Micropower Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Op Amps OP191/OP291/OP491

Micropower Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Op Amps OP191/OP291/OP491
Micropower Single-Supply
Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Op Amps
OP191/OP291/OP491
NC
OUTA 1
8
+V
7
+V
–INA 2
7
OUTB
6
OUTA
+INA 3
6
–INB
5
NC
5
+INB
–V 4
NC = NO CONNECT
–V 4
Figure 1. 8-Lead Narrow-Body SOIC
OUTA 1
14
OUTD
–INA 2
13
–IND
+INA 3
12
+IND
+V 4
11
–V
OP491
+INB 5
10
+INC
–INB 6
9
–INC
OUTB 7
8
OUTC
OP291
Figure 2. 8-Lead Narrow-Body SOIC
OUTA 1
–INA 2
-
+
+
-
+INA 3
OP491
+V 4
+INB 5
–INB 6
-
+
OUTB 7
Figure 3. 14-Lead Narrow-Body SOIC
OUTD
13
–IND
12
+IND
11
–V
10
+INC
9
–INC
8
OUTC
Figure 4. 14-Lead PDIP
OUTA
1
14
OUTD
–INA
2
13
–IND
+INA
3
12
+IND
+V
4
11
–V
+INB
5
10
+INC
–INB
6
9
–INC
OUTB
7
8
OUTC
OP491
14
00294-005
OP191
00294-001
+INA 3
00294-002
8
00294-003
Industrial process control
Battery-powered instrumentation
Power supply control and protection
Telecommunications
Remote sensors
Low voltage strain gage amplifiers
DAC output amplifiers
NC 1
–INA 2
+
APPLICATIONS
PIN CONFIGURATIONS
-
Single-supply operation: 2.7 V to 12 V
Wide input voltage range
Rail-to-rail output swing
Low supply current: 300 μA/amp
Wide bandwidth: 3 MHz
Slew rate: 0.5 V/μs
Low offset voltage: 700 μV
No phase reversal
00294-004
FEATURES
Figure 5. 14-Lead TSSOP
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The OP191, OP291, and OP491 are single, dual, and quad
micropower, single-supply, 3 MHz bandwidth amplifiers
featuring rail-to-rail inputs and outputs. All are guaranteed to
operate from a +3 V single supply as well as ±5 V dual supplies.
Fabricated on Analog Devices CBCMOS process, the OPx91
family has a unique input stage that allows the input voltage to
safely extend 10 V beyond either supply without any phase
inversion or latch-up. The output voltage swings to within
millivolts of the supplies and continues to sink or source
current all the way to the supplies.
The ability to swing rail-to-rail at both the input and output
enables designers to build multistage filters in single-supply
systems and to maintain high signal-to-noise ratios.
The OP191/OP291/OP491 are specified over the extended
industrial –40°C to +125°C temperature range. The OP191
single and OP291 dual amplifiers are available in 8-lead plastic
SOIC surface-mount packages. The OP491 quad is available in a
14-lead PDIP, a narrow 14-lead SOIC package, and a 14-lead
TSSOP.
Applications for these amplifiers include portable telecommunications equipment, power supply control and
protection, and interface for transducers with wide output
ranges. Sensors requiring a rail-to-rail input amplifier include
Hall effect, piezo electric, and resistive transducers.
Rev. E
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113 ©1994–2010 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
OP191/OP291/OP491
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1 Overdrive Recovery ................................................................... 18 Applications ....................................................................................... 1 Applications Information .............................................................. 19 Pin Configurations ........................................................................... 1 Single 3 V Supply, Instrumentation Amplifier ....................... 19 General Description ......................................................................... 1 Single-Supply RTD Amplifier ................................................... 19 Revision History ............................................................................... 2 A 2.5 V Reference from a 3 V Supply ...................................... 20 Specifications..................................................................................... 3 5 V Only, 12-Bit DAC Swings Rail-to-Rail ............................. 20 Electrical Specifications ............................................................... 3 A High-Side Current Monitor .................................................. 20 Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 7 A 3 V, Cold Junction Compensated Thermocouple Amplifier
....................................................................................................... 21 Thermal Resistance ...................................................................... 7 ESD Caution .................................................................................. 7 Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 8 Theory of Operation ...................................................................... 17 Input Overvoltage Protection ................................................... 18 Output Voltage Phase Reversal ................................................. 18 Single-Supply, Direct Access Arrangement for Modems ...... 21 3 V, 50 Hz/60 Hz Active Notch Filter with False Ground ..... 22 Single-Supply, Half-Wave, and Full-Wave Rectifiers ............. 22 Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 23 Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 24 REVISION HISTORY
4/10—Rev. D to Rev. E
Changes to Input Voltage Parameter, Table 4 ............................... 7
3/04—Rev. B to Rev. C.
Changes to OP291 SOIC Pin Configuration .................................1
4/06—Rev. C to Rev. D
Changes to Noise Performance, Voltage Density, Table 1 ........... 3
Changes to Noise Performance, Voltage Density, Table 2 ........... 4
Changes to Noise Performance, Voltage Density, Table 3 ........... 5
Changes to Figure 23 and Figure 24 ............................................. 10
Changes to Figure 42 ...................................................................... 13
Changes to Figure 43 ...................................................................... 14
Changes to Figure 57 ...................................................................... 16
Added Figure 58.............................................................................. 16
Changed Reference from Figure 47 to Figure 12........................ 17
Updated Outline Dimensions ....................................................... 23
Changes to Ordering Guide .......................................................... 24
11/03—Rev. A to Rev. B.
Edits to General Description ...........................................................1
Edits to Pin Configuration ...............................................................1
Changes to Ordering Guide .............................................................5
Updated Outline Dimensions ....................................................... 19
12/02—Rev. 0 to Rev. A.
Edits to General Description ...........................................................1
Edits to Pin Configuration ...............................................................1
Changes to Ordering Guide .............................................................5
Edits to Dice Characteristics ............................................................5
Rev. E | Page 2 of 24
OP191/OP291/OP491
SPECIFICATIONS
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
@ VS = 3.0 V, VCM = 0.1 V, VO = 1.4 V, TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 1.
