California State Framework
Visual and Performing Arts Framework
for California Public Schools • Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve
Adopted by the
California State Board of Education
Published by the
California Department of Education
Sacramento, 2004
Arts
Visual and Performing
Framework
for California Public Schools
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve
Developed by the
Curriculum Development and Supplemental
Materials Commission
Adopted by the
California State Board of Education
Published by the
California Department of Education
ii
Publishing Information
When the Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools,
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve was adopted by the California State Board of
Education on January 7, 2004, the members of the State Board were as follows:
Reed Hastings, President; Joe Nuñez, Vice President; Robert Abernethy;
Donald G. Fisher; Nancy Ichinaga; and Suzanne Tacheny.
The framework was developed by the Curriculum Development and Supplemental
Materials Commission. (See pages vii–ix for the names of the members of the
commission and the names of the principal writer and others who made significant
contributions to the framework.)
This publication was edited by Edward O’Malley, working in cooperation with
Director Thomas Adams, Administrator Don Kairott, and consultants Christopher
Dowell, Martha Rowland, and Mary Sprague, Curriculum Frameworks and
Instructional Resources Division; and consultants Nancy Carr and Don Doyle,
Professional Development and Curriculum Support Division, California Department
of Education. The framework was designed and prepared for printing by the staff of
CDE Press, with the cover designed by Paul Lee and the interior design created and
prepared by Paul Lee and Cheryl McDonald. Typesetting was done by Jeannette Reyes.
The framework was published by the Department of Education, 1430 N Street,
Sacramento, CA 95814-5901. It was distributed under the provisions of the Library
Distribution Act and Government Code Section 11096.
© 2004 by the California Department of Education
All rights reserved
ISBN 0-8011-1592-2
Ordering Information
Copies of this publication are available for $19.95 each, plus shipping and handling
charges. California residents are charged sales tax. Orders may be sent to the California
Department of Education, CDE Press, Sales Office, 1430 N Street, Suite 3207,
Sacramento, CA 95814; FAX (916) 323-0823. Prices on all publications are subject
to change.
An illustrated Educational Resources Catalog describing publications, videos, and other
instructional media available from the Department can be obtained without charge by
writing to the address given above or by calling the Sales Office at (916) 445-1260 or
(800) 995-4099.
Photo Credits
We gratefully acknowledge the use in this publication of the photographs provided
by the following persons and organizations: Moreau Catholic High School, pp. xii, 1,
78, 96, 98, 116, 119, 140, 166; Lee Hanson, pp. 2, 33, 107, 122, 123, 145, 190;
Carlsbad Unified School District, pp. 6, 7, 151; Glendale Senior High School, p. 13;
Helen K. Garber © 1995 (photographs of students from the 1995 California State
Summer School for the Arts), pp. 19, 57, 96, 97, 101, 112, 164, 186, 187; Kathi Kent
Volzke, courtesy of Orange County Performing Arts Center, pp. 20, 21, 149; Pleasant
Valley School District, p. 23; Los Angeles Unified School District, pp. 24, 38, 45,
70, 72, 89, 129, 168, 169; Trish Oakes, pp. 29, 64, 154; Live Oak School District,
pp. 40, 54; California State University, Chico, Department of Education, pp. 49,
160, 189; Orange Unified School District, pp. 61, 86, 173, 175; Lake Elsinore
Unified School District, p. 124; Stockton Unified School District, pp. 80, 97, 178,
179; Cheryl McDonald, p. 104; Westmont High School, p. 110; AXIS Dance
Company, photo by Andy Mogg, p. 135; Emery Unified School District, p. 157;
Sacramento City Unified School District, pp. 180; and Craig Schwartz, Music
Center Education Division, The Los Angeles Music Center, p. 185.
Cover Art
This 1994 work, titled Blueprint for a Better Tomorrow, is a mural conceived, designed,
and painted by students in Professor Malaquias Montoya’s Mexican and Chicano
Mural Workshop. Professor Montoya teaches Chicana/Chicano Studies at the
University of California, Davis. The mural, which measures 14 feet by 87 feet, is
located at Will C. Wood High School in Vacaville, California. The mural was
photographed by Jim Prigoff. The inset on the back cover was photographed by
Lezlie Salkowitz-Montoya. Used by permission.
iii
Contents
Page
Foreword ......................................................................................................... v
Acknowledgments .......................................................................................... vii
Introduction .................................................................................................... x
Chapter 1. Guiding Principles of the Framework ......................................... 2
Chapter 2. Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating Arts Education
Programs ................................................................................................... 8
Planning Arts Education Programs ............................................................. 8
Administering Arts Education Programs ..................................................... 9
Conducting Arts Education Programs ...................................................... 12
Partnering with the School Library Staff ................................................... 14
Promoting Partnerships and Collaborations .............................................. 14
Evaluating Arts Education Programs ......................................................... 16
Providing Access for All Students .............................................................. 17
Applying New Media and Electronic Technology ..................................... 18
Chapter 3. Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards ........................ 22
Format of the Content Standards ..............................................................
Key Content Standards .............................................................................
Kindergarten ............................................................................................
Grade One ...............................................................................................
Grade Two ................................................................................................
Grade Three .............................................................................................
Grade Four ...............................................................................................
Grade Five ................................................................................................
Grade Six ..................................................................................................
Grade Seven .............................................................................................
Grade Eight ..............................................................................................
Grades Nine Through Twelve ...................................................................
22
23
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
80
88
96
Chapter 4. Guidance for Visual and Performing Arts Programs ............... 124
Dance .....................................................................................................
Music .....................................................................................................
Theatre ...................................................................................................
Visual Arts ..............................................................................................
125
136
146
156
iv
Page
Chapter 5. Assessment in the Arts ............................................................ 170
Purpose of Student Assessment ............................................................... 170
Types of Assessment ................................................................................ 171
Considerations in Arts Assessment .......................................................... 172
Chapter 6. Professional Development in the Arts ..................................... 180
Teacher Preparation in the Arts ...............................................................
Organization of Professional Development in the Arts ............................
Resources for Professional Development in Arts Education ....................
Content of Professional Development in the Arts ...................................
180
181
181
182
Chapter 7. Criteria for Evaluating Instructional Materials:
Kindergarten Through Grade Eight ..................................................... 188
Appendixes
A. Education Code Sections Governing Arts Education Programs ............
B. Recommendations for Clarification of the New Visual and
Performing Arts Requirement for Freshman Admission to the
University of California and the California State University ...............
C. Careers in the Visual and Performing Arts .........................................
D. Continuum for Implementing Arts Education Programs ...................
E. Copyright Law and the Visual and Performing Arts ...........................
F. Guidelines for the Safe Use of Art and Craft Materials ........................
G. Funding for Arts Education Programs ...............................................
198
204
211
218
230
238
242
Glossary of Selected Terms ....................................................................... 243
Selected References and Resources ............................................................ 264
v
Foreword
P
ablo Picasso once observed, “Every child is an artist. The problem is how
to remain an artist once he grows up.” One of our jobs as educators is
to nurture our students’ creativity and knowledge. To achieve this goal,
the California Department of Education and the California State Board of
Education are pleased to present the Visual and Performing Arts Framework for
California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (2004), which
will help educators provide students with a solid foundation in the arts.
This framework is based upon the visual and performing arts content
standards adopted in January 2001. The framework incorporates the content
standards for dance, music, theater, and visual arts and defines the five strands
of an arts program: artistic perception; creative expression; historical and cultural context; aesthetic valuing; and connections, relationships, and applications.
This framework is especially noteworthy for its inclusion of the multifaceted
role of media and electronic technology in the arts. California is an international
leader in the technology and entertainment industries; providing our students
with an education in the arts supports our state’s future and our economy.
It should also be recognized that the importance of the arts extends into
other areas of schooling. A 1999 study from the Arts Education Partnership
indicated that students with higher levels of arts involvement were more likely
to be high achievers on tests, were less likely to drop out by grade ten, and were
more engaged with learning during the school day.
We ask that all education stakeholders—including families, artists,
community groups, and representatives of museums, galleries, colleges, and
universities—collaborate with schools to ensure that students have a variety of
experiences for imagining, exploring, and creating the visual and performing
arts. California leads the nation and the world in the arts, and this framework
will ensure that we continue our prominence in arts education.
JACK O’CONNELL
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
RUTH GREEN
President, State Board of Education
vii
Acknowledgments
T
he Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools,
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve was adopted by the California
State Board of Education in January 2004. Members of the State
Board of Education who were serving at the time the framework was approved
were:
Reed Hastings, President
Joe Nuñez, Vice President
Robert J. Abernethy
Donald Fisher
Nancy Ichinaga
Suzanne Tacheny
The original draft of the framework was prepared by the Visual and
Performing Arts Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee (CFCC)
between February and August 2002. This diverse group included teachers,
school administrators, university faculty members, and arts specialists working
in public schools. The State Board of Education and the Curriculum Development and Supplemental Materials Commission (Curriculum Commission)
commend the following members of the CFCC and extend great appreciation
to them:
Roy Anthony, Chair, Grossmont Union High School District
Donna Banning, Orange Unified School District
Linda Bechtel, San Juan Unified School District
Prem Bovie-Ware, Corona-Norco Unified School District
Richard Burrows, Los Angeles Unified School District
Wayne Cook, California Arts Council
Ann Edwards, Chino Valley Unified School District
Carolyn Elder, Elk Grove Unified School District
Denise Faucher-Garcia, Sonora Elementary School District
Patricia Fernández, Fenton Avenue Elementary Charter School
Wendy Huang, ABC Unified School District
Chi Kim, Reed Union Elementary School District
Patty Larrick, Palo Alto Unified School District
Andrea Lee, Berkeley Unified School District
Note: The titles and affiliations of persons named in this section were current at the time the document
was developed.
viii
Vicki Lind, University of California, Los Angeles
Margaret Marshall, University of California, Office of the President,
Academic Affairs
Suzanne Regan, California State University, Los Angeles
Ann Marie Stanley, St. Helena Unified School District
Ella Steinberg, San Diego Unified School District
Michael Stone, Bakersfield City Elementary School District
Jim Thomas, Orange County Office of Education
Charline Wills, Lake Elsinore Unified School District
Commendation and appreciation are extended also to Patty Taylor, Visual
and Performing Arts Consultant, California Department of Education, who
was the principal writer of the Visual and Performing Arts Framework.
Curriculum Commission Chair Karen Yamamoto and the members of the
Curriculum Commission’s Visual and Performing Arts Subject Matter Committee, a subcommittee of the Curriculum Commission, provided outstanding
leadership in overseeing the development and editing of the Visual and Performing Arts Framework:
Lora Griffin, Chair, (retired), Sacramento City Unified School District
William Brakemeyer, Vice Chair, (retired), Fontana Unified School
District
Mary Coronado Calvario, Sacramento City Unified School District
Kerry Hammil, Oakland Unified School District
Julie Maravilla, Los Angeles Unified School District
Other members of the Curriculum Commission who were serving at the
time it was recommended for approval to the State Board were:
Edith Crawford, Vice Chair, San Juan Unified School District
Norma Baker, Los Angeles Unified School District
Catherine Banker, Upland, California
Milissa Glen-Lambert, Los Angeles Unified School District
Deborah Keys, Oakland Unified School District
Sandra Mann, San Diego City Unified School District
Michael Matsuda, Anaheim High School District
Stan Metzenberg, California State University, Northridge
Veronica Norris, Tustin, California
Rosa Perez, Canada College, Redwood City
California Department of Education staff who contributed to the development of the Visual and Performing Arts Framework included:
Sue Stickel, Deputy Superintendent, Curriculum and Instruction Branch
Thomas Adams, Director, Curriculum Frameworks and Instructional
Resources Division
ix
Donald Kairott, Administrator, Curriculum Frameworks Unit
Nancy Carr, Visual and Performing Arts Consultant, Curriculum
Leadership Unit
Christopher Dowell, Education Programs Consultant, Curriculum
Frameworks Unit
Don Doyle, Visual and Performing Arts Consultant, Curriculum
Leadership Unit
Martha Rowland, Education Programs Consultant, Curriculum
Frameworks Unit
Stacy Sinclair, (former) Education Programs Consultant, Curriculum
Frameworks Unit
Mary Sprague, Education Programs Consultant, Curriculum Frameworks
Unit
Tonya Odums, Office Technician, Curriculum Frameworks Unit
Teri Ollis, Analyst, Curriculum Frameworks Unit
Patrice Roseboom, Analyst, Instructional Resources Unit
Tracie Yee, Analyst, Curriculum Frameworks Unit
x
Introduction
A
discussion of the arts focuses on how people communicate their perceptions, responses, and understanding of the world to themselves and
to others. Since their first appearance thousands of years ago, the arts
have been evolving continually, exhibiting the ability of human beings to intuit,
symbolize, think, and express themselves through dance, music, theatre, and
the visual arts. Each of the arts contains a distinct body of knowledge and skills
that characterize the power of each to expand the perceptual, intellectual, cultural, and spiritual dimensions of human experience.
This capacity of human beings to create and appreciate the arts is just one
of many reasons to teach the arts in the schools. Study and practice in the arts
refine students’ abilities to perceive aesthetically, make connections between
works of art and the everyday lives of people, and discuss visual, kinesthetic,
and auditory relationships. Students are taught to locate works of art in time
and place, make reasoned judgments about them, and investigate how works of
art create meaning.
Acknowledging that the arts enhance and balance curriculum, this framework for the twenty-first century implements the visual and performing arts
content standards adopted by the California State Board of Education in January 2001. The purpose of those standards, which express in the highest form
what students need to learn and be able to accomplish in the arts, is described
in the Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards.1
The standards were developed in response to Senate Bill 1390 (Murray),
signed by Governor Gray Davis in September 2000. That bill calls for the
adoption of visual and performing arts content standards by the California
State Board of Education and states that instruction in the visual and performing arts should be made available to all students. However, as with standards in
other curriculum areas, the bill does not require schools to follow the content
standards and does not mandate an assessment of pupils in the visual and performing arts. As stated in the bill, “The content standards are intended to provide a framework for programs that a school may offer in the instruction of
visual and performing arts.”2
The Visual and Performing Arts Framework is designed to help classroom
teachers and other educators develop curriculum and instruction in the arts so
1
Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools, Prekindergarten Through
Grade Twelve. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2001.
2
Ibid., p.ix.
xi
that all students will meet or exceed the content standards in dance, music,
theatre, and the visual arts. Specifically, the framework:
• Presents guiding principles for instruction in dance, music, theatre, and the
visual arts (Chapter 1)
• Guides the planning, implementation, and evaluation of comprehensive,
standards-based visual and performing arts education programs (Chapter 2)
• Presents the key content standards for kindergarten through grade eight that
provide a beginning point for standards-based instruction; the complete
content standards in dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts for kindergarten through grade eight; and the content standards for the beginning
or proficient level and advanced level for grades nine through twelve
(Chapter 3)
• Guides curriculum development for comprehensive, standards-based visual
and performing arts education programs (Chapter 4)
• Provides information on the purpose and forms of assessment in the arts
(Chapter 5)
• Presents details on teacher preparation and professional development for each
arts discipline (Chapter 6)
• Provides criteria for the evaluation of instructional materials in the arts for
kindergarten through grade eight (Chapter 7)
• Includes a glossary of terms that appears after the appendixes
• Provides an extensive list of selected references and resources that appears at
the back of this publication
1
Guiding Principles
of the Framework
2
Chapter 1
Guiding Principles
of the Framework
Guiding Principles
of the Framework
T
his framework incorporates ten principles to accelerate and sustain
proficiency in the visual and performing arts for all learners. These
principles are used to guide the framework and address the complexity
of the content and delivery of instruction in dance, music, theatre, and the
visual arts. They also direct the purpose, design, delivery, and evaluation of
instruction. The principles established are as follows:
1. Support of Education Code sections 51210 and 51220
requiring instruction in the arts.
Section 51210 specifies that the required adopted course of study used by
schools for grades one through six must include the visual and performing
arts. Section 51220 specifies the same requirement for grades seven through
twelve. As with all other subject areas except physical education, the
Education Code does not state the number of minutes of instruction
required, although it does require schools to provide instruction in the
arts for all students. (See Appendix A.)
2. Use of the visual and performing arts content standards
adopted by the State Board of Education as the basis
of curriculum.
Those standards serve as curriculum guideposts for teachers and provide
clear-cut curriculum goals for all learners. (Note: The Western Association of Schools and Colleges also looks for standards-based courses
during its accreditation process.) Curriculum based on the content
standards requires active learning through the
study, practice, creation, or performance of
works of art. It also requires reading about the
arts and artists; researching the arts
from the past and present; writing
about the arts and artists to reflect on
one’s own observations, experiences,
and ideas about the arts; and participating in arts criticism based on reliable information and clear criteria.
3
3. Definition of a balanced, comprehensive arts program as
one in which the arts are studied as discrete disciplines
related to each other and, when appropriate, to other
subject areas in the curriculum.
Students in a comprehensive program are expected to master the standards
of an arts discipline, which are grouped under the following strands:
a. Artistic perception refers to processing, analyzing, and responding to
sensory information through the use of the language and skills unique
to dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts.
b. Creative expression involves creating a work, performing, and participating in the arts disciplines. Students apply processes and skills in
composing, arranging, and performing a work and use a variety of
means to communicate meaning and intent in their own original
formal and informal works.
c. Historical and cultural context concerns the work students do toward
understanding the historical contributions and cultural dimensions of
an arts discipline. Students analyze roles, functions, development in the
discipline, and human diversity as it relates to that discipline. They also
examine closely musicians, composers, artists, writers, actors, dancers,
and choreographers as well as cultures and historical periods.
d. Aesthetic valuing includes analyzing and critiquing works of dance,
music, theatre, and the visual arts. Students apply processes and skills
to productions or performances. They also critically assess and derive
meaning from the work of a discipline, including their own, and from
performances and original works based on the elements and principles
of an arts discipline, aesthetic qualities, and human responses.
e. Connections, relationships, and applications involve connecting and
applying what is learned in one arts discipline and comparing it to
learning in the other arts, other subject areas, and careers. Students
develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and time management that contribute to lifelong learning,
including career skills. They also learn about careers in and related to
arts disciplines.
4. Promotion of alignment of standards-based curriculum,
assessment, and instruction throughout the grades at the
school and school district levels to provide a comprehensive,
coherent structure for visual and performing arts teaching
and learning.
That alignment will prepare students to meet the new visual and performing arts requirement for freshman admission to the University of California
Chapter 1
Guiding Principles
of the Framework
4
Chapter 1
Guiding Principles
of the Framework
and the California State University (see Appendix B). It will also require
that teachers be prepared through preservice and in-service professional
development programs to teach a standards-based curriculum in the arts.
5. View of assessment of student work as essential to a
standards-based program in the arts.
The assessment of student work in the arts helps students learn more
about what they know and can do, provides teachers with information for
improving curriculum and instruction, and gives school districts the data
required for ensuring accountability. Performance assessments, such as
those involving portfolios, projects, exhibitions, and reflections, are
inherent in the arts and in the artistic process.
6. Expansion of an emphasis on using new media and electronic
technology in the arts.
In the past 200 years, technological processes have provided many new
ways of making, recording, and delivering the arts, allowing a variety of
systems to document, create, and teach dance, music, theatre, and the
visual arts. This framework uses the term new media and electronic
technology to reach back over the past 200 years to photography and film
and includes the most recent developments in computer technology and
electronic, audio, and digital media.
7. Inclusion of all learners in the classroom.
At each school level arts instruction should provide avenues in which each
student can work at a personalized pace to learn and develop self-expression
and self-confidence. Curriculum and instruction may need to be modified
or adapted to encourage the successful participation of students with
a variety of disabilities and those who excel or have a special interest
in the arts.
8. A broad view of culture.
Students experience the five component strands in the arts content
standards from the perspective of American culture and of worldwide
ethnic, racial, religious, and cultural groups. Respect for the multiplicity
of cultures pervades the framework and the content standards.
9. Recognition of the role the arts play in preparing students
for careers and full participation in society.
Arts education provides direct training for jobs in the flourishing arts
industry in California. (See examples of careers in the visual and
performing arts in Appendix C.) According to information on workforce
5
development related to arts education, “Creative industries are key to the
economy of California and a source of future employment for up to one in
five California students.” 1 Further, education in the arts prepares students
for work in any field. The National Governors Association (NGA) states
that “programs incorporating the arts have proven to be educational, developmentally rich, and cost-effective ways to provide students with the skills
they need to be productive participants in today’s economy.” It also
expresses the conviction that the arts are one tool that states can use to
enhance workforce readiness for students in both general and at-risk
populations. 2
10. Usefulness to teachers, arts professionals, library media
teachers, administrators, parents, and supporters of the arts.
The Visual and Performing Arts Framework is a tool for teachers and a guide
for publishers and those who develop educational materials. It is also useful
to those planning arts programs as well as to staff developers, artists who
teach in the schools, principals, district and county leaders of curriculum
and instruction, those who provide the arts in the community, college and
university arts teachers and educators, parents, community members, and
business and industry leaders.
Those involved in teaching the visual and performing arts may include
classroom teachers, library media teachers, arts specialist teachers, artists, and
community members. All who teach the arts are helping to shape students’
abilities to think, observe, create, use imagination, organize thoughts and feelings, assess critically, and respond in predictable and unpredictable ways. They
communicate to their students that the arts are about enjoying the rich benefits
of life, engaging in multiple opportunities for self-expression, and delighting in
the creative efforts of others. As students achieve in the arts, they participate in
society by looking at things carefully, hearing things thoughtfully, and feeling
things sensitively. When students have access to the arts throughout their
school years, they have opportunities to grow as creative, intellectual, and
spiritual human beings.
1
An Arts Education Research Compendium. Sacramento: California Arts Council, 2001, p. 6.
“The Impact of Arts Education on Workforce Preparation.” Issue brief, National Governors
Association for Best Practices, May 1, 2002.
2
Chapter 1
Guiding Principles
of the Framework
2
Planning, Implementing,
and Evaluating Arts
Education Programs
8
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
Planning, Implementing,
and Evaluating Arts
Education Programs
T
he careful planning and implementation of comprehensive, standardsbased visual and performing arts education programs are essential to
success. (See Chapter 1 for a discussion of the guiding principles for
such programs.) Topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:
• Planning and administering comprehensive, standards-based arts
education programs
• Conducting arts education programs at three levels of schooling
• Partnering with the school library staff
• Promoting partnerships and collaborations
• Evaluating arts education programs
• Providing access for all students
• Applying new media and electronic technology
Teachers, artists who teach in the schools, and those who plan or develop
local arts education programs will benefit from the content of this chapter because it includes all of the arts within the context of comprehensive visual and
performing arts education programs. In addition, administrators, superintendents, principals, curriculum developers, and school board members will find
the descriptions in this chapter helpful as they plan arts education programs
for all students.
Planning Arts Education Programs
Much of the success of educational programs hinges on how well counties,
school districts, and schools collaborate, how much the parents are involved,
and to what extent colleges, universities, and communities participate in designing and implementing the programs. All students benefit when the school district governing board, district administrators, school staff members, parents,
and the community together acknowledge the arts as basic in education, value
the arts, and consider each arts discipline in planning for facilities, resources,
professional development, and assessment.
9
Establishing arts education programs in a school or school district requires
examining existing site or district programs. In doing so, school or district administrators may want to consider using an assessment tool, such as the Arts
Education Program Toolkit.1 Developed by the Model Arts Program Network
School Districts in collaboration with the California Department of Education,
the toolkit provides a way for schools and school districts to determine what
they have and what they need in their arts education programs. This self-study
helps develop short- and long-term plans for the gradual implementation of a
standards-based curriculum articulated through the grade levels.
The toolkit is but one example of many available self-evaluation and planning processes, each following similar steps. By using it, a district or school site
can determine the implementation level of an arts program—foundation,
building, or best practices—and identify the next steps to be taken. The use of
the toolkit’s continuum generates conversation, stimulates research, builds consensus, enhances decision making, and supports planning. As each of the ten
focus areas and criteria is discussed, issues arise about the elements valued in an
arts education program for all students. In examining a school or district program, school or district administrators should consider the following areas
(identified in the toolkit):
• Standards-based curriculum
• Instruction and methodology
• Student assessment
• Professional development for those implementing the arts education
program
• Qualified teachers, personnel, and program administration
• Partnerships and collaborations
• Budgetary needs
• Facilities, logistics, and necessary resources
• Program evaluation
• Time and timing
Administering Arts Education Programs
District-level administrators and staff, from superintendents to visual and
performing arts coordinators and lead teachers, are key participants in implementing district policies for arts education programs. The first steps to be taken
are to complete a self-study of the current arts education programs; gain the
endorsement of a long-range plan by district, school, and community
1
Arts Education Program Toolkit: A Visual and Performing Arts Assessment Process. Sacramento:
California Department of Education, 2001.
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
10
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
stakeholders; and have the plan adopted by the school district governing board.
The long-range plan should include the following elements:
• Allocating personnel and instructional resources, including appropriate
materials, equipment, and facilities
• Ensuring that the district has a standards-based arts curriculum for
kindergarten through grade eight and high school • Developing
collaboration to support the program with school district,
community, state, and national resources
• Securing funding and grants for the arts education program within and
outside the district
When educators analyze standards-based instruction, many discover
that their classroom instruction already follows a standards-based approach.
Students are engaged in meaningful work and the creative process, know what
is expected of them, can describe what they are doing and why, demonstrate
habits of rehearsal and revision, can discuss work in progress in terms of quality,
describe what assistance they need, and see their teachers as advocates and
coaches.
Implementing comprehensive arts education programs involves different
levels of administration: school district, school site, and classroom levels.
School District Level
In implementing a standards-based visual and performing arts curriculum,
district administrators should consider:
• Short- and long-range plans (How well are arts programs being developed in the short term and over time at the school site and school
district levels?)
• T
eacher capacity (In what areas do teachers need professional development to teach a standards-based visual and performing arts curriculum?)
• Benchmarks for success in the arts for all students (How do we know
students are gaining proficiency in the visual and performing arts
standards?)
• D
istribution of arts instruction across all grades (How do we implement
standards-based arts instruction across the grade levels for all students?)
• Allocation of resources (What teachers, materials, equipment, books,
electronic media, facilities, and community partnerships do we need?)
For further information see Appendix D, “Continuum for Implementing
Arts Education Programs.”
School Site Level
The roles of site administrators and school site councils are crucial to
the planning and success of visual and performing arts programs at schools.
11
Although site administrators are not required to be arts experts, they must be
advocates for the arts. Accordingly, they must know the content standards and
understand the connection between the visual and performing arts standards
and the five strands that connect instruction and content (see Chapter 1).
Site administrators must work with school staff members, parents, and the
community to set a plan in motion that includes broad-based representation
and participation and ensures that all students receive a standards-based
curriculum in the visual and performing arts.
In addition to establishing a collaborative planning and implementation
process, site administrators must ensure that the arts are included in the basic
education of all students by:
• Allowing enough time to teach the arts to all students and preparation
time for those teaching the arts
• Providing appropriate facilities, necessary equipment, equipment repair,
and materials
• Ensuring that subject-centered instruction and arts instruction relating
art to other subjects are occurring in elementary school classrooms and
that student have access to the arts through appropriate scheduling of
teachers and students in subject-centered classes at the middle school
and high school levels
• Allowing opportunities for teachers to meet across grade levels and
subject areas for planning
• Advocating the importance of the arts for all students to parents and
members of the community
• Providing opportunities for exhibitions and performances of works in
progress and final products in schools and in the community as curricular and cocurricular educational experiences
• Providing opportunities for community artists and performers to
collaborate with teachers in delivering a standards-based visual and
performing arts curriculum to students in classrooms and in community
museums, galleries, and performance venues
• Providing time for periodic evaluation of the arts education program
at the school level
Classroom Level
In implementing a comprehensive, standards-based visual and performing
arts curriculum, teachers will:
• Design and conduct instructional activities aligned with the standards.
• Evaluate student work and make fair and credible judgments of
quality.
• Manage data and plan instruction accordingly.
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
12
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
• C
ommunicate specific expectations and provide explicit feedback
to students.
• Use student feedback to improve arts instruction. • Teach
students to evaluate their own work.
• Be relentless in pursuit of improved performance. the community’s expectations for student performance.
• Understand
Conducting Arts Education Programs
The elements and benefits of high-quality, comprehensive, standards-based
visual and performing arts programs implemented at the elementary school,
middle school, and high school levels are described as follows. Expectations for
teachers and students are included.
Elementary School Level
Arts programs in the early grades provide essential first steps for students as
they develop their ability to communicate their thoughts, feelings, and understanding concerning the world around them. Through the arts the students
gain the knowledge and skills needed to express their ideas creatively in verbal
and nonverbal ways. The programs should include performing and experiencing the arts as well as talking, reading, and writing about them. The delivery of
programs to help students achieve the arts content standards may involve the
collaboration of credentialed arts specialists, classroom teachers, professional
artists, and other community resource persons to support standards-based arts
experiences. For example, the classroom teacher, who knows the curriculum,
can provide follow-up lessons after a visit by a guest artist or a community
performance and can make connections, highlight relationships, and introduce
applications as appropriate.
Teachers, knowledgeable about the artistic and aesthetic development of
their students, should respect the students’ self-expressions. They should include activities in the arts that relate to the interests of the students, such as
artwork and performances initiated, designed, and completed by the students,
and should balance student-initiated and teacher-directed activities. In addition, by having students read literature about the arts and artists that includes
stories, biographies, and histories of dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts,
the teacher helps the students understand the connections between the creative
work they do and that done by others.
Middle School Level
Exploration, an important part of a middle school arts program, should
include all the requisites of the standards-based elementary-level program with
essential additions. Courses in the four arts disciplines (dance, music, theatre,
13
and the visual arts) are designed to increase and refine students’ knowledge and
skills beyond those learned at the elementary school level. Students may
experience one or all four arts disciplines to expand their knowledge and skill
and to make personal connections with the world, the school, and themselves.
When students are taught by specialists in each discipline, they should continue
their development in the five strands of each of those disciplines. Strategies for
implementation may include a rotation or exploratory schedule for all students
along with yearlong courses for students interested in more in-depth study in
one or more of the arts.
In middle school arts specialist teachers should direct students to achieve
the content standards within each discipline. School district and school administrators and faculty should collaborate with visiting artists and community arts
resources to provide a comprehensive arts program for all students that is standards-based and relevant. Middle school students should begin to develop a
firm foundation in the arts disciplines to be prepared for more focused study in
one or more of the arts in high school. Accordingly, articulation needs to occur
between the middle school and high school arts teachers.
High School Level
High school arts programs should be based on an overall vision of
secondary education. That is, they should engage every student in a rigorous,
standards-based curriculum enabling the student to make the transition from
high school to higher education and a career. During their high school years,
students have the opportunity to continue with in-depth instruction in the arts
by selecting standards-based courses in one or more of the four arts disciplines.
After a one-year course, a student should reach the beginning or proficient level
of achievement described in the arts content standards. And after two or more
years in the same discipline, a student should reach the advanced level of
achievement (see Chapter 3). Yearlong high school courses in dance, music,
theatre, and the visual arts should all be approved to meet the new visual and
performing arts requirement for freshman admission to the University of
California and the California State University (see Appendix B).
Through careful planning and allocation of resources, problems in
scheduling and cooperative curriculum planning of subject-centered and
arts-connected instruction can be accommodated. Credentialed arts specialist
teachers should provide the instruction, and professional artists and other arts
providers can serve as important resources. Student clubs, parent groups, and
community resources all enhance the curriculum by helping to create an environment that encourages all students to develop an appreciation of and support
for the arts. A later section, titled “Promoting Partnerships and Collaborations,”
in this chapter provides ideas on working with the arts community to
ensure unified support for a successful arts program.
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
14
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
Partnering with the School Library Staff
The school library serves as an integral partner in the delivery of the visual
and performing arts curriculum. It should house a large shared collection of
materials in various formats accessible to all students and staff and should provide assistance and support for the visual and performing arts instructional
program.
The school library should provide a variety of resources for all students to
help them talk, read, and write about the arts. Suggested examples would include biographies of people in the arts suitable to various reading levels, picture
books that illustrate a variety of art genres, and circulating collections of art
prints, audio CDs, rhythm instruments, videos that showcase artists in production, and fine art reproductions. Such materials provide students with hands-on
experiences and background for artistic development and expression. In addition, plays, monologues, sheet music, art production software, specialized
magazines, and online resources help middle and high school students to refine
their knowledge and skills in the arts.
Because the school library is used by all students and staff and is often open
to parents and the community, it provides an effective location for a variety of
activities related to the arts. It can be a prime location for rotating displays of
student artwork, often including ceramics, photography, and digital art
projects. Further, puppet plays, skits, and storytelling that are a regular part of
the school library program can be presented as a natural link to the dramatic
arts. As with guest authors, illustrators of children’s books can meet with groups
of students in the library. In a middle school or high school, the school library
can also be a venue for performances by a chamber music group, jazz band, or
madrigal group.
The credentialed library media teacher should serve as a partner in instruction, technology applications, and use of resources, collaborating with classroom teachers and visual and performing arts specialists in providing enriching
experiences for students in the arts. Research projects related to the arts should
be designed and coordinated within this collaborative partnership, thus infusing
rich resources and information literacy into the content areas.
Promoting Partnerships and Collaborations
The collaborative nature of the arts should lead to partnerships between
schools, school districts, county offices of education, the business community,
professional artists, nonprofit and for-profit arts providers, parents with arts
expertise, and parent volunteers. Such partnerships expand the capabilities of
the school and bring students into direct contact with the arts and artists. Further, they satisfy the responsibility of arts organizations to the community,
improve their educational function, and, by involving the participation of the
15
next generation, advance their interest in building audiences. Partnerships also
allow the pooling of resources and ideas, the sharing of workloads, and the
expansion of funding bases; strengthen political advocacy; and provide professional development. All partners should benefit from collaborations. For example, when a school is linked with a community performing arts group, performing artists may be permitted to rehearse in the school arts facilities and
present performances in the auditorium. Visual artists may be offered the use of
studio space.
Each school district should provide leadership and support for coordinating
arts resources. For example, a district arts coordinator might develop community partnerships, write grants to fund special programs, and ensure that arts
resources reach every school. A comprehensive, articulated program of arts education should incorporate the unique resources of the whole community. In
California these resources may include administrators and teachers who understand the goals of arts education, individual artists in each discipline, arts providers, local arts agencies or councils, architects, public art, museums, special
exhibitions, performing arts centers, theatres, performing companies, artist
studios and cooperatives, clubs and societies, and businesses and industries that
support the arts.
Often, dress-rehearsal performances of professional productions are made
available to students at a reduced cost, and in some cities the musicians’ union
arranges programs for schools. Additionally, some community foundations
specialize in providing funding and arts programs for schools. Business and
industries with a connection to the arts and local and national foundations may
provide guest speakers, job shadowing, professional development for teachers,
grants, materials, and equipment. And service learning may provide students
with the opportunity to build partnerships within and across the arts community. Implementing a standards-based arts curriculum within the context of
filling a real need in the community enhances the meaning of the learning experience for students and fosters civic responsibility.
A school-level arts liaison might communicate with the community
through a representative of the local arts council or individuals knowledgeable
about arts facilities and performances in the area. Meetings between community
representatives, arts chairpersons, and teachers of the arts should become routine so that an effective program of community arts experiences can be planned
for the school—a program that is aligned with and supports a standards-based
curriculum.
Local arts agencies can provide information about artists and performers
available for guest appearances or as artists-in-residence. The agencies know
about exhibitions or festivals opening in the region and performances scheduled
in theatres and concert halls. Then arts chairpersons and faculties can decide
which arts experiences should enhance standards-based student learning most
effectively and deepen the impact of instruction.
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
16
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
Guest artists and artists-in-residence can be an important part of a school’s
visual and performing arts program. In addition, community resource persons,
administrators, parents, arts chairpersons, and arts teachers can ensure that the
program is well defined and efficiently run. For example, transportation should
be made available for students to visit arts venues, artists should be scheduled
for classroom visits, materials should be well organized, and facilities should be
up to date and safe.
Joint planning may include a provision for including guest artists and
artists-in-residence with the school’s generalist and specialist teachers in professional development programs. Programs of this kind are mutually beneficial.
That is, the teachers learn about current developments in art forms, and the
guest artists and artists-in-residence learn how to adapt their teaching so that the
students will gain standards-based knowledge and skills. Whenever possible, such
professional development programs might also include school board members,
administrators, other faculty, and parents.
Integrating community artists into a comprehensive, standards-based arts
program brings the experiences of practicing artists to the students, who learn
that artists struggle continually to solve problems, improve their skills, focus on
meaning, and communicate effectively in their art form. Thus, students begin to
see themselves as members of a community of artists who inherit long-standing
traditions across time and place.
Evaluating Arts Education Programs
Once a school district has adopted a policy on arts education and has begun
to implement a long-range plan for arts education, it should consider ongoing
program evaluation. The program should be reviewed continually to identify
areas needing improvement. After students, parents, teachers, administrators, and
community members have submitted their comments on the proposed evaluation, it should be revised and expanded, including providing a new timeline.
A structured, ongoing evaluation of the visual and performing arts education
program and implementation plan should provide a general profile of what has
been accomplished, what is still needed, and what would revitalize the program.
An ongoing arts education committee can be effective in monitoring the implementation process and keeping the school board, the district superintendent, the
school staff, and the community updated on progress.
A preliminary self-evaluation instrument may include questions designed to
collect baseline data for comparing program results later. Such questions may
include asking why the program has been effective and successful, what the contributing factors have been, which resources have been particularly effective, and
what has been left undone.
In the revision and expansion of the arts education program and implementation plan, focus should be placed on what financial and human resources are
17
available to expand a program, what changes have occurred in the student demographics in the school or district that require program changes, and what
kind of professional staff development is needed.
Answers to such questions provide information and data that drive longterm planning efforts. Therefore, because additional program goals and tasks
may become evident, the cycle of planning, implementing, and evaluating begins again. As plans and objectives are accomplished, revised, and expanded, the
focus should remain on providing a high-quality, standards-based education in
the visual and performing arts for all students at each grade level.
Providing Access for All Students
Visual and performing arts education should provide all students with opportunities to advance artistically and cognitively, develop self-expression and
self-confidence, and experience accomplishment. Instruction in each of the arts
disciplines provides experiences and avenues for student learning and ways to
meet the needs of students with diverse learning styles and abilities. Because in
the visual arts most production is individualized, different learning styles can be
accommodated. And in the performing arts, the use of ensembles provides opportunities for students of varied ages and expertise to succeed and learn from
each other. The use of a variety of teaching strategies (for example, separating
students individually, in pairs, in small groups, and in large groups) provides
opportunities for everyone to succeed. All students should be encouraged to
participate in dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts as performers and as
members of the audience.
Arts instruction should be modified to encourage the successful participation of students with disabilities. The advent of theatre for the deaf, wheelchair
dance, museum tours for the visually impaired, and access by touch to musical
sounds makes the arts more accessible. Special education staff can collaborate
with teachers to plan, suggest, and recommend modifications.
The following Web sites provide resources for addressing the needs of
students with disabilities:
California Special Education Programs: A Composite of Laws Database.
Education Code, Part 30, “Other Related Laws,” and California Code
of Regulations, Title 5. http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/se/sr/selinks.asp
Special Education Laws and Regulations Database. http://eit.otan.dni.us/
speced/laws_search/searchlaws.cfm.
Appropriate accommodations can be made to challenge students who excel
in the visual and performing arts. They should be provided with instruction
and opportunities to enrich and extend their expertise. And they should have
access to such special district offerings as the gifted and talented education and
international baccalaureate programs, arts magnet schools, advanced placement
classes, and districtwide or communitywide events or performances.
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
18
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
Applying New Media and Electronic
Technology
The computer is an amplifier. It can only make what you bring to it larger.
If you come to new media, electronic arts, without a firm grounding in the
foundations of your art, you’ll miss art’s major lessons that connect you
with a long history of human endeavor in that realm. . . . Teach sculpture
with clay first, and once students have clay under their fingernails, once
they know you have to walk around a sculpture to experience it, they
can start on 3D computer modeling, where you stand still and rotate the
artwork. The difference may be subtle from the outside, but those who
succeed are those who have breadth to go with their depth, who bring
a solid knowledge of the traditional to their amazing work mixing
technology and art.
—Randy Nelson, Dean, Pixar University, Pixar Animation Studios
New media and electronic technology extend the horizons of the arts in
directions not yet imagined. In all disciplines artists have traditionally used and
combined technologies to create and express ideas. The use of electronic media
(digital video, animation, and photo software) juxtaposed with the use of traditional media (paper, paints, classroom tools) expands the boundaries of space
and time. For today’s artists new media are altering the direction and escalating
the pace of exploration within and between arts disciplines. They have easy
access to vast amounts of artistic media, materials, processes, and information
about historical and contemporary artists. Through technological advances the
means for creating, displaying, duplicating, enhancing, and communicating
aesthetic ideas are provided to artists.
The development of a solid foundation in an arts discipline brings depth to
the mixing of technology and art so that students can be bold and innovative in
discovering themselves and the world around them. As equipment becomes
more accessible, students have the opportunity to use technology to enhance
their artistic skills and create more professional productions and performances.
They can use technology to produce animation, analyze works of art, create
graphic designs, design sets, develop choreography, computerize stage lighting
and scenery, and compose, edit, mix, practice, and sequence music.
New media and electronic technology can be incorporated into lessons,
presentations, and explorations in each of the arts disciplines and utilized to
connect the arts with other curriculum areas. For example, videos of significant
moments in world history or monologues based on important speeches produced in theatre classes can be shared in history–social science classes. And
color theory learned through the use of computer software in the visual arts
class can be applied to vocational courses, such as interior decoration, floral
design, or fashion design. Creating works through electronic technology
19
requires a variety of life skills, such as planning and preparing, managing time,
meeting deadlines, collaborating, and resolving conflicts.
When school districts and schools plan for improving and adding new
media and electronic technology, the arts teachers should be included in the
discussion. Infusing new media and electronic technology into the arts curriculum provides a great opportunity for building partnerships with business
and industry, especially in California, the home of numerous computer and
software companies, animation studios, and television and motion picture
production centers. These companies may be resources for grants, equipment,
software, educational materials, staff development, job shadowing, guest speakers, career education, and field trips. When creating partnerships, one must
remember that partnering is a two-way process with benefits to all participants.
Examples of Technology in the Arts
In some classrooms across California right now:
• Kindergarten students use
electronic media as a tool and a
delivery system by taking digital
photos of works of art and
downloading them into a digital
slideshow for an electronic
gallery. The slideshow itself may
become a work of art.
• Digital photos of a third-grade
mural project are uploaded to a
school Web site and shared with
the community and relatives
across the country.
• Fourth graders create individual
dance videos with the digital
camera and short videos to share
with other students.
• Middle school students create
three-dimensional figures, using
animation software and blueprint
design to create clay sculptures.
• As part of their community
service, high school students
create digital or video film
documentaries or docudramas
to share an experience in theatre
class with eighth-grade students.
• High school jazz ensemble
students review the videotape
of the past week’s clinic with an
adjudicator and learn how they
can improve their technique and
performance.
• Teachers and students visit
visual and performing artists
and return to the classroom
with a videotaped interview and
demonstration of a process to
share with other students.
Chapter 2
Planning,
Implementing,
and Evaluating
Arts Education
Programs
3
Visual and Performing Arts
Content Standards
22
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Visual and Performing Arts
Content Standards
F
or the first time in the history of California public schools, the content
of the visual and performing arts curriculum for each grade level has
been officially adopted by the California State Board of Education (see
the Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools).1
These content standards provide guidance to schools as they determine the
curricula and desired outcomes for students, ensuring sequential building and
expanding of knowledge and skills as the students advance through the grades.
Together, teachers and curriculum developers decide on what will best support
attainment of the content standards, what the desired outcomes will be, and
how students can demonstrate what they know and can do.
Standards-based instruction in dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts is
designed to ensure that students reach the proficient level of achievement in
each of the five strands of the content standards: artistic perception; creative
expression; historical and cultural context; aesthetic valuing; and connections,
relationships, and applications. The content standards establish the basis for
curriculum development and professional development for those involved in
visual and performing arts programs. Classroom teachers, arts teacher specialists, teaching artists, visiting artists, parents, and community members may be
involved in teaching the arts in the schools. Therefore, it is extremely important
to have agreed-upon written expectations for student learning at each grade
level.
Format of the Content Standards
The content standards are presented in this framework in charts designed
for use by administrators, teachers, curriculum planners, and parents. At a
glance one can see the standards for each of the arts disciplines at a given grade
level according to strand and learn what needs to be accomplished at each level.
For grades nine through twelve, the proficient and advanced levels are
shown side by side for each strand in each arts discipline. The term proficient
1
Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools, Prekindergarten Through
Grade Twelve. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2001.
23
refers to what students should know and be able to do on completion of a oneyear course in one of the arts disciplines. The expectation is based on the accomplishment of students who participated in an arts education program from
kindergarten through grade eight.
Many students elect to take additional high school arts courses to achieve
the advanced level of achievement. The term advanced means that students
have completed more than one course in a given arts discipline. That level can
be attained at the end of a second year of high school study in an arts discipline
after the proficient or beginning-level course has been completed. What is
taught at the proficient level and how the advanced-level content builds on that
knowledge and skill become evident on the charts.
When reading the standards at a particular grade level, one must know
which standards were accomplished in all the previous grade levels to understand how expectations are based on prior learning. In addition, an examination of the standards for any of the art forms at a given grade level reveals overlaps and points of connection across the strands because the strands and the
visual and performing arts content standards are intrinsically related.
Key Content Standards
Each arts discipline and artistic process has many entry points throughout
the grades. Because particular ideas, concepts, and experiences are critical to
student achievement at certain times in their artistic and cognitive development, the standards provide students with a picture of what is essential to
know and be able to do, kindergarten through
grade eight, in each of the four arts disciplines.
The key content standards provide a beginning
point for standards-based instruction in each of the
elementary school and middle school grades, focusing on fundamental content that students with any
level of prior knowledge need to move to the next
level of understanding and expression. Like the
complete standards, the key standards build up
content in each successive grade level and spiral
throughout the curriculum for kindergarten through
grade eight. They are essential in preparing students
for beginning-level high school arts courses in
which they engage in more focused and
independent work.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
24
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Kindergarten
K
indergarten students dance, sing, act, and paint, exploring their world
through their senses and improving their perceptual skills, so important to
learning and performing in the arts. They can act like cats; move to music,
rhythm, and sounds; and turn everyday movements such as walking and jumping into dance. Listening to music, they repeat the tempo with rhythm sticks
and pretend and act out the stories they hear and
the pictures they see by performing group pantomimes and improvisations. They like to
talk about what they see in pictures and
use glue and scissors with enthusiasm
while learning about line, color, shape,
texture, value, and space in the world
around them and in works of art.
While learning vocabulary in each of
the arts disciplines, they see, listen, and
respond to dance, music, theatre, and
the visual arts from various cultures
and time periods. For kindergarten
students the arts are among their first
exciting adventures in learning. They are
beginning to develop the vocabulary and
skills unique to the arts.
Dance
Students learn many ways to move through space and respond to
their teacher’s instructions to hop, turn, wiggle, or be still. They
use this ability to control their movements, express ideas, and
respond to different types of music. By learning folk and traditional
dances, they can talk about how the dances are the same or different by
using such terms as costume, speed, and force. They also learn to distinguish
between everyday movements and dance movements.
Music
In music students sing and play instruments, become aware of
music in their daily experience, and learn about music from various
cultures. Creating movements in response to music helps them
connect to dance and discern variations in rhythm, tempo, and
dynamics.
25
Theatre
In theatre students learn the difference between an actor portraying an imaginary character and a real person. Like actors, they
begin to use their senses to observe the world and people and
re-create in their minds a feeling or situation to help with character development. They learn that sense memory, which involves sight, smell, touch, taste,
or hearing, is an important skill for actors to develop. With their newly acquired skills, they can retell a familiar story, myth, or fable and enjoy adding
costumes and props to their performance. By portraying firefighters, teachers,
and clerks, they learn acting skills. And by developing important skills through
working together in dramatizations, they begin to understand what it means to
be a member of the audience.
Visual Arts
In the visual arts students may walk together and observe the
repeated patterns made by the leaves on a tree or the bricks on the
side of a building. They also may identify lines, colors, shapes and
forms, and textures and observe changes in the shadows and in
sunlight. And they may begin to talk about perspective, noticing how
objects appear to be larger when close and smaller when far away. Students use
this visual information to create works of art on paper and in three-dimensional
constructions, using geometric shapes and lines that express feelings. Then they
advance into analysis as they discover meaning and stories in works of art and
see how other artists use the same lines, colors, shapes, and textures as the students did in their own work. Now they have a vocabulary to use as they tell
why they like a work of art they made and learn about a variety of artwork in
the world around them.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Kindergarten
26
Key Content Standards
Kindergarten
Dance
1.2 (Artistic Perception)
Perform basic locomo­
tor skills (e.g., walk,
run, gallop, jump, hop,
and balance).
1.3 (Artistic Perception)
Understand and
respond to a wide
range of opposites
(e.g., high/low,
forward/backward,
wiggle/freeze).
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Create movements
that reflect a variety of
personal experiences
(e.g., recall feeling
happy, sad, angry,
excited).
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Explain basic features
that distinguish one
kind of dance from
another (e.g., speed,
force/energy use,
costume, setting,
music).
Music
1.2 (Artistic Perception)
Identify and describe
basic elements in music
(e.g., high/low, fast/slow,
loud/soft, beat).
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Sing age-appropriate
songs from memory.
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Play instruments and
move or verbalize to
demonstrate awareness
of beat, tempo, dynam­
ics, and melodic direc­
tion.
Theatre
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Use the vocabulary of
theatre, such as actor,
character, cooperation,
setting, the five senses,
and audience to
describe theatrical
experiences.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Perform group
pantomimes and
improvisations to
retell familiar stories.
3.1 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Retell or
dramatize stories,
myths, fables, and fairy
tales from various
cultures and times.
Visual Arts
1.3 (Artistic Perception)
Identify the elements
of art (line, color,
shape/form, texture,
value, space) in the
environment and
in works of art,
emphasizing line,
color, and
shape/form.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Describe what is
seen (including both
literal and expressive
content) in selected
works of art.
27
Kindergarten Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students read, notate, listen
to, analyze, and describe
music and other aural infor­
mation, using the terminology
of music.
Students observe their
environment and respond,
using the elements of theatre.
They also observe formal and
informal works of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media and respond, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
Students perceive and
respond, using the elements
of dance. They demonstrate
movement skills, process
sensory information, and
describe movement, using the
vocabulary of dance.
Development of Motor Skills
and Technical Expertise
1.1 Build the range and
capacity to move in a
variety of ways.
1.2 Perform basic
locomotor skills
(e.g., walk, run,
gallop, jump, hop,
and balance).
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Use icons or invented
symbols to represent
beat.
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
Develop Perceptual Skills
and Visual Arts Vocabulary
1.1 Use the vocabulary of
theatre, such as actor,
character, coopera­
tion, setting, the five
senses, and audience,
to describe theatrical
experiences.
1.1 Recognize and describe
simple patterns found in
the environment and
works of art.
1.2 Name art materials
(e.g., clay, paint, and
crayons) introduced
in lessons.
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
Comprehension and Analysis
of the Elements of Theatre
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.3 Understand and
respond to a wide
range of opposites
(e.g., high/low,
forward/backward,
wiggle/freeze).
1.2 Identify differences
between real people
and imaginary
characters.
1.3 Identify the elements
of art (line, color,
shape/form, texture,
value, space) in the
environment and in
works of art, empha­
sizing line, color, and
shape/form.
Listen to, Analyze,
and Describe Music
1.2 Identify and describe
basic elements in music
(e.g., high/low, fast/slow,
loud/soft, beat).
Development of Dance
Vocabulary
1.4 Perform simple
movements in response
to oral instructions
(e.g., walk, turn, reach).
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
28
Kindergarten Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Theatre
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in the Visual Arts
Students apply vocal and
instrumental musical skills in
performing a varied reper­
toire of music. They compose
and arrange music and impro­
vise melodies, variations, and
accompaniments, using digital/
electronic technology when
appropriate.
Students apply processes and
skills in acting, directing,
designing, and scriptwriting
to create formal and informal
theatre, film/videos, and
electronic media productions
and to perform in them.
Students apply artistic
processes and skills, using a
variety of media to communi­
cate meaning and intent in
original works of art.
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and
skills to create and communi­
cate meaning through the
improvisation, composition,
and performance of dance.
Creation/Invention
of Dance Movements
2.1 Create movements
that reflect a variety
of personal experi­
ences (e.g., recall
feeling happy, sad,
angry, excited).
2.2 Respond to a variety of
stimuli (e.g., sounds,
words, songs, props, and
images) with original
movements.
2.3 Respond spontaneously
to different types of
music, rhythms, and
sounds.
Apply Vocal and
Instrumental Skills
2.1 Use the singing voice to
echo short, melodic
patterns.
2.2 Sing age-appropriate
songs from memory.
2.3 Play instruments and
move or verbalize
to demonstrate
awareness of beat,
tempo, dynamics,
and melodic
direction.
Development of
Theatrical Skills
2.1 Perform imitative
movements, rhythmical
activities, and theatre
games (freeze, statues,
and mirrors).
Creation/Invention in Theatre
2.2 Perform group
pantomimes and
improvisations to
retell familiar stories.
2.3 Use costumes and props
in role playing.
Compose, Arrange,
and Improvise
2.4 Create accompaniments,
using the voice or a
variety of classroom
instruments.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Skills, Processes, Materials,
and Tools
2.1 Use lines, shapes/forms,
and colors to make
patterns.
2.2 Demonstrate beginning
skill in the use of tools
and processes, such as
the use of scissors, glue,
and paper in creating a
three-dimensional con­
struction.
2.3 Make a collage with cut
or torn paper shapes/
forms.
Communication and
Expression Through Original
Works of Art
2.4 Paint pictures expressing
ideas about family and
neighborhood.
2.5 Use lines in drawings
and paintings to express
feelings.
2.6 Use geometric shapes/
forms (circle, triangle,
square) in a work of art.
2.7 Create a three-dimensional form, such as a
real or imaginary animal.
29
Kindergarten Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the function
and development of dance in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role of
music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diversity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Name and perform
folk/traditional dances
from the United States
and other countries.
3.1 Identify the various
uses of music in daily
experiences.
Diversity of Music
3.2 Sing and play simple
singing games from
various cultures.
3.3 Use a personal vocabu­
lary to describe voices
and instruments from
diverse cultures.
3.4 Use developmentally
appropriate movements
in responding to music
from various genres and
styles (rhythm, melody).
Students analyze the role
and development of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting diversity as it
relates to theatre.
Role and Cultural
Significance of Theatre
3.1 Retell or dramatize
stories, myths, fables,
and fairy tales from
various cultures and
times.
3.2 Portray different community members, such as
firefighters, family, teachers, and clerks, through
role-playing activities.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Role and Development
of the Visual Arts
3.1 Describe functional and
nonutilitarian art seen in
daily life; that is, works of
art that are used versus
those that are only
viewed.
3.2 Identify and describe
works of art that show
people doing things
together.
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.3 Look at and discuss
works of art from a
variety of times and
places.
30
Kindergarten Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of dance, performance of
dancers, and original works
based on the elements of
dance and aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis,
and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Explain basic fea­
tures that distinguish
one kind of dance
from another (e.g.,
speed, force/energy
use, costume, set­
ting, music).
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of music and the performance
of musicians according to
the elements of music, aes­
thetic qualities, and human
responses.
Derive Meaning
4.1 Create movements that
correspond to specific
music.
4.2 Identify, talk about, sing,
or play music written
for specific purposes
(e.g., work song, lullaby).
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of
theatre, film/video, elec­
tronic media, and theatrical
artists on the basis of aes­
thetic qualities.
Students analyze, assess, and
derive meaning from works
of art, including their own,
according to the elements of
art, the principles of design,
and aesthetic qualities.
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
Derive Meaning
4.1 Respond appropriately
to a theatrical experi­
ence as an audience
member.
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
4.2 Compare a real story
with a fantasy story.
4.1 Discuss their own
works of art, using
appropriate art vocabu­
lary (e.g., color, shape/
form, texture).
4.2 Describe what is
seen (including both
literal and expressive
content) in selected
works of art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.3 Discuss how and why
they made a specific
work of art.
4.4 Give reasons why they
like a particular work
of art they made,
using appropriate art
vocabulary.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
31
Kindergarten Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music to
Learning in Other Art Forms
and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Dramatize information
from other content
areas. Use movement
and voice, for example,
to reinforce vocabulary,
such as fast, slow, in, on,
through, over, under.
5.1 Draw geometric shapes/
forms (e.g., circles,
squares, triangles) and
repeat them in dance/
movement sequences.
5.2 Look at and draw
something used every
day (e.g., scissors, toothbrush, fork) and describe
how the object is used.
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Give examples of the
relationship between
everyday movement
in school and dance
movement.
Connections and Applications
5.1 Use music, together
with dance, theatre,
and the visual arts,
for storytelling.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Identify and talk about
the reasons artists have
for creating dances,
music, theatre pieces,
and works of visual art.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Demonstrate the ability
to participate coopera­
tively in performing a
pantomime or dramatizing a story.
Visual Literacy
5.3 Point out images
(e.g., photographs, paint­
ings, murals, ceramics,
sculptures) and symbols
found at home, in school,
and in the community,
including national and
state symbols and icons.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.4 Discuss the various
works of art (e.g., ceram­
ics, paintings, sculpture)
that artists create and
the type of media used.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
32
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade One
F
irst-grade students learn to work with others, know where they live, and
recognize that other people live far away. They also learn to listen when
others speak, and they begin to understand the role of school in their lives.
