AN210 - Effective ESD Protection Design at System Level Using VF

AN210 - Effective ESD Protection Design at System Level Using VF
AN 210
Effective ESD Protection Design at System Level
Using VF-TLP Characterization Methodology
Application Note
Revision: 1.3 - December 6, 2012
RF a n d P r o te c ti o n D e vi c e s
Edition December 6, 2012
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 Munich, Germany
c
2012
Infineon Technologies AG
All Rights Reserved.
Legal Disclaimer
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With respect to any examples or hints given herein, any typical values stated herein and/or any information regarding
the application of the device, Infineon Technologies hereby disclaims any and all warranties and liabilities of any kind,
including without limitation, warranties of non-infringement of intellectual property rights of any third party.
Information
For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices, please contact the nearest Infineon
Technologies Office (www.infineon.com).
Warnings
Due to technical requirements, components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in
question, please contact the nearest Infineon Technologies Office.
Infineon Technologies components may be used in life-support devices or systems only with the express written
approval of Infineon Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to cause the failure of
that life-support device or system or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system. Life support devices
or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body or to support and/or maintain and sustain and/or protect
human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health of the user or other persons may be endangered.
Application Note No. 210
Contents
Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Definition of Electrostatic Discharge and Electrical Overstress
1.2 The IEC61000-4-2 ESD Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 The IEC 61000-4-5 Surge Immunity Standard . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1 Surge Test Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Comparison of Component Level and System Level ESD . .
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2 Characterization of ESD Protection Devices and Circuits with a Transmission Line Pulse System
2.1 Pulsed Device Characterisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 The Transmission Line Pulse Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 How the Pulse is Generated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 The TLP Measurement System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Discrete Voltage and Current Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Remote Voltage and Current Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 Error Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Measurement Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Four Point Kelvin TLP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Four Point Kelvin Very Fast TLP Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3 Reverse Recovery Time of Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.4 Safe Operating Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.5 System Level ESD Test (HMM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Typical TLP Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Typical TLP Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.1 DC Sweep and Spot Leakage Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.2 TLP Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.3 Definition of the Dynamic Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.4 Transient Overshoot and Clamping Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 How TLP fits to IEC 61000-4-2 ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1 TLP Parameter Set Recomendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 ESD Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.1 Design Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.2 PCB Layout Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 Comparison of ESD Protection Technologies:
sus Multilayer Varistors (MLV)
3.1 DC Sweep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Dynamic Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Transient Overshoot and Clamping Voltage
3.4 Spot Leakage Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Breakdown Voltage Drift . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Degradation due to Multi-Pulse Stress . . .
3.6.1 Spot Leakage Drift . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 Breakdown Voltage Drift . . . . . . .
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Silicon Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS) Diodes ver.
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References
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Author
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Copyright Notice
28
Application Note
Page 3 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
Contents
Revision History
Document No.: AN210.pdf
Revision History: December 6, 2012, Rev. 1.3
Previous Version: 1.1
Page
Subjects (major changes since last revision)
All
Extended release
Trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG
AURIXTM , BlueMoonTM , COMNEONTM , C166TM , CROSSAVETM , CanPAKTM , CIPOSTM , CoolMOSTM , CoolSETTM ,
CORECONTROLTM , DAVETM , EasyPIMTM , EconoBRIDGETM , EconoDUALTM , EconoPACKTM , EconoPIMTM , EiceDRIVERTM ,
EUPECTM , FCOSTM , HITFETTM , HybridPACKTM , ISOFACETM , I2 RFTM , IsoPACKTM , MIPAQTM , ModSTACKTM , my-dTM ,
NovalithICTM , OmniTuneTM , OptiMOSTM , ORIGATM , PROFETTM , PRO-SILTM , PRIMARIONTM , PrimePACKTM , RASICTM ,
ReverSaveTM , SatRICTM , SIEGETTM , SINDRIONTM , SMARTiTM , SmartLEWISTM , TEMPFETTM , thinQ!TM , TriCoreTM ,
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SIG Inc. CAT-iqTM of DECT Forum. COLOSSUSTM , FirstGPSTM of Trimble Navigation Ltd. EMVTM of EMVCo, LLC (Visa
Holdings Inc.). EPCOSTM of Epcos AG. FLEXGOTM of Microsoft Corporation. FlexRayTM is licensed by FlexRay Consortium.
HYPERTERMINALTM of Hilgraeve Incorporated. IECTM of Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. IrDATM of Infrared Data
Association Corporation. ISOTM of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION. MATLABTM of MathWorks,
Inc. MAXIMTM of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. MICROTECTM , NUCLEUSTM of Mentor Graphics Corporation. MifareTM of
NXP. MIPITM of MIPI Alliance, Inc. MIPSTM of MIPS Technologies, Inc., USA. muRataTM of MURATA MANUFACTURING CO.,
MICROWAVE OFFICETM (MWO) of Applied Wave Research Inc., OmniVisionTM of OmniVision Technologies, Inc. OpenwaveTM
Openwave Systems Inc. RED HATTM Red Hat, Inc. RFMDTM RF Micro Devices, Inc. SIRIUSTM of Sirius Sattelite Radio Inc.
SOLARISTM of Sun Microsystems, Inc. SPANSIONTM of Spansion LLC Ltd. SymbianTM of Symbian Software Limited. TAIYO
YUDENTM of Taiyo Yuden Co. TEAKLITETM of CEVA, Inc. TEKTRONIXTM of Tektronix Inc. TOKOTM of TOKO KABUSHIKI
KAISHA TA. UNIXTM of X/Open Company Limited. VERILOGTM , PALLADIUMTM of Cadence Design Systems, Inc. VLYNQTM of
Texas Instruments Incorporated. VXWORKSTM , WIND RIVERTM of WIND RIVER SYSTEMS, INC. ZETEXTM of Diodes Zetex
Limited.
Last Trademarks Update 2010-06-09
Application Note
Page 4 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
1.2
1 Introduction
EOS can occur due to voltage overshoots resulting in
high destructive currents.
In today’s highly competitive markets, efficient ESD protection has became an integral part of IC/ASIC design
for system reliability. Field failures due to ESD will be perceived as poor quality by disappointed customers and will
increase the number of warranty returns. Overlooking the
ESD problem can seriously impact company’s image and
its profitability.
Reliable circuit protection following IEC61000-4-2 industry’s standard is usually accomplished by the implementation of ESD protection devices at critical pins. However, some traditional approaches still rely on trial-and error practices to design for ESD protection. This can require several re-design loops until the ESD problem is finally solved, for instance during compliance testing, practice that increases costs and delay the time-to market of
new electronic products.
The introduction of Very-Fast Transmission Line Pulse
(vf-TLP) as support method is of utmost importance in
the selection of appropriate ESD protection devices and
makes the trial and error practices not longer justified.
The Very Fast Transmission Line Pulse employs high current testing to determine the behaviour of devices and circuits in the current and time domain of ESD events. This
strategy implemented at an early circuit design stage delivers a faster, precise and least costly approach to improve ESD robustness at system level while responding
to today’s market dynamics.
The purpose of this application note is to provide the
guidelines for optimized selection of protection devices
with the support of vf-TLP. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to electrostatic discharge standards typically
used in the industry. Chapter 2 describes the characteristics of TLP equipment as well as measurement set
up and testing capabilities. Section 2.6.2 explains the
typical I/V characteristic curves of unidirectional and bidirectional protection devices. Chapter 3 displays a benchmark comparison of ESD protection devices based on different technologies, namely Multilayer Varistor (ceramic
technology) and TVS diode (silicon based technology).
1.1 Definition of Electrostatic Discharge
and Electrical Overstress
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) is known as transfer of
electrostatic charge between bodies or surfaces at
different electrostatic potential. ESD can happen due
to sudden discharge of a charged body, tribo-electric
and induced charging. ESD is a high current event
in the typical range of 0.1 to 30 Apeak in a very short
period of time from 1 ns to 200 ns.
Electrical Overstress (EOS) is considered as the exposure of a device or an integrated circuit (IC) to a current or voltage beyond its absolute maximum ratings.
Application Note
The IEC61000-4-2 ESD Standard
ESD is considered as a subset of EOS. But EOS may
caused also by a wrong application of the IC beyond its
absolute maximum voltage or current ratings. In this case
the damage of the IC may not happened due to an ESD
event.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
has developed transient immunity standards which have
become minimum requirements for original equipment
manufacturers. The basic standards for immunity testing
are known as the IEC 61000-4-X standards. Three of the
IEC standards deal with transient immunity:
• IEC 61000-4-2 : Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
• IEC 61000-4-4 : Electrical Fast Transient/Burst (EFT)
• IEC 61000-4-5 : Surge Immunity
IEC 61000-4-2 is related to ESD immunity [1]. IEC 610004-4 and IEC 61000-4-5 are related to transient immunity
[2, 3].
