Skokomish Indian TribeNon-Point Assessment Reportand Preliminary Management Plan

Skokomish Indian TribeNon-Point Assessment Reportand Preliminary Management Plan
Skokomish Indian Tribe
Non-point Assessment Report and
Preliminary Management Plan
2006
Prepared By
Skokomish Natural Resources 2006
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview
1.2 Required Contents
1
1
2
2.0 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY
2.1 General Setting
2.1a Current Condition Overview
2.1.1 Land Base
2.1.2 Social and Economic Conditions
2.1.3 Reservation Waters
2.1.4 Non-point Source Programs
2.2 Problem Statement
2.2.1 Objectives
2.2.2 Categories and Subcategories
2.2.3 Methods for Conducting Non-point Sources Assessment
2.3 Goals & Objectives
2.4 Assessment Process
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5
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3.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
3.1 Reporting Format
3.2 Reservation Waters Impacted by Non-point Sources
3.2.1 Lower Mainstem Skokomish River (101 Bridge)
3.2.2 Lower Mainstem Skokomish River (106 Bridge)
3.2.3a Lower Potlatch Creek
3.2.3b Upper Potlatch Creek
3.2.4 Enetai Creek Drainage
3.2.5 Mid Skobob Creek
3.2.6a Purdy Creek Mouth
3.2.6b Purdy Creek Bour
3.2.7 No Name Creek
3.2.8a Weaver Cr. Vly. Rd. Br.
3.2.8b Weaver Cr. Lw. Br.
3.2.9 10 Acre Creek
3.2.10 Hunter Creek
3.3 Effects of Non-point Source Pollutants
3.3.1 Fecal Coliform Bacteria
3.3.2 Nutrients
3.3.3 Total Dissolved Solids
3.3.4 Sediment
3.3.5 Natural
3.3.6 Other
3.4 Formulation of Best Management Practices
3.4.1 Agriculture
3.4.2 Construction
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
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3.4.3 Urban (Rural) Runoff
3.4.4 Resource Extraction/ Exploration/ Development
3.4.5 Land Disposal (runoff/leachate from permitted areas)
3.4.6 Hydromodification
3.4.7 Other
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4.0 CONCLUSION
4.1 How this Report Will Be Used
4.2 Best Management Practices
4.2.1 Agriculture Activities
4.2.2 Hydromodification
4.2.3 Urban (Rural)
4.2.4 Forest Practices
4.2.5 Land Disposal
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5.0 REFERENCES
42
6.0 APPENDIX
5.1 Tribal Government Resolution
5.2 Best Management Practices Reference Guide
5.3 Notes Table 6
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Skokomish Reservation
Non-point Source Pollution Assessment Report and
Preliminary Management Plan
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview
In 1987, the Federal Clean Water Act established a new direction for the control of
water pollution. Non-point source pollution (NPS) from diffuse sources was recognized
as a serious impediment to meeting the goals of the Clean Water Act. Under Section
101 sub-section 7 the Act states:
“it is the national policy that programs for the control non-point sources
pollution be developed and implemented in an expeditious manner so as
to enable the goals of this Act to be met through the control of both point
and non-point sources of pollution.”
In keeping with this policy, the Clean Water Act was amended to include Section 319
titled Non-point Source Management Programs and Section 518, which allows the
administrator to reserve up to one-third of one percent of appropriations for sections 319
(j), (h) and (i) for Indian Tribes treated as States. These sections of the Act provide the
legal basis for implementing non-point source programs and sets forth certain
requirements that Indian Tribes must meet to qualify for assistance under the Act.
Section 319 includes two items, which must be completed by Indian Tribes in order to
be considered for Section 319 and Section 518(f) grants to control non-point source
problems. These are:
1) Indian Tribe assessment report
2) Indian Tribe management program
The assessment report is intended to be an analysis of non-point source water quality
problems. The management program sets forth a process for correcting these
problems. For the Skokomish Tribe of the Skokomish Reservation, Washington, these
two items will be produced separately, but will be considered together as the basis for
non-point source decision-making. The first part of this report will be devoted to the
non-point source assessment, while the second part of the report will cover a
preliminary management planning process, based in part on the findings of the
assessment section.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
1.2 Required Contents of Indian Tribes Assessment Report
“Section 319 (a) of the Clean Water Act is very specific in describing what needs
to be included in assessment reports:
(A) Indian Tribes Assessment Reports
(1) Contents -- Each Indian Tribe shall prepare and submit to the administrator
for approval, a report which;
(a) Identifies those navigable waters within the Reservation, which, without
additional action to control sources of pollution, cannot be reasonably by
expected to attain or maintain applicable water quality standards or the goals and
requirements of this Act:
(b) Identifies those categories and subcategories of non-point sources or,
where appropriate, particular non-point sources which add significant pollution to
each portion of the navigable waters identified under subparagraph (A) in
amounts which contribute to such portions not meeting such water quality
standards or such goals and requirements.
(c) Describes the process, including intergovernmental coordination, for
identifying best management practices and measures to control each category
and subcategory of non-point sources and where appropriate particular non-point
sources identified under subparagraph (3) and to reduce, to the maximum extent
practicable, the level of pollution resulting from such category, subcategory or
source; and
(d) Identifies and describes Indian Tribal, State and local programs for
controlling pollution added from non-point sources to, and approving the quality
of, each portion of the navigable waters, including but not limited to those
programs which are receiving Federal assistance under sections (h) and (i).
This report identifies waters on the Skokomish Reservation which cannot or will not
meet water quality standards, are not supporting beneficial uses, will not support these
uses due to pollution from non-point sources; and the types of activities or specific
sources which cause these problems. The report describes the Skokomish Tribe's
process for identifying best management practices and programs and sources of
funding for controlling NPS pollution. The Tribe will use the National Resources
Conservation Service (NRCS) “Best Management Practices” (BMP’s) as the model for
conservation practice standards, and the Washington State’s Water Quality Standards1
for assessing impacts to water quality from NPS pollution. This assessment will list
existing funding from the EPA, other federal, state, and local funding sources which are
in place or pending to control NPS pollution.
1
In 2003 the Washington Department of Ecology submitted to the EPA a new water quality standard based on
beneficial use instead of their former “class’ (numeric value based criteria)—EPA in reviewing the State’s request
has not approved “in total” the changes in water quality criteria based on the new standards. Since Washington’s
new standards have not been approved “in total” by the EPA the Skokomish Tribe will use current “class” criteria as
the measure for water quality standards.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
2.0 ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY
2.1 General Setting
The Skokomish Indian Reservation is located in the southwest Washington glaciated
lowlands and is bound by the Skokomish River on the south, the Olympic Mountains to
the west, Puget Lowlands on the east, and on the north by the Hood Canal.
Figure 1. Skokomish Reservation Location
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
The major waterbody associated with the Reservation is the Skokomish River, which
drains into Hood Canal. Its headwaters are to the west in the Olympic Mountains. The
Skokomish River drains a basin of about 247 square miles (Seiders et al., 2001). It
comprises three sub-basins, the South Fork Skokomish (104 square miles), the North
Fork Skokomish (118 square miles), and the Vance Creek drainage (25 square miles).
The upper watershed is steeply sloped and contains federal, state and private
forestlands, and includes portions of the Olympic National Park. The lower section of
the watershed (the last 10 miles) is a low gradient floodplain that has extensive
wetlands and spring fed seeps. Agricultural activities and residential developments are
associated with the lower sections of the Skokomish River basin.
Streams located within the Reservation and streams directly influencing the lower
Skokomish River are assessed in this report, and include: the lower Skokomish River
which borders the Skokomish Reservation, Enetai Creek, Potlatch Creek, Purdy Creek,
Skobob Creek, No Name Creek, Weaver Creek, 10 Acre Creek and Hunter Creek.
Hunter Creek although not as closely tied to the Reservation boundary as the other
streams, does influence the lower Skokomish near the southern Reservation boundary.
It will be included in this assessment due to its importance to water quality in the lower
Skokomish River.
Of the streams, which will be assessed, Enetai and Purdy Creek have point source
discharges as well as NSP pollution sources. Enetai Creek has a fish hatchery near the
mouth and Purdy Creek has an associated fish hatchery near its headwaters. An
additional point source discharge comes from the North Fork Skokomish River hydro
power diversion near Potlatch. This water diversion deposits 70% of the North Fork
Skokomish River directly into fee2 land within the Reservation boundary and into Hood
Canal. This site is noted as a point source but is not included in the NPS analysis.
The Tribe has acquired large parcels of land associated with the southern and northern
Reservation boundary. The southern acquisition (165 acres) is particularly important to
NPS pollution in the lower Skokomish River. High fecal coliform bacteria and low
dissolved oxygen readings are associated with the streams flowing through this parcel
and include Weaver Creek, 10 Acre Creek, and Purdy Creek. This land is being
formally petitioned through the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), to be converted to Trust
status3. In addition, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements are established for
Weaver Creek and Purdy Creek by the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE)4.
The Tribe was a partner in the development of the TMDL’s and is now collecting
samples associated with the monitoring effort.
2
Original allotted trust lands that were transferred to fee status (land that is not held in trust by the United States of
America) by the allottee or the BIA.
3
Tribal Trusts are a result of The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (IRA). It authorizes the Secretary of the
Interior to hold land for Indian Tribes and individual Indians in trust, thereby securing Indian lands for economic
development, housing, and related purposes. It also allows the tribe to benefit from the housing and other federal
programs, which can only be used on land, which has been placed in trust.
4
Skokomish River Basin Fecal Coliform Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Study. Washington State Department of
Ecology, Environmental Assessment Program. Olympia, WA. April 2001. Pub. No. 01-03-014.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Figure 2. Water Quality Assessment Streams
2.1a Current Condition Overview
The Skokomish River mainstem, as well as its tributaries, are Class AA waterbodies
and as such are to be maintained as the highest quality of water that can support all
uses of the water. Indications suggest that the Skokomish River is not attaining Class
AA quality. Tests and studies document NPS pollution affecting the lower Skokomish
River and the Reservation include:
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006



Humans
Domestic and wild animals.
Commercial and noncommercial agricultural activities
o Livestock culture
o Hay Production
o Christmas Tree production
o Vegetable cropping
o Silviculture harvesting
o Treated Biosolids Applications
As of 2006, the domestic livestock population in the lower valley is estimated to include
about 600 cattle, and a smaller number of horses, llamas, goats, and chickens (S. Kirby
personnel communication Mason County Conservation Service June 2006). This is an
increase of an estimated 500 cattle in 2001 (MCD 2001). Wild animal populations (e.g.
elk, deer, beaver, waterfowl, and other warm-blooded animals) have not been
documented (MCD, 2001). Silviculture harvesting within National Forest Service and
privately owned timberlands dominate the upper basins of the South Fork of the
Skokomish River, while the upper reaches of the North Fork Skokomish River lie within
the Olympic National Park. The North Fork Skokomish River includes Lake Cushman
and Lake Kokanee, which have residential developments. These lakes are also used
for recreation (Seiders et al., 2001).
The Skokomish River empties into Annas Bay at the Great Bend of the Hood Canal.
River water quality of the river directly influences water quality in the Bay, including
nearby shellfish beds (WDOE 2001). Tribal, commercial, and recreational harvesters
use the Annas Bay shellfish resources. Shellfish beds are located within, and to the
south of Potlatch State Park and to the east near the town of Union. Commercial
shellfish beds near the mouth of the Skokomish River recently closed due to fecal
contamination (Washington Department of Health News Release August 16, 2005).
Potlatch State Park, a Skokomish culturally significant area, is also a center of primary
contact recreation, being used by boaters, swimmers, and scuba divers. Swimmers and
waders, also use the mainstem Skokomish River and lower Vance Creek during the
summer months.
Recent concerns regarding low dissolved oxygen in Hood Canal and significant fish kills
in 2002-2003 and a smaller event in 2004 have prompted major initiatives including
enhanced monitoring of the Skokomish River (Preliminary Assessment and Corrective
Action Plan (PACA), May, 6 2004). The Sound Partnership (Office of the Governor
News Release December, 19, 2005) is an initiative organized by Washington State
Governor Christine Gregoire to protect water quality throughout Puget Sound including
the Hood Canal.
In general, human activities have altered the entire natural hydrologic regime in the
Skokomish basin. For example, according to research, (Barreca, 1998), forest
practices, road building, dikes, levies, and other land use practices have caused filling
of the lower river channel with aggregate to over five times background levels. This has
increased the frequency and intensity of flood events, increased basin groundwater
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
levels, and caused septic system failures. In addition, tidal fluctuations affect the lower
Skokomish River to approximately river mile 1.8 (Seiders et al., 2001) which
exacerbates ground water concerns during high tide and high flood flows events.
Hydroelectric power generation influences the lower Skokomish system and the
Reservation. Ninety (90%) percent of the North Fork Skokomish river flow is diverted
through the Cushman Dam project, causing a forty-five (45%) percent reduction of the
mainstem Skokomish River flow (KCM, 1997). The flow in the lower North Fork
Skokomish River is limited to the non-impounded 60 cubic feet per second (cfs)5, and
the drainage of adjacent slopes, and infrequent releases or spills from the lower dam
(EPA, 2004; Golder, 2002). It is believed that this reduction in flow is one of the factors,
which has caused a filling of the lower Skokomish River and increased flooding
throughout the lower Skokomish basin. One effect of increased flooding is inundation of
fields associated with livestock operations and transporting fecal contamination into the
lower mainstem Skokomish River and associated streams. Fecal contamination is one
of the leading NPS pollution factors in the lower Skokomish River causing it to be listed
on the Washington State 303(d) list triggering the development of TMDL’s for the lower
Skokomish and associated streams.
As mentioned in the previous paragraph, the North Fork Skokomish River has been
directed through a spillway to a power generating facility. This point source discharge is
inside the Reservation boundary and empties into Hood Canal in an area identified as
having low dissolved oxygen levels and large fish kills. This discharge is regulated by
the Washington State Department of Ecology under stipulations of the Federal Clean
Water Act and the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) federal
permitting program.
The Cushman Hydroelectric spillway is not the only point source associated with the
Skokomish basin. Three salmon hatcheries are additional point sources of pollution. All
of these facilities are located along the southern valley wall and are spring fed.
Pollutant discharges from these hatchery facilities are managed under the Upland FinFish Hatching and Rearing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Waste
Discharge General Permit (Seiders et al., 2001). Pollutants monitored under this permit
generally relate to settleable and suspended solids.
