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DOEPFER MUSIKELEKTRONIK
DREHBANK
Drehbank : The machine with the licence to turn.
Owners manual, 2nd edition.
(Version July 20, 1999)
Doepfer Musikelektronik
 Doepfer Musikelektronik GmbH
Geigerstr.13 • 82166 Graefelfing, Germany.
Phone +49 89 89809510 • Fax +49 89 89809510
Internet http://www.doepfer.com
C R E D I T S :
Project Manager
Programmers:
Hardware design
Programmer of the Drehbank
systems software for the EditorAdaption and EMAGIC
SoundDiver.
Programmer of the Drehbank
Editor for PC & Presets
Owners manual designers
:
Translation
Dieter Doepfer
Christian Assall, Roland Mayer.
Dieter Doepfer. ! [email protected]
Christian Assall. ! [email protected]
Roland Mayer. ! [email protected]
Roland Mayer, Christian Assall,
Stephen Doheny, Thomas Rotsch.
Foreword
You will have received your Drehbank with software version 1.xx (where xx is the
current revision number of the version 1 software). This software has been
checked by Doepfer and by our beta-testers, and is believed to be practically bugfree.
But in any new software of such complexity, we know that it‘s possible that hidden
bugs may still exist. If you find one, we would be grateful if you could let us know
the exact details. We will try to remove the bug as quickly as possible.
To update your device at the current state you then had to contact your local
dealer.
This offer only applies to software faults. It doesn‘t apply to updates which improve
upon the facilities in your current software, as detailed in this manual.
Actual upgrades of the software will regularly be available to buy.
To update the software, it‘s necessary to open up the Drehbank to change the
EPROM. Users carry this out at their own risk: problems caused by incorrect
insertion of an EPROM are not covered under guarantee.
Throughout this manual, reference is made to various products which have
registered trademarks, without necessarily indicating they are registered. The
absence of the  mark shouldn‘t be taken to imply that the product name can be
freely used by anyone. Nor should it imply any right to use material that is legally
protected by a registered trade name or mark, or protected by patent.
Please also take note that DOEPFER Musikelektronik GmbH offers no warranty
and accepts no legal responsibility for damage caused by or consequential on the
use of this equipment, its hardware or its software, or this manual. We categorically
deny responsibility. We also reserve the right to alter software and/or the contents
of this manual without notice.
 Copyright 1999/2000
DOEPFER Musikelektronik GmbH
All rights reserved. No part of this manual can be reproduced, duplicated or
modified in any form, including electronic means, without the express written
permission of DOEPFER Musikelektronik GmbH.
DOEPFER Musikelektronik GmbH
Geigerstr.13
D-82166 Graefelfing
GERMANY
Tel.: +49 89 89809510
Fax.:+49 89 89809511
Internet: http://www.doepfer.com
CONTENTS
Contents
CREDITS
FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................ 2
CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................. 5
CHAPTER 1 ............................................................................................................................. 7
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................... 7
ABOUT THE OWNER`S MANUAL ................................................................................................ 7
PRESETS / FILES .................................................................................................................... 8
CHAPTER 2 ............................................................................................................................. 9
INSTALLATION ....................................................................................................................... 9
THE HARDWARE UNIT: DREHBANK ................................................................................... 9
Options: the 8 external control inputs.......................................................................... 10
Updating the operating system ................................................................................... 10
Software: The Drehbank EDITOR ................................................................................. 12
INSTALLING THE DREHBANK EDITOR ...................................................................................... 12
System requirements ...................................................................................................... 12
De-installation ................................................................................................................. 13
Updating the Editor Software .......................................................................................... 13
The Editor on the Emagic SoundDiver(OEM-Basis) for PC& MACINTOSH. ................. 13
CHAPTER 3 ........................................................................................................................... 14
THE BASICS.......................................................................................................................... 14
W HAT IS THE DREHBANK?..................................................................................................... 14
FEATURES ............................................................................................................................ 14
THE FRONT PANEL ................................................................................................................ 15
64 control knobs/potentiometers..................................................................................... 15
64 Labelling pads............................................................................................................ 15
SWITCHES ..................................................................................................................... 15
recalling the original settings/ Rom presets ................................................................ 15
Switching between the 2 banks................................................................................... 16
Creating and sending a Snapshot............................................................................... 16
L.E.D.s ............................................................................................................................ 16
The Drehbanks operation indicator sequences ......................................................... 16
Bank indicators............................................................................................................ 17
Snapshot Mode ........................................................................................................... 17
Midi events Indicator ................................................................................................... 17
Midi transfer errors. ..................................................................................................... 17
Non volatile memory/presets .......................................................................................... 17
Power input/ Power supply ............................................................................................. 18
THE MIDI CONNECTION ........................................................................................................ 19
EDITING WITH THE EDITOR SOFTWARE ................................................................................... 20
CHAPTER 4 ........................................................................................................................... 21
THE EDITING SOFTWARE................................................................................................... 21
OPENING AND SAVING A PRESET............................................................................................ 21
OPENING A LIBRARY ............................................................................................................. 21
CONTROLLER PROPERTIES ................................................................................................... 22
PRESET SENDING AND STORING ............................................................................................. 22
SYSEX FILES / PRESET TEXT FILES ........................................................................................ 23
Generating SysEx files.................................................................................................... 23
Generating Text files....................................................................................................... 24
EDITOR TOOLS ..................................................................................................................... 24
Copy Bank 1 ---> Bank 2 ................................................................................................ 24
Copy Bank 2 ---> Bank 1 ................................................................................................ 24
Init Bank 1 ....................................................................................................................... 24
5
Init Bank 2 ....................................................................................................................... 24
Exchange Bank 1 <---> 2 ................................................................................................ 24
OPTIONS .............................................................................................................................. 25
Event Thru ...................................................................................................................... 25
Realtime Thru ................................................................................................................. 25
System Exclusive (SysEx) Thru...................................................................................... 25
EDITING A CONTROL FUNCTION .............................................................................................. 26
CHAPTER 5 ........................................................................................................................... 33
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................. 33
ROM PRESET 1 ................................................................................................................... 33
Bank 1 ............................................................................................................................. 33
Bank 2 ............................................................................................................................. 33
Key to Midi controller numbers ...................................................................................... 34
OPTIONS FOR THE EXTERNAL CONTROL INPUTS ...................................................................... 35
Control voltage operation................................................................................................ 35
Foot controller Operation ................................................................................................ 36
BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................... 38
6
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1
Chapter
Introduction
About the Owner`s manual
This manual is intended for those who enjoy to browse through instruction
manuals, and for those of you who have picked this book up for the very first time,
only because something doesn`t work or through misuse of the Drehbank
irreparable damage has been caused to the future of all mankind. ☺
But jokes aside, systems damage through use of the Drehbank is almost
impossible.
