARM processor. The new
Atmel | SMART SAM D09 series includes the
smallest ARM Cortex-M0+ devices available
from Atmel.
It achieves 48MHz performance and
supports single-cycle fast I/O access with a
small code footprint. In both its price and its
operating style, it is consistent with the
characteristics of popular 8-bit MCUs.
The ATSAMD10 Xplained Mini evaluation kit is the
featured Board of the Month on page 25
The SAM D09 MCUs are
available in options with
8kbytes of Flash and 14 pins,
and 16kbytes of Flash and
24 pins. All packages use
only two pins for power,
and the Reset pin can be
configured as a GPIO.
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
• Capacitive-touch HMI with or without
haptic or acoustic feedback
• Proximity detection
• Switch modules
• Rain or light sensors
FEATURES (SAM DA1)
• Eight-channel DMA controller
• 12-channel Event System for interperipheral signalling
• Up to six serial communication modules
•
•
•
•
•
•
for USART, UART, SPI and I2C
USB2.0 Full-speed embedded host and
device
I2S interface
32-bit real-time clock and calendar
12-bit ADC
10-bit DAC
Two analogue comparators
150702:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
The ATSAMD10 Xplained Mini evalutation kit is a
hardware platform to evaluate the Atmel ATSAMD10 MCU.
See the Board of the Month on page 25 for details.
Orderable Part Number: ATSAMD10-XMINI
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
EMAIL [email protected] FOR SAMPLES AND DATASHEETS
COMPONENT
New software supports 1D and 2D
gesture recognition on 32-bit MCUs
NXP SEMICONDUCTORS
NXP Semiconductors has introduced
an integrated platform for implementing
gesture recognition in one
or two dimensions.
The new LPC820 gesturerecognition solution is an
extension to NXP’s
innovative capacitivetouch technology,
which is a popular
choice for low-cost
single- and twodimensional touch
interfaces in
consumer devices. This
capacitive-touch technology
runs on the LPC820 family of
microcontrollers, which feature an ARM®
Cortex®-M0+ processor core, a 12-bit ADC
and a comparator using an external or internal
reference voltage.
The application software library provided free
by NXP with the LPC820 devices has now
been extended to enable the system to
recognise any kind of gesture drawn inside the
perimeter of the touch pad. This means that an
application may be configured to recognise, for
instance, numbers, symbols, touch wheels or
sliders when the user ‘draws’ them with a
finger on the touch pad.
The OM13081 development kit from NXP
provides a hardware environment in
which designers may
experiment with the
gesture-recognition
library supplied by NXP.
It includes a
development GUI
which enables the user
to visualise and analyse
the electrical behaviour of
the touch pad when in
use. It also supports library
configuration, debugging
and gesture training.
The gesture-recognition
library has a small 5kbyte
footprint, leaving ample hardware
resources for the application’s other functions.
WORKING PARTNER STMicro’s L7987L: page 6
Mains power converter handles
high voltages safely
STMICROELECTRONICS
STMicroelectronics’ VIPer38 is a highvoltage offline power converter which
implements PWM current-mode control.
The device integrates an 800V power
MOSFET with its PWM control circuitry.
This IC is capable of meeting stringent
energy-saving standards as it is highly
efficient, and has very low power
consumption in Stand-by mode.
Moreover, it offers extremely low
power consumption under no-load
conditions thanks to its Burst-mode
operation, which reduces the average
switching frequency and minimises all
frequency-related losses.
The device features an adjustable
extra power timer which enables it to
sustain overload conditions for a few
seconds.
The VIPer38 also includes a highvoltage start-up circuit and a sense
FET. Operating at a fixed 60kHz
frequency, the converter implements
frequency jittering, which helps the user’s
application to meet electromagnetic
disturbance standards.
The device also features high-level protection
functions such as dual-level over-current
protection, short-circuit protection and thermal
shut-down with hysteresis. After the removal of
a fault condition, the IC is automatically restarted.
ST also supplies the VIPer37, a similar offline
power converter.
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
FOCUS
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Appliances
Home and building automation
White goods
Consumer human-machine interfaces
FEATURES (LPC800 series)
• Up to 30MHz processor-core frequency
• Up to 32kbytes Flash memory
• Up to 8kbytes SRAM
• Three USART interfaces
• Two SPI controllers
• Up to four I C interfaces
• Switch matrix for flexible configuration of
2
I/O pins
150703:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
1D and 2D Gesture Recognition
The LPC820 Touch Solution has been extended by
NXP Semiconductors to include gesture recognition.
The demonstration kit combines an LPCXpresso824-MAX
board and a capacitive-touch board with LCD display.
Orderable Part Number: OM13081
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
• Auxiliary power supplies for consumer
and home equipment
• Power supplies for energy meters and
data concentrators
• Adapters
FEATURES (VIPer38)
• 30mW no-load consumption at 230V AC
• Output over-voltage protection with tight
tolerance and digital noise filter
• Soft-start reduces stress during start-up
150704:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
Power Supply Design
The STEVAL-ISA153V1 product evaluation board
implements a 12V/1.25A isolated flyback offline converter
for general-purpose applications. The main characteristics
of the evaluation board are its small size and bill-ofmaterials, high efficiency and low stand-by power
consumption.
Orderable Part Number: STEVAL-ISA153V1
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
ST’s VIPer38: frequency jittering helps users to avoid EMI problems
VISIT THE ONLINE FTM MAGAZINE AT: WWW.My-FTM.COM
3
COMPONENT
FOCUS
Diodes with very soft recovery
reduce conduction losses
VISHAy
Vishay Intertechnology has introduced
a fourth generation of 600V and 650V
FRED Pt® Ultrafast recovery diodes for
use in high-frequency power
converters.
The new Vishay Semiconductors
VS-4FD devices offer a combination
of very low forward voltages and a
low reverse-recovery charge,
resulting in low losses and high
efficiency. In addition, their extremely
soft turn-off behaviour keeps overvoltage events to a minimum under
all switching conditions.
The new VS-4FD diodes
complement Vishay's recently
introduced trench IGBTs, as well as
the more advanced IGBTs from
other suppliers. Together, the
devices make it easy for the powersystem designer to achieve low EMI
and high reliability in single- and
three-phase inverters and in fulland half-bridge DC-DC converters.
The VS-4FD series is available in
both a ‘U’ and an ‘H’ designation.
The U series diodes feature
extremely low forward voltages of as
little as 1.4V, enabling the designer
to minimise conduction losses in
medium-speed circuits. The H
series diodes, which operate at
higher speed, offer reverse-recovery
times of as little as 25ns, with typical forward
voltages down to 1.65V.
The fourth-generation diodes feature
improved technologies in their active area and
termination design, allowing for forward
currents ranging from 12A to 250A in smaller
die sizes than the previous generation of
devices. Their reduced thickness improves
thermal impedance.
Part Number
VS-4FD081H06A6x
VS-4FD081U06A6x
VS-4FD121H06A6x
VS-4FD121U06A6x
VS-4FD156H06A6x
VS-4FD156U06A6x
VS-4FD198H06A6x
VS-4FD198U06A6x
VS-4FD235H06A6x
VS-4FD235U06A6x
VS-4FD282H06A6x
VS-4FD282U06A6x
VS-4FD378H06A6x
VS-4FD378U06A6x
VS-4FD447H06A6x
VS-4FD447U06A6x
VS-4FD121H07A6x
VS-4FD121U07A6x
VS-4FD156H07A6x
VS-4FD156U07A6x
VS-4FD198H07A6x
VS-4FD198U07A6x
VS-4FD235H07A6x
VS-4FD235U07A6x
VS-4FD282H07A6x
VS-4FD282U07A6x
VS-4FD378H07A6x
VS-4FD378U07A6x
Speed
Breakdown
Voltage (V)
Forward
Current (A)
Typical
Forward
Voltage (V)
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
H
U
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
600
650
650
650
650
650
650
650
650
650
650
650
650
12
12
20
20
30
30
50
50
75
75
100
100
200
200
250
250
20
20
30
30
50
50
75
75
100
100
200
200
1.65
1.4
1.7
1.4
1.65
1.4
1.65
1.4
1.65
1.4
1.65
1.4
1.6
1.45
1.6
1.4
1.84
1.48
1.79
1.48
1.79
1.48
1.79
1.48
1.79
1.48
1.74
1.53
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
• High-frequency converters in power
modules
• Motor drives
• Single- and three-phase inverters
• Full- and half-bridge DC-DC converters
• PFC circuits
• Secondary-side rectification
FEATURES
• Low reverse-recovery charge
• Ultra-soft recovery in any switching
conditions
• Polyimide passivated chip for high
reliability
• 175°C maximum operating temperature
150705:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
100V power MOSFETs offer excellent figure of merit
WORKING PARTNER Micrel’s MIC4606: page 17
STMICROELECTRONICS
The STH310N10F7-2 and STH310N10F76 from STMicroelectronics are 100V
N-channel STripFET™ power MOSFETs.
Capable of carrying a high 180A maximum
drain current at a case temperature of 25°C,
they have a typical on-resistance of just 1.9mΩ
and a maximum of 2.3mΩ, providing low levels
of conduction losses in power-supply designs.
The STH310N10F7-2 is housed in a two-lead
H2PAK-2 package, and the STH310N10F7-6 in
a six-lead H2PAK-6 package.
The MOSFETs can withstand a maximum
single pulse of avalanche energy of 1 joule. The
ratio of reverse transfer capacitance to input
capacitance is low, contributing to the devices’
high immunity to disturbance from EMI.
4
ENERGY
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Switch-mode power supplies
FEATURES
• 180nC total gate charge
• 100nA maximum gate-body leakage
current
• 4.5V maximum gate threshold voltage
• 0.48°C/W thermal resistance, junction
to case
150706:
STH310N10F7 MOSFET: high immunity to EMI effects
FOLLOW US NOW – SEARCH FTM BOARD CLUB ON
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
COMPONENT
FOCUS
1,200V IGBT offers robust short-circuit
capability
STMICROELECTRONICS
ENERGY
The STGW40M120DF3 from
STMicroelectronics is a trench gate, field
stop IGBT rated for 1,200V and 40A.
It is packaged in a TO-247 housing. The same
device in a TO-247 with long leads carries the
part number STGWA40M120DF3.
This IGBT features a proprietary trench gate,
field-stop structure. It is part of the M series of
IGBTs, which achieves the optimal compromise
between performance and efficiency in inverter
systems in which low losses and a short-circuit
capability are essential.
Benefitting from a positive temperature
coefficient of the collector-emitter saturation
voltage, as well as tight parameter distribution, the
STGW40M120DF3 and STGWA40M120DF3
provide for safe paralleling operation.
The IGBT is also notable for its low thermal
resistance, which is rated at 50°C/W from
junction to ambient air.
•
•
•
•
The new BLC8G20LS-400AV from NXP
Semiconductors is a 400W asymmetric
Doherty power transistor with better
than 40% drain efficiency, making it
ideal for LTE basestations and remote
radio-head applications at frequencies
between 1,800MHz and 2,000MHz.