The Skokomish River system is home for important species of fish such as Chinook,
coho, and chum salmon; steelhead; and various trout (Williams et al., 1975). Chinook
salmon and summer chum are listed as threatened species under the Endangered
Species Act (ESA). Bull trout reside in the South and North Forks of the Skokomish
River and are listed as threatened under the ESA (Seiders et al., 2001). Furthermore,
the Puget Sound Steelhead has been proposed for listing as threatened under the ESA
(Federal Register: April 5, 2005 (Volume 70, Number 64)) and will include the
Skokomish River steelhead (Skokomish Natural Resources Director personal
communication K. Dublanica May, 2006).
5
Recent legal findings and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licensing requirements may require
240 CFS be put back into the North Fork Skokomish River. United states of America FERC 107 61,288 June 21,
2004
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
2.1.1 Landbase
Approximately 5,000 acres, currently about 11% of the Reservation’s land is in trust and
owned by the Tribe, or in the process of being transferred from fee to trust. Fifty-five
percent (55%) of the Reservation’s land base is individually owned trust allotments in
multi-heirship and owned by numerous Tribal members. The remaining 34% of the land
within the boundaries of the Reservation is in fee status (land on the Reservation that
was once in trust but is currently not in trust status but still within the Reservation's
boundaries). Fee lands were previously sold and primarily owned by non-Indians or in
some cases by Tribal members taking it out of trust to use as collateral for loans (See
Table 1) (Binder, 2002--2003).
The Skokomish River basin is sparsely populated, rural in nature, and relatively free of
urban areas. The Skokomish Indian Reservation is located at the mouth of the basin.
Land-use and many other regulations within the Reservation are under the jurisdiction
of the Skokomish Tribe. Fee land is taxed under State and County regulatory authority
but in general any lands within the exterior boundaries of the Reservation are under
Tribal authority.
Table 1:
Ownership Status of Land on Skokomish Reservation
Land Status Acres
1979
2004/05
Per Cent
Tribal Trust Land
134
525.78
11 %
Allotted Trust Land
2,817
2,796.7
55 %
Alienated or Fee Lands
2,047
1,675.52
34 %
On Reservation Total
4,998
4,998
Tribal Land Purchased off Reservation
360 acres
Total
5,358
Prior to 1972, the Skokomish Tribal government owned approximately sixteen acres of land.
Since then, the Tribe has undertaken the daunting task to locate environmentally compatible
lands for future community facilities, housing and infrastructure to address the many needs of
the community. While retaining much of its rural nature, the Skokomish Tribe has
experienced considerable growth during the past 30 years. Families have returned to the
Reservation to live on their ancestral lands and be with family members. The growth of the
Tribal government and self-employment opportunities created by the reaffirmation of treatyrights for fishing and shellfish harvesting has also contributed to this growth.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Figure 3 Skokomish Reservation Land Base Uses
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Uplands on the Skokomish Reservation is dominated by agriculture, specifically forestry
(silviculture) activities. Lowland agricultural land is primarily cattle grazing and irrigated
cropland is associated within the Skokomish Valley (MCD, 2001). The Reservation core
area has a small base of rural and commercial development but is expanding (Binder,
2002--2003).
Figure 3 and Table 2 lists and shows the land base and uses for the Skokomish
Reservation. The intensity of land use and its proximity to water significantly influences
the potential for non-point source pollution. For example, irrigated agricultural land,
which requires water, fertilizer, and pesticides, has greater potential for surface and
groundwater pollution than does rangeland, which has few of these inputs. However,
livestock grazing near water bodies can introduce contaminates into that water. In
addition, the location of housing developments and economic infrastructure can and
does create the potential for non-point pollution. Silvicultural activities in upland areas
can produce increase sediment loads and herbicide and pesticide pollution, which can
degrade stream habitat and water quality. Transportation corridors can create
hydrocarbon NPS pollution during storm events and can be a potential hazardous waste
source due to the accidental release of hazardous substances from automobile
accidents.
Table 2: Skokomish Reservation's Land Base and Use.
(Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Status Reports and percentage based on Skokomish GIS
Land Use Analysis Project 2006)6
Land Base
Acres
Land Use
Percentage
Trust and Allotted
3,323
Commercial Timberland
7
Agricultural/Residential
8
Commercial/Residential
9
Unknown (Limiting Factors)
10
Transportation
24%
<1%
9%
24%
Not Factored
Fee land
1,675
Commercial Timberland
Agricultural/Residential
Commercial/Residential
Unknown (Limiting Factors)
Transportation
11%
3%
7%
18.6%
<1%
Totals
4,998
Commercial Timberland
Agricultural/Residential
Commercial/Residential
11
Unknown (Limiting Factors)
Transportation
36%
4%
16%
43%
<1%
6
Does not include newly acquired land
Residential in close proximity to agricultural land use
8
Mixed Commercial and Residential land use
9
Due to limiting factors such as steep slopes or associated wetlands
10
Does not include all Tribal roads only State Highway’s
11
Wetlands and Steep Slopes
7
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
2.1.2 Social and Economic Conditions
Natural resources protection is not just a category to the Tribe; it is a major driving
factor for the Skokomish Tribe’s cultural heritage. Clean water represents spawning
salmon, shellfish harvests and Tribal drinking water. Without clean water the quality of
life for the Skokomish Tribe would be degraded.
Fishing, shellfish harvesting, logging and forest-related activities have historically provided
the employment base for the Skokomish Reservation and surrounding Mason County
areas. However, starting in the late 1970s, decreasing timber and marine resources, in
association with fluctuating markets and recessions in the forest products and seafood
industries occurred. This economic downturn shifted employment opportunities to the
services, retail, tourism, and government sectors yet, the natural resource base still
provides many self-employment opportunities for the Tribe’s labor force. Tourism,
residential construction and recreation industries have not, historically, provided many
employment opportunities or adequate wages for Tribal members to support a family. The
Tribe remains the principal employer for the Reservation. Community, Federal, and state
grants, self-determination contracts, and two Tribal businesses (Lucky Dog Casino and
Twin Totem Store/Deli) provide the most consistent source of income for Tribal members.
In summary, self-employment and treaty rights (fishing, shellfish harvesting and
fireworks) constitute important sources of Community income that are often limited.
Treaty fishing and shellfish harvesting primarily provide seasonal employment
opportunities.
Demographic Trends
The total service area population for the Skokomish Tribe is 1,395, and includes enrolled
Skokomish Indians as well as their spouses and other family members, or other Indian or
non-Indian living within and near the Reservation’s boundaries. Approximately, 850 or
61% of the total service area population of 1,395 individuals live in the Mason County
area. Those Tribal members living outside the Tribe’s designated service area live in
other parts of Washington State and the United States.
Table 3: Demographic and Workforce Analysis of the Skokomish Indian Tribe
Tribal Demographic Type
Total Service Population
Tribal Enrollment
Number of Tribal Households
Median Income for Family of Four
Average Unemployment Rate
Percentage of Population under 16
(Percent of total service area population)
12
1,395
745
23812
$13,300
37%
30%
2000 U.S census
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Data obtained and reported by the Tribe in April of 2002 to the Bureau of Indian Affairs
documents the current unemployment rate for all Tribal members able to work at 37%.
For comparison, Mason County's unemployment rate was 7.4 percent in 2004. The
Tribal estimates do not adequately reflect Tribal members whose employment is
seasonal or part-time; or who are unable to work full-time.13 There currently is an
estimated 745 (as of February 1, 2003) enrolled Skokomish Indians. Based on 2000
U.S. Census Redistricting Data, there are an estimated 510 enrolled. The remaining
235 enrolled Skokomish Tribal members live off the Reservation in Mason County or in
other states. They are not documented by the Census for on Reservation data.
Over the past thirty plus years, Skokomish Tribal enrollment has grown (Table 4). The
growth rate from 1970 to 1980 was 21.2%; from 1980 to 1990, it was 31%. The
enrollment of Tribal members from 1990 to 2000 continued to grow at a rate of 21.3%
for the ten-year period as of 2003. The average growth rate for the three decades was
24.4%.
Table 4:
Year
1970
386
Enrolled Skokomish
1980
468
1990
614
2004
745
Employment and Income
Thirty–seven percent (37%) of employable people in the Skokomish Tribe's service area
population are unemployed and an additional 23 percent (23%) are under-employed
(working but still living below the federal poverty level). The Skokomish Indian Tribe’s
governmental/service organization with approximately 120 to 130 employees is one of
the top employers in Mason County, providing employment opportunities for a diverse
mix of paraprofessional, technical, administrative and skilled staff members.
Data from the Tribal/TDHE14 2000 Indian Housing Block Grant states that the median
income for Skokomish households has hovered around $13,300 for a family of four
since 1994, well below the Mason County FY 2002 median income of $41,715 for a
family of four. This report states that the Tribal Service Population is 1,392 and that, out
of the 416 Indian families, 350 families are considered low or very low income. This
translates to 84% of Skokomish families being of low to very low income.
In addition, a survey conducted by the Tribe for its 2002 Skokomish Head Start and
Childcare Program indicated the real median income was $12,000 and the average
income was $12,375. This data included forty families with the average family size
being 4.6 individuals per family. This data translates to 100% of Head Start families
living below the poverty level. The 1999 Skokomish Head Start and Childcare Program
survey, which included Head Start families, only (not childcare families) assessed
median family income at $6,552. This data included forty families with the average
family size being 4.3 individuals per family. Based on this information, we estimate that
over 85% of Skokomish Families are of low to moderate income. Finally, the "Office of
13
14
Fish and Shellfish are the primary seasonal employment activities for the Skokomish Indian Tribe.
Tribally Designated Housing Entity
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Superintendent of Pubic Education - 2002 Public Schools Free and Reduced Price
Applications" documented that the Hood Canal School District, which is located on the
Skokomish Reservation and has a student body that is 33.5% Skokomish, documented
that 70.2% of the families were eligible for a free and reduced lunch.
The following demographic data and information has been submitted to illustrate the
current employment and income trends of Skokomish Tribal members living on and
adjacent to Tribal lands and includes the following:





1999 & 2000 Skokomish Head Start and Childcare Program Population & Income
Data.
Office of Superintendent of Pubic Education - 2002 Public Schools Free and
Reduced - Price Applications.
2003 Income Data for Tribal Members on Housing "Waiting List"- SPSITHA.
2001 BIA Labor Force Report.
Tribal/TDHE 2000 Indian Housing Block Grant – SPSITHA.
In 2000, the Skokomish Tribe cooperated with FEMA and CTED to purchase homes
and property located on the Reservation within the 100-year floodplain. Because a
number of Tribal member occupants were either unwilling or unable to relocate, the
Tribe undertook a difficult and costly project designed to raise the foundations two feet
above the established 100-year flood elevation. This "flood-elevation project" raised
eleven homes, but was a short-term and costly solution to an ongoing safety concern.
Further development within the 100-year flood plain is limited.
2.1.3 Reservation Waters
The Skokomish Indian Reservation is located in the lower Skokomish River basin
(Figure 2). Several streams traverse the Reservation in a northwesterly to
southeasterly direction, and all streams ultimately drain into the Hood Canal. Several
spring fed seeps are associated with the lower basin and substantial riverine and
estuarine wetlands are located on the Reservation.
For purposes of the assessment, the Skokomish Tribal Council directed the Skokomish
Natural Resources Department to use a stream-by-stream approach to gain an
understanding of the non-point source water quality problems influencing the
Reservation. The streams that are directly associated with the Reservation and will be
assessed are: Enetai Creek, lower Mainstem Skokomish River, Potlatch Creek, Purdy
Creek, and Skobob Creek. Additionally, streams directly related to the lower Skokomish
River that bound the Reservation include: No Name Creek, Weaver Creek, Ten Acre
Creek and Hunter Creek. Three of these streams, Enetai Creek, Purdy Creek and
Weaver Creek have point source discharge as well as non-point sources due to
associated fish hatcheries. The North Fork Skokomish River diversion is an additional
concern for the Tribe but will not be analyzed in the assessment since it is a point
source discharge.
13
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
2.1.4 Non-point Source Programs
Currently, no Tribal programs exist to deal exclusively with non-point source pollution
(NPS) problems. The Tribe does utilize the EPA’s Performance Partnership Grants
(PPG) process to monitor and gain an understanding of NPS pollution on the
Reservation. Currently the Skokomish Tribe’s PPG includes the General Assistance
Program (GAP) and a Clean Water 106 grant. Funding from these sources support the
Skokomish Natural Resources Department and associated land use and water quality
monitoring and environmental oversight, but not specifically NPS pollution.
The Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE), in partnership with the Skokomish
Tribe is executing a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plan for the lower Skokomish
River (Batts, 2005). This program seeks to control elevated fecal coliform bacteria
levels identified in the lower Skokomish basin. The Skokomish Tribe also partners with
Mason County, the Mason County Conservation District, and the WDOE in collecting
data for the TMDL work, including funding for lab analysis of sampling sites. It is
anticipated that the management plan developed from this assessment will include and
support the ongoing TMDL process. Many ongoing water quality concerns are already
identified by the TMDL study and include, the South Fork Skokomish River (106
Bridge), Purdy Creek, Weaver Creek, Ten Acre Creek, and Hunter Creek. The 1998
303(d) list for Washington State includes Purdy Creek, Weaver Creek, Ten Acre Creek,
Hunter Creek and the Skokomish River for fecal coliform bacteria.
The Skokomish Tribe, working in conjunction with the Mason Environmental Health and
Water Quality programs provide coverage for surface water quality monitoring through
much of Mason County. The Tribe works with the University of Washington and the
Hood Canal Dissolved Oxygen Program to monitor the Skokomish River and many
streams and rivers associated within the Hood Canal. The benefits and uses of this
long-term monitoring program include the following:







A long-term, consistent baseline of data for streams, lakes, and rivers.
Data that is used to track water quality and quantity trends over time and identify
problems areas where corrective actions should be taken.
A broad analysis of the data with the capacity for comparison between areas.
Monitoring equipment available for routine monitoring and emergency response.
Easy access to information/data by jurisdictions, agencies, and citizens.
Complement Washington State Departments of Health and Ecology marine and
freshwater monitoring programs as well as the University of Washington.
Provide models to predict future environmental conditions.
With increasing development pressure in the Skokomish Valley, and increasing housing
on the upland areas surrounding the Reservation, the Tribe needs to establish a funded
non-point source management program. This program will monitor and protect the
Tribal resources associated with non-point pollution concerns.
14
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
2.2 Problem Statement
2.2.1 Objectives
The objective of Section 319 is to improve water quality and restore impaired uses in
waters affected by non-point source pollution. In order to insure consistency among the
Indian Tribes, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided the following
definition of non-point source pollution.
