® SAS/STAT 9.2 User’s Guide The LOGISTIC Procedure (Book Excerpt) ® SAS Documentation This document is an individual chapter from SAS/STAT® 9.2 User’s Guide. The correct bibliographic citation for the complete manual is as follows: SAS Institute Inc. 2008. SAS/STAT® 9.2 User’s Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. Copyright © 2008, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA All rights reserved. Produced in the United States of America. For a Web download or e-book: Your use of this publication shall be governed by the terms established by the vendor at the time you acquire this publication. U.S. Government Restricted Rights Notice: Use, duplication, or disclosure of this software and related documentation by the U.S. government is subject to the Agreement with SAS Institute and the restrictions set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights (June 1987). SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina 27513. 1st electronic book, March 2008 2nd electronic book, February 2009 SAS® Publishing provides a complete selection of books and electronic products to help customers use SAS software to its fullest potential. For more information about our e-books, e-learning products, CDs, and hard-copy books, visit the SAS Publishing Web site at support.sas.com/publishing or call 1-800-727-3228. SAS® and all other SAS Institute Inc. product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute Inc. in the USA and other countries. ® indicates USA registration. Other brand and product names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective companies. Chapter 51 The LOGISTIC Procedure Contents Overview: LOGISTIC Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting Started: LOGISTIC Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . Syntax: LOGISTIC Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROC LOGISTIC Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BY Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLASS Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTRAST Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXACT Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FREQ Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODEL Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ODDSRATIO Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTPUT Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROC Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROCCONTRAST Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCORE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRATA Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNITS Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WEIGHT Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Details: LOGISTIC Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Missing Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Response Level Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLASS Variable Parameterization . . . . . . . . . . . . Link Functions and the Corresponding Distributions . . Determining Observations for Likelihood Contributions Iterative Algorithms for Model Fitting . . . . . . . . . . Convergence Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Existence of Maximum Likelihood Estimates . . . . . . Effect-Selection Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Fitting Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generalized Coefficient of Determination . . . . . . . . Score Statistics and Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Confidence Intervals for Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . Odds Ratio Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3255 3258 3264 3265 3277 3278 3280 3283 3285 3286 3301 3303 3308 3309 3310 3312 3313 3314 3315 3316 3316 3316 3317 3320 3322 3322 3325 3325 3326 3327 3328 3329 3331 3333 3254 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Rank Correlation of Observed Responses and Predicted Probabilities . . . . Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits . . . . . . . . Classification Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overdispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients . . . . . . . . Regression Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scoring Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditional Logistic Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exact Conditional Logistic Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Input and Output Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computational Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Displayed Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ODS Table Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ODS Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples: LOGISTIC Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values . . . . . Example 51.2: Logistic Modeling with Categorical Predictors . . . . . . . . Example 51.3: Ordinal Logistic Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 51.4: Nominal Response Data: Generalized Logits Model . . . . . Example 51.5: Stratified Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 51.6: Logistic Regression Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 51.7: ROC Curve, Customized Odds Ratios, Goodness-of-Fit Statistics, R-Square, and Confidence Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 51.8: Comparing Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves . . . . Example 51.9: Goodness-of-Fit Tests and Subpopulations . . . . . . . . . . Example 51.10: Overdispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 51.11: Conditional Logistic Regression for Matched Pairs Data . . Example 51.12: Firth’s Penalized Likelihood Compared with Other Approaches Example 51.13: Complementary Log-Log Model for Infection Rates . . . . Example 51.14: Complementary Log-Log Model for Interval-Censored Survival Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 51.15: Scoring Data Sets with the SCORE Statement . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3336 3337 3338 3340 3342 3344 3346 3347 3350 3353 3357 3362 3367 3369 3375 3377 3379 3379 3394 3403 3410 3417 3418 3427 3432 3440 3443 3447 3452 3456 3460 3466 3470 Overview: LOGISTIC Procedure F 3255 Overview: LOGISTIC Procedure Binary responses (for example, success and failure), ordinal responses (for example, normal, mild, and severe), and nominal responses (for example, major TV networks viewed at a certain hour) arise in many fields of study. Logistic regression analysis is often used to investigate the relationship between these discrete responses and a set of explanatory variables. Texts that discuss logistic regression include Agresti (2002), Allison (1999), Collett (2003), Cox and Snell (1989), Hosmer and Lemeshow (2000), and Stokes, Davis, and Koch (2000). For binary response models, the response, Y , of an individual or an experimental unit can take on one of two possible values, denoted for convenience by 1 and 2 (for example, Y D 1 if a disease is present, otherwise Y D 2). Suppose x is a vector of explanatory variables and D Pr.Y D 1 j x/ is the response probability to be modeled. The linear logistic model has the form logit./ log D ˛ C ˇ0x 1 where ˛ is the intercept parameter and ˇ D .ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs /0 is the vector of s slope parameters. Notice that the LOGISTIC procedure, by default, models the probability of the lower response levels. The logistic model shares a common feature with a more general class of linear models: a function g D g./ of the mean of the response variable is assumed to be linearly related to the explanatory variables. Since the mean implicitly depends on the stochastic behavior of the response, and the explanatory variables are assumed to be fixed, the function g provides the link between the random (stochastic) component and the systematic (deterministic) component of the response variable Y . For this reason, Nelder and Wedderburn (1972) refer to g./ as a link function. One advantage of the logit function over other link functions is that differences on the logistic scale are interpretable regardless of whether the data are sampled prospectively or retrospectively (McCullagh and Nelder 1989, Chapter 4). Other link functions that are widely used in practice are the probit function and the complementary log-log function. The LOGISTIC procedure enables you to choose one of these link functions, resulting in fitting a broader class of binary response models of the form g./ D ˛ C ˇ 0 x For ordinal response models, the response, Y , of an individual or an experimental unit might be restricted to one of a (usually small) number of ordinal values, denoted for convenience by 1; : : : ; k; k C 1. For example, the severity of coronary disease can be classified into three response categories as 1=no disease, 2=angina pectoris, and 3=myocardial infarction. The LOGISTIC procedure fits a common slopes cumulative model, which is a parallel lines regression model based on the cumulative probabilities of the response categories rather than on their individual probabilities. The cumulative model has the form g.Pr.Y i j x// D ˛i C ˇ 0 x; i D 1; : : : ; k where ˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k are k intercept parameters, and ˇ is the vector of slope parameters. This model has been considered by many researchers. Aitchison and Silvey (1957) and Ashford (1959) employ a probit scale and provide a maximum likelihood analysis; Walker and Duncan (1967) and Cox and Snell (1989) discuss the use of the log odds scale. For the log odds scale, the cumulative logit model is often referred to as the proportional odds model. 3256 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure For nominal response logistic models, where the k C 1 possible responses have no natural ordering, the logit model can also be extended to a multinomial model known as a generalized or baselinecategory logit model, which has the form Pr.Y D i j x/ log D ˛i C ˇi0 x; i D 1; : : : ; k Pr.Y D k C 1 j x/ where the ˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k are k intercept parameters, and the ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇk are k vectors of slope parameters. These models are a special case of the discrete choice or conditional logit models introduced by McFadden (1974). The LOGISTIC procedure fits linear logistic regression models for discrete response data by the method of maximum likelihood. It can also perform conditional logistic regression for binary response data and exact conditional logistic regression for binary and nominal response data. The maximum likelihood estimation is carried out with either the Fisher scoring algorithm or the Newton-Raphson algorithm, and you can perform the bias-reducing penalized likelihood optimization as discussed by Firth (1993) and Heinze and Schemper (2002). You can specify starting values for the parameter estimates. The logit link function in the logistic regression models can be replaced by the probit function, the complementary log-log function, or the generalized logit function. The LOGISTIC procedure enables you to specify categorical variables (also known as classification or CLASS variables) or continuous variables as explanatory variables. You can also specify more complex model terms such as interactions and nested terms in the same way as in the GLM procedure. Any term specified in the model is referred to as an effect, whether it is a continuous variable, a CLASS variable, an interaction, or a nested term. An effect in the model that is not an interaction or a nested term is referred to as a main effect. The LOGISTIC procedure allows either a full-rank parameterization or a less-than-full-rank parameterization of the CLASS variables. The full-rank parameterization offers eight coding methods: effect, reference, ordinal, polynomial, and orthogonalizations of these. The effect coding is the same method that is used in the CATMOD procedure. The less-than-full-rank parameterization, often called dummy coding, is the same coding as that used in the GLM procedure. The LOGISTIC procedure provides four effect selection methods: forward selection, backward elimination, stepwise selection, and best subset selection. The best subset selection is based on the likelihood score statistic. This method identifies a specified number of best models containing one, two, three effects, and so on, up to a single model containing effects for all the explanatory variables. The LOGISTIC procedure has some additional options to control how to move effects in and out of a model with the forward selection, backward elimination, or stepwise selection model-building strategies. When there are no interaction terms, a main effect can enter or leave a model in a single step based on the p-value of the score or Wald statistic. When there are interaction terms, the selection process also depends on whether you want to preserve model hierarchy. These additional options enable you to specify whether model hierarchy is to be preserved, how model hierarchy is applied, and whether a single effect or multiple effects can be moved in a single step. Odds ratio estimates are displayed along with parameter estimates. You can also specify the change in the continuous explanatory main effects for which odds ratio estimates are desired. Confidence intervals for the regression parameters and odds ratios can be computed based either on the profilelikelihood function or on the asymptotic normality of the parameter estimators. You can also pro- Overview: LOGISTIC Procedure F 3257 duce odds ratios for effects that are involved in interactions or nestings, and for any type of parameterization of the CLASS variables. Various methods to correct for overdispersion are provided, including Williams’ method for grouped binary response data. The adequacy of the fitted model can be evaluated by various goodness-of-fit tests, including the Hosmer-Lemeshow test for binary response data. Like many procedures in SAS/STAT software that enable the specification of CLASS variables, the LOGISTIC procedure provides a CONTRAST statement for specifying customized hypothesis tests concerning the model parameters. The CONTRAST statement also provides estimation of individual rows of contrasts, which is particularly useful for obtaining odds ratio estimates for various levels of the CLASS variables. You can perform a conditional logistic regression on binary response data by specifying the STRATA statement. This enables you to perform matched-set and case-control analyses. The number of events and nonevents can vary across the strata. Many of the features available with the unconditional analysis are also available with a conditional analysis. The LOGISTIC procedure enables you to perform exact conditional logistic regression by using the method of Hirji, Mehta, and Patel (1987) and Mehta, Patel, and Senchaudhuri (1992) by specifying one or more EXACT statements. You can test individual parameters or conduct a joint test for several parameters. The procedure computes two exact tests: the exact conditional score test and the exact conditional probability test. You can request exact estimation of specific parameters and corresponding odds ratios where appropriate. Point estimates, standard errors, and confidence intervals are provided. Further features of the LOGISTIC procedure enable you to do the following: control the ordering of the response categories compute a generalized R2 measure for the fitted model reclassify binary response observations according to their predicted response probabilities test linear hypotheses about the regression parameters create a data set for producing a receiver operating characteristic curve for each fitted model specify contrasts to compare several receiver operating characteristic curves create a data set containing the estimated response probabilities, residuals, and influence diagnostics score a data set by using a previously fitted model The LOGISTIC procedure now uses ODS Graphics to create graphs as part of its output. For general information about ODS Graphics, see Chapter 21, “Statistical Graphics Using ODS.” For more information about the plots implemented in PROC LOGISTIC, see the section “ODS Graphics” on page 3377. The remaining sections of this chapter describe how to use PROC LOGISTIC and discuss the underlying statistical methodology. The section “Getting Started: LOGISTIC Procedure” on page 3258 introduces PROC LOGISTIC with an example for binary response data. The section “Syntax: LOGISTIC Procedure” on page 3264 describes the syntax of the procedure. The section “Details: 3258 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure LOGISTIC Procedure” on page 3316 summarizes the statistical technique employed by PROC LOGISTIC. The section “Examples: LOGISTIC Procedure” on page 3379 illustrates the use of the LOGISTIC procedure. For more examples and discussion on the use of PROC LOGISTIC, see Stokes, Davis, and Koch (2000), Allison (1999), and SAS Institute Inc. (1995). Getting Started: LOGISTIC Procedure The LOGISTIC procedure is similar in use to the other regression procedures in the SAS System. To demonstrate the similarity, suppose the response variable y is binary or ordinal, and x1 and x2 are two explanatory variables of interest. To fit a logistic regression model, you can specify a MODEL statement similar to that used in the REG procedure. For example: proc logistic; model y=x1 x2; run; The response variable y can be either character or numeric. PROC LOGISTIC enumerates the total number of response categories and orders the response levels according to the response variable option ORDER= in the MODEL statement. The procedure also allows the input of binary response data that are grouped. In the following statements, n represents the number of trials and r represents the number of events: proc logistic; model r/n=x1 x2; run; The following example illustrates the use of PROC LOGISTIC. The data, taken from Cox and Snell (1989, pp. 10–11), consist of the number, r, of ingots not ready for rolling, out of n tested, for a number of combinations of heating time and soaking time. data ingots; input Heat Soak datalines; 7 1.0 0 10 14 1.0 7 1.7 0 17 14 1.7 7 2.2 0 7 14 2.2 7 2.8 0 12 14 2.8 7 4.0 0 9 14 4.0 ; r n @@; 0 0 2 0 0 31 43 33 31 19 27 27 27 27 27 1.0 1.7 2.2 2.8 4.0 1 4 0 1 1 56 44 21 22 16 51 51 51 51 1.0 1.7 2.2 4.0 3 13 0 1 0 1 0 1 The following invocation of PROC LOGISTIC fits the binary logit model to the grouped data. The continous covariates Heat and Soak are specified as predictors, and the bar notation (“|”) includes their interaction, Heat*Soak. The ODDSRATIO statement produces odds ratios in the presence of interactions, and the ODS GRAPHICS statements produces a graphical display of the requested odds ratios. Getting Started: LOGISTIC Procedure F 3259 ods graphics on; proc logistic data=ingots; model r/n = Heat | Soak; oddsratio Heat / at(Soak=1 2 3 4); run; ods graphics off; The results of this analysis are shown in the following figures. PROC LOGISTIC first lists background information in Figure 51.1 about the fitting of the model. Included are the name of the input data set, the response variable(s) used, the number of observations used, and the link function used. Figure 51.1 Binary Logit Model The LOGISTIC Procedure Model Information Data Set Response Variable (Events) Response Variable (Trials) Model Optimization Technique Number Number Sum of Sum of WORK.INGOTS r n binary logit Fisher’s scoring of Observations Read of Observations Used Frequencies Read Frequencies Used 19 19 387 387 The “Response Profile” table (Figure 51.2) lists the response categories (which are Event and Nonevent when grouped data are input), their ordered values, and their total frequencies for the given data. Figure 51.2 Response Profile with Events/Trials Syntax Response Profile Ordered Value 1 2 Binary Outcome Total Frequency Event Nonevent 12 375 Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. The “Model Fit Statistics” table (Figure 51.3) contains the Akaike information criterion (AIC), the Schwarz criterion (SC), and the negative of twice the log likelihood (–2 Log L) for the interceptonly model and the fitted model. AIC and SC can be used to compare different models, and the ones with smaller values are preferred. Results of the likelihood ratio test and the efficient score test for testing the joint significance of the explanatory variables (Soak, Heat, and their interaction) are included in the “Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0” table (Figure 51.3); the small p-values reject the hypothesis that all slope parameters are equal to zero. 3260 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Figure 51.3 Fit Statistics and Hypothesis Tests Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 108.988 112.947 106.988 103.222 119.056 95.222 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 11.7663 16.5417 13.4588 3 3 3 0.0082 0.0009 0.0037 Likelihood Ratio Score Wald The “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” table in Figure 51.4 lists the parameter estimates, their standard errors, and the results of the Wald test for individual parameters. Note that the Heat*Soak parameter is not significantly different from zero (p=0.727), nor is the Soak variable (p=0.6916). Figure 51.4 Parameter Estimates Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept Heat Soak Heat*Soak 1 1 1 1 -5.9901 0.0963 0.2996 -0.00884 1.6666 0.0471 0.7551 0.0253 12.9182 4.1895 0.1574 0.1219 0.0003 0.0407 0.6916 0.7270 The “Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses” table (Figure 51.5) contains four measures of association for assessing the predictive ability of a model. They are based on the number of pairs of observations with different response values, the number of concordant pairs, and the number of discordant pairs, which are also displayed. Formulas for these statistics are given in the section “Rank Correlation of Observed Responses and Predicted Probabilities” on page 3336. Figure 51.5 Association Table Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 70.9 17.3 11.8 4500 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c 0.537 0.608 0.032 0.768 Getting Started: LOGISTIC Procedure F 3261 The ODDSRATIO statement produces the “Wald Confidence Interval for Odds Ratios” table (Figure 51.6), and the ODS GRAPHICS statements display these estimates in Figure 51.7. The differences between the odds ratios are small compared to the variability shown by their confidence intervals, which confirms the previous conclusion that the Heat*Soak parameter is not significantly different from zero. Figure 51.6 Odds Ratios of Heat at Several Values of Soak Wald Confidence Interval for Odds Ratios Label Heat Heat Heat Heat Estimate at at at at Soak=1 Soak=2 Soak=3 Soak=4 1.091 1.082 1.072 1.063 95% Confidence Limits 1.032 1.028 0.986 0.935 Figure 51.7 Plot of Odds Ratios of Heat at Several Values of Soak 1.154 1.139 1.166 1.208 3262 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Since the Heat*Soak interaction is nonsignificant, the following statements fit a main-effects model: proc logistic data=ingots; model r/n = Heat Soak; run; The results of this analysis are shown in the following figures. The model information and response profiles are the same as those in Figure 51.1 and Figure 51.2 for the saturated model. The “Model Fit Statistics” table in Figure 51.8 shows that the AIC and SC for the main-effects model are smaller than for the saturated model, indicating that the main-effects model might be the preferred model. As in the preceding model, the “Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0” table indicates that the parameters are significantly different from zero. Figure 51.8 Fit Statistics and Hypothesis Tests The LOGISTIC Procedure Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 108.988 112.947 106.988 101.346 113.221 95.346 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 11.6428 15.1091 13.0315 2 2 2 0.0030 0.0005 0.0015 The “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” table in Figure 51.9 again shows that the Soak parameter is not significantly different from zero (p=0.8639). The odds ratio for each effect parameter, estimated by exponentiating the corresponding parameter estimate, is shown in the “Odds Ratios Estimates” table (Figure 51.4), along with 95% Wald confidence intervals. The confidence interval for the Soak parameter contains the value 1, which also indicates that this effect is not significant. Figure 51.9 Parameter Estimates and Odds Ratios Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept Heat Soak 1 1 1 -5.5592 0.0820 0.0568 1.1197 0.0237 0.3312 24.6503 11.9454 0.0294 <.0001 0.0005 0.8639 Getting Started: LOGISTIC Procedure F 3263 Figure 51.9 continued Odds Ratio Estimates Point Estimate Effect Heat Soak 95% Wald Confidence Limits 1.085 1.058 1.036 0.553 1.137 2.026 Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 64.4 18.4 17.2 4500 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c 0.460 0.555 0.028 0.730 Using these parameter estimates, you can calculate the estimated logit of as 5:5592 C 0:082 Heat C 0:0568 Soak For example, if HeatD7 and SoakD1, then logit.b / D calculate b as follows: 4:9284. Using this logit estimate, you can b D 1=.1 C e4:9284 / D 0:0072 This gives the predicted probability of the event (ingot not ready for rolling) for HeatD7 and SoakD1. Note that PROC LOGISTIC can calculate these statistics for you; use the OUTPUT statement with the PREDICTED= option, or use the SCORE statement. To illustrate the use of an alternative form of input data, the following program creates the ingots data set with the new variables NotReady and Freq instead of n and r. The variable NotReady represents the response of individual units; it has a value of 1 for units not ready for rolling (event) and a value of 0 for units ready for rolling (nonevent). The variable Freq represents the frequency of occurrence of each combination of Heat, Soak, and NotReady. Note that, compared to the previous data set, NotReadyD1 implies FreqDr, and NotReadyD0 implies FreqDn–r. data ingots; input Heat Soak datalines; 7 1.0 0 10 14 1.0 7 1.7 0 17 14 1.7 7 2.2 0 7 14 2.2 7 2.8 0 12 14 2.2 7 4.0 0 9 14 2.8 ; NotReady Freq @@; 0 0 1 0 0 31 43 2 31 31 14 27 27 27 27 4.0 1.0 1.0 1.7 1.7 0 19 1 1 0 55 1 4 0 40 27 27 27 27 27 2.2 2.8 2.8 4.0 4.0 0 21 1 1 0 21 1 1 0 15 51 51 51 51 51 1.0 1.0 1.7 2.2 4.0 1 3 0 10 0 1 0 1 0 1 The following statements invoke PROC LOGISTIC to fit the main-effects model by using the alternative form of the input data set: proc logistic data=ingots; model NotReady(event=’1’) = Heat Soak; freq Freq; run; 3264 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Results of this analysis are the same as the preceding single-trial main-effects analysis. The displayed output for the two runs are identical except for the background information of the model fit and the “Response Profile” table shown in Figure 51.10. Figure 51.10 Response Profile with Single-Trial Syntax The LOGISTIC Procedure Response Profile Ordered Value NotReady Total Frequency 1 2 0 1 375 12 Probability modeled is NotReady=1. By default, Ordered Values are assigned to the sorted response values in ascending order, and PROC LOGISTIC models the probability of the response level that corresponds to the Ordered Value 1. There are several methods to change these defaults; the preceding statements specify the response variable option EVENT= to model the probability of NotReady=1 as displayed in Figure 51.10. See the section “Response Level Ordering” on page 3316 for more details. Syntax: LOGISTIC Procedure The following statements are available in PROC LOGISTIC: PROC LOGISTIC < options > ; BY variables ; CLASS variable < (options) >< variable < (options) >: : : >< / options > ; CONTRAST ’label’ effect values< , effect values,: : : >< / options > ; EXACT < ’label’ >< INTERCEPT >< effects >< / options > ; FREQ variable ; < label: > MODEL events/trials=< effects >< / options > ; < label: > MODEL variable < (variable_options) >=< effects >< / options > ; OUTPUT < OUT=SAS-data-set >< keyword=name < keyword=name: : : > >< / option > ; ROC < ’label’ > < specification > < / options > ; ROCCONTRAST < ’label’ >< contrast >< / options > ; SCORE < options > ; STRATA effects < / options > ; < label: > TEST equation1 < ,equation2,: : : >< / option > ; UNITS independent1=list1 < independent2=list2 : : : >< / option > ; WEIGHT variable < / option > ; PROC LOGISTIC Statement F 3265 The PROC LOGISTIC and MODEL statements are required. The CLASS statement (if specified) must precede the MODEL statement, and the CONTRAST, EXACT, and ROC statements (if specified) must follow the MODEL statement. The PROC LOGISTIC, MODEL, and ROCCONTRAST statements can be specified at most once. If a FREQ or WEIGHT statement is specified more than once, the variable specified in the first instance is used. If a BY, OUTPUT, or UNITS statement is specified more than once, the last instance is used. The rest of this section provides detailed syntax information for each of the preceding statements, beginning with the PROC LOGISTIC statement. The remaining statements are covered in alphabetical order. PROC LOGISTIC Statement PROC LOGISTIC < options > ; The PROC LOGISTIC statement invokes the LOGISTIC procedure and optionally identifies input and output data sets, suppresses the display of results, and controls the ordering of the response levels. Table 51.1 summarizes the available options. Table 51.1 Option PROC LOGISTIC Statement Options Description Input/Output Data Set Options COVOUT displays estimated covariance matrix in OUTEST= data set DATA= names the input SAS data set INEST= specifies inital estimates SAS data set INMODEL= specifies model information SAS data set NOCOV does not save covariance matrix in OUTMODEL= data set OUTDESIGN= specifies design matrix output SAS data set OUTDESIGNONLY outputs the design matrix only OUTEST= specifies parameter estimates output SAS data set OUTMODEL= specifies model output data set for scoring Response and CLASS Variable Options DESCENDING reverses sorting order of response variable NAMELEN= specifies maximum length of effect names ORDER= specifies sorting order of response variable TRUNCATE truncates class level names Displayed Output Options ALPHA= specifies significance level for confidence intervals NOPRINT suppresses all displayed output PLOTS specifies options for plots SIMPLE displays descriptive statistics Large Data Set Option MULTIPASS does not copy input SAS data set for internal computations 3266 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Table 51.1 continued Option Description Control of Other Statement Options EXACTONLY performs exact analysis only EXACTOPTIONS specifies global options for EXACT statements ROCOPTIONS specifies global options for ROC statements ALPHA=number specifies the level of significance ˛ for 100.1 ˛/% confidence intervals. The value number must be between 0 and 1; the default value is 0.05, which results in 95% intervals. This value is used as the default confidence level for limits computed by the following options: Statement Options CONTRAST EXACT MODEL ODDSRATIO OUTPUT PROC LOGISTIC ROCCONTRAST SCORE ESTIMATE= ESTIMATE= CLODDS= CLPARM= CL= LOWER= UPPER= PLOTS=EFFECT(CLBAR CLBAND) ESTIMATE= CLM You can override the default in most of these cases by specifying the ALPHA= option in the separate statements. COVOUT adds the estimated covariance matrix to the OUTEST= data set. For the COVOUT option to have an effect, the OUTEST= option must be specified. See the section “OUTEST= Output Data Set” on page 3362 for more information. DATA=SAS-data-set names the SAS data set containing the data to be analyzed. If you omit the DATA= option, the procedure uses the most recently created SAS data set. The INMODEL= option cannot be specified with this option. DESCENDING DESC reverses the sorting order for the levels of the response variable. If both the DESCENDING and ORDER= options are specified, PROC LOGISTIC orders the levels according to the ORDER= option and then reverses that order. This option has the same effect as the response variable option DESCENDING in the MODEL statement. See the section “Response Level Ordering” on page 3316 for more detail. EXACTONLY requests only the exact analyses. The asymptotic analysis that PROC LOGISTIC usually performs is suppressed. PROC LOGISTIC Statement F 3267 EXACTOPTIONS (options) specifies options that apply to every EXACT statement in the program. The following options are available: adds the observed sufficient statistic to the sampled exact distribution if the statistic was not sampled. This option has no effect unless the METHOD=NETWORKMC option is specified and the ESTIMATE option is specified in the EXACT statement. If the observed statistic has not been sampled, then the parameter estimate does not exist; by specifying this option, you can produce (biased) estimates. ADDTOBS Some exact distributions are created by taking a subset of a previously generated exact distribution. When the METHOD=NETWORKMC option is invoked, this has the effect of using fewer than the desired n samples; see the N= option for more details. The BUILDSUBSETS option suppresses this subsetting behavior and instead builds every distribution for sampling. Pj EPSILON=value controls how the partial sums i D1 yi xi are compared. value must be between 0 and 1; by default, value=1E–8. BUILDSUBSETS specifies the maximum clock time (in seconds) that PROC LOGISTIC can use to calculate the exact distributions. If the limit is exceeded, the procedure halts all computations and prints a note to the LOG. The default maximum clock time is seven days. MAXTIME=seconds specifies which exact conditional algorithm to use for every EXACT statement specified. You can specify one of the following keywords: METHOD=keyword DIRECT invokes the multivariate shift algorithm of Hirji, Mehta, and Patel (1987). This method directly builds the exact distribution, but it can require an excessive amount of memory in its intermediate stages. METHOD=DIRECT is invoked by default when you are conditioning out at most the intercept, or when the LINK=GLOGIT option is specified in the MODEL statement. NETWORK invokes an algorithm described in Mehta, Patel, and Senchaudhuri (1992). This method builds a network for each parameter that you are conditioning out, combines the networks, then uses the multivariate shift algorithm to create the exact distribution. The NETWORK method can be faster and require less memory than the DIRECT method. The NETWORK method is invoked by default for most analyses. NETWORKMC invokes the hybrid network and Monte Carlo algorithm of Mehta, Patel, and Senchaudhuri (1992). This method creates a network, then samples from that network; this method does not reject any of the samples at the cost of using a large amount of memory to create the network. METHOD=NETWORKMC is most useful for producing parameter estimates for problems that are too large for the DIRECT and NETWORK methods to handle and for which asymptotic methods are invalid—for example, for sparse data on a large grid. 3268 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure N=n specifies the number of Monte Carlo samples to take when the METHOD=NETWORKMC option is specified. By default, nD 10; 000. If the procedure cannot obtain n samples due to a lack of memory, then a note is printed in the SAS log (the number of valid samples is also reported in the listing) and the analysis continues. Note that the number of samples used to produce any particular statistic might be smaller than n. For example, let X1 and X2 be continuous variables, denote their joint distribution by f .X1; X2/, and let f .X1jX2 D x2/ denote the marginal distribution of X1 conditioned on the observed value of X2. If you request the JOINT test of X1 and X2, then n samples are used to generate the estimate fO.X1; X 2/ of f .X1; X 2/, from which the test is computed. However, the parameter estimate for X1 is computed from the subset of fO.X1; X2/ having X2 D x2, and this subset need not contain n samples. Similarly, the distribution for each level of a classification variable is created by extracting the appropriate subset from the joint distribution for the CLASS variable. In some cases, the marginal sample size can be too small to admit accurate estimation of a particular statistic; a note is printed in the SAS log when a marginal sample size is less than 100. Increasing n will increase the number of samples used in a marginal distribution; however, if you want to control the sample size exactly, you can either specify the BUILDSUBSETS option or do both of the following: ONDISK Remove the JOINT option from the EXACT statement. Create dummy variables in a DATA step to represent the levels of a CLASS variable, and specify them as independent variables in the MODEL statement. uses disk space instead of random access memory to build the exact conditional distribution. Use this option to handle larger problems at the cost of slower processing. specifies the initial seed for the random number generator used to take the Monte Carlo samples when the METHOD=NETWORKMC option is specified. The value of the SEED= option must be an integer. If you do not specify a seed, or if you specify a value less than or equal to zero, then PROC LOGISTIC uses the time of day from the computer’s clock to generate an initial seed. The seed is displayed in the “Model Information” table. SEED=seed prints a status line in the SAS log after every number Monte Carlo samples when the METHOD=NETWORKMC option is specified. The number of samples taken and the current exact p-value for testing the significance of the model are displayed. You can use this status line to track the progress of the computation of the exact conditional distributions. STATUSN=number specifies the time interval (in seconds) for printing a status line in the LOG. You can use this status line to track the progress of the computation of the exact conditional distributions. The time interval you specify is approximate; the actual time interval will vary. By default, no status reports are produced. STATUSTIME=seconds INEST=SAS-data-set names the SAS data set that contains initial estimates for all the parameters in the model. If BY-group processing is used, it must be accommodated in setting up the INEST= data set. See the section “INEST= Input Data Set” on page 3363 for more information. PROC LOGISTIC Statement F 3269 INMODEL=SAS-data-set specifies the name of the SAS data set that contains the model information needed for scoring new data. This INMODEL= data set is the OUTMODEL= data set saved in a previous PROC LOGISTIC call. Note that the OUTMODEL= data set should not be modified before its use as an INMODEL= data set. The DATA= option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement cannot be specified with this option; instead, specify the data sets to be scored in the SCORE statements. FORMAT statements are not allowed when the INMODEL= data set is specified; variables in the DATA= and PRIOR= data sets in the SCORE statement should be formatted within the data sets. You can specify the BY statement provided that the INMODEL= data set is created under the same BY-group processing. The CLASS, EXACT, MODEL, OUTPUT, ROC, ROCCONTRAST, TEST, and UNIT statements are not available with the INMODEL= option. MULTIPASS forces the procedure to reread the DATA= data set as needed rather than require its storage in memory or in a temporary file on disk. By default, the data set is cleaned up and stored in memory or in a temporary file. This option can be useful for large data sets. All exact analyses are ignored in the presence of the MULTIPASS option. If a STRATA statement is specified, then the data set must first be grouped or sorted by the strata variables. NAMELEN=n specifies the maximum length of effect names in tables and output data sets to be n characters, where n is a value between 20 and 200. The default length is 20 characters. NOCOV specifies that the covariance matrix not be saved in the OUTMODEL= data set. The covariance matrix is needed for computing the confidence intervals for the posterior probabilities in the OUT= data set in the SCORE statement. Specifying this option will reduce the size of the OUTMODEL= data set. NOPRINT suppresses all displayed output. Note that this option temporarily disables the Output Delivery System (ODS); see Chapter 20, “Using the Output Delivery System,” for more information. ORDER=DATA | FORMATTED | FREQ | INTERNAL RORDER=DATA | FORMATTED | INTERNAL specifies the sorting order for the levels of the response variable. See the response variable option ORDER= in the MODEL statement for more information. For ordering of CLASS variable levels, see the ORDER= option in the CLASS statement. OUTDESIGN=SAS-data-set specifies the name of the data set that contains the design matrix for the model. The data set contains the same number of observations as the corresponding DATA= data set and includes the response variable (with the same format as in the DATA= data set), the FREQ variable, the WEIGHT variable, the OFFSET= variable, and the design variables for the covariates, 3270 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure including the Intercept variable of constant value 1 unless the NOINT option in the MODEL statement is specified. OUTDESIGNONLY suppresses the model fitting and creates only the OUTDESIGN= data set. This option is ignored if the OUTDESIGN= option is not specified. OUTEST=SAS-data-set creates an output SAS data set that contains the final parameter estimates and, optionally, their estimated covariances (see the preceding COVOUT option). The output data set also includes a variable named _LNLIKE_, which contains the log likelihood. See the section “OUTEST= Output Data Set” on page 3362 for more information. OUTMODEL=SAS-data-set specifies the name of the SAS data set that contains the information about the fitted model. This data set contains sufficient information to score new data without having to refit the model. It is solely used as the input to the INMODEL= option in a subsequent PROC LOGISTIC call. The OUTMODEL= option is not available with the STRATA statement. Information in this data set is stored in a very compact form, so you should not modify it manually. PLOTS < (global-plot-options) >< =plot-request< (options) > > PLOTS < (global-plot-options) > =(plot-request< (options) >< : : : plot-request< (options) > >) controls the plots produced through ODS Graphics. When you specify only one plot-request, you can omit the parentheses from around the plot-request. For example: PLOTS = ALL PLOTS = (ROC EFFECT INFLUENCE(UNPACK)) PLOTS(ONLY) = EFFECT(CLBAR SHOWOBS) You must enable ODS Graphics before requesting plots. For example: ods graphics on; proc logistic plots=all; model y=x; run; ods graphics off; If the PLOTS option is not specified or is specified with no options, then graphics are produced by default in the following situations: If the INFLUENCE or IPLOTS option is specified in the MODEL statement, then the line-printer plots are suppressed and the INFLUENCE plots are produced. If you specify the OUTROC= option in the MODEL statement, then ROC curves are produced. If you also specify a SELECTION= method, then an overlaid plot of all the ROC curves for each step of the selection process is displayed. If the OUTROC= option is specified in a SCORE statement, then the ROC curve for the scored data set is displayed. If you specify ROC statements, then an overlaid plot of the ROC curves for the model (or the selected model if a SELECTION= method is specified) and for all the ROC statement models is displayed. PROC LOGISTIC Statement F 3271 If you specify the CLODDS= option in the MODEL statement, or specify an ODDSRATIO statement, then a plot of the odds ratios and their confidence limits is displayed. For general information about ODS Graphics, see Chapter 21, “Statistical Graphics Using ODS.” The following global-plot-options are available: LABEL displays the case number on diagnostic plots, to aid in identifying the outlying observations. This option enhances the plots produced by the DFBETAS, DPC, INFLUENCE, LEVERAGE, and PHAT options. ONLY suppresses the default plots. Only specifically requested plot-requests are displayed. suppresses paneling. By default, multiple plots can appear in some output panels. Specify UNPACKPANEL to display each plot separately. UNPACKPANELS | UNPACK The following plot-requests are available: ALL produces all appropriate plots. You can specify other options with ALL. For example, to display all plots and unpack the DFBETAS plots you can specify plots=(all dfbetas(unpack)). displays plots of DFBETAS versus the case (observation) number. This displays the statistics generated by the DFBETAS=_ALL_ option in the OUTPUT statement. The UNPACK option displays the plots separately. See Output 51.6.5 for an example of this plot. DFBETAS < (UNPACK) > displays plots of DIFCHISQ and DIFDEV versus the predicted event probability, and colors the markers according to the value of the confidence interval displacement C. The UNPACK option displays the plots separately. See Output 51.6.8 for an example of this plot. DPC < (UNPACK) > EFFECT< (effect-options) > displays and enhances the effect plots for the model. For more information about effect plots and the available effect-options, see the section “EFFECT Plots” on page 3273. See Outputs 51.2.11, 51.3.5, 51.4.8, 51.7.4, and 51.15.4 for examples of this plot. displays index plots of RESCHI, RESDEV, leverage, confidence interval displacements C and CBar, DIFCHISQ, and DIFDEV. These plots are produced by default when ods graphics on is specified. The UNPACK option displays the plots separately. See Outputs 51.6.3 and 51.6.4 for examples of this plot. INFLUENCE< (UNPACK) > displays plots of DIFCHISQ, DIFDEV, confidence interval displacement C, and the predicted probability versus the leverage. The UNPACK option displays the plots separately. See Output 51.6.7 for an example of this plot. LEVERAGE< (UNPACK) > NONE suppresses all plots. ODDSRATIO< (oddsratio-options) > displays and enhances the odds ratio plots for the model when the CLODDS= option or ODDSRATIO statements are also specified. 3272 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure For more information about odds ratio plots and the available oddsratio-options, see the section “Odds Ratio Plots” on page 3276. See Outputs 51.7,51.2.9, 51.3.3, and 51.4.5 for examples of this plot. displays plots of DIFCHISQ, DIFDEV, confidence interval displacement C, and leverage versus the predicted event probability. The UNPACK option displays the plots separately. See Output 51.6.6 for an example of this plot. PHAT< (UNPACK) > displays the ROC curve. If you also specify a SELECTION= method, then an overlaid plot of all the ROC curves for each step of the selection process is displayed. If you specify ROC statements, then an overlaid plot of the model (or the selected model if a SELECTION= method is specified) and the ROC statement models will be displayed. If the OUTROC= option is specified in a SCORE statement, then the ROC curve for the scored data set is displayed. The ID= option labels certain points on the ROC curve. Typically, the labeled points are closest to the upper-left corner of the plot, and points directly below or to the right of a labeled point are suppressed. Specifying ID=PROB | CUTPOINT displays the predicted probability of those points, while ID=CASENUM | OBS displays the observation number. In case of ties, only the last observation number is displayed. See Output 51.7.3 and Example 51.8 for examples of these ROC plots. ROC< (ID=keyword) > ROCOPTIONS (options) specifies options that apply to every model specified in a ROC statement. The following options are available: sets the significance level for creating confidence limits of the areas and the pairwise differences. The ALPHA= value specified in the PROC LOGISTIC statement is the default. If neither ALPHA= value is specified, then ALPHA=0.05 by default. ALPHA=number is an alias for the ROCEPS= option in the MODEL statement. This value is used to determine which predicted probabilities are equal. By default, EPS=1000*MACEPS (about 1E–12) for comparisons; however, EPS=0.0001 for computing c from the “Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses” table when ROC statements are not specified. EPS=value displays labels on certain points on the individual ROC curves. This option is identical to, and overrides, the ID= suboption of the PLOTS=ROC option in the PROC statement. Specifying ID=PROB | CUTPOINT displays the predicted probability of an observation, while ID=CASENUM | OBS displays the observation number. In case of ties, the last observation number is displayed. ID=keyword-or-variable suppresses the display of the model fitting information for the models specified in the ROC statements. NODETAILS OUT=SAS-data-set-name is an alias for the OUTROC= option in the MODEL statement. uses frequencyweight in the ROC computations (Izrael et al. 2002) instead of just frequency. Typically, weights are considered in the fit of the model only, and hence are accounted for in the parameter estimates. The “Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses” table uses frequency only, and is suppressed when ROC comparisons are performed. WEIGHTED PROC LOGISTIC Statement F 3273 SIMPLE displays simple descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum) for each continuous explanatory variable. For each CLASS variable involved in the modeling, the frequency counts of the classification levels are displayed. The SIMPLE option generates a breakdown of the simple descriptive statistics or frequency counts for the entire data set and also for individual response categories. TRUNCATE determines class levels by using no more than the first 16 characters of the formatted values of CLASS, response, and strata variables. When formatted values are longer than 16 characters, you can use this option to revert to the levels as determined in releases previous to SAS 9.0. This option invokes the same option in the CLASS statement. EFFECT Plots Only one EFFECT plot is produced by default; you must specify other effect-options to produce multiple plots. For binary response models, the following plots are produced when an EFFECT option is specified with no effect-options: If you only have continuous covariates in the model, then a plot of the predicted probability versus the first continuous covariate fixing all other continuous covariates at their means is displayed. See Output 51.7.4 for an example with one continuous covariate. If you only have classification covariates in the model, then a plot of the predicted probability versus the first CLASS covariate at each level of the second CLASS covariate, if any, holding all other CLASS covariates at their reference levels is displayed. If you have CLASS and continuous covariates, then a plot of the predicted probability versus the first continuous covariate at up to 10 cross-classifications of the CLASS covariate levels, while fixing all other continuous covariates at their means and all other CLASS covariates at their reference levels, is displayed. For example, if your model has four binary covariates, there are 16 cross-classifications of the CLASS covariate levels. The plot displays the 8 crossclassifications of the levels of the first three covariates while the fourth covariate is fixed at its reference level. For polytomous response models, similar plots are produced by default, except that the response levels are used in place of the CLASS covariate levels. Plots for polytomous response models involving OFFSET= variables with multiple values are not available. See Outputs 51.2.11, 51.3.5, 51.4.8, 51.7.4, and 51.15.4 for examples of effect plots. The following effect-options specify the type of graphic to produce. AT(variable=value-list | ALL< ...variable=value-list | ALL >) specifies fixed values for a covariate. For continuous covariates, you can specify one or more numbers in the value-list. For classification covariates, you can specify one or more formatted levels of the covariate enclosed in single quotes (for example, A=’cat’ ’dog’), or you can specify the keyword ALL to select all levels of the classification variable. You can specify a variable at most once in the AT option. By default, continuous covariates are set to their means when they are not used on an axis, while classification covariates are set 3274 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure to their reference level when they are not used as an X=, SLICEBY=, or PLOTBY= effect. For example, for a model that includes a classification variable A={cat,dog} and a continuous covariate X, specifying AT(A=’cat’ X=7 9) will set A to cat when A does not appear in the plot. When X does not define an axis it first produces plots setting X D 7 and then produces plots setting X D 9. Note in this example that specifying AT( A=ALL ) is the same as specifying the PLOTBY=A option. FITOBSONLY computes the predicted values only at the observed data. If the FITOBSONLY option is omitted and the X-axis variable is continuous, the predicted values are computed at a grid of points extending slightly beyond the range of the data (see the EXTEND= option for more information). If the FITOBSONLY option is omitted and the X-axis effect is categorical, the predicted values are computed at all possible categories. INDIVIDUAL displays the individual probabilities instead of the cumulative probabilities. This option is available only with cumulative models, and it is not available with the LINK option. LINK displays the linear predictors instead of the probabilities on the Y axis. For example, for a binary logistic regression, the Y axis will be displayed on the logit scale. The INDIVIDUAL and POLYBAR options are not available with the LINK option. PLOTBY=effect displays an effect plot at each unique level of the PLOTBY= effect. You can specify effect as one CLASS variable or as an interaction of classification covariates. For polytomousresponse models, you can also specify the response variable as the lone SLICEBY= effect. For nonsingular parameterizations, the complete cross-classification of the CLASS variables specified in the effect define the different PLOTBY= levels. When the GLM parameterization is used, the PLOTBY= levels can depend on the model and the data. SLICEBY=effect displays predicted probabilities at each unique level of the SLICEBY= effect. You can specify effect as one CLASS variable or as an interaction of classification covariates. For polytomousresponse models, you can also specify the response variable as the lone SLICEBY= effect. For nonsingular parameterizations, the complete cross-classification of the CLASS variables specified in the effect define the different SLICEBY= levels. When the GLM parameterization is used, the SLICEBY= levels can depend on the model and the data. X=effect X=(effect...effect) specifies effects to be used on the X axis of the effect plots. You can specify several different X axes: continuous variables must be specified as main effects, while CLASS variables can be crossed. For nonsingular parameterizations, the complete cross-classification of the CLASS variables specified in the effect define the axes. When the GLM parameterization is used, the X= levels can depend on the model and the data. The response variable is not allowed as an effect. PROC LOGISTIC Statement F 3275 N OTE : Any variable not specified in a SLICEBY= or PLOTBY= option is available to be displayed on the X axis. A variable can be specified in at most one of the SLICEBY=, PLOTBY=, and X= options. The following effect-options enhance the graphical output. ALPHA=number specifies the size of the confidence limits. The ALPHA= value specified in the PROC LOGISTIC statement is the default. If neither ALPHA= value is specified, then ALPHA=0.05 by default. CLBAND< =YES | NO > displays confidence limits on the plots. This option is not available with the INDIVIDUAL option. If you have CLASS covariates on the X axis, then error bars are displayed (see the CLBAR option) unless you also specify the CONNECT option. CLBAR displays the error bars on the plots when you have CLASS covariates on the X axis; if the X axis is continuous, then this invokes the CLBAND option. For polytomous-response models with CLASS covariates only and with the POLYBAR option specified, the stacked bar charts are replaced by side-by-side bar charts with error bars. CONNECT< =YES | NO > JOIN< =YES | NO > connects the predicted values with a line. This option affects only X axes containing classification variables. EXTEND=value extends continuous X axes by a factor of value=2 in each direction. By default, EXTEND=0.2. MAXATLEN=length specifies the maximum number of characters used to display the levels of all the fixed variables. If the text is too long, it is truncated and ellipses (“. . . ”) are appended. By default, length is equal to its maximum allowed value, 256. POLYBAR replaces scatter plots of polytomous response models with bar charts. This option has no effect on binary-response models, and it is overridden by the CONNECT option. SHOWOBS< =YES | NO > displays observations on the plot. For event/trial notation, the observed proportions are displayed; for single-trial binary-response models, the observed events are displayed at pO D 1 and the observed nonevents are displayed at pO D 0. For polytomous response models the predicted probabilities at the observed values of the covariate are computed and displayed. YRANGE=(< min >< ,max >) displays the Y axis as [min,max]. Note that the axis might extend beyond your specified values. By default, the entire Y axis, [0,1], is displayed for the predicted probabilities. This option is useful if your predicted probabilities are all contained in some subset of this range. 