Parameter
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Offset Voltage
OP191G
Symbol
Conditions
Min
VOS
Typ
Max
Unit
80
500
1
700
1.25
65
95
11
22
3
μV
mV
μV
mV
nA
nA
nA
nA
V
dB
dB
V/mV
V/mV
μV/°C
pA/°C
pA/°C
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
OP291G/OP491G
VOS
80
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Bias Current
IB
30
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Offset Current
IOS
0.1
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Voltage Range
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
CMRR
Large Signal Voltage Gain
AVO
Offset Voltage Drift
Bias Current Drift
Offset Current Drift
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage High
Output Voltage Low
Short-Circuit Limit
Open-Loop Impedance
POWER SUPPLY
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
Supply Current/Amplifier
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE
Slew Rate
Slew Rate
Full-Power Bandwidth
Settling Time
Gain Bandwidth Product
Phase Margin
Channel Separation
NOISE PERFORMANCE
Voltage Noise
Voltage Noise Density
Current Noise Density
VCM = 0 V to 2.9 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
RL = 10 kΩ, VO = 0.3 V to 2.7 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
0
70
65
25
∆VOS/∆T
∆IB/∆T
∆IOS/∆T
VOH
VOL
ISC
ZOUT
PSRR
ISY
RL = 100 kΩ to GND
−40°C to +125°C
RL = 2 kΩ to GND
−40°C to +125°C
RL = 100 kΩ to V+
−40°C to +125°C
RL = 2 kΩ to V+
−40°C to +125°C
Sink/source
−40°C to +125°C
f = 1 MHz, AV = 1
VS = 2.7 V to 12 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
VO = 0 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
+SR
–SR
BWP
tS
GBP
θO
CS
RL = 10 kΩ
RL = 10 kΩ
1% distortion
To 0.01%
en p-p
en
in
0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
f = 1 kHz
f = 1 kHz, RL = 10 kΩ
Rev. E | Page 3 of 24
2.95
2.90
2.8
2.70
90
87
70
50
1.1
100
20
2.99
2.98
2.9
2.80
4.5
±8.75
±6.0
±13.50
±10.5
200
V
V
V
V
mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
Ω
80
75
110
110
200
330
dB
dB
μA
μA
40
10
35
75
130
350
480
0.4
0.4
1.2
22
3
45
145
V/μs
V/μs
kHz
μs
MHz
Degrees
dB
2
30
0.8
μV p-p
nV/√Hz
pA/√Hz
OP191/OP291/OP491
@ VS = 5.0 V, VCM = 0.1 V, VO = 1.4 V, TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted. +5 V specifications are guaranteed by +3 V and ±5 V testing.
Table 2.
Parameter
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Offset Voltage
OP191
Symbol
Conditions
Min
VOS
Typ
Max
Unit
80
500
1.0
700
1.25
65
95
11
22
5
μV
mV
μV
mV
nA
nA
nA
nA
V
dB
dB
V/mV
V/mV
μV/°C
pA/°C
pA/°C
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
OP291/OP491
VOS
80
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Bias Current
IB
30
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Offset Current
IOS
0.1
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Voltage Range
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
CMRR
Large Signal Voltage Gain
AVO
Offset Voltage Drift
Bias Current Drift
Offset Current Drift
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage High
Output Voltage Low
Short-Circuit Limit
Open-Loop Impedance
POWER SUPPLY
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
Supply Current/Amplifier
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE
Slew Rate
Slew Rate
Full-Power Bandwidth
Settling Time
Gain Bandwidth Product
Phase Margin
Channel Separation
NOISE PERFORMANCE
Voltage Noise
Voltage Noise Density
Current Noise Density
∆VOS/∆T
∆IB/∆T
∆IOS/∆T
VOH
VOL
ISC
ZOUT
PSRR
ISY
VCM = 0 V to 4.9 V
–40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
RL = 10 kΩ, VO = 0.3 V to 4.7 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
RL = 100 kΩ to GND
−40°C to +125°C
RL = 2 kΩ to GND
−40°C to +125°C
RL = 100 kΩ to V+
−40°C to +125°C
RL = 2 kΩ to V+
−40°C to +125°C
Sink/source
−40°C to +125°C
f = 1 MHz, AV = 1
VS = 2.7 V to 12 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
VO = 0 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
+SR
–SR
BWP
tS
GBP
θO
CS
RL = 10 kΩ
RL = 10 kΩ
1% distortion
To 0.01%
en p-p
en
in
0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
f = 1 kHz
f = 1 kHz, RL = 10 kΩ
Rev. E | Page 4 of 24
0
70
65
25
4.95
4.90
4.8
4.65
93
90
70
50
1.1
100
20
4.99
4.98
4.85
4.75
4.5
±8.75
±6.0
±13.5
±10.5
200
V
V
V
V
mV
mV
mV
mV
mA
mA
Ω
80
75
110
110
220
350
dB
dB
μA
μA
40
10
35
75
155
400
500
0.4
0.4
1.2
22
3
45
145
V/μs
V/μs
kHz
μs
MHz
Degrees
dB
2
42
0.8
μV p-p
nV/√Hz
pA/√Hz
OP191/OP291/OP491
@ VO = ±5.0 V, –4.9 V ≤ VCM ≤ +4.9 V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 3.
Parameter
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Offset Voltage
OP191
Symbol
Conditions
Min
VOS
Typ
Max
Unit
80
500
1
700
1.25
65
95
μV
mV
μV
mV
nA
nA
11
22
+5
nA
nA
V
dB
dB
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
OP291/OP491
VOS
80
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Bias Current
IB
30
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Offset Current
IOS
0.1
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Input Voltage Range
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
CMRR
Large Signal Voltage Gain
AVO
Offset Voltage Drift
Bias Current Drift
Offset Current Drift
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage Swing
Short-Circuit Limit
Open-Loop Impedance
POWER SUPPLY
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
Supply Current/Amplifier
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE
Slew Rate
Full-Power Bandwidth
Settling Time
Gain Bandwidth Product
Phase Margin
Channel Separation
NOISE PERFORMANCE
Voltage Noise
Voltage Noise Density
Current Noise Density
VCM = ±5 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
RL = +10 kΩ, VO = ±4.7 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
−5
75
67
25
∆VOS/∆T
∆IB/∆T
∆IOS/∆T
VO
ISC
ZOUT
PSRR
ISY
100
97
70
50
1.1
100
20
V/mV
μV/°C
pA/°C
pA/°C
RL = 100 kΩ to GND
−40°C to +125°C
RL = 2 kΩ to GND
–40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Sink/source
−40°C to +125°C
f = 1 MHz, AV = 1
±4.93
±4.90
±4.80
±4.65
±8.75
±6
±4.99
±4.98
±4.95
±4.75
±16.00
±13
200
V
V
V
V
mA
mA
Ω
VS = ±5 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
VO = 0 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
80
75
110
100
260
390
dB
dB
μA
μA
±SR
BWP
tS
GBP
θO
CS
RL = 10 kΩ
1% distortion
To 0.01%
en p-p
en
in
0.1 Hz to 10 Hz
f = 1 kHz
f = 1 kHz
Rev. E | Page 5 of 24
420
550
0.5
1.2
22
3
45
145
V/μs
kHz
μs
MHz
Degrees
dB
2
42
0.8
μV p-p
nV/√Hz
pA/√Hz
OP191/OP291/OP491
5V
Vs = ±5V
RL = 2kΩ
AV = +1
VIN = 20V p-p
5V
200μs
100
90
INPUT
OUTPUT
10
Figure 6. Input and Output with Inputs Overdriven by 5 V
Rev. E | Page 6 of 24
00294-006
0%
OP191/OP291/OP491
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Table 4.
Parameter
Supply Voltage
Input Voltage
Differential Input Voltage
Output Short-Circuit Duration to GND
Storage Temperature Range
N, R, RU Packages
Operating Temperature Range
OP191G/OP291G/OP491G
Junction Temperature Range
N, R, RU Packages
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 60 sec)
Rating
16 V
GND to (VS + 10 V)
7V
Indefinite
THERMAL RESISTANCE
θJA is specified for the worst-case conditions; that is, θJA is
specified for device in socket for PDIP packages; θJA is specified
for device soldered in circuit board for TSSOP and SOIC
packages.
Table 5. Thermal Resistance
−65°C to +150°C
−40°C to +125°C
−65°C to +150°C
300°C
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
Package Type
8-Lead SOIC (R)
14-Lead PDIP (N)
14-Lead SOIC (R)
14-Lead TSSOP (RU)
ESD CAUTION
Absolute maximum ratings apply to both DICE and packaged
parts, unless otherwise noted.