“Non-point Source (NPS) Pollution: NPS pollution is caused by diffused
sources that are not regulated as point sources and normally is associated
with agricultural, silvicultural and urban runoff, runoff from construction
activities, etc. Such pollution results in the human-made or humaninduced alteration of the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological
integrity of water. In practical terms, non-point source pollution does not
result from a discharge at a specific, single location (such as single pipe)
but generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric
deposition or percolation. Pollution from non-point sources occurs when
the rate at which pollutant materials entering waterbody exceeds natural
levels.”
2.2.2 Categories and Subcategories of Non-point Source
The Skokomish Tribe has assembled existing information on water quality impacts
caused by pollution sources. Table 5 summarizes the potential non-point source
impacts to the Reservation's surface waters. Agricultural sources impact 83% of the
Reservation streams. Bank erosion contributes 5%. Rural sources contribute 12%.
Careful interpretation of Table 5 is necessary to understand the estimated relative
contributions of each source category to the overall Reservation non-point
source impacts.
It should be noted a stream mile does not reflect the actual volume of water impaired
due to variations in stream channel morphology, volumes, and velocity. When the total
land area devoted to a particular use is contrasted with the impacted waters on those
lands, the relative impacts by source category can be more accurately compared.
However, in the case of the Skokomish Reservation, land use within the total watershed
cannot be accurately compared since this assessment is restricted to the Reservation
and boundary streams. This especially affects sediment transport or chemical usage
from forest practice operations in the upper watershed. In addition, impacts from farm
practices in the upper Skokomish watershed are not fully investigated or values
determined due to the restriction of only analyzing Reservation waters.
An impacted stream segment might have 98% agricultural land associated with it, oil
and gas impact of 1.5% (transportation corridor). There may be no “land disposal” 0%,
but dikes may have affected 0.25% (hydro-modification). Silvicultural activity has
directly influenced 0%, and communities and septic systems have an impact of 0.25%.
Although subjective in nature, these matrixes give an overall view of potential sources of
non-point pollution along a stream. Again, this type of analysis does not show the
15
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
impacts of non-point pollution such as silvicultural activity in the upper watershed west
of the Reservation boundary.
Table 5. Estimated summary of source categories adjoining streams15 (Skokomish
Tribe DNR GIS Mapping 2006).
Source
Category
Miles Effected
Acres Effected
Acres Percentage
Cattle and other livestock
3.75
455
13%
Hay/Christmas Tree production
0.13
16.2
<1%
Vegetable copping
6.44
781
23%
Silviculture
1.28
158
5%
Hydro-modification
7.54
915
27%
Hatcheries
3.9
476
14%
Access Roads
?
?
?
Bank Erosion
1.53
186
5%
Gravel Removal
?
?
?
Septic Systems
2.07
252
7%
Storm Water Runoff
1.11
135
4%
.19
23
<1%
0
0
0
27.97
3397.2
100%
Agriculture
Forestry
Mineral Extraction
Rural
Land Disposal (Solid Waste)
Construction
Totals
2.2.3 Method for Conducting Non-point Source Assessment
This assessment draws upon the experience and expertise of many agencies, Tribal
staff, local residence, and programs. As a result, many different levels of information
have been used in the preparation of this report. The sources of information may vary,
from ambient water quality monitoring data to "best professional judgment", and are
identified as such in the text as both monitored and/or evaluated.
In its guidance for preparing the non-point source assessment report, EPA recognizes
this situation and defines two levels of assessment:
15
Source: Category: Streams (miles) and 500 ft buffer associated with stream corridor (Acres)
16
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
“two levels of assessment reflecting conclusions based on ambient
monitoring data and conclusions based on other information. One level is
"monitored" water in which the assessment is based on current site-specific
ambient data. The other level is "evaluated" waters in which the assessment
is based on information other than current site-specific ambient data, such as
data on sources of pollution, predictive modeling, fishery surveys, and
ambient data which is older than five years. In the NPS area, best
professional judgment and various evaluation techniques will play an
important role.”
2.3 Goals and Objectives
The goal of this process is to establish a 319 program on the Skokomish Reservation,
which requires an assessment and a management plan.
The objective of this assessment is to identify water bodies that have been or are likely
to be impaired (threatened) by non-point sources of pollution without implementing
alternate management practices. The Skokomish Tribal Council considers beneficial
use of water, as those defined and which are protected by the State of Washington
adopted water law.16 These uses include classifications and water quality standards. If
these standards are exceeded, it is assumed that beneficial uses are impaired.
However, the Tribal Council also stipulates protection of the Treaty defined resources
as well.
2.4 Assessment Process
This report has been produced by assembling data from many sources including Tribal
reports, State and Federal Government reports, and individuals knowledgeable about
local water quality conditions. Included are, water quality assessment (305b) reports,
(303d) lists, and supporting records for the Skokomish Reservation (Ecology 2004),
including TMDL management plans. In addition, the professional judgments of water
quality and land management professionals are included in our assessment. Tribal
elder stories about the history of the Skokomish Tribe and their Twana predecessors
are an additional source of historical information.
Methods used to determine water quality include laboratory, field data collection, historic
research projects, and Tribal history.
All data is collected according to the Skokomish Quality Assurance Project Plan
(QAPP), which has been approved by EPA in 2005. This QAPP assures that data
collected will adhere to the data quality objectives delineated by the Tribes water quality
program. Prior to March 2005 sample collection done by Skokomish staff was certified
16
In 2003 the Washington Department of Ecology submitted to the EPA a new water quality standard based on
beneficial use instead of their former “class’ (numeric value based criteria)—EPA in reviewing the State’s request
has not approved “in total” the changes in water quality criteria based on the new standards. Since Washington’s
new standards have not been approved “in total” by the EPA the Skokomish Tribe will use current “class” criteria as
the measure for water quality standards.
17
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
by Washington Department of Ecology and Mason County following state QA/QC
procedures17. All biological, physical, and chemical water quality parameters discussed
in this document are cited.
The Tribe did not include the entire Skokomish basin in this assessment. Only waters
associated as boundary streams or waters inside the Reservation and closely related
streams are included. Data shows 12.3 miles of streams and impairment from NPS
pollution are on or near the Skokomish Reservation. This includes nine streams
(monitored segments), which were found to have moderate or severe impairment.
Approximately 11.3 miles were considered severely impaired. 1.1 miles were listed as
moderately impaired. Evaluative techniques included monitoring, fishery surveys,
citizen complaints, professional judgment, and ambient data less than and more than
five years old.
Information generated in this manner reveals the magnitude of water quality problems
caused by non-point sources. This data is entered into a developing Tribal waterbody
tracking system in Excel and NCSS spreadsheet, and then incorporated into an Access
database. Data is tracked on individual stream reach basis, and is updated. Individual
streams and stream reaches can be compared and evaluated. Priorities can be set for
stream improvement projects and additional monitoring data. This report will be
updated every four years.
Waters with ambient data have been compared with a water quality criteria matrix
(Table 6 and Table 7) to help determine whether beneficial uses are impaired. This
matrix includes criteria values for pollutants which there are no numerical standards.
Where neither numerical standards nor criteria or water quality data exist, the
assessment must be subjective and based on the judgment of water quality
management professionals.
17
Tribal staff followed water quality policies and procedures analysis methods of the Thurston County Public
Health Surface and Ground Water program and the water quality policies and procedures of the Mason County
Department of Health Services as well as Washington Department of Ecology field sampling training.
18
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Table 6. State of Washington water quality criteria matrix (criteria values in milligrams
per liter unless otherwise noted)18.
Parameter
Freshwater
Marine
Fecal coliforms
Shall Not Exceed a geometric mean of
50/100 colonies/100 mL and shell not
have more than 10 percent of all samples
obtained for calculating geometric mean
value exceeding 100 colonies/100mL
Shall Not Exceed a geometric mean of
14/100 colonies/100 mL and shall not
have more than 10 percent of all samples
obtained for calculating geometric mean
value exceeding 43 colonies/100mL
Dissolved
oxygen
Dissolved oxygen shall exceed 9.5
Dissolved oxygen shall exceed 7.0.
When natural conditions, such as
upwelling, occur, causing the dissolved
oxygen levels to be depressed near or
below 7.0—natural dissolved levels may
be degraded by up to 0.2 by humancaused activities.
Total Dissolved
Gas
Shall Not Exceed 110 percent of
saturation at any point of sample
collection
Shall Not Exceed 16.0°C—When natural
conditions exceed 16.0°C no temperature
increases will be allowed which will raise
the receiving water temperature greater
than 0.3°C. Incremental temperature
increases resulting from point sources
activities shall not, at any time, exceed
t=23/(T+5). Incremental temperature
increases resulting from non-point source
activities shall not exceed 2.8°C.
Shall be in the range of 6.5 to 8.5 with
human caused variation within the above
range of less than 0.2 units.
Shall not exceed 5 NTU over background
when background is 50 NTU or less or
have more than a 10 percent increase in
turbidity when the background is more
than 50 NTU
Temperature
19
PH
Turbidity
Toxic,
Radioactive, or
Deleterious
Material
Shall Not Exceed 13.0°C—When natural
conditions exceed 13.0°C no temperature
increases will be allowed which will raise
the receiving water temperature greater
than 0.3°C. Incremental temperature
increases resulting from point sources
activities shall not, at any time, exceed
t=8/(T+5). Incremental temperature
increases resulting from non-point source
activities shall not exceed 2.8°C
Shall be in the range of 7.0 to 8.5 with
human caused variation within the above
range of less than 0.2 units.
Concentrations shall be below those that
have the potential either singularly or
cumulatively to adversely affect
characteristic water use, cause acute or
chronic conditions to the moist sensitive
biota dependent upon those waters, or
adversely affect public health, as
determined by the department (see WAC
173-201-A-040 and 173-201A-050.
18
The State of Washington has submitted to the EPA new Surface Water Quality Standards in July 2003, which are
still being reviewed. For this report the 1997 Washington State Surface water criteria will be used as criteria
standards until there is approval of the new standards by the EPA.
19
“t” represents the maximum permissible temperature increase measured at a mixing zone boundary; and “T”
represents the background temperature as measured at a point unaffected by the discharge and representative of the
highest ambient water temperature in the vicinity of the discharge.
19
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Toxic substances Criteria
Table 720
Substance
Aldrin/Dieldrin e
Ammonia
Freshwater
Marine Water
Chronic
Acute
Chronic
Acute
2.5a
0.0019b
0.7 la
0.0019b
f,c
g,d
0.23 3h,c
0.035h,d
360.0c
190.0d
69.0c,ll
i,c
J,d
42.0c
9.3d
2.4a
0.0043b
0.09a
0.004b
860.0h,c
230.0h,d
(un-ionized NH3) hh
Arsenic dd
Cadmium dd
Chlordane
Chloride (Dissolved) k
Chlorine (Total Residual)
Chlorpyrifos
Chromium (Hex) dd
Chromium (Tri) gg
Copper dd
Cyanide ee
19.0c
-
11.Od
0.083c
0.041 d
15.0c,l,ii
lO.OdJj
-
-
P,d
4.8c,U
5.2d
l.Oc.mm
O.OOlb
0.13a
2.5a
50.0d,ll
-
n,d
Dieldrin/Aldrin e
0.0056d
O.Ollc
l,100.0c,l,ll
o,c
22.0c
l.la
7.5d
13.0c
m,c
DDT (and metabolites)
36.0d,cc,ll
3.1d,ll
d,mm
O.OOlb
0.0019b
0.7 la
0.0019b
Endosulfan
0.22a
0.056b
0.034a
0.0087b
Endrin
0.18a
0.0023b
0.037a
0.0023b
Heptachlor
0.52a
0.0038b
0.053a
0.0036b
2.0a
0.08b
q,c
r,d
Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane)
Lead dd
0.16a 210.0c,ll
8.1d,ll
0.025d,ff
Mercury s
2.1c,kk,dd
0.012d,ff
1.8c,ll,dd
Nickel dd
t,c
u,d
74.0c,U
Parathion
0.065c
0.013d
w,c
v,d
13.0c
7.9d
2.0b
0.014b
lO.Ob
0.030b
Selenium
20.0c,ff
5.0d,ff
290c,U,dd
Silver dd
y,a 0.73c,z
Pentachlorophenol (PCP)
Polychlorinated
Biphenyls (PCBs)
Toxaphene
Zinc dd
aa,c
-
8.2d,ll
-
71.0d,x,ll,dd
1.9a,ll 0.0002d
bb,d
0.21 c,z
0.0002d
90.0c,ll
81.0d,ll
Because the Tribe has not adopted water quality standards for the Reservation, the
Washington Water Quality standards were used to determine water quality impairment.
Washington has classified waters on the Reservation, but does not enforce the
standards within the exterior boundaries. The EPA and Tribe have Clean Water Act
jurisdiction for the Reservation.
For this assessment the Tribe has reviewed the classifications of Washington State and
generally agrees with the classifications. The Washington Water Quality Criteria Matrix
allowed the Tribe to evaluate chemical and physical data collected over the past five
years to see if there were violations of Washington's water quality standards. All waters
associated with the Skokomish Reservation are considered Class AA (extraordinary).
20
See Notes 6.3 for Table 6 in Appendix.
20
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
In general, the following tables starting on page 22 show water quality monitoring
results compared to water quality standards associated with streams on the
Reservation. If any violation has occurred it has been noted as exceeding standards.
Seasonal variations and discharge values have been noted, but have not been
incorporated in the analysis since Class AA streams are to be maintained as the highest
quality of water that can support all uses of the water throughout the year. If there are
exceedances of standards we consider that a violation.
The most numerous data collected for these streams include fecal coliform, temperature
and dissolved oxygen. A small amount of biological data is available for the Skokomish
River mainstem just above the Highway 101 Bridge. Historic and observed conditions
using “professional judgment” are cited where appropriate.
3.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
3.1 Reporting Format
The assessment information is organized by thirteen monitoring sites, which represent
nine separate streams identified as affecting the Skokomish Reservation. For each site
the assessment information is presented in tabular fashion. The tables list the following
information: name of stream, miles of stream, water quality sampling averages,
suggested pollutant or cause of impairment, source category, source subcategory,
specific source (if known), problem severity and method of assessment, biological
information, habitat assessment, or observed condition.
Only water bodies with moderate (M) or severe (S) impairment are listed with the
exception of Enetai Creek which is used as a reference stream. Only those water
bodies are listed which have impacts that are predominantly man-caused and not
natural21.
"Method," ("M") stands for "Monitored" and an ("E") stands for "Evaluated" (See Section
2.2.3 Method for Conducting Non-point Source Assessment). When information is not
known a space in the tables will be left blank.
Water quality parameters such as fecal coliform, water temperature, dissolved oxygen,
and ph values will be reported in appropriate values with exceedances noted.
Limited biological data is presented from two research projects conducted in the
Skokomish basin. Where biological information is available, a summary of the
conclusions and source of data will be presented. For example, Biological Data
(Yes/No) ---Impairment noted (Yes/No).
