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WORKSHOP MANUAL
KD 477-2
REGISTRATION OF MODIFICATIONS TO THE DOCUMENT
Any modifications to this document must be registered by the drafting body, by completing the following table.
Drafting
body
CUSE/ATLO
Document
code
Model
N°
Edition
Revision
Issue date
Review
date
ED0053029370
51265
1°
0
05/07/2012
05/07/2012
Endorsed
KD 477-2
PREFACE
-
Every attempt has been made to present within this service manual, accurate and up to date technical information.
However, development on the KOHLER series is continuous.
Therefore, the information within this manual is subject to change without notice and without obligation.
The materials used by KOHLER to construct the engine's components undergo strict quality controls and the engine's
assembly guarantees reliability and long life.
The engine has been built to the machine manufacturer's specifications, and it was its responsibility to adopt all the measures
needed to meet the essential health and safety requirements as provided for by the laws in force; use of the engine for uses
other than the one defined shall not be considered as compliant with the use intended by KOHLER, who therefore refuses all
responsibility for any injury arising from such an operation.
- The information contained within this service manual is the sole property of KOHLER.
As such, no reproduction or replication in whole or part is allowed without the express written permission of KOHLER.
Information presented within this manual assumes the following:
1 - The person or people performing service work on KOHLER series engines is properly trained and equipped to safely and
professionally perform the subject operation;
2 - The person or people performing service work on KOHLER series engines possesses adequate hand and KOHLER special
tools to safely and professionally perform the subject service operation;
3 - The person or people performing service work on KOHLER series engines has read the pertinent information regarding the
subject service operations and fully understands the operation at hand.
- This manual was written by the manufacturer to provide technical and operating information to authorised KOHLER after-sales
service centres to carry out assembly, disassembly, overhauling, replacement and tuning operations.
- As well as employing good operating techniques and observing the right timing for operations, operators must read the
information very carefully and comply with it scrupulously.
- Time spent reading this information will help to prevent health and safety risks and financial damage.
Written information is accompanied by illustrations in order to facilitate your understanding of every step of the operating phases.
-2-
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
WARRANTY CERTIFICATE
LIMITED 3 YEAR KOHLER® DIESEL ENGINE WARRANTY
Kohler Co. warrants to the original retail consumer that each new KOHLER Diesel engine sold by Kohler Co. will be free from manufacturing
defects in materials or workmanship in normal service for a period of three (3) years or 2000 hours whichever occurs first from the date of
purchase, provided it is operated and maintained in accordance with Kohler Co.’s instructions and manuals. If no hour meter is installed as original
equipment then 8 hours of use per day and 5 days per week will be used to calculate hours used.
Our obligation under this warranty is expressly limited, at our option, to the replacement or repair at Kohler Co., Kohler, Wisconsin 53044, or at a
service facility designated by us of such parts as inspection shall disclose to have been defective.
This warranty does not apply to defects caused by unreasonable use, including faulty repairs by others and failure to provide reasonable and
necessary maintenance.
The following items are not covered by this warranty:
Engine accessories such as fuel tanks, clutches, transmissions, power-drive assemblies and batteries, unless supplied or installed by Kohler Co.
These are subject to the warranties, if any, of their manufacturers.
KOHLER CO. AND/OR THE SELLER SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
OF ANY KIND, including but not limited to labor costs or transportation charges in connection with the repair or replacement of defective parts.
IMPLIED OR STATUTORY WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE,
ARE EXPRESSLY LIMITED TO THE DURATION OF THIS WRITTEN WARRANTY. We make no other express warranty, nor is any one authorized
to make any on our behalf.
Some states do not allow limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, or the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages,
so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights, which vary from state to state.
To obtain warranty service
Purchaser must bring the engine to an authorized Kohler service facility. To locate the nearest facility, visit our website, www.kohlerengines.com,
and use the locator function, consult your Yellow Pages or telephone 1-800-544-2444.
ENGINE DIVISION, KOHLER CO., KOHLER, WISCONSIN 53044
CALIFORNIA EMISSION CONTROL WARRANTY STATEMENT
YOUR WARRANTY RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS
The California Air Resources Board and Kohler Co. are pleased to explain the emission control system warranty on your 2012 engine. In
California, new heavy-duty off-road engines must be designed, built and equipped to meet the State’s stringent anti-smog standards. Kohler Co.
must warrant the emission control system on your engine for the time period listed below provided there has been no abuse, neglect or improper
maintenance of your engine.
Your emission control system may include parts such as the fuel-injection system and the air induction system. Also included may be hoses,
connectors and other emission related assemblies.
Where a warrantable condition exists, Kohler Co. will repair your heavy-duty off-road engine at no cost to you including diagnosis, parts and labor.
MANUFACTURER’S WARRANTY COVERAGE:
Your off-road, diesel engine emission control system is covered under warranty for a period of five (5) years or 3,000 hours, whichever occurs first,
beginning on the date the engine or equipment is delivered to an ultimate purchaser for all constant speed engines with maximum power 19≤kW<37
and rated speed less than 3,000 rpm, all variable speed engines with maximum power 19≤kW<37, and all variable or constant speed engines with
maximum power greater than 37 kW. Your off-road, diesel engine emission control system on variable or constant-speed engines with maximum
power less than 19 kW, and for constant speed engines with maximum power 19≤kW<37 and rated speed equal to or greater than 3,000 rpm is
covered under warranty for a period of two (2) years or 1,500 hours, whichever
occurs first. If any emission related part on your engine is defective, the part will be repaired or replaced by Kohler Co.
OWNER’S WARRANTY RESPONSIBILITIES:
As the heavy-duty off-road engine owner, you are responsible for the performance of the required maintenance listed in your Kohler Co.
owner’s manual. Kohler Co. recommends that you retain all receipts covering maintenance on your heavy-duty off-road engine, but Kohler Co.
cannot deny warranty solely for the lack of receipts or for your failure to ensure the performance of all recommended scheduled maintenance.
As the heavy-duty off-road engine owner, you should however be aware that Kohler Co. may deny you warranty coverage if your heavy-duty offroad engine or emission control related component has failed due to abuse, neglect, improper maintenance or unapproved modifications.
Your engine is designed to operate on commercial diesel fuel (No. 1 or No. 2 low sulfur or ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) only. Use of any other fuel
may result in your engine no longer operating in compliance with California’s emissions requirements.
You are responsible for initiating the warranty process. The Air Resources Board suggests that you present your heavy-duty off-road engine to a
Kohler Co. dealer as soon as a problem exists. The warranty repairs should be completed by the dealer as expeditiously as possible.
Please review the document titled, “Kohler Co. Federal and California Emission Control Systems Limited Warranty Off-Road Diesel Engines”, for
complete details of your heavy-duty off-road engine warranty. If you have any questions regarding your warranty rights and responsibilities or the
location of the nearest Kohler Co. authorized service location, you should contact Kohler Co. at 1-800-544-2444 or access our website at www.
kohlerengines.com.