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Industrial drives
Uninterruptible power supplies
Solar power systems
Welding equipment
FEATURES
• 10µs of short-circuit withstand time
• 1.85V saturation voltage at 40A collector
current
• 125nC total gate charge
• 3.95V maximum forward voltage at 40A
•
forward current
Soft- and fast-recovery anti-parallel diode
150707:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
ST trench gate IGBTs: normal and long-lead versions available
2GHz power transistor offers excellent
efficiency and electrical stability
NXP SEMICONDUCTORS
INDUSTRIAL
The LDMOS device is housed in a low-cost,
earless flanged package with six leads. Two
video decoupling leads allow power-amplifier
designers to optimise linearity with the use of
digital pre-distortion systems. Its SOT1258-3
outline has a board footprint of 31mm x
10mm.
It is notable for its ruggedness in Doherty
operation. It is capable, for instance, of
withstanding a load mismatch corresponding
to a voltage standing-wave ratio of 10:1
through all phases in typical W-CDMA singlecarrier applications.
The low thermal resistance of the
BLC8G20LS-400AV provides excellent thermal
stability. Thermal resistance from junction to
case is rated at a typical 0.31K/W when
supplying load power of 110W.
The transistor has low output capacitance,
for improved performance in Doherty
applications. It is designed for low memory
effects, providing excellent digital pre-distortion
capability.
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
• Mobile phone basestations
• Multi-carrier RF communications
equipment
FEATURES
• Excellent electrical stability
• Suitable for conventional and inverted
Doherty operations
• High efficiency
• Internally matched for ease of use
• Integrated ESD protection
• Operating case-temperature range:
-40°C to 125°C
150708:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
BLC8G20LS-400AV: 400W capability for basestation applications
VISIT THE ONLINE FTM MAGAZINE AT: WWW.My-FTM.COM
5
COMPONENT
FOCUS
Ultra-fast power diode produces
low losses in PFC circuits
NXP SEMICONDUCTORS
The BYV10ED-600P from NXP
Semiconductors is an enhanced ultrafast power diode in a SOT428 (DPAK)
plastic package.
It is ideal for use in dual-mode Power-Factor
Correction (PFC) circuits, which use both
discontinuous-conduction mode and
continuous-conduction mode. It is also suitable
for the implementation of PFC in powersystem designs using an interleaved topology.
The ByV10ED-600P is ideal for powersystem designers looking for a power diode
with soft recovery characteristics and low onstate losses.
Reverse-recovery time is a guaranteed ≤50ns
at 50A/µs and a reverse voltage of 30V.
Forward voltage at a forward current of 10A
and a maximum junction temperature of 25°C
is just 2V.
The diode helps system designers to meet
difficult thermal constraints, offering low
thermal resistance of just a maximum of 3K/W
from junction to mounting base.
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
PFC circuits
FEATURES
High thermal cycling performance
600V repetitive peak reverse voltage
10A average maximum forward current
Surface-mountable package
175°C maximum junction temperature
150709:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
ByV10ED-600P: very short reverse-recovery time
2A power regulator features wide input-voltage
range up to 61V
STMICROELECTRONICS
The L7987L from STMicroelectronics is
an asynchronous step-down switching
regulator able to supply an output of up
to 2A.
The output voltage may be adjusted in a
range from 0.8V up to the maximum input
voltage of 61V.
The device’s wide input-voltage range and its
100% duty-cycle capability
help designers of products
for industrial applications to
meet the stringent
requirements of fail-safe
specifications even in the
presence of wide voltage
fluctuations.
The L7987L features an
embedded switch-over
function on the Bias Voltage
pin: this is used to maximise
efficiency at light loads.
The regulator is ideal for
designers facing tight space
constraints. This is because
it combines a high
maximum switching
frequency of 1.5MHz with
an adjustable current
limitation, so that the
average inductor current
may be proportional to the
nominal output current.
Both these features enable the use of a
relatively small inductor. The switching
frequency is adjustable in a range from 250kHz
to 1.5MHz.
Pulse-by-pulse current sensing with digital
frequency foldback provides for effective
constant-current protection over a variety of
operating conditions. In addition, the peakcurrent foldback function decreases stress on
the power components in extreme short-circuit
conditions.
The Power Good open-collector output can
implement output-voltage sequencing during
the power-up phase.
WORKING PARTNER NXP’s LPC820: page 3
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Systems running from a 24V bus
Fail-safe tolerant systems
Programmable logic controllers
FEATURES
Input-voltage range: 4.5V to 61V
300mΩ on-resistance
11µA shut-down current
1mA quiescent current
Adjustable soft-start time
150710:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
The STEVAL-ISA152V1 evaluation board is a step-down
switching power supply based on the L7987 regulator.
The output voltage may be set, starting from 0.8V. Low
drop-out operation, with an almost 100% duty cycle, may
be achieved.
Orderable Part Number: STEVAL-ISA152V1
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
L7987L: excellent efficiency at light loads
6
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
EMAIL [email protected] FOR SAMPLES AND DATASHEETS
COMPONENT
MEMS microphone draws low current
in Active and Power-down modes
STMICROELECTRONICS
The MP34DT01-M from STMicroelectronics is a tiny, low-power MEMS
microphone with a digital audio-signal
output.
Its capacitive sensing
element, capable of
detecting acoustic waves, is
manufactured using a silicon
micro-machining process
specifically for the
production of audio sensors.
Its IC interface is made in a
CMOS process which
enables the creation of a
dedicated signal-processing
circuit. Its digital signal
output is provided in pulsedensity modulation format.
Average current in normal
operation is 0.6mA. The
MP34DT01-M also has a
power-down mode in which
the current it draws is just
20µA.
The MP34DT01-M has an acoustic overload
point of 120dBSPL (Sound Pressure Level). The
signal-to-noise ratio is 61dB, and the microphone’s
omnidirectional sensitivity is -26dBFs.
The MP34DT01-M is available in a top-port,
surface-mount, EMI-shielded package
measuring 3mm x 4mm x 1mm. It is
guaranteed to operate over an extended
temperature range from -40°C to 85°C.
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
FOCUS
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
•
•
•
•
•
•
Portable media players
VoIP terminals
Speech-recognition equipment
eLearning devices
Gaming and virtual-reality input devices
Theft-prevention systems
FEATURES
• Supply-voltage range: 1.64V to 3.6V
• 10ms maximum turn-on time
• <1% total harmonic distortion and noise
at 100dBSPL
150711:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
Low-power MEMS Microphone Design
The STEVAL-MKI155V3 board is a daughterboard to be
used with the STEVAL-MKI126Vx Smart Voice kit. It
contains four MP34DT01-M digital MEMS microphones.
When connected to the Smart Voice board, it is possible
to detach the single PCBs hosting each microphone.
Orderable Part Number: STEVAL-MKI155V3
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
MP34DT01-M microphone: package measures 3mm x 4mm x 1mm
IGBT power module offers integrated
solution for solar inverters and UPS
VISHAy
Vishay Intertechnology has introduced
the VS-ETL015Y120H, an IGBT power
module for string solar inverters and
medium-power Uninterruptible Power
Supplies (UPS).
The new module combines Vishay Ultrafast
Trench IGBTs, efficient HEXFRED® and FRED Pt®
diode technologies, and a thermistor for easy
thermal management, in a single EMIPAK-2B
package. It therefore offers a complete,
integrated solution for inverters based on
three-level neutral point clamp topologies and
for interleaved multiple-channel double-boost
converters implementing maximum powerpoint tracking.
The high level of integration in the 15A
VS-ETL015y120H helps designers to reduce
time to market and improve system performance.
The VS-ETL015y120H features a collectorto-emitter breakdown voltage of 1,200V, highefficiency silicon boost diodes, integrated 62A
bypass diodes, and short-circuit full-current
reverse-polarity protection diodes.
The power module's solderless PressFit
technology allows for easy PCB mounting, while
an exposed substrate provides for low thermal
resistance. The device also has low internal
inductance and switching losses, while
supporting operating frequencies up to 20kHz.
Its optimised layout helps to minimise stray
parameters for better EMI performance.
WORKING PARTNER Intersil’s ISL28023: page 15
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Solar inverters
UPS
FEATURES
Aluminium oxide substrate
10µs short-circuit capability
Square safe operating area
UL approved
150712:
For samples or pricing e-mail
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VS-ETL015y120H power module: solderless PressFit technology for easy board mounting
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7
150713:
For more information e-mail
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COMPONENT
FOCUS
P•I
E
•
SECTION
Telecoms connector upgrade enables users to
reduce cross-talk
Part Number
TE CONNECTIVITy
™
TE Connectivity has introduced a new,
improved version of its Z-PACK™ HM-Zd
connector for high data-rate
communications equipment, offering
users a connector with less
susceptibility to interference.
The Z-PACK HM-Zd Plus
connector features added
ground contacts on the
outside pair of the receptacle
connector. This reduces
interference attributable to
cross-talk compared to the
previous generation of the
product.
The Z-PACK HM-Zd Plus
connector supports data
transfers at rates up to
15Gbits/s. TE Connectivity’s
product development plan
will see this specification rise
to 20Gbits/s in future.
The daughter card connector remains
compatible with the existing Z-PACK HM-Zd
backplane connector.
Users of telecoms and networking equipment
can upgrade installed devices in the field by
plugging the Z-PACK HM-Zd Plus receptacles
into existing Z-PACK HM-Zd backplane
connectors.
The Z-PACK HM-Zd Plus has integrated prealignment features and polarisation built into
the mating interface, providing for robust and
reliable mating.
Description
Two-pair receptacle
2065769-1
2170328-1
Two-pair header
2065883-1
Three-pair receptacle
2170245-1
Three-pair header
2065657-1
Four-pair receptacle
2170330-1
Four-pair header
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Servers
Routers
Storage devices
Test and measurement equipment
Medical diagnostic equipment
ATCA equipment
FEATURES
• Meets requirements of ATCA zone 2
•
•
•
standard
Standard module size of 25mm
20.32mm card pitch for two-pair headers
25.40mm card pitch for four-pair headers
150714:
For samples or pricing e-mail
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Z-PACK HM-Zd Plus connector: pre-alignment features for reliable mating
Small, waterproof connectors capable of withstanding
harsh operating conditions
HIROSE
Hirose has introduced the HR41A range
of compact, high-powered circular
connectors offering high reliability in
harsh outdoor environments.
The new connector range consists of cablemount plugs and panel-mount receptacles
which have the capacity to handle up to 10A.
The plugs feature a pushon bayonet-locking
mechanism which allows the
connector to be mated in one
easy step. Visual and tactile
raised mating indicators on
the plug and receptacle aid
mating operations in dark or
concealed conditions. In
addition, a tactile and audible
click confirms that the pins
have engaged correctly,
guaranteeing secure locking.
The HR41A is optimised for
easy assembly in the field.
The waterproof gasket and
cable can be clamped and
sealed in one simultaneous step. The crimps
can be easily and reliably terminated with the
crimp hand tool. In addition, the push-on
bayonet lock eliminates the need for screw
tightening and torque management, saving
even more assembly time.
