Crown PIP-RPAT Technical information
Model:
Macro-Tech 3600VZ
Some models may be exported under the name Amcron.®
©2001 by Crown Audio, Inc., P.O. Box 1000, Elkhart, IN 46515-1000 U.S.A. Telephone: 219-294-8000. Fax:
219-294-8329. Trademark Notice: SmartAmp,™ PIP,™ and Grounded Bridge™ are trademarks and Amcron,®
Crown,® Macro-Tech,® IOC,® ODEP,® IQ System,® and P.I.P.® are registered trademarks of Crown
International, Inc. Other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Obtaining Other Language Versions:
To obtain information in another language about the use of this product, please contact your local Crown
Distributor. If you need assistance locating your local distributor, please contact Crown at 219-294-8200.
Note:
The information provided in this manual was deemed accurate as of the publication date. However,
updates to this information may have occurred. To obtain the latest version of this manual, please visit the
Crown website at www.crownaudio.com.
125113-4
3/01
3
YEAR
THREE YEAR
FULL WARRANTY
3
YEAR
WORLDWIDE
NORTH AMERICA
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West
Mishawaka Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you, the
ORIGINAL PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each
NEW Crown1 product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of
purchase by the original purchaser (the “warranty period”) that the new
Crown product is free of defects in materials and workmanship, and we
further warrant the new Crown product regardless of the reason for failure,
except as excluded in this Crown Warranty.
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West Mishawaka
Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you, the ORIGINAL
PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each NEW Crown product,
for a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase by the original purchaser
(the “warranty period”) that the new Crown product is free of defects in materials
and workmanship. We further warrant the new Crown product regardless of the
reason for failure, except as excluded in this Warranty.
1
Note: If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the
name “Crown” in this warranty.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product
which occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product
which has been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident,
negligence, or loss which is covered under any of your insurance contracts.
This Crown Warranty also does not extend to the new Crown product if the
serial number has been defaced, altered, or removed.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product which
occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product which has
been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident, negligence, or loss
which is covered under any of your insurance contracts. This Crown Warranty
also does not extend to the new Crown product if the serial number has been
defaced, altered, or removed.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as
excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund
unless you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and
repair is not practical or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then
you must make the defective or malfunctioning product available to us free
and clear of all liens or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the
actual purchase price, not including interest, insurance, closing costs, and
other finance charges less a reasonable depreciation on the product from
the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be performed at our
authorized service centers. We will remedy the defect and ship the product
from the service center within a reasonable time after receipt of the
defective product at our authorized service center.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as
excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund unless you
agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and repair is not practical
or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then you must make the defective
or malfunctioning product available to us free and clear of all liens or other
encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the actual purchase price, not
including interest, insurance, closing costs, and other finance charges less a
reasonable depreciation on the product from the date of original purchase.
Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers or at the
factory. We will remedy the defect and ship the product from the service center
or our factory within a reasonable time after receipt of the defective product at our
authorized service center or our factory. All expenses in remedying the defect,
including surface shipping costs in the United States, will be borne by us. (You
must bear the expense of shipping the product between any foreign country and
the port of entry in the United States and all taxes, duties, and other customs fees
for such foreign shipments.)
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety
(90) days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be
shipped in a factory pack. Corrective action will be taken within a
reasonable time of the date of receipt of the defective product by our
authorized service center. If the repairs made by our authorized service
center are not satisfactory, notify our authorized service center
immediately.
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety (90)
days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be shipped in
a factory pack, which, if needed, may be obtained from us free of charge.
Corrective action will be taken within a reasonable time of the date of receipt of
the defective product by us or our authorized service center. If the repairs made
by us or our authorized service center are not satisfactory, notify us or our
authorized service center immediately.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT
OR PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT OR
PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT. SOME STATES DO
NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATIONS OF INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION OR
EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown
Warranty. This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which
you are deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and
replacement parts provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall
carry only the unexpired portion of this Crown Warranty.
DESIGN CHANGES
We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time
without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in
products previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than
ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS
CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
9/90
Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown Warranty.
This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which you are
deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and replacement parts
provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall carry only the unexpired
portion of this Crown Warranty.
DESIGN CHANGES
We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time without
notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in products
previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
THIS CROWN WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, YOU
MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than ninety
(90) days after expiration of the warranty period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS
CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301
9/90
The information furnished in this manual does not include all of the details of design, production, or variations of the
equipment. Nor does it cover every possible situation which may arise during installation, operation or maintenance. If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the name “Crown” in this manual. If you need
special assistance beyond the scope of this manual, please contact our Technical Support Group.
Crown Technical Support Group
Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Phone: 800-342-6939 (North America, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands) or 219-294-8200
Fax: 219-294-8301 Internet: http://www.crownaudio.com
IMPORTANT
CLASS 1 OUTPUT WIRING REQUIRED.
COMPLY WITH LOCAL ELECTRICAL CODES
WHEN WIRING THIS DEVICE.
CAUTION
AVIS
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
RISQUE DE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
N’OUVREZ PAS
TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK DO
NOT REMOVE TOP OR BOTTOM
COVERS. NO USER SERVICEABLE
PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO
QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
DISCONNECT POWER CORD BEFORE REMOVING REAR INPUT
MODULE TO ACCESS GAIN SWITCH.
À PRÉVENIR LE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
N’ENLEVEZ PAS LES COUVERCLES. IL
N’Y A PAS DES PARTIES
SERVICEABLE À L’INTÉRIEUR. TOUS
REPARATIONS DOIT ETRE FAIRE PAR
PERSONNEL QUALIFIÉ SEULMENT.
DÉBRANCHER LA BORNE AVANT
D’OUVRIR LA MODULE EN ARRIÈRE.
Magnetic Field
WARNING
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC
SHOCK, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS
EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE!
The lightning bolt
triangle is used to
alert the user to the
risk of electric shock.
CAUTION! Do not locate sensitive high-gain
equipment such as preamplifiers or tape decks
directly above or below the unit. Because this
amplifier has a high power density, it has a strong
magnetic field which can induce hum into unshielded
devices that are located nearby. The field is strongest just above and below the unit.
If an equipment rack is used, we recommend locating the amplifier(s) in the bottom of the rack and the
preamplifier or other sensitive equipment at the top.
The exclamation point
triangle is used to alert the
user to important operating
or maintenance instructions.
Printed on
recycled paper.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Important Safety Instructions
1) Read these instructions.
2) Keep these instructions.
3) Heed all warnings.
4) Follow all instructions.
5) Do not use this apparatus near water.
6) Clean only with a dry cloth.
7) Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
8) Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus that
produce heat.
9) Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or
grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two
blades with one wider than the other. A groundingtype plug has two blades and a third grounding
prong. The wide blade or the third prong is provided
for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into
your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of
the obsolete outlet.
10) Protect the power cord from being walked on or
pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the apparatus.
11) Only use attachments/accessories specified by the
manufacturer.
12) Use only with a cart, stand, bracket, or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the apparatus.
When a cart is used, use caution when moving the
cart/apparatus combination to avoid injury from tipover.
13) Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or
when unused for long periods of time.
14) Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel.
Servicing is required when the apparatus has been
damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or
plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects
have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has
been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate
normally, or has been dropped.
15) To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do not expose this apparatus to rain or moisture.
Page 4
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
CONTENTS
1 Welcome ............................................................................ 7
1.1 Unpacking ................................................................... 7
1.2 Features ....................................................................... 8
2 Facilities ............................................................................ 9
3 Installation ....................................................................... 11
3.1 Mounting ................................................................... 11
3.2 Cooling ...................................................................... 11
3.3 Wiring ........................................................................ 12
3.3.1 Stereo (Two-Channel) Operation ...................... 12
3.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation ................................... 13
3.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation .................................. 14
3.3.4 Input Connection ............................................. 15
3.3.5 Output Connection .......................................... 17
3.3.6 Additional Load Protection ............................... 19
3.3.7 AC Power Requirements .................................. 19
4 Operation ......................................................................... 20
4.1 Precautions ................................................................ 20
4.2 Indicators ................................................................... 20
4.3 Protection Circuits ...................................................... 21
4.3.1 Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP) .... 21
4.3.2 Standby Mode ................................................. 22
4.3.3 Transformer Thermal Protection ....................... 22
4.3.4 Circuit Breaker ................................................. 22
4.4 Controls ..................................................................... 23
4.5 Filter Cleaning ............................................................ 24
5 Technical Information ...................................................... 25
5.1 Overview ................................................................... 25
5.2 VZ Power ................................................................... 25
5.2.1 Background .................................................... 25
5.2.2 The VZ Supply ................................................. 26
5.3 Circuit Theory ............................................................ 26
5.3.1 Stereo Operation ............................................. 26
5.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation ................................... 28
5.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation .................................. 28
6 Specifications .................................................................. 29
7 AC Power Draw and Thermal Dissipation ....................... 36
8 Accessories ..................................................................... 37
8.1 PIP Modules .............................................................. 37
8.2 Level Control Security Kit ............................................ 39
9 Service ............................................................................. 40
9.1 Worldwide Service ..................................................... 40
9.2 North American Service ............................................. 40
9.2.1 Service at a North American Service Center .... 40
9.2.2 Factory Service ............................................... 40
Reference Manual
Page 5
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
ILLUSTRATIONS
1.1
2.1
2.2
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7.1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Page 6
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Amplifier .................................................... 7
Front Facilities ........................................................................... 9
Rear Facilities .......................................................................... 10
Mounting Dimensions .............................................................. 11
Top View of a Rack-Mounted Unit ............................................ 11
Proper Air Flow in a Rack Cabinet ............................................ 11
Stereo Wiring ........................................................................... 12
Bridge-Mono Wiring ................................................................ 13
Parallel-Mono Wiring ............................................................... 14
Unbalanced Input Wiring ......................................................... 15
Balanced Input Wiring ............................................................. 15
Balanced and Unbalanced Phone Plugs ................................. 15
Subsonic Filter Capacitors ....................................................... 16
Unbalanced RFI Filters ............................................................ 16
Balanced RFI Filters ................................................................ 16
Wire Size Nomograph ............................................................. 17
Inductive Load (Transformer) Network ..................................... 18
Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph ............................................... 19
Indicators ................................................................................ 20
Macro-Tech Indicator States .................................................... 21
Input Sensitivity and Ground Lift Switches ................................ 23
A Typical Power Supply ........................................................... 26
Music Waveforms are Complex ............................................... 26
VZ Supply in Parallel Mode ...................................................... 26
VZ Supply in Series Mode ....................................................... 26
Circuit Block Diagram .............................................................. 27
Minimum Power Matrix ............................................................ 32
Maximum Power Matrix ........................................................... 33
Typical Frequency Response .................................................. 34
Typical Damping Factor ........................................................... 34
Typical Output Impedance ...................................................... 34
Typical Phase Response ......................................................... 35
Typical Crosstalk ..................................................................... 35
Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation ................ 36
Installing a PIP Module ............................................................ 37
PIP2 Adapter Connection ........................................................ 37
Installing a PIP2 Module .......................................................... 37
Installing a Level Control Shaft Lock ........................................ 39
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Fig. 1.1 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Amplifier
1 Welcome
Congratulations on your purchase of the Macro-Tech®
3600VZ professional power amplifier. It is the first audio
amplifier to offer Crown’s patented Variable Impedance
(VZ®) power supplies. The new power supplies, along
with new semiconductor technology, enable the MacroTech 3600VZ to pack more power into a mere 3½ inches
of vertical rack space than ever before. Because it’s a
Macro-Tech, you have the added benefit of PIP ™compatibility for access to custom input modules and
ODEP® protection to keep the show going long after
other amplifiers would fail (see the Section 8 for available input modules).