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
-3-
INDEX
INDEX
WARRANTY CERTIFICATE...................................................................................................................................... 3
Limited 3 year kohler ® diesel engine warranty................................................................................................................... 3
California emission control warranty statement.................................................................................................................. 3
Your warranty rights and obligations................................................................................................................................... 3
I - TROUBLE SHOOTING.......................................................................................................................................... 7
Possible causes and trouble shooting................................................................................................................................ 7
II - SAFETY AND WARNING DECALS - SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS........................................................................ 8
Safety regulations................................................................................................................................................................ 8
General safety during operating phases............................................................................................................................. 9
Safety and environmental impact ....................................................................................................................................... 9
III - MODEL NUMBER AND IDENTIFICATION....................................................................................................... 10
The identification plate shown in the figure can be found directly on the engine...............................................................10
Approval data......................................................................................................................................................................10
IV - TECHNICAL DATA........................................................................................................................................... 11
V - CHARACTERISTICS.......................................................................................................................................... 12
Characteristics power, torque and specific fuel consumption curves................................................................................12
VI - OVERALL DIMENSIONS.................................................................................................................................. 13
VII - SPECIAL TOOLS.............................................................................................................................................. 14
VIII - MAINTENANCE - RECOMMENDED OIL TYPE - REFILLING...................................................................... 15
Manutenance......................................................................................................................................................................15
Fuel.....................................................................................................................................................................................15
Recommended oil...............................................................................................................................................................16
Acea sequences.................................................................................................................................................................16
IX - DISASSEMBLY OF THE ENGINE..................................................................................................................... 17
Disassembly and reassembly.............................................................................................................................................17
Flywheel extraction.............................................................................................................................................................17
Crankshaft gear extraction.................................................................................................................................................17
Camshaft gear extraction...................................................................................................................................................17
Oil pressure register valve extraction.................................................................................................................................17
X - CHECKS AND OVERHAUL................................................................................................................................ 18
Cylinder heads....................................................................................................................................................................18
Valves - Guides - Seats......................................................................................................................................................18
Valves and springs............................................................................................................................................................. 20
Rocker arms....................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Cylinders............................................................................................................................................................................ 20
Piston rings - Pistons - Piston pins.....................................................................................................................................21
Connecting rods................................................................................................................................................................. 22
Crankshaft.......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Checking crankshaft dimensions....................................................................................................................................... 23
Camshaft............................................................................................................................................................................ 24
Injection cam dimensions (fig. 28)..................................................................................................................................... 24
Oil seal rings...................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Tappet checking................................................................................................................................................................. 24
Governor lever and spring................................................................................................................................................. 25
Oil pump checking............................................................................................................................................................. 25
-4-
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
INDEX
XI - INJECTION EQUIPMENT.................................................................................................................................. 26
Fuel circuit.......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Injection pump................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Checking injection pump................................................................................................................................................... 26
Injection pump setting........................................................................................................................................................ 26
Injection pump assembly................................................................................................................................................... 27
Testing air tightness........................................................................................................................................................... 28
Injectors ............................................................................................................................................................................ 28
Injector checking and setting............................................................................................................................................. 28
XII - ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT............................................................................................................................. 29
Electric starting with motor and alternator for battery re-charging.................................................................................... 29
Circuit checking................................................................................................................................................................. 29
Alternator checking (stator)................................................................................................................................................ 30
Wire checking.................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Method of use.................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Diagram of electric starting wiring system with flywheel alternator ..................................................................................31
Diagram of electric starting wiring system with external alternator ...................................................................................31
XIII - ENGINE ASSEMBLY....................................................................................................................................... 32
Preparation of crankcase................................................................................................................................................... 32
Camshaft preparation........................................................................................................................................................ 32
Crankshaft preparation...................................................................................................................................................... 33
Upper crankcase preparation............................................................................................................................................ 33
Timing cover assembly...................................................................................................................................................... 34
Fitting of oil seal rings........................................................................................................................................................ 35
Oil pump assembly............................................................................................................................................................ 35
Feeding pump assembly.................................................................................................................................................... 36
Piston-connection rod couplings....................................................................................................................................... 36
Connecting rod-crankshaft coupling................................................................................................................................. 36
Piston ring fitting................................................................................................................................................................ 37
Piston ring working position............................................................................................................................................... 37
Protective cap fitting.......................................................................................................................................................... 37
Cylinder mounting.............................................................................................................................................................. 37
Cylinder height adjustement.............................................................................................................................................. 38
Checking valve head face depth....................................................................................................................................... 38
Checking injector protrusion.............................................................................................................................................. 38
Fitting cylinder heads......................................................................................................................................................... 39
Valve clearance................................................................................................................................................................. 39
Injection pump fitting.......................................................................................................................................................... 40
Injection pump tie rod connection...................................................................................................................................... 40
Checking T.D.C.................................................................................................................................................................. 40
Checking start of injection..................................................................................................................................................41
XIV - ENGINE TESTING........................................................................................................................................... 42
Speed adjustment...............................................................................................................................................................42
Checking oil pressure.........................................................................................................................................................42
Checking for oil leaks..........................................................................................................................................................42
Testing engine on brake..................................................................................................................................................... 43
Running-in table................................................................................................................................................................. 43
XV - STORAGE........................................................................................................................................................ 44
Storage.............................................................................................................................................................................. 44
How to prepare the engine for operation........................................................................................................................... 44
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
-5-
INDEX
XVI - QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS...................................................................................................................... 45
Couplings........................................................................................................................................................................... 45
Adjustments....................................................................................................................................................................... 45
End floats........................................................................................................................................................................... 45
Tightening torques............................................................................................................................................................. 46
Standard screw tightening torques.................................................................................................................................... 46
-6-
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
TROUBLE SHOOTING
I
POSSIBLE CAUSES AND TROUBLE SHOOTING
The following table contains the possible causes of some failures which may occur during operation. Always perform these simple checks before removing or replacing any part.
SETTINGS/REPAIRS
MAINTE- ELECTRIC
LUBRICATION
NANCE SYSTEM
FUEL CIRCUIT
Oil and fuel dripping
from exhaust
Excessive oil
consumption
Increase oil level
Too low oil
pressure
White smoke
Black smoke
Non-uniform speed
No acceleration
Engine starts but
stops
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Engine does not
start
TROUBLE
Clogged pipes
Clogged fuel filter
Air inside fuel circuit
Clogged tank breather hole
Faulty fuel pump
Injector jammed
Jammed injection pump delivery valve
Wrong injector setting
Excessive plunger blow-by
Jammed injection pump delivery control
Wrong injection pump setting
Oil level too high
Jammed pressure relief valve
Worn oil pump
Air inside oil suction pipe
Faulty pressure gauge or switch
Clogged oil suction pipe
Battery discharged
Wrong or inefficient cable connection
Defective ignition switch
Defective starter motor
Clogged air filter
Excessive idle operation
Incomplete running-in
Engine overloaded
Advanced injection
Delayed injection
Incorrect governor linkage adjustment
Broken or loose governor spring
Idle speed too low
Worn or jammed piston rings
Worn or scored cylinders
Worn valve guides
Jammed valves
Worn bearings
Governor linkage not free to slide
Drive shaft not free to slide
Damaged cylinder head gasket
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
-7-
II
SAFETY AND WARNING DECALS - SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
SAFETY REGULATIONS
GENERAL NOTES
. Kohler engines are built to provide safe and longlasting
performances, but in order to obtain these results it is
essential that the maintenance requirements described in
the manual are observed along with the following safety
recommendations.
. The engine has been built to the specifications of a
machine manufacturer, and it is his responsibility to ensure
that all necessary action is taken to meet the essential
and legally prescribed health and safety requirements.
Any use of the machine other than that described cannot
be considered as complying with its intended purpose
as specified by Kohler, which therefore declines all
responsibility for accidents caused by such operations.
. The following instructions are intended for the user of the
machine in order to reduce or eliminate risks, especially
those concerning the operation and standard maintenance
of the engine.
. The user should read these instructions carefully and get
to know the operations described. By not doing so he may
place at risk his own health and safety and that of anyone
else in the vicinity of the machine.
. The engine may be used or mounted on a machine only
by personnel suitably trained in its operation and aware of
the dangers involved. This is particularly true for standard
and, above all, special maintenance work. For special
maintenance contact personnel trained specifically by
Kohler. This work should be carried out in accordance with
existing literature.
. Kohler declines all responsibility for accidents or for failure
to comply with the requirements of law if changes are made
to the engine’s functional parameters or to the fuel flow rate
adjustments and speed of rotation, if seals are removed,
or if parts not described in the operating and maintenance
manual are removed and reassembled by unauthorized
personnel.
WARNING
. In addition to all other machine specifications, ensure that
the engine is in a near horizontal position when starting. lf
starting manually, ensure that the necessary operations
can be performed without any risk of striking against walls
or dangerous objects. Rope starting (except for recoil rope
starting) is not permitted even in emergencies.
. Check that the machine is stable so that there is no risk of it
overturning.
. Get to know the engine speed adjustment and machine
stop operations.
. Do not start the machine in closed or poorly ventilated
environments. The internal combustion process generates
carbon monoxide, an odourless and highly toxic gas, so
spending too long a time in an environment where the
engine discharges its exhaust products freely can lead to
loss of consciousness and even death.
. The engine may not be used in environments containing
flammable materials, explosive atmospheres or easily
combustible powders, unless adequate and specific
precautions have been taken and are clearly stated and
certified for the machine.
. To prevent the risk of fire, keep the machine at a distance of
at least one metre from buildings or other machines.
-8-
. Children and animals must be kept at a sufficient distance
from the machine to prevent any danger resulting from its
operation.
. Fuel is flammable, so the tank must be filled only when the
engine is turned off. Dry carefully any fuel that may have
spilled, remove the fuel container and any cloths soaked
in fuel or oil, check that any sound-absorbing panels made
of porous material are not soaked with fuel or oil, and make
sure that the ground on which the machine is located has not
absorbed fuel or oil.
. Before starting, remove any tools that have been used for
carrying out maintenance work to the engine and/or the
machine and check that any guards removed have been
replaced. In cold climates it is possible to mix kerosene with
the diesel fuel to make the engine easier to start. The liquids
must be mixed in the tank by pouring in first the kerosene
and then the diesel fuel. Consult Kohler technical office for
mixture proportions. Petrol may not be used because of the
risk of it forming flammable vapours.
. During operation the surface of the engine reaches
temperatures that may be dangerous. Avoid in particular all
contact with the exhaust system.
. The liquid cooling circuit is under pressure. Do not carry out
any checks before the engine has cooled down, and even
then open the radiator cap or the expansion tank cautiously.
Wear protective clothing and glasses. lf there is an electric
fan, do not approach the engine while it is still hot as the fan
may come on even when the engine is not running. Clean the
cooling system with the engine turned off.
. While cleaning the oil bath air filter, check that the oil is
disposed of in such a way as not to harm the environment.
Any filtering sponges in the oil bath air filter should not be
soaked with oil. The cyclone pre-filter cup must not be filled
with oil.
. Since the oil must be emptied out while the engine is still hot
(approx. 80°C), particular care should be taken in order to
avoid burns. In any case make sure that oil does not come
into contact with your skin because of the health hazards
involved.