1.2 The IEC61000-4-2 ESD Standard
The IEC 61000-4-2 standard [1] addresses ESD transients in electronic systems. It defines immunity requirements for ESD which can be coupled into the equipment,
systems or system boards directly or through radiation
(air discharge). Direct coupling includes any user accessible entry points such as connectors, I/O ports, switches,
computer keyboards, panel displays, touch screens and
equipment housings.
Radiated coupling results from the spark discharge between two bodies which are external to the system. Because the human body is one of the most common ESD
generators, the IEC standard defines a test set up which
simulates an ESD event from a human body.
The Human Body Model is considered as a valid representation of worst case ESD stress. Discharge into equipment may be through direct contact (contact discharge
method) or just prior to contact (air discharge method).
Contact discharge is the usually preferred test method,
but air discharge is used where contact discharge cannot
be applied.
The ESD threat is divided into four threat levels depending on material and ambient humidity, as shown in
Tab. 1. Threat level 1 is considered the least severe while
threat level 4 is the most severe. Levels 1 & 2 are reserved for equipment which is installed in a controlled
environment and in the presence of antistatic materials.
Level 3 is used for equipment which is sparsely but not
continuously handled. Level 4 is required for any equipment which is continuously handled.
Page 5 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
1.3
Relative
Humidity
(as low as)
35 %
10 %
50 %
10 %
Class
1
2
3
4
Antistatic
Material
Synthetic
Material
x
x
x
x
The IEC 61000-4-5 Surge Immunity Standard
Maximum
Charge
Voltage
2 kV
4 kV
8 kV
15 kV
Test Voltage
(ContactDischarge)
2 kV
4 kV
6 kV
8 kV
Test Voltage
(AirDischarge)
2 kV
4 kV
8 kV
15 kV
Table 1: IEC 61000-4-2 severity levels and test voltages.
Level
Indicated
Voltage
1
2
3
4
2 kV
4 kV
6 kV
8 kV
First Peak Current
of Discharge
(±10 %)
7.5 A
15 A
22.5 A
30 A
Risetime
with Discharge
Switch
0.7 ns to 1 ns
0.7 ns to 1 ns
0.7 ns to 1 ns
0.7 ns to 1 ns
Current
at 30 ns
(±30 %)
4A
8A
12 A
16 A
Current
at 60 ns
(±30 %)
2A
4A
6A
8A
Table 2: IEC 61000-4-2 ESD current waveform parameters.
9
8
7
First Peak Current
1.3 The IEC 61000-4-5 Surge Immunity
Standard
90 %
0.7 ns - 1 ns Risetime
ESD−Current (A)
IEC 61000-4-5 addresses the most severe transient conditions on both power and data lines. These are tran6
sient caused by lightning strikes and switching. Switching
5
transients may be the result of power system switching,
I at 30 ns
load changes in power distribution systems, or short cir4
cuit fault conditions. Lightning transients may result from
3
a direct strike or induced voltages and currents due to an
I at 60 ns
indirect strike.
2
The IEC 61000-4-5 standard defines a transient en1
10 %
try point and a set of installation conditions. The transient is defined in terms of a generator producing a given
0
−50
0
50
100
150
200
waveform and having a specified open circuit voltage
Time (ns)
and source impedance. Two surge waveforms are specified: the 1.2 x 50 µs open-circuit voltage waveform and
Figure 1: 2 kV ESD current pulse waveform according
the 8 x 20 µs short-circuit current waveform (Fig. 2 and
IEC 61000-4-2 (R=330Ω, C=150 pF) [1]
Fig. 3).
Transient stress levels for each entry point into the system are defined by installation class. The six classes are
Fig. 1 shows a 2 kV ESD current pulse waveform ac- defined as:
cording IEC 61000-4-2 with a R=330Ω and C=150 pF disClass 0: well protected environment
charge circuitry. The ESD current waveform at a certain
indicated discharge voltage is specified with 4 parameters Class 1: partially protected environment
(Tab. 2):
Class 2: well separated cables
1. rise time 0.7 - 1 ns
Class 3: cables run in parallel
2. first peak current of discharge (±10 %)
Class 4: multi - wire cables for both electronic and electrical circuits
3. Current at 30 ns (±30 %)
4. Current at 60 ns (±30 %)
Application Note
Class 5: connection to telecommunications cables and
overhead power lines (low density populated areas)
Page 6 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
1.3
Power Supply
Class
0
1
2
3
4
5
Waveforms
Coupling Mode
Line-Line
Line-GND
Zs= 2 Ω
Zs=12 Ω
voltage
current
voltage
current
voltage
current
voltage
current
voltage
current
voltage
current
voltage
current
(n/a)
0.5 kV
250 A
1 kV
500 A
2 kV
1000 A
Note1
0.5 kV
42 A
1 kV
83 A
2 kV
167 A
4 kV
333 A
Note1
1.2 x 50 µs
8 x 20 µs
1.2 x 50 µs
8 x 20 µs
The IEC 61000-4-5 Surge Immunity Standard
Unsym. Lines
Sym. Lines
(Long Distance Bus)
Coupling Mode
Coupling Mode
Line-Line
Line-GND
Line-GND
Zs=42 Ω
Zs=42 Ω
Zs=42 Ω
No Requirement
(n/a)
0.5 kV
12 A
1 kV
24 A
2 kV
48 A
2 kV
48 A
1.2 x 50 µs
8 x 20 µs
0.5 kV
12 A
1 kV
24 A
2 kV
48 A
4 kV
95 A
4 kV
95 A
1.2 x 50 µs
8 x 20 µs
Data Bus
(Short Distance)
Coupling Mode
Line-GND
42 Ω
1 kV
24 A
1 kV
24 A
2 kV
48 A
(n/a)
(n/a)
0.5 kV
12 A
(n/a)
(n/a)
4 kV
95 A
1.2 x 50 µs
8 x 20 µs
1.2 x 50 µs
8 x 20 µs
Table 3: IEC 61000-4-5 Severity Levels.
V
1.0
0.9
T1 = 1.67 x T = 1.2 µs +/-30 %
T2 = 50 µs +/-20 %
0.5
T2
0.3
0.1
T
T1
t
30% max.
Figure 2: IEC 61000-4-5 1.2 µs / 50 µs voltage impulse.
I
I PP
1.0
0.9
T1 = 1.25 x T = 8 µs +/-20 %
T2 = 20 µs +/-20 %
0.5
T2
0.1
T
T1
t
30% max.
Figure 3: IEC 61000-4-5 8 µs / 20 µs current impulse.
environment is the most severe and requires the highest
transient stress level testing.
Tab. 3 summarizes threat levels as a function of installation class. Values of voltage stress using the 1.2 x 50 µs
waveform are given. Corresponding current values are
calculated by dividing the open-circuit voltages by the
source impedances. The short-circuit current values are
more useful in choosing a suppression element. The
short circuit current stress levels are defined with the
8 x 20 µs waveform for power supply applications with a
2 Ω source impedance. For data lines requiring a 42 Ω
source impedance, the short-circuit current waveform is
defined as 8 x 20 µs. For telecommunications applications, the open-circuit voltage is defined as 10 x 700 µs
and the short-circuit current is a 5 x 300 µs waveform.
The source impedance is given as 40 Ω. The type of suppression element needed for IEC 61000-4-5 class surges
depends upon the threat level and installation class. For
power supply applications high power devices are required. A discrete device or an assembly may be required depending on the application. TVS diodes are
the best choice for data line applications and secondary
board level protection because of their superior clamping
voltage characteristics and fast response time.
1.3.1 Surge Test Measurement Setup
Fig. 4 shows the measurement setup for the 8/20 µs
surge test of TVS diodes. The amplitude of the pulse
generator is adjusted for typical peak current (Fig. 3) of
A class 0 environment is considered the lowest threat
level a has no transient stress requirements. The class 5
Application Note
1 Depends
Page 7 of 29
on class of local power supply system.
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
1.4
Parameter
Stressed pin group
Supply
Test methodology
Test set-up
Typical qualification goal
Comparison of Component Level and System Level ESD
Component Level ESD Test
All pin combinations
Unpowered
Standardized
Commercial tester & sockets
1 . . . 2 kV JEDEC HBM
(ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-0012012, [4])
0.65 . . . 1.3 A
27 ◦ C
Destructive
Corresponding peak current
Junction/ambient temperature
Failure signature
System Level ESD Test
Few special pins
Powered & unpowered
Application specific
Application specific
8 kV Contact (IEC 61000-4-2, [1])
15 kV Air (IEC 61000-4-2, [1])
>20 A
Application specific
Functional or destructive
Table 4: Comparison of Component and System Level ESD Test.