3276 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Odds Ratio Plots When either the CLODDS= option or the ODDSRATIO statement is specified, the resulting odds ratios and confidence limits can be displayed in a graphic. If you have many odds ratios, you can produce multiple graphics, or panels, by displaying subsets of the odds ratios. Odds ratios with duplicate labels are not displayed. See Outputs 51.2.9 and 51.3.3 for examples of odds ratio plots. The following oddsratio-options modify the default odds ratio plot. DOTPLOT displays dotted gridlines on the plot. GROUP displays the odds ratios in panels defined by the ODDSRATIO statements. NPANELPOS= option is ignored when this option is specified. The LOGBASE=2 | E | 10 displays the odds ratio axis on the specified log scale. NPANELPOS=n breaks the plot into multiple graphics having at most jnj odds ratios per graphic. If n is positive, then the number of odds ratios per graphic is balanced; but if n is negative, then no balancing of the number of odds ratios takes place. By default, n D 0 and all odds ratios are displayed in a single plot. For example, suppose you want to display 21 odds ratios. Then specifying NPANELPOS=20 displays two plots, the first with 11 odds ratios and the second with 10; but specifying NPANELPOS=-20 displays 20 odds ratios in the first plot and only 1 odds ratio in the second. ORDER=ASCENDING | DESCENDING displays the odds ratios in sorted order. By default the odds ratios are displayed in the order in which they appear in the corresponding table. RANGE=(< min >< ,max >) | CLIP specifies the range of the displayed odds ratio axis. The RANGE=CLIP option has the same effect as specifying the minimum odds ratio as min and the maximum odds ratio as max. By default, all odds ratio confidence intervals are displayed. TYPE=HORIZONTAL | HORIZONTALSTAT | VERTICAL | VERTICALBLOCK controls the look of the graphic. The default TYPE=HORIZONTAL option places the odds ratio values on the X axis, while the TYPE=HORIZONTALSTAT option also displays the values of the odds ratios and their confidence limits on the right side of the graphic. The TYPE=VERTICAL option places the odds ratio values on the Y axis, while the TYPE=VERTICALBLOCK option (available only with the CLODDS= option) places the odds ratio values on the Y axis and puts boxes around the labels. BY Statement F 3277 BY Statement BY variables ; You can specify a BY statement with PROC LOGISTIC to obtain separate analyses on observations in groups defined by the BY variables. When a BY statement appears, the procedure expects the input data set to be sorted in order of the BY variables. The variables are one or more variables in the input data set. If you specify more than one BY statement, the last one specified is used. If your input data set is not sorted in ascending order, use one of the following alternatives: Sort the data by using the SORT procedure with a similar BY statement. Specify NOTSORTED or DESCENDING option in the BY statement for the LOGISTIC procedure. The NOTSORTED option does not mean that the data are unsorted but rather that the data are arranged in groups (according to values of the BY variables) and that these groups are not necessarily in alphabetical or increasing numeric order. Create an index on the BY variables by using the DATASETS procedure (in Base SAS software). If a SCORE statement is specified, then define the training data set to be the DATA= or the INMODEL=data set in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, and define the scoring data set to be the DATA= data set and PRIOR= data set in the SCORE statement. The training data set contains all of the BY variables, and the scoring data set must contain either all of them or none of them. If the scoring data set contains all the BY variables, matching is carried out between the training and scoring data sets. If the scoring data set does not contain any of the BY variables, the entire scoring data set is used for every BY group in the training data set and the BY variables are added to the output data sets specified in the SCORE statement. C AUTION : The order of the levels in the response and classification variables is determined from all the data regardless of BY groups. However, different sets of levels might appear in different BY groups. This might affect the value of the reference level for these variables, and hence your interpretation of the model and the parameters. For more information about the BY statement, see SAS Language Reference: Concepts. For more information about the DATASETS procedure, see the Base SAS Procedures Guide. 3278 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure CLASS Statement CLASS variable < (options) >< variable < (options) >: : : >< / options > ; The CLASS statement names the classification variables to be used in the analysis. The CLASS statement must precede the MODEL statement. You can specify various options for each variable by enclosing them in parentheses after the variable name. You can also specify global options for the CLASS statement by placing the options after a slash (/). Global options are applied to all the variables specified in the CLASS statement. If you specify more than one CLASS statement, the global options specified in any one CLASS statement apply to all CLASS statements. However, individual CLASS variable options override the global options. The following options are available: CPREFIX=n specifies that, at most, the first n characters of a CLASS variable name be used in creating names for the corresponding design variables. The default is 32 min.32; max.2; f //, where f is the formatted length of the CLASS variable. DESCENDING DESC reverses the sorting order of the classification variable. If both the DESCENDING and ORDER= options are specified, PROC LOGISTIC orders the categories according to the ORDER= option and then reverses that order. LPREFIX=n specifies that, at most, the first n characters of a CLASS variable label be used in creating labels for the corresponding design variables. The default is 256 min.256; max.2; f //, where f is the formatted length of the CLASS variable. MISSING treats missing values (’.’, ‘.A’,. . . ,‘.Z’ for numeric variables and blanks for character variables) as valid values for the CLASS variable. ORDER=DATA | FORMATTED | FREQ | INTERNAL specifies the sorting order for the levels of classification variables. By default, ORDER=FORMATTED. For ORDER=FORMATTED and ORDER=INTERNAL, the sort order is machine dependent. When ORDER=FORMATTED is in effect for numeric variables for which you have supplied no explicit format, the levels are ordered by their internal values. This ordering determines which parameters in the model correspond to each level in the data, so the ORDER= option can be useful when you use the CONTRAST statement. The following table shows how PROC LOGISTIC interprets values of the ORDER= option. Value of ORDER= Levels Sorted By DATA FORMATTED order of appearance in the input data set external formatted value, except for numeric variables with no explicit format, which are sorted by their unformatted (internal) value descending frequency count; levels with the most observations come first in the order unformatted value FREQ INTERNAL CLASS Statement F 3279 For more information about sorting order, see the chapter on the SORT procedure in the Base SAS Procedures Guide and the discussion of BY-group processing in SAS Language Reference: Concepts. PARAM=keyword specifies the parameterization method for the classification variable or variables. Design matrix columns are created from CLASS variables according to the following coding schemes. You can use one of the following keywords; the default is PARAM=EFFECT coding. EFFECT specifies effect coding. GLM specifies less-than-full-rank reference cell coding. This option can be used only as a global option. ORDINAL specifies the cumulative parameterization for an ordinal CLASS variable. POLYNOMIAL | POLY REFERENCE | REF specifies polynomial coding. specifies reference cell coding. ORTHEFFECT orthogonalizes PARAM=EFFECT coding. ORTHORDINAL orthogonalizes PARAM=ORDINAL coding. ORTHPOLY orthogonalizes PARAM=POLYNOMIAL coding. ORTHREF orthogonalizes PARAM=REFERENCE coding. All parameterizations are full rank, except for the GLM parameterization. The REF= option in the CLASS statement determines the reference level for EFFECT and REFERENCE coding, and for their orthogonal parameterizations. If PARAM=ORTHPOLY or PARAM=POLY, and the classification variable is numeric, then the ORDER= option in the CLASS statement is ignored, and the internal, unformatted values are used. See the section “CLASS Variable Parameterization” on page 3317 for further details. Parameter names for a CLASS predictor variable are constructed by concatenating the CLASS variable name with the CLASS levels. However, for the POLYNOMIAL and orthogonal parameterizations, parameter names are formed by concatenating the CLASS variable name and keywords that reflect the parameterization. See the section “CLASS Variable Parameterization” on page 3317 for further details. REF=’level’ | keyword specifies the reference level for PARAM=EFFECT, PARAM=REFERENCE, and their orthogonalizations. For an individual (but not a global) variable REF= option, you can specify the level of the variable to use as the reference level. Specify the formatted value of the variable if a format is assigned. For a global or individual variable REF= option, you can use one of the following keywords. The default is REF=LAST. FIRST designates the first ordered level as reference. LAST designates the last ordered level as reference. TRUNCATE determines class levels by using no more than the first 16 characters of the formatted values of CLASS, response, and strata variables. When formatted values are longer than 16 characters, 3280 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure you can use this option to revert to the levels as determined in releases previous to SAS 9.0. The TRUNCATE option is available only as a global option. This option invokes the same option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement. CONTRAST Statement CONTRAST ’label’ row-description< , : : :,row-description >< / options > ; where a row-description is defined as follows: effect values< , : : :, effect values > The CONTRAST statement provides a mechanism for obtaining customized hypothesis tests. It is similar to the CONTRAST and ESTIMATE statements in other modeling procedures. The CONTRAST statement enables you to specify a matrix, L, for testing the hypothesis Lˇ D 0, where ˇ is the vector of intercept and slope parameters. You must be familiar with the details of the model parameterization that PROC LOGISTIC uses (for more information, see the PARAM= option in the section “CLASS Statement” on page 3278). Optionally, the CONTRAST statement enables you to estimate each row, li0 ˇ, of Lˇ and test the hypothesis li0 ˇ D 0. Computed statistics are based on the asymptotic chi-square distribution of the Wald statistic. There is no limit to the number of CONTRAST statements that you can specify, but they must appear after the MODEL statement. The following parameters are specified in the CONTRAST statement: label identifies the contrast in the displayed output. A label is required for every contrast specified, and it must be enclosed in quotes. effect identifies an effect that appears in the MODEL statement. The name INTERCEPT can be used as an effect when one or more intercepts are included in the model. You do not need to include all effects that are included in the MODEL statement. values are constants that are elements of the L matrix associated with the effect. To correctly specify your contrast, it is crucial to know the ordering of parameters within each effect and the variable levels associated with any parameter. The “Class Level Information” table shows the ordering of levels within variables. The E option, described later in this section, enables you to verify the proper correspondence of values to parameters. If too many values are specified for an effect, the extra ones are ignored. If too few values are specified, the remaining ones are set to 0. Multiple degree-of-freedom hypotheses can be tested by specifying multiple row-descriptions; the rows of L are specified in order and are separated by commas. The degrees of freedom is the number of linearly independent constraints implied by the CONTRAST statement—that is, the rank of L. More details for specifying contrasts involving effects with full-rank parameterizations are given in the section “Full-Rank Parameterized Effects” on page 3281, while details for less-than-fullrank parameterized effects are given in the section “Less-Than-Full-Rank Parameterized Effects” on page 3282. CONTRAST Statement F 3281 You can specify the following options after a slash (/). ALPHA=number specifies the level of significance ˛ for the 100.1 ˛/% confidence interval for each contrast when the ESTIMATE option is specified. The value of number must be between 0 and 1. By default, number is equal to the value of the ALPHA= option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, or 0.05 if that option is not specified. E displays the L matrix. ESTIMATE=keyword estimates and tests each individual contrast (that is, each row, li0 ˇ, of Lˇ), exponentiated con0 trast (e li ˇ ), or predicted probability for the contrast (g 1 .li0 ˇ/). PROC LOGISTIC displays the point estimate, its standard error, a Wald confidence interval, and a Wald chi-square test. The significance level of the confidence interval is controlled by the ALPHA= option. You can estimate the individual contrast, the exponentiated contrast, or the predicted probability for the contrast by specifying one of the following keywords: PARM estimates the individual contrast. EXP estimates the exponentiated contrast. BOTH estimates both the individual contrast and the exponentiated contrast. PROB estimates the predicted probability of the contrast. ALL estimates the individual contrast, the exponentiated contrast, and the predicted probability of the contrast. For details about the computations of the standard errors and confidence limits, see the section “Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits” on page 3337. SINGULAR=number tunes the estimability check. This option is ignored when a full-rank parameterization is specified. If v is a vector, define ABS.v/ to be the largest absolute value of the elements of v. For a row vector l 0 of the contrast matrix L, define c D ABS.l / if ABS.l / is greater than 0; otherwise, c D 1. If ABS.l 0 l 0 T/ is greater than cnumber, then l is declared nonestimable. The T matrix is the Hermite form matrix I0 I0 , where I0 represents a generalized inverse of the information matrix I0 of the null model. The value for number must be between 0 and 1; the default value is 1E–4. Full-Rank Parameterized Effects If an effect involving a CLASS variable with a full-rank parameterization does not appear in the CONTRAST statement, then all of its coefficients in the L matrix are set to 0. If you use effect coding by default or by specifying PARAM=EFFECT in the CLASS statement, then all parameters are directly estimable and involve no other parameters. For example, suppose an effect-coded CLASS variable A has four levels. Then there are three parameters (ˇ1 ; ˇ2 ; ˇ3 ) representing the first three levels, and the fourth parameter is represented by ˇ1 ˇ2 ˇ3 3282 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure To test the first versus the fourth level of A, you would test ˇ1 D ˇ1 ˇ2 ˇ3 or, equivalently, 2ˇ1 C ˇ2 C ˇ3 D 0 which, in the form Lˇ D 0, is 3 2 ˇ1 2 1 1 4 ˇ2 5 D 0 ˇ3 Therefore, you would use the following CONTRAST statement: contrast ’1 vs. 4’ A 2 1 1; To contrast the third level with the average of the first two levels, you would test ˇ1 C ˇ2 D ˇ3 2 or, equivalently, ˇ1 C ˇ2 2ˇ3 D 0 Therefore, you would use the following CONTRAST statement: contrast ’1&2 vs. 3’ A 1 1 -2; Other CONTRAST statements are constructed similarly. For example: contrast contrast contrast contrast ’1 vs. 2 ’ ’1&2 vs. 4 ’ ’1&2 vs. 3&4’ ’Main Effect’ A A A A A A 1 -1 3 3 2 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0; 2; 0; 0, 0, 1; Less-Than-Full-Rank Parameterized Effects When you use the less-than-full-rank parameterization (by specifying PARAM=GLM in the CLASS statement), each row is checked for estimability; see the section “Estimable Functions” on page 66 for more information. If PROC LOGISTIC finds a contrast to be nonestimable, it displays missing values in corresponding rows in the results. PROC LOGISTIC handles missing level combinations of classification variables in the same manner as PROC GLM: parameters corresponding to missing level combinations are not included in the model. This convention can affect the way in which you specify the L matrix in your CONTRAST statement. If the elements of L are not specified for an effect that contains a specified effect, then the elements of the specified effect are distributed over the levels of the higher-order effect just as the GLM procedure does for its CONTRAST and ESTIMATE statements. For example, suppose that the model contains effects A and B and their interaction A*B. If you specify a CONTRAST statement involving A alone, the L matrix contains nonzero terms for both A and A*B, since A*B contains A. See rule 4 in the section “Construction of Least Squares Means” on page 2526 for more details. EXACT Statement F 3283 EXACT Statement EXACT < ’label’ >< INTERCEPT >< effects >< / options > ; The EXACT statement performs exact tests of the parameters for the specified effects and optionally estimates the parameters and outputs the exact conditional distributions. You can specify the keyword INTERCEPT and any effects in the MODEL statement. Inference on the parameters of the specified effects is performed by conditioning on the sufficient statistics of all the other model parameters (possibly including the intercept). You can specify several EXACT statements, but they must follow the MODEL statement. Each statement can optionally include an identifying label. If several EXACT statements are specified, any statement without a label will be assigned a label of the form “Exactn”, where “n” indicates the nth EXACT statement. The label is included in the headers of the displayed exact analysis tables. If a STRATA statement is also specified, then a stratified exact conditional logistic regression is performed. The model contains a different intercept for each stratum, and these intercepts are conditioned out of the model along with any other nuisance parameters (parameters for effects specified in the MODEL statement that are not in the EXACT statement). If the LINK=GLOGIT option is specified in the MODEL statement, then the EXACTOPTIONS option METHOD=DIRECT is invoked by default and a generalized logit model is fit. Since each effect specified in the MODEL statement adds k parameters to the model (where k C1 is the number of response levels), exact analysis of the generalized logit model by using this method is limited to rather small problems. See the sections “Exact Conditional Logistic Regression” on page 3357 and “Computational Resources for Exact Conditional Logistic Regression” on page 3367 for more information about exact analyses. The CONTRAST, ODDSRATIO, OUTPUT, ROC, ROCCONTRAST, SCORE, TEST, and UNITS statements are not available with an exact analysis. Exact analyses are not performed when you specify a WEIGHT statement, a link other than LINK=LOGIT or LINK=GLOGIT, an offset variable, the NOFIT option, or a model-selection method. Exact estimation is not available for ordinal response models. For classification variables, use of the reference parameterization is recommended. The following options can be specified in each EXACT statement after a slash (/): ALPHA=number specifies the level of significance ˛ for 100.1 ˛/% confidence limits for the parameters or odds ratios. The value of number must be between 0 and 1. By default, number is equal to the value of the ALPHA= option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, or 0.05 if that option is not specified. ESTIMATE < =keyword > estimates the individual parameters (conditioned on all other parameters) for the effects specified in the EXACT statement. For each parameter, a point estimate, a standard error, a confidence interval, and a p-value for a two-sided test that the parameter is zero are displayed. 3284 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Note that the two-sided p-value is twice the one-sided p-value. You can optionally specify one of the following keywords: PARM specifies that the parameters be estimated. This is the default. ODDS specifies that the odds ratios be estimated. For classification variables, use of the reference parameterization is required. BOTH specifies that the parameters and odds ratios be estimated. JOINT performs the joint test that all of the parameters are simultaneously equal to zero, performs individual hypothesis tests for the parameter of each continuous variable, and performs joint tests for the parameters of each classification variable. The joint test is indicated in the “Conditional Exact Tests” table by the label “Joint.” JOINTONLY performs only the joint test of the parameters. The test is indicated in the “Conditional Exact Tests” table by the label “Joint.” When this option is specified, individual tests for the parameters of each continuous variable and joint tests for the parameters of the classification variables are not performed. CLTYPE=EXACT | MIDP requests either the exact or mid-p confidence intervals for the parameter estimates. By default, the exact intervals are produced. The confidence coefficient can be specified with the ALPHA= option. The mid-p interval can be modified with the MIDPFACTOR= option. See the section “Inference for a Single Parameter” on page 3360 for details. MIDPFACTOR=ı1 j .ı1 ; ı2 / sets the tie factors used to produce the mid-p hypothesis statistics and the mid-p confidence intervals. ı1 modifies both the hypothesis tests and confidence intervals, while ı2 affects only the hypothesis tests. By default, ı1 D 0:5 and ı2 D 1:0. See the sections “Hypothesis Tests” on page 3359 and “Inference for a Single Parameter” on page 3360 for details. ONESIDED requests one-sided confidence intervals and p-values for the individual parameter estimates and odds ratios. The one-sided p-value is the smaller of the left- and right-tail probabilities for the observed sufficient statistic of the parameter under the null hypothesis that the parameter is zero. The two-sided p-values (default) are twice the one-sided p-values. See the section “Inference for a Single Parameter” on page 3360 for more details. OUTDIST=SAS-data-set names the SAS data set containing the exact conditional distributions. This data set contains all of the exact conditional distributions required to process the corresponding EXACT statement. This data set contains the possible sufficient statistics for the parameters of the effects specified in the EXACT statement, the counts, and, when hypothesis tests are performed on the parameters, the probability of occurrence and the score value for each sufficient statistic. When you request an OUTDIST= data set, the observed sufficient statistics are displayed in the “Sufficient Statistics” table. See the section “OUTDIST= Output Data Set” on page 3365 for more information. FREQ Statement F 3285 EXACT Statement Examples In the following example, two exact tests are computed: one for x1 and the other for x2. The test for x1 is based on the exact conditional distribution of the sufficient statistic for the x1 parameter given the observed values of the sufficient statistics for the intercept, x2, and x3 parameters; likewise, the test for x2 is conditional on the observed sufficient statistics for the intercept, x1, and x3. proc logistic; model y= x1 x2 x3; exact x1 x2; run; PROC LOGISTIC determines, from all the specified EXACT statements, the distinct conditional distributions that need to be evaluated. For example, there is only one exact conditional distribution for the following two EXACT statements: exact ’One’ x1 / estimate=parm; exact ’Two’ x1 / estimate=parm onesided; For each EXACT statement, individual tests for the parameters of the specified effects are computed unless the JOINTONLY option is specified. Consider the following EXACT statements: exact exact exact exact ’E12’ ’E1’ ’E2’ ’J12’ x1 x2 / estimate; x1 / estimate; x2 / estimate; x1 x2 / joint; In the E12 statement, the parameters for x1 and x2 are estimated and tested separately. Specifying the E12 statement is equivalent to specifying both the E1 and E2 statements. In the J12 statement, the joint test for the parameters of x1 and x2 is computed as well as the individual tests for x1 and x2. FREQ Statement FREQ variable ; The FREQ statement identifies a variable that contains the frequency of occurrence of each observation. PROC LOGISTIC treats each observation as if it appears n times, where n is the value of the FREQ variable for the observation. If it is not an integer, the frequency value is truncated to an integer. If the frequency value is less than 1 or missing, the observation is not used in the model fitting. When the FREQ statement is not specified, each observation is assigned a frequency of 1. If you specify more than one FREQ statement, then the first statement is used. If a SCORE statement is specified, then the FREQ variable is used for computing fit statistics and the ROC curve, but they are not required for scoring. If the DATA= data set in the SCORE statement does not contain the FREQ variable, the frequency values are assumed to be 1 and a warning message is issued in the LOG. If you fit a model and perform the scoring in the same run, the same FREQ variable is used for fitting and scoring. If you fit a model in a previous run and input it with the INMODEL= option in the current run, then the FREQ variable can be different from the one used in the previous run. However, if a FREQ variable was not specified in the previous run, you can still specify a FREQ variable in the current run. 3286 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure MODEL Statement < label: > MODEL events/trials=< effects >< / options > ; < label: > MODEL variable< (variable_options) >=< effects >< / options > ; The MODEL statement names the response variable and the explanatory effects, including covariates, main effects, interactions, and nested effects; see the section “Specification of Effects” on page 2486 of Chapter 39, “The GLM Procedure,” for more information. If you omit the explanatory effects, the procedure fits an intercept-only model. You must specify exactly one MODEL statement. Two forms of the MODEL statement can be specified. The first form, referred to as single-trial syntax, is applicable to binary, ordinal, and nominal response data. The second form, referred to as events/trials syntax, is restricted to the case of binary response data. The single-trial syntax is used when each observation in the DATA= data set contains information about only a single trial, such as a single subject in an experiment. When each observation contains information about multiple binary-response trials, such as the counts of the number of subjects observed and the number responding, then events/trials syntax can be used. In the events/trials syntax, you specify two variables that contain count data for a binomial experiment. These two variables are separated by a slash. The value of the first variable, events, is the number of positive responses (or events). The value of the second variable, trials, is the number of trials. The values of both events and (trials–events) must be nonnegative and the value of trials must be positive for the response to be valid. In the single-trial syntax, you specify one variable (on the left side of the equal sign) as the response variable. This variable can be character or numeric. Variable_options specific to the response variable can be specified immediately after the response variable with parentheses around them. For both forms of the MODEL statement, explanatory effects follow the equal sign. Variables can be either continuous or classification variables. Classification variables can be character or numeric, and they must be declared in the CLASS statement. When an effect is a classification variable, the procedure inserts a set of coded columns into the design matrix instead of directly entering a single column containing the values of the variable. Response Variable Options DESCENDING | DESC reverses the order of the response categories. If both the DESCENDING and ORDER= options are specified, PROC LOGISTIC orders the response categories according to the ORDER= option and then reverses that order. See the section “Response Level Ordering” on page 3316 for more detail. EVENT=’category ’ | keyword specifies the event category for the binary response model. PROC LOGISTIC models the probability of the event category. The EVENT= option has no effect when there are more than two response categories. You can specify the value (formatted if a format is applied) of MODEL Statement F 3287 the event category in quotes, or you can specify one of the following keywords. The default is EVENT=FIRST. FIRST designates the first ordered category as the event. LAST designates the last ordered category as the event. One of the most common sets of response levels is {0,1}, with 1 representing the event for which the probability is to be modeled. Consider the example where Y takes the values 1 and 0 for event and nonevent, respectively, and Exposure is the explanatory variable. To specify the value 1 as the event category, use the following MODEL statement: model Y(event=’1’) = Exposure; ORDER= DATA | FORMATTED | FREQ | INTERNAL specifies the sorting order for the levels of the response variable. The following table displays the available ORDER= options: ORDER= Levels Sorted By DATA FORMATTED order of appearance in the input data set external formatted value, except for numeric variables with no explicit format, which are sorted by their unformatted (internal) value descending frequency count; levels with the most observations come first in the order unformatted value FREQ INTERNAL By default, ORDER=FORMATTED. For ORDER=FORMATTED and ORDER=INTERNAL, the sort order is machine dependent. When ORDER=FORMATTED is in effect for numeric variables for which you have supplied no explicit format, the levels are ordered by their internal values. For more information about sorting order, see the chapter on the SORT procedure in the Base SAS Procedures Guide and the discussion of BY-group processing in SAS Language Reference: Concepts. REFERENCE=’category ’ | keyword REF=’category ’ | keyword specifies the reference category for the generalized logit model and the binary response model. For the generalized logit model, each logit contrasts a nonreference category with the reference category. For the binary response model, specifying one response category as the reference is the same as specifying the other response category as the event category. You can specify the value (formatted if a format is applied) of the reference category in quotes, or you can specify one of the following keywords: FIRST designates the first ordered category as the reference. LAST designates the last ordered category as the reference. This is the default. 3288 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Model Options Table 51.2 summarizes the options available in the MODEL statement, which can be specified after a slash (/). Table 51.2 Option Model Statement Options Description Model Specification Options LINK= specifies link function NOFIT suppresses model fitting NOINT suppresses intercept OFFSET= specifies offset variable SELECTION= specifies effect selection method Effect Selection Options BEST= controls the number of models displayed for SCORE selection DETAILS requests detailed results at each step FAST uses fast elimination method HIERARCHY= specifies whether and how hierarchy is maintained and whether a single effect or multiple effects are allowed to enter or leave the model per step INCLUDE= specifies number of effects included in every model MAXSTEP= specifies maximum number of steps for STEPWISE selection SEQUENTIAL adds or deletes effects in sequential order SLENTRY= specifies significance level for entering effects SLSTAY= specifies significance level for removing effects START= specifies number of variables in first model STOP= specifies number of variables in final model STOPRES adds or deletes variables by residual chi-square criterion Model-Fitting Specification Options ABSFCONV= specifies absolute function convergence criterion FCONV= specifies relative function convergence criterion FIRTH specifies Firth’s penalized likelihood method GCONV= specifies relative gradient convergence criterion MAXFUNCTION= specifies maximum number of function calls for the conditional analysis MAXITER= specifies maximum number of iterations NOCHECK suppresses checking for infinite parameters RIDGING= specifies the technique used to improve the log-likelihood function when its value is worse than that of the previous step SINGULAR= specifies tolerance for testing singularity TECHNIQUE= specifies iterative algorithm for maximization XCONV= specifies relative parameter convergence criterion MODEL Statement F 3289 Table 51.2 continued Option Description Confidence Interval Options ALPHA= specifies ˛ for the 100.1 ˛/% confidence intervals CLODDS= computes confidence intervals for odds ratios CLPARM= computes confidence intervals for parameters PLCONV= specifies profile-likelihood convergence criterion Classification Options CTABLE displays classification table PEVENT= specifies prior event probabilities PPROB= specifies probability cutpoints for classification Overdispersion and Goodness-of-Fit Test Options AGGREGATE= determines subpopulations for Pearson chi-square and deviance LACKFIT requests Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test SCALE= specifies method to correct overdispersion ROC Curve Options OUTROC= names the output ROC data set ROCEPS= specifies probability grouping criterion Regression Diagnostics Options INFLUENCE displays influence statistics IPLOTS requests index plots Display Options CORRB displays correlation matrix COVB displays covariance matrix EXPB displays exponentiated values of estimates ITPRINT displays iteration history NODUMMYPRINT suppresses “Class Level Information” table PARMLABEL displays parameter labels RSQUARE displays generalized R2 STB displays standardized estimates Computational Options BINWIDTH= specifies bin size for estimating association statistics NOLOGSCALE performs calculations by using normal scaling The following list describes these options. ABSFCONV=value specifies the absolute function convergence criterion. Convergence requires a small change in the log-likelihood function in subsequent iterations, jli li 1j < value where li is the value of the log-likelihood function at iteration i . See the section “Convergence Criteria” on page 3325 for more information. 3290 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure AGGREGATE< =(variable-list) > specifies the subpopulations on which the Pearson chi-square test statistic and the likelihood ratio chi-square test statistic (deviance) are calculated. Observations with common values in the given list of variables are regarded as coming from the same subpopulation. Variables in the list can be any variables in the input data set. Specifying the AGGREGATE option is equivalent to specifying the AGGREGATE= option with a variable list that includes all explanatory variables in the MODEL statement. The deviance and Pearson goodness-of-fit statistics are calculated only when the SCALE= option is specified. Thus, the AGGREGATE (or AGGREGATE=) option has no effect if the SCALE= option is not specified. See the section “Rescaling the Covariance Matrix” on page 3340 for more information. ALPHA=number sets the level of significance ˛ for 100.1 ˛/% confidence intervals for regression parameters or odds ratios. The value of number must be between 0 and 1. By default, number is equal to the value of the ALPHA= option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, or 0.05 if the option is not specified. This option has no effect unless confidence limits for the parameters (CLPARM= option) or odds ratios (CLODDS= option or ODDSRATIO statement) are requested. BEST=n specifies that n models with the highest score chi-square statistics are to be displayed for each model size. It is used exclusively with the SCORE model selection method. If the BEST= option is omitted and there are no more than 10 explanatory variables, then all possible models are listed for each model size. If the option is omitted and there are more than 10 explanatory variables, then the number of models selected for each model size is, at most, equal to the number of explanatory variables listed in the MODEL statement. BINWIDTH=width specifies the size of the bins used for estimating the association statistics. See the section “Rank Correlation of Observed Responses and Predicted Probabilities” on page 3336 for details. Valid values are 0 width < 1 (for polytomous response models, 0 < width < 1). The default width is 0.002. If the width does not evenly divide the unit interval, it is reduced to a valid value and a message is displayed in the SAS log. The width is also constrained by the amount of memory available on your machine; if you specify a width that is too small, it is adjusted to a value for which memory can be allocated and a note is displayed in the SAS log. If you have a binary response and specify BINWIDTH=0, then no binning is performed and the exact values of the statistics are computed; this method is a bit slower and might require more memory than the binning approach. The BINWIDTH= option is ignored when a ROC statement is specified, when ROC graphics are produced, and for the ROC area computations from a SCORE statement. CLODDS=PL | WALD | BOTH produces confidence intervals for odds ratios of main effects not involved in interactions or nestings. Computation of these confidence intervals is based on the profile likelihood (CLODDS=PL) or based on individual Wald tests (CLODDS=WALD). By specifying MODEL Statement F 3291 CLODDS=BOTH, the procedure computes two sets of confidence intervals for the odds ratios, one based on the profile likelihood and the other based on the Wald tests. The confidence coefficient can be specified with the ALPHA= option. The CLODDS=PL option is not available with the STRATA statement. Classification main effects that use parameterizations other than REF, EFFECT, or GLM are ignored. If you need to compute odds ratios for an effect involved in interactions or nestings, or using some other parameterization, then you should specify an ODDSRATIO statement for that effect. CLPARM=PL | WALD | BOTH requests confidence intervals for the parameters. Computation of these confidence intervals is based on the profile likelihood (CLPARM=PL) or individual Wald tests (CLPARM=WALD). If you specify CLPARM=BOTH, the procedure computes two sets of confidence intervals for the parameters, one based on the profile likelihood and the other based on individual Wald tests. The confidence coefficient can be specified with the ALPHA= option. The CLPARM=PL option is not available with the STRATA statement. See the section “Confidence Intervals for Parameters” on page 3331 for more information. CORRB displays the correlation matrix of the parameter estimates. COVB displays the covariance matrix of the parameter estimates. CTABLE classifies the input binary response observations according to whether the predicted event probabilities are above or below some cutpoint value z in the range .0; 1/. An observation is predicted as an event if the predicted event probability exceeds or equals z. You can supply a list of cutpoints other than the default list by specifying the PPROB= option (page 3297). Also, false positive and negative rates can be computed as posterior probabilities by using Bayes’ theorem. You can use the PEVENT= option to specify prior probabilities for computing these rates. The CTABLE option is ignored if the data have more than two response levels. The CTABLE option is not available with the STRATA statement. For more information, see the section “Classification Table” on page 3338. DETAILS produces a summary of computational details for each step of the effect selection process. It produces the “Analysis of Effects Eligible for Entry” table before displaying the effect selected for entry for forward or stepwise selection. For each model fitted, it produces the “Type 3 Analysis of Effects” table if the fitted model involves CLASS variables, the “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” table, and measures of association between predicted probabilities and observed responses. For the statistics included in these tables, see the section “Displayed Output” on page 3369. The DETAILS option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE. EXPB EXPEST displays the exponentiated values (eb̌i ) of the parameter estimates b ˇ i in the “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” table for the logit model. These exponentiated values are 3292 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure the estimated odds ratios for parameters corresponding to the continuous explanatory variables, and for CLASS effects that use reference or GLM parameterizations. FAST uses a computational algorithm of Lawless and Singhal (1978) to compute a first-order approximation to the remaining slope estimates for each subsequent elimination of a variable from the model. Variables are removed from the model based on these approximate estimates. The FAST option is extremely efficient because the model is not refitted for every variable removed. The FAST option is used when SELECTION=BACKWARD and in the backward elimination steps when SELECTION=STEPWISE. The FAST option is ignored when SELECTION=FORWARD or SELECTION=NONE. FCONV=value specifies the relative function convergence criterion. Convergence requires a small relative change in the log-likelihood function in subsequent iterations, jli li 1 j < value jli 1 j C 1E–6 where li is the value of the log likelihood at iteration i . See the section “Convergence Criteria” on page 3325 for more information. FIRTH performs Firth’s penalized maximum likelihood estimation to reduce bias in the parameter estimates (Heinze and Schemper 2002; Firth 1993). This method is useful in cases of separability, as often occurs when the event is rare, and is an alternative to performing an exact logistic regression. See the section “Firth’s Bias-Reducing Penalized Likelihood” on page 3324 for more information. N OTE : The intercept-only log likelihood is modified by using the full-model Hessian, computed with the slope parameters equal to zero. When fitting a model and scoring a data set in the same PROC LOGISTIC step, the model is fit using Firth’s penalty for parameter estimation purposes, but the penalty is not applied to the scored log likelihood. GCONV=value specifies the relative gradient convergence criterion. Convergence requires that the normalized prediction function reduction is small, gi0 Ii gi < value jli j C 1E–6 where li is the value of the log-likelihood function, gi is the gradient vector, and Ii is the (expected) information matrix, all at iteration i . This is the default convergence criterion, and the default value is 1E–8. See the section “Convergence Criteria” on page 3325 for more information. HIERARCHY=keyword HIER=keyword specifies whether and how the model hierarchy requirement is applied and whether a single effect or multiple effects are allowed to enter or leave the model in one step. You MODEL Statement F 3293 can specify that only CLASS effects, or both CLASS and interval effects, be subject to the hierarchy requirement. The HIERARCHY= option is ignored unless you also specify one of the following options: SELECTION=FORWARD, SELECTION=BACKWARD, or SELECTION=STEPWISE. Model hierarchy refers to the requirement that, for any term to be in the model, all effects contained in the term must be present in the model. For example, in order for the interaction A*B to enter the model, the main effects A and B must be in the model. Likewise, neither effect A nor B can leave the model while the interaction A*B is in the model. The keywords you can specify in the HIERARCHY= option are as follows: NONE indicates that the model hierarchy is not maintained. Any single effect can enter or leave the model at any given step of the selection process. SINGLE indicates that only one effect can enter or leave the model at one time, subject to the model hierarchy requirement. For example, suppose that you specify the main effects A and B and the interaction A*B in the model. In the first step of the selection process, either A or B can enter the model. In the second step, the other main effect can enter the model. The interaction effect can enter the model only when both main effects have already been entered. Also, before A or B can be removed from the model, the A*B interaction must first be removed. All effects (CLASS and interval) are subject to the hierarchy requirement. is the same as HIERARCHY=SINGLE except that only CLASS effects are subject to the hierarchy requirement. SINGLECLASS indicates that more than one effect can enter or leave the model at one time, subject to the model hierarchy requirement. In a forward selection step, a single main effect can enter the model, or an interaction can enter the model together with all the effects that are contained in the interaction. In a backward elimination step, an interaction itself, or the interaction together with all the effects that the interaction contains, can be removed. All effects (CLASS and continuous) are subject to the hierarchy requirement. MULTIPLE is the same as HIERARCHY=MULTIPLE except that only CLASS effects are subject to the hierarchy requirement. MULTIPLECLASS The default value is HIERARCHY=SINGLE, which means that model hierarchy is to be maintained for all effects (that is, both CLASS and continuous effects) and that only a single effect can enter or leave the model at each step. INCLUDE=n includes the first n effects in the MODEL statement in every model. By default, INCLUDE=0. The INCLUDE= option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE. Note that the INCLUDE= and START= options perform different tasks: the INCLUDE= option includes the first n effects variables in every model, whereas the START= option requires only that the first n effects appear in the first model. INFLUENCE displays diagnostic measures for identifying influential observations in the case of a binary response model. For each observation, the INFLUENCE option displays the case number 3294 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure (which is the sequence number of the observation), the values of the explanatory variables included in the final model, and the regression diagnostic measures developed by Pregibon (1981). For a discussion of these diagnostic measures, see the section “Regression Diagnostics” on page 3347. When a STRATA statement is specified, the diagnostics are computed following Storer and Crowley (1985); see the section “Regression Diagnostic Details” on page 3355 for details. IPLOTS produces an index plot for each regression diagnostic statistic. An index plot is a scatter plot with the regression diagnostic statistic represented on the Y axis and the case number on the X axis. See Example 51.6 for an illustration. ITPRINT displays the iteration history of the maximum-likelihood model fitting. The ITPRINT option also displays the last evaluation of the gradient vector and the final change in the –2 Log Likelihood. LACKFIT< (n) > performs the Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000) for the case of a binary response model. The subjects are divided into approximately 10 groups of roughly the same size based on the percentiles of the estimated probabilities. The discrepancies between the observed and expected number of observations in these groups are summarized by the Pearson chi-square statistic, which is then compared to a chi-square distribution with t degrees of freedom, where t is the number of groups minus n. By default, n=2. A small p-value suggests that the fitted model is not an adequate model. The LACKFIT option is not available with the STRATA statement. See the section “The Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test” on page 3342 for more information. LINK=keyword L=keyword specifies the link function linking the response probabilities to the linear predictors. You can specify one of the following keywords. The default is LINK=LOGIT. is the complementary log-log function. PROC LOGISTIC fits the binary complementary log-log model when there are two response categories and fits the cumulative complementary log-log model when there are more than two response categories. The aliases are CCLOGLOG, CCLL, and CUMCLOGLOG. CLOGLOG GLOGIT is the generalized logit function. PROC LOGISTIC fits the generalized logit model where each nonreference category is contrasted with the reference category. You can use the response variable option REF= to specify the reference category. LOGIT is the log odds function. PROC LOGISTIC fits the binary logit model when there are two response categories and fits the cumulative logit model when there are more than two response categories. The aliases are CLOGIT and CUMLOGIT. PROBIT is the inverse standard normal distribution function. PROC LOGISTIC fits the binary probit model when there are two response categories and fits the cumulative MODEL Statement F 3295 probit model when there are more than two response categories. The aliases are NORMIT, CPROBIT, and CUMPROBIT. The LINK= option is not available with the STRATA statement. See the section “Link Functions and the Corresponding Distributions” on page 3320 for more details. MAXFUNCTION=number specifies the maximum number of function calls to perform when maximizing the conditional likelihood. This option is valid only when a STRATA statement is specified. The default values are as follows: 125 when the number of parameters p < 40 500 when 40 p < 400 1000 when p 400 Since the optimization is terminated only after completing a full iteration, the number of function calls that are actually performed can exceed number. If convergence is not attained, the displayed output and all output data sets created by the procedure contain results based on the last maximum likelihood iteration. MAXITER=number specifies the maximum number of iterations to perform. By default, MAXITER=25. If convergence is not attained in number iterations, the displayed output and all output data sets created by the procedure contain results that are based on the last maximum likelihood iteration. MAXSTEP=n specifies the maximum number of times any explanatory variable is added to or removed from the model when SELECTION=STEPWISE. The default number is twice the number of explanatory variables in the MODEL statement. When the MAXSTEP= limit is reached, the stepwise selection process is terminated. All statistics displayed by the procedure (and included in output data sets) are based on the last model fitted. The MAXSTEP= option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE, FORWARD, or BACKWARD. NOCHECK disables the checking process to determine whether maximum likelihood estimates of the regression parameters exist. If you are sure that the estimates are finite, this option can reduce the execution time if the estimation takes more than eight iterations. For more information, see the section “Existence of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” on page 3325. NODUMMYPRINT NODESIGNPRINT NODP suppresses the “Class Level Information” table, which shows how the design matrix columns for the CLASS variables are coded. 