. Fuel vapours are highly toxic, so fill up only in the open air or
in well ventilated environments.
. During operations which involve access to moving parts of
the engine and/or removal of the rotary guards, disconnect
and insulate the positive cable of the battery so as to prevent
accidental short circuits and activation of the starter motor.
. Check the belt tension only when the engine is turned off.
IMPORTANT
. To start the engine follow the specific instructions provided
in the engine and/or machine operating manual. Do not
use auxiliary starting devices not originally installed on the
machine (e.g. Startpilot systems which utilise ether etc.)
. Before carrying out any work on the engine, turn it off and
allow it to cool down. Do not perform any operation while the
engine is running.
. Check that the discharged oil, the oil filter and the oil
contained in the oil filter are disposed of in such a way as not
to harm the environment.
. Close the fuel tank filler cap carefully after each fílling
operation. Do not fill the tank right up to the top, but leave
sufficient space to allow for any expansion of the fuel.
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
SAFETY AND WARNING DECALS - SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
II
. Do not smoke or use naked flames while filling.
. Take care when removing the oil filter as it may be hot.
. The operations of checking, filling up and replacing the
cooling liquid must be carried out with the engine turned off
and cold. Take particular care if liquids containing nitrites
are mixed with others not containing these compounds
as this may give rise to the formation of nitrosamines
which are a health hazard. The cooling liquid is polluting,
so dispose of in a manner that does not damage the
environment.
. In order to move the engine simultaneously use the
eyebolts fitted for this purpose by Kohler. These lifting
points are however not suitable for the entire machine, so
in this case use the eyebolts fitted by the manufacturer.
GENERAL SAFETY DURING OPERATING PHASES
– The procedures contained in this manual have been
tested and selected by the manufacturer’s technical
experts, and hence are to be recognised as authorised
operating methods.
– Some tools are normal workshop ones, while others are
special tools designed by the Manufacturer of the engine.
– All tools must be in good working condition so that engine
components are not damaged and that operations are
carried out properly and safely.
– It is important to wear the personal safety devices
prescribed by work safety laws and also by the standards
of this manual.
– Holes must be lined up methodically and with the aid of
suitable equipment. Do not use your fingers to carry out
this operation to avoid the risk of amputation.
– Some phases may require the assistance of more than
one operator. If so, it is important to inform and train them
regarding the type of activity they will be performing in
order to prevent risks to the health and safety of all persons
involved.
– Do not use flammable liquids (petrol, diesel, etc.) to
degrease or wash components. Use special products.
– Use the oils and greases recommended by the manufacturer.
Do not mix different brands or combine oils with different
characteristics.
– Discontinue use of the engine if any irregularities arise,
particularly in the case of unusual vibrations.
– Do not tamper with any devices to alter the level of
performance guaranteed by the manufacturer.
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
Every organisation has a duty to implement procedures to identify,
assess and monitor the influence of its own activities (products,
services, etc.) on the environment.
Procedures for identifying the extent of the impact on the environment must consider the following factors:
-
-
-
-
-
-
In order to minimise the impact on the environment, the manufacturer
now provides a number of indications to be followed by all persons
handling the engine, for any reason, during its expected lifetime.
- All packaging components must be disposed of in accordance
with the laws of the country in which disposal is taking place.
Liquid waste;
- Keep the fuel and engine control systems and the exhaust
Waste management;
pipes in efficient working order to limit environmental and noise
Soil contamination;
pollution.
Atmospheric emissions;
- When discontinuing use of the engine, select all components
Use of raw materials and natural resources;
according to their chemical characteristics and dispose of them
Regulations and directives regarding environmental impact.
separately.
California Proposition 65
WARNING
Engine exhaust from this product contains
chemicals known to the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm.
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
-9-
III
MODEL NUMBER AND IDENTIFICATION
The identification plate shown in the figure can be found directly on the engine.
It contains the following information:
A)Manufacturer’s identity
B)Engine type
C)Engine serial number
D)Maximum operating speed
E)Number of the customer version (form K)
F)Approval data
Approval data
The approval reference directives EC are on the engine plate (F).
A
D
B
E
C
F
- 10 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
TECHNICAL DATA
IV
CHARACTERISTICS
ENGINE TYPE
KD 477-2
Number of cylinders
N.
Bore
mm
Stroke
mm
Swept volume
cm³
Compression ratio
@ 3000 RPM
N 80/1269/CEE-ISO 1585
@ 3600 RPM
@ 3000 RPM
Power kW (HP) NB ISO 3046 - 1 IFN
@ 3600 RPM
@ 3000 RPM
NA ISO 3046 - 1 ICXN
@ 3600 RPM
Max. torque *
Nm
Fuel consumption **
g/kW.h
Oil consumption
g/kW.h
Capacity of standard oil sump
lt
Recommended battery 12V
Ah -A
Dry weight
kg
Combustion air volume
m³/h
Cooling air volume
m³/h
Max.permissible driving shaft axial: continuous (instantaneous)
kg.
Flywheel site: continuous (instantaneous)
Max. inclination
Power take off site: continuous (instantaneous)
Lateral: continuous (instantaneous)
2
90
75
954
19:1
15(20,5)
17(23)
14(19)
15,7(21,4)
12,9(17,6)
14,5(19,8)
[email protected]
236
0,8
3
66-300
78
90
950
100(350)
25°(35°)
25°(40°)
25°(40°)
*
**
Referred to N power
Consumption at max torque
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 11 -
V
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS POWER, TORQUE AND SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION CURVES
KD 477-2
N (80/1269/EEC - ISO 1585) AUTOMOTIVE RATING : Intermittent operation with variable speed and variable load.
NB (ISO 3046 - 1 IFN) RATING WITH NO OWERLOAD CAPABILITY: continuos ligth duty operation with constant speed and variable load.
NA (ISO 3046 - 1 ICXN) CONTINUOS RATING WITH OVERLOAD CAPABILITY: continuos heavy duty with constant speed and constant load.
Mt-N Torque at N power.
C Specific fuel consumption at N power.
U1: Standard utilization range of engines rated at 3000 rpm
U2: Standard utilization range of engines rated at 3600 rpm­
The above power values refer to an engine fitted with air cleaner and standard muffler, after testing and at the environmental conditions of 20°C
and 1 bar.
Max. power tolerance is 5%.
Power decreases by approximately 1% every 100 m di altitude and by 2% every 5°C above 25°C.
Note: Consult Kohler for power, torque curves and specific consumptions at rates differing from those given above.
- 12 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
OVERALL DIMENSIONS
VI
Note: Dimensions in mm
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 13 -
VII
SPECIAL TOOLS
TOOL - 14 -
CODE DESCRIPTION
00365R0010
Extractor
00365R0940
Injection advance control tool
00365R0020
Flywheel extractor
00365R0040
Oil seal insertion tool
00365R0260
Oil seal protection cone
00365R0210
Injection pump spanner
00365R0450
Valve guide gauge Ø 7 mm (0.27 inch.)
00365R0850
Valve guide grinder Ø 7 mm (0.27 inch.)
00365R0540
Tool for valve seat
00365R0500
00365R0510
Cutter Ø 38 mm (1.50 inch.)
Cutter Ø 40 mm (1.57 inch.)
00365R0430
Injector test bench
00365R0100
Bearing extractor
00365R0770
Cylinder collar Ø 80=85 mm (3.15=3.35 inch.)
00365R0880
Valve extractor
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
MAINTENANCE - RECOMMENDED OIL TYPE - REFILLING
VIII
Failure to carry out the operations described in the table may lead to technical damage to the machine and/
or system
MANUTENANCE
OPERATION
CLEANING
CHECK
REPLACEMENT
OVERALL
INSPECTION
(*)
(**)
(***)
(x)
(xx)
COMPONENT
OIL-BATH AIR CLEANER
HEAD AND CYLINDER FINS
FUEL TANK
INJECTOR
AIR CLEANER OIL
LEVEL
OIL SUMP
BATTERY FLUID
VALVE/ROCKER ARM CLEARANCE
INJECTOR SETTING
AIR CLEANER OIL
SUMP
EXTERNAL OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE
FUEL FILTER CARTRIDGE
DRY AIR CLEANER CARTRIDGE PARTIAL
COMPLETE
INTERVAL (HOURS)
8
50
200 300 500 2500 5000
(*)
(*)
(**)(***)
(x)
(xx)
First replacement
Under severe working conditions, clean daily.
Under extremely dusty conditions, change every 4-5 hours.
See recommended oil type.
The partial overhaul includes the following operations: valve and seat lapping, injector and injection pump overhaul,
injector projection check, fuel injection spark advance check, check of the harmful area between head and piston,
camshaft and crankshaft end float check, tightening of bolts.
The general overhaul includes - in addition to all partial overhaul - the following procedures: cylinder and piston replacement, seat, guide and valve refacing, crankshaft replacement or grinding, bench bearing and connecting rod replacement.
The maintenance operations listed above refer to an engine operating in normal conditions (temperature, degree of humidity,
dust in the working environment). They may vary significantly according to the type of use.