Standard
R/C Network
ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC R = 1.5 kΩ, C = 100 pF
JS-001-2012
IEC 61000-4-2
R = 330 Ω, C = 150 pF
Rise-Time
Broad Peak
Current
-
Decay Time
2-10 ns
First Peak
Current
0.67 A/kV
0.7-1 ns
3.75 A/kV
2 A/kV
-
130-170 ns
Table 5: Comparison ESD current waveform parameters.
Figure 4: 8/20 µs surge test measurement setup.
IPP =1 A and IPP =3 A, respectively for TVS products. The
peak clamping voltage at e.g. IPP1 =1 A and IPP2 =3 A is
measured and presented in the data sheet. The dynamic
resistance can be calculated as follows:
Rdyn,surge =
VCL2 − VCL1
IPP2 − IPP1
(1)
1.4 Comparison of Component Level and
System Level ESD
Component level ESD stress occurs in wafer- or
component-fabrication areas caused by static charge
generation and during product lifetime due to human handling electrostatic discharge [5], [6]. Normally, IC’s are
Application Note
designed to meet 1 kV to 2 kV HBM ESD robustness according the joint JANSI/ESDA/JEDEC standard JS-0012012 [4]. Recent investigations have shown that a level of
>500 V HBM (ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001-2012) ESD robustness is sufficient for state-of-the-art fabrication technologies [7]. The recommendations therein are intended
for component level safe ESD requirements and will have
little or no effect on system level ESD results. Systems
and system boards should continue to be designed to
meet appropriate ESD threats regardless of the components in the systems that are meeting the new recommendations [7], and that all proper system reliability must
be assessed through the IEC test method [1]. Tab. 4
shows a comparison of component and system level ESD
test procedure for product qualification. Tab. 5 shows the
Page 8 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.1
Pulsed Device Characterisation
typical ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001-2012 and IEC 61000This section gives an introduction about the basic prin4-2 ESD current waveform parameters. Fig. 5 compares ciple of a high voltage TLP generator and how it can be
the ESD current waveform for 1 kV component level ESD used effectively for device characterisation and electro(ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001-2012) and 1 kV system level static discharge (ESD) design.
ESD (IEC 61000-4-2).
2.1 Pulsed Device Characterisation
5
The characterisation of devices and circuits in pulsed
mode has two major advantages: a) diminish self heating effects and b) limit the dissipated energy in the device
in order to avoid destruction. Usually the pulsed mode is
helpful to investigate specific device or circuit parameters
in the time domain, such as:
ESD−Current (A)
4
3
IEC 61000−4−2
2
• High current I-V characteristics
1
• Turn-on/off transient characteristics
ANSI/ESDA
0
−50
0
/JEDEC JS
-001-2012
50
100
Time (ns)
150
• Breakdown effects
200
Figure 5: Comparison of a 1 kV component-level ESD
pulse according HBM ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS001-2012 (R=1.5 kΩ, C=100 pF) [4] and a 1 kV
system-level ESD pulse according IEC 610004-2 (R=330Ω, C=150 pF) [1].
• Charge recovery effects e.g. reverse and forward recovery of diodes
• Safe Operating Area (SOA) or Wunsch-Bell characteristics
• Ruggedness of transistors (RF-LDMOS, DMOS,
CMOS, BJT, . . . )
• MOS gate oxide reliability
2 Characterization of ESD
Protection Devices and Circuits
with a Transmission Line Pulse
System
• Packaging and handling ESD, published in the joint
standard ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001-2010
• Human-Metal-Model (HMM) and system level ESD
(IEC-61000-4-2)
If the pulse width and pulse rise time becomes small,
impedance matched transmission lines are used to conA Transmission-Line Pulse (TLP) system is a valuable nect the DUT to the measurement system (Fig. 6).
measurement equipment for circuit and device characterZ0
ization in pulsed operation mode in the high power time
Z0
IDUT (t)
domain [8].
The classical TLP measurement system consists of a
VDUT (t)
V0 (t)
DUT
50 Ω high voltage pulse generator, a high speed digital
oscilloscope, a Source Meter Unit (SMU) and a control
computer. The typical range of the pulse waveform parameters are: output voltage amplitude in the range of up
Figure 6: Simplified pulsed mode measurement setup
to ±4 kV, output currents up to ±80 A, pulse width in the
range of 1 ns up to 1.6 µs, pulse rise time in the range In this setup for a passive DUT the maximum open load
from 100 ps to 50 ns. The transient voltage and currents output voltage is
in the device under test (DUT) are recorded using a high
VDUT,max = V0
(2)
speed digital oscilloscope with e.g. 12 GHz bandwidth
and the maximum short circuit DUT current is
and 40 GS/s sampling rate.
Such a measurement system can be used very effecV0
IDUT,max =
.
(3)
tive to investigate transient characteristics of semiconducZ0
tor devices and circuits in the high voltage and high current time domain. For electrostatic discharge sensitivity The pulsed voltage source V0 and the characteristic
testing two standards are available [9] and [10].
impedance of the transmission lines Z0 limit the maximum
Application Note
Page 9 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.2
The Transmission Line Pulse Generator
V(z)
DUT voltage and short circuit DUT current. To achieve
higher level of VDUT and IDUT , V0 can be increased and Z0
can be decreased.
Usually Z0 = 50 Ω is widely used as a compromise between low loss and power handling capability for coaxial cables and measurement systems [11]. Example:
in order to achieve 40 A short circuit DUT current in a
Z0 = 50 Ω system, a pulsed voltage source of 2 kV is required.
So far no commercial pulse generators based on solidstate devices or vacuum tubes are available to handle
such high voltage with excellent pulse waveform quality with a dynamic range from below 1 V up to several
kilo volts amplitude. The concept of using high voltage
charged transmission lines to generate rectangular pulse
waveforms with high quality is well known for a very long
time, which has been described in [12] or even much earlier. This leads us to the classical transmission line pulse
generator.
V0
V0/2
z=-L
V(z)
V0
z=+L
+V0 / 2
z=-L
V(z)
V0/2
z=+L/2
z
-V0 / 2
V0/2
V0
z=0
z=-L/2
z=-L/2
z=0
z=+L/2
z=-L/2
z=0
z=+L/2
z=+L
z=0
z=+L/2
z=+L
z=+L/2
TL2
z=+L
z=+L
z
-V0 / 2
+V0 / 2
z=-L
V(z)
z
V0
V0/2
-V0 / 2
z=-L
V(z)
z=-L/2
+V0 / 2
z
V0
V0/2
-V0 / 2
z=-L
2.2 The Transmission Line Pulse Generator
R
z=-L/2
TL1
z=0
Z0
S1
Z0
z
IDUT (t)
+
−
Fig. 7 shows the basic concept of the classical TLP V0 +−
VDUT (t)
DUT
L
generator. It consists of a high voltage source V0 , an
impedance matched transmission line TL1 , the switch S1
S1
TL2
TL1
and the transmission line TL2 . The necessary core eleZ0
IDUT (t)
Z0
ments are just two: TL1 and S1 . In the bottom of Fig. 7
VDUT (t)
DUT
V0
two possible circuit realisations of the TLP generator are
shown. Both are based on the basic principle of an
open ended transmission line TL1 with a characteristic
impedance Z0 and a mechanical length L. TL1 is often Figure 7: The classical transmission line pulse (TLP)
generator
called charge line. For the initial condition at times t < 0,
TL1 has to be charged with high voltage V0 . This can be
done at the open end of TL1 using a resistor
If R is very high or ∞, then ρ = +1. This means when a
voltage wave hits the open end, the current has nowhere
R Z0
(4)
to go, and so a voltage wave of the same polarity propor directly at the switch side using a single pole, double agates back up the line, adding to the original voltage.
throw switch (SP2T). v is the propagation velocity in the With this background we can consider the states along
the charge line TL1 in Fig. 7:
transmission line
c
(5) t < 0 This is the initial condition: the switch S1 is open
v≈√
r
and TL1 is charged with the high voltage V0 constant
with c the speed of light and r the relative dielectric
over the length L. TL2 has no voltage potential.
constant of the transmission line inner insulator. v ≈
0.2 m/ns is a good rule of thumb for polytetrafluoroethy- t = 0 S1 switched on: after short time t > 0 the voltage at the switch drops down to Z0 · V0 /(Z0 + Z0 ) =
lene (PTFE or Teflon) dielectrics.