Rev. E | Page 7 of 24
θJA
158
76
120
180
θJC
43
33
36
35
Unit
°C/W
°C/W
°C/W
°C/W
OP191/OP291/OP491
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
180
40
VS = 3V
TA = 25°C
BASED ON
1200 OP AMPS
160
INPUT BIAS CURRENT (nA)
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
VCM = 2.9V
10
0
VS = 3V
–10
VCM = 0.1V
–20
–30
00294-012
–40
20
0
–0.18
–0.10
–0.02
0.06
–60
–40
0.22
0.14
VCM = 0V
–50
25
INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE (mV)
125
Figure 10. Input Bias Current vs. Temperature, VS = 3 V
120
0
VS = 3V
–40°C < TA < +125°C
BASED ON 600 OP AMPS
60
40
0
00294-013
20
0
1
2
3
5
4
6
VCM = 0.1V
–0.4
VCM = 2.9V
VS = 3V
–0.6
VCM = 3V
–0.8
–1.0
VCM = 0V
–1.2
–1.4
00294-016
INPUT OFFSET CURRENT (nA)
–0.2
80
UNITS
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 7. OP291 Input Offset Voltage Distribution, VS = 3 V
100
–1.6
–1.8
–40
7
Figure 11. Input Offset Current vs. Temperature, VS = 3 V
0
36
VS = 3V
VCM = 0.1V
INPUT BIAS CURRENT (nA)
24
–0.04
VCM = 0V
–0.06
VCM = 3V
–0.08
VCM = 2.9V
25
85
12
6
0
–6
–12
–18
00294-017
–30
–36
125
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 9. Input Offset Voltage vs. Temperature, VS = 3 V
18
–24
00294-014
–0.12
–0.14
–40
VS = 3V
30
–0.10
125
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 8. OP291 Input Offset Voltage Drift Distribution, VS = 3 V
–0.02
85
25
INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE (µV/°C)
INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE (mV)
00294-015
UNITS
VCM = 3V
30
0
0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3.0
INPUT COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 12. Input Bias Current vs. Input Common-Mode Voltage, VS = 3 V
Rev. E | Page 8 of 24
OP191/OP291/OP491
50
3.00
VS = 3V
TA = 25°C
40
30
CLOSED-LOOP GAIN (dB)
2.95
2.90
+VO @ RL = 2kΩ
2.85
20
10
0
–10
–20
–30
2.80
25
85
00294-021
VS = 3V
2.75
–40
–40
00294-018
OUTPUT VOLTAGE SWING (V)
+VO @ RL = 100kΩ
–50
10
125
100
1k
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 13. Output Voltage Swing vs. Temperature, VS = 3 V
1M
10M
160
VS = 3V
TA = 25°C
80
60
40
90
20
45
0
0
–20
–45
–40
–90
10M
1k
10k
100k
1M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
00294-022
100
CMRR (dB)
OPEN PHASE SHIFT (Degrees)
120
100
CMRR
VS = 3V
TA = 25°C
140
–20
–40
100
00294-019
140
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 17. CMRR vs. Frequency, VS = 3 V
Figure 14. Open-Loop Gain and Phase vs. Frequency, VS = 3 V
90
1200
VS = 3V
RL = 100kΩ,
VCM = 2.9V
1000
89
RL = 100kΩ,
VCM = 0.1V
88
CMRR (dB)
800
600
87
86
400
VS = 3V, VO = 0.3V/2.7V
0
–40
25
85
84
–40
125
00294-023
85
200
00294-020
OPEN-LOOP GAIN (dB)
100k
Figure 16. Closed-Loop Gain vs. Frequency, VS = 3 V
160
OPEN-LOOP GAIN (V/mV)
10k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
25
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 18. CMRR vs. Temperature, VS = 3 V
Figure 15. Open-Loop Gain vs. Temperature, VS = 3 V
Rev. E | Page 9 of 24
125
OP191/OP291/OP491
0.35
160
VS = 3V
120
PSRR (dB)
100
80
+PSRR
60
–PSRR
40
20
00294-024
0
–20
–40
100
1k
10k
100k
1M
0.30
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
00294-027
140
SUPPLY CURRENT/AMPLIFIER (mA)
±PSRR
VS = 3V
TA = 25°C
0.05
–40
10M
25
Figure 19. PSRR vs. Frequency, VS = 3 V
Figure 22. Supply Current vs. Temperature, VS = +3 V, +5 V, ±5 V
113
3.0
VIN = 2.8V p-p
VS = 3V
AV = +1
RL = 100kΩ
VS = 3V
2.5
MAXIMUM OUTPUT SWING (V)
112
111
110
109
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
00294-025
108
107
–40
85
25
0
100
125
00294-028
PSRR (dB)
125
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
FREQUENCY (Hz)
1k
10k
100k
1M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 23. Maximum Output Swing vs. Frequency, VS = 3 V
Figure 20. PSRR vs. Temperature, VS = 3 V
1k
1.6
VS = 3V
+SR
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
–SR
0.2
0
–40
00294-026
SLEW RATE (V/µs)
1.2
25
85
100
10
125
00294-029
VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY (nV/ Hz)
1.4
10
100
1k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 24. Voltage Noise Density, VS = 5 V or ±5 V
Figure 21. Slew Rate vs. Temperature, VS = 3 V
Rev. E | Page 10 of 24
10k
OP191/OP291/OP491
70
40
VS = 5V
TA = 25°C
BASED ON 600
OP AMPS
60
+IB
–IB
VCM = 5V
20
50
10
40
IB (nA)
UNITS
VS = 5V
30
30
0
–10
–20
0
–0.50
–0.30
–0.10
0.10
25
INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE (mV)
1.6
VS = 5V
–40°C < TA < +125°C
BASED ON 600 OP AMPS
60
40
20
2
3
5
4
6
1.0
VCM = 0V
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
00294-031
1
1.2
VCM = 5V
–0.2
–40
7
25
125
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE (µV/°C)
Figure 26. OP291 Input Offset Voltage Drift Distribution, VS = 5 V
Figure 29. Input Offset Current vs. Temperature, VS = 5 V
36
0.15
VS = 5V
VS = 5V
30
24
INPUT BIAS CURRENT (nA)
0.10
VCM = 0V
0.05
0
VCM = 5V
–0.05
18
12
6
0
–6
–12
–18
25
85
–30
–36
125
0
1
2
3
4
5
COMMON-MODE INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 27. Input Offset Voltage vs. Temperature, VS = 5 V
00294-035
–24
00294-032
–0.10
–40
00294-034
80
0
VS = 5V
1.4
INPUT OFFSET CURRENT (nA)
100
UNITS
125
Figure 28. Input Bias Current vs. Temperature, VS = 5 V
120
VOS (mV)
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 25. OP291 Input Offset Voltage Distribution, VS = 5 V
0
–IB
+IB
–40
–40
0.50
0.30
VCM = 0V
–30
00294-030
10
00294-033
20
Figure 30. Input Bias Current vs. Common-Mode Input Voltage, VS = 5 V
Rev. E | Page 11 of 24
OP191/OP291/OP491
50
5.00
VS = 5V
TA = 25°C
40
4.95
30
CLOSED-LOOP GAIN (dB)
4.90
4.85
RL = 2kΩ
4.80
20
10
0
–10
–20
–30
4.75
4.70
–40
–40
00294-036
VS = 5V
85
25
00294-039
OUTPUT VOLTAGE SWING (V)
RL = 100kΩ
–50
125
10
100
1M
10M
Figure 34. Closed-Loop Gain vs. Frequency, VS = 5 V
160
160
VS = 5V
TA = 25°C
80
60
40
90
20
45
0
0
–20
–45
–40
–90
10M
1k
10k
100k
1M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
00294-040
100
CMRR (dB)
OPEN PHASE SHIFT (Degrees)
120
100