To avoid explosions or fire outbreaks, do not smoke or use naked flames during the operations.
Fuel vapours are highly toxic. Only carry out the operations outdoors or in a well ventilated place.
Keep your face well away from the plug to prevent harmful vapours from being inhaled. Dispose of fuel in the correct
way and do not litter as it is highly polluting.
FUEL
When refuelling, it is advisable to use a funnel to prevent fuel from spilling out. The fuel should also be filtered to prevent dust or
dirt from entering the tank.
Use the same type of diesel fuel as used in cars. Use of other types of fuel could damage the engine. The cetane rating of the
fuel must be higher than 45 to prevent difficult starting. Do not use dirty diesel fuel or mixtures of diesel fuel and water since this
would cause serious engine faults.
The capacity of the standard tank is: lt. 7.0
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 15 -
VIII
MAINTENANCE - RECOMMENDED OIL TYPE - REFILLING
The engine could be damaged if allowed to operate with insufficient oil. It is also dangerous to add too much oil as its
combustion could sharply increase the rotation speed.
Use a suitable oil in order to protect the engine.
The lubrication oil influences the performances and life of the engine in an incredible way.
The risk of piston seizure, jammed piston rings and rapid wear of the cylinder liner, the bearings and all moving parts
increases if oil whose characteristics differ from the recommended type is used, or if the oil is not regularly changed.
All this notably reduces engine life.
Oil viscosity must suit the ambient temperature in which the engine operates.
Old oil can cause skin cancer if repeatedly left in contact with the skin and for long periods of time. If contact with the
oil is inevitable, you are advised to thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water as soon as possible.
Appropriate protective gloves etc should be wore during this operation.
Old oil is highly polluting and must be disposed of in the correct way. Do not litter.
GRADE
RECOMMENDED OIL
AGIP SINT 2000 5W40 specification API SJ/CF ACEA A3-96 B396 MIL-L-46152 D/E.
ESSO ULTRA 10W40 specification API SJ/CF ACEA A3-96 MILL-46152 D/E.
In countries where AGIP and ESSO products are not available,
use API SJ/CF oil for gasoline-fuelled engines or oil that complies
with military specification MIL-L-46152 D/E.
- - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + +
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
SAE 10W
SAE 20W
SAE 30
SAE 40
SAE 10W-30
OIL SUPPLY ( liters )
Standard oil sump
filter included
SAE 10W-40
SAE 10W-60
3.0 l.
SAE 15W-40 base minerale
SAE 15W-40 base semi-sintetica
SAE 20W-60 base semi-sintetica
SAE 5W-30 base sintetica
SAE 5W-40 base sintetica
SAE 0W-30 base sintetica
ACEA SEQUENCES
A = Gasoline (Petrol)
B = Light Diesel fuels
E = Heavy Diesel fuels
API CF CE CD CC CB CA SA SB SC SD SE SF SG SH SJ
Required levels :
A1-96
A2-96
A3-96
B1-96
B2-96
B3-96
E1-96
E2-96
E3-96
BENZINA - ESSENCE - PETROL
BENZIN - GASOLINA
DIESEL
D- 4
D- 5
CCMC G- 2
CCMC G- 3
CCMC PD - 1 / PD - 2
CCMC D- 2
CCMC D- 3
G- 4
G- 5
MIL - L - 2104 D
MIL - L - 2104 E
MIL - L -46152 C
MIL - L- 46152 D/E
228.3
MB 228.1
VW 505.00
MB 226.1
MB 227.1
MB 226.5
MB 227.5
VW 500.00
VW 501.01
VOLVO VDS
MAN QC 13-017
- 16 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
IX
DISASSEMBLY OF THE ENGINE
During repair operations, when using compressed air,
wear eye protection.
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY
Besides disassembly and reassembly operations this chapter also
includes checking and setting specifications, dimensions, repair and
operating instructions. Always use original Kohler spare parts for repair operations.
1
Flywheel extraction
Use extractor cod. 00365R0020, as shown in figure 1.
During the demounting phases, pay particular attention to
prevent the flywheel from dropping as this could seriously
injure the operator.
Wear protective goggles when removing the flywheel ring.
IMPORTANT: Do not tap the end of the extractor when removing the flywheel.
2
Crankshaft gear extraction
Use extractor cod. 00365R0010 and cod. 00365R0100 (fig. 2).
Camshaft gear extraction
Use extractor cod. 00365R0010 (fig. 3).
3
Oil pressure register valve extraction
Use extractor cod. 00365R0880 (fig. 4).
4
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 17 -
IX
CHECKS AND OVERHAUL
Cylinder heads
Details of fig. 5:
1. Cylinder head - 2. Pipe - 3. O-Ring - 4. Rockerarms - 5. Rockers 6. Cotters - 7. Plates - 8. Springs - 9. Guides - 10. Seats - 11. Valves
- 12. Tappets - 13. Camshaft.
The heads are of aluminium with inserted guides and valve seats in
cast iron. Make sure there are no cracks or imperfections. Should it
be so, replace according to the instructions given in the spare parts
catalogue.
Never remove head while still hot in order to avoid deformation.
5
Valves - Guides - Seats
Clean the valves with a wire brush and renew them if the valve heads
are deformed, cracked or worn.
Check clearance between valve and guide with a micrometer on
stem B (fig. 7) and with a go/no go gauge as shown in fig. 6 (tool cod.
00365R0450).
Change the guide if the maximum gauge diameter passes through it,
as it has passed the maximum permissible wear.
After having fitted the new guide, check exact diameter using the “go”
end of the gauge and if necessary grind it to the dimensions indicated
in the table using the adjustable grinder (tool cod. 00365R0850).
6
Engine
KD 477-2
Ø Guide
mm
Guide
Inlet
Outlet
7,000 ÷ 7,010
Ø Gauge mm
go
no go
7,000
7,079
Fitting of new guides always requires grinding of the valve seats (see
page 19).
Valve guides with an external diameter increased by 0.10 mm are
available.
If the inlet clearance between valve and guide is lower than 0.08 mm
and the outlet clearance is lower than, 0.10 mm, the wear on B is
less than 0.03 mm and A is more than 0.05 mm, recondition the valve by grinding face P to 45° (fig. 7).
As a result of prolonged engine operation, the hammering of the valves on their seats at high temperature causes the face of the seats to
harden and hand grinding is made difficult. It is thus necessary to remove the hardened surface with a 45° cutter mounted on a valve seat
grinding tool (fig. 8). Final fitting can then be carried out manually with
the cutters listed below.
7
Cut dimensions for valve seats
Engine
KD 477-2
Inlet
Outlet Ø guide
AxB
Ø guide
AxB
40 x 12 mm
7 mm
38 x 12 mm
7 mm
8
- 18 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
CHECKS AND OVERHAUL
X
Cutting of the valve seats involves the widening of the valve seat face
P with a consequent reduction of seal of the valve itself, fig. 9
If face P is more than 2 mm wide, invert cutter and lower level Q of
the seat, fig. 10, so as to restore the P level to the value of:
9
Fitting mm
Max. wear mm
0,7 ÷ 1,2
2
Final lapping of the valve on the seat must be carried out by coating
the seat with a fire grinding paste and rotating the valve backwards
and forwards with a slight pressure until a perfect finish to the surface
is obtained (fig. 11).
Make sure the face of the valve head in relation to the face of the
cylinder head is:
Fitting mm
Max. wear mm
0,9 ÷ 1,1
1,8
If the distance is less, the valve will strike the piston.
If the distance is more than 1.8 mm the valve seat rings
need to be changed. Fitting of new valves or seats always
requires grinding.
Valve seats with an external diameter increased by 0.2 mm, are available.
10
After grinding, wash valve and seat carefully with petrol or paraffin to
eliminate any residual grinding paste or cuttings.
To check the worthiness of the seal between valve and seat, after
grinding has taken place, proceed as follows:
1. Fit valve on head with spring, plates and cotters (see fig. 5).
2.Invert head and pour a few drops of diesel or oil round the outside of the valve head.
3.Blow compressed air into the inlet of the cylinder head, taking
care to seal the edges so that the air does not escape (fig. 12).
11
Should air bubbles form between the seat and the valve, remove the
valve and regrind the seat.
The fit can also be checked by pushing the valve upwards and letting
it fall freely down onto its seat. If the resulting bounce is considerable and uniform, also when the valve is rotated, it means that the fit
is good. If not, continue grinding until the conditions described above
are achieved.
12
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 19 -
X
CHECKS AND OVERHAUL
Valves and springs
In order to check the springs for possible failure measure the lengths
under load as shown in figure 13.
The permissible tolerance for loads and lengths is ± 10%. If the figures measured do not fall within these values, the springs must be
renewed.
13
Rocker arms
Make sure that the facing surfaces between rocker and pin are not
scored and show no signs of seizure. If such marks are encountered,
renew rocker and pin. Rocker / pin clearance (fig.14):
Fitting mm
Max. wear mm
0,030 ÷ 0,056
0,15
Rocker axial play (fig.14):
0,10 ÷ 0,50
14
Cylinders
Air cooled with cylinder barrels in special cast iron with integral liners.