This manual will help you successfully install and use
your new amplifier. We strongly recommend you read
all instructions, warnings and cautions contained within.
Be sure to read Sections 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 if you plan to
use the amplifier in one of its two mono modes. Also for
your protection, please send in your warranty registration card today and save your bill of sale since it is your
official proof of purchase.
Reference Manual
1.1 Unpacking
Please unpack and inspect your new amplifier for any
damage that may have occurred during transit. If damage is found, notify the transportation company immediately. Only you, the consignee, may initiate a claim
with the carrier for damage resulting during shipment.
Crown will be happy to cooperate fully as needed. Save
the shipping carton as evidence of damage for the
shipper’s inspection.
Even if the unit arrived in perfect condition, as most do,
save all packing materials so you will have them if you
ever need to transport the unit. NEVER SHIP THE UNIT
WITHOUT THE FACTORY PACK.
Page 7
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
1.2 Features
The Macro-Tech 3600VZ amplifier uses the latest technology and miniaturized design to deliver the highest
power and value for its size, weight and price. Crown’s
Grounded Bridge™ output and patented ODEP protection circuitry combine to provide performance and reliability that surpass all conventional amplifier designs.
Macro-Tech amplifiers also have an independent high
voltage power supply for each channel. This design provides ultra-low crosstalk specifications and makes it
possible to treat each channel as a separate amplifier.
Features:
❏ Crown’s Grounded Bridge™circuitry generates incredible voltage swings while avoiding stressful output transistor configurations common to
conventional amplifiers. The results are lower distortion and superior reliability.
❏ Full protection against shorted outputs, open circuits, mismatched loads, general overheating, high
frequency overloads and internal faults; loudspeaker
protection against low frequency and DC output.
❏ Extra rugged, extruded aluminum front panel with
ODEP and Signal Presence/IOC indicators for each
channel, as well as an Enable Indicator.
❏ Separate voltage supplies for each channel provide
low crosstalk and improved reliability.
❏ Efficient heat sinks and a self-contained forced air
cooling system dissipate heat quickly and evenly to
prevent overheating, prolong component life and deliver greater power output.
❏ Balanced inputs and adjustable front panel level
controls.
❏ Patented ODEP (Output Device Emulation Protection) circuitry compensates for overheating and overload to keep the amplifier working long after others
would fail.
❏ 31 detents in the level controls reduce the likelihood
of settings being inadvertently disturbed.
❏ IOC® (Input/Output Comparator) circuitry immediately alerts of any distortion exceeding 0.05%, providing dynamic proof of performance.
❏ Multiple dual binding posts provide easy and versatile output connection.
❏ PIP (Programmable Input Processor) connector accepts accessories that tailor your amplifier to suit individual applications.
❏ Two mono modes (Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono)
for driving a wide range of load impedances.
❏ Very low harmonic and intermodulation distortion result in the best dynamic transfer function in the industry.
❏ High damping factor provides superior control over
low frequency drivers for a clean, accurate low end.
❏ Ground lift switch to isolate chassis and phone jack
audio input grounds.
❏ Internal three position input sensitivity switch provides settings of 0.775 volts and 1.4 volts for rated
output, and 26 dB voltage gain.
❏ Mounts in a standard 19 inch (48.3 cm) equipment
rack with rear support, or units can be stacked.
❏ All specifications are guaranteed for the duration of
the warranty period.
❏ Units in North America and other select countries
are covered by a three year “No-Fault” full warranty
which completely protects your investment and
guarantees its specifications.
❏ An articulated VZ power supply for each channel
provides excellent crosstalk characteristics and the
best power matching to your load.
Page 8
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Fig. 2.1 Front Facilities
2 Facilities
A. Dust Filter
The dust filters remove large particles from the air at the
air intake. Check filters regularly to be sure they do not
become clogged. The filter elements can be easily removed for cleaning by gently pulling them away from
the front panel (see Sections 3.2 and 4.5).
B. Level Controls
The level for each channel is set with these convenient
controls mounted on the front panel. Each level control
has 31 detents for precise adjustment (see Section 4.4).
A security option is available to prevent tampering (see
Section 8.2).
They dim proportionally as energy reserves decrease.
In the event that energy reserves are depleted, the indicators turn off and ODEP proportionally limits output
drive so the amplifier can safely continue to operate
even under severe conditions. These indicators can
also help to identify more unusual operating problems
(see Section 4.2).
E. Enable Indicator
This indicator lights when the amplifier has been “enabled” or turned on, and AC power is available (see
Section 4.2).
C. Signal / IOC Indicators
F. Enable Switch
The presence of an audio signal and the distortion level
of each channel is represented by these green multifunction indicators. As signal presence indicators, they
flash with normal intensity in sync with the output audio
signal to indicate its presence. As IOC (Input/Output
Comparator) indicators, they compare the waveform of
the input signal to that of the output. They flash brightly
with a 0.1 second hold delay if there is a difference (or
distortion) of 0.05% or more. Another IOC function is to
indicate input overload. If the input signal is too large
the indicators will flash brightly (with a 0.5 second hold
delay) to indicate input clipping distortion. Note: The
Channel 2 IOC indicator will stay on in Parallel-Mono
mode (refer to Section 4.2).
Depress this push-button to turn the amplifier on or off.
When turned on, the output is muted for approximately
four seconds to protect your system from start-up transients. (This delay can be changed. Contact the Crown
Technical Support Group for details.)
D. ODEP Indicators
During normal operation of the Output Device Emulation Protection circuitry, these indicators glow brightly
to show the presence of reserve thermodynamic energy.
Reference Manual
G. Power Cord
All 120 VAC, 60 Hz North American units include a
NEMA TT30P plug. These units also include 30-amp
(10 AWG) line cord. Other units are equipped with a
power cord and plug that is appropriate for the voltage
requirements of the amplifier.
H. Stereo/Mono Switch
The three operating modes of this amplifier are
controlled by this switch. Stereo mode is available for
normal two-channel operation. Bridge-Mono mode is
available to drive a single load with an impedance equal
to or greater than 4 ohms. Parallel-Mono mode is
Page 9
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Fig. 2.2 Rear Facilities
available to drive a single load with an impedance less
than 4 ohms. Important: Do NOT change this switch
unless the amplifier is first turned off (see Section
3.3).
I. Reset Buttons (PUSH TO RESET)
These reset buttons are used to reset the breakers that
safeguard the power supplies from overload (see
Section 4.3).
J. PIP Module
Versatile Programmable Input Processor modules provide flexible expansion features that can be added to
customize the amplifier. PIP modules plug into the connector inside the back panel of the amplifier. A PIP
module’s input connectors are placed in parallel with
the input phone jacks. The P.I.P.®-FX is included as a
standard feature to provide balanced XLR inputs. It has
no internal circuitry and can be used along with the input phone jacks to facilitate “daisy chaining” multiple
amplifiers. See Section 8 for a list of available PIP modules.
K. Balanced Phone Jack Inputs
A balanced ¼ inch phone jack is provided for input to
each channel. They may be used with either balanced
(tip, ring and sleeve) or unbalanced (tip and sleeve)
input wiring (refer to Section 3.3). Because these inputs
are in parallel with the PIP connector, they should not be
used as inputs if the installed PIP has active circuitry.
Caution: The Channel 2 input should NOT be used in
either mono mode.
Page 10
L. Ground Lift Switch
The input signal ground may be isolated from the AC
ground with this switch to help prevent the hum created
by unwanted ground loops. It affects only the input
phone jacks. It has no affect on the PIP module’s XLR
input connectors. Activating the switch inserts an impedance between the sleeve of each phone input jack
and the circuit ground.
M. Balanced XLR Inputs
A balanced 3-pin female XLR connector is provided for
input to each channel by the P.I.P.-FX, a standard feature of your amplifier. The XLR connectors are in parallel
with the amplifier’s phone jacks. Because there is no
active circuitry on the PIP, the XLR connectors can be
used at the same time as the phone input jacks for
“daisy chaining” multiple amplifiers. Caution: The
Channel 2 input should NOT be used in either mono
mode.
N. Output Jacks
Two pairs of dual binding posts are provided for the
output of each channel so multiple loudspeakers can
be connected easily. The connectors accept bare wire
or spade lugs.
❑ Input Sensitivity Switch
The three position input sensitivity switch inside the
amplifier can be accessed by removing the PIP module. Settings include 0.775 volts and 1.4 volts for rated
output, and 26 dB voltage gain (see Section 4.4).
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3 Installation
3.1 Mounting
Macro-Tech amplifiers are designed for standard 19
inch (48.3 cm) rack mounting and “stack” mounting
without a cabinet. In a rack cabinet, it is best to mount
them one on top of the other. This provides efficient air
flow and enables each unit to support the one above.
Important: Due to its weight, the back of the amplifier
should be supported.
When mounting the amplifier in a rack cabinet, the side
walls of the rack should be at least 2 inches (5 cm) away
from the chassis as shown in Figure 3.2.
Tip: An easy way to verify adequate cooling is to observe the ODEP indicators with the amplifier operating
under worst-case conditions. If the indicators dim, additional cooling is recommended.
If your rack cabinet has a front door that could block air
flow to the amplifier’s air intakes, you must provide adequate air flow either with a grille in the door or by pressurizing the air behind the door. Wire grilles are
recommended over perforated panels because they
have larger openings and cause less restriction.
Fig. 3.1 Mounting Dimensions
3.2 Cooling
NEVER block the amplifier’s side vents and front air intake. Under demanding conditions, there should be a
minimum air flow of 45 cubic feet (1.3 cubic meters) per
minute per amplifier. When mounted in a rack, all empty
spaces should be covered with blank panels to prevent
improper air flow. The amplifier’s air flow should be augmented with a rack cooling system if its load is less than
4 ohms and it must operate at consistently high output
levels as in concert sound reinforcement.
A good choice for increased air flow behind a rack cabinet door is to mount one or more “squirrel cage” blowers in the rack (Option 1 below). The blower is mounted
at the bottom of the rack so it blows outside air into the
space between the door and the front of the amplifiers.
This blower should not blow air into or take air out of the
space behind the amplifiers. For racks without a door,
mount a blower at the top of the rack so air is drawn out
the back (Option 2 below). The blower must provide air
flow that exceeds the sum of the air flow required by the
individual amplifiers.
AIR
FLOW
EQUIPMENT
RACK
(SIDE VIEW)
IMPORTANT: Be sure rear of amplifier
is securely mounted to rack.