Habitat assessment, or observed condition, will be presented where applicable. With
type of assessment, conclusion and source cited, for example, “Hankin and Reeves
Stream Protocol Collected by US Forest Service 1989” or Tribal staff observation.
21
In general, all of the lower Skokomish River basin has been affected by man made impacts and as such natural
conditions are not known.
21
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2 Reservation Waters Impacted By Non-point Sources
3.2.1
Name of stream Lower Mainstem Skokomish River (101 Bridge)
The Lower Mainstem Skokomish River (101) Bridge is located on the south side of the
Reservation. The existing land uses upstream from this site are predominantly
agriculture with limited irrigated lands and includes some rural development.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream= .62 (does not include all of upstream basin—only from western
Tribal boundary to 101 bridge).
Table 3.2.1a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
WDOE
19992000
(n=23 )
130
Geometric
Mean
Value
11.6
Skokomish
Tribe
20022005
(n=35)
51
8.4
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
1.8
47.353890
123.232333
2/23
Yes
1.0
47.353890
123.232333
1/35
Yes
KCM
197717.5
10.9
6.0
47.18’36”
123.10’33”
3/12
Yes
1978
(n=12)
Temperature WDOE
199914.2
7.6
4.9
47.353890 123.232333
0/26
No
Degree C
2000
(n=26 )
Temperature Skokomish 200222.0
10.3
6.0
47.353890 123.232333
3/25
Yes
Degree C
Tribe
2005
(n=25)
Dissolved
KCM
197712.8
10.7
9.4
47.18’36”
123.10’33”
2/12
Yes
Oxygen
1978
mg/l
(n=12)
Dissolved
WDOE
199912.0
11.1
10.0 47.353890 123.232333
0/24
No
Oxygen
2000
mg/l
(n=24 )
Dissolved
Skokomish 200213.5
11.1
8
47.353890 123.232333
2/25
Yes
Oxygen
Tribe
2005
mg/l
(n=25)
pH
KCM
19777.4
7.0
6.9
47.18’36”
123.10’33”
0/12
No
Units
1978
(n=12)
Biological Data (Yes) --- (No-Impairment noted) Abundance of Mayflies, stoneflies,caddisflies, trueflies, and beetles—seasonal
fluctuations in populations (WDF,1957), (KCM, 1979).
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment: High water temperature and low
dissolved oxygen during summer low flows. Elevated riverbed due to filling of lower
river channel by aggregate (estimated to be five times background levels). Fecal
Coliform bacteria contamination due to septic systems, cattle and farming activities.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Cattle and other livestock/Hydro-modification/Septic
Specific source (if known) = Cattle Raising, Diking, Forest Practices, Water
Impoundment
Problem severity=Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys and hydrologic
studies—Under TMDL Plan
22
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.2
Name of stream Lower Mainstem Skokomish River (106 Bridge)
The Lower Mainstem Skokomish River (106) Bridge is located on the southeast side of
the Reservation. The existing land uses above this site are predominantly agricultural
and includes HWY 106 transportation corridor.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream= 2.7 (101 Bridge to 106 tide flats)
Table 3.2.2a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
WDOE
19992000
(n=18 )
540
Geometric
Mean
Value
32.48
Skokomish
Tribe
19952006
(n=102)
688
19.92
1.0
47.316807
123.141953
20/102
Yes
WDOE
11.2
7.4
5.0
47.316807
123.141953
0/23
No
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
19992000
(n=23 )
20022005
(n=25)
19992000
(n=16 )
20022005
(n=29)
14
9.5
6.0
47.316807
123.141953
0/25
No
12
10.7
9.5
47.316807
123.141953
0/16
No
12.5
10.1
6.0
47.316807
123.141953
0/29
No
Dissolved
WDOE
Oxygen
mg/l
Dissolved
Skokomish
Oxygen
Tribe
mg/l
Biological Data (NO)
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
7.8
47.316807
123.141953
5/18
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment: Fecal Coliform (FC) contamination due
to cattle and farming activities. In addition, The Skokomish River Basin Fecal Coliform
Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Study suggests some of FC contamination is from
fishermen that heavily use the river during salmon migrations. NPS inputs from Purdy
Cutoff road not known.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Cattle and other livestock/Storm Water Runoff
Specific source (if known)= Agricultural cattle
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys
Under TMDL Plan
23
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.3a
Name of stream Lower Potlatch Creek
The Potlatch Creek Drainage is contained within the northwest portion of the
Reservation. Potlatch Creek is a Class AA classification. This stream is within State
Park Boundary and has additional private ownership.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream=0.08
Table 3.2.3a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
19962005
(n=30)
1252
Geometric
Mean
Value
31.3
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
1.0
47.21790
123.9367
12/30
Yes
Skokomish
Tribe
13
9.54
7.0
47.21790
123.9367
0/25
No
Dissolved
Oxygen
mg/l
Skokomish
Tribe
20032005
(n=25)
20032005
(n=27)
13.5
10.7
3.0
47.21790
123.9367
5/27
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment: Fecal Coliform (FC) contamination due
to septic systems.
Source category = Rural
Source subcategory = Septic/Storm Water Runoff
Specific source (if known)= Minerva Beach Trailer Park and Potlatch State Park
camping (RV septic hookup)
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys
24
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.3b
Name of stream Upper Potlatch Creek.
The Potlatch Creek Drainage is contained within the northwest portion of the
Reservation. Potlatch Creek is a Class AA classification. This stream is within State
Park Boundary.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream=.10
Table 3.2.3a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
19952006
(n=22)
392
Geometric
Mean
Value
16.2
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
1
47.3624
123.1590
7/22
Yes
Skokomish
Tribe
10
9.1
8
47.3624
123.1590
0/19
No
Dissolved
Oxygen
mg/l
Skokomish
Tribe
19952006
(n=19)
19952006
(n=19)
13
10.4
8
47.3624
123.1590
5/19
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment: Fecal Coliform (FC) contamination due
to septic infiltration.
Source category = Rural
Source subcategory = Septic/Storm Water Runoff
Specific source (if known)= Potlatch State Park camping (RV septic hookup??)
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys
25
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.4
Name of stream Enetai Creek (Data is A Combination of Upstream/Downstream Sites)
The Enetai Creek Drainage, classified as Class AA water, is contained within the
northwest portion of the reservation. The upper watershed is timberland; the last 650 ft
of the stream is associated with the Enetai Hatchery. This stream will be used as a
reference for Skokomish Reservation streams.
Method (M/E)= M/E
Miles of stream=1.3
Table 3.2.4a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Temperature Skokomish
Degree C
Tribe
Dissolved
Skokomish
Oxygen
Tribe
mg/l
pH
Skokomish
Units
Tribe
Biological Data () ---
2006
(n=10)
2006
(n=10)
2006
(n=10)
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
8.8
Geometric
Mean
Value
8.50
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
8.4
47.3529
123.1609
0/10
NO
13.57
11.55
10.85
47.3529
123.1609
0/10
NO
7.41
7.35
7.26
47.3529
123.1609
0/6
NO
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment—None Noted----Early In Sampling
Source category = Agriculture
Source subcategory =Hatchery
Specific source (if known)=Enetai Creek Hatchery
Problem severity=None
Method of assessment= Ambient water quality monitoring surveys
26
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.5
Name of stream Mid Skobob Creek
The Skobob Creek Drainage is in the central portion of the Reservation. The Skobob
Creek drainage waters are Class AA waters. Skobob Creek above the monitoring site
is associated with a 500 acre wetland area.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream=1.1
Table 3.2.5a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Skokomish
Tribe
19962005
(n=96)
360
Geometric
Mean
Value
16.4
Skokomish
Tribe
20022005
(n=33)
20022005
(n=33)
21
10.0
4.0
47.32189
123.14657
1/33
Yes
11.1
5.4
2.0
47.32189
123.14657
29/33
Yes
Dissolved
Skokomish
Oxygen
Tribe
mg/l
Biological Data () ---
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
1.0
47.32189
123.14657
20/96
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment: Creek drains a wetland area—and is a
bypass channel during flood events for the main Skokomish River at Highway106
Bridge. Water flows directly through cattle pasture and into wetland then into Mid
Skobob Creek during flood events. In addition, the highway 106 bridge which crosses
the creek has the potential of storm water runoff problems.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Cattle and other livestock/Storm Water Runoff
Specific source (if known)= Bougault Ranch—cattle and Highway 106
Problem severity= Moderate --Severe during high water events
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys
27
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.6a
Name of stream Purdy Creek Mouth
Purdy Creek Drainage is on the south side of the Reservation and begins upstream of
the George Adam Salmon Hatchery. The creek flows through a wetland complex from
the hatchery area until it empties into the Skokomish River.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream=.8
Table 3.2.6a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
19952005
(n=94)
1320
Geometric
Mean
Value
25.9
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
19.9
47.30552
123.1478
26/94
Yes
Skokomish
Tribe
19
10.3
7
47.30552
123.1478
1/32
Yes
Dissolved
Oxygen
mg/l
Skokomish
Tribe
19992005
(n=32)
19992005
(n=32)
10
6.8
5.0
47.30552
123.1478
30/32
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment: Creek flows out of a wetland area—
and is associated with an active hatchery operation above the wetland. Dissolved
oxygen depletion is consistent as well as high Fecal Coliform bacteria contamination.
During high flood water events runoff from Highway 101 could influence water quality.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Hatcheries/Storm Water Runoff
Specific source (if known)= George Adam Salmon Hatchery and Highway 101
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys
Under TMDL Plan
28
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.6b
Name of stream Purdy Creek (Bour)
Purdy Creek Drainage is on the south side of the Reservation and begins at the George
Adam Salmon Hatchery. The creek flows through a wetland complex from the hatchery
area.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream=1.0
Table 3.2.6a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
WDOE
19992000
(n=14 )
240
Geometric
Mean
Value
46.0
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
13
47.299126
123.180754
4/14
Yes
Skokomish
Tribe
19952005
(n=94)
3900
28.0
4.0
47.299126
123.180754
22/94
Yes
WDOE
11.2
8.14
5.2
47.299126
123.180754
0/18
No
Dissolved
Oxygen
mg/l
WDOE
19992000
(n=18 )
19992000
(n=11 )
10.6
8.94
7.0
47.299126
123.180754
6/11
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment: Creek flows out of an associated
wetland area—and is associated with an active hatchery operation and downstream of
an active cattle farm. Dissolved oxygen depletion is consistent as well as high Fecal
Coliform bacteria contamination.
Source category = Agriculture
Source subcategory = Cattle and other livestock/Hatcheries
Specific source (if known)= George Adam Salmon Hatchery, Paul Hunters Farm,
McKerren Salmon Hatchery
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys
Under TMDL Plan
29
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.7
Name of stream No Name Creek.
This is a small creek that is located on the south east side and off of the Reservation. It
joins the mainstem Skokomish on the right bank at the 106 bridge. This Creek is
associated with the Purdy Cutoff Road and crop planting.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream=.41
Table 3.2.7a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
20022005
(n=41)
219
Geometric
Mean
Value
17.0
WDOE
19992000
(n=4 )
46
21.8
4.5
47.3175
123.13815
0/4
No
Skokomish
Tribe
14.0
10.0
7.0
47.3175
123.13815
0/30
No
Temperature
Degree C
WDOE
20022005
(n=30)
19992000
(n=8 )
20022005
(n=30)
19992000
(n=4 )
9.5
7.9
6.2
47.3175
123.13815
0/8
No
12.2
6.8
0
47.3175
123.13815
26/30
Yes
8.9
7.6
4.9
47.3175
123.13815
4/4
Yes
Dissolved
Skokomish
Oxygen
Tribe
mg/l
Dissolved
WDOE
Oxygen
mg/l
Biological Data () ---
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
1
47.3175
123.13815
10/41
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment Fecal Coliform bacteria contamination
and low dissolved oxygen due to farming activity. Potential concern from storm water
runoff from Purdy Creek Cutoff Road.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Vegetable Cropping/Hydro-modification
Specific source (if known)=Pasture and Crop Activity
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys and hydrologic
studies
30
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.8a.
Name of stream Weaver Creek Weaver Cr. Vly. Rd. Br.
The Weaver Creek Drainage is in the southern area of the Reservation. The Weaver
Creek drainage waters are a Class AA waters.
Method (M/E)= M/E
Miles of stream=2.0
Table 3.2.8a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
WDOE
19992000
(n=15 )
1100
Geometric
Mean
Value
34.5
Skokomish
Tribe
20022005
(n=94)
16000
36.8
1
47.312172
123.240751
36/94
Yes
WDOE
11.2
8.8
7.4
47.312172
123.240751
0/18
No
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
19992000
(n=18 )
20022005
(n=27)
19992000
(n=10)
20022005
(n=27)
12
10.0
9
47.312172
123.240751
0/27
No
10.3
9.6
8.7
47.312172
123.240751
4/10
Yes
9.6
6.6
0
47.312172
123.240751
23/27
Yes
Dissolved
WDOE
Oxygen
mg/l
Dissolved
Skokomish
Oxygen
Tribe
mg/l
Biological Data () ---
Low
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
2
47.312172
123.240751
5/15
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment Fecal Coliform bacteria contamination
due to septic systems, cattle and farming activities.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Cattle and other livestock/Hatcheries/Vegetable
Cropping/Hydro-modification
Specific source (if known)=Paul Hunters Farm and Toyiers Farm, Pasture and Hay
Crop Activity
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys and hydrologic
studies
Under TMDL Plan
31
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.8b.
Name of stream Weaver Creek Weaver Cr. Lw. Br..
The Weaver Creek Drainage is a right bank tributary in the southern area of the
Reservation. The Weaver Creek drainage waters are a Class AA waters. This site
drains Tribal owned lands south of the river.
Method (M/E)= M/E
Miles of stream=0.60
Table 3.2.8a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
WDOE
19992000
(n=5 )
110
Geometric
Mean
Value
44.9
Skokomish
Tribe
19952005
(n=61)
840
12.2
1
47.305333
123.184585
9/61
Yes
WDOE
9.8
8.3
7.2
47.305333
123.184585
0/9
No
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
19992000
(n=9)
20032005
(n=27)
19992000
(n=5)
20022005
(n=27)
15
10.0
6
47.305333
123.184585
0/27
No
10.0
9.2
7.8
47.305333
123.184585
2/5
Yes
11.0
3.2
0
47.305333
123.184585
25/27
Yes
Dissolved
WDOE
Oxygen
mg/l
Dissolved
Skokomish
Oxygen
Tribe
mg/l
Biological Data () ---
Low
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
13
47.305333
123.184585
2/5
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment Fecal Coliform bacteria contamination
due to septic systems, cattle and farming activities.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Cattle and other livestock/Hatcheries/Vegetable
Cropping/Hydro-modification
Specific source (if known)= Paul Hunters Farm and Toyiers Farm/Pasture and Hay
Crop Activity
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys and hydrologic
studies
Under TMDL Plan
32
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.9.