Use a dial gauge to check internal diameters (C-D) at three different
heights (fig.15).
Maximum permitted taper (A-B) and ovality (C-D) is 0.06mm.
Diameter of cylinders (fig.15):
KD477-2
15
Ø 90 ÷ 90,015
If the diameter of the cylinder does not exceed said values or if there
are slight surface scores on the cylinder, it will be sufficient to change
the piston rings.
Do not manually hone the cylinder bore surfaces with emery cloth or other means.
The cross-hatch pattern should be at an angle of 90°÷120°; lines
should be uniform and clear in both directions (fig. 16).
Average roughness must range between 0.5 mm 1 µm.
The cylinder surface which comes into contact with piston rings
should be machined with the plateau method.
If the taper and ovality of the cylinder exceed the values indicated,
then the cylinder and piston must be renewed.
16
- 20 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
X
CHECKS AND OVERHAUL
Piston rings - Pistons - Piston pins
Check the wear of piston rings by fitting them into the cylinder through the lower end and measuring the end gap (fig.17). The values
should be:
17
Piston ring
Fitting mm
Max. wear mm
Compression
0,30 ÷ 0,50
0,80
Oil scrapper
0,25 ÷ 0,50
0,80
Check that the rings move freely in the grooves and check the ring/
groove clearance using a feeler gauge (fig.18).
If the clearance exceeds the values shown in the table, renew the piston and the piston rings.
Piston ring
Max. wear mm
1st Compression
A = 0,22
2 - 3 Compression
B -C= 0,18
4 Oil scrapper
D = 0,16
nd
rd
th
Piston rings must always be renewed after dismantling the
piston.
18
Piston diameter check: The diameter of the piston must be measured
at approximately 18 mm from the base (fig.19).
Engine
KD477-2
Diameter mm
89,919 ÷ 89,930
Check the clearance between cylinder and piston, if it is greater than
0.120 mm both cylinder and piston must be replaced.
Assembly clearance between piston pin and piston in millimetres:
19
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
Fitting mm
Max. wear mm
0,001 ÷ 0,010
0,060
- 21 -
X
CHECKS AND OVERHAUL
Connecting rods
On the small end there is a groove (A, fig. 20) for the lubrication of
the gudgeon pin. The small end and the gudgeon pin are coupled without a bush in between.
Assembly clearance between connecting rod small end and piston
pin in millimetres:
Engine
KD 477-2
Ø Piston pin
mm
Assy. clearance
mm
Max wear
mm
21,997 ÷ 22,002 0,023 ÷ 0,038
0,070
20
If it is necessary to replace a complete connecting rod with bushes
and bolts, make sure its weight is:
Engine
KD 477-2
Weight
gr. 570 ± 10
21
Check parallelism between connecting rod axies (fig. 21) as follows:
1.Insert the gudgeon pin into the small end bush and a calibrated
pin into the big end (with bearing fitted).
2.Place the ends of the pin on 2 prisms set out on a checking
bench.
3.Check with a comparator gauge that the discrepancy in the readings at the two ends of the gudgeon pin is not more than 0.05
mm. Should the distortion exceed this value (max 0.10 mm), reset connecting rod as follows:
Place connecting rod stem on checking bench and apply a calibrated pressure to the convex side of the stem (fig. 22).
22
- 22 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
X
CHECKS AND OVERHAUL
Crankshaft
Whenever the engine is dismantled, particularly for the replacement
of cylinders and pistons due to wear caused by the aspiration of dust,
it is good practice to check the condition of the crankshaft.
1.Remove the plugs “A” from the oil passages (fig.23).
2.Use an appropriately shaped steel punch to clean the inside of
the oil passages and the collection traps. If the deposits are particularly resistant, immerse the whole crankshaft in petrol or paraffin before proceeding with the operations.
23
3.When the oil passages and traps have been throughly cleaned,
close the openings with new plugs (fig.24).
Checking crankshaft dimensions
Once the crankshaft has been thoroughly cleaned, use a micrometer
to check the wear and ovality of the main journals and crank journals
across two sections at right angles to each other (fig.25).
If wear exceeds 0.08 mm (fig.26) grind the crankshaft to the dimensions shown in the table:
STD mm
-0,25 mm
45,005
÷
45,015
44,755
÷
44,765
44,505
÷
44,515
44,994
÷
45,010
44,744
÷
44,760
44,494
÷
44,510
Dimensions
24
A
B
-0,50 mm
Undersize bearing bushes are already available at the necessary sizes without requiring any adjustment by boring.
25
Main bearing bushes with increased external diameters are also available. Table indicates the crankcase boring values.
Bearing
Ø of brush housingmm
Standard
47,965 ÷ 47,985
+ 1 mm
48,965 ÷ 48,985
During grinding take care not to remove the shim
adjustment material from the main journal thrust face to
avoid changing the crankshaft end float; also ensure that
the grinding wheel radii are as specified in figure 26 so as
not to create crack initiation sections on the crankshaft.
26
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 23 -
X
CHECKS AND OVERHAUL
exhaust
inlet
Camshaft
Check cams and support pins for wear or scores.
Check amount of wear by measuring points A and B shown in fig. 27
and 28 and comparing to the figures of the tables hereunder:
Distribution cam dimensions (fig. 27).
Engine
Measurement
Fitting
mm
Max. wear
mm
KD477-2
A-B
29,95 ÷ 30,00
29,70
27
Injection cam dimensions (fig. 28)
Engine
Measurement
Fitting
mm
Max. wear
mm
KD477-2
A
28,39÷ 28,43
28,30
The coupling clearance between pins and respective housings should
be:
Fitting mm
Max. wear mm
0,015 ÷ 0,048
0,100
Renew the camshaft if the cams or journals show wear in
excess of 0.1mm.
28
Oil seal rings
Make sure the oil seals have not hardened round the internal contact
edge with the crankshaft and that they do not show signs of cracks or
wear. If they do, replace them with new ones of the same size.
Then re-fitting the oil seal, use protective cone cod.
00365R0260. Fit said cone over the ends of the crankshaft
to avoid damage to the ring itself.
Tappet checking
Make sure the tappet surfaces are not worn, lined or present signs of
seizure. If so, replace.
Tappet and seat check in mm (fig. 29).
Measurement
Tappet
Tappet seat
Fitting mm
11,98 ÷ 11,99
12,00 ÷ 12,018
Max .assy.clearance mm
0,10
29
- 24 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
X
CHECKS AND OVERHAUL
Governor lever and spring
Check that the shoes (S, fig. 30) are level and that the springs have
not lost their elasticity. Renew any excessively worn parts after consulting the spare parts catalogue.
Supplement and governor spring dimensions (fig. 30):
Lenght
mm
Spring
Supplement (H)
Lenght under
load mm
Load
kg
Nr of
windings
16,9 ÷ 17,4
35
0,3
18,5
53
69,2
2,5
13
Governor (N)
30
Oil pump checking
The pump is of the lobed rotor type driven by the camshaft.
Dismantle pump and check rotors.
Check lobes and centers and if they are worn, replace rotors.
Check the amount of pump wear, measure rotor A and rotor B (see
fig. 31), and compare to the following table:
31
Measurement
Dimensions mm
Max. wear mm
C
29,745 ÷ 29,770
29,700
D
40,551 ÷ 40,576
40,45
E
30,030 ÷ 30,60
30,10
F
17,920 ÷ 17,940
17,89
If wear exceed these figures, replace complete pump.
The coupling clearance between oil pump external rotor and basement housing is:
Fitting mm
0,094 ÷ 0,144
Max. wear mm
0,294
The axial clearance of the rotors (fig. 32) should be between:
Fitting mm
0,010 ÷ 0,050
Max. wear mm
0,100
32
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 25 -
XI
INJECTION EQUIPMENT
Fuel circuit
Feeding is carried out by a diaphram pump actuated by a camshaft
eccentric coupled to a cap.
See assembly on page 36 and consult spare parts catalogue for replacement.
Details of fig. 33:
1.Tank - 2.Diesel filter - 3.Feeding pump - 4.Injection pump - 5.Injection pipes - 6.Injectors - 7.Diesel discharge pipe.
Injection pump
The injection pump is of the single casing type with two, constant
stroke, separate pumping elements. Details of fig. 34.
1.Pump casing - 2.Pumping element - 3.Rack bar - 4.Eccentric dowel - 5.Adjusting bushing - 6.Spring - 7.Lower plate - 8.Tappet - 9.Upper plate - 10.Locking pin - 11.13.18.Gaskets - 12.Diesel intake connection - 14.Diesel exhaust screw - 15.Delivery valve - 16.O-ring 17.Valve spring - 19.Delivery connection.
Checking injection pump
Before dismantling injection pump check pressure seal of the pumping unit, cylinder and valve as follows:
33
1.Connect a pressure gauge graded up to 600 kg/cm² (fig. 35) to
the diesel delivery pipe.
2.Set the rack bar in a half way position.
3.Rotate flywheel showly until the pumping element has completed
a compression stroke.