AIR
FLOW
FRONT
OF
RACK
DOOR
17 in
43.2 cm
16 in
40.6 cm
BLOWER
(OPTION 2)
AIR
FLOW
AMPLIFIER
(TOP VIEW)
AIR
FLOW
2 in
(5 cm)
MIN.
RACK
CABINET
AIR FLOW
Fig. 3.2 Top View of a Rack-Mounted Unit
Reference Manual
BLOWER
(OPTION 1)
Fig. 3.3 Proper Air Flow in a Rack Cabinet
If the air supply is unusually dusty, it may be necessary
pre-filter it using commercial furnace filters, etc., to prevent rapid loading of the unit’s own air filter. When
needed, the unit’s filter can be cleaned with mild dish
detergent and water (see Section 4.5).
Page 11
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3 Wiring
The following section describes common ways to install your amplifier in a sound system. The input and
output terminals are located on the rear panel. Please
use care when making connections, selecting signal
sources and controlling the output level. The load you
save may be your own! Crown assumes no liability for
damaged loads resulting from careless amplifier use or
deliberate overpowering.
CAUTION: Always remove power from the unit and
turn the level controls off when making or breaking
connections—especially if the load is a loudspeaker
system. This reduces the chance of loud blasts or damaged loudspeakers.
Macro-Tech amplifiers may be operated in one of three
modes (Stereo, Bridge-Mono, and Parallel-Mono) by
switching the Stereo/Mono switch on the rear panel.
There are VERY IMPORTANT wiring differences between these three modes which are discussed next.
3.3.1 Stereo (Two-Channel) Operation
The installation is very intuitive in Stereo mode. The input of Channel 1 feeds the output of the same channel
as does the input of Channel 2. To put the amplifier into
Stereo mode, first turn the amplifier off, then slide the
Stereo/Mono switch to the center position, and properly
connect the output wiring as shown in Figure 3.4. Two
sets of binding posts are provided for each channel to
facilitate easy connection of multiple speakers to each
channel. Observe correct loudspeaker polarity and be
very careful not to short the outputs of one channel to
that of the other channel while in Stereo mode.
CAUTION: In Stereo mode, never parallel the two
outputs by directly tying them together or paralleling them with the output of any other amplifier.
Such connection does not result in increased power output and can cause premature activation of the protection circuitry to prevent overheating.
Fig. 3.4 Stereo Wiring
Page 12
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation
Bridge-Mono mode is intended for driving loads with a
net impedance of 4 ohms or greater. (See Parallel-Mono
if the load is less than 4 ohms.) Installing the amplifier in
Bridge-Mono mode is very different from the other
modes and requires special attention.
To put the amplifier in Bridge-Mono mode, turn the amplifier off and slide the Stereo/Mono switch toward the
right (as you face the back of the amplifier). Both outputs receive the signal from Channel 1 with the output
of Channel 2 inverted so it can be bridged with the
Channel 1 output. DO NOT USE THE CHANNEL 2 INPUT or the signal level and quality may be greatly degraded. Keep the Level control of Channel 2 turned
completely down (counterclockwise).
not defeated in Bridge-Mono mode. Any signal fed into
Channel 2 may work against and add to or distort the
signal in Channel 1.
Connect the load across the Channel 1 and 2 red binding posts with the positive lead from the load attaching
to a red post of Channel 1 and the negative lead of the
load attaching to a red post of Channel 2 as shown in
Figure 3.5. THE TWO BLACK BINDING POSTS ARE
NOT USED AND SHOULD NOT BE SHORTED. The
load must be balanced (neither side shorted to ground).
CAUTION: Be certain all equipment (meters,
switches, etc.) connected to the mono output is balanced. To prevent oscillations, both sides of the line
must be isolated from the input grounds.
Note: The input jack and level control for Channel 2 are
Fig. 3.5 Bridge-Mono Wiring
Reference Manual
Page 13
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation
Parallel-Mono mode is used to drive loads with a total
impedance of less than 4 ohms. (See Bridge-Mono if
the load is 4 ohms or greater.) Installing the amplifier in
Parallel-Mono mode is very different from the other
modes and requires special attention.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to operate in Stereo or
Bridge-Mono mode until the Parallel-Mono jumper
is first removed. Failure to do so will definitely cause
inefficient operation, high distortion and excessive
heating.
To put the amplifier in Parallel-Mono mode, first turn it
off, then slide the Stereo/Mono switch to the left (as you
face the back). Connect the input signal to Channel 1
only. DO NOT USE THE CHANNEL 2 INPUT or the signal level and quality may degrade greatly. Turn off the
Channel 2 Level control (full counterclockwise).
Note: It is normal for the IOC indicator of Channel 2 to
stay on in Parallel-Mono mode.
The input jack and Level control of Channel 2 are not
defeated in Parallel-Mono mode. Any signal fed into
Channel 2 may work against and add to or distort the
signal in Channel 1.
Install a jumper wire between the red binding posts of
both Channel 1 and 2 that is at least 14 gauge in size.
Then, connect the load to the output of Channel 1 as
shown in Figure 3.6. The positive lead from the load
connects to the red binding post of Channel 1 and the
negative lead from the load connects to the black binding post of Channel 1.
CAUTION: Remove the jumper wire before changing to any mode except Parallel-Mono.
Fig. 3.6 Parallel-Mono Wiring
Page 14
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3.4 Input Connection
Both the balanced XLR and phone jack inputs have a
nominal impedance of 20 k ohms (10 K ohms with unbalanced wiring) and will accept the line-level output of
most devices. Female XLR input connectors are provided on the standard P.I.P.-FX input module (other PIP
modules are described in Section 8.1). Correct input
wiring will depend on two factors: (1) whether the input
signals are balanced or unbalanced, and (2) whether
the signal source floats or has a ground reference. Figures 3.7 and 3.8 show the recommended connection
techniques for each type of signal source.
The amplifier’s built-in ¼-inch phone jack input connectors can be wired similarly for balanced or unbalanced,
floating or ground-referenced sources. They have a
standard tip-ring-sleeve (TRS) configuration: the tip is
Fig. 3.8 Balanced Input Wiring
positive (+), the ring is negative (–) and the sleeve is
ground (see Figure 3.9). Wiring for various sources follows the XLR wiring guidelines shown in Figures 3.7
and 3.8.
The phone jacks should not be used as inputs when a
PIP module with active circuitry is installed. The phone
jacks are in parallel with the output of the PIP module,
so an input signal connected to the phone jacks can
feed backwards into the active circuitry of the PIP and
cause undesirable distortion. You can use the phone
jacks for signal input with any of the following PIP modules installed: P.I.P.-FX, P.I.P.-BB, P.I.P.-FMX, P.I.P.-FXQ
and P.I.P.-FPX. All other PIP modules have active circuitry and should not be installed if you plan to connect
input signals to the phone jacks. The phone jacks can
always be used as “daisy chain” outputs to feed postprocessed signals from the PIP to the inputs of other
amplifiers.
Please follow the instruction in Section 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 if
the amplifier will be used in either Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono mode. Remember, do not use the Channel 2
input in either mono mode.
Fig. 3.7 Unbalanced Input Wiring
Reference Manual
Fig. 3.9 Balanced and Unbalanced Phone Plugs
Page 15
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
910 Ω
SOLVING INPUT PROBLEMS
Sometimes large subsonic (subaudible) frequencies
are present in the input signal. These can damage loudspeakers by overloading or overheating them. To attenuate such frequencies, place a capacitor in series
with the input signal line. The graph in Figure 3.10
shows some capacitor values and how they affect the
frequency response. Use only low-leakage paper, mylar or tantalum capacitors.
+
A
–
Balanced Out
–
910 Ω
1.8 mH
+
B
Balanced In
+
.015
µF
–
Balanced Out
–
1.8 mH
2.5 mH
+
C
dB
Balanced In
+
.018
µF
–
Balanced Out
–
2.5 mH
0
0.47 Film 1.8 mH
–5
–10
+
.003
µF
Balanced In
+
F
1µ
.1
µF
.05
µF
D
F
1µ
Balanced In
.0
+
.015
µF
–
–15
Balanced Out
–
0.47 Film 1.8 mH
1 Hz
10 Hz
100 Hz
1 kHz
10 kHz
Fig. 3.12 Balanced RFI Filters
Frequency
Fig. 3.10 Subsonic Filter Capacitors
Tip: The P.I.P.-FX included with your amplifier has plenty
of room on its circuit board for input filters.
Another problem to avoid is the presence of large levels of radio frequencies or RF in the input signal. Although high RF levels may not pose a threat to the
amplifier, they can burn out tweeters or other loads that
are sensitive to high frequencies. Extremely high RF levels can also cause your amplifier to prematurely activate its protection circuitry, resulting in inefficient
operation. RF can be introduced into the signal by local
radio stations and from the bias signal of many tape
recorders. To prevent high levels of input RF, install an
appropriate low-pass filter in series with the the input
signal. Some examples of unbalanced wiring for lowpass filters are shown in Figure 3.11.
1.8 K ohm
.003
µF
Source
To
Amp
6 dB/octave
3.9 mH
To
Amp
A
12 dB/octave
–10
B
GND
C
B
5 mH
R 600 ohm
Source
.018
µF
Input Wiring Tips
0
GND
.015
µF
Inductive coupling can occur when input cables are
subjected to a magnetic field from a power cord or
power transformer. One way to prevent inductive coupling is to lace the input cables together along their
length and route them as far away as possible from
power transformers and power cords. The use of
dB
A
R 600 ohm
Source
A third problem to avoid is hum. The two most common
sources of hum in an audio system are inductive coupling and ground loops.
–20
To
Amp
GND
C
4 kHz
Note: A low source impedance (R) can be
increased to 600 ohms with an appropriate resistor.
10 kHz
40 kHz
100 kHz
Frequency
Fig. 3.11 Unbalanced RFI Filters
For balanced input wiring use one of the examples in
Figure 3.12. Filters A, B and C correspond to the unbalanced filters above. Filter D also incorporates the subsonic filter described previously.
Page 16
1. Use only shielded cable. Cables with
higher density shields are better. Spiral
wrapped shield is not recommended.
2. When using unbalanced lines, keep the
cables as short as possible. Avoid cable
lengths greater than 10 feet (3 meters).
3. Do not run signal cables together with
high-level wiring such as loudspeaker wires
or AC cords. This greatly lessens the chance
of hum or noise being induced into the input
cables.
4. Turn the entire system off before changing
connections. Turn level controls down
completely before powering the system back
up. Crown is not liable for damage incurred
when any transducer or component is
overdriven.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
shielded pair cable is another effective way to reduce
or eliminate hum resulting from inductive coupling.
Ground loops often result when two or more devices
are improperly grounded. This causes undesirable
stray currents that may produce hum in the output. The
best way to avoid ground loops is to ensure that all system devices are plugged into the same power strip. In
addition, make sure that all cable shields are grounded
at one end only.
resistance increases. This is very important because the
amplifier’s excellent damping factor can easily be negated by insufficient loudspeaker cables.