The worst things that can happen to the user during use are (1) that the computer
crashes, (2) you experience a systems error which can only be cured by the
resetting of your computer, (3) you experience a systems error while in the editor
program before you have saved the data.
But before you integrate the Drehbank onto your Midi setup please read the
following chapters to see which systems are compatible and how you should install
the editor software.
So as not to become confused while reading the manual we recommend that you read
each chapter through from start to finish and in order. In that way each chapter will
make more sense.
We also recommend that you read the README.TXT file on the Editor disc and
print it out because the information on the disc will be more up to date than the
information found in the manual.
Warning
This goes especially for units that are sold after February 1999. Here you
will find several important notes on the 4 ROM presets, information on
which is not listed in the manual, also any errors that we have found in the
writing of the manual will be updated in the README.txt file.
Also after the installation of the editor program you will find an built-in
'DB_HELP.HLP' help file available to you online. In this file you will find the most
up to date information on the Drehbank Unit.
Site address:
http:// www.doepfer.de/pub/download.htm
7
INSTALLATION
Presets / Files
There are several preset files incuded on the Editor Disc ! README.TXT file.
These can be used directly or used as a basis for creating your own preset
libraries.
We at Doepfer are continually creating new presets that will be available for
downloading from the InterNet.
Site address:
http:// www.doepfer.de/pub/download.htm
NOTE
Information that we feel is of extra importance is printed in boxes of grey
and black like this one throughout the manual.
8
INSTALLATION
2
Chapter
Installation
The hardware unit: Drehbank
Front panel
•
•
•
•
64 control knobs
64 labelling pads (for the user to label the function of each control knob).
3 switches (on the left side of the unit; black):
(one) to create a „Snapshot“ (the top switch)
(two) to switch from one bank to the other (the lower 2 switches)
3 L.E.D.s, one above each switch which indicate:
When a 'Snapshot“ is being sent
Midi events
Which of the two banks is in use
Back panel
•
•
•
-
8 external control inputs (optional)
Power input connection
Midi Ports
MIDI-In
MIDI-Out / Thru (Merge)
9
INSTALLATION
O PT I ONS: T HE 8 EXT ERN AL C O NT R OL I N PUT S
If you have a unit fitted with the optional external control inputs, you will find the 8
external inputs at the rear of the unit (labelled external inputs)
The 8 external inputs are assigned to the following control knobs;
External input
(at rear, left to right)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Control knob on front panel
Default settings
31
15
47
63
32
48
16
64
Control voltage
Control voltage
Control voltage
Control voltage
Foot controller
Foot controller
Foot controller
Foot controller
NOTE:
Further information on the external control inputs is to be found in the
Appendix
UPD AT ING T HE O PER AT ING SY ST EM
For this you will need a new EPROM, a Phillips screwdriver, and an I.C. tool. If you
don‘t have your own EPROM burner we will send you a new EPROM (you must
pay for the post and package costs).
NOTE
If you decide to update yourself you‘ll have to exchange the
EPROM against one with the latest software.
old
First of all, ensure that the unit is disconnected from the mains. When installing the
new EPROM make sure to install it in the correct position, the notch on one side of
the component is there to guide you. The EPROM I.C. socket should have a
corresponding mark. Be careful when installing the new EPROM because the
component is quite delicate.To exchange the EPROM we recommend that you pull
it out horizontally eg. with two screwdrivers simultaneously or with a specialized
I.C. tool. Be careful not to to damage the component by bending its pins. The same
care is needed for the installation of the new component. Don’t push too hard!
Check that the pins of the new component are not bent out of shape.
10
INSTALLATION
The EPROM component.
S t ic k e r w it h
v e r s io n n u m b e r
N o tc h
• Before you reassemble the unit make sure that
the EPROM is inserted correctly (if incorrectly inserted then it‘s goodbye Mr
EPROM when you turn on the unit)
- you haven‘t loosened or disconnected any of the components or the wiring.
With the second version of the Drehbank series (availible from February 1999 and
identifiable by the 3 switches and L.E.D.s) the non-volatile EEPROM memory is
doubled. Therefore, with each control knob you can generate a Midi-string
comprising 113 bytes, instead of 55 bytes as is the case with units from the first
series.
If you want to update the first series you‘ll need software versions above 1.1 and a
new EEPROM memory chip (type X25128). With this installation please take the
same care recommended for the EPROM update (see previous page).
You’ll find the EEPROM memory chip (with the notch of the EPROM pointing
upwards) on the right hand side of the processor (that‘s the large black square
component at the centre of the circuit board). Owing to the small size of the chip it
may not have a notch to guide you, but it does have a spot - indicating pin no. 1 printed in one corner to act as a guide. This point should be in the corner furthest
away from the processor when correctly installed.
Only power up once you have correctly reassembled the unit and screwed the
case back together.
11
INSTALLATION
Software: The Drehbank Editor
On the included DOS–formated disc you will find the Drehbank editor software.
Warning
Before you install the editor program (Please, Please, Please) read the
README.TXT(help) file.
Installing the Drehbank Editor
System requirements
The Drehbank Editor is a Windows application which requires the following system
• IBM compatible PC .
• CPU > 90 Mhz (recommended)
• > 8 Megabyte RAM (recommended)
• > 2 Megabytes of free space on the hard drive/disc.
• Windows 3.x, Windows 9x, or Windows NT.
• VGA Monitor with a resolution of at least 640x480.
• MIDI Interface (e.g. soundcard with MIDI Interface).
• Multimedia Midi cable to connect the Drehbank.
• 3.5“ floppy drive or InterNet connection.
• Drehbank.
The editor program also works without a Drehbank, because the program needs
no feedback from the Drehbank.
12
INSTALLATION
Installation
To install: initiate/execute INSTALL.EXE. Once you‘ve installed the application
you’ll find a subfolder titled Drehbank in the directory you have chosen.