3296 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure NOINT suppresses the intercept for the binary response model, the first intercept for the ordinal response model (which forces all intercepts to be nonnegative), or all intercepts for the generalized logit model. This can be particularly useful in conditional logistic analysis; see Example 51.11. NOFIT performs the global score test without fitting the model. The global score test evaluates the joint significance of the effects in the MODEL statement. No further analyses are performed. If the NOFIT option is specified along with other MODEL statement options, NOFIT takes effect and all other options except FIRTH, LINK=, NOINT, OFFSET=, ROC, and TECHNIQUE= are ignored. The NOFIT option is not available with the STRATA statement. NOLOGSCALE specifies that computations for the conditional and exact conditional logistic models should be computed by using normal scaling. Log scaling can handle numerically larger problems than normal scaling; however, computations in the log scale are slower than computations in normal scale. OFFSET=name names the offset variable. The regression coefficient for this variable will be fixed at 1. For an example that uses this option, see Example 51.13. You can also use the OFFSET= option to restrict parameters to a fixed value. For example, if you want to restrict the variable X1 to 1 and X2 to 2, compute RestrictD X1 C 2 X2 in a DATA step, specify the option offset=Restrict, and leave X1 and X2 out of the model. OUTROC=SAS-data-set OUTR=SAS-data-set creates, for binary response models, an output SAS data set that contains the data necessary to produce the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The OUTROC= option is not available with the STRATA statement. See the section “OUTROC= Output Data Set” on page 3366 for the list of variables in this data set. PARMLABEL displays the labels of the parameters in the “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” table. PEVENT=value PEVENT=(list) specifies one prior probability or a list of prior probabilities for the event of interest. The false positive and false negative rates are then computed as posterior probabilities by Bayes’ theorem. The prior probability is also used in computing the rate of correct prediction. For each prior probability in the given list, a classification table of all observations is computed. By default, the prior probability is the total sample proportion of events. The PEVENT= option is useful for stratified samples. It has no effect if the CTABLE option is not specified. For more information, see the section “False Positive and Negative Rates Using Bayes’ Theorem” on page 3339. Also see the PPROB= option for information about how the list is specified. MODEL Statement F 3297 PLCL is the same as specifying CLPARM=PL. PLCONV=value controls the convergence criterion for confidence intervals based on the profile-likelihood function. The quantity value must be a positive number, with a default value of 1E–4. The PLCONV= option has no effect if profile-likelihood confidence intervals (CLPARM=PL) are not requested. PLRL is the same as specifying CLODDS=PL. PPROB=value PPROB=(list) specifies one critical probability value (or cutpoint) or a list of critical probability values for classifying observations with the CTABLE option. Each value must be between 0 and 1. A response that has a cross validated predicted probability greater than or equal to the current PPROB= value is classified as an event response. The PPROB= option is ignored if the CTABLE option is not specified. A classification table for each of several cutpoints can be requested by specifying a list. For example, the following statement requests a classification of the observations for each of the cutpoints 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8: pprob= (0.3, 0.5 to 0.8 by 0.1) If the PPROB= option is not specified, the default is to display the classification for a range of probabilities from the smallest estimated probability (rounded down to the nearest 0.02) to the highest estimated probability (rounded up to the nearest 0.02) with 0.02 increments. RIDGING=ABSOLUTE | RELATIVE | NONE specifies the technique used to improve the log-likelihood function when its value in the current iteration is less than that in the previous iteration. If you specify the RIDGING=ABSOLUTE option, the diagonal elements of the negative (expected) Hessian are inflated by adding the ridge value. If you specify the RIDGING=RELATIVE option, the diagonal elements are inflated by a factor of 1 plus the ridge value. If you specify the RIDGING=NONE option, the crude line search method of taking half a step is used instead of ridging. By default, RIDGING=RELATIVE. RISKLIMITS RL WALDRL is the same as specifying CLODDS=WALD. ROCEPS=number specifies a criterion for the ROC curve used for grouping estimated event probabilities that are close to each other. In each group, the difference between the largest and the smallest estimated event probabilities does not exceed the given value. The value for number must be between 0 and 1; the default value is the square root of the machine epsilon, which is about 3298 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure 1E–8 (in prior releases, the default was 1E–4). The smallest estimated probability in each group serves as a cutpoint for predicting an event response. The ROCEPS= option has no effect if the OUTROC= option is not specified. RSQUARE RSQ requests a generalized R2 measure for the fitted model. For more information, see the section “Generalized Coefficient of Determination” on page 3328. SCALE=scale enables you to supply the value of the dispersion parameter or to specify the method for estimating the dispersion parameter. It also enables you to display the “Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Statistics” table. To correct for overdispersion or underdispersion, the covariance matrix is multiplied by the estimate of the dispersion parameter. Valid values for scale are as follows: specifies that the dispersion parameter be estimated by the deviance divided by its degrees of freedom. D | DEVIANCE specifies that the dispersion parameter be estimated by the Pearson chisquare statistic divided by its degrees of freedom. P | PEARSON WILLIAMS < (constant ) > specifies that Williams’ method be used to model overdispersion. This option can be used only with the events/trials syntax. An optional constant can be specified as the scale parameter; otherwise, a scale parameter is estimated under the full model. A set of weights is created based on this scale parameter estimate. These weights can then be used in fitting subsequent models of fewer terms than the full model. When fitting these submodels, specify the computed scale parameter as constant. See Example 51.10 for an illustration. specifies that no correction is needed for the dispersion parameter; that is, the dispersion parameter remains as 1. This specification is used for requesting the deviance and the Pearson chi-square statistic without adjusting for overdispersion. N | NONE constant sets the estimate of the dispersion parameter to be the square of the given constant. For example, SCALE=2 sets the dispersion parameter to 4. The value constant must be a positive number. You can use the AGGREGATE (or AGGREGATE=) option to define the subpopulations for calculating the Pearson chi-square statistic and the deviance. In the absence of the AGGREGATE (or AGGREGATE=) option, each observation is regarded as coming from a different subpopulation. For the events/trials syntax, each observation consists of n Bernoulli trials, where n is the value of the trials variable. For single-trial syntax, each observation consists of a single response, and for this setting it is not appropriate to carry out the Pearson or deviance goodness-of-fit analysis. Thus, PROC LOGISTIC ignores specifications SCALE=P, SCALE=D, and SCALE=N when single-trial syntax is specified without the AGGREGATE (or AGGREGATE=) option. The “Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Statistics” table includes the Pearson chi-square statistic, the deviance, the degrees of freedom, the ratio of each statistic divided by its degrees of freedom, and the corresponding p-value. The SCALE= option is not available with the STRATA statement. For more information, see the section “Overdispersion” on page 3340. MODEL Statement F 3299 SELECTION=BACKWARD | B | FORWARD | F | NONE | N | STEPWISE | S | SCORE specifies the method used to select the variables in the model. BACKWARD requests backward elimination, FORWARD requests forward selection, NONE fits the complete model specified in the MODEL statement, and STEPWISE requests stepwise selection. SCORE requests best subset selection. By default, SELECTION=NONE. For more information, see the section “Effect-Selection Methods” on page 3326. SEQUENTIAL SEQ forces effects to be added to the model in the order specified in the MODEL statement or eliminated from the model in the reverse order of that specified in the MODEL statement. The model-building process continues until the next effect to be added has an insignificant adjusted chi-square statistic or until the next effect to be deleted has a significant Wald chisquare statistic. The SEQUENTIAL option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE. SINGULAR=value specifies the tolerance for testing the singularity of the Hessian matrix (Newton-Raphson algorithm) or the expected value of the Hessian matrix (Fisher scoring algorithm). The Hessian matrix is the matrix of second partial derivatives of the log-likelihood function. The test requires that a pivot for sweeping this matrix be at least this number times a norm of the matrix. Values of the SINGULAR= option must be numeric. By default, value is the machine epsilon times 1E7, which is approximately 1E–9. SLENTRY=value SLE=value specifies the significance level of the score chi-square for entering an effect into the model in the FORWARD or STEPWISE method. Values of the SLENTRY= option should be between 0 and 1, inclusive. By default, SLENTRY=0.05. The SLENTRY= option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE, SELECTION=BACKWARD, or SELECTION=SCORE. SLSTAY=value SLS=value specifies the significance level of the Wald chi-square for an effect to stay in the model in a backward elimination step. Values of the SLSTAY= option should be between 0 and 1, inclusive. By default, SLSTAY=0.05. The SLSTAY= option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE, SELECTION=FORWARD, or SELECTION=SCORE. START=n begins the FORWARD, BACKWARD, or STEPWISE effect selection process with the first n effects listed in the MODEL statement. The value of n ranges from 0 to s, where s is the total number of effects in the MODEL statement. The default value of n is s for the BACKWARD method and 0 for the FORWARD and STEPWISE methods. Note that START=n specifies only that the first n effects appear in the first model, while INCLUDE=n requires that the first 3300 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure n effects be included in every model. For the SCORE method, START=n specifies that the smallest models contain n effects, where n ranges from 1 to s; the default value is 1. The START= option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE. STB displays the standardized estimates for the parameters for the continuous explanatory variables in the “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” table. The standardized estimate of ˇi is given by b ˇ i =.s=si /, where si is the total sample standard deviation for the i th explanatory variable and p 8 < = 3 Logistic 1 p Normal sD : = 6 Extreme-value For the intercept parameters and parameters associated with a CLASS variable, the standardized estimates are set to missing. STOP=n specifies the maximum (SELECTION=FORWARD) or minimum (SELECTION=BACKWARD) number of effects to be included in the final model. The effect selection process is stopped when n effects are found. The value of n ranges from 0 to s, where s is the total number of effects in the MODEL statement. The default value of n is s for the FORWARD method and 0 for the BACKWARD method. For the SCORE method, STOP=n specifies that the largest models contain n effects, where n ranges from 1 to s; the default value of n is s. The STOP= option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE or STEPWISE. STOPRES SR specifies that the removal or entry of effects be based on the value of the residual chi-square. If SELECTION=FORWARD, then the STOPRES option adds the effects into the model one at a time until the residual chi-square becomes insignificant (until the p-value of the residual chi-square exceeds the SLENTRY= value). If SELECTION=BACKWARD, then the STOPRES option removes effects from the model one at a time until the residual chisquare becomes significant (until the p-value of the residual chi-square becomes less than the SLSTAY= value). The STOPRES option has no effect when SELECTION=NONE or SELECTION=STEPWISE. TECHNIQUE=FISHER | NEWTON TECH=FISHER | NEWTON specifies the optimization technique for estimating the regression parameters. NEWTON (or NR) is the Newton-Raphson algorithm and FISHER (or FS) is the Fisher scoring algorithm. Both techniques yield the same estimates, but the estimated covariance matrices are slightly different except for the case when the LOGIT link is specified for binary response data. The default is TECHNIQUE=FISHER. See the section “Iterative Algorithms for Model Fitting” on page 3322 for details. WALDCL CL is the same as specifying CLPARM=WALD. ODDSRATIO Statement F 3301 XCONV=value specifies the relative parameter convergence criterion. Convergence requires a small relative parameter change in subsequent iterations, .i/ max jıj j < value j where .i/ ıj D 8 .i/ < ˇj .i 1/ ˇj .i / .i ˇj : ˇj .i ˇj .i 1/ jˇj j < 0:01 1/ 1/ otherwise .i/ and ˇj is the estimate of the j th parameter at iteration i. See the section “Convergence Criteria” on page 3325 for more information. ODDSRATIO Statement ODDSRATIO < ’label’ > variable < / options > ; The ODDSRATIO statement produces odds ratios for variable even when variable is involved in interactions with other covariates, and for classification variables that use any parameterization. You can specify several ODDSRATIO statements. If variable is continuous, then the odds ratios honor any values specified in the UNITS statement. If variable is a classification variable, then odds ratios comparing each pairwise difference between the levels of variable are produced. If variable interacts with a continuous variable, then the odds ratios are produced at the mean of the interacting covariate by default. If variable interacts with a classification variable, then the odds ratios are produced at each level of the interacting covariate by default. The computed odds ratios are independent of the parameterization of any classification variable. The odds ratios are uniquely labeled by concatenating the following terms to variable: 1. If this is a polytomous response model, then prefix the response variable and the level describing the logit followed by a colon; for example, “Y 0:”. 2. If variable is continuous and the UNITS statement provides a value that is not equal to 1, then append “Units=value”; otherwise, if variable is a classification variable, then append the levels being contrasted; for example, “cat vs dog”. 3. Append all interacting covariates preceded by “At”; for example, “At X=1.2 A=cat”. If you are also creating odds ratio plots, then this label is displayed on the plots (see the PLOTS option for more information). If you specify a ’label’ in the ODDSRATIO statement, then the odds ratios produced by this statement are also labeled: ’label’, ’label 2’, ’label 3’,. . . , and these are the labels used in the plots. If there are any duplicated labels across all ODDSRATIO statements, then the corresponding odds ratios are not displayed on the plots. The following options are available. 3302 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure AT(covariate=value-list | REF | ALL< ...covariate=value-list | REF | ALL >) specifies fixed levels of the interacting covariates. If a specified covariate does not interact with the variable, then its AT list is ignored. For continuous interacting covariates, you can specify one or more numbers in the value-list. For classification covariates, you can specify one or more formatted levels of the covariate enclosed in single quotes (for example, A=’cat’ ’dog’), you can specify the keyword REF to select the reference-level, or you can specify the keyword ALL to select all levels of the classification variable. By default, continuous covariates are set to their means, while CLASS covariates are set to ALL. For a model that includes a classification variable A={cat,dog} and a continuous covariate X, specifying AT(A=’cat’ X=7 9) will set A to ’cat’, and X to 7 and then 9. CL=WALD | PL | BOTH specifies whether to create Wald or profile-likelihood confidence limits, or both. By default, Wald confidence limits are produced. DIFF=REF | ALL specifies whether the odds ratios for a classification variable are computed against the reference level, or all pairs of variable are compared. By default, DIFF=ALL. The DIFF= option is ignored when variable is continuous. PLCONV=value controls the convergence criterion for confidence intervals based on the profile-likelihood function. The quantity value must be a positive number, with a default value of 1E–4. The PLCONV= option has no effect if profile-likelihood confidence intervals (CL=PL) are not requested. PLMAXITER=n specifies the maximum number of iterations to perform. By default, PLMAXITER=25. If convergence is not attained in n iterations, the odds ratio or the confidence limits are set to missing. The PLMAXITER= option has no effect if profile-likelihood confidence intervals (CL=PL) are not requested. PLSINGULAR=value specifies the tolerance for testing the singularity of the Hessian matrix (Newton-Raphson algorithm) or the expected value of the Hessian matrix (Fisher scoring algorithm). The test requires that a pivot for sweeping this matrix be at least this number times a norm of the matrix. Values of the PLSINGULAR= option must be numeric. By default, value is the machine epsilon times 1E7, which is approximately 1E–9. The PLSINGULAR= option has no effect if profile-likelihood confidence intervals (CL=PL) are not requested. OUTPUT Statement F 3303 OUTPUT Statement OUTPUT < OUT=SAS-data-set >< options > ; The OUTPUT statement creates a new SAS data set that contains all the variables in the input data set and, optionally, the estimated linear predictors and their standard error estimates, the estimates of the cumulative or individual response probabilities, and the confidence limits for the cumulative probabilities. Regression diagnostic statistics and estimates of cross validated response probabilities are also available for binary response models. If you specify more than one OUTPUT statement, only the last one is used. Formulas for the statistics are given in the sections “Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits” on page 3337 and “Regression Diagnostics” on page 3347, and, for conditional logistic regression, in the section “Conditional Logistic Regression” on page 3353. If you use the single-trial syntax, the data set also contains a variable named _LEVEL_, which indicates the level of the response that the given row of output is referring to. For instance, the value of the cumulative probability variable is the probability that the response variable is as large as the corresponding value of _LEVEL_. For details, see the section “OUT= Output Data Set in the OUTPUT Statement” on page 3364. The estimated linear predictor, its standard error estimate, all predicted probabilities, and the confidence limits for the cumulative probabilities are computed for all observations in which the explanatory variables have no missing values, even if the response is missing. By adding observations with missing response values to the input data set, you can compute these statistics for new observations or for settings of the explanatory variables not present in the data without affecting the model fit. Alternatively, the SCORE statement can be used to compute predicted probabilities and confidence intervals for new observations. Table 51.3 lists the available options, which can be specified after a slash (/). The statistic and diagnostic options specify the statistics to be included in the output data set and name the new variables that contain the statistics. If a STRATA statement is specified, only the PREDICTED=, DFBETAS=, and H= options are available; see the section “Regression Diagnostic Details” on page 3355 for details. Table 51.3 Option OUTPUT Statement Options Description ALPHA= specifies ˛ for the 100.1 ˛/% confidence intervals OUT= names the output data set Statistic Options LOWER= names the lower confidence limit PREDICTED= names the predicted probabilities PREDPROBS= requests the individual, cumulative, or cross validated predicted probabilities STDXBETA= names the standard error estimate of the linear predictor UPPER= names the upper confidence limit XBETA= names the linear predictor 3304 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Table 51.3 continued Option Description Diagnostic Options for Binary Response C= names the confidence interval displacement CBAR= names the confidence interval displacement DFBETAS= names the standardized deletion parameter differences DIFCHISQ= names the deletion chi-square goodness-of-fit change DIFDEV= names the deletion deviance change H= names the leverage RESCHI= names the Pearson chi-square residual RESDEV= names the deviance residual The following list describes these options. ALPHA=number sets the level of significance ˛ for 100.1 ˛/% confidence limits for the appropriate response probabilities. The value of number must be between 0 and 1. By default, number is equal to the value of the ALPHA= option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, or 0.05 if that option is not specified. C=name specifies the confidence interval displacement diagnostic that measures the influence of individual observations on the regression estimates. CBAR=name specifies the confidence interval displacement diagnostic that measures the overall change in the global regression estimates due to deleting an individual observation. DFBETAS=_ALL_ DFBETAS=var-list specifies the standardized differences in the regression estimates for assessing the effects of individual observations on the estimated regression parameters in the fitted model. You can specify a list of up to s C 1 variable names, where s is the number of explanatory variables in the MODEL statement, or you can specify just the keyword _ALL_. In the former specification, the first variable contains the standardized differences in the intercept estimate, the second variable contains the standardized differences in the parameter estimate for the first explanatory variable in the MODEL statement, and so on. In the latter specification, the DFBETAS statistics are named DFBETA_xxx, where xxx is the name of the regression parameter. For example, if the model contains two variables X1 and X2, the specification DFBETAS=_ALL_ produces three DFBETAS statistics: DFBETA_Intercept, DFBETA_X1, and DFBETA_X2. If an explanatory variable is not included in the final model, the corresponding output variable named in DFBETAS=var-list contains missing values. DIFCHISQ=name specifies the change in the chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic attributable to deleting the individual observation. OUTPUT Statement F 3305 DIFDEV=name specifies the change in the deviance attributable to deleting the individual observation. H=name specifies the diagonal element of the hat matrix for detecting extreme points in the design space. LOWER=name L=name names the variable containing the lower confidence limits for , where is the probability of the event response if events/trials syntax or single-trial syntax with binary response is specified; for a cumulative model, is cumulative probability (that is, the probability that the response is less than or equal to the value of _LEVEL_); for the generalized logit model, it is the individual probability (that is, the probability that the response category is represented by the value of _LEVEL_). See the ALPHA= option to set the confidence level. OUT=SAS-data-set names the output data set. If you omit the OUT= option, the output data set is created and given a default name by using the DATAn convention. PREDICTED=name PRED=name PROB=name P=name names the variable containing the predicted probabilities. For the events/trials syntax or single-trial syntax with binary response, it is the predicted event probability. For a cumulative model, it is the predicted cumulative probability (that is, the probability that the response variable is less than or equal to the value of _LEVEL_); and for the generalized logit model, it is the predicted individual probability (that is, the probability of the response category represented by the value of _LEVEL_). PREDPROBS=(keywords) requests individual, cumulative, or cross validated predicted probabilities. Descriptions of the keywords are as follows. requests the predicted probability of each response level. For a response variable Y with three levels, 1, 2, and 3, the individual probabilities are Pr(YD1), Pr(YD2), and Pr(YD3). INDIVIDUAL | I requests the cumulative predicted probability of each response level. For a response variable Y with three levels, 1, 2, and 3, the cumulative probabilities are Pr(Y1), Pr(Y2), and Pr(Y3). The cumulative probability for the last response level always has the constant value of 1. For generalized logit models, the cumulative predicted probabilities are not computed and are set to missing. CUMULATIVE | C requests the cross validated individual predicted probability of each response level. These probabilities are derived from the leaveone-out principle—that is, dropping the data of one subject and reestimating the parameter estimates. PROC LOGISTIC uses a less expensive one-step approximation to compute the parameter estimates. This option is valid only for binary CROSSVALIDATE | XVALIDATE | X 3306 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure response models; for nominal and ordinal models, the cross validated probabilities are not computed and are set to missing. See the section “Details of the PREDPROBS= Option” on page 3306 at the end of this section for further details. RESCHI=name specifies the Pearson (chi-square) residual for identifying observations that are poorly accounted for by the model. RESDEV=name specifies the deviance residual for identifying poorly fitted observations. STDXBETA=name names the variable containing the standard error estimates of XBETA. See the section “Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits” on page 3337 for details. UPPER=name U=name names the variable containing the upper confidence limits for , where is the probability of the event response if events/trials syntax or single-trial syntax with binary response is specified; for a cumulative model, is cumulative probability (that is, the probability that the response is less than or equal to the value of _LEVEL_); for the generalized logit model, it is the individual probability (that is, the probability that the response category is represented by the value of _LEVEL_). See the ALPHA= option to set the confidence level. XBETA=name names the variable containing the estimates of the linear predictor ˛i C ˇ 0 x, where i is the corresponding ordered value of _LEVEL_. Details of the PREDPROBS= Option You can request any of the three types of predicted probabilities. For example, you can request both the individual predicted probabilities and the cross validated probabilities by specifying PREDPROBS=(I X). When you specify the PREDPROBS= option, two automatic variables, _FROM_ and _INTO_, are included for the single-trial syntax and only one variable, _INTO_, is included for the events/trials syntax. The variable _FROM_ contains the formatted value of the observed response. The variable _INTO_ contains the formatted value of the response level with the largest individual predicted probability. If you specify PREDPROBS=INDIVIDUAL, the OUT= data set contains k additional variables representing the individual probabilities, one for each response level, where k is the maximum number of response levels across all BY groups. The names of these variables have the form IP_xxx, where xxx represents the particular level. The representation depends on the following situations: OUTPUT Statement F 3307 If you specify events/trials syntax, xxx is either ‘Event’ or ‘Nonevent’. Thus, the variable containing the event probabilities is named IP_Event and the variable containing the nonevent probabilities is named IP_Nonevent. If you specify the single-trial syntax with more than one BY group, xxx is 1 for the first ordered level of the response, 2 for the second ordered level of the response, and so forth, as given in the “Response Profile” table. The variable containing the predicted probabilities Pr(Y=1) is named IP_1, where Y is the response variable. Similarly, IP_2 is the name of the variable containing the predicted probabilities Pr(Y=2), and so on. If you specify the single-trial syntax with no BY-group processing, xxx is the left-justified formatted value of the response level (the value might be truncated so that IP_xxx does not exceed 32 characters). For example, if Y is the response variable with response levels ‘None’, ‘Mild’, and ‘Severe’, the variables representing individual probabilities Pr(Y=’None’), P(Y=’Mild’), and P(Y=’Severe’) are named IP_None, IP_Mild, and IP_Severe, respectively. If you specify PREDPROBS=CUMULATIVE, the OUT= data set contains k additional variables representing the cumulative probabilities, one for each response level, where k is the maximum number of response levels across all BY groups. The names of these variables have the form CP_xxx, where xxx represents the particular response level. The naming convention is similar to that given by PREDPROBS=INDIVIDUAL. The PREDPROBS=CUMULATIVE values are the same as those output by the PREDICT= option, but are arranged in variables on each output observation rather than in multiple output observations. If you specify PREDPROBS=CROSSVALIDATE, the OUT= data set contains k additional variables representing the cross validated predicted probabilities of the k response levels, where k is the maximum number of response levels across all BY groups. The names of these variables have the form XP_xxx, where xxx represents the particular level. The representation is the same as that given by PREDPROBS=INDIVIDUAL except that for the events/trials syntax there are four variables for the cross validated predicted probabilities instead of two: XP_EVENT_R1E is the cross validated predicted probability of an event when a current event trial is removed. is the cross validated predicted probability of a nonevent when a current event trial is removed. XP_NONEVENT_R1E XP_EVENT_R1N is the cross validated predicted probability of an event when a current nonevent trial is removed. is the cross validated predicted probability of a nonevent when a current nonevent trial is removed. XP_NONEVENT_R1N The cross validated predicted probabilities are precisely those used in the CTABLE option. See the section “Predicted Probability of an Event for Classification” on page 3339 for details of the computation. 3308 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure ROC Statement ROC < ’label’ > < specification > < / options > ; The ROC statements specify models to be used in the ROC comparisons. You can specify more than one ROC statement. ROC statements are identified by their label—if you do not specify a label, the ith ROC statement is labeled “ROCi”. Additionally, the specified or selected model is labeled with the MODEL statement label or “Model” if the MODEL label is not present. The specification can be either a list of effects that have previously been specified in the MODEL statement, or PRED=variable, where the variable does not have to be specified in the MODEL statement. The PRED= option allows you to input a criterion produced outside PROC LOGISTIC; for example, you can fit a random-intercept model by using PROC GLIMMIX or use survey weights in PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC, then use the predicted values from those models to produce an ROC curve for the comparisons. If you do not make a specification, then an intercept-only model is fit to the data, resulting in a noninformative ROC curve that can be used for comparing the area under another ROC curve to 0.5. You can specify a ROCCONTRAST statement and a ROCOPTIONS option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement to control how the models are compared, while the PLOTS=ROC option controls the ODS Graphics displays. See Example 51.8 for an example that uses the ROC statement. If you specify any options, then a “ROC Model Information” table summarizing the new ROC model is displayed. The options are ignored for the PRED= specification. The following options are available: NOOFFSET does not include an offset variable if the OFFSET= option is specified in the MODEL statement. A constant offset has no effect on the ROC curve, although the cutpoints might be different, but a nonconstant offset can affect the parameter estimates and hence the ROC curve. LINK=keyword specifies the link function to be used in the model. The available keywords are LOGIT, NORMIT, and CLOGLOG. ROCCONTRAST Statement F 3309 ROCCONTRAST Statement ROCCONTRAST < ’label’ >< contrast >< / options > ; The ROCCONTRAST statement compares the different ROC models. You can specify only one ROCCONTRAST statement. The ROCOPTIONS options in the PROC LOGISTIC statement control how the models are compared. You can specify one of the following contrast specifications: REFERENCE< (MODEL | ’roc-label’) > produces a contrast matrix of differences between each ROC curve and a reference curve. The MODEL keyword specifies that the reference curve is that produced from the MODEL statement; the roc-label specifies the label of the ROC curve that is to be used as the reference curve. If neither the MODEL keyword nor the roc-label label is specified, then the reference ROC curve is either the curve produced from the MODEL statement, the selected model if a selection method is specified, or the model from the first ROC statement if the NOFIT option is specified. ADJACENTPAIRS produces a contrast matrix of each ROC curve minus the succeeding curve. matrix specifies the contrast in the form row1,row2,..., where each row contains the coefficients used to compare the ROC curves. Each row must contain the same number of entries as there are ROC curves being compared. The elements of each row refer to the ROC statements in the order in which they are specified. However, the first element of each row refers either to the fitted model, the selected model if a SELECTION= method is specified, or the first specified ROC statement if the NOFIT option is specified. If no contrast is specified, then the REFERENCE contrast with the default reference curve is used. See the section “Comparing ROC Curves” on page 3345 for more information about comparing ROC curves, and see Example 51.8 for an example. The following options are available: E displays the contrast. ESTIMATE < = ROWS | ALLPAIRS > produces estimates of each row of the contrast when ESTIMATE or ESTIMATE=ROWS is specified. If the ESTIMATE=ALLPAIRS option is specified, then estimates of every pairwise difference of ROC curves are produced. The row contrasts are labeled “ModelLabel1 – ModelLabel2”, where the model labels are as described in the ROC statement; in particular, for the REFERENCE contrast, ModelLabel2 is the reference model label. If you specify your own contrast matrix, then the ith contrast row estimate is labeled “Rowi”. COV displays covariance matrices used in the computations. 3310 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure SCORE Statement SCORE < options > ; The SCORE statement creates a data set that contains all the data in the DATA= data set together with posterior probabilities and, optionally, prediction confidence intervals. Fit statistics are displayed on request. If you have binary response data, the SCORE statement can be used to create a data set containing data for the ROC curve. You can specify several SCORE statements. FREQ, WEIGHT, and BY statements can be used with the SCORE statements. The SCORE statement is not available with the STRATA statement. If a SCORE statement is specified in the same run as fitting the model, FORMAT statements should be specified after the SCORE statement in order for the formats to apply to all the DATA= and PRIOR= data sets in the SCORE statement. See the section “Scoring Data Sets” on page 3350 for more information, and see Example 51.15 for an illustration of how to use this statement. You can specify the following options: ALPHA=number specifies the significance level ˛ for 100.1 ˛/% confidence intervals. By default, the value of number is equal to the ALPHA= option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, or 0:05 if that option is not specified. This option has no effect unless the CLM option in the SCORE statement is requested. CLM outputs the Wald-test-based confidence limits for the predicted probabilities. This option is not available when the INMODEL= data set is created with the NOCOV option. CUMULATIVE outputs the cumulative predicted probabilities Pr.Y i/; i D 1; : : : ; k C 1, to the OUT= data set. This option is valid only when you have more than two response levels; otherwise, the option is ignored and a note is printed in the SAS log. These probabilities are named CP_level_i, where level_i is the i th response level. If the CLM option is also specified in the SCORE statement, then the Wald-based confidence limits for the cumulative predicted probabilities are also output. The confidence limits are named CLCL_level_i and CUCL_level_i. In particular, for the lowest response level, the cumulative values (CP, CLCL, CUCL) should be identical to the individual values (P, LCL, UCL), and for the highest response level CP=CLCL=CUCL=1. DATA=SAS-data-set names the SAS data set that you want to score. If you omit the DATA= option in the SCORE statement, then scoring is performed on the DATA= input data set in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, if specified; otherwise, the DATA=_LAST_ data set is used. It is not necessary for the DATA= data set in the SCORE statement to contain the response variable unless you are specifying the FITSTAT or OUTROC= option. SCORE Statement F 3311 Only those variables involved in the fitted model effects are required in the DATA= data set in the SCORE statement. For example, the following statements use forward selection to select effects: proc logistic data=Neuralgia outmodel=sasuser.Model; class Treatment Sex; model Pain(event=’Yes’)= Treatment|Sex Age / selection=forward sle=.01; run; Suppose Treatment and Age are the effects selected for the final model. You can score a data set that does not contain the variable Sex since the effect Sex is not in the model that the scoring is based on. For example, the following statements score the Neuralgia data set after dropping the Sex variable: proc logistic inmodel=sasuser.Model; score data=Neuralgia(drop=Sex); run; FITSTAT displays a table ofP fit statistics for the data are computed: P Pset being scored. Four statistics total frequencyD , total weightD i /, and i fiP i fi wi , log likelihoodD i fi wi log.b i ¤I_Yi gfi / i .1fF_Y P , where the summations are over all observations misclassification rateD i fi in the data set being scored, and the values F_Y and I_Y are described in the section “OUT= Output Data Set in a SCORE Statement” on page 3364. OUT=SAS-data-set names the SAS data set that contains the predicted information. If you omit the OUT= option, the output data set is created and given a default name by using the DATAn convention. OUTROC=SAS-data-set names the SAS data set that contains the ROC curve for the DATA= data set. The ROC curve is computed only for binary response data. See the section “OUTROC= Output Data Set” on page 3366 for the list of variables in this data set. PRIOR=SAS-data-set names the SAS data set that contains the priors of the response categories. The priors can be values proportional to the prior probabilities; thus, they do not necessarily sum to one. This data set should include a variable named _PRIOR_ that contains the prior probabilities. For events/trials MODEL syntax, this data set should also include an _OUTCOME_ variable that contains the values EVENT and NONEVENT; for single-trial MODEL syntax, this data set should include the response variable that contains the unformatted response categories. See Example 51.15 for an example. PRIOREVENT=value specifies the prior event probability for a binary response model. If both PRIOR= and PRIOREVENT= options are specified, the PRIOR= option takes precedence. ROCEPS=value specifies the criterion for grouping estimated event probabilities that are close to each other for the ROC curve. In each group, the difference between the largest and the smallest estimated event probability does not exceed the given value. The value must be between 0 and 1; the 3312 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure default value is 1E–4. The smallest estimated probability in each group serves as a cutpoint for predicting an event response. The ROCEPS= option has no effect if the OUTROC= option is not specified in the SCORE statement. STRATA Statement STRATA variable < (option) >< variable < (option) >: : : >< / options > ; The STRATA statement names the variables that define strata or matched sets to use in a stratified conditional logistic regression of binary response data. Observations having the same variable levels are in the same matched set. You can analyze 1W 1, 1W n, mW n and general mi W ni matched sets where the number of cases and controls varies across strata. At least one variable must be specified to invoke the stratified analysis, and the usual unconditional asymptotic analysis is not performed. The stratified logistic model has the form 0 logit.hi / D ˛h C xhi ˇ where hi is the event probability for the i th observation in stratum h having covariates xhi , and where the stratum-specific intercepts ˛h are the nuisance parameters that are to be conditioned out. STRATA variables can also be specified in the MODEL statement as classification or continuous covariates; however, the effects are nondegenerate only when crossed with a nonstratification variable. Specifying several STRATA statements is the same as specifying one STRATA statement containing all the strata variables. The STRATA variables can be either character or numeric, and the formatted values of the STRATA variables determine the levels. Thus, you can also use formats to group values into levels; see the discussion of the FORMAT procedure in the Base SAS Procedures Guide. If an EXACT statement is also specified, then a stratified exact conditional logistic regression is performed. The SCORE and WEIGHT statements are not available with a STRATA statement. The following MODEL options are also not supported with a STRATA statement: CLPARM=PL, CLODDS=PL, CTABLE, FIRTH, LACKFIT, LINK=, NOFIT, OUTMODEL=, OUTROC=, ROC, and SCALE=. The “Strata Summary” table is displayed by default. It displays the number of strata that have a specific number of events and nonevents. For example, if you are analyzing a 1W5 matched study, this table enables you to verify that every stratum in the analysis has exactly one event and five nonevents. Strata containing only events or only nonevents are reported in this table, but such strata are uninformative and are not used in the analysis. Note that you can use the response variable option EVENT= to identify the events; otherwise, the first ordered response category is the event. The following option can be specified for a stratification variable by enclosing the option in parentheses after the variable name, or it can be specified globally for all STRATA variables after a slash (/). MISSING treats missing values (‘.’,‘.A’,. . . ,‘.Z’ for numeric variables and blanks for character variables) as valid STRATA variable values. The following strata options are also available after the slash. TEST Statement F 3313 CHECKDEPENDENCY | CHECK=keyword specifies which variables are to be tested for dependency before the analysis is performed. The available keywords are as follows: NONE performs no dependence checking. Typically, a message about a singular information matrix will be displayed if you do have dependent variables. Dependent variables can be identified after the analysis by noting any missing parameter estimates. checks dependence between covariates and an added intercept. Dependent covariates are removed from the analysis. However, covariates that are linear functions of the strata variable might not be removed, which will result in a singular information matrix message being displayed in the SAS log. This is the default. COVARIATES ALL checks dependence between all the strata and covariates. This option can adversely affect performance if you have a large number of strata. NOSUMMARY suppresses the display of the “Strata Summary” table. INFO displays the “Strata Information” table, which includes the stratum number, levels of the STRATA variables that define the stratum, the number of events, the number of nonevents, and the total frequency for each stratum. Since the number of strata can be very large, this table is displayed only by request. TEST Statement < label: > TEST equation1 < , equation2, : : : >< / option > ; The TEST statement tests linear hypotheses about the regression coefficients. The Wald test is used to perform a joint test of the null hypotheses H0 W Lˇ D c specified in a single TEST statement, where ˇ is the vector of intercept and slope parameters. When c D 0 you should specify a CONTRAST statement instead. Each equation specifies a linear hypothesis (a row of the L matrix and the corresponding element of the c vector). Multiple equations are separated by commas. The label, which must be a valid SAS name, is used to identify the resulting output and should always be included. You can submit multiple TEST statements. The form of an equation is as follows: term< ˙ term : : : > < D ˙term < ˙term: : : > > where term is a parameter of the model, or a constant, or a constant times a parameter. Intercept and CLASS variable parameter names should be specified as described in the section “Parameter Names in the OUTEST= Data Set” on page 3362. Note for generalized logit models that this allows you to construct tests of parameters from specific logits. When no equal sign appears, the expression is set to 0. The following statements illustrate possible uses of the TEST statement: 3314 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure proc logistic; model y= a1 test1: test test2: test test3: test test4: test run; a2 a3 a4; intercept + .5 * a2 = 0; intercept + .5 * a2; a1=a2=a3; a1=a2, a2=a3; Note that the first and second TEST statements are equivalent, as are the third and fourth TEST statements. You can specify the following option in the TEST statement after a slash(/). PRINT displays intermediate calculations in the testing of the null hypothesis H0 W Lˇ D c. This includes Lb V.b̌/L0 bordered by .Lb̌ c/ and ŒLb V.b̌/L0 1 bordered by ŒLb V.b̌/L0 1 .Lb̌ c/, where b̌ is the maximum likelihood estimator of ˇ and b V.b̌/ is the estimated covariance matrix of b̌. For more information, see the section “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346. UNITS Statement UNITS independent1=list1 < independent2 = list2: : : >< / option > ; The UNITS statement enables you to specify units of change for the continuous explanatory variables so that customized odds ratios can be estimated. If you specify more than one UNITS statement, only the last one is used. An estimate of the corresponding odds ratio is produced for each unit of change specified for an explanatory variable. The UNITS statement is ignored for CLASS variables. Odds ratios are computed only for main effects that are not involved in interactions or nestings, unless an ODDSRATIO statement is also specified. If the CLODDS= option is specified in the MODEL statement, the corresponding confidence limits for the odds ratios are also displayed, as are odds ratios and confidence limits for any CLASS main effects that are not involved in interactions or nestings. The CLASS effects must use the GLM, reference, or effect coding. The UNITS statement also enables you to customize the odds ratios for effects specified in ODDSRATIO statements, in which case interactions and nestings are allowed, and CLASS variables can be specified with any parameterization. The term independent is the name of an explanatory variable and list represents a list of units of change, separated by spaces, that are of interest for that variable. Each unit of change in a list has one of the following forms: number SD or –SD number * SD WEIGHT Statement F 3315 where number is any nonzero number, and SD is the sample standard deviation of the corresponding independent variable. For example, X D 2 requests an odds ratio that represents the change in the odds when the variable X is decreased by two units. X D 2SD requests an estimate of the change in the odds when X is increased by two sample standard deviations. You can specify the following option in the UNITS statement after a slash(/). DEFAULT=list gives a list of units of change for all explanatory variables that are not specified in the UNITS statement. Each unit of change can be in any of the forms described previously. If the DEFAULT= option is not specified, PROC LOGISTIC does not produce customized odds ratio estimates for any continuous explanatory variable that is not listed in the UNITS statement. For more information, see the section “Odds Ratio Estimation” on page 3333. WEIGHT Statement WEIGHT variable < / option > ; When a WEIGHT statement appears, each observation in the input data set is weighted by the value of the WEIGHT variable. Unlike a FREQ variable, the values of the WEIGHT variable can be nonintegral and are not truncated. Observations with negative, zero, or missing values for the WEIGHT variable are not used in the model fitting. When the WEIGHT statement is not specified, each observation is assigned a weight of 1. The WEIGHT statement is not available with the STRATA statement. If you specify more than one WEIGHT statement, then the first WEIGHT variable is used. If a SCORE statement is specified, then the WEIGHT variable is used for computing fit statistics and the ROC curve, but it is not required for scoring. If the DATA= data set in the SCORE statement does not contain the WEIGHT variable, the weights are assumed to be 1 and a warning message is issued in the SAS log. If you fit a model and perform the scoring in the same run, the same WEIGHT variable is used for fitting and scoring. If you fit a model in a previous run and input it with the INMODEL= option in the current run, then the WEIGHT variable can be different from the one used in the previous run; however, if a WEIGHT variable was not specified in the previous run, you can still specify a WEIGHT variable in the current run. C AUTION : PROC LOGISTIC does not compute the proper variance estimators if you are analyzing survey data and specifying the sampling weights through the WEIGHT statement. The SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure is designed to perform the necessary, and correct, computations. The following option can be added to the WEIGHT statement after a slash (/). NORMALIZE NORM causes the weights specified by the WEIGHT variable to be normalized so that they add up to the actual sample size. Weights wi are normalized by multiplying them by Pn n w , where iD1 i n is the sample size. With this option, the estimated covariance matrix of the parameter estimators is invariant to the scale of the WEIGHT variable. 3316 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Details: LOGISTIC Procedure Missing Values Any observation with missing values for the response, offset, strata, or explanatory variables is excluded from the analysis; however, missing values are valid for variables specified with the MISSING option in the CLASS or STRATA statement. The estimated linear predictor and its standard error estimate, the fitted probabilities and confidence limits, and the regression diagnostic statistics are not computed for any observation with missing offset or explanatory variable values. However, if only the response value is missing, the linear predictor, its standard error, the fitted individual and cumulative probabilities, and confidence limits for the cumulative probabilities can be computed and output to a data set by using the OUTPUT statement. Response Level Ordering Response level ordering is important because, by default, PROC LOGISTIC models the probability of response levels with lower Ordered Value. Ordered Values are assigned to response levels in ascending sorted order (that is, the lowest response level is assigned Ordered Value 1, the next lowest is assigned Ordered Value 2, and so on) and are displayed in the “Response Profiles” table. If your response variable Y takes values in f1; : : : ; k C 1g, then, by default, the functions modeled with the binary or cumulative model are logit.Pr.Y i jx//; i D 1; : : : ; k and for the generalized logit model the functions modeled are Pr.Y D i jx/ log ; i D 1; : : : ; k Pr.Y D k C 1jx/ where the highest Ordered Value Y D k C 1 is the reference level. You can change which probabilities are modeled by specifying the EVENT=, REF=, DESCENDING, or ORDER= response variable options in the MODEL statement. For binary response data with event and nonevent categories, if your event category has a higher Ordered Value, then by default the nonevent is modeled. Since the default response function modeled is logit./ D log 1 where is the probability of the response level assigned Ordered Value 1, and since logit./ D logit.1 / the effect of modeling the nonevent is to change the signs of ˛ and ˇ in the model for the event, logit./ D ˛ C ˇ 0 x. CLASS Variable Parameterization F 3317 For example, suppose the binary response variable Y takes the values 1 and 0 for event and nonevent, respectively, and Exposure is the explanatory variable. By default, PROC LOGISTIC assigns Ordered Value 1 to response level Y=0, and Ordered Value 2 to response level Y=1. As a result, PROC LOGISTIC models the probability of the nonevent (Ordered Value=1) category, and your parameter estimates have the opposite sign from those in the model for the event. To model the event without using a DATA step to change the values of the variable Y, you can control the ordering of the response levels or select the event or reference level, as shown in the following list: Explicitly state which response level is to be modeled by using the response variable option EVENT= in the MODEL statement: model Y(event=’1’) = Exposure; Specify the nonevent category for the response variable in the response variable option REF= in the MODEL statement. This option is most useful for generalized logit models where the EVENT= option cannot be used. model Y(ref=’0’) = Exposure; Specify the response variable option DESCENDING in the MODEL statement to assign the lowest Ordered Value to Y=1: model Y(descending)=Exposure; Assign a format to Y such that the first formatted value (when the formatted values are put in sorted order) corresponds to the event. In the following example, Y=1 is assigned the formatted value ‘event’ and Y=0 is assigned the formatted value ‘nonevent’. Since ORDER=FORMATTED by default, Ordered Value 1 is assigned to response level Y=1, so the procedure models the event. proc format; value Disease 1=’event’ 0=’nonevent’; run; proc logistic; format Y Disease.; model Y=Exposure; run; CLASS Variable Parameterization Consider a model with one CLASS variable A with four levels, 1, 2, 5, and 7. This section provides details of the possible choices for the PARAM= option. C AUTION : PROC LOGISTIC initially parameterizes the CLASS variables by looking at the levels of the variables across the complete data set. If you have an unbalanced replication of levels across variables or BY groups, then the design matrix and the parameter interpretation might be different from what you expect. See the EFFECT parameterization in the following list for a specific example. 3318 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure EFFECT Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the nonreference levels. For the reference level, all three design variables have a value of 1. For instance, if the reference level is 7 (REF=’7’), the design matrix columns for A are as follows: A Design Matrix A1 A2 A5 1 2 5 7 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Parameter estimates of CLASS main effects, using the effect coding scheme, estimate the difference in the effect of each nonreference level compared to the average effect over all 4 levels. C AUTION : Unbalanced replication of levels across variables or BY groups might result in unexpected design matrices and parameter interpretations. For instance, suppose that in addition to the four-level variable A discussed earlier, you have another variable B with two levels, where the fourth level of A occurs only with the first level of B. If your model contains the effect A(B), then the design for A within the second level of B will not be a differential effect. In particular, the design will look like the following: Design Matrix A(B=1) A(B=2) A1 A2 A5 A1 A2 A5 B A 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 7 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 1 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 PROC LOGISTIC will then detect linear dependency among the last three design variables and set the parameter for A5(BD2) to zero, resulting in an interpretation of these parameters as if they were reference- or dummy-coded. The REFERENCE or GLM parameterization might be more appropriate for such problems. GLM As in PROC GLM, four columns are created to indicate group membership. The design matrix columns for A are as follows: A 1 2 5 7 Design Matrix A1 A2 A5 A7 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Parameter estimates of CLASS main effects, using the GLM coding scheme, estimate the difference in the effects of each level compared to the last level. CLASS Variable Parameterization F 3319 ORDINAL Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the higher levels of the effect. For the first level of the effect (which for A is 1), all three design variables have a value of 0. The design matrix columns for A are as follows: A 1 2 5 7 Design Matrix A2 A5 A7 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 The first level of the effect is a control or baseline level. Parameter estimates of CLASS main effects, using the ORDINAL coding scheme, estimate the differences between effects of successive levels. When the parameters have the same sign, the effect is monotonic across the levels. POLYNOMIAL | POLY Three columns are created. The first represents the linear term (x), the second represents the quadratic term (x 2 ), and the third represents the cubic term (x 3 ), where x is the level value. If the CLASS levels are not numeric, they are translated into 1, 2, 3, : : : according to their sorting order. The design matrix columns for A are as follows: A Design Matrix APOLY1 APOLY2 APOLY3 1 2 5 7 1 2 5 7 1 4 25 49 1 8 125 343 REFERENCE | REF Three columns are created to indicate group membership of the nonreference levels. For the reference level, all three design variables have a value of 0. For instance, if the reference level is 7 (REF=’7’), the design matrix columns for A are as follows: A 1 2 5 7 Design Matrix A1 A2 A5 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Parameter estimates of CLASS main effects, using the reference coding scheme, estimate the difference in the effect of each nonreference level compared to the effect of the reference level. 