Students have much to learn in art classes. They are expected to begin to
develop the focus needed to succeed in creating and performing art. As they
sing, play music, do dramatics, draw, and paint, their purpose and intent become apparent. They learn how artists in the past performed the same activities
that contemporary artists continue today. By connecting the arts with other
content areas, students build their vocabulary and prereading skills, such as
defining the plot, predicting, summarizing, and recognizing the sequence of
events in a story.
Dance
Students use locomotor movements that carry them across the
room as well as axial movements of different parts of their bodies
while staying in place. As they learn to vary their movements by using
different degrees of force or energy, the movements become dynamic. By
joining the movements, students can perform brief dance sequences with a
beginning, middle, and end as in a story. They incorporate variety and patterns
and find that they can express emotions in the way they move. And through
folk and traditional dances, students learn more about why, when, and where
people dance and how dances are similar or different.
Music
Singing and playing classroom instruments improve students’
listening skills, accuracy and technique, and understanding of
musical forms. By improvising simple rhythmic accompaniments
and learning singing games from various cultures, students begin
their creative work in music. And they focus their listening and relate to
music and dance by creating and performing movements.
Theatre
Acting through facial expression, gestures, and movements alone
helps students develop characters. Without prior rehearsing or
scripting to improve their ability to improvise, students can create
scenes. For example, they can create tableaux, which are enjoyable and provide
33
a useful learning experience. In that activity they perform a silent, motionless
depiction of a scene from, for example, a story, a famous painting, or a moment
in history. In the process they identify the cultural and geographic origins of
stories.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Visual Arts
Students, working in flat, two-dimensional formats, create
three-dimensional works of art, using texture and color. Along
with learning the elements of art, such as line, color, shape, and
texture, students describe a variety of subject matter in works of art.
For example, they can examine landscapes portrayed in early morning
light or at night; seascapes on a calm or stormy day; portraits of men and
women, boys and girls; and still-life compositions of objects large to small,
bright to dull, and rough to smooth.
Grade One
34
Key Content Standards
Grade One
Dance
1.2 (Artistic Perception)
Perform short
movement problems,
emphasizing the
element of space
(e.g., shapes/lines,
big/small, high/low).
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Create a short move­
ment sequence with a
beginning, a middle,
and an end.
2.8 (Creative Expression)
Work with others in
a group to solve a
specific dance prob­
lem (e.g., design three
shapes—high, medium
and low; create slow
and fast movements).
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Describe the experi­
ence of dancing two
different dances
(e.g., Seven Jumps,
La Raspa).
Music
Theatre
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Sing with accuracy
in a developmentally
appropriate range.
2.4 (Creative Expression)
Improvise simple rhyth­
mic accompaniments,
using body percussion or
classroom instruments.
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing) Create
movements to music that
reflect focused listening.
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Use the vocabulary
of the theatre, such as
play, plot (beginning,
middle and end),
improvisation, pantomime,
stage, character, and
audience, to describe
theatrical experiences.
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Demonstrate skills in
pantomime, tableau, and
improvisation.
3.1 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Identify the
cultural and geographic
origins of stories.
Visual Arts
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Use texture in twodimensional and threedimensional works
of art.
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Identify and
describe various
subject matter in art
(e.g., landscapes,
seascapes, portraits,
still life).
35
Grade One Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students read, notate, listen
to, analyze, and describe
music and other aural infor­
mation, using the terminology
of music.
Students observe their
environment and respond,
using the elements of theatre.
They also observe formal and
informal works of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media and respond, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
Students perceive and
respond, using the elements
of dance. They demonstrate
movement skills, process
sensory information, and
describe movement, using
the vocabulary of dance.
Development of Motor Skills
and Technical Expertise
1.1 Demonstrate the ability
to vary control and
direct force/energy
used in basic locomotor
and axial movements
(e.g., skip lightly, turn
strongly, fall heavily).
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.2 Perform short
movement problems,
emphasizing the
element of space
(e.g., shapes/lines,
big/small, high/low).
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Read, write, and perform
simple patterns of
rhythm and pitch, using
beat, rest, and divided
beat (two sounds on one
beat).
Listen to, Analyze,
and Describe Music
1.2 Identify simple musical
forms (e.g., phrase, AB,
echo).
1.3 Identify common instru­
ments visually and aurally
in a variety of music.
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
Develop Perceptual Skills
and Visual Arts Vocabulary
1.1 Use the vocabulary
of the theatre, such as
play, plot (beginning,
middle, and end),
improvisation, panto­
mime, stage, character,
and audience, to
describe theatrical
experiences.
1.1 Describe and replicate
repeated patterns in
nature, in the environment, and in works
of art.
1.2 Distinguish among
various media when
looking at works of art
(e.g., clay, paints, drawing
materials).
Comprehension and Analysis
of the Elements of Theatre
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.2 Observe and describe
the traits of a character.
1.3 Identify the elements
of art in objects in
nature, in the environment, and in works of
art, emphasizing line,
color, shape/form, and
texture.
Development of Dance
Vocabulary
1.3 Name basic locomotor
and axial movements
(e.g., skip, slide, stretch,
roll).
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
36
Grade One Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Theatre
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in the Visual Arts
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and skills
to create and communicate
meaning through the improvisation,
composition, and performance
of dance.
Creation/Invention
of Dance Movements
2.1 Use improvisation to discover
movements in response to a
specific movement problem
(e.g., find a variety of ways to
walk; create five types of
circular movement).
2.2 Respond in movement to
a wide range of stimuli
(e.g., music, books, pictures,
rhymes, fabrics, props).
Application of Choreographic
Principles and Processes
to Creating Dance
2.3 Create a short movement
sequence with a begin­
ning, a middle, and an end.
2.4 Create shapes and movements
at low, middle, and high levels.
2.5 Imitate simple movement
patterns.
Students apply vocal and
instrumental musical skills
in performing a varied
repertoire of music. They
compose and arrange music
and improvise melodies,
variations, and accompani­
ments, using digital/electronic technology when
appropriate.
Apply Vocal and
Instrumental Skills
2.1 Sing with accuracy
in a developmen­
tally appropriate
range.
2.2 Sing age-appropriate
songs from memory.
2.3 Play simple accompani­
ments on classroom
instruments.
Compose, Arrange,
and Improvise
2.4 Improvise simple
rhythmic accompa­
niments, using
body percussion
or classroom
instruments.
Students apply processes
and skills in acting, direct­
ing, designing, and script­
writing to create formal
and informal theatre,
film/videos, and electronic
media productions and to
perform in them.
Development of
Theatrical Skills
2.1 Demonstrate skills
in pantomime,
tableau, and impro­
visation.
Creation/Invention
in Theatre
2.2 Dramatize or impro­
vise familiar simple
stories from classroom
literature or life expe­
riences, incorporating
plot (beginning, middle,
and end) and using
a tableau or a panto­
mime.
Communication of Meaning
in Dance
2.6 Express basic emotional quali­
ties (e.g., angry, sad, excited,
happy) through movement.
2.7 Perform improvised move­
ment ideas for peers.
Development of Partner
and Group Skills
2.8 Work with others in
a group to solve a
specific dance problem
(e.g., design three
shapes—high, medium,
and low; create slow and
fast movements).
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students apply artistic
processes and skills, using a
variety of media to communi­
cate meaning and intent in
original works of art.
Skills, Processes, Materials,
and Tools
2.1 Use texture in
two-dimensional and
three-dimensional
works of art.
2.2 Mix secondary colors
from primary colors and
describe the process.
2.3 Demonstrate beginning
skill in the manipulation
and use of sculptural
materials (clay, paper,
and papier maché) to
create form and texture
in works of art.
Communication and
Expression Through Original
Works of Art
2.4 Plan and use variations in
line, shape/form, color,
and texture to communi­
cate ideas or feelings in
works of art.
2.5 Create a representational
sculpture based on
people, animals, or
buildings.
2.6 Draw or paint a still life,
using secondary colors.
2.7 Use visual and actual
texture in original works
of art.
2.8 Create artwork based
on observations of actual
objects and everyday
scenes.
37
Grade One Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the function
and development of dance in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role of
music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diversity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Name and perform
folk/traditional dances
from other countries.
3.2 Describe aspects of the
style, costumes, and
music of a dance.
3.3 List commonalities
among basic locomotor
movements in dances
from various countries.
3.1 Recognize and talk about
music and celebrations of
the cultures represented
in the school population.
History and Function
of Dance
3.4 Identify where and when
people dance.
Diversity of Music
3.2 Sing and play simple
singing games from
various cultures.
3.3 Use a personal vocabu­
lary to describe voices,
instruments, and music
from diverse cultures.
3.4 Use developmentally
appropriate movements
in responding to music
from various genres,
periods, and styles
(rhythm, melody, form).
Students analyze the role
and development of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting diversity as it
relates to theatre.
Role and Cultural
Significance of Theatre
3.1 Identify the cultural
and geographic
origins of stories.
History of Theatre
3.2 Identify theatrical con­
ventions, such as props,
costumes, masks, and
sets.
3.3 Describe the roles
and responsibilities of
audience and actor.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Role and Development
of the Visual Arts
3.1 Recognize and discuss
the design of everyday
objects from various time
periods and cultures.
3.2 Identify and describe
various subject
matter in art
(e.g., landscapes,
seascapes, portraits,
still life).
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.3 View and then describe
art from various cultures.
3.4 Identify art objects
from various cultures
(e.g., Japanese screen
painting, Mexican tin art,
African masks) and
describe what they have
in common and how they
differ.
38
Grade One Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of dance, performance of
dancers, and original works
based on the elements of
dance and aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis,
and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Use basic dance
vocabulary to identify
and describe a dance
observed or performed
(e.g., shapes, levels,
directions, tempo/fastslow).
Meaning and Impact
of Dance
Students critically assess
and derive meaning from
works of music and the
performance of musicians
according to the elements
of music, aesthetic qualities,
and human responses.
Derive Meaning
4.1 Create movements
to music that reflect
focused listening.
4.2 Describe how ideas or
moods are communi­
cated through music.
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of the­
atre, film/video, electronic
media, and theatrical artists
on the basis of aesthetic
qualities.
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
4.1 Describe what was liked
about a theatrical work
or a story.
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
4.2 Identify and discuss
emotional reactions
to a theatrical
experience.
4.2 Describe the experi­
ence of dancing
two different dances
(e.g., Seven Jumps,
La Raspa).
4.3 Describe how they
communicate an idea
or a mood in a dance
(e.g., with exaggerated
everyday gesture or
emotional energies).
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze, assess,
and derive meaning from
works of art, including
their own, according to the
elements of art, the principles
of design, and aesthetic
qualities.
Derive Meaning
4.1 Discuss works of art
created in the classroom,
focusing on selected
elements of art
(e.g., shape/form,
texture, line, color).
4.2 Identify and describe
various reasons for
making art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.3 Describe how and why
they made a selected
work of art, focusing on
the media and technique.
4.4 Select something they
like about their work of
art and something they
would change.
39
Grade One Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music to
Learning in Other Art Forms
and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and manage­
ment of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Apply the theatrical
concept of beginning,
middle, and end to other
content areas. For
example, act out the life
cycle of a butterfly.
5.1 Clap out rhythmic
patterns found in the
lyrics of music and use
symbols to create visual
representations of the
patterns.
5.2 Compare and contrast
objects of folk art from
various time periods
and cultures.
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Demonstrate curricular
concepts through dance
(e.g., growth cycle,
animal movement).
5.2 Give examples of how
dance relates to other
subjects (e.g., mathematics—shape, counting;
language arts—beginning,
middle, and end).
Connections and Applications
5.1 Recognize and explain
how people respond to
their world through
music.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Describe how the
performance of songs
and dances improves
after practice and
rehearsal.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Demonstrate the ability
to work cooperatively
in presenting a tableau,
an improvisation, or a
pantomime.
Visual Literacy
5.3 Identify and sort pictures
into categories according
to the elements of art
emphasized in the works
(e.g., color, line, shape/
form, texture).
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.4 Describe objects
designed by artists
(e.g., furniture, appli­
ances, cars) that are
used at home and at
school.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
40
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Two
S
econd-grade students have learned a lot. They become excited when they
can connect their previous learning with something new or when they can
demonstrate their expanding skills. On their own and in small groups, they are
working to experiment and solve problems. Among their accomplishments
may appear brightly colored bits of modeling clay fashioned into tree frogs
representing a “new species” from a study of the diversity of life in the
rainforest; use of chants and clapping to mathematical rhythms and use of rap
music to memorize mathematical facts; a journal entry about a child’s picture
that includes the following sentence: “The diagonal lines show my legs are
moving.” Clearly, students are demonstrating acquired knowledge through
artistic self-expression.
Dance
Students begin to combine dance movements into short sequences by using varied tempos and rhythms. They move fast and
then very slowly, first in an AB sequence and then in an ABA
sequence. Their sequences have movements that reach high and bend
down low. Naming locomotor and axial movements used in dance, they identify them in dances from various countries that they learn to perform. When
they describe how movements in dance communicate ideas or moods and are
alike and different, they use the dance vocabulary they are learning, such as
tempo, rhythm, and levels. And they learn (1) that dance can benefit overall
health and well being; and (2) that working with partners and groups is an
important part of dance.
Music
Students learn verbal syllables, such as sol and fa, for the
degrees of the musical scale, called solfège. In doing so,
they learn to read, write, and perform simple
patterns of pitch, a process that leads to
a whole world of listening to, playing,
singing, and composing music.
41
Theatre
Students perform in group improvisations and learn theatrical
games to improve their skills. In the process they develop
cooperative skills and concentration and learn the vocabulary of
the theatre, such as plot, scene, sets, conflict, and script. As students retell familiar
stories and those from other cultures, they identify universal character types.
Visual Arts
Students continue to expand their understanding of the
elements of art and apply them as they learn to use basic tools
and art-making processes, such as printmaking and collage.
They describe art objects from various cultures and time periods
brought into the classroom for analysis. The objects are also analyzed
by a docent from a local museum. Now students are beginning to evaluate
their own work as they analyze what they intended to paint and how well they
succeeded.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Two
42
Key Content Standards
Grade Two
Dance
1.3 (Artistic Perception)
Perform short move­
ment problems, em­
phasizing the element
of time (e.g., varied
tempos, rhythmic
patterns, counting).
3.1 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Name and
perform social and
traditional dances from
various cultures.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Describe how the
movement in dances of
peers communicates
ideas or moods to the
viewer (e.g., ocean
environment or a sad
or joyous dance).
5.2 (Connections, Relation­
ships, Applications)
Demonstrate language
arts concepts through
dance (e.g., show
different punctuation
marks through move­
ment).
Music
1.2 (Artistic Perception) Read,
write, and perform
simple patterns of pitch,
using solfège.
2.4 (Creative Expression)
Improvise simple rhyth­
mic and melodic accom­
paniments, using voice
and a variety of class­
room instruments.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing) Create
developmentally appro­
priate movements to
express pitch, tempo,
form, and dynamics in
music.
Theatre
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Use the vocabulary of
theatre, such as plot
(beginning, middle, and
end), scene, sets, conflict,
script, and audience, to
describe theatrical
experiences.
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Perform in group im­
provisational theatrical
games that develop
cooperative skills and
concentration.
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Critique an actor’s
performance as to the
use of voice, gesture,
facial expression, and
movement to create
character.
Visual Arts
1.3 (Artistic Perception)
Identify the elements
of art objects in na­
ture, the environment,
and works of art,
emphasizing line, color,
shape/form, texture,
and space.
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Demonstrate begin­
ning skill in the use of
basic tools and artmaking processes, such
as printing, crayon
rubbings, collage, and
stencils.
3.2 (Historical and
Cultural Context)
Recognize and use the
vocabulary of art to
describe art objects
from various cultures
and time periods.
4.3 (Aesthetic Valuing) Use
the vocabulary of art
to talk about what
they wanted to do in
their own works of
art and how they
succeeded.
43
Grade Two Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students read, notate, listen
to, analyze, and describe
music and other aural infor­
mation, using the terminology
of music.
Students observe their
environment and respond,
using the elements of theatre.
They also observe formal and
informal works of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media and respond, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
Students perceive and
respond, using the elements
of dance. They demonstrate
movement skills, process
sensory information, and
describe movement, using
the vocabulary of dance.
Development of Motor Skills
and Technical Expertise
1.1 Show a variety of combi­
nations of basic locomo­
tor skills (e.g., walk and
run, gallop and jump, hop
and skip, slide and roll).
1.2 Show a variety of combi­
nations of axial move­
ments (e.g., swing and
balanced shapes, turn and
stretch, bend and twist).
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.3 Perform short
movement problems,
emphasizing the
element of time
(e.g., varied tempos,
rhythmic patterns,
counting).
1.4 Expand the ability to
incorporate spatial con­
cepts with movement
problems.
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Read, write, and perform
simple rhythmic patterns,
using eighth notes, quar­
ter notes, half notes,
and rests.
1.2 Read, write, and
perform simple
patterns of pitch,
using solfège.
Listen to, Analyze,
and Describe Music
1.3 Identify ascending/
descending melody
and even/uneven rhythm
patterns in selected
pieces of music.
1.4 Identify simple musical
forms, emphasizing
verse/refrain, AB, ABA.
1.5 Identify visually and
aurally individual wind,
string, brass, and percus­
sion instruments used in
a variety of music.
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
Develop Perceptual Skills
and Visual Arts Vocabulary
1.1 Use the vocabulary
of theatre, such as
plot (beginning,
middle, and end),
scene, sets, conflict,
script, and audience,
to describe theatrical
experiences.
1.1 Perceive and describe
repetition and balance
in nature, in the environ­
ment, and in works of
art.
1.2 Perceive and discuss
differences in mood
created by warm and
cool colors.
Comprehension and Analysis
of the Elements of Theatre
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.2 Use body and voice to
improvise alternative
endings to a story.
1.3 Identify the elements
of art in objects in
nature, the environ­
ment, and works of
art, emphasizing line,
color, shape/form,
texture, and space.
Development of Dance
Vocabulary
1.5 Name a large number
of locomotor and axial
movements used in
dance.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
44
Grade Two Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Theatre
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in the Visual Arts
Students apply vocal and
instrumental musical skills in
performing a varied reper­
toire of music. They compose
and arrange music and impro­
vise melodies, variations, and
accompaniments, using digital/
electronic technology when
appropriate.
Students apply processes and
skills in acting, directing,
designing, and scriptwriting to
create formal and informal
theatre, film/videos, and elec­
tronic media productions and
to perform in them.
Students apply artistic
processes and skills, using a
variety of media to communi­
cate meaning and intent in
original works of art.
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and
skills to create and communi­
cate meaning through impro­
visation, composition, and
performance of dance.
Creation/Invention
of Dance Movements
2.1 Create and improvise
movement patterns
and sequences.
2.2 Demonstrate multiple
solutions in response to
a given movement prob­
lem (e.g., In how many
ways can you travel from
point A to point B?).
Application of Choreographic
Principles and Processes
to Creating Dance
2.3 Create a simple se­
quence of movement
with a beginning, a
middle, and an end,
incorporating level and
directional changes.
2.4 Create shapes and
movements, using fast
and slow tempos.
2.5 Develop a dance phrase
that has a sense of unity.
Apply Vocal and
Instrumental Skills
2.1 Sing with accuracy in
a developmentally
appropriate range.
2.2 Sing age-appropriate
songs from memory.
2.3 Play rhythmic ostinatos
on classroom instru­
ments.
Compose, Arrange,
and Improvise
2.4 Improvise simple
rhythmic and melodic
accompaniments,
using voice and a
variety of classroom
instruments.
Development of Theatrical
Skills
2.1 Perform in group
improvisational
theatrical games
that develop
cooperative skills
and concentration.
Creation/Invention in Theatre
2.2 Retell familiar stories,
sequencing story points
and identifying character,
setting, and conflict.
2.3 Use improvisation to
portray such concepts
as friendship, hunger,
or seasons.
2.4 Create costume pieces,
props, or sets for a
theatrical experience.
Communication
of Meaning in Dance
2.6 Create, memorize,
and perform original
expressive movements
for peers.
Development of Partner
and Group Skills
2.7 Work cooperatively in
small and large groups.
2.8 Demonstrate partner
skills (e.g., imitating and
leading/following).
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Skills, Processes, Materials,
and Tools
2.1 Demonstrate begin­
ning skill in the use
of basic tools and
art-making processes,
such as printing,
crayon rubbings,
collage, and stencils.
2.2 Demonstrate beginning
skill in the use of art
media, such as oil
pastels, watercolors,
and tempera.
Communication and
Expression Through Original
Works of Art
2.3 Depict the illusion of
depth (space) in a work
of art, using overlapping
shapes, relative size, and
placement within the
picture.
2.4 Create a painting or
drawing, using warm or
cool colors expressively.
2.5 Use bilateral or radial
symmetry to create
visual balance.
45
Grade Two Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the function
and development of dance in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role of
music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diversity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Name and perform
social and traditional
dances from various
cultures.
3.2 Explain commonalities
among basic locomotor
and axial movements in
dances from various
countries.
3.3 Name and perform
rhythms from different
cultures (e.g., through
clapping, stamping, using
whole body movement).
3.1 Identify the uses of
specific music in daily
or special events.
Diversity of Music
3.2 Sing simple songs and
play singing games from
various cultures.
3.3 Describe music from
various cultures.
Students analyze the role and
development of theatre, film/
video, and electronic media in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
diversity as it relates to theatre.
Role and Cultural
Significance of Theatre
3.1 Identify theatre and
storytelling forms from
different cultures.
History of Theatre
3.2 Identify universal charac­
ters in stories and plays
from different periods
and places.
History and Function
of Dance
3.4 Describe dances seen
in celebrations and
community events.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Role and Development
of the Visual Arts
3.1 Explain how artists use
their work to share
experiences or communi­
cate ideas.
3.2 Recognize and use the
vocabulary of art to
describe art objects
from various cultures
and time periods.
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.3 Identify and discuss how
art is used in events and
celebrations in various
cultures, past and
present, including the
use in their own lives.
46
Grade Two Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works of
dance, performance of danc­
ers, and original works based
on the elements of dance and
aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis,
and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Use basic dance
vocabulary to name
and describe a dance
observed or performed
(e.g., levels, rhythm
patterns, type of energy).
4.2 Describe how the
movement in dances
of peers communi­
cates ideas or
moods to the viewer
(e.g., ocean environ­
ment or a sad or
joyous dance).
Meaning and Impact
of Dance
4.3 Describe the similarities
and differences in per­
forming various dances
(e.g., direction changes,
steps, type of energy
and tempo).
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of music and the performance
of musicians according to
the elements of music,
aesthetic qualities, and
human responses.
Analyze and Critically Assess
4.1 Use the terminology
of music in discussing
individual preferences
for specific music.
Derive Meaning
4.2 Create developmen­
tally appropriate
movements to
express pitch, tempo,
form, and dynamics
in music.
4.3 Identify how musical
elements communicate
ideas or moods.
4.4 Respond to a live perfor­
mance with appropriate
audience behavior.
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of the­
atre, film/video, electronic
media, and theatrical artists
on the basis of aesthetic
qualities.
Students analyze, assess,
and derive meaning from
works of art, including their
own, according to the ele­
ments of art, the principles of
design, and aesthetic qualities.
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
Derive Meaning
4.1 Critique an actor’s
performance as to the
use of voice, gesture,
facial expression, and
movement to create
character.
4.2 Respond to a live
performance with
appropriate audience
behavior.
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
4.3 Identify the message
or moral of a work
of theatre.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
4.1 Compare ideas
expressed through their
own works of art with
ideas expressed in the
work of others.
4.2 Compare different re­
sponses to the same
work of art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.3 Use the vocabulary
of art to talk about
what they wanted to
do in their own works
of art and how they
succeeded.
4.4 Use appropriate vocabu­
lary of art to describe
the successful use of an
element of art in a work
of art.
47
Grade Two Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music to
Learning in Other Art Forms
and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.1 Use problem-solving and
cooperative skills in
dramatizing a story, a
current event, or a con­
cept from another sub­
ject area.
5.2 Identify and discuss who
composes and performs
music.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.1 Use placement, overlapping, and size differences
to show opposites
(e.g., up/down, in/out,
over/under, together/
apart, fast/slow, stop/go).
5.2 Select and use expressive
colors to create mood
and show personality
within a portrait of a
hero from long ago or
the recent past.
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Use literature to inspire
dance ideas (e.g., poem,
cartoon, nursery rhyme).
5.2 Demonstrate
language arts concepts through dance
(e.g., show different
punctuation marks
through movement).
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
5.3 Describe how choreog­
raphers create dances.
5.4 Describe how
dancing requires good
health-related habits
(e.g., adequate nutrition,
water, and rest; proper
preparation for physical
activity).
Connections and Applications
5.1 Identify similar themes
in stories, songs, and art
forms (e.g., patterns,
texture).
5.2 Demonstrate the ability
to participate coopera­
tively in the different jobs
required to create a
theatrical production.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Visual Literacy
5.3 Identify pictures and sort
them into categories
according to expressive
qualities (e.g., theme and
mood).
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.4 Discuss artists in the
community who create
different kinds of art
(e.g., prints, ceramics,
paintings, sculpture).
48
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Three
T
he doors of knowledge open wide for third-grade students, offering them
new possibilities through the arts. As they start thinking abstractly and their
levels of perception become more sophisticated, they can describe their thoughts
orally and in writing. And their increased fine motor skills help them learn all
kinds of things, from cursive writing to classroom instruments. As they begin to
learn about their community, they become more curious about themselves and
about others. Their study of the arts leads them to gain knowledge about many
different subjects. For example, excited by a walking trip through the community, they draw pictures representing landmark buildings. They also learn to
dance and sing to music from their community’s many cultural heritages and use
their theatrical skills to explore what they imagine and to portray a character.
Dance
Students combine movement in place, movement across the room,
and a sense of space and time as they sequence the movements to
different tempos. By practicing to combine the various movements and
the elements of dance, they create and perform original dance sequences
that exhibit variety and kinesthetic and visual rhythm. For example, they
learn to perform increasingly complex improvisations and movement sequences
more expressively by emphasizing the dance element of force or energy. When
they create dance sequences, they can identify a clear beginning, middle, and end
and include a variety of shapes, movements, and levels in space. As they work to
improve their own proficiency, they also create, memorize, and perform original
movement sequences with a partner or a small group.
Learning to compare and contrast dances from various countries enriches
students’ repertoires or movements and their understanding of how dance functions in many cultures. When students evaluate the dance performance of their
peers, they can use specific criteria, such as how focused the dancer was during
the performance. And they can comment on how dance skills help communicate
the idea and mood of the dance. As they gain experience in creating dance in
collaboration with others, they learn more about the time-management,
problem-solving, and self-discipline skills required for dance and determine
how those skills apply to other areas of study and to careers.
Music
Students focus on rhythmic patterns, musical forms, melody, harmony,
and timbre as they read, write, and perform music. Their increased
listening skills help them identify those qualities in music selections, in the four
families of orchestral instruments, and in male and female adult voices. By
singing from memory, they improve their accuracy and create rhythmic and
49
melodic phrases. As students sing and play songs from diverse cultures, they can
compare and contrast music from throughout the world. When they play and
sing music, they are honing their ability to select and use specific criteria to judge
the quality of a musical performance. Focusing on the use of the musical elements for their criteria, they can describe how the elements help the composer
or performer to communicate an idea or mood in the music and can identify the
use of similar elements, such as pattern and rhythm, in other art forms.
Theatre
Students identify and describe important elements of theatre, such
as character, setting, conflict, motivation, props, stage areas, and blocking. They do cooperative scriptwriting and improvisations, including determining basic blocking and stage areas, by applying their knowledge of the five Ws
(who, what, where, when, and why). By dramatizing different cultural versions
of similar stories from around the world, they increase their repertoire and can
identify universal themes. When evaluating scripts and staging performances,
they learn which criteria are appropriate. And if they like a scene in a play they
are reading, they can explain how the playwright succeeded. By participating in
theatrical experiences, they gain many opportunities to demonstrate their
problem-solving and cooperative skills.
Visual Arts
Students increase their understanding of how to create the illusion
of space and apply those techniques in their own work, allowing them
to recognize near and far distances in a painting. They also compare
works of art made with different media, such as watercolor or oil paint, and
different art objects, such as a woodcut or computer-generated prints. Creating
works of visual art based on their observations of objects and scenes, they include
drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, and other forms of expression in their
efforts. Students also become familiar with local artists and their works as well as
artists throughout the state and from various parts of the world.
Students progress into analyzing how diverse works may communicate similar themes, ideas, or moods and can distinguish among representational, abstract,
and nonrepresentational works of art, including developing and applying appropriate criteria for evaluation. For example, they might consider how effectively
the artist used elements of art, such as line, shape, and color, to communicate
a mood. In addition, students apply criteria to their own artwork and
explain how it might be improved. Another activity allows students to
apply their understanding of the communicative quality of the visual
arts as they describe, for example, how costumes contribute to the meaning
of a dance, how an artist tells a story in a figurative painting, how a work of art
can be the inspiration for a poem, or how artists have affected people’s lives.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Three
50
Key Content Standards
Grade Three
Dance
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Combine and perform
basic locomotor skills,
moving on a specific
pathway (e.g., skip in
circles, slide in zigzags,
run in a variety of
linear paths). Combine
and perform locomo­
tor and axial move­
ments (e.g., walk and
turn, stretch and slide).
1.3 (Artistic Perception)
Perform short
movement problems,
emphasizing the
element of force/
energy (e.g., swing,
melt, explode, quiver).
2.6 (Creative Expression)
Compare and contrast
the role of the per­
former with that of
a member of the
audience.
2.8 (Creative Expression)
Create, memorize,
and perform original
movement sequences
with a partner or a
small group.
3.3 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Explain the
function of dance in
ceremonial and social
community events in
Native American
cultures.
Music
1.1 (Artistic Perception) Read,
write, and perform
simple rhythmic patterns
using eighth notes,
quarter notes, half
notes, dotted half notes,
whole notes, and rests.
1.3 (Artistic Perception) Iden­
tify melody, rhythm,
harmony, and timbre in
selected pieces of music
when presented aurally.
2.2 (Creative Expression) Sing
age-appropriate songs
from memory, including
rounds, partner songs,
and ostinatos.
4.3 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Describe how specific
musical elements
communicate particular
ideas or moods in
music.
Theatre
1.1 (Artistic Perception) Use
the vocabulary of the­
atre, such as character,
setting, conflict, audience,
motivation, props, stage
areas, and blocking, to
describe theatrical
experiences.
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Participate in coopera­
tive scriptwriting or
improvisations that
incorporate the five
Ws.
3.1 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Dramatize
different cultural ver­
sions of similar stories
from around the world.
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Develop and apply
appropriate criteria or
rubrics for evaluating a
theatrical experience.
Visual Arts
1.3 (Artistic Perception)
Identify and describe
how foreground,
middle ground, and
background are used
to create the illusion
of space.
1.4 (Artistic Perception)
Compare and contrast
two works of art made
by the use of different
art tools and media
(e.g., watercolor,
tempera, computer).
2.4 (Creative Expression)
Create a work of art
based on the observa­
tion of objects and
scenes in daily life,
emphasizing value
changes.
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Identify artists
from his or her own
community, county, or
state and discuss local
or regional art tradi­
tions.
51
Grade Three Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students read, notate,
listen to, analyze, and
describe music and other
aural information, using the
terminology of music.
Students observe their
environment and respond,
using the elements of
theatre. They also observe
formal and informal works
of theatre, film/video,
and electronic media
and respond, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
Students perceive and respond,
using the elements of dance. They
demonstrate movement skills,
process sensory information,
and describe movement, using
the vocabulary of dance.
Development of Motor Skills
and Technical Expertise
1.1 Combine and perform basic
locomotor skills, moving
on a specific pathway
(e.g., skip in circles, slide
in zigzags, run in a variety
of linear paths). Combine
and perform locomotor
and axial movements
(e.g., walk and turn,
stretch and slide).
1.2 Demonstrate the ability
to start, change, and stop
movement.
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.3 Perform short movement
problems, emphasizing
the element of force/energy
(e.g., swing, melt, explode,
quiver).
1.4 Expand the ability to incorpo­
rate spatial and time concepts
in movement problems
(e.g., select and combine
three locomotor movements
traveling in three different
pathways and using three
different tempos).
Development of Dance Vocabulary
1.5 Describe dance elements used
in personal work and that of
others.
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Read, write, and
perform simple
rhythmic patterns
using eighth notes,
quarter notes, half
notes, dotted half
notes, whole notes,
and rests.
1.2 Read, write, and
perform pentatonic
patterns, using solfège.
Listen to, Analyze,
and Describe Music
1.3 Identify melody,
rhythm, harmony,
and timbre in
selected pieces
of music when
presented aurally.
1.4 Identify visually
and aurally the four
families of orchestral
instruments and male
and female adult
voices.
1.5 Describe the way
in which sound is
produced on various
instruments.
1.6 Identify simple musical
forms (e.g., AABA,
AABB, round).
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
1.1 Use the vocabulary
of theatre, such as
character, setting,
conflict, audience,
motivation, props,
stage areas, and
blocking, to de­
scribe theatrical
experiences.
Comprehension and
Analysis of the Elements
of Theatre
1.2 Identify who, what,
where, when, and
why (the five Ws)
in a theatrical
experience.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Develop Perceptual Skills
and Visual Arts Vocabulary
1.1 Perceive and describe
rhythm and movement
in works of art and in
the environment.
1.2 Describe how artists
use tints and shades in
painting.
1.3 Identify and describe
how foreground,
middle ground, and
background are used
to create the illusion
of space.
1.4 Compare and
contrast two works
of art made by the
use of different art
tools and media
(e.g., watercolor,
tempera, computer).
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.5 Identify and describe
elements of art in works
of art, emphasizing line,
color, shape/form,
texture, space, and
value.
52
Grade Three Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Theatre
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in the Visual Arts
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and skills to
create and communicate meaning
through the improvisation, compo­
sition, and performance of dance.
Students apply vocal and
instrumental musical skills
in performing a varied
repertoire of music. They
compose and arrange music
and improvise melodies,
variations, and accompani­
ments, using digital/electronic technology when
appropriate.
Students apply processes
and skills in acting, directing,
designing, and scriptwriting
to create formal and infor­
mal theatre, film/videos,
and electronic media
productions and to perform
in them.
Students apply artistic pro­
cesses and skills, using a vari­
ety of media to communicate
meaning and intent in original
works of art.
Creation/Invention of Dance
Movements
2.1 Create and perform complex
improvised movement
patterns, dance sequences,
and studies.
2.2 Improvise and select multiple
possibilities to solve a given
movement problem (e.g., find
four different ways to com­
bine a turn, stretch, and
jump).
Application of Choreographic
Principles and Processes
to Creating Dance
2.3 Create a sequence that has
a beginning, a middle, and
an end. Name and refine
the parts of the sequence.
2.4 Create a wide variety of
shapes and movements, using
different levels in space.
Communication of Meaning
in Dance
2.5 Perform dances to communi­
cate personal meaning, using
focus and expression.
2.6 Compare and contrast
the role of the performer
with that of a member
of the audience.
Apply Vocal and
Instrumental Skills
2.1 Sing with accuracy in
a developmentally
appropriate range.
2.2 Sing age-appropriate songs from
memory, including
rounds, partner
songs, and
ostinatos.
2.3 Play rhythmic and
melodic ostinatos
on classroom
instruments.
Development of Theatrical
Skills
2.1 Participate in coop­
erative scriptwriting
or improvisations
that incorporate
the five Ws.
Creation/Invention
in Theatre
2.2 Create for classmates
simple scripts that
demonstrate knowl­
edge of basic blocking
and stage areas.
Compose, Arrange,
and Improvise
2.4 Create short rhythmic
and melodic phrases
in question-andanswer form.
Development of Partner
and Group Skills
2.7 Demonstrate a variety of
partner skills (e.g., imitation,
leading/following, mirroring).
2.8 Create, memorize,
and perform original
movement sequences
with a partner or a
small group.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Skills, Processes, Materials,
and Tools
2.1 Explore ideas for art in
a personal sketchbook.
2.2 Mix and apply tempera
paints to create tints,
shades, and neutral
colors.
Communication and
Expression Through
Original Works of Art
2.3 Paint or draw a
landscape, seascape,
or cityscape that shows
the illusion of space.
2.4 Create a work of
art based on the
observation of objects
and scenes in daily
life, emphasizing
value changes.
2.5 Create an imaginative
clay sculpture based on
an organic form.
2.6 Create an original work
of art emphasizing
rhythm and movement,
using a selected printing
process.
53
Grade Three Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the function
and development of dance in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role of
music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diver­
sity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Describe commonalities
among and differences
between dances from
various countries.
3.2 Describe and demon­
strate ceremonial and
folk/traditional dances
that show work activities
(e.g., harvesting, fishing,
weaving).
3.1 Identify the uses of music
in various cultures and
time periods.
History and Function
of Dance
Diversity of Music
3.2 Sing memorized songs
from diverse cultures.
3.3 Play memorized songs
from diverse cultures.
3.4 Identify differences and
commonalities in music
from various cultures.
Students analyze the role
and development of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting diversity as it
relates to theatre.
Role and Cultural Significance
of Theatre
3.1 Dramatize different
cultural versions of
similar stories from
around the world.
History of Theatre
3.2 Identify universal themes
in stories and plays from
different periods and
places.
3.3 Explain the function
of dance in ceremo­
nial and social
community events
in Native American
cultures.
3.4 Describe how costumes
and shoes influence
dance movement.
Diversity of Dance
3.5 Name and demonstrate
dances of Native
Americans.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Role and Development
of the Visual Arts
3.1 Compare and describe
various works of art that
have a similar theme and
were created at different
time periods.
3.2 Identify artists from
his or her own com­
munity, county, or
state and discuss
local or regional art
traditions.
3.3 Distinguish and describe
representational,
abstract, and nonrepre­
sentational works of art.
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.4 Identify and describe
objects of art from
different parts of the
world observed in visits
to a museum or gallery
(e.g., puppets, masks,
containers).
3.5 Write about a work
of art that reflects a
student’s own cultural
background.
54
Grade Three Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critically assess
and derive meaning from
works of music and the
performance of musicians
according to the elements
of music, aesthetic qualities,
and human responses.
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of theatre, film/video, electronic
media, and theatrical artists
on the basis of aesthetic
qualities.
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of dance, performance of
dancers, and original works
based on the elements of
dance and aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis, and
Criticism of Dance
4.1 Name specific criteria
to assess the quality of
a dance performance of
peers (e.g., focus, level
of personal involvement,
physical control).
4.2 Explain and demonstrate
what it means to be a
good audience member.
Meaning and Impact
of Dance
4.3 Explain how a
performer’s dance
skills contribute to
communication of ideas
and moods when
performing a dance
(e.g., focus, strength,
coordination).
Students analyze, assess,
and derive meaning from
works of art, including their
own, according to the
elements of art, the principles
of design, and aesthetic
qualities.
Analyze and Critically Assess
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
4.1 Select and use specific
criteria in making
judgments about the
quality of a musical
performance.
4.1 Develop and apply
appropriate criteria
or rubrics for evaluat­
ing a theatrical
experience.
4.1 Compare and contrast
selected works of art
and describe them, using
appropriate vocabulary
of art.
Derive Meaning
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
Make Informed Judgments
4.2 Create developmentally
appropriate movements
to express pitch, tempo,
form, and dynamics.
4.3 Describe how specific
musical elements
communicate particu­
lar ideas or moods in
music.
4.2 Compare the content or
message in two different
works of theatre.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Derive Meaning
4.2 Identify successful
and less successful
compositional and
expressive qualities of
their own works of art
and describe what might
be done to improve
them.
4.3 Select an artist’s work
and, using appropriate
vocabulary of art, explain
its successful composi­
tional and communicative
qualities.
55
Grade Three Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Identify the use of
similar elements in music
and other art forms
(e.g., form, pattern,
rhythm).
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.1 Use problem-solving and
cooperative skills to
dramatize a story or a
current event from
another content area,
with emphasis on the
five Ws.
5.1 Describe how costumes
contribute to the
meaning of a dance.
5.2 Write a poem or story
inspired by their own
works of art.
5.2 Identify what musicians
and composers do to
create music.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.1 Explain relationships
between dance elements
and other subjects
(e.g., spatial pathways—
maps and grids; geomet­
ric shapes—body
shapes).
5.2 Describe how dancing
develops physical and
mental well-being
(e.g., control, flexibility,
posture, strength, risk
taking).
Connections and Applications
5.2 Develop problem-solving
and communication
skills by participating
collaboratively in
theatrical experiences.
Visual Literacy
5.3 Look at images in
figurative works of art
and predict what might
happen next, telling
what clues in the work
support their ideas.
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.3 Explain how the time
management, problem
solving, and self-discipline
skills required for com­
posing a dance apply to
other school activities.
5.4 Give examples of ways
in which the activities
of professionals in the
performing arts are
similar to each other
(e.g., observing discipline,
practicing skills, rehears­
ing performances).
5.4 Describe how artists
(e.g., architects, book
illustrators, muralists,
industrial designers)
have affected people’s
lives.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
56
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Four
E
xcitement rises when fourth-grade students recognize the artist within
them and the importance of the arts in learning. In their study of
California history, they learn that the arts can help them discover the rich
cultural heritage of their state as reflected in dance, music, theatre, and the
visual arts. Building on previous experiences, they discover their own ability
to communicate through the arts and can use music notation, knowledge of
structure and style, and advanced technical skill to create works of art. At this
age they understand that the arts are more than lines, spaces, colors, movements, or notes on a page. Rather, these elements can be combined to create
meaning.
Dance
Students demonstrate concentration and physical control, improvising longer and more technical movement phrases as they learn
the foundation of choreography. They describe music and dance from
various countries and the relationship of the dance forms to their geographic location, thereby increasing their perceptual and aesthetic valuing skills.
In their descriptions and discussions, they use dance vocabulary and apply specific criteria in their evaluations. By experiencing the choreographic process,
they can talk about how it is related to the creative writing process.
Music
Students not only sing and play melodies and accompaniments in
various forms and from many cultures but also compose melodic
patterns, a precursor to writing music. They also employ their expanding vocabulary of music and classify a variety of instruments by how they
produce sound. By learning more about music from around the world, they can
recognize the influence of various cultures on music. They also evaluate how
practice and rehearsal improve their performance.
Theatre
Students increase their theatre vocabulary as they improve their
acting skills by exploring how voice affects meaning and how
costumes and makeup communicate information about character.
They also describe how an audience is affected differently by live theatre,
movies, television, and radio. In designing costumes, props, makeup, or masks,
57
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Four
students learn how to apply color, perspective, composition, and other visual
art elements and principles. They also learn that storytelling and theatrical
traditions from many cultures are a part of the history of California and that
the entertainment industry has an important role in the state.
Visual Arts
Students use their knowledge of proportion and measurement
learned in mathematics when they create a portrait. Measuring
from the top of the head to under the chin, they find that the eyes
are halfway between. Another thing learned is that blank space in a
painting (negative space) is just as important to what is being expressed
as are the objects in the painting (positive space). And by learning the concept of point of view, students can describe how a person’s own cultural point
of view may influence that person’s responses to a work of art. Connecting the
visual arts and California history, they can discuss the content of artworks
created by artists from various cultures.
58
Key Content Standards
Grade Four
Dance
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Demonstrate mental
concentration and
physical control in
performing dance skills.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Improvise extended
movement phrases.
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Name the
musical accompaniment
and explain how it
relates to the dances
they have studied.
5.4 (Connections, Relationships, Applications)
Analyze the choreo­
graphic process and
its relation to the
writing process
(e.g., brainstorming,
exploring and
developing ideas,
putting ideas into a
form, sequencing).
Music
Theatre
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Read, write, and perform
melodic notation for
simple songs in major
keys, using solfège.
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Sing a varied repertoire
of music from diverse
cultures, including
rounds, descants, and
songs with ostinatos,
alone and with others.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Use classroom instru­
ments to play melodies
and accompaniments
from a varied repertoire
of music from diverse
cultures, including
rounds, descants, and
ostinatos, by oneself
and with others.
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Compose and improvise
simple rhythmic and
melodic patterns on
classroom instruments.
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Design or create
costumes, props,
makeup, or masks to
communicate a character
in formal or informal
performances.
3.1 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Identify theatri­
cal or storytelling tradi­
tions in the cultures of
ethnic groups throughout
the history of California.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Compare and contrast
the impact on the
audience of theatre,
film, television, radio,
and other media.
Visual Arts
2.5 (Creative Expression)
Use accurate propor­
tions to create an
expressive portrait
or a figure drawing
or painting.
2.6 (Creative Expression)
Use the interaction
between positive
and negative space
expressively in a work
of art.
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Identify and
discuss the content
of works of art in the
past and present,
focusing on the
different cultures that
have contributed to
California’s history
and art heritage.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Identify and describe
how a person’s own
cultural context
influences individual
responses to works
of art.
59
Grade Four Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students read, notate, listen
to, analyze, and describe
music and other aural infor­
mation, using the terminology
of music.
Students observe their environment and respond, using
the elements of theatre. They
also observe formal and infor­
mal works of theatre, film/
video, and electronic media
and respond, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
Students perceive and
respond, using the elements
of dance. They demonstrate
movement skills, process
sensory information, and
describe movement, using
the vocabulary of dance.
Development of Motor Skills
and Technical Expertise
1.1 Demonstrate mental
concentration and
physical control in
performing dance
skills.
1.2 Demonstrate the ability
to use smoother transi­
tions when connecting
one movement phrase
to another.
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.3 Demonstrate increased
range and use of space,
time, and force/energy
concepts (e.g., pulse/
accents, melt/collapse,
weak/strong).
1.4 Explain the principles
of variety, contrast, and unity and apply to
a dance sequence.
Development of Dance
Vocabulary
1.5 Describe a specific move­
ment, using appropriate
dance vocabulary.
1.6 Identify, define, and use
phrasing in dances
learned or observed.
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Read, write, and
perform melodic
notation for simple
songs in major keys,
using solfège.
1.2 Read, write, and perform
diatonic scales.
1.3 Read, write, and
perform rhythmic notation, including sixteenth
notes, dotted notes,
and syncopation
(e.g., eighth/quarter/
eighth note and eighthrest/quarter/eighth note).
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
1.1 Use the vocabulary of
theatre, such as plot,
conflict, climax, resolution,
tone, objectives, motivation,
and stock characters, to
describe theatrical
experiences.
Comprehension and Analysis
of the Elements of Theatre
1.2 Identify a character’s
objectives and motiva­
Listen to, Analyze,
tions to explain that
and Describe Music
character’s behavior.
1.4 Describe music according 1.3 Demonstrate how voice
(diction, pace, and
to its elements, using the
volume) may be used
terminology of music.
to explore multiple
1.5 Classify how a variety
possibilities for a live
of instruments from reading.
Examples:
diverse cultures produce
“I want you to go.”
sound (e.g., idiophone,
“I want you to go.”
aerophone, chorda“I
want you to go.”
phone, membrano­
phone).
1.6 Recognize and describe
aural examples of musical
forms, including rondo.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Develop Visual Arts
Vocabulary
1.1 Perceive and describe
contrast and emphasis in
works of art and in the
environment.
1.2 Describe how negative
shapes/forms and positive
shapes/forms are used in
a chosen work of art.
1.3 Identify pairs of complementary colors (yellow/
violet; red/green; orange/
blue) and discuss how
artists use them to
communicate an idea
or mood.
1.4 Describe the concept
of proportion (in face,
figure) as used in works
of art.
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.5 Describe and analyze the
elements of art (color,
shape/form, line, texture,
space, value), emphasizing form, as they are
used in works of art
and found in the
environment.
60
Grade Four Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Theatre
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in the Visual Arts
Students apply vocal and
instrumental musical skills in
performing a varied reper­
toire of music. They compose
and arrange music and impro­
vise melodies, variations, and
accompaniments, using digital/
electronic technology when
appropriate.
Students apply processes
and skills in acting, directing,
designing, and scriptwriting to
create formal and informal
theatre, film/videos, and
electronic media productions
and to perform in them.
Students apply artistic pro­
cesses and skills, using a vari­
ety of media to communicate
meaning and intent in original
works of art.
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and
skills to create and communi­
cate meaning through the
improvisation, composition,
and performance of dance.
Creation/Invention
of Dance Movements
2.1 Create, develop, and
memorize set movement
patterns and sequences.
2.2 Improvise extended
movement phrases.
Application of Choreographic
Principles and Processes
to Creating Dance
2.3 Describe, discuss, and
analyze the process used
by choreographers to
create a dance.
2.4 Create a dance study
that has a beginning, a
middle, and an end.
Review, revise, and
refine.
Communication
of Meaning in Dance
2.5 Convey a range of
feelings through shape/
postures and movements
when performing for
peers.
2.6 Perform improvised
movement and dance
studies with focus and
expression.
Apply Vocal and
Instrumental Skills
2.1 Sing a varied
repertoire of music
from diverse cultures,
including rounds,
descants, and songs
with ostinatos, alone
and with others.
2.2 Use classroom
instruments to play
melodies and accom­
paniments from a
varied repertoire of
music from diverse
cultures, including
rounds, descants, and
ostinatos, by oneself
and with others.
Development of
Theatrical Skills
2.1 Demonstrate the
emotional traits of a
character through
gesture and action.
Creation/Invention in Theatre
2.2 Retell or improvise
stories from classroom
literature in a variety of
tones (gossipy, sorrow­
ful, comic, frightened,
joyful, sarcastic).
2.3 Design or create
costumes, props,
makeup, or masks
to communicate a
character in formal
or informal
performances.
Compose, Arrange,
and Improvise
2.3 Compose and
improvise simple
rhythmic and melodic
patterns on classroom
instruments.
Development of Partner
and Group Skills
2.7 Demonstrate additional
partner and group skills
(e.g., imitating, leading/
following, mirroring,
calling/responding,
echoing).
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Skills, Processes, Materials,
and Tools
2.1 Use shading (value)
to transform a twodimensional shape into
what appears to be a
three-dimensional form
(e.g., circle to sphere).
2.2 Use the conventions of
facial and figure propor­
tions in a figure study.
2.3 Use additive and subtrac­
tive processes in making
simple sculptural forms.
2.4 Use fibers or other
materials to create a
simple weaving.
Communication and
Expression Through Original
Works of Art
2.5 Use accurate propor­
tions to create an
expressive portrait
or a figure drawing
or painting.
2.6 Use the interaction
between positive
and negative space
expressively in a
work of art.
2.7 Use contrast (light and
dark) expressively in an
original work of art.
2.8 Use complementary
colors in an original
composition to show
contrast and emphasis.
61
Grade Four Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the function
and development of dance in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role
of music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diver­
sity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Perform and identify
dances from various
countries with different
arrangements of dancers
(e.g., lines, circles,
couples).
3.2 Name the musical
accompaniment and
explain how it relates
to the dances they
have studied.
History and Function
of Dance
3.3 Perform and describe
dances that reflect the
geographical place in
which the dances are
performed (e.g., deserts,
rain forests, islands).
3.1 Explain the relationship
between music and
events in history.
Diversity of Music
3.2 Identify music from
diverse cultures and
time periods.
3.3 Sing and play music
from diverse cultures
and time periods.
3.4 Compare musical styles
from two or more
cultures.
3.5 Recognize the influence
of various cultures on
music in California.
Students analyze the role and
development of theatre, film/
video, and electronic media
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
diversity as it relates to
theatre.
Role and Cultural
Significance of Theatre
3.1 Identify theatrical or
storytelling traditions
in the cultures of
ethnic groups
throughout the
history of California.
History of Theatre
3.2 Recognize key develop­
ments in the entertain­
ment industry in
California, such as the
introduction of silent
movies, animation, radio
and television broadcast­
ing, and interactive video.
Diversity of Dance
3.4 Perform and identify
folk/traditional and social
dances from California
history.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Role and Development
of the Visual Arts
3.1 Describe how art plays
a role in reflecting life
(e.g., in photography,
quilts, architecture).
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.2 Identify and discuss
the content of works
of art in the past and
present, focusing on
the different cultures
that have contributed
to California’s history
and art heritage.
3.3 Research and describe
the influence of religious
groups on art and archi­
tecture, focusing prima­
rily on buildings in
California both past
and present.
62
Grade Four Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of dance, performance of
dancers, and original works
based on the elements of
dance and aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis,
and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Use dance vocabulary to
describe unique charac­
teristics of dances they
have watched or performed from countries
studied in the history–
social science curriculum
(e.g., rhythms, spatial
patterns, gestures,
intent).
4.2 Name and use specific
criteria in assessing
personal and professional
dance choreography
(e.g., contrast, phrasing,
unity).
Meaning and Impact
of Dance
4.3 Describe ways in which
a dancer effectively
communicates ideas and
moods (strong technique,
projection, and expres­
sion).
4.4 List the expectations the
audience has for a per­
former and vice versa.
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of music and the performance
of musicians according to the
elements of music, aesthetic
qualities, and human responses.
Analyze and Critically Assess
4.1 Use specific criteria
when judging the relative
quality of musical
performances.
Derive Meaning
4.2 Describe the characteris­
tics that make a perfor­
mance a work of art.
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of theatre, film/video, electronic
media, and theatrical artists
on the basis of aesthetic
qualities.
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
4.1 Develop and apply
appropriate criteria or
rubrics for critiquing
performances as to
characterization, diction,
pacing, gesture, and
movement.
4.2 Compare and
contrast the impact
on the audience of
theatre, film, televi­
sion, radio, and other
media.
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
4.3 Describe students’
responses to a work of
theatre and explain what
the scriptwriter did to
elicit those responses.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze, assess,
and derive meaning from
works of art, including their
own, according to the
elements of art, the principles
of design, and aesthetic
qualities.
Derive Meaning
4.1 Describe how using the
language of the visual arts
helps to clarify personal
responses to works of
art.
4.2 Identify and describe
how a person’s own
cultural context
influences individual
responses to works
of art.
4.3 Discuss how the subject
and selection of media
relate to the meaning or
purpose of a work of art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.4 Identify and describe how
various cultures define
and value art differently.
4.5 Describe how the indi­
vidual experiences of an
artist may influence the
development of specific
works of art.
63
Grade Four Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music to
Learning in Other Art Forms
and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Identify and interpret
expressive characteristics
in works of art and
music.
5.2 Integrate several art
disciplines (dance,
music, theatre, or the
visual arts) into a wellorganized presentation
or performance.
5.3 Relate dance movements
to express musical
elements or represent
musical intent in specific
music. Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Dramatize events in
California history.
5.2 Use improvisation
and dramatization to
explore concepts in
other content areas.
5.1 Select a nonobjective
painting, work in small
groups to interpret it
through dance/movement, and then write a
paragraph reporting on
the arts experience.
5.2 Identify through research
twentieth-century artists
who have incorporated
symmetry as part of their
work and then create a
work of art, using bilat­
eral or radial symmetry.
5.1 Explain how dance prac­
tice relates to and uses
the vocabulary of other
art subjects (e.g., positive
and negative space,
shape, line, rhythm,
character).
5.2 Describe how dancing
develops strength, flexibility, and endurance in
accordance with physical
education standards.
5.3 Demonstrate a recogni­
tion of personal space and respect for the
personal space of others.
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
5.4 Analyze the choreo­
graphic process and
its relation to the
writing process
(e.g., brainstorming,
exploring and devel­
oping ideas, putting
ideas into a form,
sequencing).
Connections and Applications
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.3 Exhibit team identity and
commitment to purpose
when participating in
theatrical experiences.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.4 Evaluate improvement
in personal musical
performances after
practice or rehearsal.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Visual Literacy
5.3 Construct diagrams,
maps, graphs, timelines,
and illustrations to com­
municate ideas or tell a
story about a historical
event.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.4 Read biographies and
stories about artists and
summarize the readings
in short reports, telling
how the artists mirrored
or affected their time
period or culture.
64
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Five
F
ifth-grade students bring to the classroom a strong sense of what they like
and dislike and can tell why they hold their opinions. At this age they are
growing in ability to talk about, describe, and evaluate the arts, using specific
criteria, and understand and work with complex concepts in the arts. Inventing
new possibilities for dance sequences, composing music, developing plots in
theatre, and using perspective in the visual arts are all within their grasp.
With this new level of sophistication, students can explore the rich history
of the arts in this country, working to gain a deep understanding of the vast
array of artists and works of art this nation has to offer. Having dance, music,
theatre, and the visual arts in the classroom can provide students with a broad
background in the arts and with experiences to support learning throughout
the curriculum. Using their increased knowledge and skills, students can now
improvise, create, and perform in all the arts.
Dance
Students use variety, contrast, and unity as they create, learn,
and perform dances, applying their knowledge of dance and
performance skills to analyze possible solutions and strategies for
specific problems with movement. In their study of United States
history, they learn to
perform traditional,
social, and theatrical
dances from the eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries. They also
develop and apply
specific criteria for
critiquing dance
performances that
show more in-depth
analysis and assessment of technical
skill, musicality,
dynamics, and
mood.
65
Music
Students analyze how different elements are used in music
of various styles and from many cultures as they increase their
musical skills by singing and playing instruments. They also learn to
create simple melodies and read and write those melodies on the treble clef.
And because of their increased knowledge of musical elements and vocabulary,
they develop and apply appropriate criteria to support their opinions about
specific musical selections.
Theatre
Students describe theatrical experiences with an increased
vocabulary, using such terms as protagonist and antagonist.
They identify more complex structural elements of plot in a script, discover universal themes in the theatrical literature they are studying, and recognize more fully how theatre, television, and films play a part in their daily lives. Using appropriate criteria for critiquing theatrical performances, they can judge what they see and hear. Visual Arts
Principles of design, such as composition, emphasis, unity, and
the depiction of space, become part of the visual arts vocabulary
and are applied as students create original works of art with traditional and new media. Students refine their artistic skills, such as
perspective, and use those skills in drawings, sculpture, mixed media,
and digital media (e.g., computer-generated art, digital photography, and
videography). Using a defined set of criteria to describe how they would change
or improve their work, they become more proficient in assessing their artwork.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Five
66
Key Content Standards
Grade Five
Dance
1.4 (Artistic Perception)
Incorporate the
principles of variety,
contrast, and unity
with dance studies.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Invent multiple possi­
bilities to solve a given
movement problem
and analyze problemsolving strategies and
solutions.