You can also create a link on the desktop for quicker access to the editor
application. To start the program simply doubleclick on the Drehbank.EXE file.
De-installation
The editing software has no effect on the operating system of your computer,
therefore you can simply delete the Drehbank folder from your hard disc.
Updating the Editor Software
You will always find the most up to date version of the editor software on the
Doepfer homepage: http:// www.doepfer.de/pub/download.ht, stored as a file titled
DBXX.ZIP where XX stands for the version number. For example version 1.1 is
titled DB_11.EXE. Simply download the file, unpack it into a temporary directory
and install it in the same way as a new installation.
The Editor on the Emagic SoundDiver(OEM-Basis) for PC&
MACINTOSH.
From autumn 1999 we at Doepfer hope, that we will be able to offer a special
version of the Emagic SoundDiver program.
This could be very interesting alongside an existing Drehbank editor as those of
you who work with the SoundDiver won‘t have to switch to a new editor program.
Above all it gives Macintosh users the possibility to edit their Drehbanks
without having to buy a P.C. ☺
Further Information on this topic can be attained by reading the README file on
the disc or on our homepage.
When available it will become part of the standard Drehbank package.
We cannot offer this software on the InterNet to download free of charge because
the OEM-Version from Emagic is not public domain software.
13
CHAPTER 3
BASIC OPERATIONS
3
Chapter
The Basics
What is the Drehbank?
The Doepfer Drehbank is a user definable Midi control unit with 64 rotary
control knobs.
Any midi event can be assigned to any control knob. Each knob lets you control
Midi events in the form of Midi-strings. You can control simple events like volume,
reverb, panorama, etc., or you can create complex SysEx strings.
The setting of each control knob is stored in a preset. A preset is organized into
two interchangable banks, each containing 64 control knob functions. The presets
are normally created in the Drehbank editor, stored on a PC, and from there sent
to the Drehbank.
You can store a preset in the non-volatile memory (EEPROM) of the Drehbank. So
that the PC editor program can have a little snooze as soon as the preset is stored
in the memory of the Drehbank. ☺
Features
• 2 banks (each activated by a corresponding switch)
• indicators for the activated bank (2 L.E.D.s one above each bank)
• 64 controllers per bank, each with the following parameters:
-
Midi strings with a maximum of 113 bytes per string.
Up to 16 definable variables per Midi string (each variable needs 7 Bytes).
Any variable can be assigned to any control knob.
For the variables there are 20 predefined data formats available.
The scale and range of each variable is adjustable.
control resolution can be definable up to 255 steps.
control threshold adjustable from1 to 255.
The offset and reference voltage of the AD converter is adjustable in 12 steps
per control knob.
• The non-volatile saving of presets (2X64 control knobs).
• „Plug & Pray“ ☺ !You „switch on“ and the preset from the non-volatile memory
works.
• The possibility to connect 8 external controllers.
• ‚Snapshot' function.
14
BASIC OPERATIONS
The front panel
64 control knobs/potentiometers
Drehbank incorporates 64 control knobs/potentiometers that have a control
voltage range from 0..+5V. Internally the control voltage is translated into digitial
information. A full turning of the control knob has a range of 256 values from
0..to.255.That means that the variables have a range of 256 steps.
Note
There may be slight fluctuations in the potentiometer tolerance levels for
which we accept no liability.
The spacing between the potentiometers is rather small. We know. This is a
compromise owing to the exeptionally large number of control knobs. Would you
buy a unit that‘s 8 feet long? ☺
64 Labelling pads
These pads allow you to label each individual control knob for easy reference of
your setups.
Note
Only use light pencils when writing on the labelling pads, otherwise it
won‘t be possible to use the pads again and again.........
SWITCHES
On the left of the unit you`ll find 3 black switches with the following functions:
REC AL L ING T HE O RIG INAL SET T ING S/ ROM PRESET S
As you will see the Drehbank unit has no ON button/switch. To activate the ROM
presets you must press a switch at the same time as you plug the power In (see
the README.TXT file).
The indicator above the pressed switch will not light up, but instead the other two
indicators will flash.
E.g., when turning the unit on you press switch 1 (the top switch), to select ROM
preset 1. The L.E.D. above that switch will not light up, but the other 2 L.E.D.s will
light up. This inverted indication system also goes for the recalling of the other
presets.
This means that the Drehbank at that moment loads the ROM preset and will wait
until you release the switch.
After this the Drehbank returns to normal operation mode and switches to bank 1,
the L.E.D.s are now also in normal operation mode.
Now the Drehbank is ready to ROCK. ☺
15
BASIC OPERATIONS
The recalling of the ROM presets has no effect on the nonvolatile memory (EEPROM).
The preset that you loaded from the editor software into the nonvolatile memory still
exists. To activate it again you must turn the unit off and on again.
SW IT CHING BET WEEN T HE 2 B ANKS
For each bank there is one switch and one L.E.D. indicator.
Simply select a bank by pressing either of the bank switches on the Drehbank.
The Drehbank will then activate the selected bank, which is indicated by the
flashing of the L.E.D. above the pressed switch.
CRE AT ING AND SENDING A SN APSHO T
To create a Snapshot you must first press the top switch (labelled snap). When the
switch is pressed for about a second the L.E.D. (that is otherwise inactive except
for Midi activities) blinks rapidly. Press the switch again within a second and a
Snapshot will be sent, indicated by a long flash of the L.E.D. This flash is
important, because if you trigger a Snapshot accidentally ( or at the wrong time)
you could overload the Midi connection.
Once the Snapshot has been sent the Drehbank returns to bank indicator mode.
Important
If you change your mind and don‘t want to send a Snapshot (or if you go
into the mode by accident) just wait until the L.E.D. stops blinking, (after
one second)
Remember
A Snapshot sends the controller values of all 64 knobs from the active
bank.
L.E.D.s
The L.E.D.s are on the left side of the unit, one above each switch.
They indicate the different operation modes and actions of the Drehbank.
O PER AT IO N I N DIC AT O R S
When the Drehbank is switched on all 3 L.E.D.s light up and stay lit for about 5
seconds. In this time the data from the non-volatile memory (EEPROM) is
transfered to the work buffer (RAM, volatile memory) of the unit. When this is
completed the L.E.D.s switch off and the L.E.D. that indicates bank 1 lights up, as
bank 1 is then active. If this does not happen then either the power input is not
correctly connected to the Drehbank or it‘s possible that the plug or the Drehbank
has a defect.