Use the nomograph in Figure 3.13 and the procedure
that follows to find the recommended wire gauge (AWG
or American Wire Gauge) for your system.
.0002
.0004
Input and output grounds are sometimes tied together
for testing or metering. This can cause feedback oscillation from load current in the test loop. In some systems, even the AC power line may provide this feedback
path. Proper grounding, input isolation and isolation of
common AC devices in the system is good practice.
.0006
.001
RL
RS
DAMPING
FACTOR
20,000
10,000
3.3.5 Output Connection
Consider the power handling capacity of your load before connecting it to the amplifier. Crown is not liable for
damage incurred at any time due to overpowering. Fusing loudspeaker lines is highly recommended (see Section 3.3.6). Also, please pay close attention to the
precautions provided in Section 4.1.
.002
.004
.006
.01
5,000
.02
2,000
40
RL
LOAD
RESISTANCE
(ohms)
1,000
500
30
.06
.1
200
50
2-COND.
CABLE
(feet)
1000
.4
20
1
10
2
5
100
10
50
20
50
100
2
10
3. Connectors that can be plugged into AC
power receptacles should never be used.
4. Connectors with low current-carrying capacity should not be used.
5. Connectors with any tendency to short
should never be used.
5
2
#16
#14
#10
1
#8
#6
.5
#4
5000
8
#2
6
7
#18
#12
1000
9
2. Do not use connectors that might accidentally tie two channels together when making or breaking connections (for example, a
standard three-wire stereo phone plug).
#20
10
2000
4
#28
#26
#24
#22
200
500
5
500
1
.6
1. To prevent possible shorts, do not expose
the loudspeaker cable connectors.
(ohms/1000 ft.)
COPPER
WIRE
(AWG)
.2
20
15
8000
.04
5000
100
Use Good Connectors
RS
SOURCE
RESISTANCE
(ohms)
1
10
6
.1
#0
#00
#0000
.05
5
20
4
40
.01
3
2
Example Shown:
RL = 8 ohms; RS = 0.016 ohms or D.F. = 500;
Cable Length = 10 ft.; answer: #8 wire
1.5
HOW TO DETERMINE
APPROPRIATE WIRE GAUGE
It is important to use loudspeaker cables with sufficient
gauge (thickness) for the length being used. The resistance introduced by inadequate loudspeaker cables
will reduce both the output power and the motion control of the loudspeakers. The latter problem occurs because the damping factor decreases as the cable
Reference Manual
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Fig. 3.13 Wire Size Nomograph
Page 17
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
1. Note the load resistance of the loudspeakers connected
to each channel of the amplifier. Mark this value on the
“Load Resistance” line of the nomograph.
2. Select an acceptable damping factor and mark it on the
“Damping Factor” line. Your amplifier can provide an excellent damping factor of 1,000 from 10 to 400 Hz in Stereo mode with an 8-ohm load. In contrast, typical damping factors are 50 or lower. Higher damping factors yield
lower distortion and greater motion control over the loudspeakers. A common damping factor for commercial applications is between 50 and 100. Higher damping factors may be desirable for live sound, but long cable
lengths often limit the highest damping factor that can be
achieved practically. (Under these circumstances,
Crown’s IQ System® is often used so amplifiers can be
monitored and controlled when they are located very
near the loudspeakers.) In recording studios and home
hi-fi, a damping factor of 500 or more is very desirable.
3. Draw a line through the two points with a pencil, and
continue until it intersects the “Source Resistance” line.
4. On the “2-Cond. Cable” line, mark the length of the cable
run.
5. Draw a pencil line from the mark on the “Source Resistance” line through the mark on the “2-Cond. Cable” line,
and on to intersect the “Annealed Copper Wire” line.
6. The required wire gauge for the selected wire length and
damping factor is the value on the “Annealed Copper
Wire” line. Note: Wire size increases as the AWG gets
smaller.
7. If the size of the cable exceeds what you want to use,
(1) find a way to use shorter cables, like using the IQ System, (2) settle for a lower damping factor, or (3) use more
than one cable for each line. Options 1 and 2 will require
the substitution of new values for cable length or damping factor in the nomograph. For option 3, estimate the
effective wire gauge by subtracting 3 from the apparent
wire gauge every time the number of conductors of equal
gauge is doubled. So, if #10 wire is too large, two #13
wires can be substituted, or four #16 wires can be used
for the same effect.
SOLVING OUTPUT PROBLEMS
Sometimes high-frequency oscillations occur which
can cause your amplifier to prematurely activate its protection circuitry and result in inefficient operation. The
effects of this problem are similar to the effects of the RF
problem described in Section 3.3.4. To prevent highfrequency oscillations:
1. Lace together the loudspeaker conductors for
each channel; do not lace together the conductors from different channels. This minimizes the
chance that cables will act like antennas and
transmit or receive high frequencies that can
cause oscillation.
Page 18
2. Avoid using shielded loudspeaker cable.
3. Avoid long cable runs where the loudspeaker
cables from different amplifiers share a common
cable tray or cable jacket.
4. Never connect the amplifier’s input and output
grounds together.
5. Never tie the outputs of multiple amplifiers together.
6. Keep loudspeaker cables well separated from
input cables.
7. Install a low-pass filter on each input line (similar
to the RF filters described in Section 3.3.4.
8. Install input wiring according to the instructions
in Section 3.3.4.
Another problem to avoid is the presence of large subsonic currents when primarily inductive loads are
used. Examples of inductive loads are 70-volt transformers and electrostatic loudspeakers.
Inductive loads can appear as a short circuit at low frequencies. This can cause the amplifier to produce large
low-frequency currents and activate its protection circuitry. Always take the precaution of installing a highpass filter in series with the amplifier’s input when
inductive loads are used. A 3-pole, 18 dB per octave
filter with a –3 dB frequency of 50 Hz is recommended
(depending on the application, an even higher –3 dB
frequency may be desirable). Such a filter is described
with subsonic frequency problems in Section 3.3.4.
Another way to prevent the amplifier from prematurely
activating its protection systems and to protect inductive loads from large low-frequency currents is to connect a 590 to 708 µF nonpolarized capacitor and 4-ohm,
20-watt resistor in series with the amplifier’s output and
the positive (+) lead of the transformer. The circuit
shown below uses components that are available from
most electronic supply stores.
4-ohm, 20-watt
Resistor
+
590 to 708 µF Capacitor
120 VAC, N.P.
+
From
Amplifier
Output
Inductive
Load
–
–
Fig. 3.14 Inductive Load (Transformer) Network
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3.6 Additional Load Protection
Because the amplifier generates enormous power, it
may be desirable to protect loudspeakers (or other sensitive loads) from damage due to excessive power. A
common way to do this is to put a fuse in series with the
load. This may be accomplished by using a single fuse
to protect the entire system, or by fusing each driver.
Fuses help prevent damage due to prolonged overload,
but provide essentially no protection against damage
from large transients. To minimize this latter problem,
use high-speed instrument fuses such as the Littlefuse
361000 series. If the loudspeaker is only susceptible to
damage caused by prolonged overload (such as overheating), use a fuse or circuit breaker having the same
slow thermal response as the loudspeaker itself (such
as a slow-blow fuse).
The nomograph in Figure 3.15 shows fuse size versus
loudspeaker peak power rating. It can be used to determine the size of the required fuse.
3.3.7 AC Power Requirements
Use an isolated power receptacle whenever possible
with adequate current. North American units are
shipped with a 30 amp (10 AWG) line cord, a NEMA
TT30P plug and a mating receptacle. International units
may or may not be shipped with a plug connected to
the appropriate line cord. Line voltages of 10% or more
above the specified voltage may damage the amplifier.
Fig. 3.15 Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph
Reference Manual
Page 19
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
4 Operation
4.1 Precautions
Although the Macro-Tech 3600VZ is protected from external faults, the following precautions should be followed for safety and optimum operation:
1. There are important differences among the Stereo, Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono operating
modes (see Section 3.3).
2. WARNING: Do not change the position of the
Stereo/Mono switch unless the amplifier is
first turned off.
3. CAUTION: In Parallel-Mono mode, a jumper is
used between the Channel 1 and Channel 2
red binding posts (amplifier outputs). Be sure
to remove this jumper for Bridge-Mono or
Stereo mode; otherwise inefficient operation,
high distortion and excessive heating will occur. Check the Stereo/Mono switch on the
back panel for proper position.
4. Turn the amplifier off and unplug it from the
AC mains before removing a PIP card.
5. Use care when making connections, selecting
signal sources and controlling the output level.
The load you save may be your own.
6. Do not short the ground lead of an output cable
to the input signal ground. This may form a
ground loop and cause oscillations.
7. Operate the amplifier from AC mains of not more
than 10% variation above or below the selected
line voltage and only the specified line frequency.
8. Never connect the output to a power supply
output, battery or power main.
9. Tampering in the circuit by unqualified personnel, or making unauthorized circuit changes may
be extremely dangerous and may invalidate the
warranty.
Remember: Crown is not liable for damage that results
from overdriving components in your system.
4.2 Indicators
The front panel has several helpful LED (light emitting
diode) indicators.
The amber Enable indicator is provided to show the
amplifier has been turned on (or enabled) and that the
low-voltage power supply is working. It does not indicate the high voltage supply status. As a result, disrupPage 20
Fig. 4.1 Indicators
tion of the high voltage supplies has no effect on the
Enable indicator. This means that in the improbable
event that one or both channels overheat and cause a
shut down of the high voltage power supply, the Enable
indicator will remain on. However, the Signal/IOC indicator lights to show that the output waveform does not
match the input.
The ODEP indicators provide a visual indication of the
operation of Crown’s patented Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP) circuitry. This circuitry protects
the amplifier output stages against heat damage by proportionally limiting the drive level to the output stages.
This enables the amplifier to operate safely even under
severe operating conditions.
During normal operation, the ODEP indicators glow
brightly to indicate that the output stages are operating
within their thermal range (SOA - Safe Operating Area).
However, if an output stage begins to overheat, the
ODEP circuitry proportionally limits the drive signal and
the LEDs dim. In the unlikely event that the amplifier
exceeds the operating limits, ODEP shuts down the output stages and the indicators turn off. The indicators
also turn off if the power supplies are put in standby
mode.
Note: The high voltage power supplies will temporarily
go into standby mode if their transformers get too hot or
if there is DC or heavy common-mode current in the
output.
The green Signal/IOC indicators provide the triple
functions of Signal Presence, Distortion, and Input Overload indicators. As signal presence indicators, they
flash with normal intensity in sync with the audio outputs. As IOC (Input/Output Comparator) indicators, they
flash brightly if there is any difference between the input
and output signal waveforms greater than 0.05%. Because transient distortion happens quickly, a 0.1 second “hold delay” keeps the indicators on long enough
to be easily noticed. This IOC function verifies the
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Fig. 4.2 Macro-Tech Indicator States
amplifier’s performance. As input overload indicators,
they flash brightly with a 0.5 second hold delay when
an input signal that is too large begins to cause early
clipping distortion at the input. Note: the Channel 2 IOC
indicator will stay on in Parallel-Mono mode.