Name of stream 10 Acre Creek
The 10 Acre Creek Drainage is off the Reservation but affects the southern area of the
Reservation. The 10 Acre Creek drainage waters are a Class AA waters.
Method (M/E)= M/E
Miles of stream=0.56
Table 3.2.8a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
WDOE
19992000
(n=14 )
130
Geometric
Mean
Value
25.0
Skokomish
Tribe
19952005
(n=93)
27000
29.1
1
47.314438
123.140808
30/93
Yes
WDOE
9.8
8.6
6.8
47.314438
123.140808
0/17
No
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
19992000
(n=17 )
20022005
(n=27)
19992000
(n=13 )
20022005
(n=27)
11
9.7
8
47.314438
123.140808
0/27
No
8.7
7.7
6.1
47.314438
123.140808
13/13
Yes
10.2
7.0
5
47.314438
123.140808
23/27
Yes
Dissolved
WDOE
Oxygen
mg/l
Dissolved
Skokomish
Oxygen
Tribe
mg/l
Biological Data () ---
Low
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
2
47.314438
123.140808
3/14
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment Fecal Coliform bacteria contamination
due to septic systems, cattle and farming activities.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Cattle and other livestock/Hatcheries/Vegetable
Cropping/Hydro-modification
Specific source (if known)=Pasture
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys and hydrologic
studies
33
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.2.10
Name of Stream Hunter Creek
The Hunter Creek Drainage, classified as Class AA water, is northwest of the southern
portion of the Reservation. This creek flows though pastureland associated with large
farms and supplies the George Adams Hatchery.
Method (M/E)=M/E
Miles of stream=2.4
Table 3.2.4a: Recorded Water Quality Monitoring Results
Parameter
Agency
Years
Sampled
Results
High
Sampling Location
No.
Violations/No.
measurements
Exceed
Standards
(Yes/NO)
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Fecal
Coliform
FCmpn/100
ml
Temperature
Degree C
WDOE
19992000
(n=14 )
79
Geometric
Mean
Value
14.43
Skokomish
Tribe
19962005
(n=82)
1500
21.3
1
47.18764
123.12209
22/82
Yes
WDOE
10.8
8.8
7.5
47.18764
123.12209
0/17
No
Temperature
Degree C
Skokomish
Tribe
19992000
(n=14 )
20022005
(n=19)
19992000
(n=9)
20022005
(n=19)
11
9.8
9
47.18764
123.12209
0/19
No
10.8
9.69
7.8
47.18764
123.12209
0/9
No
12.4
8.1
5
47.18764
123.12209
8/19
Yes
Dissolved
WDOE
Oxygen
mg/l
Dissolved
Skokomish
Oxygen
Tribe
mg/l
Biological Data () ---
Low
Latitude
North
Longitude
West
1.8
47.18764
123.12209
1/14
Yes
Suggested Pollutant or cause of impairment Fecal Coliform bacteria contamination
due to septic systems, cattle and farming activities.
Source category = Agriculture/Rural
Source subcategory = Vegetable Cropping/Hydro-modification
Specific source (if known)=Richards Ranch, Paul Hunters Farm Pasture and Crop
Activity
Problem severity= Severe
Method of assessment=Ambient water quality monitoring surveys and hydrologic
studies
Under TMDL Plan
34
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.3 Effects of Non-point Source Pollutants
3.3.1 Fecal Coliform Bacteria
Fecal Coliform bacteria are found in the intestines of warm blooded animals. Their
presence in waters indicates that pathogenic organisms may also be present. They are
most commonly associated with failing septic tanks and drain fields from individual
sewage disposal systems, agricultural feedlots, and grazing animals. Grazing areas
generally follow surface water sources near the Reservation and it is assumed that fecal
coliform bacteria contamination of the lower Skokomish River is associated with this
source.
3.3.2 Nutrients
The potential non-point source nutrients of concern on Skokomish Reservation are
nitrogen and phosphorus. Although these pollutants have not been specifically
monitored they are a pollutant that will be monitored in the future. They originate from
fertilizers, animal and human wastes, rural runoff, and natural sources. Nutrients may
stimulate excessive growth of algae in rivers or nuisance aquatic weeds in lakes and
reservoirs, rendering water aesthetically unattractive or unsuitable for recreation.
Excessive nitrate levels in drinking water may cause methemoglobinemia or "blue baby
syndrome" in infants. The Skokomish drinking water supply is monitored for this
pollutant and so far no contamination has been recorded. However, low dissolved
oxygen, which can be a direct result of nutrient input, has been recorded throughout the
lower basin and is a concern for all aquatic life. Biosolids applications can also
introduce nutrients into water bodies —active applications of biosoilds occur on the east
side of the Reservation and may influence No Name Creek and the lower Skokomish
River.
3.3.3 Total Dissolved Solids
Total dissolved solids (salts or salinity) are usually a concern in semi-arid areas when
water is used consumptively (evapotranspired). However, in the Skokomish drainage,
tidal fluctuation can affect both the water table and surface water. Application of
irrigation water to saline soils can leach salts back to rivers, thereby increasing salinity.
The Skokomish Tribal monitoring program has not monitored increases in salinity, but
with increased use of the lower watershed for farming, this will be monitored in the
future.
3.3.4 Sediment
Human activity, including tilling, diking, irrigation, grazing, construction, urbanization,
and forestry practices accelerate natural sediment production. Excess sedimentation
interferes with water treatment, irrigation, fish spawning and rearing, and the production
of fish food organisms in streams. Other pollutants, such as nutrients and heavy
metals, may be absorbed on sediment particles and transported into and through out
aquatic systems. Sediment affects spawning salmon and other aquatic life.
35
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.3.5 Natural
In general, natural conditions in the lower Skokomish Valley have been altered
substantially. Normal background of NPS pollution can only be summarized from
glacially derived outwash. In the geological past, glacial ice sheets inundated
Skokomish Reservation. These massive glaciers created 1) Glacial Till in the upper and
lower reaches of the Skokomish basin. Glacial till is a mixture of silt, sand, gravel,
cobbles and boulders cemented together in layers that are mostly impermeable to
water, 2) Glacial Outwash: Glacial outwash deposits form from glacier meltwater runoff
from glaciers and were deposited in former lakes and river channels. Two types of
glacial outwash form sedimentary layers in the Skokomish Valley: A) Fine-Grained
Sediments that were deposited as layers of silt and clay on former lake bottoms and are
not very porous and are mostly impermeable to water; and B) Coarse-Grained
Sediments that were common to river channels and deltas. These sediments contain
sand, gravel, and cobble-sized rock and are very porous and very permeable to water.
The porous sediments can form large underground aquifers and may be the source of
the Skokomish drinking water wells. Coarse-grained sediments create excellent
reservoirs for groundwater and generally provide high-yield water supplies for local
wells with relatively quick water recharge rates, despite most drawdown demands. 3)
Non-Glacial Sediments contain well-sorted layers of fine- and medium-grained materials
(or alluvium), including sand, silt, clay and organic materials. Fine-grained, non-glacial
sediments often slow or impede water permeation, lowering yields from wells and
slowing recharge rates. However, the advantage to these fine-grained, non-glacial
sediments is that they are excellent for filtering contaminants from water before it
reaches the aquifer (Dave's Digital Outcrop 1999-2000). It is assumed that the water of
the Reservation were of a very high quality after the glacial period 12,000 years ago.
3.3.6 Other
Toxic chemicals and metals may cause problems in Skokomish Reservation waters and
for off-stream water users. These include arsenic, lead, creosote, pentachlorophenol,
and pesticides.
Water temperatures that are too high for fish and aquatic life are often associated with
partially dewatered streams in summer or streams from where riparian bank vegetation
has been removed. Stream bank and channel alterations and flow alterations
(dewatering) also reduce the amount of habitat available to fish and aquatic life.
Streams associated with this assessment flow all year.
Organic compounds, such as sewage sludge sometimes collect on stream bottoms and
contribute to depletion of dissolved oxygen in the water.
36
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
3.4 Formulation of Best Management Practices
Tribal Council procedures provide public participation and public comment. A resolution
(See Appendix A) authorizes submittal of the Assessment Plan to other Federal
agencies. Section 319 of the Federal Clean Water Act requires each tribe to describe
tribal and local programs for controlling pollution from non-point sources. The first and
foremost management non-point control program for the Skokomish Tribe is the
Skokomish Environmental Policy Act (SKEPA). This Tribal administrative oversight
addresses cumulative impacts of potentially degrading development projects. SKEPA
provides “conditioned” permits and mitigation when appropriate.
In addition to the Tribe’s anticipated non-point program, there are numerous programs,
administered by a variety of agencies that aim to control non-point source pollution.
Mason County Conservation Districts is the designated the non-point source
management agencies for non-federal lands. The program is intended to encourage
adoption and implementation of best management practices (BMPs). Technical
assistance, education, demonstration projects, and financial assistance are used to
implement BMPs. In addition, the Washington State University extension service
provides technical assistance when needed.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s cost-share programs offer financial incentives for
implementation of BMPs on agricultural lands, on and near the Skokomish Reservation.
In addition, the Corps of Engineers 404 Dredge and Fill Permit Program, controls nonpoint source pollution resulting from hydromodification activities. The Brownfields
program administered by the Environmental Protection Agency offers the potential for
correcting non-point pollution problems related to toxic and hazardous waste sites. The
Tribe participates in all of these programs.
The Skokomish Tribe Natural Resources Department conducts water quality monitoring,
assesses and prioritizes non-point and point source problems, develops solutions, and
will provide management of these problems. A priority list is kept of stream segments
that have assessed man-caused water quality problems. The list is used to focus and
conserve limited management resources.
The following categories and subcategories of non-point sources have been designated
by EPA and used in this report. All have to some extent caused impairment of
Skokomish Reservation waters.
3.4.1 Agriculture
Non-irrigated crop production
Irrigated crop production
Specialty crop production (e.g., truck farming, or orchards)
Pasture land (Grazing)
Feedlots - all types
Aquaculture
Animal holding/management areas
Streambank erosion
Silviculture
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3.4.2 Construction
Highway/road/bridge
Land Development
Streambank erosion
Diking
3.4.3 Urban (Rural) Runoff
Storm sewers
Combined sewers
Surface runoff
Streambank erosion
3.4.4 Resource Extraction/ Exploration/ Development
Streambank erosion
3.4.5 Land Disposal (runoff/leachate from permitted areas)
Sludge
Wastewater
Landfills
Industrial land treatment
On-site wastewater systems (septic tanks, etc)
Hazardous waste
Treated biosolids
3.4.6 Hydromodification
Channelization
Dredging
Dam construction/operation
Flow regulation/modification
Streambank erosion
Removal of riparian vegetation
Bridge construction
Streambank modification/destabilization
3.4.7 Other
Atmospheric deposition
Waste storage/storage tank leaks
Highway maintenance and runoff
Gas/Oil Spills
Natural erosion processes
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4.0 CONCLUSIONS
4.1 How This Report Will Be Used
The Skokomish Indian Tribe is working to correct and prevent non-point source
problems on and near the Reservation, however, much more needs to be done.
Solutions are often complex and difficult to develop and expensive to implement.
Improved landowner cooperation, agency coordination, additional funding and technical
assistance are needed to correct the priority non-point source problems.
A much more detailed description of non-point source control programs on the
Reservation will be included in the Skokomish Reservation's non-point source
management plan, which is also required under Section 319 of the Federal Clean Water
Act and is started here in this document. This plan is a work in progress. The first
steps in the development of the Skokomish non-point source management plan are
listed below. Our management plan will start with identifying Best Management
Practices (BMP) per category of identified NSP. These BMP’s will be used as the key
element in our planning process. Realistic goals, objectives, action items and timelines
will be established to correct problems where found. It should be noted the Skokomish
Tribe has implemented management planning in many of the identified areas listed.
Ongoing and updating of those plans are now underway and include, land use mapping
and rulemaking, master planning, solid waste planning, forest practice planning, water
resources planning, active participation in the Skokomish River TMDL plan, water
resource inventory planning, and environmental permitting. All of these planning
processes will be incorporated into the finished NPS management planning document.
4.2 Best Management Practices
Categories, subcategories and specific sources of non-point pollution on the Skokomish
Reservation are listed below, Section 319 of the Federal Clean Water Act requires each
Tribe to describe its process for identifying the measures it will use to control these
categories, subcategories and sources.
Four non-point source categories are responsible for a significant fraction of the
threatened or impaired water bodies on the reservation and include: agricultural
activities (cattle and other livestock--- vegetable cropping), hydromodification, and
hatcheries.
The Skokomish Section 319 program will emphasize agriculture activities as the number
one source of water impairment; however, Rural (septic systems, storm water runoff),
and Forest Practices (bank erosion and silviculture activities) will also be monitored.
Although solid waste has been identified as a low impact to Reservation waters ---the
development of a management plan for solid waste is now underway on the
Reservation and this plan will be incorporated into the 319 management plan.
Hydromodification, and land disposal activities are regulated under Skokomish
Environmental Protection Act (SKEPA) which is administered by the Skokomish Natural
Resources Department. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are being developed and
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
are identified in this report but in general will follow the National Soil Conservation
Service guidelines.
The process for identifying BMPs for the agricultural category will consist of working
with the Mason Conservation District, Washington Department of Health, County
Commissioners, and the Washington Department of Ecology to reduce agricultural
impacts to Skokomish Reservation water bodies.
4.2.1 Agriculture Activities
The BMPs selected from the National Soil Conservation Service (SCS) standards and
specifications are currently in use by a majority of the farms near the Reservation.
Additional BMPs addressing pesticide application, fertilizer management, grazing, and
streambank stabilization may need to be added for land on the Reservation.
One or more BMPs will be selected for each land use within a targeted water segment.
We believe proper application of a resource management system for this segment will
insure the NPS pollution is minimized. Cooperating agencies including Mason County,
and the Washington Department of Ecology will help the Skokomish Tribe develop new
BMPs if appropriate ones do not exist to solve a specific problem.
Utilizating agricultural BMPs for non-point source water pollution control on Skokomish
is voluntary. Success in solving non-point source pollution problems has been limited
primarily to smaller streams and projects. However, the Tribe’s activities in the Water
Resources Planning Area (WRIA 16)22 planning process will enable a comprehensive
approach to the protection of water resources in the Skokomish watershed.