CMRR
VS = 5V
TA = 25°C
140
–20
–40
100
00294-037
140
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 35. CMRR vs. Frequency, VS = 5V
Figure 32. Open-Loop Gain and Phase vs. Frequency, VS = 5 V
96
140
VS = 5V
95
RL = 100kΩ, VCM = 5V
120
VS = 5V
94
93
CMRR (dB)
100
80
60
RL = 100kΩ, VCM = 0V
92
91
90
89
RL = 2kΩ, VCM = 5V
88
20
0
–40
RL = 2kΩ, VCM = 0V
25
85
00294-041
40
87
00294-038
OPEN-LOOP GAIN (dB)
100k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 31. Output Voltage Swing vs. Temperature, VS = 5 V
OPEN-LOOP GAIN (V/mV)
10k
1k
TEMPERATURE (°C)
86
–40
125
25
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 36. CMRR vs. Temperature, VS = 5 V
Figure 33. Open-Loop Gain vs. Temperature, VS = 5 V
Rev. E | Page 12 of 24
125
OP191/OP291/OP491
20
160
±PSRR
VS = 5V
TA = 25°C
18
SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT (mA)
120
PSRR (dB)
100
80
+PSRR
60
40
–PSRR
20
–20
–40
100
1k
10k
100k
1M
16
–ISC, VS = ±5V
14
+ISC, VS = +3V
12
10
–ISC, VS = +3V
8
6
00294-042
0
+ISC, VS = ±5V
00294-045
140
4
–40
10M
25
85
125
TEMPERATURE (°C)
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 40. Short-Circuit Current vs. Temperature, VS = +3 V, +5 V, ±5 V
Figure 37. PSRR vs. Frequency, VS = 5 V
80
0.6
VS = ±5V
70
0.5
60
+SR
VOLTAGE (μV)
SR (V/µs)
0.4
–SR
0.3
0.2
50
40
30
10kΩ
20
A
0
–40
85
25
10
00294-043
VS = 5V
0
125
10kΩ
0
500
1000
5.0
VS = 5V
+SR
–SR
0.25
0.20
0.15
00294-044
0.10
0
–40
25
85
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
00294-047
MAXIMUM OUTPUT SWING (V)
0.40
0.05
2500
VIN = 4.8V p-p
VS = 5V
AV = +1
RL = 100kΩ
4.5
0.30
2000
Figure 41. Channel Separation, VS = ±5 V
0.50
SR (V/µs)
1500
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 38. OP291 Slew Rate vs. Temperature, VS = 5 V
0.35
VO
VIN = 10V p-p @ 1kHz
TEMPERATURE (°C)
0.45
1kΩ
B
00294-046
0.1
0.5
0
100
125
1k
10k
100k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 42. Maximum Output Swing vs. Frequency, VS = 5 V
Figure 39. OP491 Slew Rate vs. Temperature, VS = 5 V
Rev. E | Page 13 of 24
1M
OP191/OP291/OP491
1.6
VIN = 9.8V p-p
VS = ±5V
AV = +1
RL = 100kΩ
6
4
2
0
100
1k
10k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100k
VCM = –5V
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
VCM = +5V
0
–0.2
1M
25
–40
Figure 43. Maximum Output Swing vs. Frequency, VS = ±5 V
Figure 46. Input Offset Current vs. Temperature, VS = ±5 V
0.15
36
VS = ±5V
24
INPUT BIAS CURRENT (nA)
0.10
0
VCM = +5V
25
–12
–36
125
85
0
–24
00294-049
–0.05
12
00294-052
VCM= –5V
0.05
–5
–4
TEMPERATURE (°C)
0
1
2
3
4
5
5.00
VS = ±5V
4.90
–IB
VCM = +5V
20
10
0
–10
VCM = –5V
–IB
–30
+IB
–40
25
85
4.85
4.80
4.75
0
RL = 2kΩ
VS = ±5V
–4.75
–4.80
–4.85
RL = 2kΩ
–4.90
00294-050
–20
RL = 2kΩ
4.95
+IB
30
–50
–40
–1
Figure 47. Input Bias Current vs. Common-Mode Voltage, VS = ±5 V
OUTPUT VOLTAGE SWING (V)
40
–2
COMMON-MODE INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 44. Input Offset Voltage vs. Temperature, VS = ±5 V
50
–3
–4.95
–5.00
–40
125
TEMPERATURE (°C)
RL = 2kΩ
25
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 45. Input Bias Current vs. Temperature, VS = ±5 V
Figure 48. Output Voltage Swing vs. Temperature, VS = ±5 V
Rev. E | Page 14 of 24
00294-053
–0.10
–40
IB (nA)
125
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
VS = ±5V
INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE (mV)
1.2
00294-051
INPUT OFFSET CURRENT (nA)
8
VS = ±5V
1.4
00294-048
MAXIMUM OUTPUT SWING (V)
10
125
OP191/OP291/OP491
160
70
VS = ±5V
TA = 25°C
60
120
30
45
20
90
10
135
100
80
60
40
0
180
–10
225
0
–20
270
–20
1k
10k
100k
1M
–40
100
00294-054
–30
20
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
00294-057
0
CMRR (dB)
40
PHASE SHIFT (Degrees)
1k
Figure 49. Open-Loop Gain and Phase vs. Frequency, VS = ±5 V
100k
1M
10M
Figure 52. CMRR vs. Frequency, VS = ±5 V
200
102
VS = ±5V
VS = ±5V
180
160
101
100
RL = 2kΩ
99
120
98
CMRR (dB)
140
100
80
97
96
95
65
94
40
0
–40
00294-055
RL = 2kΩ
25
85
25
93
92
–40
125
85
25
125
TEMPERATURE (°C)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 50. Open-Loop Gain vs. Temperature, VS = ±5 V
Figure 53. CMRR vs. Temperature, VS =± 5 V
50
160
VS = ±5V
TA = 25°C
120
20
100
10
80
PSRR (dB)
30
0
–10
40
20
–30
0
00294-056
–50
10
100
1k
10k
100k
1M
+PSRR
60
–20
–40
±PSRR
VS = ±5V
TA = 25°C
140
–PSRR
00294-059
40
CLOSED-LOOP GAIN (dB)
10k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
00294-058
OPEN-LOOP GAIN (dB)
50
OPEN-LOOP GAIN (V/mV)
CMRR
VS = ±5V
TA = 25°C
140
–20
–40
100
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
1k
10k
100k
1M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 51. Closed-Loop Gain vs. Frequency, VS = ±5 V
Figure 54. PSRR vs. Frequency, VS = ±5 V
Rev. E | Page 15 of 24
10M
OP191/OP291/OP491
115
1k
VS = ±5V
PSRR (dB)
OP291
105
100
00294-060
95
90
–40
25
85
100
10
125
00294-078
VOLTAGE NOISE DENSITY (nV/ Hz)
OP491
110
10
100
1k
10k
FREQUENCY (Hz)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 55. OP291/OP491 PSRR vs. Temperature, VS = ±5 V
Figure 58. Voltage Noise Density, VS = 3 V
0.7
VS = ±5V
1.00V
0.6
100
+SR
90
0.5
SR (V/µs)
–SR
0.4
0.3
INPUT
0.2
OUTPUT
00294-061
0.1
25
85
0%
500mV
125
2.00µs
100mV
00294-063
0
–40
V S = 3V
R L = 200kΩ
10
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 56. Slew Rate vs. Temperature, VS = ±5 V
1k
VS = 3V
Figure 59. Large Signal Transient Response, VS = 3 V
2.00V
AV = +100
100
90
AV = +10
10
INPUT
AV = +1
1
10k
100k
1M
V S = ±5V
R L = 200kΩ
A V = +1V/V
10
OUTPUT
0%
1.00V
2.00µs
100mV
00294-064
0.1
1k
00294-062
OUTPUT IMPEDANCE (Ω)
100
2M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 57. Output Impedance vs. Frequency
Figure 60. Large Signal Transient Response, VS = ±5 V
Rev. E | Page 16 of 24
OP191/OP291/OP491
THEORY OF OPERATION
Notice that the input stage includes 5 kΩ series resistors and
differential diodes, a common practice in bipolar amplifiers to
protect the input transistors from large differential voltages.