The sequential contact structure means that
the ground contact is connected before the
power and signal contacts to ensure the
mating process is safe.
The lightweight housing is robust and
resistant to harsh environmental conditions.
The connectors’ housing has a special wall
structure which protects the contacts and
ensures a long creepage distance, providing
tolerance of lightning surges of up to 15kV.
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
LED lighting
Construction lighting
Fishing lighting
Offshore lighting
Robots
Electronic toll systems
Industrial applications
FEATURES
Five contact positions
Voltage rating: 250V AC/350V DC
IP68 waterproof rating
150715:
For samples or pricing e-mail
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HR41A circular connectors: push-on bayonet lock for quick assembly
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9
P•I
•
E
COMPONENT
FOCUS
SECTION
Tiny 600V DC fuse helps designers
to save board space
LITTELFUSE
The 485 Nano2® series fuse from
Littelfuse is a compact, surface-mount
600V DC fuse for over-current
protection of high-voltage DC circuits
and applications.
Its fast-acting characteristics ensure highspeed protection against surge currents and
overload conditions.
With a footprint of just 12.1mm x 4.5mm,
the 485 fuse offers circuit designers a more
compact, cost-competitive alternative to larger,
ENERGY
through-hole 600V DC fuses. It is available
with current ratings from 1A to 3.15A.
Nominal
Melting I2T (A2s)
Resistance
(Ω)
Interrupting
Rating
485001
1
250
600
0.3044
0.264
[email protected] DC
[email protected] AC
48501.5
1.5
250
600
0.3917
0.123
[email protected] DC
[email protected] AC
485002
2
250
600
0.8962
0.0744
[email protected] DC
[email protected] AC
48502.5
2.5
250
600
1.4921
0.0583
[email protected] DC
[email protected] AC
4853.15
3.15
250
600
3.304
0.0395
[email protected] DC
[email protected] AC
Combined data and power
connector carries up to 250W
The system is compliant
with the RoHS and REACH
directives. It is designed to
meet the requirements of
the UL444 standard, and
uses CM-rated cable.
The TE Connectivity
CLOUDSPLITTER cable
plug combines eight
26AWG stranded signal
conductors and two
18AWG stranded power
conductors in shielded or
unshielded configurations.
10
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
boards
485 Nano2 series fuse: ceramic housing
Voltage
Rating (V DC)
TE Connectivity™ has announced the
release of the CLOUDSPLITTER™
Connector System, a single-cable
solution for powered devices which
provides performance equivalent to
stand-alone CAT 5e cabling. It also
carries up to 250W of power over its
single cable.
LIGHTING
• PC servers
• Telecoms equipment
• DC input protection for LCD TV inverter
Voltage
Rating (V AC)
TE CONNECTIVITy
INDUSTRIAL
APPLICATIONS
Current
Rating (A)
Part Number
Its wide operating temperature range and
ceramic housing provide for robust
performance and reliable over-current
protection in a wide range of applications. The
fuse is fully compatible with lead-free solder
alloys and the higher temperature profiles
associated with lead-free assembly.
The SMT jack is backward-compatible and
accepts a CLOUDSPLITTER plug or a
standard RJ45 shielded plug.
Its integrated power contacts provide DC
power at 5A and up to 50V DC. Two LED
lights are included in the jack assembly to
indicate whether data are being transmitted or
received.
The CLOUDSPLITTER system combines
two connections into a single product to
provide a power and data solution.
• Uninterruptible power supplies
• Three-phase power supplies
• 380V DC servers in data centres
FEATURES
• 100A breaking capacity
• Operating temperature range:
-55°C to 125°C
• UL and CSA agency approvals
• Suitable for leaded or lead-free reflow
soldering
150716:
For samples or pricing e-mail
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Part Number
Description
2178126-1
Modular jack with power pins
2178126-2
Modular jack without power pins
2178127-1
2-metre Unshielded
2178127-2
5-metre Unshielded
2178127-3
10-metre Unshielded
2178127-4
25-metre Unshielded
2178148-1
Plug Kit
2217400-1
CLOUDSPLITTER crimp tool
2217299-1
Micro MATE-N-LOK crimp tool
(power contacts)
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Video surveillance over IP networks
Intelligent building management
Factory automation
Wireless network transceivers
FEATURES
• Shielded jack and cable plug
• Pre-terminated cable assemblies in
•
standard lengths
Certified to UL1863
150717:
CLOUDSPLITTER system: combines eight signal conductors and two power conductors
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DESIGN
NOTE
Temperature compensation: three techniques for use with
Crocus magnetic sensors
CROCUS TECHNOLOGy
The Crocus CTSR2xxC series is a family of magnetic sensors
designed for sensing weak magnetic fields – in fact, they are
as much as 15 times more sensitive than other magnetic
sensors in use today.
This Design Note explores three common techniques which may be
used to minimise the effects of temperature on the Crocus CTSR2xxC
magnetic sensors.
The Crocus magnetic sensor is a four-terminal device: two input
terminals and two output terminals that are fully electrically isolated. The
two input terminals are used to bias the sensor while the two output
terminals, VB and VBGND, are connected to the sensor output resistor,
ROUT, which changes resistance when exposed to a magnetic field. The
output resistance also changes with temperature, and needs to be
temperature-compensated.
The CTSR218V-IQ2 datasheet
shows that the temperature
coefficient is negative. That is to
say when temperature increases it
reduces the sensor’s output
resistance ROUT, as shown in
Figure 1.
The units on the y axis,
ROUT/R25C, may be explained by
reference to an example. From the
CTSR218C-IQ2 datasheet:
ROUT = 18kΩ @ 25°C
A change in temperature from
Fig. 1: The sensor’s output resistance falls as
temperature rises
25°C to 70°C can be estimated
using the the graph in Figure 1: It
can be estimated that ROUT/R25C is approximately 0.95 at 70°C. So the
calculation to find the resistance of the sensor at 70°C is:
R(70C) = R25C * [email protected]/R25 = 18000 * 0.95 = 17.1kΩ
Another, more accurate way to calculate the resistance at a particular
temperature is to use the temperature coefficient of resistance in the
datasheet. But the important question is how can the temperature
effects be mitigated? Three specific techniques are described in the
following sections.
Half-bridge temperature compensation
One way to easily compensate for the temperature effects on the
Crocus sensor is to arrange the sensing circuit in a half-bridge circuit,
shown in Figure 2.
The theory of operation for the circuit is based on the voltage-divider
equation:
VOUT = V1 * (ROUT2/(ROUT2+ROUT1))
As the resistance of Sensor 1,
ROUT1, increases due to
temperature, the resistance of
Sensor 2 will also increase since
both sensors have the same
temperature coefficient as they
are made of the same material.
The output voltage will not
change with changes in
temperature since – according
to the voltage-divider equation –
the output voltage is constant if
the ratio of ROUT2 to ROUT1
remains constant.
Compensation using resistance with a positive temperature coefficient
The concept behind using another Temperature Sensitive Resistor (TSR)
is to neutralise the change in the sensor’s resistance with temperature.
This calls for a TSR that has the same temperature coefficient as the
sensor, with the opposite sign, naturally.
In fact, it is possible to tune the effects of the temperature coefficient
of the TSR to exactly fit the application by adding a few passive
components to the compensation circuit.
This second technique applies a single-sensor circuit, as opposed to
the dual-sensor circuit described above, as shown in Figure 3.
Fig. 3: Compensation circuit using a TSR
The TSR in the diagram has a positive temperature coefficient equal to
0.14%/°C. As mentioned earlier, the TSR must be tuned to match the
temperature coefficient of the sensor, which is -0.1%/°C. This is done by
adding a series resistor, RS, and a parallel resistor, RP, as shown in
Figure 3.
The values of these components will depend on the resistive value of
the TSR and its temperature coefficient. To simplify the calculation of RS
and RP, it is helpful to calculate an equation of the temperature
coefficient of the Crocus sensor. An Excel spreadsheet makes it is easy
to find the linear equation of a set of any data.
The first step is to generate a table of values of the sensor’s output
resistance at various
temperatures. This can be
plotted in a chart such as
that shown in Figure 4.
Also shown in Figure 4 is
the plot of the resistive
network comprised of the
TSR in parallel with the
resistor RP. The value of the
parallel resistor was
determined by an iterative
process to match the slope
of the sensor’s temperature
equation but with the
Fig. 4: Sensor output resistance over temperature
opposite sign. As Figure 4
shows, the slopes of the two linear plots are equal but with opposite signs.
Temperature compensation using software
The technique of temperature compensation involves software and the
use of a microcontroller. To compensate for the temperature coefficient
of the Crocus magnetic sensor in firmware, the temperature must be
measured. Then, for each temperature reading, the microcontroller
simply subtracts the known effects of the temperature from the output
resistance of the sensor. The compensation is then directly applied to
the output signal which is displayed in digital form.
All three techniques described in this Design Note work well with a
Crocus magnetic sensor, because the temperature effects on the sensor
are well defined and repeatable.
150718:
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Fig. 2: Half-bridge sensing circuit
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11
DESIGN
NOTE
Designing intelligence into
CUI INC
Encoder users have traditionally been reluctant to change –
and with good reason. A motor on the factory floor or in an
industrial installation is not the place for innovations which
lack a solid track record.
This explains why tried-and-tested optical and magnetic encoder
technologies remain in widespread use today. A more recent invention,
however, the capacitive encoder, is now exciting strong interest among
designers of motor-control systems. Based on fully tested principles and
proven after many successful years in the field, this new approach to
motion sensing opens up a range of benefits and provides more
intelligence to users of rotary commutation encoders.
principle as the established digital vernier caliper. It has two patterns of
bars or lines, with one set on the fixed element and the other set on the
moving element, together forming a variable capacitor configured as a
transmitter/receiver pairing, as shown in Figure 3.
As the encoder rotates, an integral ASIC counts these line changes
and also interpolates to find the position of the shaft and direction of
rotation. This produces the standard quadrature outputs, and also the
commutation outputs used to control BLDC motors.
The benefits of this capacitive technology are that it is immune to
contaminants such as dust, dirt and oil, and it contains no element such
as an LED that can wear out, making it inherently more reliable than
optical devices. Capacitive encoders also offer performance advantages
derived from their digital control features. These include the ability to
adjust the encoder’s resolution (the pulses-per-revolution or PPR count)
without the need to change to a higher- or lower-resolution encoder.
Benefits in production and in the field
The fundamental digital design of the capacitive encoder also offers
many system benefits in all phases of encoder use, from product
development, to installation and even maintenance. By contrast, the
output of the optical or magnetic encoder is typically functional but
dumb, and offers users no flexibility, insight or operational advantages.
The capacitive encoder, however, uses a built-in ASIC and
microcontroller to provide additional features and enhanced
performance.
An example of these features is simple and quick one-touch zeroing
for aligning the encoder with a BLDC motor. The process is
straightforward: lock the shaft to the desired position by energising the
appropriate motor phases, and command the encoder to Zero at this
position. This takes mere seconds and requires no special instruments.