3320 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure ORTHEFFECT The columns are obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to the columns for PARAM=EFFECT. The design matrix columns for A are as follows: A AOEFF1 1 2 5 7 1:41421 0:00000 0:00000 1:41421 Design Matrix AOEFF2 AOEFF3 0:81650 1:63299 0:00000 0:81649 0:57735 0:57735 1:73205 0:57735 ORTHORDINAL The columns are obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to the columns for PARAM=ORDINAL. The design matrix columns for A are as follows: A 1 2 5 7 Design Matrix AOORD1 AOORD2 AOORD3 1:73205 0:57735 0:57735 0:57735 0:00000 1:63299 0:81650 0:81650 0:00000 0:00000 1:41421 1:41421 ORTHPOLY The columns are obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to the columns for PARAM=POLY. The design matrix columns for A are as follows: A AOPOLY1 1 2 5 7 1:153 0:734 0:524 1:363 Design Matrix AOPOLY2 AOPOLY5 0:907 0:540 1:370 1:004 0:921 1:473 0:921 0:368 ORTHREF The columns are obtained by applying the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization to the columns for PARAM=REFERENCE. The design matrix columns for A are as follows: A 1 2 5 7 Design Matrix AOREF1 AOREF2 AOREF3 1:73205 0:57735 0:57735 0:57735 0:00000 1:63299 0:81650 0:81650 0:00000 0:00000 1:41421 1:41421 Link Functions and the Corresponding Distributions Four link functions are available in the LOGISTIC procedure. The logit function is the default. To specify a different link function, use the LINK= option in the MODEL statement. The link functions and the corresponding distributions are as follows: Link Functions and the Corresponding Distributions F 3321 The logit function g.p/ D log.p=.1 p// is the inverse of the cumulative logistic distribution function, which is F .x/ D 1=.1 C exp. x// D exp.x/=.1 C exp.x// The probit (or normit) function g.p/ D ˆ 1 .p/ is the inverse of the cumulative standard normal distribution function, which is Z x F .x/ D ˆ.x/ D .2/ 1=2 exp. z 2 =2/dz 1 Traditionally, the probit function contains the additive constant 5, but throughout PROC LOGISTIC, the terms probit and normit are used interchangeably. The complementary log-log function g.p/ D log. log.1 p// is the inverse of the cumulative extreme-value function (also called the Gompertz distribution), which is F .x/ D 1 exp. exp.x// The generalized logit function extends the binary logit link to a vector of levels .p1 ; : : : ; pkC1 / by contrasting each level with a fixed level g.pi / D log.pi =pkC1 / i D 1; : : : ; k The variances of the normal, logistic, and extreme-value distributions are not the same. Their respective means and variances are shown in the following table: Distribution Normal Logistic Extreme-value Mean Variance 0 0 2 =3 1 2 =6 Here is the Euler constant. In comparing parameter estimates from different link functions, you need to take into account the different scalings of the corresponding distributions and, for the complementary log-log function, a possible shift in location. For example, if the fitted probabilities are in the neighborhood of 0.1 to 0.9, then the parameter estimates from the logit link function should p be about = 3 larger than the estimates from the probit link function. 3322 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Determining Observations for Likelihood Contributions If you use events/trials MODEL syntax, each observation is split into two observations. One has response value 1 with a frequency equal to the frequency of the original observation (which is 1 if the FREQ statement is not used) times the value of the events variable. The other observation has response value 2 and a frequency equal to the frequency of the original observation times the value of (trials–events). These two observations will have the same explanatory variable values and the same FREQ and WEIGHT values as the original observation. For either single-trial or events/trials syntax, let j index all observations. In other words, for single-trial syntax, j indexes the actual observations. And, for events/trials syntax, j indexes the observations after splitting (as described in the preceding paragraph). If your data set has 30 observations and you use single-trial syntax, j has values from 1 to 30; if you use events/trials syntax, j has values from 1 to 60. Suppose the response variable in a cumulative response model can take on the ordered values 1; : : : ; k; k C 1, where k is an integer 1. The likelihood for the j th observation with ordered response value yj and explanatory variables vector xj is given by 8 < F .˛1 C ˇ 0 xj / F .˛i C ˇ 0 xj / F .˛i Lj D : 1 F .˛k C ˇ 0 xj / 1 C ˇ 0 xj / yj D 1 1 < yj D i k yj D k C 1 where F ./ is the logistic, normal, or extreme-value distribution function, ˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k are ordered intercept parameters, and ˇ is the common slope parameter vector. For the generalized logit model, letting the k C 1st level be the reference level, the intercepts ˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k are unordered and the slope vector ˇi varies with each logit. The likelihood for the j th observation with response value yj and explanatory variables vector xj is given by 8 0 e ˛i Cxj ˇi ˆ ˆ ˆ 1 yj D i k Pk < ˛m Cxj0 ˇm 1 C e mD1 Lj D Pr.Y D yj jxj / D ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ yj D k C 1 : Pk 0 1 C mD1 e ˛m Cxj ˇm Iterative Algorithms for Model Fitting Two iterative maximum likelihood algorithms are available in PROC LOGISTIC. The default is the Fisher scoring method, which is equivalent to fitting by iteratively reweighted least squares. The alternative algorithm is the Newton-Raphson method. Both algorithms give the same parameter estimates; however, the estimated covariance matrix of the parameter estimators can differ slightly. This is due to the fact that Fisher scoring is based on the expected information matrix while the Newton-Raphson method is based on the observed information matrix. In the case of a binary logit model, the observed and expected information matrices are identical, resulting in identical estimated covariance matrices for both algorithms. For a generalized logit model, only the Newton-Raphson technique is available. You can use the TECHNIQUE= option to select a fitting algorithm. Also, the Iterative Algorithms for Model Fitting F 3323 FIRTH option modifies these techniques to perform a bias-reducing penalized maximum likelihood fit. Iteratively Reweighted Least Squares Algorithm (Fisher Scoring) Consider the multinomial variable Zj D .Z1j ; : : : ; ZkC1;j /0 such that Zij D 1 if Yj D i 0 otherwise With ij denoting the probability that the jth observation has response value i, the expected value of Pk Zj is j D .1j ; : : : ; kC1;j /0 where kC1;j D 1 i D1 ij . The covariance matrix of Zj is Vj , which is the covariance matrix of a multinomial random variable for one trial with parameter vector j . Let ˇ be the vector of regression parameters; in other words, ˇ D .˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k ; ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs /0 . Let Dj be the matrix of partial derivatives of j with respect to ˇ. The estimating equation for the regression parameters is X D0j Wj .Zj j / D 0 j where Wj D wj fj Vj , wj and fj are the weight and frequency of the j th observation, and Vj is a generalized inverse of Vj . PROC LOGISTIC chooses Vj as the inverse of the diagonal matrix with j as the diagonal. With a starting value of ˇ .0/ , the maximum likelihood estimate of ˇ is obtained iteratively as X X ˇ .mC1/ D ˇ .m/ C . D0j Wj Dj / 1 D0j Wj .Zj j / j j where Dj , Wj , and j are evaluated at ˇ .m/ . The expression after the plus sign is the step size. If the likelihood evaluated at ˇ .mC1/ is less than that evaluated at ˇ .m/ , then ˇ .mC1/ is recomputed by step-halving or ridging as determined by the value of the RIDGING= option. The iterative scheme continues until convergence is obtained—that is, until ˇ .mC1/ is sufficiently close to ˇ .m/ . Then the maximum likelihood estimate of ˇ is b̌ D ˇ .mC1/ . The covariance matrix of b̌ is estimated by X b bjb Cov.b̌/ D . D0j W Dj / 1 b j b j are, respectively, Dj and Wj evaluated at b̌. where b Dj and W By default, starting values are zero for the slope parameters, and for the intercept parameters, starting values are the observed cumulative logits (that is, logits of the observed cumulative proportions of response). Alternatively, the starting values can be specified with the INEST= option. 3324 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Newton-Raphson Algorithm For cumulative models, let the parameter vector be ˇ D .˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k ; ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs /0 , and for the generalized logit model let ˇ D .˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k ; ˇ10 ; : : : ; ˇk0 /0 . The gradient vector and the Hessian matrix are given, respectively, by g D X H D X wj fj j @lj @ˇ wj fj j @2 lj @ˇ 2 where lj D log Lj is the log likelihood for the j th observation. With a starting value of ˇ .0/ , the maximum likelihood estimate b̌ of ˇ is obtained iteratively until convergence is obtained: ˇ .mC1/ D ˇ .m/ C H 1 g where H and g are evaluated at ˇ .m/ . If the likelihood evaluated at ˇ .mC1/ is less than that evaluated at ˇ .m/ , then ˇ .mC1/ is recomputed by step-halving or ridging. The covariance matrix of b̌ is estimated by b 1 b Cov.b̌/ D H b is H evaluated at b̌. where H Firth’s Bias-Reducing Penalized Likelihood Firth’s method is currently available only for binary logistic models. It replaces the usual score (gradient) equation g.ˇj / D n X .yi i /xij D 0 .j D 1; : : : ; p/ i D1 where p is the number of parameters in the model, with the modified score equation g.ˇj / D n X fyi i C hi .0:5 i /gxij D 0 .j D 1; : : : ; p/ i D1 where the hi s are the i th diagonal elements of the hat matrix W1=2 X.X0 WX/ 1 X0 W1=2 and W D diagfi .1 i /g. The Hessian matrix is not modified by this penalty, and the optimization method is performed in the usual manner. Convergence Criteria F 3325 Convergence Criteria Four convergence criteria are available: ABSFCONV=, FCONV=, GCONV=, and XCONV=. If you specify more than one convergence criterion, the optimization is terminated as soon as one of the criteria is satisfied. If none of the criteria is specified, the default is GCONV=1E–8. If you specify a STRATA statement, then all unspecified (or nondefault) criteria are also compared to zero. For example, specifying only the criterion XCONV=1E–8 but attaining FCONV=0 terminates the optimization even if the XCONV= criterion is not satisfied, because the log likelihood has reached its maximum. Existence of Maximum Likelihood Estimates The likelihood equation for a logistic regression model does not always have a finite solution. Sometimes there is a nonunique maximum on the boundary of the parameter space, at infinity. The existence, finiteness, and uniqueness of maximum likelihood estimates for the logistic regression model depend on the patterns of data points in the observation space (Albert and Anderson 1984; Santner and Duffy 1986). Existence checks are not performed for conditional logistic regression. Consider a binary response model. Let Yj be the response of the ith subject, and let xj be the vector of explanatory variables (including the constant 1 associated with the intercept). There are three mutually exclusive and exhaustive types of data configurations: complete separation, quasicomplete separation, and overlap. Complete Separation There is a complete separation of data points if there exists a vector b that correctly allocates all observations to their response groups; that is, 0 b xj > 0 Yj D 1 b0 xj < 0 Yj D 2 This configuration gives nonunique infinite estimates. If the iterative process of maximizing the likelihood function is allowed to continue, the log likelihood diminishes to zero, and the dispersion matrix becomes unbounded. Quasi-complete Separation The data are not completely separable, but there is a vector b such that 0 b xj 0 Y j D 1 b0 xj 0 Yj D 2 and equality holds for at least one subject in each response group. This configuration also yields nonunique infinite estimates. If the iterative process of maximizing the likelihood function is allowed to continue, the dispersion matrix becomes unbounded and the log likelihood diminishes to a nonzero constant. Overlap If neither complete nor quasi-complete separation exists in the sample points, there is an overlap of sample points. In this configuration, the maximum likelihood estimates exist and are unique. 3326 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Complete separation and quasi-complete separation are problems typically encountered with small data sets. Although complete separation can occur with any type of data, quasi-complete separation is not likely with truly continuous explanatory variables. The LOGISTIC procedure uses a simple empirical approach to recognize the data configurations that lead to infinite parameter estimates. The basis of this approach is that any convergence method of maximizing the log likelihood must yield a solution giving complete separation, if such a solution exists. In maximizing the log likelihood, there is no checking for complete or quasi-complete separation if convergence is attained in eight or fewer iterations. Subsequent to the eighth iteration, the probability of the observed response is computed for each observation. If the predicted response equals the observed response for every observation, there is a complete separation of data points and the iteration process is stopped. If the complete separation of data has not been determined and an observation is identified to have an extremely large probability (0.95) of predicting the observed response, there are two possible situations. First, there is overlap in the data set, and the observation is an atypical observation of its own group. The iterative process, if allowed to continue, will stop when a maximum is reached. Second, there is quasi-complete separation in the data set, and the asymptotic dispersion matrix is unbounded. If any of the diagonal elements of the dispersion matrix for the standardized observations vectors (all explanatory variables standardized to zero mean and unit variance) exceeds 5000, quasi-complete separation is declared and the iterative process is stopped. If either complete separation or quasi-complete separation is detected, a warning message is displayed in the procedure output. Checking for quasi-complete separation is less foolproof than checking for complete separation. The NOCHECK option in the MODEL statement turns off the process of checking for infinite parameter estimates. In cases of complete or quasi-complete separation, turning off the checking process typically results in the procedure failing to converge. The presence of a WEIGHT statement also turns off the checking process. To address the separation issue, you can change your model, specify the FIRTH option to use Firth’s penalized likelihood method, or for small data sets specify an EXACT statement to perform an exact conditional logistic regression. Effect-Selection Methods Five effect-selection methods are available by specifying the SELECTION= option in the MODEL statement. The simplest method (and the default) is SELECTION=NONE, for which PROC LOGISTIC fits the complete model as specified in the MODEL statement. The other four methods are FORWARD for forward selection, BACKWARD for backward elimination, STEPWISE for stepwise selection, and SCORE for best subsets selection. Intercept parameters are forced to stay in the model unless the NOINT option is specified. When SELECTION=FORWARD, PROC LOGISTIC first estimates parameters for effects forced into the model. These effects are the intercepts and the first n explanatory effects in the MODEL statement, where n is the number specified by the START= or INCLUDE= option in the MODEL statement (n is zero by default). Next, the procedure computes the score chi-square statistic for each effect not in the model and examines the largest of these statistics. If it is significant at the SLENTRY= level, the corresponding effect is added to the model. Once an effect is entered in the Model Fitting Information F 3327 model, it is never removed from the model. The process is repeated until none of the remaining effects meet the specified level for entry or until the STOP= value is reached. When SELECTION=BACKWARD, parameters for the complete model as specified in the MODEL statement are estimated unless the START= option is specified. In that case, only the parameters for the intercepts and the first n explanatory effects in the MODEL statement are estimated, where n is the number specified by the START= option. Results of the Wald test for individual parameters are examined. The least significant effect that does not meet the SLSTAY= level for staying in the model is removed. Once an effect is removed from the model, it remains excluded. The process is repeated until no other effect in the model meets the specified level for removal or until the STOP= value is reached. Backward selection is often less successful than forward or stepwise selection because the full model fit in the first step is the model most likely to result in a complete or quasi-complete separation of response values as described in the section “Existence of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” on page 3325. The SELECTION=STEPWISE option is similar to the SELECTION=FORWARD option except that effects already in the model do not necessarily remain. Effects are entered into and removed from the model in such a way that each forward selection step can be followed by one or more backward elimination steps. The stepwise selection process terminates if no further effect can be added to the model or if the current model is identical to a previously visited model. For SELECTION=SCORE, PROC LOGISTIC uses the branch-and-bound algorithm of Furnival and Wilson (1974) to find a specified number of models with the highest likelihood score (chisquare) statistic for all possible model sizes, from 1, 2, 3 effect models, and so on, up to the single model containing all of the explanatory effects. The number of models displayed for each model size is controlled by the BEST= option. You can use the START= option to impose a minimum model size, and you can use the STOP= option to impose a maximum model size. For instance, with BEST=3, START=2, and STOP=5, the SCORE selection method displays the best three models (that is, the three models with the highest score chi-squares) containing 2, 3, 4, and 5 effects. The SELECTION=SCORE option is not available for models with CLASS variables. The options FAST, SEQUENTIAL, and STOPRES can alter the default criteria for entering or removing effects from the model when they are used with the FORWARD, BACKWARD, or STEPWISE selection method. Model Fitting Information For the j th observation, let b j be the estimated probability of the observed response. The three criteria displayed by the LOGISTIC procedure are calculated as follows: –2 Log Likelihood: 2 Log L D 2 X wj j 2 fj log.b j / where wj and fj are the weight and frequency values of the j th observation, and 2 is the dispersion parameter, which equals 1 unless the SCALE= option is specified. For binary 3328 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure response models that use events/trials MODEL syntax, this is equivalent to 2 Log L D 2 X wj j 2 fj Œrj log.b j / C .nj rj / log.1 b j / where rj is the number of events, nj is the number of trials, and b j is the estimated event probability. Akaike Information Criterion: AIC D 2 Log L C 2p where p is the number of parameters in the model. For cumulative response models, p D k C s, where k is the total number of response levels minus one and s is the number of explanatory effects. For the generalized logit model, p D k.s C 1/. Schwarz (Bayesian Information) Criterion: X SC D 2 Log L C p log. fj / j where p is the number of parameters in the model. The AIC and SC statistics give two different ways of adjusting the –2 Log L statistic for the number of terms in the model and the number of observations used. These statistics can be used when comparing different models for the same data (for example, when you use the SELECTION=STEPWISE option in the MODEL statement). The models being compared do not have to be nested; lower values of the statistics indicate a more desirable model. The difference in the –2 Log L statistics between the intercepts-only model and the specified model has a p k degree-of-freedom chi-square distribution under the null hypothesis that all the explanatory effects in the model are zero, where p is the number of parameters in the specified model and k is the number of intercepts. The likelihood ratio test in the “Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0” table displays this difference and the associated p-value for this statistic. The score and Wald tests in that table test the same hypothesis and are asymptotically equivalent; see the sections “Residual Chi-Square” on page 3329 and “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346 for details. Generalized Coefficient of Determination Cox and Snell (1989, pp. 208–209) propose the following generalization of the coefficient of determination to a more general linear model: 2 R D1 L.0/ L.b̌/ n2 Score Statistics and Tests F 3329 where L.0/ is the likelihood of the intercept-only model, L.b̌/ is the likelihood of the specified model, and n is the sample size. The quantity R2 achieves a maximum of less than one for discrete models, where the maximum is given by 2 2 Rmax D1 fL.0/g n To take the frequency fP i and weight wi of observation i into account, the sample size n is replaced 2 in R2 and Rmax with i fi wi . Specifying the NORMALIZE option in the WEIGHT statement makes these coefficients invariant to the scale of the weights. Nagelkerke (1991) proposes the following adjusted coefficient, which can achieve a maximum value of one: R2 RQ 2 D 2 Rmax Like the AIC and SC statistics described in the section “Model Fitting Information” on page 3327, R2 and RQ 2 are most useful for comparing competing models that are not necessarily nested—larger values indicate better models. More properties and interpretation of R2 and RQ 2 are provided in Nagelkerke (1991). In the “Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0” table, R2 is labeled as “RSquare” and RQ 2 is labeled as “Max-rescaled RSquare.” Use the RSQUARE option to request R2 and RQ 2 . Score Statistics and Tests To understand the general form of the score statistics, let g.ˇ/ be the vector of first partial derivatives of the log likelihood with respect to the parameter vector ˇ, and let H.ˇ/ be the matrix of second partial derivatives of the log likelihood with respect to ˇ. That is, g.ˇ/ is the gradient vector, and H.ˇ/ is the Hessian matrix. Let I.ˇ/ be either H.ˇ/ or the expected value of H.ˇ/. Consider a null hypothesis H0 . Let b̌H0 be the MLE of ˇ under H0 . The chi-square score statistic for testing H0 is defined by g 0 .b̌H0 /I 1 .b̌H0 /g.b̌H0 / and it has an asymptotic 2 distribution with r degrees of freedom under H0 , where r is the number of restrictions imposed on ˇ by H0 . Residual Chi-Square When you use SELECTION=FORWARD, BACKWARD, or STEPWISE, the procedure calculates a residual chi-square score statistic and reports the statistic, its degrees of freedom, and the p-value. This section describes how the statistic is calculated. Suppose there are s explanatory effects of interest. The full cumulative response model has a parameter vector ˇ D .˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k ; ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs /0 3330 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure where ˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k are intercept parameters, and ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs are the common slope parameters for the s explanatory effects. The full generalized logit model has a parameter vector ˇ D .˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k ; ˇ10 ; : : : ; ˇk0 /0 ˇi0 D .ˇi1 ; : : : ; ˇis /; with i D 1; : : : ; k where ˇij is the slope parameter for the j th effect in the i th logit. Consider the null hypothesis H0 W ˇt C1 D D ˇs D 0, where t < s for the cumulative response model, and H0 W ˇi;t C1 D D ˇis D 0; t < s; i D 1; : : : ; k, for the generalized logit model. For the reduced model with t explanatory effects, let b ˛1; : : : ; b ˛ k be the MLEs of the unknown b b intercept parameters, let ˇ 1 ; : : : ; ˇ t be the MLEs of the unknown slope parameters, and let b̌0i.t / D .b ˇ ; : : : ;b ˇ /; i D 1; : : : ; k, be those for the generalized logit model. The residual chi-square is i1 it the chi-square score statistic testing the null hypothesis H0 ; that is, the residual chi-square is g 0 .b̌H0 /I 1 .b̌H0 /g.b̌H0 / where for the cumulative response model b̌H0 D .b ˛1; : : : ; b ˛k ; b ˇ1; : : : ; b ˇ t ; 0; : : : ; 0/0 , and for the 0 0 generalized logit model b̌H0 D .b ˛1; : : : ; b ˛ k ; b̌1.t / ; 00.s t / ; : : : b̌k.t / ; 00.s t / /0 , where 0.s t / denotes a vector of s t zeros. The residual chi-square has an asymptotic chi-square distribution with s t degrees of freedom (k.s t / for the generalized logit model). A special case is the global score chi-square, where the reduced model consists of the k intercepts and no explanatory effects. The global score statistic is displayed in the “Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0” table. The table is not produced when the NOFIT option is used, but the global score statistic is displayed. Testing Individual Effects Not in the Model These tests are performed when you specify SELECTION=FORWARD or STEPWISE, and are displayed when the DETAILS option is specified. In the displayed output, the tests are labeled “Score Chi-Square” in the “Analysis of Effects Not in the Model” table and in the “Summary of Stepwise (Forward) Selection” table. This section describes how the tests are calculated. Suppose that k intercepts and t explanatory variables (say v1 ; : : : ; vt ) have been fit to a model and that vt C1 is another explanatory variable of interest. Consider a full model with the k intercepts and t C 1 explanatory variables (v1 ; : : : ; vt ; vt C1 ) and a reduced model with vt C1 excluded. The significance of vt C1 adjusted for v1 ; : : : ; vt can be determined by comparing the corresponding residual chi-square with a chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom (k degrees of freedom for the generalized logit model). Testing the Parallel Lines Assumption For an ordinal response, PROC LOGISTIC performs a test of the parallel lines assumption. In the displayed output, this test is labeled “Score Test for the Equal Slopes Assumption” when the LINK= option is NORMIT or CLOGLOG. When LINK=LOGIT, the test is labeled as “Score Test for the Confidence Intervals for Parameters F 3331 Proportional Odds Assumption” in the output. For small sample sizes, this test might be too liberal (Stokes, Davis, and Koch 2000). This section describes the methods used to calculate the test. For this test the number of response levels, k C 1, is assumed to be strictly greater than 2. Let Y be the response variable taking values 1; : : : ; k; k C 1. Suppose there are s explanatory variables. Consider the general cumulative model without making the parallel lines assumption g.Pr.Y i j x// D .1; x 0 /ˇi ; 1i k where g./ is the link function, and ˇi D .˛i ; ˇi1 ; : : : ; ˇi s /0 is a vector of unknown parameters consisting of an intercept ˛i and s slope parameters ˇi1 ; : : : ; ˇis . The parameter vector for this general cumulative model is ˇ D .ˇ10 ; : : : ; ˇk0 /0 Under the null hypothesis of parallelism H0 W ˇ1m D ˇ2m D D ˇkm ; 1 m s, there is a single common slope parameter for each of the s explanatory variables. Let ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs be the common slope parameters. Let b ˛1; : : : ; b ˛ k and b ˇ1; : : : ; b ˇ s be the MLEs of the intercept parameters and the common slope parameters. Then, under H0 , the MLE of ˇ is b̌H D .b̌01 ; : : : ; b̌0k /0 0 with b̌i D .b ˛i ; b ˇ1; : : : ; b ˇ s /0 1i k and the chi-square score statistic g 0 .b̌H0 /I 1 .b̌H0 /g.b̌H0 / has an asymptotic chi-square distribution with s.k 1/ degrees of freedom. This tests the parallel lines assumption by testing the equality of separate slope parameters simultaneously for all explanatory variables. Confidence Intervals for Parameters There are two methods of computing confidence intervals for the regression parameters. One is based on the profile-likelihood function, and the other is based on the asymptotic normality of the parameter estimators. The latter is not as time-consuming as the former, since it does not involve an iterative scheme; however, it is not thought to be as accurate as the former, especially with small sample size. You use the CLPARM= option to request confidence intervals for the parameters. Likelihood Ratio-Based Confidence Intervals The likelihood ratio-based confidence interval is also known as the profile-likelihood confidence interval. The construction of this interval is derived from the asymptotic 2 distribution of the generalized likelihood ratio test (Venzon and Moolgavkar 1988). Suppose that the parameter vector 3332 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure is ˇ D .ˇ0 ; ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs /0 and you want to compute a confidence interval for ˇj . The profilelikelihood function for ˇj D is defined as lj . / D max l.ˇ/ ˇ2Bj ./ where Bj ./ is the set of all ˇ with the j th element fixed at , and l.ˇ/ is the log-likelihood function for ˇ. If lmax D l.b̌/ is the log likelihood evaluated at the maximum likelihood estimate b̌, then 2.lmax lj .ˇj // has a limiting chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom if ˇj is the true parameter value. Let l0 D lmax 0:521 .1 ˛/, where 21 .1 ˛/ is the 100.1 ˛/ percentile of the chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom. A 100.1 ˛/% confidence interval for ˇj is f W lj . / l0 g The endpoints of the confidence interval are found by solving numerically for values of ˇj that satisfy equality in the preceding relation. To obtain an iterative algorithm for computing the confidence limits, the log-likelihood function in a neighborhood of ˇ is approximated by the quadratic function Q C ı/ D l.ˇ/ C ı 0 g C 1 ı 0 Vı l.ˇ 2 where g D g.ˇ/ is the gradient vector and V D V.ˇ/ is the Hessian matrix. The increment ı for the next iteration is obtained by solving the likelihood equations d Q fl.ˇ C ı/ C .ej0 ı dı /g D 0 where is the Lagrange multiplier, ej is the j th unit vector, and is an unknown constant. The solution is ıD V 1 .g C ej / Q C ı/ D l0 , you can estimate as By substituting this ı into the equation l.ˇ l.ˇ/ C 21 g 0 V 2.l0 D˙ ej0 V 1 1 g/ 21 ej The upper confidence limit for ˇj is computed by starting at the maximum likelihood estimate of ˇ and iterating with positive values of until convergence is attained. The process is repeated for the lower confidence limit by using negative values of . Convergence is controlled by the value specified with the PLCONV= option in the MODEL statement (the default value of is 1E–4). Convergence is declared on the current iteration if the following two conditions are satisfied: jl.ˇ/ l0 j and .g C ej /0 V 1 .g C ej / Odds Ratio Estimation F 3333 Wald Confidence Intervals Wald confidence intervals are sometimes called the normal confidence intervals. They are based on the asymptotic normality of the parameter estimators. The 100.1 ˛/% Wald confidence interval for ˇj is given by b ˇ j ˙ z1 j ˛=2b where zp is the 100pth percentile of the standard normal distribution, b ˇ j is the maximum likelihood b estimate of ˇj , and b j is the standard error estimate of ˇ . j Odds Ratio Estimation Consider a dichotomous response variable with outcomes event and nonevent. Consider a dichotomous risk factor variable X that takes the value 1 if the risk factor is present and 0 if the risk factor is absent. According to the logistic model, the log odds function, logit.X/, is given by Pr.event j X / logit.X / log D ˛ C Xˇ Pr.nonevent j X / The odds ratio is defined as the ratio of the odds for those with the risk factor (X D 1) to the odds for those without the risk factor (X D 0). The log of the odds ratio is given by log. / log. .X D 1; X D 0// D logit.X D 1/ logit.X D 0/ D .˛C1ˇ/ .˛C0ˇ/ D ˇ In general, the odds ratio can be computed by exponentiating the difference of the logits between any two population profiles. This is the approach taken by the ODDSRATIO statement, so the computations are available regardless of parameterization, interactions, and nestings. However, as shown in the preceding equation for log. /, odds ratios of main effects can be computed as functions of the parameter estimates, and the remainder of this section is concerned with this methodology. The parameter, ˇ, associated with X represents the change in the log odds from X D 0 to X D 1. So the odds ratio is obtained by simply exponentiating the value of the parameter associated with the risk factor. The odds ratio indicates how the odds of the event change as you change X from 0 to 1. For instance, D 2 means that the odds of an event when X D 1 are twice the odds of an event when X D 0. You can also express this as follows: the percent change in the odds of an event from X D 0 to X D 1 is . 1/100% D 100%. Suppose the values of the dichotomous risk factor are coded as constants a and b instead of 0 and 1. The odds when X D a become exp.˛ C aˇ/, and the odds when X D b become exp.˛ C bˇ/. The odds ratio corresponding to an increase in X from a to b is D expŒ.b a/ˇ D Œexp.ˇ/b a Œexp.ˇ/c Note that for any a and b such that c D b a D 1; D exp.ˇ/. So the odds ratio can be interpreted as the change in the odds for any increase of one unit in the corresponding risk factor. However, 3334 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure the change in odds for some amount other than one unit is often of greater interest. For example, a change of one pound in body weight might be too small to be considered important, while a change of 10 pounds might be more meaningful. The odds ratio for a change in X from a to b is estimated by raising the odds ratio estimate for a unit change in X to the power of c D b a as shown previously. For a polytomous risk factor, the computation of odds ratios depends on how the risk factor is parameterized. For illustration, suppose that Race is a risk factor with four categories: White, Black, Hispanic, and Other. For the effect parameterization scheme (PARAM=EFFECT) with White as the reference group (REF=’White’), the design variables for Race are as follows: Race Black Hispanic Other White Design Variables X1 X2 X3 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 The log odds for Black is logit.Black/ D ˛ C .X1 D 1/ˇ1 C .X2 D 0/ˇ2 C .X3 D 0/ˇ3 D ˛ C ˇ1 The log odds for White is logit.White/ D ˛ C .X1 D D ˛ ˇ1 ˇ2 1/ˇ1 C .X2 D 1/ˇ2 C .X3 D 1/ˇ3 ˇ3 Therefore, the log odds ratio of Black versus White becomes log. .Black; White// D logit.Black/ logit.White/ D 2ˇ1 C ˇ2 C ˇ3 For the reference cell parameterization scheme (PARAM=REF) with White as the reference cell, the design variables for race are as follows: Race Black Hispanic Other White Design Variables X1 X2 X3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Odds Ratio Estimation F 3335 The log odds ratio of Black versus White is given by log. .Black; White// D logit.Black/ logit.White/ D .˛ C .X1 D 1/ˇ1 C .X2 D 0/ˇ2 C .X3 D 0/ˇ3 / .˛ C .X1 D 0/ˇ1 C .X2 D 0/ˇ2 C .X3 D 0/ˇ3 / D ˇ1 For the GLM parameterization scheme (PARAM=GLM), the design variables are as follows: Race Design Variables X1 X2 X3 X4 1 0 0 0 Black Hispanic Other White 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 The log odds ratio of Black versus White is log. .Black; White// D logit.Black/ logit.White/ D .˛ C .X1 D 1/ˇ1 C .X2 D 0/ˇ2 C .X3 D 0/ˇ3 C .X4 D 0/ˇ4 / .˛ C .X1 D 0/ˇ1 C .X2 D 0/ˇ2 C .X3 D 0/ˇ3 C .X4 D 1/ˇ4 / D ˇ1 ˇ4 Consider the hypothetical example of heart disease among race in Hosmer and Lemeshow (2000, p. 56). The entries in the following contingency table represent counts: Disease Status White Present Absent 5 20 Race Black Hispanic 20 10 Other 15 10 10 10 The computation of odds ratio of Black versus White for various parameterization schemes is tabulated in Table 51.4. Table 51.4 Odds Ratio of Heart Disease Comparing Black to White PARAM= EFFECT REF GLM b ˇ1 Parameter Estimates b b b ˇ2 ˇ3 ˇ4 0.7651 2.0794 2.0794 0.4774 1.7917 1.7917 0.0719 1.3863 1.3863 0.0000 Odds Ratio Estimates exp.2 0:7651 C 0:4774 C 0:0719/ D 8 exp.2:0794/ D 8 exp.2:0794/ D 8 Since the log odds ratio (log. /) is a linear function of the parameters, the Wald confidence interval for log. / can be derived from the parameter estimates and the estimated covariance matrix. 3336 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Confidence intervals for the odds ratios are obtained by exponentiating the corresponding confidence limits for the log odd ratios. In the displayed output of PROC LOGISTIC, the “Odds Ratio Estimates” table contains the odds ratio estimates and the corresponding 95% Wald confidence intervals. For continuous explanatory variables, these odds ratios correspond to a unit increase in the risk factors. To customize odds ratios for specific units of change for a continuous risk factor, you can use the UNITS statement to specify a list of relevant units for each explanatory variable in the model. Estimates of these customized odds ratios are given in a separate table. Let .Lj ; Uj / be a confidence interval for log. /. The corresponding lower and upper confidence limits for the customized odds ratio exp.cˇj / are exp.cLj / and exp.cUj /, respectively (for c > 0), or exp.cUj / and exp.cLj /, respectively (for c < 0). You use the CLODDS= option or ODDSRATIO statement to request the confidence intervals for the odds ratios. For a generalized logit model, odds ratios are computed similarly, except k odds ratios are computed for each effect, corresponding to the k logits in the model. Rank Correlation of Observed Responses and Predicted Probabilities The predicted mean score of an observation is the sum of the Ordered Values (shown in the “Response Profile” table) minus one, weighted by the corresponding predicted probabilities for that P observation; that is, the predicted means score D kC1 1/b i , where k C 1 is the number of i D1 .i response levels and b i is the predicted probability of the ith (ordered) response. A pair of observations with different observed responses is said to be concordant if the observation with the lower ordered response value has a lower predicted mean score than the observation with the higher ordered response value. If the observation with the lower ordered response value has a higher predicted mean score than the observation with the higher ordered response value, then the pair is discordant. If the pair is neither concordant nor discordant, it is a tie. Enumeration of the total numbers of concordant and discordant pairs is carried out by categorizing the predicted mean score into intervals of length k=500 and accumulating the corresponding frequencies of observations. Note that the length of these intervals can be modified by specification of the BINWIDTH= option in the MODEL statement. Let N be the sum of observation frequencies in the data. Suppose there are a total of t pairs with different responses: nc of them are concordant, nd of them are discordant, and t nc nd of them are tied. PROC LOGISTIC computes the following four indices of rank correlation for assessing the predictive ability of a model: c Somers’ D (Gini coefficient) Goodman-Kruskal Gamma Kendall’s Tau-a D D D D .nc C 0:5.t nc nd //=t .nc nd /=t .nc nd /=.nc C nd / .nc nd /=.0:5N.N 1// If there are no ties, then Somers’ D (Gini’s coefficient) D 2c 1. Note that the concordance index, c, also gives an estimate of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve when the response is binary (Hanley and McNeil 1982). See the section “ROC Computations” on page 3345 for more information about this area. Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits F 3337 For binary responses, the predicted mean score is equal to the predicted probability for Ordered Value 2. As such, the preceding definition of concordance is consistent with the definition used in previous releases for the binary response model. These statistics are not available when the STRATA statement is specified. Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits This section describes how predicted probabilities and confidence limits are calculated by using the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) obtained from PROC LOGISTIC. For a specific example, see the section “Getting Started: LOGISTIC Procedure” on page 3258. Predicted probabilities and confidence limits can be output to a data set with the OUTPUT statement. Binary and Cumulative Response Models For a vector of explanatory variables x, the linear predictor i D g.Pr.Y i j x// D ˛i C x 0 ˇ 1i k is estimated by O i D b ˛ i C x 0b̌ where b ˛ i and b̌ are the MLEs of ˛i and ˇ. The estimated standard error of i is . O O i /, which can be computed as the square root of the quadratic form .1; x 0 /b Vb .1; x 0 /0 , where b Vb is the estimated covariance matrix of the parameter estimates. The asymptotic 100.1 ˛/% confidence interval for i is given by O i ˙ z˛=2 O .O i / where z˛=2 is the 100.1 ˛=2/ percentile point of a standard normal distribution. The predicted probability and the 100.1 ˛/% confidence limits for i D Pr.Y i j x/ are obtained by back-transforming the corresponding measures for the linear predictor, as shown in the following table: Link Predicted Probability 100(1–˛)% Confidence Limits LOGIT PROBIT CLOGLOG 1=.1 C exp. O i // ˆ.O i / 1 exp. exp.O i // 1=.1 C exp. O i ˙ z˛=2 . O O i /// ˆ.O i ˙ z˛=2 . O O i // 1 exp. exp.O i ˙ z˛=2 . O O i /// The CONTRAST statement also enables you to estimate the exponentiated contrast, e O i . The corresponding standard error is e Oi O .O i /, and the confidence limits are computed by exponentiating those for the linear predictor: expfO i ˙ z˛=2 . O O i /g. 3338 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Generalized Logit Model For a vector of explanatory variables x, define the linear predictors i D ˛i C x 0 ˇi , and let i denote the probability of obtaining the response value i : 8 1i k < kC1 e i 1 i D i DkC1 P : 1 C kj D1 e j By the delta method, @i @i 0 2 V.ˇ/ .i / D @ˇ @ˇ A 100(1 ˛)% confidence level for i is given by b i ˙ z˛=2 O .b i / where b i is the estimated expected probability of response i , and .b O i / is obtained by evaluating .i / at ˇ D b̌. Note that the contrast O i and exponentiated contrast e O i , their standard errors, and their confidence intervals are computed in the same fashion as for the cumulative response models, replacing ˇ with ˇi . Classification Table For binary response data, the response is either an event or a nonevent. In PROC LOGISTIC, the response with Ordered Value 1 is regarded as the event, and the response with Ordered Value 2 is the nonevent. PROC LOGISTIC models the probability of the event. From the fitted model, a predicted event probability can be computed for each observation. A method to compute a reducedbias estimate of the predicted probability is given in the section “Predicted Probability of an Event for Classification” on page 3339. If the predicted event probability exceeds or equals some cutpoint value z 2 Œ0; 1, the observation is predicted to be an event observation; otherwise, it is predicted as a nonevent. A 2 2 frequency table can be obtained by cross-classifying the observed and predicted responses. The CTABLE option produces this table, and the PPROB= option selects one or more cutpoints. Each cutpoint generates a classification table. If the PEVENT= option is also specified, a classification table is produced for each combination of PEVENT= and PPROB= values. The accuracy of the classification is measured by its sensitivity (the ability to predict an event correctly) and specificity (the ability to predict a nonevent correctly). Sensitivity is the proportion of event responses that were predicted to be events. Specificity is the proportion of nonevent responses that were predicted to be nonevents. PROC LOGISTIC also computes three other conditional probabilities: false positive rate, false negative rate, and rate of cosrrect classification. The false positive rate is the proportion of predicted event responses that were observed as nonevents. The false negative rate is the proportion of predicted nonevent responses that were observed as events. Given prior probabilities specified with the PEVENT= option, these conditional probabilities can be computed as posterior probabilities by using Bayes’ theorem. Classification Table F 3339 Predicted Probability of an Event for Classification When you classify a set of binary data, if the same observations used to fit the model are also used to estimate the classification error, the resulting error-count estimate is biased. One way of reducing the bias is to remove the binary observation to be classified from the data, reestimate the parameters of the model, and then classify the observation based on the new parameter estimates. However, it would be costly to fit the model by leaving out each observation one at a time. The LOGISTIC procedure provides a less expensive one-step approximation to the preceding parameter estimates. Let b̌ be the MLE of the parameter vector .˛; ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs /0 based on all observations. Let b̌.j / denote the MLE computed without the j th observation. The one-step estimate of b̌.j / is given by b̌1 D b̌ .j / wj .yj b j / b b̌ V. / 1 hjj 1 xj where yj is 1 for an observed event response and 0 otherwise wj is the weight of the observation b j is the predicted event probability based on b̌ hjj is the hat diagonal element (defined on page 3347) with nj D 1 and rj D yj b V.b̌/ is the estimated covariance matrix of b̌ False Positive and Negative Rates Using Bayes’ Theorem Suppose n1 of n individuals experience an event, such as a disease. Let this group be denoted by C1 , and let the group of the remaining n2 D n n1 individuals who do not have the disease be denoted by C2 . The j th individual is classified as giving a positive response if the predicted probability of disease (b .j / ) is large. The probability b .j / is the reduced-bias estimate based on the one-step approximation given in the preceding section. For a given cutpoint z, the j th individual is predicted to give a positive response if b .j / z. Let B denote the event that a subject has the disease, and let BN denote the event of not having the disease. Let A denote the event that the subject responds positively, and let AN denote the event of responding negatively. Results of the classification are represented by two conditional probabilities, N where Pr.AjB/ is the sensitivity and Pr.AjB/ N is one minus the specificity. Pr.AjB/ and Pr.AjB/, These probabilities are given by P Pr.AjB/ D P N D Pr.AjB/ j 2C1 I.b .j / z/ n1 .j / z/ j 2C2 I.b n2 where I./ is the indicator function. 3340 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Bayes’ theorem is used to compute the error rates of the classification. For a given prior probability Pr.B/ of the disease, the false positive rate PF C and the false negative rate PF are given by Fleiss (1981, pp. 4–5) as follows: N PF C D Pr.BjA/ D PF N D D Pr.BjA/ N Pr.AjB/Œ1 Pr.B/ N N Pr.AjB/ C Pr.B/ŒPr.AjB/ Pr.AjB/ Œ1 Pr.AjB/Pr.B/ N N 1 Pr.AjB/ Pr.B/ŒPr.AjB/ Pr.AjB/ The prior probability Pr.B/ can be specified by the PEVENT= option. If the PEVENT= option is not specified, the sample proportion of diseased individuals is used; that is, Pr.B/ D n1 =n. In such a case, the false positive rate and the false negative rate reduce to P PF C D PF D P j 2C1 I.b .j / z/ P z/ C j 2C2 I.b .j / z/ j 2C2 I.b .j / P I.b .j / < z/ P < z/ C j 2C2 I.b .j / < z/ j 2C1 P j 2C1 I.b .j / Note that for a stratified sampling situation in which n1 and n2 are chosen a priori, n1 =n is not a desirable estimate of Pr.B/. For such situations, the PEVENT= option should be specified. Overdispersion For a correctly specified model, the Pearson chi-square statistic and the deviance, divided by their degrees of freedom, should be approximately equal to one. When their values are much larger than one, the assumption of binomial variability might not be valid and the data are said to exhibit overdispersion. Underdispersion, which results in the ratios being less than one, occurs less often in practice. When fitting a model, there are several problems that can cause the goodness-of-fit statistics to exceed their degrees of freedom. Among these are such problems as outliers in the data, using the wrong link function, omitting important terms from the model, and needing to transform some predictors. These problems should be eliminated before proceeding to use the following methods to correct for overdispersion. Rescaling the Covariance Matrix One way of correcting overdispersion is to multiply the covariance matrix by a dispersion parameter. This method assumes that the sample sizes in each subpopulation are approximately equal. You can supply the value of the dispersion parameter directly, or you can estimate the dispersion parameter based on either the Pearson chi-square statistic or the deviance for the fitted model. Overdispersion F 3341 The Pearson chi-square statistic 2P and the deviance 2D are given by 2P D m kC1 X X .rij i D1 j D1 2D D 2 m kC1 X X i D1 j D1 ni b ij /2 ni b ij rij rij log ni b ij where m is the number of subpopulation profiles, k C 1 is the number of response levels, rij is the total weight (sum of the product of the frequencies and the weights) associated with j th level P responses in the i th profile, ni D kC1 ij is the fitted probability for the j th level at j D1 rij , and b the i th profile. Each of these chi-square statistics has mk p degrees of freedom, where p is the number of parameters estimated. The dispersion parameter is estimated by 8 2 < P =.mk p/ SCALE=PEARSON c2 D 2 =.mk p/ SCALE=DEVIANCE : D .constant/2 SCALE=constant In order for the Pearson statistic and the deviance to be distributed as chi-square, there must be sufficient replication within the subpopulations. When this is not true, the data are sparse, and the p-values for these statistics are not valid and should be ignored. Similarly, these statistics, divided by their degrees of freedom, cannot serve as indicators of overdispersion. A large difference between the Pearson statistic and the deviance provides some evidence that the data are too sparse to use either statistic. You can use the AGGREGATE (or AGGREGATE=) option to define the subpopulation profiles. If you do not specify this option, each observation is regarded as coming from a separate subpopulation. For events/trials syntax, each observation represents n Bernoulli trials, where n is the value of the trials variable; for single-trial syntax, each observation represents a single trial. Without the AGGREGATE (or AGGREGATE=) option, the Pearson chi-square statistic and the deviance are calculated only for events/trials syntax. Note that the parameter estimates are not changed by this method. However, their standard errors are adjusted for overdispersion, affecting their significance tests. Williams’ Method Suppose that the data consist of n binomial observations. For the i th observation, let ri =ni be the observed proportion and let xi be the associated vector of explanatory variables. Suppose that the response probability for the i th observation is a random variable Pi with mean and variance E.Pi / D i and V .Pi / D i .1 i / where pi is the probability of the event, and is a nonnegative but otherwise unknown scale parameter. Then the mean and variance of ri are E.ri / D ni i and V .ri / D ni i .1 i /Œ1 C .ni 1/ 3342 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Williams (1982) estimates the unknown parameter by equating the value of Pearson’s chi-square statistic for the full model to its approximate expected value. Suppose wi is the weight associated with the i th observation. The Pearson chi-square statistic is given by 2 D n X w .ri ni b i /2 ni b i .1 b i / i i D1 Let g 0 ./ be the first derivative of the link function g./. The approximate expected value of 2 is E2 D n X wi .1 wi vi di /Œ1 C .ni 1/ i D1 where vi D ni =.i .1 i /Œg 0 .i /2 / and di is the variance of the linear predictor b ˛ i C xi0 b̌. The scale parameter is estimated by the following iterative procedure. At the start, let wi D 1 and let i be approximated by ri =ni , i D 1; 2; : : : ; n. If you apply these weights and approximated probabilities to 2 and E2 and then equate them, an initial estimate of is 2 O 0 D P i .ni .n p/ 1/.1 vi di / where p is the total number of parameters. The initial estimates of the weights become wO i0 D Œ1 C .ni 1/O 0 1 . After a weighted fit of the model, the b ˛ i and b̌ are recalculated, and so is 2 . Then a revised estimate of is given by P 2 wi vi di / i wi .1 O 1 D wi .ni 1/.1 wi vi di / The iterative procedure is repeated until 2 is very close to its degrees of freedom. O 1 can be used to Once has been estimated by O under the full model, weights of .1 C .ni 1// fit models that have fewer terms than the full model. See Example 51.10 for an illustration. N OTE : If the WEIGHT statement is specified with the NORMALIZE option, then the initial wi values are set to the normalized weights, and the weights resulting from Williams’ method will not add up to the actual sample size. However, the estimated covariance matrix of the parameter estimates remains invariant to the scale of the WEIGHT variable. The Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test Sufficient replication within subpopulations is required to make the Pearson and deviance goodnessof-fit tests valid. When there are one or more continuous predictors in the model, the data are often too sparse to use these statistics. Hosmer and Lemeshow (2000) proposed a statistic that they show, through simulation, is distributed as chi-square when there is no replication in any of the subpopulations. This test is available only for binary response models. The Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test F 3343 First, the observations are sorted in increasing order of their estimated event probability. The event is the response level specified in the response variable option EVENT=, or the response level that is not specified in the REF= option, or, if neither of these options was specified, then the event is the response level identified in the “Response Profiles” table as “Ordered Value 1”. The observations are then divided into approximately 10 groups according to the following scheme. Let N be the total number of subjects. Let M be the target number of subjects for each group given by M D Œ0:1 N C 0:5 where Œx represents the integral value of x. If the single-trial syntax is used, blocks of subjects are formed of observations with identical values of the explanatory variables. Blocks of subjects are not divided when being placed into groups. Suppose there are n1 subjects in the first block and n2 subjects in the second block. The first block of subjects is placed in the first group. Subjects in the second block are added to the first group if n1 < M and n1 C Œ0:5 n2 M Otherwise, they are placed in the second group. In general, suppose subjects of the (j 1)th block have been placed in the kth group. Let c be the total number of subjects currently in the kth group. Subjects for the j th block (containing nj subjects) are also placed in the kth group if c<M and c C Œ0:5 nj M Otherwise, the nj subjects are put into the next group. In addition, if the number of subjects in the last group does not exceed Œ0:05 N (half the target group size), the last two groups are collapsed to form only one group. Note that the number of groups, g, can be smaller than 10 if there are fewer than 10 patterns of explanatory variables. There must be at least three groups in order for the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic to be computed. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic is obtained by calculating the Pearson chi-square statistic from the 2g table of observed and expected frequencies, where g is the number of groups. The statistic is written 2HL D g X .Oi i D1 Ni N i /2 Ni N i .1 N i / where Ni is the total frequency of subjects in the i th group, Oi is the total frequency of event outcomes in the i th group, and N i is the average estimated predicted probability of an event outcome for the i th group. (Note that the predicted probabilities are computed as shown in the section “Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits” on page 3337 and are not the cross validated estimates discussed in the section “Classification Table” on page 3338.) The HosmerLemeshow statistic is then compared to a chi-square distribution with .g n/ degrees of freedom, where the value of n can be specified in the LACKFIT option in the MODEL statement. The default is n D 2. Large values of 2HL (and small p-values) indicate a lack of fit of the model. 