V0 /2 because source impedance of TL1 and load
impedance of TL2 is Z0 . At this time two voltage
2.2.1 How the Pulse is Generated
waves start immediately to propagate in opposite directions. One voltage wave with amplitude +V0 /2
In the general case, the amplitude of the wave reflected
starts to propagate in positive z direction. Another
at the open end of the charge line is determined by the
voltage wave with amplitude −V0 /2 starts to propreflection coefficient ρ. The value of ρ depends on the
agate in negative z direction, adding to the original
characteristic impedance Z0 and R, the termination resisvoltage.
tance at the end of the line:
ρ=
Application Note
R − Z0
R + Z0
(6)
t=
L
2v
At this time both voltage waves have propagated
already a distance of z = ±L/2.
Page 10 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.3
VDUT (t)
IDUT (t)
TLP Current
I
t1 t2
t
( V, I )
I
Averaging
Window
Averaging
Window
V
500 mV
The TLP Measurement System
t1 t2
t
V
TLP
Voltage
500 ps
Figure 9: Extraction of the TLP characteristic
each captured voltage and current waveforms the arithmetic mean values V and I are calculated in the averFigure 8: TLP waveform measurement result at 40 GS/s aging window between t and t . For all pulse ampli1
2
tudes these mean values are collected in an IV-diagram
t = vL The voltage wave along negative z direction with with the so called TLP voltage V on the x-axis and the
amplitude −V0 /2 hits the open end of TL1 . A voltage TLP-current I on the y-axis. This diagram represents the
wave with same polarity propagates back up the line quasi-stationary IV-characteristic of the DUT. It is always
and adds to the original voltage −V0 /2 + V0 /2 = 0 necessary to specify four important measurement conditions in addition to the diagram:
which leads to cancellation.
t=
3L
2v
The cancellation voltage wave propagates back
up the line and has reached z = −L/2. At the same
time the other voltage wave with +V0 /2 amplitude
has reached the location z = 3L/2 (not shown in
Fig. 7).
This consideration leads to the conclusion that a rectangular pulse waveform is propagating along the transmission lines. On the transmission line a mechanical distance of 2L is travelled by the waveform and the pulse
width in the time domain is
tp =
2L √ 2L
≈ r ·
v
c
(7)
1. characteristic impedance of the TLP system
2. width of the pulse
3. rise time of the pulse
4. location of the averaging window: t1 and t2
Usually after the caption of each pulse waveform a dc
leakage measurement is done and a second plot is added
to the TLP-characteristic: bottom x and left y axis remain
as the traditional TLP voltage and current, and on top
x and left y the evolution of leakage current (top x) versus TLP current (left y) is added [14], [15], as shown in
Fig. 10.
Leakage Current [A]
which is the basic design equation of the classical TLP
generator. Fig. 8 shows a typical pulse waveform rising
edge, measured with a 12 GHz oscilloscope (Tektronix
TDS6124C) at 40 GS/s sampling rate.
10
80
70
TLP Current [A]
2.3 The TLP Measurement System
-7
10
-6
10-5
10-4
10-3
DUT IV Characteristic
Leakage Current at +5V
60
50
For the investigation and development of ESD protection
40
devices T. Maloney and N. Khurana did introduce TLP in
1985 for the first time [13]. Barth Electronics introduced
30
the first commercial TLP system in the mid-1990s includ20
ing the concept and calibration of the measurement system [14], [15]. The DUT (Fig. 6) is excited with rectangu10
lar pulse waveforms with variable amplitude. The voltage
0
waveforms VDUT (t) and current waveforms IDUT (t) at the
0
5
10
15
20
DUT are recorded using a digital high speed oscilloscope
TLP
Voltage
[V]
with single shot waveform capture capability. In general,
the entire waveforms are valuable for the evaluation of
the transient DUT characteristics in the time domain. Es- Figure 10: Measured TLP characteristic of a 5 V TVS
diode
pecially for ESD design the pulsed IV-characteristic, also
called TLP-characteristic, is important (Fig. 9). Out of
Application Note
Page 11 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.3
Sensor
2.3.1 Discrete Voltage and Current Sensors
Fig. 11 shows a pulsed mode measurement setup with
discrete sensors for current and voltage. The sensors
should be located as close as possible to the DUT.
CT-1
CT-2
Sensitivity
[V/A]
5
1
The TLP Measurement System
Bandwidth
[GHz]
1
0.2
Rise Time
[ns]
< 0.35
< 0.5
A x µs
Rating
1
50
Table 6: Comparison of current sensor parameters [17]
Current Sensor
TLP Generator
LD
50 Ω
50 Ω
Oscilloscope
IDUT (t)
50 Ω
VDUT (t)
50 Ω
High Impedance Probe
V0 (t)
IDUT (t)
DUT
VDUT (t)
Pickoff
Tee
TLP Generator
50 Ω
50 Ω
V0 (t)
Delay
Line
50 Ω
IDUT (t)
DUT
VDUT (t)
Oscilloscope
VI(t), VR(t)
Figure 11: Pulsed mode measurement setup with discrete sensors
50 Ω
Figure 14: Simplified VF-TLP measurement setup
Voltage Sensor
Output
50 Ω
50 Ω
2.3.2 Remote Voltage and Current Sensing
Current Sensor
Output
The voltage VDUT (t) and current IDUT (t) can be calculated out from incident and reflected waves, far away from
the DUT. This becomes indispensable if the pulse width
becomes very small and the overlapping region of incident and reflected pulses is inadequate to take an I-V
measurement directly at the DUT using discrete sensors.
Pulse
Pulse
4.95 kΩ
Usually this is the case at pulse width tp ≤ 10 ns. The
Input
Output
adequate measurement setup, shown in Fig. 14, is called
50 Ω
50 Ω
Pulse Input
very-fast TLP (VF-TLP) [18], [19] based on time-domain
(a) High impedance probe
(b) Current sensor
reflectometry (TDR).
The voltage probe (pickoff tee) is placed so far away
Figure 12: Discrete voltage and current sensors
from the DUT that incident and reflected waveforms appear separated. This can be achieved by inserting a delay
Fig. 12 show practical realisations for discrete voltage line between the probes and DUT of mechanical length
and current probes. Voltage probes can be realised eastp · v
c
ier for higher bandwidth than current probes. The high
LD >
≈ tp · √
(8)
2
2 r
impedance V-probe shown in Fig. 12(a) has an input
impedance of 5 kΩ and a sensitivity (or voltage division
ratio) of 50/(4950 + 50) = 0.01 V/V. The voltage sensor With separated pulses the response at the DUT can be
output must be terminated with 50 Ω. GGB [16] offers calculated by numerically overlapping the incident and reprobe tips with such integrated resistors (Model 10) for flected pulses according to following equations:
wafer-level testing up to 11 GHz.
VDUT (t) = VI (t) + VR (t)
(9)
Discrete I-probes for pulse waveforms are often based
IDUT (t) = II (t) − IR (t)
(10)
on transformers, as shown in Fig. 12(b). The Tektronix
CT-1 and CT-2 current sensors [17] have become an inVI (t), VR (t) are incident and reflected voltage wavedustry standard for TLP applications up to 100 A, deforms. II (t), IR (t) are incident and reflected current wavepending on the pulse width tp .
forms. Since incident and reflected pulses appear sepaTab. 6 summarises the typical specifications of the Tekrate, there is a correlation between the current and volttronix CT-1 and CT-2 current sensors. The maximum curage on the transmission line defined by its characteristic
rent depends on the pulse width and is limited by the L/R
impedance Z0 according to:
time constant and the amp x second rating. If the product
(current x pulse width) exceeds the maximum rating, the
VI (t)
II (t) =
(11)
core saturates and the output drops to zero.
Z0
Application Note
Page 12 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.4
Measurement Techniques
GPIB
SMU
DUT Leakage Test
PC + System Control Software
LEAKAGE
TEST
Leakage
DUT
GPIB
TLP
GENERATOR
50 Ω Pulse Output
CURRENT SENSOR
Switch Control
DUT Pulse Force
Pulse
50 Ω
L < 2 inch
50 Ω Picoprobe
Model 10
50 Ω
50 Ω
DUT
SWITCH
PAD
PAD
DIGITAL
OSCILLOSCOPE
DUT Pulse Sense
VDUT (t)
GPIB
IDUT (t)
5 kΩ
50 Ω
Pulse Sense
5 kΩ Picoprobe
Model 10
Current
50 Ω
A1
Figure 13: Four point Kelvin TLP method including dc leakage measurement
IR (t)
=
VR (t)
Z0
(12)
By combining Eqn. 11, Eqn. 12 and Eqn. 10, the following equation is obtained
IDUT (t) =
VI (t) − VR (t)
Z0
(13)
with Z0 = 50 Ω. Thus, VI (t) and VR (t) gives enough information to calculate VDUT (t) and IDUT (t). In order to
refine the results and to improve the accuracy, the frequency response of all components have to be included
in the calculations by calibration and deembedding.