16
BASIC OPERATIONS
B ANK INDICAT O RS
The indicators show which bank is active:
-
L.E.D lit over Bank 1 (Bank 2 off) indicates BANK 1 is active.
-
L.E.D lit over Bank 2 (Bank 1 off) indicates BANK 2 is active.
SNAPSHOT MODE
Once the snapshot switch has been pressed the L.E.D. above it blinks rapidly. By
pressing the switch once again within a second a „Snapshot“ will be sent and this is
indicated by the L.E.D staying lit (again for about a second). After this the L.E.D.s
returns to bank indicator mode.
M IDI EVENT S INDICAT O R
Under normal operating the L.E.D. which indicates the Snapshot mode is switched
off. For that reason this L.E.D. ( top ) is also used to indicate Midi events.
The L.E.D. flashes for every activity on the Midi bus (both Midi In, and Midi Out).
Midi events are normally performed very quickly and therefore the flashing of the
L.E.D. is hardly noticeable. Turn a controller and watch the glow of the L.E.D.
The indicator also shows if a control knob is sending an event. Also you can see, if
the Drehbank is receiving Midi data.(e.g.the receiving of information from the
editor program.)
M IDI TRANSF ER ERRORS.
If the Drehbank experiences an error in the receiving of data, the unit will turn the
bank indicator off and switch on the Snapshot L.E.D. which will flash continually.
Despite this the Drehbank unit is still operational. By pressing the Snapshot
switch you can reactivate the Bank and Snapshot indicators.
Note
Under normal operating conditions this error should not occur.
Non volatile memory/presets
When you turn on the Drehbank without going into the editor program you’ll find
several complete presets already available.
These are:
-
The Fixed ROM Presets, which are found on the EPROM, with the operation
software of the Drehbank, but this can only be altered by updating the
EPROM.
17
BASIC OPERATIONS
Note:
The layout of ROM preset 1 is printed in the appendix. Information on
ROM presets 2, 3, and 4 is found in the README.TXT file.
-
The Changeable non-volatile EEPROM Preset. This preset is located in the
internal non-volatile memory (EEPROM) and will under normal operating
conditions be loaded into the work buffer (RAM).
Power input/ Power supply
The Drehbank is powered by an external DC power supply. A 230V power supply
with Euro plug is included in the package. For countries with different voltages or
plug sockets you’ll have to buy the appropriate power supply in your country (9V
[email protected] output required). On the unit there is no On/Off switch. So to turn the
unit on and off you have to connect / disconnect the power cable. Alternativly we
recommend using a multiple mains socket with an On/Off switch.
18
BASIC OPERATIONS
The MIDI Connection
The Drehbank merges the Midi data coming into the Midi In port with the
generated data of the respective control knobs. The complete merged data is then
sent to the Midi Out port.
Note
Drehbank normally works in Midi Merge mode.
Important
If there is a lot of data coming into the Midi In port it is possible that the
Drehbank will have problems with merging, as the internal memory has a
limited capacity.
When transferring a lot of Midi events we recommend the use of an
external merger.
The Drehbank editor and the Drehbank communicate via Midi. This requires a
sound card with Midi interface or a special Midi card that works with the Windows
multimedia driver (e.g. the Unitor from Emagic). You can configurate the Midi In
and Out ports through the Windows menu titled Multimedia/Midi.
Use a Multimedia cable to connect the Drehbank to the 15- pin Sub-D socket on
your soundcard joystick connection).
Connecting the Drehbanks Midi Out to the P.C. is not necessary, because
the Drehbank doesn‘t require a "handshake".
Note
Please take care that you don’t create Midi loops, because the PC could
crash!
To avoid creating loops we have built in the option to deactivate the merge mode in
3 steps ( found in the editor program).
19
BASIC OPERATIONS
Editing with the Editor software
The basic concepts of editing with the editor software are based upon the "Drag &
Drop" principle. In "Control Copy" mode you can „drag“ a controller and „drop“
on the chosen control knob; you use the „drag and drop“ also when working with
the library. In „Control Exchange“ mode you can exchange the controllers. To
switch between the modes press the following symbols.
--->+
for "Control Copy" mode.
<---> for "Control Exchange" mode.
If you „drop“ something unintentionally, DON’T PANIC, there is a seperate undo
function for each bank.
Every step you make will be sent straight to the Drehbank so that you can check
every function right away.
You can „Drag“ and „Drop“ from bank to bank. First: click once on the bank
symbol „Drag“ and then select the bank with the arrow keys, Then click on „Drop“
in the selected position.
If you click with the rightmouse above a control, you’ll go into the „Properties
Dialogue“. Here you can change various parameters of the control knob functions.
If you‘re big into Midi then with a doubleclick of the leftmouse you can access the
edit control dialogue. Here you can also create SysEx strings.
Warning
If you don’t have the “Know How“ you should leave Edit Control Dialogue
alone!
The GM_LIB.DBP file includes the complete control functions of the General Midi
Standard.
20
4
Chapter
The Editing Software
Opening and saving a Preset
The Drehbank editor includes some presets that you can use as a basis for
creating your own preset files.
Click in the „preset“ menu on open to
access the data browser. There you can
select a preset and load it by clicking on
O.K. The information in the preset is
then loaded to the Drehbank editor and
sent to the Drehbank unit.
To save a preset click on save in the
„preset“ menu, and then title the preset
in the data browser. Take care when
writing the file name, the letters .DBP
must appear at the end of the file name
e.g."NONAME.DBP"
Opening a Library
To create a preset, you have the option to use the original control functions
settings in the Library. Click in the"Library" menu on open to access the data
browser. Select a library file and then click on O.K..You will see the „Descriptions“
of the control functions listed in the library window on the Drehbank editor.
Note
You can also open a preset as a library, to enable you to use the control
functions from other presets.
The difference between presets and libraries is that the Libraries are formed from a
collection of „Universal“ controller functions, whereas presets are built from control
functions that perform specialized jobs. For easier use the presets and libraries are
tored in different folders.
21
USER INTERFACE
Controller Properties
Most of the control functions from the libraries have variables with which you can
control Midi events e.g. Midi channel.