The varieties of encoder technology
Rotary encoders play a crucial role in nearly all motion-control
applications. Indeed, the need for them is growing because of the
increased use of Brushless DC (BLDC) motors, which offer improved
control, precision and efficiency.
The encoder’s task is simple, in principle: to indicate the position of
the motor shaft to the system controller. Using this information, the
controller can accurately and efficiently commutate the motor windings
as well as determine speed, direction and acceleration – parameters that
a motion-control loop needs to maintain desired motor performance.
Encoders can be based on a variety of
technologies, all of which provide the standard
digital outputs of A and B quadrature signals,
plus an index output in some models, as
shown in Figure 1. Commutation encoders
also provide U, V and W commutation-phase
channel outputs, see Figure 2.
The three best known encoder types use
optical, magnetic or capacitive techniques. The
optical encoder has a slotted disc with an LED
on one side and phototransistors on the
opposite side. As the disc rotates, the light
path is interrupted, and the resultant pulses
indicate shaft rotation and direction. Although
an optical encoder is cheap and effective, its
Fig. 1: How an optical encoder provides standard A and B quadrature outputs and an index signal
reliability is compromised by two factors:
contaminants such as dirt, dust, and oil can interfere with the light path,
By contrast, an optical or magnetic encoder must be zeroed by
and the LEDs have a limited lifetime, typically losing half their brightness
mechanically aligning the commutation signals with the motor windings.
in a few years and eventually burning out.
This is a complex and often frustrating process. It requires locking the
The magnetic encoder’s construction is similar to that of the optical
rotor, physically aligning it, and then back-driving the motor while using
encoder, except that it uses a magnetic field rather than a beam of light.
an oscilloscope to observe the back-EMF and encoder waveforms for
In place of the slotted optical wheel, it has a
magnet which spins over an array of magnetoresistive sensors. Any rotation of the wheel
produces a response in these sensors, which
goes to a signal-conditioning front-end to
calculate the position of the shaft. While it
offers a high level of durability, the magnetic
encoder is typically not as accurate as the
optical encoder. Some types are also
susceptible to magnetic interference produced
by the motor itself.
A third approach, capacitive encoding, offers
all the benefits of optical and magnetic
encoder designs, but without their
weaknesses. This technique uses the same
Fig. 2: The U, V and W waveforms produced by a commutation encoder
12
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DESIGN
NOTE
commutation encoders
Fig. 3: Basic construction of a capacitive encoder system
proper zero cross alignment. This is often an iterative process with the
steps usually needing to be repeated for fine-tuning and verification, so
the entire cycle can take as long as 20 minutes.
The digital features of the AMT series also greatly enhance the
system-design process, offering flexibility, providing diagnostic
information and supporting assessment of the motor’s performance. In
particular, since a single capacitive encoder can support a wide range of
resolution and pole-pair values, designers can use its programmableresolution capability to dynamically adjust the response and performance
of the control loop during controller and algorithm development without
having to purchase and install an entirely new encoder.
The intelligence built into a capacitive encoder, such as the AMT series
from CUI Inc., also supports the provision of on-board diagnostics for
quicker analysis of field failures. The encoder can be queried to indicate
whether it is operating properly or whether there is a failure due to
mechanical misalignment on the shaft. Therefore, the designer can
quickly determine whether the encoder is at fault, and if it is not, look for
the source of the problem elsewhere.
Furthermore, engineers can use this feature for preventive measures,
for example, executing an ‘Encoder Good’ test sequence before running
the application. These capabilities, not available in optical or mechanical
encoders, allow designers to keep downtime to a minimum while
anticipating problems that might occur with units in the field.
Finally the digital interface also simplifies the bill of materials. Since the
encoder can be tailored in software to the application's specifications for
PPR, pole pairs and commutation direction, there is no need to list and
stock multiple versions for a multi-motor product, or for multiple products.
Intelligent GUI
The Windows® PC-based AMT Viewpoint™ software for CUI capacitive
encoders speeds development and also turns time-consuming mundane
tasks, such as identifying model number and version, into simple
operations. It requires just a USB cable to interface to the encoder, and
implements a simple serial-data format. The GUI allows the user to tailor
and customise the encoder to the application’s needs, as shown in
Figure 4.
A settings screen in the GUI lets users see key encoder waveforms
and timing, with automatic adjustments as the encoder options are
changed. Programming an encoder through the GUI takes just a few
keystrokes and about 30s for the cycle to complete. Most dramatic, the
aligning and zeroing of an encoder for either A, B, index or commutation
mode takes only seconds, a sharp contrast to the time taken to
complete this task with a non-programmable encoder.
In demonstration mode, users can go through the GUI and also
perform encoder-related operations as if an actual encoder were
attached, a convenient way to become familiar with the encoders and
tools prior to any purchase or hands-on use.
Fig. 4: The AMT Viewpoint software provides an easy-to-use development interface
Finally, the GUI also enables the user to create orderable part numbers
for specific encoder versions, which include options in output format,
sleeve (bore) adapter, mounting base and others.
Encoders based on capacitive technology offer much more than
improved performance and reliability. A device such as CUI’s AMT31,
with its built-in ASIC and microcontroller, provides intelligent functionality
to give insights into the device’s operation and to simplify inventory
management. The AMT31 is shown in Figure 5.
When these features are coupled with the PC-based GUI, it can provide
an easy-to-use yet sophisticated capability, which greatly simplifies all
aspects of encoder use from prototype design-in, evaluation, and debug
through installation and configuration, to diagnostics and inventory
management. And all of this is at comparable cost to other encoders,
maintaining compatibility with standard output types and formats, while
also achieving lower power consumption.
Read more about CUI's AMT31 encoders on page 23.
Fig. 5: The AMT31 encoder combines durability, flexibility and intelligence
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13
DESIGN
NOTE
New devices for high-performance DC-DC conversion with loads up to 1A
INTERSIL
Intersil’s ISL8541x family of buck regulators, consisting of the
ISL85410, ISL85415 and ISL85418, offers the performance
and features required by modern electronic devices: the
devices are efficient, small and reliable, and operate across
an unusually wide input-voltage range.
The ICs integrate PWM control, two power MOSFETs, a compensation
network, and a protection and monitoring circuit into a tiny 4mm x 3mm
DFN package, enabling power-system designers to implement efficient,
compact and cost-effective power conversion.
Using a proprietary current-mode control scheme, the ICs can precisely
regulate the output voltage at input voltages ranging from 3V to 40V, and
for a load current up to 1A (ISL85410), 800mA (ISL85418) or 500mA
(ISL85415). With output voltage adjustable from 0.6V to 96% of the input
voltage, and switching frequency adjustable from 300kHz to 2MHz, the
ISL8541x family provides the flexibility to design optimal power solutions.
Applications in which power losses must be kept to a minimum are
also well served, with efficiency up to 96% and a quiescent current of
just 80µA.
Typical applications
Figure 1 shows the typical
applications of the
ISL85410/15/18 devices when
used to convert a power
source with a wide voltage
range to various low output
voltages to meet different load
conditions with a current of up
to 1A.
Fig. 1: Typical uses for the ISL8541x family
Highly efficient operation at light load
The ISL8541x power-management ICs combine a synchronous buck
PWM controller with integrated power switches. With a compensation
circuit and other control
functions integrated inside
the IC, only a few external
components are needed
for an efficient DC-DC
power supply, as shown in
Figure 2.
To achieve high
efficiency under heavy
Fig. 2: Typical application circuit using internal compensation
load conditions, the
internal high-side and lowside N-channel MOSFETs
of the ISL8541x feature ultra-low resistance and low gate charge. In
addition, the On/Off control of the switching FETs is optimised, with very
little dead time, helping to keep power losses to a minimum.
When supplying light loads, the converter’s efficiency can be improved
by enabling variable frequency operation, in Pulse-Frequency Modulation
(PFM) mode. Connecting the Sync pin to ground allows the controller to
choose such operation automatically when the load current is low: the
IC enters the discontinuous-current mode of operation when eight
consecutive cycles of inductor current crossing zero are detected, as
shown in Figure 3.
This means that a DC-DC converter based on an ISL8541x device can
achieve superior efficiency over the application’s entire range of
operating conditions. Figure 4 shows the efficiency of a voltage regulator
based on the ISL85410, with an output voltage of 3.3V over a variety of
load and input-voltage conditions.
Additional features for superior
operation
All three ISL8541x devices also
offer various features to help the
designer of a DC-DC converter.
Adjustable soft start – to avoid
large in-rush currents, the output
voltage is slowly increased at startup to its final regulated value.
Power Good – to indicate the
Fig. 4: Efficiency at light and heavy loads
operating condition of the
switching regulator, a Power Good (PG) pin is implemented with an
open-drain output and an internal pull-up resistor.
Adjustable operating frequency – a programmable frequency allows
the user to find the best balance of efficiency and external component
size. It also provides for low-frequency operation at low output voltages
when the minimum on-time would otherwise limit operation. The default
switching frequency is 500kHz, but the frequency can be programmed
in a range between 300kHz and 2MHz.
Synchronisation control – to minimise input-voltage ripple and to
reduce EMI, frequency synchronisation is often required in applications
with multiple DC-DC converters. The switching frequency of the
ISL8541X product family can be synchronised to up to 2MHz by an
external signal applied to the Sync pin. This also allows two regulators to
be synched together.
Option to use external compensation – the internal compensation
parameters are carefully selected to produce stable and dynamic
performance with a wide range of output inductor and capacitor
combinations. If more improvement in transient performance is needed,
an external compensation circuit can be implemented via the Comp pin.
Conclusion
The ISL8541x regulators, then, provide the designer of DC-DC converters
with high efficiency, a rich feature set and the flexibility to optimise the
circuit for the needs of the application. These ICs have a similar pin-out,
so they are interchangeable on the system board.
Two other similar ICs are also available from Intersil: the ISL85412 and
ISL85413 have a lower maximum nominal output current of 150mA and
300mA respectively. They feature a lower quiescent current (50µA), a
smaller, 3mm x 3mm package, and use only a default switching frequency.
Fig. 5:
Schematic and
Image of ISL8541x
demo board
150720:
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FREE
BOARDS
Orderable Part Numbers: ISL85410DEMO1Z,
ISL85418DEMO1Z, ISL85415DEMO1Z
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
Fig. 3: Transition from PFM to PWM for higher efficiency when supplying light loads
14
EMAIL [email protected] FOR SAMPLES AND DATASHEETS
MOTION
CONTROL
Application Spotlight
New energy-efficiency regulations in the European Union and
elsewhere are creating strong demand for technology that can
improve the precision, speed and accuracy of the control
systems regulating the latest
generation of electric motors.
The pace of development in
motor-control technology is in
evidence throughout this
Application Spotlight. Particularly
notable is the variety of approaches
to the measurement of angular
displacement, essential for instance
for the precise and accurate
commutation of brushless DC
motors. Both ams, on page 18, and
NXP Semiconductors, on page 21,
have chosen to implement
magnetic sensing technologies.
CUI Inc., on page 23, by contrast,
uses a capacitive-sensing
technique in its modular encoders. All three devices are worth
serious consideration by designers of industrial equipment,
since they can offer greater resistance to mechanical wear and
tear and environmental contamination than the optical-encoder
and potentiometer technologies commonly used today.