Cost-share programs are available to help pay the cost of applying BMPs, but in most
cases ranchers and farmers are unable to provide matching funds. The 319 program
provides incentives to help farmers and ranchers implement BMP's. In cases of need,
Tribal resources may be used to augment implementation of BMP's.
4.2.2 Hydromodification
BMP’s for hydrologic and habitat modification often relate directly to other categories of
non-point source pollution. For example, grazing practices may impact stream
hydrology by changing seasonal flow patterns and water yield. Agricultural activities
may involve placement of irrigation diversions in streams. The majority of
hydromodification activities on Skokomish Reservation are regulated under SKEPA and
administered by the Skokomish Natural Resources Department, and/or Section 404
permits. The Tribe will continue to work with watershed groups to develop ways to
reduce the modification of the Skokomish waters and where possible will restore
hydrologic function where it has been impacted from hydromodification.
22
WRIA 16 Action Plan ftp://ftp.cascadiaconsulting.com/incoming/WRIA16
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
4.2.3 Rural
BMP’s will be used to site, design and maintain onsite wastewater treatment (septic)
systems, pet wastes, lawn and garden fertilizers and pesticides, household chemicals
that are improperly disposed of, automobile fluids, road deicing/anti-icing chemicals,
and vehicle emissions. The Skokomish SKEPA process is currently the regulatory
authority used to control Rural NSP pollution. In addition to septic issues, BMP will also
be used to mange uncontrolled or treated runoff from the Rural environment and from
construction activities which can run off the landscape into surface waters. This runoff
can include such pollutants as sediments, pathogens, fertilizers/nutrients, hydrocarbons,
and metals.
4.2.4 Forest Practices
Laying out, constructing and using BMP in forest harvesting and in the development of
trails and landings will be used to minimizing onsite and offsite damage to resources.
In addition, treating areas to encourage natural regeneration of desirable trees and
shrubs or permit artificial regeneration by planting or direct seeding will be controlled as
to not contaminate soil or waterbodies. Care will be observed when manipulating
species composition and stocking by cutting or killing selected trees and understory
vegetation. The Skokomish Tribe Forest Management plan will be incorporated into
the 319 management process.
4.2.5 Land Disposal.
BMP’s for Land Disposal often relate directly to other categories of non-point source
pollution. Illegal dumping of junk cars, abandoned drug labs, and appliances pose a
threat to surface and ground water from leaking hydrocarbons or other metal or
chemical contaminates Land disposal activities on Skokomish are regulated under
SKEPA administered by the Skokomish Natural Resources Department. The Tribe is
proactive in addressing solid waste issues. Many areas have been cleaned up and
roads have been gated to prevent illegal dumping. In addition, a new soiled waste
assessment is underway with a management plan in development by Ridolfi Inc due
10/01/06. The Tribe is currently providing site clean-up through EPA.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
5.0 REFERENCES
Barreca, J. 1998. Watershed Approach to Water Qualify Management: Needs Assessment for the
Eastern Olympic Water Quality Management Area. Washington State Department of Ecology,
Water Quality Program. Olympia, WA. June.
Batts, D. 2005. Skokomish River Basin Fecal Coliform TMDL Attainment Monitoring.
Environmental Monitoring & Trends Section (EMTS) Environmental Assessment Program.
Washington Department of Ecology. Olympia, WA. Publication No. 05-03-201.
Binder, E. 2002-2003. Updated Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy Plan.
Skokomish Indian Tribe. Community Development Office. Skokomish Nation, WA. November
18, 2002
Dave's Digital Outcrop--Copywrite © 1999 and 2000 by David A. Knoblach
([email protected]).
Ecology. 2004. Washington State's Water Quality Assessment [303(d)], List for 2002/2004.
Washington State Department of Ecology. Olympia, WA.
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/303d/2002/2002-index.html
EPA. 2004. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical
Habitat for the Jarbidge River, Coastal-Puget Sound, and Saint Mary-Belly River Populations of Bull
Trout. Federal Register: June 25, 2004 (Volume 69, Number 122)] [Proposed Rules] [Page 3576735857] From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov] [DOClD:fr25jn0439] [[Page 35768]]. Agency: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. Action: Proposed Rule.
http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-SPECIES/2004/June/Day-25/el4014.htm.June.
[Federal Register: April 5, 2005 (Volume 70, Number 64)]
[Proposed Rules]
Golder Associates, in association with Economic & Engineering Services, Inc. 2002. Draft
Report on Skokomish-Dosewallips Watershed (WRIA 16) Phase II- Level 1 Assessment; Data
Compilation and Preliminary Assessment. Prepared for WRIA 16 Planning Unit Steering
Committee, Shelton, WA. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/pubs/0306014.pdf. August.
KCM. 1997. Mason County Skokomish River Comprehensive Flood Hazard Management Plan, Volume
1. KCM Project #2 5 40037/Ecology Grant #G9400224. Kramer, Chin, and Mayo. Seattle, WA.
KCM. 1997. Water Quality and Evaluation for Skokomish River System,. Kramer, Chin, and Mayo.
Seattle, WA. October, 1979.
MCD. 2001. Information from CCWF grant efforts, regarding nature of agricultural operations in
study area. Mason Conservation District. Shelton, WA. November.
Seiders, K., Hoyle-Dodson, G., Pickett, P. 2001. Skokomish River Basin Fecal Coliform
Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Study. Washington State Department of Ecology, Environmental
Assessment Program. Olympia, WA. April. Pub. No. 01-03-014.
http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/0103014.html.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Williams, R., Laramie, R., Amer, J. 1975. ,4 Catalog of Washington Streams and Salmon
Utilization, Volume 1, Puget Sound Region. Washington Department of Fisheries. Olympia, WA.
[Page 17223-17227]
WDOE 2001 Skokomish River Basin Fecal Coliform Total Maximum Daily Load
(Water Cleanup Plan) Submittal Report June 2001 Publication No. 01-10-017
WDF. 1957. Research Relating to Fisheries Problems That Will Arise in Conjunction With
Curreent and Projected Hydroelectric Development in the Skokomish River.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
6.0 Appendix
6.1 Tribal Government Resolution
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
6.2 Best Management Practices Reference Guide
Agriculture
DOE
Irrigation Management Practices to Protect Ground Water and Surface Water Quality,
State of Washington, Peter Canessa, Washington Department of Ecology and WSU,
1994.
NRCS Publications
Tips for small acreages in Oregon:
Fact Sheet 2, January 1999, Protecting Your Watershed
Fact Sheet 4, January 1999, Protecting Streambanks from Erosion
Fact Sheet 5, January 1999, Managing Streamside Areas with Buffers
Fact Sheet 7, January 1999, Managing Pastures
Fact Sheet 8, January 1999, Managing Weeds in Pasture
Fact Sheet 9, January 1999, Providing Stockwater in Fields and Near Streams
Fact Sheet 10, January 1999, Designing a Fence
Fact Sheet 11, January 1999, Managing Manure and Mud in Oregon
Fact Sheet 12, January 1999, Fertilizing for profit
Fact Sheet 13, January 1999, Protecting Your Land from Erosion
Fact Sheet 14, January 1999, Planning and Managing Irrigation
WSU Publications
1990 Rotation Crop Budgets for Northwest Washington, EB 1587
Dryland Farming in the Northwestern United States; Non-technical Overview
Concepts of Integrated Pest Management in Washington, EB0753
Integrated Pest Management; Effective Options for Farmers, EB1786
Controlling Cropland Wind Erosion and Off-site Impact in the PNW, MISC0177, 1994
Current Nutrient Status of Soils, PHW076, 1985
Exchange Cations, Cation Exchange Capacity, and Base Saturation, Soil Iron, EM2894,
1980
Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization by Pacific Northwest Crops, PNW0513, 1998
Determining the Gross Amount of Water Applied-Surface Irrigation, CO912, 1996
Irrigation Runoff Control Strategies, PNW0287, 1997
Irrigation Requirements for Washington; Estimates and Methodology, EB1513, 1989
Livestock Water During a Drought: Conserving Water in Agriculture, OREM8360, 1988
Water Conservation, Weed Control, Go Hand in Hand, EM4856, 1993
Defining Water Quality, EB1721, 1992
How Fertilizers and Plant Nutrients Affect Groundwater Quality, EB1722, 1998
Keys to Dairy Manure Management for Water Quality, EB1658, 1992
Measuring Economic Benefits of Water Pollution Abatement in an Irrigated River Basin,
XB1019
MNB: Manure Nutrient Balancer Manual, MCP0026
Protecting Groundwater from Pesticide Contamination, EB1644, 1995
Protecting Groundwater: Managing Livestock on Small Acreage
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Riparian Grazing, EB1775, 1994
Role of Soil in Groundwater Protection, EB1633, 1993
Washington's Groundwater: A Vital Resource, EB1622, 1995
Water Quality Improvements for Farmstead and Rural Home Water Systems, F2274,
1985
Water Quality Publications List, CO986
Wetlands: Nature's Water Purifiers, EB1723, 1993
Why the Concern about Agricultural Contamination in Groundwater?, EB1632, 1994
Home-A-Syst:Animal Manure Storage, EB1746-W7, 1993
Home-A-Syst: Improving Animal Lot Management, EB1746-F8, 1993
Home-A-Syste: Improving Animal Manure Storage, EB1746-F7, 1993
Manageing Livestock Manure to Protect Groundwater, EB1717, 1992
Which Test is Best? Customizing Dairy Manure Nutrient Testing, PHW0505, 1997
Horse Waste and Land Management Manual, EM4806, 1998
Sustainable Agricultural Resource Guide for Oregon and Washington, OREM8531,
1993
Maximizing Stocking Rates with Common-use and Proper-use Grazing, EB1356
Forest
WSU Extension Resources
Forest Stewardship Planning Workbook, PNW0490, 1995
Forest Stewardship: A Handbook for Washington Forest Landowners, MISC0155, 1998
Managing Forestlands in Washington, MISC0138, 1991
Managing Your Timber Sale, EB1818, 1996
Plant Your Trees Right, PNW0033, 1986
Thinning, An Important Timber Management Tool, PNW0184, 1985
Trees of Washington, EB0440, 1997
Coastal Douglas-Fir Forests and Wildlife, MISC0168, 1995
Is There a Place for Fish and Wildlife in Your Woodland?, MISC0132, 1995
NRCS Publications
Tips for small acreages in Oregon:
Fact Sheet 15, January 1999, Managing Sustainable Forests
Fact Sheet 16, January 1999, Enhancing Wildlife Habitat
Fact Sheet 17, January 1999, Constructing a Pond
Small landowner
NRCS & NACD Backyard Conservation Series Includes:
Backyard Conservation
Composting
Pest Management
Nutrient Management
Wildlife Habitat
Mulching
Water Conservation
Terracing
Backyard Pond
Wetland
Tree Planting
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Stormwater runoff
DOE
Water Quality Guide; Recommended Pollution Control Practices for Homeowners and
Small Farm Operators
NRCS Publications
Tips for small acreages in Oregon:
Fact Sheet 15, January 1999, Managing Sustainable Forests
Fact Sheet 16, January 1999, Enhancing Wildlife Habitat
Fact Sheet 17, January 1999, Constructing a Pond
Fact Sheet 19, January 1999, After You Buy: Wells, Septic Systems, and a Healthy
Homesite
WSU
Properly managing your Septic Tank System, EB1671, 1994
Protect your Groundwater Survey your Home Environment, EB1631, 1994
Natural Resource Conservation Service
BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Best Management Practices (BMP's) consist of sustainable approaches to land planning
and management that protect soil and water resources against degradation. Resource
management agencies, groups and educators identify and promote BMP's in varying
ways. This appendix provides information on BMP's recommended by the Natural
Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). The NRCS defines Best Management
Practices in their Field Office Technical Guides according to the following criteria:
Conservation Practice -- A structural measure, a vegetative measure or a management
activity used to protect, enhance or manage, soil, water, air, plant or animal resources
Conservation Practice Standard -- A set of statements that defines a practice; identifies
the purposes and applicability of the practice; establishes criteria to support each
purpose; lists special concerns useful in planning, designing, and constructing the
practice; and establishes installation, operation and maintenance requirements.
Conservation Practice Specifications -- Site specific documents that establish the
technical details and workmanship required to install the practices in accordance with
the requirements of the practice standard.
The following is a partial list of current NRCS practices that apply to the Skokomish
Reservation. The definitions given are summaries taken from the Conservation Practice
Standard pages for each practice in Field Office Technical Guide 4. In creating
conservation plans, planners recommend that combinations of these practices be
implemented in concert to achieve desired results and improve water quality.
Brush Management (314) -- Removal, reduction, or manipulation of non-herbaceous
plants to restore natural plant community balance; create a desired plant community;
reduce competition for space, moisture, and sunlight between desired and unwanted
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
plants; manage woody plants; restore vegetation cover to protect soils, control erosion,
reduce sediment, improve water quality and enhance stream flow, maintain or enhance
wildlife habitat, protect from wildfire hazards, and improve visibility and access for
handling livestock.
Channel Vegetation (AC) (322) -- Establishment and maintenance of plants on channel
banks, berms, spoils, and associated areas to stabilize channel banks and adjacent
areas and reduce erosion and sedimentation.
Chiseling and Subsoiling (324) -- Loosening the soil, without inverting and with a
minimum of mixing of the surface soil, to shatter restrictive layers below the normal plow
depth that inhibit water movement or root development.
Commercial Fishponds (397) -- A water impoundment constructed and managed for
commercial aquaculture production to provide a favorable water environment for
producing, growing, harvesting and marketing aquaculture crops and to control water
quality.
Composting Facility (317) -- A facility for the biological stabilization of waste organic
material to treat waste biologically by producing a hums-like material that can be
recycled as a soil amendment and fertilizer substitute or otherwise utilized in
compliance with all laws, rules and regulations.
Conservation Cover (327) -- Establishing and maintaining perennial vegetative cover to
protect soil and water resources on land retired from agricultural production to reduce
soil erosion and sedimentation, improve water quality, and create or enhance wildlife
habitat.
Conservation Crop Rotation (328) -- Growing crops in a re-occurring sequence on the
same field to reduce sheet and rill erosion, reduce irrigation induced erosion, maintain
or improve soil organic content, manage plant nutrients, improve water use efficiency,
manage saline seeps, manage plant pests, provide food for domestic livestock and
provide food and cover for wildlife.
Constructed Wetland (656) -- A wetland that has been constructed for the primary
purpose of water quality improvement.
Contour Farming (AC) (330) --Farming sloping land in such a way that preparing land,
planting, and cultivating are done on the contours to reduce erosion and control water.
Contour Orchard and Other Fruit Area (331) -- Planting orchards, vineyards, or small
fruits so that all cultural operations are done on the contour to reduce soil and water
loss, better control and use water, and operate farm equipment more easily.