These diodes turn on whenever the differential voltage exceeds
approximately 0.6 V. In this condition, current flows between
the input pins, limited only by the two 5 kΩ resistors. This
characteristic is important in circuits where the amplifier may
be operated open-loop, such as a comparator. Evaluate each
circuit carefully to make sure that the increase in current does
not affect the performance.
The OP191/OP291/OP491 are single-supply, micropower
amplifiers featuring rail-to-rail inputs and outputs. To achieve
wide input and output ranges, these amplifiers employ unique
input and output stages. In Figure 61 , the input stage comprises
two differential pairs, a PNP pair and an NPN pair. These two
stages do not work in parallel. Instead, only one stage is on for
any given input signal level. The PNP stage (Transistor Q1 and
Transistor Q2) is required to ensure that the amplifier remains
in the linear region when the input voltage approaches and
reaches the negative rail. On the other hand, the NPN stage
(Transistor Q5 and Transistor Q6) is needed for input voltages
up to and including the positive rail.
The output stage in OP191 devices uses a PNP and an NPN
transistor, as do most output stages; however, Q32 and Q33, the
output transistors, are actually connected with their collectors
to the output pin to achieve the rail-to-rail output swing. As the
output voltage approaches either the positive or negative rail,
these transistors begin to saturate. Thus, the final limit on
output voltage is the saturation voltage of these transistors,
which is about 50 mV. The output stage does have inherent gain
arising from the collectors and any external load impedance.
Because of this, the open-loop gain of the amplifier is
dependent on the load resistance.
For the majority of the input common-mode range, the PNP
stage is active, as is shown in Figure 12. Notice that the bias
current switches direction at approximately 1.2 V to 1.3 V
below the positive rail. At voltages below this, the bias current
flows out of the OP291, indicating a PNP input stage. Above
this voltage, however, the bias current enters the device,
revealing the NPN stage. The actual mechanism within the
amplifier for switching between the input stages comprises
Transistor Q3, Transistor Q4, and Transistor Q7. As the input
common-mode voltage increases, the emitters of Q1 and Q2
follow that voltage plus a diode drop. Eventually, the emitters
of Q1 and Q2 are high enough to turn on Q3, which diverts the
8 μA of tail current away from the PNP input stage, turning it
off. Instead, the current is mirrored through Q4 and Q7 to
activate the NPN input stage.
Q22
8µA
Q26
–IN
Q32
Q23
Q3
5kΩ
Q20
Q16
Q5 Q6
Q1 Q2
Q8
Q10
Q12
Q14
Q30
10pF
Q17
Q21
Q9
Q11
Q13
Q15
Q24
Q18
Q4
Q7
Q19
VOUT
Q31
Q25
Q28
Q29
Q33
00294-065
+IN
5kΩ
Q27
Figure 61. Simplified Schematic
Rev. E | Page 17 of 24
OP191/OP291/OP491
INPUT OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
OUTPUT VOLTAGE PHASE REVERSAL
As with any semiconductor device, whenever the condition
exists for the input to exceed either supply voltage, check the
input overvoltage characteristic. When an overvoltage occurs,
the amplifier could be damaged depending on the voltage level
and the magnitude of the fault current. Figure 62 shows the
characteristics for the OP191 family. This graph was generated
with the power supplies at ground and a curve tracer connected
to the input. When the input voltage exceeds either supply by
more than 0.6 V, internal PN junctions energize, allowing
current to flow from the input to the supplies. As described, the
OP291/OP491 do have 5 kΩ resistors in series with each input
to help limit the current. Calculating the slope of the current vs.
voltage in the graph confirms the 5 kΩ resistor.
Some operational amplifiers designed for single-supply
operation exhibit an output voltage phase reversal when their
inputs are driven beyond their useful common-mode range.
Typically, for single-supply bipolar op amps, the negative supply
determines the lower limit of their common-mode range.
With these devices, external clamping diodes with the anode
connected to ground and the cathode to the inputs prevent
input signal excursions from exceeding the device’s negative
supply (that is, GND), preventing a condition that could cause
the output voltage to change phase. JFET input amplifiers can
also exhibit phase reversal, and, if so, a series input resistor is
usually required to prevent it.
IIN
+2mA
+1mA
–10V
–5V
+5V
+10V
VIN
The OP191 is free from reasonable input voltage range
restrictions due to its novel input structure. In fact, the input
signal can exceed the supply voltage by a significant amount
without causing damage to the device. As shown in Figure 64,
the OP191 family can safely handle a 20 V p-p input signal on
±5 V supplies without exhibiting any sign of output voltage
phase reversal or other anomalous behavior. Thus, no external
clamping diodes are required.
OVERDRIVE RECOVERY
–2mA
Figure 62. Input Overvoltage Characteristics
This input current is not inherently damaging to the device as
long as it is limited to 5 mA or less. For an input of 10 V over
the supply, the current is limited to 1.8 mA. If the voltage is
large enough to cause more than 5 mA of current to flow, then
an external series resistor should be added. The size of this
resistor is calculated by dividing the maximum overvoltage by
5 mA and subtracting the internal 5 kΩ resistor. For example, if
the input voltage could reach 100 V, the external resistor should
be (100 V/5 mA) − 5 kΩ = 15 kΩ. This resistance should be
placed in series with either or both inputs if they are subjected
to the overvoltages.
The overdrive recovery time of an operational amplifier is the
time required for the output voltage to recover to its linear
region from a saturated condition. This recovery time is
important in applications where the amplifier must recover
quickly after a large transient event, such as a comparator. The
circuit shown in Figure 63 was used to evaluate the OPx91
overdrive recovery time. The OPx91 takes approximately 8 μs to
recover from positive saturation and approximately 6.5 μs to
recover from negative saturation.