4.3 Protection Circuits
Macro-Tech amplifiers provide extensive protection and
diagnostics capabilities. Protection systems include
ODEP, “standby,” and an AC circuit breaker. These features provide protection under any conditions.
Reference Manual
4.3.1 Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP)
Crown invented ODEP to solve two long standing problems in amplifier design: To prevent amplifier shutdown
during demanding operation and to increase the efficiency of output circuitry.
To do this, Crown established a rigorous program to
measure the safe operating area (SOA) of each output
transistor before installing it in an amplifier. Crown also
designed intelligent circuitry to simulate the instantaneous operating conditions of those output transistors.
Page 21
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Its name describes what it does: Output Device Emulation Protection or ODEP. It not only simulates the operation of the output transistors but it also compares their
operation to their known SOA. If ODEP sees that more
power is about to be asked of the output devices than
they are capable of delivering under the present conditions, ODEP immediately limits the drive level until it falls
within the SOA. Limiting is proportional and kept to an
absolute minimum—only what is required to prevent the
possibility of output transistor damage.
This level of protection enables Crown to increase output transistor utilization while greatly increasing amplifier reliability.
Finally, this onboard intelligence is monitored in two
ways. First, the front panel ODEP indicators show
whether the amplifier is functioning correctly or if ODEP
is limiting the drive level. Second, ODEP data is fed to
the PIP connector at the back of the amplifier so advanced PIP modules like the IQ-PIP-SMT can use it to
make decisions and control the amplifier.
With ODEP you get the maximum power with the maximum protection—the show goes on!
4.3.2 Standby Mode
An important part of a Macro-Tech amplifier’s protection
systems is standby mode. Standby protects the amplifier during potentially catastrophic conditions. It temporarily removes power from the high-voltage supplies to
protect the amplifier and its loads. Standby mode can
be identified using the indicator table in Figure 4.2.
When you turn on the Enable switch, standby mode is
activated to provide turn-on protection. This power-up
delay lets other system components settle before any
signals are amplified, and it provides some “randomness” to the power-up sequence of multiple units which
reduces the system’s current demand during start-up.
If dangerous subsonic frequencies or direct current
(DC) is detected in the amplifier’s output, the unit will
activate its DC/low-frequency protection circuitry and
put the affected channels in standby. This protects the
loads and prevents oscillations. The unit resumes normal operation as soon as the amplifier no longer detects dangerous low-frequency or DC output. Although
it is extremely unlikely that you will ever activate the
amplifier’s DC/low-frequency protection system, improper source materials such as subsonic square
waves or input overloads that result in excessively
clipped input signals can activate this system.
The amplifier’s fault protection system will put an ampliPage 22
fier channel into standby mode in rare situations where
heavy common-mode current is detected in a channel’s
output. The amplifier should never output heavy common-mode current unless its circuitry is damaged in
some way, and putting the channel in standby mode
helps to prevent further damage.
The amplifier’s transformer thermal protection circuitry
is activated where the unit’s transformer temperature
rises to unsafe levels. Under these abnormal conditions,
the amplifier will put both channels into standby mode.
In addition, the cooling fan will run at full speed. The
amplifier will return to normal operation after the transformer cools to a safe temperature. (For more information on transformer thermal protection, refer to the
section that follows.)
4.3.3 Transformer Thermal Protection
All Macro-Tech amplifiers have transformer thermal protection which protects the power supplies from damage under rare conditions where the transformer
temperature rises too high. A thermal switch embedded in each channel’s power transformer removes
power to that channel’s high-voltage power supply if it
detects excessive heat. The switch automatically resets
itself as soon as the transformer cools to a safe temperature.
If your amplifier is operated within rated conditions, it is
unlikely that you will ever see it activate transformer thermal protection. One reason is that ODEP keeps the amplifier working under severe conditions. Even so, higher
than rated output levels, excessively low-impedance
loads and unreasonably high input signals can generate excessive heat in the output devices. This can overheat the transformer and activate its protection system.
Macro-Tech amplifiers are designed to keep working
under conditions where other amplifiers would fail. But
even when the limits of a Macro-Tech are exceeded, it
protects itself—and your investment—from damage.
4.3.4 Circuit Breaker
A circuit breaker is provided to prevent excessive current draw by the high-voltage power supplies. A reset
button for the circuit breaker is provided on the back
panel. The rating of the circuit breaker for each amplifier
model and each AC mains voltage is provided with the
specifications in Section 6. When operating with rated
loads and output levels, this breaker should only trip in
the incredibly rare instance of a catastrophic amplifier
failure. Other protection systems such as ODEP keep
the amplifier safe and operational under most other severe conditions. The breaker can also trip in situaReference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
tions where extremely low-impedance loads and sustained high output levels result in current draw that exceeds the breaker’s rating. Again, this should only be
possible when operating outside rated conditions or
when an input signal is clipped severely.
4.4 Controls
The Enable switch is located on the front panel so you
can easily turn the amplifier on and off. If you ever need
to make wiring or other installation changes, don’t forget to disconnect the power cord. The six steps listed
next should be followed whenever you turn on the amplifier.
1. Turn down the level of your audio source. For example, set your master mixer’s volume to –¥.
Fig. 4.3 Input Sensitivity and Ground Lift Switches
2. Turn down the Level controls of the amplifier (if
they are not already down).
1. Turn off the amplifier and disconnect its power
cord from the AC mains power receptacle.
3. Turn on the Enable switch. The Enable indicator
beside the switch should glow. During the four
second mute delay which immediately follows,
the Signal/IOC indicators may flash unpredictably and the ODEP LEDs will stay off. After the
mute delay, the ODEP indicators should come
on with full brilliance and the Signal/IOC indicators should function normally (remain off if no
signal is present; flash if a signal is present). Remember, the Channel 2 Signal/IOC indicator remains on if the amplifier is in Parallel-Mono
mode.
2. Remove the PIP module (two screws).
4. After the mute delay, turn up the level of your audio source to the maximum desired level.
5. Turn up the Level controls of the amplifier until
the maximum desired sound level is achieved.
6. Turn down the level of your audio source to its
normal range.
For ease of use, the Level controls are located on the
front panel. Each control has 31 detents for accuracy.
To secure these controls, the Level Control Security Kit
is available (see Section 8.2). Note: In Bridge-Mono or
Parallel-Mono mode, turn down the Channel 2 Level
control and only use the Channel 1 control.
The Input Sensitivity Switch is located inside the back
of the amplifier (Figure 4.3). It is set at the factory to
0.775 volts for rated output into 8 ohms. It can also be
switched to a sensitivity of 1.4 volts, or a fixed voltage
gain of 26 dB (4.8 volts for rated output).
How to change the input sensitivity:
3. Locate the sensitivity switch access hole inside
the chassis opening as shown in Figure 4.3. It is
located just above the phone jack inputs.
Note: The Sensitivity switch will not be visible because it is mounted below the hole. Use your little
finger to reach it.
4. Set the switch to the desired position noted on
the access hole label. The position toward the
front panel sets the sensitivity to 1.4 volts for
rated output, the middle position provides a voltage gain of 26 dB, and the position toward the
back panel sets the sensitivity to 0.775 volts for
rated output.
5. Replace the PIP module and restore the power.
The Input Ground Lift switch is located on the rear
panel (Figure 4.3) and can provide isolation between
the input signal ground and the AC ground. It affects
only the phone jack inputs and has no affect on the input connectors on the PIP module. Sliding the switch to
the left isolates or “lifts” the grounds by placing an impedance between the sleeve of each phone jack and
the circuit ground.
When a PIP module is plugged into the amplifier, only
the noninverted and inverted signal lines are connected
in parallel with the corresponding lines of the input
phone jacks. The signal grounds are not paralleled. For
example, XLR pins 2 and 3 are connected in parallel
with the tip and ring of the corresponding phone jack.
However, pin 1 of the XLR is not connected in parallel
with the sleeve of the phone jack.
* Factory setting for international models is 1.4 V.
Reference Manual
Page 23
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
The Circuit Breaker Reset Buttons (PUSH TO RESET)
are located on the back panel to protect the power supplies against overload. If a circuit breaker trips, the Signal/IOC indicator of the affected channel turns on (the
Enable indicator remains illuminated).
4.5 Filter Cleaning
Dust filters are provided on the air intakes to the cooling
system (Figure 2.1). If these filters become clogged,
Page 24
the unit will not cool as efficiently as it should and may
produce lower-than-normal output levels due to high
heat diffuser temperature and activation of the ODEP
circuitry.
Dust filters are not 100% efficient—depending on the
local environment, the internal heat sinks of the amplifier
will benefit from periodic cleaning by a qualified technician. Internal cleaning information is available from our
Technical Support Group.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
5 Technical Information
5.1 Overview
Your Macro-Tech VZ amplifier incorporates several new
technological advancements including low-stress output stages, real-time computer simulation of output transistor conditions, advanced thermal management, a
modular system for signal input and processing, and
the articulated VZ power supplies.
Custom protection circuitry limits temperature and current to safe levels while making the amplifier highly reliable and tolerant of faults. Unlike many lesser amplifiers,
it can operate at its voltage and current limits without
self-destructing.
Real-time computer simulation is used to create an analogue of the junction temperature of the output transistors (hereafter referred to as the “output devices”).
Current is limited only when the device temperature becomes excessive—and just by the minimum amount
necessary. This patented approach is called ODEP or
Output Device Emulation Protection. It maximizes the
available output power and eliminates overheating, the
major cause of output device failure.
The amplifier is protected from all common hazards that
plague high-power amplifiers including shorted, open
or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies, excessive temperature, chain-destruction phenomena,
input overload damage and high frequency blowups.
The unit protects loudspeakers from DC in the input signal, DC in the output, turn-on and turn-off transients, and
it detects and prevents unwanted DC in the output. The
amplifier is also protected from internal faults.
The patented four-quadrant topology used in the
grounded output stages is called the Grounded Bridge.
The Grounded Bridge topology takes full advantage of
the power supplies delivering peak-to-peak voltages to
the load that are twice the voltage seen by the output
devices and twice the voltage generated by the power
supplies.
The Grounded Bridge topology is ground-referenced.
Because the required current exceeds the limits of presently available components, composite output devices
are constructed to function as gigantic NPN and PNP
devices. Each output stage has two composite NPN
and two composite PNP devices.
The devices connected to the load are referred to as
“high-side NPN and PNP” and the devices connected
to ground are referred to as “low-side NPN and PNP.”
Reference Manual
Positive current is delivered to the load by increasing
conductance simultaneously in the high-side NPN and
low-side PNP stage, while decreasing conductance of
the high-side PNP and low-side NPN in synchrony.
The two channels may be used together to double the
voltage (Bridge-Mono) or the current (Parallel-Mono)
presented to the load. This feature gives the user flexibility in maximizing the power available to the load.
A wide-bandwidth multiloop design is used for state-ofthe-art compensation. This produces ideal behavior,
and results in ultra-low distortion values.