Elsewhere, semiconductor manufacturers are seeking to ease
the task of implementing new motion-control system designs
by providing highly integrated solutions. STMicroelectronics, for
instance, integrates both the
power and control stage of a
stepper motor in its new
powerSTEP01 driver, as shown
on page 25. Now for the first
time, a fully integrated solution
for a stepper motor drawing
current as high as 10A is
available to system designers.
ROHM Semiconductor also
provides a drive solution for
stepping motors, on page 16.
And Intersil, with its ISL28023,
see below, provides a range of
digital power-monitoring
functions in a single chip,
supporting the currentregulation circuits found in motor drives and elsewhere.
For more information or to request any of the featured
evaluation boards visit www.my-boardclub.com, or email
[email protected] to request pricing or samples of components
in this issue of FTM.
Digital power monitor gives high
current-sense accuracy
INTERSIL
Intersil has launched the ISL28023, a
bi-directional high- and low-side digital
current-sense and voltage monitor
with a serial interface.
As a digital power monitor, the ISL28023
integrates in a single IC the discrete amplifier and
ADC that would otherwise be required to take
current and voltage readings across a shunt
resistor, and provides a digital output, including
a calculated power reading, to an MCU or FPGA.
The ISL28023 is ideal for motor-control
applications: the current and power
measurements that the ISl28023 yields are
valuable in determining the efficiency and
health of a motor. The device provides tight
accuracy of 0.05% for voltage and current
measurements. An auxiliary input provides an
additional monitoring function.
Power can either be externally supplied to
the ISL28023 or internally regulated. The
device has a primary channel which allows for
voltage and current measurements ranging
from 0V to 60V, whether the voltage applied is
direct or a common mode to the port. The
high voltage measurements are achieved while
the device is powered at between 3V to 5.5V.
This wide voltage-acceptance range is useful in
many industrial, infrastructure and automotive
applications.
An 8-bit voltage DAC supports outputvoltage margining in DC-DC converters. In
addition, the ISL28023 has fast fault indicators
for current and voltage, enabling a short shutdown delay for effective protection of the
measured circuitry. The ISL28023 has an
internal temperature sensor and a remote
temperature-sensor option.
The ISL28023 is PMBus-compliant and the
serial interface operates at voltages as low as
1.2V, enabling communications to many
energy-harvesting applications. The device
draws an average current of just 800µA.
WORKING PARTNER Vishay’s VS-ETL015Y120H: page 7
ENERGY
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•
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•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Industrial motors
Data-processing servers
DC power distribution
Telecoms equipment
Portable communications equipment
DC-DC and AC-DC converters
Battery management
FEATURES
• ±1.0°C internal temperature-sensor
accuracy
• Programmable averaging modes
• 55 I C slave addresses
• Operating temperature: range:
2
-40°C to 125°C
150721:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
Motor-control System Design
The ISL28023EVKIT1Z kit contains three boards which
demonstrate the functionality of the ISL28023 digital
power monitor: a microcontroller dongle board, a demo
board and an evaluation board.
Orderable Part Number: ISL28023EVKIT1Z
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
VISIT THE ONLINE FTM MAGAZINE AT: WWW.My-FTM.COM
15
MOTION
CONTROL
Flexible design options in new
stepper motor driver
ROHM SEMICONDUCTOR
The BD63510EFV from ROHM
Semiconductor is a stepping-motor
driver supporting motors with a 1/16
micro-step configuration.
BD63510EFV: stepping-motor driver ideal for printers and scanners
A bipolar PWM-controlled constant-current
driver, the BD63510EFV can handle a maximum
input voltage of 36V, and supply loads drawing
up to 1.0A. The low on-resistance of its
integrated output MOSFET contributes to the
device’s low overall power consumption.
The step modes implemented by the
BD63510EFV’s internal DAC are full-step, halfstep, quarter-step and sixteenth-step. In
current-decay mode,
the ratio of Fast
Decay to Slow Decay
can be set by the
user, so the best
possible control
conditions for every
motor may be
realised. The device
may be switched
between the forward
and reverse direction
of rotation.
The driver features
a function for
cancelling spike
noise, which means
that an external noise
filter is not necessary.
Integrated ghost-supply prevention protects
the system from malfunctioning when the
power supply is disconnected.
The BD63510EFV’s high-temperature 28-pin
SSOP package measures 9.7mm x 6.4mm x
1.0mm.
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
•
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•
•
•
Printers and scanners
Security and web cameras
Sewing machines
Toys
Robots
FEATURES
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on reset
Thermal shut-down circuit
Over-current protection
Under- and over-voltage lock-out
Inverted mounting protection
150722:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
Integrated gate driver features 1,500V on-chip
galvanic isolation
STMICROELECTRONICS
STMicroelectronics introduces the new
STGAP1S, a single-channel gate driver
which integrates galvanic isolation with
analogue and logic circuitry in the same
device. The combination helps to
simplify driver design while ensuring
high noise immunity for safe and reliable
power control of motor drives and other
high-voltage equipment.
The STGAP1S is the first in a new generation
of gapDRIVE™ gate drivers from ST which
feature an isolation layer grown on-chip, to
enable a single device to combine both gatedriving and isolation functions: up to 1,500V
can be present on the high-voltage rail without
interfering with other circuitry.
With signal-propagation delay of 100ns
across the isolation layer, the STGAP1S is
capable of precisely transmitting PWM signals.
The integrated driver stage can sink or source
up to 5A, and has a rail-to-rail output which
allows negative drive voltages for use with large
16
IGBTs or wide-bandgap power switches, such
as silicon carbide MOSFETs.
High common-mode transient immunity
provides for reliable communication across the
isolation layer and for safe operation. Separate
sink and source outputs enhance design
flexibility and help reduce the requirement for
external components.
The device also has a serial peripheral
interface, which provides a standard host
connection for configuring the control logic and
monitoring operating status on the fly. The
STGAP1S is able to provide rich digital
diagnostics to the host via this interface, allowing
enhanced system protection and reliability.
An active Miller clamp in the power stage prevents
unwanted transistor turn-on, and desaturation
detection protects the power switch under
short-circuit conditions. A dedicated Sense pin
is available for over-current detection.
ENERGY
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•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Industrial drives
600/1200V inverters
Uninterruptible power supplies
DC-DC converters
Solar inverters
FEATURES
• ±50V/ns transient immunity across the full
temperature range
• Separate sink and source for easy
gate-driving configuration
• Programmable input-deglitch filter
• Asynchronous Stop command
• Programmable dead time, with violation
error
150723:
STGAP1S: combines gate-driving and isolation functions
FOLLOW US NOW – SEARCH FTM BOARD CLUB ON
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
MOTION
CONTROL
MOSFET H-bridge in a single package cuts board
footprint in half
DIODES INCORPORATED
A pair of MOSFET H-bridges introduced
by Diodes Inc., enables designers to
simplify motor-driving circuits, reducing
the number of components required and
shrinking the circuit’s board footprint by
half.
MOSFET H-bridges: highly integrated package saves board footprint
The DMHC4035LSD is a 40V-rated H-bridge
for automotive motor-driving applications; a
30V-rated H bridge, the DMHC3025LSD, is
suitable for 12V single-phase fan motors. The
Diodes MOSFET H-bridges are also suitable for
use in inductive wireless-charging applications.
Diodes has made the DMHC3025LSD and
DMHC4035LSD by integrating dual N-channel
and dual P-channel MOSFETs in a single
package, to make a full H-Bridge with a single
SO-8 footprint measuring
just 5mm x 6mm. Either
device can replace the
equivalent circuit which
would traditionally be
implemented with four
SOT23 or two SO-8
packages.
The MOSFETs used in
the DMHC4035LSD and
the DMHC3025LSD are
notable for their low onresistance. For instance,
on-resistance in the
DMHC4035LSD is
typically 45mΩ at 10V for
the N-channel MOSFET
and 65mΩ at -10V for
the P-channel device.
The resulting low conduction losses mean that
the H-bridges are able to tolerate high
continuous currents under motor-stall
conditions. At a 70°C ambient operating
temperature, the 30V and 40V H-bridges can
support continuous currents of 3A and 2A,
respectively, thereby accommodating worstcase motor-stall currents.
ENERGY
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MICREL
Micrel has released the MIC4606, an
85V full-bridge MOSFET driver, which
benefits from design features that
improve both efficiency and reliability.
The 85V MIC4606 includes adaptive deadtime circuitry which actively monitors the full
bridge and minimises the duration of
transitions between high- and low-side
MOSFETs. This contributes to the outstanding
power efficiency of the device when driving
equipment such as brushed
and brushless DC motors.
The MIC4606 also
includes anti-shoot-through
circuitry which prevents
erroneous inputs and noise
from turning on both
MOSFETs at the same time,
a feature that contributes to
the reliability and longevity of
motor-drive circuits.
The device also offers a
wide 5.5V to 16V operating
supply range.
WORKING PARTNER STMicro’s STH310N10F7: page 4
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Brushed DC motors for fans
Single-phase brushless DC motors
Inductive wireless charging
FEATURES
• 30A peak pulse current for handling
•
•
in-rush current
Qualified to AEC-Q101 standard
Low input capacitance
150724:
Dead-time breakthrough in 85V full-bridge
MOSFET driver gives high power efficiency
The low 5.5V operating-voltage limit allows for
longer run times in battery-powered
applications.
In addition, the 85V maximum operating
voltage offers a generous margin above normal
operating voltages, protecting the circuit
against the voltage spikes that are common in
motor-drive and power-supply systems.
The MIC4606 is available in a 16-pin 4mm ×
4mm QFN package with an operating junction
temperature range of -40°C to 125°C. It is
available in two variants: the MIC4606-1yML
has dual TTL inputs, and the MIC4606-2yML
has a single PWM input.
INDUSTRIAL
ENERGY
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INDUSTRIAL
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Full-bridge motor drives
Stepper motor drives
Battery-operated power tools
Power inverters
Distributed power systems
FEATURES
• Enable input for on/off control
• On-chip bootstrap diodes
• 35ns propagation time
• 235µA quiescent current
• Separate high- and low-side undervoltage protection
150725:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
Motor Drive Design
The evaluation board for the 85V MIC4606 enables
designers to explore the effect of the device’s adaptive
dead-time and shoot-through protection features.
Orderable Part Numbers:
MIC4606-1yML EV and MIC4606-2yML EV
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
Typical motor application circuit for Micrel’s MIC4606 full-bridge MOSFET driver
VISIT THE ONLINE FTM MAGAZINE AT: WWW.My-FTM.COM
17
MOTION
CONTROL
Control of multiple motors made simple by
new ARM Cortex-M3 MCUs
NXP SEMICONDUCTORS
NXP Semiconductors has released a
new series of microcontrollers, the
LPC1500, which is optimised for fast,
easy and precise motor control.
The new microcontrollers incorporate
all the features required for accurate
sensored and sensorless motor
control, enabling the
simultaneous control of two
motors in highly flexible
configurations. Supported by
efficient motor-control
firmware, easy-to-use
GUI-based tuning tools
and development kits,
the LPC1500
microcontrollers simplify
development and support
designers with limited motor-control
experience.