R1
9kΩ
VIN
10V STEP
3 +
1/2
OP291
R2
10kΩ
2 –
VS = ±5V
Figure 63. Overdrive Recovery Time Test Circuit
5µs
8
1/2
OP291
–
4
1
VOUT
10
0%
10
0%
–5V
20mV
TIME (200µs/DIV)
Figure 64. Output Voltage Phase Reversal Behavior
Rev. E | Page 18 of 24
20mV
TIME (200µs/DIV)
00294-067
2
+
VOUT (2V/DIV)
3
VIN (2.5V/DIV)
VIN
20V p-p
5µs
100
90
100
90
+5V
VOUT
1
R3
10kΩ
00294-068
00294-066
–1mA
OP191/OP291/OP491
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
SINGLE-SUPPLY RTD AMPLIFIER
SINGLE 3 V SUPPLY, INSTRUMENTATION
AMPLIFIER
The OP291 low supply current and low voltage operation
make it ideal for battery-powered applications, such as the
instrumentation amplifier shown in Figure 65. The circuit uses
the classic two op amp instrumentation amplifier topology, with
four resistors to set the gain. The equation is simply that of a
noninverting amplifier, as shown in Figure 65. The two resistors
labeled R1 should be closely matched both to each other and to
the two resistors labeled R2 to ensure good common-mode
rejection performance. Resistor networks ensure the closest
matching as well as matched drifts for good temperature
stability. Capacitor C1 is included to limit the bandwidth and,
therefore, the noise in sensitive applications. The value of this
capacitor should be adjusted depending on the desired closedloop bandwidth of the instrumentation amplifier. The RC
combination creates a pole at a frequency equal to 1/(2π ×
R1C1). If AC-CMRR is critical, then a matched capacitor to C1
should be included across the second resistor labeled R1.
The circuit in Figure 66 uses three op amps of the OP491 to
develop a bridge configuration for an RTD amplifier that
operates from a single 5 V supply. The circuit takes advantage of
the OP491 wide output swing range to generate a high bridge
excitation voltage of 3.9 V. In fact, because of the rail-to-rail
output swing, this circuit works with supplies as low as 4.0 V.
Amplifier A1 servos the bridge to create a constant excitation
current in conjunction with the AD589, a 1.235 V precision
reference. The op amp maintains the reference voltage across
the parallel combination of the 6.19 kΩ and 2.55 MΩ resistors,
which generate a 200 μA current source. This current splits
evenly and flows through both halves of the bridge. Thus,
100 μA flows through the RTD to generate an output voltage
based on its resistance. A 3-wire RTD is used to balance the line
resistance in both 100 Ω legs of the bridge to improve accuracy.
GAIN = 274
200Ω
10 TURNS
26.7kΩ
5V
26.7kΩ
A3
3V
5
6
3
2
R1
OP291
7
VOUT
100Ω
2.55MΩ
OP491
365Ω
1/2
OP291
1
6.19kΩ
VOUT = (1 +
R2
R1
) = VIN
R2
OP491
R1
C1
100pF
365Ω
100kΩ
A1
1/4
R2
VOUT
OP491
A2
1/4
4
100kΩ
0.01pF
ALL RESISTORS 1% OR BETTER
AD589
00294-069
–
1/2
1/4
37.4kΩ
00294-070
+
VIN
100Ω
RTD
8
5V
Figure 65. Single 3 V Supply Instrumentation Amplifier
Figure 66. Single-Supply RTD Amplifier
Because the OP291 accepts rail-to-rail inputs, the input
common-mode range includes both ground and the positive
supply of 3 V. Furthermore, the rail-to-rail output range ensures
the widest signal range possible and maximizes the dynamic
range of the system. Also, with its low supply current of
300 μA/device, this circuit consumes a quiescent current of
only 600 μA yet still exhibits a gain bandwidth of 3 MHz.
A question may arise about other instrumentation amplifier
topologies for single-supply applications. For example, a
variation on this topology adds a fifth resistor between the two
inverting inputs of the op amps for gain setting. While that
topology works well in dual-supply applications, it is inherently
inappropriate for single-supply circuits. The same could be said
for the traditional three op amp instrumentation amplifier. In
both cases, the circuits simply cannot work in single-supply
situations unless a false ground between the supplies is created.
Amplifier A2 and Amplifier A3 are configured in the two op
amp instrumentation amplifier topology described in the Single
3 V Supply, Instrumentation Amplifier section. The resistors are
chosen to produce a gain of 274, such that each 1°C increase in
temperature results in a 10 mV change in the output voltage, for
ease of measurement. A 0.01 μF capacitor is included in parallel
with the 100 kΩ resistor on Amplifier A3 to filter out any
unwanted noise from this high gain circuit. This particular RC
combination creates a pole at 1.6 kHz.
Rev. E | Page 19 of 24
OP191/OP291/OP491
In many single-supply applications, the need for a 2.5 V
reference often arises. Many commercially available monolithic
2.5 V references require a minimum operating supply voltage of
4 V. The problem is exacerbated when the minimum operating
system supply voltage is 3 V. The circuit illustrated in Figure 67
is an example of a 2.5 V reference that operates from a single
3 V supply. The circuit takes advantage of the OP291 rail-to-rail
input and output voltage ranges to amplify an AD589 1.235 V
output to 2.5 V. The OP291 low TCVOS of 1 μV/°C helps
maintain an output voltage temperature coefficient of less than
200 ppm/°C. The circuit overall temperature coefficient is
dominated by the temperature coefficient of R2 and R3. Lower
temperature coefficient resistors are recommended. The entire
circuit draws less than 420 μA from a 3 V supply at 25°C.
3V
R1
17.4kΩ
3V
8
1/2
4
2
R3
100kΩ
2.5VREF
1
OP291
R2
100kΩ
RESISTORS = 1%, 100ppm/°C
POTENTIOMETER = 10 TURN, 100ppm/°C
00294-071
3
AD589
R1
5kΩ
Figure 67. A 2.5 V Reference that Operates on a Single 3 V Supply
5 V ONLY, 12-BIT DAC SWINGS RAIL-TO-RAIL
The OPx91 family is ideal for use with a CMOS DAC to
generate a digitally controlled voltage with a wide output range.
Figure 68 shows the DAC8043 used in conjunction with the
AD589 to generate a voltage output from 0 V to 1.23 V. The
DAC is operated in voltage switching mode, where the reference
is connected to the current output, IOUT, and the output voltage
is taken from the VREF pin. This topology is inherently
noninverting as opposed to the classic current output mode,
which is inverting and, therefore, unsuitable for single supply.
The OP291 serves two functions. First, it is required to buffer
the high output impedance of the DAC VREF pin, which is on the
order of 10 kΩ. The op amp provides a low impedance output
to drive any following circuitry. Second, the op amp amplifies
the output signal to provide a rail-to-rail output swing. In this
particular case, the gain is set to 4.1 to generate a 5.0 V output
when the DAC is at full scale. If other output voltage ranges are
needed, such as 0 V to 4.095 V, the gain can easily be adjusted
by altering the value of the resistors.
A HIGH-SIDE CURRENT MONITOR
In the design of power supply control circuits, a great deal of
design effort is focused on ensuring a pass transistor’s longterm reliability over a wide range of load current conditions.
As a result, monitoring and limiting device power dissipation
is of prime importance in these designs. The circuit illustrated
in Figure 69 is an example of a 5 V, single-supply, high-side
current monitor that can be incorporated into the design of a
voltage regulator with fold-back current limiting or a high
current power supply with crowbar protection. This design uses
an OP291 rail-to-rail input voltage range to sense the voltage
drop across a 0.1 Ω current shunt. A p-channel MOSFET used
as the feedback element in the circuit converts the op amp
differential input voltage into a current. This current is then
applied to R2 to generate a voltage that is a linear representation
of the load current. The transfer equation for the current
monitor is given by
⎛R
⎞
Monitor Output = R2 × ⎜ SENSE ⎟ × I L
⎝ R1 ⎠
For the element values shown, the monitor output transfer
characteristic is 2.5 V/A.