Aluminum extrusions have been widely used for heat
sinks in power amplifiers due to their low cost and reasonable performance. However, measured on a watts
per pound or watts per volume basis, the extrusion technology doesn’t perform nearly as well as the heat sink
technology developed for Macro-Tech power amplifiers.
Our heat sinks are fabricated from custom convoluted
fin stock that provides an extremely high ratio of area to
volume, or area to weight. All power devices are
mounted directly to massive heat spreaders that are
electrically alive. Electrifying the heat spreaders improves thermal performance by eliminating the insulating interface underneath the power devices. The
chassis itself is used as part of the thermal circuit, and
this maximizes utilization of the available resources.
5.2 VZ Power
VZ means Variable Impedance. It is the name of Crown’s
patented articulated power supply technology. This
technology is what makes it possible to pack such tremendous power into Crown’s Macro-Tech 3600VZ and
5000VZ amplifiers.
5.2.1 Background
A power supply must be large enough to handle the
maximum voltage and current necessary for the amplifier to drive its rated power into a specified load. In the
process of fulfilling this requirement, conventional power
supply designs produce lots of heat, are heavy, and
take up precious real estate. And it is no secret that heat
is one of a power amplifiers worst enemies. Consider
the circuit in Figure 5.1.
According to Ohm’s Law, the bigger the power supply,
the more heat the power transistors must dissipate.
Page 25
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Fig. 5.1 A Typical
Power Supply
Also, the lower the
resistance of the
power transistors,
the more voltage
you can deliver to
the load. But when
you lower the resistance of the transistors, you increase
the current passing
through them, and
again increase the
amount of heat they
must dissipate.
5.2.2 The VZ Supply
An articulated power supply like VZ avoids much of this
problem by reducing the voltage applied to the transistors when less voltage is needed. Reducing the voltage
reduces the heat, so the amplifier runs cooler and more
power can be packed in safely.
The VZ supply is divided into segments to better match
the voltage and current requirements of the power transistors. Remember that audio signals like music are
complex waveforms.
voltage requirements are not
high, it operates
in a parallel
mode to produce less voltage and more
current.
Fig. 5.4 VZ Supply in
Series Mode
The power transistors
stay
cooler and are
not forced to
needlessly dissipate heat. This is
the normal operating mode of
the VZ power supply.
When the voltage requirements are high, VZ supplies
switch to a series mode which produces higher voltage
and less current. The amplified output signal never
misses a beat and gets full voltage when it needs it—
not when it doesn’t need it.
Sensing circuitry watches the voltage of the signal to
determine when to switch VZ modes. The switching circuitry is designed to prevent audible switching distortion to yield the highest possible dynamic transfer
function—you hear only the music and not the amplifier.
You get not only the maximum power with the maximum
safety, but you also get the best power matching to your
load.
5.3 Circuit Theory
Fig. 5.2 Music Waveforms Are Complex
For music, the
average level is
always much
less than the
peak level. This
means a power
supply does not
need to produce
full voltage all the
time.
Fig. 5.3 VZ Supply in Parallel Mode
Page 26
The VZ supply is
divided into two
parts. When the
Each channel is powered by its own power transformer,
T100 or T200. Both channels share TF-1, a low voltage
transformer. The secondary outputs of each transformer
are full-wave rectified by heavy duty bridge rectifiers
and are filtered by large computer grade capacitors. A
thermal switch embedded in each transformer protects
them from overheating.
The low voltage transformer TF-1 uses a separate fan
motor winding. The TF-1 output is rectified by diodes
D1-4 delivering an unregulated 24 volts. Monolithic
regulators U1-2 provide a regulated ±15 volts.
5.3.1 Stereo Operation
For simplicity, the discussion of stereo operation will refer to one channel only. Mono operation will be discussed later.
See the block diagram in Figure 5.5.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Fig. 5.5 Circuit Block Diagram
Reference Manual
Page 27
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
The input signal at the phone jack passes directly into
the balanced gain stage (U104-C,D). Use of a PIP module for input signal causes the input signal to pass
through the PIP and then to the balanced gain stage.
The balanced gain stage (U104-C,D) causes balancedto-single-ended conversion to take place using a difference amplifier. From there, gain can be controlled with a
potentiometer. The error amp (U104-A) amplifies the difference between the output signal and the input signal
from the gain pot, and drives the voltage translator
stage.
The voltage translator stage channels the signal to the
Last Voltage Amplifiers (LVAs), depending on the signal
polarity, from the error amp U104-A. The +LVA
(Q105,Q125) and the –LVA (Q110,Q126), with their
push-pull effect through the bias servo Q318, drive the
fully complementary output stage.
The bias servo Q318 is thermally coupled to the heat
sink, and sets the quiescent bias current in the output
stage to lower the distortion in the crossover region of
the output signal. D301, D302, D303, and D304 are
used to remove the charge on the unused portion of the
output stage, depending on the polarity of the output
signal.
With the voltage swing provided by the LVAs, the signal
then gains current amplification through the Darlington
emitter-follower output stage.
The bridge-balanced circuit (U104-B) receives a signal
from the output of the amplifier, and differences it with
the signal at the Vcc supply. The bridge-balanced circuit then develops a voltage to drive the bridge-balanced output stage. This results in the Vcc supply
having exactly one half of the output voltage added to
their quiescent voltage. D309, D310, D311 and a trimmer resistor set the quiescent current point for the
bridge-balanced output stage.
The protection mechanisms that affect the signal path
are implemented to protect the amplifier under realworld conditions. These conditions are high instantaneous current, excessive temperature, and operation of
the output devices outside safe conditions.
Q107 and Q108 act as a conventional current limiter,
sensing current in the output stage. The allowable current level is also adjusted as a function of voltage. When
current at any one instant exceeds the design criteria,
the limiters remove the drive from the LVAs, thus limiting
current in the output stage to a safe level.
Page 28
To further protect the output stages, a specially developed ODEP (Output Device Emulation Protection) circuit is used. It produces an analog output proportional
to the always-changing safe operating area of the output transistors. This output controls the translator stage
by removing any drive that exceeds the safe operating
area of the output devices.
Thermal sensor S100 gives the ODEP circuits vital information on the operating temperature of the heatsink on
which the output devices are mounted.
Should the amplifier fail in such a way that would cause
DC across the output lead, the DC protection circuit
senses this on the negative feedback loop and shuts
down the power supply until the DC is removed.
5.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation
By setting the back panel Stereo/Mono switch to BridgeMono, the user can convert the Macro-Tech into a
Bridge-Mono amplifier. With a signal applied to the
Channel 1 input and the load between the red binding
posts on the back panel, a double voltage output occurs.
The Channel 1 output feeds the Channel 2 error amp
U204-A. Since there is a net inversion, Channel 2 output
is out of polarity with Channel 1. This produces twice as
much voltage across the load. Each of the channel’s
protection mechanisms work independently if a fault occurs.
5.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation
With the Stereo/Mono switch set to Parallel-Mono, the
output of Channel 2 is paralleled with that of Channel 1.
A suitable high-current-handling jumper must be connected across the red binding posts to gain the benefits
of this mode of operation.
The signal path for Channel 1 is the same as previously
discussed, except that Channel 1 also drives the output
stage of Channel 2. The balanced input, error amp,
translators and LVAs of Channel 2 are disconnected and
no longer control the Channel 2 output stage. The Channel 2 output stage and protection mechanisms are also
coupled through S1 and function as one.
In Parallel-Mono mode, twice the current of one channel
alone can be obtained. Since the ODEP circuit of Channel 2 is coupled through S1, this gives added protection
if a fault occurs in the Channel 2 output stage. The ODEP
circuit of Channel 2 will limit the output of both output
stages by removing the drive from the Channel 1 translator stages.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
6 Specifications
These specifications apply to 120 VAC units in stereo
mode with 8 ohm loads and an input sensitivity of 26 dB
unless otherwise specified.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units: These units are equipped with transformers rated for 120 VAC, 60 Hz power.
International Units: These units are equipped with transformers for either 100 VAC, 50/60 Hz, or 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz
power.
Performance
Frequency Response: ±0.1 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz
at 1 watt. See Figure 6.3.
Phase Response: ±10° from 10 Hz to 20 kHz at 1 watt.
See Figure 6.6.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Greater than 105 dB below
rated output (20 Hz to 20 kHz, A-weighted); 100 dB
below rated output (20 Hz to 20 kHz, no weighting).
Harmonic Distortion (THD): At rated output, less than
0.05% from 20 Hz to 1 kHz increasing linearly to less
than 0.1% at 20 kHz.
IM Distortion (IMD): Less than 0.05% from 368 milliwatts to full rated output.
Damping Factor: Greater than 1,000 from 10 Hz to 400
Hz. See Figure 6.4.
Crosstalk: See Figure 6.7.
Slew Rate: Greater than 30 volts per microsecond.
Voltage Gain: (At maximum output) 20:1 ±6% or 26 dB
±0.5 dB at +26 dB sensitivity, and 124.6:1 ±6 % or 41.9
dB ±0.5 dB at 0.775 volt sensitivity.
Power
Output Power:
Note: Maximum average watts per channel (unless in
Mono mode) at 1 kHz with 0.1% or less THD.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units:
Stereo mode with both channels driven:
1800 watts into 2 ohms.
1565 watts into 4 ohms.
1120 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
3505 watts into 4 ohms.
3140 watts into 8 ohms.
Parallel-Mono mode:
3555 watts into 1 ohm.
3190 watts into 2 ohms.
Reference Manual
100 VAC International Units:
Stereo mode with both channels driven:
1460 watts into 2 ohms.
1300 watts into 4 ohms.
980 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
2835 watts into 4 ohms.
2625 watts into 8 ohms.
Parallel-Mono Mode
2820 watts into 1 ohm.
2585 watts into 2 ohms.
120 VAC International Units:
Stereo mode with both channels driven:
1490 watts into 2 ohms.
1300 watts into 4 ohms.
985 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
2980 watts into 4 ohms.
2600 watts into 8 ohms.
Parallel-Mono Mode
2980 watts into 1 ohm.
2600 watts into 2 ohms.
230 VAC International Units:
Stereo mode with both channels driven:
1520 watts into 2 ohms.
1325 watts into 4 ohms.
965 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
2800 watts into 4 ohms.
2515 watts into 8 ohms.
Parallel-Mono Mode
2910 watts into 1 ohm.
2565 watts into 2 ohms.
Load Impedance: Rated for 16, 8, 4, and 2 ohm use
only. Safe with all types of loads, even reactive ones.
AC Power Requirements: 100 VAC, 50/60 Hz; 120
VAC, 50/60 Hz; and 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz units are available. 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz units can be used with 220
and 240 VAC. All versions draw 90 watts or less at idle.
100 and 120 VAC units can draw up to 30 amps of current; 230 VAC units can draw up to 15 amps. Refer to
the back panel for your unit’s specifications. Refer to
Section 7 for more details.
It is extremely important to provide sufficient AC power
to the amplifier. Power amplifiers cannot create energy—they must have the proper voltage and current to
deliver the clean rated power you expect.