The LPC1500 MCUs are optimised for use
with a wide range of brushless DC motors,
permanent-magnet synchronous motors and
AC induction motors, which are commonly
found in consumer and industrial products.
They are also ideally suited for industrial
applications requiring precise data sampling
and real-time control, such as digital power
and instrumentation.
Based on the ARM® Cortex®-M3 processor,
the LPC1500 MCUs feature two 12-bit,
12-channel ADCs operating at 2Msamples/s,
and an on-chip quadrature encoder interface.
Four on-chip comparators enable fast overcurrent and over-voltage monitoring and
protection. Four flexible
SCTimer/PWM timers
provide up to 28 PWM
channels in a tightly
coupled analogue
and timing subsystem which
places a minimal
load on the CPU.
The LPC1500 series
of microcontrollers are
fully supported by the
LPC software ecosystem
and an extensive
collection of tools, drivers and
middleware. Developers can choose from the
free NXP LPCXpresso™ development platform,
incorporating a full featured C/C++ tool chain
and IDE, or use popular tools from third-party
suppliers such as Keil and IAR.
ENERGY
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•
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•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Motor drives
Digital power supplies
Solar inverters
Home appliances
Building and factory automation
FEATURES
• ADCs perform conversions in 500ns
• PWM modules offer average resolution
•
•
•
of <1ns
68ns comparator propagation delay
CAN module
GUI-based calibration/tuning tools
150726:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
Motor-control and digital-power applications
The LPC1549 LPCXpresso™ includes a standard 10-pin
JTAG/SWD connector plus analogue/digital expansion
headers, making it a highly extensible platform. Headers
conforming to the LPCXpresso™, Arduino UNO and PMOD
standards enable the use of existing peripheral boards.
Orderable Part Number: OM13056UL
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
New magnetic sensor accurately measures position of
rotors spinning at up to 28krpm
AMS
ams has extended its 47 series of
magnetic position sensors with the
AS5047P, which offers an incremental ABI
output to provide an ideal replacement
for optical encoders and resolvers in
motor and motion-control systems.
Like other members of
the 47 series, the new
AS5047P features
ams’ Dynamic Angle
Error Compensation
(DAEC™) technology,
which produces
outstanding angleAS5047P: standard
measurement
ABI and UVW outputs
accuracy even at very
high rotation speeds.
The DAEC technology compensates for the
dynamic angle error caused by propagation delay
as the sensor processes raw measurements of
magnetic field strength. DAEC thus eliminates
the need for system designers to implement
discrete error-correction circuitry in an external
DSP or microcontroller.
18
At the maximum rated speed of 28krpm, the
AS5047P achieves a maximum accuracy of
±0.34°, excluding integral non-linearity.
The 47 series’ ABI outputs are equivalent to
the outputs of a standard optical encoder, so
motor-control system designers can easily
replace optical encoders, which are commonly
used in high-speed motors, with an ams
position-sensor measurement system without
any change to their control software or interface.
In the AS5047P, the maximum resolution of
the ABI output is 4,000 steps/1,000 pulses per
revolution in decimal mode, and 4,096 steps/
1,024 pulses per revolution in binary mode.
The device also simultaneously provides a
standard UVW commutation interface for use in
brushless DC motors, eliminating the need for
discrete Hall sensor switches, and providing a
single IC to support both motor-position and
motor-control applications. Absolute angle
position may be provided as a PWM-encoded
output signal.
Like all magnetic position sensors from ams,
the AS5047P offers high immunity to
interference from stray magnetic fields, and is
also unaffected by the dirt, dust, grease,
humidity and other contaminants that
commonly impair the performance of optical
encoders.
ENERGY
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Motor-drive systems
Motion control
Robotics
FEATURES
• 14-bit core resolution
• 12-bit incremental pulse count
• Zero position programmable
• Independent output interfaces:
SPI, ABI, UVW, PWM
150727:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
Motion Control Applications
The adapter board includes the AS5047P position sensor
and the necessary external components. All relevant
signals are available on a dual-row 2.54mm four-pin
header and can be easily wired to an existing application.
Orderable Part Number: AS5047P-TS-EK-AB
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
EMAIL [email protected] FOR SAMPLES AND DATASHEETS
MOTION
CONTROL
Module provides integrated three-level
half-bridge inverter stage
VISHAy
The VS-ETF075Y60U IGBT power
module from Vishay is an integrated
solution for a three-level inverter halfbridge circuit.
The module offers designers a 75A collectorcurrent rating, and has a 600V collector-toemitter breakdown voltage, while supporting
high-temperature performance at up to 175°C.
Housed in a single EMIPAK2 package, the
VS-ETF075y60U module is easy to mount on
a PCB thanks to its PressFit pins. An exposed
aluminium oxide substrate provides for
excellent thermal performance.
The optimised layout inside the package
also helps to keep stray parameters to a
minimum, leading to reduced EMI emissions.
Inside its EMIPAK2 package, the
VS-ETF075y60U incorporates Trench IGBTs
and FRED Pt® clamping diodes. It also
includes an integrated thermistor, to allow for
intelligent thermal management.
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
• Three-level half-bridge inverter stage in
motor drives
•
•
•
•
•
FEATURES
Square reverse-bias safe operating area
Operating frequency up to 20kHz
Low internal inductances
Low switching losses
UL approved
150728:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
Vishay’s VS-ETF075y60U IGBT power module: exposed aluminium oxide substrate
150729:
For more information e-mail
[email protected]
FOLLOW US NOW – SEARCH FTM BOARD CLUB ON
19
MOTION
CONTROL
Bi-polar pre-driver IC controls three-phase
brushless DC motors
In addition, it supports the implementation of
regenerative braking, in which the mechanical
energy or momentum of a slowing motor is used
to sink current to the power supply or battery.
ON SEMICONDUCTOR
The LV8127T from ON Semiconductor
is a self-contained motor driver for
three-phase Brushless DC (BLDC)
motors that use external N-channel
high-side and low-side field-effect
power transistors for the power-driver
stage. It controls the current flowing
through the BLDC motor as a function
of the voltage applied at the input.
The device is well suited to the requirements
of low-cost, high-efficiency drive circuits in
applications that use motors with high drive
currents. In particular, it offers a high supplyvoltage capability and a high degree of
flexibility.
ENERGY
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The LV8127T is able to control the sequencing
of the motor’s three phases to achieve rotation
in both forward and reverse directions.
Circuits using the LV8127T driver IC benefit
from a number of built-in protection circuits,
including over-temperature, under-voltage lockout, locked rotor and a user-programmable
output-current limit.
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Power tools
Electric bicycles/pedelecs
FEATURES
5V regulator output
15V reference Zener diode
Hall IC input
150730:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
Automotive motor-driver IC provides currentmode and PWM control
ROHM SEMICONDUCTOR
The BD16805FV-M from ROHM
Semiconductor is a three-phase motor
driver qualified for use in automotive
applications such as cooling fan motors.
The device includes built-in phase-adjustment
control, which helps to increase the efficiency
of the motor-drive system. The driver may be
switched to change between the forward and
reverse direction of rotation.
The BD16805FV-M enables the speed of the
motor’s rotation to be controlled in two ways:
an analogue (direct current-controlled) input
and a digital (PWM) input.
In addition, various configuration options are
available to the power-system designer using
the BD16805FV-M: as well as PWM frequency
control, the device also permits the user to
programme the start time and the thresholds
for lock protection.
The device can also implement a ‘Silent
Drive’ mode.
ENERGY
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Air-conditioning fan motor
Battery-cooling fan motor
Seat-cooling fan motor
FEATURES
• Built-in charge pump
• Built-in Mute return and uptime setting
• Over-current protection
• Operating temperature range:
-40°C to 110°C
150731:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
ROHM’s BD16805FV-M: programmable start time and protection thresholds
20
EMAIL [email protected] FOR SAMPLES AND DATASHEETS
MOTION
MCU with ARM Cortex-M7 core
sets new performance standard
STMICROELECTRONICS
The STM32F756NG microcontroller
from STMicroelectronics draws on the
high performance of the new ARM®
Cortex®-M7 core to provide as much
as two times the processing and DSP
performance of previous generations
of ARM Cortex-M MCUs. The
outstanding DSP capability of this
MCU is particularly valuable in highspeed motor-control applications.
Manufactured on ST’s robust 90nm CMOS
process technology, the STM32F756NG
produces its high performance without
sacrificing power efficiency: in Run, Stop and
Stand-by modes, it draws the same low
current as the slower STM32 F4 series of
MCUs. Power usage is 120µA in Stop mode
with all context and SRAM content saved, and
1.7µA in Stand-by mode
Peripherals include an SDMMC interface, a
flexible memory-control interface, and a camera
interface for CMOS sensors.
The KMZ60 consists of
two chips in a single
package: one chip
performs angle sensing,
and the other amplifies the
sensing signal and
implements other functions
such as temperature
compensation and broken
bond-wire detection. The
sensor provides cosine and
sine output signals which
may be processed with an
inverse tangent function to
produce linear position
information.
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Motor drives
Medical equipment
PLCs
Inverters
Circuit breakers
Printers and scanners
Security systems
Home audio appliances
IoT devices
Wearable devices
FEATURES
options
• Peripherals include an independent
clock domain
• Flexible external memory controller
• Dual quad serial peripheral interface
• Dual general-purpose DMA controllers
• Chrom-ART Accelerator hardware
™
•
graphics engine
Full-Speed and Hi-Speed USB2.0
interfaces with Full-Speed USB PHy
150732:
Low-cost, accurate magnetic angle sensor
enhances motor-position feedback
The KMZ60 from NXP Semiconductors
is a magneto-resistive angle sensor.
It provides extremely accurate
measurements of angular displacement,
which are required for the efficient and
smooth operation of Brushless DC
(BLDC) motors.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
• 512kbyte and 1Mbyte embedded Flash
The new MCU operates at up to 200MHz and
uses a six-stage super-scalar pipeline and
floating point unit to produce performance
rated at up to 1,000 CoreMarks.
Architectural innovations surrounding the
MCU boost performance and ease of use. ST
has included two independent mechanisms to
produce zero wait-state performance from both
internal and external memories: ST’s ART
Accelerator™ for internal embedded Flash, and
L1 cache for both execution and data access
from internal and external memories.
NXP SEMICONDUCTORS
ENERGY
CONTROL
When used in a motor-control system, a magnet
is fixed on the end of the motor’s shaft and the
device is mounted perpendicularly to the magnet.
The KMZ60 offers several advantages over
systems using Hall switches in motor-control
applications. The KMZ60 provides a
continuous angle-measurement output with an
accuracy of just ±0.1°. In addition, it is a pure
analogue device with a low signal delay, which
makes it well suited to very high-speed
applications.
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
And since it is based on magneto-resistive
technology, it comfortably handles changes in
magnetic field strength attributable to mechanical
vibration or changes in temperature.