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Identify and
perform folk/traditional, social, and
theatrical dances done
by Americans in the
eighteenth and nine­
teenth centuries.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Apply specific criteria
to analyze and assess
the quality of a dance
performance by
well-known dancers
or dance companies
(e.g., technical skill,
musicality, dynamics,
mood).
5.1 (Connections, Relationships, Applications)
Describe how histori­
cal events relate to
dance forms (e.g., the
rebellion of the 1960s
was represented in
popular social dances
with a move from
partners to individual
expression).
Music
Theatre
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Read, write, and perform
simple melodic notation
in treble clef in major
and minor keys.
1.4 (Artistic Perception)
Analyze the use of
music elements in aural
examples from various
genres and cultures.
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Compose, improvise,
and perform basic
rhythmic, melodic,
and chordal patterns
independently on
classroom instruments.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Develop and apply
appropriate criteria
to support personal
preferences for specific
musical works.
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Use the vocabulary of
theatre, such as sense
memory, script, cue,
monologue, dialogue,
protagonist, and antagonist,
to describe theatrical
experiences.
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Participate in improvisa­
tional activities to
explore complex ideas
and universal themes in
literature and life.
3.3 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Analyze ways in
which theatre, television,
and film play a part in
our daily lives.
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Develop and apply
appropriate criteria for
critiquing the work of
actors, directors, writers,
and technical artists in
theatre, film, and video.
Visual Arts
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Identify and describe
the principles of design
in visual compositions,
emphasizing unity and
harmony.
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Demonstrate beginning
skill in the manipulation
of digital imagery
(e.g., computergenerated art, digital
photography, or
videography).
2.6 (Creative Expression)
Use perspective in an
original work of art
to create a real or
imaginary scene.
3.3 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Identify and
compare works of art
from various regions
of the United States.
4.4 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Assess their own
works of art, using
specific criteria, and
describe what changes
they would make for
improvement.
67
Grade Five Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students read, notate, listen
to, analyze, and describe
music and other aural infor­
mation, using the terminology
of music.
Students observe their envi­
ronment and respond, using
the elements of theatre.
They also observe formal and
informal works of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media and respond, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
Students perceive and
respond, using the elements
of dance. They demonstrate
movement skills, process
sensory information, and
describe movement, using
the vocabulary of dance.
Development of Motor Skills
and Technical Expertise
1.1 Demonstrate focus,
physical control
(e.g., proper alignment,
balance), and coordina­
tion in performing
locomotor and axial
movement.
1.2 Name and use a wide
variety of movements
(e.g., isolations/whole
body).
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.3 Demonstrate a greater
dynamic range in move­
ment utilizing space,
time, and force/energy
concepts.
1.4 Incorporate the
principles of variety,
contrast, and unity
with dance studies.
Development of Dance
Vocabulary
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Read, write, and per­
form simple melodic
notation in treble clef
in major and minor
keys.
1.2 Read, write, and perform
major and minor scales.
1.3 Read, write, and
perform rhythmic nota­
tion, including quarter
note triplets and tied
syncopation.
1.1 Use the vocabulary
of theatre, such as
sense memory, script,
cue, monologue,
dialogue, protagonist,
and antagonist, to
describe theatrical
experiences.
Listen to, Analyze,
and Describe Music
Comprehension and Analysis
of the Elements of Theatre
1.4 Analyze the use of
music elements in
aural examples from
various genres and
cultures.
1.5 Identify vocal and instru­
mental ensembles from a
variety of genres and
cultures.
1.6 Identify and describe
music forms, including
theme and variations
and twelve-bar blues.
1.2 Identify the structural
elements of plot (exposi­
tion, complication, crisis,
climax, and resolution)
in a script or theatrical
experience.
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
1.5 Use appropriate dance
vocabulary to describe
dances.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Develop Perceptual Skills
and Visual Arts Vocabulary
1.1 Identify and describe
the principles of
design in visual
compositions,
emphasizing unity
and harmony.
1.2 Identify and describe
characteristics of
representational,
abstract, and nonrepre­
sentational works of art.
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.3 Use their knowledge
of all the elements of art
to describe similarities
and differences in
works of art and in the
environment.
68
Grade Five Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Theatre
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in the Visual Arts
Students apply vocal and
instrumental musical skills in
performing a varied reper­
toire of music. They compose
and arrange music and impro­
vise melodies, variations, and
accompaniments, using digital/
electronic technology when
appropriate.
Students apply processes and
skills in acting, directing,
designing, and scriptwriting to
create formal and informal
theatre, film/videos, and elec­
tronic media productions and
to perform in them.
Students apply artistic
processes and skills, using a
variety of media to communi­
cate meaning and intent in
original works of art.
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and
skills to create and communi­
cate meaning through the
improvisation, composition,
and performance of dance.
Creation/Invention
of Dance Movement
2.1 Create, memorize, and
perform complex se­
quences of movement
with greater focus,
force/energy, and intent.
2.2 Invent multiple
possibilities to solve
a given movement
problem and analyze
problem-solving strat­
egies and solutions.
Application of Choreographic
Principles and Processes
to Creating Dance
2.3 Describe and incorporate
simple dance forms in
dance studies (e.g., AB
form, canon).
2.4 Demonstrate principles
of opposing weight and
force/energy, balance
and counterbalance, or
cantilever.
Communication of Meaning
in Dance
2.5 Convey a wide range
of feeling and expression
through gestures, pos­
ture, and movement.
Apply Vocal and
Instrumental Skills
2.1 Sing a varied repertoire
of music, including
rounds, descants, and
songs with ostinatos
and songs in two-part
harmony, by oneself and
with others.
2.2 Use classroom instru­
ments to play melodies
and accompaniments
from a varied repertoire
of music from diverse
cultures, including
rounds, descants, and
ostinatos and two-part
harmony, by oneself and
with others.
Compose, Arrange,
and Improvise
Development of
Theatrical Skills
2.1 Participate in impro­
visational activities
to explore complex
ideas and universal
themes in literature
and life.
2.2 Demonstrate the use
of blocking (stage areas,
levels, and actor’s posi­
tion, such as full front,
quarter, profile, and full
back) in dramatizations.
Creation/Invention
in Theatre
2.3 Collaborate as an actor,
director, scriptwriter,
or technical artist in
creating formal or
informal theatrical
performances.
2.3 Compose, improvise,
and perform basic
rhythmic, melodic,
and chordal patterns
independently
on classroom
instruments.
Development of Partner
and Group Skills
2.6 Demonstrate coopera­
tion, collaboration, and
empathy in working
with partners and in
groups (e.g., leading/
following, mirroring,
calling/responding,
echoing, opposing).
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Skills, Processes, Materials,
and Tools
2.1 Use one-point perspec­
tive to create the illusion
of space.
2.2 Create gesture and
contour observational
drawings.
2.3 Demonstrate begin­
ning skill in the
manipulation of
digital imagery
(e.g., computergenerated art, digital
photography, or
videography).
Communication and
Expression Through Original
Works of Art
2.4 Create an expressive
abstract composition
based on real objects.
2.5 Assemble a found object
sculpture (as assemblage)
or a mixed media twodimensional composition
that reflects unity and
harmony and communi­
cates a theme.
2.6 Use perspective in
an original work of art
to create a real or
imaginary scene.
2.7 Communicate values,
opinions, or personal
insights through an
original work of art.
69
Grade Five Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the function
and development of dance in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role of
music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diver­
sity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Describe how and why a
traditional dance may be
changed when performed
on stage for an audience.
History and Function
of Dance
3.2 Identify and perform
folk/traditional, social,
and theatrical dances
done by Americans in
the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries.
Diversity of Dance
3.3 Select traditional dances
that men, women, or
children perform and
explain the purpose(s)
of the dances.
3.1 Describe the social
functions of a variety
of musical forms from
various cultures and time
periods (e.g., folk songs,
dances).
Diversity of Music
3.2 Identify different or
similar uses of musical
elements in music from
diverse cultures.
3.3 Sing and play music from
diverse cultures and time
periods.
3.4 Describe the influence
of various cultures and
historical events on
musical forms and styles.
3.5 Describe the influences
of various cultures on
the music of the United
States.
Students analyze the role and
development of theatre, film/
video, and electronic media in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
diversity as it relates to the­
atre.
Role and Cultural
Significance of Theatre
3.1 Select or create appro­
priate props, sets, and
costumes for a cultural
celebration or pageant.
3.2 Interpret how theatre
and storytelling forms
(past and present) of
various cultural groups
may reflect their beliefs
and traditions.
History of Theatre
3.3 Analyze ways in which
theatre, television,
and film play a part
in our daily lives.
3.4 Identify types of early
American theatre,
such as melodrama
and musical theatre.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Role and Development
of the Visual Arts
3.1 Describe how local and
national art galleries and
museums contribute to
the conservation of art.
3.2 Identify and describe
various fine, traditional,
and folk arts from
historical periods
worldwide.
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.3 Identify and compare
works of art from
various regions of
the United States.
3.4 View selected works of
art from a major culture
and observe changes in
materials and styles over
a period of time.
70
Grade Five Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of dance, performance of
dancers, and original works
according to the elements of
dance and aesthetic qualities.
Students critically assess
and derive meaning from
works of music and the
performance of musicians
according to the elements
of music, aesthetic qualities,
and human responses.
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of the­
atre, film/video, electronic
media, and theatrical artists
on the basis of aesthetic
qualities.
Students analyze, assess,
and derive meaning from
works of art, including their
own, according to the ele­
ments of art, the principles
of design, and aesthetic
qualities.
Description, Analysis,
and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Use dance vocabulary
to identify and support
personal preferences
for dances observed
or performed.
4.2 Apply specific criteria
to analyze and assess
the quality of a dance
performance by
well-known dancers
or dance companies
(e.g., technical skill,
musicality, dynamics,
mood).
Meaning and Impact
of Dance
Analyze and Critically Assess
4.1 Identify and analyze
differences in tempo and
dynamics in contrasting
music selections.
Derive Meaning
4.2 Develop and apply
appropriate criteria
to support personal
preferences for
specific musical
works.
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
4.1 Develop and apply
appropriate criteria
for critiquing the
work of actors,
directors, writers,
and technical artists
in theatre, film,
and video.
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
4.2 Describe devices actors
use to convey meaning
or intent in commercials
on television.
4.3 Identify the special and
challenging characteris­
tics of the experience of
dancing for an audience.
4.4 Explain how outstanding
dancers affect audience
members emotionally or
intellectually.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Derive Meaning
4.1 Identify how selected
principles of design are
used in a work of art and
how they affect personal
responses to and evalua­
tion of the work of art.
4.2 Compare the different
purposes of a specific
culture for creating art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.3 Develop and use specific
criteria as individuals
and in groups to assess
works of art.
4.4 Assess their own
works of art, using
specific criteria,
and describe what
changes they would
make for improve­
ment.
71
Grade Five Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music to
Learning in Other Art Forms
and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Explain the role of music
in community events.
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Use theatrical skills to
dramatize events and
concepts from other
curriculum areas, such
as reenacting the signing
of the Declaration of
Independence in history–
social science.
5.1 Use linear perspective to
depict geometric objects
in space.
5.1 Describe how historical events relate to
dance forms (e.g., the
rebellion of the 1960s
was represented in
popular social dances
with a move from
partners to individual
expression).
5.2 Describe how dancing
requires good healthrelated habits (e.g., indi­
vidual and group goals
for flexibility, strength,
endurance, stress management, nutrition).
5.3 Cite examples of the
use of technology in the
performing arts.
Connections and Applications
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Identify ways in which
the music professions are
similar to or different
from one another.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Identify the roles and
responsibilities of performing and technical
artists in theatre, film,
television, and electronic
media.
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
5.4 Demonstrate social skills
that enable students to
become leaders/teachers
and followers/learners.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Visual Literacy
5.2 Identify and design icons,
logos, and other graphic
devices as symbols for
ideas and information.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.3 Research and report on
what various types of
artists (e.g., architects,
designers, graphic artists,
animators) produce and
how their works play a
role in our everyday
environment
72
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Six
S
ixth-grade students are beginning to find their way in a wider setting. Starting the process of defining their point of view through the arts, they are
also bringing together basic concepts they have learned throughout elementary
school, learning more rigorous skills and determining how to apply those skills.
Further, they are learning to link particular art forms to the communication of
meaning. Becoming more responsible for their aesthetic choices, they want to
learn the skills needed to express their individuality effectively because they are
constantly comparing themselves to others. They continue to acquire skills that
improve their self-confidence and increase their arts vocabulary and begin to
understand how culture and the arts interact. And they are learning to be responsible to themselves and their classmates through participation in creative
groups and ensembles. Through the arts students achieve a balance leading to a
healthy, creative transition to the increasingly complex academic life to come.
Students are enjoying a wealth of arts experiences as their focus shifts from
self-contained elementary school classes. Some are instructed by arts specialists,
such as the instrumental and vocal directors, who help students increase their
ability to read, write, and perform music. In the interactive setting of a theatre
class, students study, create, and perform literary works, thereby gaining additional connections with the language arts curriculum. In turn, dance instruction
provides students with opportunities for increased expression through movement and spatial awareness, and in the visual arts students might create a
project in the tradition of the civilizations they are studying in ancient
history. Through all of these rich, interrelated arts studies, students
discover a greater sense of self-confidence and a deeper knowledge of
their place in history and society. And focused practice in applying the
elements of the arts and thoughtful descriptions of their use in artwork
help students in both creative expression and artistic valuing.
In all of the arts, students are developing ideas, moods, and themes
in increasingly complex dance studies, musical performances, scenes and
plays, and original works of visual art. Through their studies in history–
social science and their performance and research in the arts, they are
learning more about the role the arts have played in varied cultures and
time periods. Across the curriculum in each of the arts, students are increasing their ability to apply appropriate criteria to evaluate artwork.
Doing so helps them improve their own work and become more
discriminating members of the audience and viewers of the arts.
73
Dance
Students apply variations of force and energy in their dance
movements, demonstrating physical control and coordination as
they perform different types of movement. Their dances show a
variety of movements that use the principles of contrast and unity. At
the same time students’ movements and dances reveal deeper expressive intent
and integrate the elements of dance in more complex ways.
Music
Students use standard music symbols for pitch, meter, and rhythm.
They can improvise short, simple melodies and arrange favorite
musical examples for different groups of voices or instruments.
They are also able to relate why specific musical works of the past
are considered exemplary and can explain how music can convey mental
images, feelings, and emotions. As they perform, they are able to move
beyond rote performances of musical selections and employ deeper
emotional subtleties.
Theatre
Students use such terms as vocal projection and subtext as they
describe their theatrical experiences. As they perform, they show
effective vocal and facial expressions, gestures, and timing. In
writing plays and short theatrical scenes, they include monologues and dialogues showing a range of character types from a variety of cultures. Now
students can use and evaluate with more confidence the makeup, lighting,
props, and costumes employed in theatre.
Visual Arts
Students analyze how balance is used in two- and three-dimensional works of art. Using artwork to express a mood, a feeling,
or an idea, they demonstrate more complexity and technical
skill in their drawings, paintings, and sculpture. Through the
use of a variety of resources, they can research and discuss the visual arts
throughout history. They are also able to recognize and use art as a metaphor
for abstract ideas expressed in a variety of cultures and historical periods.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Six
74
Key Content Standards
Grade Six
Dance
Music
Theatre
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Demonstrate focus,
physical control,
coordination, and
accurate reproduction
in performing loco­
motor and axial
movement.
1.4 (Artistic Perception)
Use the principles of
contrast, unity, and
variety in phrasing in
dance studies and
dances.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Compare and demon­
strate the difference
between imitating
movement and creat­
ing original material.
3.3 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Explain the
various ways people
have experienced
dance in their daily
lives (e.g., Roman
entertainments, Asian
religious ceremonies,
baby naming in Ghana,
Latin American
celebrations).
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Apply knowledge
of the elements of
dance and the craft
of choreography to
critiquing (spatial
design, variety, con­
trast, clear structure).
1.2 (Artistic Perception) Read,
write, and perform rhyth­
mic and melodic notation,
using standard symbols
for pitch, meter, rhythm,
dynamics, and tempo in
duple and triple meters.
2.1 (Creative Expression) Sing a
repertoire of vocal litera­
ture representing various
genres, styles, and cultures
with expression, technical
accuracy, good posture,
tone quality, and vowel
shape—written and
memorized, by oneself
and in ensembles (level
of difficulty: 1 on a scale
of 1–6).
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Perform on an instrument
a repertoire of instrumen­
tal literature representing
various genres, styles, and
cultures with expression,
technical accuracy, tone
quality, and articulation,
by oneself and in en­
sembles (level of difficulty:
1 on a scale of 1–6).
2.6 (Creative Expression) Im­
provise simple melodies.
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing) Develop
criteria for evaluating the
quality and effectiveness
of musical performances
and compositions, includ­
ing arrangements and
improvisations, and apply
the criteria in personal
listening and performing.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing) Explain
how various aesthetic
qualities convey images,
feeling, or emotion.
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Use the vocabulary of
theatre, such as action/
reaction, vocal projection,
subtext, theme, mood,
design, production values,
and stage crew, to de­
scribe theatrical
experiences.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Use effective vocal
expression, gesture,
facial expression, and
timing to create
character.
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Write and perform
scenes or one-act plays
that include monologue,
dialogue, action, and
setting together with
a range of character
types.
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Differentiate
the theatrical traditions
of cultures throughout
the world, such as those
in Ancient Greece,
Egypt, China, and
West Africa.
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Develop and apply
appropriate criteria for
evaluating sets, lighting,
costumes, makeup,
and props.
Visual Arts
1.4 (Artistic Perception)
Describe how balance
is effectively used in a
work of art (e.g., sym­
metrical, asymmetrical,
radial).
2.4 (Creative Expression)
Create increasingly
complex original
works of art reflecting
personal choices and
increased technical skill.
2.5 (Creative Expression)
Select specific media
and processes to
express moods, feel­
ings, themes, or ideas.
3.1 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Research and
discuss the role of the
visual arts in selected
periods of history,
using a variety of
resources (both print
and electronic).
4.4 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Change, edit, or revise
their works of art after
a critique, articulating
reasons for their
changes.
75
Grade Six Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students read, notate, listen
to, analyze, and describe
music and other aural infor­
mation, using the terminology
of music.
Students observe their
environment and respond,
using the elements of theatre.
They also observe formal and
informal works of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media and respond, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
Students perceive and
respond, using the elements
of dance. They demonstrate
movement skills, process
sensory information, and
describe movement, using
the vocabulary of dance.
Development of Motor Skills
and Technical Expertise
1.1 Demonstrate focus,
physical control,
coordination, and
accurate reproduc­
tion in performing
locomotor and axial
movement.
1.2 Incorporate a variety
of force/energy qualities
into executing a full
range of movements.
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.3 Identify and use force/
energy variations when
executing gesture and
locomotor and axial
movements.
1.4 Use the principles of
contrast, unity, and
variety in phrasing in
dance studies and
dances.
Development of Dance
Vocabulary
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Read, write, and perform
intervals and triads.
1.2 Read, write, and
perform rhythmic
and melodic notation,
using standard sym­
bols for pitch, meter,
rhythm, dynamics,
and tempo in duple
and triple meters.
1.3 Transcribe simple aural
examples into rhythmic
notation.
1.4 Sight-read simple melo­
dies in the treble clef
or bass clef.
Listen to, Analyze,
and Describe Music
1.5 Analyze and compare the
use of musical elements
representing various
genres and cultures,
emphasizing meter and
rhythm.
1.6 Describe larger music
forms (sonata-allegro
form, concerto, theme
and variations).
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
1.1 Use the vocabulary
of theatre, such as
action/reaction, vocal
projection, subtext,
theme, mood, design,
production values,
and stage crew, to
describe theatrical
experiences.
Comprehension and Analysis
of the Elements of Theatre
1.2 Identify how production
values can manipulate
mood to persuade and
disseminate propaganda.
1.5 Describe and analyze
movements observed
and performed, using
appropriate dance
vocabulary
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Develop Visual Arts
Knowledge and Vocabulary
1.1 Identify and describe all
the elements of art found
in selected works of art
(color, shape/form, line,
texture, space, value).
1.2 Discuss works of art as
to theme, genre, style,
idea, and differences in
media.
1.3 Describe how artists can
show the same theme by
using different media and
styles.
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.4 Describe how balance
is effectively used
in a work of art
(e.g., symmetrical,
asymmetrical, radial).
76
Grade Six Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating in Theatre
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in the Visual Arts
Students apply vocal and
instrumental musical skills in
performing a varied reper­
toire of music. They compose
and arrange music and impro­
vise melodies, variations, and
accompaniments, using
digital/electronic technology
when appropriate.
Students apply processes
and skills in acting,
directing, designing, and
scriptwriting to create
formal and informal
theatre, film/videos,
and electronic media
productions and to
perform in them.
Students apply artistic
processes and skills, using
a variety of media to
communicate meaning
and intent in original
works of art.
Apply Vocal and
Instrumental Skills
Development of
Theatrical Skills
2.1 Sing a repertoire
of vocal literature
representing various
genres, styles, and
cultures with expres­
sion, technical accu­
racy, good posture,
tone quality, and
vowel shape—written
and memorized,
by oneself and in
ensembles (level of
difficulty: 1 on a scale
of 1–6).
2.2 Sing music written in
two parts.
2.3 Perform on an instru­
ment a repertoire of
instrumental litera­
ture representing
various genres, styles,
and cultures with
expression, technical
accuracy, tone qual­
ity, and articulation,
by oneself and in
ensembles (level of
difficulty: 1 on a scale
of 1–6).
2.1 Participate in
improvisational
activities, demon­
strating an under­
standing of text,
subtext, and
context.
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and skills to
create and communicate meaning
through the improvisation, composi­
tion, and performance of dance.
Creation/Invention
of Dance Movements
2.1 Invent multiple possibilities to
solve a given movement prob­
lem and develop the material
into a short study.
2.2 Compare and demonstrate
the difference between
imitating movement and
creating original material.
Application of Choreographic
Principles and Processes
to Creating Dance
2.3 Describe and incorporate
dance forms in dance studies.
2.4 Demonstrate the ability to
coordinate movement with
different musical rhythms and
styles (e.g., ABA form, canon).
2.5 Use the elements of dance to
create short studies that dem­
onstrate the development of
ideas and thematic material.
Communication of Meaning
in Dance Through Dance
Performance
2.6 Demonstrate an awareness of
the body as an instrument of
expression when rehearsing
and performing.
2.7 Revise, memorize, and rehearse
dance studies for the purpose
of performing for others.
Development of Partner
and Group Skills
2.8 Demonstrate an ability to
cooperate and collaborate with
a wide range of partners and
groups (e.g., imitating, leading/
following, mirroring, calling/
responding, echoing, sequence
building).
Creation/Invention
in Theatre
2.2 Use effective
vocal expression,
gesture, facial
expression, and
timing to create
character.
2.3 Write and
perform scenes
or one-act plays
that include
monologue,
dialogue, action,
and setting
together with
a range of
character types.
Compose, Arrange,
and Improvise
2.4 Compose short pieces in
duple and triple meters.
2.5 Arrange simple pieces
for voices or instru­
ments, using traditional
sources of sound.
2.6 Improvise simple
melodies.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Skills, Processes,
Materials, and Tools
2.1 Use various observa­
tional drawing skills
to depict a variety of
subject matter.
2.2 Apply the rules of
two-point perspective
in creating a thematic
work of art.
2.3 Create a drawing, using
varying tints, shades,
and intensities.
Communication and
Expression Through Original
Works of Art
2.4 Create increasingly
complex original
works of art reflect­
ing personal choices
and increased
technical skill.
2.5 Select specific
media and processes
to express moods,
feelings, themes,
or ideas.
2.6 Use technology to
create original works
of art.
77
Grade Six Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the role and
development of theatre, film/
video, and electronic media
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
diversity as it relates to
theatre.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Students analyze the function
and development of dance in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role of
music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diver­
sity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Compare and contrast
features of dances
already performed from
different countries.
History and Function
of Dance
3.2 Explain the importance
and function of dance
in students’ lives.
Diversity of Dance
3.3 Explain the various
ways people have
experienced dance
in their daily lives
(e.g., Roman enter­
tainments, Asian
religious ceremonies,
baby naming in
Ghana, Latin Ameri­
can celebrations).
3.1 Compare music from
two or more cultures
of the world as to the
functions the music
serves and the roles
of musicians.
3.2 Listen to and describe
the role of music in
ancient civilizations
(e.g., Chinese, Egyptian,
Greek, Indian, Roman).
Diversity of Music
3.3 Describe distinguishing
characteristics of repre­
sentative musical genres
and styles from two or
more cultures.
3.4 Listen to, describe, and
perform music of various
styles from a variety of
cultures.
3.5 Classify by style and
genre a number of exem­
plary musical works and
explain the characteris­
tics that make each work
exemplary.
Role and Cultural
Significance of Theatre
3.1 Create scripts that
reflect particular
historical periods
or cultures.
History of Theatre
3.2 Differentiate the
theatrical traditions
of cultures through­
out the world, such
as those in Ancient
Greece, Egypt, China,
and West Africa.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Role and Development
of the Visual Arts
3.1 Research and discuss
the role of the visual
arts in selected peri­
ods of history, using
a variety of resources
(both print and elec­
tronic).
3.2 View selected works of
art from a culture and
describe how they have
changed or not changed
in theme and content
over a period of time.
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.3 Compare, in oral or
written form, representa­
tive images or designs
from at least two
selected cultures.
78
Grade Six Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of the­
atre, film/video, electronic
media, and theatrical artists
on the basis of aesthetic
qualities.
Students analyze, assess,
and derive meaning from
works of art, including their
own, according to the ele­
ments of art, the principles
of design, and aesthetic
qualities.
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of dance, performance of
dancers, and original works
based on the elements of
dance and aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis,
and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Apply knowledge
of the elements of
dance and the craft
of choreography to
critiquing (spatial
design, variety, con­
trast, clear structure).
4.2 Propose ways to revise
choreography according
to established assessment
criteria.
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of music and the performance
of musicians in a cultural
context according to the
elements of music, aesthetic
qualities, and human
responses.
Analyze and Critically Assess
4.1 Develop criteria for
evaluating the quality
and effectiveness of
musical performances
and compositions,
including arrange­
ments and improvisa­
tions, and apply the
criteria in personal
listening and
performing.
Meaning and Impact
of Dance
Derive Meaning
4.3 Discuss the experience
of performing personal
work for others.
4.4 Distinguish the differ­
ences between viewing
live and recorded dance
performances.
4.2 Explain how various
aesthetic qualities
convey images,
feeling, or emotion.
4.3 Identify aesthetic qualities
in a specific musical
work.
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
4.1 Develop and apply
appropriate criteria
for evaluating sets,
lighting, costumes,
makeup, and props.
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
4.2 Identify examples of how
theatre, television, and
film can influence or be
influenced by politics
and culture.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Derive Meaning
4.1 Construct and describe
plausible interpretations
of what they perceive
in works of art.
4.2 Identify and describe
ways in which their
culture is being reflected
in current works of art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.3 Develop specific criteria
as individuals or in
groups to assess and
critique works of art.
4.4 Change, edit, or
revise their works
of art after a critique,
articulating reasons
for their changes.
79
Grade Six Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music to
Learning in Other Art Forms
and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Use theatrical skills to
communicate concepts
or ideas from other
curriculum areas, such
as a demonstration in
history–social science
of how persuasion and
propaganda are used
in advertising.
5.1 Research how art was
used in theatrical produc­
tions in the past and in
the present.
5.2 Research how traditional
characters (such as the
trickster) found in a
variety of cultures past
and present are repre­
sented in illustrations.
5.3 Create artwork contain­
ing visual metaphors that
express the traditions
and myths of selected
cultures.
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Describe how other arts
disciplines are integrated
into dance performances
(e.g., music, lighting, set
design).
5.2 Describe the responsibili­
ties a dancer has in main­
taining health-related
habits (e.g., balanced
nutrition, regular
exercise, adequate sleep).
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
5.3 Identify careers in dance
and dance-related fields
(e.g., teacher, therapist,
videographer, dance
critic, choreographer,
notator).
Connections and Applications
5.1 Describe how knowledge
of music connects to
learning in other subject
areas.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Identify career pathways
in music.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Research career
opportunities in media,
advertising, marketing,
and interactive Web
design.
Visual Literacy
5.4 Describe tactics employed in advertising
to sway the viewer’s
thinking and provide
examples.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.5 Establish criteria to use
in selecting works of
art for a specific type
of art exhibition.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
80
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Seven
S
eventh-grade students have attained basic knowledge and skills in the four
arts disciplines that prepare them for in-depth exploration of the arts. In
dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts, they expand their ability to express
their vision and opinions with differing perspectives. And by refining the foundational skills they have been developing since kindergarten, they can apply
them in meaningful, creative ways. During this transitional time of change for
students, they should be provided with a curriculum that honors and values
them as individuals.
Students reflect on their own creative works and those of others as they
begin to convey meaning and develop their own criteria. They continue to
learn what is required of them individually as they work cooperatively in groups
and ensembles and become part of a creative team. By deepening their knowledge of content and practicing their skills, they learn to express themselves as
individuals and within the group. They need not only opportunities to explore
but also increased structure and technique as well as practice in self-assessment
and reflection on their work. By learning how to render positive and thoughtful
feedback to themselves and their peers, they gain a skill that will benefit them
throughout their lives.
Engaged in more in-depth research and analysis, students examine many
different dance styles and elements of music used in works from various styles
and cultures. They also analyze the dramatic elements in a script and discuss
how the principles of design in the visual arts, such as line, color, and space,
contribute to the expressive quality of their own work.
Dance
Students demonstrate their increased
originality and performance skills in
choreography and performance. By cre
ating longer and more complex movement
sequences, they come to realize how expressive those movements can be. They verbalize those expressive qualities as they describe move-
ments observed in the dancing of others and in their everyday lives and incorporate music into their movement sequences and choreography. They also discuss the function of dance as observed in different countries and among different age groups. 81
Music
Students sing and perform various styles of music from different
cultures to improve their technical accuracy. They learn to
discern how musical elements, such as tonality and intervals, vary
according to culture and style and study larger and more complex operatic and
fugue forms. By applying their vocal or instrumental skills, they can perform a
repertoire of music; and their study of music from many styles and cultures
helps them compose and arrange original works. Further, by comparing and
contrasting two works performed by different musicians or performing groups,
they can apply their skills in aesthetic valuing and artistic perception.
Theatre
Students learn and practice directing skills and work to improve
their acting techniques. As they analyze the dramatic elements
used by scriptwriters, they learn the vocabulary of the theatre and
the elements of scriptwriting. Keeping a rehearsal script notebook, they write
down directions and blocking notes as a play is being produced. As they compare and contrast various theatre styles used in different countries and time
periods, they learn the value of theatre in communicating, enabling them to
explain how theatre is influenced by culture.
Visual Arts
Students focus on developing a series of related works to express
a personal statement. As they develop their works, they describe
how their application of the elements of art and principles of
design contribute to what they want to express. Aware that art is
not created in isolation, they compare and contrast works from different time
periods and cultures and reflect on the artists’ styles in relation to time and
place. In the process they are identifying what they believe to be important to
look for in works of art and what criteria they want to apply as they critique
those works.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Seven
82
Key Content Standards
Grade Seven
Dance
1.2 (Artistic Perception) Dem­
onstrate increased ability
and skill to sustain longer
and more complex
movement sequences for
expression in a variety of
dance styles.
1.5 (Artistic Perception) Use
appropriate dance
vocabulary to describe
everyday gestures and
other movements
observed in viewing live
or recorded dance per­
formances. (Descriptions
may take the form of a
drawing or video/computer documentation.)
2.3 (Creative Expression)
Demonstrate the ability
to use dance elements
to develop dance phrases
reflecting various musical
rhythms, styles, and
dynamics.
3.1 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Identify and
perform dances from
countries studied in the
history–social science
curriculum.
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing) Dem­
onstrate understanding
of the elements of dance
and the craft of choreog­
raphy when critiquing
two kinds of dance
(e.g., solo, duet).
5.2 (Connections, Relationships,
Applications) Describe
how dancing builds
physical and emotional
well-being (e.g., positive
body imaging, physical
goals, creative goals,
focus/concentration).
Music
Theatre
1.4 (Artistic Perception) Sight-read
melodies in the treble or
bass clef (level of difficulty:
1 on a scale of 1–6).
1.5 (Artistic Perception) Analyze
and compare the use of
musical elements represent­
ing various genres, styles,
and cultures, emphasizing
tonality and intervals.
2.1 (Creative Expression) Sing a
repertoire of focal literature
representing various genres,
styles, and cultures with
expression, technical accu­
racy, tone quality, vowel
shape, and articulation—
written and memorized, by
oneself and in ensembles
(level of difficulty: 2 on a
scale of 1–6).
2.3 (Creative Expression) Perform
on an instrument a reper­
toire of instrumental litera­
ture representing various
genres, styles, and cultures
with expression, technical
accuracy, tone quality, and
articulation, by oneself and
in ensembles (level of diffi­
culty: 2 on a scale of 1–6).
2.5 (Creative Expression)
Compose and arrange
simple pieces for voice and
instruments, using additional
and nontraditional sound
sources, including digital/
electronic media.
4.3 (Aesthetic Valuing) Compare
and contrast the differences
between one performance
of a specific musical work
and another performance
of the same work.
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Use the vocabulary
of theatre, such as
playwright, rehearsal,
dress rehearsal, runthrough, and cold
reading, to describe
theatrical experi­
ences.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Maintain a rehearsal
script/notebook to
record directions
and blocking.
3.1 (Historical and
Cultural Context)
Design and create
masks, puppets,
props, costumes,
or sets in a selected
theatrical style
drawn from world
cultures, such as
Javanese shadow
puppets or Kabuki
masks.
3.2 (Historical and
Cultural Context)
Compare and
contrast various
theatre styles
throughout history,
such as those of
Ancient Greece,
Elizabethan Theatre,
Kabuki theatre,
Kathakali dance
theatre, and
commedia dell´arte.
4.2 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Explain how cultural
influences affect the
content or meaning
of works of theatre.
Visual Arts
1.4 (Artistic Perception)
Analyze and describe
how the elements of
art and the principles
of design contribute
to the expressive
qualities of their own
works of art.
2.7 (Creative Expression)
Create a series of
works of art that
express a personal
statement demonstrat­
ing skill in applying the
elements of art and
the principles of
design.
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Compare and
contrast works of art
from various periods,
styles, and cultures
and explain how those
works reflect the
society in which they
were made.
4.4 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Develop and apply
specific and appropri­
ate criteria individually
or in groups to assess
and critique works
of art.
5.3 (Connections, Relationships, Applications)
Examine art, photogra­
phy, and other twoand three-dimensional
images, comparing
how different visual
representations of the
same object lead to
different interpreta­
tions of its meaning,
and describe or
illustrate the results.
83
Grade Seven Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students perceive and respond,
using the elements of dance.
They demonstrate movement
skills, process sensory informa­
tion, and describe movement,
using the vocabulary of dance.
Students read, notate, listen
to, analyze, and describe
music and other aural infor­
mation, using the terminology
of music.
Development of Motor Skills,
Technical Expertise,
and Dance Movements
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
1.1 Read, write, and perform
intervals, chordal pat­
terns, and harmonic
progressions.
1.2 Read, write, and perform
rhythmic and melodic
notation in duple, triple,
and mixed meters.
1.3 Transcribe simple aural
examples into rhythmic
notation.
1.4 Sight-read melodies
in the treble or bass
clef (level of difficulty:
1 on a scale of 1–6).
Students observe their
environment and respond,
using the elements of
theatre. They also observe
formal and informal works
of theatre, film/video,
and electronic media
and respond, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
1.1 Demonstrate increased
focus, physical control,
coordination, skill, and
accurate reproduction in
performing locomotor
and axial movement.
1.2 Demonstrate increased
ability and skill to sus­
tain longer and more
complex movement
sequences for expression
in a variety of dance
styles.
1.3 Demonstrate risk taking
in generating bigger and
stronger movements
through space in rehearsal
and performance.
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.4 Identify and use a wider
range of space, time, and
force/energy to manipulate
locomotor and axial
movements.
Read and Notate Music
Listen to, Analyze,
and Describe Music
1.5 Analyze and compare
the use of various
genres, styles, and
cultures, emphasizing
tonality and intervals.
1.6 Describe larger music
forms (canon, fugue,
suite, ballet, opera, and
oratorio).
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
1.1 Use the vocabulary
of theatre, such
as playwright,
rehearsal, dress
rehearsal, runthrough, and cold
reading, to describe
theatrical experi­
ences.
Comprehension and
Analysis of the Elements
of Theatre
1.2 Identify dramatic
elements within a
script, such as foreshadowing, crisis, rising
action, catharsis, and
denouement, using the
vocabulary of theatre.
Development of Dance
Vocabulary
1.5 Use appropriate dance
vocabulary to describe
everyday gestures and
other movements ob­
served in viewing live or
recorded dance perfor­
mances. (Descriptions
may take the form of a
drawing or video/computer documentation.)
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Develop Perceptual Skills
and Visual Arts Vocabulary
1.1 Describe the environ­
ment and selected works
of art, using the elements
of art and the principles
of design.
1.2 Identify and describe
scale (proportion) as
applied to two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art.
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.3 Identify and describe the
ways in which artists
convey the illusion of
space (e.g., placement,
overlapping, relative size,
atmospheric perspective,
and linear perspective).
1.4 Analyze and describe
how the elements of
art and the principles
of design contribute
to the expressive
qualities of their own
works of art.
84
Grade Seven Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating
in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating
in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating
in Theatre
Creating, Performing,
and Participating
in the Visual Arts
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and skills to
create and communicate meaning
through the improvisation, composi­
tion, and performance of dance.
Students apply vocal and instrumen­
tal musical skills in performing a
varied repertoire of music. They
compose and arrange music and
improvise melodies, variations, and
accompaniments, using digital/
electronic technology when
appropriate.
Students apply pro­
cesses and skills in
acting, directing, design­
ing, and scriptwriting
to create formal and
informal theatre, film/
videos, and electronic
media productions and
to perform in them.
Students apply artistic
processes and skills,
using a variety of media
to communicate meaning
and intent in original
works of art.
Creation/Invention
of Dance Movement
2.1 Create, memorize, and
perform improvised movement
sequences, dance studies, and
choreography with dynamic
range and fulfillment.
2.2 Demonstrate the ability to use
personal discovery and inven­
tion through improvisation
and choreography.
Application of Choreographic
Principles and Processes
to Creating Dance
2.3 Demonstrate the ability
to use dance elements to
develop dance phrases
reflecting various musical
rhythms, styles, and
dynamics.
2.4 Demonstrate skill in using ideas
and themes to develop simple
dance forms (e.g., rondo,
ABA form).
Communication of Meaning
in Dance Through Dance
Performance
2.5 Demonstrate performance skill
in the ability to interpret and
communicate through dance.
2.6 Collaborate with others in
preparing a dance presentation
for an audience (short informal
dance, lecture/demo, evening
concert).
Development of Partner
and Group Skills
2.7 Demonstrate increased origi­
nality in using partner or group
relationships to define spatial
floor patterns, shape designs,
and entrances and exits.
Apply Vocal and Instrumental Skills
2.1 Sing a repertoire of vocal
literature representing
various genres, styles, and
cultures with expression,
technical accuracy, tone
quality, vowel shape, and
articulation—written and
memorized, by oneself
and in ensembles (level
of difficulty: 2 on a scale
of 1–6).
2.2 Sing music written in two
and three parts
2.3 Perform on an instrument
a repertoire of instrumen­
tal literature representing
various genres, styles, and
cultures with expression,
technical accuracy, tone
quality, and articulation,
by oneself and in en­
sembles (level of difficulty:
2 on a scale of 1–6).
Development of
Theatrical Skills
2.1 Use improvisation
in rehearsal to
discover character
and motivation.
2.2 Maintain a
rehearsal
script/notebook
to record
directions
and blocking.
Creation/Invention
in Theatre
2.3 Create characters,
environments,
and actions that
exhibit tension
and suspense.
Compose, Arrange, and Improvise
2.4 Compose short pieces in
duple, triple, and mixed
meters.
2.5 Compose and arrange
simple pieces for voice and
instruments, using tradi­
tional and nontraditional
sound sources, including
digital/electronic media.
2.6 Improvise melodies and
harmonic accompaniments.
2.7 Improvise melodic and rhyth­
mic embellishments and
variations on given pentatonic
melodies.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Skills, Processes,
Materials, and Tools
2.1 Develop increasing
skill in the use of at
least three different
media.
2.2 Use different forms
of perspective to
show the illusion of
depth on a twodimensional surface.
2.3 Develop skill in
using mixed media
while guided by a
selected principle
of design.
2.4 Develop skill in
mixing paints and
showing color
relationships.
Communication and
Expression Through
Original Works of Art
2.5 Interpret reality and
fantasy in original
two-dimensional
and three-dimensional works of art.
2.6 Create an original
work of art, using
film, photography,
computer graphics,
or video.
2.7 Create a series of
works of art that
express a per­
sonal statement
demonstrating
skill in applying
the elements of
art and the prin­
ciples of design.
85
Grade Seven Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the function
and development of dance
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role
of music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diver­
sity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Identify and perform
dances from countries
studied in the history–
social science curricu­
lum.
History and Function
of Dance
3.2 Explain the function of
dance in daily life during
specific time periods and
in countries being studied
in history–social science
(e.g., North African,
Middle Eastern, and
Central American dance
in ceremonies, social
events, traditional set­
tings, and theatrical
performances).
Diversity of Dance
3.3 Explain how dance
functions among people
of different age groups,
including their own.
3.1 Compare music from
various cultures as to
some of the functions
music serves and the
roles of musicians.
3.2 Identify and describe the
development of music
during medieval and early
modern times in various
cultures (e.g., African,
Chinese, European,
Islamic, Japanese, South
American).
Diversity of Music
3.3 Identify and describe
distinguishing characteris­
tics of musical genres and
styles from a variety of
cultures.
3.4 Perform music from
diverse genres and
cultures.
3.5 Identify instruments
from a variety of cultures
visually and aurally.
3.6 Classify by style and
genre exemplary musical
works and explain the
characteristics that make
each work exemplary.
Students analyze the role
and development of theatre,
film/video, and electronic
media in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting diversity as it
relates to theatre.
Role and Cultural Significance
of Theatre
3.1 Design and create
masks, puppets,
props, costumes,
or sets in a selected
theatrical style drawn
from world cultures,
such as Javanese
shadow puppets
or Kabuki masks.
History of Theatre
3.2 Compare and con­
trast various theatre
styles throughout
history, such as those
of Ancient Greece,
Elizabethan theatre,
Kabuki theatre,
Kathakali dance the­
atre, and commedia
dell´arte.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Role and Development
of Visual Arts
3.1 Research and describe
how art reflects cultural
values in various tradi­
tions throughout the
world.
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.2 Compare and
contrast works of art
from various periods,
styles, and cultures
and explain how those
works reflect the
society in which
they were made.
86
Grade Seven Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works
of music and the performance
of musicians in a cultural
context according to the
elements of music, aesthetic
qualities, and human
responses.
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of
theatre, film/video, electronic
media, and theatrical artists
on the basis of aesthetic
qualities.
Students analyze, assess,
and derive meaning from
works of art, including their
own, according to the ele­
ments of art, the principles of
design, and aesthetic qualities.
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
Derive Meaning
Students critically assess
and derive meaning from
works of dance, performance
of dancers, and original works
based on the elements of
dance and aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis,
and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Demonstrate
understanding of
the elements of dance
and the craft of
choreography when
critiquing two kinds
of dance (e.g., solo,
duet).
4.2 Identify assessment
criteria used for out­
standing performances
in different styles of
dance (e.g., theatre,
social, ceremonial).
Meaning and Impact
of Dance
4.3 Explain and analyze
the impact of live or
recorded music on dance
performances. (Recorded
music is consistent. Live
music can be altered.)
4.4 Explain how different
venues influence the
experience and impact
of dancing (e.g., a studio
setting, traditional stage,
theater in the round).
Analyze and Critically Assess
4.1 Use criteria to
evaluate the quality
and effectiveness of
musical performances
and compositions.
4.2 Apply criteria appropri­
ate for the style or genre
of music to evaluate the
quality and effectiveness
of performances, compo­
sitions, arrangements,
and improvisations by
oneself and others.
4.1 Design and apply
appropriate criteria or
rubrics for evaluating the
effective use of masks,
puppetry, makeup, and
costumes in a theatrical
presentation.
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
4.2 Explain how cultural
influences affect the
content or meaning
of works of theatre.
Derive Meaning
4.3 Compare and
contrast the differ­
ences between one
performance of a
specific musical work
and another perfor­
mance of the same
work.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
4.1 Explain the intent of a
personal work of art and
draw possible parallels
between it and the work
of a recognized artist.
4.2 Analyze the form (how
a work of art looks) and
content (what a work
of art communicates)
of works of art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.3 Take an active part in a
small-group discussion
about the artistic value
of specific works of art,
with a wide range of the
viewpoints of peers being
considered.
4.4 Develop and apply
specific and appropri­
ate criteria individu­
ally or in groups to
assess and critique
works of art.
4.5 Identify what was done
when a personal work
of art was reworked and
explain how those
changes improved the
work.
87
Grade Seven Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music to
Learning in Other Art Forms
and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
5.1 Identify similarities and
differences in the meanings of common terms
used in various arts and
other subject areas.
5.2 Identify and describe how
music functions in the
media and entertainment
industries.
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Use theatrical skills to
communicate concepts
or ideas from other
curriculum areas, such as
creating a musical based
on a piece of literature.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Demonstrate projection,
vocal variety, diction,
gesture, and confidence
in an oral presentation.
5.1 Study the music and art
of a selected historical
era and create a multimedia presentation that
reflects that time and
culture
5.2 Use various drawing skills
and techniques to depict
lifestyles and scenes from
selected civilizations.
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Identify and use different
sources to generate ideas
for dance compositions
(e.g., poetry, photo­
graphs, political/social
issues).
5.2 Describe how dancing
builds physical and
emotional well-being
(e.g., positive body
imaging, physical
goals, creative goals,
focus/concentration).
Connections and Applications
5.3 Identify various careers
for musicians in the
entertainment industry.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
5.3 Appraise how time
management, listening,
problem-solving, and
teamwork skills used
with other dancers in
composing and rehears­
ing a dance can be ap­
plied to other group
activities.
5.4 Research and compare
careers in dance and
dance-related fields.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Visual Literacy
5.3 Examine art,
photography, and
other two- and
three-dimensional
images, comparing
how different visual
representations of the
same object lead to
different interpreta­
tions of its meaning,
and describe or
illustrate the results.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.4 Identify professions in
or related to the visual
arts and some of the
specific skills needed for
those professions.
88
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Eight
E
ighth-grade students have a foundation in each of the four arts disciplines
that serves as a springboard into deeper study and broader views of the
world and the role the arts play in people’s lives. They also have the vocabulary
needed to converse about the arts in school and in social settings. With their
deepened understanding of the different cultural dimensions in the arts, they
find their voice in an ever-changing world. And having ample opportunities
to collaborate with other students with the same interests in the arts, they can
determine more fully their own points of view and artistic choices. Given
opportunities to apply their artistic abilities to creating and performing in the
arts, they are prepared for constructive feedback from their teachers and their
peers. In all the arts they are now prepared to compare how artists in each of
the arts disciplines use their own source to convey an idea or emotion. For
example, they might reflect on such things as patriotism or football as expressed
in a song, a statue, a monologue, or a dance performance.
Dance
Students use their perceptual skills and dance vocabulary as they
analyze gestures and movements they observe in live or recorded
professional dance performances. What they learn from this analysis
can be applied to their own creation, performance, and documentation
of a personal repertoire of dance movements, patterns, and phrases. Using
their analytical skills, they compare and contrast different kinds of dances that
they learn and perform in class. And they can explain how dance provides
positive health benefits.
Music
Students use their increased vocabulary to explore in depth how
musical elements are used in music of different styles from various
cultures, especially the use of chords and harmonic progressions. As they
sing or perform on an instrument, they practice sight reading at a more difficult
level and are evaluated for their accuracy and expressive quality. Now they have
the musical background needed to compose short pieces in various meters.
89
Theatre
Students’ increased vocabulary and ability to identify and analyze recurring themes and patterns in a script help the students
make production choices as they design and direct a play. Because
they have learned about various styles of theatre, such as melodrama and musical theatre, they can create short dramatizations in those styles. By practicing
several different techniques of acting, they can improve their skills in character
development. Further, they describe how theatre has portrayed moments in
American history and explain how technological advances have changed American theatre. Because of their work in aesthetic valuing, they are prepared to
write a formal review of a theatrical production.
Visual Arts
Students combine their skills in artistic perception and aesthetic
valuing to analyze and justify the artistic choices they make about
their own work and determine how those choices
contribute to the expressive quality of the work.
In both art media and processes, they demonstrate
increased technical skills as they create works of art. Learning how art can make a social comment or protest a social condition in their research of art from various times and places affects their discussions of the effects on society of all visual communication, including television, videos, film, and the Internet. They also become aware of the power of the visual arts as they design a public artwork appropriate to and reflect-
ing the location for which it is designed. Their ability to present a reasoned argument about the artistic value of a work of art can be applied to the works they create or the works of others past or present. Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grade Eight
90
Key Content Standards
Grade Eight
Dance
Music
Theatre
1.2 (Artistic Perception)
Demonstrate capacity
for centering/shifting
body weight and
tension/release in
performing movement
for artistic intent.
1.4 (Artistic Perception)
Analyze gestures and
movements viewed in
live or recorded profes­
sional dance perfor­
mances and apply that
knowledge to dance
activities.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Expand and refine a
personal repertoire of
dance movement vo­
cabulary.
2.4 (Creative Expression)
Record personal
movement patterns and
phrases, using a variety
of methods (e.g., draw­
ings, graphs, words).
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Explain the
variety of roles dance
plays among different
socioeconomic groups
in selected countries
(e.g., royalty and
peasants).
5.1 (Connections, Relationships, Applications)
Identify and compare
how learning habits
acquired from dance can
be applied to the study
of other school subjects
(e.g., memorizing,
researching, practicing).
1.4 (Artistic Perception) Sight-read
accurately and expressively
(level of difficulty: 2 on a
scale of 1–6).
1.5 (Artistic Perception) Analyze
and compare the use of
musical elements represent­
ing various genres, styles, and
cultures, with an emphasis
on chords and harmonic
progressions.
2.1 (Creative Expression) Sing a
repertoire of vocal literature
representing various genres,
styles, and cultures with
expression, technical accu­
racy, tone quality, vowel
shape, and articulation—
written and memorized, by
oneself and in ensembles
(level of difficulty: 3 on a
scale of 1–6).
2.3 (Creative Expression) Perform
on an instrument a reper­
toire of instrumental litera­
ture representing various
genres, styles, and cultures
with expression, technical
accuracy, tone quality, and
articulation, by oneself and in
ensembles (level of difficulty:
3 on a scale of 1–6).
2.4 (Creative Expression)
Compose short pieces in
duple, triple, mixed, and
compound meters.
5.1 (Connections, Relationships,
Applications) Compare in two
or more arts forms how the
characteristic materials of
each art (sound in music,
visual stimuli in visual arts,
movement in dance, human
relationships in theatre) can
be used to transform similar
events, scenes, emotions, or
ideas into works of art.
1.1 (Artistic Perception)
Use the vocabulary
of theatre, such as
ensemble, proscenium,
thrust, and arena
staging, to describe
theatrical experi­
ences.
2.1 (Creative Expression)
Create short drama­
tizations in selected
styles of theatre,
such as melodrama,
vaudeville, and musi­
cal theatre.
2.2 (Creative Expression)
Perform characterbased improvisa­
tions, pantomimes,
or monologues,
using voice, blocking,
and gesture to
enhance meaning.
3.1 (Historical and
Cultural Context)
Describe the ways
in which American
history has been
reflected in theatre
(e.g., the ways in
which the Industrial
Revolution and
slavery were
portrayed in the
minstrel show, the
melodrama, and the
musical).
4.1 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Develop criteria
and write a formal
review of a theatri­
cal production.
Visual Arts
1.2 (Artistic Perception)
Analyze and justify
how their artistic
choices contribute to
the expressive quality
of their own works
of art.
2.4 (Creative Expression)
Design and create an
expressive figurative
sculpture.
3.1 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Examine and
describe or report on
the role of a work of
art created to make
a social comment
or protest social
conditions.
3.2 (Historical and Cultural
Context) Compare,
contrast, and analyze
styles of art from a
variety of times and
places in Western and
non-Western cultures.
4.5 (Aesthetic Valuing)
Present a reasoned
argument about the
artistic value of a work
of art and respond
to the arguments put
forward by others
within a classroom
setting.
5.3 (Connections, Relationships, Applications)
Demonstrate an
understanding of
the effects of visual
communication media
(e.g., television, music
videos, film, Internet)
on all aspects of
society.
91
Grade Eight Content Standards
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing,
and Responding to Sensory
Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Students perceive and respond,
using the elements of dance.
They demonstrate movement
skills, process sensory informa­
tion, and describe movement,
using the vocabulary of dance.
Students read, notate, listen
to, analyze, and describe music
and other aural information,
using the terminology of
music.
Students observe their
environment and respond,
using the elements of the­
atre. They also observe
formal and informal works
of theatre, film/video, and
electronic media and re­
spond, using the vocabulary
of theatre.
Students perceive and
respond to works of art,
objects in nature, events, and
the environment. They also
use the vocabulary of the
visual arts to express their
observations.
Development of Motor Skills,
Technical Expertise,
and Dance Movements
1.1 Demonstrate increased
ability and skill to apply the
elements of space, time,
and force/energy in pro­
ducing a wide range of
dance sequences.
1.2 Demonstrate capacity
for centering/shifting
body weight and
tension/release in
performing movement
for artistic intent.
1.3 Demonstrate greater
technical control in
generating bigger and
stronger movements
through space in rehearsal
and performance.
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.4 Analyze gestures and
movements viewed
in live or recorded
professional dance
performances and
apply that knowledge
to dance activities.
Development of Dance
Vocabulary
1.5 Identify and analyze the
variety of ways in which a
dancer can move, using
space, time, and force/
energy vocabulary.
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Read, write, and perform
augmented and dimin­
ished intervals, minor
chords, and harmonic
minor progressions.
1.2 Read, write, and perform
rhythmic and melodic
notation in duple, triple,
compound, and mixed
meters.
1.3 Transcribe aural
examples into rhythmic
and melodic notation.
1.4 Sight-read accurately
and expressively (level
of difficulty: 2 on a
scale of 1–6).
Listen to, Analyze,
and Describe Music
1.5 Analyze and compare
the use of musical
elements representing
various genres, styles,
and cultures, with an
emphasis on chords
and harmonic
progressions.
1.6 Describe larger musical
forms (e.g., symphony,
tone poem).
1.7 Explain how musical
elements are used to
create specific music
events in given aural
examples.
Development of the
Vocabulary of Theatre
1.1 Use the vocabulary
of theatre, such as
ensemble, proscenium, thrust, and
arena staging, to
describe theatrical
experiences.
Comprehension and
Analysis of the Elements
of Theatre
1.2 Identify and analyze
recurring themes and
patterns (e.g., loyalty,
bravery, revenge,
redemption) in a script
to make production
choices in design and
direction.
1.3 Analyze the use of
figurative language and
imagery in dramatic
texts.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Develop Perceptual Skills
and Visual Arts Vocabulary
1.1 Use artistic terms when
describing the intent and
content of works of art.
Analyze Art Elements
and Principles of Design
1.2 Analyze and justify
how their artistic
choices contribute to
the expressive quality
of their own works
of art.
1.3 Analyze the use of the
elements of art and the
principles of design as
they relate to meaning in
video, film, or electronic
media.
92
Grade Eight Content Standards
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Creating, Performing,
and Participating
in Dance
Creating, Performing,
and Participating
in Music
Creating, Performing,
and Participating
in Theatre
Creating, Performing,
and Participating
in the Visual Arts
Students apply choreographic
principles, processes, and skills to
create and communicate meaning
through the improvisation, compo­
sition, and performance of dance.
Creation/Invention
of Dance Movement
2.1 Create, memorize, and
perform dance studies,
demonstrating technical
expertise and artistic
expression.
2.2 Expand and refine a
personal repertoire
of dance movement
vocabulary.
Application of Choreographic
Principles and Processes
to Creating Dance
2.3 Apply basic music elements
to the making and perfor­
mance of dances (e.g., rhythm,
meter, accents).
2.4 Record personal move­
ment patterns and
phrases, using a variety
of methods (e.g., drawings,
graphs, words).
Communication of Meaning
Through Dance Performance
2.5 Demonstrate performance
skill in the ability to project
energy and express ideas
through dance.
2.6 Demonstrate the use of
personal images as motivation
for individual and group dance
performances.
Development of Partner
and Group Skills
2.7 Demonstrate originality in
using partner or group
relationships to define spatial
patterns and the use of overall
performing space.
Students apply vocal and instrumen­
tal musical skills in performing a
varied repertoire of music. They
compose and arrange music and
improvise melodies, variations, and
accompaniments, using digital/electronic technology when appropriate.
Apply Vocal or Instrumental Skills
2.1 Sing a repertoire of vocal
literature representing
various genres, styles, and
cultures with expression,
technical accuracy, tone
quality, vowel shape, and
articulation—written and
memorized, by oneself and
in ensembles (level of diffi­
culty: 3 on a scale of 1–6).
2.2 Sing music written in two,
three, or four parts.
2.3 Perform on an instrument
a repertoire of instrumen­
tal literature representing
various genres, styles, and
cultures with expression,
technical accuracy, tone
quality, and articulation, by
oneself and in ensembles
(level of difficulty: 3 on a
scale of 1–6).
Compose, Arrange, and Improvise
2.4 Compose short pieces in
duple, triple, mixed, and
compound meters.