To change the properties of a knob click once on the
rightmouse and then on „properties“. Now you‘re going to get
what you’ve been looking for! (the properties menu, yippee)
☺. Here you can alter the settings of the selected control
knob with the pop up menus, e.g. Midi channel, controller
numbers. To activate the changes click on „O.K. or cancel to
abort.
When the Drehbank is connected correctly to the P.C editor you can then
immediately check the revised control functions.
Preset sending and storing
When you press the " Send Preset" button you send the complete preset from the
editor to the volatile memory (RAM) of the Drehbank. With the „Store preset“
button you copy the complete preset into the non-volatile memory (EEPROM) of
the Drehbank. This takes about 82 seconds. During this eternity ☺ the L.E.D. will
blink constantly.
22
USER INTERFACE
Note
1. Don`t forget to save your preset.
2. When you switch the unit Off and On again the non-volatile memory
still exists.
Sysex files / Preset Text files
SysEx Files .SYX are files with one or more MIDI system exclusive messages in
binary code.
The Drehbank needs to have one separate SysEx message per control knob, so
that a complete Drehbank SysEx File is built from 128 single SysEx messages (2
banks with 64 control knobs per bank).
Remember
SysEx stands for "System Exclusive Message". SysEx is a Midi event
that has only one norm. This norm begins with byte F0 (Start of System
Exclusive Statusbyte) and ends with byte F7 (End of System Exclusive
Statusbyte).
All bytes between F0 and F7 are freely definable. The format for SysEx
implementation is usually to be found in the manual of the equipment you
are using with the Drehbank.
Generating SysEx files
Select "Make Sysexfile" from the
"Preset" menu and a dialogue window
opens. Here you can select the knob you
want to integrate into the SysEx file.
Click on O.K. to open the data browser
so as to name and save the file. Make
sure that at the end of the file name you
type .SYX
You can send these SysEx files from a
sequencer or a SysEx dumper to the
Drehbank.
Warning
When dumping Sysex data from a sequencer or SysEx dumper to the
Drehbank make sure that between the SysEx information of each control
knob there is a gap of at least ten (or more) milliseconds. If the gap is not
long enough then it is possible that you could overload the Midi buffer.
An Midi buffer overload is indicated by the constant glowing of the L.E.D.
23
USER INTERFACE
Generating Text files
If you click on "Make Textfile" in the "Preset" menu you can generate a textfile to
document your SysEx files. In this case make sure that the letters at the end of the
file name are .TXT
Editor Tools
In the "Tools" menu the following functions are available.
Be aware: there is no undo function!
Copy Bank 1 ---> Bank 2
Copies all of the control functions of bank 1 to the control functions in bank 2.
Copy Bank 2 ---> Bank 1
Copies all of the control functions of bank 2 to the control functions in bank 1.
Init Bank 1
Returns all the control functions in Bank 1 to their default settings: MIDI Controller
0 to 63 for controls 1 to 64.
Init Bank 2
Initiates all the control functions in Bank 2 to their default settings: MIDI Controller
64 to 127 for controls 1 to 64.
Exchange Bank 1 <---> 2
Swaps the control settings of bank 1 with those of bank 2.
Be aware: there is no undo function!
24
USER INTERFACE
Options
Go into the main menu and click on „options“. Here you will find the following
options The Midi Thru Mode in the Drehbank
determines which type of MIDI
messages "get-THRU-ed" from the
Drehbank Midi Inputs to the Drehbank
Midi Outputs.
Event Thru
When enabled all Midi channel messages e.g. note events, controller events from
Midi In are forwarded to Midi Out.
Realtime Thru
When enabled all Midi realtime messages e.g. start, stop, timing clock from Midi In
are forwarded to Midi Out.
System Exclusive (SysEx) Thru
When enabled all Midi SysEx messages from Midi In are forwarded to Midi Out.
25
USER INTERFACE
Editing a control function
Doubleclick the control knob you want to edit and you will get the Edit Control
dialogue. If you are not familiar with MIDI details you should take a look at the MIDI
1.0 Specification and the Midi Table. Further take also a look how theTables works.
After all (if you are a professional in MIDI) take the Technical Manual of the device
you want to control with the Drehbank. Here you will find (mostly) its special MIDI
implementation. For hexadecimal codes you will need the conversation table or
better use the scientific Calculator (->XG-Sysex Example).
If you are complete confused of this hexadecimal arithmetical mysteries, you may
find a library that already contains the function that you are looking for. For GM and
XG compatible device you have already everything you need in the libraries and
there are several more for other specific devices. The ability to edit a control
function is made as a tool for Midi pros. Normal users who only work with standard
events like Midi Controller etc. should not need to edit a control knob this way.
(Notice that your editing can also result in useless Midi Trash which may confuse
or hang up some Midi-Expanders or the PC !).
26
USER INTERFACE
Edit Control: Midi - String
Here you input the byte sequence of the desired MIDI event in hexadecimal
notation. You can separate the bytes using space but this is not needed (e.g. B0
07 X0 for Volume Controller in Ch 1).
Remark
Hex is the abbreviation for hexadecimal. HEX is a numerical
system (like decimal) using the following 16 characters: 0, 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A (=10), B (=11), C (=12), D (=13), E
(=14), F (=16)
There are 16 different variables X0..XF you can use in the string for realizing
control properties. If you need only one variable for the value byte of the function
(e.g. the value byte of a Midi-Controller) just use X0 and set its source on "from
itself". This causes the Drehbank to replace X0 with the current value of the control
knob.
Remark
A Midi string is a chain of Midi bytes transmitted via the Midi
interface to represent a Midi event. Well-known Midi events
are e.g. note-on, note-off, program change, controller, pitchbend after-touch.
Edit Control: Description
Input here a description which identifies the control function. The maximum length
is of the description is 80 characters. You may also values, parameter names or
table terms in the description. Use the following shorthand expressions:
!XN
?XN
$XN
decimal value of XN
parameter name of XN
entry from the associated table
"N" stands for the number of the variable and must be replaced by 0...F (i.e.
X0...XF).
Putting variables in the description string makes only sense if they are assigned as
a property of the control function.
Examples therefore can be found in every good library or preset e.g. the GM-Mixer
Preset "GM_MIXER.DBP" in which the control functions all have properties to alter
the Midi-Channel and the Controller-number whereby this values also appear
"dynamically" in the description.