2.3.3 Error Sources
On the pulse force line a standard 50 Ω ground-signal
(GS) type RF probe tip is used. The discrete current sensor should be located as close as possible to the DUT,
typically not more than 5 cm far away. Thus, the setup is
suitable for pulse with of tp > 5 ns.
The sense probe tip has an integrated resistive divider,
which enables the voltage to be measured with minimal
parasitic loading (1-5 kΩ). The bandwidth of the high
impedance probe is 7 to 11 GHz depending on the probe
tip model.
To ensure differential voltage measurement directly at
the device sheath waves should be suppressed on the
transmission lines with ferrite cores and the ground of the
probe tip holder should be isolated from the chuck and
DUT fixture surrounding grounds.
The switch configuration with the source meter unit
(SMU) is used to perform a dc (spot) leakage measurement in the pA to mA range after each high current pulse,
in order to check if the DUT is already damaged or starts
degrading. This method can be used for wafer-level as
well as for component- or circuit level measurements.
In order to achieve high resolution and high accuracy in
the time domain, proper compensation of the non-ideal
characteristics of the components in the measurement
system is required. Major contribution come from interconnection cables (lossy transmission lines), voltage
probes, current sensors and parasitic contact resistance
in case of wafer measurements with probes.
2.4.2 Four Point Kelvin Very Fast TLP Method
For very fast TLP measurements (VF-TLP) with pulse
widths < 10 ns, incident and reflected signals are
recorded separately with a wide-band pickoff tee in the
2.4.1 Four Point Kelvin TLP Method
pulse-force line (see Fig. 15). The transient device reTo eliminate the error from non-zero contact resistance sponse is calculated by combining the incident and reat high currents, a four point Kelvin method is preferred flected pulse signals numerically according Eqn. 9 (DUT
to measure the differential voltage directly at the device voltage) and Eqn. 13 (DUT current).
But the DUT voltage is preferably measured directly
(Fig. 13) [20].
2.4 Measurement Techniques
Application Note
Page 13 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.4
Measurement Techniques
GPIB
SMU
DUT Leakage Test
PC + System Control Software
LEAKAGE
TEST
Leakage
DUT
GPIB
Switch Control
TLP
GENERATOR
Pulse
50 Ω Pulse Output
50 Ω Picoprobe
Model 10
Delay
50 Ω
50 Ω
PICK
OFF
TEE
DUT
SWITCH
PAD
DIGITAL
OSCILLOSCOPE
DUT
Pulse Sense
Pulse Sense
5 kΩ Picoprobe
Model 10
A3
VI(t), VR(t)
5 kΩ
50 Ω
VDUT (t)
GPIB
PAD
Incident/Reflected
Wave Signal
A1
Figure 15: Four point Kelvin VF-TLP method including dc leakage measurement
Source Meter
IF Forward Current
Bias Tee
50 kHz - 12 GHz
TLP Generator
Current Sensor
50 Ω
50 Ω
V0 (t)
Oscilloscope
2.4.3 Reverse Recovery Time of Diodes
Reverse recovery measurements are becoming more and
more important to determine the ESD robustness of circuits during operation. The recovery times can be measured extremely fast and efficient with TLP in the range
from about 200 ps up to 1 µs. The DUT is mounted in
a 50 Ω test fixture. When a diode is conducting current
in the forward direction, a significant amount of charge is
injected into the resistivity region and the PN junction of
the diode. When reverse voltage is applied the extraction
of this charge leads to the reverse recovery phenomenon
[21], [22].
A diode reveals an excessive transient forward voltage
when it is switched rapidly into the forward conduction
region. The amplitude and time duration of this voltage
peak is representing the forward recovery characteristic
[23].
In the literature the reverse recovery time trr of diodes
is defined multiple with different procedures of extraction
(Fig. 17) and with different impedance conditions 50 Ω
and 100 Ω [24], [25], [22].
Application Note
IDUT (t)
50 Ω
VDUT (t)
50 Ω
High Impedance Probe
with a second Picoprobe Model-10 with integrated voltage dividing resistor. This assures high bandwidth and
minimizes the voltage error due to parasitic contact resistance. It also eliminates the digital noise that is typical
for voltage measurements of low-ohmic devices with this
method. In addition precise de-embedding of cable loss
(amplitude and phase) enables accurate pulse measurements in the time-domain.
IDUT (t)
DUT
VDUT (t)
Figure 16: 50 Ω reverse recovery measurement setup
Reverse Recovery Definition - I: 25 % of nominal peak
reverse current achieved This definition is used by
commercial reverse recovery equipment manufacturers
[24].
Reverse Recovery Definition - II: 10 % of nominal peak
reverse current achieved This definition is recommended by the standard MIL-STD-750D, method 4031.3
for diodes with trr < 6 ns [22].
Reverse Recovery Definition - III: 90 % of reverse voltage achieved Michael Reisch propose in his book [25],
Section 14.2.3, page 629, to use 90 % settling time of the
Page 14 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.4
VTLP
• Measurement of the nominal peak reverse current.
• Extract 25 % (or 10 % according MIL-STD) of the
nominal peak reverse current.
V0
• The time where the current IDUT decreases down to
25 % (or 10 % according MIL-STD) of the nominal
peak reverse current, is the reverse recovery time.
t
VR
- VF
IDUT
IR
- IF
Reverse Recovery Time Definition by M. Reisch
t rr
Fig. 16 shows the block diagram of a 50 Ω reverse recovery time measurement setup. The DUT is operated
with 50 Ω source resistance. The DUT voltage and cur90 % of reverse voltage VR
rents are measured with discrete sensors. Therefore the
setup is useful for trr > several ns.
Fig. 18 shows a typical result of a silicon diode, measured
with setup Fig. 16 and extraction of 25 % of the
t
nominal peak reverse current. For each forward current
density just only one TLP sweep is required. PostproReverse Recovery Time Definition by AVTECH Corp. cessing of the captured TLP waveforms has been done
trr
using Matlab [26].
Fig. 19 shows a 100 Ω reverse recovery measurement
setup. In contrast to Fig. 16 no current sensor is necessary, because IDUT (t) = VA (t)/50 Ω. The pickoff-tee is
25 % of nom. peak rev. current
used to measure the voltage at the cathode VC (t). The in10 % of nom. peak rev. current
terconnection between pickoff tee and the DUT results in
t
a separation of incident and reflected waves. Therefore,
the setup is useful for trr > several ns.
trr
10 % of nom. peak rev. current
defined by MIL-STD-750D, METHOD 4031.3
Figure 17: Typical reverse recovery waveforms with setup
Fig. 16
reverse voltage. This definition gives a more worst case
value of the reverse recovery time.
30
Reverse Recovery Time trr [ns]
VDUT
Measurement Techniques
JF = 1.4E-6 A/µm2
JF = 4.1E-6 A/µm2
JF = 6.8E-6 A/µm2
25
20
15
10
5
Reverse Recovery Definition - IV: reverse recovered
0
charge A more general approach to evaluate the re0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
verse recovery phenomenon is to plot the reverse recovReverse Voltage VR [V]
ered charge versus rate of rise of reverse current for different values of forward bias current [21].
If we follow [24] or the MIL-STD we can extract the reFigure 18: Reverse recovery measurement result of a silverse recovery time as follows:
icon diode
• Set the pulse parameters to minimum available rise
For extremely small recovery times in the sub-ns range
time (e.g. 100 ps) and a pulse width which is apthe
setup in Fig. 20 is based on TDR remote sensing. The
proximately two to three times the expected reverse
DUT voltage and current can be calculated as follows:
recovery time.
• Operate diode in forward mode with a defined forward bias current IF .
VDUT (t)
=
VI (t) + VR (t) − VA (t)
VA (t) VI (t) − VR (t)
=
Z0
Z0
(14)
IDUT (t) =
(15)
• Apply a reverse mode TLP pulse with a defined reverse voltage VR = VTLP −|VF |. The pulse width of the where Z0 = 50 Ω, VI (t) is the incident voltage wave, VR (t)
TLP has to be increased until the voltage VR remains is the reflected voltage wave and VA (t) is the voltage at
the anode of the DUT.
steady state.