If the test is carried out on the bench, take care that the
pumping element does not strike the delivery valve while
pumping.
34
4.Take the pressure gauge reading. If the reading is less than 300
kg/cm² , the complete pumping unit must be replaced.
During the test, the reading on the gauge will show a progressive
pressure increase to a maximum value and will then fall suddenly
and stop at a lower pressure.
Replace valve if the fall in pressure exceeds 50 kg/cm² and continues to fall slowly.
Injection pump setting
Register eccentric dowel to the maximum capacity of the pumping
elements (q, fig. 39).
35
- 26 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
INJECTION EQUIPMENT
XI
The quantity of diesel is in relation to 1000 deliveries with the rack bar
at 8 mm from the stop position.
Engine
KD477-2
Ø Pumping
element mm
cc
valve
Valve Ø
mm
Capacity
cc
Pump
RPM
6
15
4
24 ÷ 26
1500
36
Injection pump assembly
After having dismantled the injection pump it should be reassembled
in the following manner:
1.Insert cylinders into pump casing with diesel inlet opposite to feeding inlet connection (fig. 36). This position is necessary due to
two eccentric dowels on the pump casing.
Make sure the supporting faces of the cylinders and pumps are
free of dirt.
2.Fix cylinders by inserting valves and temporarily tightening the
delivery connections to stop the pumping elements from coming
out. (fig. 37).
37
3.Insert rack bar and lock in a half way position (fig. 38). Make sure
the bar moves freely on the guides. Resistance and drag will cause the engine to run unevenly.
4.Marks b cut on the bar must coincide with marks a of the toothed quadrants. Marks c on toothed quadrants must coincide with
marks d on the flanges of the piston (fig. 39).
5.Insert piston into cylinder with groove turned towards the eccentric dowel on the pump casing.
6.Complete assembly of pump.
IMPORTANT: The roller tappets (No 8 fig. 34) and the lower plates are not interchangeable as they determine the
timing of the pumping elements.
When replacing parts make sure that:
38
a.the distance between the injection cam in bottom dead
centre position (PMI) and the pump supporting surface is
82.6 to 83 mm as stated on the plate.
b.the piston stroke from the bottom dead centre position (PMI) of
the injection cam to delivery commencement is 2.0 to 2.1 mm.
7.Check pressure seal again, as described in paragraph "Checking
injection pump" page 26, to make sure the replaced parts are
working properly.
39
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 27 -
XI
INJECTION EQUIPMENT
Testing air tightness
Feed pressurized air at 6 kg/cm² into the fuel sullpy union and completely immerse the pump in oil or diesel fuel for about 20 ÷ 30 seconds (fig.40); check that no air bubbles are released.
N.B.: Tightness can be checked by compressing the springs to
52.8 ÷ 54.4 mm, which corresponds to the bottom dead centre working position of the pump.
40
Injectors (fig. 41)
1.Body - 2.Nozzle - 3.Ring nut - 4.Plate - 5.Rod - 6.Spring 7.Adjustment shim.
41
Injector checking and setting
1.Clean out nozzle holes with a thin piece of wire (fig. 42) of the
same size as that of the nozzle holes indicated on the table:
Ø holes mm
Engine
KD477-2
0,25
2.Set up injector on a test bench (tool cod. 00365R0430).
42
3.Unscrew injector lock coupling (No 3 fig. 41) or nozzle ring nut and
insert adjustment shim (7, fig. 41) until the pressure indicated in
the table hereunder is reached on the pressure gauge while pumping.
Engine
Setting kg/cm2
KD477-2
225 ÷ 235
4.Tighten the nozzle ring nut (No 3 fig. 41) at:
5 kgm (49 Nm)
43
- 28 -
5.When setting is complete, while still at the test bench, run pumping elements a few times and check the amount of diesel that
passes through the upper leak-off of the injector (fig. 43).
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
XII
Electric starting with motor and alternator for battery re-charging
Characteristics
Starter motor: anticlockwise rotation.
12V - 1.5 HP (1.1 kW)
Flywheel alternator:
For re-charging 12V/280W batteries giving 17A charge at 3000 RPM.
Regulator:
Electronic with controlled diodes and preset for battery re-charging pilot light connection.
12V-24A
Optional external alternator with belt control:
For re-charging 12V/200W batteries giving 15.5A charge at 6000
RPM with 12V/26A voltage adjustor.
Battery:
12V; 80 to 90 Ah
To check starting system circuit see figures 47.
44
Circuit checking
1.Make sure the connections between regulator and alternator are
correct and in good condition.
2.Detach from the terminal on the starter motor, the red wire coming from the alternator, and insert a direct current ammeter with
a 20 Amp range between said free terminal and the detached
wire.
3.Connect a direct current voltmeter with a minimum range of 15
Volts (fig. 44), to the battery terminals.
4.Insert starter key and start up a few times at no load or insert a
lamp load of 80 to 100 W at the ends of the battery to keep the
battery voltage under 13 Volts.
5.Run the engine up to the maximum of 3000 RPM. The charging
current reading on the ammeter should be about:
17A with 12V/280W alternator
For intermediate values see fig. 46.
6.Disconnect lamp load and keep engine running at A/m revs. for
some time.
The battery voltage will increase progressively until it reaches the
setting limit of the regulator which is about 14.5 V.
Simultaneously, the charging current will drop to about 2A. This
will occur very quickly if the battery is charged and slowly if it is
discharged.
7.If the charging current cuts out or is lower than the values given
above, replace governor. If the performance does not improve after this replacement, the trouble must be locked for in the alternator.
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 29 -
XII
INJECTION EQUIPMENT
Alternator checking (stator)
Disconnect alternator cables from the regulator and check
continuity between the windings with an Ohmmeter.
Also check that there is good insulation between cables and
earth (fig. 45). In the event of an open circuit, replace the stator. If the stator is in good working order but the values of the
alternator charge are lower than those stated, the rotor is demagnetised and the entire alternator must be replaced.
Insulation
Continuity
45
Wire checking
Examine condition of wires bearing the following in mind:
46
1.With one of the yellow wires open circuited, the alternator will not
supply current.
2.With both yellow wires open circuited, the alternator will not supply current at all.
3.With one or both wires earthed, the rotor will demagnitize very
quickly and the coils of the stator will burn out.
4.With red wire open circuited, the alternator will not supply current.
5.With red wire earthed the alternator will not supply current, the
connection wires and warning circuit will burn out and the battery
will discharge completely.
6.Avoid sparks between cables, as the alternator could burn out.
7.With an imperfect earth between the negative battery terminal
and regulator casing, the charging current is irregular and the regulator could be damaged.
8.If the battery connections are inverted, the alternator and regulator will burn immediately.
Method of use
By turning the starter key to the first position, the battery charging circuit is started off, and thus:
47
1.With engine stationary the key must be kept on the off position. If
it is left on the first position, the oil warning light could burn out,
the battery could discharge and the regulator could be damaged.
2.With engine running turn key to first position. If it is left in the off
position, the oil warning light and battery charging functions are
excluded.
The voltage regulator will be damaged beyond repair, if it is
run with the battery cables disconnected or with unactivated batteries.
- 30 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
XII
Diagram of electric starting wiring system with flywheel
alternator (fig. 47).
1.Battery - 2.Regulator - 3.Alternator - 4.Starter motor - 5.Pressure
gauge - 6.Oil pressure warning light - 7.Starter key - 8.Battery charging light.
Diagram of electric starting wiring system with external
alternator (fig. 48).
1.Battery - 2.Regulator - 3.Alternator - 4.Starter motor - 5.Pressure
gauge - 6.Oil pressure warning light - 7.Starter key - 8.Battery charging light.
48
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 31 -
XII
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
Notice: These instructions are valid for engines up-dated
prior to the publication of this manual. Any modifications
must be checked on the technical circulars.
Before assembling the engine carefully clean all parts and
dry them with compressed air. Lubricate moving parts to
prevent seizing when starting up. Replace the gaskets with
new ones each time the engine is assembled.
Use torque wrenches to ensure that the correct tightening
torques are applied.
49
Preparation of crankcase
Clean support faces and remove seal residue and dirt with a copper
plate or a fine emery stone to avoid damage to the contact surfaces
(fig. 49).
Lower crankcase (fig. 50)
1.Insert plugs (A) into relative seats.
2.Screw in oil filter cartridge connection (B). The connection should
protude 11 to 13 mm. from the crankcase.
3.Insert complete oil pressure register valve into its seat (C).
Make sure the seat of the valve ball in the casing is free of dirt or
scores which could jeopardize the pressure seal.
4.Insert cylinder studs and centering pins.
50
51
Camshaft preparation
To prepare the camshaft unit (fig. 51) proceed as follows:
1.Insert shim adjustment washer (No 3) and governor plate (No 4)
on camshaft.
2.Fit snap ring (No 5) and tab (No 7) into respective housings.
3.Heat gear (No 6) complete with masses and insert onto camshaft
making sure it rests against the locking snap ring.
4.Insert governor plate locking ring (No 2).
The speed governor is of the centrifugal mass type splined directly onto the ends of the camshaft gear (fig. 52).