27
USER INTERFACE
Edit Control: Label
Input here a label for the control knob. Labels can have a max. length of 16
characters. You can also put values of variables in it using !XN, ?XN, $XN in the
label, the same way as for the description.
Note
Use low case characters to match in the box without
truncation. It is also recommended to use abbreviations (e.g.
"ctr" instead of "controller").
Edit Control: Variable Assignment
You can use 16 different variables X0..XF within the Midistring. As default they are
all assigned to represent the value of the control knob itself. Each variable can also
be assigned by altering its parameters for more complex functions e.g. to realize
SysEx strings which includes checksum or values having another data format. You
can also define a value that is linked from another control knob.
Click on the button with the name of the variable or doubleclick on the variable
directly in the Midi string to get the dialogue for the corresponding "Variable
Assignment". After that in the Edit Control dialogue the Variable Assignment
window is added or changes if you select another variable.
To select another variable you have to repeat the whole procedure. It is not
necessary to close this window. You may continue the input in the Edit control
window.
If you Cancel the Edit Control dialogue the inputs of the Variable Assignment
window are cancelled as well.
Edit Control: Source
Here you select the source of the variable (X0...XF). This means that for the
regarding XN the control value of the current control knob is inserted. But you may
link a value from another control knob by selecting "fixed from control xy in bank
z". The value for the XN in question is now taken from these control knob.
As default each variable is assigned to represent the value of the control knob itself
(from itself) with a range of 0...127 and a resolution of 1 digit (Step=1).
Remark
The value of a control knob results from ist position in a
proportional relation.
If you select "From Properties" the XN is adjustable in the properties dialogue.
Values for properties are set directly in the corresponding properties dialogue of
the editor and transmitted to the Drehbank as constant values.
You can make a control function more flexible and universal by using property
variables. With properties you can make changings of the control function e.g. of
the Midi channel "on the fly".
28
USER INTERFACE
Edit Control: Type
Here you can select the data format of the variable. As default each Xn is defined
as "Normal byte" which is mostly used. The bit weight notation of a normal byte is
<76543210>. You have also the choice of other formats that you should only use if
you know what you are doing - if you do not, it is the best way to let it be "normal
byte".
Remark
The poperties dialogue supports only the normal byte
format.
Edit Control: Table
To show the values of property variables in plain text (e.g. Controller names
instead of numbers) and for easier editing each variable is associated with a table
that contains plain text for each value. The setting of the table takes no effect in the
control function and is also left unrecognized by the Drehbank. If you dont need a
special table then let it be on "Hex".
Attention
The settings of the tables are used only in the editor and has
no meaning in the DREHBANK device.
Edit Control: Range From
This setting represents the value of the assigned control knob at its left end
position (ccw, fully counter clock wise). For property variables this defines the
lowest available value.
Edit Control: Range To
This setting represents the value of the assigned control knob at its right end
position (cw, fully clock wise). For property variables this defines the highest
available value.
Note
You obtain an inverted control characteristic if "Range to" is
lower than "Range from".
29
USER INTERFACE
Range to
e.g. 120
Range from
e.g.120
Range to
e.g. 20
Range from
e.g. 20
ccw
# control range !
cw
# control range !
ccw
cw
The left picture shows an example with Range from = 20 and Range to = 120. If the
knob is turned from left (ccw) to right (cw) the data 20...120 are generated.
The right picture shows an example with Range from = 120 and Range to = 20. If
the knob is turned from left (ccw) to right (cw) the data 120...20 are generated. The
characteristics is reverse compared to the first example.
Edit Control: Step
Here you set the step resolution of the corresponding control value. As default step
is set to 1 for having the full resolution. The 4 pictures show increasing values for
the step parameter. The step value cannot be less than the Threshold value.
30
USER INTERFACE
Edit Control: Value
For property variables this is the current or default value. If not on property, this
parameter is transmitted to Drehbank but not yet used. For the future this may be
used as default value, so set it as default e.g. as the center value for Panorama
Controllers or 100 for volume controllers having a headroom of 27 digits.
Remark
For variables not assigned to the Properties Dialogue this
value has no meaning !
Edit Control: Sample- Rate
This parameter sets the sample rate of the control knob. It is shown as the cycle
time in which the control knob is scanned for its value. Each new value causes the
Drehbank to send out the Midistring. If the device that you control with the
Drehbank is not able to process the data coming from the Drehbank decrease
this value to lower the data stream (e.g. if the message "MIDI buffer full", "MIDI
overflow" or similiar appears in the display of the device controlled by the
Drehbank).
Edit Control: Threshold
Here you can set the threshold for the control knob. A new Midistring will only be
sent if the new value of the control knob differs more than the threshold value.
Increase this setting to supress redundant Midi data caused by minimal
fluctuations. Higher settings lower the Midi data stream and suppress undesired
minimal fluctuations. The step value (see above) cannot be smaller than the
treshold value.
Edit Control: ADC_GND/ADC_REF
The values of ADC_GND and ADC_REF define the working range of the internal
ADC (analog-to-digital converter). The 64 controls of the Drehbank cover a voltage
range of 0...+5V as the rotary potentiometers used are connected between GND
and +5V. The setting for ADC_GND or ADC_REF should be changed only if a
external control voltage or foot controller is used that covers not the whole voltage
range of 0...+5V. If the maximal or minimal data values cannot be reached the
values for ADC_REF or ADC_REF may be changed to obtain the complete data
range. Especially many foot controllers do not cover the whole voltage range as the
potentiometers inside do not turn the full cw-ccw range but only a part of the full
range.
31
USER INTERFACE
Building a Library
Since the Drehbank library files use the same file format as the preset files they
are made as a Preset using the Editor. The difference between libraries and preset
is that libraries may have all the control functions of a special device whereby the
presets have a special arrangement of this control functions. How to build your own
control function is described at "Editing a control function". Librarys should be
saved in the Library folder of the Drehbank directory to keep them away from the
Presets.
For building a new Preset or Library we recommend to start with the empty preset
EMPTY.DBP.
If you have built a good library for a device or a special preset we would be glad if
you send it to us via E-Mail and we will do our best to put it immediately onto the
download area of our web page so that other customers could use them as well.
There you will find several other presets and libraries which are not yet included in
the latest Software.
If you send us a preset or library make sure that it is only made for one special
device and that it works well. Maybe you will also take profit from the
presets/libraries of other users.