RSENSE
0.1Ω
IL
5V
5V
5V
R1
100Ω
5V
3
8
1/2
OP291
8
R1
17.8kΩ
1.23V
3
2
VDD
RFB
IOUT DAC8043
VREF
2
S
M1
1
GND CLK SR1 LD
7
6
5
3
8
1/2
DIGITAL
CONTROL
R3
232Ω
1%
R2
32.4kΩ
1%
OP291
2
1
D
VOUT = –––– (5V)
4096
4
R4
100kΩ
1%
00294-072
4
G
3N163
MONITOR
OUTPUT
5V
AD589
1
4
Figure 68. 5 V Only, 12-Bit DAC Swings Rail-to-Rail
Rev. E | Page 20 of 24
D
R2
2.49kΩ
Figure 69. A High-Side Load Current Monitor
00294-073
A 2.5 V REFERENCE FROM A 3 V SUPPLY
OP191/OP291/OP491
A 3 V, COLD JUNCTION COMPENSATED
THERMOCOUPLE AMPLIFIER
The OP291 low supply operation makes it ideal for 3 V batterypowered applications such as the thermocouple amplifier
shown in Figure 70. The K-type thermocouple terminates in an
isothermal block where the junction ambient temperature is
continuously monitored using a simple 1N914 diode. The diode
corrects the thermal EMF generated in the junctions by feeding
a small voltage, scaled by the 1.5 MΩ and 475 Ω resistors, to the
op amp.
The transmit signal, TXA, is inverted by A2 and then reinverted
by A3 to provide a differential drive to the transformer, where
each amplifier supplies half the drive signal. This is needed
because of the smaller swings associated with a single supply as
opposed to a dual supply. Amplifier A1 provides some gain for
the received signal, and it also removes the transmit signal
present at the transformer from the received signal. To do this,
the drive signal from A2 is also fed to the noninverting input of
A1 to cancel the transmit signal from the transformer.
390pF
37.4kΩ
To calibrate this circuit, immerse the thermocouple measuring
junction in a 0°C ice bath and adjust the 500 Ω potentiometer
to 0 V out. Next, immerse the thermocouple in a 250°C
temperature bath or oven and adjust the scale adjust
potentiometer for an output voltage of 2.50 V. Within this
temperature range, the K-type thermocouple is accurate to
within ±3°C without linearization.
20kΩ,1%
A1
0.1μF
RXA
14
13
1/4
OP491
12
0.0047μF
3.3kΩ
A2
10
1.235V
1/4
10kΩ
AD589
ISOTHERMAL
BLOCK
7.15kΩ
1N914
1%
2
K-TYPE
THERMOCOUPLE
40.7μV/°C
475Ω
1%
OP291
500Ω
10 TURN
11.2mV
ZERO
ADJUST
TXA
20kΩ,1%
T1
750pF
8
1/2
COLD
JUNCTIONS
37.4kΩ,1%
0.1μF
0.033μF
20kΩ,1%
4.99kΩ
1%
AL
CR
CHROMEL
9
SCALE
ADJUST
1.33MΩ 20kΩ
24.3kΩ
1%
24.9kΩ
1%
475Ω,1%
8
3
4
1/4
0V = 0°C
3V = 300°C
5.1V TO 6.2V
ZENER 5
A3
6
OP491
7
5
2.1kΩ
1%
Figure 70. A 3 V, Cold Junction Compensated Thermocouple Amplifier
3V OR 5V
4
1
SINGLE-SUPPLY, DIRECT ACCESS ARRANGEMENT
FOR MODEMS
A4
2
100kΩ
1/4
OP491
11
3
100kΩ
10μF
0.1μF
00294-075
An important building block in modems is the telephone line
interface. In the circuit shown in Figure 71, a direct access
arrangement is used to transmit and receive data from the
telephone line. Amplifier A1 is the receiving amplifier;
Amplifier A2 and Amplifier A3 are the transmitters. The fourth
amplifier, A4, generates a pseudo ground halfway between the
supply voltage and ground. This pseudo ground is needed for
the ac-coupled bipolar input signals.
1:1
20kΩ,1%
VOUT
1
00294-074
1.5MΩ
1%
ALUMEL
OP491
3.0V
20kΩ,1%
Figure 71. Single-Supply, Direct Access Arrangement for Modems
The OP491 bandwidth of 3 MHz and rail-to-rail output swings
ensure that it can provide the largest possible drive to the
transformer at the frequency of transmission.
Rev. E | Page 21 of 24
OP191/OP291/OP491
3 V, 50 HZ/60 HZ ACTIVE NOTCH FILTER WITH
FALSE GROUND
To process ac signals in a single-supply system, it is often best
to use a false ground biasing scheme. Figure 72 illustrates a
circuit that uses this approach. In this circuit, a false-ground
circuit biases an active notch filter used to reject 50 Hz/60 Hz
power line interference in portable patient monitoring
equipment. Notch filters are quite commonly used to reject
power line frequency interference that often obscures low
frequency physiological signals, such as heart rates, blood
pressure readings, EEGs, and EKGs. This notch filter effectively
squelches 60 Hz pickup at a filter Q of 0.75. Substituting
3.16 kΩ resistors for the 2.67 kΩ resistors in the twin-T section
(R1 through R5) configures the active filter to reject 50 Hz
interference.
R2
2.67kΩ
R1
2.67kΩ
3V
C1
1μF
11
2
1/4
1
OP491
VIN
3
R3
2.67kΩ
A1
4
R4
2.67kΩ
R5
1.33kΩ
(2.67kΩ ÷ 2)
C3
2μF
(1μF × 2)
R6
100kΩ
C2
1μF
5
VOUT
1/4
OP491
6
R8
1kΩ
7
A2
R7
1kΩ
R11
100kΩ
C5
3V
SINGLE-SUPPLY, HALF-WAVE, AND FULL-WAVE
RECTIFIERS
An OPx91 device configured as a voltage follower operating on
a single supply can be used as a simple half-wave rectifier in low
frequency (<2 kHz) applications. A full-wave rectifier can be
configured with a pair of OP291s, as illustrated in Figure 73.
The circuit works in the following way. When the input signal is
above 0 V, the output of Amplifier A1 follows the input signal.
Because the noninverting input of Amplifier A2 is connected to
the output of A1, op amp loop control forces the inverting input
of the A2 to the same potential. The result is that both terminals
of R1 are equipotential; that is, no current flows. Because there
is no current flow in R1, the same condition exists for R2; thus,
the output of the circuit tracks the input signal. When the input
signal is below 0 V, the output voltage of A1 is forced to 0 V.
This condition now forces A2 to operate as an inverting voltage
follower because the noninverting terminal of A2 is also at 0 V.
The output voltage at VOUTA is then a full-wave rectified version
of the input signal. If needed, a buffered, half-wave rectified
version of the input signal is available at VOUTB.