Application Note
Page 15 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.6
Source Meter
TLP System Impedance: 50 Ω source impedance TLP
systems are widely used. However, sometimes for
specific snapback measurements and evaluation of
the holding voltage a higher source impedance e.g.
500 Ω is recommended.
IF Forward Current
Bias Tee
50 kHz - 12 GHz
TLP Generator
Pickoff Tee
50 Ω
50 Ω
IDUT (t)
VC(t)
V0 (t)
DUT
VA(t)
VDUT (t)
Oscilloscope
VC(t)
50 Ω
VA(t)
Figure 19: 100 Ω reverse recovery measurement setup
Source Meter
Pickoff
Tee
50 Ω
50 Ω
Delay
Line
50 Ω
IDUT (t)
V0 (t)
DUT
VA(t)
VDUT (t)
VA(t)
2.6 Typical TLP Measurement Results
2.6.1 DC Sweep and Spot Leakage Measurement
Oscilloscope
VI(t), VR(t)
Averaging Window: The averaging window t1 and t2
has to be specified according Sect. 2.3, Fig. 9.
Spot Leakage and Curve Tracing: The test method for
evaluation of the device failure must be defined. DCpresweep, spot leakage measurement and dc curve
tracing are widely used.
LD
Bias Tee
50 kHz - 12 GHz
TLP Generator
Pulse Width: The standard TLP pulse width is 100 ns
because the total pulse energy is similar to ESD
pulses according to the ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-0012012 HBM. The variable pulse width of commercial
TLP measurement systems is in the range from 1 ns
up to 1000 ns.
Pulse Rise-Time: Standard TLP systems have a pulse
rise-time of 10 ns. VF-TLP systems offer rise times
down to 100 ps to investigate turn-on characteristic
of the DUT.
50 Ω
IF Forward Current
Typical TLP Measurement Results
The DUT ist characterized with a DC measurement procedure before, during and after TLP measurement. DC IV characteristics or single spot measurements with forced
currents or voltages can be used to monitor device dc
drifts or damage during the TLP measurements.
50 Ω
50 Ω
Figure 20: 100 Ω recovery measurement setup with TDR
2.6.2 TLP Characteristic
2.4.4 Safe Operating Area
The Safe Operating Area (SOA) for ESD and pulsed electrical overstress (EOS) of active and passive devices can
be easily measured using a TLP test system with variable
pulse widths in the full range from about 1 ns to 1.5 µs.
2.4.5 System Level ESD Test (HMM)
State of the art TLP systems also offers a Human Metal
Model (HMM) pulse waveform as an alternative test
method to IEC 61000-4-2 with significant improved reproducibility of the test results.
2.5 Typical TLP Parameter
The following parameters are necessary to specify a TLP
measurement:
Application Note
Fig. 21 illustrates typical TLP characteristics which are
discussed in general ESD protection concepts [6].
In Fig. 21(a) the protection device has a simple turnon at a threshold point (Vt1 , It1 ) with t1 being the triggering time to form a low-impedance channel to discharge
ESD transients. In the reverse direction the dynamic resistance Rdyn,rev can be observed. In the forward direction the device shows the forward dynamic resistance
Rdyn,fwd . Fig. 21(b) shows a snapback device where it
turned on at a triggering point (Vt1 , It1 , t1), then driven
into a snapback region with low holding (Vh , Ih ) to create
a low impedance discharge path. Again in the reverse direction the dynamic resistance Rdyn,rev can be observed.
In the forward direction the device shows the forward onresistance Rdyn,fwd . The second breakdown or irreversible
destruction of the device can be observed at the point
(Vt2 , It2 ). Fig. 21(c) shows a uni-directional characteristic. For negative voltages the device shows a forward
PN-junction. In Fig. 21(d) a bi-directional characteristic is
Page 16 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.6
2nd Breakdown
(V ,,II )
t2 t2
2nd Breakdown
(V , I )
dy
R
Triggering
(V , I , t )
t1 t1 1
h h
R
dy
n,
fw
d
d
fw
dy
R
0
0
TLP Voltage (V)
0
0
TLP Voltage (V)
(b) Snapback [6].
TLP Current (A)
(a) Simple turn-on [6].
TLP Current (A)
dyn ,
Holding
(V , I )
0
n,
0
ESD Protection Region
(Low-R Discharge)
R
TLP Current (A)
n,r
ev
TLP Current (A)
t1 t1 1
rev
t2 t2
ESD Protection Region
(Low-R Discharge)
Turn-On
(V , I , t )
Typical TLP Measurement Results
0
0
TLP Voltage (V)
TLP Voltage (V)
(c) Uni-directional I-V characteristic.
(d) Bi-directional I-V characteristic.
Figure 21: Typical TLP I-V characteristics used for ESD protection design.
presented. The device has a symmetrical transfer char- for non-snapback and snapback devices. However, it is
acteristic.
recommended to calculate the least squares fit out of the
TLP characteristic between two TLP currents ITLP2 and
ITLP1 as shown in Fig. 22. In general the dynamic resis2.6.3 Definition of the Dynamic Resistance
tance is dependent on:
The dynamic resistance of a device can be evaluated as
the derivation dV /dI at a certain point on its high current
I-V characteristic:
Rdyn (V , I) =
dV
dI
(16)
• the location on the I-V characteristic of the device
• the pulse width
• the location and length of the averaging window to
extract the mean of the voltage and current (Fig. 9)
If the I-V characteristic is constant in a wide range, as
For longer pulse width, like the 8 µs / 20 µs surge imshown in e.g. Fig. 21(a) in reverse mode between turn-on munity test, increased self heating of the device is exand 2nd break down, then the dynamic resistance can be pected. The dynamic resistance can extracted as preextracted with two points:
sented in Sect. 1.3.1.
Rdyn
=
=
Application Note
Vt2 − Vt1
It2 − It1
Vt2 − Vh
It2 − Ih
(17) 2.6.4 Transient Overshoot and Clamping Voltage
(18) The mystery about ESD protection is gone. Advanced
TLP tester show that the first nanosecond can determine
(19) whether a chip will live or die. In essence sometimes chip
Page 17 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.8
60
30
TLP Characteristic
RDYN
25
ITLP2 = 40 A
ITLP [A]
40
20
RDYN = 0.136 Ω
30
15
20
10
ITLP1 = 10 A
10
0
Equivalent VIEC [kV]
50
IEC 61000-4-2 (R=330Ω, C=150 pF)
1 kV
2 kV
4 kV
8 kV
15 kV
ESD Design
Pulse Energy
0.5 µJ
2.03 µJ
8.1 µJ
32.5 µJ
114.5 µJ
Table 7: Pulse energy of ESD pulses according IEC
61000-4-2 (R=330Ω, C=150 pF).
5
0
sensitive to the first peak of the IEC pulse. In most cases
the pulse energy is the performance limiting parameter.
Therefore, a correlation with 2 A/kV can be used (Fig. 22,
Figure 22: Extraction of the dynamic resistance using a right y-axis).
least squares fit between two TLP currents
ITLP2 and ITLP1 . The value of ITLP2 and ITLP1 2.7.1 TLP Parameter Set Recomendation
can be defined in order to cover the interesting
ESD current region.
Using a TLP equipment to measure the dynamic resistance, turn-on characteristic and maximum fail current
of TVS diode the following TLP parameters are recommanufacturers look at failure at voltages too late in the
mended (Tab. 8):
ESD event. Investigation of transient turn on and overshoot in the picosecond range makes the difference beParameter
Value
Comment
tween protecting or not. In Sect. 3 two state of the art
TLP source
50 Ω
ESD protection device technologies will be compared.
impedance
Maximum TLP up to
2 A/kV IEC broad
current
±80 A
peak value (30 ns)
2.7 How TLP fits to IEC 61000-4-2 ?
Pulse width
65 ns
worst case 100 ns
In general there is no correlation between standards and
Pulse rise time
0.6 ns
correlates well with
TLP measurement results allowed, because generation
commercial IEC ESD
of the test signal is different and also the DUT sensitivity
tester.
against waveform parameters (e.g. rise time) is most
Averaging
30-60 ns
likely different. TLP generates a rectangular voltage
window
waveform with 50 Ω source resistance. IEC61000-4-2
generates a different waveform shown in Fig. 1 at Table 8: Typical TLP parameter for IEC 61000-4-2
different time variant source impedance. However, the
(R=330Ω, C=150 pF) performance evaluation.
big advantage of TLP is the well defined and exact controllability of the waveform parameters such as source
impedance, pulse width, rise time, amplitude.