Controlled Drainage (335) -- The control of surface and subsurface water through the
use of drainage facilities and water control structures to conserve water and maintain
optimum soil moisture, optimize infiltration, increase plant root zone depth, improve
surface water quality, reduce nitrates in drainage water, reduce subsidence and wind
erosion, and provide water for wildlife.
Cover Crop (340) - A crop of close-growing grasses, legumes, or small grains grown
primarily for seasonal protection and soil improvement. This crop is usually grown for 1
year or less, except where there is permanent cover as in orchards.
Critical Area Planting (342) -- Planting vegetation, such as trees, shrubs, vines, grasses,
or legumes, on highly erodible or critically eroding areas to stabilize the soil, reduce
damage from sediment and runoff to downstream areas, and improve wildlife habitat
and visual resources.
Fence (382) -- Enclosing or dividing an area of land with a suitable permanent structure
that acts as a barrier to livestock, big game, or people to protect areas from grazing,
regulate access and protect new seedlings.
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Field Border (386) -- A strip of permanent vegetation established at the edge or around
the perimeter of a field to reduce erosion from wind and water, protect soil and water
quality, manage harmful insect populations and provide wildlife food and cover.
Filter Strip (393) -- A strip or area of vegetation for removing sediment, organic matter,
and other pollutants from runoff and wastewater.
Fish Stream Improvement (395) -- Improving a stream channel to make a new fish
habitat or to enhance an existing habitat to increase the production of desired species of
fish.
Floodwater Diversion (400) -- A graded channel with a supporting embankment or dike
on the lower side constructed on lowland subject to flood damage to improve the cropgrowing environment of lowlands and improve water quality.
Forage Harvest Management (511) -- The timely cutting and removal of forages from
the field as hay, green-chop, or ensilage to optimize economic yield, promote vigorous
plant regrowth, maintain desired species composition, control insects and disease and
improve wildlife habitat.
Forest Harvest Trails and Landings (655) -- Laying out, constructing and using forest
harvest trails and landings to allow for removal of a forest product while minimizing
onsite and offsite damage to resources.
Forest Site Preparation (490)- Treating areas to encourage natural regeneration of
desirable trees and shrubs or to permit artificial regeneration by planting or direct
seeding.
Forest Stand Improvement (666) -- To manipulate species composition and stocking by
cutting or killing selected trees and understory vegetation.
Grazing Land Mechanical Treatment (548) -- Modifying physical soil and/or plant
conditions with mechanical tools by treatments such as; pitting, contour furrowing, and
ripping or subsoiling to fracture compacted soil layers and improve soil permeability,
reduce water runoff and increase infiltration, increase plant vigor and produce greater
yields.
Heavy Use Area Protection (561) -- Protecting heavily used areas by establishing
vegetative cover, by surfacing with suitable materials, or by installing needed structures.
Hedgerow Planting (422) -- Establishing a living fence of shrubs or trees in, across, or
around a field to delineate field boundaries, serve as fences, establish contour
guidelines, provide wildlife food and cover, provide screens, or improve the landscape.
Hillside Ditch (423) -- A channel that has a supporting ridge on the lower side
constructed across the slope at definite vertical intervals and gradients, with or without a
vegetative barrier, to control water flow in non-cultivated sloping areas by diverting
runoff to a protected outlet, thus minimizing erosion, conserving water and improving
water quality.
Irrigation Field Ditch (388) -- A permanent irrigation ditch constructed to convey water
from the source of supply to a field or fields in a farm distribution system to prevent
erosion or loss of water quality or damage to land.
Land Clearing (460) -- Removal of trees, stumps, and other vegetation from wooded
areas to achieve needed land use adjustments and to provide improvements in the
interest of soil and water conservation.
Land Smoothing (466) -- Removing irregularities on the land surface by use of special
equipment to improve surface drainage, obtain more uniform planting depths and
facilitate contour cultivation.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Mole Drain (482) -- An underground conduit constructed by pulling a bullet shaped
cylinder through the soil to establish a system of subsurface channels for removal of
trapped surface and shallow subsurface water from low gradient land.
Mulching (484) -- Applying plant residues or other suitable materials not produced on
the site to the soil surface to conserve moisture, prevent surface compaction and
crusting, reduce runoff and erosion, control weeds and help establish plant cover.
Nutrient Management (590) -- Managing the amount, form, placement, and timing of
applications of plant nutrients to optimize forage and crop yields, minimize entry of
nutrients to surface and groundwater, and maintain or improve chemical and biological
conditions of the soil.
Obstruction Removal (500) -- Removal and disposal of unwanted, unsightly or
hazardous buildings, structures, vegetation, landscape features, trash, and other
materials.
Pasture and Hay Planting (512) -- Establishing and reestablishing long-term stands of
adapted species of perennial, biennial, or reseeding forage plants to reduce erosion,
produce high quality forage, and to adjust land use.
Pest Management (595A) -- Managing agricultural pest infestations to reduce adverse
effects on plant growth, crop production and environmental resources in order to
develop a pest management system that is both consistent with selected crop
production goals and is environmentally acceptable.
Pond (378) -- A water impoundment made by constructing a dam or an embankment or
by excavating a pit or dugout to provide water for livestock, fish and wildlife, recreation,
fire control, crop and orchard spraying, and other related uses and to maintain or
improve water quality.
Pond Sealing or Lining (521) -- Installing a fixed lining of impervious material or treating
the soil in a pond mechanically or chemically to impede or prevent excessive water loss.
Precision Land Forming (462)-Reshaping the surface of land to planned grades to
improve surface drainage, provide land forming operations for drainage and erosion
control, improve moisture conservation, help leaching uniformity, and improve water
quality.
Prescribed Burning (338) -- Applying controlled fire to predetermined areas to control
undesirable vegetation, prepare sites for planting or seeding, control plant disease,
reduce wildfire habitat, improve forage production quantity or quality, remove slash and
debris, enhance seed and seedling production and facilitate the distribution of grazing
and browsing animals.
Prescribed Grazing (528A) -- The controlled harvest of vegetation with grazing or
browsing animals managed to improve or maintain the health and vigor of selected
plants and to maintain a stable and desired plant community, provide or maintain food,
cover and shelter for animals of concern, improve or maintain animal health and
productivity, maintain or improve water quality and quantity and reduce accelerated soil
erosion and maintain or improve soil condition for sustainability of the resource.
Range Planting (550) -- Establishment of adapted perennial vegetation such as
grasses, forbs, legumes, shrubs, and trees to restore a plant community similar to its
historic climax, provide or improve forage for livestock, provide or improve habitat for
wildlife, reduce erosion and improve water quality and quantity.
Recreation Area Improvement (562) -- Establishing grasses, legumes, vines, shrubs,
trees, or other plants or selectively reducing stand density and trimming woody plants to
improve an areas attractiveness and usefulness for recreation and to protect soil and
plant resources.
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Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Recreation Land Grading and Shaping (566) -- Altering the surface of the land to meet
the requirements of recreation facilities to permit effective uses of the land area for
recreation, improve surface drainage for recreation use and obtain more uniform soil
depths.
Recreation Trail and Walkway (568) -- A pathway prepared especially for pedestrian,
equestrian, and cycle travel to provide users of recreation areas with travel routed for
such activities, prevent erosion on or along pathways, and to preserve and protect soil,
plant, animal, and visual resources.
Regulating Water in Drainage Systems (554) -- Controlling the removal of surface or
subsurface runoff, primarily through the operation of water control structures to establish
and encourage the growth of desired field or forest plants, reduce soil subsidence and
erosion and provide water for wildlife.
Residue Management, (329) -- Managing the amount, orientation, and distribution of
crop and other plant residue on the soil surface year-round, while growing crops where
the entire field surface is tilled prior to planting to reduce erosion, conserve soil moisture
and provide food and escape cover for wildlife.
Restoration and Management of Declining Habitats (643) -- Restoring and conserving
rare or declining native vegetated communities and associated wildlife species.
Riparian Forest Buffer (391A) -- An area of trees and/or shrubs located adjacent to and
up-gradient from water bodies to create shade, lower water temperatures, improve
habitat for aquatic organisms, provide a source of detritus and large woody debris for
aquatic organisms and habitat for wildlife and reduce excess mounts of sediment,
organic material, nutrients and pesticides in surface water.
Roof Runoff Management (558) -- A facility for collecting, controlling, and disposing of
runoff water from roofs to prevent roof runoff water from flowing across concentrated
waste areas, barnyards, roads and alleys, and to reduce pollution and erosion, improve
water quality, prevent flooding, improve drainage and protect the environment.
Row Arrangement (557) -- Establishing a system of crop rows on planned grades and
lengths primarily for erosion control and water management.
Runoff Management System (570) -- A system for controlling excess runoff caused by
construction operations at development sites, changes in land use, or other land
disturbances to regulate the rate and amount of runoff and sediment from development
sites.
Soil Salinity Management-Non Irrigated (571) -- Management of land, water, and plants
to control harmful accumulations of salts on the soil surface or in the root zones on nonirrigated areas.
Streambank and Shoreline Protection (580) -- Treatments (vegetative and erosion
control) used to stabilized and protect banks of streams or constructed channels and
shorelines of lakes, reservoirs, or estuaries.
Stripcropping, Contour (585) -- Growing crops in a systematic arrangement of strips or
bands on the contour to reduce water erosion. The crops are arranged so that a strip of
grass or a close-growing crop is alternated with a strip of clean-tilled crop or fallow or a
strip of grass is alternated with a close-growing crop.
Stripcropping, Field (586) -- Growing crops in a systematic arrangement of strips or
bands across the general slope (not on the contour) to reduce water erosion. The crops
are arranged so that a strip of grass or a close-growing crop is alternated with a clean
tilled crop or fallow.
52
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Surface Drainage, Field Ditch (607)- A graded ditch for collecting excess water in a field
to drain surface depressions, collect or intercept excess surface water from natural or
graded land surfaces, and convey excess water to an outlet.
Surface Roughening (609) -- Roughening the soil surface by ridge or clod-forming
tillage to reduce wind erosion on cultivated land.
Tree/Shrub Establishment (612) -- to establish woody plants by planting or seeding to
provide forest products, control erosion, reduce air pollution, beautify an area, protect a
watershed and provide wildlife habitat.
Tree/Shrub Pruning (660A) -- Removing all or parts of selected branches from trees and
shrubs to improve the intended function of the plant, improve appearance of trees and
shrubs, improve the quality of the wood product and reduce a safety hazard.
Underground Outlet (620) -- A conduit installed beneath the surface of the ground to
collect surface water and convey it to a suitable outlet, to dispose of excess water from
terraces, diversions, subsurface drains or other concentrations without causing damage
by erosion or flooding.
Upland Wildlife Habitat Management (645) -- Creating, restoring, maintaining or
enhancing areas for food, cover, and water for upland wildlife and species which use
upland habitat for a portion of their lifecycle.
Use Exclusion (472) - Excluding animals, people, or vehicles from an area to protect,
maintain, or improve the quantity and quality of the plant, animal, soil, air, water and
aesthetic resources and human health and safety.
Waste Management System (312) -- A planned system in which all necessary
components are installed for managing liquid and solid waste, including runoff from
concentrated waste areas, in order to minimize degradation of air, soil and water
resources and protect public health.
Waste Storage Facility (313) -- A waste impoundment made by constructing an
embankment and/or excavating a pit or dugout or by fabricating a structure to
temporarily store wastes such as manure, wastewater, and contaminated runoff as a
function of an agricultural waste management system.
Waste Treatment Lagoon (359) -- An impoundment made by excavation or earthfill for
biological treatment of animal or other agricultural waste to biologically treat organic
waste and to reduce pollution and protect the environment.
Water and Sediment Control Basin (638) -- An earth embankment or a combination
ridge and channel generally constructed across the slope and minor watercourses to
form a sediment trap and water detention basin to reduce watercourse and gully
erosion, trap sediment, reduce and manage onsite and downstream runoff, and improve
downstream water quality.
Water Harvesting Catchment (636) -- A facility for collecting and storing precipitation to
provide water for livestock, fish and wildlife, recreation, or other purposes.
Wetland Creation (658) -- A wetland that has been created on a site location which
historically was not a wetland or is a wetland but the site will be converted to a wetland
with a different hydrology, vegetation type, or function than naturally occurred on the
site.
Wetland Enhancement (659) --The modification or rehabilitation of an existing or
degraded wetland, where specific functions and/or values are modified for the purpose
of meeting project objectives.
Wetland Restoration (657) -- The rehabilitation of a degraded wetland to restore both
the hydrologic conditions and the hydrophytic plant community that occurred on site
before modification.
53
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Wetland Wildlife Habitat Management (644) -- Retaining, developing or managing
habitat for wetland wildlife to maintain, develop, or improve habitat for waterfowl, furbearers, or other wetland associated flora and fauna.
Wildlife Watering Facility (648) -- Develop, improve, or modify watering places and
systems for wildlife to provide adequate drinking water during critical periods, to create
or expand suitable habitat for wildlife and to improve water quality.
54
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
6.3 Notes Table 6
a. An instantaneous concentration not to be exceeded at any time.
b. A 24-hour average not to be exceeded.
c. A 1-hour average concentration not to be exceeded more than once every
three years on theaverage.
d. A 4-day average concentration not to be exceeded more than once every
three years on the average.
e. Aldrin is metabolically converted to Dieldrin. Therefore, the sum of the Aldrin
and Dieldrin concentrations are compared with the Dieldrin criteria.
f. Shall not exceed the numerical value given by:
For salmonids present: 0.275 + 39.0
1 + 107.204-pH 1 + 10pH-7.205
WAC 173-201A 25
For salmonids absent: 0.411 + 58.4
1 + 107.204-pH 1 + 10pH-7.20
g. Shall not exceed the numerical concentration calculated as follows:
Unionized ammonia concentration for waters where salmonid habitat is an
existing or designated use:
0.80 ÷ (FT)(FPH)(RATIO)
where: RATIO = 13.5; 7.7≤ pH≤9
RATIO = (20.25 x 10(7.7-pH)) ÷ (1+ 10(7.4-pH)); 6.5 ≤ pH ≤ 7.7
FT = 1.4; 15≤T≤30
FT = 10[0.03(20-T)]; 0≤T≤15
FPH = 1; 8≤pH≤9
FPH = (1 + 10(7.4-pH)) ÷ 1.25; 6≤pH≤8.0
Total ammonia concentrations for waters where salmonid habitat is not an
existing or designated use and other fish early life stages are absent:
Chronic criterion = 0.0557 + 2.487 (1.45 x 100.028(25-A))
1 + 107.688-pH 1 + 10pH-7.688
where: A = the greater of either T (temperature in degrees Celsius) or 7.