2.5 Arrange simple pieces for
voices or instruments other
than those for which the pieces
were written, using traditional
and nontraditional sound
sources, including digital/
electronic media.
2.6 Improvise melodic and
rhythmic embellishments
and variations in major keys.
2.7 Improvise short melodies to be
performed with and without
accompaniment.
Students apply pro­
cesses and skills in
acting, directing,
designing, and script­
writing to create
formal and informal
theatre, film/videos,
and electronic media
productions and to
perform in them.
Development of
Theatrical Skills
2.1 Create short
dramatizations
in selected
styles of the­
atre, such as
melodrama,
vaudeville,
and musical
theatre.
Creation/Invention
in Theatre
2.2 Perform
characterbased improvi­
sations, panto­
mimes, or
monologues,
using voice,
blocking, and
gesture to
enhance
meaning.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
Students apply artistic
processes and skills, using
a variety of media to
communicate meaning
and intent in original
works of art.
Skills, Processes,
Materials, and Tools
2.1 Demonstrate an
increased knowledge
of technical skills in
using more complex
two-dimensional art
media and processes
(e.g., printing press,
silk screening,
computer graphics
software).
2.2 Design and create
maquettes for threedimensional sculp­
tures.
Communication and
Expression Through
Original Works of Art
2.3 Create an original
work of art, using
film, photography,
computer graphics,
or video.
2.4 Design and create
an expressive
figurative
sculpture.
2.5 Select a medium to
use to communicate
a theme in a series of
works of art.
2.6 Design and create
both additive
and subtractive
sculptures.
2.7 Design a work of
public art appropriate
to and reflecting a
location.
93
Grade Eight Content Standards
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of the Visual Arts
Students analyze the function
and development of dance in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to dance and dancers.
Students analyze the role of
music in past and present
cultures throughout the
world, noting cultural diver­
sity as it relates to music,
musicians, and composers.
Development of Dance
Role of Music
3.1 Compare and contrast
specific kinds of dances
(e.g., work, courtship,
ritual, entertainment)
that have been
performed.
History and Function
of Dance
3.2 Explain the variety
of roles dance plays
among different
socioeconomic groups
in selected countries
(e.g., royalty and
peasants).
Diversity of Dance
3.3 Describe the roles of
males and females in
dance in the United
States during various
time periods.
Students analyze the role and
development of theatre, film/
video, and electronic media in
past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
diversity as it relates to the­
atre.
Students analyze the role and
development of the visual arts
in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting
human diversity as it relates
to the visual arts and artists.
Role and Development
of the Visual Arts
3.1 Compare and contrast
the functions music
serves and the place of
musicians in society in
various cultures.
3.2 Identify and explain the
influences of various
cultures on music in early
United States history.
3.3 Explain how music has
reflected social functions
and changing ideas and
values.
Role and Cultural
Significance of Theatre
3.1 Describe the ways
in which American
history has been
reflected in theatre
(e.g., the ways in
which the Industrial
Revolution and sla­
very were portrayed
in the minstrel show,
the melodrama, and
the musical).
3.1 Examine and describe
or report on the role
of a work of art cre­
ated to make a social
comment or protest
social conditions.
3.2 Compare, contrast,
and analyze styles
of art from a variety
of times and places
in Western and nonWestern cultures.
Diversity of Music
History of Theatre
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.4 Compare and contrast
the distinguishing charac­
teristics of musical
genres and styles from
a variety of cultures.
3.5 Perform music from
diverse genres, cultures,
and time periods.
3.6 Classify exemplary musi­
cal works by style, genre,
and historical period and
explain why each work is
considered exemplary.
3.2 Identify and explain how
technology has changed
American theatre
(e.g., how stage lighting
has progressed from
candlelight to gaslight to
limelight to electrical
light to digital light).
3.3 Identify major works of
art created by women
and describe the impact
of those works on
society at that time.
3.4 Discuss the contributions
of various immigrant
cultures to the art of a
particular society.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
94
Grade Eight Content Standards
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments
About Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Critiquing Theatrical
Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works in the Visual Arts
Students critique and derive
meaning from works of theatre, film/video, electronic
media, and theatrical artists
on the basis of aesthetic
qualities.
Students analyze, assess, and
derive meaning from works
of art, including their own,
according to the elements of
art, the principles of design,
and aesthetic qualities.
Critical Assessment
of Theatre
Derive Meaning
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works of
dance, performance of danc­
ers, and original works based
on the elements of dance and
aesthetic qualities.
Description, Analysis,
and Criticism of Dance
4.1 Identify preferences for
choreography and discuss
those preferences, using
the elements of dance.
Meaning and Impact
of Dance
4.2 Explain the advantages
and disadvantages of
various technologies in
the presentation of dance
(e.g., video, film, com­
puter, DVD, recorded
music).
4.3 Describe and analyze
how differences in
costumes, lighting, props,
and venues can enhance
or detract from the
meaning of a dance.
Students critically assess and
derive meaning from works of
music and the performance of
musicians in a cultural context
according to the elements of
music, aesthetic qualities, and
human responses.
Analyze and Critically Assess
4.1 Use detailed criteria for
evaluating the quality and
effectiveness of musical
performances and com­
positions and apply the
criteria to personal
listening and performing.
4.2 Apply detailed criteria
appropriate for the genre
and style of the music to
evaluate the quality and
effectiveness of perfor­
mances, compositions,
arrangements, and im­
provisations, by oneself
and others.
4.1 Develop criteria
and write a formal
review of a theatrical
production.
Derivation of Meaning
from Works of Theatre
4.2 Compare and contrast
how works of theatre
from different cultures or
time periods convey the
same or similar content
or plot.
Derive Meaning
4.3 Explain how and why
people use and respond
to specific music from
different musical cultures
found in the United
States.
4.4 Compare the means used
to create images or
evoke feelings and emo­
tions in musical works
from a minimum of two
different musical cultures
found in the United
States.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
4.1 Define their own points
of view and investigate
the effects on their
interpretation of art from
cultures other than their
own.
4.2 Develop a theory about
the artist’s intent in a
series of works of art,
using reasoned statements to support personal opinions.
4.3 Construct an interpreta­
tion of a work of art
based on the form and
content of the work.
Make Informed Judgments
4.4 Develop and apply a set
of criteria as individuals
or in groups to assess
and critique works of art.
4.5 Present a reasoned
argument about
the artistic value
of a work of art and
respond to the argu­
ments put forward
by others within a
classroom setting.
4.6 Select a grouping of their
own works of art that
reflects growth over
time and describe the
progression.
95
Grade Eight Content Standards
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections, Relationships, Applications
Dance
Music
Theatre
Visual Arts
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Dance
to Learning in Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Music to
Learning in Other Art Forms
and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in Theatre,
Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying
What Is Learned in the
Visual Arts to Other Art
Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Students apply what they
learn in dance to learning
across subject areas. They
develop competencies and
creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and
management of time and
resources that contribute to
lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
dance.
Students apply what they
learn in music across subject
areas. They develop compe­
tencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communica­
tion, and management of time
and resources that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
music.
Students apply what they
learn in theatre, film/video,
and electronic media across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and time
management that contribute
to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about
careers in and related to
theatre.
Students apply what they
learn in the visual arts across
subject areas. They develop
competencies and creative
skills in problem solving,
communication, and manage­
ment of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong
learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers
in and related to the visual
arts.
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Compare in two or
more arts forms how
the characteristic
materials of each art
(sound in music,
visual stimuli in visual
arts, movement
in dance, human
relationships in
theatre) can be used
to transform similar
events, scenes,
emotions, or ideas
into works of art.
5.2 Describe how music is
composed and adapted
for use in film, video,
radio, and television.
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Use theatrical skills to
present content or con­
cepts in other subject
areas, such as creating a
video on cellular mitosis.
5.1 Select a favorite artist
and some of his or her
works of art and create
a music video that
expresses personal ideas
and views about the
artist.
5.2 Create a painting, satiri­
cal drawing, or editorial
cartoon that expresses
personal opinions about
current social or political
issues.
5.1 Identify and compare
how learning habits
acquired from dance
can be applied to the
study of other school
subjects (e.g., memo­
rizing, researching,
practicing).
5.2 Describe how dancing
builds positive mental,
physical, and healthrelated practices
(e.g., discipline, stress
management, anatomic
awareness).
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
5.3 Research and explain
how dancers leave their
performing careers to
enter into alternative
careers.
Connections and Applications
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.2 Identify career options
in the dramatic arts,
such as cinematographer,
stage manager, radio
announcer, or dramaturg;
and research the educa­
tion, training, and work
experience necessary in
that field.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.3 Describe the skills
necessary for composing
and adapting music for
use in film, video, radio,
and television.
Visual Literacy
5.3 Demonstrate an
understanding of
the effects of visual
communication
media (e.g., televi­
sion, music videos,
film, Internet) on all
aspects of society.
Careers and
Career-Related Skills
5.4 Work collaboratively
with a community artist
to create a work of art,
such as a mural, and
write a report about the
skills needed to become
a professional artist.
Indicates a key content standard for the grade level. See page 23 for information on key content standards.
96
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine Through Twelve
C
hoices, choices, and more choices! Graduation is around the corner, and
participation in the arts will have a lifelong impact on careers, higher
education, and community involvement. Having established a firm foundation
in all of the arts from kindergarten through grade eight, high school students
choose a yearlong course of study in dance, music, theatre, or the visual arts.
All will take at least one arts course to meet high school graduation and college
entrance requirements. Some will continue expanding their knowledge and
skills through additional courses in an arts discipline of special interest; others
may be interested in the arts as a career path and want to spend as much time
as possible involved in the arts inside and outside school.
In a yearlong beginning course of study in a chosen art form, students may
reach a proficiency level that allows them to progress to an advanced course,
meet a graduation requirement, and, if the course
has been approved, meet the new visual
and performing arts requirement for
freshman admission to the University of California and the California
State University (see Appendix B). In this course students read about, write
about, talk about, reflect
on, and make connections
and choices while creating
and performing in dance,
music, theatre, or the visual
arts. Their study provides
fluency, skills, and deeper
comprehension in
their chosen arts
discipline.
97
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
After completing a beginning-level high school course in one of the arts
disciplines, a student may continue in that art form or pursue study in other
arts disciplines. For those who want to go forward, additional courses in an art
form provide them with opportunities to continue discovering and expressing
themselves through the arts. In an advanced course of study, students research,
analyze, question, clarify, evaluate, refine, plan, and create a body of work that
reflects complex ideas, personal points of view, and technical skills.
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
98
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Dance
High school students develop and refine their physical conditioning, control of movement, and technical ability. They
perceive the body more accurately as an instrument for selfexpression through dance. At the beginning level and in advanced
dance courses, students build on the knowledge and skills they gained
in kindergarten through grade eight.
As their knowledge of dance elements expands, students demonstrate their
ability to communicate through improvised and choreographed movement.
Using the vocabulary of dance, they distinguish how movement looks physically in space, time, and force or energy. They learn a variety of dance movements, forms, and styles from various traditions and strive toward maintaining
a respectful and professional attitude toward their own work and that of others.
Students learn, develop, and perform a body of work in dance ranging
from original dance sequences to fully choreographed works. Building on their
knowledge of dance elements, principles, and choreography, they can expand
their ability to incorporate a wider range of musical forms and theatrical
components. In performing, they can communicate the original intent of dance
works by various artists and maintain the integrity of dances from specific
cultures and historical periods. They also analyze the function of dance in past
and present cultures throughout the world.
In describing, analyzing, and critiquing their own works of dance and those
of others, they focus on the artistic choices in the choreography, the level of
technique in performance, the dance style, and the expressive qualities of the
dancers. Further, they discuss the use of theatrical elements, musical
choices, and historical or cultural references related to the intent of
the work. And they describe, discuss, contrast, compare, and
defend their personal preferences about those
aspects, thereby increasing their ability to
derive meaning from works of dance.
Advanced students are now ready to
carry out expanded research on the
social, historical, and cultural
factors that continue to influence
dancers and dance works, including technology and electronic
media. They also learn to use
electronic media and equipment in creating, recording,
and producing dance.
99
High School Arts Content Standards—Dance
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Students perceive and respond, using the elements of dance.
They demonstrate movement skills, process sensory informa­
tion, and describe movement, using the vocabulary of dance.
Proficient
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding
to Sensory Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Advanced
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding
to Sensory Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Dance
Development of Motor Skills, Technical
Expertise, and Dance Movements
Development of Motor Skills, Technical
Expertise, and Dance Movements
1.1 Demonstrate refined physical
coordination when performing
movement phrases (e.g., alignment,
agility, balance, strength).
1.2 Memorize and perform works of
dance, demonstrating technical
accuracy and consistent artistic intent.
1.3 Perform in multiple dance genres
(e.g., modern, ballet, jazz, tap,
traditional/recreational).
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
1.1 Demonstrate highly developed
physical coordination and control
when performing complex locomotor
and axial movement phrases from a
variety of genres (e.g., refined body
articulation, agility, balance, strength).
1.2 Perform in multiple dance genres,
integrating an advanced level of
technical skill and clear intent.
1.3 Memorize and perform complicated
works of dance at a level of
professionalism (i.e., a high level
of refinement).
1.4 Demonstrate clarity of intent while
applying kinesthetic principles for all
dance elements.
Comprehension and Analysis
of Dance Elements
Development of Dance Vocabulary
1.4 Apply a wide range of kinesthetic
communication, demonstrating clarity
of intent and stylistic nuance.
1.5 Apply knowledge of dance vocabulary
to distinguish how movement looks
physically in space, time, and force/
energy.
Development of Dance Vocabulary
1.5 Select specific dance vocabulary
to describe movement and dance
elements in great detail.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
100
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
High School Arts Content Standards—Dance
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Students apply choreographic principles, processes, and skills
to create and communicate meaning through the improvisation,
composition, and performance of dance.
Proficient
Advanced
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in Dance
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in Dance
Creation/Invention of Dance Movement
Creation/Invention of Dance Movement
2.1 Create a body of works of dance
demonstrating originality, unity, and
clarity of intent.
2.1 Create a diverse body of works of
dance, each of which demonstrates
originality, unity, clarity of intent, and
a dynamic range of movement.
Application of Choreographic Principles
and Processes to Creating Dance
2.2 Identify and apply basic music ele­
ments (e.g., rhythm, meter, tempo,
timbre) to construct and perform
dances.
2.3 Design a dance that utilizes an estab­
lished dance style or genre.
Communication of Meaning
in Performance of Dance
2.4 Perform original works that employ
personal artistic intent and communi­
cate effectively.
2.5 Perform works by various dance
artists communicating the original
intent of the work while employing
personal artistic intent and interpre­
tation.
Development of Partner and Group Skills
2.6 Collaborate with peers in the devel­
opment of choreography in groups
(e.g., duets, trios, small ensembles).
2.7 Teach movement patterns and
phrases to peers.
Application of Choreographic Principles
and Processes to Creating Dance
2.2 Use dance structures, musical forms,
theatrical elements, and technology
to create original works.
2.3 Notate dances, using a variety of
systems (e.g., labanotation, motif
writing, personal systems).
Communication of Meaning
in Performance of Dance
2.4 Perform a diverse range of works by
various dance artists, maintaining the
integrity of the work while applying
personal artistic expression.
Development of Partner and Group Skills
2.5 Collaborate with peers in the devel­
opment of complex choreography in
diverse groupings (e.g., all male, all
female, people standing with people
sitting).
2.6 Teach to peers a variety of complex
movement patterns and phrases.
101
High School Arts Content Standards—Dance
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Students analyze the
function and develop­
ment of dance in past
and present cultures
throughout the world,
noting human diversity
as it relates to dance
and dancers.
Students recognize
dance in past and
present cultures
throughout the world.
Proficient
Advanced
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Dance
Development of Dance
Development of Dance
3.1 Identify and perform folk/traditional,
social, and theatrical dances with
appropriate stylistic nuances.
3.2 Describe ways in which folk/traditional, social, and theatrical dances
reflect their specific cultural context.
3.1 Identify, analyze, and perform folk/
traditional, social, and theatrical
dances with technical accuracy and
appropriate stylistic nuances.
3.2 Analyze the role dancers and chore­
ographers play in the interpretation
of dances in various historical and
cultural settings.
History and Function of Dance
3.3 Explain how the works of dance by
major choreographers communicate
universal themes and sociopolitical
issues in their historical/cultural
contexts (e.g., seventeenth-century
Italy, eighteenth-century France, the
women’s suffrage movement, dance in
the French courts, Chinese cultural
revolution).
Diversity of Dance
3.4 Explain how dancers from various
cultures and historical periods reflect
diversity and values (e.g., ethnicity,
gender, body types, and religious
intent).
History and Function of Dance
3.3 Compare and contrast universal
themes and sociopolitical issues in a
variety of dances from different cul­
tural contexts and time periods.
Diversity of Dance
3.4 Explain how dancers and choreogra­
phers reflect roles, work, and values
in selected cultures, countries, and
historical periods.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
102
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
High School Arts Content Standards—Dance
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Students critically assess and derive meaning from works of
dance, performance of dancers, and original works based on
the elements of dance and aesthetic qualities.
Proficient
Advanced
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works of Dance
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works of Dance
Description, Analysis, and Criticism
of Dance
Description, Analysis, and Criticism
of Dance
4.1 Describe how the qualities of a
theatrical production contribute to
the success of a dance performance
(e.g., music, lighting, costuming, text,
set design).
4.2 Apply criteria-based assessments
appropriate to various dance forms
(e.g., concert jazz, street, liturgical).
4.3 Defend personal preferences about
dance styles and choreographic
forms, using criteria-based
assessment.
4.1 Critique dance works to improve
choreographic structure and artistic
presence.
4.2 Use selected criteria to compare,
contrast, and assess various dance
forms (e.g., concert jazz, street,
liturgical).
4.3 Analyze evolving personal preferences
about dance styles and choreographic
forms to identify change and develop­
ment in personal choices.
Meaning and Impact of Dance
4.4 Research and assess how specific
dance works change because of the
impact of historic and cultural influ­
ences on their interpretations
(e.g., because of the loss of lives in
war, Fancy Dancing, once performed
only by men, is now also performed
by women).
4.5 Evaluate how aesthetic principles
apply to choreography designed
for technological media (e.g., film,
video, TV, computer imaging).
4.4 Research and identify dances from
different historic periods or cultures
and make connections between social
change and artistic expression in
dance.
4.5 Identify and evaluate the advantages
and limitations of viewing live and
recorded dance performances.
Meaning and Impact of Dance
103
High School Arts Content Standards—Dance
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections,
Relationships, Applications
Students apply what they learn in dance to learning across
subject areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in
problem solving, communication, and management of time and
resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills.
They also learn about careers in and related to dance.
Proficient
Advanced
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned
in Dance to Learning in Other
Art Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned
in Dance to Learning in Other
Art Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
Connections and Applications
Across Disciplines
5.1 Demonstrate effective use of
technology for recording, analyzing,
and creating dances.
5.2 Apply concepts from anatomy,
physiology, and physics to the study
and practice of dance techniques.
5.1 Demonstrate effective knowledge
and skills in using audiovisual equip­
ment and technology when creating,
recording, and producing dance.
5.2 Compare the study and practice of
dance techniques to motion, time,
and physical principles from scientific
disciplines (e.g., muscle and bone
identification and usage; awareness
of matter, space, time, and energy/
force).
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
5.3 Explain how dancing presents
opportunities and challenges to
maintain physical and emotional
health and how to apply that
information to current training
and lifelong habits.
5.4 Explain how participation in dance
develops creative skills for lifelong
learning and well-being that are inter­
personal and intrapersonal.
5.5 Examine the training, education, and
experience needed to pursue dance
career options (e.g., performer,
choreographer, dance therapist,
teacher, historian, critic, filmmaker).
Development of Life Skills
and Career Competencies
5.3 Synthesize information from a variety
of health-related resources to main­
tain physical and emotional health.
5.4 Determine the appropriate training,
experience, and education needed
to pursue a variety of dance and
dance-related careers.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
104
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
Music
High school students develop and refine their ability to read,
play, and compose music. Immersed in all aspects of music, they
transcribe songs, sight-read accurately and expressively, and analyze music as to musical elements, expressive devices, compositional devices and techniques, and use of form. Focusing on
vocal or instrumental skills, they perform by themselves and in ensembles a
more complex repertoire of music with technical accuracy and expression.
Composing, arranging, and improvising music require application of musical
elements and perhaps the use of various digital or electronic instruments. They
also study musicians and the historical aspects of music developed in the United
States and in various cultures and time periods. For example, they may explain
the role of various musicians in the culture, describe differences in musical
styles, and classify and compare stylistic features of music.
As students gain the ability to develop and apply specific criteria for judging and evaluating the quality and effectiveness of music and performances,
they are better able to apply criteria to improving their own work, realizing
that the same criteria may not apply to music from
other cultures and time periods. They also
gain insights into why and how people
from different parts of the world
create and respond to music. Further, they analyze
the role and function
of music in American culture as related to the other arts
disciplines, examine the
function of music in radio,
television, and advertising,
and research musical careers.
105
High School Arts Content Standards—Music
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Students read, notate, listen to, analyze, and describe
music and other aural information, using the terminology
of music.
Proficient
Advanced
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding
to Sensory Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding
to Sensory Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Music
Read and Notate Music
Read and Notate Music
1.1 Read an instrumental or vocal score
of up to four staves and explain how
the elements of music are used.
1.2 Transcribe simple songs when pre­
sented aurally into melodic and
rhythmic notation (level of difficulty:
1 on a scale of 1–6).
1.3 Sight-read music accurately and
expressively (level of difficulty:
3 on a scale of 1–6).
1.1 Read a full instrument or vocal score
and describe how the elements of
music are used.
1.2 Transcribe simple songs into melodic
and rhythmic notation when pre­
sented aurally (level of difficulty:
2 on a scale of 1–6).
1.3 Sight-read music accurately and
expressively (level of difficulty:
4 on a scale of 1–6).
Listen to, Analyze, and Describe Music
Listen to, Analyze, and Describe Music
1.4 Analyze and describe the use of
musical elements and expressive
devices (e.g., articulation, dynamic
markings) in aural examples in
a varied repertoire of music repre­
senting diverse genres, styles, and
cultures.
1.5 Identify and explain a variety of
compositional devices and techniques
used to provide unity, variety, ten­
sion, and release in aural examples.
1.6 Analyze the use of form in a varied
repertoire of music representing
diverse genres, styles, and cultures.
1.4 Analyze and describe significant
musical events perceived and
remembered in a given aural
example.
1.5 Analyze and describe the use of
musical elements in a given work
that makes it unique, interesting,
and expressive.
1.6 Compare and contrast the use of
form, both past and present, in a
varied repertoire of music from
diverse genres, styles, and cultures.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
106
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
High School Arts Content Standards—Music
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Students apply vocal and instrumental musical skills in perform­
ing a varied repertoire of music. They compose and arrange
music and improvise melodies, variations, and accompaniments,
using digital/electronic technology when appropriate.
Proficient
Advanced
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in Music
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in Music
Apply Vocal or Instrumental Skills
Apply Vocal or Instrumental Skills
2.1 Sing a repertoire of vocal literature
representing various genres, styles,
and cultures with expression,
technical accuracy, tone quality,
vowel shape, and articulation—
written and memorized, by oneself
and in ensembles (level of difficulty:
4 on a scale of 1–6).
2.2 Sing music written in three or
four parts, with and without
accompaniment.
2.3 Sing in small ensembles, with one
performer for each part.
2.4 Perform on an instrument a reper­
toire of instrumental literature
representing various genres, styles,
and cultures with expression, techni­
cal accuracy, tone quality, and articu­
lation, by oneself and in ensembles
(level of difficulty: 4 on a scale of
1–6).
2.5 Perform on an instrument in small
ensembles, with one performer
for each part.
2.1 Sing a repertoire of vocal literature
representing various genres, styles,
and cultures with expression, techni­
cal accuracy, tone quality, vowel
shape, and articulation—written and
memorized, by oneself and in en­
sembles (level of difficulty: 5 on a
scale of 1–6).
2.2 Sing music written in four parts, with
and without accompaniment.
2.3 Sing in small ensembles, with one
performer for each part (level of
difficulty: 5 on a scale of 1–6).
2.4 Perform on an instrument a reper­
toire of instrumental literature repre­
senting various genres, styles, and
cultures with expression, technical
accuracy, tone quality, and articula­
tion, by oneself and in ensembles
(level of difficulty: 5 on a scale of
1–6).
2.5 Perform in small instrumental
ensembles with one performer for
each part (level of difficulty: 5 on a
scale of 1–6).
Compose, Arrange, and Improvise
2.6 Compose music, using musical
elements for expressive effect.
2.7 Compose and arrange music for
voices or various acoustic or digital/
electronic instruments, using appro­
priate ranges for traditional sources
of sound.
2.8 Arrange pieces for voices and instru­
ments other than those for which
the pieces were originally written.
2.9 Improvise harmonizing parts, using
an appropriate style.
2.10 Improvise original melodies over
given chord progressions.
Compose, Arrange, and Improvise
2.6 Compose music in distinct styles.
2.7 Compose and arrange music for
various combinations of voice and
acoustic and digital/electronic instru­
ments, using appropriate ranges and
traditional and nontraditional sound
sources.
2.8 Create melodic and rhythmic impro­
visations in a style or genre within a
musical culture (e.g., gamelan, jazz,
and mariachi).
107
High School Arts Content Standards—Music
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Students analyze the role of music in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting cultural diversity as it relates to
music, musicians, and composers.
Proficient
Advanced
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Music
Role of Music
Role of Music
3.1 Identify the sources of musical genres
of the United States, trace the evolu­
tion of those genres, and cite wellknown musicians associated with
them.
3.2 Explain the various roles that musi­
cians perform, identify representative
individuals who have functioned in
each role, and explain their activities
and achievements.
3.1 Analyze how the roles of musicians
and composers have changed or
remained the same throughout his­
tory.
3.2 Identify uses of music elements in
nontraditional art music (e.g., atonal,
twelve-tone, serial).
3.3 Compare and contrast the social
function of a variety of music forms in
various cultures and time periods.
Diversity of Music
Diversity of Music
3.3 Describe the differences between
styles in traditional folk genres within
the United States.
3.4 Perform music from various cultures
and time periods.
3.5 Classify, by genre or style and histori­
cal period or culture, unfamiliar but
representative aural examples of
music and explain the reasoning for
the classification.
3.4 Perform music from a variety of
cultures and historical periods.
3.5 Compare and contrast instruments
from a variety of cultures and histori­
cal periods.
3.6 Compare and contrast musical styles
within various popular genres in
North America and South America.
3.7 Analyze the stylistic features of a
given musical work that define its
aesthetic traditions and its historical
or cultural context.
3.8 Compare and contrast musical genres
or styles that show the influence of
two or more cultural traditions.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
108
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
High School Arts Content Standards—Music
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Students critically assess and derive meaning from works of
music and the performance of musicians in a cultural context
according to the elements of music, aesthetic qualities,
and human responses.
Proficient
Advanced
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works of Music
Responding to, Analyzing,
and Making Judgments About
Works of Music
Analyze and Critically Assess
Analyze and Critically Assess
4.1 Develop specific criteria for making
informed critical evaluations of the
quality and effectiveness of perfor­
mances, compositions, arrangements,
and improvisations and apply those
criteria in personal participation in
music.
4.2 Evaluate a performance, composition,
arrangement, or improvisation by
comparing each with an exemplary
model.
4.1 Compare and contrast how a
composer’s intentions result in a
work of music and how that music is
used.
Derive Meaning
4.3 Explain how people in a particular
culture use and respond to specific
musical works from that culture.
4.4 Describe the means used to create
images or evoke feelings and emo­
tions in musical works from various
cultures.
Derive Meaning
4.2 Analyze and explain how and why
people in a particular culture use and
respond to specific musical works
from their own culture.
4.3 Compare and contrast the musical
means used to create images or
evoke feelings and emotions in works
of music from various cultures.
109
High School Arts Content Standards—Music
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections,
Relationships, Applications
Students apply what they learn in music across subject areas.
They develop competencies and creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also
learn about careers in and related to music.
Proficient
Advanced
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned
in Music to Learning in Other
Art Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned
in Music to Learning in Other
Art Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Explain how elements, artistic pro­
cesses, and organizational principles
are used in similar and distinctive
ways in the various arts.
5.2 Analyze the role and function of
music in radio, television, and adver­
tising.
5.1 Explain ways in which the principles
and subject matter of music and
various disciplines outside the arts are
interrelated.
5.2 Analyze the process for arranging,
underscoring, and composing music
for film and video productions.
Careers and Career-Related Skills
Careers and Career-Related Skills
5.3 Research musical careers in radio,
television, and advertising.
5.3 Identify and explain the various fac­
tors involved in pursing careers in
music.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
110
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
Theatre
High school students apply their understanding of the vocabulary of theatre as they document the production elements of
theatrical performances, thereby increasing their ability to
write, design, produce, and perform. They base their acting
choices on script analysis, character research, reflection, and
revision, writing dialogues and scenes and applying their knowledge of dramatic
structure. From at first playing theatrical games to now describing ways in
which playwrights reflect and influence their culture, students grasp the power
of theatre to present and explore complex ideas and issues in forms that range
from comedy to tragedy. They also examine how a specific actor uses or has
used drama to convey meaning and analyze the impact of
traditional and nontraditional theatre, film, television, and
electronic media on societies. They understand the value of the knowledge and skills
they learned in theatre as related to careers
in theatre and elsewhere. By participating
in theatre, they continue to improve
their time-management skills, meet
deadlines, and learn the professional
standards required in the world
of theatre.
111
High School Arts Content Standards—Theatre
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Students observe their environment and respond, using the
elements of theatre. They also observe formal and informal
works of theatre, film/video, and electronic media and respond,
using the vocabulary of theatre.
Proficient
Advanced
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding
to Sensory Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding
to Sensory Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to Theatre
Development of the Vocabulary
of Theatre
Development of the Vocabulary
of Theatre
1.1 Use the vocabulary of theatre, such
as acting values, style, genre, design,
and theme, to describe theatrical
experiences.
1.1 Use the vocabulary of theatre, such
as genre, style, acting values, theme,
and design to describe theatrical
experiences.
Comprehension and Analysis
of the Elements of Theatre
Comprehension and Analysis
of the Elements of Theatre
1.2 Document observations and percep­
tions of production elements, noting
mood, pacing, and use of space
through class discussion and reflective
writing.
1.2 Research, analyze, or serve as the
dramaturg for a play in collaboration
with the director, designer, or
playwright.
1.3 Identify the use of metaphor, subtext,
and symbolic elements in scripts and
theatrical productions.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
112
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
High School Arts Content Standards—Theatre
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Students apply processes and skills in acting, directing,
designing, and scriptwriting to create formal and informal
theatre, film/videos, and electronic media productions
and to perform in them.
Proficient
Advanced
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in Theatre
Creating, Performing, and
Participating in Theatre
Development of Theatrical Skills
Development of Theatrical Skills
2.1 Make acting choices, using script
analysis, character research, reflec­
tion, and revision through the re­
hearsal process.
2.1 Make acting choices, using script
analysis, character research, reflec­
tion, and revision to create characters
from classical, contemporary, realistic,
and nonrealistic
dramatic
texts.
Creation/Invention in Theatre
2.2 Write dialogues and scenes, applying
basic dramatic structure: exposition,
complication, conflict, crises, climax,
and resolution.
2.3 Design, produce, or perform scenes
or plays from a variety of theatrical
periods and styles, including
Shakespearean and contemporary
realism.
Creation/Invention in Theatre
2.2 Improvise or write dialogues and
scenes, applying basic dramatic struc­
ture (exposition, complication, crises,
climax, and resolution) and including
complex characters with unique
dialogue that motivates the action.
2.3 Work collaboratively as designer,
producer, or actor to meet directo­
rial goals in scenes and plays from a
variety of contemporary and classical
playwrights.
113
High School Arts Content Standards—Theatre
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Students analyze the role and development of theatre,
film/video, and electronic media in past and present cultures
throughout the world, noting diversity as it relates to theatre.
Proficient
Advanced
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural
Dimensions of Theatre
Understanding the Historical Contributions and Cultural Dimensions of Theatre Role and Cultural Significance
of Theatre
Role and Cultural Significance
of Theatre
3.1 Identify and compare how film,
theatre, television, and electronic
media productions influence our
values and behaviors.
3.2 Describe the ways in which
playwrights reflect and influence
their culture in such works as
Raisin in the Sun, Antigone, and the
Mahabarata.
3.1 Research and perform monologues
in various historical and cultural
contexts, using accurate and consis­
tent physical mannerisms and dialect.
History of Theatre
3.3 Identify key figures, works, and trends
in world theatrical history from vari­
ous cultures and time periods.
History of Theatre
3.2 Analyze the impact of traditional and
nontraditional theatre, film, television,
and electronic media on society.
3.3 Perform, design, or direct theatre
pieces in specific theatrical styles,
including classics by such playwrights
as Sophocles, Shakespeare, Lope de
Vega, Aphra Behn, Moliere, and
Chekhov.
3.4 Compare and contrast specific styles
and forms of world theatre. For
example, differentiate between Eliza­
bethan comedy and Restoration farce.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
114
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
High School Arts Content Standards—Theatre
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Students critique and derive meaning from works of theatre,
film/video, electronic media, and theatrical artists on the basis
of aesthetic qualities.
Proficient
Advanced
Responding to, Analyzing, and Critiquing
Theatrical Experiences
Responding to, Analyzing, and Critiquing
Theatrical Experiences
Critical Assessment of Theatre
Critical Assessment of Theatre
4.1 Compare a traditional interpretation
of a play with a nontraditional inter­
pretation and defend the merits of
the different interpretations.
4.1 Use complex evaluation criteria
and terminology to compare and
contrast a variety of genres of
dramatic literature.
4.2 Draw conclusions about the
effectiveness of informal and
formal productions, films/videos,
or electronic media on the basis
of intent, structure, and quality
of the work.
Derivation of Meaning from Works
of Theatre
4.2 Report on how a specific actor used
drama to convey meaning in his or
her performances.
Derivation of Meaning from Works
of Theatre
4.3 Develop a thesis based on research as
to why people create theatre.
115
High School Arts Content Standards—Theatre
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections,
Relationships, Applications
Students apply what they learn in theatre, film/video, and elec­
tronic media across subject areas. They develop competencies
and creative skills in problem solving, communication, and time
management that contribute to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about careers in and related to theatre.
Proficient
Advanced
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned
in Theatre, Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned
in Theatre, Film/Video, and Electronic
Media to Other Art Forms and
Subject Areas and to Careers
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Describe how skills acquired in the­
atre may be applied to other content
areas and careers.
5.1 Create projects in other school
courses or places of employment,
using tools, techniques, and processes
from the study and practice of the­
atre, film/video, and electronic media.
Careers and Career-Related Skills
5.2 Manage time, prioritize responsibili­
ties, and meet completion deadlines
for a production as specified by group
leaders, team members, or directors.
5.3 Demonstrate an understanding of the
professional standards of the actor,
director, scriptwriter, and technical
artist, such as the requirements for
union membership.
Careers and Career-Related Skills
5.2 Demonstrate the ability to create
rehearsal schedules, set deadlines,
organize priorities, and identify needs
and resources when participating in
the production of a play or scene.
5.3 Communicate creative, design, and
directorial choices to ensemble
members, using leadership skills,
aesthetic judgment, or problemsolving skills.
5.4 Develop advanced or entry-level
competencies for a career in an
artistic or technical field in the
theatrical arts.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
116
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
Visual Arts
High school students deepen and broaden their investigation of
the subject while improving their techniques and developing a
style. Building on their previous work with the elements of art and
principles of design, they now discuss, analyze, and synthesize the use
of those elements and principles and apply them to create their own
work. Recognizing that an artist’s style and materials influence the artwork, they compare work created with traditional and electronic media. Their
artwork now reflects refined craftsmanship and technical skill, extending into
the manipulation of digital imagery and reflecting refined observational
drawing skills.
Students know how to communicate to others through their artwork as
artists from all cultures have done through the ages. Focusing on contemporary
artists, they discuss the role and purpose of art being produced. They also
discuss how art historians determine the time, place, context, value, and culture
of works from the past. Going further, they research the skills required by those
working in all fields related to the visual arts—the artist, the gallery owner, or
aesthetician—who might ponder the question What is art? or
speculate on how advances in technology might change the
definition and function of the visual arts.
117
High School Arts Content Standards—Visual Arts
Component Strand: 1.0 Artistic Perception
Students perceive and respond to works of art, objects in
nature, events, and the environment. They also use the
vocabulary of the visual arts to express their observations.
Proficient
Advanced
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding
to Sensory Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Processing, Analyzing, and Responding
to Sensory Information Through
the Language and Skills
Unique to the Visual Arts
Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts
Vocabulary
Develop Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts
Vocabulary
1.1 Identify and use the principles of
design to discuss, analyze, and write
about visual aspects in the environ­
ment and in works of art, including
their own.
1.2 Describe the principles of design as
used in works of art, focusing on
dominance and subordination.
1.1 Analyze and discuss complex ideas,
such as distortion, color theory,
arbitrary color, scale, expressive
content, and real versus virtual in
works of art.
1.2 Discuss a series of their original
works of art, using the appropriate
vocabulary of art.
1.3 Analyze their works of art as to
personal direction and style.
Analyze Art Elements and Principles of
Design
1.3 Research and analyze the work of an
artist and write about the artist’s
distinctive style and its contribution
to the meaning of the work.
1.4 Analyze and describe how the com­
position of a work of art is affected by
the use of a particular principle of
design.
Impact of Media Choice
1.5 Analyze the material used by a given
artist and describe how its use influ­
ences the meaning of the work.
1.6 Compare and contrast similar styles
of works of art done in electronic
media with those done with materials
traditionally used in visual arts.
Analyze Art Elements and Principles
of Design
1.4 Research two periods of painting,
sculpture, film, or other media and
discuss their similarities and differ­
ences, using the language of the visual
arts.
1.5 Compare how distortion is used in
photography or video with how the
artist uses distortion in painting or
sculpture.
1.6 Describe the use of the elements of
art to express mood in one or more
of their works of art.
Impact of Media Choice
1.7 Select three works of art from their
art portfolio and discuss the intent of
the work and the use of the media.
1.8 Analyze the works of a well-known
artist as to the art media selected and
the effect of that selection on the
artist’s style.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
118
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
High School Arts Content Standards—Visual Arts
Component Strand: 2.0 Creative Expression
Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety
of media to communicate meaning and intent in original
works of art.
Proficient
Advanced
Creating, Performing, and Participating
in the Visual Arts
Creating, Performing, and Participating
in the Visual Arts
Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
2.1 Solve a visual arts problem that
involves the effective use of the
elements of art and the principles
of design.
2.2 Prepare a portfolio of original twoand three-dimensional works of art
that reflects refined craftsmanship and
technical skills.
2.3 Develop and refine skill in the
manipulation of digital imagery
(either still or video).
2.4 Review and refine observational
drawing skills.
2.1 Create original works of art of
increasing complexity and skill in a
variety of media that reflect their
feelings and points of view.
2.2 Plan and create works of art that
reflect complex ideas, such as distor­
tion, color theory, arbitrary color,
scale, expressive content, and real
versus virtual.
2.3 Assemble and display objects or
works of art as a part of a public
exhibition.
Communication and Expression Through
Original Works of Art
2.5 Create an expressive composition,
focusing on dominance and subordi­
nation.
2.6 Create a two- or three-dimensional
work of art that addresses a social
issue.
Communicate and Express Through
Original Works of Art
2.4 Demonstrate in their own works of
art a personal style and an advanced
proficiency in communicating an idea,
theme, or emotion.
2.5 Use innovative visual metaphors in
creating works of art.
2.6 Present a universal concept in a multi­
media work of art that demonstrates
knowledge of technology skills.
119
High School Arts Content Standards—Visual Arts
Component Strand: 3.0 Historical and Cultural Context
Students analyze the role and development of the visual arts in
past and present cultures throughout the world, noting human
diversity as it relates to the visual arts and artists.
Proficient
Advanced
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural Dimensions
of the Visual Arts
Understanding the Historical
Contributions and Cultural Dimensions
of the Visual Arts
Role and Development of the Visual Arts
Role and Development of the Visual Arts
3.1 Identify similarities and differences
in the purposes of art created in
selected cultures.
3.2 Identify and describe the role and
influence of new technologies on
contemporary works of art.
3.1 Identify contemporary styles and
discuss the diverse social, economic,
and political developments reflected
in the works of art examined.
3.2 Identify contemporary artists world­
wide who have achieved regional,
national, or international recognition
and discuss ways in which their work
reflects, plays a role in, and influences
present-day culture.
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.3 Identify and describe trends in the
visual arts and discuss how the issues
of time, place, and cultural influence
are reflected in selected works of art.
3.4 Discuss the purposes of art in se­
lected contemporary cultures.
Diversity of the Visual Arts
3.3 Investigate and discuss universal
concepts expressed in works of art
from diverse cultures.
3.4 Research the methods art historians
use to determine the time, place,
context, value, and culture that pro­
duced a given work of art.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
120
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
High School Arts Content Standards—Visual Arts
Component Strand: 4.0 Aesthetic Valuing
Students analyze, assess, and derive meaning from works
of art, including their own, according to the elements of art,
the principles of design, and aesthetic qualities.
Proficient
Advanced
Responding to, Analyzing, and Making
Judgments About Works
in the Visual Arts
Responding to, Analyzing, and Making
Judgments About Works
in the Visual Arts
Derive Meaning
Derive Meaning
4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs,
cultural traditions, and current social,
economic, and political contexts
influence the interpretation of the
meaning or message in a work of art.
4.2 Compare the ways in which the
meaning of a specific work of art has
been affected over time because of
changes in interpretation and context.
4.1 Describe the relationship involving
the art maker (artist), the making
(process), the artwork (product),
and the viewer.
4.2 Identify the intentions of artists
creating contemporary works of art
and explore the implications of those
intentions.
4.3 Analyze and articulate how society
influences the interpretation and
message of a work of art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.3 Formulate and support a position
regarding the aesthetic value of a
specific work of art and change or
defend that position after considering
the views of others.
4.4 Articulate the process and rationale
for refining and reworking one of
their own works of art.
4.5 Employ the conventions of art criti­
cism in writing and speaking about
works of art.
Make Informed Judgments
4.4 Apply various art-related theoretical
perspectives to their own works of
art and the work of others in class­
room critiques.
4.5 Construct a rationale for the validity
of a specific work of art—artwork
that falls outside their own concep­
tions of art.
4.6 Develop written criteria for the
selection of a body of work from
their portfolios that represents
significant achievements.
121
High School Arts Content Standards—Visual Arts
Component Strand: 5.0 Connections,
Relationships, Applications
Students apply what they learn in the visual arts across subject
areas. They develop competencies and creative skills in problem
solving, communication, and management of time and resources
that contribute to lifelong learning and career skills. They also
learn about careers in and related to the visual arts.
Proficient
Advanced
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned
in the Visual Arts to Other
Art Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connecting and Applying What Is Learned
in the Visual Arts to Other
Art Forms and Subject Areas
and to Careers
Connections and Applications
Connections and Applications
5.1 Design an advertising campaign for a
theatre or dance production held at a
school, creating images that represent
characters and major events in the
production.
5.2 Create a work of art that communi­
cates a cross-cultural or universal
theme taken from literature or his­
tory.
5.1 Speculate on how advances in tech­
nology might change the definition
and function of the visual arts.
Visual Literacy
Careers and Career-Related Skills
5.3 Compare and contrast the ways in
which different media (television,
newspapers, magazines) cover the
same art exhibition.
5.3 Prepare portfolios of their original
works of art for a variety of purposes
(e.g., review for postsecondary appli­
cation, exhibition, job application, and
personal collection).
5.4 Investigate and report on the essen­
tial features of modern or emerging
technologies that affect or will affect
visual artists and the definition of the
visual arts.
Careers and Career-Related Skills
5.4 Demonstrate an understanding of the
various skills of an artist, art critic, art
historian, art collector, art gallery
owner, and philosopher of art
(aesthetician).
Visual Literacy
5.2 Compare and contrast works of art,
probing beyond the obvious and
identifying psychological content
found in the symbols and images.
Chapter 3
Visual and
Performing Arts
Content
Standards
Grades Nine
Through Twelve
4
Guidance for
Visual and Performing Arts
Programs
124
Chapter 4
Guidance
for Visual and
Performing Arts
Programs
Guidance for
Visual and Performing Arts
Programs
All students can learn and benefit from arts education. All teachers and
administrators, not just those who specialize in the arts, must support and be
involved in arts education and must have opportunities to participate in
well-designed preservice and in-service arts education programs. Time, staff,
facilities, materials, and equipment must be provided to support arts
education programs.
—Arts Work
T
his chapter focuses in turn on each of the four arts disciplines, providing a clear picture of the many factors that contribute to a successful
standards-based education program for dance, music, theatre, and the
visual arts. Some factors are similar for each discipline; others are unique. A
standards-based program, kindergarten through high school, should be guaranteed for all students and prepare them for educational, career, and life choices
beyond high school. However, for many reasons some
disciplines may be more fully available than others.
All of the descriptions in this chapter
represent best practices recommended for program implementation. With that ideal program
in mind, a school district, in partnership with the
community, can develop a multiyear plan for
building a high-quality standards-based program
in each of the arts that provides all students with
equal access.
125
Dance
Dancing is an experience in movement. Whether accompanied by
words, music, sounds, or silence, bodily movement represents an
important means of expression. For many generations and in many cultures,
people have danced socially to entertain one another, communicate their deep
-
est feelings and emotions, and celebrate their humanity. Although some may
think that dance amounts merely to “learning the steps,” they should acknowl
-
edge that to become conversant with the ideas and expressions that embody
dance, students must develop certain skills.
Dance embodies control,
perception, flexibility, and
rhythm along with an aware
-
That which cannot be spoken can be sung; that which cannot
ness of one’s movements
be sung can be danced.
within an environment and
—Old French saying
in combination with other
dancers. When controlled,
shaped, and elaborated, movements produce dance. As students define,
embellish, pattern, exaggerate, repeat, and coordinate their ordinary bodily
movements with other movements and gestures, they become more skillful in
dancing. Those experiences help to transform the students into purposeful,
expressive beings.
The vocabulary of dance includes the basic elements of time, space, and
force or energy. In a well-planned dance education program, students grow in
understanding dance and its elements through direct experience. The craft,
skill, and knowledge they gain as they advance through the grades constitute a
discipline distinct and separate from physical education.
Standards-Based Curriculum for Dance
All students should recognize that they dance somewhere every day through
gesture, body language, and nonverbal communication. Accordingly, dance
should be made part of the school curriculum. In the primary grades students
explore and experiment with movement, becoming aware of their kinesthetic
intelligence. With continued sequential study as described in the content stan
-
dards, they acquire increased bodily awareness and control and develop confi
-
dence as they make their own choices.
A well-planned curriculum for a standards-based dance program is articu
-
lated from kindergarten through grade twelve. Such a curriculum provides
opportunities for students to dance, create dances, and observe and appreciate
dances. By reading about, writing about, talking about, and reflecting on
dances from a variety of cultures and historical periods, they become aware of
Chapter 4
Guidance
for Visual and
Performing Arts
Programs
126
Chapter 4
Guidance
for Visual and
Performing Arts
Programs
Dance
how dance connects to the world around them, to other curriculum areas,
and to careers.
The dance curriculum at each grade level incorporates all five arts strands in
the content standards: artistic perception, creative expression, historical and
cultural context, aesthetic valuing, and connections, relationships, and applications (see Chapter 3). The standards in each strand align with the motor, social,
emotional, and cognitive developmental levels of the students at each grade level.
Using the strands as the basis for instruction, the teacher should recognize that
for students to create works in dance, they must view dance and respond to it
in ways that enable them to understand the nature and power of aesthetic
experiences.
1
Artistic Perception
The physical experiences that students encounter when they practice dance
techniques increase their artistic perception of the elements of dance, including
time, space, and force or energy. In this strand instruction focuses on kinesthetic
awareness, movement communication skills, capacity for movement response,
and motor efficiency through multisensory activities. Also inherent in this
strand is an appreciation of dance as an art form accessible to all students.
2
Creative Expression
Students use intuition and imagination to express emotion and communicate meaning as they participate in dance. Improvising and forming movement
patterns and compositions lead to the development of choreographic skills to
create culturally authentic or personally original works in dance. Individual creativity is encouraged and developed as students explore movement in spontaneous and structured assignments. As they learn to express their feelings and ideas
through movement, they grow in ability to develop choreography. Through
shared experiences students develop respect and appreciation for the uniqueness
of each individual’s expression. Communicating through physical movement,
they learn more about the body as an instrument of artistic expression.
Students learn to appreciate their bodies and care for them through proper
conditioning, warm-ups, dance technique, rest, and nutrition. Correct anatomical alignment, effective warm-up and rest of muscles, proper nutrition, and a
safe environment for movement should be emphasized in every lesson. Through
increased knowledge of the natural laws governing human movement, students
become increasingly aware of the uniqueness of each individual’s expressions.
3
Historical and Cultural Context
The deep, complex heritage of dance is derived from the contributions of all
cultural groups, past and present. An understanding of dance history helps students recognize and appreciate the cultural differences and commonalities that
127
make up the human experience. By studying the historical, cultural, social, and
contemporary expressions of dance, students uncover the influence of one cultural style on another. As they share personal cultural experiences and ideas,
they can connect elements of individual traditions with those of shared cultures. Through the study of the history of dance, students can examine historical and cultural concepts, events, and themes in diverse contexts.
An Example of Historical and Cultural Context in High School Dance
Many cultures have long traditions of formal dance performance. For
example, casino-style dancing came to California after being adapted from
music and movement that originated in West Africa. First, the dance and
music of West Africa migrated to Cuba. The remarkable melting pot of
cultures on the island contributed to a unique cultural experience in the
Americas. In the 1930s a dance form called Rueda de Casino raged
throughout Cuba and eventually reached Miami and the rest of the United
States. Couples dance together in pairs or with other couples. Through
calls and signals different movement combinations cause pairs to turn and
switch partners. Dancing to salsa timing (stepping on the first beat) results
in a fast-paced, beautifully synchronized, exciting dance that inspires
young people to be part of a community and celebrate their individual
skills. This is just one example of how dance defines the historic influences
of different cultures within the state.
4
Aesthetic Valuing
Aesthetic valuing enables students to make critical judgments about the
quality and success of dance compositions and performances based on their
own knowledge, experiences, and perceptions. Through oral and written analyses, they reveal their opinions, newly acquired knowledge, and criteria for
evaluating dance. The criteria for making critical judgments emerging from
discussions between students and teachers are often guided by professional
examples and expert opinion. When viewing a dance performance in class, on
video, or at a live concert, students critique the performance, using appropriate
aesthetic criteria. They might consider, for example, whether the performer
exhibits proper posture, balance, and coordination or maintains consistent and
appropriate rhythm throughout the performance.
5
Connections, Relationships, Applications
Described as an exciting, vibrant art useful in an educational setting, dance
helps students develop by unifying their physical, mental, and emotional lives.
Dance education programs include opportunities for the development of critical thinking and analytical skills, cooperation and teamwork, self-expression
and self-awareness, organization and problem solving, cultural literacy, and
communication of emotions through movement. These important abilities can
be applied to situations occurring in the workplace and throughout life.
Chapter 4
Guidance
for Visual and
Performing Arts
Programs
Dance
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Chapter 4
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Dance
The elements of dance (time, space, and force or energy) can be applied to
other subject areas, such as the language arts, writing, mathematics, science,
history–social science, and physics. Opportunities for connections, relationships, and applications in the curriculum can be found in the mathematics
of geometric shapes and spatial maps; the physics of energy and force; the use
of vocabulary, such as rhythm and character; the study of history and culture
through the study of dance from other time periods and locations around the
world; and the choreographic process as it relates to writing.
Levels of Dance Instruction
In elementary school dance instruction is a part of classroom experiences.
Teachers at this level should participate regularly in professional development
in dance provided by, for example, teachers involved in The California Arts
Project or dance artists working in the schools. At the middle school and high
school levels, the dance program, offered in a visual and performing arts department, is available to all students. At that level at least one teacher of dance
trained in teaching the knowledge, skills, and art of dance should be employed.
Elementary School Level
All elementary school students in California should receive dance instruction in which, learning through creative movement, they create and perform
dance. Movement employs three modes: (1) auditory—the dancer listens to
the teacher or to an accompanying drum or music; (2) visual—children observe
and imitate the teacher, watch other dancers, and recognize spatial relationships; and (3) kinesthetic—children, moving in both new and familiar ways,
develop a greater awareness of their bodies.
By practicing movements and viewing performance videos and live
performances, students can identify and experience a variety of dance forms.
Instruction is also focused on helping students understand dance vocabulary
and the historical and cultural contexts of dances, dance styles (see genre-d
in the glossary), and group expressions.
By emphasizing the creative process as well as the final performance, the
elementary curriculum provides opportunities for students to experience and
develop their creative potential and original expressions. In turn, this ability
leads students to accept and appreciate the work of others.
Middle School Level
The middle school dance program expands elementary school learning and
experiences through broader explorations and deeper study. Students acquire
more extensive knowledge of dance, develop dance skills, and expand their
creative potential. By attending regular dance classes and participating in other
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dance education programs, including before- or after-school programs, auxiliary
periods, daytime standards-based curriculum, community dance artist residencies, summer school, or intersessions, students advance in knowledge and skills.
Through their own dance compositions and expressions, students explore
the creative process, translating ideas, thoughts, and feelings into original pieces
of choreography. They also study dance forms from many cultures and time
periods in cultural and historical context. By performing and attending the
performances of professional dancers and dance companies, they develop the
skills needed for making aesthetic judgments and engaging in thoughtful discussions of their reasoning in the classroom. Because young adolescents often
participate in describing an artistic problem, the teacher can focus on the students’ interests, inspiring them and giving them the confidence to continue
their study of dance. These experiences can make them aware of the many
career opportunities in and related to dance.
High School Level
The dance program should be an integral part of the high school’s visual
and performing arts department. Standards-based high school dance instruction
provides opportunities for students to create a body of dance works, conduct
in-depth studies of major dance forms from various cultures, delve into the
meaning and impact of dance, gain skills to improve their everyday lives, enhance opportunities for higher education, and develop competency leading to
successful careers. At a minimum, instruction should provide a variety of learning opportunities in dance to meet the needs of all students toward achieving
the content standards at the beginning or proficient level.
As they learn the language of dance, students advance to innovative and
challenging experiences. At this level creative thinking in the five strands of the
dance content standards should be intertwined through a sequence of appropriate introductory, intermediate, and advanced dance courses. The courses should
be approved by the University of California and the California State University
to meet the new visual and performing arts requirements for freshman
admission to those institutions. To be approved, dance courses must
include all five strands of the content standards. (Standards-based
courses approved for admission and those that will not be accepted
as college preparatory dance courses are listed in Appendix B.)
Instruction describing connections between dance and other
subjects expands and enhances the scope of students’ educational
experiences. At this level students should have frequent contacts with
professional dancers and view or attend professional dance performances. They should also create electronic, video, or computer-based
portfolios to track their individual growth, prepare for high school
exit exams, apply for college entrance and scholarships, or audition for
employment opportunities in the field of dance.
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Dance
Sample Standards-Based Unit of Study
Grades Nine Through Twelve
S
tandards-based instruction reinforces the importance of a rigorous,
comprehensive arts education. Recognizing that performance classes are
not intended to focus on appreciation, teachers should provide a variety of
opportunities to meet standards while preparing students to perform quality
works in dance. The following unit of study is an example of how to maintain
the integrity of performance classes by focusing on developing dancing skills
while providing a comprehensive approach to dance education. It also
recognizes that many high school dance classes have both beginning and
advanced students in one class and provide different opportunities according
to experience.
This unit of study helps students to create individualized movement
patterns, work with partners, and combine movement patterns. Revising and
refining a choreographic approach based on good decision-making skills, they
develop fully realized dance documentation for use inside and outside class.
PROFICIENT LEVEL
ADVANCED LEVEL
First year of instruction
Two or more years of
additional instruction
Students view the dance productions
of two different dance companies
and compare and contrast the styles
and production qualities (e.g., the
Pilobolus Dance Theatre and the
San Francisco Ballet).
Students research and view the
dance productions of two different
dance companies and compare and
contrast the styles and production
qualities. Reading and analyzing
program notes from both companies, they determine cultural influences, stylistic nuances, and clarity
of intent.
Students explain and defend their
personal preference for one of the
styles and choreographic forms by
using a criteria-based assessment.
Students analyze their own preferences for one of the styles and choreographic forms as to how their
own preferences and criteria for
dance performance and choreography have evolved over time.
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PROFICIENT LEVEL
(Continued)
ADVANCED LEVEL
(Continued)
In collaborative groups students
develop criteria for a dance they
will choreograph, stage, and perform
involving solos, duets, or ensembles
based on, or in response to, the
work of one of the dance companies
studied.
In collaborative groups students
develop criteria for a complex dance
they will choreograph, stage, and
perform involving solos, duets, or
ensembles based on or in response to
the work of one of the dance companies studied. The criteria include
originality, unity, clarity of intent,
and dynamic range of movement.
In collaborative groups students
choreograph, practice, and perform
a dance involving solos, duets, or
ensembles based on, or in response
to, the work of one of the dance
companies studied. They videotape
their performances.
In collaborative groups students
choreograph, practice, and perform
a complex dance involving solos,
duets, or ensembles according to or
in response to the work of one of
the dance companies studied. The
performance should demonstrate
an advanced level of technical skill,
clear intent, and professionalism.
The students videotape their
performances.
Students critique their own collaborative dance piece and the work of
other groups in the class by using the
criteria they have developed.
Students critique their own collaborative dance piece and the work of
other groups in the class by using the
criteria they have developed and
specific dance vocabulary to describe
movement and dance elements in
great detail.
Students refine their dance performances, drawing on their own work,
that of their peers, and an examination of the video of their performances.