3344 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves ROC curves are used to evaluate and compare the performance of diagnostic tests; they can also be used to evaluate model fit. An ROC curve is just a plot of the proportion of true positives (events predicted to be events) versus the proportion of false positives (nonevents predicted to be events). In a sample of n individuals, suppose n1 individuals are observed to have a certain condition or event. Let this group be denoted by C1 , and let the group of the remaining n2 D n n1 individuals who do not have the condition be denoted by C2 . Risk factors are identified for the sample, and a logistic regression model is fitted to the data. For the j th individual, an estimated probability b j of the event of interest is calculated. Note that the b j are computed as shown in the section “Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits” on page 3337 and are not the cross validated estimates discussed in the section “Classification Table” on page 3338. Suppose the n individuals undergo a test for predicting the event and the test is based on the estimated probability of the event. Higher values of this estimated probability are assumed to be associated with the event. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve can be constructed by varying the cutpoint that determines which estimated event probabilities are considered to predict the event. For each cutpoint z, the following measures can be output to a data set by specifying the OUTROC= option in the MODEL statement or the OUTROC= option in the SCORE statement: _POS_.z/ D X I.b i z/ i 2C1 _NEG_.z/ D X I.b i < z/ i 2C2 _FALPOS_.z/ D X I.b i z/ i 2C2 _FALNEG_.z/ D X I.b i < z/ i 2C1 _SENSIT_.z/ D _1MSPEC_.z/ D _POS_.z/ n1 _FALPOS_.z/ n2 where I./ is the indicator function. Note that _POS_(z) is the number of correctly predicted event responses, _NEG_(z) is the number of correctly predicted nonevent responses, _FALPOS_(z) is the number of falsely predicted event responses, _FALNEG_(z) is the number of falsely predicted nonevent responses, _SENSIT_(z) is the sensitivity of the test, and _1MSPEC_(z) is one minus the specificity of the test. The ROC curve is a plot of sensitivity (_SENSIT_) against 1–specificity (_1MSPEC_). The plot can be produced by using the PLOTS option or by using the GPLOT or SGPLOT procedure with the OUTROC= data set. See Example 51.7 for an illustration. The area under the ROC curve, as determined by the trapezoidal rule, is estimated by the concordance index, c, in the “Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses” table. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves F 3345 Comparing ROC Curves ROC curves can be created from each model fit in a selection routine, from the specified model in the MODEL statement, from specified models in ROC statements, or from input variables which act as b in the preceding discussion. Association statistics are computed for these models, and the models are compared when the ROCCONTRAST statement is specified. The ROC comparisons are performed by using a contrast matrix to take differences of the areas under the empirical ROC curves (DeLong, DeLong, and Clarke-Pearson 1988). For example, if you have three curves and the second curve is the reference, the contrast used for the overall test is 0 1 1 0 l1 D L1 D 0 1 1 l20 and you can optionally estimate and test each row of this contrast, in order to test the difference between the reference curve and each of the other curves. If you do not want to use a reference curve, the global test optionally uses the following contrast: 0 l1 1 1 0 L2 D D l20 0 1 1 You can also specify your own contrast matrix. Instead of estimating the rows of these contrasts, you can request that the difference between every pair of ROC curves be estimated and tested. By default for the reference contrast, the specified or selected model is used as the reference unless the NOFIT option is specified in the MODEL statement, in which case the first ROC model is the reference. In order to label the contrasts, a name is attached to every model. The name for the specified or selected model is the MODEL statement label, or “Model” if the MODEL label is not present. The ROC statement models are named with their labels, or as “ROCi ” for the i th ROC statement if a label is not specified. The contrast L1 is labeled as “Reference = ModelName”, where ModelName is the reference model name, while L2 is labeled “Adjacent Pairwise Differences”. The estimated rows of the contrast matrix are labeled “ModelName1 – ModelName2”. In particular, for the rows of L1 , ModelName2 is the reference model name. If you specify your own contrast matrix, then the contrast is labeled “Specified” and the i th contrast row estimates are labeled “Rowi ”. If ods graphics on is specified, then all ROC curves are displayed individually and are also overlaid in a final display. If a selection method is specified, then the curves produced in each step of the model selection process are overlaid onto a single plot and are labeled “Stepi ”, and the selected model is displayed on a separate plot and on a plot with curves from specified ROC statements. See Example 51.8 for an example. ROC Computations The trapezoidal area under an empirical ROC curve is equal to the Mann-Whitney two-sample rank measure of association statistic (a generalized U -statistic) applied to two samples, fXi g; i D 1; : : : ; n1 , in C1 and fYi g; i D 1; : : : ; n2 , in C2 . PROC LOGISTIC uses the predicted probabilities in place of X and Y; however, in general any criterion could be used. Denote the frequency of observation i in Ck as fki , and denote the total frequency in Ck as Fk . The WEIGHTED option 3346 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure replaces fki with fki wki , where wki is the weight of observation i in group Ck . The trapezoidal area under the curve is computed as n1 X n2 1 X cO D .Xi ; Yj /f1i f2j F1 F2 i D1 j D1 8 < 1 Y <X 1 .X; Y / D Y DX : 2 0 Y >X so that E.c/ O D Pr.Y < X/C 21 Pr.Y D X/. Note that the concordance index, c, in the “Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses” table is computed by creating 500 bins and binning the Xi and Yj ; this results in more ties than the preceding method (unless the BINWIDTH=0 or ROCEPS=0 option is specified), so c is not necessarily equal to E.c/. O To compare K empirical ROC curves, first compute the trapezoidal areas. Asymptotic normality of the estimated area follows from U -statistic theory, and a covariance matrix S can be computed; see DeLong, DeLong, and Clarke-Pearson (1988) for details. A Wald confidence interval for the rth area, 1 r K, can be constructed as cOr ˙ z1 ˛ 2 sr;r where sr;r is the rth diagonal of S. For a contrast of ROC curve areas, Lc, the statistic 1 .cO c/0 L0 LSL0 L.cO c/ has a chi-square distribution with dfDrank(LSL0 ). For a row of the contrast, l 0 c, l 0 cO l 0c Œl 0 Sl 1=2 has a standard normal distribution. The corresponding confidence interval is 1=2 l 0 cO ˙ z1 ˛2 l 0 Sl Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients Linear hypotheses for ˇ are expressed in matrix form as H0 W Lˇ D c where L is a matrix of coefficients for the linear hypotheses, and c is a vector of constants. The vector of regression coefficients ˇ includes slope parameters as well as intercept parameters. The Wald chi-square statistic for testing H0 is computed as 2W D .Lb̌ c/0 ŒLb V.b̌/L0 1 .Lb̌ c/ where b V.b̌/ is the estimated covariance matrix. Under H0 , 2W has an asymptotic chi-square distribution with r degrees of freedom, where r is the rank of L. Regression Diagnostics F 3347 Regression Diagnostics For binary response data, regression diagnostics developed by Pregibon (1981) can be requested by specifying the INFLUENCE option. For diagnostics available with conditional logistic regression, see the section “Regression Diagnostic Details” on page 3355. These diagnostics can also be obtained from the OUTPUT statement. This section uses the following notation: rj ; nj rj is the number of event responses out of nj trials for the j th observation. If events/trials syntax is used, rj is the value of events and nj is the value of trials. For single-trial syntax, nj D 1, and rj D 1 if the ordered response is 1, and rj D 0 if the ordered response is 2. wj is the weight of the j th observation. j is the probability of an event response for the j th observation given by j D F .˛ C ˇ 0 xj /, where F ./ is the inverse link function defined on page 3321. b V.b̌/ is the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of .˛; ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇs /0 . is the estimated covariance matrix of b̌. pOj ; qO j pOj is the estimate of j evaluated at b̌, and qO j D 1 b̌ pOj . Pregibon (1981) suggests using the index plots of several diagnostic statistics to identify influential observations and to quantify the effects on various aspects of the maximum likelihood fit. In an index plot, the diagnostic statistic is plotted against the observation number. In general, the distributions of these diagnostic statistics are not known, so cutoff values cannot be given for determining when the values are large. However, the IPLOTS and INFLUENCE options in the MODEL statement and the PLOTS option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement provide displays of the diagnostic values, allowing visual inspection and comparison of the values across observations. In these plots, if the model is correctly specified and fits all observations well, then no extreme points should appear. The next five sections give formulas for these diagnostic statistics. Hat Matrix Diagonal (Leverage) The diagonal elements of the hat matrix are useful in detecting extreme points in the design space where they tend to have larger values. The j th diagonal element is ( hjj D w ej .1; xj0 /b V.b̌/.1; xj0 /0 Fisher scoring w bj .1; xj0 /b V.b̌/.1; xj0 /0 Newton-Raphson 3348 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure where w ej w bj wj nj pOj qO j Œg 0 .pOj /2 wj .rj nj pOj /ŒpOj qO j g 00 .pOj / C .qO j D w ej C .pOj qO j /2 Œg 0 .pOj /3 D pOj /g 0 .pOj / and g 0 ./ and g 00 ./ are the first and second derivatives of the link function g./, respectively. For a binary response logit model, the hat matrix diagonal elements are 1 0 b b̌ hjj D wj nj pOj qO j .1; xj /V. / xj If the estimated probability is extreme (less than 0.1 and greater than 0.9, approximately), then the hat diagonal might be greatly reduced in value. Consequently, when an observation has a very large or very small estimated probability, its hat diagonal value is not a good indicator of the observation’s distance from the design space (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000, p. 171). Pearson Residuals and Deviance Residuals Pearson and deviance residuals are useful in identifying observations that are not explained well by the model. Pearson residuals are components of the Pearson chi-square statistic and deviance residuals are components of the deviance. The Pearson residual for the j th observation is p wj .rj nj pOj / j D p nj pOj qO j The Pearson chi-square statistic is the sum of squares of the Pearson residuals. The deviance residual for the j th observation is p q 2wj nj log.qO j / r ˙ 2wj Œrj log. n jpO / C .nj dj D j j ˆ : p 2wj nj log.pOj / 8 ˆ < if rj D 0 n r rj / log. nj qO j j j / if 0 < rj < nj if rj D nj where the plus (minus) in ˙ is used if rj =nj is greater (less) than pOj . The deviance is the sum of squares of the deviance residuals. DFBETAS For each parameter estimate, the procedure calculates a DFBETAS diagnostic for each observation. The DFBETAS diagnostic for an observation is the standardized difference in the parameter estimate due to deleting the observation, and it can be used to assess the effect of an individual observation on each estimated parameter of the fitted model. Instead of reestimating the parameter every time an observation is deleted, PROC LOGISTIC uses the one-step estimate. See the section “Predicted Regression Diagnostics F 3349 Probability of an Event for Classification” on page 3339. For the j th observation, the DFBETAS are given by DFBETASij D i b̌1j =O i where i D 0; 1; : : : ; s; O i is the standard error of the i th component of b̌, and i b̌1j is the i th component of the one-step difference wj .rj nj pOj / b b̌ 1 1 b̌ j D V. / xj 1 hjj b̌1j is the approximate change (b̌ b̌1j ) in the vector of parameter estimates due to the omission of the j th observation. The DFBETAS are useful in detecting observations that are causing instability in the selected coefficients. C and CBAR C and CBAR are confidence interval displacement diagnostics that provide scalar measures of the influence of individual observations on b̌. These diagnostics are based on the same idea as the Cook distance in linear regression theory (Cook and Weisberg 1982), but use the one-step estimate. C and CBAR for the j th observation are computed as Cj D 2j hjj =.1 hjj /2 C j D 2j hjj =.1 hjj / and respectively. Typically, to use these statistics, you plot them against an index and look for outliers. DIFDEV and DIFCHISQ DIFDEV and DIFCHISQ are diagnostics for detecting ill-fitted observations; in other words, observations that contribute heavily to the disagreement between the data and the predicted values of the fitted model. DIFDEV is the change in the deviance due to deleting an individual observation while DIFCHISQ is the change in the Pearson chi-square statistic for the same deletion. By using the one-step estimate, DIFDEV and DIFCHISQ for the j th observation are computed as DIFDEV D dj2 C C j and DIFCHISQ D C j = hjj 3350 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Scoring Data Sets Scoring a data set, which is especially important for predictive modeling, means applying a previously fitted model to a new data set in order to compute the conditional, or posterior, probabilities of each response category given the values of the explanatory variables in each observation. The SCORE statement enables you to score new data sets and output the scored values and, optionally, the corresponding confidence limits into a SAS data set. If the response variable is included in the new data set, then you can request fit statistics for the data, which is especially useful for test or validation data. If the response is binary, you can also create a SAS data set containing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. You can specify multiple SCORE statements in the same invocation of PROC LOGISTIC. By default, the posterior probabilities are based on implicit prior probabilities that are proportional to the frequencies of the response categories in the training data (the data used to fit the model). Explicit prior probabilities should be specified when the sample proportions of the response categories in the training data differ substantially from the operational data to be scored. For example, to detect a rare category, it is common practice to use a training set in which the rare categories are overrepresented; without prior probabilities that reflect the true incidence rate, the predicted posterior probabilities for the rare category will be too high. By specifying the correct priors, the posterior probabilities are adjusted appropriately. The model fit to the DATA= data set in the PROC LOGISTIC statement is the default model used for the scoring. Alternatively, you can save a model fit in one run of PROC LOGISTIC and use it to score new data in a subsequent run. The OUTMODEL= option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement saves the model information in a SAS data set. Specifying this data set in the INMODEL= option of a new PROC LOGISTIC run will score the DATA= data set in the SCORE statement without refitting the model. Posterior Probabilities and Confidence Limits Let F be the inverse link function. That is, 8 < 1 1Cexp. t/ logistic F .t / D ˆ.t / normal : 1 exp. exp.t// complementary log-log The first derivative of F is given by 8 ˆ < exp. t/ .1Cexp. t//2 logistic F .t / D .t / normal ˆ : exp.t / exp. exp.t// complementary log-log 0 Suppose there are k C 1 response categories. Let Y be the response variable with levels 1; : : : ; k C 1. Let x D .x0 ; x1 ; : : : ; xs /0 be a .s C 1/-vector of covariates, with x0 1. Let ˇ be the vector of intercept and slope regression parameters. Scoring Data Sets F 3351 Posterior probabilities are given by p.Y D i jx/ D P p .Y Di / po .Y D i jx/ pe o .Y Di / p .Y Dj / p .Y D j jx/ e j o i D 1; : : : ; k C 1 po .Y Dj / where the old posterior probabilities (po .Y D i jx/; i D 1; : : : ; k C 1) are the conditional probabilities of the response categories given x, and the old priors (po .Y D i/; i D 1; : : : ; k C 1) are the sample proportions of response categories of the training data. To simplify notation, absorb the old priors into the new priors; that is p.Y D i / D e p .Y D i / po .Y D i / i D 1; : : : ; k C 1 The posterior probabilities are functions of ˇ and their estimates are obtained by substituting ˇ by its MLE b̌. The variances of the estimated posterior probabilities are given by the delta method as follows: @p.Y D i jx/ 0 @p.Y D i jx/ b̌ Var.b p .Y D i jx// D Var. / @ˇ @ˇ where P @po .Y Di jx/ p.Y D i / po .Y D i jx/p.Y D i/ j @po [email protected]ˇDj jx/ p.Y D j / @p.Y D i jx/ @ˇ P DP @ˇ Œ j po .Y D j jx/p.Y D j /2 j po .Y D j jx/p.Y D j / and the old posterior probabilities po .Y D i jx/ are described in the following sections. ˛)% confidence interval for p.Y D i jx/ is q c p .Y D i jx// b p .Y D i jx/ ˙ z1 ˛=2 Var.b A 100(1 where z is the upper 100 percentile of the standard normal distribution. Binary and Cumulative Response Models Let ˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k be the intercept parameters and let ˇs be the vector of slope parameters. Denote ˇ D .˛1 ; : : : ; ˛k ; ˇs0 /0 . Let i D i .ˇ/ D ˛i C x 0 ˇs ; i D 1; : : : ; k Estimates of 1 ; : : : ; k are obtained by substituting the maximum likelihood estimate b̌ for ˇ. The predicted probabilities of the responses are 8 < F .O 1 / F .O i / F .O i p co .Y D i jx/ D Pbr.Y D i / D : 1 F .O k / 1/ i D1 i D 2; : : : ; k i DkC1 3352 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure For i D 1; : : : ; k, let ıi .x/ be a (k C 1) column vector with i th entry equal to 1, k C 1th entry equal to x, and all other entries 0. The derivative of po .Y D i jx/ with respect to ˇ are 8 0 < F .˛1 C x 0 ˇs /ı1 .x/ @po .Y D i jx/ F 0 .˛i C x 0 ˇs /ıi .x/ F 0 .˛i D : @ˇ F 0 .˛k C x 0 ˇs /ık .x/ C 1 x0ˇ i D1 s /ıi 1 .x/ i D 2; : : : ; k i DkC1 The cumulative posterior probabilities are Pi j D1 po .Y D j jx/p.Y D j / j D1 po .Y D j jx/p.Y D j / p.Y i jx/ D PkC1 D i X p.Y D j jx/ i D 1; : : : ; k C 1 j D1 Their derivatives are i X @p.Y i jx/ @p.Y D j jx/ D @ˇ @ˇ i D 1; : : : ; k C 1 j D1 In the delta-method equation for the variance, replace p.Y D jx/ with p.Y jx/. Finally, for the cumulative response model, use p co .Y i jx/ D F .O i / i D 1; : : : ; k p co .Y k C 1jx/ D 1 @po .Y i jx/ D F 0 .˛i C x 0 ˇs /ıi .x/ @ˇ @po .Y k C 1jx/ D 0 @ˇ i D 1; : : : ; k Generalized Logit Model Consider the last response level (Y=k+1) as the reference. Let ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇk be the (intercept and slope) parameter vectors for the first k logits, respectively. Denote ˇ D .ˇ10 ; : : : ; ˇk0 /0 . Let D .1 ; : : : ; k /0 with i D i .ˇ/ D x 0 ˇi i D 1; : : : ; k Estimates of 1 ; : : : ; k are obtained by substituting the maximum likelihood estimate b̌ for ˇ. The predicted probabilities are p co .Y D k C 1jx/ Pr.Y D k C 1jx/ D 1 Pk 1 C lD1 exp.O l / p co .Y D i jx/ Pr.Y D i jx/ D p co .Y D k C 1jx/ exp.i /; i D 1; : : : ; k Conditional Logistic Regression F 3353 The derivative of po .Y D i jx/ with respect to ˇ are @po .Y D i jx/ @ˇ @ @po .Y D i jx/ @ˇ @ @po .Y D i jx/ @po .Y D i jx/ 0 D .Ik ˝ x/ ; ; @1 @k D where @po .Y D i jx/ D @j po .Y D i jx/.1 po .Y D i jx// j D i po .Y D i jx/po .Y D j jx/ otherwise Special Case of Binary Response Model with No Priors Let ˇ be the vector of regression parameters. Let D .ˇ/ D x 0 ˇ The variance of O is given by Var./ O D x 0 Var.b̌/x ˛) percent confidence interval for is q c / O ˙ z1 ˛=2 Var. O A 100(1 Estimates of po .Y D 1jx/ and confidence intervals for the po .Y D 1jx/ are obtained by backtransforming O and the confidence intervals for , respectively. That is, p co .Y D 1jx/ D F ./ O and the confidence intervals are q c O F O ˙ z1 ˛=2 Var./ Conditional Logistic Regression The method of maximum likelihood described in the preceding sections relies on large-sample asymptotic normality for the validity of estimates and especially of their standard errors. When you do not have a large sample size compared to the number of parameters, this approach might be inappropriate and might result in biased inferences. This situation typically arises when your data are stratified and you fit intercepts to each stratum so that the number of parameters is of the same order as the sample size. For example, in a 1W 1 matched pairs study with n pairs and p covariates, you would estimate n 1 intercept parameters and p slope parameters. Taking the stratification into account by “conditioning out” (and not estimating) the stratum-specific intercepts gives consistent and asymptotically normal MLEs for the slope coefficients. See Breslow and Day (1980) and Stokes, Davis, and Koch (2000) for more information. If your nuisance parameters are not just stratum-specific intercepts, you can perform an exact conditional logistic regression . 3354 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Computational Details For each stratum h, h D 1; : : : ; H , number the observations as i D 1; : : : ; nh so that hi indexes the i th observation in the hth stratum. Denote the p covariates for observation hi as xhi and its binary response as yhi , and let y D .y11 ; : : : ; y1n1 ; : : : ; yH1 ; : : : ; yH nH /0 , Xh D .xh1 : : : xhnh /0 , and X D .X01 : : : X0H /0 . Let the dummy variables zh ; h D 1; : : : ; H , be indicator functions for the strata (zh D 1 if the observation is in stratum h), and denote zhi D .z1 ; : : : ; zH / for observation 0 0 /. D .z0hi jxhi hi , Zh D .zh1 : : : zhnh /0 , and Z D .Z01 : : : Z0H /0 . Denote X D .ZjX) and xhi Arrange the observations in each stratum h so that yhi D 1 for i D 1; : : : ; mh , and yhi D 0 for i D mhC1 ; : : : ; nh . Suppose all observations have unit frequency. Consider the binary logistic regression model on page 3255 written as logit./ D X where the parameter vector D .˛0 ; ˇ 0 /0 consists of ˛ D .˛1 ; : : : ; ˛H /0 , ˛h is the intercept for stratum h; h D 1; : : : ; H , and ˇ is the parameter vector for the p covariates. From the section “Determining Observations for Likelihood Contributions” on page 3322, you can write the likelihood contribution of observation hi; i D 1; : : : ; nh ; h D 1; : : : ; H; as 0 Lhi ./ D e yhi xhi 0 1 C e xhi where yhi D 1 when the response takes Ordered Value 1, and yhi D 0 otherwise. The full likelihood is nh H Y Y ey X L./ D Lhi ./ D Q Q 0 nh H xhi 1 C e hD1 i D1 hD1 i D1 0 Unconditional likelihood inference is based on maximizing this likelihood function. When your nuisance parameters are the stratum-specific intercepts .˛1 ; : : : ; ˛H /0 , and the slopes ˇ are your parameters of interest, “conditioning out” the nuisance parameters produces the conditional likelihood (Lachin 2000) L.ˇ/ D H Y hD1 Lh .ˇ/ D H Y Qmh 0 i D1 exp.xhi ˇ/ P Qjmh 0 hD1 j Dj1 exp.xhj ˇ/ nh where the summation is over all m subsets fj1 ; : : : ; jmh g of mh observations chosen from the h nh observations in stratum h. Note that the nuisance parameters have been factored out of this equation. For conditional asymptotic inference, maximum likelihood estimates b̌ of the regression parameters are obtained by maximizing the conditional likelihood, and asymptotic results are applied to the conditional likelihood function and the maximum likelihood estimators. A relatively fast method of computing this conditional likelihood and its derivatives is given by Gail, Lubin, and Rubinstein (1981) and Howard (1972). The default optimization techniques, which are the same as those implemented by the NLP procedure in SAS/OR software, are as follows: Conditional Logistic Regression F 3355 Newton-Raphson with ridging when the number of parameters p < 40 quasi-Newton when 40 p < 400 conjugate gradient when p 400 Sometimes the log likelihood converges but the estimates diverge. This condition is flagged by having inordinately large standard errors for some of your parameter estimates, and can be monitored by specifying the ITPRINT option. Unfortunately, broad existence criteria such as those discussed in the section “Existence of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” on page 3325 do not exist for this model. It might be possible to circumvent such a problem by standardizing your independent variables before fitting the model. Regression Diagnostic Details Diagnostics are used to indicate observations that might have undue influence on the model fit or that might be outliers. Further investigation should be performed before removing such an observation from the data set. The derivations in this section use an augmentation method described by Storer and Crowley (1985), which provides an estimate of the “one-step” DFBETAS estimates advocated by Pregibon (1984). The method also provides estimates of conditional stratum-specific predicted values, residuals, and leverage for each observation. Following Storer and Crowley (1985), the log-likelihood contribution can be written as lh D log.Lh / D yh0 h a.h / where 2 3 jmh X Y a.h / D log 4 exp.hj /5 j Dj1 and the h subscript on matrices indicates the submatrix for the stratum, h D .h1 ; : : : ; hnh /0 , and 0 hi D xhi ˇ. Then the gradient and information matrix are g.ˇ/ D ƒ.ˇ/ D @lh @ˇ H @ 2 lh @ˇ 2 D X0 .y hD1 H hD1 / D X0 diag.U1 ; : : : ; UH /X 3356 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure where D hi @a.h / D @hi P j.i/ Qjmh j Dj1 P Qjmh j Dj1 exp.hj / exp.hj / h D .h1 ; : : : ; hnh / 2 @2 a.h / @ a.h / Uh D D D faij g @hi @hj @h2 P Qkmh exp.hk / @a.h / @a.h / k.i;j / kDk1 aij D D hij P Qkmh @hi @hj exp. / kDk1 hi hj hk and where hi is the conditional stratum-specific probability that subject i in stratum h is a case, the summation on j.i / is over all subsets from f1; : : : ; nh g of size mh that contain the index i , and the summation on k.i; j / is over all subsets from f1; : : : ; nh g of size mh that contain the indices i and j . 1 To produce the true one-step estimate ˇhi , start at the MLE b̌, delete the hi th observation, and use this reduced data set to compute the next Newton-Raphson step. Note that if there is only one event or one nonevent in a stratum, deletion of that single observation is equivalent to deletion of the entire stratum. The augmentation method does not take this into account. The augmented model is 0 logit.Pr.yhi D 1jxhi // D xhi ˇ C z0hi 0 where zhi D .0; : : : ; 0; 1; 0; : : : ; 0/0 has a 1 in the hi th coordinate, and use ˇ 0 D .b̌ ; 0/0 as the initial estimate for .ˇ 0 ; /0 . The gradient and information matrix before the step are 0 g.ˇ / D 0 ƒ.ˇ / D X0 z0hi 0 X z0hi .y 0 / D yhi U ŒX zhi D hi ƒ.ˇ/ X0 Uzhi z0hi UX z0hi Uzhi Inserting the ˇ 0 and .X0 ; z0hi /0 into the Gail, Lubin, and Rubinstein (1981) algorithm provides the appropriate estimates of g.ˇ 0 / and ƒ.ˇ 0 /. Indicate these estimates with b D .b̌/, b U D U.b̌/, b b g , and ƒ. DFBETA is computed from the information matrix as 1 hi ˇ D ˇ 0 ˇhi b 1 .ˇ 0 /b D ƒ g .ˇ 0 / b 1 .b̌/.X0 b D ƒ Uzhi /M 1 0 zhi .y b / where M D .z0hi b Uzhi / b .z0hi b UX/ƒ 1 .b̌/.X0 b Uzhi / Exact Conditional Logistic Regression F 3357 For each observation in the data set, a DFBETA statistic is computed for each parameter ˇj , 1 j p, and standardized by the standard error of ˇj from the full data set to produce the estimate of DFBETAS. The estimated residuals ehi D yhi b hi are obtained from b g .ˇ 0 /, and the weights, or predicted probabilities, are then b hi D yhi ehi . The residuals are standardized and reported as (estimated) Pearson residuals: rhi p nhi b hi nhi b hi .1 b hi / where rhi is the number of events in the observation and nhi is the number of trials. The estimated leverage is defined as hhi D b UX/ƒ tracef.z0hi b 1 .b̌/.X0 b Uz hi /g tracefz0hi b Uzhi g This definition of leverage produces different values from those defined by Pregibon (1984), Moolgavkar, Lustbader, and Venzon (1985), and Hosmer and Lemeshow (2000); however, it has the advantage that no extra computations beyond those for the DFBETAS are required. For events/trials MODEL syntax, treat each observation as two observations (the first for the nonevents and the second for the events) with frequencies fh;2i 1 D nhi rhi and fh;2i D rhi , and augment the model with a matrix Zhi D Œzh;2i 1 zh;2i instead of a single zhi vector. Writing 0 hi D xhi ˇfhi in the preceding section results in the following gradient and information matrix. 2 0 3 g.ˇ 0 / D 4 fh;2i 1 .yh;2i 1 h;2i 1 / 5 fh;2i .yh;2i h;2i / ƒ.ˇ/ X0 diag.f /Udiag.f /Zhi 0 ƒ.ˇ / D Z0hi diag.f /Udiag.f /X Z0hi diag.f /Udiag.f /Zhi The predicted probabilities are then b hi D yh;2i eh;2i =rh;2i , while the leverage and the DFBETAS are produced from ƒ.ˇ 0 / in a fashion similar to that for the preceding single-trial equations. Exact Conditional Logistic Regression The theory of exact conditional logistic regression analysis was originally laid out by Cox (1970), and the computational methods employed in PROC LOGISTIC are described in Hirji, Mehta, and Patel (1987), Hirji (1992), and Mehta, Patel, and Senchaudhuri (1992). Other useful references for the derivations include Cox and Snell (1989), Agresti (1990), and Mehta and Patel (1995). Exact conditional inference is based on generating the conditional distribution for the sufficient statistics of the parameters of interest. This distribution is called the permutation or exact conditional distribution. Using the notation in the section “Computational Details” on page 3354, follow 3358 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Mehta and Patel (1995) and first note that the sufficient statistics T D .T1 ; : : : ; Tp / for the parameter vector of intercepts and slopes, ˇ, are Tj D n X j D 1; : : : ; p yi xij ; i D1 Denote a vector of observable sufficient statistics as t D .t1 ; : : : ; tp /0 . The probability density function (pdf) for T can be created by summing over all binary sequences y that generate an observable t and letting C.t/ D jjfy W y 0 X D t 0 gjj denote the number of sequences y that generate t C.t/ exp.t 0 ˇ/ 0 i D1 Œ1 C exp.xi ˇ/ Pr.T D t/ D Qn In order to condition out the stratum parameters, partition the parameter vector ˇ D .ˇN0 ; ˇI0 /0 , where ˇN is a pN 1 vector of the nuisance parameters, and ˇI is the parameter vector for the remaining pI D p pN parameters of interest. Likewise, partition X into XN and XI , T into TN and TI , and t into tN and tI . The nuisance parameters can be removed from the analysis by conditioning on their sufficient statistics to create the conditional likelihood of TI given TN D tN , Pr.T D t/ Pr.TN D tN / C.tN ; tI / exp.tI0 ˇI / D fˇI .tI jtN / D P 0 u C.tN ; u/ exp.u ˇI / Pr.TI D tI jTN D tN / D where C.tN ; u/ is the number of vectors y such that y 0 XN D tN and y 0 XI D u. Note that the nuisance parameters have factored out of this equation, and that C.tN ; tI / is a constant. The goal of the exact conditional analysis is to determine how likely the observed response y0 is with respect to all 2n possible responses y D .y1 ; : : : ; yn /0 . One way to proceed is to generate every y vector for which y 0 XN D tN , and count the number of vectors y for which y 0 XI is equal to each unique tI . Generating the conditional distribution from complete enumeration of the joint distribution is conceptually simple; however, this method becomes computationally infeasible very quickly. For example, if you had only 30 observations, you would have to scan through 230 different y vectors. Several algorithms are available in PROC LOGISTIC to generate the exact distribution. All of the algorithms are based on the following observation. Given any y D .y1 ; : : : ; yn /0 and a design X D .x1 ; : : : ; xn /0 , let y.i/ D .y1 ; : : : ; yi /0 and X.i / D .x1 ; : : : ; xi /0 be the first i rows of each 0 matrix. Write the sufficient statistic based on these i rows as t.i0 / D y.i/ X.i/ . A recursion relation results: t.iC1/ D t.i/ C yi C1 xi C1 . The following methods are available. The multivariate shift algorithm developed by Hirji, Mehta, and Patel (1987), which steps through the recursion relation by adding one observation at a time and building an intermediate distribution at each step. If it determines that t.i/ for the nuisance parameters could eventually equal t, then t.i/ is added to the intermediate distribution. Exact Conditional Logistic Regression F 3359 An extension of the multivariate shift algorithm to generalized logit models by Hirji (1992). Since the generalized logit model fits a new set of parameters to each logit, the number of parameters in the model can easily get too large for this algorithm to handle. Note for these models that the hypothesis tests for each effect are computed across the logit functions, while individual parameters are estimated for each logit function. A network algorithm described in Mehta, Patel, and Senchaudhuri (1992), which builds a network for each parameter that you are conditioning out in order to identify feasible yi for the y vector. These networks are combined and the set of feasible yi is further reduced, and then the multivariate shift algorithm uses this knowledge to build the exact distribution without adding as many intermediate t.i C1/ as the multivariate shift algorithm does. A hybrid Monte Carlo and network algorithm described by Mehta, Patel, and Senchaudhuri (2000), which extends their 1992 algorithm by sampling from the combined network to build the exact distribution. The bulk of the computation time and memory for these algorithms is consumed by the creation of the networks and the exact joint distribution. After the joint distribution for a set of effects is created, the computational effort required to produce hypothesis tests and parameter estimates for any subset of the effects is (relatively) trivial. See the section “Computational Resources for Exact Conditional Logistic Regression” on page 3367 for more computational notes about exact analyses. N OTE : An alternative to using these exact conditional methods is to perform Firth’s bias-reducing penalized likelihood method (see the FIRTH option in the MODEL statement); this method has the advantage of being much faster and less memory intensive than exact algorithms, but it might not converge to a solution. Hypothesis Tests Consider testing the null hypothesis H0 W ˇI D 0 against the alternative HA W ˇI ¤ 0, conditional on TN D tN . Under the null hypothesis, the test statistic for the exact probability test is just fˇI D0 .tI jtN /, while the corresponding p-value is the probability of getting a less likely (more extreme) statistic, X p.tI jtN / D f0 .ujtN / u2p where p D fuW there exist y with y 0 XI D u, y 0 XN D tN , and f0 .ujtN / f0 .tI jtN /g. For the exact conditional scores test, the conditional mean I and variance matrix †I of the TI (conditional on TN D tN ) are calculated, and the score statistic for the observed value, s D .tI I /0 †I 1 .tI I / is compared to the score for each member of the distribution S.TI / D .TI I /0 †I 1 .TI I / The resulting p-value is p.tI jtN / D P r.S s/ D X f0 .ujtN / u2s where s D fuW there exist y with y 0 XI D u, y 0 XN D tN , and S.u/ sg. 3360 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure The mid-p statistic, defined as 1 f0 .tI jtN / p.tI jtN / 2 was proposed by Lancaster (1961) to compensate for the discreteness of a distribution. See Agresti (1992) for more information. However, to allow for more flexibility in handling ties, you can write the mid-p statistic as (based on a suggestion by Lamotte (2002) and generalizing Vollset, Hirji, and Afifi (1991)) X X f0 .ujtN / f0 .ujtN / C ı1 f0 .tI jtN / C ı2 u2< u2D where, for i 2 fp; sg, < is i using strict inequalities, and D is i using equalities with the added restriction that u ¤ tI . Letting .ı1 ; ı2 / D .0:5; 1:0/ yields Lancaster’s mid-p. C AUTION : When the exact distribution has ties and METHOD=NETWORKMC is specified, the Monte Carlo algorithm estimates p.tjtN / with error, and hence it cannot determine precisely which values contribute to the reported p-values. For example, if the exact distribution has densities f0:2; 0:2; 0:2; 0:4g and if the observed statistic has probability 0:2, then the exact probability p-value is exactly 0:6. Under Monte Carlo sampling, if the densities after N samples are f0:18; 0:21; 0:23; 0:38g and the observed probability is 0:21, then the resulting p-value is 0:39. Therefore, the exact probability test p-value for this example fluctuates between 0:2, 0:4, and 0:6, and the reported p-values are actually lower bounds for the true p-values. If you need more precise values, you can specify the OUTDIST= option, determine appropriate cutoff values for the observed probability and score, and then construct the true p-value estimates from the OUTDIST= data set and display them in the SAS log by using the following statements: data _null_; set outdist end=end; retain pvalueProb 0 pvalueScore 0; if prob < ProbCutOff then pvalueProb+prob; if score > ScoreCutOff then pvalueScore+prob; if end then put pvalueProb= pvalueScore=; run; Inference for a Single Parameter Exact parameter estimates are derived for a single parameter ˇi by regarding all the other parameters ˇN D .ˇ1 ; : : : ; ˇi 1 ; ˇi C1 ; : : : ; ˇpN CpI /0 as nuisance parameters. The appropriate sufficient statistics are TI D Ti and TN D .T1 ; : : : ; Ti 1 ; Ti C1 ; : : : ; TpN CpI /0 , with their observed values denoted by the lowercase t . Hence, the conditional pdf used to create the parameter estimate for ˇi is C.tN ; ti / exp.ti ˇi / fˇi .ti jtN / D P u2 C.tN ; u/ exp.uˇi / for D fuW there exist y with Ti D u and TN D tN g. The maximum exact conditional likelihood estimate is the quantity b ˇ i , which maximizes the conditional pdf. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is used to perform this search. However, if the observed ti attains either its maximum or minimum value in the exact distribution (that is, either Exact Conditional Logistic Regression F 3361 ti D minfu W u 2 g or ti D maxfu W u 2 g), then the conditional pdf is monotonically increasing in ˇi and cannot be maximized. In this case, a median unbiased estimate (Hirji, Tsiatis, and Mehta 1989) b ˇ i is produced that satisfies fb̌ .ti jtN / D 0:5, and a Newton-Raphson algorithm is i used to perform the search. The standard error of the exact conditional likelihood estimate is just the negative of the inverse of the second derivative of the exact conditional log likelihood (Agresti 2002). Likelihood ratio tests based on the conditional pdf are used to test the null H0 W ˇi D 0 against the alternative HA W ˇi > 0. The critical region for this UMP test consists of the upper tail of values for Ti in the exact distribution. Thus, the one-sided significance level pC .ti I 0/ is X pC .ti I 0/ D f0 .ujtN / uti Similarly, the one-sided significance level p .ti I 0/ against HA W ˇi < 0 is X p .ti I 0/ D f0 .ujtN / uti The two-sided significance level p.ti I 0/ against HA W ˇi ¤ 0 is calculated as p.ti I 0/ D 2 minŒp .ti I 0/; pC .ti I 0/ An upper 100.1 2/% exact confidence limit for b ˇ i corresponding to the observed ti is the solution ˇU .ti / of D p .ti ; ˇU .ti //, while the lower exact confidence limit is the solution ˇL .ti / of D pC .ti ; ˇL .ti //. Again, a Newton-Raphson procedure is used to search for the solutions. Specifying the ONESIDED option displays only one p-value and one confidence interval, because small values of pC .ti I 0/ and p .ti I 0/ support different alternative hypotheses and only one of these p-values can be less than 0.50. The mid-p confidence limits are the solutions to minfp .ti ; ˇ.ti //; pC .ti ; ˇ.ti //g .1 ı1 /fˇ.ti / .ujtN / D for D ˛=2; 1 ˛=2 (Vollset, Hirji, and Afifi 1991). ı1 D 1 produces the usual exact (or max-p) confidence interval, ı1 D 0:5 yields the mid-p interval, and ı1 D 0 gives the min-p interval. The mean of the endpoints of the max-p and min-p intervals provides the mean-p interval as defined by Hirji, Mehta, and Patel (1988). Estimates and confidence intervals for the odds ratios are produced by exponentiating the estimates and interval endpoints for the parameters. Notes about Exact p-Values In the “Conditional Exact Tests” table, the exact probability test is not necessarily a sum of tail areas and can be inflated if the distribution is skewed. The more robust exact conditional scores test is a sum of tail areas and is generally preferred over the exact probability test. The p-value reported for a single parameter in the “Exact Parameter Estimates” table is twice the one-sided tail area of a likelihood ratio test against the null hypothesis of the parameter equaling zero. 3362 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Input and Output Data Sets OUTEST= Output Data Set The OUTEST= data set contains one observation for each BY group containing the maximum likelihood estimates of the regression coefficients. If you also use the COVOUT option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, there are additional observations containing the rows of the estimated covariance matrix. If you specify SELECTION=FORWARD, BACKWARD, or STEPWISE, only the estimates of the parameters and covariance matrix for the final model are output to the OUTEST= data set. Variables in the OUTEST= Data Set The OUTEST= data set contains the following variables: any BY variables specified _LINK_, a character variable of length 8 with four possible values: CLOGLOG for the complementary log-log function, LOGIT for the logit function, NORMIT for the probit (alias normit) function, and GLOGIT for the generalized logit function _TYPE_, a character variable of length 8 with two possible values: PARMS for parameter estimates or COV for covariance estimates. If an EXACT statement is also specified, then two other values are possible: EPARMMLE for the exact maximum likelihood estimates and EPARMMUE for the exact median unbiased estimates. _NAME_, a character variable containing the name of the response variable when _TYPE_=PARMS, EPARMMLE, and EPARMMUE, or the name of a model parameter when _TYPE_=COV _STATUS_, a character variable that indicates whether the estimates have converged one variable for each intercept parameter one variable for each slope parameter and one variable for the offset variable if the OFFSET= option if specified. If an effect is not included in the final model in a model building process, the corresponding parameter estimates and covariances are set to missing values. _LNLIKE_, the log likelihood Parameter Names in the OUTEST= Data Set If there are only two response categories in the entire data set, the intercept parameter is named Intercept. If there are more than two response categories in the entire data set, the intercept parameters are named Intercept_xxx, where xxx is the value (formatted if a format is applied) of the corresponding response category. Input and Output Data Sets F 3363 For continuous explanatory variables, the names of the parameters are the same as the corresponding variables. For CLASS variables, the parameter names are obtained by concatenating the corresponding CLASS variable name with the CLASS category; see the PARAM= option in the CLASS statement and the section “CLASS Variable Parameterization” on page 3317 for more details. For interaction and nested effects, the parameter names are created by concatenating the names of each effect. For the generalized logit model, names of parameters corresponding to each nonreference category contain _xxx as the suffix, where xxx is the value (formatted if a format is applied) of the corresponding nonreference category. For example, suppose the variable Net3 represents the television network (ABC, CBS, and NBC) viewed at a certain time. The following statements fit a generalized logit model with Age and Gender (a CLASS variable with values Female and Male) as explanatory variables: proc logistic; class Gender; model Net3 = Age Gender / link=glogit; run; There are two logit functions, one contrasting ABC with NBC and the other contrasting CBS with NBC. For each logit, there are three parameters: an intercept parameter, a slope parameter for Age, and a slope parameter for Gender (since there are only two gender levels and the EFFECT parameterization is used by default). The names of the parameters and their descriptions are as follows: Intercept_ABC intercept parameter for the logit contrasting ABC with NBC Intercept_CBS intercept parameter for the logit contrasting CBS with NBC Age_ABC Age slope parameter for the logit contrasting ABC with NBC Age_CBS Age slope parameter for the logit contrasting CBS with NBC GenderFemale_ABC Gender=Female slope parameter for the logit contrasting ABC with NBC GenderFemale_CBS Gender=Female slope parameter for the logit contrasting CBS with NBC INEST= Input Data Set You can specify starting values for the iterative algorithm in the INEST= data set. The INEST= data set has the same structure as the OUTEST= data set but is not required to have all the variables or observations that appear in the OUTEST= data set. A previous OUTEST= data set can be used as, or modified for use as, an INEST= data set. The INEST= data set must contain the intercept variables (named Intercept for binary response models and Intercept, Intercept_2, Intercept_3, and so forth, for ordinal and nominal response models) and all explanatory variables in the MODEL statement. If BY processing is used, the INEST= data set should also include the BY variables, and there must be one observation for each BY group. If the INEST= data set also contains the _TYPE_ variable, only observations with _TYPE_ value ’PARMS’ are used as starting values. 3364 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure OUT= Output Data Set in the OUTPUT Statement The OUT= data set in the OUTPUT statement contains all the variables in the input data set along with statistics you request by specifying keyword=name options or the PREDPROBS= option in the OUTPUT statement. In addition, if you use the single-trial syntax and you request any of the XBETA=, STDXBETA=, PREDICTED=, LCL=, and UCL= options, the OUT= data set contains the automatic variable _LEVEL_. The value of _LEVEL_ identifies the response category upon which the computed values of XBETA=, STDXBETA=, PREDICTED=, LCL=, and UCL= are based. When there are more than two response levels, only variables named by the XBETA=, STDXBETA=, PREDICTED=, LOWER=, and UPPER= options and the variables given by PREDPROBS=(INDIVIDUAL CUMULATIVE) have their values computed; the other variables have missing values. If you fit a generalized logit model, the cumulative predicted probabilities are not computed. When there are only two response categories, each input observation produces one observation in the OUT= data set. If there are more than two response categories and you specify only the PREDPROBS= option, then each input observation produces one observation in the OUT= data set. However, if you fit an ordinal (cumulative) model and specify options other than the PREDPROBS= options, each input observation generates as many output observations as one fewer than the number of response levels, and the predicted probabilities and their confidence limits correspond to the cumulative predicted probabilities. If you fit a generalized logit model and specify options other than the PREDPROBS= options, each input observation generates as many output observations as the number of response categories; the predicted probabilities and their confidence limits correspond to the probabilities of individual response categories. For observations in which only the response variable is missing, values of the XBETA=, STDXBETA=, PREDICTED=, UPPER=, LOWER=, and the PREDPROBS= options are computed even though these observations do not affect the model fit. This enables, for instance, predicted probabilities to be computed for new observations. OUT= Output Data Set in a SCORE Statement The OUT= data set in a SCORE statement contains all the variables in the data set being scored. The data set being scored can be either the input DATA= data set in the PROC LOGISTIC statement or the DATA= data set in the SCORE statement. The DATA= data set in the SCORE statement does not need to contain the response variable. If the data set being scored contains the response variable, then denote the normalized levels (leftjustified, formatted values of 16 characters or less) of your response variable Y by Y1 ; : : : ; YkC1 . For each response level, the OUT= data set also contains the following: F_Y, the normalized levels of the response variable Y in the data set being scored. If the events/trials syntax is used, the F_Y variable is not created. I_Y, the normalized levels that the observations are classified into. Note that an observation is classified into the level with the largest probability. If the events/trials syntax is used, the _INTO_ variable is created instead, and it contains the values EVENT and NONEVENT. Input and Output Data Sets F 3365 P_Yi , the posterior probabilities of the normalized response level Yi If the CLM option is specified in the SCORE statement, the OUT= data set also includes the following: – LCL_Yi , the lower 100(1 ˛)% confidence limits for P_Yi – UCL_Yi , the upper 100(1 ˛)% confidence limits for P_Yi OUTDIST= Output Data Set The OUTDIST= data set contains every exact conditional distribution necessary to process the corresponding EXACT statement. For example, the following statements create one distribution for the x1 parameter and another for the x2 parameters, and produce the data set dist shown in Figure 51.11: proc logistic; class x2 / param=ref; model y=x1 x2; exact x1 x2/ outdist=dist; proc print data=dist; run; Figure 51.11 OUTDIST= Data Set Obs x1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 . . . . . . . . . 2 3 4 5 6 x20 x21 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 3 . . . . . 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 . . . . . Count 3 15 9 15 18 6 19 2 3 6 12 11 18 3 Score Prob 5.81151 1.66031 3.12728 1.46523 0.21675 4.58644 1.61869 3.27293 6.27189 3.03030 0.75758 0.00000 0.75758 3.03030 0.03333 0.16667 0.10000 0.16667 0.20000 0.06667 0.21111 0.02222 0.03333 0.12000 0.24000 0.22000 0.36000 0.06000 The first nine observations in the dist data set contain a exact distribution for the parameters of the x2 effect (hence the values for the x1 parameter are missing), and the remaining five observations are for the x1 parameter. If a joint distribution was created, there would be observations with values for both the x1 and x2 parameters. For CLASS variables, the corresponding parameters in the dist data set are identified by concatenating the variable name with the appropriate classification level. The data set contains the possible sufficient statistics of the parameters for the effects specified in the EXACT statement, and the Count variable contains the number of different responses that yield these statistics. In particular, there were six possible response vectors y for which the dot product 3366 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure y 0 x1 was equal to 2, and for which y 0 x20, y 0 x21, and y 0 1 were equal to their actual observed values (displayed in the “Sufficient Statistics” table). When hypothesis tests are performed on the parameters, the Prob variable contains the probability of obtaining that statistic (which is just the count divided by the total count), and the Score variable contains the score for that statistic. The OUTDIST= data set can contain a different exact conditional distribution for each specified EXACT statement. For example, consider the following EXACT statements: exact exact exact exact ’O1’ ’OJ12’ ’OA12’ ’OE12’ x1 / x1 x2 / jointonly x1 x2 / joint x1 x2 / estimate outdist=o1; outdist=oj12; outdist=oa12; outdist=oe12; The O1 statement outputs a single exact conditional distribution. The OJ12 statement outputs only the joint distribution for x1 and x2. The OA12 statement outputs three conditional distributions: one for x1, one for x2, and one jointly for x1 and x2. The OE12 statement outputs two conditional distributions: one for x1 and the other for x2. Data set oe12 contains both the x1 and x2 variables; the distribution for x1 has missing values in the x2 column while the distribution for x2 has missing values in the x1 column. OUTROC= Output Data Set The OUTROC= data set contains data necessary for producing the ROC curve, and can be created by specifying the OUTROC= option in the MODEL statement or the OUTROC= option in the SCORE statement: It has the following variables: any BY variables specified _STEP_, the model step number. This variable is not included if model selection is not requested. _PROB_, the estimated probability of an event. These estimated probabilities serve as cutpoints for predicting the response. Any observation with an estimated event probability that exceeds or equals _PROB_ is predicted to be an event; otherwise, it is predicted to be a nonevent. Predicted probabilities that are close to each other are grouped together, with the maximum allowable difference between the largest and smallest values less than a constant that is specified by the ROCEPS= option. The smallest estimated probability is used to represent the group. _POS_, the number of correctly predicted event responses _NEG_, the number of correctly predicted nonevent responses _FALPOS_, the number of falsely predicted event responses _FALNEG_, the number of falsely predicted nonevent responses _SENSIT_, the sensitivity, which is the proportion of event observations that were predicted to have an event response Computational Resources F 3367 _1MSPEC_, one minus specificity, which is the proportion of nonevent observations that were predicted to have an event response Note that none of these statistics are affected by the bias-correction method discussed in the section “Classification Table” on page 3338. An ROC curve is obtained by plotting _SENSIT_ against _1MSPEC_. For more information, see the section “Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves” on page 3344. Computational Resources The memory needed to fit an unconditional model is approximately 8n.p C 2/ C 24.p C 2/2 bytes, where p is the number of parameters estimated and n is the number of observations in the data set. For cumulative response models with more than two response levels, a test of the parallel lines assumption requires an additional memory of approximately 4k 2 .m C 1/2 C 24.m C 2/2 bytes, where k is the number of response levels and m is the number of slope parameters. However, if this additional memory is not available, the procedure skips the test and finishes the other computations. You might need more memory if you use the SELECTION= option for model building. The data that consist of relevant variables (including the design variables for model effects) and observations for fitting the model are stored in a temporary utility file. If sufficient memory is available, such data will also be kept in memory; otherwise, the data are reread from the utility file for each evaluation of the likelihood function and its derivatives, with the resulting execution time of the procedure substantially increased. Specifying the MULTIPASS option in the MODEL statement avoids creating this utility file and also does not store the data in memory; instead, the DATA= data set is reread when needed. This saves approximately 8n.p C 2/ bytes of memory but increases the execution time. If a conditional logistic regression is performed, then approximately 4.m2 C m C 4/ maxh .mh / C .8sH C 36/H C 12sH additional bytes of memory are needed, where mh is the number of events in stratum h, H is the total number of strata, and sH is the number of variables used to define the strata. If the CHECKDEPENDENCY=ALL option is specified in the STRATA statement, then an extra 4.m C H /.m C H C 1/ bytes are required, and the resulting execution time of the procedure might be substantially increased. Computational Resources for Exact Conditional Logistic Regression Many problems require a prohibitive amount of time and memory for exact computations, depending on the speed and memory available on your computer. For such problems, consider whether exact methods are really necessary. Stokes, Davis, and Koch (2000) suggest looking at exact pvalues when the sample size is small and the approximate p-values from the unconditional analysis are less than 0.10, and they provide rules of thumb for determining when various models are valid. A formula does not exist that can predict the amount of time and memory necessary to generate the exact conditional distributions for a particular problem. The time and memory required depends on several factors, including the total sample size, the number of parameters of interest, the number 3368 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure of nuisance parameters, and the order in which the parameters are processed. To provide a feel for how these factors affect performance, 19 data sets containing Nobs 2 f10; : : : ; 500g observations consisting of up to 10 independent uniform binary covariates (X1,. . . ,XN ) and a binary response variable (Y), are generated, and the following statements create exact conditional distributions for X1 conditional on the other covariates by using the default METHOD=NETWORK. Figure 51.12 displays results obtained on a 400Mhz PC with 768MB RAM running Microsoft Windows NT. data one; do obs=1 to HalfNobs; do Y=0 to 1; X1=round(ranuni(0)); ... XN =round(ranuni(0)); output; end; end; options fullstimer; proc logistic exactonly exactoptions(method=network maxtime=1200); class X1...XN / param=ref; model Y=X1...XN ; exact X1 / outdist=dist; run; Figure 51.12 Mean Time and Memory Required At any time while PROC LOGISTIC is deriving the distributions, you can terminate the computations by pressing the system interrupt key sequence (see the SAS Companion for your system) and Displayed Output F 3369 choosing to stop computations. If you run out of memory, see the SAS Companion for your system to see how to allocate more. You can use the EXACTOPTIONS option MAXTIME= to limit the total amount of time PROC LOGISTIC uses to derive all of the exact distributions. If PROC LOGISTIC does not finish within that time, the procedure terminates. Calculation of frequencies are performed in the log scale by default. This reduces the need to check for excessively large frequencies but can be slower than not scaling. You can turn off the log scaling by specifying the NOLOGSCALE option in the MODEL statement. If a frequency in the exact distribution is larger than the largest integer that can be held in double precision, a warning is printed to the SAS log. But since inaccuracies due to adding small numbers to these large frequencies might have little or no effect on the statistics, the exact computations continue. You can monitor the progress of the procedure by submitting your program with the EXACTOPTIONS option STATUSTIME=. If the procedure is too slow, you can try another method by specifying the EXACTOPTIONS option METHOD=, you can try reordering the variables in the MODEL statement (note that CLASS variables are always processed before continuous covariates), or you can try reparameterizing your classification variables as in the following statement: class class-variables / param=ref ref=first order=freq; Displayed Output If you use the NOPRINT option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement, the procedure does not display any output. Otherwise, the tables displayed by the LOGISTIC procedure are discussed in the following section in the order in which they appear in the output. Note that some of the tables appear only in conjunction with certain options or statements; see the section “ODS Table Names” on page 3375 for details. Table Summary Model Information and the Number of Observations See the section “Missing Values” on page 3316 for information about missing-value handling, and the sections “FREQ Statement” on page 3285 and “WEIGHT Statement” on page 3315 for information about valid frequencies and weights. Response Profile Displays the Ordered Value assigned to each response level. See the section “Response Level Ordering” on page 3316 for details. 