Masses (A), pushed outwards by the centrifugal force, shift mobile
plate (P) axially. Said plate actions lever (R) connected to injection
pump rack bar (E) by means of tie rod (T).
A spring (N) placed under tension by the accelerator (C), contrasts
the action of the centrifugal force of the governor.
The balance between the two forces keeps the revolutions practically
constant when load is changed.
For pre-load adjustment of the speed governor see paragraph on
page 40 "Injection pump tie rod connection".
52
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KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
XIII
Crankshaft preparation
The insertion of the main distribution gear onto the crankshaft must
be carried out while hot. Heat by means of dry heating or an oil bath
at 70/80 °C (fig. 53).
53
Upper crankcase preparation
1.Insert accelerator internal lever onto crankcase taking care not to
damage the oil seal O-Ring.
2.Fit interchangeable tappets into housings on crankcase.
3.Camshaft assembly (fig. 54): in order to assemble the shaft correctly, the cams must be introduced, without applying force, along
the grooves inside the crankcase.
54
4.Mount governor lever and insert lever fulcrum pin taking care not
to damage the oil seal rings (fig. 55). The lever should be able to
effect the complete stroke without strain.
Insert spring between governor lever and accelerator.
5.Insert main bearings into respective housings and spread with oil
slightly.
The three main bearings are identical and interchangeable.
6.Fit rubber gaskets and O-Rings between crankcases taking care
to insert same properly into respective grooves so as to prevent
oil leaks between the contact surfaces (fig. 56).
55
It is advisable to spread a bit of rubber adhesive round the
edges of the rubber gasket for better seal.
56
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 33 -
XIII
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
7.Place crankshaft on previously housed shells making sure the timing references found on the gears coincide (fig. 57).
8.Insert oil seal rings on the drive side of the crankshaft (fig. 58).
A warped oil retainer may allow the introduction of air into
the engine thus causing crankcase ventilation problems.
Use genuine oil retainers with the Kohler.
57
9.Mount lower crankcase complete with studs, centering pins and
bearings.
10.Take care to insert the centering pins between crankcases into
their respective housings without using force.
11.Tighten crankcase screws, to starting from the centre and alternating towards the outside at:
kgm 1,3 (Nm 12,8)
58
Timing cover assembly
Before mounting the timing cover check that between the gear shims
and the crankcase surface (fig. 59) there is a maxi clearance of:
0,10 mm
The axial clearance is measured at the timing cover gaskets and
must be between:
59
0,10 ÷ 0,20 mm
If the axial clearance of the crankshaft becomes excessive after a
long working period, add adjustment shims to the engine shaft and
camshaft gear until the clearance returns to normal values (fig. 60).
0.2 and 0.3 mm shims are available.
60
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KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
XIII
Fitting of oil seal rings
To introduce oil seal ring, flywheel side, use an ordinary cylindrical
plug of appropriate size as shown in fig. 61.
A warped oil retainer may allow the introduction of air into
the engine thus causing crankcase ventilation problems.
Use genuine oil retainers with the Kohler.
The oil seal rings are to be fitted with the arrow pointing in
the same direction of the crankshaft rotation.
61
Final insertion of the oil seal ring, drive side, requires the use of special tool code 00365R0040 (fig. 62).
62
Oil pump assembly
For rotor checks see page 25.
After tightening crankcase, mount oil pump external rotor with the
notch facing inwards (fig. 63).
Make sure the O-Ring on the oil pump cover is in perfect condition.
Tighten screws gradually to a pressure of:
kgm 1 (Nm 9,8)
63
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 35 -
XIII
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
Feeding pump assembly
1.Insert fuel feeding pump cap into its housing and make sure it
moves freely. The length of the cap is :
34 ÷ 34,2 mm
2.Fit gasket (0.5 mm and 0.2 mm thick).
3.With fuel pump control cams in a rest position the cap should
protude from the gasket surface (fig. 64) for:
64
1,7 ÷ 2,1 mm
4.With fuel feeding pump control cams at bottom dead centre position mount feeding pump and action manually. There should still
be a small suction stroke (fig. 65).
If said checks are not carried out, the fuel feeding pump
diaphram could be damaged due to the excessive stroke to
which it will be subjected.
65
Piston-connection rod couplings
The piston is coupled to the connecting rod by means of slight hand
pressure on the gudgeon pin without heating the piston.
The clearance between the small end and the gudgeon pin is: 0.023
to 0.038 mm and between gudgeon pin and piston: 0.002 to 0.008
mm.
The lubrication groove (A, fig. 66) on the small end must be turned
towards the engine rotation direction (injection pump side).
66
Connecting rod-crankshaft coupling
After insertion of the bearings into the big end, attach connecting rods
to crank pins, bearing in mind that an arrow, on the pistons, indicates
the rotation direction of the engine (fig. 66).
The combustion chamber, which is eccentric with respect to the axis,
should be turned to the nozzle side.
Mount connecting rod caps with reference numbers corresponding to
those on the rod (fig. 67). The coupling clearance between big end
bearing and pins is: 0.020 to 0.072 mm. Tighten up connecting rod
bolts to:
67
- 36 -
kgm 3,8 ÷ 4 (37,3 ÷ 39,3 Nm)
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
XIII
Piston ring fitting
Fit rings onto pistons in the following order (fig. 68):
1.Chromed compression seal ring.
2.Torsional compression seal ring
(with internal notch turned upwards).
3.Expander oil scraper ring.
68
Piston ring working position
Before mounting cylinders, rotate rings 120° opposite to each (fig. 69)
other with the ends of the 1st compression ring in line with the gudgeon pin axis.
69
Protective cap fitting
To prevent the entrance of dust and water which could block the cylinder studs to the upper crankcase, insert protective caps on the studs
themselves (fig. 70).
To facilitate cap mounting, oil stud roots.
Insert on crankcase, under the rocker shaft pipes, plates for the lubrication of the camshaft.
70
Cylinder mounting
The lower end of the cylinder is chamfered for piston ring insertion
(fig. 71).
The operation can be carried out easily by using a standard piston
ring compression tool (tool 00365R0770).
71
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 37 -
XIII
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
Cylinder height adjustement
Between the top face of the cylinder and the piston at top dead center, there must be a clearance of:
0,25 ÷ 0,35 mm
In order to carry out this operation correctly, make the
check with the cylinder pressed well down on its crankcase
(fig. 72).
72
The clearance is adjusted by means of shims inserted between the
lower face of the cylinder and crankcase (fig. 73).
Shim dimensions: 0.1 to 0.2 mm
73
Checking valve head face depth
When replacing valves check that the clearance from the top of the
head to the face (fig. 74) is of:
Fitting mm
Max. wear mm
0,9 ÷ 1,1
1,8
For different values see on pages 18-19.
74
Checking injector protrusion
Before mounting the heads on the cylinders, insert injectors in their
housings and after having secured them temporarily, check protusion
of nozzles from head surface (fig. 75).
Protusion S should be:
2,25 ÷ 2,75 mm
75
- 38 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
XIII
Adjustment is effected by inserting copper washers between the injector and injector supporting faces on the heads (fig. 76). Washer
thickness 1 mm.
76
Fitting cylinder heads
Insert oil seal O-rings on rocker arm housing and fit the cylinder head
in place. Insert 0.5 mm copper gaskets between the surfaces. (fig.
77).
Make sure the oil seal rings are housed properly in the heads to avoid oil leaks.
77
Align heads using a manifold or a metallic bar as shown in fig. 78.
Tighten down cylinder head nuts uniformly (fig. 78) increasing 1 kgm
at every turn until a pressure is reached of:
5 kgm (49 Nm)
78
Valve clearance
The clearance between valves and rockers with the engine cold (fig.
79) is:
0,15 mm
intake/exhaust
The operation must be carried out with the pistons at their top dead
center compression position.
79
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 39 -
XIII
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
Injection pump fitting
Fit injection pump into timing case inserting adjusting shim between
supporting flange and crankcase (fig. 80).
To facilitate the insertion of the pump, rotate the flywheel so as to
bring the actuating cam to rest position and set the rack bar in a half
way position.
80
To facilitate tightening of pump nuts on the cylinder side, use the special key (tool od. 00365R0210) illustrated in fig. 81.
81
Injection pump tie rod connection
- The injection pump tie rod length, measured from the connecting
centre of the rack bar to the centre of the ball joint must be mm
118 ±1 complete turn.
Careful operation will avoid uneven running, starting difficulties
and power losses.
- Connect tie rod to governor lever, engaging the ball joint to 90°
(fig. 82), and to the injection pump rack bar and then insert split
pin.
82
Checking T.D.C.
With pistons in respective top dead center compression position
check that the arrows on the air conveyor coincide with top dead center position indications on the flywheel (fig. 83).
If the flywheel has to be replaced, transfer and punch the above mentioned indications on the new one.
83
- 40 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
XIII
Checking start of injection
1.Connect fuel tank to injection pump.
2.Bring accelerator lever to max. position and piston, flywheel side,
at compression beginning (cylinder No 1)
All operations are to be carried out with the rack bar in working position to annul the delay caused by the notch on the
pumping element of the injection pump.