Applied as a thirty-day average concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (in mg
N/L) not to be exceeded more than once every three years on average. The
highest four-day average within the thirty-day period should not exceed 2.5 times
the chronic criterion.
Total ammonia concentration for waters where salmonid habitat is not an existing
or designated use and other fish early life stages are present:
Chronic criterion = 0.0557 + 2.487 (B)
1 + 107.688-pH 1 + 10pH-7.688
where: B = the lower of either 2.85, or 1.45 x 100.028 x (25-T). T = temperature in
degrees Celsius.
Applied as a thirty-day average concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (in mg
N/L) not to be exceeded more than once every three years on the average. The
highest four-day average within the thirty-day period should not exceed 2.5 times
the chronic criterion.
55
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
h. Measured in milligrams per liter rather than micrograms per liter.
i. ≤(0.944)(e(1.128[ln(hardness)]-3.828)) at hardness = 100. Conversion factor
(CF) of 0.944 is hardness dependent. CF is calculated for other hardnesses as
follows: CF = 1.136672 - [(ln hardness)(0.041838)].
j. ≤(0.909)(e(0.7852[ln(hardness)]-3.490)) at hardness = 100. Conversions factor
(CF) of 0.909 is hardness dependent. CF is calculated for other hardnesses as
follows: CF = 1.101672 - [(ln hardness)(0.041838)].
WAC 173-201A 26
k. Criterion based on dissolved chloride in association with sodium. This criterion
probably will not be adequately protective when the chloride is associated with
potassium, calcium, or magnesium, rather than sodium.
l. Salinity dependent effects. At low salinity the 1-hour average may not be
sufficiently protective.
m. ≤(0.316)e(0.8190[ ln(hardness)] + 3.688)
n. ≤(0.860)e(0.8190[ ln(hardness)] + 1.561)
o. ≤(0.960)(e(0.9422[ ln(hardness)] - 1.464))
p. ≤(0.960)(e(0.8545[ ln(hardness)] - 1.465))
q. ≤(0.791)(e(1.273[ ln(hardness)] - 1.460)) at hardness = 100. Conversion factor (CF) of
0.791 is hardness dependent. CF is calculated for other hardnesses as follows:
CF = 1.46203 - [(ln hardness)(0.145712)].
r. ≤(0.791)(e(1.273[ ln(hardness)] - 4.705)) at hardness = 100. Conversion factor (CF) of
0.791 is hardness dependent. CF is calculated for other hardnesses as follows:
CF = 1.46203 - [(ln hardness)(0.145712)].
s. If the four-day average chronic concentration is exceeded more than once in a
three-year period, the edible portion of the consumed species should be
analyzed. Said edible tissue concentrations shall not be allowed to exceed 1.0
mg/kg of methylmercury.
t. ≤(0.998)(e(0.8460[ ln(hardness)] + 3.3612))
u. ≤(0.997)(e(0.8460[ ln(hardness)] + 1.1645))
v. ≤e[1.005(pH) - 5.290]
w. ≤e[1.005(pH) - 4.830]
x. The status of the fish community should be monitored whenever the
concentration of selenium exceeds 5.0 ug/ l in salt water.
y. ≤(0.85)(e(1.72[ln(hardness)] - 6.52))
z. Channel Catfish may be more acutely sensitive.
aa. ≤(0.978)(e(0.8473[ln(hardness)] + 0.8604))
bb. ≤(0.986)(e(0.8473[ln(hardness)] + 0.7614))
cc. Nonlethal effects (growth, C-14 uptake, and chlorophyll production) to
diatoms (Thalassiosira aestivalis and Skeletonema costatum) which are
common to Washington's WAC 173-201A 27 waters have been noted at
levels below the established criteria. The importance of these effects to
the diatom populations and the aquatic system is sufficiently in question to
persuade the state to adopt the USEPA National Criteria value (36 μg/L)
as the state threshold criteria, however, wherever practical the ambient
concentrations should not be allowed to exceed a chronic marine
concentration of 21 μg/L.
dd. These ambient criteria in the table are for the dissolved fraction. The
cyanide criteria are based on the weak acid dissociable method. The
metals criteria may not be used to calculate total recoverable effluent
56
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
limits unless the seasonal partitioning of the dissolved to total metals in
the ambient water are known. When this information is absent, these
metals criteria shall be applied as total recoverable values, determined by
back-calculation, using the conversion factors incorporated in the criterion
equations. Metals criteria may be adjusted on a site-specific basis when
data are made available to the department clearly demonstrating the
effective use of the water effects ratio approach established by USEPA, as
generally guided by the procedures in USEPA Water Quality Standards
Handbook, December 1983, as supplemented or replaced by USEPA or
ecology. Information which is used to develop effluent limits based on
applying metals partitioning studies or the water effects ratio approach
shall be identified in the permit fact sheet developed pursuant to WAC
173-220-060 or 173-226-110, as appropriate, and shall be made available
for the public comment period required pursuant to WAC 173-220-050 or
173-226-130(3), as appropriate. Ecology has developed supplemental
guidance for conducting water effect ratio studies.
ee. The criteria for cyanide is based on the weak acid dissociable method
in the 17th Ed. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater, 4500-CN I, and as revised (see footnote dd, above).
ff. These criteria are based on the total-recoverable fraction of the metal.
gg. Where methods to measure trivalent chromium are unavailable, these
criteria are to be represented by total-recoverable chromium.
hh. The listed fresh water criteria are based on unionized or total
ammonia concentrations, while those for marine water are based on total
ammonia concentrations. Tables for the conversion of total ammonia to
un-ionized ammonia for freshwater can be found in the USEPA's Quality
Criteria for Water, 1986. Criteria concentrations based on total ammonia
for marine water can be found in USEPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria
for Ammonia (Saltwater)-1989, EPA440/5-88-004, April 1989.
ii. The conversion factor used to calculate the dissolved metal
concentration was 0.982.
jj. The conversion factor used to calculate the dissolved metal
concentration was 0.962.
kk. The conversion factor used to calculate the dissolved metal
concentration was 0.85.
ll. Marine conversion factors (CF), which were used for calculating,
dissolved metals concentrations are given below. Conversion factors are
applicable to both acute and chronic criteria for all metals except mercury.
The CF for mercury was applied to the acute criterion only and is not
applicable to the chronic criterion. Conversion factors are already
incorporated into the criteria in the table. Dissolved criterion = criterion x
CF
WAC 173-201A 28
Metal CF
Arsenic 1.000
Cadmium 0.994
Chromium (VI) 0.993
Copper 0.83
Lead 0.951
57
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
Mercury 0.85
Nickel 0.990
Selenium 0.998
Silver 0.85
Zinc 0.946
mm. The cyanide criteria are: 2.8μg/l chronic and 9.1μg/l acute and are
applicable only to waters which are east of a line from Point Roberts to
Lawrence Point, to Green Point to Deception Pass; and south from
Deception Pass and of a line from Partridge Point to Point Wilson. The
chronic criterion applicable to the remainder of the marine waters is μg/L.
(4) USEPA Quality Criteria for Water, 1986, as revised, shall be used in the use
and interpretation of the values listed in subsection (3) of this section.
(5) Concentrations of toxic, and other substances with toxic propensities not
listed in subsection (3) of this section shall be determined in consideration of
USEPA Quality Criteria for Water, 1986, and as revised, and other relevant
information as appropriate. Human health-based water quality criteria used by
the state are contained in 40 CFR 131.36 (known as the National Toxics Rule).
(6) Risk-based criteria for carcinogenic substances shall be selected such that
the upperbound excess cancer risk is less than or equal to one in one million.
[Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48 and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14),
amended and recodified as § 173-201A-240, filed 7/1/03, effective 8/1/03.
Statutory Authority: Chapter 90.48 RCW and 40 CFR 131. 97-23-064 (Order 9419), § 173-201A-040, filed 11/18/97, effective 12/19/97. Statutory Authority:
Chapter 90.48 RCW. 92-24-037 (Order 92-29), § 173-201A-040, filed 11/25/92,
effective 12/26/92.]
NOTES:
Reviser's Note: The brackets and enclosed material in the text of the above section
occurred in the copy filed by the agency.
WAC 173-201A-250
Radioactive substances.
(1) Deleterious concentrations of radioactive materials for all classes shall be as
determined by the lowest practicable concentration attainable and in no case
shall exceed: WAC 173-201A 29
(a) 1/12.5 of the values listed in WAC 246-221-290 (Column 2, Table II, effluent
concentrations, rules and regulations for radiation protection); or
(b) USEPA Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, as published in the
Federal Register of July 9, 1976, or subsequent revisions thereto.
(2) Nothing in this chapter shall be interpreted to be applicable to those aspects
of governmental regulation of radioactive waters which have been preempted
from state regulation by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, as
interpreted by the United States Supreme Court in the cases of Northern States
Power Co. v. Minnesota 405 U.S.1035 (1972) and Train v. Colorado Public
Interest Research Group, 426 U.S. 1 (1976).[Statutory Authority: Chapters 90.48
and 90.54 RCW. 03-14-129 (Order 02-14), recodified as §173-201A-250, filed
58
Skokomish Tribe Non-point Assessment Report 2006
7/1/03, effective 8/1/03. Statutory Authority: Chapter 90.48 RCW and 40 CFR
131. 97-23-064 (Order 94-19), § 173-201A-050, filed 11/18/97, effective
12/19/97. Statutory Authority: Chapter 90.48 RCW. 92-24-037 (Order 92-29), §
173-201A-050, filed 11/25/92, effective 12/26/92.]
WAC 173-201A-260
Natural conditions and other water quality criteria and applications.
(1) Natural and irreversible human conditions.
(a) It is recognized that portions of many water bodies cannot meet the assigned
criteria due to the natural conditions of the waterbody. When a waterbody does
not meet its assigned criteria due to natural climatic or landscape attributes, the
natural conditions constitute the water quality criteria.
(b) When a waterbody does not meet its assigned criteria due to human
structural changes that cannot be effectively remedied (as determined consistent
with the federal regulations at 40 CFR 131.10), then alternative estimates of the
attainable water quality conditions, plus any further allowances for human effects
specified in this chapter for when natural conditions exceed the criteria, may be
used to establish an alternative criteria for the waterbody (see WAC 173-201A440).
(2) Toxics and aesthetics criteria. The following narrative criteria apply to all
existing and designated uses for fresh and marine water:
(a) Toxic, radioactive, or deleterious material concentrations must be below those
which have the potential, either singularly or cumulatively, to adversely affect
characteristic water uses, cause acute or chronic conditions to the most sensitive
biota dependent upon those waters, or adversely affect public health (see WAC
173-201A-240, toxic substances, and 173-201A-250, radioactive substances).
(b) Aesthetic values must not be impaired by the presence of materials or their
effects, excluding those of natural origin, which offend the senses of sight, smell,
touch, or taste (see WAC 173-201A-230 for guidance on establishing lake
nutrient standards to protect aesthetics).
(3) Procedures for applying water quality criteria. In applying the appropriate
water quality criteria for a water, the department will use the following procedure:
* Beneficial Uses:
-- cold water aquatic life;
-- warm water aaquaaquatic life
-- public water supplies;
-- primary contact recreation;
-- Irrigation;
-- livestock watering.
Specific criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on water hardness. Criteria
values given are based on a water hardness of 100 mg/l.
59
Marine
SitePotlatch
State Park
Potlatch Cr
Lower.
SS15
Dec-95
Jan-96
Feb-96
Mar-96
Apr-96
May-96
Jun-96
Jul-96
Aug-96
Sep-96
Oct-96
Nov-96
Dec-96
Jan-97
Feb-97
Mar-97
Apr-97
May-97
Jun-97
Jul-97
Aug-97
Sep-97
Oct-97
Nov-97
Dec-97
Jan-98
Feb-98
Mar-98
Apr-98
May-98
Jun-98
Jul-98
Aug-98
Sep-98
Oct-98
Nov-98
Dec-98
Jan-99
Feb-99
Mar-99
Apr-99
May-99
Jun-99
Jul-99
Aug-99
Sep-99
Oct-99
Nov-99
Dec-99
Jan-00
SS 33
5
38
105
55
4
4
75
40
4
135
10
4
4
185
125
20
4
5
300
190
15
5
4
4
10
4
25
38
15
20
4
89.5
10
4
380
10
Upper
Potlatch
Cr Above
101
Culvert.
SS 90
Confluence
R Trib
Headwaters
Before
Potlatch
Confluence
Creek
SS 94
SS 95
Feb-00
Mar-00
Apr-00
May-00
Jun-00
Jul-00
Aug-00
Sep-00
Oct-00
Nov-00
Dec-00
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
Jan-02
Feb-02
Mar-02
Apr-02
May-02
Jun-02
Jul-02
Aug-02
Sep-02
Oct-02
Nov-02
Dec-02
Jan-03
Feb-03
Mar-03
Apr-03
May-03
Jun-03
Jul-03
Aug-03
Sep-03
Oct-03
Nov-03
Dec-03
Jan-04
Feb-04
Mar-04
Apr-04
May-04
Jun-04
Jul-04
Aug-04
Sep-04
5
4
20
27.5
4
5
4
4
5
4
55
5
5
4
5
35
4
25
23
4
4
5
5
0
19
9
1
16
1
2
16
2
3
1
22
137
2
64
10
9
60
1
2
173
49
1
44
2
56
43
1
29
25
59
87
10
27
255
25
1252
291
12
2
29
13
4
9
219
9
Oct-04
Nov-04
Dec-04
Jan-05
Feb-05
Mar-05
Apr-05
May-05
Jun-05
Jul-05
Aug-05
Sep-05
Oct-05
Nov-05
Dec-05
Jan-06
Feb-06
Mar-06
Apr-06
May-06
Jun-06
Jul-06
Aug-06
Sep-06
Oct-06
Nov-06
Dec-06
Jan-07
Feb-07
Mar-07
Apr-07
May-07
Jun-07
Jul-07
Aug-07
Sep-07
Oct-07
Nov-07
Dec-07
8
36
1
2
12
13
13
11
26
1
1
2
5
2
6
4
3
1
<1
69
38
288
3
1
48
4
2
4
81
1
4
1
5
5
15
32
332
96
188
149
40
20
248
142
23
110
108
59
21
125
150
124
109
21
32
81
43
1
1
1
8
8
1
45
392
140
208
50
64
20
122
98
120
94
106
56
187
124
130
226
205
30
25
99
102
68
1056
212
208
660
282
13
1
784
1000
64
596
L Trib
Numaric Criteria Limit
Before
50/100
Confluence Colinies/100/ml
SS 96
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50 Key
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
To Numerous to Count
2
1
1
1
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
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