Students refine their dance performances, drawing on their own work,
that of their peers, and an examination of the video of their performances, and document the reasons
for each change.
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PROFICIENT LEVEL
(Continued)
ADVANCED LEVEL
(Continued)
Students identify and evaluate
the advantages and limitations of
viewing live and recorded dance
performances.
Students identify and evaluate
the advantages and limitations of
viewing live and recorded dance
performances and evaluate the use
of video in recording their own
performances.
Students discuss the training,
education, and experience they
called on to complete their dance
performance and the potential use
of that knowledge and skill in
various dance careers, such as
performer, choreographer, teacher,
critic, or filmmaker.
On the basis of their investigation of
dance companies, students research
and determine the appropriate
training, experience, and education
needed to pursue a variety of dance
and dance-related careers, including
becoming an artistic director or a
manager of a dance company.
Role of Student Dance Performances
Inventive, careful planning can make beginning performances shared
experiences rather than “show” activities. When such performances represent
an outgrowth of the students’ capacity to move expressively and knowingly
according to their age and physical ability, schools can overcome the tendency
to produce high-powered performances with a few select students. The dance
material should be appropriate for the level, skills, learning situation, knowledge, and understanding of the participants and the audience. Through these
performing experiences, students can exhibit their own choreographic ideas
and get feedback.
Students may present their beginning-level performances informally in a
classroom or studio. Applying their newly acquired skills, they demonstrate
their solution to a problem or evaluate a particular experience or technique in
dance. Next, as students become skillful, they may present more formal dances
outside the classroom or studio.
The visibility and popularity of performance groups may lead to consequences not related directly to dance education. Often, schools receive requests
for their dance groups to perform, for example, at athletic events, assemblies,
student productions, parent meetings, community clubs, conferences, and civic
events. Although providing entertainment may be a valid activity for performance groups, it should never interfere with the students’ dance education or
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understanding of the importance of presenting dance solely for its own
recognition and aesthetic analysis.
Collections of student work in dance may include documentation of their
learning through journal writing; reflections on dance performances or master
classes; videos of work; research papers on California choreographers, for example; and charts of lighting designs. The collections may then be put on a
CD and serve the students well in their continuing academic or professional
pursuits. By creating portfolios and audition tapes, students can track their
individual growth, prepare themselves for graduation, and use when applying
for college entrance, scholarships, or employment in dance or when pursuing
a dance-related career.
Resources for the Dance Program
A wide variety of experiences provide students with opportunities to improve personal and cultural understanding and insights and develop the knowledge and skills required to be considered proficient in the dance content standards. Vital to the success of such a standards-based program are appropriate
equipment, instructional materials, and facilities as well as community resources
and parent involvement.
Equipment and Instructional Materials
Equipment and instructional materials for dance classes may include some
or all of the following:
• Instructional equipment and materials. The dance program should have
access to instructional and presentation equipment and materials,
including video cameras and playback equipment, films, audiotapes
and videos, prints, photographs, rhythm instruments, body mats, and
literature appropriate for each grade level, kindergarten through grade
twelve. The library media teacher should serve as a fundamental partner
in identifying and providing access to those resources.
• Musical instruments. Percussion instruments, essential to any creative
movement class, are used for rhythmic training, locomotor activities,
and dance composition. Instruments having a pleasing timbre and
played by hand, such as bongo or plastic drums, are excellent choices.
Other percussion sound sources and instruments provide accompanying sounds varying in tone, timbre, duration, and intensity. In most
dance studios students can find a piano as standard equipment and use
it effectively when working on movement qualities, rhythmic materials,
and phrasing. Additional material and equipment may include multiplespeed CD or tape players.
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• Costumes and props. Materials for composition work may include scarves,
streamers, balls, balloons, paper bags, newspapers, ropes, elastics, a
variety of costume items, pieces of fabric, and masks.
• Access to contemporary media. Study of the history and culture of dance
and aesthetic valuing require access to new media and electronic technology, including the Internet and audiovisual resources. Students use
the Internet to do research in dance, computer programs to develop
choreography, and video cameras to record their performances for the
critique process.
Suggested Facilities
Implementing a dance program requires adherence to safety regulations.
Adequate open floor space must be provided for students to participate in creative expression. In the elementary school dancing may be done in classrooms
provided it can be done safely. At the middle school and high school levels, use
of a resilient wood floor is highly recommended because injuries commonly
occur on hard surfaces. To accommodate partnering work at the secondary
level, such as occurs when one partner lifts the other overhead, the teacher must
ensure that the ceiling is high enough to prevent injuries.
In addition, the teacher should require a room that is well ventilated and
equipped with adjustable heating and cooling systems. If the room contains
folding or collapsible benches, they can be pushed back so that the space can be
used for demonstrations and performances. Storage space is needed for materials and equipment, and, at the secondary level, dressing rooms should also be
provided. To meet higher dance standards, students need access to proper performance and theatre technology. As students progress in dance from elementary school to high school, they require more complex and flexible equipment.
Dance facilities for high schools should include (1) small and large dance
studios; (2) sprung floors with wood or Marley covering that can be placed over
an existing floor, providing an adequate surface for dancing; (3) theatre or
performance space; (4) theatrical lighting; (5) stagecraft areas; (6) sound
systems; (7) costume shops; (8) set design and construction areas; and
(9) technology labs for editing and recording.
Community Resources and Parent Involvement
Community resources can provide assistance to the dance program.
Examples are as follows:
• Articulated partnerships between the local university dance department
and elementary school, middle school, and high school classes, providing
university students opportunities to develop teaching skills in dance as
they instruct students in kindergarten through grade twelve
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• Local dance studio companies and classes at the school site
• Field trips to see dance companies that come to perform in their
local areas • Districtwide
master classes or even districtwide or citywide dance
performances organized by dance teachers and dance specialists
• Classes for students at local dance studios, particularly for those students
who at the advanced level continue to take classes to further their dance
training
Parent advocacy and support are critical in developing and sustaining an
active dance program. For example, parents with a strong folk and traditional
dance background can contribute to the vitality of dance programs within the
school as well as in the larger community. Other ways they may offer assistance
are by:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Providing supervision on field trips
Selling or collecting tickets for dance performances
Assisting with costumes and props (shopping, designing, sewing)
Serving as liaisons to business and community organizations
Providing services, such as copying, printing, and decorating
Providing assistance in securing and using new technology and
electronic media
• Supporting their children’s continuing dance study in and outside
school
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Music
Music is an integral part of human experience. Used in celebrations, rituals, and everyday life, it expresses the heights and depths of human
feelings and emotions, the joys and the sorrows encountered by all. Significantly, the study of music combines human emotional experience and intellectual cognition.
One of the greatest values of a comprehensive music education program is
that it allows all students to develop fully those qualities that will help them
understand and enjoy life. It
provides a means for creativity
After silence, that which comes nearest to expressing the
and self-expression. Through
inexpressible is music.
music they learn that their
—Aldous Huxley
thoughts and feelings can be
communicated nonverbally by
composing and improvising
original music involving higher-order thinking processes, such as those involved
in skill mastery, analysis, and synthesis.
Standards-Based Curriculum for Music
The curriculum for a standards-based music program should be well planned
and articulated from kindergarten through grade twelve. In addition to musical
performance, the curriculum provides opportunities for students to learn musical
notation and compose music. By studying the history and cultural context of
works of music, students can understand aesthetic concepts as they gain a foundation for aesthetic valuing and criticism. At all levels they learn how music connects to the world around them, to other curriculum areas, and to careers. An
effective music curriculum at each grade level incorporates all five component
strands in the content standards: artistic perception, creative expression, historical and cultural context, aesthetic valuing, and connections, relationships, and
applications (see Chapter 3).
1
Artistic Perception
Artistic perception includes listening to, reading, and composing and performing music of various cultures and time periods. The perception of sound
and sound patterns is the first step in this process. Then the learner develops
concepts and understanding about music based on active listening experiences.
As students study the musical elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, form,
tempo, dynamics, and timbre, they use critical listening skills and appropriate
music vocabulary. They are able to use traditional, nontraditional, and created
symbols to read and write rhythm, pitch, dynamics, tempo, articulation, and
expression.
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2
Creative Expression
Creative expression occurs when students perform, improvise, compose,
and arrange music. Their understanding of music grows out of frequent experiences with music and sequential development of their musical skills. Singing is
one of the most natural, intimate ways for students to experience music.
Through regular instruction and practice, beginning in kindergarten, students
develop the skills to sing on pitch, in rhythm, and with expression. Group singing should include a wide repertoire of music from various styles and cultures.
Playing instruments, individually or in ensembles, from various parts of the
world provides students with a powerful medium for learning music. By using
melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic instruments, young students develop musical
concepts and the skills needed to perform accurately on pitch, in rhythm, and
with expression. Ensemble experiences should include a wide repertoire of appropriate musical literature.
Musical skills should include performing from written music and participating in creative processes. Students need opportunities to learn to improvise
rhythms and melodies, harmonizing parts consistent with the style, meter, and
tonality of the music being studied. By composing and arranging their own
works, they can use music to communicate their ideas, feelings, and responses
to their cultural and natural environments.
3
Historical and Cultural Context
Time and place influence music. The study of the history of music reveals a
rich resource of outstanding examples of the power of music to inspire and
reach the depths of human emotion. Because to a large degree an individual’s
artistic life is shaped by the surrounding culture, its history, and its traditions,
music can best be understood and appreciated when presented within its cultural context. By studying music from many cultures, students can enjoy the
music of the whole world and raise their cultural and social awareness.
4
Aesthetic Valuing
Aesthetic valuing extends beyond acquiring knowledge and skills to understanding the wide range of values in music. As students respond emotionally to
music and reflect on what they are performing, listening to, and composing,
they develop their affective and cognitive abilities. Aesthetic valuing begins
with artistic perception and extends to critical judgments about music, including judging one’s own performances and compositions and those of others.
5
Connections, Relationships, Applications
Learning is reinforced when music instruction is carefully connected with
other disciplines—likely a long-term effort. Those connections also allow for
the effective teaching of correlations between music and dance, theatre, and the
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visual arts. Musically literate students can find numerous realistic applications
for their knowledge and skills. In this strand students can explore career possibilities in music and learn about many jobs within the music industry.
Levels of Music Instruction
Music
Comprehensive music instruction, offered best by credentialed music
teachers, includes general music classes ranging from classroom music at the
elementary school level to music appreciation, theory, song-writing courses,
keyboard instruction, and music history classes at higher levels. Exploratory
music courses, such as music appreciation and general music, should include
hands-on music making and reading, writing, and talking about music. In
addition, students may participate in choral and instrumental performance
ensembles. To ensure full access to the content standards, students in kindergarten through grade eight and high school students receiving music instruction
need standards-based instruction regularly during the school day.
Elementary School Level
In a general music curriculum at the primary level, activities include singing,
rhythmic speech, movement, playing of pitched and nonpitched percussion,
and the use of instruments, recorders, or keyboards. To help students achieve
proficiency in the content standards, teachers often use such instructional
methodologies as those of Orff, Schulwerk, Kodály, and Dalcroze. For
information on those and other methodologies available through the National
Association for Music Education, visit the Web site http://www.menc.org.
Sequential instruction in general music continues in grades four through six.
In addition, all students should have opportunities to explore their musical
development by participating in performance groups.
Music instruction according to the five strands allows young students to use
a variety of instructional resources in exploring music experiences: singing,
moving, playing an instrument, listening, responding, and reflecting. Included
among the resources are age-appropriate musical instruments, written literature
on music, CDs, computer software, Internet resources, audiotapes, videos,
DVDs, and photographs, all of which are often obtained through the school
library. In addition to learning from high-quality resources, students benefit
from visiting artists and performances at school or in the community.
General, choral, and instrumental music instruction allows students to
identify a variety of musical elements from many cultures. Using the vocabulary
of music in their discussions of composers and their works, they learn about
and practice musical works and performances. Instruction helps students understand the historical and cultural contexts of music, styles, and periods and
the expressions of cultural groups. In addition, they have opportunities to
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identify and discuss the characteristics of master performances and compositions as they work toward achieving the content standards in the aesthetic valuing strand. This process enables students to learn about their own responses to
music and to assess those responses in relation to the music.
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Middle School Level
Music instruction in the middle school continues with general music experiences available to all students and includes elective performance classes in
orchestra, band, choir, and other ensembles. A standards-based program provides instruction for beginning, intermediate, and advanced levels of student
participation. Through singing and playing, students are challenged to develop
their performance skills as they receive subject-centered, standards-based music
instruction. Incorporated into other subjects as appropriate, music helps students, for example, gain a deeper realization of the emotional and social impact
of the U.S. Civil War as they study the music of the period. And as they apply
the concept of fractions to musical notation, they become aware of connections,
relationships, and applications.
According to the content standards, students are to develop a heightened
perceptual awareness of the aesthetic qualities of the music from cultures
throughout the world and of major works of music. They develop listening
skills and become more perceptive and observant. Through school music programs students have opportunities to apply the elements of music and extend
their knowledge of the language of music and their ability to use it.
By composing music and other expressions, students explore the creative
process. This work is enhanced as they study music compositions from many
cultures and time periods. By participating in performances and attending professional performances, they develop the skills needed for making aesthetic
judgments and applying thoughtful reasoning and criteria to those judgments.
Their experiences also make them aware of many careers in and related to the
field of music.
High School Level
Standards-based music instruction provides opportunities for students to
do in-depth studies in one or more areas of concentration, delve into the meaning and impact of music, and develop life skills and career competencies. At the
high school level, instruction prepares students to enter the university music
program.
Music instruction provides an opening for students to participate in choral
and instrumental ensembles. These classes offer instruction at the beginning,
intermediate, and advanced levels to meet the needs of all students in achieving
the standards at the beginning or proficient level or higher. Other classes that
also benefit students include music appreciation, music theory, the history and
Music
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literature of music, piano and electronic music, instrumental music, and the
recording arts.
High school music courses should be approved by the University of California and the California State University to meet the new visual and performing arts requirements for freshman admission to those institutions. (Standardsbased courses approved for entrance and courses that would not be accepted as
college preparatory music courses are listed in Appendix B.) According to the
five component strands of the music content standards, creative thinking
should be promoted through instruction in a sequence of appropriate music
courses. In addition, students should have frequent opportunities to work with
professional musicians and attend professional performances at school and in
the community. Community college, university, or community programs in
music often may be open to students with particular interests or talents. As
students recognize connections between music and other curriculum areas, they
can expand and enrich the scope of their educational experience.
Music teachers need to communicate with their colleagues throughout
their school district and with university music departments and professional
music groups to enhance their programs and support continuity of instruction.
Music
Sample Standards-Based Unit of Study
Grades Nine Through Twelve
S
tandards-based instruction reinforces the importance of a rigorous, comprehensive arts education program. Understanding that performance classes
are not intended to be appreciation courses, teachers should provide a variety of
opportunities for students to meet standards while preparing students to perform quality works of music. The following unit of study is an example of how
teachers can maintain the integrity of performance classes by
focusing on development of skills in music while providing a comprehensive approach
to music education. It also
recognizes that many high
school performance classes
have both beginning and
advanced students in one
class and provides for differentiated opportunities
based on experience.
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This unit provides choral music students at the proficient level with an
opportunity to improvise original melodies while students at the advanced level
can create melodies in a blues style. At each level students apply a set of criteria
to establish indicators of success, and the teacher uses the recorded improvised
examples to document student achievement.
PROFICIENT LEVEL
First year of instruction
ADVANCED LEVEL
Two or more years of
additional instruction
Students listen to and research familiar types of vocal improvisation from
familiar music (e.g., bends, slides).
Students examine and study a variety
of vocal improvisation styles from
familiar music (e.g., Stevie Wonder,
Ella Fitzgerald, Mel Torme, Bobby
McFerrin) and learn style names,
including the term scat singing.
The choir sings an arrangement of a
familiar selection in a popular style,
discussing and trying stylistically
correct embellishments (e.g., bends,
slides).
While the choir sings an arrangement of a familiar selection in a
popular style, individual students
improvise solos to selected sections
of the arrangement.
Independently, students listen to
local radio stations and note the
names of the songs that include
vocal improvisations and attempt to
classify the styles supporting their
classifications. In class students
discuss their classifications in small
groups.
Students listen to recorded music
chosen by the choir teacher and
placed on reserve in the school library, including selections using a
blues progression. Students note
styles used and discuss differences
and similarities between blues progression styles and popular music
styles. In class students discuss what
they found and give a personal demonstration for each characteristic
discovered.
Students learn the blues progression.
While half of the choir sings chord
tones, the other half improvises a
melody over the chord progression.
They then switch roles.
While the choir sings a blues chord
progression, individual choir members improvise a melody over the
chord progression. Groups of two
(duet) or three (trio) create improvised melodies.
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PROFICIENT LEVEL
(Continued)
ADVANCED LEVEL
(Continued)
Students record themselves improvising over a blues progression and
listen to the recording, applying
criteria for evaluating blues improvisation. Students discuss areas of
success and areas to work on. (The
teacher assesses student’s understanding of the criteria and keeps the
recordings on file to compare to later
improvisations.)
Small groups of students record
themselves in pairs or peer groups,
listening to and coaching each other
using more complex and refined
criteria. (The teacher assesses students’ comprehension of the criteria
and keeps the recordings on file to
compare to later improvisations.)
As a culminating task students listen
to several unfamiliar professionalquality performances of improvisation and classify them by style,
explaining why they chose the labels
they did (i.e., demonstrate understanding of various improvisation
vocal styles).
As a culminating task students
listen to nonprofessional blues performances (self, anonymous peer,
partner) and critique improvisations
in light of criteria/dimension.
Possible scoring criteria:
1. Identification of style characteristics
2. Ability to improvise, using more
than two vocal styles (match
between pitches in improvised
melody and accompanying
tonality and chord progression)
3. Use of appropriate musical
vocabulary to describe various
aspects of improvisation and
performance styles
Possible scoring criteria:
1. Appropriate blues style (meter
and phrasing)
2. Use of appropriate rhythmic ideas
that include but go beyond those
heard in the accompaniment
3. Match between pitches in improvised melody and accompanying
tonality and chord progression
4. Introduction of appropriate blue
notes and passing tones
5. Use of contour or direction
6. Development of a motif or other
idea
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Role of Student Music Performances
Student performances provide opportunities for young musicians to demonstrate musical growth, gain personal satisfaction from achievement, and experience the joy of making music. They can motivate students to learn and stimulate careful rehearsing and self-discipline. However, although they are an
important part of the music curriculum and promote student learning, performances should be an outcome rather than the basic objective of music instruction.
Public performances allow students to reflect on and refine their musical
understanding, showcasing individual or group achievement. Formal performances, such as concerts, music festivals, and stage productions, may serve as
culminating experiences in which students are challenged to perform at their
best. Through informal performances in the classroom or for the community,
students can demonstrate the learning process at different stages and in greater
detail.
The visibility and popularity of student performance groups may lead to
expectations not directly related to music education. Demands are often made
on school music ensembles to perform at athletic events, assemblies, student
productions, parent meetings, community club meetings, conferences, and civic
events. Although providing entertainment may be a valid activity for music
groups, the demands should never interfere with the students’ music education.
Music programs should pay attention to educating the audience in addition
to the student musicians and performers. For example, providing program
notes is helpful and may include a description of the content standards students
are working to achieve. And in all aspects of music performance, diversity must
be considered, including diversity in selecting the music to be played and the
soloists to perform.
Resources for the Music Program
Appropriate, up-to-date equipment, instructional materials, and facilities as
well as community resources and parent involvement are vital to the standardsbased music program.
Equipment and Instructional Materials
Music instruction requires an adequate budget for the purchase, maintenance, repair, and replacement of equipment and instruments. An adequate
number of musical instruments should be available to ensure balanced instrumentation at all levels of instruction. At the elementary school and middle
school levels, a variety of pitched and nonpitched classroom instruments should
be available for general music.
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Music supplies made available to students may include reeds, valve oil,
instrument swabs, rosin, cork grease, and strings. An instrument repair kit
should be made available to the teacher. Musical instruments should be of
high quality and maintained in good condition. And sound equipment, such as
CD players, amplifiers, microphones, and speakers, must be of good quality
and kept in good repair.
The resources used in teaching and learning music include a variety of
traditional and new media. Quickly becoming the standard for the music
industry, CD and DVD technology is playing an increasingly important role
in music education. When teachers have access to both digital and analog
technologies, they are better able to make use of the best in video and audio
productions.
Along with necessary playback equipment, a well-equipped music library is
essential for teaching and learning. To learn about music, teachers and students
should use videos and audiotapes, CD and DVD recordings, musical scores and
sheet music, computer programs, and books. These resources bring to life the
music of many cultures, the work of great composers, and the connections
between music and the other arts.
When teachers and students acquire and share information with colleagues
and peers, they must observe federal copyright laws pertaining to reproduction,
such as those governing fair use and public domain. Information regarding
copyright laws and issues, including those governing the use of music in performances, is available on the Internet or from the school district’s legal counsel
(see also Appendix E).
Suggested Facilities
Decisions regarding music facilities should be driven by the instructional
needs of the program. At each site a dedicated space for music instruction
should be identified; it should accommodate such needs as a sound system, a
piano, risers, movement space, and secure storage. Vocalists and instrumentalists need room to move and perform, and instrumentalists need space to use
and store their instruments, equipment, and music stands. Because the traffic
of students in music rooms is often concentrated and takes place under time
constraints, the floor plan must provide enough space to eliminate congestion
and ensure excellent traffic flow.
A music room also needs to have an appropriate amount of space and
ceiling height to provide good acoustics. For the hearing of students and the
teacher not to be affected, rooms should be built of acoustically appropriate
materials in the walls, floors, and ceilings. Existing rooms should be acoustically
enhanced to prevent any disruption to neighboring classrooms and keep levels
of sound in the room to acceptable industry standards to avoid harm or
distortion.
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A well-equipped music facility at the middle school and high school levels
may typically include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rehearsal areas for a large group
Practice rooms for rehearsals by individuals or a small ensemble
Sound system, including audio and visual recording equipment
Music stands and risers
Storage areas for musical instruments, printed music, sound systems,
and other equipment
Storage area for uniforms and choral robes
Student desks or tables for general music, theory, history, and
appreciation courses
Keyboard lab for piano and keyboard classes
A faculty or administrative office
A performance space or theatre
Community Resources and Parent Involvement
A standards-based music curriculum communicates an open invitation to
community musicians to assist in promoting a lifelong love of music among
students. Music educators can survey their communities for musicians willing
to work and perform with students. Visits by professional and amateur musicians enhance and bring into focus concepts already introduced in the regular
instructional program and can provide additional professional development
for teachers. In turn, music students can be encouraged to attend or participate
in musical performances in the community. Local performing groups, arts
councils, and professional musicians are all resources for the music educator.
And the music faculty and students at colleges and universities can
provide a wealth of musical resources.
As in other curricular areas, parents are often active supporters of the music program. Music teachers welcome parental partnerships that bring parents into the classroom. By providing
additional support to meet student and program needs,
attending performances, and encouraging their student’s
musical experiences, parents who are not musicians can
aid the program. The inclusion of community and
parent resources does not, however, substitute for
the sequential, comprehensive music program
but does strengthen it.
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As revealed in the earliest recorded history, theatre reflects the
time and place of its origins. The creations of theatre artists
come from perceptions of nature, from relationships and interactions with others, and from the artists’ inner selves. Through storytelling and other oral traditions, cultures define themselves and educate their members down through the
ages. In contemporary and historical commemorations, celebrations, and dramatizations, theatre gives voice to culture. Theatre, pageant, entertainment,
new media, and electronic
technology continue to serve
To break through language in order to touch life is to create
many social functions. Theatre
or re-create the theatre. unifies groups, expresses im—Antonin Artaud (1896–1948) portant knowledge, reinforces
group values, strengthens the
individual, and defines and
commemorates events. It provides a powerful multisensory mirror reflecting
social issues, challenges, and accomplishments.
The elements of theatre in stage, film, and video productions include
scriptwriting, acting, technical production, management, and design. In a
well-planned theatre education program, students engage directly in each of
the elements during grade-by-grade study of theatre, enabling them to learn
time management, solve problems, work collaboratively, and exhibit leadership
skills. Their participation in theatre helps them gain an increased understanding
of self and the world, empathy for others, and self-confidence. They learn to
make critical judgments about television, radio, electronic media, and live
performance.
Standards-Based Curriculum for Theatre
Pretend! Imagine! Imitate! Role-play! Unknowingly, kindergarten students
practice theatrical skills, such as characterization, pantomime, improvisation,
story development, and costuming. In grades one through three, students place
these activities in the context of theatre, film, and video as they dramatize or
improvise familiar stories and learn the vocabulary of theatre and ways to work
cooperatively and develop a commitment to purpose. In grades four through
six, they gain more in-depth knowledge of the elements of theatre as they analyze a character’s motives and develop criteria to apply to the quality of performances. Middle school students continue to develop skills as they compare and
contrast various theatre styles from the past and become more aware of the
influence of theatre and the entertainment industry on their lives. And in high
school students read, write, research, reflect, and synthesize to deepen their
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understanding of all aspects of theatre and to strengthen their skills in acting,
directing, designing, and scriptwriting. All instruction is designed to help students create and perform formal and informal productions in theatre, film,
video, and media.
The sequential curriculum for a standards-based theatre program needs to
be well planned and articulated from kindergarten through grade twelve. It
should provide opportunities for students to develop skills, use the language of
theatre, and create works in theatre. By studying the history and cultural context
of theatre, students can perceive and understand concepts providing a foundation for aesthetic valuing and criticism. At all levels they learn how theatre connects to the world around them, to other curriculum areas, and to careers. At
each grade level an effective theatre curriculum should incorporate the five component strands of the theatre content standards: artistic perception, creative
expression, historical and cultural context, aesthetic valuing, and connections,
relationships, and applications (see Chapter 3).
1
Artistic Perception
Artistic perception in theatre involves observing the environment and constructing meaning from it, thereby developing the acuity of all the senses.
Whether improvised or scripted, a theatrical production expresses the perceptions of the writer, the director, the actors, and the designers. The audience’s
response to it requires perception based on knowledge of theatrical skills and an
appreciation of imagination and creativity. Through direct experiences with
theatrical terms and concepts, students learn the vocabulary of theatre. Engagement in theatre experiences heightens students’ sensitivity to their own potential
for creation and that of others.
2
Creative Expression
Students express themselves creatively as they plan, prepare, and carry out a
theatrical performance. Through exercises, improvisation, rehearsal, production,
evaluation, revision, and self-reflection, they develop theatrical skills. All students should participate and experience success as individuals and as part of a
group. And in their purposeful activities they should focus on understanding the
language, elements, and tools of theatre.
3
Historical and Cultural Context
Capturing time and a culture, theatre can provide a rich historical context
for students. It allows them to look at a culture through the lens of a particular
time and place and introduces them to other cultures through theatrical activities in which world dramatic literature, folklore, personal histories, film, video,
electronic media, and puppetry are used. Informing and inspiring students, theatrical activities will help them discover the wide spectrum of theatrical forms.
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Theatre itself is an important part of culture and history. Through its study
students gain a greater understanding of the role theatre has played and continues to play in society. By learning the history of dramatic literature, technology,
architecture, acting styles, and theatre conventions that have developed into
contemporary world theatre, they gain a broader perspective from which to
create their own works.
4
Aesthetic Valuing
In theatre education aesthetic valuing is the ability to analyze the feelings
and thoughts elicited by theatrical experiences. To express their reactions to
theatrical works, students apply what they have learned in artistic perception,
creative expression, and historical and cultural context. Opportunities to observe
and practice across a broad range of experiences help students make informed
judgments, which depend on understanding the intent, structure, effectiveness,
and worth of a play, movie, television drama, or other theatrical presentation.
The valuing process, cyclical and cumulative, may start, for example, when students reflect on, analyze, and evaluate their own work. It gives them the experience and confidence to assess the work of others. By critiquing the work of others, they gain new perspectives from which to review their own work.
In a standards-based theatre program, students learn the difference between
theatrical reviews, personal perspective, dramatic criticism, and theory-based
analysis. They also acquire the ability to think and speak about aspects of theatre
reasonably and intelligently and discuss multifaceted theatre experiences from a
variety of viewpoints.
5
Connections, Relationships, Applications
Today, theatre is more influential than ever, reaching millions of people
worldwide and affecting people’s lives through technology. Because of the impact of the media on students and society, students are provided the help they
need through standards-based theatre instruction to become media literate,
analytical, and critical. Instruction in the theatre arts helps students become
responsible and creative workers, informed consumers, and effective communicators.
Through playmaking, improvising, creating scenes, and scriptwriting, students can demonstrate their understanding of important concepts in other subject areas. And by dramatizing events from history–social science or current
events or a concept from another subject area, they can develop story comprehension, helpful in developing scriptwriting and acting skills, such as character
development. As they learn and experience theatre, they discover the many career opportunities in theatre and the prominent role theatre plays in the entertainment industry in California, a world leader in the production of film and
electronic media.
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The history–social science and theatre curricula emphasize the ideas, values,
and beliefs of people from many lands who have contributed to a vast body of
knowledge. Students should recognize that literature and the arts reflect the
inner life of a culture. To support this learning, the theatre content standards
introduce stories, fables, and formal and informal dramatizations incorporating
conflict and raising value issues both interesting and age appropriate.
Because theatre and the language arts are interrelated, oral and literacy skills
are integral to the theatrical process. Learning verbal and nonverbal communication, students experience the value and application of both. They are taught
that the sequence of skill development in the language arts is the body and soul
of theatre.
In mathematics and the arts, students learn how to analyze problems and
select strategies. Accordingly, in theatre students apply mathematical concepts
and skills in making a model, drawing a picture, organizing information on a
table or chart, finding a simpler related problem, acting out a situation, restating a problem, looking for patterns, estimating and predicting, and working on
a problem with the end always in mind. They should feel free to take risks and
recognize that many ways exist to arrive at the “right” answer.
Levels of Theatre Instruction
The standards-based theatre program promotes the development of each
student’s imagination, knowledge, problem-solving ability, understanding of
human relationships, and communication skills. To accomplish that purpose,
school administrators, theatre arts specialists, and teachers need to establish
a carefully planned program of instruction for each elementary
school, middle school, and high school student.
Elementary School Level
Students in California elementary schools
should all have opportunities for theatre instruction
in their regular classrooms. At this level students
work toward achieving the theatre content standards
through a variety of instructional strategies, including
creative dramatics, improvisation, pantomime,
storytelling, and the acting out of stories. Students should
explore their creative potential by participating in theatre.
Teachers should have instructional materials and
resources on theatre, including films, audiotapes, videos,
DVDs, prints, photographs, props, and literature,
that are appropriate for elementary school students.
To obtain those materials and resources, teachers
should find the library media teacher helpful.
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By practicing, performing, and viewing a variety of theatrical forms in live performances at school or in the community, students will develop skills as performers and as members of the audience. Exposing students to a variety of experiences in theatre helps them gain personal, historical, and cultural insights.
Middle School Level
Theatre
Exploration is the hallmark of middle school theatre. Instruction inspires
students to become self-confident, empathetic individuals and competent group
members. As they identify with a group in meeting common goals, they develop
a strong sense of camaraderie. And they become more adventurous in acting and
production as they encounter materials from varied sources, periods, and styles
of theatre. Texts might include scripts, magazines, news articles, books, lyrics,
and personal experiences. (Note: Scripted materials for middle school students
should be age appropriate.)
The school’s schedule should include a variety of electives in theatre to meet
students’ interests and educational needs. Standards-based instruction provides
students with more advanced training and deeper study of the five strands. In
addition to discrete instruction, theatre activities may be applied or related to
instruction in other content areas.
High School Level
Instruction in the standards-based high school theatre program, an integral
part of the school curriculum, meets the needs of students working to achieve
the proficient or beginning level of the theatre content standards at a minimum.
It also provides opportunities to achieve the advanced or optimum level in one
or more additional classes. Instruction may be provided in play production,
stagecraft, scriptwriting, children’s theatre, oral interpretation, videography,
design, and theatre management. Those completing a high school theatre program have a general understanding of all aspects of theatre as an art form, enabling them to begin advanced studies in specific areas at a college or university.
Performance is an integral part of the high school theatre instruction.
Whether produced or attended, plays and scenes should be carefully selected for
educational worth, literary merit, diversity, community values, and cultural
contribution. Students should experience the full spectrum of theatre in performance, such as formal and informal productions, improvisations, mime, puppetry, children’s theatre, film, video, and other electronic media. Taking part in
theatre festivals, playwriting contests, field trips, and other realistic applications,
students have opportunities to work with theatre professionals and attend professional performances. In addition, community college, university, or community theatre intern programs may be open to students. Documented for reflection and evaluation, student work may be used in a portfolio in preparation for
higher education or a career.
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High school theatre courses should be approved by the University of
California and California State University systems to meet the entrance
requirement of a one-year course in a visual or performing art. To be accepted,
theatre courses must include all five strands of the content standards. Traditional and new media courses may be acceptable provided they are standards
based. For more information on course requirements, visit the Web site
http://www.ucop.edu. Examples of theatre courses that may be acceptable for
admission include acting, directing, oral interpretation, and dramatic production; dramaturgy, history, and theory; and stage lighting and costume design.
Creating traditional or electronic portfolios of one’s work is a powerful tool
to track individual growth, prepare for high school graduation, and use when
applying for college entrance, scholarships, or employment in the theatre or a
theatre-related career.
Theatre
Sample Standards-Based Unit of Study
Grades Nine Through Twelve
S
tandards-based instruction reinforces the importance of a rigorous, comprehensive arts education. Understanding that performance classes are not
intended to be theatre appreciation courses, teachers should provide a variety of
opportunities to meet standards while preparing students to perform quality
theatrical works. The following unit of study is an example of how to maintain
the integrity of performance classes by focusing on developing theatrical skills
while providing a comprehensive approach to theatre education. Many high
school theatre classes with both beginning and advanced students in one class
provide for differentiated opportunities based on experience.
To develop a depth of knowledge and
theatre skills in such areas as acting, design,
styles, dramatic literature, directing,
promotion, lighting, and costuming,
the theatre teacher should
develop a unit of study that
includes plays in specific
styles, genres, or periods.
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PROFICIENT LEVEL
ADVANCED LEVEL
First year of instruction
Two or more years of
additional instruction
Students read, view, and research
the theatre of a specific period,
playwright, genre, or style
(e.g., Restoration, Shaw, postcolonial). Research includes the
function of theatre in the culture.
After studying theatre from several
different periods or cultures,
students explain the social, cultural,
and political influences on several
different styles of theatre and the
influence of each style on society.
In addition, they compare how one
period of theatre influenced another.
Students learn and present teacherdirected scenes from the plays of a
given period, playwright, genre,
or style.
In class students learn and present
teacher-directed scenes from plays
of a given period, playwright, genre,
or style, using highly developed
acting techniques.
Students choose a monologue from
a given period, playwright, genre,
or style and use research information
to present it in an appropriate style.
Students develop a presentation
for their portfolio that includes a
director’s concept for the production
of a play from a given period, playwright, genre, or style. They then
choose two production areas, such
as costumes, lighting, or blocking,
and develop a complete design or
director’s production notes.
Students and teacher develop a
rubric to evaluate the scenes and
monologues. The performance is
videotaped and assessed by the
student, classmates, and teacher.
Students demonstrate the ability to
achieve a director’s stylized concept
by serving as director, actor, or designer in a play from a given period,
playwright, genre, or style.
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Role of Student Theatre Performances
Although performances should be an integral part of theatre at all levels,
not all theatre activities need to culminate in a public performance. A large part
of a theatre curriculum is focused on skill development. Plays and scenes should
be carefully selected for educational worth, literary merit, diversity, community
values, and cultural contribution.
An active theatre arts program promotes the development of students as
theatre artists and audience members. They should experience the full spectrum
of theatre, such as formal and informal production, improvisation, mime, puppetry, film, video, and other electronic media. They should also offer studentwritten and commercial plays to students and parents and, when appropriate,
take part in theatre festivals, playwriting contests, field trips to community
performances, and other realistic applications. In addition to being educated as
theatre artists, all students should learn to respond appropriately as members of
the audience during theatrical performances, an ability that requires knowledge
of etiquette and theatre appreciation. The theatre program should offer plays
demonstrating a variety of theatre styles and origins and provide program notes
containing information regarding the style and objectives of the production as
related to the achievement of the theatre content standards.
Student performances in nonprofessional or professional theatre productions should be viewed as an extension of classroom training. Any student in a
theatre arts program who demonstrates a commitment to the art and accepts
the discipline required of a performer may take advantage of opportunities to
perform outside school.
Resources for the Theatre Program
To help students achieve the content standards in theatre, school districts
should adopt long-range plans providing for appropriate equipment, instructional materials, and facilities and including the assistance of community
resources and parent involvement.
Equipment and Instructional Materials
Although theatre has been performed with a minimal amount of equipment and facilities, students in the school’s theatre program will benefit from
the use of proper theatre technology (lighting, sound) to meet theatre arts
standards. As students progress from elementary school to high school, the
equipment appropriate for each level increases in complexity and capability.
Equipment for the theatre program at the elementary school and
middle school levels may include CD players, DVD player/recorders, audio
player/recorders, video cameras, videocassette recorder/players, television
monitors, and computers for research, design, and word processing. Other
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resources recommended for a school theatre space, especially for middle schools
and high schools, include the following:
• An adequate sound system to allow the actors’ voices, sound effects,
and mood music to be heard comfortably by the audience. The system
should include microphones, speakers, CD players, sound mixers, tape
players, and cables. An appropriate number of assistive hearing devices
and audio describers should also be provided to ensure equal access.
• A
theatrical lighting system that at least illuminates the stage, actors,
and sets and at best creates mood and special effects. To be included are
lighting instruments, a lighting control board, cables, dimmer packs,
a power supply, color media, and hardware.
• Stagecraft capabilities that are age appropriate and allow for increasing
sophistication in constructing sets and props, using costumes and
makeup, and operating, for example, power tools, sewing machines,
painting equipment, air brushes, glue guns, and staple guns. Other
items might include hand tools and basic construction tools, cutting
tables, and irons. Although lower-grade students may have very little
involvement with design and construction, they must, to meet the
standards, be taught the elements of stagecraft.
• C
omputers and computer software for producing video programs. In
middle schools and high schools, camcorders, TV studios, and editing
capabilities should be available for video productions.
• A
resource center, especially at the high school level. In addition, for
classroom and production activities, reference materials available in the
school library enrich learning with historical and cultural contexts.
These resources may be used by teachers and students and can include
a variety of materials, such as textbooks, plays,
scenes, monologues, and screenplays; history
of the theatre, historical references, and
biographies; resources for researching
aspects of theatre (dialects, costumes,
historical events or periods, music,
plays, and literature); the
professional theatre; and
media journals and
magazines.
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• V
ideos of master plays, documentaries, educational lectures, and examples of master works in films and demonstrations. Also enhancing
instruction would be a library of CDs, DVDs, and audiotapes of sound
effects; music, plays, and screenplays; and resources for researching
aspects of theatre (dialects, costumes, historical events or periods, music,
plays, and literature).
• O
ther resources, such as capabilities for Internet research, computer
publishing, digital recording, and editing.
Suggested Facilities
Elementary schools need flexible classroom areas or large, open indoor
spaces for theatre activities and storage for props, costumes, and curriculum
materials. In addition to storage, middle schools need assembly halls or other
large rooms with stages or platforms equipped with lighting, high ceilings to
allow for lighting angles, sound equipment, masking curtains, and seating for an
audience. Theatres or auditoriums at the high school level should be designed to
present plays and musicals. Some school districts work with city or theatre organizations to build theatres on high school campuses and share their use, staffing,
and maintenance.
A high school theatre or auditorium should be equipped with the following:
• Stage area, offstage area, wing space, light booth, fly space, wooden
(paintable) floor, drapes, curtains, teasers, light grid, catwalk, pipes,
baton, and pin rail, with all areas handicap accessible
• Set construction area, with secure storage of tools to build sets and
equipment to paint and decorate them
• Storage area for furniture, costumes, props, set pieces, drapes, drops,
cycloramas, and makeup • Costume
construction area, with a sewing machine, sink, full-length
mirrors, an iron and ironing board, cutting tables, and storage for tools
used in sewing and designing
• Separate dressing rooms for male and female students, with showers,
toilets, and several well-lighted mirror stations for applying makeup
• Television and film studio and editing facilities
Community Resources and Parent Involvement
Many individuals, professional actors, performing groups, and organizations
in the community can become valuable resources for a theatre arts program.
Identifying and locating those resources will differ for each school.
Parent involvement in the theatre program can range from simply being a
member of an audience to organizing a parent booster club. Including parents in
the entire process enhances the program and engages the parents in the arts.
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The visual arts, part of the human experience since prehistoric
times, began with images painted or scratched on cave walls,
small sculpted objects, and huge structural forms. Those works illustrate that
artists at the dawn of human history, like other artists throughout the ages, were
creative, imaginative, and self-expressive. As stated by Jensen, the “visual arts are
a universal language with a symbolic way of representing the world. But they
also allow us to understand other cultures and provide for healthy emotional
expression.”1 They have been vital to all cultures and civilizations, communicating ideas, customs, traditions, and beliefs by providing a window through which
the visual record of the peoples, places, and circumstances in the past can be
observed.
The visual arts help human beings organize and make sense of what they
observe and experience. The arts appear in many forms, including traditional
and contemporary
painting and drawing,
Art is both love and friendship and understanding; it is the desire to give.
sculpture and installaIt is not charity, which is the giving of things. It is more than kindness,
tions, photography,
which is the giving of self. It is both the taking and giving of beauty. . . .
ceramics, folk arts and
crafts of all kinds, and
—Letter to Cedric Wright from Ansel Adams
new media and electronic technology.
Also included are cutting-edge experiments and performance art that cross the
boundaries between the several arts.
Through study and the experience of producing works of art, students learn
the basic visual arts vocabulary, based on the elements of art and the principles
of design. Artists and art students at any grade level work with those elements:
line, color, shape, texture, form, and space. With the application of the principles of design, such as harmony, balance, rhythm, dominance, and subordination, artists can create unique and original statements through endless combinations, variations, and innovations. The resulting art can be joyous or sad, funny
or somber, calm or powerful and can depict everyday reality or the imagination
or dreams of the artist.
Standards-Based Curriculum for the Visual Arts
Through visual arts education images become part of human language.
For example, the marks made by young children are part of their first attempts
at communication and language. Building on a child’s natural inclination to
1
Eric Jensen, Arts with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development, 2001, p. 49.
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communicate beyond those first marks, visual arts education supports the
exchange of ideas that continues throughout life.
Kindergarten students are eager to get their hands on paints, clay, and
other art materials that inspire them to explore and create. All hands are raised
enthusiastically when they are asked, Who is an artist? In grades one through
three, they learn more about what becoming an artist requires as they view and
describe the art around them, including art from various cultures. Through
hands-on experiences they learn ways to use line, color, shape, and texture in
their artwork on paper and in three-dimensional form.
In grades four through six, students explore deeper applications of the elements of art and the principles of design, such as rhythm and balance. They are
fascinated to learn that they, too, like the artists they study, can create pictures
with spatial depth by using what they learn about perspective. Their ability to
analyze, assess, and find meaning in works of art leads them to a deeper understanding and appreciation of artists and artworks from around the world and
from different time periods. By using traditional and new media and electronic
technology, they can expand their skills and ability to communicate. They also
participate in discussions about the merits of certain works of art and identify
professions in or related to the visual arts.
High school students create works of art, developing a more focused style
and message that incorporates what they have learned about the history of art.
Reflecting on the comments of their teachers and peers, they express their own
ideas in visual form.
A comprehensive visual arts curriculum provides opportunities for students
to develop and use the language of the visual arts and apply that knowledge to
creating works of art. As they experience and study the visual arts of various
cultures and historical periods, they begin to understand the aesthetic concepts
needed to gain a foundation for aesthetic
valuing and criticism. They are thereby
able to respond to works of art in ways
that enable them to grasp the power and
nature of the aesthetic experience.
At all levels students learn how the
visual arts connect to the world around
them, to other curriculum areas, and to
careers. The curriculum for a standardsbased visual arts program should be well
planned and articulated through the grade
levels. An effective curriculum incorporates
all five of the arts component strands in the
content standards (see Chapter 3).
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Artistic Perception
Students perceive the visual world according to their individual experiences
and the opportunities they have to develop those perceptions. Gradually, they
learn to recognize the universal structures of the natural world and the ways in
which those structures inform art and art making. Further, they recognize the
elements of art everywhere and the links between the principles of design and
natural and created environments. As they work toward becoming proficient in
each of the five component strands, they draw upon their developed perceptual
skills and become increasingly able to point out and analyze the formal qualities
of the visual arts.
2
Creative Expression
Creating original works of art involves translating thoughts, perceptions, and
ideas into visual form through a variety of media and techniques. To communicate, understand, and appreciate the visual arts, students must work in expressive
modes, recognizing the originality of their own expressions and the importance
of respecting those of others. They thereby gain an understanding of the various
media and the technical proficiency used to create works of art. And they develop their skills in the visual arts and improve their visual literacy as they work
in traditional and electronic media and two- and three-dimensional art. Examples here might include painting, drawing, graphic arts, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, photography, video and computer-generated art, architecture,
product design and advertising art, textiles, jewelry, fiber arts, and glass.
Students should work on forms that combine many media, such as performance art installations, environmental art, site-specific works, and multimedia
pieces. For those activities to be a part of the visual arts curriculum, they must
help students communicate their ideas and feelings and appreciate their own and
others’ creativity. Through a carefully structured visual arts curriculum, beginning at the kindergarten level, students can develop their own artistic style and
vision.
3
Historical and Cultural Context
Through the study of the visual arts from a variety of cultures, students gain
an understanding and appreciation of the creative expressions of peoples across
time and place. They understand artists and artworks in relation to their role and
social context and the significance of the visual arts within world cultures, including the historical development of the visual arts in the United States and in
California. Able to place their own work in its historical and cultural context,
they also emphasize cross-cultural studies of common art forms and the distinguishing characteristics and history of works of art. They learn what art historians and aestheticians do and what role they play in society’s understanding and
appreciation of the visual arts.
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4
Aesthetic Valuing
Aesthetic valuing in the visual arts involves analysis of and informed critical
response to the intent, purpose, and technical proficiency of works of art. Together with others students learn to make sound critical judgments about the
quality and success of works of art by relying on their own experiences in and
perceptions about the visual arts. Expressing their responses in oral, written,
and electronic forms, they also discuss such aesthetic questions as, What is art
for? or What makes an object a work of art? Analyzing and responding to their
own artwork and that of others help students understand the feelings and ideas
expressed in two-dimensional and three-dimensional works of art created by
artists of many cultures, places, and times.
5
Connections, Relationships, Applications
By connecting, applying, and observing the relationships of the visual arts
to the other arts disciplines, to their own world, and, gradually, to the world at
large, students understand that the visual arts do not exist in isolation. Through
visual arts instruction students learn to discover, appreciate, and value the contributions of the visual arts to culture, society, and the economy, particularly in
California. They recognize that visual and graphic images and imagery support
most global communication. They also begin to realize that, whether in fine art
paintings or Internet animations, billboards or children’s book illustrations, car
design or kinetic sculpture, logos or iconography, cinemagraphic epics or video
installations, visual art is connected to their everyday lives. Recognizing that
everyone from birth is influenced by visual communication, the teacher of the
standards-based visual arts can empower students to become media literate,
analytical, and critical.
Today, the visual arts are providing new career opportunities for students.
They are learning new ways of seeing the world and making art and recognizing
that new media are changing and expanding the role of the artist in ways no
one could have imagined a decade ago. What students learn in the visual arts
now helps them in numerous careers in and related to the expanded visual arts.
(See Appendix C, “Careers in the Visual and Performing Arts.”)
When students improve their visual and media literacy, they may also improve their ability to obtain, evaluate, interpret, and communicate information
in a variety of media, a form of literacy crossing all curricular boundaries and
applying to all aspects of life. Students can probe beyond the obvious, identify
the psychological content found in symbols and icons, and, through the
Internet, learn about the changing roles of the twenty-first century artist. Using
a variety of new media and electronic technology, students can prepare portfolios of original works of art for evaluations, exhibitions, applications for college
entrance and jobs, and personal collections. By being visually and media literate, students have the tools needed to make sense of the profusion of images
constantly bombarding them.
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Levels of Visual Arts Instruction
All students in California elementary schools should be participating in
standards-based visual arts instructional programs carefully designed and implemented. Effective instruction calls for regular, planned, cumulative learning
opportunities from kindergarten through high school and is characterized by
spiraling, expanding content and diverse instructional strategies.
Visual Arts
Elementary School Level
Whenever possible, classroom teachers in elementary schools should plan a
sequential instructional program in the visual arts in cooperation with a visual
arts specialist, lead teachers in the arts within the school district, and members
of the community. They should base their instruction and design of instructional units on the visual arts content standards. In that way students can begin
to grasp the larger picture of what those engaged in the visual arts know and do.
By strongly emphasizing instruction in the creative process rather than the
product, the elementary school program provides opportunities for students to
explore and appreciate their own creative and original expressions. Through
discussion they begin to understand their own expressions and those of others
and are given opportunities to experience a wide variety of media.
At this level students begin to learn the language of the visual arts by discussing the world around them and, more specifically, their own artwork and
that from many other time periods and cultures. They also practice using that
language. Through this instruction students begin to understand the historical
and cultural contexts of works of art, the styles and periods of art, and the
expressions of different cultural groups.
In addition, they are given opportunities to identify and
discuss the characteristics of master works of art found in
museums and galleries in the community. For example,
Content Standard 3.2 for grade four in the historical and
cultural context component strand states that the study
of California history is enriched as students “identify
and discuss the content of works of art in the past and
present, focusing on the different cultures that have
contributed to California’s history
and art heritage.”
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Middle School Level
The standards-based visual arts program in the middle schools extends the
learning and experience gained by students at the elementary school level and
prepares them for further visual arts courses. Through this comprehensive instruction students are able to acquire further knowledge of the visual arts, continue to develop artistic skills, and expand their creative potential. Visual arts
programs promote lifelong involvement in and appreciation of the arts and an
awareness of career opportunities. At this level students might begin to compile
portfolios of their work that can be maintained on a CD-ROM or another form
of electronic media.
Middle schools should provide instruction in the visual arts for all students
through exploratory, elective, and special-interest classes, enabling students to
make connections, observe relationships, and apply what they learn to all other
content areas. Visual arts instruction at this level relates to the stages of development and interests of young adolescents and includes experiences for individual
students and collaborating groups of students. Often, students assist in defining
an artistic problem, allowing instruction to be focused on their interests,
thereby inspiring in students the confidence they need to continue in the study
of the visual arts.
High School Level
The high school visual arts program is an integral part of the school’s visual
and performing arts department. At this level students may explore one or more
areas of concentration in depth or investigate a broad range of knowledge and
skills in the visual arts.
The instructional program should provide students with a variety of learning opportunities in two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and electronic media
at the beginning and advanced levels. Innovative and challenging experiences
promote creative thinking so that all students achieve at least the beginning or
proficient level of the visual arts content standards. Through such foundation
courses in the visual arts, students can gain the knowledge and skills that apply
to other curriculum areas along with careers in or related to the visual arts.
The course content of visual arts classes must include increasingly meaningful lessons and units in all five strands to meet the new visual and performing
arts requirements for freshman admission to the University of California and
the California State University. Both traditional and new media courses may be
accepted provided they are based on the standards. Examples of acceptable standards-based courses and of unacceptable courses are listed in Appendix B.
By the time students reach high school, they will have become more articulate and reasoned in their judgment about art because of previous instruction in
the visual arts. They can articulate their own opinions about works of art on the
basis of informed judgments, recognizing that art is created for a wide variety of
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purposes and that the observer does not have to like a work of art to understand
that it is successful. Further, they notice that some art can be powerful or playful, challenging, or even disturbing and that not all visual art is intended to be
beautiful.
When instructional strategies include opportunities for high school students to work with professional artists and visit art exhibits in museums and
galleries, the ability of students is strengthened. Instruction that includes the
study of many kinds of art deepens the students’ understanding of the intent
different artists bring to their work. The more artwork students see, the more
accepting and appreciative they will be toward art from all cultures and from
many historical and contemporary time periods. Often, programs for interns in
design and gallery management sponsored by community colleges, universities,
or communities may be offered to high school students with particular interests
or talents.
High school students may create traditional or electronic portfolios to track
their own artistic growth, prepare for high school graduation, apply for college
entrance and scholarships, or obtain employment in the visual arts. At the end
of a series of lessons or a visual arts course, students should evaluate their portfolios according to specified criteria and rubrics. During a series of lessons,
advanced students should display their artwork and discuss technical aspects
and individual progress. At the conclusion of the lessons, they should examine
their own portfolio, determine their growth over time, and write a final evaluation. Then they can select works to be exhibited and included in their final,
year-end portfolio.
Instruction is enhanced when high school visual arts teachers communicate
continually with their colleagues in the school district, in college and university
visual arts departments, and in professional organizations. That communication
will enhance their programs and support the continuity and articulation of
instruction.
Beginning/Advanced Drawing
and Painting
Sample Standards-Based Unit of Study
Grades Nine Through Twelve
S
tandards-based instruction in the visual arts reinforces the importance of a
rigorous, comprehensive arts education. Understanding that studio classes
are not intended to be art appreciation courses, teachers should provide stu-
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dents with a variety of opportunities to meet the content standards and help
students prepare portfolios of their work for personal use, for use in applying to
postsecondary institutions, or for career presentations and exhibitions. The following unit of study is an example of how to maintain the integrity of studio
classes by focusing on skill development while providing a comprehensive approach to art education. Many high school studio art classes enroll students at
the proficient and advanced levels in one class and provide for differentiated
opportunities based on experience.
This unit of study for beginning and advanced students focuses on creating a
series of original drawings and paintings reflecting contemporary California
artists and their works of art.
PROFICIENT LEVEL
ADVANCED LEVEL
First year of instruction
Two or more years of
additional instruction
Students research Wayne Thiebaud,
a contemporary California artist.
The students study the artist’s works
of art and the ways in which they
reflect contemporary culture.
Students research Richard
Diebenkorn, a contemporary California artist, and discuss ways in
which his landscapes reflect, play a
role in, and influence contemporary
culture. Students visit local museums
and galleries displaying the artist’s
works, view videos, and use the
Internet to see the artist’s landscapes.
Students analyze the artist’s artwork
according to composition and
principles of design.
Students analyze the artist’s works
according to composition, the use of
elements of art and principles of
design, the art media selected, and
the effect of the media selection on
the artist’s style.
Students complete a series of still-life
drawings in their sketchbooks,
reflecting Thiebaud’s food themes
and artifacts of the abundance of the
American culture, particularly their
own.
Students plan and complete a series
of abstract landscape paintings of a
selected landscape site, incorporating
Diebenkorn’s diverse use of media
and abstraction.
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PROFICIENT LEVEL
(Continued)
ADVANCED LEVEL
(Continued)
In sketches students demonstrate
and explore Thiebaud’s ideas of
formal compositional units
(e.g., regimentation and variation,
geometric organization, positive
and negative space, and color use).
Students articulate an understanding
of Diebenkorn’s use of interlocking
colors, bold lines, scale, observation
of nature, and architectonic structures.
Students create a series of tempera
paintings based on their research of
Thiebaud’s themes, compositional
units, and color theories.
Students identify their intentions as
contemporary artists in writing and
peer reviews. They discuss their use
of elements of art, principles of design, media, and the effect of the
media on their artwork.
Students write about their own
Thiebaud portfolio and assess their
artwork according to their understanding of the content standards
and an appropriate rubric that measures growth over time.
Students prepare their works of art
for exhibition and inclusion in their
portfolios and write about their
works, identifying psychological
content found in the images.
Students display their works of art in
an exhibition and write about their
understanding of the importance of
art criticism.
Students apply various art-related
theoretical perspectives to their own
works of art.
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Role of Student Visual Arts Exhibitions
Exhibitions of student work in the visual arts provide opportunities for
students to share accomplishments and educate the community about the visual
arts program, perhaps thereby increasing support for the program. Another
reason to organize such exhibitions is to communicate to young artists the value
placed on their artwork and artistic achievements. Awards and prizes are not
necessary because students will be satisfied with the opportunities provided to
exhibit their work.
A statement providing background about a work of art is valuable in
communicating to the public the intention of the work and to locate it in the
context of the visual arts program and content standards. It may include lesson
objectives, descriptions of lessons or assignments, and the relation between the
work and the visual arts content standards. Often, photographs of the students
at work and the inclusion of works in progress may help clarify the context of
what is on display. When several examples of particular lessons are grouped
together, parents and other viewers may understand the uniqueness of each
student’s work. The exhibits should also demonstrate the variety of media in
which students are working. When students are responsible for designing and
installing an exhibit, they gain additional skill and experience relating to such
careers as serving as a curator, working in an art gallery, or managing a museum.
Resources for the Visual Arts Program
To enable students to explore ideas, think innovatively, and participate
in creating visual art in all its forms, school districts should adopt long-range
plans providing for appropriate equipment, instructional materials, and facilities
and including the assistance of community resources and parent involvement.
Library media centers and teachers can also provide important resource materials to support the activities of visual arts students and teachers.
Equipment and Instructional Materials
The State Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment provides an
advisory on legislation regulating the purchase of art and craft materials and
guidelines for the safe use of the materials. The advisory includes a list titled
“Art and Craft Materials Which Cannot Be Purchased for Use in Kindergarten
and Grades One Through Six.” Updated regularly, the list is available at
http://www.oehha.ca.gov/education/art/getart.html. (See also Appendix F,
“Guidelines for the Safe Use of Art and Craft Materials.”)