3370 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Class Level Information Displays the design values for each CLASS explanatory variable. See the section “CLASS Variable Parameterization” on page 3317 for details. Simple Statistics Tables The following tables are displayed if you specify the SIMPLE option in the PROC LOGISTIC statement. Descriptive Statistics for Continuous Explanatory Variables Frequency Distribution of Class Variables Weight Distribution of Class Variables Displays if you also specify a WEIGHT statement. Strata Tables for (Exact) Conditional Logistic Regression The following tables are displayed if you specify a STRATA statement. Strata Summary Shows the pattern of the number of events and the number of nonevents in a stratum. See the section “STRATA Statement” on page 3312 for more information. Strata Information Displays if you specify the INFO option in a STRATA statement. Maximum Likelihood Iteration History Displays if you specify the ITPRINT option in the MODEL statement. See the sections “Iterative Algorithms for Model Fitting” on page 3322, “Convergence Criteria” on page 3325, and “Existence of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” on page 3325 for details. Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Statistics Displays if you specify the SCALE= option in the MODEL statement. Small p-values reject the null hypothesis that the fitted model is adequate. See the section “Overdispersion” on page 3340 for details. Score Test for the Equal Slopes (Proportional Odds) Assumption Tests the parallel lines assumption if you fit an ordinal response model with the LINK=CLOGLOG or LINK=PROBIT options. If you specify LINK=LOGIT, this is called the “Proportional Odds” assumption. Small p-values reject the null hypothesis that the slope parameters for each explanatory variable are constant across all the response functions. See the section “Testing the Parallel Lines Assumption” on page 3330 for details. Displayed Output F 3371 Model Fit Statistics Computes various fit criteria based on a model with intercepts only and a model with intercepts and explanatory variables. If you specify the NOINT option in the MODEL statement, these statistics are calculated without considering the intercept parameters. See the section “Model Fitting Information” on page 3327 for details. Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Tests the joint effect of the explanatory variables included in the model. Small p-values reject the null hypothesis that all slope parameters are equal to zero, H0 W ˇ D 0. See the sections “Model Fitting Information” on page 3327, “Residual Chi-Square” on page 3329, and “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346 for details. If you also specify the RSQUARE option in the MODEL statement, two generalized R2 measures are included; see the section “Generalized Coefficient of Determination” on page 3328 for details. Score Test for Global Null Hypothesis Displays instead of the “Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0” table if the NOFIT option is specified in the MODEL statement. The global score test evaluates the joint significance of the effects in the MODEL statement. Small p-values reject the null hypothesis that all slope parameters are equal to zero, H0 W ˇ D 0. See the section “Residual Chi-Square” on page 3329 for details. Model Selection Tables The tables in this section are produced when the SELECTION= option is specified in the MODEL statement. See the section “Effect-Selection Methods” on page 3326 for more information. Residual Chi-Square Test Displays if you specify SELECTION=FORWARD, BACKWARD, or STEPWISE in the MODEL statement. Small p-values reject the null hypothesis that the reduced model is adequate. See the section “Residual Chi-Square” on page 3329 for details. Analysis of Effects Eligible for Entry Displays if you specify the DETAILS option and the SELECTION=FORWARD or STEPWISE option in the MODEL statement. Small p-values reject H0 W ˇi ¤ 0. The score chi-square is used to determine entry; see the section “Testing Individual Effects Not in the Model” on page 3330 for details. Analysis of Effects Eligible for Removal Displays if you specify the SELECTION=BACKWARD or STEPWISE option in the MODEL statement. Small p-values reject H0 W ˇi D 0. The Wald chi-square is used to determine removal; see the section “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346 for details. Analysis of Effects Removed by Fast Backward Elimination Displays if you specify the FAST option and the SELECTION=BACKWARD or STEPWISE option in the MODEL statement. This table gives the approximate chi-square statistic for the 3372 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure variable removed, the corresponding p-value with respect to a chi-square distribution with one degree of freedom, the residual chi-square statistic for testing the joint significance of the variable and the preceding ones, the degrees of freedom, and the p-value of the residual chisquare with respect to a chi-square distribution with the corresponding degrees of freedom. Summary of Forward, Backward, and Stepwise Selection Displays if you specify SELECTION=FORWARD, BACKWARD, or STEPWISE in the MODEL statement. The score chi-square is used to determine entry; see the section “Testing Individual Effects Not in the Model” on page 3330 for details. The Wald chi-square is used to determine removal; see the section “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346 for details. Regression Models Selected by Score Criterion Displays the score chi-square for all models if you specify the SELECTION=SCORE option in the MODEL statement. Small p-values reject the null hypothesis that the fitted model is adequate. See the section “Effect-Selection Methods” on page 3326 for details. Type 3 Analysis of Effect Displays if the model contains a CLASS variable. Performs Wald chi-square tests of the joint effect of the parameters for each CLASS variable in the model. Small p-values reject H0 W ˇi D 0. See the section “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346 for details. Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates CLASS effects are identified by their (nonreference) level. For generalized logit models, a response variable column displays the nonreference level of the logit. The table includes the following: the estimated standard error of the parameter estimate, computed as the square root of the corresponding diagonal element of the estimated covariance matrix the Wald chi-square statistic, computed by squaring the ratio of the parameter estimate divided by its standard error estimate. See the section “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346 for details. the p-value tests the null hypothesis H0 W ˇi D 0; small values reject the null. the standardized estimate for the slope parameter, if you specify the STB option in the MODEL statement. See the STB option on page 3300 for details. exponentiated values of the estimates of the slope parameters, if you specify the EXPB option in the MODEL statement. See the EXPB option on page 3291 for details. the label of the variable, if you specify the PARMLABEL option in the MODEL statement and if space permits. Due to constraints on the line size, the variable label might be suppressed in order to display the table in one panel. Use the SAS system option LINESIZE= to specify a larger line size to accommodate variable labels. A shorter line size can break the table into two panels allowing labels to be displayed. Displayed Output F 3373 Odds Ratio Estimates Displays the odds ratio estimates and the corresponding 95% Wald confidence intervals for variables that are not involved in nestings or interactions. For continuous explanatory variables, these odds ratios correspond to a unit increase in the risk factors. See the section “Odds Ratio Estimation” on page 3333 for details. Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses See the section “Rank Correlation of Observed Responses and Predicted Probabilities” on page 3336 for details. Profile-Likelihood or Wald Confidence Intervals for Parameters Displays if you specify the CLPARM= option in the MODEL statement. “Confidence Intervals for Parameters” on page 3331 for details. See the section Profile-Likelihood or Wald Confidence Intervals for Odds Ratios Displays if you specify the ODDSRATIO statement for any effects with any class parameterizations. Also displays if you specify the CLODDS= option in the MODEL statement, except odds ratios are computed only for main effects not involved in interactions or nestings, and if the main effect is a CLASS variable, the parameterization must be EFFECT, REFERENCE, or GLM. See the section “Odds Ratio Estimation” on page 3333 for details. Estimated Covariance or Correlation Matrix Displays if you specify the COVB or CORRB option in the MODEL statement. See the section “Iterative Algorithms for Model Fitting” on page 3322 for details. Contrast Test Results Displays the Wald test for each specified CONTRAST statement. Small p-values reject H0 W Lˇ D 0. The “Coefficients of Contrast” table displays the contrast matrix if you specify the E option, and the “Contrast Rows Estimation and Testing Results” table displays estimates and Wald tests for each row of the contrast matrix if you specify the ESTIMATE= option. See the sections “CONTRAST Statement” on page 3280, “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346, and “Linear Predictor, Predicted Probability, and Confidence Limits” on page 3337 for details. Linear Hypotheses Testing Results Displays the Wald test for each specified TEST statement. See the sections “Testing Linear Hypotheses about the Regression Coefficients” on page 3346 and “TEST Statement” on page 3313 for details. 3374 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Hosmer and Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test Displays if you specify the LACKFIT option in the MODEL statement. Small p-values reject the null hypothesis that the fitted model is adequate. The “Partition for the Hosmer and Lemeshow Test” table displays the grouping used in the test. See the section “The Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-ofFit Test” on page 3342 for details. Classification Table Displays if you use the CTABLE option in the MODEL statement. If you specify a list of cutpoints with the PPROB= option, then the cutpoints are displayed in the Prob Level column. If you specify the prior event probabilities with the PEVENT= option, then the probabilities are displayed in the Prob Event column. The Correct column displays the number of correctly classified events and nonevents, the Incorrect Event column displays the number of nonevents incorrectly classified as events, and the Incorrect Nonevent column gives the number of nonevents incorrectly classified as events. See the section “Classification Table” on page 3338 for more details. Regression Diagnostics Displays if you specify the INFLUENCE option in the MODEL statement. See the section “Regression Diagnostics” on page 3347 for more information about diagnostics from an unconditional analysis, and the section “Regression Diagnostic Details” on page 3355 for information about diagnostics from a conditional analysis. Fit Statistics for SCORE Data Displays if you specify the FITSTAT option in the SCORE statement. See the section “Scoring Data Sets” on page 3350 for other details. ROC Association Statistic and Contrast Tables Displayed if a ROC statement and/or a ROCCONTRAST statement is specified. See the section “ROC Computations” on page 3345 for details about the Mann-Whitney statistics and the test and estimation computations, and see the section “Rank Correlation of Observed Responses and Predicted Probabilities” on page 3336 for details about the other statistics. Exact Conditional Logistic Regression Tables The tables in this section are produced when the EXACT statement is specified. If the METHOD=NETWORKMC option is specified, the testp and estimate tables are renamed “Monte Carlo” tables and a Monte Carlo standard error column ( p.1 p/=n) is displayed. Sufficient Statistics Displays if you request an OUTDIST= data set in an EXACT statement. The table lists the parameters and their observed sufficient statistics. ODS Table Names F 3375 (Monte Carlo) Conditional Exact Tests See the section “Hypothesis Tests” on page 3359 for details. (Monte Carlo) Exact Parameter Estimates Displays if you specify the ESTIMATE option in the EXACT statement. This table gives individual parameter estimates for each variable (conditional on the values of all the other parameters in the model), confidence limits, and a two-sided p-value (twice the one-sided pvalue) for testing that the parameter is zero. See the section “Inference for a Single Parameter” on page 3360 for details. (Monte Carlo) Exact Odds Ratios Displays if you specify the ESTIMATE=ODDS or ESTIMATE=BOTH option in the EXACT statement. See the section “Inference for a Single Parameter” on page 3360 for details. ODS Table Names PROC LOGISTIC assigns a name to each table it creates. You can use these names to reference the table when using the Output Delivery System (ODS) to select tables and create output data sets. These names are listed in Table 51.5. For more information about ODS, see Chapter 20, “Using the Output Delivery System.” Table 51.5 ODS Tables Produced by PROC LOGISTIC ODS Table Name Description Statement Option Association Association of predicted probabilities and observed responses Best subset selection Frequency breakdown of CLASS variables CLASS variable levels and design variables Classification table Weight breakdown of CLASS variables Profile-likelihood confidence limits for odds ratios Wald’s confidence limits for odds ratios Profile-likelihood confidence limits for parameters Wald’s confidence limits for parameters MODEL (without STRATA) default MODEL PROC MODEL SELECTION=SCORE Simple (with CLASS vars) default (with CLASS vars) CTABLE Simple (with CLASS vars) CLODDS=PL MODEL CLODDS=WALD MODEL CLPARM=PL MODEL CLPARM=WALD BestSubsets ClassFreq ClassLevelInfo Classification ClassWgt CLOddsPL CLOddsWald CLParmPL CLParmWald MODEL MODEL PROC, WEIGHT 3376 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Table 51.5 continued ODS Table Name Description Statement Option ContrastCoeff ContrastEstimate CONTRAST CONTRAST E ESTIMATE= CONTRAST MODEL MODEL default default CORRB MODEL COVB MODEL (ordinal response) EffectNotInModel ExactOddsRatio L matrix from CONTRAST Estimates from CONTRAST Wald test for CONTRAST Convergence status Estimated correlation matrix of parameter estimators Estimated covariance matrix of parameter estimators Test of the cumulative model assumption Test for effects not in model Exact odds ratios MODEL EXACT ExactParmEst Parameter estimates EXACT ExactTests FastElimination FitStatistics GlobalScore GlobalTests Conditional exact tests Fast backward elimination Model fit statistics Global score test Test for global null hypothesis Pearson and deviance goodness-of-fit tests Batch capture of the index plots Regression diagnostics Iteration history Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square test results Partition for the HosmerLemeshow test Last evaluation of gradient Linear combination Final change in the log likelihood Summary of model building Model information Number of observations Adjusted odds ratios Odds ratios Odds ratios with Wald confidence limits EXACT MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL SELECTION=S|F ESTIMATE=ODDS, ESTIMATE=BOTH ESTIMATE, ESTIMATE=PARM, ESTIMATE=BOTH default SELECTION=B,FAST default NOFIT default MODEL SCALE MODEL IPLOTS MODEL MODEL MODEL INFLUENCE ITPRINT LACKFIT MODEL LACKFIT MODEL PROC MODEL ITPRINT default ITPRINT MODEL PROC PROC UNITS MODEL ODDSRATIOS SELECTION=B|F|S default default default default CL=WALD ContrastTest ConvergenceStatus CorrB CovB CumulativeModelTest GoodnessOfFit IndexPlots Influence IterHistory LackFitChiSq LackFitPartition LastGradient Linear LogLikeChange ModelBuildingSummary ModelInfo NObs OddsEst OddsRatios OddsRatiosWald ODS Graphics F 3377 Table 51.5 continued ODS Table Name Description Statement Option OddsRatiosPL Odds ratios with PL confidence limits Maximum likelihood estimates of model parameters R-square Residual chi-square Response profile Association table for ROC models L matrix from ROCCONTRAST Covariance of ROCCONTRAST rows Estimates from ROCCONTRAST Wald test from ROCCONTRAST Covariance between ROC curves Summary statistics for explanatory variables Number of strata with specific response frequencies Event and nonevent frequencies for each stratum Sufficient statistics L[Cov(b)]L’ and Lb-c Ginv(L[Cov(b)]L’) and Ginv(L[Cov(b)]L’)(Lb-c) Linear hypotheses testing results Type 3 tests of effects ODDSRATIOS CL=PL MODEL default MODEL MODEL PROC ROC RSQUARE SELECTION=F|B default default ROCCONTRAST E ROCCONTRAST COV ROCCONTRAST ESTIMATE= ROCCONTRAST default ROCCONTRAST COV PROC SIMPLE STRATA default STRATA INFO EXACT TEST TEST OUTDIST= PRINT PRINT TEST default MODEL default (with CLASS variables) ParameterEstimates RSquare ResidualChiSq ResponseProfile ROCAssociation ROCContrastCoeff ROCContrastCov ROCContrastEstimate ROCContrastTest ROCCov SimpleStatistics StrataSummary StrataInfo SuffStats TestPrint1 TestPrint2 TestStmts Type3 ODS Graphics PROC LOGISTIC assigns a name to each graph it creates using ODS. You can use these names to reference the graphs when using ODS. The names are listed in Table 51.6. To request these graphs you must specify the ODS GRAPHICS statement in addition to the op- 3378 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure tions indicated in Table 51.6. For more information about the ODS GRAPHICS statement, see Chapter 21, “Statistical Graphics Using ODS.” Table 51.6 ODS Graphics Produced by PROC LOGISTIC ODS Graph Name Plot Description Statement or Option DfBetasPlot Panel of dfbetas by case number PLOTS=DFBETAS or MODEL / INFLUENCE or IPLOTS PLOTS=DFBETAS(UNPACK) PLOTS=DPC DPCPlot EffectPlot InfluencePlots CBarPlot CPlot DevianceResidualPlot DifChisqPlot DifDeviancePlot LeveragePlot PearsonResidualPlot LeveragePlots LeverageCPlot LeverageDifChisqPlot LeverageDifDevPlot LeveragePhatPlot ORPlot PhatPlots PhatCPlot PhatDifChisqPlot PhatDifDevPlot PhatLeveragePlot ROCCurve ROCOverlay Effect dfbetas by case number Difchisq and/or difdev by predicted probability by CI displacement C Predicted probability Panel of influence statistics by case number CI displacement Cbar by case number CI displacement C by case number Deviance residual by case number Difchisq by case number Difdev by case number Hat diagonal by case number Pearson chi-square residual by case number Panel of influence statistics by leverage CI displacement C by leverage Difchisq by leverage Difdev by leverage Predicted probability by leverage Odds ratios Panel of influence by predicted probability CI displacement C by predicted probability Difchisq by predicted probability Difdev by predicted probability Leverage by predicted probability Receiver operating characteristics curve ROC curves for comparisons PLOTS=EFFECT default or PLOTS=INFLUENCE or MODEL / INFLUENCE or IPLOTS PLOTS=INFLUENCE (UNPACK) PLOTS=INFLUENCE (UNPACK) PLOTS=INFLUENCE (UNPACK) PLOTS=INFLUENCE (UNPACK) PLOTS=INFLUENCE (UNPACK) PLOTS=INFLUENCE (UNPACK) PLOTS=INFLUENCE (UNPACK) PLOTS=LEVERAGE PLOTS=LEVERAGE(UNPACK) PLOTS=LEVERAGE(UNPACK) PLOTS=LEVERAGE(UNPACK) PLOTS=LEVERAGE(UNPACK) PLOTS=ODDSRATIO or MODEL / CLODDS= or ODDSRATIO PLOTS=PHAT PLOTS=PHAT(UNPACK) PLOTS=PHAT(UNPACK) PLOTS=PHAT(UNPACK) PLOTS=PHAT(UNPACK) PLOTS=ROC or MODEL / OUTROC= or SCORE OUTROC= or ROC PLOTS=ROC and MODEL / SELECTION= or ROC Examples: LOGISTIC Procedure F 3379 Examples: LOGISTIC Procedure Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values Consider a study on cancer remission (Lee 1974). The data consist of patient characteristics and whether or not cancer remission occured. The following DATA step creates the data set Remission containing seven variables. The variable remiss is the cancer remission indicator variable with a value of 1 for remission and a value of 0 for nonremission. The other six variables are the risk factors thought to be related to cancer remission. data Remission; input remiss cell smear infil li blast temp; label remiss=’Complete Remission’; datalines; 1 .8 .83 .66 1.9 1.1 .996 1 .9 .36 .32 1.4 .74 .992 0 .8 .88 .7 .8 .176 .982 0 1 .87 .87 .7 1.053 .986 1 .9 .75 .68 1.3 .519 .98 0 1 .65 .65 .6 .519 .982 1 .95 .97 .92 1 1.23 .992 0 .95 .87 .83 1.9 1.354 1.02 0 1 .45 .45 .8 .322 .999 0 .95 .36 .34 .5 0 1.038 0 .85 .39 .33 .7 .279 .988 0 .7 .76 .53 1.2 .146 .982 0 .8 .46 .37 .4 .38 1.006 0 .2 .39 .08 .8 .114 .99 0 1 .9 .9 1.1 1.037 .99 1 1 .84 .84 1.9 2.064 1.02 0 .65 .42 .27 .5 .114 1.014 0 1 .75 .75 1 1.322 1.004 0 .5 .44 .22 .6 .114 .99 1 1 .63 .63 1.1 1.072 .986 0 1 .33 .33 .4 .176 1.01 0 .9 .93 .84 .6 1.591 1.02 1 1 .58 .58 1 .531 1.002 0 .95 .32 .3 1.6 .886 .988 1 1 .6 .6 1.7 .964 .99 1 1 .69 .69 .9 .398 .986 0 1 .73 .73 .7 .398 .986 ; The following invocation of PROC LOGISTIC illustrates the use of stepwise selection to identify the prognostic factors for cancer remission. A significance level of 0.3 is required to allow a variable into the model (SLENTRY=0.3), and a significance level of 0.35 is required for a variable to stay in the model (SLSTAY=0.35). A detailed account of the variable selection process is requested by specifying the DETAILS option. The Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test for the final 3380 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure selected model is requested by specifying the LACKFIT option. The OUTEST= and COVOUT options in the PROC LOGISTIC statement create a data set that contains parameter estimates and their covariances for the final selected model. The response variable option EVENT= chooses remiss=1 (remission) as the event so that the probability of remission is modeled. The OUTPUT statement creates a data set that contains the cumulative predicted probabilities and the corresponding confidence limits, and the individual and cross validated predicted probabilities for each observation. title ’Stepwise Regression on Cancer Remission Data’; proc logistic data=Remission outest=betas covout; model remiss(event=’1’)=cell smear infil li blast temp / selection=stepwise slentry=0.3 slstay=0.35 details lackfit; output out=pred p=phat lower=lcl upper=ucl predprob=(individual crossvalidate); run; proc print data=betas; title2 ’Parameter Estimates and Covariance Matrix’; run; proc print data=pred; title2 ’Predicted Probabilities and 95% Confidence Limits’; run; In stepwise selection, an attempt is made to remove any insignificant variables from the model before adding a significant variable to the model. Each addition or deletion of a variable to or from a model is listed as a separate step in the displayed output, and at each step a new model is fitted. Details of the model selection steps are shown in Outputs 51.1.1 through 51.1.5. Prior to the first step, the intercept-only model is fit and individual score statistics for the potential variables are evaluated (Output 51.1.1). Output 51.1.1 Startup Model Stepwise Regression on Cancer Remission Data Step 0. Intercept entered: Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. -2 Log L = 34.372 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept 1 -0.6931 0.4082 2.8827 0.0895 Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values F 3381 Output 51.1.1 continued Residual Chi-Square Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 9.4609 6 0.1493 Analysis of Effects Eligible for Entry Effect DF Score Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq cell smear infil li blast temp 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.8893 1.0745 1.8817 7.9311 3.5258 0.6591 0.1693 0.2999 0.1701 0.0049 0.0604 0.4169 In Step 1 (Output 51.1.2), the variable li is selected into the model since it is the most significant variable among those to be chosen (p D 0:0049 < 0:3). The intermediate model that contains an intercept and li is then fitted. li remains significant (p D 0:0146 < 0:35) and is not removed. Output 51.1.2 Step 1 of the Stepwise Analysis Step 1. Effect li entered: Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 36.372 37.668 34.372 30.073 32.665 26.073 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 8.2988 7.9311 5.9594 1 1 1 0.0040 0.0049 0.0146 3382 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.1.2 continued Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept li 1 1 -3.7771 2.8973 1.3786 1.1868 7.5064 5.9594 0.0061 0.0146 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect li Point Estimate 95% Wald Confidence Limits 18.124 1.770 185.563 Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 84.0 13.0 3.1 162 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c 0.710 0.732 0.328 0.855 Residual Chi-Square Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 3.1174 5 0.6819 Analysis of Effects Eligible for Removal Effect li DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 5.9594 0.0146 NOTE: No effects for the model in Step 1 are removed. Analysis of Effects Eligible for Entry Effect cell smear infil blast temp DF Score Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 1 1.1183 0.1369 0.5715 0.0932 1.2591 0.2903 0.7114 0.4497 0.7601 0.2618 In Step 2 (Output 51.1.3), the variable temp is added to the model. The model then contains an intercept and the variables li and temp. Both li and temp remain significant at 0.35 level; therefore, neither li nor temp is removed from the model. Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values F 3383 Output 51.1.3 Step 2 of the Stepwise Analysis Step 2. Effect temp entered: Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 36.372 37.668 34.372 30.648 34.535 24.648 AIC SC -2 Log L Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 9.7239 8.3648 5.9052 2 2 2 0.0077 0.0153 0.0522 Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept li temp 1 1 1 47.8448 3.3017 -52.4214 46.4381 1.3593 47.4897 1.0615 5.9002 1.2185 0.3029 0.0151 0.2697 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect li temp Point Estimate 95% Wald Confidence Limits 27.158 <0.001 1.892 <0.001 389.856 >999.999 Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 87.0 12.3 0.6 162 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c Residual Chi-Square Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 2.1429 4 0.7095 0.747 0.752 0.345 0.873 3384 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.1.3 continued Analysis of Effects Eligible for Removal Effect li temp DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 5.9002 1.2185 0.0151 0.2697 NOTE: No effects for the model in Step 2 are removed. Analysis of Effects Eligible for Entry Effect cell smear infil blast DF Score Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 1.4700 0.1730 0.8274 1.1013 0.2254 0.6775 0.3630 0.2940 In Step 3 (Output 51.1.4), the variable cell is added to the model. The model then contains an intercept and the variables li, temp, and cell. None of these variables are removed from the model since all are significant at the 0.35 level. Output 51.1.4 Step 3 of the Stepwise Analysis Step 3. Effect cell entered: Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 36.372 37.668 34.372 29.953 35.137 21.953 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 12.4184 9.2502 4.8281 3 3 3 0.0061 0.0261 0.1848 Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values F 3385 Output 51.1.4 continued Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept cell li temp 1 1 1 1 67.6339 9.6521 3.8671 -82.0737 56.8875 7.7511 1.7783 61.7124 1.4135 1.5507 4.7290 1.7687 0.2345 0.2130 0.0297 0.1835 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect Point Estimate 95% Wald Confidence Limits cell li temp >999.999 47.804 <0.001 0.004 1.465 <0.001 >999.999 >999.999 >999.999 Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 88.9 11.1 0.0 162 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c 0.778 0.778 0.359 0.889 Residual Chi-Square Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 0.1831 3 0.9803 Analysis of Effects Eligible for Removal Effect cell li temp DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1.5507 4.7290 1.7687 0.2130 0.0297 0.1835 NOTE: No effects for the model in Step 3 are removed. Analysis of Effects Eligible for Entry Effect DF Score Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq smear infil blast 1 1 1 0.0956 0.0844 0.0208 0.7572 0.7714 0.8852 3386 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Finally, none of the remaining variables outside the model meet the entry criterion, and the stepwise selection is terminated. A summary of the stepwise selection is displayed in Output 51.1.5. Output 51.1.5 Summary of the Stepwise Selection Summary of Stepwise Selection Step 1 2 3 Effect Entered Removed li temp cell DF Number In Score Chi-Square 1 1 1 1 2 3 7.9311 1.2591 1.4700 Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 0.0049 0.2618 0.2254 Results of the Hosmer and Lemeshow test are shown in Output 51.1.6. There is no evidence of a lack of fit in the selected model .p D 0:5054/. Output 51.1.6 Display of the LACKFIT Option Partition for the Hosmer and Lemeshow Test Group Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 remiss = 1 Observed Expected 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 3 1 remiss = 0 Observed Expected 0.00 0.01 0.19 0.56 1.09 1.35 1.84 2.15 1.80 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 0 1 3.00 2.99 2.81 2.44 2.91 1.65 1.16 0.85 0.20 Hosmer and Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 6.2983 7 0.5054 The data set betas created by the OUTEST= and COVOUT options is displayed in Output 51.1.7. The data set contains parameter estimates and the covariance matrix for the final selected model. Note that all explanatory variables listed in the MODEL statement are included in this data set; however, variables that are not included in the final model have all missing values. Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values F 3387 Output 51.1.7 Data Set of Estimates and Covariances Stepwise Regression on Cancer Remission Data Parameter Estimates and Covariance Matrix Obs _LINK_ _TYPE_ _STATUS_ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 LOGIT LOGIT LOGIT LOGIT LOGIT LOGIT LOGIT LOGIT PARMS COV COV COV COV COV COV COV Obs smear infil li blast 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8671 64.5726 6.9454 . . 3.1623 . -75.3513 . . . . . . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _NAME_ Converged Converged Converged Converged Converged Converged Converged Converged remiss Intercept cell smear infil li blast temp Intercept cell 67.63 3236.19 157.10 . . 64.57 . -3483.23 9.652 157.097 60.079 . . 6.945 . -223.669 temp _LNLIKE_ -82.07 -3483.23 -223.67 . . -75.35 . 3808.42 -10.9767 -10.9767 -10.9767 -10.9767 -10.9767 -10.9767 -10.9767 -10.9767 The data set pred created by the OUTPUT statement is displayed in Output 51.1.8. It contains all the variables in the input data set, the variable phat for the (cumulative) predicted probability, the variables lcl and ucl for the lower and upper confidence limits for the probability, and four other variables (IP_1, IP_0, XP_1, and XP_0) for the PREDPROBS= option. The data set also contains the variable _LEVEL_, indicating the response value to which phat, lcl, and ucl refer. For instance, for the first row of the OUTPUT data set, the values of _LEVEL_ and phat, lcl, and ucl are 1, 0.72265, 0.16892, and 0.97093, respectively; this means that the estimated probability that remiss=1 is 0.723 for the given explanatory variable values, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval is (0.16892, 0.97093). The variables IP_1 and IP_0 contain the predicted probabilities that remiss=1 and remiss=0, respectively. Note that values of phat and IP_1 are identical since they both contain the probabilities that remiss=1. The variables XP_1 and XP_0 contain the cross validated predicted probabilities that remiss=1 and remiss=0, respectively. 3388 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.1.8 Predicted Probabilities and Confidence Intervals Stepwise Regression on Cancer Remission Data Predicted Probabilities and 95% Confidence Limits Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 remiss 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 cell smear infil li blast temp _FROM_ _INTO_ IP_0 0.80 0.90 0.80 1.00 0.90 1.00 0.95 0.95 1.00 0.95 0.85 0.70 0.83 0.36 0.88 0.87 0.75 0.65 0.97 0.87 0.45 0.36 0.39 0.76 0.66 0.32 0.70 0.87 0.68 0.65 0.92 0.83 0.45 0.34 0.33 0.53 1.9 1.4 0.8 0.7 1.3 0.6 1.0 1.9 0.8 0.5 0.7 1.2 1.100 0.740 0.176 1.053 0.519 0.519 1.230 1.354 0.322 0.000 0.279 0.146 0.996 0.992 0.982 0.986 0.980 0.982 0.992 1.020 0.999 1.038 0.988 0.982 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.27735 0.42126 0.89540 0.71742 0.28582 0.72911 0.67844 0.39277 0.83368 0.99843 0.92715 0.82714 IP_1 XP_0 XP_1 _LEVEL_ phat lcl ucl 0.72265 0.57874 0.10460 0.28258 0.71418 0.27089 0.32156 0.60723 0.16632 0.00157 0.07285 0.17286 0.43873 0.47461 0.87060 0.67259 0.36901 0.67269 0.72923 0.09906 0.80864 0.99840 0.91723 0.63838 0.56127 0.52539 0.12940 0.32741 0.63099 0.32731 0.27077 0.90094 0.19136 0.00160 0.08277 0.36162 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.72265 0.57874 0.10460 0.28258 0.71418 0.27089 0.32156 0.60723 0.16632 0.00157 0.07285 0.17286 0.16892 0.26788 0.00781 0.07498 0.25218 0.05852 0.13255 0.10572 0.03018 0.00000 0.00614 0.00637 0.97093 0.83762 0.63419 0.65683 0.94876 0.68951 0.59516 0.95287 0.56123 0.68962 0.49982 0.87206 Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values F 3389 Output 51.1.8 continued Stepwise Regression on Cancer Remission Data Predicted Probabilities and 95% Confidence Limits Obs remiss cell smear infil li blast temp 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0.80 0.20 1.00 1.00 0.65 1.00 0.50 1.00 1.00 0.90 1.00 0.95 0.46 0.39 0.90 0.84 0.42 0.75 0.44 0.63 0.33 0.93 0.58 0.32 0.37 0.08 0.90 0.84 0.27 0.75 0.22 0.63 0.33 0.84 0.58 0.30 0.4 0.8 1.1 1.9 0.5 1.0 0.6 1.1 0.4 0.6 1.0 1.6 0.380 0.114 1.037 2.064 0.114 1.322 0.114 1.072 0.176 1.591 0.531 0.886 1.006 0.990 0.990 1.020 1.014 1.004 0.990 0.986 1.010 1.020 1.002 0.988 Obs 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 IP_1 0.00346 0.00018 0.57122 0.71470 0.00062 0.22289 0.00154 0.64911 0.01693 0.00622 0.25261 0.87011 XP_0 0.99644 0.99981 0.35354 0.47213 0.99937 0.73612 0.99842 0.42053 0.98170 0.99348 0.84423 0.03637 XP_1 _LEVEL_ 0.00356 0.00019 0.64646 0.52787 0.00063 0.26388 0.00158 0.57947 0.01830 0.00652 0.15577 0.96363 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 _FROM_ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 phat 0.00346 0.00018 0.57122 0.71470 0.00062 0.22289 0.00154 0.64911 0.01693 0.00622 0.25261 0.87011 _INTO_ 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 IP_0 0.99654 0.99982 0.42878 0.28530 0.99938 0.77711 0.99846 0.35089 0.98307 0.99378 0.74739 0.12989 lcl ucl 0.00001 0.00000 0.25303 0.15362 0.00000 0.04483 0.00000 0.26305 0.00029 0.00003 0.06137 0.40910 0.46530 0.96482 0.83973 0.97189 0.62665 0.63670 0.79644 0.90555 0.50475 0.56062 0.63597 0.98481 Stepwise Regression on Cancer Remission Data Predicted Probabilities and 95% Confidence Limits Obs remiss cell smear infil li blast temp 25 26 27 1 1 0 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.60 0.69 0.73 0.60 0.69 0.73 1.7 0.9 0.7 0.964 0.398 0.398 0.990 0.986 0.986 Obs 25 26 27 IP_1 0.93132 0.46051 0.28258 XP_0 0.08017 0.62312 0.67259 XP_1 0.91983 0.37688 0.32741 _LEVEL_ 1 1 1 _FROM_ 1 1 0 phat 0.93132 0.46051 0.28258 _INTO_ 1 0 0 IP_0 0.06868 0.53949 0.71742 lcl ucl 0.44114 0.16612 0.07498 0.99573 0.78529 0.65683 Next, a different variable selection method is used to select prognostic factors for cancer remission, and an efficient algorithm is employed to eliminate insignificant variables from a model. The following statements invoke PROC LOGISTIC to perform the backward elimination analysis: 3390 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure title ’Backward Elimination on Cancer Remission Data’; proc logistic data=Remission; model remiss(event=’1’)=temp cell li smear blast / selection=backward fast slstay=0.2 ctable; run; The backward elimination analysis (SELECTION=BACKWARD) starts with a model that contains all explanatory variables given in the MODEL statement. By specifying the FAST option, PROC LOGISTIC eliminates insignificant variables without refitting the model repeatedly. This analysis uses a significance level of 0.2 to retain variables in the model (SLSTAY=0.2), which is different from the previous stepwise analysis where SLSTAY=.35. The CTABLE option is specified to produce classifications of input observations based on the final selected model. Results of the fast elimination analysis are shown in Output 51.1.9 and Output 51.1.10. Initially, a full model containing all six risk factors is fit to the data (Output 51.1.9). In the next step (Output 51.1.10), PROC LOGISTIC removes blast, smear, cell, and temp from the model all at once. This leaves li and the intercept as the only variables in the final model. Note that in this analysis, only parameter estimates for the final model are displayed because the DETAILS option has not been specified. Output 51.1.9 Initial Step in Backward Elimination Backward Elimination on Cancer Remission Data Model Information Data Set Response Variable Number of Response Levels Model Optimization Technique WORK.REMISSION remiss 2 binary logit Fisher’s scoring Complete Remission Number of Observations Read Number of Observations Used 27 27 Response Profile Ordered Value remiss Total Frequency 1 2 0 1 18 9 Probability modeled is remiss=1. Backward Elimination Procedure Step 0. The following effects were entered: Intercept temp cell li smear blast Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values F 3391 Output 51.1.9 continued Model Fit Statistics Criterion Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 36.372 37.668 34.372 33.857 41.632 21.857 AIC SC -2 Log L Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 12.5146 9.3295 4.7284 5 5 5 0.0284 0.0966 0.4499 Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Output 51.1.10 Fast Elimination Step Step 1. Fast Backward Elimination: Analysis of Effects Removed by Fast Backward Elimination Effect Removed blast smear cell temp Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq Residual Chi-Square 0.0008 0.0951 1.5134 0.6535 1 1 1 1 0.9768 0.7578 0.2186 0.4189 0.0008 0.0959 1.6094 2.2628 DF Pr > Residual ChiSq 1 2 3 4 0.9768 0.9532 0.6573 0.6875 Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 36.372 37.668 34.372 30.073 32.665 26.073 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 8.2988 7.9311 5.9594 1 1 1 0.0040 0.0049 0.0146 3392 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.1.10 continued Residual Chi-Square Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 2.8530 4 0.5827 Summary of Backward Elimination Step 1 1 1 1 Effect Removed blast smear cell temp DF Number In Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 0.0008 0.0951 1.5134 0.6535 0.9768 0.7578 0.2186 0.4189 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept li 1 1 -3.7771 2.8973 1.3786 1.1868 7.5064 5.9594 0.0061 0.0146 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect li Point Estimate 95% Wald Confidence Limits 18.124 1.770 185.563 Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 84.0 13.0 3.1 162 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c 0.710 0.732 0.328 0.855 Note that you can also use the FAST option when SELECTION=STEPWISE. However, the FAST option operates only on backward elimination steps. In this example, the stepwise process only adds variables, so the FAST option would not be useful. Results of the CTABLE option are shown in Output 51.1.11. Example 51.1: Stepwise Logistic Regression and Predicted Values F 3393 Output 51.1.11 Classifying Input Observations Classification Table Prob Level 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160 0.180 0.200 0.220 0.240 0.260 0.280 0.300 0.320 0.340 0.360 0.380 0.400 0.420 0.440 0.460 0.480 0.500 0.520 0.540 0.560 0.580 0.600 0.620 0.640 0.660 0.680 0.700 0.720 0.740 0.760 0.780 0.800 0.820 0.840 0.860 0.880 0.900 0.920 0.940 0.960 Correct NonEvent Event 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 4 7 10 10 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 Incorrect NonEvent Event 18 16 14 14 11 8 8 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Correct 33.3 40.7 48.1 48.1 59.3 70.4 70.4 77.8 77.8 77.8 70.4 70.4 70.4 74.1 70.4 70.4 74.1 74.1 74.1 74.1 74.1 74.1 74.1 74.1 70.4 70.4 70.4 70.4 70.4 70.4 70.4 70.4 70.4 66.7 66.7 66.7 66.7 70.4 70.4 63.0 63.0 63.0 63.0 63.0 63.0 66.7 Percentages Sensi- Speci- False tivity ficity POS 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 88.9 88.9 88.9 66.7 66.7 66.7 66.7 55.6 55.6 55.6 55.6 55.6 55.6 44.4 44.4 44.4 44.4 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 22.2 22.2 38.9 55.6 55.6 72.2 72.2 72.2 72.2 72.2 72.2 77.8 77.8 77.8 83.3 83.3 83.3 83.3 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 94.4 94.4 94.4 94.4 94.4 94.4 94.4 94.4 100.0 66.7 64.0 60.9 60.9 55.0 47.1 47.1 38.5 38.5 38.5 45.5 45.5 45.5 40.0 44.4 44.4 37.5 37.5 37.5 37.5 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 33.3 33.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 . False NEG . 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 18.8 18.8 18.8 17.6 22.2 22.2 21.1 21.1 21.1 21.1 23.8 23.8 23.8 23.8 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 30.4 30.4 30.4 30.4 29.2 29.2 34.6 34.6 34.6 34.6 34.6 34.6 33.3 3394 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Each row of the “Classification Table” corresponds to a cutpoint applied to the predicted probabilities, which is given in the Prob Level column. The 2 2 frequency tables of observed and predicted responses are given by the next four columns. For example, with a cutpoint of 0.5, 4 events and 16 nonevents were classified correctly. On the other hand, 2 nonevents were incorrectly classified as events and 5 events were incorrectly classified as nonevents. For this cutpoint, the correct classification rate is 20/27 (=74.1%), which is given in the sixth column. Accuracy of the classification is summarized by the sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates, which are displayed in the last four columns. You can control the number of cutpoints used, and their values, by using the PPROB= option. Example 51.2: Logistic Modeling with Categorical Predictors Consider a study of the analgesic effects of treatments on elderly patients with neuralgia. Two test treatments and a placebo are compared. The response variable is whether the patient reported pain or not. Researchers recorded the age and gender of 60 patients and the duration of complaint before the treatment began. The following DATA step creates the data set Neuralgia: Data Neuralgia; input Treatment datalines; P F 68 1 No P M 66 26 Yes A F 71 12 No A M 71 17 Yes B F 66 12 No A F 64 17 No P M 70 1 Yes A F 64 30 No B F 78 1 No B M 75 30 Yes A M 70 12 No B M 70 1 No P M 78 12 Yes P M 66 4 Yes A M 78 15 Yes P F 72 27 No B F 65 7 No P M 67 17 Yes P F 67 1 Yes A F 74 1 No ; $ Sex $ Age Duration Pain $ @@; B B B A A P B A P P A B B P B P P B A B M F F F M M M M M M F M M F M F F M M M 74 67 72 63 62 74 66 70 83 77 69 67 77 65 75 70 68 70 67 80 16 28 50 27 42 4 19 28 1 29 12 23 1 29 21 13 27 22 10 21 No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes P B B A P A B A B P B A B P A A P A P A F F F F F F M M F F F M F M F M M M F F 67 77 76 69 64 72 59 69 69 79 65 76 69 60 67 75 68 65 72 69 30 16 9 18 1 25 29 1 42 20 14 25 24 26 11 6 11 15 11 3 No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No The data set Neuralgia contains five variables: Treatment, Sex, Age, Duration, and Pain. The last variable, Pain, is the response variable. A specification of Pain=Yes indicates there was pain, and Pain=No indicates no pain. The variable Treatment is a categorical variable with three levels: A and B represent the two test treatments, and P represents the placebo treatment. The gender of the patients is given by the categorical variable Sex. The variable Age is the age of the patients, in years, when treatment began. The duration of complaint, in months, before the treatment began is given by the variable Duration. Example 51.2: Logistic Modeling with Categorical Predictors F 3395 The following statements use the LOGISTIC procedure to fit a two-way logit with interaction model for the effect of Treatment and Sex, with Age and Duration as covariates. The categorical variables Treatment and Sex are declared in the CLASS statement. proc logistic data=Neuralgia; class Treatment Sex; model Pain= Treatment Sex Treatment*Sex Age Duration / expb; run; In this analysis, PROC LOGISTIC models the probability of no pain (Pain=No). By default, effect coding is used to represent the CLASS variables. Two design variables are created for Treatment and one for Sex, as shown in Output 51.2.1. Output 51.2.1 Effect Coding of CLASS Variables Class Level Information Class Value Design Variables Treatment A B P 1 0 -1 Sex F M 1 -1 0 1 -1 PROC LOGISTIC displays a table of the Type 3 analysis of effects based on the Wald test (Output 51.2.2). Note that the Treatment*Sex interaction and the duration of complaint are not statistically significant (p D0.9318 and p D0.8752, respectively). This indicates that there is no evidence that the treatments affect pain differently in men and women, and no evidence that the pain outcome is related to the duration of pain. Output 51.2.2 Wald Tests of Individual Effects Type 3 Analysis of Effects Effect Treatment Sex Treatment*Sex Age Duration DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 2 1 2 1 1 11.9886 5.3104 0.1412 7.2744 0.0247 0.0025 0.0212 0.9318 0.0070 0.8752 Parameter estimates are displayed in Output 51.2.3. The Exp(Est) column contains the exponentiated parameter estimates requested with the EXPB option. These values can, but do not necessarily, represent odds ratios for the corresponding variables. For continuous explanatory variables, the Exp(Est) value corresponds to the odds ratio for a unit increase of the corresponding variable. For 3396 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure CLASS variables that use effect coding, the Exp(Est) values have no direct interpretation as a comparison of levels. However, when the reference coding is used, the Exp(Est) values represent the odds ratio between the corresponding level and the reference level. Following the parameter estimates table, PROC LOGISTIC displays the odds ratio estimates for those variables that are not involved in any interaction terms. If the variable is a CLASS variable, the odds ratio estimate comparing each level with the reference level is computed regardless of the coding scheme. In this analysis, since the model contains the Treatment*Sex interaction term, the odds ratios for Treatment and Sex were not computed. The odds ratio estimates for Age and Duration are precisely the values given in the Exp(Est) column in the parameter estimates table. Output 51.2.3 Parameter Estimates with Effect Coding Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter Intercept Treatment Treatment Sex Treatment*Sex Treatment*Sex Age Duration A B F A F B F DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Exp(Est) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 19.2236 0.8483 1.4949 0.9173 -0.2010 0.0487 -0.2688 0.00523 7.1315 0.5502 0.6622 0.3981 0.5568 0.5563 0.0996 0.0333 7.2661 2.3773 5.0956 5.3104 0.1304 0.0077 7.2744 0.0247 0.0070 0.1231 0.0240 0.0212 0.7180 0.9302 0.0070 0.8752 2.232E8 2.336 4.459 2.503 0.818 1.050 0.764 1.005 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect Age Duration Point Estimate 0.764 1.005 95% Wald Confidence Limits 0.629 0.942 0.929 1.073 The following PROC LOGISTIC statements illustrate the use of forward selection on the data set Neuralgia to identify the effects that differentiate the two Pain responses. The option SELECTION=FORWARD is specified to carry out the forward selection. The term Treatment|[email protected] illustrates another way to specify main effects and two-way interactions. (Note that, in this case, the “@2” is unnecessary because no interactions besides the two-way interaction are possible). proc logistic data=Neuralgia; class Treatment Sex; model Pain=Treatment|[email protected] Age Duration /selection=forward expb; run; Results of the forward selection process are summarized in Output 51.2.4. The variable Treatment is selected first, followed by Age and then Sex. The results are consistent with the previous analysis (Output 51.2.2) in which the Treatment*Sex interaction and Duration are not statistically significant. Example 51.2: Logistic Modeling with Categorical Predictors F 3397 Output 51.2.4 Effects Selected into the Model Summary of Forward Selection Step 1 2 3 Effect Entered Treatment Age Sex DF Number In Score Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 2 1 1 1 2 3 13.7143 10.6038 5.9959 0.0011 0.0011 0.0143 Output 51.2.5 shows the Type 3 analysis of effects, the parameter estimates, and the odds ratio estimates for the selected model. All three variables, Treatment, Age, and Sex, are statistically significant at the 0.05 level (p=0.0018, p=0.0213, and p=0.0057, respectively). Since the selected model does not contain the Treatment*Sex interaction, odds ratios for Treatment and Sex are computed. The estimated odds ratio is 24.022 for treatment A versus placebo, 41.528 for Treatment B versus placebo, and 6.194 for female patients versus male patients. Note that these odds ratio estimates are not the same as the corresponding values in the Exp(Est) column in the parameter estimates table because effect coding was used. From Output 51.2.5, it is evident that both Treatment A and Treatment B are better than the placebo in reducing pain; females tend to have better improvement than males; and younger patients are faring better than older patients. Output 51.2.5 Type 3 Effects and Parameter Estimates with Effect Coding Type 3 Analysis of Effects Effect Treatment Sex Age DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 2 1 1 12.6928 5.3013 7.6314 0.0018 0.0213 0.0057 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter Intercept Treatment Treatment Sex Age A B F DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Exp(Est) 1 1 1 1 1 19.0804 0.8772 1.4246 0.9118 -0.2650 6.7882 0.5274 0.6036 0.3960 0.0959 7.9007 2.7662 5.5711 5.3013 7.6314 0.0049 0.0963 0.0183 0.0213 0.0057 1.9343E8 2.404 4.156 2.489 0.767 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect Treatment A vs P Treatment B vs P Sex F vs M Age Point Estimate 24.022 41.528 6.194 0.767 95% Wald Confidence Limits 3.295 4.500 1.312 0.636 175.121 383.262 29.248 0.926 3398 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Finally, the following statements refit the previously selected model, except that reference coding is used for the CLASS variables instead of effect coding. The ODDSRATIO statements compute the odds ratios for the covariates. The ODS GRAPHICS statement and the PLOTS option are specified to produce plots of the results; the PLOTS(ONLY)= option specifies that only the requested plots of the oddsratios and the fitted model are displayed. Two CONTRAST statements are specified, and provide another method of producing the odds ratios. The contrast labeled ’Pairwise’ specifies three rows in the contrast matrix, L, for all the pairwise comparisons between the three levels of Treatment. The contrast labeled ’Female vs Male’ compares female to male patients. The option ESTIMATE=EXP is specified in both CONTRAST statements to exponentiate the estimates of L0 ˇ. With the given specification of contrast coefficients, the first row of the ’Pairwise’ CONTRAST statement corresponds to the odds ratio of A versus P, the second row corresponds to B versus P, and the third row corresponds to A versus B. There is only one row in the ’Female vs Male’ CONTRAST statement, and it corresponds to the odds ratio comparing female to male patients. ods graphics on; proc logistic data=Neuralgia plots(only)=(oddsratio(range=clip) effect); class Treatment Sex /param=ref; model Pain= Treatment Sex age; oddsratio Treatment; oddsratio Sex; oddsratio age; contrast ’Pairwise’ Treatment 1 0, Treatment 0 1, Treatment 1 -1 / estimate=exp; contrast ’Female vs Male’ Sex 1 / estimate=exp; run; ods graphics off; The reference coding is shown in Output 51.2.6. The Type 3 analysis of effects, the parameter estimates for the reference coding, and the odds ratio estimates are displayed in Output 51.2.7. Although the parameter estimates are different because of the different parameterizations, the “Type 3 Analysis of Effects” table and the “Odds Ratio” table remain the same as in Output 51.2.5. With effect coding, the treatment A parameter estimate (0.8772) estimates the effect of treatment A compared to the average effect of treatments A, B, and placebo. The treatment A estimate (3.1790) under the reference coding estimates the difference in effect of treatment A and the placebo treatment. Output 51.2.6 Reference Coding of CLASS Variables Class Level Information Design Variables Class Value Treatment A B P 1 0 0 Sex F M 1 0 0 1 0 Example 51.2: Logistic Modeling with Categorical Predictors F 3399 Output 51.2.7 Type 3 Effects and Parameter Estimates with Reference Coding Type 3 Analysis of Effects Effect Treatment Sex Age DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 2 1 1 12.6928 5.3013 7.6314 0.0018 0.0213 0.0057 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter Intercept Treatment A Treatment B Sex F Age DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 1 15.8669 3.1790 3.7264 1.8235 -0.2650 6.4056 1.0135 1.1339 0.7920 0.0959 6.1357 9.8375 10.8006 5.3013 7.6314 0.0132 0.0017 0.0010 0.0213 0.0057 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect Treatment A vs P Treatment B vs P Sex F vs M Age Point Estimate 24.022 41.528 6.194 0.767 95% Wald Confidence Limits 3.295 4.500 1.312 0.636 175.121 383.262 29.248 0.926 The ODDSRATIO statement results are shown in Output 51.2.8, and the resulting plot is displayed in Output 51.2.9. Note in Output 51.2.9 that the odds ratio confidence limits are truncated due to specifying the RANGE=CLIP option; this enables you to see which intervals contain “1” more clearly. The odds ratios are identical to those shown in the “Odds Ratio Estimates” table in Output 51.2.7 with the addition of the odds ratio for “Treatment A vs B”. Both treatments A and B are highly effective over placebo in reducing pain, as can be seen from the odds ratios comparing treatment A against P and treatment B against P (the second and third rows in the table). However, the 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio comparing treatment A to B is (0.0932, 3.5889), indicating that the pain reduction effects of these two test treatments are not very different. Again, the ’Sex F vs M’ odds ratio shows that female patients fared better in obtaining relief from pain than male patients. The odds ratio for age shows that a patient one year older is 0.77 times as likely to show no pain; that is, younger patients have more improvement than older patients. 