32
CHAPTER 5
APPENDIX
5
Chapter
Appendix
ROM Preset 1
Bank 1
In bank 1 there is a preset full of the most important Midi controllers, all to be found
on Midi channel 1.
Slot-Nr. 1
Channel 01
Midi00
2
01
01
3
01
02
4
01
03
5
01
04
6
01
05
7
01
06
8
01
07
9
01
08
10
01
09
11
01
10
12
01
11
13
01
12
14
01
13
15
01
14
16
01
15
18
01
17
19
01
18
20
01
19
21
01
20
22
01
21
23
01
22
24
01
23
25
01
24
26
01
25
27
01
26
28
01
27
29
01
28
30
01
29
31
01
30
32
01
31
34
01
71
35
01
72
36
01
73
37
01
74
38
01
75
39
01
76
40
01
77
41
01
78
42
01
79
43
01
80
44
01
81
45
01
82
46
01
83
47
01
84
48
01
85
50
01
92
51
01
93
52
01
94
53
01
95
54
01
64
55
01
65
56
01
66
57
01
67
58
01
68
59
01
69
60
01
86
61
01
87
62
01
88
63
01
89
64
01
90
Controller
Slot-Nr. 17
Channel 01
Midi16
Controller
Slot-Nr. 33
Channel 01
Midi70
Controller
Slot-Nr. 49
Channel 01
Midi91
Controller
Bank 2
Bank 2 includes a selection of 4 Midi controllers (Expression, Modulation,
Panorama, Volume) each controller is to be found on the Midi channels 1 to 16.
Slot-Nr. 1
Channel 01
Midi11
2
02
11
3
03
11
4
04
11
5
05
11
6
06
11
7
07
11
8
08
11
9
09
11
10
10
11
11
11
11
12
12
11
13
13
11
14
14
11
15
15
11
16
16
11
18
02
1
19
03
1
20
04
1
21
05
1
22
06
1
23
07
1
24
08
1
25
09
1
26
10
1
27
11
1
28
12
1
29
13
1
30
14
1
31
15
1
32
16
1
34
02
10
35
03
10
36
04
10
37
05
10
38
06
10
39
07
10
40
08
10
41
09
10
42
10
10
43
11
10
44
12
10
45
13
10
46
14
10
47
15
10
48
16
10
50
02
7
51
03
7
52
04
7
53
05
7
54
06
7
55
07
7
56
08
7
57
09
7
58
10
7
59
11
7
60
12
7
61
13
7
62
14
7
63
15
7
64
16
7
Controller
Slot-Nr. 17
Channel 01
Midi1
Controller
Slot-Nr. 33
Channel 01
Midi10
Controller
Slot-Nr. 49
Channel 01
Midi7
Controller
33
APPENDIX
Key to Midi controller numbers
0= Bank select MSB
1= Modulation wheel
2= Breath control
4= Foot control
5= Portamento time
6= Data entry MSB
7= Channel (Main) Volume
8= Balance
10= Panorama
11= Expression Control
12= Effect Control 1
13= Effect Control 2
16= General Purpose 1
17= General Purpose 2
18= General Purpose 3
19= General Purpose 4
64= Damper Pedal (Sustain)
65= Portamento Switch
66= Sostenuto Switch
67= Softpedal
68= Legato foot switch
69= Hold 2
70= Soundcontrol 1 (Variation)
71= Soundcontrol 2 (Harmonic)
72= Soundcontrol 3 (Release)
73= Soundcontrol 4 (Attack)
74= Soundcontrol 5 (Brightness)
75= Soundcontrol 6
76= Soundcontrol 7
77= Soundcontrol 8
78= Soundcontrol 9
79= Soundcontrol 10
80= General Purpose 5
81= General Purpose 6
82= General Purpose 7
83= General Purpose 8
84= Portamento Control
91= Effects Depth 1 (External)
92= Effects Depth 2 (Tremolo)
93= Effects Depth 3 (Chorus)
94= Effects Depth 4 (Celeste)
95= Effects Depth 5 (Phaser)
Note : all numbers that have no fixed function are free to be
defined by you.
34
APPENDIX
External Inputs Option
If you have bought a unit with the external inputs option you will find 8 ¼" sockets
at the rear of the unit, which are labelled External Inputs.
The 8 external sockets correspond with 8 of the control knobs on the right hand
side of the unit (15, 16, 31, 32, 47, 48, 63 and 64). See below.
Input socket number
(at rear, left to right)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Controller knob on front Default settings
panel
31
Control Voltage
15
Control Voltage
47
Control Voltage
63
Control Voltage
32
Foot controller
48
Foot controller
16
Foot controller
64
Foot controller
Inserting a jack into an external input plug overrides the corresponding control
knob on the front panel of the Drehbank unit. The transmitted control values are
derived from the external control voltage.
The Midi function of the external input then corresponds with the Midi function of
the corresponding control knob.To the Drehbank it is irrelevant whether the
control value is supplied by the control knob at the front panel or by the external
control voltage (also the 64 control knobs generate internally a control voltage with
a range from 0...+5V).
For the external inputs there are 2 operational modes
• "real" control voltage inputs ( CV mode)
• foot controller inputs ( FC mode)
•
Control voltage operation (CV mode)
In this case the external input plug needs to be supplied with a „real“ control
voltage within a range of 0...+5V. An example of this could be the conversion of the
control voltage from an analog modular system (e.g. the Doepfer A 100) into Midi
data. You could use the voltage output from a Theremin module (A-178), a light-toCV converter (A-179), sequencer (A-155), S&H (A-148) or any other control
voltage source of the A-100 system to generate the corresponding Midi data using
the external inputs of the Drehbank. You can even generate speech controlled
Midi data with the analysis section of the Doepfer Vocoder (A 129/1).
Warning
The voltage supplied to an external input should always stay within a
range from 0...+5V. The Drehbank has built in security circuits which will
protect your unit to a certain extent against minimal fluctuations, however
the unit should never receive voltages above +10V and under -5V
through the external inputs as it could, and probably will damage the unit.
35
APPENDIX
The jack, through which the control voltage is transmitted, must be configured as
follows:
Control voltage (CV)
Unused (N.C.)
Ground (GND)
Jack configuration
for cv mode
You can also use a mono jack (pin hot).
In the default settings, the external inputs 1, 2, 3, 4 correspond with the controller
knobs 31, 15, 47, 63 and are set for control voltage mode.