The advisory further informs school personnel about precautions to be
taken when purchasing art and craft materials for use in grades seven through
twelve, and Education Code Section 32064 mandates labeling standards for those
materials when they contain toxic substances. The mandate is based on the
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assumption that students in grades seven through twelve can read and understand warning labels on art products and, once aware of the hazard, can take
the necessary precautions to minimize exposure to the hazard. That assumption
makes it incumbent on teachers to ensure that all students in grades seven
through twelve are aware of hazardous materials and resources and know the
steps to be taken should they become exposed to those materials. Purchasing
products that do not contain toxic ingredients will provide an additional measure of safety in the classroom.
Students using tools and equipment in design-craft classes, jewelry classes,
and most other classes in additive and subtractive sculpture must be instructed
on safety. Furthermore, they should be tested regularly on safety, and the results
of the tests should be filed. When working with selected materials and equipment, such as toxic dyes, airbrushes, spray-glaze equipment, loud drills, and
band saws, they must wear goggles, dust masks, and protection for their ears.
All equipment handled by students should be appropriate to their age and
monitored when in use.
Care should also be taken to ensure that the equipment is used in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions and that all safeguards are observed.
When not in use, equipment should be stored safely and securely. Electrical
equipment that cannot be stored in a secure manner (e.g., band saws, motorized sanders, and grinders) should be connected to a central master breaker so
that power to the machinery is cut when it is not in use. A safety zone should
be set up around the equipment.
Suggested Facilities
A well-designed learning environment enhances the visual arts
program in elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools.
The facility should be aesthetic and spacious and provide a safe
space in which students can work on a variety of art projects.
It must be large enough for the number of students who will be
working and moving around in the space. The visual arts room should
provide storage space for materials, equipment, and works in progress
tailored to the specific media being used. The facility must also be easily
accessible for the delivery of equipment and materials, have space for
working outdoors, allow ample natural light, and have good
ventilation of fumes and vapors. Also required are
large, deep sinks with individual faucets providing
at least one source of hot water. For exhibitions of
student work, every available wall surface should be
covered with stain-resistant tackboard. All cabinets
and drawers should have security locks, and a secure
cabinet is needed for the VCR, DVD player, and
other electronic equipment.
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Other equipment requires deep cabinets for storage. A counter should be
provided at which students can sit and use computers with network access.
Worktables must be wide enough for students to be situated on both sides
and not interfere with other students at work. Storage areas and drying racks
for student work must provide for a variety of paper sizes. Flat files or storage
drawers must accommodate large paper, mat board, and posters at least
42 inches by 36 inches. There should also be an adjacent storage room.
Special needs concerning safety, energy, lighting, location, sound control,
and maintenance must be considered. For example, access to the facility by
students with physical disabilities and those with exceptional needs must be
ensured. In addition, the space for the display and exhibition of two-dimensional and three-dimensional artwork should be available to students and
accessible by the entire student body for viewing displays.
Safety issues are important in visual arts education. A clean environment is
essential for health and safety; it must include sinks for clean-up and adequate
ventilation to exhaust all fumes, dust, or odors. (Note: Design Standards for
School Art Facilities, published by the National Art Education Association,
details specifications for safe and effective visual arts rooms.)
Community Resources and Parent Involvement
A comprehensive visual arts program incorporates community resources,
such as galleries, museums, arts commissions, arts councils, nonprofit organizations, Rotary clubs, PTAs, county offices of education, artists, special exhibitions, businesses that support the arts, internships, site docents, and colleges
and universities. Educators should take advantage of the visual arts resources in
their immediate community that may be available on request. For example,
local galleries are often willing to allow a class visit at their sites and discuss how
their galleries are operated, and artists living in the area may be willing to speak
to students or even demonstrate their art form to a class. In addition, community arts councils or organizations may have visiting artist programs or a list of
artists in the area.
If asked, many parent organizations will donate money for arts supplies.
Some even sponsor training for individuals to become art docents in the classrooms. Local colleges may have large collections of art prints in their library
available for checkout, and postsecondary educators are often more than willing
to give advice or help with a class project. The more the involvement of parents
and community members in local arts education occurs, the more students will
benefit, and the more valuable the program will become. (See also “Promoting
Partnerships and Collaborations” in Chapter 2.)
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T
hroughout California the visual and performing arts content standards
provide teachers, administrators, students, and the community with a
clear set of expectations as to what students should know and be able
to perform in dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts in elementary school,
middle school, and high school.
Purpose of Student Assessment
Assessment of student work in the arts helps teachers determine how they
should adapt their instruction so that their students can achieve the content
standards. It also helps teachers build a profile for each student that can be used
to communicate progress. At the school district level, the assessment data help
administrators make effective decisions about instruction, personnel, and resources for the arts education program.
Assessment and instruction should be aligned within the curriculum. The
key to using assessment effectively and efficiently is to recognize that, above all,
no single assessment tool meets all assessment needs. Assessment can be used to
inform instruction, monitor student progress, provide feedback to students and
parents, summarize students’ learning over a given period of time, and provide
additional information to qualify students for special programs.
Assessment of student work in the arts may be accomplished through
thoughtfully designed performances, critiques, and analyses, just as artists are
constantly assessing their own performances and products and asking others to
assess or critique their work. If the visual and performing arts curriculum and
instructional materials fully integrate assessment, most assessment activities,
especially the monitoring of progress, will contribute to learning and maximize
instructional time.
Wolf and Pistone enumerate five assumptions about the efficacy of assessment in the arts. First, students and teachers insist on excellence as exhibited in
performances and portfolios. High standards having been set, studio and classroom discussions involve ways to reach those standards. Second, much discussion takes place about judgment—opinions on a range of qualitative issues—
and decisions based on insight, reason, and craft. Third, self-assessment is
important for all artists. That is, students need to learn how to understand and
appraise their own work and that of their peers and other artists. Fourth, varied
forms of assessment must be used to obtain information about individual and
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group performances. And fifth, ongoing assessment allows students to reflect
on their own creations and use the insight gained to enrich their work. When
viewed in that way, assessment is an episode of learning. 1 (See “Selected References and Resources” at the back of this publication for additional resources
on assessment.)
Types of Assessment
Regular assessment of student progress in mastering grade-level standards
is essential to the success of an instructional program based on the visual and
performing arts content standards and framework. It should be informative and
timely and contribute appropriately to student learning and development. The
three types of student assessment are described as follows:
• Entry-level assessment. Do students possess crucial prerequisite skills and
knowledge? Do they already know some of the material being taught?
If so, the teacher can more easily determine the most efficient starting
point for learning. Some entry-level assessments should measure mastery
of foundational standards; others should measure the degree to which
students have mastered some portion of what is to be learned next.
Teachers should use the information from the entry-level assessment to
ensure that students receive support in specific areas. Entry-level assessments might consist of vocabulary pretests, open-ended conceptual
questions, performance opportunities for students to show current
mastery of theory or technique, or opportunities to demonstrate current
level of skill by using a set of material or prompts.
• Progress monitoring. Are students progressing adequately toward achieving
standards? Monitoring, which should occur regularly, helps guide instruction in the right direction. In standards-based classrooms monitoring
becomes a crucial component of instruction for every student. It signals
when alternative routes need to be taken or when students need to review
material before moving forward. Only through such monitoring can
teachers focus instruction continually so that all students are constantly
progressing.
Everything students do during instruction provides opportunities for
monitoring. Ongoing assessment allows student artists to reflect on their
own creations, using the insights gained to enrich their own work. They
need to learn how to appraise their own work and that of peers and
professional artists. Therefore, monitoring, whether internal or external,
should reflect the essential nature of the knowledge or skill being assessed,
direct student learning, and establish expectations for achievement.
1
Dennie Palmer Wolf and Nancy Pistone, Taking Full Measure: Rethinking Assessment Through the Arts.
New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1991.
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Internal monitoring (self-assessment) helps students determine their
level of mastery according to a set of clear criteria. External monitoring
helps teachers, also using a set of clear criteria, determine the students’
level of mastery. External monitoring should (1) document performance;
(2) help teachers make instructional decisions and adjustments according to documented performance; (3) identify student performance in
relationship to the standards; and (4) include a variety of strategies to
determine students’ level of knowledge and skills.
Monitoring of progress in the arts may also be formal or informal.
Formal monitoring might appear as questions or prompts to be answered by students or the performance of a prescribed set of skills on
demand. Informal monitoring might include a conference or conversational analysis centered on a work in progress and determination of the
next steps needed for completion.
• Summative evaluation. Have students achieved the goals defined by a
given standard or group of standards? Summative evaluation helps
determine whether students have achieved the goals defined in a standard or group of standards. It answers the following questions:
Do students know and understand the material? Can they apply the
material in another situation? Are they ready to move on? Typically, this
type of assessment comes at the end of an instructional unit or school
year. The most important aspect of summative evaluation is that it
measures the students’ long-term growth and mastery of grade-level
standards.
Considerations in Arts Assessment
The visual and performing arts content standards focus on developing the
knowledge and skills required to create successful artwork and performances.
They also include the study of the arts and artists and their influence on culture. Comprehensive assessment relies on a variety of means to create a complete evaluation of students’ progress. Assessments include student works of art
and performances, open-ended projects or questions, research assignments,
constructed response items, or multiple-choice items.
Scoring Rubrics
Whenever a performance assessment tool is used, explicit criteria for evaluating students’ work should be determined and shared with the students before
the evaluation occurs. Because the arts encourage enthusiasm or novelty, students enjoy a variety of ways to solve artistic problems. Therefore, an assignment or performance task may produce a result far different from what was
envisioned yet meet the stated criteria for assessment. Students can express their
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creativity fully according to the accepted criteria when they and their parents or
guardians are familiar with the criteria and scoring rubrics that teachers use to
identify the students’ levels of success in meeting the content standards. To
help students focus on their work, teachers may attach to assignments or performance tasks sample scoring rubrics describing levels of accomplishment.
Assessment of Performances and Exhibitions
Student performances and exhibitions can lend themselves to formal or
informal assessment. Through careful planning the teacher may allow beginning performances to be shared and critiqued to help students gain mastery of
the skills being developed. Such a supportive and creative environment helps
students build confidence. To satisfy the entrance requirements of the University of California and California State University systems, performance course
criteria should include appropriate cocurricular work, such as performances and
exhibitions. Teachers should encourage students to make presentations at
school board and parent meetings.
Student Portfolios
One way to assess student learning is to examine collections of students’
work. Student artists should maintain portfolios of formal and informal work
to monitor progress and display the depth and breadth of their skills over time,
as do professional artists. Portfolios help students observe improvement in their
work and assist teachers in evaluating student progress and the effectiveness of
their teaching strategies. When the portfolios have been reviewed according to
predetermined criteria, teachers and students can establish the levels of content
mastery already achieved. Portfolios can also be used to demonstrate to parents
how far students have advanced toward the goal of content mastery.
Assessment portfolios might include examples of draft
sketches, technique development, and finished work as well
as documentation of artwork or performances, including
photographs, audios, videos, digitally formatted compilations, and reflective writings. Some types of such portfolios
are as follows:
• Process portfolios. These portfolios demonstrate
student mastery over time. They may include rough
sketches or drafts, preliminary plans for staging,
scores or scripts, choreography notes and diagrams,
and more refined and finished works. In addition,
they may contain written reflections on works in
progress, the process for completing the work,
influences on the work, and critiques of self and
peers. During the course teachers and students
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should discuss the work periodically to determine progress and areas
needing improvement.
• Portfolios of assessment tasks. These portfolios include a series of specific
tasks or assignments usually related to the mastery of a set of specific
content standards in each of the strands. A middle school portfolio of the
assessment tasks has been developed by the California Art Education
Association: In task one students compare and contrast two works of
portrait art; in task two they create self-portraits; and in task three they
use a scoring rubric to evaluate their own artwork.
• Best-work portfolios. These portfolios are intended to showcase the best
work students have completed in a course. Usually selected jointly by
students and teachers, they are typically used in formal and informal
reviews of student progress.
• Competition or high-stakes portfolios. Portfolios of this type are developed
by students for competitions, applications for advanced study, or admission to special programs. Works included should be of the highest
quality and demonstrate advanced technical skills and conceptual
awareness. Further, they should show evidence of accomplishment in a
variety of media, including reflective statements written by the students
regarding their work.
Ensemble Assessment
Ensemble products provide a different set of challenges and opportunities.
The members of an orchestra, the dancers in a troupe, the actors in a play, and
the singers in a quartet all need their own clear assessment criteria because the
role of the individual student, whether as a soloist or as a member of the group,
is vital to the overall success of the ensemble. That factor should be part of the
assessment of a student’s progress.
New Media and Electronic Technology
Using new media and electronic technologies for assessment is increasingly
valuable to visual and performing arts educators and students. To deliver constructed response items, a school or school district may select exemplary work
by teachers who are artists or by students to be digitally photographed or
recorded. For example, virtual-reality software facilitates a 360-degree view of
an object or performance by a simple command on the computer. Once burned
onto a CD, the items may be used by the entire school or school district as part
of an assessment.
In any arts discipline portfolios of student work can be burned onto
a CD or DVD, stored, and shared with others for assessment. Students may
send their portfolios to colleges or universities for entrance into a program
or use them to apply for employment. In creating portfolios, students develop
175
Multiple Measures of Student Progress in the Arts
Selected response items: Multiple choice,
true-false, matching, enhanced choice
Brief constructed responses: Fill in the blanks
(words, phrases); write short answers (sentences,
paragraphs); label a diagram or visual representa­
tion (Web, concept map, flowchart, graph
or table, illustration).
Products: Produce an essay, a research
paper, a log or journal, a report, a story
or play, an exhibit, a project, artwork,
a model, a dance, a video or audiotape,
or a portfolio.
Performances: Make an oral presentation;
dance; sing or play an instrument; offer a
demonstration, dramatic reading, enact­
ment, debate, recital; teach a lesson.
Process-focused: Perform oral questioning,
an observation, an interview, a conference, a
process description or demonstration; think
aloud; write a learning log.
—Adapted from Ferrara and McTighe,
Assessing Learning in the Classroom
skills in critiquing their own work, a sense of accomplishment, marketable
technology skills, insight into their body of work, and a portable record of that
work. Students who are performance artists will find videos, CDs, or DVDs
especially valuable in documenting and critiquing their work.
An electronic process for assessing student work and providing professional
development for arts teachers involves a Web site with an interactive digital
interface. In this process teachers first upload a standards-based assessment task
with an accompanying scoring rubric and then add examples of student work
so that other teachers can evaluate to what extent that work meets the criteria
on the scoring rubric. To provide observations and comments, teachers from
different schools and school districts may have access to the site. The multiple
reviews of the work provide insights and establish anchor or benchmark
performances for the task.
Arts Assessment: From the Classroom to the School District
Assessment data help schools and school districts to be accountable for the
quality of standards-based arts education programs. A school district moving
Chapter 5
Assessment
in the Arts
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Chapter 5
Assessment
in the Arts
toward establishing districtwide assessment in the arts might first conduct an
arts program assessment to determine the extent to which the arts are taught at
each school level. Then the district might consider what students need to know
to attain the visual and performing arts standards and how to report their
progress. As school districts move toward student assessment in the arts and
share their processes and results, arts education programs throughout the state
will be expanded and improved.
Assessment Outside the Classroom
Students can venture outside the classroom to test their knowledge and
skills. They can share their works in progress and completed artwork or performances away from the classroom and in doing so gain an invaluable source of
new ideas. For example, schoolwide student exhibitions and performances
provide a supportive first step in sharing artwork with the community. In time
the scope of this sharing can widen to include the school district; the local
community; the city, the county, and the state; and national festivals and
competitions. But it should be noted that participation in those events is not
an end in itself but an integral part of a larger learning objective.
Participation in festivals, competitions, and public exhibitions provides
opportunities for the assessment of individuals and ensembles. In those educational events experienced adjudicators provide constructive feedback to teachers
and their students and valuable insight that reinforces and extends classroom
learning.
Teachers must balance opportunities to share student work and students’
need for practicing their skills without having to provide entertainment at
events, assemblies, meetings, clubs, and conferences. Although the visibility
and popularity of student performing groups can build widespread support for
arts programs, those activities should not interfere with the students’ overall
education.
Advanced placement (AP) courses also provide opportunities for students
to challenge the depth of their understanding of the conceptual and historical
arts nationally. Rankings from AP examinations can benefit a student’s placement in college and chances of winning scholarships and grant entitlements.
International baccalaureate programs provide a standardized program that
focuses on critical thinking and exposure to a variety of points of view and
is designed to encourage intercultural understanding by young people.
(More information can be found online at http://www.ibo.org.)
Arts Assessment in California
The California arts education community has been exploring the assessment of student work in the arts for many years. For that purpose the Towards
Arts Assessment Project of the California Department of Education and the
177
Sacramento County Office of Education has issued Prelude to Performance
Assessment in the Arts. 2 Assessment projects have also been initiated by the
following organizations:
• T
he California Arts Project (TCAP) is attempting to involve more
teachers in multiple measures of arts assessment.
• The California professional arts teacher associations provide resources
on arts assessment.
• The California Art Education Association (CAEA) has published two
documents on portfolio assessment in the visual arts.
• The California Music Educators Association (CMEA) offers publications on assessing students in music and sponsors regional and statewide-adjudicated festivals and competitions.
• T
he California Dance Educators Association (CDEA) and the California
Educational Theatre Association (CETA) also provide information in
their publications and at annual conferences offer professional
development in assessing student work. and CAEA also offer students opportunities to participate in
• CETA
adjudicated festivals, competitions, and shows.
In 1998 the California Department of Education initiated the California
Arts Assessment Network (CAAN) to assist school districts in developing and
piloting appropriate assessment of student work in the arts at the school district
level. The network activities include a project with TeachingArts.org, the California online arts resource center, to evaluate student work interactively online.
CAAN is also collaborating with a variety of educational agencies in other states
to develop an online pool of assessment items.
Arts Assessment Nationally
In 1997 the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) developed
assessment tools and items for grades four, eight, and twelve in dance, music,
theatre, and the visual arts. The National Assessment of Education Progress
(NAEP), administered to eighth-grade students throughout the nation, measured students’ knowledge and skills only in music, theatre, and the visual arts.
Although an assessment was developed for dance, it was not administered because of the lack of a suitable national sample. The next arts assessment will be
administered in 2008. Further information is available online at http://
nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/arts/ or from the NAGB at 800 North Capitol
Street, NW, Suite 825, Washington, DC 20002-4233.
2
Prelude to Performance Assessment in the Arts: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento:
California Department of Education, 1994.
Chapter 5
Assessment
in the Arts
6
Professional Development
in the Arts
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Chapter 6
Professional
Development
in the Arts
Professional Development
in the Arts
S
uccessful implementation of the visual and performing arts content standards depends on effective teacher preparation (i.e., preservice training)
and long-term professional development. Two important findings about
professional development in the arts were revealed in a survey published by the
California Department of Education.1 The survey indicated that teachers
trained in the arts are more likely to teach the arts. It serves as a reminder that
many classroom teachers have not received training or professional development in how to teach the arts. The survey also confirmed that, in addition to
the teachers, community members with artistic skills are involved in teaching
the arts in the schools.
Teacher Preparation in the Arts
To accomplish the goals of this framework, teacher education programs
should design the curriculum for the benefit of those pursuing
multisubject credentials and those planning to teach single-subject
courses in the visual and performing arts. The curriculum should
provide a foundation in the arts that addresses the visual and performing
arts content standards and the five related strands.
Future teachers of the visual and performing arts should major in a
specific arts discipline at the college or university level and develop their
own artistic skills and knowledge. In preservice arts education they should
have opportunities to (1) plan and assess arts learning systematically;
(2) gain an understanding of arts pedagogy,
including processes and strategies for arts instruction appropriate to the ages and abilities
of students; (3) develop strategies for working
with diverse student populations; and
(4) gain experience in the use of new media
and electronic technology relevant to teaching,
learning, or performing the arts.
1
The Results of the Arts Work Survey of California Public Schools. Sacramento: California Department of
Education, 2001.
181
Organization of Professional
Development in the Arts
Implementing standards-based visual and performing arts programs challenges school district administrators planning professional development for
teachers. The sequential nature of the standards in each of the arts and the
comprehensive approach of including the five strands require many teachers
at all levels to become more knowledgeable about the arts and effective ways
in which to teach them.
Ongoing professional development should be planned for both generalists
who teach the arts and arts specialists and should be offered locally and regularly. Because effective professional development requires long-term efforts, it
should be focused on increasing teachers’ knowledge of and practice in the arts
and their ability to teach the arts. All professional development programs in the
arts should be based on the content standards and guidelines presented in the
Visual and Performing Arts Framework. Training should prepare teachers to use
the state-adopted arts instructional materials effectively in kindergarten through
grade eight. The training can be particularly useful for teachers in schools with
limited resources and access to only a few district specialists. Those who provide
professional development programs must be able to demonstrate the effectiveness of their recommendations for the typically diverse California classroom and
be competent to instruct teachers.
Schools and school districts should support teachers’ lifelong learning with
released time and funding in ongoing, planned professional development programs coordinated at the district level. Professional development may include
courses at institutions of higher education; participation in meetings and conferences of regional, state, and national education and arts education organizations;
and institutes and workshops offered by The California Arts Project (TCAP)
and professional arts organizations. (See Selected References and Resources for
information on contacting arts education organizations.)
Resources for Professional Development
in Arts Education
The resources listed in Selected References and Resources include information on organizations that identify or provide professional development programs in arts education. Often, they are as close as the regional site of The
California Arts Project, the state professional development project in the visual
and performing arts, or one of the four professional arts teacher associations: the
California Dance Educators Association, the California Association for Music
Education, the California Educational Theatre Association, and the California
Arts Education Association.
Chapter 6
Professional
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in the Arts
182
Chapter 6
Professional
Development
in the Arts
Some communities have city or county arts agencies that can also be valuable resources, and some colleges and universities have outreach programs providing assistance to schools in teaching the arts. Often, institutions of higher
education provide special programs for teachers to advance their learning in and
teaching of the arts and include courses in the arts in their teacher preparation
programs as requirements for receiving teaching credentials.
Throughout the state arts education consultants and arts providers
(e.g., museums, symphonies, music centers, opera and dance companies, folk
art providers) employ education and outreach personnel who may be helpful in
professional development. And nonprofit arts organizations often focus their
work on advocating arts education in the schools and provide professional development for teachers and instruction for students. The California online resource center for the arts at http://www.TeachingArts.org provides valuable help
in planning professional development programs.
Workshops, demonstrations, and peer reviews provide useful information
for arts specialist teachers and classroom teachers. Teachers can participate in
workshops with peers; view and analyze demonstration lessons or exchange
classroom visits; receive coaching and mentoring from district lead teachers or
specialists; and work with resident or visiting artists. It is important that those
receiving professional development in the arts are provided with time to discuss
with their peers ways to implement the concepts and techniques presented in
professional development programs. Often, county offices of education offer
professional development opportunities for teachers from several school districts. They may bring in professional artists to work with students in the classroom setting while the classroom teacher observes the techniques being taught.
Professional development also benefits guest or resident artists working at
any level to extend and enrich the arts curriculum. They too require orientation
to the arts content standards and the curriculum together with information on
effective teaching strategies matched to intended curriculum outcomes. Many
artists working in the schools appreciate professional development that will help
them adapt their knowledge of content and artistic processes.
Content of Professional Development
in the Arts
If the vision of a standards-based arts education for all students in every
grade is to be achieved, teachers of the arts must be trained in critical areas.
During preservice education and through long-term professional development,
those areas are further developed, refined, and expanded throughout the
teachers’ careers.
Teachers should engage in ongoing professional development to acquire
knowledge of (1) the strands of the arts content standards, including, when
183
appropriate, training related to state-adopted visual and performing arts instructional materials; (2) processes and products in arts education; (3) the interdependence and independence of the arts; (4) the arts and learning across the
curriculum; (5) affective and cognitive aspects of the arts; (6) world arts and
cultures; (7) collaboration and articulation; (8) student assessment; and
(9) the uses of new media and electronic technology.
1. Strands of the Arts Content Standards
Instruction in the arts content standards should center on the five strands
of the arts content standards. Therefore, generalists teaching the arts should
understand and have experience with the strands: artistic perception,
creative expression, historical and cultural context, aesthetic valuing, and
connections, relationships, and applications. For kindergarten through
grade eight, a set of key standards in each of the five strands has been
identified in this framework. A professional development program may
begin by emphasizing the key standards and training related to the stateadopted visual and performing arts instructional materials.
Teachers must determine what students learned in the arts in prior
grades because the standards for dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts
are based on those earlier experiences. Because growth in knowledge and
skills is cumulative, students are continually constructing meaning. They
are able, through the five strands and the content standards, to gain the
breadth of knowledge and skills needed to experience an arts discipline
from varied perspectives. In the same manner teachers who have learned an
arts discipline as creators and thoughtful critics are better prepared to teach
that discipline.
2. Processes and Products in Arts Education
Focusing on the arts processes (how) and products or performances (what),
arts teachers should explore the learning involved in producing a product
or performance because it is important to student achievement. Achievement is accomplished through purposeful teacher-guided reflection during
the learning process and completion of a product or performance.
Through experimentation or exploration students engaged in the arts
learn by doing and gain an understanding of the depth of the knowledge
and skills required in each of the arts disciplines. Examples of beginning
work and works in progress captured in photographs and portfolios or on
audiocassettes can be presented in concerts or exhibitions. And videos of
students’ performances can be shown, together with the culminating works,
to demonstrate hard work, discipline, progress, and the artistic process.
Chapter 6
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Chapter 6
Professional
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in the Arts
3. Interdependence and Independence of the Arts
Professional development for teachers needs to include acquisition of
knowledge and skills in specific arts disciplines and recognition of the
connections between the various disciplines. This knowledge and these
skills will provide a means for teachers to deepen their understanding of
particular disciplines and recognize points of contact and areas of contrast
in relation to the other arts and other content areas.
4. The Arts Across the Curriculum
When teachers begin to understand the arts and become proficient in
teaching them, they become aware of natural connections to learning across
the curriculum. Together, arts specialist teachers, classroom teachers of the
arts, and teachers of other content areas are responsible for helping students
make such connections. Therefore, professional development programs
should inform teachers of appropriate, successful strategies to help students
apply what they have learned.
5. Affective and Cognitive Aspects of the Arts
Arts education requires the use of all the cognitive processes commonly
needed to master other academic disciplines. Although the ability to express
emotion through the arts is regarded by some as the essence of the arts, it
goes hand in hand with the power of the arts to expand mental processes.
When students engage in the arts, they can experience the joy, exhilaration,
and thrill of creative accomplishment as creators or members of an audience. Those experiences, which involve emotions, reveal connections, and
spark insights, expand students’ knowledge and create a lifelong love and
appreciation for the arts.
6. World Arts and Cultures
A broad base of knowledge for teachers of the arts should include knowledge of various world cultures, religious and ceremonial arts, and the
American arts, such as musical theatre, mural painting, modern dance, and
jazz. Through these rich experiences teachers can view the arts from many
different personal or cultural lenses, and the curriculum can reflect the
many sources from which American culture has derived its powerful vigor.
7. Collaboration and Articulation
At any grade level standards-based arts programs succeed when collaboration takes place. Such collaboration begins with the planning process,
involving classroom teachers; arts specialists in dance, music, theatre, and
the visual arts; and artists from the community who may participate in
classroom instruction. They articulate the program together with the others
responsible for developing and confirming the curriculum and resources:
185
school and school district administrators; curriculum specialists at the
district and, perhaps, county levels; faculty from institutions of higher
education; arts resource persons from the community; teachers at other
grade levels or in other departments; and school librarians, who can
help identify appropriate literature and technology resources. The same
cooperation and articulation should follow through to the implementation
of the program.
8. Student Assessment
Student learning in each of the arts can be assessed. Professional
development that includes efforts to understand the purpose and types of
assessment and the application of assessments to each of the arts, together
with opportunities to develop and implement assessment strategies embedded in student learning, strengthens curriculum and instruction. The design and scoring of assessments should include grounding the lessons in the
visual and performing arts content standards and developing and using
scoring rubrics reflecting students’ application of their knowledge and skills
in the five strands of each arts discipline. Teachers skilled in performance
assessment at the classroom level should also collaborate with others at the
school and school district levels to design assessments for accountability
(see Chapter 5).
9. Uses of New Media and Electronic Technology
Teachers can reach all students best when the teachers keep up-to-date on
the uses of new media and electronic technology in the arts. They should
know how to use new media and electronic technology as a resource, for
recording and delivery, and as a tool. When teachers have frequent oppor
tunities to learn about and use a variety of technologies, they become
comfortable with the media, are willing to experiment,
and can select resources appropriate to meet
various learning styles.
Chapter 6
Professional
Development
in the Arts
7
Criteria for Evaluating
Instructional Materials:
Kindergarten Through
Grade Eight
188
Chapter 7
Criteria
for Evaluating
Instructional
Materials:
Kindergarten
Through
Grade Eight
Criteria for Evaluating
Instructional Materials:
Kindergarten Through
Grade Eight
T
his chapter provides criteria for evaluating the alignment of instructional materials with the Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards
for California Public Schools.1 The content standards, which were
adopted by the California State Board of Education in January 2001, describe
what students should know and be able to do at each grade level. This updated
Visual and Performing Arts Framework was adopted by the State Board of
Education in January 2004. It incorporates the standards and instructional
guidelines that together define the essential skills and knowledge in visual and
performing arts that will enable all California students to enjoy a world-class
education.
The instructional materials must provide guidance for the teacher to
present the content standards and curriculum and teach the skills required at
each grade level. These skills are to be learned through, and applied to, the
content standards. Special attention should also be paid to the appendixes in
the framework, which address important arts issues.
The following criteria will guide the development and govern the adoption
cycle of instructional materials for kindergarten through grade eight beginning
in 2006. They do not, however, require or recommend a particular pedagogical
approach.
The five categories of the criteria are listed as follows:
1. Visual and Performing Arts Content/Alignment with Standards: The
content specified in the Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards
for California Public Schools (see Chapter 3)
2. Program Organization: The sequence and organization of the visual
and performing arts program
3. Assessment: The strategies presented in the instructional materials for
measuring what students know and are able to do
1
Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools: Prekindergarten Through
Grade Twelve. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2001.
189
4. Universal Access: The information and ideas that address the needs of
every student, including those with diverse learning styles and abilities
5. Instructional Planning and Support: The information and materials,
typically including a separate edition specifically designed for use by
teachers, to assist teachers in implementing visual and performing arts
programs
Because instructional materials in the visual and performing arts must
support teaching aligned with the content standards, those failing to meet the
criteria in category 1 will be considered unsatisfactory for adoption. Categories
2 through 5 must be considered as a whole, each set of materials being judged
as a group. And the materials must also satisfy the requirements of categories
2 through 5 to be considered suitable for adoption.
Instructional materials should center on developing fully the content described in the standards. For efficient presentation extraneous content must be
insignificant and not contrary to the standards. It must also not detract from
the ability of teachers to teach readily and students to learn thoroughly the
content specified in the standards.
Category 1
Visual and Performing Arts
Content/Alignment with Standards
Instructional materials must support the teaching and learning of the
content and skills required by a discipline at a grade level described in the
standards. The numerical order of the criteria within each category does not
imply the relative importance of the criteria.
To be considered suitable for adoption, instructional materials in the visual
and performing arts must provide:
1. A full program that includes all the standards in one or more
disciplines at one or more grade levels (There should be no
reference to national standards or benchmarks or to any stan
-
dards other than those contained in the Visual and Performing
Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools.)
2. A list of evidence, with page numbers or other appropriate
references, that demonstrates alignment with the standards (as
detailed, discussed, and prioritized in Chapter 3 of the frame
-
work)
3. Topics or concepts, lessons, activities, examples, or illustrations,
as appropriate, to support the content standards explicitly stated
for the grade level(s) in the designated discipline(s) submitted
Chapter 7
Criteria
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Instructional
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Kindergarten
Through
Grade Eight
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Chapter 7
Criteria
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Instructional
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Kindergarten
Through
Grade Eight
4. Accurate content, with examples based on current and confirmed
research to support the teaching of the visual and performing arts
5. Opportunities for students to increase their knowledge of the visual and
performing arts through their study of the historical development of
artistic concepts and the lives, contributions, and innovations of certain
artists, with all activities centered on the students understanding the
standards
6. Opportunities for students to study the connections between the visual
and performing arts disciplines to support an understanding of the
designated content standards for dance, music, theatre, and the visual
arts at various grade levels
7. Content presented in interesting and engaging ways to students
8. Terms and academic vocabulary appropriately used and accurately
defined
9. Clear procedures and explanations of underlying concepts, principles,
and theories integral to and supportive of the teaching and learning of
art forms so that performance skills are learned in the context of specific
content standards
10. Guidelines for formal and informal presentations of student work and
other artwork focused on demonstrating the artistic elements and
principles in the content area, thereby aiding meaningful learning
11. Examples for student work using readily available materials 12. Recommendations for reading and writing about the arts that are aligned with the appropriate grade-level English–language arts standards
13. Graphics (pictures, maps, charts) that are accurate, are well annotated or
labeled, and enhance students’ focus and understanding of the content
In addition, providers of instructional materials in the visual and
performing arts are encouraged to:
• R
einforce, when appropriate, the
grade-level-designated content
standards for mathematics, science,
history–social science, or English–
language arts to explain relation
-
ships and solve problems
• Identify the key standards for
each arts discipline when ad
-
dressed
• Examine the contributions of the
arts to the larger culture and their
effects on society
191
• D
iscuss the contributions of contemporary media artwork, processes,
and concepts and their effects on the arts disciplines
• Make use of electronic resources that add richness and depth of understanding to the standards being taught
Category 2
Program Organization
The organization of the visual and performing arts program structures sequentially what students should learn each year and allows teachers to convey
the content efficiently and effectively, thereby providing students with opportunities to achieve the knowledge and skills described in the standards. The content also reflects the variety of instructional models, staffing, and facilities at a
given school site.
To be considered suitable for adoption, instructional materials in the visual
and performing arts must provide:
1. Introduction of new concepts at a reasonable pace and with depth of
coverage, with the explicit aim of preparing students to master content
at each grade level so that they can advance to the next level
2. A variety of experiences, problems, applications, and independent
practices that organize the appropriate grade-level content in a logical,
systematic way so that prerequisite skills and knowledge can be developed before the introduction of the more complex concepts, principles,
and theories that depend on them
3. A well-organized structure providing students with opportunities to
understand artistic concepts, principles, and theories and building on a
foundation of facts, skills, and inquiry
4. A logical, coherent, and sequential organizational structure that
facilitates efficient and effective teaching and learning in a lesson, unit,
and year aligned with the standards
5. Clearly stated student outcomes and goals that are measurable and are
based on the content standards
6. An overview of the content in each chapter or unit that outlines the
visual and performing arts concepts and skills to be developed
7. Guidelines for a safe environment or facility appropriate to the level
of physical performance and training difficulty called for in the arts
curriculum
8. Tables of contents, indexes, glossaries, electronic-based resources,
support materials, content summaries, and assessment guides designed
to help teachers, parents or guardians, and students navigate the
program
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Instructional
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Through
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Chapter 7
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Instructional
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Kindergarten
Through
Grade Eight
In addition, providers of instructional materials in the visual and performing arts are encouraged to include:
• G
uidelines for the implementation of the instructional content within
disciplines that reflect general or specialized facilities, various staff
expertise, or a range of school resources
• A
standards-based curriculum that includes contemporary media technologies or uniquely organized resources that support universal access to
information and enhance teaching and learning in the arts of instructional program or units through alternative formats
• Delivery
or methods, including but not limited to videos, interactive media,
CD-ROMs, DVDs, and online resources, to facilitate ease of duplication and distribution or provide support for universal access
Category 3
Assessment
Instructional materials should contain multiple measures to assess what
students know and can do in the visual and performing arts. The measures
should reveal students’ knowledge of the concepts, principles, theories, and
skills related to those arts and students’ ability to apply that knowledge to
understanding advanced versions of those concepts, principles, and theories.
Assessment tools that are part of the instructional material should provide
evidence of students’ progress in meeting the content standards and useful
information for planning and modifying instruction to help all students meet
or exceed those standards.
To be considered suitable for adoption, instructional materials in the visual
and performing arts must provide:
1. Strategies and tools reflecting the assessment guidelines presented in
Chapter 5 (entry-level assessment, progress monitoring, summative
evaluation)
2. Multiple measures of individual student progress at regular intervals to
evaluate grade-level mastery of the standards
3. Guiding questions to monitor student understanding of the arts
In addition, providers of instructional materials in the visual and performing arts are encouraged to include:
• Suggestions for methods by which a student’s work can be compared
over time (e.g., portfolios, presentations, performances, journals, CDs)
• Electronic tools providing data for diagnostic purposes and user-friendly
features, such as help windows, navigation bars, and font and color
conformity across platforms, that are easy to install
193
Category 4
Universal Access
Instructional materials should provide access to the standards-based curriculum for all students, including those with diverse learning styles and abilities. In addition, programs must conform to the policies of the State Board of
Education and other applicable state and federal guidelines pertaining to diverse
populations and special education.
To be considered suitable for adoption, instructional materials in the visual
and performing arts must provide:
1. Suggestions for adapting curriculum and instruction to meet students’
diverse learning styles and abilities according to current and confirmed
research
2. Strategies to help students who are below grade level in the visual and
performing arts standards
3. Strategies to help students reading below grade level understand the
visual and performing arts content
4. Suggestions that allow advanced learners to study standards-based
content in greater depth
In addition, providers of instructional materials in the visual and performing arts are encouraged to include:
• Lesson materials optimizing clear presentation and focus on students
• Electronic tools aligned with industry standards for universal access
(including text and audio enhancement) and multiple levels of difficulty
that can be adjusted by the teacher or student
Category 5
Instructional Planning and Support
Teacher-support materials built into the instructional materials should
specify suggestions and illustrative examples of how teachers can implement a
standards-based visual and performing arts program. That assistance should be
designed to help the teacher implement the program to ensure that all students
have opportunities to learn the essential knowledge and skills called for by the
standards. Because the criteria do not recommend or require a particular pedagogical approach, the materials should contain recommendations to teachers
regarding those approaches that best fit instructional goals. Accordingly, the
materials should offer a variety of instructional approaches that might include
but are not limited to direct instruction, reading, writing, demonstrations, creation of artwork, and Internet use and inquiry.
Chapter 7
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for Evaluating
Instructional
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Kindergarten
Through
Grade Eight
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Chapter 7
Criteria
for Evaluating
Instructional
Materials:
Kindergarten
Through
Grade Eight
To be considered suitable for adoption, instructional materials in the visual
and performing arts must provide:
1. Explicit, systematic, and accurate procedures and prompts; explanations
of background, concepts, and principles; and theories understandable to
specialists, credentialed arts teachers, and general classroom teachers
2. Strategies to identify and correct common student misconceptions of
the visual and performing arts concepts
3. A variety of effective teaching strategies for flexible implementation
4. Lesson plans that reflect properly sequenced instruction with appropriate procedures understandable to specialists, credentialed arts teachers,
and general classroom teachers
5. A number of possible strategies for pacing lessons
6. Suggestions for applying student assessment data to instructional
planning within the program
7. Resources reflecting strategies found successful in engaging all students
in full participation, varied thinking, and meaning-centered tasks
8. A list of suggested equipment, supplies, and facilities supporting implementation of a standards-based program
9. Guidelines to ensure classroom safety and effective use and care of
required equipment, materials, and supplies called for by the program
during instruction and demonstrations
10. Suggestions for organizing and storing resources in the classroom
11. Economical equipment and supplies together with recommendations
for their use (included with the materials) or recommendations for using
readily available alternative materials and equipment
12. The program packaged for sale containing all components, including
reproducible masters, needed for helping students meet the state
requirements
13. A plan for professional development and continuing technical support
for users of the materials in implementing the program
14. Technical support and suggestions for the appropriate use of instruments, tools, and equipment as well as audiovisual, multimedia, and
information technology resources associated with the program
In addition, providers of instructional materials in the visual and performing
arts are encouraged to include:
• Suggestions for using community resources to support the program
• References and resources providing teachers with further information
on the visual and performing arts content
• Suggestions to students for exploring the content in the standards at
great depth
195
• Support materials that reinforce, model, and demonstrate effective
teaching strategies for teacher use (e.g., video of demonstration lessons,
simulations, online resources)
• H
omework assignments and periodic letters to the home encouraging
student learning and presented so that parents or guardians can easily
support their child’s academic success.
• Suggestions for informing parents or guardians and the community
about the visual and performing arts program
• Electronic tools, including lesson-plan builders, teacher presentations,
and technical and implementation support
• Electronic resources promoting interaction of teachers and students and
critical thinking, such as presentations with designated points for discussion, interactive simulations, role playing, and multiuse systems
Alternative Delivery Systems
New media and electronic technology are shaping artistic expression by
introducing new systems, materials, and processes. More than simply replicating text-based materials in an electronic format, use of the new media involves
expressing ideas and creating artwork in unique ways that are not possible
without the use of technology. For example, it allows for the replication and
changing of images, and the use of those images becomes a new medium of
expression. This new and evolving area within the arts serves as a vehicle for
creating and communicating aesthetic ideas, enhancing access to artistic media
and information, and extending opportunities for instruction, critiques, reflections, and assessments. New media and electronic technology are changing arts
education by encouraging teachers and students to employ these new modes
of expression and materials in creating artwork.
To be considered suitable for adoption, instructional materials incorporating new media and electronic technology must provide:
1. A standards-based curriculum that includes contemporary media
technologies or uniquely organized resources supporting universal
access to information and enhancing teaching and learning in the arts
2. Delivery of an instructional program or units through alternative
formats or methods, including but not limited to videos, interactive
media, CD-ROMs, DVDs, and online resources
3. Technical support and suggestions for the appropriate use of the
instruments, tools, and equipment as well as the audiovisual, multimedia, and information technology resources associated with the program
4. Electronic resources promoting interaction of teachers and students
and critical thinking, such as presentations featuring role playing or
multiuse systems
5. Electronic resources that are cross-platform (e.g., using both Windows
and Macintosh operating systems) and use available media systems
Chapter 7
Criteria
for Evaluating
Instructional
Materials:
Kindergarten
Through
Grade Eight
Appendixes
198
Appendix A
Education Code Sections Governing
Arts Education Programs
Rationale for Arts Education
Education Code
CHAPTER 5
Arts Education
SECTION 8810
Inclusion of arts
in the school
curriculum
CHAPTER 7
California State
Summer School
for the Arts
SECTION 8950
Legislative findings,
declarations, and
intent for the
California State
Summer School
for the Arts
Description
The Legislature finds and declares that there is a need to
include the arts in the school curriculum as a means of
improving the quality of education offered in California’s
public schools and reinforcing basic skills, knowledge, and
understanding. The Legislature further finds and declares that
the use of community arts resources, including professional
artists, is one of several means of expanding teacher skills and
knowledge in the uses of art, and contributes to the develop­
ment of a comprehensive curriculum.
California State Summer School for the Arts: The Legislature
finds and declares that the arts and entertainment industries
constitute the third-largest business sector in the state, and
that it is within the interests of the people of the state to
preserve the artistic and economic benefits which are derived
from these major industries through the establishment of a
multidisciplinary arts training program which will enable
artistically gifted and talented students to receive intensive
training in the arts.
Areas of Study
Education Code
CHAPTER 2
Required Courses
of Study
Article 2
SECTION 51210
Areas of study,
grades 1–6
CHAPTER 2
Required Courses
of Study
Article 3
SECTION 51220
Areas of study,
grades 7–12
Description
The adopted course of study for grades 1 to 6, inclusive, shall
include instruction, beginning in grade 1 and continuing
through grade 6, in the following areas of study: . . . (e) Visual
and performing arts, including instruction in the subjects of
dance, music, theatre, and visual arts, aimed at the develop­
ment of aesthetic appreciation and the skills of creative
expression. (Amended by Stats. 2001, eff. Oct. 11, 2001.)
The adopted course of study for grades 7 to 12, inclusive,
shall offer courses in the following areas of study: . . .
(g) Visual and performing arts, including dance, music,
theatre, and visual arts, with emphasis upon development of
aesthetic appreciation and the skills of creative expression.
(Amended by Stats. 2001, eff. Oct. 11, 2001.)
199
Graduation Requirements
Education Code
CHAPTER 2
Required Courses
of Study
Article 3
Description
(a) Commencing with the 1988-89 school year, no pupil shall
receive a diploma of graduation from high school who, while in
grades 9 to 12, inclusive, has not completed all of the follow­
ing: . . . (E) One course in visual or performing arts or foreign
language.
SECTION 51225.3
Requirements
for graduation,
commencing with
1988-89 school year
Curriculum; Content Standards
Education Code
CHAPTER 5
California
Assessment
of Academic
Achievement
Article 2
Program Provisions
SECTION 60605.1
Visual and
performing arts
curriculum;
content standards
Description
(a) No later than June 1, 2001, the State Board of Education
shall adopt content standards, pursuant to recommendations
developed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, in the
curriculum area of visual and performing arts.
(b) The content standards are intended to provide a frame­
work for programs that a school may offer in the instruction
of visual or performing arts. Nothing in this section shall be
construed to require a school to follow the content standards.
(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed as mandating an
assessment of pupils in visual or performing arts.
Prohibited Instruction
Education Code
CHAPTER 4
Prohibited
Instruction
Article 2
SECTION 51511
Religious matters
properly included
in courses of study
Description
Nothing in this code shall be construed to prevent, or exclude
from the public schools, references to religion or references
to or the use of religious literature, dance, music, theatre, and
visual arts or other things having a religious significance when
such references or uses do not constitute instruction in
religious principles or aid to any religious sect, church, creed,
or sectarian purpose and when such references or uses are
incidental to or illustrative of matters properly included in the
course of study. (Operative April 30, 1977. Amended by Stats.
2001, eff. Oct. 11, 2001.)
Appendix A
200
Appendix A
Art and Craft Materials
Education Code
CHAPTER 1
School Safety:
Public and Private
Institutions
Article 6
SECTION 32060
Legislative findings,
declarations, and
intent
Toxic art supplies
in schools
CHAPTER 1
School Safety:
Public and Private
Institutions
Article 6
SECTION 32061
Definition of “art or
craft material”
CHAPTER 1
School Safety:
Public and Private
Institutions
Article 6
Toxic Art Supplies
in Schools
SECTION 32064
Order or purchase
of art or craft
materials containing
toxic substance or
toxic substance
causing chronic
illness; labeling
standards; exemption
of products;
presumption
Description
(a) The Legislature finds and declares that art supplies which
contain toxic substances or which are potential human
carcinogens pose a significant danger to the health and safety
of school children. The Legislature also finds and declares that
school children are not sufficiently protected by present health
laws in so far as materials which may be seriously harmful are
not so labeled and therefore children are not properly warned
as to the dangers inherent in the use of those materials.
(b) The Legislature intends by this article to ensure that
elementary school children are protected by prohibiting the
sale of these toxic substances to schools, school districts, and
private schools for use in kindergarten and grades 1 to 6,
inclusive, and that the toxic substances may be purchased by
schools, school districts, and private schools for students in
grades 7-12, inclusive, only if the materials are properly
labeled, as described in Section 32064. (Operative June 1, 1987)
“Art or craft material” means any raw or processed material
or manufactured product marketed or being represented by
the manufacturer or repackager as being suitable for use in
the demonstration or the creation of any work of visual or
graphic art of any medium. These media may include, but shall
not be limited to, paintings, drawings, prints, sculpture,
ceramics, enamels, jewelry, stained glass, plastic sculpture,
photographs, and leather and textile goods. (Operative June 1,
1987)
(a) For the 1987-88 academic year and for each academic year
thereafter, no art or craft material that is deemed by the State
Department of Health Services to contain a toxic substance,
as defined by the California Hazardous Substance Act,
Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 108100) of Part 3 of
Division 104 of the Health and Safety Code, or a toxic
substance causing chronic illness, as defined in this article, shall
be ordered or purchased by any school, school district, or
governing authority of a private school in California for use by
students in kindergarten and grades 1 to 6, inclusive.
(b) Commencing June 1, 1987, any substance that is defined in
subdivision (a) as a toxic substance causing chronic illness shall
not be purchased or ordered by a school, school district, or
governing authority of a private school for use by students in
grades 7 to 12, inclusive, unless it meets the labeling standards
specified in Section 32065.
(c) If the State Department of Health Services finds that,
because the chronically toxic, carcinogenic, or radioactive
substances contained in an art or craft product cannot be
ingested, inhaled, or otherwise absorbed into the body during
any reasonably foreseeable use of the product in a way that
201
Education Code
Description
could pose a potential health risk, the department may exempt
the product from these requirements to the extent it deter­
mines to be consistent with adequate protection of the public
health and safety.
(d) For the purposes of this article, an art or craft material
shall be presumed to contain an ingredient that is a toxic
substance causing chronic illness if the ingredient, whether an
intentional ingredient or an impurity, is 1 percent or more by
weight of the mixture or product, or if the State Department
of Health Services determines that the toxic or carcinogenic
properties of the art or craft material are such that labeling is
necessary for the adequate protection of the public health and
safety.
CHAPTER 1
School Safety:
Public and Private
Institutions
Article 6
(b) The warning label shall contain information on the healthrelated dangers of the art or craft materials
SECTION 32065
Warning labels;
standards; disclosure
of information by
manufacturer
to department
Implementation of Curriculum; Extracurricular Activities
Education Code
CHAPTER 2
Governing Boards
Article 13
Excursions and
Field Trips
SECTION 35330
Excursions and
field trips
Description
The governing board of any school district or the county
superintendent of schools of any county may:
(a) Conduct field trips or excursions in connection with
courses of instruction or school-related social, educational,
cultural, athletic, or school band activities to and from places in
the state, any other state, the District of Columbia, or a
foreign country for pupils enrolled in elementary or secondary
schools. A field trip or excursion to and from a foreign
country may be permitted to familiarize students with the
language, history, geography, natural sciences, and other
studies relative to the district’s course of study for such pupils.
(b) Engage such instructors, supervisors, and other personnel
as desire to contribute their services over and above the
normal period for which they are employed by the district, if
necessary, and provide equipment and supplies for such field
trip or excursion.
Appendix A
202
Appendix A
Education Code
Description
(c) Transport by use of district equipment, contract to provide
transportation, or arrange transportation by the use of other
equipment, of pupils, instructors, supervisors, or other
personnel to and from places in the state, any other state, the
District of Columbia, or a foreign country where such
excursions and field trips are being conducted; provided that,
when district equipment is used, the governing board shall
secure liability insurance, and if travel is to and from a foreign
country, such liability insurance shall be secured from a carrier
licensed to transact insurance business in such foreign country.
(d) Provide supervision of pupils involved in field trips or
excursions by certificated employees of the district.
No pupil shall be prevented from making the field trip or
excursion because of lack of sufficient funds. To this end,
the governing board shall coordinate efforts of community
service groups to supply funds for pupils in need of them.
No group shall be authorized to take a field trip or excursion
authorized by this section if any pupil who is a member of such
an identifiable group will be excluded from participation in the
field trip or excursion because of lack of sufficient funds.
No expenses of pupils participating in a field trip or excursion
to any other state, the District of Columbia, or a foreign
country authorized by this section shall be paid with school
district funds. Expenses of instructors, chaperones, and other
personnel participating in a field trip or excursion authorized
by this section may be paid from school district funds, and the
school district may pay from school district funds all incidental
expenses for the use of school district equipment during a field
trip or excursion authorized by this section.
The attendance or participation of a pupil in a field trip or
excursion authorized by this section shall be considered
attendance for the purpose of crediting attendance for
apportionments from the State School Fund in the fiscal year.
Credited attendance resulting from such field trip or excursion
shall be limited to the amount of attendance which would have
accrued had the students not been engaged in the field trip or
excursion.
Credited attendance shall not exceed 10 school days except in
the case of pupils participating in a field trip or excursion in
connection with courses of instruction, or school-related
educational activities, and which are not social, cultural,
athletic, or school band activities. (Operative April 30, 1977)
203
Education Code
Elementary and
Secondary
Education
Local
Administration
CHAPTER 4
Miscellaneous
Provisions
Article 1
Description
The governing board of any school district may lend school
band instruments, music, uniforms, and other regalia to
persons who are or have been, during the prior school year,
members of the school band for use by them on excursions
to foreign countries whether or not such an excursion is
sanctioned by the governing board. The governing board may
require the borrower to make a deposit or take other
measures to insure that the items borrowed will be returned
in usable condition. (Operative Jan. 1, 1998)
SECTION 38120
Use of school band
equipment on
excursions to
foreign countries
Definitions of the Arts
Education Code
CHAPTER 5
Arts Education
SECTION 8811(a)
Definition of arts
for use by K–12
public schools
CHAPTER 7
SECTION 8951
Arts defined
for use by the
California State
Summer School
Description
“Arts” includes the four disciplines of dance, drama and
theatre, music, and visual arts as set forth in the state’s
adopted curriculum framework for visual and performing arts
as published by the State Department of Education in the
Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools,
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve, and may also include
community support for the various other art forms, including
folk art, film, video, the writing of plays, poetry, and scripts.
As used in this chapter, “arts” includes, but is not limited to,
all of the following: dance; theatre; music; folk art; creative
writing; visual arts, including painting, sculpture, photography,
and craft arts; design, including graphic arts, computer
graphics, and costume design; film; and video. (Amended by
Stats. 2001, eff. Oct. 11, 2001.)
Appendix A
204
Appendix B
Recommendations for Clarification
of the New Visual and Performing Arts
Requirement for Freshman Admission
to the University of California
and the California State University
All of the following information can be found on the University of California,
Office of the President (UCOP), Web site, http://www.ucop.edu.
Approved by the University of California Board of Admissions and Relations
with Schools (BOARS), February–July 2002.
Submitted by: Margaret C. Marshall, Chair, University Statewide Arts Advisory
Committee (USWAA); Faculty, Visual and Performing Arts, and Director,
Division of Academic Affairs, UCOP; Faculty, Department of Theatre and
Dance, UC San Diego.
(f ) Visual and Performing Arts
One unit (equivalent to one yearlong course or two semester courses) is
required in any of the following categories: dance, drama/theater, music,
or visual arts.
Intent. The intent of instruction is to provide a meaningful experience
and breadth of knowledge of the arts so that students may apply their
knowledge and experience to the creation of art and/or are better able to
understand and appreciate artistic expression on the basis of that experience
and knowledge.
The intent of approved visual and performing arts (VPA) courses must be
directed at acquiring concepts, knowledge, and skills in the arts disciplines
rather than using artistic activities to fulfill nonartistic course objectives.
Prerequisites. Acceptable courses need not require any prerequisite courses.
Cocurricular Work. Work outside of class must be required
(e.g., portfolio/performance preparation, reading, writing, research
projects, and/or critical listening/viewing).
205
Course Standards. Courses should provide students with an experience in
the arts that implements the intent of the California State Board of
Education-approved visual and performing arts content standards. The
curriculum must be designed to include the VPA content standards at, at
least, the proficiency level in each of the five component strands. Each VPA
course shall sufficiently address the state content standards under all five
component strands, which are as follows:
1. Artistic Perception: Processing, analyzing, and responding to sensory
information through the language and skills unique to a given art
2. Creative Expression: Creating, performing, and participating in a
given art
3. Historical and Cultural Context: Understanding historical contribu
-
tions and cultural dimensions of a given art
4. Aesthetic Valuing: Responding to, analyzing, and making critical
assessments about works of a given art form
5. Connections, Relationships, Applications: Connecting and applying
what is learned in a given art form to learning in other art forms,
subject areas, and careers
For a more detailed description of the VPA content standards, go to
http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/fd/documents/visperfmarts-stnd-comp.pdf.
Acceptable and Unacceptable Courses. Courses that are primarily
recreational or athletic or are designed for body conditioning or social
entertainment are not acceptable visual or performing arts courses.
Commercial courses or courses specifically designed for training for a
profession in these areas are also not acceptable. Specific examples of
acceptable and unacceptable courses are as follows:
• Dance. Examples of acceptable courses include ballet, modern dance,
jazz and ethnic dance, choreography and improvisation, dance
history, and dance production/performance. Examples of unacceptable
courses include aerobics, drill team, cheerleading, recreational dance,
and ballroom dance.
• Drama/Theater. Examples of acceptable courses include acting, direct
-
ing, oral interpretation, dramatic production, dramaturgy/history/
theory, and stage/lighting/costume design. Examples of unacceptable
courses include speech, debate, or courses in other disciplines that
require students to perform occasional skits.
• Music. Examples of acceptable courses include band (concert, sym
-
phonic, jazz), orchestra, choir (e.g., concert, jazz, soul, madrigal),
music history/appreciation, and music theory/composition. Examples
of unacceptable courses include a musical group that performs primarily
Appendix B
206
Appendix B
for sporting events, parades, competitive field events, and/or community/civic activities.
• Visual Arts. Examples of acceptable courses include painting, drawing,
sculpture, art photography, printmaking, video/film production as an
art form, contemporary media, ceramics, and art history. Examples of
unacceptable courses include craft courses, mechanical drafting, Web
page development, yearbook, and photography offered as photojournalism (e.g., as a component of a yearbook or school newspaper
publication).
For further clarification of the four categories, see the following policy
clarifications:
Policy Clarifications
• Performance, Production, and Studio Courses. Courses emphasizing
performance and/or production (e.g., drama, dance, music, visual
arts, and video production) must include appropriate critical/theoretical and historical/cultural content, as referenced in California’s visual
and performing arts content standards. Such courses should emphasize creative expression, not rote memorization and/or technical skills.
• Appreciation, History, and Theory Courses. Appreciation, history,
and theory courses should focus on the ability to make aesthetic
judgments about works of art and performances but must also include
all component strands of the state VPA content standards, including
creative expression.
• Design Courses. Visual and performing arts courses in design are
expected to provide substantial time for students to understand, learn,
and experience the elements of art and principles of design that
underlie the medium/media addressed. Design courses must also
include all five component strands of the VPA content standards.
• Technology Courses. Visual and performing arts courses that utilize
technology must focus primarily on arts content. If the technology
(i.e., software, equipment) is used as a tool of artistic expression, as a
paintbrush would be used in a painting course, and all other component strands are met, then such courses are acceptable. If the technology/software is so complex that the primary concern becomes learning the technology before artistic application is possible, then the
course will not be approved to meet the VPA requirement.