Page 29
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Controls
Enable: A front panel push button used to turn the amplifier on and off.
Level: A 31-position detented rotary attenuator for each
channel located on the front panel used to control the
output level.
Stereo/Mono: A three-position back panel switch used
to select Stereo, Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono operation.
Sensitivity: A three-position switch located inside the
PIP compartment used to select one of three input sensitivities for both channels: 0.775 volts or 1.4 volts for
standard 1 kHz power or a voltage gain of 26 dB.
Input Impedance: Nominally 20 k ohms, balanced.
Nominally 10 K ohms, unbalanced.
Input Sensitivity: Switchable between 0.775 V (unbalanced) for rated output or a fixed voltage gain of 26 dB.
(See subsection 4.4 for more information.)
Output Connector: Color-coded dual binding posts
(banana jacks).
Output Impedance: Less than 10 milliohms in series
with less than 2 microhenries. See Figure 6.5.
DC Output Offset: (Shorted input) ±10 millivolts.
Output Signal
Stereo: Unbalanced, two-channel.
Input Ground Lift: A two position back panel switch
used to isolate the phone jack signal grounds from the
chassis (AC) ground.
Bridge-Mono: Balanced, single-channel. Channel 1
controls are active; Channel 2 controls are inactive and
not removed from operation.
Reset: A back panel button for each channel used to
reset the corresponding power supply. 100 and
120 VAC units have 15 amp circuit breakers. 230 VAC
units have 7.5 amp circuit breakers.
Parallel-Mono: Unbalanced, single-channel. Channel
1 controls are active; Channel 2 controls are inactive
but not removed from operation.
Indicators
Protection
Enable: This amber indicator is on when the amplifier
is switched on to show that the low voltage power supply is operating.
Macro-Tech amplifiers are protected against shorted,
open or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies;
excessive temperature, chain destruction phenomena,
input overload damage and high-frequency blow-ups.
They also protect loudspeakers from input/output DC
and turn-on/turn-off transients.
Signal / IOC: Two green indicators flash with medium
intensity in sync with the amplifier’s outputs to show signal presence. In the unlikely event the output waveform
differs from that of the input by 0.05% or more, they
flash brightly to indicate distortion. As sensitive distortion indicators they provide proof of performance. Note:
It is normal for the Channel 2 IOC indicator to remain on
in Parallel-Mono mode.
ODEP: Each channel has an amber front panel indicator that shows thermal-dynamic energy reserve. Normally, each ODEP indicator is lit to show available
reserve energy. The indicator will dim proportionally as
the energy reserve for its channel decreases. In the rare
event that a channel has no reserve, its indicator will
turn off and the ODEP circuitry will limit the channel’s
output drive (see Section 4.2).
Input/Output
Input Connector: Balanced ¼-inch phone jacks on
chassis and internal PIP connector. (Balanced 3-pin
XLR connectors are provided on the P.I.P.-FX which is a
standard feature.)
Page 30
If unreasonable operating conditions occur, the patented ODEP circuitry proportionally limits the drive level
to protect the output devices, particularly in the case of
elevated temperature. Transformer overheating results
in a temporary shutdown of the offending channel.
When it has cooled to a safe temperature, the transformer automatically resets itself. Controlled slew rate
voltage amplifiers protect against RF burnouts, and input overload protection is provided by current-limiting
resistance at the input.
Turn On: The four second turn-on delay prevents dangerous turn-on transients. Turn-on occurs at zero crossing of the AC waveform, so power sequencers are rarely
needed with multiple units. Note: The turn-on delay time
may be changed. Contact Crown’s Technical Support
Group for details.
Circuit Breaker: Circuit breaker current ratings vary
based on the AC operating power.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Construction
Durable black powder coated steel chassis and aluminum front panel with Lexan overlay; specially designed
“flow-through” ventilation from front to side panels.
Cooling: Forced-air with custom heat diffusers and patented circuitry to promote uniform dissipation.
Dimensions: 19 inch (48.3 cm) standard rack mount
(EIA Std. RS-310-B), 3.5 inch (8.9 cm) height, 16 inch
(40.6 cm) depth behind mounting surface and 2.5
inches (6.4 cm) in front of mounting surface.
Approximate Weight: Center of gravity is 6 inches (15.2
cm) behind the front mounting surface.
Reference Manual
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units:
Net weight 55 lbs, 1.5 ounces (25.0 kg); shipping
weight 63 lbs, 10 ounces (28.9 kg).
100 VAC International Units:
Net weight 54 lbs, 5 ounces (24.7 kg); shipping
weight 63 lbs, 0.5 ounces (28.6 kg).
120 VAC International Units:
Net weight 55 lbs, 1.5 ounces (25.0 kg); shipping
weight 63 lbs, 10 ounces (28.9 kg).
230 VAC International Units:
Net weight 53 lbs, 6 ounces (24.2 kg); shipping
weight 61 lbs, 15 ounces (28.1 kg).
Page 31
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Crown specifications are guaranteed for three years.
In an effort to provide you with as much information as possible about the high power-producing capabilities of your amplifier, we have
created the following power matrices.
Minimum Guaranteed Power Specifications
Crown’s minimum power specifications represent the absolute smallest amount of output power you can expect from your amplifier
when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. Some spaces in each matrix may be left blank because the same guarantee
is not provided for those conditions—however, your amplifier will perform well under all conditions listed in each matrix.
When measuring power, 0.1% THD appears to be the industry standard for distortion. Two of the maximum average power
specifications shown in each minimum power matrix are measured at 0.1% THD so you can easily compare Crown specifications to
those of other manufacturers. But this high level of distortion actually allows for some clipping which is undesirable. Because of this,
a maximum average power specification at 0.05% THD is included in each minimum power matrix which represents non-clipped
conditions. Although most manufacturers do not give you power specifications at 0.05% THD, we encourage them to provide these
specifications so you will have a more realistic representation of the way amplifiers should be used in the real world—without a
clipped output signal.
Many manufacturers publish power specs with a tolerance of ±1 dB or worse. This means their amplifier can deviate more than 20%
in output! A 100 watt amplifier would meet their specification if it only produced 79.4 watts. Other manufacturers qualify their specs by
saying they are “typical,” “subject to manufacturing tolerances,” “single channel driven” or that they are specified with “fuses
bypassed.” Each of these statements effectively
removes any performance guarantee. In fact, some
manufacturers use these tactics to generate large
power numbers, and they don’t even print a disclaimer.
We take a different approach at Crown—our amplifiers
are guaranteed to meet or exceed their specifications
for three years. Further, because our published specs
are set below our “in-house” measurements, you can
expect every Crown amplifier to exceed its published
minimum power specs. We believe you should get what
you pay for.
Minimum Power Notes:
All minimum power specifications are based on 0.5%
regulated AC mains with THD of less than 1.0% and an
ambient room temperature of 70° F (21° C). Standard
EIA power (RS-490) is not shown here because it is identical to FTC Continuous Average Power.
1. A 1 kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and
the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level
is increased until THD reaches 0.1%. At this point,
average power per channel is reported.
2. A sine wave is presented to the amplifier over the
range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and the output monitored
for nonlinear distortion. The level at each frequency
is increased until THD reaches 0.1%. At this point,
average power per channel is reported.
3. A 1 kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and
the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level
is increased until THD reaches 0.05%. At this point,
average power per channel is reported.
4. Continuous power in the context of Federal Trade
Commission testing is understood to be a minimum
of five minutes of operation. Harmonic distortion is
measured as the RMS sum total and given as a percentage of the fundamental output voltage. This applies for all wattages greater than 0.25 watts.
Figure 6.1 Minimum Power Matrix
Page 32
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Maximum Power Specifications
Crown’s maximum power specifications represent the largest amount of output power you can expect from your
amplifier when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. These specifications can be used to prevent
loudspeaker and hearing damage.
The maximum power matrices include specifications for single cycle and 40 millisecond burst sine waves. Burst
signals act like large transient peaks that are present in common source signals. Loudspeakers can respond to a
single cycle burst, so the single cycle burst specifications should be used to help you protect your loudspeakers. In
contrast, a 40 millisecond burst represents the typical response time of the human ear. Your ear will not respond to the
entire dynamic change of a burst that lasts less than 40 milliseconds.
The burst power specifications are provided at 0.05% THD which is a practical low distortion condition. Operating the
amplifier at levels higher than 0.05% THD can result in output power levels that are higher than those listed in the
maximum power matrices.
Maximum Power Notes:
All maximum power specifications
are based on 0.5% regulated AC
mains with THD of less than 1.0%
and an ambient room temperature
of 70° F (21° C). Although it is an
unusual condition, your amplifier
can function well with AC mains
voltages up to 10% over the specified line voltage. With overvoltage
conditions, your amplifier may be
capable of delivering instantaneous power levels up to 20%
greater than the specifications in
the matrix.
1. A single cycle sine wave is presented to the amplifier and
monitored for nonlinear distortion. The average power during
the burst is reported. Loudspeakers must be able to withstand this level if they are to be
safely used with this amplifier.
2. A 40 millisecond sine wave burst
(10 percent duty cycle) is presented to the amplifier and monitored for nonlinear distortion.
Average power during the burst
is reported. This power level is a
measurement of the amplifier’s
maximum transient power that
can be perceived by the human
ear.
Figure 6.2 Maximum Power Matrix
Reference Manual
Page 33
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
+2
+1
0
–1
–2
8 ohm
4 ohm
–3
2 ohm
1 watt
dB
–4
–5
–6
–7
10
100
1K
10 K
100 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.3 Typical Frequency Response
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
8 ohm
200
100
0
100
20
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.4 Typical Damping Factor
504.0
126.8
6 dB
MILLIOHMS
31.8
8.0
2.0
10
100
1K
10 K
100 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.5 Typical Output Impedance
Page 34
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
TEF ®
Measurement
+45˚
0˚
–45˚
TEF ®
100
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.6 Typical Phase Response
TEF ®
–60
Measurement
–66
–72
–78
dB
–84
–90
–96
100
TEF ®
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.7 Typical Crosstalk
Reference Manual
Page 35
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Here are the equations used to calculate the data presented in Figures 7.1:
7 AC Power Draw and
Thermal Dissipation
This section provides detailed information about the
amount of power and current drawn from the AC mains
by the Macro-Tech 3600VZ, and the amount of heat produced under various conditions. The calculations presented here are intended to provide a very realistic and
reliable depiction of the amplifier. The following assumptions were made:
• The amplifier’s available channels are loaded, and full,
standard 1 kHz power is being delivered.
• The amplifier’s efficiency at standard 1 kHz power is
estimated to be 73%.
• Quiescent power draw is 90 watts (an almost
negligible amount for full-power calculations).
The following equation converts power draw in watts to
current draw in amperes:
The value used for Power Factor is 0.83. The Power Factor variable is needed to compensate for the difference
in phase between the AC mains voltage and current.
The following equation is used to calculate thermal dissipation.
• Quiescent heat dissipation equals 105 btu/hr at
90 watts.
• Duty cycle of pink noise is 50%.
• Duty cycle of highly compressed rock ‘n’ roll midrange
is 40%.