3400 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.2.8 Results from the ODDSRATIO Statements Wald Confidence Interval for Odds Ratios Label Treatment A vs B Treatment A vs P Treatment B vs P Sex F vs M Age Estimate 0.578 24.022 41.528 6.194 0.767 95% Confidence Limits 0.093 3.295 4.500 1.312 0.636 3.589 175.121 383.262 29.248 0.926 Output 51.2.9 Plot of the ODDSRATIO Statement Results Output 51.2.10 contains two tables: the “Contrast Test Results” table and the “Contrast Rows Estimation and Testing Results” table. The former contains the overall Wald test for each CONTRAST statement. Although three rows are specified in the ’Pairwise’ CONTRAST statement, there are only two degrees of freedom, and the Wald test result is identical to the Type 3 analysis of Treatment in Output 51.2.7. The latter table contains estimates and tests of individual contrast rows. The estimates for the first two rows of the ’Pairwise’ CONTRAST statements are the same as those given in the two preceding odds ratio tables (Output 51.2.7 and Output 51.2.8). The third row estimates the odds ratio comparing A to B, agreeing with Output 51.2.8, and the last row computes the odds Example 51.2: Logistic Modeling with Categorical Predictors F 3401 ratio comparing pain relief for females to that for males. Output 51.2.10 Results of CONTRAST Statements Contrast Test Results Contrast Pairwise Female vs Male DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 2 1 12.6928 5.3013 0.0018 0.0213 Contrast Rows Estimation and Testing Results Contrast Type Pairwise Pairwise Pairwise Female vs Male EXP EXP EXP EXP Row Estimate Standard Error Alpha 1 2 3 1 24.0218 41.5284 0.5784 6.1937 24.3473 47.0877 0.5387 4.9053 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 Confidence Limits 3.2951 4.4998 0.0932 1.3116 175.1 383.3 3.5889 29.2476 Contrast Rows Estimation and Testing Results Contrast Type Pairwise Pairwise Pairwise Female vs Male EXP EXP EXP EXP Row Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 2 3 1 9.8375 10.8006 0.3455 5.3013 0.0017 0.0010 0.5567 0.0213 An ANCOVA-style plot of the model-predicted probabilities against the Age variable for each combination of Treatment and Sex is displayed in Output 51.2.11. This plot confirms that females always have a higher probability of pain reduction in each treatment group, the placebo treatment has a lower probability of success than the other treatments, and younger patients respond to treatment better than older patients. 3402 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.2.11 Model-Predicted Probabilities Example 51.3: Ordinal Logistic Regression F 3403 Example 51.3: Ordinal Logistic Regression Consider a study of the effects on taste of various cheese additives. Researchers tested four cheese additives and obtained 52 response ratings for each additive. Each response was measured on a scale of nine categories ranging from strong dislike (1) to excellent taste (9). The data, given in McCullagh and Nelder (1989, p. 175) in the form of a two-way frequency table of additive by rating, are saved in the data set Cheese by using the following program. The variable y contains the response rating. The variable Additive specifies the cheese additive (1, 2, 3, or 4). The variable freq gives the frequency with which each additive received each rating. data Cheese; do Additive = 1 to 4; do y = 1 to 9; input freq @@; output; end; end; label y=’Taste Rating’; datalines; 0 0 1 7 8 8 19 8 1 6 9 12 11 7 6 1 0 0 1 1 6 8 23 7 5 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 7 14 16 11 ; The response variable y is ordinally scaled. A cumulative logit model is used to investigate the effects of the cheese additives on taste. The following statements invoke PROC LOGISTIC to fit this model with y as the response variable and three indicator variables as explanatory variables, with the fourth additive as the reference level. With this parameterization, each Additive parameter compares an additive to the fourth additive. The COVB option displays the estimated covariance matrix. The ODDSRATIO statement computes odds ratios for all combinations of the Additive levels. The PLOTS(ONLY)= option produces a graphical display of the predicted probabilities and the odds ratios. ods graphics on; proc logistic data=Cheese plots(only)=(effect(polybar) oddsratio(range=clip)); freq freq; class Additive (param=ref ref=’4’); model y=Additive / covb; oddsratio Additive; title ’Multiple Response Cheese Tasting Experiment’; run; ods graphics off; The “Response Profile” table in Output 51.3.1 shows that the strong dislike (y=1) end of the rating scale is associated with lower Ordered Values in the “Response Profile” table; hence the probability of disliking the additives is modeled. The score chi-square for testing the proportional odds assumption is 17.287, which is not significant with respect to a chi-square distribution with 21 degrees of freedom .p D 0:694/. This indicates 3404 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure that the proportional odds assumption is reasonable. The positive value (1.6128) for the parameter estimate for Additive1 indicates a tendency toward the lower-numbered categories of the first cheese additive relative to the fourth. In other words, the fourth additive tastes better than the first additive. The second and third additives are both less favorable than the fourth additive. The relative magnitudes of these slope estimates imply the preference ordering: fourth, first, third, second. Output 51.3.1 Proportional Odds Model Regression Analysis Multiple Response Cheese Tasting Experiment Model Information Data Set Response Variable Number of Response Levels Frequency Variable Model Optimization Technique Number Number Sum of Sum of WORK.CHEESE y 9 freq cumulative logit Fisher’s scoring of Observations Read of Observations Used Frequencies Read Frequencies Used Taste Rating 36 28 208 208 Response Profile Ordered Value y Total Frequency 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 10 19 27 41 28 39 25 12 Probabilities modeled are cumulated over the lower Ordered Values. NOTE: 8 observations having nonpositive frequencies or weights were excluded since they do not contribute to the analysis. Class Level Information Class Value Additive 1 2 3 4 Design Variables 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Example 51.3: Ordinal Logistic Regression F 3405 Output 51.3.1 continued Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Score Test for the Proportional Odds Assumption Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 17.2866 21 0.6936 Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 875.802 902.502 859.802 733.348 770.061 711.348 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 148.4539 111.2670 115.1504 3 3 3 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Type 3 Analysis of Effects Effect Additive DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 3 115.1504 <.0001 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter Intercept Intercept Intercept Intercept Intercept Intercept Intercept Intercept Additive Additive Additive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -7.0801 -6.0249 -4.9254 -3.8568 -2.5205 -1.5685 -0.0669 1.4930 1.6128 4.9645 3.3227 0.5624 0.4755 0.4272 0.3902 0.3431 0.3086 0.2658 0.3310 0.3778 0.4741 0.4251 158.4851 160.5500 132.9484 97.7087 53.9704 25.8374 0.0633 20.3439 18.2265 109.6427 61.0931 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 0.8013 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 3406 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.3.1 continued Odds Ratio Estimates Point Estimate Effect Additive 1 vs 4 Additive 2 vs 4 Additive 3 vs 4 5.017 143.241 27.734 95% Wald Confidence Limits 2.393 56.558 12.055 10.520 362.777 63.805 Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 67.6 9.8 22.6 18635 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c 0.578 0.746 0.500 0.789 The odds ratio results in Output 51.3.2 show the preferences more clearly. For example, the “Additive 1 vs 4” odds ratio says that the first additive has 5.017 times the odds of receiving a lower score than the fourth additive; that is, the first additive is 5.017 times more likely than the fourth additive to receive a lower score. Output 51.3.3 displays the odds ratios graphically; the range of the confidence limits is truncated by the RANGE=CLIP option, so you can see that “1” is not contained in any of the intervals. Output 51.3.2 Odds Ratios of All Pairs of Additive Levels Wald Confidence Interval for Odds Ratios Label Additive Additive Additive Additive Additive Additive Estimate 1 1 1 2 2 3 vs vs vs vs vs vs 2 3 4 3 4 4 0.035 0.181 5.017 5.165 143.241 27.734 95% Confidence Limits 0.015 0.087 2.393 2.482 56.558 12.055 0.080 0.376 10.520 10.746 362.777 63.805 Example 51.3: Ordinal Logistic Regression F 3407 Output 51.3.3 Plot of Odds Ratios for Additive The estimated covariance matrix of the parameters is displayed in Output 51.3.4. 3408 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.3.4 Estimated Covariance Matrix Estimated Covariance Matrix Parameter Intercept_1 Intercept_2 Intercept_3 Intercept_4 Intercept_5 Intercept_6 Intercept_7 Intercept_8 Additive1 Additive2 Additive3 Intercept_ 1 Intercept_ 2 Intercept_ 3 Intercept_ 4 Intercept_ 5 0.316291 0.219581 0.176278 0.147694 0.114024 0.091085 0.057814 0.041304 -0.09419 -0.18686 -0.13565 0.219581 0.226095 0.177806 0.147933 0.11403 0.091081 0.057813 0.041304 -0.09421 -0.18161 -0.13569 0.176278 0.177806 0.182473 0.148844 0.114092 0.091074 0.057807 0.0413 -0.09427 -0.1687 -0.1352 0.147694 0.147933 0.148844 0.152235 0.114512 0.091109 0.05778 0.041277 -0.09428 -0.14717 -0.13118 0.114024 0.11403 0.114092 0.114512 0.117713 0.091821 0.057721 0.041162 -0.09246 -0.11415 -0.11207 Estimated Covariance Matrix Parameter Intercept_1 Intercept_2 Intercept_3 Intercept_4 Intercept_5 Intercept_6 Intercept_7 Intercept_8 Additive1 Additive2 Additive3 Intercept_ 6 Intercept_ 7 Intercept_ 8 Additive1 Additive2 Additive3 0.091085 0.091081 0.091074 0.091109 0.091821 0.09522 0.058312 0.041324 -0.08521 -0.09113 -0.09122 0.057814 0.057813 0.057807 0.05778 0.057721 0.058312 0.07064 0.04878 -0.06041 -0.05781 -0.05802 0.041304 0.041304 0.0413 0.041277 0.041162 0.041324 0.04878 0.109562 -0.04436 -0.0413 -0.04143 -0.09419 -0.09421 -0.09427 -0.09428 -0.09246 -0.08521 -0.06041 -0.04436 0.142715 0.094072 0.092128 -0.18686 -0.18161 -0.1687 -0.14717 -0.11415 -0.09113 -0.05781 -0.0413 0.094072 0.22479 0.132877 -0.13565 -0.13569 -0.1352 -0.13118 -0.11207 -0.09122 -0.05802 -0.04143 0.092128 0.132877 0.180709 Output 51.3.5 displays the probability of each taste rating y within each additive. You can see that Additive=1 mostly receives ratings of 5 to 7, Additive=2 mostly receives ratings of 2 to 5, Additive=3 mostly receives ratings of 4 to 6, and Additive=4 mostly receives ratings of 7 to 9, which also confirms the previously discussed preference orderings. Example 51.3: Ordinal Logistic Regression F 3409 Output 51.3.5 Model-Predicted Probabilities 3410 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Example 51.4: Nominal Response Data: Generalized Logits Model Over the course of one school year, third graders from three different schools are exposed to three different styles of mathematics instruction: a self-paced computer-learning style, a team approach, and a traditional class approach. The students are asked which style they prefer and their responses, classified by the type of program they are in (a regular school day versus a regular day supplemented with an afternoon school program), are displayed in Table 51.7. The data set is from Stokes, Davis, and Koch (2000), and is also analyzed in the section “Generalized Logits Model” on page 1103 of Chapter 28, “The CATMOD Procedure.” Table 51.7 School Program Data School Program 1 1 2 2 3 3 Regular Afternoon Regular Afternoon Regular Afternoon Learning Style Preference Self Team Class 10 5 21 16 15 12 17 12 17 12 15 12 26 50 26 36 16 20 The levels of the response variable (self, team, and class) have no essential ordering, so a logistic regression is performed on the generalized logits. The model to be fit is hij 0 D ˛j C xhi ˇj log hir where hij is the probability that a student in school h and program i prefers teaching style j , j ¤ r, and style r is the baseline style (in this case, class). There are separate sets of intercept parameters ˛j and regression parameters ˇj for each logit, and the vector xhi is the set of explanatory variables for the hith population. Thus, two logits are modeled for each school and program combination: the logit comparing self to class and the logit comparing team to class. The following statements create the data set school and request the analysis. The LINK=GLOGIT option forms the generalized logits. The response variable option ORDER=DATA means that the response variable levels are ordered as they exist in the data set: self, team, and class; thus, the logits are formed by comparing self to class and by comparing team to class. The ODDSRATIO statement produces odds ratios in the presence of interactions, and the ODS GRAPHICS statements produces a graphical display of the requested odds ratios. Example 51.4: Nominal Response Data: Generalized Logits Model F 3411 data school; length Program $ 9; input School Program $ Style $ Count @@; datalines; 1 regular self 10 1 regular team 17 1 1 afternoon self 5 1 afternoon team 12 1 2 regular self 21 2 regular team 17 2 2 afternoon self 16 2 afternoon team 12 2 3 regular self 15 3 regular team 15 3 3 afternoon self 12 3 afternoon team 12 3 ; regular afternoon regular afternoon regular afternoon class class class class class class 26 50 26 36 16 20 ods graphics on; proc logistic data=school; freq Count; class School Program(ref=first); model Style(order=data)=School Program School*Program / link=glogit; oddsratio program; run; ods graphics off; Summary information about the model, the response variable, and the classification variables are displayed in Output 51.4.1. Output 51.4.1 Analysis of Saturated Model Model Information Data Set Response Variable Number of Response Levels Frequency Variable Model Optimization Technique Number Number Sum of Sum of WORK.SCHOOL Style 3 Count generalized logit Newton-Raphson of Observations Read of Observations Used Frequencies Read Frequencies Used 18 18 338 338 Response Profile Ordered Value Style Total Frequency 1 2 3 self team class 79 85 174 Logits modeled use Style=’class’ as the reference category. 3412 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.4.1 continued Class Level Information Class Value Design Variables School 1 2 3 1 0 -1 Program afternoon regular -1 1 0 1 -1 Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. The “Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0” table in Output 51.4.2 shows that the parameters are significantly different from zero. Output 51.4.2 Analysis of Saturated Model Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 699.404 707.050 695.404 689.156 735.033 665.156 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 30.2480 28.3738 25.6828 10 10 10 0.0008 0.0016 0.0042 However, the “Type 3 Analysis of Effects” table in Output 51.4.3 shows that the interaction effect is clearly nonsignificant. Example 51.4: Nominal Response Data: Generalized Logits Model F 3413 Output 51.4.3 Analysis of Saturated Model Type 3 Analysis of Effects Effect School Program School*Program DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 4 2 4 14.5522 10.4815 1.7439 0.0057 0.0053 0.7827 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter Style Intercept Intercept School School School School Program Program School*Program School*Program School*Program School*Program self team self team self team self team self team self team 1 1 2 2 regular regular 1 1 2 2 regular regular regular regular DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -0.8097 -0.6585 -0.8194 -0.2675 0.2974 -0.1033 0.3985 0.3537 0.2751 0.1474 -0.0998 -0.0168 0.1488 0.1366 0.2281 0.1881 0.1919 0.1898 0.1488 0.1366 0.2281 0.1881 0.1919 0.1898 29.5989 23.2449 12.9066 2.0233 2.4007 0.2961 7.1684 6.7071 1.4547 0.6143 0.2702 0.0079 <.0001 <.0001 0.0003 0.1549 0.1213 0.5863 0.0074 0.0096 0.2278 0.4332 0.6032 0.9293 The table produced by the ODDSRATIO statement is displayed in Output 51.4.4. The differences between the program preferences are small across all the styles (logits) compared to their variability as displayed by the confidence limits in Output 51.4.5, confirming that the interaction effect is nonsignificant. Output 51.4.4 Odds Ratios for Style Wald Confidence Interval for Odds Ratios Label Style Style Style Style Style Style Estimate self: team: self: team: self: team: Program Program Program Program Program Program afternoon afternoon afternoon afternoon afternoon afternoon vs vs vs vs vs vs regular regular regular regular regular regular at at at at at at School=1 School=1 School=2 School=2 School=3 School=3 0.260 0.367 0.550 0.510 0.640 0.640 95% Confidence Limits 0.080 0.153 0.242 0.208 0.234 0.234 0.841 0.883 1.253 1.247 1.747 1.747 3414 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.4.5 Plot of Odds Ratios for Style Since the interaction effect is clearly nonsignificant, a main-effects model is fit with the following statements: ods graphics on; proc logistic data=school plots(only)=effect(clbar connect); freq Count; class School Program(ref=first); model Style(order=data)=School Program / link=glogit; run; ods graphics off; All of the global fit tests in Output 51.4.6 suggest the model is significant, and the Type 3 tests show that the school and program effects are also significant. Example 51.4: Nominal Response Data: Generalized Logits Model F 3415 Output 51.4.6 Analysis of Main-Effects Model Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 699.404 707.050 695.404 682.934 713.518 666.934 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 28.4704 27.1190 25.5881 6 6 6 <.0001 0.0001 0.0003 Type 3 Analysis of Effects Effect School Program DF Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 4 2 14.8424 10.9160 0.0050 0.0043 The parameter estimates, tests for individual parameters, and odds ratios are displayed in Output 51.4.7. The Program variable has nearly the same effect on both logits, while School=1 has the largest effect of the schools. Output 51.4.7 Estimates Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter Style Intercept Intercept School School School School Program Program self team self team self team self team 1 1 2 2 regular regular DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -0.7978 -0.6589 -0.7992 -0.2786 0.2836 -0.0985 0.3737 0.3713 0.1465 0.1367 0.2198 0.1867 0.1899 0.1892 0.1410 0.1353 29.6502 23.2300 13.2241 2.2269 2.2316 0.2708 7.0272 7.5332 <.0001 <.0001 0.0003 0.1356 0.1352 0.6028 0.0080 0.0061 3416 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.4.7 continued Odds Ratio Estimates Effect School School School School Program Program Style 1 vs 3 1 vs 3 2 vs 3 2 vs 3 regular vs afternoon regular vs afternoon self team self team self team Point Estimate 0.269 0.519 0.793 0.622 2.112 2.101 95% Wald Confidence Limits 0.127 0.267 0.413 0.317 1.215 1.237 0.570 1.010 1.522 1.219 3.670 3.571 The interaction plot in Output 51.4.8 shows that School=1 and Program=afternoon has a preference for the traditional classroom style. Of course, since these are not simultaneous confidence intervals, the nonoverlapping 95% confidence limits do not take the place of an actual test. Output 51.4.8 Model-Predicted Probabilities Example 51.5: Stratified Sampling F 3417 Example 51.5: Stratified Sampling Consider the hypothetical example in Fleiss (1981, pp. 6–7), in which a test is applied to a sample of 1,000 people known to have a disease and to another sample of 1,000 people known not to have the same disease. In the diseased sample, 950 test positive; in the nondiseased sample, only 10 test positive. If the true disease rate in the population is 1 in 100, specifying PEVENT=0.01 results in the correct false positive and negative rates for the stratified sampling scheme. Omitting the PEVENT= option is equivalent to using the overall sample disease rate (1000/2000 = 0.5) as the value of the PEVENT= option, which would ignore the stratified sampling. The statements to create the data set and perform the analysis are as follows: data Screen; do Disease=’Present’,’Absent’; do Test=1,0; input Count @@; output; end; end; datalines; 950 50 10 990 ; proc logistic data=Screen; freq Count; model Disease(event=’Present’)=Test / pevent=.5 .01 ctable pprob=.5; run; The response variable option EVENT= indicates that Disease=’Present’ is the event. The CTABLE option is specified to produce a classification table. Specifying PPROB=0.5 indicates a cutoff probability of 0.5. A list of two probabilities, 0.5 and 0.01, is specified for the PEVENT= option; 0.5 corresponds to the overall sample disease rate, and 0.01 corresponds to a true disease rate of 1 in 100. The classification table is shown in Output 51.5.1. Output 51.5.1 False Positive and False Negative Rates Classification Table Correct NonEvent Event Incorrect NonEvent Event Percentages Sensi- Speci- False tivity ficity POS Prob Event Prob Level 0.500 0.500 950 990 10 50 97.0 95.0 99.0 1.0 4.8 0.010 0.500 950 990 10 50 99.0 95.0 99.0 51.0 0.1 Correct False NEG 3418 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure In the classification table, the column “Prob Level” represents the cutoff values (the settings of the PPROB= option) for predicting whether an observation is an event. The “Correct” columns list the numbers of subjects that are correctly predicted as events and nonevents, respectively, and the “Incorrect” columns list the number of nonevents incorrectly predicted as events and the number of events incorrectly predicted as nonevents, respectively. For PEVENT=0.5, the false positive rate is 1% and the false negative rate is 4.8%. These results ignore the fact that the samples were stratified and incorrectly assume that the overall sample proportion of disease (which is 0.5) estimates the true disease rate. For a true disease rate of 0.01, the false positive rate and the false negative rate are 51% and 0.1%, respectively, as shown in the second line of the classification table. Example 51.6: Logistic Regression Diagnostics In a controlled experiment to study the effect of the rate and volume of air intake on a transient reflex vasoconstriction in the skin of the digits, 39 tests under various combinations of rate and volume of air intake were obtained (Finney 1947). The endpoint of each test is whether or not vasoconstriction occurred. Pregibon (1981) uses this set of data to illustrate the diagnostic measures he proposes for detecting influential observations and to quantify their effects on various aspects of the maximum likelihood fit. The vasoconstriction data are saved in the data set vaso: data vaso; length Response $12; input Volume Rate Response @@; LogVolume=log(Volume); LogRate=log(Rate); datalines; 3.70 0.825 constrict 3.50 1.25 2.50 constrict 0.75 0.80 3.20 constrict 0.70 0.60 0.75 no_constrict 1.10 0.90 0.75 no_constrict 0.90 0.80 0.57 no_constrict 0.55 0.60 3.00 no_constrict 1.40 0.75 3.75 constrict 2.30 3.20 1.60 constrict 0.85 1.70 1.06 no_constrict 1.80 0.40 2.00 no_constrict 0.95 1.35 1.35 no_constrict 1.50 1.60 1.78 constrict 0.60 1.80 1.50 constrict 0.95 1.90 0.95 constrict 1.60 2.70 0.75 constrict 2.35 1.10 1.83 no_constrict 1.10 1.20 2.00 constrict 0.80 0.95 1.90 no_constrict 0.75 1.30 1.625 constrict ; 1.09 1.50 3.50 1.70 0.45 2.75 2.33 1.64 1.415 1.80 1.36 1.36 1.50 1.90 0.40 0.03 2.20 3.33 1.90 constrict constrict constrict no_constrict no_constrict no_constrict constrict constrict constrict constrict no_constrict no_constrict no_constrict no_constrict no_constrict no_constrict constrict constrict no_constrict Example 51.6: Logistic Regression Diagnostics F 3419 In the data set vaso, the variable Response represents the outcome of a test. The variable LogVolume represents the log of the volume of air intake, and the variable LogRate represents the log of the rate of air intake. The following statements invoke PROC LOGISTIC to fit a logistic regression model to the vasoconstriction data, where Response is the response variable, and LogRate and LogVolume are the explanatory variables. The ODS GRAPHICS statement is specified to display the regression diagnostics, and the INFLUENCE option is specified to display a table of the regression diagnostics. ods graphics on; title ’Occurrence of Vasoconstriction’; proc logistic data=vaso; model Response=LogRate LogVolume/influence iplots; run; ods graphics off; Results of the model fit are shown in Output 51.6.1. Both LogRate and LogVolume are statistically significant to the occurrence of vasoconstriction (p D 0:0131 and p D 0:0055, respectively). Their positive parameter estimates indicate that a higher inspiration rate or a larger volume of air intake is likely to increase the probability of vasoconstriction. Output 51.6.1 Logistic Regression Analysis for Vasoconstriction Data Occurrence of Vasoconstriction Model Information Data Set Response Variable Number of Response Levels Model Optimization Technique WORK.VASO Response 2 binary logit Fisher’s scoring Number of Observations Read Number of Observations Used 39 39 Response Profile Ordered Value 1 2 Response Total Frequency constrict no_constrict 20 19 Probability modeled is Response=’constrict’. Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. 3420 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.6.1 continued Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 56.040 57.703 54.040 35.227 40.218 29.227 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 24.8125 16.6324 7.8876 2 2 2 <.0001 0.0002 0.0194 Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept LogRate LogVolume 1 1 1 -2.8754 4.5617 5.1793 1.3208 1.8380 1.8648 4.7395 6.1597 7.7136 0.0295 0.0131 0.0055 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect LogRate LogVolume Point Estimate 95% Wald Confidence Limits 95.744 177.562 2.610 4.592 >999.999 >999.999 Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 93.7 6.3 0.0 380 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c 0.874 0.874 0.448 0.937 The INFLUENCE option displays the values of the explanatory variables (LogRate and LogVolume) for each observation, a column for each diagnostic produced, and the case number that represents the sequence number of the observation (Output 51.6.2). Also produced (but suppressed by the ODS GRAPHICS statement) is a line-printer plot where the vertical axis represents the case number and the horizontal axis represents the value of the diagnostic statistic. Example 51.6: Logistic Regression Diagnostics F 3421 Output 51.6.2 Regression Diagnostics from the INFLUENCE Option Regression Diagnostics Covariates Case Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 LogRate Log Volume Pearson Residual Deviance Residual Hat Matrix Diagonal Intercept DfBeta LogRate DfBeta -0.1924 0.0862 0.9163 0.4055 1.1632 1.2528 -0.2877 0.5306 -0.2877 -0.7985 -0.5621 1.0116 1.0986 0.8459 1.3218 0.4947 0.4700 0.3471 0.0583 0.5878 0.6931 0.3075 0.3001 0.3075 0.5766 0.4055 0.4055 0.6419 -0.0513 -0.9163 -0.2877 -3.5066 0.6043 0.7885 0.6931 1.2030 0.6419 0.6419 0.4855 1.3083 1.2528 0.2231 -0.2877 -0.2231 -0.3567 -0.5108 0.0953 -0.1054 -0.1054 -0.2231 -0.5978 -0.5108 0.3365 -0.2877 0.8329 1.1632 -0.1625 0.5306 0.5878 -0.9163 -0.0513 0.3001 0.4055 0.4700 -0.5108 0.5878 -0.0513 0.6419 0.4700 0.9933 0.8544 0.0953 0.0953 0.1823 -0.2231 -0.0513 -0.2877 0.2624 0.2205 0.1349 0.2923 3.5181 0.5287 0.6090 -0.0328 -1.0196 -0.0938 -0.0293 -0.0370 -0.5073 -0.7751 0.2559 0.4352 0.1576 0.0709 2.9062 -1.0718 0.2405 -0.1076 -0.4193 -1.0242 -1.3684 0.3347 -0.1595 0.3645 -0.8989 0.8981 -0.0992 0.6198 -0.00073 -1.2062 0.5447 0.5404 0.4828 -0.8989 -0.4874 0.7053 0.3082 0.1899 0.4049 2.2775 0.7021 0.7943 -0.0464 -1.1939 -0.1323 -0.0414 -0.0523 -0.6768 -0.9700 0.3562 0.5890 0.2215 0.1001 2.1192 -1.2368 0.3353 -0.1517 -0.5691 -1.1978 -1.4527 0.4608 -0.2241 0.4995 -1.0883 1.0876 -0.1400 0.8064 -0.00103 -1.3402 0.7209 0.7159 0.6473 -1.0883 -0.6529 0.8987 0.0927 0.0429 0.0612 0.0867 0.1158 0.1524 0.00761 0.0559 0.0342 0.00721 0.00969 0.1481 0.1628 0.0551 0.1336 0.0402 0.0172 0.0954 0.1315 0.0525 0.0373 0.1015 0.0761 0.0717 0.0587 0.0548 0.0661 0.0647 0.1682 0.0507 0.2459 0.000022 0.0510 0.0601 0.0552 0.1177 0.0647 0.1000 0.0531 -0.0165 -0.0134 -0.0492 1.0734 -0.0832 -0.0922 -0.00280 -0.1444 -0.0178 -0.00245 -0.00361 -0.1173 -0.0931 -0.0414 -0.0940 -0.0198 -0.00630 0.9595 -0.2591 -0.0331 -0.0180 -0.1449 -0.1961 -0.1281 -0.0403 -0.0366 -0.0327 -0.1423 0.2367 -0.0224 0.1165 -3.22E-6 -0.0882 -0.0425 -0.0340 -0.0867 -0.1423 -0.1395 0.0326 0.0193 0.0151 0.0660 -0.9302 0.1411 0.1710 0.00274 0.0613 0.0173 0.00246 0.00358 0.0647 -0.00946 0.0538 0.1408 0.0234 0.00701 -0.8279 0.2024 0.0421 0.0158 0.1237 0.1275 0.0410 0.0570 0.0329 0.0496 0.0617 -0.1950 0.0227 -0.0996 3.405E-6 -0.0137 0.0877 0.0755 0.1381 0.0617 0.1032 0.0190 3422 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.6.2 continued Regression Diagnostics Case Number Log Volume DfBeta Confidence Interval Displacement C Confidence Interval Displacement CBar Delta Deviance Delta Chi-Square 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 0.0556 0.0261 0.0589 -1.0180 0.0583 0.0381 0.00265 0.0570 0.0153 0.00211 0.00319 0.1651 0.1775 0.0527 0.0643 0.0307 0.00914 -0.8477 -0.00488 0.0518 0.0208 0.1179 0.0357 -0.1004 0.0708 0.0373 0.0788 0.1025 0.0286 0.0159 0.1322 2.48E-6 -0.00216 0.0671 0.0711 0.0631 0.1025 0.1397 0.0489 0.00548 0.000853 0.00593 1.2873 0.0414 0.0787 8.321E-6 0.0652 0.000322 6.256E-6 0.000014 0.0525 0.1395 0.00404 0.0337 0.00108 0.000089 0.9845 0.2003 0.00338 0.000465 0.0221 0.0935 0.1558 0.00741 0.00156 0.0101 0.0597 0.1961 0.000554 0.1661 1.18E-11 0.0824 0.0202 0.0180 0.0352 0.0597 0.0293 0.0295 0.00497 0.000816 0.00557 1.1756 0.0366 0.0667 8.258E-6 0.0616 0.000311 6.211E-6 0.000013 0.0447 0.1168 0.00382 0.0292 0.00104 0.000088 0.8906 0.1740 0.00320 0.000448 0.0199 0.0864 0.1447 0.00698 0.00147 0.00941 0.0559 0.1631 0.000526 0.1253 1.18E-11 0.0782 0.0190 0.0170 0.0311 0.0559 0.0264 0.0279 0.1000 0.0369 0.1695 6.3626 0.5296 0.6976 0.00216 1.4870 0.0178 0.00172 0.00274 0.5028 1.0577 0.1307 0.3761 0.0501 0.0101 5.3817 1.7037 0.1156 0.0235 0.3437 1.5212 2.2550 0.2193 0.0517 0.2589 1.2404 1.3460 0.0201 0.7755 1.065E-6 1.8744 0.5387 0.5295 0.4501 1.2404 0.4526 0.8355 0.0536 0.0190 0.0910 13.5523 0.3161 0.4376 0.00109 1.1011 0.00911 0.000862 0.00138 0.3021 0.7175 0.0693 0.2186 0.0259 0.00511 9.3363 1.3227 0.0610 0.0120 0.1956 1.1355 2.0171 0.1190 0.0269 0.1423 0.8639 0.9697 0.0104 0.5095 5.324E-7 1.5331 0.3157 0.3091 0.2641 0.8639 0.2639 0.5254 The index plots produced by the IPLOTS option are essentially the same line-printer plots as those produced by the INFLUENCE option, but with a 90-degree rotation and perhaps on a more refined scale. Since the ODS GRAPHICS statement is specified, the line-printer plots from the INFLUENCE and IPLOTS options are suppressed and ODS Graphics versions of the plots are displayed in Outputs 51.6.3 through 51.6.5. For general information about ODS Graphics, see Chapter 21, “Statistical Graphics Using ODS.” For specific information about the graphics available in the Example 51.6: Logistic Regression Diagnostics F 3423 LOGISTIC procedure, see the section “ODS Graphics” on page 3377. The vertical axis of an index plot represents the value of the diagnostic, and the horizontal axis represents the sequence (case number) of the observation. The index plots are useful for identification of extreme values. The index plots of the Pearson residuals and the deviance residuals (Output 51.6.3) indicate that case 4 and case 18 are poorly accounted for by the model. The index plot of the diagonal elements of the hat matrix (Output 51.6.3) suggests that case 31 is an extreme point in the design space. The index plots of DFBETAS (Outputs 51.6.4 and 51.6.5) indicate that case 4 and case 18 are causing instability in all three parameter estimates. The other four index plots in Outputs 51.6.3 and 51.6.4 also point to these two cases as having a large impact on the coefficients and goodness of fit. Output 51.6.3 Residuals, Hat Matrix, and CI Displacement C 3424 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.6.4 CI Displacement CBar, Change in Deviance and Pearson Chi-Square Output 51.6.5 DFBETAS Plots Example 51.6: Logistic Regression Diagnostics F 3425 Other versions of diagnostic plots can be requested by specifying the appropriate options in the PLOTS= option. For example, the following statements produce three other sets of influence diagnostic plots: the PHAT option plots several diagnostics against the predicted probabilities (Output 51.6.6), the LEVERAGE option plots several diagnostics against the leverage (Output 51.6.7), and the DPC option plots the deletion diagnostics against the predicted probabilities and colors the observations according to the confidence interval displacement diagnostic (Output 51.6.8). The LABEL option displays the observation numbers on the plots. In all plots, you are looking for the outlying observations, and again cases 4 and 18 are noted. ods graphics on; proc logistic data=vaso plots(only label)=(phat leverage dpc); model Response=LogRate LogVolume; run; ods graphics off; Output 51.6.6 Diagnostics versus Predicted Probability 3426 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.6.7 Diagnostics versus Leverage Output 51.6.8 Three Diagnostics ROC Curve...and Confidence Limits F 3427 Example 51.7: ROC Curve, Customized Odds Ratios, Goodness-of-Fit Statistics, R-Square, and Confidence Limits This example plots an ROC curve, estimates a customized odds ratio, produces the traditional goodness-of-fit analysis, displays the generalized R2 measures for the fitted model, calculates the normal confidence intervals for the regression parameters, and produces a display of the probability function and prediction curves for the fitted model. The data consist of three variables: n (number of subjects in the sample), disease (number of diseased subjects in the sample), and age (age for the sample). A linear logistic regression model is used to study the effect of age on the probability of contracting the disease. The statements to produce the data set and perform the analysis are as follows: data Data1; input disease n age; datalines; 0 14 25 0 20 35 0 19 45 7 18 55 6 12 65 17 17 75 ; ods graphics on; proc logistic data=Data1 plots(only)=(roc(id=obs) effect); model disease/n=age / scale=none clparm=wald clodds=pl rsquare; units age=10; run; ods graphics off; The option SCALE=NONE is specified to produce the deviance and Pearson goodness-of-fit analysis without adjusting for overdispersion. The RSQUARE option is specified to produce generalized R2 measures of the fitted model. The CLPARM=WALD option is specified to produce the Wald confidence intervals for the regression parameters. The UNITS statement is specified to produce customized odds ratio estimates for a change of 10 years in the age variable, and the CLODDS=PL option is specified to produce profile-likelihood confidence limits for the odds ratio. The ODS Graphics statement and the PLOTS= option produce graphical displays of the ROC curve of the model fit. The results in Output 51.7.1 show that the deviance and Pearson statistics indicate no lack of fit in the model. 3428 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.7.1 Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Analysis Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Statistics Criterion Deviance Pearson Value DF Value/DF Pr > ChiSq 7.7756 6.6020 4 4 1.9439 1.6505 0.1002 0.1585 Number of events/trials observations: 6 Output 51.7.2 shows that the R-square for the model is 0.74. The odds of an event increases by a factor of 7.9 for each 10-year increase in age. Output 51.7.2 R-Square, Confidence Intervals, and Customized Odds Ratio Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L R-Square 0.5215 Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 124.173 126.778 122.173 52.468 57.678 48.468 Max-rescaled R-Square 0.7394 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 73.7048 55.3274 23.3475 1 1 1 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept age 1 1 -12.5016 0.2066 2.5555 0.0428 23.9317 23.3475 <.0001 <.0001 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect age Point Estimate 1.229 95% Wald Confidence Limits 1.131 1.337 ROC Curve...and Confidence Limits F 3429 Output 51.7.2 continued Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses Percent Concordant Percent Discordant Percent Tied Pairs 92.6 2.0 5.4 2100 Somers’ D Gamma Tau-a c 0.906 0.958 0.384 0.953 Wald Confidence Interval for Parameters Parameter Estimate 95% Confidence Limits Intercept age -12.5016 0.2066 -17.5104 0.1228 -7.4929 0.2904 Profile Likelihood Confidence Interval for Odds Ratios Effect age Unit Estimate 10.0000 7.892 95% Confidence Limits 3.881 21.406 Since the ODS GRAPHICS statement is specified, a graphical display of the ROC curve is produced as shown in Output 51.7.3. 3430 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.7.3 Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Note that the area under the ROC curve is estimated by the statistic c in the “Association of Predicted Probabilities and Observed Responses” table. In this example, the area under the ROC curve is 0.953. Because there is only one continuous covariate, the ODS GRAPHICS statement and the PLOTS=EFFECT option produce a graphical display of the predicted probability curve with bounding 95% confidence limits as shown in Output 51.7.4. ROC Curve...and Confidence Limits F 3431 Output 51.7.4 Predicted Probability and 95% Prediction Limits 3432 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Example 51.8: Comparing Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves DeLong, DeLong, and Clarke-Pearson (1988) report on 49 patients with ovarian cancer who also suffer from an intestinal obstruction. Three (correlated) screening tests are measured to determine whether a patient will benefit from surgery. The three tests are the K-G score and two measures of nutritional status: total protein and albumin. The data are as follows: data roc; input alb tp totscore popind @@; totscore = 10 - totscore; datalines; 3.0 5.8 10 0 3.2 6.3 5 1 3.9 6.8 3.2 5.8 3 1 0.9 4.0 5 0 2.5 5.7 3.8 5.7 5 1 3.7 6.7 6 1 3.2 5.4 4.1 6.6 5 1 3.6 5.7 5 1 4.3 7.0 2.3 4.4 6 1 4.2 7.6 4 0 4.0 6.6 3.8 6.8 7 1 3.0 4.7 8 0 4.5 7.4 3.1 6.6 6 1 4.1 8.2 6 1 4.3 7.0 3.2 5.1 5 1 2.6 4.7 6 1 3.3 6.8 3.7 6.1 5 1 3.3 6.3 7 1 4.2 7.7 2.9 5.7 9 0 2.1 4.8 7 1 2.8 6.2 3.3 5.7 6 1 3.7 6.9 5 1 3.6 6.6 ; 3 8 4 4 6 5 5 6 6 8 5 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 2.8 1.6 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.7 4.3 1.7 3.5 4.0 4.8 5.6 6.6 6.7 5.8 7.4 6.5 4.0 6.2 7.0 6 5 6 4 6 5 4 7 5 7 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 In the following statements, the NOFIT option is specified in the MODEL statement to prevent PROC LOGISTIC from fitting the model with three covariates. Each ROC statement lists one of the covariates, and PROC LOGISTIC then fits the model with that single covariate. Note that the original data set contains six more records with missing values for one of the tests, but PROC LOGISTIC ignores all records with missing values; hence there is a common sample size for each of the three models. The ROCCONTRAST statement implements the nonparameteric approach of DeLong, DeLong, and Clarke-Pearson (1988) to compare the three ROC curves, the REFERENCE option specifies that the K-G Score curve is used as the reference curve in the contrast, the E option displays the contrast coefficients, and the ESTIMATE option computes and tests each comparison. The ODS GRAPHICS statement and the plots=roc(id=prob) specification in the PROC LOGISTIC statement will display several plots, and the plots of individual ROC curves will have certain points labeled with their predicted probabilities. ods graphics on; proc logistic data=roc plots=roc(id=prob); model popind(event=’0’) = alb tp totscore / nofit; roc ’Albumin’ alb; roc ’K-G Score’ totscore; roc ’Total Protein’ tp; roccontrast reference(’K-G Score’) / estimate e; run; ods graphics off; The initial model information is displayed in Output 51.8.1. Example 51.8: Comparing Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves F 3433 Output 51.8.1 Initial LOGISTIC Output Model Information Data Set Response Variable Number of Response Levels Model Optimization Technique WORK.ROC popind 2 binary logit Fisher’s scoring Number of Observations Read Number of Observations Used 43 43 Response Profile Ordered Value popind Total Frequency 1 2 0 1 12 31 Probability modeled is popind=0. Score Test for Global Null Hypothesis Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 10.7939 3 0.0129 For each ROC model, the model fitting details in Outputs 51.8.2, 51.8.4, and 51.8.6 can be suppressed with the ROCOPTIONS(NODETAILS) option; however, the convergence status is always displayed. The ROC curves for the three models are displayed in Outputs 51.8.3, 51.8.5, and 51.8.7. Note that the labels on the ROC curve are produced by specifying the ID=PROB option, and are the predicted probabilities for the cutpoints. Output 51.8.2 Fit Tables for Popind=Alb Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 52.918 54.679 50.918 49.384 52.907 45.384 3434 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.8.2 continued Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 5.5339 5.6893 4.6869 1 1 1 0.0187 0.0171 0.0304 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept alb 1 1 2.4646 -1.0520 1.5913 0.4859 2.3988 4.6869 0.1214 0.0304 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect alb Point Estimate 0.349 Output 51.8.3 ROC Curve for Popind=Alb 95% Wald Confidence Limits 0.135 0.905 Example 51.8: Comparing Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves F 3435 Output 51.8.4 Fit Tables for Popind=Totscore Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 52.918 54.679 50.918 46.262 49.784 42.262 AIC SC -2 Log L Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 8.6567 8.3613 6.3845 1 1 1 0.0033 0.0038 0.0115 Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept totscore 1 1 2.1542 -0.7696 1.2477 0.3046 2.9808 6.3845 0.0843 0.0115 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect totscore Point Estimate 0.463 95% Wald Confidence Limits 0.255 0.841 3436 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.8.5 ROC Curve for Popind=Totscore Output 51.8.6 Fit Tables for Popind=Tp Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 52.918 54.679 50.918 51.794 55.316 47.794 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 3.1244 3.1123 2.9059 1 1 1 0.0771 0.0777 0.0883 Example 51.8: Comparing Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves F 3437 Output 51.8.6 continued Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept tp 1 1 2.8295 -0.6279 2.2065 0.3683 1.6445 2.9059 0.1997 0.0883 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect tp Point Estimate 0.534 95% Wald Confidence Limits 0.259 1.099 Output 51.8.7 ROC Curve for Popind=Tp All ROC curves being compared are also overlaid on the same plot, as shown in Output 51.8.8. 3438 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.8.8 Overlay of All Models Being Compared Output 51.8.9 displays the association statistics, and displays the area under the ROC curve (estimated by “c” in the “ROC Association Statistics” table) along with its standard error and a confidence interval for each model in the comparison. The confidence interval for Total Protein contains 0.50; hence it is not significantly different from random guessing, which is represented by the diagonal line in the preceding ROC plots. Output 51.8.9 ROC Association Table ROC Association Statistics ROC Model Albumin K-G Score Total Protein -------------- Mann-Whitney ------------Standard 95% Wald Area Error Confidence Limits 0.7366 0.7258 0.6478 0.0927 0.1028 0.1000 0.5549 0.5243 0.4518 0.9182 0.9273 0.8439 Somers’ D (Gini) Gamma Tau-a 0.4731 0.4516 0.2957 0.4809 0.5217 0.3107 0.1949 0.1860 0.1218 Output 51.8.10 shows that the contrast used ’K-G Score’ as the reference level. This table is produced by specifying the E option in the ROCCONTRAST statement. Example 51.8: Comparing Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves F 3439 Output 51.8.10 ROC Contrast Coefficients ROC Contrast Coefficients ROC Model Row1 Row2 1 -1 0 0 -1 1 Albumin K-G Score Total Protein Output 51.8.11 shows that the 2-degrees-of-freedom test that the ’K-G Score’ is different from at least one other test is not significant at the 0.05 level. Output 51.8.11 ROC Test Results (2 Degrees of Freedom) ROC Contrast Test Results Contrast Reference = K-G Score DF Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 2 2.5340 0.2817 Output 51.8.12 is produced by specifying the ESTIMATE option. Each row shows that the curves are not significantly different. Output 51.8.12 ROC Contrast Row Estimates (1-Degree-of-Freedom Tests) ROC Contrast Rows Estimation and Testing Results Contrast Albumin - K-G Score Total Protein - K-G Score Estimate 0.0108 -0.0780 Standard 95% Wald Error Confidence Limits Chi-Square 0.0953 0.1046 -0.1761 -0.2830 0.1976 0.1271 Pr > ChiSq 0.0127 0.9102 0.5554 0.4561 3440 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Example 51.9: Goodness-of-Fit Tests and Subpopulations A study is done to investigate the effects of two binary factors, A and B, on a binary response, Y. Subjects are randomly selected from subpopulations defined by the four possible combinations of levels of A and B. The number of subjects responding with each level of Y is recorded, and the following DATA step creates the data set One: data One; do A=0,1; do B=0,1; do Y=1,2; input F @@; output; end; end; end; datalines; 23 63 31 70 67 100 70 104 ; The following statements fit a full model to examine the main effects of A and B as well as the interaction effect of A and B: proc logistic data=One; freq F; model Y=A B A*B; run; Results of the model fit are shown in Output 51.9.1. Notice that neither the A*B interaction nor the B main effect is significant. Output 51.9.1 Full Model Fit Model Information Data Set Response Variable Number of Response Levels Frequency Variable Model Optimization Technique Number Number Sum of Sum of WORK.ONE Y 2 F binary logit Fisher’s scoring of Observations Read of Observations Used Frequencies Read Frequencies Used 8 8 528 528 Example 51.9: Goodness-of-Fit Tests and Subpopulations F 3441 Output 51.9.1 continued Response Profile Ordered Value Y Total Frequency 1 2 1 2 191 337 Probability modeled is Y=1. Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 693.061 697.330 691.061 691.914 708.990 683.914 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 7.1478 6.9921 6.9118 3 3 3 0.0673 0.0721 0.0748 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept A B A*B 1 1 1 1 -1.0074 0.6069 0.1929 -0.1883 0.2436 0.2903 0.3254 0.3933 17.1015 4.3714 0.3515 0.2293 <.0001 0.0365 0.5533 0.6321 Pearson and deviance goodness-of-fit tests cannot be obtained for this model since a full model containing four parameters is fit, leaving no residual degrees of freedom. For a binary response model, the goodness-of-fit tests have m q degrees of freedom, where m is the number of subpopulations and q is the number of model parameters. In the preceding model, m D q D 4, resulting in zero degrees of freedom for the tests. The following statements fit a reduced model containing only the A effect, so two degrees of freedom become available for testing goodness of fit. Specifying the SCALE=NONE option requests the Pearson and deviance statistics. With single-trial syntax, the AGGREGATE= option is needed to define the subpopulations in the study. Specifying AGGREGATE=(A B) creates subpopulations of 3442 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure the four combinations of levels of A and B. Although the B effect is being dropped from the model, it is still needed to define the original subpopulations in the study. If AGGREGATE=(A) were specified, only two subpopulations would be created from the levels of A, resulting in m D q D 2 and zero degrees of freedom for the tests. proc logistic data=One; freq F; model Y=A / scale=none aggregate=(A B); run; The goodness-of-fit tests in Output 51.9.2 show that dropping the B main effect and the A*B interaction simultaneously does not result in significant lack of fit of the model. The tests’ large p-values indicate insufficient evidence for rejecting the null hypothesis that the model fits. Output 51.9.2 Reduced Model Fit Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Statistics Criterion Deviance Pearson Value DF Value/DF Pr > ChiSq 0.3541 0.3531 2 2 0.1770 0.1765 0.8377 0.8382 Number of unique profiles: 4 Example 51.10: Overdispersion F 3443 Example 51.10: Overdispersion In a seed germination test, seeds of two cultivars were planted in pots of two soil conditions. The following statements create the data set seeds, which contains the observed proportion of seeds that germinated for various combinations of cultivar and soil condition. The variable n represents the number of seeds planted in a pot, and the variable r represents the number germinated. The indicator variables cult and soil represent the cultivar and soil condition, respectively. data seeds; input pot n r cult soil; datalines; 1 16 8 0 0 2 51 26 0 0 3 45 23 0 0 4 39 10 0 0 5 36 9 0 0 6 81 23 1 0 7 30 10 1 0 8 39 17 1 0 9 28 8 1 0 10 62 23 1 0 11 51 32 0 1 12 72 55 0 1 13 41 22 0 1 14 12 3 0 1 15 13 10 0 1 16 79 46 1 1 17 30 15 1 1 18 51 32 1 1 19 74 53 1 1 20 56 12 1 1 ; PROC LOGISTIC is used as follows to fit a logit model to the data, with cult, soil, and cult soil interaction as explanatory variables. The option SCALE=NONE is specified to display goodnessof-fit statistics. proc logistic data=seeds; model r/n=cult soil cult*soil/scale=none; title ’Full Model With SCALE=NONE’; run; Results of fitting the full factorial model are shown in Output 51.10.1. Both Pearson 2 and deviance are highly significant (p < 0:0001), suggesting that the model does not fit well. 3444 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.10.1 Results of the Model Fit for the Two-Way Layout Full Model With SCALE=NONE Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Statistics Criterion Deviance Pearson Value DF Value/DF Pr > ChiSq 68.3465 66.7617 16 16 4.2717 4.1726 <.0001 <.0001 Number of events/trials observations: 20 Model Fit Statistics Criterion Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates AIC SC -2 Log L 1256.852 1261.661 1254.852 1213.003 1232.240 1205.003 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 49.8488 49.1682 47.7623 3 3 3 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept cult soil cult*soil 1 1 1 1 -0.3788 -0.2956 0.9781 -0.1239 0.1489 0.2020 0.2128 0.2790 6.4730 2.1412 21.1234 0.1973 0.0110 0.1434 <.0001 0.6569 If the link function and the model specification are correct and if there are no outliers, then the lack of fit might be due to overdispersion. Without adjusting for the overdispersion, the standard errors are likely to be underestimated, causing the Wald tests to be too sensitive. In PROC LOGISTIC, there are three SCALE= options to accommodate overdispersion. With unequal sample sizes for the observations, SCALE=WILLIAMS is preferred. The Williams model estimates a scale parameter by equating the value of Pearson 2 for the full model to its approximate expected value. The full model considered in the following statements is the model with cultivar, soil condition, and their interaction. Using a full model reduces the risk of contaminating with lack of fit due to incorrect model specification. Example 51.10: Overdispersion F 3445 proc logistic data=seeds; model r/n=cult soil cult*soil / scale=williams; title ’Full Model With SCALE=WILLIAMS’; run; Results of using Williams’ method are shown in Output 51.10.2. The estimate of is 0.075941 and is given in the formula for the Weight Variable at the beginning of the displayed output. Output 51.10.2 Williams’ Model for Overdispersion Full Model With SCALE=WILLIAMS Model Information Data Set Response Variable (Events) Response Variable (Trials) Weight Variable Model Optimization Technique Number Number Sum of Sum of Sum of Sum of WORK.SEEDS r n 1 / ( 1 + 0.075941 * (n - 1) ) binary logit Fisher’s scoring of Observations Read of Observations Used Frequencies Read Frequencies Used Weights Read Weights Used 20 20 906 906 198.3216 198.3216 Response Profile Ordered Value 1 2 Binary Outcome Total Frequency Total Weight 437 469 92.95346 105.36819 Event Nonevent Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Statistics Criterion Deviance Pearson Value DF Value/DF Pr > ChiSq 16.4402 16.0000 16 16 1.0275 1.0000 0.4227 0.4530 Number of events/trials observations: 20 NOTE: Since the Williams method was used to accommodate overdispersion, the Pearson chi-squared statistic and the deviance can no longer be used to assess the goodness of fit of the model. 3446 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.10.2 continued Model Fit Statistics Criterion AIC SC -2 Log L Intercept Only Intercept and Covariates 276.155 280.964 274.155 273.586 292.822 265.586 Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 8.5687 8.4856 8.3069 3 3 3 0.0356 0.0370 0.0401 Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept cult soil cult*soil 1 1 1 1 -0.3926 -0.2618 0.8309 -0.0532 0.2932 0.4160 0.4223 0.5835 1.7932 0.3963 3.8704 0.0083 0.1805 0.5290 0.0491 0.9274 Since neither cult nor cult soil is statistically significant (p D 0:5290 and p D 0:9274, respectively), a reduced model that contains only the soil condition factor is fitted, with the observations weighted by 1=.1 C 0:075941.N 1//. This can be done conveniently in PROC LOGISTIC by including the scale estimate in the SCALE=WILLIAMS option as follows: proc logistic data=seeds; model r/n=soil / scale=williams(0.075941); title ’Reduced Model With SCALE=WILLIAMS(0.075941)’; run; Results of the reduced model fit are shown in Output 51.10.3. Soil condition remains a significant factor (p D 0:0064) for the seed germination. Output 51.10.3 Reduced Model with Overdispersion Controlled Reduced Model With SCALE=WILLIAMS(0.075941) Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept soil 1 1 -0.5249 0.7910 0.2076 0.2902 6.3949 7.4284 0.0114 0.0064 Example 51.11: Conditional Logistic Regression for Matched Pairs Data F 3447 Example 51.11: Conditional Logistic Regression for Matched Pairs Data In matched pairs, or case-control, studies, conditional logistic regression is used to investigate the relationship between an outcome of being an event (case) or a nonevent (control) and a set of prognostic factors. The following data are a subset of the data from the Los Angeles Study of the Endometrial Cancer Data in Breslow and Day (1980). There are 63 matched pairs, each consisting of a case of endometrial cancer (Outcome=1) and a control (Outcome=0). The case and corresponding control have the same ID. Two prognostic factors are included: Gall (an indicator variable for gall bladder disease) and Hyper (an indicator variable for hypertension). The goal of the case-control analysis is to determine the relative risk for gall bladder disease, controlling for the effect of hypertension. data Data1; do ID=1 to 63; do Outcome = input Gall output; end; end; datalines; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 ; 1 to 0 by -1; Hyper @@; 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 There are several ways to approach this problem with PROC LOGISTIC: Specify the STRATA statement to perform a conditional logistic regression. Specify EXACT and STRATA statements to perform an exact conditional logistic regression on the original data set, if you believe the data set is too small or too sparse for the usual asymptotics to hold. Transform each matched pair into a single observation, and then specify a PROC LOGISTIC statement on this transformed data without a STRATA statement; this also performs a conditional logistic regression and produces essentially the same results. Specify an EXACT statement on the transformed data. SAS statements and selected results for these four approaches are given in the remainder of this example. 