0
5
10
VTLP [V]
15
20
2.8 ESD Design
In general the energy per pulse can be calculated as
For packaging and handling ESD [4], TLP techniques up
Z T
Epulse =
p(t) dt
(20) to 20 A have been used for the development of protec0
tion devices for more than 25 years. But recent developwhere p(t) is the instantaneous power of the DUT. If the ments are focused more on the development of system
ESD protection device has turned on and has a very level ESD [1] protection solutions in two directions:
low resistance in order to shunt the ESD current the
1. TLP characterisation of the ESD protection
pulse energy of pulse waveforms according IEC 61000device
4-2 (R=330Ω, C=150 pF) can be calculated as shown in
Tab. 7.
2. TLP characterisation of the device/circuit/system to
Based on the broad peak currents shown in Tab. 5 a
be protected
TLP impulse with 2 A amplitude, 63.4 ns pulse width,
< 600 ps rise time gives a pulse energy of 0.508 µJ which With this information the ESD protection solutions can be
correlates very well to a 1 kV pulse according IEC 61000- designed and optimized in a systematic way, in contrast
4-2 (R=330Ω, C=150 pF). In general TVS diodes are not to the widely used try-and-error approach in the past.
Application Note
Page 18 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.8
15 kV air discharge, according IEC-61000-4-2 [1], is a
common standard for original equipment manufacturers
(OEM) of e.g. mobile phones.
15 kV contact discharge is used by the component suppliers to guarantee the performance (clamping characteristic) and quality (minimum 1000 pulses to withstand at
maximum ratings) of the ESD protection devices (Fig. 23).
15 kV
ESD Design
IC
IESD
ITVS
PIN
VPIN
VTVS
IPIN
80
ITLP
15 kV Contact Discharge
15 kV Air Discharge 8 mm
70
IESD
Current [A]
60
ΔV
50
40
30
ΔV
ΔI
RDYN
ΔI
IPIN
20
10
0
25
50
75
Vt1
100 125 150 175 200
Time [ns]
VPIN
VTLP
Figure 24: ESD protection: TVS is sufficient
Figure 23: Comparison of 15 kV contact and air discharge current.
15 kV
IC
IESD
The first peak current at 15 kV contact discharge exceeds 60 A. Thus, a TLP system with 80 A capabilities
is suitable to develop 15 kV system level ESD protection
solutions.
VTVS
R IPIN
ITVS
PIN
VPIN
0
-25
2.8.1 Design Consideration
R≥
(IESD − IPIN ) · RDYN + Vt1 − VPIN
IPIN
Application Note
ΔV
ΔI
RDYN
ΔV
ΔI
IPIN
VPIN Vt1
VTLP
Figure 25: ESD protection: TVS is not sufficient. Additional resistor is required to close the gap.
ESD design results in a combination of four basic fields of
knowledge: high frequency (RF), high voltage, high current and device physics. In the PCB design the following
items have to be addressed:
• Solid GND and terminal connections
IESD
(21)
2.8.2 PCB Layout Consideration
• Clear definition of the ESD current path
R . IPIN
ITLP
Fig. 24 shows an example where the clamping voltage
of the TVS diodes is lower than the fail voltage VPIN and
fail current IPIN of the IC. In this case the protection is
sufficient and the improvement of the protection results in
IESD − IPIN .
In Fig. 25 the TVS is not able to protect the IC because
the clamping voltage of the TVS is higher than the fail
voltage of the IC. In this case an additional resistor can
close the gap and can be calculated as follows:
• Low wiring parasitics
• Solid thermal connection of the protection device (especially necessary for surge applications)
Page 19 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
2.9
Conclusion
2.9 Conclusion
The characterisation in pulsed mode is heavily used in
the development of semiconductor devices and circuits
including ESD. Pulse generators are required which can
deliver pulse waveforms up to several kilo volts in 50 Ω.
The TLP generator is still state of the art in handling such
high dynamic range.
The basic principle of the classical TLP generator has
been reviewed. TLP measurement systems based on discrete voltage and current sensors, and the TDR based remote sensing (VF-TLP) method for measurements in the
sub-ns range have been presented.
The four point Kelvin technique for TLP and VF-TLP
is preferred for improved measurement accuracy at high
currents.
Reverse recovery measurements are important to determine the ESD robustness of circuits during operation.
Different measurement configurations, especially for the
sub-ns region, are explained.
Finally, ESD design can be done in a very systematic
way first time right such as RF design using advanced
TLP techniques.
Application Note
Page 20 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
3 Comparison of ESD Protection Technologies: Silicon Transient Voltage
Suppressor (TVS) Diodes versus Multilayer Varistors (MLV)
Fig. 26 shows a photograph of 3 devices for performance comparison. All devices have been measured with 400 µm
pitch wafer-level RF-probes contacted directly at its pads. This is a significant advantage because no 50 Ω test fixture
and no deembedding is necessary. The transient waveforms are measured directly on the pads of the devices which
reflects exactly the application on the PCB.
(a) Infineon TVS ESD08V0R1B-02LS
and ESD206-B1-02LS (0201).
(b) MLV-1 (0201).
(c) MLV-2 (0201).
Figure 26: Comparison of ESD protection devices: Transient Voltage Suppressor diodes (TVS, silicon technology)
and Multi-Layer Varistors (MLV, ceramic technology).
3.1 DC Sweep
In comparison to best-in-class 0201 MLV in ceramic technology the 0201 TVS diode in silicon technology has much
lower DC leakage current. This results in significant improvement in battery life time of mobile handsets using silicon
TVS diodes. In Fig. 27 the leakage current of the TVS diode ESD8V0R1B-02LS is even lower than the measurement
limit of the equipment. Breakdown is well defined and sharp.
-3
10
TVS (IFX ESD206-B1-02LS)
TVS ESD8V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
|DC Leakage Current| (A)
10-4
10-5
10-6
10-7
10-8
10-9
10-10
10-11
-15
-10
-5
0
Voltage (V)
5
10
Figure 27: DC characteristic comparison.
Application Note
Page 21 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
3.2
Dynamic Resistance
3.2 Dynamic Resistance
Fig. 28 presents the TLP characteristics of ceramic MLVs compared to silicon TVS. At 25 A the clamping voltage of
the MLVs are 2.5 times and 5.5 times higher compared to the silicon TVS. The TVS has 0.77 Ω compared to 2 Ω and
5 Ω of the MLVs, respectively. Fig. 29 gives a detailed view at lower current levels. The TVS ESD206 shows lowest
dynamic resistance and steepest turn-on characteristic.
30
0.17Ω
25
TLP Current (A)
0.77Ω
2Ω
5Ω
20
15
10
ESD206-B1-02LS
ESD8V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
5
0
0
50
100
TLP Voltage (V)
150
200
Figure 28: I/V characteristic comparison. TLP-parameter: 50 Ω, 100 ns pulse width, 290 ps rise time.
5
0.17Ω
4
TLP Current (A)
0.77Ω
2Ω
5Ω
3
2
1
ESD206-B1-02LS
ESD8V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
0
0
10
20
30
40
50 60 70 80
TLP Voltage (V)
90
100 110 120
Figure 29: I/V characteristic comparison: detail view.
Application Note
Page 22 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
3.3
Transient Overshoot and Clamping Voltage
3.3 Transient Overshoot and Clamping Voltage
In Fig. 30 the transient overshoot of MLV-2 is 250 V at 16 A TLP current, which relates to approximately 8 kV according
IEC-61000-4-2. The overshoot of 250 V is too high for sensitive sub-100 nm CMOS technologies. The TVS diode
results in much lower clamping voltage at same ESD current level. In general the TVS diode shows the lowest
clamping voltage. Fig. 31 shows the turn-on in detail at 25 ps sampling interval. The TVS has also very low overshoot.
250
ESD206-B1-02LS
TVS ESD08V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
Clamping Voltage (V)
200
150
100
50
0
-10 0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Time (ns)
Figure 30: Clamping voltage comparison at 16 A TLP current. TLP-parameter: 50 Ω, 100 ns pulse width, 290 ps rise
time. Scope: Tektronix TDS6124C, 12.5 GHz bandwidth, 40 GS/s sampling rate.
250
ESD206-B1-02LS
TVS ESD08V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
Clamping Voltage (V)
200
150
100
50
0
-0.5
0
0.5
Time (ns)
1
1.5
Figure 31: Turn-on comparison at 16 A TLP current. TLP-parameter: 50 Ω, 100 ns pulse width, 290 ps rise time.