3. Fit the special tool, p.n. 00365R0940, to the delivery valve holder
(flywheel side) as shown in figure 84.
84
4.Insert a band (fig. 85) to ease the tension of the spring.
5. Turn the flywheel slowly until the column of diesel fuel inside the
special tool starts to move. This indicates the start of static injection.
At this moment injection pimp delivery starts (fig. 86) and the top
dead centre reference on the air conveyor must coincide with the IP
mark punched cm the flywheel (fig. 87).
If the IP mark falls short of the notch on the air conveyor, injection is
too fast. The injection pimp must be disassembled and shims must be
added between the pump flange and the crank­case.
If the IP mark falls after the T.D.C. reference notch, injection is too
slaw and the above operation is to be inverted.
85
Bear in mind that every 0.1 mm shim under the pimp corresponds to
a 2.5 mm rotation of the flywheel.
Repeat operation on second pumping element.
Should the flywheel need to be replaced, the top dead center compression position of the pistons is to be determined as per page 40
and the start of injection according to the following table:
86
I.P.
Ø flywheel
26° = 53,5 mm
236 mm
87
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 41 -
XIV
ENGINE TESTING
Speed adjustment
1.With engine hot set minimum speed at 1000 RPM (fig. 88) and
maximum to idle (fig. 89) at:
3150 RPM
for engines at 3000 rpm
3750 RPM
for engines at 3600 rpm
2.Then stop the engine.
3.Remove injectors, clean nozzle holes carefully, check setting and
re-fit.
4.Adjust clearance between valves and rockers, while engine is
hot, to:
88
0,15 mm
intake/exhaust
5.Re-fit rocker covers and sealing gaskets.
89
Checking oil pressure
1.Remove union from rocker oil hole and fit a pressure gauge graded from 0 to 8 kg/cm² (fig. 90).
2.Start engine and run up to 3000 RPM. Wait for the oil temperature to reach 70 to 80°C.
3.With engine idling at 3000 RPM the pressure gauge needle
should be slightly over half way corresponding to a pressure of 3
to 4 kg/cm².
Said pressure will stabilize at 2 to 3 kg/cm² when engine runs at
full load and the oil temperature exceeds 70 to 80°C.
4.Reduce revs to minimum. The pressure should not fall to under 1
kg/cm² with the oil temperature exceeding 80°C.
90
Checking for oil leaks
1.Remove exhaust gas collection pipe from suction manifold and
close with a plug (fig. 91).
2.Start engine and run for a few minutes. The pressure which
forms inside the crankcase bring out any oil leaks.
3.Re-fit gas collection pipe to suction manifold.
91
- 42 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
ENGINE TESTING
XIV
Testing engine on brake
After having placed the engine on the brake (fig. 92), proceed with
the following operations:
1.Check oil level (fig. 93).
2.Start engine and run at minimum speed.
3.Check oil pressure on pressure gauge (fig. 90).
4.Run engine in before testing it at full power.
92
Running-in table
93
Time (min)
RPM
Load
5
2000
0
15
3000/3600
0
30
3000/3600
30%
30
3000/3600
50%
30
3000/3600
70%
5
3000/3600
100%
Engine power curves are reported at page 12.
In order to check that the setting is correct, without tools,
accelerate the engine a few times with no load and check
the exhaust fumes.
Delivery of diesel fuel is correctly calibrated when the
exhaust gas is slightly coloured by smoke; change the
adjustment if necessary by turning the adjustment screw
(fig. 94).
94
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 43 -
XV
STORAGE
Prepare engines as follows for storage over 3 months:
Storage
95
• Let engine run at idling speed in no-load conditions for 15
minutes.
• Fill crankcase with protection oil MIL-1-644-P9 and let engine
run at 3/4 full speed for 5/10 minutes.
• When engine is warm empty oil pan and fill with standard new oil
(fig. 95)
• Remove fuel tube and empty the tank
• Remove fuel filter, replace cartridge if dirty and refit (fig. 96).
• Carefully clean cylinder fins, heads and fan (fig. 97).
• Seal all openings with tape.
• Remove injectors, pour a spoonful of oil type SAE 30 into the
cylinders (fig. 98) and rotate manualy to distribute the oil. Refit
injectors.
• Spray oil type SAE 10W into exhaust and intake manifolds,
rocker arms, valves, tappet etc. Grease all unpainted parts.
• Loosen belt
• Wrap the engine in a plastic film.
• Store in a dry place, if possible not directly on the soil and far
from high voltage electric lines.
• For the lubrication and injection system as well as for moving
parts use rustproof oil type MIL-L-21260 P10 grade 2, SAE 30
(Ex. ESSO RUST - BAN 623 - AGIP, RUSTIA C. SAE 30) Let the
engine run with rustproof oil and drain any excess.
• Coat external unpainted surfaces with antirust type MIL-C16173D - grade 3 /Ex. ESSO RUST BAN 398 - AGIP, RUSTIA
100/F).
96
How to prepare the engine for operation
•
•
•
•
Clean engine outside
Remove protections and covers
Remove antirust with an appropriate solvent or degreaser.
Remove injector, fill with standard oil, turn crankshaft by a few
revolutions, remove oil pan and drain the protective oil.
97
98
- 44 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS
XVI
Spiel (mm)
Grezen (mm)
Camshaft journal and housing in timing cover
0,017÷ 0,047
0,1
Camshaft journal and housing in crankcase
0,015÷ 0,048
0,1
End gap of compression rings
0,30 ÷ 0,50
0,8
End gap of oil scraper rings
0,25 ÷ 0,40
0,7
Connecting rod and wrist pin
0,023 ÷ 0,038
0,07
Rockers and shaft
0,030 ÷ 0,056
0,15
Main journals and bearings bushes
0,010 ÷ 0,060
0,15
Oil pump drive gear spindle and housing in crankcase
0,030 ÷ 0,065
0,115
External oil pump rotor and housing in engine crankcase
0,094 ÷ 0,144
0,294
Pistons and wrist pin
0,002 ÷ 0,008
0,05
Big end bearing and crankpin
0,020 ÷ 0,072
0,17
Valve guide and stem: inlet
0,030 ÷ 0,050
0,1
Valve guide and stem: exhaust
0,045 ÷ 0,065
0,1
MIN (mm)
MAX (mm)
0,15
0,15
0,9 ÷ 1,1
1,8
Dead space between cylinder face and piston
0,25
0,35
Protrusion of injector
2,25
2,75
End floats
MIN (mm)
MAX (mm)
Crankshaft
0,10
0,20
Camshaft
0,10
0,20
Oil pump shaft
0,01
0,05
Couplings
Adjustments
Valves
Valve depth from cylinder head
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 45 -
XVI
QUICK REFERENCE CHARTS
Tightening torques
kgm
(Nm)
Crankcase
1,3
(12,8)
3,8 ÷ 4,0
(37,3 ÷ 39,3)
Bolt on power take off end
25
(245,5)
Timing cover
1
(9,8)
Oil sump
1,3
(12,8)
Injectors
2,3
(22,6)
Injection pump
2,3
(22,6)
Oil pump cover
0,6
(5,9)
Cylinder head
5
(49)
Flywheel
28
(274,9)
Connecting rod
Standard screw tightening torques
8.8
Denomination
= 8.8
R10
R ≥ 800 N/mm2
Diameter x pitch mm
= R10 = 10.9
R12
R ≥ 1000 N/mm2
= R12 = 12.9
R ≥ 1200 N/mm2
Nm
kgm
Nm
kgm
Nm
kgm
4 x 0,70
3,6
0,37
5,1
0,52
6
0,62
5 x 0,80
7
0,72
9,9
1,01
11,9
1,22
6 x 1,00
12
1,23
17
1,73
20,4
2,08
7 x 1,00
19,8
2,02
27,8
2,84
33
3,40
8 x 1,25
29,6
3,02
41,6
4,25
50
5,10
9 x 1,25
38
3,88
53,4
5,45
64.2
6,55
10 x 1,50
52,5
5,36
73,8
7,54
88.7
9,05
13 x 1,75
89
9,09
125
12,80
150
15,30
14 x 2,00
135
13,80
190
19,40
228
23,30
16 x 2,00
205
21,00
289
29,50
347
35,40
18 x 2,50
257
26,30
362
37,00
435
44,40
20 x 2,50
358
36,60
504
51,50
605
61,80
22 x 2,50
435
44,40
611
62,40
734
74,90
24 x 3,00
557
56,90
784
80,00
940
96,00
- 46 -
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
NOTE
KD 477-2 Workshop Manual_cod. ED0053029370_1° ed_ rev. 00
- 47 -
Translated from the original manual in Italian language.
Data reported in this issue can be modified at any time by KOHLER.
FOR SALES AND SERVICE INFORMATION
IN U.S. AND CANADA, CALL 1-800-544-2444
KohlerEngines.com
ENGINE DIVISION, KOHLER CO., KOHLER, WISCONSIN 53044
FORM NO.
ED0053029370
ISSUED
05/07/2012
REVISED
00
DATE
05/07/2012
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