3448 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Conditional Analysis Using the STRATA Statement In the following statements, PROC LOGISTIC is invoked with the ID variable declared in the STRATA statement to obtain the conditional logistic model estimates for a model containing Gall as the only predictor variable: proc logistic data=Data1; strata ID; model outcome(event=’1’)=Gall; run; Results from the conditional logistic analysis are shown in Output 51.11.1. Note that there is no intercept term in the “Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates” tables. The odds ratio estimate for Gall is 2.60, which is marginally significant (p=0.0694) and which is an estimate of the relative risk for gall bladder disease. A 95% confidence interval for this relative risk is (0.927, 7.293). Output 51.11.1 Conditional Logistic Regression (Gall as Risk Factor) Conditional Analysis Model Information Data Set Response Variable Number of Response Levels Number of Strata Model Optimization Technique WORK.DATA1 Outcome 2 63 binary logit Newton-Raphson ridge Number of Observations Read Number of Observations Used 126 126 Response Profile Ordered Value Outcome Total Frequency 1 2 0 1 63 63 Probability modeled is Outcome=1. Strata Summary Response Pattern 1 Outcome ------0 1 1 1 Number of Strata Frequency 63 126 Example 51.11: Conditional Logistic Regression for Matched Pairs Data F 3449 Output 51.11.1 continued Newton-Raphson Ridge Optimization Without Parameter Scaling Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. Model Fit Statistics Criterion Without Covariates With Covariates 87.337 87.337 87.337 85.654 88.490 83.654 AIC SC -2 Log L Testing Global Null Hypothesis: BETA=0 Test Chi-Square DF Pr > ChiSq 3.6830 3.5556 3.2970 1 1 1 0.0550 0.0593 0.0694 Likelihood Ratio Score Wald Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter Gall DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 0.9555 0.5262 3.2970 0.0694 Odds Ratio Estimates Effect Gall Point Estimate 2.600 95% Wald Confidence Limits 0.927 7.293 Exact Analysis Using the STRATA Statement When you believe there are not enough data or that the data are too sparse, you can perform a stratified exact conditional logistic regression. The following statements perform stratified exact conditional logistic regressions on the original data set by specifying both the STRATA and EXACT statements: proc logistic data=Data1 exactonly; strata ID; model outcome(event=’1’)=Gall; exact Gall / estimate=both; run; 3450 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.11.2 Exact Conditional Logistic Regression (Gall as Risk Factor) Exact Conditional Analysis Conditional Exact Tests Effect Test Statistic Gall Score Probability 3.5556 0.0327 --- p-Value --Exact Mid 0.0963 0.0963 0.0799 0.0799 Exact Parameter Estimates Parameter Gall Estimate Standard Error 0.9555 0.5262 95% Confidence Limits -0.1394 p-Value 2.2316 0.0963 Exact Odds Ratios Parameter Gall Estimate 2.600 95% Confidence Limits 0.870 9.315 p-Value 0.0963 Note that the score statistic in the “Conditional Exact Tests” table in Output 51.11.2 is identical to the score statistic in Output 51.11.1 from the conditional analysis. The exact odds ratio confidence interval is much wider than its conditional analysis counterpart, but the parameter estimates are similar. The exact analysis confirms the marginal significance of Gall as a predictor variable. Conditional Analysis Using Transformed Data When each matched set consists of one event and one nonevent, the conditional likelihood is given by Y .1 C exp. ˇ 0 .xi1 xi0 // 1 i where xi1 and xi0 are vectors representing the prognostic factors for the event and nonevent, respectively, of the ith matched set. This likelihood is identical to the likelihood of fitting a logistic regression model to a set of data with constant response, where the model contains no intercept term and has explanatory variables given by di D xi1 xi 0 (Breslow 1982). To apply this method, the following DATA step transforms each matched pair into a single observation, where the variables Gall and Hyper contain the differences between the corresponding values for the case and the control (case–control). The variable Outcome, which will be used as the response variable in the logistic regression model, is given a constant value of 0 (which is the Outcome value for the control, although any constant, numeric or character, will suffice). Example 51.11: Conditional Logistic Regression for Matched Pairs Data F 3451 data Data2; set Data1; drop id1 gall1 hyper1; retain id1 gall1 hyper1 0; if (ID = id1) then do; Gall=gall1-Gall; Hyper=hyper1-Hyper; output; end; else do; id1=ID; gall1=Gall; hyper1=Hyper; end; run; Note that there are 63 observations in the data set, one for each matched pair. Since the number of observations n is halved, statistics that depend on n such as R2 (the section “Generalized Coefficient of Determination” on page 3328) will be incorrect. The variable Outcome has a constant value of 0. In the following statements, PROC LOGISTIC is invoked with the NOINT option to obtain the conditional logistic model estimates. Because the option CLODDS=PL is specified, PROC LOGISTIC computes a 95% profile-likelihood confidence interval for the odds ratio for each predictor variable; note that profile-likelihood confidence intervals are not currently available when a STRATA statement is specified. proc logistic data=Data2; model outcome=Gall / noint clodds=PL; run; The results are not displayed here. Exact Analysis Using Transformed Data Sometimes the original data set in a matched-pairs study is too large for the exact methods to handle. In such cases it might be possible to use the transformed data set. The following statements perform exact conditional logistic regressions on the transformed data set. The results are not displayed here. proc logistic data=Data2 exactonly; model outcome=Gall / noint; exact Gall / estimate=both; run; 3452 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Example 51.12: Firth’s Penalized Likelihood Compared with Other Approaches Firth’s penalized likelihood approach is a method of addressing issues of separability, small sample sizes, and bias of the parameter estimates. This example performs some comparisons between results from using the FIRTH option to results from the usual unconditional, conditional, and exact conditional logistic regression analyses. When the sample size is large enough, the unconditional estimates and the Firth penalized-likelihood estimates should be nearly the same. These examples show that Firth’s penalized likelihood approach compares favorably with unconditional, conditional, and exact conditional logistic regression; however, this is not an exhaustive analysis of Firth’s method. For more detailed analyses with separable data sets, see Heinze (2006, 1999) and Heinze and Schemper (2002). Comparison on 2x2 Tables with One Zero Cell A 22 table with one cell having zero frequency, where the rows of the table are the levels of a covariate while the columns are the levels of the response variable, is an example of a quasicompletely separated data set. The parameter estimate for the covariate under unconditional logistic regression will move off to infinity, although PROC LOGISTIC will stop the iterations at an earlier point in the process. An exact conditional logistic regression is sometimes performed to determine the importance of the covariate in describing the variation in the data, but the median-unbiased parameter estimate, while finite, might not be near the true value, and one confidence limit (for this example, the upper) is always infinite. The following DATA step produces 1000 different 22 tables, all following an underlying probability structure, with one cell having a near zero probability of being observed: %let beta0=-15; %let beta1=16; data one; keep sample X y pry; do sample=1 to 1000; do i=1 to 100; X=rantbl(987987,.4,.6)-1; xb= &beta0 + X*&beta1; exb=exp(xb); pry= exb/(1+exb); cut= ranuni(393993); if (pry < cut) then y=1; else y=0; output; end; end; run; The following statements perform the bias-corrected and exact logistic regression on each of the 1000 different data sets, output the odds ratio tables by using the ODS OUTPUT statement, and compute various statistics across the data sets by using the MEANS procedure: Example 51.12: Firth’s Penalized Likelihood Compared with Other Approaches F 3453 ods exclude all; proc logistic data=one; by sample; class X(param=ref); model y(event=’1’)=X / firth clodds=pl; ods output cloddspl=firth; run; proc logistic data=one exactonly; by sample; class X(param=ref); model y(event=’1’)=X; exact X / estimate=odds; ods output exactoddsratio=exact; run; ods select all; proc means data=firth; var LowerCL OddsRatioEst UpperCL; run; proc means data=exact; var LowerCL Estimate UpperCL; run; The results of the PROC MEANS statements are summarized in Table 51.8. You can see that the odds ratios are all quite large; the confidence limits on every table suggest that the covariate X is a significant factor in explaining the variability in the data. Table 51.8 Method Firth Exact Odds Ratio Results Mean Estimate Standard Error Minimum Lower CL Maximum Upper CL 231.59 152.02 83.57 52.30 10.40 8.82 111317 1 Comparison on Case-Control Data Case-control models contain an intercept term for every case-control pair in the data set. This means that there are a large number of parameters compared to the number of observations. Breslow and Day (1980) note that the estimates from unconditional logistic regression are biased with the corresponding odds ratios off by a power of 2 from the true value; conditional logistic regression was developed to remedy this. The following DATA step produces 1000 case-control data sets, with pair indicating the strata: 3454 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure %let beta0=1; %let beta1=2; data one; do sample=1 to 1000; do pair=1 to 20; ran=ranuni(939393); a=3*ranuni(9384984)-1; pdf0= pdf(’NORMAL’,a,.4,1); pdf1= pdf(’NORMAL’,a,1,1); pry0= pdf0/(pdf0+pdf1); pry1= 1-pry0; xb= log(pry0/pry1); x= (xb-&beta0*pair/100) / &beta1; y=0; output; x= (-xb-&beta0*pair/100) / &beta1; y=1; output; end; end; run; Unconditional, conditional, exact conditional, and Firth-adjusted analyses are performed on the data sets, and the mean, minimum, and maximum odds ratios and the mean upper and lower limits for the odds ratios are displayed in Table 51.9. WARNING : Due to the exact analyses, this program takes a long time and a lot of resources to run. You might want to reduce the number of samples generated. ods exclude all; proc logistic data=one; by sample; class pair / param=ref; model y=x pair / clodds=pl; ods output cloddspl=oru; run; data oru; set oru; if Effect=’x’; rename lowercl=lclu uppercl=uclu oddsratioest=orestu; run; proc logistic data=one; by sample; strata pair; model y=x / clodds=wald; ods output cloddswald=orc; run; data orc; set orc; if Effect=’x’; rename lowercl=lclc uppercl=uclc oddsratioest=orestc; run; Example 51.12: Firth’s Penalized Likelihood Compared with Other Approaches F 3455 proc logistic data=one exactonly; by sample; strata pair; model y=x; exact x / estimate=both; ods output ExactOddsRatio=ore; run; proc logistic data=one; by sample; class pair / param=ref; model y=x pair / firth clodds=pl; ods output cloddspl=orf; run; data orf; set orf; if Effect=’x’; rename lowercl=lclf uppercl=uclf oddsratioest=orestf; run; data all; merge oru orc ore orf; run; ods select all; proc means data=all; run; You can see from Table 51.9 that the conditional, exact conditional, and Firth-adjusted results are all comparable, while the unconditional results are several orders of magnitude different. Table 51.9 Odds Ratio Estimates Method Unconditional Conditional Exact Firth N Minimum Mean Maximum 1000 1000 1000 1000 0.00045 0.021 0.021 0.018 112.09 4.20 4.20 4.89 38038 195 195 71 Further examination of the data set all shows that the differences between the square root of the unconditional odds ratio estimates and the conditional estimates have mean –0.00019 and standard deviation 0.0008, verifying that the unconditional odds ratio is about the square of the conditional odds ratio. The conditional and exact conditional odds ratios are also nearly equal, with their differences having mean 3E–7 and standard deviation 6E–6. The differences between the Firth and the conditional odds ratios can be large (mean 0.69, standard deviation 5.40), but their relative differFirth Conditional , have mean 0.20 with standard deviation 0.19, so the largest differences ences, Conditional occur with the larger estimates. 3456 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Example 51.13: Complementary Log-Log Model for Infection Rates Antibodies produced in response to an infectious disease like malaria remain in the body after the individual has recovered from the disease. A serological test detects the presence or absence of such antibodies. An individual with such antibodies is called seropositive. In geographic areas where the disease is endemic, the inhabitants are at fairly constant risk of infection. The probability of an individual never having been infected in Y years is exp. Y /, where is the mean number of infections per year (see the appendix of Draper, Voller, and Carpenter 1972). Rather than estimating the unknown , epidemiologists want to estimate the probability of a person living in the area being infected in one year. This infection rate is given by D1 e The following statements create the data set sero, which contains the results of a serological survey of malarial infection. Individuals of nine age groups (Group) were tested. The variable A represents the midpoint of the age range for each age group. The variable N represents the number of individuals tested in each age group, and the variable R represents the number of individuals that are seropositive. data sero; input Group A N R; X=log(A); label X=’Log of Midpoint of Age Range’; datalines; 1 1.5 123 8 2 4.0 132 6 3 7.5 182 18 4 12.5 140 14 5 17.5 138 20 6 25.0 161 39 7 35.0 133 19 8 47.0 92 25 9 60.0 74 44 ; For the i th group with the age midpoint Ai , the probability of being seropositive is pi D 1 exp. Ai /. It follows that log. log.1 pi // D log./ C log.Ai / By fitting a binomial model with a complementary log-log link function and by using X=log(A) as an offset term, you can estimate ˛ D log./ as an intercept parameter. The following statements invoke PROC LOGISTIC to compute the maximum likelihood estimate of ˛. The LINK=CLOGLOG option is specified to request the complementary log-log link function. Also specified is the CLPARM=PL option, which requests the profile-likelihood confidence limits for ˛. Example 51.13: Complementary Log-Log Model for Infection Rates F 3457 proc logistic data=sero; model R/N= / offset=X link=cloglog clparm=pl scale=none; title ’Constant Risk of Infection’; run; Results of fitting this constant risk model are shown in Output 51.13.1. Output 51.13.1 Modeling Constant Risk of Infection Constant Risk of Infection Model Information Data Set Response Variable (Events) Response Variable (Trials) Offset Variable Model Optimization Technique WORK.SERO R N X binary cloglog Fisher’s scoring Number Number Sum of Sum of of Observations Read of Observations Used Frequencies Read Frequencies Used Log of Midpoint of Age Range 9 9 1175 1175 Response Profile Ordered Value 1 2 Binary Outcome Total Frequency Event Nonevent 193 982 Intercept-Only Model Convergence Status Convergence criterion (GCONV=1E-8) satisfied. -2 Log L = 967.1158 Deviance and Pearson Goodness-of-Fit Statistics Criterion Deviance Pearson Value DF Value/DF Pr > ChiSq 41.5032 50.6883 8 8 5.1879 6.3360 <.0001 <.0001 Number of events/trials observations: 9 3458 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.13.1 continued Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq Intercept X 1 1 -4.6605 1.0000 0.0725 0 4133.5626 . <.0001 . Profile Likelihood Confidence Interval for Parameters Parameter Estimate Intercept -4.6605 95% Confidence Limits -4.8057 -4.5219 Output 51.13.1 shows that the maximum likelihood estimate of ˛ D log./ and its estimated standard error are b ˛ D 4:6605 and b b D 0:0725, respectively. The infection rate is estimated as ˛ b D1 D1 e b e eb̌0 D1 e e 4:6605 D 0:00942 The 95% confidence interval for , obtained by back-transforming the 95% confidence interval for ˛, is (0.0082, 0.0108); that is, there is a 95% chance that, in repeated sampling, the interval of 8 to 11 infections per thousand individuals contains the true infection rate. The goodness-of-fit statistics for the constant risk model are statistically significant (p < 0:0001), indicating that the assumption of constant risk of infection is not correct. You can fit a more extensive model by allowing a separate risk of infection for each age group. Suppose i is the mean number of infections per year for the ith age group. The probability of seropositive for the i th group with the age midpoint Ai is pi D 1 exp. i Ai /, so that log. log.1 pi // D log.i / C log.Ai / In the following statements, a complementary log-log model is fit containing Group as an explanatory classification variable with the GLM coding (so that a dummy variable is created for each age group), no intercept term, and X=log(A) as an offset term. The ODS OUTPUT statement saves the estimates and their 95% profile-likelihood confidence limits to the ClparmPL data set. Note that log.i / is the regression parameter associated with GroupD i . proc logistic data=sero; ods output ClparmPL=ClparmPL; class Group / param=glm; model R/N=Group / noint offset=X link=cloglog clparm=pl; title ’Infectious Rates and 95% Confidence Intervals’; run; Results of fitting the model with a separate risk of infection are shown in Output 51.13.2. Example 51.13: Complementary Log-Log Model for Infection Rates F 3459 Output 51.13.2 Modeling Separate Risk of Infection Infectious Rates and 95% Confidence Intervals Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -3.1048 -4.4542 -4.2769 -4.7761 -4.7165 -4.5012 -5.4252 -4.9987 -4.1965 1.0000 0.3536 0.4083 0.2358 0.2674 0.2238 0.1606 0.2296 0.2008 0.1559 0 77.0877 119.0164 328.9593 319.0600 443.9920 785.1350 558.1114 619.4666 724.3157 . <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 . Profile Likelihood Confidence Interval for Parameters Parameter Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Estimate 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -3.1048 -4.4542 -4.2769 -4.7761 -4.7165 -4.5012 -5.4252 -4.9987 -4.1965 95% Confidence Limits -3.8880 -5.3769 -4.7775 -5.3501 -5.1896 -4.8333 -5.9116 -5.4195 -4.5164 -2.4833 -3.7478 -3.8477 -4.2940 -4.3075 -4.2019 -5.0063 -4.6289 -3.9037 For the first age group (GroupD1), the point estimate of log.1 / is 3:1048, which transforms into an infection rate of 1 exp. exp. 3:1048// D 0:0438. A 95% confidence interval for this infection rate is obtained by transforming the 95% confidence interval for log.1 /. For the first age group, the lower and upper confidence limits are 1 exp. exp. 3:8880/ D 0:0203 and 1 exp. exp. 2:4833// D 0:0801, respectively; that is, there is a 95% chance that, in repeated sampling, the interval of 20 to 80 infections per thousand individuals contains the true infection rate. The following statements perform this transformation on the estimates and confidence limits saved in the ClparmPL data set; the resulting estimated infection rates in one year’s time for each age group are displayed in Table 51.10. Note that the infection rate for the first age group is high compared to that of the other age groups. data ClparmPL; set ClparmPL; Estimate=round( 1000*( 1-exp(-exp(Estimate)) ) ); LowerCL =round( 1000*( 1-exp(-exp(LowerCL )) ) ); UpperCL =round( 1000*( 1-exp(-exp(UpperCL )) ) ); run; 3460 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Table 51.10 Infection Rate in One Year Age Group Number Infected per 1,000 People Point 95% Confidence Limits Estimate Lower Upper 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 44 12 14 8 9 11 4 7 15 20 5 8 5 6 8 3 4 11 80 23 21 14 13 15 7 10 20 Example 51.14: Complementary Log-Log Model for Interval-Censored Survival Times Often survival times are not observed more precisely than the interval (for instance, a day) within which the event occurred. Survival data of this form are known as grouped or interval-censored data. A discrete analog of the continuous proportional hazards model (Prentice and Gloeckler 1978; Allison 1982) is used to investigate the relationship between these survival times and a set of explanatory variables. Suppose Ti is the discrete survival time variable of the i th subject with covariates xi . The discretetime hazard rate it is defined as it D Pr.Ti D t j Ti t; xi /; t D 1; 2; : : : Using elementary properties of conditional probabilities, it can be shown that tY 1 Pr.Ti D t / D it .1 ij / and Pr.Ti > t/ D j D1 t Y .1 ij / j D1 Suppose ti is the observed survival time of the i th subject. Suppose ıi D 1 if Ti D ti is an event time and 0 otherwise. The likelihood for the grouped survival data is given by L D Y ŒPr.Ti D ti /ıi ŒPr.Ti > ti /1 ıi i ti Y it ıi Y i .1 D 1 iti j D1 i D Y ij / ti Y i j D1 ij 1 ij yij .1 ij / where yij D 1 if the i th subject experienced an event at time Ti D j and 0 otherwise. Example 51.14: Complementary Log-Log Model for Interval-Censored Survival Times F 3461 Note that the likelihood L for the grouped survival data is the same as the likelihood of a binary response model with event probabilities ij . If the data are generated by a continuous-time proportional hazards model, Prentice and Gloeckler (1978) have shown that ij D 1 exp. exp.˛j C ˇ 0 xi // which can be rewritten as log. log.1 ij // D ˛j C ˇ 0 xi where the coefficient vector ˇ is identical to that of the continuous-time proportional hazards model, and ˛j is a constant related to the conditional survival probability in the interval defined by Ti D j at xi D 0. The grouped data survival model is therefore equivalent to the binary response model with complementary log-log link function. To fit the grouped survival model by using PROC LOGISTIC, you must treat each discrete time unit for each subject as a separate observation. For each of these observations, the response is dichotomous, corresponding to whether or not the subject died in the time unit. Consider a study of the effect of insecticide on flour beetles. Four different concentrations of an insecticide were sprayed on separate groups of flour beetles. The following DATA step saves the number of male and female flour beetles dying in successive intervals in the data set beetles: data beetles(keep=time sex conc freq); input time m20 f20 m32 f32 m50 f50 m80 f80; conc=.20; freq= m20; sex=1; output; freq= f20; sex=2; output; conc=.32; freq= m32; sex=1; output; freq= f32; sex=2; output; conc=.50; freq= m50; sex=1; output; freq= f50; sex=2; output; conc=.80; freq= m80; sex=1; output; freq= f80; sex=2; output; datalines; 1 3 0 7 1 5 0 4 2 2 11 2 10 5 8 4 10 7 3 10 4 11 11 11 6 8 15 4 7 8 16 10 15 6 14 9 5 4 9 3 5 4 3 8 3 6 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 4 7 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 8 1 0 0 1 1 4 0 1 9 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 11 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 12 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 13 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 14 101 126 19 47 7 17 2 4 ; The data set beetles contains four variables: time, sex, conc, and freq. The variable time represents the interval death time; for example, time=2 is the interval between day 1 and day 2. Insects surviving the duration (13 days) of the experiment are given a time value of 14. The variable sex 3462 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure represents the sex of the insects (1=male, 2=female), conc represents the concentration of the insecticide (mg/cm2 ), and freq represents the frequency of the observations. To use PROC LOGISTIC with the grouped survival data, you must expand the data so that each beetle has a separate record for each day of survival. A beetle that died in the third day (time=3) would contribute three observations to the analysis, one for each day it was alive at the beginning of the day. A beetle that survives the 13-day duration of the experiment (time=14) would contribute 13 observations. The following DATA step creates a new data set named days containing the beetle-day observations from the data set beetles. In addition to the variables sex, conc, and freq, the data set contains an outcome variable y and a classification variable day. The variable y has a value of 1 if the observation corresponds to the day that the beetle died, and it has a value of 0 otherwise. An observation for the first day will have a value of 1 for day; an observation for the second day will have a value of 2 for day, and so on. For instance, Output 51.14.1 shows an observation in the beetles data set with time=3, and Output 51.14.2 shows the corresponding beetle-day observations in the data set days. data days; set beetles; do day=1 to time; if (day < 14) then do; y= (day=time); output; end; end; run; Output 51.14.1 An Observation with Time=3 in Beetles Data Set Obs time 17 3 conc 0.2 freq sex 10 1 Output 51.14.2 Corresponding Beetle-Day Observations in Days Obs 25 26 27 time 3 3 3 conc 0.2 0.2 0.2 freq sex day y 10 10 10 1 1 1 1 2 3 0 0 1 The following statements invoke PROC LOGISTIC to fit a complementary log-log model for binary data with the response variable Y and the explanatory variables day, sex, and conc. Specifying the EVENT= option ensures that the event (y=1) probability is modeled. The GLM coding in the CLASS statement creates an indicator column in the design matrix for each level of day. The coefficients of the indicator effects for day can be used to estimate the baseline survival function. The NOINT option is specified to prevent any redundancy in estimating the coefficients of day. The Newton-Raphson algorithm is used for the maximum likelihood estimation of the parameters. Example 51.14: Complementary Log-Log Model for Interval-Censored Survival Times F 3463 proc logistic data=days outest=est1; class day / param=glm; model y(event=’1’)= day sex conc / noint link=cloglog technique=newton; freq freq; run; Results of the model fit are given in Output 51.14.3. Both sex and conc are statistically significant for the survival of beetles sprayed by the insecticide. Female beetles are more resilient to the chemical than male beetles, and increased concentration of the insecticide increases its effectiveness. Output 51.14.3 Parameter Estimates for the Grouped Proportional Hazards Model Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates Parameter day day day day day day day day day day day day day sex conc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 DF Estimate Standard Error Wald Chi-Square Pr > ChiSq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -3.9314 -2.8751 -2.3985 -1.9953 -2.4920 -3.1060 -3.9704 -3.7917 -5.1540 -5.1350 -5.1131 -5.1029 -5.0951 -0.5651 3.0918 0.2934 0.2412 0.2299 0.2239 0.2515 0.3037 0.4230 0.4007 0.7316 0.7315 0.7313 0.7313 0.7313 0.1141 0.2288 179.5602 142.0596 108.8833 79.3960 98.1470 104.5799 88.1107 89.5233 49.6329 49.2805 48.8834 48.6920 48.5467 24.5477 182.5665 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 The coefficients of parameters for the day variable are the maximum likelihood estimates of ˛1 ; : : : ; ˛13 , respectively. The baseline survivor function S0 .t/ is estimated by Y SO0 .t / D Pbr.T > t / D exp. exp.b ˛ j // j t and the survivor function for a given covariate pattern (sex=x1 and conc=x2 ) is estimated by SO .t / D ŒSO0 .t /exp. 0:5651x1 C3:0918x2 / The following statements compute the survival curves for male and female flour beetles exposed to the insecticide in concentrations of 0.20 mg/cm2 and 0.80 mg/cm2 . 3464 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure data one (keep=day survival element s_m20 s_f20 s_m80 s_f80); array dd day1-day13; array sc[4] m20 f20 m80 f80; array s_sc[4] s_m20 s_f20 s_m80 s_f80 (1 1 1 1); set est1; m20= exp(sex + .20 * conc); f20= exp(2 * sex + .20 * conc); m80= exp(sex + .80 * conc); f80= exp(2 * sex + .80 * conc); survival=1; day=0; output; do over dd; element= exp(-exp(dd)); survival= survival * element; do i=1 to 4; s_sc[i] = survival ** sc[i]; end; day + 1; output; end; run; Instead of plotting the curves as step functions, the following statements use the PBSPLINE statement in the SGPLOT procedure to smooth the curves with a penalized B-spline. See Chapter 90, “The TRANSREG Procedure,” for details about the implementation of the penalized B-spline method. The SAS autocall macro MODSTYLE is specified to change the default linestyles and marker symbols for the plot. For more information about autocall libraries, see SAS Macro Language: Reference. The smoothed survival curves are displayed in Output 51.14.4. %modstyle(name=LogiStyle,parent=Statistical,markers=circlefilled,linestyles=solid); ods listing style=LogiStyle; proc sgplot data=one; title ’Flour Beetles Sprayed with Insecticide’; xaxis grid integer; yaxis grid label=’Survival Function’; pbspline y=s_m20 x=day / legendlabel = "Male at 0.20 conc." name="pred1"; pbspline y=s_m80 x=day / legendlabel = "Male at 0.80 conc." name="pred2"; pbspline y=s_f20 x=day / legendlabel = "Female at 0.20 conc." name="pred3"; pbspline y=s_f80 x=day / legendlabel = "Female at 0.80 conc." name="pred4"; discretelegend "pred1" "pred2" "pred3" "pred4" / across=2; run; Example 51.14: Complementary Log-Log Model for Interval-Censored Survival Times F 3465 Output 51.14.4 Predicted Survival at Insecticide Concentrations of 0.20 and 0.80 mg/cm2 The probability of survival is displayed on the vertical axis. Notice that most of the insecticide effect occurs by day 6 for both the high and low concentrations. 3466 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Example 51.15: Scoring Data Sets with the SCORE Statement This example first illustrates the syntax used for scoring data sets, then uses a previously scored data set to score a new data set. A generalized logit model is fit to the remote-sensing data set used in the section “Example 31.4: Linear Discriminant Analysis of Remote-Sensing Data on Crops” on page 1469 of Chapter 31, “The DISCRIM Procedure,” to illustrate discrimination and classification methods. In the following DATA step, the response variable is Crop and the prognostic factors are x1 through x4. data Crops; length Crop $ 10; infile datalines truncover; input Crop $ @@; do i=1 to 3; input x1-x4 @@; if (x1 ^= .) then output; end; input; datalines; Corn 16 27 31 33 15 23 30 Corn 18 20 25 23 15 15 31 Corn 12 15 16 73 Soybeans 20 23 23 25 24 24 25 Soybeans 27 45 24 12 12 13 15 Cotton 31 32 33 34 29 24 26 Cotton 26 25 23 24 53 48 75 Sugarbeets 22 23 25 42 25 25 24 Sugarbeets 54 23 21 54 25 43 32 Clover 12 45 32 54 24 58 25 Clover 51 31 31 16 96 48 54 Clover 56 13 13 71 32 13 27 Clover 53 08 06 54 32 32 62 ; 30 32 16 27 27 26 15 32 32 15 32 42 28 26 26 15 34 62 32 16 21 22 34 34 34 26 87 31 36 25 32 32 35 25 54 54 31 26 23 31 28 25 16 2 61 11 54 24 43 45 78 52 54 21 11 32 In the following statements, you specify a SCORE statement to use the fitted model to score the Crops data. The data together with the predicted values are saved in the data set Score1. The output from the PLOTS option is discussed at the end of this section. ods graphics on; proc logistic data=Crops plots(only)=effect(x=x3); model Crop=x1-x4 / link=glogit; score out=Score1; run; ods graphics off; In the following statements, the model is fit again, the data and the predicted values are saved into the data set Score2, and the OUTMODEL= option saves the fitted model information in the permanent SAS data set sasuser.CropModel: proc logistic data=Crops outmodel=sasuser.CropModel; model Crop=x1-x4 / link=glogit; score data=Crops out=Score2; run; Example 51.15: Scoring Data Sets with the SCORE Statement F 3467 To score data without refitting the model, specify the INMODEL= option to identify a previously saved SAS data set of model information. In the following statements, the model is read from the sasuser.CropModel data set, and the data and the predicted values are saved in the data set Score3. Note that the data set being scored does not have to include the response variable. proc logistic inmodel=sasuser.CropModel; score data=Crops out=Score3; run; To set prior probabilities on the responses, specify the PRIOR= option to identify a SAS data set containing the response levels and their priors. In the following statements, the Prior data set contains the values of the response variable (because this example uses single-trial MODEL syntax) and a _PRIOR_ variable containing values proportional to the default priors. The data and the predicted values are saved in the data set Score4. data Prior; length Crop $10.; input Crop _PRIOR_; datalines; Clover 11 Corn 7 Cotton 6 Soybeans 6 Sugarbeets 6 ; proc logistic inmodel=sasuser.CropModel; score data=Crops prior=prior out=Score4 fitstat; run; The “Fit Statistics for SCORE Data” table displayed in Output 51.15.1 shows that 47.22% of the observations are misclassified. Output 51.15.1 Fit Statistics for Data Set Prior Fit Statistics for SCORE Data Data Set WORK.CROPS Total Frequency Log Likelihood Misclassification Rate 36 -32.2247 0.4722 The data sets Score1, Score2, Score3, and Score4 are identical. The following statements display the scoring results in Output 51.15.2: proc freq data=Score1; table F_Crop*I_Crop / nocol nocum nopercent; run; 3468 F Chapter 51: The LOGISTIC Procedure Output 51.15.2 Classification of Data Used for Scoring Table of F_Crop by I_Crop F_Crop(From: Crop) I_Crop(Into: Crop) Frequency Row Pct | |Clover |Corn |Cotton |Soybeans|Sugarbee| | | | | |ts | -----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ Clover | 6 | 0 | 2 | 2 | 1 | | 54.55 | 0.00 | 18.18 | 18.18 | 9.09 | -----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ Corn | 0 | 7 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | 0.00 | 100.00 | 0.00 | 0.00 | 0.00 | -----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ Cotton | 4 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | | 66.67 | 0.00 | 16.67 | 16.67 | 0.00 | -----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ Soybeans | 1 | 1 | 1 | 3 | 0 | | 16.67 | 16.67 | 16.67 | 50.00 | 0.00 | -----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ Sugarbeets | 2 | 0 | 0 | 2 | 2 | | 33.33 | 0.00 | 0.00 | 33.33 | 33.33 | -----------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ Total 13 8 4 8 3 Total 11 7 6 6 6 36 The following statements use the previously fitted and saved model in the sasuser.CropModel data set to score the observations in a new data set, Test. The results of scoring the test data are saved in the ScoredTest data set and displayed in Output 51.15.3. data Test; input Crop datalines; Corn 16 Soybeans 21 Cotton 29 Sugarbeets 54 Clover 32 ; $ 1-10 x1-x4; 27 25 24 23 32 31 23 26 21 62 33 24 28 54 16 proc logistic noprint inmodel=sasuser.CropModel; score data=Test out=ScoredTest; proc print data=ScoredTest label noobs; var F_Crop I_Crop P_Clover P_Corn P_Cotton P_Soybeans P_Sugarbeets; run; Example 51.15: Scoring Data Sets with the SCORE Statement F 3469 Output 51.15.3 Classification of Test Data From: Crop Into: Crop Corn Soybeans Cotton Sugarbeets Clover Corn Soybeans Clover Clover Cotton Predicted Probability: Crop=Cotton 0.00500 0.02865 0.21267 0.17364 0.43649 Predicted Probability: Crop=Clover Predicted Probability: Crop=Corn 0.00342 0.04801 0.43180 0.66681 0.41301 0.90067 0.03157 0.00015 0.00000 0.13386 Predicted Probability: Crop=Soybeans Predicted Probability: Crop=Sugarbeets 0.08675 0.82933 0.07623 0.00000 0.00033 0.00416 0.06243 0.27914 0.15955 0.01631 The PLOTS(ONLY)= option specified in the first PROC LOGISTIC invocation produces a plot of the model-predicted probabilities versus X3, holding the other three covariates fixed at their means (Output 51.15.4). 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Subject Index Akaike’s information criterion LOGISTIC procedure, 3327 backward elimination LOGISTIC procedure, 3298, 3327 Bayes’ theorem LOGISTIC procedure, 3296, 3340 best subset selection LOGISTIC procedure, 3290, 3298, 3327 branch-and-bound algorithm LOGISTIC procedure, 3327 classification table LOGISTIC procedure, 3296, 3338, 3339, 3417 complete separation LOGISTIC procedure, 3325 conditional logistic regression LOGISTIC procedure, 3312, 3353 confidence intervals profile likelihood (LOGISTIC), 3296, 3297, 3331 Wald (LOGISTIC), 3300, 3333 confidence limits LOGISTIC procedure, 3337 convergence criterion profile likelihood (LOGISTIC), 3296 descriptive statistics LOGISTIC procedure, 3273 deviance LOGISTIC procedure, 3290, 3298, 3341 deviance residuals LOGISTIC procedure, 3348 DFBETAS statistics LOGISTIC procedure, 3348 dispersion parameter LOGISTIC procedure, 3341 estimability checking LOGISTIC procedure, 3281 exact logistic regression LOGISTIC procedure, 3283, 3357 false negative, false positive rate LOGISTIC procedure, 3296, 3339, 3418 Firth’s penalized likelihood LOGISTIC procedure, 3324 Fisher scoring algorithm LOGISTIC procedure, 3299, 3300, 3322 forward selection LOGISTIC procedure, 3298, 3326 frequency variable LOGISTIC procedure, 3285 gradient LOGISTIC procedure, 3329 hat matrix LOGISTIC procedure, 3347 Hessian matrix LOGISTIC procedure, 3299, 3329 hierarchy LOGISTIC procedure, 3292 Hosmer-Lemeshow test LOGISTIC procedure, 3294, 3342 test statistic (LOGISTIC), 3343 infinite parameter estimates LOGISTIC procedure, 3295, 3325 initial values LOGISTIC procedure, 3362 leverage LOGISTIC procedure, 3347 link function LOGISTIC procedure, 3255, 3294, 3320, 3330 log likelihood output data sets (LOGISTIC), 3270 log odds LOGISTIC procedure, 3333 LOGISTIC procedure Akaike’s information criterion, 3327 Bayes’ theorem, 3296 best subset selection, 3290 branch-and-bound algorithm, 3327 classification table, 3296, 3338, 3339, 3417 conditional logistic regression, 3312, 3353 confidence intervals, 3296, 3297, 3300, 3331, 3333 confidence limits, 3337 convergence criterion, 3289 customized odds ratio, 3314 descriptive statistics, 3273 deviance, 3290, 3298, 3341 DFBETAS diagnostic, 3348 dispersion parameter, 3341 displayed output, 3369 estimability checking, 3281 exact logistic regression, 3283, 3357 existence of MLEs, 3325 Firth’s penalized likelihood, 3324 Fisher scoring algorithm, 3299, 3300, 3322 frequency variable, 3285 goodness of fit, 3290, 3298 gradient, 3329 hat matrix, 3347 Hessian matrix, 3299, 3329 hierarchy, 3292 Hosmer-Lemeshow test, 3294, 3342, 3343 infinite parameter estimates, 3295 initial values, 3362 introductory example, 3258 leverage, 3347 link function, 3255, 3294, 3320, 3330 log odds, 3333 maximum likelihood algorithms, 3322 missing values, 3316 model fitting criteria, 3327 model hierarchy, 3256, 3292 model selection, 3288, 3298, 3326 multiple classifications, 3297 Newton-Raphson algorithm, 3299, 3300, 3322, 3324 odds ratio confidence limits, 3290, 3297 odds ratio estimation, 3333 odds ratios with interactions, 3301 ODS graph names, 3377 ODS table names, 3375 output data sets, 3270, 3361, 3363–3365 overdispersion, 3298, 3340, 3341 Pearson’s chi-square, 3290, 3298, 3341 predicted probabilities, 3337 prior event probability, 3296, 3340, 3417 profile-likelihood convergence criterion, 3296 rank correlation, 3336 regression diagnostics, 3347 residuals, 3348 response level ordering, 3266, 3286, 3316 ROC curve, 3296, 3308, 3344, 3365 ROC curve, comparing, 3309, 3345 Schwarz criterion, 3327 score statistics, 3329 scoring data sets, 3310, 3349 selection methods, 3288, 3298, 3326 singular contrast matrix, 3281 subpopulation, 3290, 3298, 3341 testing linear hypotheses, 3313, 3346 Williams’ method, 3341 logistic regression, see also LOGISTIC procedure maximum likelihood algorithms (LOGISTIC), 3322 estimates (LOGISTIC), 3325 missing values LOGISTIC procedure, 3316 model fitting criteria (LOGISTIC), 3327 hierarchy (LOGISTIC), 3256, 3292 model selection LOGISTIC procedure, 3288, 3298, 3326 multiple classifications cutpoints (LOGISTIC), 3297 Newton-Raphson algorithm LOGISTIC procedure, 3299, 3300, 3322, 3324 odds ratio confidence limits (LOGISTIC), 3290, 3297 customized (LOGISTIC), 3314 estimation (LOGISTIC), 3333 with interactions (LOGISTIC), 3301 ODS graph names LOGISTIC procedure, 3377 output data sets LOGISTIC procedure, 3361, 3363–3365 overdispersion LOGISTIC procedure, 3298, 3340, 3341 overlap of data points LOGISTIC procedure, 3325 Pearson residuals LOGISTIC procedure, 3348 Pearson’s chi-square LOGISTIC procedure, 3290, 3298, 3341 predicted probabilities LOGISTIC procedure, 3337 prior event probability LOGISTIC procedure, 3296, 3340, 3417 quasi-complete separation LOGISTIC procedure, 3325 R-square statistic LOGISTIC procedure, 3297, 3328 rank correlation LOGISTIC procedure, 3336 receiver operating characteristic, see ROC curve regression diagnostics LOGISTIC procedure, 3347 residuals LOGISTIC procedure, 3348 response level ordering LOGISTIC procedure, 3266, 3286, 3316 reverse response level ordering LOGISTIC procedure, 3316 ROC curve comparing (LOGISTIC), 3309, 3345 LOGISTIC procedure, 3296, 3308, 3344, 3365 Schwarz criterion LOGISTIC procedure, 3327 score statistics LOGISTIC procedure, 3329 selection methods, see model selection singularity criterion contrast matrix (LOGISTIC), 3281 stepwise selection LOGISTIC procedure, 3298, 3327, 3379 subpopulation LOGISTIC procedure, 3298 survivor function estimates (LOGISTIC), 3463 testing linear hypotheses LOGISTIC procedure, 3313, 3346 Williams’ method overdispersion (LOGISTIC), 3341 Syntax Index ABSFCONV option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3289 ADJACENTPAIRS option ROCCONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3309 AGGREGATE= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3290 ALPHA= option CONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3281 EXACT statement (LOGISTIC), 3283 MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3290 OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3304 PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3266 SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3310 AT option ODDSRATIO statement (LOGISTIC), 3301 BEST= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3290 BINWIDTH= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3290 BY statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3277 C= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3304 CBAR= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3304 CHECKDEPENDENCY= option STRATA statement (LOGISTIC), 3313 CL option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3300 CL= option ODDSRATIO statement (LOGISTIC), 3302 CLASS statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3278 CLM option SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3310 CLODDS= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3290 CLPARM= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3291 CLTYPE= option EXACT statement (LOGISTIC), 3284 CONTRAST statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3280 CORRB option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3291 COV option ROCCONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3309 COVB option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3291 COVOUT option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3266 CPREFIX= option CLASS statement (LOGISTIC), 3278 CTABLE option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3291 CUMULATIVE option SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3310 DATA= option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3266 SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3310 DEFAULT= option UNITS statement (LOGISTIC), 3315 DESCENDING option CLASS statement (LOGISTIC), 3278 MODEL statement, 3286 PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3266 DETAILS option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3291 DFBETAS= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3304 DIFCHISQ= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3304 DIFDEV= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3305 DIFF= option ODDSRATIO statement (LOGISTIC), 3302 E option CONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3281 ROCCONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3309 ESTIMATE option EXACT statement (LOGISTIC), 3283 ROCCONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3309 ESTIMATE= option CONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3281 EVENT= option MODEL statement, 3286 EXACT statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3283 EXACTONLY option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3266 EXACTOPTIONS option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3267 EXPEST option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3291 FAST option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3292 FCONV= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3292 FIRTH option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3292 FITSTAT option SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3311 FREQ statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3285 GCONV= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3292 H= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3305 HIERARCHY= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3292 INCLUDE= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3293 INEST= option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3268 INFLUENCE option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3293 INFO option STRATA statement (LOGISTIC), 3313 INMODEL= option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3268 IPLOTS option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3294 ITPRINT option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3294 JOINT option EXACT statement (LOGISTIC), 3284 JOINTONLY option EXACT statement (LOGISTIC), 3284 LACKFIT option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3294 LINK= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3294 ROC statement (LOGISTIC), 3308 LOGISTIC procedure, 3264 syntax, 3264 LOGISTIC procedure, BY statement, 3277 LOGISTIC procedure, CLASS statement, 3278 CPREFIX= option, 3278 DESCENDING option, 3278 LPREFIX= option, 3278 MISSING option, 3278 ORDER= option, 3278 PARAM= option, 3279 REF= option, 3279 TRUNCATE option, 3279 LOGISTIC procedure, CONTRAST statement, 3280 ALPHA= option, 3281 E option, 3281 ESTIMATE= option, 3281 SINGULAR= option, 3281 LOGISTIC procedure, EXACT statement, 3283 ALPHA= option, 3283 CLTYPE= option, 3284 ESTIMATE option, 3283 JOINT option, 3284 JOINTONLY option, 3284 MIDPFACTOR= option, 3284 ONESIDED option, 3284 OUTDIST= option, 3284 LOGISTIC procedure, FREQ statement, 3285 LOGISTIC procedure, MODEL statement, 3286 ABSFCONV option, 3289 AGGREGATE= option, 3290 ALPHA= option, 3290 BEST= option, 3290 BINWIDTH= option, 3290 CL option, 3300 CLODDS= option, 3290 CLPARM= option, 3291 CORRB option, 3291 COVB option, 3291 CTABLE option, 3291 DESCENDING option, 3286 DETAILS option, 3291 EVENT= option, 3286 EXPEST option, 3291 FAST option, 3292 FCONV= option, 3292 FIRTH option, 3292 GCONV= option, 3292 HIERARCHY= option, 3292 INCLUDE= option, 3293 INFLUENCE option, 3293 IPLOTS option, 3294 ITPRINT option, 3294 LACKFIT option, 3294 LINK= option, 3294 MAXFUNCTION= option, 3295 MAXITER= option, 3295 MAXSTEP= option, 3295 NOCHECK option, 3295 NODESIGNPRINT= option, 3295 NODUMMYPRINT= option, 3295 NOFIT option, 3296 NOINT option, 3295 NOLOGSCALE option, 3296 OFFSET= option, 3296 ORDER= option, 3287 OUTROC= option, 3296 PARMLABEL option, 3296 PEVENT= option, 3296 PLCL option, 3296 PLCONV= option, 3296 PLRL option, 3297 PPROB= option, 3297 REFERENCE= option, 3287 RIDGING= option, 3297 RISKLIMITS option, 3297 ROCEPS= option, 3297 RSQUARE option, 3297 SCALE= option, 3298 SELECTION= option, 3298 SEQUENTIAL option, 3299 SINGULAR= option, 3299 SLENTRY= option, 3299 SLSTAY= option, 3299 START= option, 3299 STB option, 3299 STOP= option, 3300 STOPRES option, 3300 TECHNIQUE= option, 3300 WALDCL option, 3300 WALDRL option, 3297 XCONV= option, 3300 LOGISTIC procedure, ODDSRATIO statement, 3301 AT option, 3301 CL= option, 3302 DIFF= option, 3302 PLCONV= option, 3302 PLMAXITER= option, 3302 PLSINGULAR= option, 3302 LOGISTIC procedure, OUTPUT statement, 3303 ALPHA= option, 3304 C= option, 3304 CBAR= option, 3304 DFBETAS= option, 3304 DIFCHISQ= option, 3304 DIFDEV= option, 3305 H= option, 3305 LOWER= option, 3305 OUT= option, 3305 PREDICTED= option, 3305 PREDPROBS= option, 3305 RESCHI= option, 3306 RESDEV= option, 3306 STDXBETA = option, 3306 UPPER= option, 3306 XBETA= option, 3306 LOGISTIC procedure, PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3265 ALPHA= option, 3266 COVOUT option, 3266 DATA= option, 3266 DESCENDING option, 3266 EXACTONLY option, 3266 EXACTOPTIONS option, 3267 INEST= option, 3268 INMODEL= option, 3268 MULTIPASS option, 3269 NAMELEN= option, 3269 NOCOV option, 3269 NOPRINT option, 3269 ORDER= option, 3269 OUTDESIGN= option, 3269 OUTDESIGNONLY option, 3270 OUTEST= option, 3270 OUTMODEL= option, 3270 PLOTS option, 3270 ROCOPTIONS option, 3272 SIMPLE option, 3272 TRUNCATE option, 3273 LOGISTIC procedure, ROC statement, 3308 LINK= option, 3308 NOOFFSET option, 3308 LOGISTIC procedure, ROCCONTRAST statement, 3309 ADJACENTPAIRS option, 3309 COV option, 3309 E option, 3309 ESTIMATE option, 3309 REFERENCE option, 3309 LOGISTIC procedure, SCORE statement, 3310 ALPHA= option, 3310 CLM option, 3310 CUMULATIVE option, 3310 DATA= option, 3310 FITSTAT option, 3311 OUT= option, 3311 OUTROC= option, 3311 PRIOR= option, 3311 PRIOREVENT= option, 3311 ROCEPS= option, 3311 LOGISTIC procedure, STRATA statement, 3312 CHECKDEPENDENCY= option, 3313 INFO option, 3313 MISSING option, 3312 NOSUMMARY option, 3313 LOGISTIC procedure, TEST statement, 3313 PRINT option, 3314 LOGISTIC procedure, UNITS statement, 3314 DEFAULT= option, 3315 LOGISTIC procedure, WEIGHT statement, 3315 NORMALIZE option, 3315 LOWER= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3305 LPREFIX= option CLASS statement (LOGISTIC), 3278 MAXFUNCTION= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3295 MAXITER= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3295 MAXSTEP= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3295 MIDPFACTOR= option EXACT statement (LOGISTIC), 3284 MISSING option CLASS statement (LOGISTIC), 3278 STRATA statement (LOGISTIC), 3312 MODEL statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3286 MULTIPASS option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3269 NAMELEN= option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3269 NOCHECK option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3295 NOCOV option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3269 NODESIGNPRINT= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3295 NODUMMYPRINT= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3295 NOFIT option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3296 NOINT option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3295 NOLOGSCALE option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3296 NOOFFSET option ROC statement (LOGISTIC), 3308 NOPRINT option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3269 NORMALIZE option WEIGHT statement (LOGISTIC), 3315 NOSUMMARY option STRATA statement (LOGISTIC), 3313 ODDSRATIO statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3301 OFFSET= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3296 ONESIDED option EXACT statement (LOGISTIC), 3284 ORDER= option CLASS statement (LOGISTIC), 3278 MODEL statement, 3287 PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3269 OUT= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3305 SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3311 OUTDESIGN= option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3269 OUTDESIGNONLY option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3270 OUTDIST= option EXACT statement (LOGISTIC), 3284 OUTEST= option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3270 OUTMODEL= option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3270 OUTPUT statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3303 OUTROC= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3296 SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3311 PARAM= option CLASS statement (LOGISTIC), 3279 PARMLABEL option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3296 PEVENT= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3296 PLCL option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3296 PLCONV= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3296 ODDSRATIO statement (LOGISTIC), 3302 PLMAXITER= option ODDSRATIO statement (LOGISTIC), 3302 PLOTS option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3270 PLRL option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3297 PLSINGULAR= option ODDSRATIO statement (LOGISTIC), 3302 PPROB= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3297 PREDICTED= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3305 PREDPROBS= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3305 PRINT option TEST statement (LOGISTIC), 3314 PRIOR= option SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3311 PRIOREVENT= option SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3311 PROC LOGISTIC statement, see LOGISTIC procedure REF= option CLASS statement (LOGISTIC), 3279 REFERENCE option ROCCONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3309 REFERENCE= option MODEL statement, 3287 RESCHI= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3306 RESDEV= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3306 RIDGING= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3297 RISKLIMITS option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3297 ROC statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3308 ROCCONTRAST statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3309 ROCEPS= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3297 SCORE statement (LOGISTIC), 3311 ROCOPTIONS option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3272 RSQUARE option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3297 SCALE= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3298 SCORE statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3310 SELECTION= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3298 SEQUENTIAL option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3299 SIMPLE option PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3272 SINGULAR= option CONTRAST statement (LOGISTIC), 3281 MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3299 SLENTRY= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3299 SLSTAY= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3299 START= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3299 STB option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3299 STDXBETA= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3306 STOP= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3300 STOPRES option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3300 STRATA statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3312 TECHNIQUE= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3300 TEST statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3313 TRUNCATE option CLASS statement (LOGISTIC), 3279 PROC LOGISTIC statement, 3273 UNITS statement, LOGISTIC procedure, 3314 UPPER= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3306 WALDCL option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3300 WALDRL option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3297 WEIGHT statement LOGISTIC procedure, 3315 XBETA= option OUTPUT statement (LOGISTIC), 3306 XCONV= option MODEL statement (LOGISTIC), 3300 Your Turn We welcome your feedback. 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