Scope: Tektronix TDS6124C, 12.5 GHz bandwidth, 40 GS/s sampling rate.
Application Note
Page 23 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
3.4
Spot Leakage Drift
3.4 Spot Leakage Drift
Fig. 32 shows the DC spot leakage drift at 5 V reverse working voltage during a single TLP sweep up to >25 A.
MLV-1 and MLV-2 show significant drift in leakage current. The TVS diode has extremely low leakage and zero drift.
35
TVS ESD8V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
30
TLP Current (A)
25
20
15
10
5
0
10-11
10-10
10-9
Spot Leakage Current (A)
10-8
10-7
Figure 32: DC spot leakage drift at 5 V reverse working voltage. TLP-parameter: 50 Ω, 100 ns pulse width, 290 ps
rise time.
3.5 Breakdown Voltage Drift
Fig. 33 shows the breakdown voltage drift at 1 mA force current during a single TLP sweep up to >25 A. MLV-2 has
slight drift. ML-1 has significant drift. TVS shows zero drift which means no pulse-to-pulse degradation.
35
TVS ESD8V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
30
TLP Current (A)
25
20
15
10
5
0
10
15
20
Breakdown Voltage (V)
25
30
Figure 33: Breakdown voltage drift at 1 mA force current. TLP-parameter: 50 Ω, 100 ns pulse width, 290 ps rise time.
Application Note
Page 24 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
3.6
Degradation due to Multi-Pulse Stress
3.6 Degradation due to Multi-Pulse Stress
In this test the device is stressed with multiple pulses at a certain current level: 100 pulses at about 5 A, 100 pulses
at about 10 A, and so on, up to about 25 A to 30 A . The spot leakage drift is recorded for each stress pulse. In the
first experiment the DC leakage current at 5 V reverse working voltage is recorded and in the second experiment the
breakdown voltage drift at 1 mA force current is recorded using a fresh device. Each group of dots is representing
100 pulses. In total each device is stressed with about 500 to 600 pulses up to >25 A.
3.6.1 Spot Leakage Drift
Fig. 34 shows the multi-pulse DC spot leakage current drift at 5 V reverse working voltage. MLV-1 shows extremely
high drift and was destroyed at 25 A and about 100 pulses. MLV-2 shows significant multi-pulse drift. The TVS is
extremely stable and shows no multi-pulse degradation. The variation is due to the measurement limits of the source
meter at low currents (noise).
35
TVS ESD8V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
30
TLP Current (A)
25
20
15
10
5
0
10-11
10-10
10-9
10-8
10-7
Spot Leakage Current (A)
10-6
10-5
Figure 34: Multi-pulse DC spot leakage current drift at 5 V reverse working voltage. TLP-parameter: 50 Ω, 100 ns
pulse width, 1 ns rise time.
Application Note
Page 25 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
3.6
Degradation due to Multi-Pulse Stress
3.6.2 Breakdown Voltage Drift
Fig. 35 shows the multi-pulse breakdown voltage drift at 1 mA force current. MLV-1 and MLV-2 show significant multipulse degradation. The TVS has zero drift in breakdown voltage at each group of 100 stress pulses up to >25 A (total
600 stress pulses).
35
TVS ESD8V0R1B-02LS
MLV-1
MLV-2
30
TLP Current (A)
25
20
15
10
5
0
10
15
20
Breakdown Voltage (V)
25
Figure 35: Multi-pulse breakdown voltage drift at 1 mA force current. TLP-parameter: 50 Ω, 100 ns pulse width, 1 ns
rise time.
Application Note
Page 26 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
References
References
[1] International Electrotechnical Commission, “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-2: Testing and measurement techniques - Electrostatic discharge immunity test”, 9th December 2008, ISBN 2-8318-1019-7,
http://www.iec.ch/.
[2] International Electrotechnical Commission, “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-4: Testing and measurement techniques - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test”, 8th July 2004, ISBN 2-8318-7567-6,
http://www.iec.ch/.
[3] International Electrotechnical Commission, “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) - Part 4-5: Testing and measurement techniques - Surge immunity test”, 29th November 2005, ISBN 28318-8371-7, http://www.iec.ch/.
[4] ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC, “ESDA/JEDEC Joint Standard for Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity Testing - Human Body
Model (HBM) - Component Level”, April 2012, http://www.jedec.org/.
[5] A. Amerasekera, C. Duvvury, W. Anderson, H. Gieser and S. Ramaswamy, ESD in Silicon, John Wiley & Sons,
Ltd, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO 19 1UD, England, 2 Edition, 2002.
[6] Albert Z. H. Wang, On-Chip ESD Protection for Integrated Circuits - An IC Design Perspective, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 2002.
[7] JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, “Recommended ESD Target Levels for HBM/MM Qualification”,
JEDEC Publication JEP155, August 2008, http://www.jedec.org.
[8] W. Simbuerger, D. Johnsson and M. Stecher, “High Current TLP Characterisation: An Effective Tool for the
Development of Semiconductor Devices and ESD Protection Solutions”, in ARMMS, RF & Microwave Society,
November 2012, Invited.
[9] Electrostatic Discharge Association, “Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity Testing - Transmission Line Pulse (TLP)
- Component Level”, ANSI/ESD STM5.5.1-2008, May 19 2008.
[10] Electrostatic Discharge Association, “Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity Testing - Very Fast Transmission Line
Pulse (VF TLP) - Component Level”, ANSI/ESD SP5.5.2-2007, November 12 2007.
[11] L. Espenschied and H.A. Affel, “U.S. Patent 1,835,031”, December 8 1931.
[12] D.J. Bradley, J.F. Higgins, M. H. Key and S. Majumdar, “A Simple Laser-triggered Spark Gap for Kilovolt Pulses
of Accurately Variable Timing”, Opto-Electronics Letters, vol. 1, pp. 62–64, 1969.
[13] T. Maloney and N. Khurana, “Transmission Line Pulsing for Circuit Modeling of ESD Phenomena”, in Proc. on
EOS/ESD Symp., pp. 49–54, 1985.
[14] J. Barth, K. Verhaege, L.G. Henry and J. Richner, “TLP calibration, correlation, standards, and new techniques”,
in Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium, pp. 85–96, 2000.
[15] J. Barth, K. Verhaege, L.G. Henry and J. Richner, “TLP calibration, correlation, standards, and new techniques”,
Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, vol. 24, n. 2, pp. 99–108, 2001.
[16] GGB Industries, Inc., http://www.ggb.com/, 2012.
[17] Tektronix, Test and Measurement Equipment, http://www1.tek.com/, 2012.
[18] H. A. Gieser and M. Haunschild, “Very-Fast Transmission Line Pulsing of Integrated Structures and the Charge
Device Model”, in Proceedings of EOS/ESD Symposium, 1996.
[19] E. Grund, “Deriving the DUT Current and Voltage Waveforms by Merging VF-TLP Incident and Reflected Signals”, EOS/ESD/EMI-Workshop, organized by M. Bafleur LAAS, Toulouse, F, 2006.
[20] Evan Grund and Robert Gauthier, “TLP Systems with Combined 50 and 500-ohm Impedance Probes and Kelvin
Probes”, in proceedings of EOS/ESD Symposium, pp. 127–136, 2003.
[21] N. Shammas, D. Chamund and P. Taylor, “Forward and reverse recovery behaviour of diodes in power converter
applications”, in 24th International Conference on Microelectronics, volume 1, pp. 3–10, 16-19 May 2004.
[22] “MIL-STD-750D, Method 4031.3, Reverse Recovery Characteristics”.
[23] “MIL-STD-750D, Method 4026.3, Forward Recovery Voltage and Time”.
Application Note
Page 27 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
Application Note No. 210
References
[24] AVTECH Electrosystems LTD, “A Comparison of Reverse Recovery Measurement Systems”, Technical report,
November 2006.
[25] Michael Reisch, Elektronische Baulemente, Springer, 2 Edition, 2007.
[26] MathWorks - MATLAB and Simulink for Technical Computing, http://www.mathworks.com/, 2012.
Author
Werner Simbürger
Copyright Notice
Section 2 is partially reprint of the publication [8] with granted permission by the ARMMS RF & Microwave Society,
19th to 20th November 2012 at Wyboston Lakes, Wyboston, UK.
Application Note
Page 28 of 29
Rev. 1.3 - December 6, 2012
w w w . i n f i n e o n . c o m
Published by Infineon Technologies AG
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