Community College and University Transferable Courses. The University
of California will accept only three-semester-unit (four-quarter-unit),
UC-transferable community college/university courses that clearly fall
within one of the four disciplines of the arts (dance, music, theatre, or
visual arts).
207
Honors Courses. Advanced placement (AP) and international
baccalaureate (IB) courses are acceptable for UC honors credit. Threesemester-unit (four-quarter-unit), UC-transferable community college and
university courses that clearly fall within one of the four disciplines
of the arts are likewise acceptable for honors credit. A list of community
college and CSU-transferable courses can be found at http://www.assist.org.
Other honors courses are acceptable if they meet the criteria described in
the “Honors Level Courses” section of the Guide to A–G Requirements.
Private Study. Private or community-based study in the arts will not
qualify for approval to meet the VPA requirement. However, at the
discretion of the teacher and consistent with school policy, private study in
the arts, which includes standards-based comprehensive study in all five
component strands, may serve as an adequate prerequisite for placement
into advanced and/or honors-level VPA courses. (See the VPA honors
section for further criteria guidelines.)
Independent Study. Following school district-approved guidelines,
school-sponsored independent study in the arts may fulfill UC/CSU
entrance requirements if it is appropriately monitored by a faculty member,
matches a concurrent UC/CSU-approved high school course, and meets
the f-requirement guidelines set forth in this document.
G-Elective Courses. Introductory VPA courses may not be used to meet
the g-elective requirement. Advanced courses in the visual and performing
arts may be considered to meet the g-elective requirement but must also
meet the criteria described in the “College Preparatory Elective Courses”
section of the Guide to A–G Requirements.
Implementation Phase-in Timeline. The visual and performing arts
requirement is now in effect. Students who enter the university beginning
in the fall of 2003 must meet the new requirement.
The VPA requirement includes a phase-in process, described as follows:
• Students entering up to the fall of 2005 may present any two semesters of acceptable VPA courses provided that both courses are from a
single VPA area (dance, music, theatre, or visual arts).
• Students entering in the fall of 2006 or later must satisfy the VPA
requirement by completing an appropriate single course in a yearlong
sequence (i.e., the second semester must be the continuation of the
first semester). If scheduling challenges demand, students may divide
the yearlong course into two different academic years as long as the
course curriculum is designed as a yearlong sequence and is approved
as such by the University.
Appendix B
208
Appendix B
• Students may satisfy this requirement by taking an approved
community college course. Acceptable community college courses are
those approved for the Intersegmental General Education Transfer
Curriculum (IGETC), area 3A. Please refer to http://www.assist.org.
The following will be incorporated into the “College Preparatory Elective”
section of the Guide to A–G Requirements:
(g) College Preparatory Elective Courses
Subject-Specific Guidelines
Visual and Performing Arts (VPA): Advanced courses in the visual and
performing arts can be considered to meet the g-elective requirement but
must still address the five strands of the VPA standards. Advanced courses
should enable students to understand and appreciate artistic expression
and, where appropriate, talk and write with discrimination about the
artistic material studied. Courses devoted to artistic performance and
developing creative artistic ability should have prerequisites (either one year
of introductory course work or experience approved by the instructor) and
should assume proficiency beyond the introductory level. Courses must
require on the average the equivalent of a five-period class per week. Work
outside of the class must also be required (e.g., portfolio/performance
preparation, reading, writing, research projects, and critical listening/
viewing). In 2006 and beyond, advanced VPA courses that are a semester
in length will be considered only for the g-elective area, not the f-VPA area,
which must be satisfied by completing an appropriate sequential yearlong
course.
The following will be incorporated into the “Honors Level Courses”
section of the Guide to A–G Requirements:
General Criteria Guidelines for VPA Honors Courses
UC-approved honors level courses in the visual and performing arts (VPA)
should have as a prerequisite at least two years of college preparatory work in
the discipline or comparable (alternative) experience that includes all five component strands of the state-adopted VPA content standards.
Honors courses may be open to students who have not completed the prerequisite college preparatory work but whose preparation in the art form is at a
high artistic level and who can demonstrate comprehensive knowledge in all
five component strands of the art form. Alternative entrance into the honors
level course shall be by audition/demonstration and a standards-based content
exam (oral, written, or portfolio/performance).
Honors-level courses should be demonstrably more challenging than regular college preparatory classes and should center on content in the art form that
209
is of artistic and cultural merit and represents a variety of styles, genres, or historical periods. The curriculum must be comparable with the college curriculum and target skills and conceptual development beyond the art form’s advanced level of the VPA content standards. The curriculum must also require
in-depth written assignments that demonstrate student knowledge across the
component strands. Each student must complete a variety of individual assessments with a comprehensive final examination that includes a written component as well as other assessment tools appropriate to the five strands of the art
form and are representative of high levels of analysis and self-evaluation.
Honors-level course work in the art form may not require a separate class
section in the regular college preparatory curriculum. These courses necessitate
a separate written curriculum documenting the additional breadth and depth
expected as well as an explanation of the differentiated curriculum. The use of
college-level textbooks is encouraged.
All VPA honors course work shall include advanced studies/projects, examples of which are listed for each specific arts discipline (Dance, Music,
Theatre and Visual Arts) in the following guidelines:
Discipline-Specific Honors Criteria
In addition to the above general criteria, each separate arts discipline must
include the following specific guidelines to qualify for honors credit:
Dance courses at the honors level require students to demonstrate artistic
superiority in multiple aspects of dance as an art form. Dance honors
studies/projects may include but are not limited to sophisticated
choreography, including production collaborations, advanced written and
oral research analysis, and advanced kinesthetic mastery and historical
knowledge of many genres of dance. Critical self-analysis and peer review of
projects may be broadened by technology resources, traditional and
innovative documentation, and recording (e.g., notation, virtual reality,
and/or simulation).
Music course descriptions will delineate the honors level of achievement
expected of the individual student as well as explicit descriptions of honors
studies/projects that will be completed. These studies/projects may include
but are not limited to solo and/or small ensemble performance; score
analysis; musical composition and/or arranging; critical analysis of
individual performances by others; and critical self-analysis through
portfolio development.
Theatre courses at the honors level require students to demonstrate artistic
leadership. Collaborative skills continue to be essential in students’ work, but
the honors distinction is that the individual takes the responsibility for
organizing others to complete a theatrical performance project. The student
must first qualify as an outstanding playwright, director, designer,
Appendix B
210
Appendix B
dramaturge, actor, or stage manager and then must also serve as producer of
the project or chief of a major area of production. Analysis of the honor
student’s project is required and must include a post-show critique, written
or oral, of the student’s leadership skills that is conducted by the teacher and
ensemble peers, and a critical self-analysis.
Visual Arts course descriptions will define the high level of achievement
expected of the individual student as well as suggested descriptions of honors
visual arts projects. The honors-level subjects/projects may include but are
not limited to compiling a body of work at the mastery level in a particular
arts medium and written research and analysis of a particular genre, style, or
historical period. Critical self-analysis is required through portfolio
development, solo exhibition of original work, and verification of honorslevel achievement relevant to the art form.
211
Appendix C
Careers in the Visual and Performing Arts
The following lists contain a sampling of careers in the visual and performing arts and places in which artists might be employed.
Dance
PreK to postsecondary
educator/consultant
Public/private/magnet school
Private studio
Dance assessment
Community outreach program
Community nonprofit arts organization
Movement for actors and singers
Arts administrator
Dance department in school
Community arts council
College or university
Dance program coordinator, nonprofit
District dance coordinator
Professional group or organization
State/federal government
Community center
Dance conference coordinator
Dancer
Ballet
Film/television/video
Folk/social
Improvisation specialist
Jazz
Modern/contemporary/postmodern
Professional/regional company
Theatre dance
Variety/character productions
Industrials/entertainment industry
Cultural/ethnic specialist
Choreographer
Professional and regional companies
Special events
Film/television/video
Industrials/fashion shows/conventions
Opera
Broadway theatre/children’s theatre
Community/civic events
Ballroom
Director/producer
Dance captain
Audition coordinator
Dance company
Film/television/video
Nonprofit dance organization
Owner
Dance studio
Dance company
Dance supply business
Technical production
Business manager
Costume designer
Lighting/sound designer
Manager
Public relations representative
Notation expert
Special movement effects designer
Stage manager for dance company
Video technology expert in dance
Set and prop designer
Music composer for dance
Business/management
Advertising agency
Costume construction/rental
Dance supply store
Costume store
Marketing/promotional
Personal agency
Press agency
Prop/scenic construction/rental
Private dance school owner/manager
Notating
Autographer
Reconstructor
Dance media documenter
212
Appendix C
Dance (Continued)
Criticism/research
Dance textbook/book writer
Scholar/professor
Dance historian
Consumer researcher
Ethnologist
Historian/researcher
Library media teacher
Writer/editor/critic for magazine
or newspaper
Medicine/science
Adaptive movement specialist
Dance therapist
Kinesiologist
Personal trainer
Physical therapist
Pilates instructor
Scholar/professor
Injury prevention specialist
Media
Computer programmer
Television consultant
Video consultant
Internet
Animation
Government services
Arts councils, national/state/regional
Cultural arts commissions, national/state/
regional/local
Recreation
After-school programs
Boys’/girls’ clubs
Parks/recreation programs
Private camps
YMCA/YWCA
Designer for dance
Costumes
Lighting
Makeup/hair
Model making
Props
Sets/stage
Sound
Environmental
Exhibits
Graphics
Print media
Special effects
213
Music
Music education
Early childhood music educator
School music educator
Music supervisor/consultant
Music professor
Administrator, university music school
Studio teacher
Instrumental performance
Armed forces musician
Orchestra musician
Small-ensemble musician
Concert soloist
Dance/rock/jazz band musician
Clinician
Vocal performance
Dance band/nightclub vocalist
Concert/opera chorus
Concert soloist
Opera soloist
Conducting
Choir/orchestra/opera conductor
Composing
School music composer
Art music composer
Commercial jingle composer
Television show composer
Film score composer
Music for worship
Organist
Choir director
Cantor/hazan
Music business
Music dealer salesperson
Music dealer manager
Marketing/advertising specialist
Music/instrument/accessories
distributor
Instrument making and repair
Instrument maker
Instrument repair technician
Piano tuner
Appendix C
Music publishing
Music editor
Notesetter
Publishing sales representative
Copyright/licensing administrator
Music communications
Publisher/editor of music books/
periodicals
Music reporter
Public relations specialist
Recording industry
Producer/engineer/pixer
Artist and repertoire (A&R) person
Studio arranger
Music copyist
Television and radio industry
Radio/television commercial musician
Copyright/clearance administrator
Music license administrator
Radio program director
Postproduction/scoring
Music adviser/researcher
Disc jockey/video jockey
Music technology
Multimedia publisher
Editor, sound/video
Designer, technology-based music
instruction
Music librarianship
Librarian, college/university/conservatory/public library/orchestra
Music therapist
Hospital/psychiatric facility
Special education facility
Clinic for disabled children
Mental health center
Nursing home
Correctional facility
Private practice
Performing arts medicine
Physician
Physical therapist
214
Appendix C
Theatre
PreK to postsecondary
educator/consultant
Public/private school
Visiting artist
Private studio
Distance-learning instruction
Community theatre
Internet/online instruction
Touring theatre
Theatre technology: lighting/sound/
sets/costumes/animatronics/
cinematography/business
management
Arts administrator
Theatre department in school
Community arts council
College/university
Artistic director
Production manager
Private studio
Marketing/public relations
Professional group/association
Actor
Voice coach
Film/television/video/radio/local/cable/
network/independent/regional/studio
Live theater
Amusement park/theme park
Dinner theatre
Motivational
Musicals
Training films
Professional
Religious
Resident
Stand-up comedy
Stock
Regional
Touring company
Visiting artist
Playwright
Screenwriter
News writer
Commercial
Visiting artist
Documentary
Dramaturge
Director/producer
Film/radio/television/video
National/local/regional/independent/
student/cable
Arts events/presentations
Casting
Community/regional theatre
Theatre company
Theatrical productions
Commercial productions
Documentary productions
In-house productions
Training films
Religious films
Owner
Theatre
Theatre/film/television company
Film/television/theatre supply business
Technical production
Costume designer
Camera operator
Lighting/sound designer
Scenographer, costumes/lights/sets
Editor
Sets/scenic construction
Designer, sets/props
Sound boom operator
Special effects designer
Stage manager
Grip/stagehand
Video technology expert
Wardrobe dresser
Pyrotechnics
Model making
Props
Hair design
Makeup
Animal trainer
Cinematographer
Gaffer
Best boy
Caterer
Animator
Computer graphics
Costumes
Lighting
Model making
Props
215
Appendix C
Sets/stage
Sound
Special effects
Actors agency
Press agency
Publicist
Prop construction
Public relations
Sets store
Publisher
Rentals, costumes/sound/lighting/stage/
scenic/rigging/props
Lawyer
Media
Computer, lighting/sound/visuals/sets/
animation/holography
Consultant, television/film/cable/video/
satellite/radio
Criticism/research
Dramaturge
Historian/researcher
Market researcher
Library media teacher
Textbook writer
Writer/editor/critic for magazine/
newspaper/Web publications
Film critiques for magazines
Book author
Recreation
Boys/girls clubs
Parks/recreation programs
Day/overnight private camps
Arts camps
YMCA/YWCA
Nonprofit arts camps/agencies/courses,
consulting/theatres, touring groups/
artists
Medicine/science
Speech therapist
Drama therapist
Movement therapist
Satellite/cable (global)/specialized
networks
Scientific laboratory
Government services
Arts councils, national/state/regional/local
Cultural arts commissions, national/state/
regional/local
Education consultant/specialist
State/regional/district/private/nonprofit
Business/management
Business manager
Graphics/text director/agent
Advertising agency
Costume construction
Wardrobe cutter/milliner/stitcher
Marketing/promotion
Programs/billboards/advertising
216
Appendix C
Visual Arts
New media
3-D animation
Commercial/computer graphics
Film/television design
Halography
Media design
3-D model making
Multimedia game design
Software design
Cinematography
New media art
Photo journalism
Visual artist
Animator
Architect
Art director
Auto designer
Billboard artist
Biomedical photographer
Biomedical illustrator
Book designer
Calligrapher
Cartoonist
Catalog illustrator
Children’s book illustrator
Commercial/computer graphics
New media artist
Glass artist
Print maker
Printer
Photographer
Potter/ceramic artist
Sculptor
Site-specific artist
Installation artist
Performance artist
Stained glass artist
Fiber artist
Technical production
CAD designer
Editor
Instillation designer
Lighting designer
Scenic designer
Set/props designer
Special effects designer
Video technology expert
Wardrobe designer
Topographer
Weaver
Engraver
Lithographer
Model maker
Photo editor
Production potter
Sign painter
Business/management
Public relations representative
Advertising agency
Appraiser
Art investment
Art supply manufacturer
Art supply store
Picture framer
Convention/fair
Corporate/private/freelance collection
management
Gallery/exhibit space
Marketing/promotion
Museum
Party/event designer
Press agency
Private art school owner/manager
Web site development agency
Multimedia presentation creator
Criticism/research
Art law
Consumer researcher
Ethnologist
Historian/researcher
Library media teacher
Textbook writer
Writer/editor/critic for magazine/
newspaper
Medicine/science:
Biomedical
Art therapist
Illustrator, medical texts/scientific texts/
law enforcement/courtroom
Designer
Advertising
Amusement/theme park designer
Art materials/supplies
Automobile designer
Coin designer
Costume/mask designer
Ceramist/potter
Couture artist
Covers
217
Appendix C
Displays
Environmental
Exhibits
Graphics
Interiors
Jewelry
Landscape
Leather goods
Model maker/designer
Museum exhibitions
Scenic designer
Props
Packaging
Sets/stage
Stamp designer
Textiles
Tools
Toys
Urban
Video interface
Wallpaper
Windows
Fashion designer
Furniture designer
Greeting card artist
Industrial designer, packaging/products
Media
Computer programmer
Television consultant
Commercial/computer graphics
Film/television designer
Cinematographer
Holographer
Media designer
3-D model maker
Multimedia game designer
Multimedia presenter
3-D computer-generated imagery
Interactive designer
Software designer
Web site designer
Video producer
Special effects designer
Illustrator
Biomedical
Technical
Editorial
Botanical
Children’s literature
Advertising
Fashion
Forensic
Courtroom
Police
Sports
Calligrapher
Catalog
Government services
Art councils, national/state/regional
Cultural arts commissions, national/state/
regional/local
Education consultant/specialist
Recreation
Boys/girls clubs
Parks/recreation programs
Private camps
YMCA/YWCA
218
Appendix D
Continuum for Implementing
Arts Education Programs
The Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum is a tool that
school districts may use in planning and in improving the visual and performing arts programs that they provide for all students. The continuum and the
Continuum Grid help in identifying the elements that are required for the
implementation of a quality arts education program. The concept of a continuum acknowledges the many points that exist along the way toward reaching
a goal. Using the continuum helps educators in identifying the strengths of a
program and the areas that need improvement as districts work toward full
implementation of instruction in dance, music, theatre, and the visual arts for
all students.
Focus Areas
The continuum is based on the descriptions of effective visual and performing arts programs that appear throughout the Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1996),
which was adopted by the State Board of Education in 1996. The continuum is
used by a district arts team to assess the elements of an arts education program
in a district. The areas that are assessed are called focus areas and are listed along
the left side of the continuum. The focus areas are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Standards-based curriculum
Instruction and methodology
Student assessment
Professional development
Program administration and personnel
Partnerships and collaborations
Funding
Resources and facilities
Program evaluation
Three Levels of Criteria
Criteria have been organized under each of the focus areas on the continuum, and the criteria are further grouped into three levels. These levels are
From Arts Education Program Toolkit: A Visual and Performing Arts Program Assessment Process.
Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2001.
219
Foundation, Building, and Best Practices. The levels are listed across the top of
the continuum.
• A school district that identifies with a majority of the criteria at the
Foundation level has the awareness and commitment needed to move
toward a fully implemented arts program.
• A school district that identifies with a majority of the criteria at the
Building level has established a firm basis for program development and
growth. It is ready to plan for and to make incremental progress toward
full program implementation for all students.
• A school district that identifies with a majority of the criteria at the Best
Practices level has a fully implemented, comprehensive visual and
performing arts program for all students that includes dance, music,
theatre, and the visual arts.
As you review the criteria for each focus area on the continuum, start at the
Foundation level and then proceed across the page to the Building level and to
the Best Practices level. The criteria are cumulative and are aligned by key
words across the page. For example, in the focus area of standards-based curriculum, the first criteria under the Foundation column (A1) is identified by
the key word Framework. The key word is repeated across the page in the
Building column (B1) and in the Best Practices column (C1).
Directions
The continuum is designed to generate conversation, stimulate research,
build consensus, enhance decision-making, and support planning. As each criterion is discussed, issues and questions will arise about the elements of an arts
education program that your district values. As you work through the continuum, keep a copy of the Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California
Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve (1996) on hand for reference and help in clarifying terminology.
Make extra copies of the continuum so you can use it many times. With
your district arts team members, work your way across the levels for each focus
area, from Foundation to Best Practices, discussing each criterion. Put a check
or a score beside each criterion.
For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale:
4=
3=
2=
1=
Fully implemented, exemplary accomplishment
Implemented and operational
Introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational
Not attempted or at the beginning level of development or
implementation
0 = Not applicable
Appendix D
220
Appendix D
Teams who use the continuum find that for any focus area some criteria
may be implemented in each of the three levels. For example, all the criteria at
the Foundation level may not have been fully implemented, yet some criteria at
the Building and Best Practices levels may be implemented and are starting to
have results.
The Continuum Grid, which is available in this section of the toolkit, provides an overview of the level of program implementation. You may check each
criterion on the grid under the Foundation, Building, or Best Practices columns
or, as with the continuum, go to a deeper level of evaluation and assign a score
that uses the 4-to-0 scale discussed above. A review of the grid indicates in
which areas the school district is in the process of implementing a comprehensive, standards-based arts education program for all students.
Some school districts are structuring a foundation for program improvement. Some school districts demonstrate all aspects of the building process.
Some school districts have established best practices in arts education. In moving toward providing arts education programs for all students in California
public schools, models at each level of implementation are essential. Given the
number and diversity of school districts in California, the need to network and
to share successes is evident.
221
Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum
1. Standards-based curriculum
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
BEST PRACTICES
Framework
A1. A district arts committee
does an analysis of the Visual
and Performing Arts Framework
for California Public Schools,
Kindergarten Through Grade
Twelve.
B1. Representatives from all
schools in the district develop
an in-depth understanding of
arts education in all the arts as
described in the framework
and as defined by the commu­
nity.
C1. The district curriculum
provides for comprehensive
instruction in each of the arts
and includes artistic percep­
tion, creative expression,
historical and cultural context,
aesthetic valuing, and connec­
tions and application to other
disciplines and to careers.
Standards
process
A2. A process is underway to
draft standards for adoption by
the district board of education.
The standards take into
consideration the state arts
content standards and the
principles discussed in the
framework.
B2. The district board adopts
visual and performing arts
standards and begins an
implementation plan.
C2. An ongoing review and
refinement process is in place
for the adopted and imple­
mented standards, based on an
examination of student work
over time.
Sequential
curriculum
A3. The arts are recognized
by the district and site
administrations as a part of the
core curriculum. The need for
a sequential, written curricu­
lum is identified.
B3. A plan for developing a
standards-based visual and
performing arts curriculum for
each discipline at every grade
level is developed and is
underway for one or more of
the arts.
C3. A sequential, standardsbased curriculum in each of the
arts disciplines at every grade
level is being implemented as a
part of the core curriculum for
all students.
Integration
A4. There is a district-wide
understanding that the arts can
be a vital part of an integrated
curricular approach.
B4. The arts curriculum is
under development, and the
arts are considered to be
discrete disciplines that should
be integrated into other
curricular areas as appropriate.
C4. The curriculum is
expanded in all subject areas to
allow for the integration and
the application of arts-related
knowledge and skills in a way
that is aligned with the
standards.
Source: The format for this continuum was developed from work produced by the Australian Student Traineeship Foundation, the
Australian Quality Council, and the Kennedy Center Alliance for Arts Education Network.
Note: For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale: 4 = fully implemented, exemplary
accomplishment; 3 = implemented and operational; 2 = introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational; 1 = not attempted
or at the beginning level of development or implementation; 0 = not applicable
222
Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum (Continued)
2. Instructions and methodology
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
BEST PRACTICES
Students’
progress and
outcomes
A5. There is recognition that
instruction in the arts must be
based on students’ progress
toward arts standards.
B5. Instructional choices are
focused on helping students
in making progress toward
achieving discipline-specific
arts standards.
C5. Instruction is consistently
reviewed and refined based on
an analysis of students’ work
in relation to a high level of
achievement of standards.
Equal access
and inclusion
A6. There is recognition that
all students should have the
opportunity to receive
instruction in comprehensive
standards-based arts education.
B6. Model strategies for
assisting all students in meeting
arts standards are continually
designed, implemented, and
refined by district teachers.
C6. Teachers design and
modify their instructional
practices to ensure that all
students make progress
toward achieving the standards.
Variety of
methodology
A7. There is an understanding
of the need to use a variety
of teaching methodologies
to address students’ diverse
learning styles.
B7. A variety of instructional
strategies are effectively used
in two or more of the arts
disciplines.
C7. Instruction in all four arts
disciplines includes a variety of
effective and innovative
methodologies that address
diversity in teaching and
learning styles.
Quality
instruction
A8: Generalist teachers and
arts specialists are supported
in their efforts to deliver
standards-based instruction
in the arts.
B8: Each school employs
credentialed arts specialist
teachers in two or more of the
arts disciplines. Generalist
classroom teachers are
provided with opportunities to
refine and to expand their
content knowledge and
instructional strategies
in the arts.
C8: Qualified credentialed arts
teachers and classroom
teachers are recruited to teach
all arts disciplines and are
actively supported by the
administration to ensure
quality instruction at all levels.
Support
resources
A9. Local community arts
resources are identified and
recognized as valuable partners
in instruction.
B9. Arts instruction incorpo­
rates the unique resources
of artists and of the whole
community.
C9. Instruction in all four arts
disciplines reflects collabora­
tion between teachers and
community arts providers,
artists, business organizations,
and others.
Note: For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale: 4 = fully implemented, exemplary
accomplishment; 3 = implemented and operational; 2 = introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational; 1 = not
attempted or at the beginning level of development or implementation; 0 = not applicable
223
Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum (Continued)
3. Student assessment
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
Approaches
A10. Teachers and adminis­
trators recognize that arts
assessment is possible and
necessary and should be based
on students’ progress toward
achieving standards. Educators
review and evaluate a variety
of assessment models.
B10. A variety of assessment
models are being piloted in
one or more of the arts
disciplines and at various grade
levels. A forum for feedback
and comparison has been
established and will lead to a
districtwide assessment policy
and plan for all the arts.
C10. The district has devel­
oped and maintains a current,
research-based, comprehen­
sive, standards-based approach
to assessing students’ work in
the arts at every grade level.
Formal
assessment
A11. A district policy and plan
for formally assessing students’
work in the arts are being
considered. The policy and
plan include assigning letter
grades and using standardized
assessment at elementary,
middle, and high school levels.
B11. The district policy and
plan support professional
development for teachers in
the use of assessment tools for
making a formal assessment in
one or more of the arts at
each school level.
C11. Teachers at each school
level use multiple measures
that were developed as a part
of the district’s policy and plan
for assessing students’ work in
the arts.
Information
to improve
teaching and
learning
A12. District committees
review examples of students’
work and performances in the
arts at various grade levels to
identify optimal teaching
strategies.
B12. The district uses baseline
formal and informal assess­
ments in two or more of the
arts disciplines to refine and to
implement its arts curriculum
and instruction.
C12. Teachers and administra­
tors continually review data
gathered from assessments of
students’ work to refocus and
to revise standards-based arts
curricula in all arts disciplines,
kindergarten through grade
twelve.
Performance
and portfolio
A13. The creative products of
students’ work in the arts are
seen as an integral part of the
assessment process.
B13. Teachers provide
students with opportunities
to demonstrate their progress
toward standards through
carefully designed portfolio
activities and performance
activities in two or more of
the arts.
C13. Students at all levels in all
arts disciplines maintain
portfolios of their work and
their performances for which
consistent scoring guides have
been designed.
Embedded
strategies
A14. District arts committees
understand the need for arts
assessment strategies that are
embedded in standards-based
curricula.
B14. Embedded student
assessment strategies are an
instructional component of
two or more arts disciplines
across grade levels.
C14. Teachers at all grade
levels in all four arts disciplines
embed assessment strategies in
their curricula on a regular
basis.
BEST PRACTICES
Note: For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale: 4 = fully implemented, exemplary
accomplishment; 3 = implemented and operational; 2 = introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational; 1 = not
attempted or at the beginning level of development or implementation; 0 = not applicable
224
Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum (Continued)
4. Professional development
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
BEST PRACTICES
Long-range plan
A15. A districtwide needs
assessment is being adminis­
tered to develop a profes­
sional development plan in arts
education for classroom
teachers, artists, arts special­
ists, and administrators.
B15. A defined, long-term
professional development plan
that is based on assessed needs
is created for all four arts
disciplines. The plan is being
implemented in selected
disciplines.
C15. A districtwide, long-range,
comprehensive professional
development plan is well
established and ongoing for all
four arts disciplines. The plan
is reviewed and evaluated
annually, and it is integrated
into other professional develop­
ment activities.
Knowledge base
A16. The district recognizes
the need for a professional
development program in arts
education that provides
training based on an under­
standing of the framework
and standards and that uses
a variety of strategies and
activities.
B16. The districtwide
professional development
program is based on the
framework, arts standards, and
standards in other subject
areas. The program incorpo­
rates strategies to include all
educators.
C16. Professional development
is provided for all kindergartenthrough-grade-twelve educa­
tors, administrators, teachers,
specialists, and artists to ensure
the implementation of discrete
and integrated instruction in all
four arts disciplines.
Professional
development
resources
A17. The district begins
identifying resources for
professional development in all
four arts disciplines.
B17. The district provides
funds annually for continued
internal and external profes­
sional development in one or
more of the arts disciplines.
C17. Funds and release time
are provided to ensure personal
and professional growth
through educators’ participation
in conferences, workshops, and
institutes in all four arts
disciplines.
Collaborations
A18. Plans for professional
development opportunities
extend to all persons who
participate in arts instruction,
such as generalist teachers, art
specialist teachers, artists, and
parents.
B18. Specialist teachers and
visiting artists who teach are
regarded as members of the
school team and are provided
with opportunities to share
their expertise with the entire
staff.
C18. Teachers, specialist
teachers, and visiting artists
who teach have time to work in
partnership with each other to
share best instructional
practices.
Note: For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale: 4 = fully implemented, exemplary
accomplishment; 3 = implemented and operational; 2 = introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational; 1 = not
attempted or at the beginning level of development or implementation; 0 = not applicable
225
Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum (Continued)
5. Program administration and personnel
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
Policy
A19. The school board
considers the arts to be an
integral part of the curriculum.
B19. The school board and all
members of the administration
serve as advocates for arts
education.
C19. The school board has
adopted and supports a clearly
articulated arts education
policy.
Staff
A20. A district plan is
established for staffing a
comprehensive arts education
program.
B20. Personnel are identified
and provide arts instruction in
the schools in a minimum of
two of the arts disciplines.
C20. Qualified personnel in all
four arts disciplines provide
comprehensive, standardsbased arts instruction.
Leadership
A21. Leadership roles at the
district and at the school site
are defined for the implemen­
tation of a standards-based
curriculum, for program
development, and for evalua­
tion.
B21. An identified district arts
coordinator or administrator
clearly articulates the goals
and the objectives of the arts
education program and
establishes a collegial relation­
ship with administrative staff,
teachers, and personnel.
C21. Designated administra­
tors in the arts disciplines
provide leadership, a vision of
the future, and planning
capabilities. They oversee
implementation of the arts
education program in all district
schools
BEST PRACTICES
Note: For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale: 4 = fully implemented, exemplary
accomplishment; 3 = implemented and operational; 2 = introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational; 1 = not
attempted or at the beginning level of development or implementation; 0 = not applicable
226
Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum (Continued)
6. Partnerships and collaborations
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
BEST PRACTICES
Outside
agencies
A22. The district identifies as
potential partners in imple­
menting arts education
programs local, regional, state,
and national resources,
including institutions of higher
education, arts agencies, and
the business community.
B22. Working relationships
with local, regional, state, and
national resources for arts
education are established
through the coordination of
specific personnel.
C22. Strong relationships with
outside agencies are developed
and maintained to optimally
implement arts education
programs.
Partnerships
A23. The district establishes
a plan for implementing
partnerships to provide arts
education experiences.
B23. Partnerships are
established to provide a
variety of resources that will
support arts education
programs.
C23. Partnerships support arts
education programs that are
coordinated, in-depth, and
comprehensive.
School
organizations
A24. The district and organi­
zations that support schools
(e.g., PTAs, foundations,
booster clubs, and site
councils) are made aware of
the needs and the issues of the
arts education program.
B24. The district and organi­
zations that support the arts
in schools actively contribute
to the implementation of
comprehensive arts programs
in all four arts disciplines.
C24. A coordinated and
articulated relationship exists
between the district and the
organizations that support
schools to meet the ongoing
needs of arts education
programs.
Note: For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale: 4 = fully implemented, exemplary
accomplishment; 3 = implemented and operational; 2 = introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational; 1 = not
attempted or at the beginning level of development or implementation; 0 = not applicable
227
Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum (Continued)
7. Funding
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
BEST PRACTICES
Budget
A25. The need for an effective
visual and performing arts
budget is recognized.
B25. Appropriate funds are
allocated to implement a basic
arts education program in two
or more arts disciplines at
each school site.
C25. An annual budget funds
a comprehensive, sequential
visual and performing arts
program in all four arts
disciplines at each school site.
Stability
A26. An assessment of
funding needs has been
conducted to use as the basis
for making budget decisions.
B26. Based on an assessment
of funding needs, district funds
and school site funds are
provided to support the arts
program in two or more arts
disciplines.
C26. The assessment of
funding needs is reviewed and
revised annually. Funds are
provided to fully support the
arts programs in each of the
arts disciplines and to provide
for program growth.
Partnerships
A27. Potential funding sources
are identified.
B27. Partnerships are
established with one or
more local, regional, state, or
national resources for ongoing
funding of special projects
and grants.
C27. Partnerships are devel­
oped and maintained to provide
a variety of long-term and
short-term funding resources.
Oversight
A28. Budget oversight
mechanisms at the district
level and at the school site
level are being developed for
the distribution and the
monitoring of funds for arts
programs.
B28. Funding resources are
monitored at the district level
and at the school site level to
provide for program imple­
mentation in two or more of
the arts disciplines
C28. Funding resources and
budget oversight mechanisms
for all four arts disciplines are
coordinated at the district level
and at the school site level.
Note: For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale: 4 = fully implemented, exemplary
accomplishment; 3 = implemented and operational; 2 = introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational; 1 = not
attempted or at the beginning level of development or implementation; 0 = not applicable
228
Arts Education Program Implementation Continuum (Continued)
8. Resources and facilities
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
BEST PRACTICES
Facilities,
storage,
and safety
A29. Facilities, storage space,
and student safety have been
identified as essential to the
success of the arts program.
B29. School facilities, storage
space, and equipment are
provided and maintained for
two or more arts disciplines.
C29. All school sites have
facilities and storage space that
are specifically designed and
maintained to guarantee full
implementation of an arts
education program in a safe
environment. Such facilities
include dedicated space for
arts instruction in all four arts
disciplines (e.g., wooden floors
for dance, risers for choirs,
stages for theatre, and vented
kilns for the visual arts).
Equipment
and materials
A30. The equipment and
materials that are needed to
support a basic arts program
have been identified and
prioritized.
B30. Arts-related equipment
and materials are provided to
all school sites to support
instruction in most of the four
arts disciplines.
C30. High-quality, arts-related
equipment and materials are
provided at all school sites for
all four art forms and are
systematically inventoried for
replacement, repair, and
upgrading.
Outside
resources
A31. Local, regional, state,
and national resources for
arts-related facilities, mainte­
nance service, and technical
services have been investi­
gated.
B31. A strategic plan is in
place that connects administra­
tors, teachers, and students to
resources and arts facilities in
the community, region, state,
and nation.
C31. All schools in the district
use local, regional, state, and
national resources and facilities
to create an exemplary arts
program.
9. Program evaluation
CRITERION
FOUNDATION
BUILDING
BEST PRACTICES
Evaluation
tools
A32. Evaluation is identified as
a necessary component of arts
education program develop­
ment and improvement.
B32. Students, staff, and
community members partici­
pate in a variety of internal
and external evaluations that
provide qualitative and
quantitative data for program
implementation and improvement.
C32. Evaluation data drive
long-term planning efforts to
refine and to expand a compre­
hensive arts education program
Note: For the purposes of assigning a score to a criterion, you may use the following scale: 4 = fully implemented, exemplary
accomplishment; 3 = implemented and operational; 2 = introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational; 1 = not
attempted or at the beginning level of development or implementation; 0 = not applicable
229
The Continuum Grid
Instructions: Make extra copies of the
grid so you can use it many times. Work
from left to right across the matrix from
the Foundation column to the Best
Practices column. Place a check beside
each item or assign a score to the item
by using the scale at the right:
School district: ____________________________________
4 = Fully implemented, exemplary accomplishment
3 = Implemented and operational
2 = Introduced, evidence of progress but not fully operational
1 = Not attempted or at the beginning level of development or implementation
0 = Not applicable
FOUNDATION
4
1. Standards-based curriculum
Framework
Standards process
Sequential curriculum
Integration
2. Instruction and methodology
Student’s progress and outcomes
Equal access and inclusion
Variety of methodology
Quality instruction
Support resources
3. Student assessment
Approaches
Formal assessment
Information to improve teaching and learning
Performance and portfolio
Embedded strategies
4. Professional development
Long-range plan
Knowledge base
Professional development resources
Collaborations
5. Program administration and personnel
Policy
Staff
Leadership
6. Partnerships and collaborations
Outside agencies
Partnerships
School organizations
7. Funding
Budget
Stability
Partnerships
Oversight
8. Resources and facilities
Facilities, storage, and safety
Equipment and materials
Outside resources
9. Program evaluation
Evaluation tools
3
2
1
BUILDING
0
4
3
2
1
BEST PRACTICES
0
4
3
2
1
0
230
Appendix E
Copyright Law and the Visual
and Performing Arts
The responsible use of resources, always an important issue, has particularly
strong implications for the visual and performing arts. When working in the
arts, students have the opportunity to interact with a variety of media that may
include books, art prints, artifacts, videos, electronic media, performances, and
plays. Ethical behavior in regard to the use of this information and information
technology is one of the nine information literacy standards for student learning outlined in Information Power.1 An indicator of the ethical behavior standard is that students understand the concept of copyright and apply it.
Copyright protects the original expression of ideas and safeguards original
works of art, literature, music, films, broadcasts, and computer programs from
copying and other uses. Students must be informed about the basic purpose of
copyright, including fair-use exceptions, so that they will respect and comply
with the law. Copying a work without obtaining permission may appear to be
an easy and convenient solution to an immediate problem. However, such unauthorized copying may violate the rights of the author or publisher of the
copyrighted work and may be contrary to the academic mission to teach respect
for ideas and for the intellectual property of those who express those ideas.
Copyright law continues to evolve. For questions that are not answered in
this material, some helpful Web sites cited at the end of this appendix can provide answers to a variety of questions.
The following summary of copyright law includes information developed by
Mary Hutchings Reed and Debra Stanek for the American Library Association. Mary Hutchings Reed is a partner in the law firm of Sidley and Austin,
Chicago, and counsel to the American Library Association. Debra Stanek is a
graduate of the University of Chicago Law School. The summary also includes
information provided by Carol Simpson of the University of Texas.
1
Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning. Chicago: American Library Association, 1998.
231
I. Fair Use for Teaching and Research
The fair-use doctrine is found in Section 107 of the copyright law (United
States Code, Title 17, Copyrights). It allows limited reproduction of copyrighted
works for educational and research purposes. The relevant portion of the copyright statute provides that the fair use of a copyrighted work, including reproduction “for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching
(including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research,” is not
an infringement of copyright. The law lists the following factors as the ones to
be evaluated in determining whether a particular use of a copyrighted work is a
permitted fair use rather than an infringement of the copyright:
• The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a
commercial nature or is for a nonprofit educational purpose
• The nature of the copyrighted work
• The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the
copyrighted work as a whole
• The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the
copyrighted work
Although all of these factors will be considered, the last factor is the most
important in determining whether a particular use is fair. Where a work is
available for purchase or license from the copyright owner in the medium or
format desired, the copying of all or a significant portion of the work in lieu of
purchasing or licensing a sufficient number of authorized copies would be presumptively unfair. Where only a small portion of a work is to be copied and the
work would not be used if purchase or licensing of a sufficient number of authorized copies were required, the intended use is more likely to be found to be
fair. For further information refer to the Web site http://fairuse.stanford.edu.
II. Use of Videos
The Copyright Revision Act of 1976 clearly protects such audiovisual
works as films and videos. The rights of copyright include the rights of reproduction, adaptation, distribution, public performance, and display. All of these
rights are subject, however, to fair use, depending on the purpose of the use, the
nature of the work, the amount of the work used, and the effect the use has on
the market for the copyrighted work.
Libraries purchase a wide range of educational and entertainment videos for
in-library use and for lending to patrons. Since ownership of a physical object is
different from ownership of the copyright, guidelines are necessary to define
what libraries may do with the videos they own without infringing the copyrights they do not own. If a particular use would be an infringement, permission can always be sought from the copyright owner.
Appendix E
232
Appendix E
In-Classroom Use
In-classroom performance of copyrighted videos is permissible under the
following conditions:
• The performance must be presented by instructors (including guest
lecturers) or by pupils.
• The performance is connected to face-to-face teaching activities.
• The entire audience is involved in the teaching activity.
• The entire audience is in the same room or same general area.
• The teaching activities are conducted by a nonprofit educational institution. • The performance takes place in a classroom or similar place devoted to
instruction, such as a school library, gym, auditorium, or workshop.
• The video is lawfully made. The person responsible had no reason to
believe that the video was unlawfully made.
Loan of Videotapes
• Videos labeled For Home Use Only may be lent to patrons for personal
use. They should not knowingly be lent to groups for public performances.
• Copyright notice as it appears on the label of a video should not be
obscured.
• If patrons inquire about a planned performance of a video, they should
be informed that only private uses are lawful.
Examples from the 1986 American Library Association model policy:
1. A high school drama teacher wants to show a video of the film The
Grapes of Wrath to her class. The video has a label that says For Home
Use Only. As long as the requirements for fair use apply, the class may
watch the video.
2. Four classes are studying The Grapes of Wrath. May the video be
shown in the school auditorium or gym? Yes, as long as the auditorium and gym are used as classrooms for systematic instructional
activities.
3. Several students miss the performance. May they watch the video at
some other time in the school library? Yes, if the library is actually
used for systematic instructional activities, the fair use exception
applies. Most school libraries are probably used as such. If not, such a
performance may be a fair use if the viewing is in a private place in the
library.
4. May an elementary school teacher show a video of the film Star Wars
to the class on the last day of school? Because a classroom is a place
where a substantial number of persons outside of a family and friends
are gathered, performances in them are public. Assuming that this
233
performance is for entertainment rather than systematic instruction,
the fair-use exception would not apply. It is unlikely that such a
public performance would be a fair use.
Off-Air Videotaping
Programs may be taped at home and used in the classroom as long as
all educational guidelines are followed. Cable in the Classroom at http://
www.ciconline.com/ provides monthly schedules of programming that may be
recorded with specific guidelines for cable networks and specific programs.
From Cable in the Classroom:
Copyrights on television programs are held by the program’s producers in order to
insure proper compensation for their work. Without compensation, the theory
goes, there would be no incentive to produce creative work. However, educational
use leads to greater appreciation by the public, so certain allowances have been
granted over the years for limited educational use of books, magazines, film, television, and now computer documents without the copyright owner’s permission.
There are several areas of copyright law regarding the educational use of television.
The best-known doctrine is that of fair use, which is applied to broadcast TV. Fair
use allows taping for educational purposes as long as the tapes are shown only once
within ten days of taping and are erased after 45 days.
See the copyright clearances schedule at http://www.ciconline.com/resources/copyright.
Videotaping of Live Performances
If a performance of a recital, concert, choreography, play, or other material
that includes material that is not in the public domain is to be videotaped, copyright permission must be obtained from the publisher.
Before a parent records a performance of a play or musical concert or video
for private use, the contract with the company from which the performance
rights were purchased should be reviewed to determine whether taping is allowed. Copying or distributing such tapes without permission would be contrary to copyright law. Signed releases must be obtained from any professional
dancers or musicians who perform to document their performance.
III. Use of Audio Recordings, Including Music
Audio requirements are similar to those for video. Audio items with public
performance rights should be marked in some way for easy identification when
used for performances not related to the curriculum. A single recording of student performances may be made for evaluation or rehearsal. Audio recordings of
music as a background for multimedia productions should be drawn from a
collection of royalty-free music clips. Recording a live performance of music not
in the public domain on tape or on a CD without gaining permission is a violation of copyright law.
Appendix E
234
Appendix E
Digital transmission of sound recordings is a new right reserved for the
copyright holder in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (see Section VII).
Keeping a library of music for performance on demand is not appropriate since
that would mean copying all of the music. The only backup copies permitted
are for computer software.
Example:
Storing recorded music on a server as part of a lesson plan for teachers to
download is not permissible under current copyright law. Rather, purchased copies of the recorded music should be made available for teachers
to check out.
IV. Use of Computer Software
Purchase Conditions
Most computer software purports to be licensed rather than sold. Frequently, the package containing the software includes information similar to
the following:
You should carefully read the following terms and conditions before opening this
diskette package. Opening this package indicates your acceptance of these terms
and conditions. If you do not agree with them, you should promptly return the
package unopened, and your money will be refunded.
or
Read this agreement carefully. Use of this product constitutes your acceptance of
the terms and conditions of this agreement.
Although there is at present no case law concerning the validity of such
agreements (which are unilaterally imposed by producers), in the absence of
authority to the contrary, one should assume that such licenses are in fact binding contracts. Therefore, by opening and using the software, the library or classroom may become contractually bound by the terms of the agreement wholly
apart from the rights granted the copyright owner under the copyright laws.
Following such information are the terms and conditions of the license
agreement. The terms vary greatly between software producers and sometimes
between programs produced by the same producer. Many explicitly prohibit
rental or lending; some limit the program to use on one identified computer or
to one user’s personal use.
In-Library and In-Classroom Use of Software
1. License restrictions, if any, should be observed.
2. If only one program is owned under license, it may ordinarily be used
only on one machine at a time.
235
3. Most licenses do not permit a single program to be loaded into a
computer that can be accessed by several different terminals or into
several computers for simultaneous use.
4. If the machine is capable of being used by a patron to make a copy of a
program, a warning should be posted on the machine, such as “Many
Computer Programs Are Protected by Copyright” or “Unauthorized
Copying May Be Prohibited by Law.”
Example:
An art teacher uses one diskette to load a computer program into several
terminals for use by students. Doing so would violate copyright laws as
well as most license agreements. It violates the Copyright Act, which
authorizes the making of one copy if necessary to use the program, be
-
cause it creates copies of the program in several terminals. Further, many
license agreements prohibit the use of the software on more than one
terminal at a time and in networking or any system that enables more
than one person to use the software at a time.
V. Use of Print and Other Sources
Books
Books usually have copyright information printed on the reverse of the
title page. Any rights granted by the author other than standard fair use will be
indicated.
Teaching Materials
A teacher may make a single copy of a chapter from a book, an article, a
short story, an essay, or a poem for research or class preparation. When multiple copies are made for instruction, copyright guidelines prohibit the creation
of anthologies or compilations, copying from consumables like workbooks, or
copying instead of purchasing. Copyright guidelines for photocopying multiple
copies limit the use of a poem to 250 words, of complete works of prose to
2,500 words, and of prose excerpts to 1,000 words.
Plays
Copyright issues related to plays are included in guidelines for general print
resources. The most common abuse of the copyright of plays is the public performance of a part or all of a play to a public audience. Performance rights
must be purchased with the printed scripts, and records of those rights should
be kept with the printed scripts.
Appendix E
236
Appendix E
Poetry
Print guidelines should be followed in using poetry. The most critical issue
is the adaptation of poetry in creating lyrics, greeting-card verses, poster slogans, and so forth that may not be curriculum related.
Music
Single or multiple copies of excerpts of musical works may be made for
study and for instruction. Music may not be copied for performing, creating
anthologies, or avoiding purchase. For sheet music these guidelines allow for
emergency copying (provided replacement copies are purchased), excerpts of no
more than 10 percent of the whole work, and editing as long as the character of
the work is not distorted or lyrics altered or added. Purchased copies of a work
may be edited or simplified as long as the nature of the work or lyrics are not
changed. For further information and clarification from the Music Library
Association, refer to the following:
• Guidelines for Educational Uses of Music. http://www.musiclibraryassoc.org/
Copyright/guidemus.htm
• Copyright for Music Librarians. http://www.lib.jmu.edu/Org/MLA/
Dance
Copyright law protects a tangible form of expression of an idea or a work,
not the idea itself. In copyright law choreography falls in the category of a dramatic work, which includes films, videos, plays, screenplays, and scripts. However, to be protected by copyright, choreography must be recorded in a tangible
form, such as the following formats:
•
•
•
•
Video
Written-word expression
Drawing of figures
Dance notation
Web Sites
Fair use of Web resources parallels the use of print resources. Making
limited use of some text and graphics as a part of classroom instruction or in a
multimedia presentation is permissible. However, teachers and students should
not publish those same materials on the Web or on a local or wide-area network
without gaining permission from the copyright holder unless the materials are
proven to be in the public domain or have been accessed from a copyright-free
source. It is permitted to use original graphics or art or images that have been
created by digital cameras.
Images
Images are protected under the print or multimedia guidelines of copyright. Images include photographs, art prints, cartoons, sketches, and logos.
237
Fair use allows the reproduction of an image, notwithstanding the creator’s
rights, for purposes such as criticism, satire, comment, news reporting, teaching
(includes multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, and research. In the
determination of fair use, the purpose of the copying is considered. However, if
a copyright notice appears with an image, the user must include that notice
with the image. (Watermarks on images are being used more and more for this
purpose.)
When language related to downloading images appears on a site, the user
must abide by it. For example, the Smithsonian Institution Office of Imaging,
Prints, and Photographic Services states that none of its 15,000 images may be
reproduced without written permission. And the American Memory at the
Library of Congress (http://memory.loc.gov/) states that some materials in its
collections may be protected by the U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17, U.S.C.) or
by the copyright laws of other nations. If an image is accompanied with a statement such as “The Library of Congress is not aware of any restrictions on these
photographs,” the images may be used. There are also fee-based image services.
If images are obtained from a free-use image resource, it is permissible to
store digital art images on a school or district server for teachers to download as
part of instruction. For example, AICT (Art Images for College Teaching) at
http://arthist.cla.umn.edu/aict/html is a free-use image resource for the education
community. However, for artwork accessed from museums and other sources,
the museum owns the copyright of the image. Scanning and mounting those
images is therefore not a good plan, but linking to those images is a perfectly
legal practice.
VI. Permission
When a student or teacher wishes to use someone else’s writing or graphics
from a Web site, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder unless
it is proven to be in the public domain. An e-mail request should be sent to the
copyright holder. A sample letter is posted at http://www.bham.wednet.edu/
copyperm.htm. If permission is requested to perform or duplicate published
materials, a written request should be sent to the publisher.
VII. Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 (DMCA)
This copyright act tightens controls over access to and use of copyrighted
materials, including digital works. Because many of these changes are currently
being asserted or challenged in court, in the next few years more changes will
come as the courts interpret and apply new statutes. Among the topics included
in the DMCA are provisions concerning the circumvention of copyright protection systems, fair use in a digital environment, and liability for online service
providers. For further information on the DMCA, refer to http://www.loc.gov/
copyright/legislation/dmca.pdf.
Appendix E
238
Appendix F
Guidelines for the Safe Use
of Art and Craft Materials
Art and craft supplies that contain toxic substances, including potential
human carcinogens, pose a significant danger to the health and safety of schoolchildren. Because art instruction is part of the standard school curriculum, many
children may be exposed to toxic chemicals in the materials used. Asbestos,
heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic ingredients found in some art
and craft materials present risks to the health and safety of the schoolchildren
using them. These hazards may be greater for a child who is unaware of the dangers and may misuse the products. The following information is presented to
assist school personnel in selecting and using safe art and craft products in the
classroom.
General Precautions for All Students
1. How Exposure Occurs. Exposure to hazardous substances contained in art
supplies occurs through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact:
a. Inhaling dusts, powders, vapors, gases, and aerosols may present health
hazards. So does inhaling silica or asbestos found in dry earth clays, both
of which may cause direct damage to the lungs. And inhaling solvent
vapors that are absorbed into the bloodstream may inflict damage on
bodily organs.
b. Ingesting of hazardous substances can occur by eating contaminated food
or, more directly, by placing in the mouth the hands or tools used in art
projects. This route of exposure is an especially important concern with
young children.
c. Experiencing contact of the skin with hazardous materials may result in
local or internal injuries. Caustic substances or solvents may cause local
skin damage, and certain solvents can pass through the skin into the
bloodstream, resulting in damage to other organs.
2. Possible Illness from Exposure to Hazardous Materials. Exposure to toxic
materials may result in acute or chronic illness. An acute illness may result
from a relatively large exposure over a short period of time. An example
would be intoxication-like symptoms following deliberate or inadvertent
ingestion of toxic solvents. A chronic illness may result from a relatively
small exposure over a long period of time (e.g., degeneration of the nervous
system from exposure to lead). Although the symptoms are immediately
apparent when an acute illness occurs, they are not necessarily apparent in
the case of a chronic illness. Chronic illness may arise at a later time because
239
of the concentration of substances in the body (e.g., asbestos or lead), accumulated damage to the body, or sensitization to a substance after repeated exposure. 3. Limiting Exposure. Considerable protection from exposure to toxic materials
can be achieved by promoting good hygiene in the classroom. Storing art
and craft supplies safely and labeling them appropriately, keeping dust to a
minimum by damp mopping rather than sweeping, and cleaning up thoroughly after use will help prevent exposures. Personal hygiene also plays a
role in the prevention of potentially harmful exposures. Students should
refrain from eating or drinking while engaged in art projects and should
wash their hands thoroughly when finished. Another general safety practice
is to ensure proper ventilation in the art classroom so that contaminants
may be diluted and eventually removed from the air.
Exposure to hazardous dusts and fumes will be minimized if the
instructor premixes dry materials with water (for example, temperas, wheat
paste, and so forth) and fires ceramic products when students are away from
the kiln area. If an art material has been transferred to an unlabeled con
-
tainer and its identity is unknown, it should be disposed of. (For specific
information on the proper disposal of art and craft materials, please contact
your local county health department.)
Special Concerns: Kindergarten Through Grade Six
Unique factors are associated with the use of art and craft materials by
young children. Those factors may increase health risks and should be considered in evaluating the suitability of products for use in schools. For example,
young children should not be expected to follow instructions for the proper use
of the materials. They may bring the materials into contact with their skin, eyes,
mouth, hair, or clothing and be exposed to inhaling, ingesting, or absorbing
potentially toxic compounds. That possibility of being adversely affected by such
exposure is compounded by the fact that children are generally less able to tolerate exposure to hazardous substances than are adults because of the children’s
smaller size, higher metabolic rates, and immature organ immune systems.
In purchasing products for a particular application, the buyer should always
consider alternative or substitute products and prefer least-toxic products. The
following list describes general types of art materials that are likely to be hazardous and suggests substitutes. Although the law does not prohibit the use of all of
these materials, they should be used with discretion, and substitutes should be
used whenever possible.
Some art and craft projects involve processes inappropriate for young
children. Examples include airbrushing, enameling, photo developing, and soldering. Instructors are encouraged to avoid projects that would involve those
processes.
Appendix F
240
Appendix F
Art and Craft Materials to Avoid
and Recommended Substitutes
1. Avoid: Products that may generate an inhalation hazard
(e.g., clay in dry form, powdered paints, glazes, pigments, wheat
paste, and aerosols, such as spray paints and fixatives)
Substitute: Wet or liquid nonaerosol products (If dry products
are used, they should be mixed when young children are not
present.)
2. Avoid: Hazardous solvent-based products (e.g., rubber cement
and its thinner, turpentine and other paint thinners, and solventbased markers)
Substitute: Water-based glues, paints, markers
3. Avoid: Materials that contain lead or other heavy metals
(e.g., some paints, glazes, and enamels)
Substitute: Products that do not contain heavy metals
4. Avoid: Cold-water dyes or commercial dyes
Substitute: Vegetable dyes (onion skins and so forth)
5. Avoid: Instant papier-mâché, which may contain asbestos fibers
or lead or other metals from pigments in colored printing inks
Substitute: Papier-mâché made from black and white newspa­
per and library or white paste (or flour and water paste)
Safe Products for Grades Seven Through Twelve
Education Code Section 32064 mandates the labeling of any toxic art and
craft materials purchased for grades seven through twelve. Section 32065 specifies what the label must list, including a warning to alert users of potential adverse health effects, information on the health-related dangers of the materials,
and instructions for safe use. The rationale for labeling assumes that students in
grades seven through twelve are capable of reading and understanding hazard
labels on art products so that, once aware of the hazard, they can take the necessary precautions to minimize exposure.
Although products bearing toxic warning labels (e.g., Harmful if Swallowed, Use with Adequate Ventilation, Avoid Skin Contact) may be purchased
241
for use by older children, exposure to toxic materials should be limited as much
as possible. When such materials are used, care should be taken to ensure that
the products are used in accordance with the directions on the label and that all
cautions are observed. Although not mandated by law, purchasing products
that do not contain toxic ingredients will provide an additional measure of
safety in the classroom.
For a list of materials that may not be used in the classroom, refer to the
Web site of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA)
at http://www.oehha.ca.gov/education/art/getart.html. For information regarding
updates of the list, contact the California Department of Education or
OEHHA. Legislation requires that the list be updated periodically, and the
Department will furnish information about the current status of the updates.
The Department cannot, however, deal with issues of toxicity, inclusion or
exclusion of products from the list, or interpretation of the field safety guidelines. Its basic responsibility is to print and disseminate the list developed by
the OEHHA.
In some instances art and craft materials will not bear labels indicating
hazardous ingredients. If a product is not properly labeled, contact the California Department of Health Services, Food and Drug Branch, for information as
to whether the materials are in compliance with labeling requirements.
Resources for Information on Toxicity of Products
Information on the toxicity of products and the safe use of art and craft
materials may be obtained as follows:
1. Check the list of craft materials on the OEHHA Web site. If a product
is included on the list, it presents a chemical health hazard to those
using it.
2. For information on the toxicity of chemicals, contact OEHHA, California
Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Assessment Section,
1001 I Street, P.O. Box 4010, Sacramento, CA 95812; telephone (916)
324-2829; http://www.ochha.ca.gov/education/art/getart.html.
3. For further information about art materials that may be hazardous to
students, contact the American Lung Association of California. This
organization maintains a library of reference books, brochures, and slide
or tape programs and sponsors seminars and workshops for teachers and
others regarding safety issues in the arts.
4. For information on the toxicity of art materials and its certification program of art materials, contact the Art and Creative Materials Institute,
1280 Main Street, Second Floor, P.O. Box 479, Hanson, MA 02341;
telephone (781) 293-4100; http://www.acminet.org.