The KMZ60 may be used for general noncontacting angle measurements, as well as for
rotor position sensing. It suffers from no
mechanical wear, and has a high level of
integration, helping to reduce total system cost.
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
BLDC motors
Electric power steering
Window-wiper position detection
Steering angle measurement
Contactless angular measurement
Industrial equipment
Consumer devices
FEATURES
• Temperature compensation
• Ambient temperature range:
•
-40°C to 150°C
Automotive AEC-Q100 qualified
150733:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
KMZ60 angle sensor: supports maximum motor speed of 25,000rpm
VISIT THE ONLINE FTM MAGAZINE AT: WWW.My-FTM.COM
21
MOTION
CONTROL
High-speed optocoupler withstands high
transient voltages
VISHAy
The SFH6345 from Vishay is an
analogue optocoupler offering a
combination of high noise immunity
with a high data-transmission rate.
The SFH6345 includes an
infra-red emitting diode
optically coupled to an
integrated photo-detector
consisting of a
photodiode and a highspeed transistor, all in a
DIP-8 plastic package.
The device is similar to
Vishay’s 6N135, but has
an additional Faraday
shield on the detector,
which enhances the inputoutput dV/dt immunity.
The device is guaranteed
to withstand commonmode transients of
15kV/µs at 1,500V.
It is also tested for its ability to handle an
isolation voltage of 5,300VRMS.
Using the SFH6345, signals may be
transmitted between two electrically separated
circuits at frequencies up to 2MHz. The
optocoupler offers a peak data-transmission
rate of 1Mbit/s. This means that it is an ideal
solution for the isolation of communications on
an industrial bus, as well as the isolation of the
drive circuits of power modules used in motor
drives.
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
• Data communications
• IGBT drivers
• Programmable controllers
• Drivers for intelligent power modules
FEATURES
• 7mm minimum creepage and clearance
distances
• TTL-compatible
• Open collector output
• Field-effect stable
• Low coupling capacitance
150734:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
SFH6345 from Vishay: 1Mbit/s peak data-transmission rate
Compact IGBT module includes fast and soft
free-wheeling diodes
The module has a positive temperature
coefficient of saturation voltage, which means
that devices may be paralleled easily to
increase the system’s current-handling capability.
ENERGY
LITTELFUSE
Littelfuse has expanded its line of IGBT
modules designed for motor-control and
inverter applications, introducing the
MG06100S-BN4MM, which is rated for a
collector-emitter voltage of 600V and a
continuous collector current of 100A.
Part of a broad range of IGBT modules offering
high efficiency and fast switching speeds in a
robust and flexible format, the MG06100S-
22
BN4MM is housed in the Littelfuse ‘S’ package
measuring 94mm x 34mm x 31mm. The
device incorporates free-wheeling diodes
notable for their fast and soft reverse recovery,
providing a highly integrated circuit in a
compact package.
The MG06100S-BN4MM, which helps
designers to achieve high system efficiency
across a wide range of switching frequencies,
features a collector-emitter saturation voltage of
1.45V and total switching losses of 2.8mJ.
Fast switching is well supported by the
module, which features a typical rise time of
just 20ns and a fall time of 70ns.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
High-frequency switching power supplies
Medical equipment
Motion/servo control
Uninterruptible power supplies
FEATURES
High short-circuit capability
Self-limiting short-circuit current
Short tail currents
150735:
FOLLOW US NOW – SEARCH FTM BOARD CLUB ON
MEDICAL
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
MOTION
Commutation encoder reduces
assembly time for BLDC motors
CUI INC
CUI Inc., has introduced the AMT31, a
new series of modular encoders which
generate standard U/V/W commutation
signals for vectoring current to Brushless
DC (BLDC) motors.
The AMT31 series measures the rotation, or
angular displacement, of a rotor using CUI’s
patented, capacitive code-generation system
coupled with a proprietary
ASIC. This technology
achieves exceptional
accuracy of ±12 arcmin
(±0.2°).
The AMT31’s
contactless, capacitive
technology means that
the encoder can operate
reliably in applications
subject to vibration and
contaminants, such as
dust, dirt and oil, that
commonly stop optical
encoders from working
effectively.
The AMT31 series incorporates a One Touch
Zero™ feature, allowing for significant time
saving during motor installation. Installing an
optical encoder or Hall sensors on a BLDC
motor can be an iterative and time-consuming
process, as the assembly must be precisely
aligned with the correct motor windings. Once
aligned, the assembly must then be checked,
through the measurement of back EMF, to ensure
it has been mounted accurately. This process
can take more than 15 minutes per motor.
The One Touch Zero feature in the AMT31
series simplifies this activity and reduces the
duration of this process to a few seconds, saving
time and cost during assembly.
CONTROL
The commutation output of the AMT31 can
accommodate brushless motors with 2, 4, 6,
8, 10, 12 or 20 pole pairs, selectable at the
factory or via CUI’s AMT Viewpoint™ graphical
user interface. The AMT31 also offers
supplementary incremental A, B and Z channels
for various servo positioning and start-up
sequences.
The resolution of the AMT31 is programmable
in a range from 48 to 4,096 pulses per
revolution. The devices measure 28.58mm x
37.25mm x 10.34mm. Drawing just 10mA at
5V, the AMT31 series is ideally suited to mobile
and battery-driven equipment.
AMT31 encoders are featured in the Design
Note on page 11.
ENERGY
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Brushless DC motors
FEATURES
• Operating temperature range:
-40°C to 105°C
• Standard input-voltage range:
4.5V to 5.5V DC
• Choice of radial or axial connector
orientation
• Mating sleeve-width range: 2mm to 8mm
• Multiple mounting-hole patterns
• Built-in diagnostics
150736:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
AMT31 commutation encoder: time-saving process for aligning sensor with motor
150737:
For more information e-mail
[email protected]
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23
MOTION
CONTROL
Low-profile IGBT/MOSFET driver saves space in
compact inverters
VISHAy
Vishay Intertechnology has introduced
a low-profile 2.5A IGBT and MOSFET
driver which is ideal for motor drives,
as well as for other applications
handling high operating voltages, such
as renewable-energy equipment and
welding appliances.
The Vishay Semiconductors VOL3120 is
housed in a compact LSOP-5 package which
is just 2.5mm high, some 30% lower than
equivalent drivers in a standard DIP package,
yet it still provides a minimum 8mm clearance
and external creepage distance. Its low profile
makes it ideal for applications such as
inductive stove tops and the compact inverters
used in motor drives, in which space is at a
premium.
The VOL3120 provides high isolation ratings
of 1,050V, continuous, and 8,000V, transient.
In addition, its common-mode transient
immunity of more than 48kV/µs means that
noise is blocked from low-voltage areas of
the PCB.
The device has an under-voltage lock-out
feature which protects the IGBT or MOSFET
from malfunctions, while the VOL3120’s
maximum current requirement of 2.5mA
makes it a viable choice for applications in
which high efficiency is important.
The device boasts typical turn-on and
turn-off delays of less than 250ns and typical
rise and fall times of 100ns, important
characteristics for applications with fastswitching IGBTs or MOSFETs.
ENERGY
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
•
•
•
•
Inductive stove tops
Inverters for motor drives
Welding equipment
Renewable-energy equipment
FEATURES
• Supply-voltage range: 15V to 32V
• Operating temperature range:
-40°C to 100°C
2.5A minimum peak output current
•
150738:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
Stepper-motor driver IC withstands up to 55V
ON SEMICONDUCTOR
A standby mode is available for reducing power
consumption when idle, with the maximum
quiescent current rated at 50mA.
The LV8726TA from ON Semiconductor
is a pre-driver IC for bi-polar stepper
motors that use external P-N channel
MOSFETs, and that can operate with
PWM constant-current control.
The device supports 16 step modes from halfstep to 1/128 step, making it suitable for a
wide variety of industrial appliances.
With a high operating-voltage range of 9V to
55V, the LV8726TA is easily able to handle the
voltage spikes that are common in industrial
applications.
Configuration options for the device’s
operation may be programed via a serial
peripheral interface: these options include step
mode, output-current ratio, decay mode,
blanking time and chopping (PWM) period.
24
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
FOLLOW US NOW – SEARCH FTM BOARD CLUB ON
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Textile machines
Packing machines
Large printers
Engraving machines
Industrial instruments
FEATURES
8-bit three-wire serial control
Under-voltage lock-out protection
Over-current protection
Thermal shut-down circuit
150739:
LV8726TA: withstands high voltage transients
MEDICAL
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
MOTION
Stepper-motor driver includes digital
motion engine for smooth movement and
accurate positioning
STMICROELECTRONICS
The new powerSTEP01 stepper-motor
driver from STMicroelectronics brings
the advantages of a compact, highly
integrated motor-control system to
applications at higher power ratings
than before.
The fully integrated powerSTEP01
System-in-Package (SiP) offers an
extremely high power density of
500W/cm2. The 14mm x 11mm
SiP requires only minimal
external components, and
integrates both the control
circuitry and a complete
power stage for driving the
motor. It can cut a design’s board
footprint by as much as one half
when compared to a design with
discrete control and power-stage components.
It is the first such highly integrated device
suitable for high-power applications rated for
up to 85V and 10A.
The power stage consists of eight MOSFETs.
Benefitting from low on-resistance of just
16mΩ, these MOSFETs provide for high energy
efficiency and low heat dissipation to simplify
the application’s thermal design.
The integrated control IC includes an
intelligent motion engine to perform calculations
normally executed in the main system
microcontroller, which gives
engineers extra freedom
when selecting their
MCU, and helps to
simplify software and
firmware design.
Users benefit from the
flexibility to use ST’s patented
voltage-mode motor control,
which gives smooth and quiet
movement with high positional
accuracy, or to use predictive
current-mode control and an
adaptive decay algorithm when required.
Resolution of 128 microsteps per step is
comparable with the best stepper-motor
controllers in use today.
An SPI connection to the host allows for
convenient programming, current-sense
management and sensorless-stall detection.
CONTROL
FREE
BOARDS
The EVLPOWERSTEP01 demo board is a microstepping
motor driver providing an output of up to 10ARMS. In
combination with the STEVAL-PCC009V2 communication
board and ST’s evaluation software, the board may be
used to measure performance and to regulate parameters
in order to fit the requirements of the application.
Orderable Part Number: EVLPOWERSTEP01
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
ENERGY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
Bi-polar stepper motors
Stage lighting
Surveillance systems
Textile and sewing machines
Pick-and-place machines
FEATURES
Operating voltage range: 7.5V to 85V
Adjustable output slew rate
Programmable speed profile
Integrated voltage regulators
Programmable over-current protection
Over-temperature protection
150740:
For samples or pricing e-mail
[email protected]
Future Electronics’ Board Club: supporting innovative electronics design
Europe’s electronics industry thrives on the application of innovation and creativity, and an essential
innovator’s tool in design projects is the development board. The Board Club website is a Future Electronics
resource for users of development boards. Here, and only here, Board Club members can gain access to
exclusive free development boards and development board offers.