When the supplied control voltage does not cover the complete voltage range from
0...+5V the full Midi data range is not available. In this case the range of the
corresponding control knob may be adjusted by altering the settings for the lower
and upper reference voltage of the ADC (analog digital converter). See !MAIN
EDITOR Window (Edit Control: ADC_REF and ADC_GND)
Foot controller Operation
When a foot controller is connected to the external input it does not supply a
control voltage but represents a variable resistor (voltage divisor or potentiometer).
The Drehbank sends a fixed control voltage of +5V to the input (connected to the
ring of the ¼" jack), so the potentiometer inside the foot controller can generate a
variable control voltage going back to the Drehbank (connected to the tip of the ¼"
jack, same as in CV mode). The required potentiometer needs to have 3
connections: low position, middle position (wiper), and high position. The
potentiometer in the foot controller should have a total resistance within the range
between 5k...25k. Some foot controllers are fitted with potentiometers that have
only 2 connections, these cannot be used with Drehbank.
When working with a foot controller the stereo jack must be configurated as
follows,
Middle position (CV)
High position (= +5V)
Low position (GND)
Jack configuration
for fc mode
Be careful as to which foot controller you buy, make sure that it is compatible with
the Drehbank. We recommend the Doepfer FP5/DB foot controller (special version
for the Drehbank, the FP5 version used with our keyboards is not compatible as
the jack connection is different !).
36
APPENDIX
In the default settings of the Drehbank the external inputs 5, 6, 7, 8 corresponding
with the controller knobs 32, 48, 16, 64 are set for foot controller mode.
When a foot controller does not supply a control voltage covering the complete
control voltage range from 0...+5V the full MIDI data range is not available. In this
case the range of the corresponding control knob must be adjusted (same as for
CV mode).
If desired the operation modes of the 8 external inputs can be redefined (e.g. all 8
inputs redefined as foot controllers or CV inputs). This should only be done by a
authorised Service-dealer or directly by Doepfer, so as not to loose your
warranty. The same goes for the installation of the CV option, i.e. if the Drehbank
does not contain the CV option and this option has to be installed later.
If you then still want to modify the unit yourself in any way despite our warning we
will send you the Drehbank service manual for a small fee. The correct procedures
are listed in this manual. Simply send us DM 20 (or 10 Euro) with the serial
number of the Drehbank or a copy of your purchase receipt.
The Address is Doepfer Musikelektronik GmbH, Geigerstr.13,
D-82166,
Graefelfing, Germany. The manual will also be available on our internet site
http://www.doepfer.com.
37
APPENDIX
Bibliography
This bibliography is subjective, and not guaranteed 100% accurate !
The most-up-to-date printed specs for General MIDI, MIDI, and the MIDI
file format can be obtained for a few bucks from:
International MIDI Association
23634 Emelita Street
Woodland Hills, California 91367 USA
Steve De Furia & Joe Scacciaferro,
"MIDI Programmer's Handbook"
M&T Books
ISBN 1-55851-068-0
Michael Cxelperger: "Introducing Standard MIDI File".
Electronic Musican,
April 1989, S. 50ff
Title: "Computer music in C" / Phil Winsor & Gene DeLisa.
Publisher: Blue Ridge Summit, PA : TAB Books (Windcrest label), c1991.
Subjects:
Computer sound processing.
Computer composition.
C (Computer program language)
Midi programming
ISBN: 0-8306-3637-4 (p) : $22.95
It has a C source disk for the PC available for $25.
Title: "Mind over MIDI" / edited by Dominic Milano by the editors of Keyboard
magazine.
Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Books, c1987.
Series Name: The Keyboard magazine basic library
Other Series Names: Keyboard synthesizer library.
Subjects:
MIDI (Standard)
Computer sound processing.
ISBN: 0-88188-551-7 (pbk.) : $12.95
The book consists mostly of reprints of KEYBOARD magazine articles
from the early-mid '80s plus several appendixes containing the
MIDI 1.0 specification, a list of references, a glossary, etc.
"Atari ST Introduction to MIDI Programming"
Len Dorfman and Dennis Young
ISBN 0-916439-77-1
Bantam Books,Inc.
666 5th Avenue
New York,New York
10103
Title:"Music through MIDI : using MIDI to create your own electronic music
system" / Michael Boom.
Publisher: Redmond, Wash. : Microsoft Press, c1987.
Subjects:
MIDI (Standard)
Musical instruments, Electronic.
Electronic music--Instruction and study.
Computer sound processing.
ISBN: 1-55615-026-1 (pbk.) : $19.95
38
APPENDIX
Title:"The MIDI drummer : by a drummer for a drummer" / by David Crigger.
Publisher: Newbury Park, CA : Alexander Pub., c1987.
Subjects:
Electronic percussion instruments--Instruction and study.
MIDI (Standard)
Title: "MIDI for musicians" / by Craig Anderton.
Publisher: New York : Amsco Publications, c1986.
Subjects:
MIDI (Standard)
Computer sound processing.
ISBN: 0-8256-1050-8 (pbk.)
ISBN: 0-8256-2214-X (pbk. : cover)
Title: "The MIDI manual" / David Miles Huber.
Publisher: Carmel, Ind., USA : Howard W. Sams, c1991.
ISBN: 0-672-22757-6, 250pp.
Title: "The MIDI programmer's handbook" / Steve De Furia and Joe
Scacciaferro, Ferro Technologies.
Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Pub., c1989.
ISBN: 1-55851-068-0, 250 pp. Paperback. $24.95 Mix Bookshelf part # 3539C
Title: "C Programming for MIDI" / Jim Conger.
Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Books, 1989.
501 Galveston Drive Redwood City, CA 94063
Subjects: MIDI, C, sequencing
This book shows how to use the basic features of an MPU-401 interface.
Includes a disk with MS-DOS code.
Title: "MIDI sequencing in C" / Jim Conger.
Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Books, 1989. 501 Galveston Drive Redwood
City, CA 94063
Subjects:
MIDI (Standard)
C (Computer program language)
Sequential processing (Computer science)
ISBN: 1-55851-045-1 (book) : $24.95
ISBN: 1-55851-047-8 (disk) : $20.00
ISBN: 1-55851-046-X (set) : $39.95This book continues where the provious one
lefts off.
39
CHAPTER 5
APPENDIX
40
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