Appendix F
242
Appendix G
Funding for Arts Education Programs
As school districts plan their annual budgets, they should include the arts
in strategic and long-range planning to provide consistent funding for their arts
education programs. The budgets should cover such items as staff salary, facilities, professional development, equipment and materials, curriculum development, textbooks and other instructional materials, new media and electronic
technology, maintenance for equipment, visiting artists, and field trips to museums and performances. (Note: A section on facility needs for each of the arts
disciplines is included in Chapter 4.)
As districts move toward sustaining an arts program, they may consider a
variety of supplemental sources to enhance their allocations to the arts. Those
that are most successful in garnering funding for their arts program employ a
staff member who researches sources and initiates grant writing. The Internet
provides an outstanding way to research possible funding sources, including
local funding, state funding, federal funding, corporate funding, foundation
funding, donations, and grants. (Note: Consult the California Department
of Education Web site for current information on funding sources: http://
www.cde.ca.gov/fg/fo/).
243
Glossary of Selected Terms
AB form—d. A two-part compositional form having an A theme and a B
theme. The binary form consists of two distinct, self-contained sections sharing a character or quality (such as the same tempo).
ABA form—d. A three-part compositional form in which the second section
contrasts with the first. The third section restates the first section in condensed, abbreviated, or extended form.
abstract—v. Refers to artwork in which the subject matter is stated in a brief,
simplified manner. Little or no attempt is made to represent images realistically, and objects are often simplified or distorted.
abstraction—d. An idea or concept conveyed through movement and removed
from its original context. For example, when a gesture to communicate
happiness, such as jumping, is enlarged, made polyrhythmic, and repeated on
different levels, it becomes abstract or nonliteral. The use of abstraction can
encourage originality and make movement interesting and engaging.
accent—d. A strong movement or gesture.
accompaniment—m. Vocal or instrumental parts accompanying a melody.
acting—t. The process by which a person uses the entire self—body, mind,
voice, and emotions—to interpret and perform the role of an imagined or
assumed character.
acting areas—t. See center stage, downstage, stage left and right, and upstage.
action—t. The core of a theatre piece; the sense of forward movement created
by the sequence of events and physical and psychological motivations of the
characters. In film it is the basis of a prominent genre known as the action
film.
actor—t. A person, male or female, who performs a role in a play or other
entertainment.
actor’s position—t. The orientation of the actor to the audience (e.g., full back,
full front, right profile, left profile).
additive—v. Refers to the process of joining parts together to create a sculpture.
aerial perspective—v. Aerial or atmospheric perspective is achieved by using
bluer, lighter, and duller hues for distant objects in a two-dimensional work
of art.
aerophone—m. A musical instrument, such as a trumpet or flute, in which
sound is generated by a vibrating column of air.
Note: An abbreviation appearing after a term designates which of the visual and performing arts
the term refers to: d: dance, m: music, t: theatre, v: visual arts
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
244
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
aesthetic criteria—d. Standards applied in making judgments about the artistic
merit of a work.
aesthetics—v. A branch of philosophy dealing with the study of art and
theories about the nature and components of aesthetic experience.
alignment—d. The relationship of the skeleton to the line of gravity and base
of support.
analog—v. Information or data stored in the form of the original signal, such as
voltages, rotations, or magnetic force. For example, an analog watch has
hands, in contrast to a digital watch, which uses a liquid crystal display.
analogous—v. Refers to closely related colors; a color scheme that combines
several hues that fall next to each other on the color wheel.
antagonist—t. An adversarial person or situation or the protagonist’s inner
conflict.
apron—t. The stage area in front of the main curtain that extends toward the
audience.
arbitrary colors—v. Colors selected and used without reference to those found
in reality.
architectonic—v. Having an organized and unified structure that suggests an
architectural design.
arena stage—t. A stage positioned in the center of the audience.
art criticism—v. An organized system for looking at the visual arts; a process of
appraising what students should know and be able to do.
art elements—v. See elements of art.
art materials—v. Resources used in the creation and study of the visual arts
(e.g., paint, canvas, fiber, charcoal, crayons, wood, clay, film, metal).
articulation—m. The manner in which notes are performed, such as staccato or
legato.
articulation—t. The clear and precise pronunciation of words.
arts teacher—A teacher credentialed in California who has expertise in the arts.
Music and visual arts teachers are credentialed in their respective fields.
Dance teachers are credentialed in physical education through course work in
dance, and theatre teachers are credentialed in English through course work
in theatre.
assemblage—v. A three-dimensional composition in which a collection of
objects is unified in a sculptural work.
assessment of applied academic skills—Education Code Section 60603(b)
defines this term as “a form of assessment that requires pupils to demonstrate
their knowledge of and ability to apply academic knowledge and skills in
order to solve problems and communicate. It may include but is not limited
to writing an essay response to a question, conducting an experiment, or
constructing a diagram or model. An assessment of applied academic skills
may not include assessments of personal behavioral standards or skills,
including but not limited to honesty, sociability, ethics, or self-esteem.”
245
Assessment in the arts may be accomplished through performance, critique,
or analysis.
asymmetry—v. Intentionally unbalanced parts on opposite sides of a perceived
boundary giving the appearance of equal visual weight.
atmospheric perspective—v. See aerial perspective.
atonal—m. A type of music in which tones and chords are not related to a
central keynote.
augmented interval—m. A major or perfect interval raised by a half step.
axial movement—d. Movement anchored to one spot by a body part. Only the
available space in any direction is used while the initial body contact is
maintained. Organized around the axis of the body, this movement is not
designed for travel from one location to another. It is also known as
nonlocomotor movement (e.g., stretching, bending, turning in place, gesturing).
background—v. The part of the picture plane that seems to be farthest from
the viewer.
balance—d. A state of equilibrium. It refers to the even distribution of weight
or the spatial arrangement of bodies. Designs may be balanced on both sides
of center (symmetrical) or off center (asymmetrical).
balance—v. The arrangement of visual arts elements are arranged to create a
feeling of equilibrium in a work of art. The three types of balance are symmetry, asymmetry, and radial.
ballet—d. A classical Western dance form that originated in the Renaissance
courts of Europe.
beat—m. A unit of measure of rhythmic time.
Benesh notation—d. A system for analyzing and recording human movement
by using a musical staff. It is named after a French dance notator.
blocking—t. The planning and working out of the movements of actors on
stage.
body positions—t. See actor’s position.
canon—d. A passage, movement sequence, or piece of music in which the
parts, overlapping one another, are done in succession.
canon—m. A musical form in which a melody is imitated exactly in one or
more parts. It is similar to a round.
catharsis—t. The purification or purging of the emotions (as pity and fear)
caused while viewing a tragedy.
center stage—t. The center of the acting area.
character—t. The personality or part an actor re-creates.
characterization—t. The development and portrayal of a personality through
thought, action, dialogue, costuming, and makeup.
chord—m. Three or more tones sounded simultaneously.
chordaphone—m. A musical instrument in which sound is created by the
stretching of strings between two points.
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
246
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
choreography—d. The art of composing dances, including shaping movement,
structuring phrases, and revising and refining dances.
classroom teacher—A credentialed California teacher assigned to a selfcontained classroom, kindergarten through grade six.
clef, bass, or treble—m. A symbol written at the beginning of a musical staff
indicating which notes are represented by which lines and spaces.
climax—t. The point of highest dramatic tension or major turning point in the
action.
coaching in dance—d. The inclusion of dance choreography, dance instruction, or dance composition consultancy in athletic sports (e.g., gymnastics,
team dance, ice skating).
cold reading—t. The reading of a script by an actor who did not review it
previously.
collaboration—t. The act of working in a joint intellectual effort.
collage—v. An artistic composition made of various materials (e.g., paper,
cloth, wood) and glued onto a surface.
color—v. The visual connections depending on the reflection or absorption of
light from a given surface. The three characteristics of color are hue, value,
and intensity.
color relationships—v. The connections of colors on the color wheel. Also
called color schemes or harmonies. Basic color schemes include monochromatic, analogous, and complementary.
color theory—v. The science of color relationships and properties (hue,
intensity, and value).
comedy—t. A play that is humorous in its treatment of theme and, generally,
has a happy ending in which the protagonist is victorious. It was a major
genre in early film, as in the silent comedy.
commedia dell’arte—t. A professional form of theatrical improvisation developed in Italy in the 1500s and featuring stock characters and standardized
plots.
complementary colors—v. Colors that oppose one another on the color wheel
(e.g., red and green, blue and orange, yellow and violet).
complication—t. See rising action.
composition—d. The presence of unity, continuity (transitions), and variety
(contrasts and repetition) in choreography.
composition—m. The creation of original music by organizing sound. It is
usually written for others to perform.
composition—v. The organization of the elements of art and principles of
design.
compound meter—m. A type of meter in which the beat is divided into threes
or sixes.
concerto—m. A composition for orchestra and soloist.
247
conflict—t. The opposition of persons or forces giving rise to dramatic action
in a play.
constructed response—v. An assessment tool requiring students to respond to a
prompt by performing a given task.
contact improvisation—d. Movement using the force created by combining
body contact and spontaneous response and recovery.
content—v. The messages, ideas, or emotions expressed in a work of art.
content standards—Education Code Section 60603(d) defines this term as “the
specific academic knowledge, skills, and abilities that all public schools in this
state are expected to teach and all pupils expected to learn in each of the core
curriculum areas at each grade level tested.”
context—t. The interrelated conditions in which a play exists or occurs.
contour drawing—v. The drawing of an object as though the drawing tool
were moving along the edges and ridges of the form.
contrast—d. Setting elements side by side to emphasize their differences. Two
contrasting movements might differ in energy, space (e.g., size, direction,
level), design (e.g., symmetrical or asymmetrical, open or close), timing
(e.g., fast or slow, even or uneven), or two or more different themes or
patterns.
contrast—v. The difference between two or more elements (e.g., value, color,
texture) in a composition; juxtaposition of dissimilar elements in a work of
art; also the degree of difference between the lightest and darkest parts of a
picture.
conventions of theatre—t. See theatrical conventions.
cool colors—v. Colors suggesting coolness: blue, green, and violet.
costume—t. Any clothing worn by an actor on stage during a performance.
counterbalance—d. A weight that balances another weight. The term usually
refers to one or more dancers combining their weight in stillness or in motion
to achieve an independent movement or design. A limb moving in one
direction must be given a counterweight.
creative drama—t. An improvisational, process-centered form of theatre in
which participants are guided by a leader to imagine, enact, and reflect on
human experiences.
creative movement—d. Dance based on improvisation; the free exploration
of movement, usually stimulated by an emotional or narrative theme
(e.g., anger, war) or the exploration of an element of movement—time,
force, or space (e.g., finding ways of moving on various levels or with varying
amounts or qualities of force or energy).
crisis—t. In the plot of a play, a decisive point on which the outcome of the
remaining actions depends.
critique—t. Opinion and comment based on predetermined criteria to be used
for self-evaluation or the evaluation of the actors or the production itself.
Glossary
of Selected
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248
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
cue—t. A verbal or physical signal indicating that something else, such as a line
of dialogue or an entrance, is to occur.
curriculum—An organized course of study that follows standards-based guidelines for sequencing learning across the K–12 continuum and is specific
enough to guide short-term and long-term instructional goals. The curriculum assists teachers in their day-to-day instructional choices and provides
students with the essential knowledge and skills needed to progress toward
future goals.
curvature—v. The act of curving or bending; one of the characteristics of line.
curvilinear—v. Formed or enclosed by curved lines.
cyclorama—t. A large cloth hanging across the back of a stage that is used for
special lighting effects.
dance—d. (1) A unified work similar to a poem, a piece of music, a play, or a
painting. Its structure has a beginning, middle, and end unified by a purpose
or set of movement themes into a recognized form. Often, it is rhythmic or is
accompanied by music. (2) The field of study including the functions of
dance in society past and present, methods of choreography and performance,
kinesiology, dance therapy, dance education, dance medicine, and other
related studies.
dance content—d. Bodily movement as the medium of dance as sound is the
medium of music. The elements of dance are space, time, and force or energy.
dance study—d. A short work of dance investigating a specific idea or concept
and presenting a selection of movement ideas. It may be improvised or
composed.
denouement design—t. The final resolution of the conflict in a plot.
descant—m. A melodic line or counterpoint accompanying an existing melody.
design—t. The creative process of developing and executing aesthetic or
functional elements in a production, such as costumes, lighting, sets, and
makeup.
design—v. The plan, conception, or organization of a work of art; the arrangement of independent parts (the elements of art) to form a coordinated whole.
dialogue—t. The conversation between actors on stage, in film, and in television or videos.
diatonic scale—m. The notes found within a major or minor scale.
diction—t. The pronunciation and choice of words and the manner in which a
person expresses himself or herself.
digital—v. Refers to the recording, converting, or storing of information signals
in on-or-off pulses or the binary code (ones and zeros) as opposed to the
analog form.
diminished interval—m. A minor or perfect interval lowered by a half step.
directing—t. (1) The art and technique of bringing the elements of theatre,
film, television, and video together. (2) The process by which an individual or
249
individuals take responsibility for the creative look, style, and action of a play,
film, video, or media piece. In film theory the auteur (director as artist) is the
creative center of the work.
director—t. The person who oversees the entire process of staging a theatrical
or media production.
distortion—v. The condition of being twisted or bent out of shape. In art
distortion is often used as an expressive technique.
dominance—v. The emphasis of one aspect over all other aspects of a design.
dominant—v. The most prominent principle or the most obvious in influence
or position.
downstage—t. The stage area toward the audience.
dramatic play—t. Children’s creation of scenes when they pretend.
dramatic structure—t. The special literary style in which plays and screenplays
are written.
dramaturge—t. A person who provides specific, in-depth knowledge and
literary resources to the director, producer, theatre company, or audience.
dress rehearsals—t. The final few rehearsals prior to opening night in which
the performance is run with full technical elements. Full costumes and
makeup are worn by the actors.
duple meter—m. A time signature with groups of two beats to the measure.
dynamic markings—m. Symbols indicating varying degrees of volume: pp
(pianissimo), very soft; p (piano), soft; mp (mezzo piano), medium soft; mf
(mezzo forte), medium loud; f (forte), loud; and ff (fortissimo), very loud.
dynamics—d. The energy of movement expressed in varying intensity, accent,
and quality.
dynamics—m. Varying degrees of volume in the performance of music.
earth tones—v. Various rich, dark colors containing some brown.
editing—t. Assembling the various pieces of a production. In film and video
the editor is responsible for the rhythm and the narrative or thematic development of the piece.
electronic media—An art-making process based primarily on the use of
electronic technology to create such artwork as videos, digital animation,
films, computer graphics, digital photography, multimedia, and interactive
media.
electronic resources (e-resources)—Materials and systems facilitating the
retrieval, delivery, or exchange of information. E-resources may include live,
recorded, or virtual information or experiences. Formats and systems may
include CD-ROMs, DVDs, streamed videos, videotapes, software programs,
audio CDs, interactive multimedia and Internet sites, Internet events, and
virtual experiences.
electronic technology—Equipment, tools, or systems used to facilitate the
learning, teaching, or production of art, music, or performances.
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
250
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
elements of art—v. Sensory components used to create works of art: line, color,
shape or form, texture, value, and space.
elements of dance—d. Sensory components used to create and talk about
dance: force, space, and time. (See the individual entries in this glossary.)
elements of music—m. Form, harmony, melody, and rhythm as well as the
expressive elements of dynamics, tempo, and timbre (tone color).
elements of theatre—t. The individual components used to create and talk
about works of theatre: character, dialogue, music, plot, and theme.
Elizabethan theatre—t. English theatre existing during the reign of Queen
Elizabeth I (1533–1603) and often extending to the closing of the theatres
in 1642.
embellishments—m. Notes added to ornament a melody or rhythmic pattern.
emphasis—v. Special stress given to an element to make it stand out.
ensemble—t. A group of theatrical artists working together to create a production.
epic theatre—t. A theatrical movement of the early 1920s and 1930s characterized by the use of such artificial devices as cartoons, posters, and film sequences. It distanced the audience from theatrical illusion and allowed the
audience to focus on the play’s message.
ethnic dance—d. A dance genre or form representing the characteristics of a
specific culture of a country. Regional detail should be identified.
exposition—t. Detailed information revealing the facts of a plot.
expressive content—v. The expression of ideas and moods.
farce—t. A comedy with exaggerated characterizations, abundant physical or
visual humor, and, often, an improbable plot. It was the source of early
slapstick film comedy.
figurative—v. (1) Pertaining to the representation of form or figure in art.
(2) Pertaining to the human figure. For example, many of the religious
paintings by Peter Paul Rubens in the early seventeenth century focused on
the human figure, as did the paintings of Edgar Degas in the nineteenth
century and those by Alice Neel in the twentieth century.
focal point—v. The place in a work of art on which attention becomes centered.
folk or traditional dance—d. A dance associated with a national origin. Today,
such dances are usually performed for recreation or at social gatherings or
professional venues as the surviving portion of a tradition.
force or energy—d. This element is characterized by the release of potential
energy into kinetic energy. It utilizes body weight, reveals the effects of
gravity on the body, is projected into space, and affects emotional and spatial
relationships and intentions. The most recognized qualities of movement
(i.e., ways in which to release energy) are sustained, percussive, suspended,
swinging, and collapsing.
251
foreground—v. Part of a two-dimensional artwork appearing to be nearer to
the viewer or in the front. The middle ground and the background are the
parts of the picture that appear to be farther and farthest away.
form—d. The organization or plan for patterning movement; the overall
structural organization of a dance or music composition (e.g., AB, ABA, call
and response, rondo, theme and variation, canon, and the interrelationships
of movements within the overall structure).
form—m. The organization and structure of a composition and the interrelationships of musical events within the overall structure.
form—t. The overall structure or shape of a work that frequently follows an
established design. A form may refer to a literary type (e.g., narrative form,
short story form, dramatic form) or to patterns of line, meter, and rhymes
(e.g., stanza form, verse form).
form—v. A three-dimensional volume or the illusion of three dimensions
(related to shape, which is two-dimensional); the particular characteristics of
the visual elements of a work of art (as distinguished from its subject matter
or content).
formal theatre—t. Theatre that focuses on public performance in front of an
audience and in which the final production is most important.
fugue—m. A composition in which three or more voices enter one after the
other and imitate the main melody in various ways according to a set pattern.
function—v. The purpose and use of a work of art.
genre—d. A class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form,
content, or technique (e.g., ballet, modern, tap, jazz, Indonesian, East Indian,
Bugaku). Each kind of dance is characterized by a recognizable technique,
system, vocabulary of movement, composition, form, and way of performing.
genre—m. A type or kind of musical work, such as opera, jazz, mariachi.
genre—t. A category of plays characterized by a particular style, form, and
content (e.g., tragedy, comedy, tragicomedy, melodrama, farce). In electronic
media, genre refers to categories of films, videos, and other media that share
narrative and stylistic characteristics, such as the Western or gangster film and
slapstick comedy.
genre—v. The representation of people, subjects, and scenes from everyday life.
geometric—v. Refers to shapes with uniformly straight or curved edges or
surfaces.
gesture—d. The movement of a body part or combination of parts, with
emphasis on the expressive aspects of the movement. Gesture includes all
movements of the body not supporting weight.
gesture—t. An expressive movement of the body or limbs.
gesture drawing—v. The drawing of lines quickly and loosely to show a subject
moving.
Greek theatre—t. Theatrical events in Ancient Greece honoring the god
Dionysus and including play competitions and a chorus of masked actors.
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
252
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
harmonic progression—m. A succession of individual chords or harmonies
forming larger units of phrases, sections, or compositions.
harmony—m. The simultaneous sounding of two or more tones.
harmony—v. The principle of design that combines elements in a work of art
to emphasize the similarities of separate but related parts.
hue—v. The attribute of colors that permits them to be classed as red, yellow,
green, and so on.
idiophone—m. A musical instrument producing sound by shaking or scraping.
improvisation—d. Movement created spontaneously, ranging from free-form
to highly structured, always including an impromptu element of chance.
improvisation—m. Spontaneous creation of music.
improvisation—t. A spontaneous style in which scenes are created without
advance rehearsing or scripting.
informal theatre—t. A performance focusing on small presentations, such as
one taking place in a classroom. Usually, it is not intended for public viewing.
information—v. Data, facts, documentation message (storytelling, recounting
history), and commentary. It may provoke thought or feeling (emotional
impact, laughter, fright, spirituality).
installation art—v. The hanging of ordinary objects on museum walls or the
combining of found objects to create something completely new.
instruction—The activities, materials, and strategies used to implement a
standards-based curriculum supporting students’ learning in the arts.
intensity—v. The brightness of a color. Also called chroma or saturation. Full
intensity occurs only when the color is pure and unmixed. Color intensity
can be changed by adding a complementary color.
isolation—d. Movement made with one part or a small part of the body
(e.g., rolling the head, shrugging the shoulders, rotating the hips).
interval—m. The distance in pitch between two tones.
jazz dance—d. Dance marked by movement isolations and complex, propulsive
polyrhythms. An outgrowth of African American ragtime, jazz, spirituals,
blues, work songs, and so forth, it is an original American dance style. It was
also influenced by East Indian, Gypsy, Spanish, Caribbean, and South
American gestures and rhythms. Jazz dance was further developed by choreographers Lester Wilson, Jack Cole, and Bob Fosse.
Kabuki—t. One of the traditional forms of Japanese theatre originating in the
1600s and combining stylized acting, costumes, makeup, and musical
accompaniment.
kinesthetic awareness—d. Conscious perception of movement.
kinesthetic principles—d. Principles of physics governing motion, flow, and
weight in time and space. They include the law of gravity, balance, and
centrifugal force.
253
Labanotation—d. A system for analyzing and recording human movement
invented by Rudolf von Laban (1879–1958).
level—t. The height of an actor’s head as determined by his or her body
position (e.g., sitting, lying, standing, elevated by artificial means).
levels of difficulty—m. The levels of difficulty for the music content standards
are as follows:
Level 1: very easy; easy keys, meters, and rhythms; limited ranges.
Level 2: easy; may include changes of tempo, key, or meter; modest ranges.
Level 3: moderately easy; contains moderate technical demands, expanded
ranges, and varied interpretive requirements.
Level 4: moderately difficult; requires well-developed technical skills, attention to phrasing and interpretation, and the ability to perform various meters
and rhythms in a variety of keys.
Level 5: difficult; requires advanced technical and interpretive skills; contains
key signatures with numerous sharps or flats, usual meters, complex rhythms,
and subtle dynamic requirements.
Level 6: very difficult; suitable for musically mature students of exceptional
competence.
line—v. A point moving in space. It can vary in width, length, curvature, color,
or direction.
linear perspective—v. A graphic system used by artists to create the illusion of
depth and volume on a flat surface. The lines of buildings and other objects
in a picture are slanted, making them appear to extend back into space.
line direction—v. The horizontal, vertical, or diagonal direction of a line.
line quality—v. The unique character of a drawn line as it changes in lightness
or darkness, direction, curvature, or width.
locomotor—d. Movement progressing through space from one spot to another.
Basic locomotor movements include walking, running, galloping, jumping,
hopping, skipping, sliding, leaping.
major key—m. Tonally, a key based on a major scale containing the step
pattern whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half or using the solfege
tones of do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do.
makeup—t. Cosmetics and, sometimes, hairstyles worn by an actor on stage to
emphasize facial features, historical periods, characterizations, and so forth.
maquette—v. A small preliminary model (as of a sculpture or a building).
masks—t. Coverings worn over the face or part of the face by an actor to
emphasize or neutralize facial characteristics.
mass—v. The outside size and bulk of a form, such as a building or sculpture;
the visual weight of an object.
media—v. Plural of medium, referring to (1) materials used to make art; and
(2) particular categories of art (e.g., painting, sculpture, film).
media—v. The materials, methods, systems, or vehicles used to communicate
ideas, information, a message, or a feeling. Contexts include such materials as
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
254
Glossary
of Selected
Terms
paint, clay, and videotape; such methods as print, electronic, and digital
signals; such systems as cable and the Internet; and such vehicles as bill
-
boards, broadcasts, and photographs.
media literacy—v. The ability to read, analyze, evaluate, gain access to, and
produce media, particularly media in an electronic form.
medium—v. A material used to create an artwork.
melodic and rhythmic form—m. The organization and structure of a composition and the interrelationships of musical events within the overall structure.
melodrama—t. A dramatic form popular in the 1700s and 1800s and characterized by an emphasis on plot and physical action, stereotypical characters,
cliff-hanging events, heart-tugging emotional appeals, the celebration of
virtue, and a strongly moralistic tone. Early American film borrowed heavily
from melodramatic theatre.
melody—m. An organized sequence of single notes.
membranophone—m. A musical instrument in which sound is produced
through the vibrations of a membrane.
meter—m. The grouping of beats by which a piece of music is measured.
middle ground—v. The area in a two-dimensional work of art between the
foreground and the background.
MIDI—m. See Musical Instrument Digital Interface.
mime—t. An ancient art form based on pantomime in which conventionalized
gestures are used to express ideas rather than to represent actions; also, a
performer of mime.
minor key—m. Tonally, a key based on a minor scale containing the step
pattern whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole, whole or using the solfege
tones of la, ti, do, re, me, fa, so, la.
minstrel show—t. Musical theatre that usually consisted of traditional African
American music and dance performed by white actors wearing blackface and
characterized by exploitive racial stereotypes.
mixed media—v. A work of art for which more than one type of art material is
used to create the finished piece.
mixed meter—m. A mixture of duple and triple meters.
mode—m. A type of scale having a particular arrangement of intervals
(e.g., Aeolian, Dorian, Ionian, Locrian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Phrygian).
modern dance—d. A type of dance that values expressive and original or
authentic movement. It is a twentieth-century idiom first explored throughout Europe by the American Isadora Duncan and in Germany by Mary
Wigman and Rudolf von Laban. Significant innovators in the United States
were Ruth St. Denis, Ted Shawn, Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, and
Charles Weidman, who are considered the pioneers of modern dance.
monochromatic—v. Refers to a color scheme involving the use of only one hue
that can vary in value or intensity.
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monologue—t. A long speech given by a single character.
mood—v. The state of mind or feeling communicated in a work of art, frequently through color.
motif—d. A distinctive and recurring gesture used to impart a theme or unifying
idea.
motif—v. A unit repeated over and over in a pattern. The repeated motif often
creates a sense of rhythm to create the pattern.
motivation—t. A character’s reason for his or her actions or words in a play,
film, television, program, or video.
movement—v. The principle of design dealing with the creation of action. It is a
way, implied or actual, of causing the eye of the viewer to travel within and
across the boundary of a work of art.
movement problem—d. A specific focus or task that serves as a point of departure for exploring and composing, usually with particular criteria.
multimedia—v. Artwork involving the use of text, images (static or moving),
and sound in a single presentation. May refer also to artwork created by the
use of more than one traditional medium.
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)—m. A standardized language of
digital bits enabling different electronic devices to communicate and work
together (e.g., a computer and keyboard).
musicality—d. Attention and sensitivity given to the musical elements of dance
while it is being created or performed.
musical theatre—t. A type of entertainment featuring music, songs, and, usually,
dance. It may also refer to a genre of film based on music, song, and dance.
narrative—t. Story development that has a beginning, middle, and end.
negative—v. Refers to the shape or space that exists or represents an area unoccupied by an object.
neoclassical dance—d. A choreographic combination of classical and modern
dance styles.
neutrals—v. Black, white, and gray. When added to colors, they change the
color’s value.
Noh—t. One of the traditional forms of Japanese theatre in which masked male
actors use highly stylized dance and poetry to tell stories.
nonobjective—v. Having no recognizable object as an image; also called nonrepresentational.
notation—d. Various systems of writing and recording dance movements.
Benesh notation and Labanotation are those most frequently used. Late
twentieth-century technology has made the use of the videotape an indispensable method of recording dance.
notation—m. Written music indicating pitch and rhythm for performance.
nuance—d. A subtle difference in style of meaning; the subtle or slight movements that identify the distinct characteristics of a particular performer or the
dances of a particular choreographer or period.
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objective—t. A character’s goal or intention.
observational drawing skills—v. Skills learned while observing firsthand an
object, figure, or place.
one-point perspective—v. A means of illustrating three-dimensional objects on
a two-dimensional surface. Lines appear to go away from the viewer and meet
at a single point, known as the vanishing point, on the horizon.
opera—m. A drama set to music for voices and orchestra and presented with
costumes and sets.
operetta—t. A theatrical production with elements of opera but lighter and
more popular in subject and style.
oratorio—m. A dramatic musical composition usually set to a religious text and
performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra without action, special
costumes, or scenery.
organic—v. Refers to shapes or forms with irregular edges or to surfaces or
objects resembling things in nature.
ostinato—m. A rhythmic or melodic accompaniment figure repeated persistently at the same pitch throughout a composition.
pacing—t. The tempo of an entire theatrical performance.
pageant—t. An elaborate street presentation or a series of tableaux across a
stage.
paint program—v. Software emulating and expanding traditional two-dimensional art-making media and processes, such as drawing, painting, watercolor,
pastel, and charcoal.
pantomime—t. Acting without words through facial expression, gesture, and
movement.
partnering—d. Skills that require cooperation, coordination, and dependence
with a partner, including imitation, lead and follow, echo, mirroring, and call
and response as well as traditional male-female classical duets.
pathway—d. A line along which a person or a part of the person, such as an
arm or head, moves. Examples: “Her arm took a circular path.” “He traveled
along a zigzag pathway.”
pattern—v. Lines, shapes, and colors repeated in a variety of predictable
combinations.
pentatonic scale—m. A scale having five tones to the octave and containing no
half steps: do, re, mi, so, la.
performance art—v. A type of art in which events are planned and enacted
before an audience for aesthetic reasons.
performance standards—Education Code Section 60603(h) defines this term as
“standards that define various levels of competence at each grade level in each
of the curriculum areas for which content standards are established. Performance standards gauge the degree to which a pupil has met the content
standards and the degree to which a school or school district has met the
content standards.”
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perspective—v. A system for representing on a two-dimensional surface threedimensional objects viewed in spatial recession.
phrase—d. A partial dance idea composed of a series of connecting movements
and similar to a sentence in written form.
phrase—m. A musical idea comparable to a sentence or a clause in language.
phrasing—d. The way in which the parts of a dance are organized.
pitch—m. The location of a note as to whether it is high or low.
pitch—t. The highness or lowness of the voice.
pitch bend—m. Sliding from one note to another by shifting the pitch gradually.
play—t. The stage representation of an action or a story; a dramatic composition.
playwright—t. A person who writes plays.
plot—t. That which happens in a story: the beginning, which involves the
setting, the characters, and the problem they are facing; the middle, which
tells how the characters work to solve the problem; and the ending, in which
the problem is resolved.
point of view—v. The angle from which the viewer sees objects or a scene.
portamento—m. Gradually changing pitch up or down between two scale
tones. Also called slide.
portfolio—v. A systematic, organized collection of a student’s work.
positive—v. A shape or space that is or represents a solid object.
postmodern dance—d. A type of dance that emerged in the 1960s and is
generally characterized by a departure from narrative theme and evocative
emotion. The use of pedestrian gesture and minimalism is characteristic of
this type of dance, which is exemplified in the work of Merce Cunningham,
Yvonne Ranier, Trisha Brown, Steve Paxton, and Rudy Perez.
primary colors—v. The painting pigments of red, yellow, and blue. From those
pigments all paint colors are created. Magenta, cyan, and yellow are primary
hues to create all other hues used in printing and new media.
principles of design—v. The organization of works of art involving the ways in
which the elements of art are arranged (e.g., balance, contrast, dominance,
emphasis, movement, repetition, rhythm, subordination, unity, variety).
printmaking—v. The transfer of an inked image from one surface (plate or
block) to another (usually paper).
process—v. A series of actions, changes, or functions that brings about a result.
production values—t. (1) The critical elements of a production, such as acting,
directing, lighting, costuming, sets, and makeup. (2) A confident presentation of one’s body and energy to communicate vividly movement and
meaning to an audience. It also refers to performance quality.
projection—t. (1) The placement and delivery of the volume, clarity, and
distinctness of the voice in communicating to an audience. (2) The use of
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light waves or electronic characteristics to deliver a film or media production
to an audience.
proportion—v. The relationships in size of one part to the whole and of one
part to another.
props (properties)—t. Items carried on the stage by an actor or the small items
on the set used by the actors.
proscenium—t. The enlarged hole cut through a wall to allow the audience to
view the stage; also called the proscenium arch. The archway is, in a sense, the
frame for the action on the stage.
proscenium stage—t. The stage framed by the proscenium.
protagonist—t. The main character of a play or media production and the
character with whom the audience identifies most strongly.
pulse—d. The underlying and consistent beat expressed by movement.
puppetry—t. Almost anything brought to life by human hands to create a
performance. Types of puppets include rod, hand, and marionette.
radial—v. Lines, shapes, or colors that emanate from a center.
reader’s theatre—t. A performance created by actors reading a script rather
than working from memory.
rectilinear—v. Formed or enclosed by straight lines to create a rectangle.
reflection—v. Personal and thoughtful consideration of an artwork; an aesthetic experience; the creative process.
rehearsal—t. A practice session in which the actors and technicians prepare for
public performance through repetition.
repetition—d. Reversal of the order of movements or movement phrases within
the choreography.
repetition—v. The recurrence of elements of art at regular intervals.
retrograde—d. Reversal of the order of a sequence of choreography.
rhythm—d. The organization or pattern of pulses or beats, metered or
unmetered, involving music or sounds made by the human body; the dance
pattern produced by the emphasis and duration of notes in music.
rhythm—m. The combinations of long and short, even or uneven sounds that
convey a sense of movement in time.
rhythm—v. Intentional, regular repetition of design elements to achieve a
specific repetitious effect or pattern.
rising action—t. The middle part of a plot consisting of complications and
discoveries that create conflict.
ritual dance—d. A type of dance associated with spiritual ceremonies or rites of
passage in a particular culture.
rondo form—m. A musical form in which a section is repeated, with contrasting sections in between (e.g., ABACA).
round—m. A composition in which the same melody is started at different
times and sounded together; also called a canon.
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rubric—v. A guide for judgment or scoring; a description of expectations.
run-through—t. A rehearsal moving from start to finish without stopping for
corrections or notes.
scale—m. The arrangement of notes in a specific order of whole and half steps.
scale—v. Relative size, proportion. Used to determine measurements or
dimensions within a design or work of art.
score—m. The organized notation of the instrumental and vocal parts of a
composition.
screen—t. A reflective surface onto which a film or video is projected.
screen left or right—t. The left side or right side of the screen from the
audience’s perspective.
script—t. The written text of a play.
sculpture—v. A three-dimensional work of art, either in the round (to be
viewed from all sides) or in bas-relief (low relief, in which figures protrude
slightly from the background).
secondary colors—v. Colors that are mixtures of two primary hues: orange,
made from red and yellow; green, made from yellow and blue; and violet,
made from blue and red.
sense memory—t. Memories of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and textures.
Used to help define a character in a certain situation.
sequence—d. The order in which a series of movements and shapes occurs.
serial music—m. A type of composition based on a technique involving a
twelve-tone scale. (See also twelve-tone scale.)
set—t. Scenery, backdrops, and props used to create an environment for a
performance.
setting—t. The locale of the action of a play.
shade—v. Color with black added to it.
shape—d. The positioning of the body in space: curved, straight, angular,
twisted, symmetrical or asymmetrical.
shape—v. A two-dimensional area or plane that may be open or closed, free
form or geometric, found in nature or made by humans.
slide—m. Gradually changing pitch up or down between two scale tones. Also
called portamento.
social dance—d. Dance done in a social setting, usually done with a partner.
solfège—m. A system of designating verbal syllables for the degrees of the scale.
soliloquy—t. A monologue in which an actor reveals his or her inner thoughts.
sonata-allegro form—m. A musical form using the overall design of exposition,
development, and recapitulation.
space—d. The immediate, spherical space surrounding the body in all directions. Use of space includes shape, direction, path, range, and level of movement. Space is also the location of a performed dance.
space—v. The emptiness or area between, around, above, below, or within
objects. Shapes and forms are defined by the space around and within them.
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spatial—d. Of or relating to space or existing in space.
specialist—d, m, t, v. An artist who works in the schools or a credentialed
teacher with a special authorization to teach one of the arts.
staff (staves)—m. The horizontal lines on and between which notes are written.
stage—t. The area where actors perform.
stagecraft—t. The knowledge and skills required to create the physical aspects
of a production (e.g., scenery, properties, lights, sound).
stage crew—t. The backstage crew responsible for technical work. In small
theatre companies the same persons build the set and handle the load-in.
Then, during performances, they change the scenery and handle the curtain.
stage left and right—t. The left and right side of the stage from the perspective
of an actor facing the audience.
stage manager—t. The director’s liaison backstage or in the television or video
studio during rehearsal and performance. The stage manager is responsible
for the running of each performance.
still life—v. An arrangement or a work of art showing a collection of inanimate
objects.
stock characters—t. Established characters, such as young lovers, neighborhood
busybodies, sneaky villains, and overprotective fathers, who are immediately
recognizable by an audience.
storyboard—t. A graphic outline of the course of action in an improvisation,
play, film, or television drama.
structure—d. The way in which a dance is constructed or organized; a supporting framework or the essential parts of a dance.
structure—v. The way in which parts are arranged to form a whole.
style—t. The manner in which a play is performed. The two principal styles are
presentational and representational. In the presentational style the actors
openly acknowledge the presence of the audience and play to it. In the
representational style the actors seem to ignore the presence of the audience.
In film, style is the mode of production in which similar uses are made of
lighting, sets, set design, costuming, and acting. Examples: in film, German
Expressionism or New Wave; in theatre, Elizabethan or commedia dell arte.
style—v. A set of characteristics of the art of a culture, period, or school of art;
the characteristic expression of an individual artist.
stylized—v. Simplified or exaggerated.
subordination—v. Making an element appear to hold secondary or lesser
importance within a design or work of art.
subtext—t. Information, including actions and thoughts, implied by a character but not stated by the character in dialogue.
subtractive—v. Refers to a sculpting method in which the original material is
removed (the opposite of additive).
suite—m. A musical composition consisting of a succession of short pieces.
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symmetrical—v. Refers to an arrangement of parts to produce a mirror image.
symmetry—v. A balance of parts on opposite sides of a perceived boundary.
symphony—m. A long orchestral work divided into three to five movements.
syncopation—m. The placement of rhythmic accents on weak beats or weak
portions of beats.
tableau—t. A silent, motionless depiction of a scene created by actors, often
from a picture. The plural is tableaux.
tap dance—d. A type of dance that concentrates on footwork and rhythm. It
grew out of American popular dancing and has significant roots in African
American, Irish, and English clogging traditions.
teaching artists—Artists hired by a school district to teach the visual or performing arts to students alongside credentialed teachers; sometimes referred
to as artists-in-residence.
technique—d. (1) The physical skills enabling a dancer to execute the steps and
movements required in different dances. (2) The style and form of specific
training in dance. Different styles or genres of dance often have specific
techniques.
technique—v. The method or procedure used to create an artwork.
tempo—d. The specified speed of a dance.
tempo—m. The pace at which music moves according to the speed of the
underlying beat.
text—t. The printed words of a script, including dialogue and stage directions.
texture—m. The character of the different layers of horizontal and vertical
sounds.
texture—v. The surface quality of materials, either actual (tactile) or implied
(visual). Texture is one of the elements of art.
theatre—t. (1) The imitation or representation of life performed for other
people; the performance of dramatic literature; drama; the milieu of actors,
technicians, and playwrights; the place where dramatic performances take
place. (2) Art that is focused on the audience and includes such activities as
acting, directing, designing, managing, and performing other technical tasks
leading to formal or informal presentations.
theatre of the absurd—t. Theatrical movement of the twentieth century in
which playwrights created works representing the universe as unknowable
and human existence as meaningless.
theatrical conventions—t. The established techniques, practices, and devices
unique to theatrical productions.
theatrical experiences—t. Events, activities, and productions associated with
theatre, film and video, and electronic media.
theatrical games—t. Noncompetitive games designed to develop acting skills.
They were popularized by Viola Spolin.
theme—t. The central thought, idea, or significance of the action with which a
play or story deals.
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theme—v. An idea based on a particular subject.
theme and variation—m. A compositional form in which a theme is clearly
stated and followed by a number of variations.
theme and variation—v. An idea or dominant feature giving a work of art its
character; the subject of a work of art, sometimes having a number of phases
or different examples.
three-dimensional—v. Having height, width, and depth. Also referred to as
3-D.
thrust stage—t. A stage around which the audience is positioned on three sides.
timbre—m. Tone color, or quality of sound.
time—d. An element of dance involving rhythm, phrasing, tempo, accent, and
duration. Time can be metered, as in music, or based on body rhythms, such
as breath, emotions, and heartbeat.
tint—v. Color lightened by the addition of white.
tonality (key)—m. The tonal center of a composition.
tone—m. Multiple meanings: a sound of distinct pitch, quality, or duration; a
musical note; the quality or character of a sound; the characteristic quality or
timbre of a particular instrument or voice.
tone—v. Color shaded or darkened by the addition of gray (black plus white).
tone poem—m. An orchestral composition based on an extramusical idea; a
tone picture (e.g., The Pines of Rome, by Ottorino Respighi).
tragedy—t. A play in which the protagonist (leading character) is ultimately
defeated or dies. Examples of tragedies are Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare
and Oedipus Rex by Sophocles.
transition—d. The bridging point at which a single movement, the end of a
phrase, or the end of a larger section of a dance progresses into the next
movement, phrase, or sequence.
triple meter—m. Beats grouped into a set of three.
twelve-tone scale—m. A scale containing twelve notes separated from one
another by a half step; also known as the chromatic scale.
two-dimensional—v. Having height and width but not depth. Also referred to
as 2-D.
two-point perspective—v. A system to show three-dimensional objects on a
two-dimensional surface; the illusion of space and volume through the use of
two vanishing points on the horizon line.
unison—d. Dance movement done simultaneously by a group of dancers.
unity—d. A sense of wholeness accomplished when all of the parts work well
together.
unity—v. The total visual effect of a composition achieved by the careful
blending of the elements of art and the principles of design.
upstage—t. As a noun, the stage area farthest away from the audience; as a
verb, to steal the focus of a scene.
263
urban dance—d. Any contemporary fusion dance form drawn from current
social influences (e.g., hip-hop, break dancing, trance dancing).
value—v. Lightness and darkness of a hue or neutral color; the gradations of
light and dark in a two-dimensional artwork and on the surface of threedimensional objects.
value scale—v. A scale showing the range of values from black to white and
light to dark.
vanishing point—v. In perspective drawing a point at which receding lines
seem to converge. Usually located on the horizon line.
variety—v. A principle of art concerned with combining elements of art in
different ways to create interest.
virtual—v. Refers to an image produced by the imagination and not existing in
reality. Usually applied to experiences that occur in environments that exist
within a computer or on the Internet or to procedures or functions creating
the illusion that they are actually present.
visual literacy—v. Includes thinking and communication. Visual thinking is
the ability to transform thoughts and information into images. Visual
communication takes place when people are able to construct meaning from
a visual image.
visual metaphor—v. Images in which characteristics of objects are likened to
one another and represented as such. Closely related to concepts about
symbolism.
vocal projection—t. See projection.
vocal quality—t. The characteristics of a voice (e.g., shrill, nasal, raspy, breathy,
booming).
volume—t. The degree of loudness or intensity of a voice.
volume—v. Any three-dimensional quantity bound or enclosed, whether solid
or void.
warm colors—v. Colors suggesting warmth: red, yellow, and orange.
wings—t. Off-stage areas out of view on stage left and stage right that may be
used for exits, entrances, and set changes.
work—d. A piece of choreography or a dance.
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Selected References
and Resources
Selected References and Resources
Resources from Key Arts Education Organizations
Resources providing a wealth of information on visual and performing arts
education are available on the Web sites of the following key arts education
organizations:
California Organizations and Resources
California Alliance for Arts Education (CAAE). http://www.artsed411.org
The California Art Education Association (CAEA). http://www.caeaarteducation.org
California Arts Council (CAC). http://www.cac.ca.gov
The California Arts Project (TCAP). http://csmp.ucop.edu/tcap
California Assembly of Local Arts Agencies (CALAA). http://www.calaa.net
California Association for Music Education (CMEA). http://
www.calmusiced.com
California Dance Educators Association (CDEA). http://www.cdeadans.org
California Educational Theatre Association (CETA). http://www.cetaweb.org
California State PTA. http://www.capta.org/sections/programs-smarts/index.cfm
California State Summer School for the Arts. http://www.csssa.org
California State University Summer Arts. http://www.calstate.edu/summerarts
UC/CSU Admission Requirements. http://pathstat1.ucop.edu/ag/a-g/index.html
California Department of Education Resources
Arts Education Program Toolkit: A Visual and Performing Arts Program
Assessment Process. http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc/
Arts Work: A Call for Arts Education for All California Students: The Report
of the Superintendent’s Task Force on the Visual and Performing Arts.
http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/rc/
California Arts Assessment Network (CAAN). http://www.teachingarts.org/
CAAN
Local Arts Education Partnership Grant Program. http://www.cac.ca.gov
Local Arts Education Partnership Grant Program: The Arts Work Visual and
Performing Arts Grant Program. http://www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ca/vp/
visperffunding.asp
Note: The publication data in this section were supplied by the Curriculum Frameworks and Instructional
Resources Division, California Department of Education. Questions about the data should be addressed to
that office: telephone (916) 319-0881.
265
Model Arts Program (MAP) Network. http://www.teachingarts.org/MAP
Performance Assessment Professional Development Handbook: http://
[email protected]
TeachingArts.Org. http://www.teachingarts.org
Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools,
Prekindergarten Through Grade Twelve. http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/
index.asp
Visual and Performing Arts Education. http://www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ca/vp/
Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten
Through Grade Twelve. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/vp/cf/
National Organizations and Resources
American Orff-Schulwerk Association. http://www.aosa.org
Americans for the Arts. http://www.americansforthearts.org/
Annenberg/CPB. http://www.learner.org
Arts Education Partnership (AEP). http://www.aep-arts.org/
Arts Education Resources: http://www.artslynx.org/artsed
Dance Educators Professional Teachers’ Association (DEPTA). http://
hsc.csu.edu.au/pta/members/depa.html
Educational Theatre Association (ETA). http://www.edta.org
The Getty’s ArtsEdNet. http://www.getty.edu/artsednet
Kennedy Center ArtsEdge. http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org
Lincoln Center Institute. http://www.lincolncenter.org
The Music Educators National Conference (MENC). http://www.menc.org
National Art Education Association (NAEA). http://www.naea-reston.org
National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. http://www.nasaa-arts.org
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. http://www.nbpts.org
National Dance Association (NDA). http://www.aahperd.org/nda
National Dance Educators Organization (NDEO). http://www.ndeo.org
National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). http://www.arts.gov
General Arts References and Resources
Aiming High: High Schools for the Twenty-first Century. Sacramento: California
Department of Education, 2002.
The Arts: A Competitive Advantage for California. Prepared by the Policy
Economics Group. Sacramento: KMPG Peat Marwick and the California
Arts Council, 1994.
Arts Education Program Toolkit: A Visual and Performing Arts Program Assessment Process. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2001.
Arts Work: A Call for Arts Education for All California Students. Sacramento:
California Department of Education, 1997.
Selected References
and Resources
266
Selected References
and Resources
Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. Edited by Edward B.
Fiske. Washington, D.C.: The President’s Committee on the Arts and the
Humanities and the Arts Education Partnership, 1999.
Cornett, Claudia E. The Arts as Meaning Makers: Integrating Literature and the
Arts Throughout the Curriculum. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,
1998.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, and Rick E. Robinson. The Art of Seeing: An Interpretation of the Aesthetic Encounter. Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 1991.
Current Research in Arts Education: An Arts in Education Research Compendium.
Sacramento: California Arts Council, 2001.
Dissanayake, Ellen. What Is Art For? Seattle: University of Washington Press,
1990.
Eaton, Marcia Muelder. Basic Issues in Aesthetics. Long Grove, Ill.: Waveland
Press, 1999.
Eisner, Elliot W. “The Arts as a Way of Knowing,” Principal, Vol. 60, No. 1
(September 1980), 11–14.
Eisner, Elliot W. Cognition and Curriculum: A Basis for Deciding What to Teach
and How to Evaluate. New York: Longman Group Publishing, 1982.
Eisner, Elliot W. “Does Experience in the Arts Boost Academic Achievement?”
Arts Education Policy Review, Vol. 100, No. 1 (September/October 1998),
32–38.
Eisner, Elliot W. “Getting Down to Basics in Arts Education,” Journal of
Aesthetics Education, Vol. 33, No. 4 (Winter 1999), 145–59.
Eisner, Elliot W. The Kind of Schools We Need: Personal Essays. Portsmouth,
N.H.: Heinemann, 1998.
Elementary Art Programs: A Guide for Administrators. Reston, Va.: National Art
Education Association, 2004.
“Focus on the Visual and Performing Arts,” Curriculum/Technology Quarterly,
Vol. 10, No. 3 (Spring 2001).
Fowler, Charles. Can We Rescue the Arts for America’s Children: Coming to Our
Senses—10 Years Later. Washington, D.C.: Americans for the Arts, 1988.
Fowler, Charles. Strong Arts, Strong Schools: The Promising Potential and Shortsighted Disregard of the Arts in American Schooling. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2002.
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Selected References
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269
Web Resources
The following uniform resource locators (URLs) were valid at the time this
document was prepared:
Americans for the Arts. http://www.artsusa.org
Arts Education Partnership. http://www.aep-arts.org
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. http://www.ascd.org
California Alliance for Arts Education. http://www.artsed411.org
California Arts Council. http://www.cac.ca.gov
The California Arts Project. http://csmp.ucop.edu/tcap
California Department of Education, Arts Education. http://www.cde.ca.gov/
ci/vp
California Department of Education, Frameworks. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/
cf/index.asp
Critical Links: Learning in the Arts and Student Academic and Social Development.
Edited by Richard Deasy. Arts Education Partnership. http://www.aeparts.org/cllinkspage.htm
Getty Center for Education in the Arts. http://www.getty.edu/artsednet
Kennedy Center Arts Edge. http://www.artsedge.Kennedy-center.org
Project Muse Scholarly Journals Online. This site offers fee-based services
available through the Johns Hopkins University Press. http://muse.jhu.edu
TeachingArts.Org. This is a statewide online arts resource center, developed by
the Kern and San Bernardino county offices of education in collaboration
with the California Department of Education. http://www.teachingarts.org
Assessment References and Resources
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Assessing Student Learning: New Rules, New Realities. Edited by Ronald S.
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Measuring Up to the Challenge: What Standards and Assessment Can Do for Arts
Education. Edited by Ruth Mitchell. New York: American Council for the
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Selected References
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Prelude to Performance Assessment in the Arts, Kindergarten Through Grade
Twelve. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1994.
Standards-Based Performance Assessments in the Arts: Using Scoring Guides and
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Web Resources
California Arts Assessment Network. This network, facilitated through the
California Department of Education, develops and pilots assessment
instruments for schools and school districts involved in arts assessment.
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National Assessment of Educational Progress. “The Nation’s Report Card”
at this site includes assessment in a number of subject areas, including the
visual and performing arts. Sample assessment items are available online.
http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard
Standing Conference of Arts and Social Sciences (a British organization).
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Western Michigan University. The summary of the student evaluation
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Web Resources
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Visual Arts References and Resources
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Smith, Ralph A. Discipline-Based Art Education: Origins, Meaning, and
Development. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
Stankowicz, Mary Ann. Roots of Art Education Practice. Worcester, Mass.:
Davis Publications, Inc., 2001.
Stewart, Marilyn G. Thinking Through Aesthetics. Worcester, Mass.: Davis
Publications, Inc., 1997.
Stone, Denise L. Using the Art Museum. Worcester, Mass.: Davis Publications,
Inc., 2001.
Wachowiak, Frank, and Robert D. Clements. Emphasis Art: A Qualitative Art
Program for Elementary and Middle Schools (Seventh edition). Boston: Allyn
& Bacon, Inc., 2000.
Walter, Sydney A. Teaching Meaning in Art Making. Worcester, Mass.: Davis
Publications, 2001.
279
Web Resources
Artcyclopedia. This site features a search engine for exploring 125,000 works
of art and contains links to museums housing those works. http://
www.artcyclopedia.com
California History–Social Science Course Models. This site contains history–
social science course models for use by California teachers. http://
www.history.ctaponline.org
Carol Gerten’s Fine Art (CGFA). This site offers an A-to-Z list of fine arts
resources. http://sunsite.dk/cgfa/index.html
Professional Development Resources
The following entities offer professional development resources in the
visual and performing arts:
American Alliance for Theatre and Education
Arizona State University, Theatre Department
P.O. Box 873411
Tempe, AZ 85287-3411
(602) 965-6064
California Arts Council
1300 I Street, Suite 930
Sacramento, CA 95814
(800) 201-6201; (916) 322-6555.
The California Arts Project
P.O. Box 4925
San Rafael, CA 94913
(415) 499-5893
Educational Theatre Association
2343 Auburn Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45219
(513) 421-3900
The Getty Center for Education in the Arts
401 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 950
Santa Monica, CA 90401-1455
(310) 395-6657
The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
2700 F Street, NW
Washington, DC 20566-0001
(800) 444-1324
Selected References
and Resources
280
Selected References
and Resources
Music Educators National Conference
1806 Robert Fulton Drive
Reston, VA 20191
(800) 336-3768; (703) 860-4000
National Art Education Association
1916 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1590
(703) 860-8000
National Dance Association
1900 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191-1598
(800) 213-7193
National Endowment for the Arts
Nancy Hanks Center
1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20506-0001
(202) 682-5400
National Endowment for the Humanities
1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20506
(800) 634-1121; (202) 606-8400
The following professional arts education associations change officers periodically. For the names and telephone numbers of current contact persons, call
the California Department of Education, Curriculum Frameworks and Instructional Resources Office, at (916) 319-0881.
California Alliance for Arts Education
California Art Education Association
California Dance Education Association
California Education Theatre Association
California Humanities Association
California Music Educators Association
281
Copyright Resources
The following organizations provide information on copyright and guidance on fair use:
American Library Association, Office for Information Technology Policy:
Copyright Page. This site includes sections on copyright basics, fair use,
copyright and the library, copyright and learning, copyright and research,
and copyright and the Internet. http://www.ala.org/ala/washoff/WOissues/
copyrightb/copyright.htm
California Lawyers for the Arts. http://www.calawyersforthearts.org
The Copyright Society of the USA. This site contains information about the
protection and use of rights in literature, music, art, theatre, motion
pictures, and so forth. http://www.csusa.org
Fullerton School District: Copyright Guidelines for Teachers. This site includes
copyright guidelines for print, music, audiovisual, and computer materials.
http://www.fsd.k12.ca.us/menus/Copyright/Guidelines.html
Music Library Association: Guidelines for Educational Uses of Music. The
guidelines at this site were developed and approved in April 1976 by the
Music Publishers’ Association of the United States, Inc.; the National
Music Publishers’ Association, Inc.; the Music Teachers National Association; the Music Educators National Conference; the National Association
of Schools of Music; and the Ad Hoc Committee on Copyright Law
Revision. http://www.musiclibraryassoc.org/Copyright/guidemus.htm
Siskiyou County Office of Education. This site, developed by Kathy Graves,
Director of Instructional Media Services, Siskiyou County Office of
Education, offers links to a wide variety of copyright resources available on
the Web. http://sisnet.ssku.k12.ca.us/~imcftp/copyright.html
Stanford University Libraries: Copyright and Fair Use. This site provides links
to primary materials, current legislation, cases and issues, Web resources,
and an overview of copyright law. http://fairuse.stanford.edu
United States Copyright Office. This official source provides useful copyright
information. www.copyright.gov
Contemporary Media References and Resources
Allen, Bryan. Digital Wizardry: Creative Photoshop Techniques. New York:
Amphoto Books, 1998.
Bartlett, Larry, and Jon Tarrant. Black and White Printing Workshop.
Hauppauge, N.Y.: Silver Pixel Press, 1996.
Frost, Lee. The A–Z of Creative Photography: Over 70 Techniques Explained in
Full. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2003.
Hedgecoe, John. John Hedgeco’s New Introductory Photography Course.
Stoneham, Mass.: Focal Press, 1998.
Selected References
and Resources
282
Selected References
and Resources
Klasey, Jack. Photo & Digital Imaging. Tinley Park, Ill.: Goodheart-Wilcox
Company, 2002.
London, Barbara, and others. Photography (Seventh edition). Old Tappan, N.J.:
Prentice-Hall, 2001.
Luciana, James, and Judith Watts. The Art of Enhanced Photography: Beyond the
Photographic Image. Gloucester, Mass.: Rockport Publishers, 1999.
O’Brien, Michael, and Norman Sibley. Photographic Eye: Learning to See with a
Camera. Worcester, Mass.: Davis Publications, Inc., 1995.
Smith, Bill. Designing a Photograph: Visual Techniques for Making Your
Photographs Work. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 2003.
Stone, Jim. Darkroom Dynamics: A Guide to Creative Darkroom Techniques.
Stoneham, Mass.: Focal Press, 1985.
Suess, Bernhard. Mastering Black and White Photography: From Camera to
Darkroom. New York: Allworth Press, 1995.
Vineyard, Jeremy. Setting Up Your Shots: Great Camera Moves Every Film Maker
Should Know. Studio City, Calif.: Michael Wiese Productions, 2000.
Web Resources
The Film Foundation. This educational site is sponsored by the Artists Rights
Foundation and the Directors Guild of America. http://admitone.org
International Visual Literacy Organization. This site offers information,
contacts, links, and definitions of terms related to visual literacy.
http://www.ivla.org
Media Literacy Clearinghouse. Several organizations share this site, which
is dedicated to media literacy concepts, issues, and education.
http://medialit.med.sc.edu/
Media Literacy Review. This site contains recent articles, information, and a
comprehensive A–Z index of all media literacy organizations, noting the
particular focus of each organization. http://interact.uoregon.edu/medialit/
mlr/home/index.html
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