R1
100kΩ
0.01μF
R12
499Ω
9
1/4
OP491
10
A3
8
R2
100kΩ
5V
C6
1.5V
1μF
R10
1MΩ
VIN
2V p-p
<2kHz
6
VOUTA
1/2
3
OP291
8
1/2
OP291
00294-076
R9
1MΩ
C4
1μF
The filter section uses a pair of OP491s in a twin-T
configuration whose frequency selectivity is very sensitive
to the relative matching of the capacitors and resistors in
the twin-T section. Mylar is the material of choice for the
capacitors, and the relative matching of the capacitors and
resistors determines the pass band symmetry of the filter. Using
1% resistors and 5% capacitors produces satisfactory results.
4
2
1
5
FULL-WAVE
RECTIFIED
OUTPUT
7
A2
A1
VOUTB
HALF-WAVE
RECTIFIED
OUTPUT
Figure 72. A 3 V Single-Supply, 50 Hz/60 Hz Active Notch Filter
with False Ground
1V
VIN
(1V/DIV)
500mV
100
90
VOUTA
(0.5V/DIV)
10
VOUTB
(0.5V/DIV)
0%
500mV
200μs
00294-077
Amplifier A3 is the heart of the false ground bias circuit.
It buffers the voltage developed by R9 and R10 and is the
reference for the active notch filter. Because the OP491
exhibits a rail-to-rail input common-mode range, R9 and R10
are chosen to split the 3 V supply symmetrically. An in-the-loop
compensation scheme used around the OP491 allows the op
amp to drive C6, a 1 μF capacitor, without oscillation. C6
maintains a low impedance ac ground over the operating
frequency range of the filter.
TIME (200μs/DIV)
Figure 73. Single-Supply, Half-Wave, and Full-Wave Rectifiers
Using an OP291
Rev. E | Page 22 of 24
OP191/OP291/OP491
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
5.00 (0.1968)
4.80 (0.1890)
8
4.00 (0.1574)
3.80 (0.1497)
5
1
4
6.20 (0.2441)
5.80 (0.2284)
1.27 (0.0500)
BSC
1.75 (0.0688)
1.35 (0.0532)
0.25 (0.0098)
0.10 (0.0040)
0.51 (0.0201)
0.31 (0.0122)
COPLANARITY
0.10
SEATING
PLANE
0.50 (0.0196)
0.25 (0.0099)
45°
8°
0°
0.25 (0.0098)
0.17 (0.0067)
1.27 (0.0500)
0.40 (0.0157)
012407-A
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MS-012-AA
CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS; INCH DIMENSIONS
(IN PARENTHESES) ARE ROUNDED-OFF MILLIMETER EQUIVALENTS FOR
REFERENCE ONLY AND ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN DESIGN.
Figure 74. 8-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N]
Narrow Body (R-8) [S-Suffix]
Dimensions shown in millimeters and (inches)
8.75 (0.3445)
8.55 (0.3366)
4.00 (0.1575)
3.80 (0.1496)
8
14
1
7
6.20 (0.2441)
5.80 (0.2283)
1.27 (0.0500)
BSC
COPLANARITY
0.10
0.50 (0.0197)
0.25 (0.0098)
1.75 (0.0689)
1.35 (0.0531)
0.25 (0.0098)
0.10 (0.0039)
SEATING
PLANE
0.51 (0.0201)
0.31 (0.0122)
45°
8°
0°
0.25 (0.0098)
0.17 (0.0067)
1.27 (0.0500)
0.40 (0.0157)
060606-A
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MS-012-AB
CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS; INCH DIMENSIONS
(IN PARENTHESES) ARE ROUNDED-OFF MILLIMETER EQUIVALENTS FOR
REFERENCE ONLY AND ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN DESIGN.
Figure 75. 14-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N]
Narrow Body (R-14) [S-Suffix]
Dimensions shown in millimeters and (inches)
5.10
5.00
4.90
14
8
4.50
4.40
4.30
6.40
BSC
1
7
PIN 1
0.65 BSC
1.20
MAX
0.15
0.05
COPLANARITY
0.10
0.30
0.19
0.20
0.09
SEATING
PLANE
8°
0°
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-153-AB-1
Figure 76. 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP]
(RU-14)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
Rev. E | Page 23 of 24
0.75
0.60
0.45
061908-A
1.05
1.00
0.80
OP191/OP291/OP491
0.775 (19.69)
0.750 (19.05)
0.735 (18.67)
14
8
1
7
0.280 (7.11)
0.250 (6.35)
0.240 (6.10)
0.325 (8.26)
0.310 (7.87)
0.300 (7.62)
0.100 (2.54)
BSC
0.060 (1.52)
MAX
0.210 (5.33)
MAX
0.015
(0.38)
MIN
0.150 (3.81)
0.130 (3.30)
0.110 (2.79)
SEATING
PLANE
0.015 (0.38)
GAUGE
PLANE
0.430 (10.92)
MAX
0.005 (0.13)
MIN
0.014 (0.36)
0.010 (0.25)
0.008 (0.20)
0.070 (1.78)
0.050 (1.27)
0.045 (1.14)
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MS-001
CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES; MILLIMETER DIMENSIONS
(IN PARENTHESES) ARE ROUNDED-OFF INCH EQUIVALENTS FOR
REFERENCE ONLY AND ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN DESIGN.
CORNER LEADS MAY BE CONFIGURED AS WHOLE OR HALF LEADS.
070606-A
0.022 (0.56)
0.018 (0.46)
0.014 (0.36)
0.195 (4.95)
0.130 (3.30)
0.115 (2.92)
Figure 77. 14-Lead Plastic Dual In-Line Package [PDIP]
(N-14)
[P-Suffix]
Dimensions shown in inches and (millimeters)
ORDERING GUIDE
Model 1
OP191GS
OP191GS-REEL
OP191GS-REEL7
OP191GSZ
OP191GSZ-REEL
OP191GSZ-REEL7
OP291GS
OP291GS-REEL
OP291GS-REEL7
OP291GSZ
OP291GSZ-REEL
OP291GSZ-REEL7
OP491GP
OP491GPZ
OP491GRU-REEL
OP491GRUZ-REEL
OP491GS
OP491GS-REEL
OP491GS-REEL7
OP491GSZ
OP491GSZ-REEL
OP491GSZ-REEL7
1
Temperature Range
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
−40°C to +125°C
Package Description
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
8-Lead SOIC_N
14-Lead PDIP
14-Lead PDIP
14-Lead TSSOP
14-Lead TSSOP
14-Lead SOIC_N
14-Lead SOIC_N
14-Lead SOIC_N
14-Lead SOIC_N
14-Lead SOIC_N
14-Lead SOIC_N
Z = RoHS Compliant Part.
©1994–2010 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
D00294-0-4/10(E)
Rev. E | Page 24 of 24
Package Option
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
R-8 [S-Suffix]
N-14 [P-Suffix]
N-14 [P-Suffix]
RU-14
RU-14
R-14 [S-Suffix]
R-14 [S-Suffix]
R-14 [S-Suffix]
R-14 [S-Suffix]
R-14 [S-Suffix]
R-14 [S-Suffix]
Mouser Electronics
Authorized Distributor
Click to View Pricing, Inventory, Delivery & Lifecycle Information:
Analog Devices Inc.:
OP491GSZ OP191GSZ-REEL7 OP491GSZ-REEL OP491GRUZ-REEL OP191GSZ OP291GSZ-REEL
OP491GSZ-REEL7 OP291GSZ OP291GS OP491GPZ OP491GS-REEL7 OP291GS-REEL7 OP191GSZ-REEL
OP291GSZ-REEL7
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