If you would like to register for membership, please visit: www.my-boardclub.com/register.php
ATMEL
ENERGY
Miniature evaluation board supports experimentation
with ARM Cortex-M0+ processor core
The ATSAMD10 Xplained Mini evaluation kit from Atmel is a hardware platform for
evaluating the Atmel® ATSAMD10 microcontroller, which is based on the ARM®
Cortex®-M0+ processor core.
The USB-powered evaluation kit comes with a
debugger which is integrated with Atmel’s
Studio Integrated Development Environment,
version 6.2 onwards. The kit provides access
to the features of the ATSAMD10 MCU,
enabling easy integration of the device in the
user’s application.
It includes an on-board debugger with full
source-level debugging support in Atmel
Studio. The development environment also
supports the Auto-ID function for board
identification.
The ATSAMD10 Xplained Mini provides
access to all signals on the target MCU.
INDUSTRIAL
LIGHTING
MEDICAL
AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY
CONSUMER TELECOMMS
APPLICATIONS
• Home automation
• Consumer devices
• Metering
• Industrial equipment
FEATURES
• Green status LED, yellow user LED
• One mechanical user push button
• One touch button
• 8MHz external target clock
• Arduino shield-compatible footprints
150741:
For more information e-mail
[email protected]
FREE
BOARDS
Orderable Part Number: ATSAMD10-XMINI
Apply now at my-boardclub.com
Fast-track board request code: FTM57A
ATSAMD10 Xplained Mini: on-board debugger
To apply for these free boards go to: www.my-boardclub.com/ftm
Terms and conditions apply. Visit www.my-boardclub.com/about_us for details
25
TECHNICAL
VIEW
Debug and trace in embedded AR
READ THIS ARTICLE TO FIND OUT ABOUT
By Francesco Sinacori
Field Applications Engineer, Future Electronics (Italy)
Microcontrollers based on ARM® processor cores have a very
powerful and sophisticated set of features for debug and
trace, which are provided within an overall framework called
CoreSight. Because these features are so powerful, however,
they are also complex.
For users of ARM’s simpler set of processor cores for microcontrollers,
the ARM Cortex®-M series, the features of CoreSight and the overhead
that it places on the silicon implementation of the core may seem overspecified. yet in order to gain the benefit of the high-performance debug
and trace capabilities in CoreSight, it is important to understand the
function of each component and to work out how to use these functions
to best meet the needs of a microcontroller design project.
This is particularly the case given that, in embedded design, there is
always a trade-off between system performance and reliability on the
one hand, and design time, design cost and time to market on the other.
Adopting a more effective method of debugging can make this trade-off
far less painful.
This article presents a simple view of the debug and trace capabilities
provided by CoreSight, and shows how its functions are implemented in
two families of ARM Cortex-M-based MCUs, providing the tools for
software optimisation without unnecessarily burdening the MCU design.
The role of software optimisation
Following the path of Moore’s Law, microcontrollers have become ever
more powerful computing and signal-processing devices. With more
computing power available to the designer, the software in embedded
devices has become more complex and intricate.
So now embedded designers using microcontrollers have to invest a
far greater proportion of their development effort in software optimisation
and quality assurance than they ever did in the past. Indeed, this is now
a fundamental requirement for ensuring that a product is successful.
In this software optimisation effort, debugging and software tracing are
the primary techniques available to the designer. It is worth emphasising
that the purpose of debugging is not simply to fix bugs: it extends to the
profiling of system behaviour and to performance analysis, helping the
designer to make the operation of the system as a whole as efficient and
effective as possible.
The types of debugging operation
The debugging of a microcontroller can be either invasive or non-invasive.
In invasive debugging, the user may halt, creating break points, and
run the processor, and examine and alter the processor’s registers and
the MCU’s memory, creating watch points.
In non-invasive debugging, the system is accessed without disturbing
the normal code-execution flow, while obtaining information about
running threads and the associated programme and/or data flow, that is,
tracing.
Users of MCUs based on ARM processor cores can perform these
debug and trace functions through CoreSight. CoreSight, an advanced
debug and trace system, was developed by ARM in part to help the
designers of complex, multi-core Systems-on-Chip (SoCs), since
previous generations of debug and trace tools built for conventional
single-core processors were inadequate for these more complex
devices. It enables a single debugger connection to control and
interrogate all processors and their memory, and a single trace port to
provide visibility of all trace sources in the system.
In terms of its basic construction, CoreSight consists of a collection of
interface specifications and protocols, and a set of debug, trace and
connection components implementing them.
26
• The benefits of ARM’s CoreSight debug and trace tool for users of
complex and multi-core processors
• The simpler implementation of CoreSight that may be used with
MCUs based on an ARM Cortex-M core
• The potential to perform software optimisation in CoreSight in
addition to the basic bug-finding and -fixing functions
One of the big advantages of this architecture is that the debug and
trace interfaces are de-coupled from the processor design, a feature
which allows SoC designers to add debug and trace capabilities for
other IP cores to the CoreSight infrastructure.
But for users of the simpler, single-core ARM Cortex-M series, it also
means that the complex CoreSight architecture can be broken down, to
enable the user to study separately its debug and trace features.
Debugging capabilities in CoreSight
Figure 1 shows a simplified schematic of the CoreSight debug
architecture.
Fig. 1: CoreSight implements debug features through a set of interface specifications and protocols
The debugging features are accessed through the Debug Access Port
(DAP). This port provides a single external interface to a CoreSight system,
providing real-time access for the debugger to Advanced Microcontroller
Bus Architecture (AMBA) system memory and peripheral registers, to all
debug configuration registers, and to JTAG scan chains. Access to the
memory system is provided without any need to halt the core.
Externally, the DAP is linked to the system via a physical serial
interface, a standard JTAG port or a reduced pin-count Serial Wire
Debug (SWD) port.
The DAP accesses the cores through a debug bus, and can also be
connected to a system bus for memory-mapped peripheral access and
memory download. The Cross Trigger Matrix (CTM) and Cross Trigger
Interface (CTI) on the debug bus allow for synchronisation of operations
between multiple cores, such as synchronous start and stop operations.
Debug components inside the system can be automatically located by
the external debugger through a ROM table inside the DAP, which
defines the topology of the system.
Performing trace operations in CoreSight
The trace architecture in the CoreSight system, as shown in Figure 2,
supports both hardware and software trace. In software trace, softwaregenerated debug messages are created. The Instrumentation Trace
Macrocell (ITM) simplifies and shrinks the overhead of such a process,
providing a dedicated trace buffer with a deterministic cycle time.
Hardware trace is supported through the Embedded Trace Macrocell
(ETM). The ETM monitors processor activity, generating instruction
EMAIL [email protected] FOR SAMPLES AND DATASHEETS
TECHNICAL
VIEW
RM designs: introducing CoreSight
traces, which are very
useful in software
profiling and analysis
of code coverage.
Several trace
streams, of different
types and/or from
different sources, can
be multiplexed
through the Trace
Funnel component.
Finally, combined trace
streams may be
Fig. 2: the architecture governing trace operations in CoreSight
stored in on-chip
Embedded Trace
Buffers, or may leave the chip for the external trace port through the
Trace Port Interface Unit (TPIU).
When combined, the debug and trace capabilities of the entire
CoreSight architecture are structured as shown in Figure 3.
Fig. 3: the complete CoreSight architecture (Source: ARM)
As stated above, this architecture is scaled for the requirements of
complex, multi-core SoCs. So what about users of the relatively simple
ARM Cortex-M microcontrollers? The characteristics of standard
CoreSight components, both gate count and power consumption, could
in many cases be incompatible with the limitations of the typical
applications for which these smaller cores are suitable.
This is why the debug components for ARM Cortex-M cores are
configured differently from traditional CoreSight components, while
remaining compliant with its communications interface and protocols. This
allows the ARM Cortex-M cores to be integrated into multi-core systems
with other ARM processors with a unified trace and debug system.
Specifically, microcontrollers based on the ARM Cortex®-M3 and -M4
cores will have a special version of the TPIU that occupies a smaller area
of the core’s die.
The debug
features
embedded in the
ARM Cortex-M
cores, then, are a
subset of the ARM
Coresight Design
Kit. These features
are shown in
Figure 4, an
implementation of
the CoreSight
architecture in a
commercial series
of ARM Cortex-M4-based microcontrollers from STMicroelectronics, part
of its STM32 family. It should be noted that as the TPIU and ETM require
dedicated pins, they are available only in versions with a relatively large
package, where the corresponding pins are mapped.
A careful look at Figure 4 reveals additional debug components not
included in the simplified debug architecture, shown in Figure 1: a Flash
Patch and Break point unit (FPB) and a Debug Watch point and Trace
unit (DWT).
The FPB can be used either to support hardware break points in both
programme code and literals, or as a patch unit which may be used to
correct software bugs located in the code memory space.
The DWT consists of comparators and counters, supporting hardware
watch points, ETM triggers, programme counter sampling and data
address samplers. The counters also provide the capability to generate
profiling information such as sleep cycles, interrupt overhead, clock-perinstruction readings, clock cycle and folded instructions. This information
is very useful in software optimisation and real-time application debugging.
The DWT can also generate hardware trace packets sent to the TPIU by
the ITM; each packet is time-stamped through a 21-bit counter in the ITM.
Simpler cores such as the ARM Cortex-M0 and ARM Cortex-M0+
series do not support ETM or TPIU. Figure 5 shows how debugging is
supported in the STM32L0 family of MCUs from STMicroelectronics,
based on the ARM Cortex-M0 core. The Break Point Unit (BPU)
supports break points on instruction fetches, and only on the first
512Mbytes of programme memory. It should be said that this memory
coverage is ample for the types of applications implemented by
STM32L0 MCUs.
The implementation of debugging in some commercial ARM CortexM0+-based MCUs is a little different. For instance, the Atmel SAM D20
and NXP Semiconductors LPC800 and LPC11U6x families perform
execution trace through a Micro Trace Buffer (MTB). Using this optional,
low gate-count,
CoreSightcompliant
component, the
programmer
allocates a small
part of the system
SRAM to function
as a trace buffer;
the MTB stores
instruction-flow
information to the
reserved SRAM as
a circular buffer.
After the
Fig. 5: debug architecture of the STML0 family of microcontrollers
processor is
halted, for example
at a break point, the debugger can retrieve the trace information via the
Single Wire Debug (SWD) connection. The MTB can also support ‘oneshot’ triggering. This trace peripheral is very powerful and allows
programme trace also on very small cores.
Conclusion
ARM has provided the designer of complex, multi-core SoCs with a
powerful debug and trace tool in CoreSight, but it may seem somewhat
over-specified for users of MCUs based on the smaller ARM Cortex-M
series of cores. But the flexibility of the CoreSight architecture has
allowed for a streamlined implementation in various MCU families from
ST and other MCU vendors, giving design engineers access to powerful
tools for software optimisation without burdening their systems with an
excessive gate-count or power-consumption overhead, and without
creating an excessively complex tool for the designer to use.
150742:
For more information e-mail
[email protected]
Fig. 4: implementation of CoreSight architecture in an ARM Cortex-M4
MCU from STMicroelectronics
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27
150743:
For more information e-mail
[email protected]
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