• Duty cycle of rock ‘n’ roll is 30%.
The value used for Amplifier Inefficiency is 0.27 (1.00–
0.73). The factor 3.415 converts watts to btu/hr. Thermal
dissipation in btu is divided by the constant 3.968 to get
kcal.
If you plan to measure output power under real-world
conditions, the following equation may also be helpful:
• Duty cycle of background music is 20%.
• Duty cycle of continuous speech is 10%.
• Duty cycle of infrequent, short-duration paging is 1%.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ
L O A D
8 Ohm Stereo / 4 Ohm Parallel-Mono
4 Ohm Stereo / 8 Ohm Bridge-Mono / 2 Ohm Parallel-Mono 2 Ohm Stereo / 4 Ohm Bridge-Mono / 1 Ohm Parallel-Mono
Current Draw (Amps)
Thermal Dissipation
100-120 V 220-240 V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
AC Mains
Power
Draw
(Watts)
8.9
1,584
399
2,246
27.1
7.3
1,323
333
1,815
21.9
12.2
5.6
1,064
268
1,383
707
8.5
3.9
803
202
399
4.8
2.2
543
137
Duty
Cycle
AC Mains
Power
Draw
(Watts)
50%
1,633
19.7
40%
1,324
16.0
30%
1,016
20%
10%
Current Draw (Amps)
Thermal Dissipation
100-120 V 220-240 V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
AC Mains
Power
Draw
(Watts)
12.3
2,101
529
2,569
31.0
9.9
1,738
438
2,073
25.0
16.7
7.6
1,374
346
1,578
952
11.5
5.2
1,010
254
521
6.3
2.9
646
163
Current Draw (Amps)
Thermal Dissipation
100-120 V 220-240 V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
14.1
2,374
598
11.4
1,956
493
19.0
8.6
1,538
388
1,082
13.0
5.9
1,119
282
586
7.1
3.2
701
177
Fig. 7.1 Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles
Page 36
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
8 Accessories
8.1 PIP Modules
One advantage of Crown PIP compatible amplifiers is
the ability to customize them using PIP (Programmable
Input Processor) and PIP2 modules. The PIPs shown
here may be used in any Crown PIP-compatible amplifier.
PIPs carrying the PIP2 logo have been configured with an
extended, PIP2-enhanced feature set. These PIPs may also
be used in any PIP-compatible amplifier; however, extended features will only be available in PIP2-compatible
amplifiers.
This PIP-compatible amplifier is equipped with an edge
card connector inside the back panel PIP compartment.
The PIP modules install easily:
L
BACK PANE
ER
OF AMPLIFI
P.I.P. LE
MODU
IQ-P.I.P.-MEM Integrates Crown PIP-compatible amplifiers
into Crown’s IQ System. Each channel of each amplifier
can be monitored and individually controlled from an inexpensive PC. A total of 15 functions can be either monitored
or controlled. Memory backup is also incorporated in case
of power failure. Requires an IQ2 interface and a computer
for initial setup.
IQ-P.I.P.-SMT “Smart Amp” offers impressive new features
unavailable elsewhere. The processing speed is substantially enhanced over other designs. A programmable powersupply gate conserves energy by shutting off the amplifier’s
high-power supplies until an audio signal is present. The
user may define error-reporting conditions of the amplifier.
There is much greater flexibility and thermal operational protection available, as well as a built-in smooth output limiter
to discretely control maximum amplifier output. Requires
an IQ2 interface and a computer for initial setup.
Fig. 8.1 Installing a PIP Module
WARNING: Disconnect power to the amplifier when installing or removing a PIP module.
For more information on these or other PIPs under development, contact your local dealer or Crown’s Technical Support Group.
IQ-P.I.P.-DSP is an IQ System Programmable Input
Processor with DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for PIPcompatible amplifiers. As a component of the IQ System, it
connects the amplifier to the Crown Bus so the amplifier
can be controlled and monitored. Its DSP capabilities
enable it to be programmed with a variety of functions,
such as filters and crossovers, signal delay, input
compressor and output limiter, and a variety of other useful
features similar to those included with the IQ-P.I.P-SMT.
Requires an IQ2 interface and a computer for initial setup.
Reference Manual
P.I.P.-AMCb combines many of the features found in the
P.I.P.-XOV and P.I.P.-CLP to provide both a variable 4thorder Linkwitz-Riley crossover and an IOC-driven or variable-threshold signal-driven compressor. In addition, variable equalization networks provide for “constant-directivity” horn equalization and filter-assisted B6 vented bass box
equalization. Bi-amping and tri-amping capabilities are provided via XLR connectors.
+
+
∞
∞
P.I.P.-ATNJ includes the features of the P.I.P.-FXT (balanced
Jensen® 1:1 isolation transformers) and adds to each channel a 12-dB/octave RFI filter, a variable 18-dB/octave highpass filter (to reduce bass/subsonic frequencies), and a 6dB/octave 3-kHz shelving network for “constant-directivity”
horn equalization. Special quick-connect barrier blocks are
provided for inputs to each channel. Also adds a Jensen®
32-step precision attenuator to each channel.
Page 37
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
P.I.P.-BEQC adds many features of the Bose® Controllers
to the input of your amplifier. Each channel includes a custom equalization network for Bose loudspeakers. Also included is a bass-cut (high-pass) filter for each channel.
The equalization and bass-cut filters can be bypassed, if
desired. Balanced inputs and “daisy-chain” outputs use
removable barrier block connectors for quick, solderless
connections.
P.I.P.-BEQX Same as P.I.P.-BEQC but with XLR connectors.
P.I.P.-FMX facilitates “daisy-chaining” several amplifier balanced inputs together. Female to Male 3-pin XLR connectors are used to passively bridge the amplifier inputs.
P.I.P.-PA permits the unique capability of adding one mic/
line input directly to each channel of an amplifier. With phantom power for microphones, this mic/line input may be remotely switched from mic to line priorities.
P.I.P.-CLP is designed to detect and prevent overload. The
same error detecting circuit that is used to signal the IOC
indicator is used to activate this error-driven compressor. It
is not a typical signal-driven compressor, but a circuit to
prevent any overload. It can yield up to 13 dB or additional
signal safety margin without noticeable program change.
P.I.P.-EDCb State-of-the-art programmable error-driven and
signal-driven compressor plus a variable high-pass filter
for each channel. Fast or slow attach and release times can
be set independently for each channel.
P.I.P.-FXT uses balanced 1:1 transformers to isolate the
source from the inputs. It comes with balanced female 3pin XLR connectors.
Page 38
P.I.P.-RPA A phantom-power mixer that has four balanced
mic or line inputs with voiceover capability and adjustable
“duck” level, 84 dB of attenuation. A 10-volt DC source for
remote control capability is provided. The P.I.P.-EXT (Part
M44731-4), available from service, allows the P.I.P.-RPA and
other PIP cards to be “extended” outside the amplifier for
easy set up.
P.I.P.-RPAT has the same features as the P.I.P.-RPA but includes four input transformers.
P.I.P.-XOV is a versatile, economical mono 12- or 18-dB/
octave crossover/filter which offers bi-amping and tri-amping
capability.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
8.2 Level Control Shaft Lock
A security accessory, the shaft lock can be used to secure your amplifier’s level controls in situations where
the front panel controls are subject to tampering. One is
needed for each channel.They can be ordered through
the Crown Service/Parts Department. For more information, contact the Crown Service Department.
Fig. 8.4 Installing a Level Control Shaft Lock
Reference Manual
Page 39
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
9 Service
This unit has very sophisticated circuitry which should
only be serviced by a fully trained technician. This is
one reason why each unit bears the following label:
CAUTION: To prevent electric shock, do not remove
covers. No user serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to a qualified technician.
Factory Service Shipping Instructions:
1. When sending a Crown product to the factory for
service, be sure to fill out the service information
form that follows and enclose it inside your unit’s
shipping pack. Do not send the service information form separately.
9.1 Worldwide Service
Service may be obtained from an authorized service
center. (Contact your local Crown/Amcron representative or our office for a list of authorized service centers.)
To obtain service, simply present the bill of sale as proof
of purchase along with the defective unit to an authorized service center. They will handle the necessary
paperwork and repair.
Remember to transport your unit in the original factory
pack.
9.2 North American Service
Always use the
original factory pack
to transport the unit.
2. To ensure the safe transportation of your unit to
the factory, ship it in an original factory packing
container. If you don’t have one, call or write
Crown’s Parts Department. With the exception of
polyurethane or wooden crates, any other packing material will not be sufficient to withstand the
stress of shipping. Do not use loose, small size
packing materials.
Service may be obtained in one of two ways: from an
authorized service center or from the factory. You may
choose either. It is important that you have your copy of
the bill of sale as your proof of purchase.
3. Do not ship the unit in any kind of cabinet (wood
or metal). Ignoring this warning may result in extensive damage to the unit and the cabinet. Accessories are not needed—do not send the
instruction manual, cables and other hardware.
9.2.1 Service at a North American Service Center
This method usually saves the most time and effort. Simply present your bill of sale along with the defective unit
to an authorized service center to obtain service. They
will handle the necessary paperwork and repair. Remember to transport the unit in the original factory pack.
A list of authorized service centers in your area can be
obtained from our Technical Support Group.
If you have any questions, please call or write the Crown
Technical Support Group.
9.2.2 Factory Service
To obtain factory service, fill out the service information page found in the back of this manual and send it
along with your proof of purchase and the defective unit
to the Crown factory.
Crown Customer Service
Technical Support / Factory Service
Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart,
Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Telephone: 219-294-8200
800-342-6939 (North America,
Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands only)
Facsimile:
219-294-8301 (Technical Support)
219-294-8124 (Factory Service)
Internet:
http://www.crownaudio.com
For warranty service, we will pay for ground shipping
both ways in the United States. Contact Crown Factory
Service or Technical Support to obtain prepaid shipping labels prior to sending the unit. Or, if you prefer,
you may prepay the cost of shipping, and Crown will
reimburse you. Send copies of the shipping receipts to
Crown to receive reimbursement.
Your repaired unit will be returned via UPS ground.
Please contact us if other arrangements are required.
Page 40
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Crown Factory Service Information
Shipping Address: Crown Factory Service, Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, IN 46517
Phone: 1-800-342-6939 or 1-219-294-8200 Fax: 1-219-294-8124
Owner’s Name: _________________________________________________________________________
Shipping Address: ______________________________________________________________________
Phone Number: _____________________________
Fax Number: _____________________________
Model: ________________________ Serial Number: ______________ Purchase Date: ___________
NATURE OF PROBLEM
(Be sure to describe the conditions that existed when the problem occurred and what attempts were made to correct it.)
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Detach and send with unit.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Other equipment in your system: _________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
If warranty has expired, payment will be:ÿÿÿo Cash/Check
Card Number:___________________________
o VISA o MasterCard o C.O.D.
Exp. Date:_______ Signature:____________________________
ENCLOSE THIS PORTION WITH THE UNIT. DO NOT MAIL SEPARATELY.
Reference Manual
Page 41
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement