Volvo | VN | Specifications | Volvo VN Specifications

Foreword
This manual contains information concerning the operation and
function of the Volvo Link System. The information in this manual
applies to vehicles built January 2010 and later. Please keep this manual
in the vehicle at all times.
Note: Illustrations in this manual are used for reference only and may
differ slightly from the actual vehicle. However, key components
addressed in this document are represented as accurately as possible.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and
Volvo Trucks North America should be informed immediately if you
believe that the vehicle has a defect that could cause a crash, injury
or death.
Contact NHTSA by calling the Auto Safety Hotline at 1 (888)
327-4236, by writing to NHTSA, U.S. Department of Transportation,
Washington, DC 20590, by TTY at 1 (800) 424-9153, or visit their
website at www.nhtsa.dot.gov.
Volvo Trucks North America, a division of
Volvo Group North America, Inc.
Greensboro, NC USA
Order number: PV776-21232734
©2010 Volvo Group North America, Inc., Greensboro, NC USA
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in retrieval system, or transmitted in any forms by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without
the prior written permission of Volvo Trucks North America, a division
of Volvo Group North America, Inc.
Contents
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................1
.......................................................................................................................................1
ADVISORY LABEL DEFINITIONS (IN HANDBOOK)........................................1
INFORMATION FOR THE OWNER.......................................................................2
EMISSIONS CONTROL COMPLIANCE................................................................5
Exhaust and Noise Emissions ....................................................................................5
B5 Approval For Volvo US 10 Certified Products.....................................................6
ENGINES OTHER THAN VOLVO: ........................................................................8
VEHICLE DATA .....................................................................................................13
Identification and Labels..........................................................................................13
SERVICE LITERATURE ........................................................................................19
SERVICE ASSISTANCE ........................................................................................20
REPORTING SAFETY DEFECTS.........................................................................21
United States ...........................................................................................................21
Canada......................................................................................................................21
Mexico .....................................................................................................................21
EVENT DATA RECORDING DEVICES...............................................................22
SAFETY INFORMATION ...........................................................................................23
GENERAL SAFETY INFORMATION ......................................................................23
Operating the Vehicle...............................................................................................23
Operating in Bobtail Mode ......................................................................................24
VORAD® COLLISION WARNING SYSTEM .....................................................26
ADVISORY LABELS .............................................................................................27
CAB ENTRY AND EXIT .......................................................................................28
General.....................................................................................................................28
General Entry Guidelines.........................................................................................31
Driver Side Entry/Exit .............................................................................................33
ENTERING SLEEPER FROM SEAT.....................................................................38
Standard Gear Lever ................................................................................................38
SAFETY EQUIPMENT ..........................................................................................40
Warning Triangles, Day Cab....................................................................................41
Sleeper Cab ..............................................................................................................42
SAFETY BELT SYSTEM .......................................................................................43
SRS AIRBAG ..........................................................................................................44
SRS System..............................................................................................................44
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS ...........................................................................52
CAB INTERIOR..........................................................................................................52
INSTRUMENT PANEL ..............................................................................................53
Tell-Tales..................................................................................................................53
Colors.......................................................................................................................53
Panel Arrangement...................................................................................................54
INSTRUMENT PANEL GAUGE LAYOUT ..........................................................55
Panel A.....................................................................................................................56
Panel B .....................................................................................................................57
Panel C ....................................................................................................................59
Panel D.....................................................................................................................60
Panel E .....................................................................................................................61
Tachometer...............................................................................................................64
Upper Tell-Tales.......................................................................................................64
Speedometer.............................................................................................................64
Front and Rear Brake System Air Pressure Gauges ................................................64
Oil Pressure Gauge ..................................................................................................65
Coolant Temperature Gauge ....................................................................................67
Middle and Lower Tell-Tales...................................................................................67
Driver Information Display (DID)...........................................................................67
Fuel Level Gauge.....................................................................................................67
Intake Manifold Pressure Gauge (High Level Cluster Only) ..................................68
Application Air Pressure Gauge (High Level Cluster Only) ...................................68
Exhaust Pyrometer Gauge (High Level Cluster Only) ............................................69
Exhaust Pyrometer Gauge (High Level Cluster Only) ............................................69
DASH SWITCHES..................................................................................................91
Power Take-Off (PTO).............................................................................................91
CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEMS .........................................................................98
AIR CONDITIONING MANUAL CLIMATE CONTROL (MCC) .....................102
SLEEPER CLIMATE UNIT..................................................................................106
LIGHT CONTROL PANEL ..................................................................................107
SLEEPER CONTROL PANEL (SLEEPER MODELS ONLY) ...........................110
Sleeper Control Panel, High ..................................................................................112
Sleeper Control Panel, Basic..................................................................................114
MISCELLANEOUS CAB EQUIPMENT.............................................................122
STEERING COLUMN..........................................................................................125
ADJUSTABLE STEERING COLUMN................................................................127
STEERING WHEEL CONTROLS .......................................................................128
MISCELLANEOUS SWITCHES .........................................................................129
INTERIOR LIGHTS..............................................................................................130
Fresh Air Vent ........................................................................................................134
CAB VENTILATION, SLEEPER .........................................................................135
Inverter Switch 12 V DC to 120 V AC..................................................................140
PARKING HEATER (OPTIONAL, SLEEPER MODELS ONLY) ......................149
ANTENNAS ..........................................................................................................151
TELEVISION ........................................................................................................153
TV Antenna............................................................................................................154
COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT .....................................................................155
CB Radio................................................................................................................155
STORAGE COMPARTMENTS............................................................................156
SLEEPER BUNKS ................................................................................................169
VN 780, VNL 730, VN 670 OFFICE ....................................................................184
SLEEPER COMPARTMENT SINK .....................................................................186
OPERATION................................................................................................................192
PRE-TRIP INSPECTION AND DAILY MAINTENANCE.....................................192
Pre-Trip Assistance ...............................................................................................192
Pre-Trip Inspection Quick List ..............................................................................199
New Vehicle Break-In............................................................................................211
HOOD OPERATION.............................................................................................213
SAFETY BELTS....................................................................................................230
Safety Restraint VN 430, VN 630, VN 670 ..........................................................238
SEATS, GENERAL ...............................................................................................251
NATIONAL STANDARD SEAT ..........................................................................252
NATIONAL COMFORT SEAT.............................................................................253
PASSENGER SEATS ............................................................................................255
ENGINE OPERATION .........................................................................................259
IMMOBILIZER FEATURE ..................................................................................260
CONTROL AWARENESS FEATURE .................................................................262
FUEL ECONOMY DRIVING ..............................................................................263
CRUISE CONTROL .............................................................................................270
Volvo Engine Brake (I-VEB).................................................................................272
BRAKE OPERATION...........................................................................................273
Parking Brake/Trailer Supply Valves.....................................................................282
Trailer Brake Hand Control ...................................................................................288
ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM (ABS) ..........................................................290
VOLVO ENHANCED STABILITY TECHNOLOGY .........................................292
TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM (TCS) (OPTIONAL) ....................................292
Tire Pressure System (If Equipped) .......................................................................294
Air Pressure Monitoring and Alert ........................................................................295
Tire Temperature Monitoring and Alert.................................................................296
VEHICLE SPEED RETARDING DEVICES .......................................................297
STARTING THE ENGINE....................................................................................298
COLD WEATHER OPERATION .........................................................................306
FIFTH WHEEL INSTRUCTIONS........................................................................313
Operating the Fifth Wheel Slider...........................................................................332
PERFORMANCE BONUS FEATURE.................................................................336
Performance Bonus Guide .....................................................................................338
AXLES...................................................................................................................342
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution .................................................................................345
Exhaust Aftertreatment System .................................................................................345
Safety Information .................................................................................................346
Exhaust Aftertreatment System Components and Operation ................................347
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) ....................................................................347
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)...................................................................................351
Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) ......................................................354
Aftertreatment Control Module (ACM).................................................................356
Exhaust Aftertreatment System Operation ............................................................357
Exhaust Aftertreatment System (ATS) Status........................................................367
Driver Warnings and On Board Diagnostics (OBD) .............................................370
On Board Diagnostics (OBD)................................................................................370
Instrument Cluster..................................................................................................370
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) .......................................................................372
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Level - Driver Warning & Inducement........................373
Aftertreatment DEF Quality - Driver Warning & Inducement ..............................374
Misfilling Diesel or Aftertreatment DEF Tanks.....................................................375
SCR Tampering - Driver Warning & Inducement .................................................376
Warranty and Maintenance ....................................................................................377
Exhaust Aftertreatment System Maintenance........................................................377
Emissions Maintenance .........................................................................................377
Engine Maintenance Intervals................................................................................378
Engine Gaseous Emission Control Systems ..........................................................379
Emissions Control System Warranty .....................................................................380
Engine Gaseous Emissions Control System Warranty ..........................................381
Federal Emission Requirements ............................................................................381
Emission Control System Warranty — California.................................................382
Emissions Control System Warranty .....................................................................385
Oil Change Intervals ..............................................................................................387
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION..................................................................388
DAILY MAINTENANCE .........................................................................................388
TOWING PROCEDURE...........................................................................................389
Caging Spring Brake Chambers.............................................................................396
ENGINE OIL LEVEL CHECK.............................................................................403
Engine Maintenance Intervals................................................................................405
POWER STEERING, GENERAL.........................................................................406
COOLING SYSTEM.............................................................................................408
CAB .......................................................................................................................409
HEADLIGHTS ......................................................................................................410
ROOF EXTENDER...............................................................................................412
FRONT BUMPER/LICENSE PLATE MOUNTING............................................415
MODIFICATIONS TO VEHICLE ........................................................................418
WHEELS ...............................................................................................................420
BATTERY..............................................................................................................424
Battery Voltage Protection System ........................................................................433
ELECTRICAL .......................................................................................................436
METRIC CONVERSIONS.........................................................................................444
METRIC CONVERSIONS .......................................................................................444
Safety Information
IMPORTANT: Before driving this
vehicle, be certain that you have read
and that you fully understand each and
every step of the driving and handling
information in this manual. Be certain
that you fully understand and follow all
safety warnings.
IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE
FOLLOWING INFORMATION BE
READ, UNDERSTOOD AND ALWAYS
FOLLOWED.
The following types of advisories are used
throughout this manual:
DANGER
Danger indicates an unsafe practice that
could result in serious personal injury
or death. A danger advisory banner is
in white type on a black background
with a black border.
WARNING
Warning indicates an unsafe practice
that could result in personal injury. A
warning advisory banner is in black
type on a gray background with a black
border.
CAUTION
Caution indicates an unsafe practice that
could result in damage to the product.
A caution advisory is in black type on a
white background with a black border.
Note: Note indicates a procedure, practice,
or condition that must be followed in order
for the vehicle or component to function
in the manner intended.
CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California
to cause cancer, birth defects and other reproductive harm.
CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65 WARNING
Battery posts, terminals and other related accessories contain lead and lead
compounds, chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer and other
reproductive harm.
Batteries also contain other chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer.
Wash hands after handling.
INTRODUCTION 1
ADVISORY LABEL DEFINITIONS (IN
HANDBOOK)
Cautionary signal words (Danger-Warning-Caution) may appear in various locations
throughout this manual. Information accented by one of these signal words must be
observed to minimize the risk of personal injury to service personnel, or the possibility
of improper service methods which may damage the vehicle or cause it to be unsafe.
Additional Notes and Service Hints are used to emphasize areas of procedural
importance and provide suggestions for ease of repair. The following definitions
indicate the use of these advisory labels as they appear throughout the manual:
DANGER
Danger indicates an unsafe practice that
could result in serious personal injury
or death. A danger advisory banner is
in white type on a black background
with a black border.
WARNING
Warning indicates an unsafe practice
that could result in personal injury. A
warning advisory banner is in black
type on a gray background with a black
border.
CAUTION
Caution indicates an unsafe practice that
could result in damage to the product.
A caution advisory is in black type on a
white background with a black border.
Note: Note indicates a procedure, practice,
or condition that must be followed in order
for the vehicle or component to function
in the manner intended.
2 INTRODUCTION
INFORMATION FOR THE OWNER
If there are questions on the maintenance and performance of your vehicle, please
discuss them with your Volvo Truck dealer. Your authorized dealer is required to
have trained mechanics, special tools and spare parts to fully service your vehicle. If
necessary, your dealer will contact the manufacturer for any assistance.
In addition to this operators manual, there may be additional instruction/operators
manuals supplied by component manufacturers. These manuals are placed in the
Owner’s Package and placed in the cab. Be sure to read all the manuals thoroughly
before operating the vehicle.
Various safety labels may be placed about the components by the component
manufacturer. Be sure to read and follow these labels to prevent damage to the
vehicle, personal injury or death.
Information in this manual refers to Volvo components and Volvo drivetrain. There is
also certain information regarding the Cummins engine. For detailed information on
the Cummins engine or non-Volvo engines and/or drivetrains, contact the respective
manufacturer.
Establish a Preventive Maintenance Program with the help of your local Volvo Truck
dealer. A Preventive Maintenance Program makes it possible to maximize the amount
of time your vehicle is up and running, resulting in longer component life. This makes
for a safer vehicle by reducing any mechanical failures due to poor maintenance
practices.
Various truck warranty coverage plans, contingent on application and weight class,
are available. Please contact an authorized Volvo Truck dealer for complete details.
Replacement warranty certificates for Volvo Trucks are available from authorized
Volvo dealers.
For trucks placed in service after October, 2002 and operating in the USA, Mexico and
Canada, Volvo dealers can order copies of the Standard Truck Warranty Certificate
and the Premium (Purchased) Truck Coverage Certificate. Warranty Certificate copies
and Operator Manuals are available in either English, Spanish or French. Contact your
authorized Volvo Truck dealer for more information.
Note: Federal law requires manufacturers to notify owners of its products in the event
of a non-compliance to a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard or if a safety-related
defect is discovered. If you are not the original owner of this vehicle, please notify us
about the change in ownership at the address below or through an authorized Volvo
Truck dealer. This is the only way we will be able to contact you if necessary.
Volvo Trucks North America
Attn: Vehicle Registration Dept.
P.O. Box 26115
Greensboro, NC 27402-6115
United States of America
INTRODUCTION 3
DO NOT Remove this operators manual from the vehicle. It contains important
operational and safety information that is needed by all drivers and owners of this
vehicle.
Note: Illustrations in this manual are used for reference only and may differ slightly
from the actual vehicle; however, key components addressed in the manual are
represented as accurately as possible.
This manual covers Volvo VN series vehicles manufactured by Volvo Trucks North
America with any of the following designations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VNL 780
VNL 730
VNL 670
VNL 630
VNL 430
VNL 300 (Daycab)
VNM 630
VNM 430
VNM 200 (Daycab) Roof fairing choice is optional.
4 INTRODUCTION
W0036011
INTRODUCTION 5
EMISSIONS CONTROL COMPLIANCE
Exhaust and Noise Emissions
General
USA
The Federal Clean Air Act, Section 203 (a) (3), states the following concerning the
removal of air pollution control devices or modification of a certified engine to a
non-certified configuration:
CAA, Section (a) (3) (A) prohibits any person to remove or render inoperative any
(emission control) device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or
motor vehicle engine in compliance with regulations under this part prior to its sale
and delivery to the ultimate purchaser, and prohibits any person from knowingly
removing or rendering inoperative any such device or element of design after
such sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser.” Specifically, please note that no
person may make such changes prior to the sale and delivery of the vehicle to the
ultimate purchaser, and, in addition, no manufacturer, dealer, or individual may take
such action after sale and delivery of the vehicle to the ultimate purchaser. For a
manufacturer or dealer, the law provides a penalty of up to $37,500 for each engine or
piece of equipment in violation. For anyone else, the civil penalty is assessed up to
$3,750 for each day an engine or piece of equipment is operated in violation.
Canada
The same conditions that apply in the USA apply to Canada, with one exception.
After the vehicle is sold to a retail customer, that is, the end user, the jurisdiction
controlling the emission control devices becomes the province in which the vehicle is
licensed. No changes should be made that render any or all of the devices inoperative.
If the owner/operator wishes to make changes to the emission control devices, check
with the provincial authority before changes are made.
Mexico
The same conditions that apply in the USA apply to Mexico. Refer to the Mexican
Federal Law for Emission Control which adheres to EPA regulations. No changes
should be made that render any or all of the emissions control devices inoperative.
If the owner/operator wishes to make changes to the emission control devices, check
with the state authority before changes are made.
6 INTRODUCTION
B5 Approval For Volvo US 10 Certified Products
Volvo engines are certified to comply with U.S. EPA and California emissions
standards based upon the use of test fuels with specifications established by these
regulatory agencies. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, that are not substantially
similar to the required test fuels may adversely affect engine emissions compliance
and may impact the performance of certain emissions aftertreatment components. As
a result, Volvo does not warrant the engine will conform to applicable Federal or
California emissions limits when operated on, or having operated on, biodiesel or
other alternative fuels that are not substantially similar to specified test fuels used for
certification.
The use of biodiesel up to a maximum of 20% (B20) in and of itself, will not affect
the manufacturer’s mechanical warranty as to engine or emissions system related
components except as limited below with respect to aftertreatment components,
provided the bio fuel used in the blend conforms to ASTM D6751, and B1 to B5
blends conform to ASTM D975, and B6 to B20 blends conform to ASTM D7467.
Failures of certain emissions aftertreatment components, specifically SCR, DPF and
NOx sensors will not be warranted if the failure can be attributed to operation on
biodiesel blends from 6 to 20% (B6 to B20) even if the biofuel used in the blend B6 to
B20 conforms to ASTM D7467 or any related standard.
CAUTION
Diesel-powered engines for heavy-duty trucks built on or after January 1, 2010 are
designed to operate only with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. Improper
fuel use will reduce the efficiency and durability of engines, permanently damage
advanced emissions control systems, reduce fuel economy and possibly prevent the
vehicles from running at all. Manufacturer warranties will be voided by improper
fuel use. Additionally, burning Low Sulfur Diesel fuel (instead of ULSD fuel) in
2007 and later model year diesel-powered cars, trucks and buses is illegal and
punishable with civil penalties.
CAUTION
Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel with a maximum sulfur content of 15
ppm must be used in order to meet Euro4 engine emission requirements. Using
otherwise approved diesel fuels with a maximum sulfur content greater than 500
ppm may shorten engine life and void the engine warranty.
INTRODUCTION 7
Air is always present inside the fuel tanks, entering mainly through the tank
ventilation. With the air being heated and cooled, condensation is formed and water
is mixed in the fuel. To avoid condensation when the vehicle is parked for longer
periods, fill the tanks up to 95% of capacity. Do not fill more than that, as the fuel
needs to have room for expansion during the heat of the day.
For additional information about fuel, refer to the Operator’s Manual Vehicle
Maintenance.
VN: An indicator will appear in the DID screen when there is approximately 3.875
liters (0.9 gallons) remaining in the reservoir.
Note: This indicator is optional. It can be deleted.
DANGER
DO NOT carry extra fuel containers in
the cab. Fuel containers, full or empty,
may leak, explode or give added fuel to
a fire. Failure to follow this precaution
may lead to serious personal injury or
death.
DANGER
DO NOT smoke while fueling
the vehicle. The glow from the
cigar/cigarette can ignite the diesel
fuel, causing an explosion resulting in
serious personal injury or death.
DANGER
Do not remove the fuel tank cap near
an open flame. Diesel fuel vapors are
combustible and can cause an explosion
or fire, resulting in severe personal
injury or death.
8 INTRODUCTION
ENGINES OTHER THAN VOLVO:
For specific information on engines other than VOLVO, refer to the engine
vendor’s publications.
Noise Emissions
Volvo Trucks North America warrants to the first person who purchases this vehicle
for purposes other than resale and to each subsequent purchaser, that this vehicle as
manufactured by Volvo Trucks North America was designed, built and equipped
to conform, at the time it left the control of Volvo Trucks North America, with all
applicable U.S. EPA Noise Control Regulations.
This warranty covers this vehicle as designed, built and equipped by Volvo Trucks
North America, and is not limited to any particular part, component or system of the
vehicle manufactured by Volvo Trucks North America Defects in design, assembly or
in any part, component or system of the vehicle as manufactured by Volvo Trucks
North America, which, at the time it left the control of Volvo Trucks North America
caused noise emissions to exceed Federal standards, are covered by this warranty for
the life of the vehicle.
Noise Control System, Operator Inspection and Maintenance
Requirements
A Noise Control System Maintenance Log is located in “Noise Control Log”, page 12
. This log should be used to document all Noise Control System related maintenance,
whether the maintenance results from a specific noise control system inspection, or a
deficiency identified during another general maintenance event.
If additional log space is needed, further entries may be added on a separate sheet of
paper. Store these additions with the main log to preserve a comprehensive record. It
is recommended that copies of all noise emissions related maintenance invoices be
retained.
The following Noise Control System inspection and maintenance instructions contain
suggested maintenance intervals. These intervals may need adjustment in order to
best accommodate the specific vehicle usage. The following instructions only concern
Noise Emissions related items and do not address or modify any general vehicle
maintenance requirements.
The following elements make up the Noise Control System:
•
•
•
•
•
Noise Shielding and Insulation Devices
Cooling System
Exhaust System /Aftertreatment DPF System
Intake/Air System
Engine Control, EGR and Fuel Systems
INTRODUCTION 9
Tampering with Noise Control System
Federal law prohibits the following acts or the causing thereof:
(1) The removal or rendering inoperative by any person, other than for purposes of
maintenance, repair, or replacement, of any device or element of design incorporated
into any new vehicle for the purpose of noise control prior to its sale or delivery to the
ultimate purchaser or while it is in use;
or
(2) the use of the vehicle after such device or element of design has been removed
or rendered inoperative by any person.
Among the acts that constitute tampering are the acts listed below:
•
Removal, or rendering inoperative, of any exhaust components, including mufflers,
heavy or double-wall exhaust tubing, flexible tubing or exhaust pipe clamping.
•
Removal, or rendering inoperative, of the temperature-modulated cooling fan
system.
•
•
•
•
Removal of the cooling fan shroud.
•
•
•
•
Removal of splash shields located inside the wheel housings.
Removal, or rendering inoperative, of the air cleaner or air intake in-line silencer.
Removal of the sound deadening material from the hood or cab tunnel.
Removal, or rendering inoperative, of the engine speed governor so as to allow
engine speed to exceed the manufacturer’s specifications.
Removal of engine block shields.
Removal of engine crankcase shields or insulation.
Removal of insulated rocker arm covers.
10 INTRODUCTION
•
Removal of transmission noise shields.
Noise Shielding and Insulation Devices
Maintenance
Ensure sound shielding and insulating devices are intact. Inspect components for
damage. Primary system components requiring noise related inspection include the
hood, engine compartment insulating materials (including hood insulation, bulkhead
insulation, doghouse insulation, etc.) splash shields, cab skirts, fender shields, and
body panels. Inspect all related fasteners, brackets, and clamps for damage and
tightness.
Regulatory Compliance
Acts that constitute tampering with the Noise Shielding and Insulation Devices:
Removing or rendering inoperative the engine and/or transmission noise deadening
panels, shields or insulating materials.
Removing or rendering inoperative any vehicle body mounted sound insulation
components and/or shields (cab or fender shields, skirts, wheel housing splash shields,
etc.).
Cooling System
WARNING
DO NOT work near the fan with the
engine running or the ignition in the ON
position. The engine fan can engage
at any time without warning. Anyone
near the fan when it turns on could be
seriously injured.
Maintenance
Visually inspect cooling system components for damage, and/or misalignment.
Primary system components requiring noise related inspection include fan blades, fan
clutch, fan shroud, fan ring, and recirculation shields. Check fan blades, fan ring, fan
shroud, belt tensioner and recirculation shields for any damage. Verify that fan blades
clear the fan ring. Inspect all related fasteners, brackets, and clamps for damage and
tightness. Confirm operation of temperature modulated fan clutch.
Regulatory Compliance
Acts that constitute tampering with the Cooling System:
Removing or rendering inoperative cooling system components (such as the
temperature modulated fan clutch, fan shroud, fan ring, recirculation shields, etc.).
Exhaust System
INTRODUCTION 11
WARNING
Hot engine! Avoid all movable parts or
hot engine parts, exhaust gases, and/or
fluids. A hot engine, exhaust, and/or
fluids can cause burns.
Maintenance
Make sure the exhaust system is intact. Inspect for damage, misalignment and/or
leakage. Primary system components requiring noise related inspection include
exhaust manifold, turbocharger, and all exhaust system (rigid and flexible) piping.
Closely check the system for exhaust leaks. Special attention should be given to all
welds, seams, gaskets, support points, clamps, couplings and connections.
Inspect all exhaust system fasteners, brackets, and clamps for damage and tightness.
Regulatory Compliance
Acts that constitute tampering with the Exhaust System:
Removing or rendering inoperative exhaust system components (such as the pipes,
clamps, etc.).
Air Intake/Air Induction System
Maintenance
Make sure the air intake system is intact. Inspect components for damage,
misalignment and/or leakage. Primary system components requiring noise related
inspection include the air cleaner housing, air cleaner element, turbocharger, charge
air cooler and intake manifold.
Also inspect all ducts, pipes, hoses, tubing and elbows used to interconnect the
system. Special attention should be given to all welds, seams, gaskets, support points,
clamps, couplings and connections.
Inspect all intake system fasteners, brackets, and clamps for damage and tightness.
Regulatory Compliance
Acts that constitute tampering with the Air Intake/Air Induction System:
Removing or rendering inoperative air intake/induction system components (filter,
filter housings, ducts, etc.).
12 INTRODUCTION
Engine Control, EGR and Fuel Systems
Acts that constitute tampering with Engine Control, EGR and Fuel Systems:
Removing rendering inoperative, or modifying the engine control system such as the
ECU, EGR system components, or fuel system components, in order to allow the
engine to operate outside of the manufacturer’s specifications is not allowed and
violates both warranty and legislation.
Noise Control Log
NOISE CONTROL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE LOG
DATE
MILEAGE
MAINTENANCE
PERFORMED
MAINTENANCE
FACILITY
INTRODUCTION 13
VEHICLE DATA
Identification and Labels
It is extremely important that the correct vehicle model and serial number are given
whenever replacement parts or service literature are ordered. Using these numbers, as
well as giving the major component model and serial numbers, will prevent delay and
errors in obtaining the correct material. Space is given on the rear inside cover of this
manual for noting the main component model and serial numbers.
The full 17-digit Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) is shown on the Vehicle
Identification label located in the door opening on the driver’s side. Vehicles for
export, excluding Canadian vehicles, have the full 17-digit VIN on the frame.
The 8-digit chassis number is embossed into the bottom flange right hand side of the
frame rail and the top flange left hand side of the frame rail, 42 inches (1065 mm)
back from the front edge of the frame rail. The use of this number is very helpful
when ordering parts for your vehicle.
W0001995
14 INTRODUCTION
Three labels are located in the rear inside frame of the driver side door frame. These
labels should not be removed.
W8003115
Note: To deter tampering with the original build information, the information on the
label will be destroyed if the label is removed. If for any reason a label is damaged,
contact your authorized Volvo Truck dealer for a replacement.
Vehicle Order
The Vehicle Order is a complete and detailed record of all data pertaining to the
assembly of the vehicle. It should be filed in the Owner’s office where it will be
readily available for reference. Any changes made to the vehicle must become a part
of the Vehicle Order and must comply with all applicable Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standards.
Certification Label
On the top part of the door frame is the Certification label showing the axle and load
ratings for the vehicle as it is built. DO NOT exceed these ratings by overloading.
INTRODUCTION 15
Vehicle Identification Label
The VIN is shown on the Vehicle Identification label. The VIN includes the vehicle
make, model series, weight class, engine model, where the vehicle was built and the
vehicle serial number. This label also shows the truck model designation, major
component model and serial number, cab model and serial number, cab and chassis
paint colors, and color numbers.
Noise Emission Control Label
The Noise Emission Control label is located at the bottom of the three labels on the
rear inside frame of the driver side door. It is the owner’s responsibility to maintain
the vehicle so that it conforms to EPA regulations.
Refer to “Tampering with Noise Control System”, page 9 for a listing of what
constitutes tampering with the Noise Emissions Control.
Engine Identification Label
In compliance with Federal emission
requirements, an engine information label
is affixed to all Volvo diesel engines. This
label, which is located on the cylinder head
cover at the front of the engine, gives basic
engine identification information (engine
model, serial number, etc.), advertised
horsepower at rate speed, inlet and exhaust
valve lash setting. The Engine family
“AVPTH12.8S0” can be used to identify
the emission standard under which the
engine was certified.
49 State Label below:
W2040453
Engine Identification Label — 49 State EPA Approved Engine without Califonia “Clean Idle”
16 INTRODUCTION
CAUTION
To maintain compliance with emission
regulations, engine settings should not
be changed from those specified on the
engine information label.
In compliance with Federal and California
emission requirements, an engine
information label is affixed to all Volvo
diesel engines. This label, which is
located on the cylinder head cover at
the front of the engine, gives basic
engine identification information (engine
model, serial number, etc.), advertised
horsepower at rate speed, inlet and exhaust
valve lash setting. The Engine family
“AVPTH12.8S0” can be used to identify
the emission standard under which the
engine was certified.
W2040454
Engine Identification Label — 50 State EPA Approved Engine with Califonia “Clean Idle”
CAUTION
To maintain compliance with emission
regulations, engine settings should not
be changed from those specified on the
engine information label.
Note: Both the U.S. EPA and California
Air Resources Board requires that each
engine be identified with the proper engine
label as shown above. Should this engine
label be defaced, destroyed, or removed
from the valve cover, it must be replaced
immediately. To order a replacement
label, please contact Specifications
or Parts Interpretations department at
1–800–888–9878, Option 2, who will
assist you in obtaining the correct label for
your engine.
INTRODUCTION 17
Clean Idle Engines
The California Air Resources Board (ARB) requires that any engines having
tamper-resistant software which limits the time at which the engine can idle at speeds
above low idle (550 – 700 rpm). At speeds above low idle, and without a PTO
engaged, idle time will be limited to five minutes, after which the engine will revert
back to low idle. Vehicles equipped with a Clean Idle engine are identified by a label
which is affixed to the left front corner of the hood or on the driver’s door below the
window, or on a vertical outward facing cab or sleeper panel extending rearward
from the lower door position.
W2006508
Fig. Fig. 1 Clean Idle Engine Label
18 INTRODUCTION
Component Labels
The Volvo engine serial number is located on the front left side of the cylinder block.
The serial number can also be found on the certification label on the valve cover.
The axle model and serial number is located on the front left side of the forward drive
axle and the front right side of the rear drive axle. It is also located on the front right
side of the single axle.
W4002560
INTRODUCTION 19
SERVICE LITERATURE
To order a single Service Manual or a Service Manual Set for your vehicle, contact
your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
In order to handle the request correctly, you must give the model, year and VIN (last
six digits of VIN only).
For VIN location, see “Identification and Labels”, page 13.
Service Manual prices will vary depending on the make and model of engine in
the vehicle. (A Cummins engine manual is included in your introductory owner’s
package).
Note: Please allow 30 days for delivery of Manual.
Name
Company
Address
Vehicle Model
Phone/Fax
Model Year
VIN
Item 1:
Item 2:
Item 3:
Item 4:
Item 5:
20 INTRODUCTION
SERVICE ASSISTANCE
Your authorized Volvo Truck dealer is trained and equipped to perform expert service
on your Volvo vehicle. Your dealer has direct access to Volvo Trucks North America
for technical help, parts or service information.
There is also a direct number to Volvo Action Service (VAS), staffed 24 hours a day, if
you are in need of assistance. The number to the Customer Support Center is: 1 (800)
528–6586 [or (800) 52–VOLVO]. Also on the internet: www.vas.volvo.com
VAS offers:
Delivery Assurance — If you need roadside assistance, VAS can arrange for load
forwarding or equipment rental.
Personal Assurance — Trained staff for handling any vehicle problems.
Uptime Assurance — VAS will locate the nearest service provider and guarantee
payment so you can get on the road as soon as possible.
Price Assurance — VAS audits service and parts billing to ensure guaranteed labor
rates and preferred parts pricing for Volvo components.
INTRODUCTION 21
REPORTING SAFETY DEFECTS
United States
If you believe that your vehicle has a defect which could cause a crash, injury or death,
you should immediately inform the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA), in addition to notifying Volvo Trucks North America.
If NHTSA receives similar complaints, it may open an investigation and if it finds
that a safety defect exists in a group of vehicles, it may order a recall and remedy
campaign. However, NHTSA cannot become involved in individual problems
between you, your distributor, or Volvo Trucks North America.
To contact NHTSA, either call the U.S. Government’s Vehicle Safety Hotline toll-free
at 1-888-327-4236 (TTY: 1-800-424-9153); go to http://www.NHTSA.gov; or write
to: Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh
Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590. You can also obtain other information about
motor vehicle safety from the Vehicle Safety Hotline.
Canada
Canadian customers who wish to report a safety-related defect to: Transport
Canada Defect Investigations and Recalls, may telephone the toll free hotline
at 1-800-333-0510, or contact Transport Canada by mail at Transport Canada,
ASFAD, Place de Ville Tower C, 330 Sparks Street, Ottawa ON K1A 0N5.
For additional road safety information, please visit the Road Safety website at
http://www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety/menu.htm.
Mexico
Volvo Trucks de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. should be informed immediately if you believe
the vehicle has a defect that could cause a vehicle accident, injury or death. Contact
Volvo Trucks de Mexico by calling 011-52-55-50-81-68-50 or by writing to: Volvo
Trucks de Mexico, S.A. de C.V., Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 600, 1er. Piso 121, Col.
Santa Fe Pena Blanca, C.P. 01210, Mexico, D.F. Within Mexico, call 01 (800) 90 94
900.
22 INTRODUCTION
EVENT DATA RECORDING DEVICES
Your Volvo vehicle is equipped with a device generally referred to as an "event data
recorder" or "EDR." Please note that while the term "event data recorder" is typically
used throughout the motor vehicle industry, not every EDR is the same; i.e., they do
not all record the same data elements. The EDR on your Volvo vehicle records vehicle
speed, engine rpm, time and date, plus a variety of pedal and switch positions, both
before and after an "event." Sudden vehicle deceleration or the occurrence of certain
other vehicle operational characteristics will define (trigger) an "event.”
If you have a question about your EDR, please contact your Volvo dealer or regional
service office.
SAFETY INFORMATION 23
GENERAL SAFETY INFORMATION
Operating the Vehicle
DANGER
Never try to operate or work on this
vehicle while under the influence of
alcohol. Your reflexes can be affected
by the smallest amount of alcohol.
Drinking and operating this vehicle can
lead to an accident, causing serious
personal injury or death.
WARNING
All items within the cab must be secured
before the vehicle is set in motion. This
includes, but is not limited to, drinks,
clothes, books, televisions, etc. In the
event of a collision, loose items could
fly around inside the cab. This could
cause personal injury.
Every vehicle, including heavy duty vehicles, have blind spots. The size of blind spots
vary from driver to driver and from situation to situation. As a skilled, professional
driver, you are in the best position to avoid accidents in turns, lane changes or other
maneuvers. Volvo Trucks North America provides standard equipment (such as cabs,
windshields, window sizes and mirrors), preferred by most owners and drivers under
most conditions and in most applications.
However, due to differences in the size of drivers, their seating positions, the use and
operation of their vehicles, personal preferences and other factors, no combination of
mirrors and other visibility enhancement devices can eliminate all blind spots in every
situation.
The safe operation of this vehicle is determined by the you, the driver. Because of
your special preferences, needs and circumstances, you may choose to add extra
mirrors and/or other visibility enhancement devices. If so, contact an authorized
Volvo Truck dealer to obtain parts which best fit your personal needs and preferences.
24 SAFETY INFORMATION
Operating in Bobtail Mode
CAUTION
When operating bobtail, be certain that
glad hands, trailer air hoses, electrical
cable and connectors are properly
stowed and secure. Do not allow them
to rub or chafe on other components.
Depending on customer specification, some tractors may be equipped with a bobtail
air brake proportioning valve which automatically redistributes the braking force
between front and rear axles when not hooked up to a semitrailer (bobtail operation).
When operating in bobtail mode, the rear brake chambers receive reduced or
proportional brake air pressure. When the tractor is towing a trailer, the rear brake
chambers will receive full (normal) brake pressure. For tractors with no proportioning
valve, the ABS system automatically controls brake pressure.
DANGER
Under no circumstances should the
published GVWR, FAWR, and/or
RAWR be exceeded. Failure to observe
these precautions can lead to the loss of
vehicle control, resulting in a vehicle
accident causing serious personal injury
or death.
SAFETY INFORMATION 25
DANGER
DO NOT exceed the load rating of
the tires or the vehicle weight ratings.
Overloading may result in tire failure
causing loss of vehicle control, leading
to an accident resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
This vehicle has been designed and assembled for a maximum gross vehicle weight
rating (GVWR) and a maximum front and rear axle weights rating (FAWR and
RAWR). The actual rating for this vehicle can be found on the label attached to
the door frame on the driver’s side. If any of these three ratings is exceeded and
overloading occurs, instability, poor handling, failure of parts and accelerated wear
can occur.
W8003115
26 SAFETY INFORMATION
VORAD® COLLISION WARNING SYSTEM
The Eaton® VORAD® computerized Collision Warning System constantly monitors
vehicles ahead with a front end-mounted radar and in a blind spot area with an
optional side-mounted radar. The Collision Warning System warns the driver of
potentially dangerous situations by activating visual and audible alerts.
DANGER
The Eaton® VORAD® Collision
Warning System is intended solely as
an aid for an alert and conscientious
professional driver. It is not to be used
or relied upon to operate the vehicle.
Use this system together with rear view
mirrors and other instrumentation to
maintain safe operation of the vehicle.
Operate a VORAD® equipped vehicle
in the same safe manner as if VORAD®
was not installed.
The Eaton® VORAD® Collision
Warning System is not a substitute
for safe driving procedures nor will it
compensate for any driver impairment,
such as drugs, alcohol or fatigue.
The Eaton® VORAD® Collision
Warning System may provide little or
no warning for some hazards like: alerts
for pedestrians, animals, oncoming
vehicles and cross traffic. SmartCruise
will not react to stationary objects and it
does not have the capability to stop the
vehicle.
Failure to follow these instructions may
lead to a vehicle accident resulting in
severe personal injury or death.
If your vehicle is equipped with the Eaton® VORAD® Collision Warning System,
read the manufacturer’s Driver Reference Manual before taking the vehicle on the
road.
SAFETY INFORMATION 27
ADVISORY LABELS
Throughout this book you will find paragraphs labeled Danger, Warning, Caution,
Note and Service Hint. Danger, Caution and Warning labels are also found in
various locations on the vehicle to alert drivers, operators and service technicians
to situations which can cause personal injury or equipment damage. The labels
shown are applicable to the VN model chassis at the time of publication and are
representative of what can be typically found. (Your vehicle may not contain all of
the labels illustrated in this handbook.) These labels are for your benefit. Please look
through this section and note the labels, their locations and what they explain. Be
sure to replace any label that is damaged.
28 SAFETY INFORMATION
CAB ENTRY AND EXIT
General
DANGER
DO NOT stand on the steps or any other
part of the vehicle while it is in motion.
The steps and the back of cab access
deck plates are only for entering/exiting
the vehicle and not for riding on.
Failure to heed this warning can result
in serious personal injury or death.
DANGER
Steps are designed to be slip resistant
and to provide a stable surface for
entering or exiting the cab. However,
accumulation of ice, dirt, lubricants,
etc. on the steps can make entering
or exiting hazardous. Always make
sure the steps are free from slippery
substances. Failure to follow this
guideline may result in a fall that can
cause serious personal injury or death.
WARNING
To avoid personal injury due to a slip
and/or fall, observe all the guidelines
explained in this section.
WARNING
Wearing shoes with soles that are dirty
or wet increases the chance of injury
from slipping and falling. Be careful
when entering the cab with dirty or wet
soles.
WARNING
Both the operator and passenger should
exercise caution when entering or
exiting the cab. Use the steps and grab
handles to safely get in and out of the
cab.
WARNING
Always check the security of cab panel,
fairing and steps before use. Ensure that
the cab panels or fairings are completely
closed and the handles are in the locked
position.
CAUTION
DO NOT open fairing while cab door
is open, this can result in paint damage
on the fairing.
SAFETY INFORMATION 29
W8003120
VN
30 SAFETY INFORMATION
W8003127
VN without Fairings
SAFETY INFORMATION 31
General Entry Guidelines
WARNING
To avoid personal injury due to a slip
and/or fall, observe the following
guidelines.
BE SURE TO FOLLOW ALL OF THESE INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE
ENTERING OR EXITING THE CAB OR THE AREA BEHIND THE CAB.
1 Always have three limbs (one foot and two hands or two feet and one hand) in
contact with the vehicle at all times when entering or exiting the cab or the area
behind the cab.
2 Be certain you have a firm handhold and/or stable foot position before transferring
weight to that position. For example, do not start to put weight on a foot until you
are certain your foot is properly on the step and will not slip when you transfer
your weight.
3 DO NOT climb on top of the frame, fuel tanks or storage boxes to make trailer
hook-ups.
4 If the vehicle is equipped with air fairings, do not use the side mounted fairing
(wind deflector) brackets and braces as steps or grab handles.
5 If the vehicle is equipped with air fairings, do not use the side mounted fairing
(wind deflector) brackets and braces as steps or grab handles.
6 Be certain that all grab handles, steps and related parts are in good working
condition. Any defects should be reported and repaired before using the grab
handles and steps.
7 Be certain that all grab handles, steps and related parts are in good working
condition. Any defects should be reported and repaired before using the grab
handles and steps.
8 DO NOT step on the curved surface of the fuel tanks. They may be slippery from
snow, mud, ice, water, spilled fuel or other slippery substances.
9 If a step is mounted to the top of the battery box, be certain that the battery box
cover is properly fastened before stepping.
10 If a vehicle is equipped with removable chassis fairings or cab panels, be certain
the fairing or cab panel is properly fastened before using steps.
11 DO NOT jump from the cab or from the steps to the ground.
12 Always face the cab when entering or exiting.
13 DO NOT hold anything in your hands when entering or exiting the cab or the area
behind the cab. Log books, cups, clipboards, jackets, luggage and the like can be
placed on the cab floor or rear deck plate before entering or exiting.
32 SAFETY INFORMATION
14. Make sure your safety belt is disconnected before exiting the cab.
15. Make sure the safety belt is fully retracted and out of the way prior to entering or
exiting the cab.
16. DO NOT put your foot on any surface that does not have slip resistant, selfcleaning material. If there is no step material, the surface may be slippery and you
may fall.
17. Before entering or exiting, be certain that the soles of your shoes/boots are free
from grease, mud or any other substance which could make them slippery.
18. Always put the foot flat on the top of the step. DO NOT place your foot on the
side or edge of the step.
SAFETY INFORMATION 33
Driver Side Entry/Exit
WARNING
On vehicles without side fairings or
cab panels, always make sure that the
battery box cover is securely fastened
before stepping up. Failure to fasten the
cover may lead to a fall and personal
injury.
Open the door. Place any hand-carried items on the cab floor. Grasp the right grab
handle with your right hand and the left grab handle with your left hand. Put the right
foot fully on the bottom step and pull yourself up to the opening.
W8003112
Slide hands up on the handles, if necessary. Put the left foot on the top step and step
up. Step into the cab with the right foot first.
To exit, reverse the process. Do not attempt to exit the cab while carrying any items
in your hands.
34 SAFETY INFORMATION
Passenger Side Entry/Exit
Open the door. Place any hand-carried items on the cab floor. Grasp the left grab
handle with your left hand and the right grab handle with your right hand. Put the left
foot fully on the bottom step and pull yourself up to the opening.
W8003117
Slide hands up on the handles, if necessary. Put the right foot on the top step and step
up. Step into the cab with the left foot first.
To exit, reverse the process. Do not attempt to exit the cab while carrying any items
in your hands.
SAFETY INFORMATION 35
Behind the Cab Access
WARNING
Be careful when entering the
back-of-cab area with dirty or wet soles.
Wearing shoes with soles that are dirty
or wet increases the chance of slipping
or falling.
When trailer air and electrical connections can not be coupled from the ground,
Federal Regulations require commercial carriers to provide back-of-cab access steps,
grab handles and plates.
Depending on what option is chosen, grab handles are available in many variations.
In each case, make sure to always have three limbs (one foot and two hands or two
feet and one hand) in contact with the vehicle at all times when entering or exiting
the area behind the cab.
W8001363
36 SAFETY INFORMATION
Grasp the grab handle to the left with both hands. Put the left foot onto the bottom
step and pull yourself up. Put the right foot on the top step and step onto the deck
plate with the left foot.
W8003122
WARNING
Always perform trailer hook-ups while
standing on the ground. DO NOT climb
on top of fuel tanks or frame rails to
hook up or disconnect trailer air lines
and electrical cord. Use only the metal,
slip resistant steps provided to prevent a
slip and fall injury.
SAFETY INFORMATION 37
Stand on the ground when connecting the air and electrical connections to the trailer.
W3005321
38 SAFETY INFORMATION
ENTERING SLEEPER FROM SEAT
Standard Gear Lever
CAUTION
When moving from the driver seat to the
sleeper section, follow this procedure:
Be careful when standing to your feet in
the seat area, headroom is limiting.
•
•
•
Make sure the parking brakes are set.
•
Place the left hand on the steering wheel and the right hand on the top of the gear
lever.
•
•
Move the right foot out to the middle of the floor.
Place the gear shift lever in a gear position toward the rear of the vehicle.
If equipped with an adjustable steering column, move the steering wheel up and
forward.
Lift the upper body, supported by the hands on the steering wheel and the gear
lever and step out from the seat area.
SAFETY INFORMATION 39
W4001391
40 SAFETY INFORMATION
SAFETY EQUIPMENT
Safety triangles and fire extinguishers are available as optional equipment. The fire
extinguisher should be located by the base of the driver seat, between the seat and
the door.
W1000176
Note: Always store the warning triangles in the box after use.
SAFETY INFORMATION 41
Warning Triangles, Day Cab
The warning triangles are stored in a box that is strapped behind the passenger seat.
W1000177
42 SAFETY INFORMATION
Sleeper Cab
The warning triangles are stored in a box, which is inside the exterior luggage
compartment.
W8003517
SAFETY INFORMATION 43
SAFETY BELT SYSTEM
The safety belt system is the main restraint application in the vehicle. All vehicles are
equipped with this system. For additional information on the safety belt system refer
to “SAFETY BELTS”, page 230.
The safety belt system monitors the safety belt latch and vehicle speed. When the
vehicle is started the safety belt telltale displays in the cluster. The icon remains on
whenever the vehicle is stationary and the safety belt is unbuckled. Whenever the
vehicle is moving and the safety belt is unbuckled an audible tone sounds and the
safety belt telltale blinks.
W3000625
44 SAFETY INFORMATION
SRS AIRBAG
The SRS airbag is intended to supplement — not replace — the standard safety belt.
The airbag is not deployed when the truck is hit from behind, from the side or if it rolls
over. For best protection, sit in a normal, upright position. Always wear the safety belt.
For added safety, the vehicle may be equipped with an airbag or SRS (Supplemental
Restraint System) as a supplement to the standard three-point anchored safety belt.
The SRS is designed to reduce the risk of injury to the driver’s face and upper part of
the body. Together with the safety belt, the airbag helps prevent the driver from being
thrown against the steering wheel, windshield or other hard surfaces in the cab.
The Volvo SRS Airbag provides increased protection in frontal collisions, where the
vehicle collides with a fixed or heavy object with enough force to activate the sensors
which then activate the airbag. Damage to the vehicle is not always proportional to
whether the SRS Airbag deploys or not.
The SRS Airbag is not designed to be activated with:
•
•
•
•
Collision from the sides
Collision from the rear
Rolling over
Head-on collisions at low speed or against soft objects such as bushes, snow
drifts, etc.
SRS System
WARNING
Never attempt to drive with a deployed
airbag. With the bag hanging out of the
hub of the steering wheel, the truck may
be more difficult to steer. In addition,
other safety systems may be damaged.
Continuous exposure to the smoke and
dust created during the deployment of
the airbag can cause irritation to the
skin and eyes.
SAFETY INFORMATION 45
The inflatable airbag is folded into the center of the steering wheel. It inflates in the
event of a serious collision above a certain level, where the angle of impact, crash
severity, speed and nature of the object involved in the collision all play a part in
whether or not the airbag is activated.
W8003129
The system consists of a gas generator surrounded by the inflatable airbag. In the event
of a sufficiently violent collision, a control unit activates the gas generator ignitor and
the airbag inflates. To cushion the impact, the airbag deflates when compressed. This
also releases some nontoxic smoke into the cab. The entire sequence, from inflation to
deflation of the airbag, takes a few tenths of a second.
The SRS system is continually monitored by the control unit. A control unit is
mounted on a bracket above the engine cover which detects deceleration. The control
unit also contains a standby power unit which can supply the system with power for a
short time, in case the normal supply breaks.
46 SAFETY INFORMATION
W8003119
If the control unit detects a sufficiently violent deceleration (collision), the system is
activated. The gas generator triggers and fills the bag with a nontoxic gas within a few
hundredths of a second. During a collision, after the bag is full, gas flows out through
two holes in the weave. These holes are large enough to let the airbag collapse slowly,
gently catching the driver.
In the event of a problem in the SRS system, an icon is shown in the graphic display
in the instrument cluster.
T3008842
CAUTION
The vehicle should be taken to
an authorized Volvo Truck dealer
immediately if the SRS icon comes on
or remains on while the vehicle is being
driven.
SAFETY INFORMATION 47
If a problem develops in the system, the CHECK tell-tale will come on together
with the SRS tell-tale.
W3005170
Warning Labels
The label attached to the left-hand sun visor shows the year and month when an
authorized Volvo Truck dealer should be contacted for a specific inspection and for
a possible replacement of the airbag. This is done to guarantee the function of the
airbag after the indicated date. Replace the label when replacing the airbag module.
Never attempt to make any adjustments to SRS components yourself.
T8006843
Any queries concerning the SRS system should be directed to an authorized Volvo
Truck dealer. There is no maintenance required for the SRS system until the date on
the warning label located on the left-hand sun visor.
48 SAFETY INFORMATION
Steering shafts and steering wheel should not be removed, adjusted or replaced
without following the proper work procedure. Failure to do so can damage the SRS
system, which can result in malfunction of the SRS. A warning label is located on
the upper steering shaft.
T8006842
There is also a label on the inside of the windshield that indicates the inclusion of
an airbag to the vehicle safety features.
T8006841
SAFETY INFORMATION 49
When equipped with an airbag, a label with the correct procedure for protecting small
children and protecting the driver is attached to the left-hand, overhead storage lid or
back of sun visor.
W8002741
WARNING
Never attempt to repair any part of the
SRS system. Any interference with the
system may cause it to malfunction and
result in serious injury or death.
Work on the system may only be carried out by an authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
To allow the SRS system to work as designed:
•
Never drive an SRS system equipped vehicle with the hands on the steering wheel
pad/airbag module.
•
No objects, accessory equipment or stickers may be placed on, attached to or
installed near the SRS cover in the center of the steering wheel.
50 SAFETY INFORMATION
General Information
When is the Airbag Deployed
The airbag is only deployed during a head-on collision, where the vehicle hits a fixed
or heavy object with sufficient force. The SRS system registers both the force of the
collision and the internal forces caused by the collision. The control unit determines if
the collision is sufficiently violent for the airbag to be deployed.
Note: The SRS system is only activated once in a collision. If the airbag has deployed,
the following is recommended:
* Have the vehicle towed to an authorized Volvo Truck dealer. Even if the vehicle can
be driven after a collision, it is not recommended to drive the truck with the airbag
deployed.
* Have an authorized Volvo Truck dealer change the components in the SRS system.
* Only use original Volvo parts when replacing the SRS system components (airbag,
safety belt, etc.).
SAFETY INFORMATION 51
When is the Airbag not Deployed
Not all frontal collisions activate the SRS system. In a collision with a soft object (a
snow drift or bush for example, or a hard or fixed object at low speed), there is no
need for the SRS system to be activated. The airbag is usually not inflated in response
to side-on collisions, impacts from the rear or if the vehicle overturns. The extent of
damage to the vehicle is no measure of how well the SRS system works.
Can the Airbag be Deployed Accidentally
The complete SRS system is constructed so that the airbag only inflates in particular
collision conditions. The SRS system has its own diagnostic unit which continuously
monitors the functioning of the system.
Heart of the Volvo Safety System
The three-point anchored safety belt is the heart of the Volvo safety system. The
belt should be worn at all times. The SRS system is intended as a supplement to the
three-point anchored safety belt.
52 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
CAB INTERIOR
W8003838
1 Instrument Cluster
4 Brake Pedal
2 Cab Climate Control Panel
5 Clutch Pedal (if equipped)
3 Accelerator Pedal
6 Steering Column Tilt Control Pedal
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 53
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Tell-Tales
A tell-tale is a display that indicates the actuation of a device, a correct or defective
condition, or a failure to function.
The operator should become familiar with these symbols in order to recognize and
react (if necessary) to the indicated condition. Tell-tale symbols are shown in the
instrument panel illustrations on the following pages.
Colors
To promote visual recognition internationally, specific colors for tell-tales have been
established. Unless governmental regulations (in the area where the vehicle is to be
used) or engineering directives specify otherwise, the standard colors are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Blue — high-beam headlights/engine maintenance
Flashing Green — turn signals
Flashing Red — hazard condition involving the safety of personnel
Steady Green — system in operation
Steady Red — warning, immediate action required
Amber — early warning, such as low fuel or Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)
malfunction
54 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Panel Arrangement
Your view from the driver seat should look something like the illustrations shown.
The layout is designed to provide the operator with a good view of the gauges and
controls (which are placed so they are within easy reach). The instrument panel, as
shown in the following drawing, is broken down into several main sections. For
easy identification we refer to them, from left to right, as Panels A, B, C, D, E and F
(where necessary).
Note: This section shows the instruments and controls available for this vehicle at the
time of publication. However, depending on options, your vehicle may not have all
the instruments and controls shown here, and they may not be in the same position.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 55
INSTRUMENT PANEL GAUGE LAYOUT
W3007473
Panel Arrangement
56 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Panel A
W3007469
1 Light Control Panel
2 Instrument Cluster
3 Trailer Air Supply
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 57
4 Tractor Parking Brake
Panel B
W3007470
58 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
5. Inter-Wheel Differential Lock
6. Inter-Axle Differential Lock
7. VN: Idle Management Indicator
Lamp (ISX ICON) or Optional Switch
or Electronically Controlled Suspension
(ECS) On/Off or Lift Axle #1 (Pusher)
8. VN: Optional Switch or Electronically
Controlled Suspension (ECS) Up/Down
9. Auxiliary #1
10. VN: Auxiliary #2 or Temp-A-Start
(TAS) Indicator Lamps
11. VN: Auxiliary #3 or Temp-A-Start
(TAS) On/Off
12. Secondary Gauge Cluster
13. Secondary Gauge Cluster
14. Engine Brake or I-Shift Eco-Roll
15. VN: Engine Brake Mode Select (ISX)
or I-Shift Hill Start Assist
16. VN: 5th Wheel Touch Lock (Unlock)
17. Marker Interrupt or Secondary Gauge
Cluster
18. Optional Switch or Secondary Gauge
Cluster
19. Traction Control
20. Suspension Dump
21. 5th Wheel Slide or Engine
Inside/Outside Air Control
22. Air Vent
23. Radio
24. Fan Speed
25. Recirculation
26. Air Distribution
27. AC ON/OFF
28. Temperature Knob
29. Trailer Hand Brake Control
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 59
Panel C
W3007471
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
VN: Optional Switch or Passenger Window Lift
Water in Fuel (Purge Switch)
Optional Switch or AUX/USB Port
VN: Sleeper Fan Speed
VN: Optional Switch or Beacon Lamps
60 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Panel D
W3007472
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
Back of Cab Light
Optional Switch
Optional Switch or Power Take-Off (PTO)
VN: Overhead Bunk Lamp or Passenger Side Mirror IN/OUT
VN: Side Mirror Heat or Power Take-Off (PTO),
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 61
Panel E
W3007474
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
AC Inverter 120 V
Optional Switch
Optional Switch
Power Outlet
Microphone
Before driving this vehicle, locate the instruments and controls, and become
thoroughly familiar with their operation. After starting and when driving, ensure
that the instrument readings are normal.
Note: The instruments and controls shown were available for this vehicle at the time
of publication. Depending on the options selected, all gauges and tell-tales may not
be used in all vehicles.
Note: The dash layout is the same for all Volvo vehicles. However, the switches and
certain switch positions are different depending on vehicle options.
62 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
1. Light Control Panel — For more information, please refer to “LIGHT CONTROL
PANEL”, page 107
2. Instrument Cluster
There are two instrument cluster levels available: High and Mid level.
W3034025
High Level Cluster
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Tachometer
Upper Tell-Tales
Speedometer
Front Brake Air Pressure
Rear Brake Air Pressure
Oil Pressure
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Gauge
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
9. Driver Information Display (DID)
10. Fuel Level
11. Intake Manifold Pressure
12. Application Air Pressure
13. Exhaust Pyrometer
14. Hill Start Assist
15. Lower Tell-Tales
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 63
W3034026
Mid Level Cluster
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Tachometer
Upper Tell-Tales
Speedometer
Front Brake Air Pressure
Rear Brake Air Pressure
Oil Pressure
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Gauge
8. Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
9. Driver Information Display (DID)
10. Fuel Level
11. Intake Manifold Pressure
12. Hill Start Assist
13. Lower Tell-Tales
64 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Tachometer
The tachometer has two colored fields: green and red. Use the green field for normal
driving (1000 to 1600 rpm). Use higher engine speeds for maximum engine brake
performance. Never allow the engine to go into the red field (greater than 2200 rpm).
To achieve maximum fuel economy, use the Performance Bonus Guide feature. This
feature helps the driver find the most efficient operating range for the engine. See
Performance Bonus Guide for more information.
Upper Tell-Tales
The Stop, Check and Info message tell-tales are located in the upper tell-tales box on
the instrument cluster. The left and right turn signal indicators, seat belt tell-tale and
parking brake tell-tale are also located in the upper tell-tales box. Refer to the Driver
Information Display manual for additional information about the message tell-tales.
Speedometer
The speedometer is driven by the vehicle’s electronic system.
Front and Rear Brake System Air Pressure
Gauges
The system air gauges are connected to the front and rear circuit tanks via sensors
mounted on the pass-through wall. The two gauges should register equal air pressure.
By observing the gauge pointers, the operator can detect a pressure drop if an air leak
develops and can readily identify the circuit affected.
DANGER
Failure to observe these precautions
can result in the loss of braking
performance. This can lead to a vehicle
accident, which can result in personal
injury or death.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 65
If the pressure in a brake circuit air tank drops below approximately 420 kPa (65 psi),
the red LED light in the lower left corner of the gauge will come on and the STOP
tell-tale warning indicator comes on. In addition, the buzzer comes on if the vehicle
starts to move at speed higher than 1.6 km/h (1 mph). If the vehicle is stationary, only
the STOP tell-tale warning and red LED light appear.
W3005171
Stop Tell-Tale
If the air pressure drops down below 420 kPa (65 psi) in both systems, the spring
brakes will automatically engage to stop the vehicle.
Oil Pressure Gauge
DANGER
Failure to take necessary action when
the STOP tell-tale is on can ultimately
result in automatic engine shutdown and
loss of power steering assist. Vehicle
crash can occur, resulting in personal
injury or death.
The oil pressure limit is dependent on the engine manufacturer’s electronic program.
When the oil pressure is too low, the red STOP tell-tale illuminates, the buzzer sounds,
and the oil pressure symbol appears on the Driver Information Display (DID) screen.
For example, if the engine is at risk, the EECU may derate the engine power. Bring
the vehicle to a safe stop where the problem can be checked.
66 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W3005171
Stop Tell-Tale
W3003613
Oil Pressure Symbol
Note: The engine will shut down within 30 seconds from when the red STOP tell-tale
comes on. Pull off the road as soon as possible without creating a safety hazard.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 67
Coolant Temperature Gauge
The coolant temperature gauge indicates engine coolant temperature. The normal
operating temperature for Volvo engines is 80 to 105°C (170 to 215°F). Under normal
driving conditions, the temperature must be below the red sector.
The temperature range for the coolant will vary depending on the type of engine, load,
grade, ambient air temperature and operating conditions. If the temperature remains
below or exceeds the normal temperature range, the cooling system should be checked
for problems by an authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
The temperature limit is dependent on the electronic program for the engine model.
When coolant temperature is excessive, the red STOP tell-tale will come on and the
buzzer will sound. The engine is at risk and the EECU may derate the engine power.
Stop at the first safe place where the problem can be checked.
W3005171
Stop Tell-Tale
If the coolant temperature returns to normal shortly after exceeding the limit and no
repair is performed, the warning messages go out, but a fault message will be logged.
Middle and Lower Tell-Tales
The middle and lower tell-tales provide vehicle and component status information.
For more information, refer to the Driver Information Display manual.
Driver Information Display (DID)
The DID gives the operator necessary and important information about the vehicle
and components. For more information about the DID, refer to the Driver Information
Display manual.
Fuel Level Gauge
The fuel level gauge is connected to a fuel sensor unit in the fuel tank. There is only
one sensor even if the vehicle is equipped with dual tanks.
68 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Intake Manifold Pressure Gauge (High Level
Cluster Only)
The intake manifold pressure gauge indicates intake manifold pressure to the engine.
The pressure generated by the intake manifold pressure should be the same at a given
engine temperature, speed and load. Intake manifold pressure will vary for different
engines and vehicle models. By monitoring the gauge, the operator can avoid engine
problems.
Application Air Pressure Gauge (High Level
Cluster Only)
Air gauges are connected to the air brake system via sensors. They will indicate the
brake application pressure from either the front, rear or trailer circuit pressure. The
gauge will not register air pressure until the foot brake pedal is depressed or the trailer
hand brake is applied.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 69
Exhaust Pyrometer Gauge (High Level Cluster
Only)
The exhaust pyrometer gauge indicates the exhaust temperature, which helps the
operator get the best efficiency from the engine. Variations in engine load can cause
the exhaust temperature to vary. For example, high exhaust gas temperature is the
result of prolonged engine lugging or over-fueling. If the pyrometer reading shows
that exhaust temperature exceeds normal, reduce fuel to the engine until the exhaust
temperature is reduced. Shift to a lower gear if the engine is overloaded.
Exhaust Pyrometer Gauge (High Level Cluster
Only)
The exhaust pyrometer gauge indicates the exhaust temperature, which helps the
operator get the best efficiency from the engine. Variations in engine load can cause
the exhaust temperature to vary. For example, high exhaust gas temperature is the
result of prolonged engine lugging or over-fueling. If the pyrometer reading shows
that exhaust temperature exceeds normal, reduce fuel to the engine until the exhaust
temperature is reduced. Shift to a lower gear if the engine is overloaded.
3. Trailer Air Supply Valve
The trailer air supply valve is a red octagonally-shaped knob. Pull the knob to apply
the trailer emergency brakes. Push the knob to pressurize the trailer air reservoir and
release the trailer emergency brakes. The trailer air supply valve should not be used
for parking. For additional information about the trailer air supply valve, refer to
“Parking Brake/Trailer Supply Valves”, page 282.
4. Tractor Parking Brake Valve
The tractor parking brake valve is a yellow diamond-shaped knob. Pull the knob to
apply the tractor parking brakes. Push the knob to release the tractor parking brakes.
The tractor parking brake valve applies the tractor parking brakes and the trailer
brakes, if equipped. For additional information about the tractor parking brake valve,
refer to “Parking Brake/Trailer Supply Valves”, page 282.
5. Inter-Wheel Differential Lock
The inter-wheel differential lock eliminates one-wheel spin-out on slippery surfaces
and improves traction. The switch has a safety latch to prevent accidental engagement.
70 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
T4015831
Interwheel Differential Lock
When the lock is engaged, a telltale lights up in the instrument cluster.
T3014470
Inter-Wheel Tell-Tale
A differential lock should only be used on a slippery surface, NOT when driving
on good road conditions. If a differential lock telltale is activated in the instrument
cluster, do not make turns until the telltale has gone out. Refer to INSERT HEAD REF
for information on how to properly engage and drive with differential locks engaged.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 71
6. Inter-Axle Differential Lock
The inter-axle differential lock eliminates slipping between axles to improve traction.
The switch has a safety latch to prevent accidental engagement.
W3028391
When the lock is engaged, a tell-tale lights up in the instrument cluster.
W3006119
Inter-Axle Tell-Tale
A differential lock should only be used on a slippery surface, NOT when driving on
good road conditions. If a differential lock tell-tale is activated in the instrument
cluster, DO NOT make turns until the tell-tale has gone out. Refer to “AXLES”, page
342 "AXLES" for information on how to properly engage and drive with differential
locks engaged.
72 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
7. Idle Management Indicator Lamp (CUMMINS ISX ICON)
For more information on this lamp, please refer to your vendor engine manual
supplied with this vehicle.
OR
Electronically Controlled Suspension (ECS) (ON/OFF)
For more information on this lamp, please refer to your vendor engine manual
supplied with this vehicle.
OR
Lift Axle
The vehicle may be equipped with auxiliary lift axles. The lift mechanism operates
with air pressure. Press the top part of the switch to raise the axle and press the
lower part of the switch to lower the axle. For information about lift axles, refer
to “AXLES”, page 342.
W3005503
Pusher Axle
W3005507
Tag Axle
OR
Optional Switch
8. Electronically Controlled Suspension (ECS) (Up/Down)
This is the switch that is defined by the body builder.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 73
OR
74 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Lift Axle
The vehicle may be equipped with auxiliary lift axles. The lift mechanism operates
with air pressure. Press the top part of the switch to raise the axle and press the
lower part of the switch to lower the axle. For information about lift axles, refer
to “AXLES”, page 342.
W3005503
Pusher Axle
W3005507
Tag Axle
OR
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 75
Optional Switch
9. Auxiliary Switches
Generic switches are available for auxiliary functions that are installed by the
customer. These switches can be purchased from your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
W3005502
Auxiliary Switch
Auxiliary Switches
Generic switches are available for auxiliary functions that are installed by the
customer. These switches can be purchased from your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
W3005502
Auxiliary Switch
Lift Axle
The vehicle may be equipped with auxiliary lift axles. The lift mechanism operates
with air pressure. Press the top part of the switch to raise the axle and press the
lower part of the switch to lower the axle. For information about lift axles, refer
to “AXLES”, page 342.
W3005503
Pusher Axle
76 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W3005507
Tag Axle
Auxiliary Switches
Generic switches are available for auxiliary functions that are installed by the
customer. These switches can be purchased from your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
W3005502
Auxiliary Switch
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 77
12. and 13.Secondary Gauge Cluster
The secondary gauge is an optional feature, which is available only with the Mid
and High level instrument clusters. The instrument cluster receives temperature
information from the datalink and then passes the information to the secondary
gauge for viewing.
W3006081
Engine/Transmission Temperature Gauge
W3006082
Front/Rear Axle Temperature Gauge
14.Engine Brake
For more information about the engine brake, see “Volvo Engine Brake (I-VEB)”,
page 272.
OR
I-Shift Eco-Roll
For more information on this feature, please refer to the I-Shift Transmission Manual
supplied with your vehicle.
78 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
15. Engine Brake Mode Select (ISX)
For more information about the engine brake, see “Volvo Engine Brake (I-VEB)”,
page 272.
W3002303
OR
I-Shift Hill Start Assist
For more information on this feature, please refer to the I-Shift Transmission Manual
supplied with your vehicle.
W3028392
OR
Optional Switch
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 79
16. Fifth Wheel Touch Lock.
release the locking mechanism. Once
activated, the switch will not relock the
fifth wheel kingpin locking mechanism.
DANGER
Activation of the kingpin lock release
switch ONLY unlocks the kingpin
latch mechanism. To relock the latch
mechanism, you MUST pull forward
and then back up to re-engage the
kingpin lock mechanism. Failure to
follow these instructions can result in
separation of the trailer from the tractor
causing personal injury or death.
•
Park the vehicle and apply parking
brake for tractor trailer.
•
Put gearshift in neutral and chock
trailer wheels.
•
•
•
Lower trailer landing gear to ground.
Disconnect air/electric lines to trailer.
•
Release parking brake and drive tractor
12 inches away from the kingpin.
•
Deflate air suspension by pressing
bottom of suspension switch. After
suspension lowers, pull clear of trailer
and reinflate suspension. See “FIFTH
WHEEL INSTRUCTIONS”, page 313.
•
The fifth wheel kingpin lock will only
relock if you follow the complete
recoupling procedures. See “FIFTH
WHEEL INSTRUCTIONS”, page 313.
For more information, refer to “FIFTH
WHEEL INSTRUCTIONS”, page 313.
To release the fifth wheel kingpin
lock, push the switch up. This will
W3004428
80 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
17. Marker Interrupt Switch
This switch interrupts power to the marker lights when held down. When released, it
springs back to the ON position and returns power to the marker lights.
W3001352
Marker Interrupt Switch
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 81
18. Secondary Gauge Cluster
The secondary gauge is an optional feature, which is available only with the Mid
and High level instrument clusters. The instrument cluster receives temperature
information from the datalink and then passes the information to the secondary
gauge for viewing.
W3006081
Engine/Transmission Temperature Gauge
OR
Optional Switch
W3006082
Front/Rear Axle Temperature Gauge
82 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
19. Traction Control Shut-Off Switch (TCS)
If the vehicle is equipped with a Traction Control System (TCS), the switch can be
used to disable the traction control feature, and therefore increase wheel spin. This
may be useful for decreasing the chances of getting bogged down when driving in
heavy snow, slush or muddy conditions. Refer to Volvo Exhaust Brake for more
information.
W3001336
Traction Control Switch
20. Suspension Dump Switch
Vehicles with rear air suspension have a control for deflating the air springs. Use this
feature when uncoupling from trailers. See “FIFTH WHEEL INSTRUCTIONS”,
page 313 for correct operation when uncoupling.
W3001341
Suspension Dump Switch
CAUTION
The vehicle must never be driven with
the air springs deflated. Damage to air
suspension parts will occur if springs
are not inflated properly.
The suspension dump switch has a safety latch to prevent accidental engagement.
Depress the latch and press in the bottom part of the switch to deflate the air springs.
A tell-tale in the instrument cluster will light up when the switch is in the ON position.
This switch controls a chassis-mounted electric over air solenoid valve. When the
switch is rocked down to the ON position and the ignition switch is turned to the OFF
position, the solenoid valve will no longer have power and the suspension will inflate.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 83
21. Fifth Wheel Slide Switch
DANGER
The release must never be operated
while the vehicle is operating on the
road. Fifth wheel position adjustment
must only be done when stationary.
Damage to the fifth wheel, trailer
kingpin and slider may occur if not
operated properly and may lead to
an accident, causing serious personal
injury or death.
The sliding fifth wheel uses an air-operated release mechanism and is used for
distributing loads more favorably between the front and rear axles to comply with
varying state and provincial laws. Depress the latch and press in the bottom part of
the switch to release the slider locks. See “Operating the Fifth Wheel Slider”, page
332 for correct operation.
W3001346
Sliding Fifth Wheel Switch
84 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
OR
Engine Air Control Switch
The engine fresh air control switch controls air flow to the engine air cleaner. In
the normal OFF position, air is pulled through the side hood vent, and into the air
cleaner. In the ON position, air is pulled from within the engine compartment into
the air cleaner. This feature is useful for keeping out cold air or snow for example,
when using a snow plow.
W3005380
Engine Air Control Switch
22. Air Vent
For information about air vents, refer to “Fresh Air Vent”, page 134.
23. Radio
For information about the radio, refer to the radio operating instructions manual.
24. - 28. Cab Climate Controls
For information about cab climate controls, refer to “CLIMATE CONTROL
SYSTEMS”, page 98.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 85
29. Trailer Hand Brake Control
The trailer hand brake control engages the trailer brakes. For information about the
trailer hand brake control, refer to “Trailer Brake Hand Control”, page 288.
30. Passenger Window Control Switch or Optional Switch
The trailer hand brake control engages the trailer brakes. For information about the
trailer hand brake control, refer to “Trailer Brake Hand Control”, page 288.
31. Water-In-Fuel (Purge Switch) (Optional)
The water-in-fuel drain switch is a non-locking switch used to drain the fuel water
separator on Volvo engines.
W3005378
Water-In-Fuel Drain Switch
A symbol displayed in the instrument panel indicates when it is recommended to
drain the water separator.
W3005378
Water-In-Fuel Symbol
Stop at the first opportunity and drain the water separator. If the warning symbol
frequently recommends that the water separator be drained, then there is a problem
with the fuel quality. Drain the fuel tank and refill with fuel of the correct quality.
86 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Draining Procedure
Note: If the engine is started before draining is complete, the process is interrupted.
1 Stop the vehicle.
2 Apply the parking brake.
3 Turn off the engine.
4 Place a container under the water separator.
5 Turn the ignition key counterclockwise to the "Radio, Accessories" position.
6 If the vehicle is equipped with a Mid Instrument Cluster, press the Water-In-Fuel
Drain Switch.
7 If the vehicle is equipped with a Mid or High Level Instrument Cluster, select
"Vehicle Setting"/"Drain Water in Fuel" in the Driver Information Display menu.
Press Enter (↵) to request draining. The following menu is displayed.
W3028406
8 Wait until the water has stopped draining.
9 Empty the container in a place where the contents will not cause environmental
damage.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 87
33. Sleeper Fan Speed Switch
The sleeper fan switch located in the dash, controls the sleeper fan speed. The switch
in the sleeper control module performs the same function as the dash switch. Press
the top part of the switch to increase the fan speed, press the lower part to decrease
fan speed.
W3005382
Sleeper Fan Speed Switch
Snow Plow Lamps
Vehicles specified with this option have the following:
•
•
•
•
Turn ON low beam snow plow head lamps.
Turn OFF main head lamps, high beam, fog and driving lights.
In driving mode, DRL remains ON.
Snow plow direction indicators are available.
88 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W3005382
Sleeper Fan Speed Switch
34. Beacon Lamps Switch
W3005428
Sleeper Fan Speed Switch
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 89
OR
Optional Switch
35. Back of Cab Light Switch (Optional)
To activate the back of cab light, press the bottom part of the switch. The light will
stay on until the switch is turned to the OFF position. Back of cab lights are available
as a flush-mounted light in the middle of the cab rear wall or as a high-mounted light
on the side of the cab.
W3001355
Back of Cab Light Switch
36. Optional Switch
37. Power Take-Off
For information about the PTO, refer to “Power Take-Off (PTO)”, page 91.
OR
Optional Switch
90 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
38. Sleeper Overhead Bunk Lamp
This switch operates the overhead lighting in the VN sleeper cabs. It is situated on the
left-hand side of the dash to allow access to the switch without entering the sleeper
section of the cab. Press the bottom of the switch to turn the light ON, press the top of
the switch to turn the light OFF.
The switch works together with the switch on the sleeper control panel.
W3001351
Sleeper Overhead Bunk Lamp
OR
Passenger Side Mirror IN/OUT
OR
Power Take-Off
For information about the PTO, refer to “Power Take-Off (PTO)”, page 91.
39. Side Mirror Heat
This switch operates the overhead lighting in the VN sleeper cabs. It is situated on the
left-hand side of the dash to allow access to the switch without entering the sleeper
section of the cab. Press the bottom of the switch to turn the light ON, press the top of
the switch to turn the light OFF.
The switch works together with the switch on the sleeper control panel.
OR
Power Take-Off
For information about the PTO, refer to “Power Take-Off (PTO)”, page 91.
For information about the inverter, refer to “Inverter Switch 12 V DC to 120 V AC”,
page 140.
41. Optional Switch
42. Optional Switch
43. Power Outlet
For information about power outlets, refer to “12 Volt Power Outlets”, page 137.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 91
41. Microphone
The microphone is located above the driver in the headliner. It is available on the
Mid-Level radio with Blue Tooth/Hands free option. This is what is used to talk into
when the phone is connected to the truck. For more information on the microphone,
please refer to the Radio Manual that is supplied with the vehicle.
DASH SWITCHES
Power Take-Off (PTO)
There are two basic types of PTOs available: engine-mounted and
transmission-mounted.
The transmission-mounted PTO is clutch dependent, which means that operation
can be regulated by depressing or releasing the clutch pedal. This PTO should NOT
be in use while driving.
The engine-mounted PTO is direct-mounted to the engine and is engaged with a
bypass valve operated by the switch. This PTO can be in use while driving.
CAUTION
It is important to only engage the switch
when the PTO is required. Leaving the
PTO pump engaged when not needed
can lead to poor performance and pump
damage.
Transmission-Mounted PTO
The transmission-mounted PTO is clutch dependent, which means that operation can
be regulated by depressing or releasing the clutch pedal. This PTO should NOT be in
use while driving.
Engage the PTO by depressing the clutch pedal and pressing in the bottom part of the
switch. Release the clutch pedal to start the PTO.
One or two PTOs can be run at the same time. Applications change depending on
customer needs and components.
92 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W3005510
Engine-Mounted PTO, VN
The engine should be running at low idle and the vehicle should be stopped or running
at very low speed before engaging power take-off. Engage the PTO by depressing the
locking tab and at the same time, depressing the main part of the switch. The PTO is
now in operation and hydraulic flow can be regulated by the engine speed.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 93
PTO Speed Adjustment
Engage the PTO before adjusting the speed. For the PTO speed adjustment to
function, the Cruise Control or idle adjust cannot be active, brake and clutch pedals
must be released, and vehicle speed must be under approximately 8 km/h (5 mph).
To set engine speed:
1 Set the PTO/CC switch in the ON position.
2 Depending on configuration, the engine speed may automatically be selected when
the PTO dash switch is activated (Volvo engines only).
3 If NOT, then
•
Volvo engines: Press the RESUME button to achieve the preset PTO engine
speed. Alternatively, the accelerator pedal can be used to achieve the desired
engine speed, and press SET+ or SET- to hold that speed
•
.Cummins engines: Press either the RESUME, SET+, or the RESUME and
SET+ buttons simultaneously to achieve one of three possible preset speeds.
W3002499
94 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
To increase/decrease engine speed:
1 Volvo engines: Press and release the SET+ or SET- toggle switch to
increase/decrease speed in increments (increment size depends on programmed
value).
2 Cummins engines: Press and hold the SET+ or SET- toggle switch to
increase/decrease speed. When the switch is released, the engine speed sets at
current speed.
To deactivate PTO speed function. Set the PTO/CC switch to the OFF position.
or
2. Depress the service brake pedal.
or
3. Depress the clutch pedal (Programmable).
or
4. Increase vehicle speed above PTO working range (typically 8 km/h [5 mph]).
Engine Brake
DANGER
When operating your tractor bobtail
(without a trailer) or on slippery roads,
the engine brake switch must be in the
OFF position. Failure to follow these
instructions can result in loss of vehicle
control, serious personal injury or death.
DANGER
A vehicle speed retarding device is not
intended to replace the service brake
system on your vehicle nor intended to
bring your vehicle to a stop. A vehicle
speed retarding device is only intended
to retard the speed of your vehicle under
certain conditions.
Using the retarding device as a brake
could result in loss of vehicle control
and personal injury or death.
Note: It is normal for a slight delay to occur in the application of a vehicle speed
retarding device. When using a device of this type, be sure to think ahead and analyze
conditions in order to use the device properly.
Several types of engine brakes can be installed or are standard on certain engines. All
are used to reduce wear on the vehicle brake linings.
Several types of engine brakes can be installed or are standard on certain engines. All
are used to reduce wear on the vehicle brake linings.
Volvo Variable Geometry Turbo Brake VN
The variable geometry turbo brake is standard equipment on the Volvo 11F and 13F
engines. Software is used to close the variable geometry turbocharger, creating
retardation. The switch for exhaust brake has two positions: ON/OFF.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 95
W3005433
Volvo Engine Brake I-VEB
The Volvo Engine Brake (I-VEB) works together with the variable geometry
turbocharger to provide retarding horsepower at low engine rpm. The I-VEB is
standard equipment on the Volvo 16F engine and optional on the 13F and 11F engines.
The I-VEB has a six position control located on the steering column, just forward
of the wiper stalk.
T5012243
•
•
•
•
•
•
O = Off
A = Engine Brake Cruise Control ? In this position when Cruise Control is enabled
and vehicle speed exceeds the set cruise speed, the I-VEB will engage with infinite
control (within the limits of the engine brake) to maintain that speed
1 = 40% Engine Braking
2 = 70% Engine Braking
3 = 100% Engine Braking
B = I-Shift Brake Program — When ordered in conjunction with the Volvo I-Shift
Transmission, the controls are integrated
96 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Cummins ISX Intebrake
Standard: Two dash switches control the 3-level engine brake; the left dash switch
controls ON/OFF, the right dash switch controls LOW/MED/HIGH.
W3005433
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 97
Optional: A 6-level retarder stalk switch mounted to the right of the steering column.
An ON/OFF switch at the end of the stalk lever enables/disables the engine brake.
W3005373
98 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEMS
There are two different air conditioning systems. Depending on your vehicle, you will
have one of these two air conditioning units installed:
1 Electronic Climate Control (EEC)
2 Manual Climate Control (MCC)
Note: For both climate control systems (ECC and MCC), after a pre-determined
number of "vehicle starts" the climate unit will recalibrate the door positions, which
may take several seconds before the airflow returns to the selected distribution mode.
AIR CONDITIONING ELECTRONIC CLIMATE CONTROL (ECC)
W8003062
1 AC OFF button: turns the air conditioning OFF. The arrow in the illustration
shows the LED light which is AMBER or RED indicating the AC compressor
is OFF. The ECC will still try to maintain the selected temperature in the cab
without the compressor.
2 Temperature Knob
3 Fan Speed Knob
4 Recirculation Button
5 Air Distribution Knob
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 99
Recirculation
Press recirculation to circulate the air in the cab. Only a small amount of air is taken
directly from outside.
The light in the button comes on when the button is pressed for air recirculation.
Temperature Control Settings ECC
Maximum Cold Setting
The temperature knob should be set to the far left. The fan speed knob should be set to
AUTO and the air distribution knob should be on AUTO.
Maximum Heat Setting
The temperature knob should be set to the far right. The fan speed knob should be set
to AUTO and the air distribution knob should be on AUTO.
Normal Setting
When the temperature control is set to any temperature between 18°C and 27°C (64°F
and 80°F), the ECC automatically adjusts itself close to the selected temperature,
similar to a thermostat
Fan Speed
The fan speeds are 1 through 4. The fan will not operate when "0" is selected, but air
will flow when set to fresh air mode due to ram air effect when the truck is moving.
•
The ECC automatically circulates air at fan speed 4 when there is a big difference
between the selected temperature and the temperature measured by the in-cab
sensor. However, as the temperature in the cab gets closer to the selected
temperature, the fan speed begins to slow down.
•
If maximum cold or maximum heat are selected, the ECC automatically circulates
air at fan speed 4 when AUT is selected. At any other selected fan speed the system
adjusts and conforms to the chosen speed.
100 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Mist and Ice Removal
DANGER
DO NOT attempt to drive with the
windshield covered by mist, or fog or
frost. The visibility is reduced, which
could lead to an accident causing severe
personal injury or death.
1 Turn knob to defrost.
2 Rotate the temperature knob to add heat as necessary.
3 Set the fan speed knob to maximum (the extreme right).
Use these instructions to keep the windshield clear at all times. Maximum heat output
for fast defrosting can only happen after the engine has reached operating temperature.
While driving in extreme cold, adding heat to the windshield may change drifting
snow to ice, in this case, setting the air distribution to floor and/or panel only may
allow the drifting snow to be brushed off by the windshield wiper. Clean the inside of
the window using normal window cleaner in order to minimize the risk of misting.
Clean more often if a passenger smokes in the cab.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 101
ECC Air Distribution
W8003067
1 Temperature Sensor
CAUTION
The temperature sensor shown in the
illustration, detects the temperature in
the cab. DO NOT cover the sensor,
and DO NOT place warm objects, like
coffee makers or refrigerators, close to
the sensor.
Always allow the dashboard vents (see arrows in illustration) to remain open.
Irrespective of how the air distribution is set, a small amount of air will always come
from the dashboard vents to ensure the temperature in the cab is correct.
Note: Floor Mode: Unheated air is leaked to the panel vent to balance the heat rising
from the floor.
102 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
AIR CONDITIONING MANUAL CLIMATE
CONTROL (MCC)
One difference in the Manual Climate Control unit is the AC ON button.
W8003066
1 AC ON button turns the air conditioning ON.
2 Temperature Control Knob
3 Fan Speed Knob
4 Recirculation Button
5 Air Distribution Knob
Note: The LED light is green when the AC button is depressed. When the AC ON
button is NOT depressed and the compressor or AC is heard, this is not a fault in
the system. The AC will operate in defrost mode whether the AC ON button is
depressed or not.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 103
Recirculation
Press recirculation to circulate the air in the cab. Only a small amount of air is taken
directly from outside.
The light in the button comes on when the button is pressed for air recirculation.
Temperature Control Settings MCC
Move the knob to the blue bar for cool air to circulate in the cab, and to the red bar
for warm to hot air to circulate in the cab. Select the desired fan speed starting from
1 to 4. "0" is not a fan speed.
Mist and Ice Removal
DANGER
DO NOT attempt to drive with the
windshield covered by mist, or fog or
frost. The visibility is reduced, which
could lead to an accident causing severe
personal injury or death.
1 Turn knob to defrost.
2 Rotate the temperature knob to add heat as necessary.
3 Set the fan to maximum (the extreme right).
Use these instructions to keep the windshield clear at all times. Maximum heat output
for fast defrosting can only happen after the engine has reached operating temperature.
While driving in extreme cold, adding heat to the windshield may change drifting
snow to ice, in this case, setting the air distribution to floor and/or panel only may
allow the drifting snow to be brushed off by the windshield wiper.
Clean the inside of the window using normal window cleaner in order to minimize the
risk of misting. Clean more often if a passenger smokes in the cab.
104 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
MCC Air Distribution
W8003110
Always allow the dashboard vents (see arrows in illustration) to remain open.
Irrespective of how the air distribution is set, a small amount of air will always come
from the dashboard vents to ensure the temperature in the cab is correct.
Note: Floor Mode: Unheated air is leaked
to the panel vent to balance the heat rising
from the floor.
DANGER
Diesel engine exhaust and some of
its content are known to the state of
California to cause cancer, birth defects
or other reproductive harm.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 105
If at any time there is any question whether fumes are entering the cab, determine the
cause of the fumes and have it corrected as soon as possible. If the vehicle must be
driven under these conditions, drive only with all windows open.
Protect against carbon monoxide entry into the cab. Keep the engine exhaust system,
cab and cab ventilation system properly maintained. It is recommended that the
exhaust system and cab are inspected by a competent technician:
•
•
•
At every engine oil change.
Whenever a change is noticed in the sound of the exhaust system.
Whenever the exhaust system, underbody or cab is damaged.
To allow proper operation of the vehicle ventilation system, keep the inlet grille at the
base of the windshield clear of snow, ice, leaves and other obstructions at all times.
DO NOT park the vehicle and let the engine run or idle for more than 10 minutes with
the ventilation system control switch in the OFF position. Even with the ventilation
system ON, running the engine while parked or stopped for long periods of time is
not recommended. Entry of carbon monoxide into the cab is possible with a poorly
repaired, damaged or corroded exhaust system or cab.
DO NOT run the engine in confined areas, such as garages or next to a building, any
more than necessary. The area must be properly ventilated. When the vehicle must be
stopped with the engine running for more than a few minutes:
•
Adjust the heating or cooling system to force outside air into the cab. Do this by
setting the fan to medium or high speed and with the controls set in any position
except for recirculation of air inside of the cab.
•
Keep the exhaust pipe area clear to help reduce the buildup of exhaust gas under
the vehicle.
106 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
SLEEPER CLIMATE UNIT
The sleeper cabs have an A/C and heater unit that is located in the passenger side
luggage compartment. The sleeper unit operates from the same heater and air
conditioning supply as the main unit. The heater can be operated independently from
the main unit as long as the engine is running.
For the air conditioning to operate, the engine must be running, the air conditioning
button must be pressed in and the fan control must be set at least for speed 1 on the
main control panel.
Air is taken from the sleeper area through a filter in the lower bunk support wall and
heated or cooled in the "underbunk" unit. Outlet air can be directed with the vents in
the side walls.
For the best results when using the air conditioning, direct the air flow upward in the
sleeper area.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 107
LIGHT CONTROL PANEL
Exterior lighting is controlled through the light control panel. The rotary knob
controls the parking lights, headlights, and the optional fog and driving lights. The
panel also has a dimmer control switch and hazard switch.
W3005377
1 Off
2 Parking Lights
3 Headlights
4 Fog and Driving Lights (Optional)
5 Hazard Lights
6 Dimmer Control
108 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Fog and Driving Lights
Fog and driving lights are wired so they are turned on only when the headlight control
is on. Fog lights are used with the low beam headlights. Driving lights are used with
the high beam headlights. Switching from low to high beam will automatically switch
from fog lights to driving lights. Driving and fog lights should be used when driving
conditions require additional lighting. The driving or fog lights should NOT be used
in traffic where they might distract other drivers thereby creating a safety hazard.
W3005410
VNM Fog and Driving Lights
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 109
W3005274
VNL Fog and Driving Lights
110 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
SLEEPER CONTROL PANEL (SLEEPER
MODELS ONLY)
The sleeper control module is located behind the driver’s seat. It provides precise
temperature control to the sleeper unit. There are separate temperature and fan control
systems for the sleeper and the cab area. The driver can control the fan speed in the
sleeper using a control switch on the dash. Also, radio controls are available.
Note: If an error occurs while using the Sleeper Control Panel, restart the unit to
verify if the error clears out. If the error continues to appear on the unit’s display
screen, bring in the vehicle for servicing.
CAUTION
To avoid component damage, do not use
alcohol based cleaners on the Sleeper
Control Panel display screen.
CAUTION
Do Not place magnets or
electro-magnetic devices near the
Sleeper Control Panel. Doing so may
result in damage to the module.
W3005382
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 111
W3030107
1 Panel in VN 730 ,780 and
2 Panel in VN 430, 630, 670
Note: High Sleeper or Basic Sleeper Control Panel are NOT cab model
dependent
This dual control usage provides optimum comfort to the driver and passenger (if any)
in both compartments. The sleeper control module is used to operate the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Auxiliary Heating, Venting and Air Conditioning
Alarm Clock/Timer
Interior Sleeper Lights
Circuit Protection (fuses)
Low Voltage Disconnect (LVD) Alert and Override Control
Parking Heater (Optional)
Parking Heater Shutdown (user selectable) with LVD option only
Lighting Timer
Panic (Horn) Switch
Radio Control (High Version Only)
112 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Sleeper Controls
Sleeper Control Panel, High
W3030106
1 Display Screen: Displays selected information.
2 On/Off button
3 Radio Forward Scan/Search/Next Track
4 Radio Power
5 Menu/Snooze Button: This button allows you to adjust settings in the display
screen and activate the clock’s snooze option.
6 Fan Speed Control and Battery Protection Override Switch: This can be controlled
from the sleeper control module or from the dash rocker switch.
7 Temperature Control Knob: Controls temperature for the Parking Heater and the
Auxiliary Heating, Venting and Air Conditioning (A-HVAC).
8 Speaker: Sounds when the alarm or timer goes off, or when entering battery
protection mode.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 113
9 Fuses
10 Panic button
11 LED: Only used for low voltage conditions.
12 Overhead Lamp Switch: This can be controlled from the sleeper control module or
from the dash rocker switch.
13 Mode Switch: Changes mode of radio
14 Radio Reverse Scan/Search/Next Track
15 Set button
16 Increment/Decrement Knob: Use this knob to adjust the Volume level.
114 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Sleeper Control Panel, Basic
W3030078
1 Overhead Lamp Switch: This can be controlled from the sleeper control module or
from the dash rocker switch.
2 Speaker: Sounds when the alarm or timer goes off, or when entering battery
protection mode.
3 Display Screen: Displays selected information.
4 Menu/Snooze Button: This button allows you to adjust settings in the display
screen and activate the clock’s snooze option.
5 On/Off
6 Set button
7 Temperature Control Knob: Controls temperature for the Parking Heater and the
Auxiliary Heating, Venting and Air Conditioning (A-HVAC).
8 Fan Speed
9 LED: Only used for low voltage conditions.
10 Panic button
11 Fuses
12 Increment/Decrement Knob: Use this knob to adjust the Volume level.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 115
Set Clock
To set the clock for the Sleeper Control Panel, perform the following:
1 Press the SET button.
2 To set the clock to either ’12’ or ’24’ hour increments, use the “+” or “-” knob.
3 Press the SET button.
4 To set the clock Hour, use the “+” or “-” knob.
5 Press the SET button.
6 To set the clock Minute, use the “+” or “-” knob.
7 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
Once the clock is set to the desired time, the clock displays.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the SET button
to restart.
Note: On vehicles equipped with the High Sleeper Control Panel is connected to the
Instrument Cluster and the Clock will automatically be updated by the time message
the Instrument Cluster sends out.
Note: On vehicles equipped with the Basic Sleeper Control Panel it is NOT connected
to the Instrument Cluster so the clock will blink until the user sets the clock.
Note: The clock Will need to be set every time the battery disconnect switch is used.
Note: Only 12 hr format shows the AM/PM icon
Note: User settings will be stored in memory, Sleeper Control functions will not be
activated when the disconnect switch is turned back on. The user will need to turn
the functions back-on manually.
Note: The vehicle is equipped with a battery protection system. The vehicle detects
when the batteries are excessively discharged. If this occurs, an indication light and
audible alarm are emitted. This indicates that some of the circuits will be disconnected
in order to maintain engine starting capacity. If a battery disconnect occurs the
defaults for the sleeper control panel are saved. These default settings are available
after the battery disconnect is cancelled.
Note: The Panic button activates a 5 second horn audible. The Panic button must
be held for 2.5 seconds for the horn to sound. This delay avoids an inadvertent
activation of the horn.
Note: After 5 minutes of inactivity the display will shut off.
116 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Dimmer
To adjust the backlighting brightness level, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button.
2 Press the SET button.
3 Use the “+” or “-” knob to adjust the brightness level.
4 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
Once the backlighting brightness is set to the desired level, the display goes back
to the clock.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
Turning Alarm On/Off
To turn the alarm On/Off, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button twice.
2 Press ON/OFF.
3 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
This process toggles the Alarm between the On/Off position and returns to the clock
display. The Alarm icon is toggled on or off accordingly.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 117
Setting Alarm Time
To set the alarm time, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button twice.
2 Press SET button.
3 Use the “+” or “-” knob to adjust the hour value.
4 Press SET to accept the set hour.
5 Use the “+” or “-” knob to adjust the minute value.
6 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
Once the alarm time is set the display returns to the clock and the Alarm icon is
illuminated.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
Turning Heater On/Off
To turn the heater On/Off , perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button three times.
The Heat icon blinks. The heat control value displays either as OFF, Auto or
Cycle depending on the previous setting.
2 Press ON/OFF button to toggle between the On/Off position.
3 After selecting the desired setting, press the SET button to confirm settings.
The Parking Heater is turned On/Off. The Sleeper Control Panel display returns to
the clock. The Heat icon is tuned On/Off accordingly. The LVD icon is also turned
ON/OFF depending on the LVD control of the Parking Heater setting, explained
below in this section.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
118 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Setting the Sleeper Control Panel Heat Control Value to Auto
Auto Set a time in the future to automatically turn ON. Will remain ON until manually
turned OFF.
To set the Sleeper Control Panel heater to Auto, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button three times.
The Heat icon blinks. The heat control value displays either as OFF, Auto or
Cycle depending on the previous setting.
2 Press the SET button,Heat is displayed.
3 Use “+” or “-” to chose Auto.
4 Press the SET button, ON/OFF is displayed.
5 Press the SET button, time is displayed, Hour is flashing.
6 Use the “+” or “-” knob to set Hour.
7 Press the SET button, Minutes is flashing.
8 Use the “+” or “-” knob to set Minutes.
9 Press the SET button, to confirm settings.
Once the Auto setting is confirmed for the parking heater, the Sleeper Control Panel
display goes back to the clock. The HEAT icon is also displayed. The LVD Icon is
also turned ON/OFF depending on the LVD control of the Parking Heater setting,
explained below in this section.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 119
Setting the Sleeper Control Panel Heat Control Value to Cycle
Cycle Set a cycle time to continuously cycle between ON/OFF
To set the Sleeper Control Panel heater to Cycle, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button three times.
The Heat icon blinks. The heat control value displays either as OFF, Auto or
Cycle depending on the previous setting.
2 Press the SET button,Heat is displayed.
3 Use “+” or “-” to chose Cycle.
4 Press the SET button, ON/OFF is displayed.
5 Press the SET button, time is displayed, Hour is flashing.
6 Use the “+” or “-” knob to set Hour.
7 Press the SET button, Minutes is flashing.
8 Use the “+” or “-” knob to set Minutes.
9 Press the SET button, to confirm settings.
Once the Cycle setting is confirmed for the parking heater, the Sleeper Control Panel
display goes back to the clock. The HEAT icon is also displayed. The LVD Icon is
also turned ON/OFF depending on the LVD control of the Parking Heater setting,
explained below in this section.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
Turning Sleeper Control Panel Timer On/Off
To turn the Sleeper Control Panel Timer on or off, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button four times.
The Timer icon blinks on or off.
2 Press the ON/OFF button until ON or OFF is displayed.
3 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
Once the Timer setting is confirmed, the Sleeper Control Panel display goes back to
the clock. The TIMER icon is also displayed.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
120 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Setting Sleeper Control Panel Timer
To set the Sleeper Control Panel Timer, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button four times.
The TIMER icon blinks.
2 Press the SET button.
3 To set the Timer minutes, use the “+” or “-” knob.
4 Press the SET button.
5 To set the Timer seconds, use the “+” or “-” knob.
6 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
Once the Timer is set to the desired time, the display goes back to the clock and the
TIMER icon is shown.
Note: Alarm will sound when the Timer counter reaches 00:00. Press the ON/OFF
button, to turn alarm OFF .
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
Turning the LVD Audible ON/OFF
To turn the LVD On/Off for the Sleeper Control Panel, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button five times.
2 Press the ON/OFF button.
3 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
The LVD audible alarm toggles between On/Off and the display goes back to the
clock.
Setting the LVD Control of the Parking Heater
To set whether the LVD will turn off the parking heater, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button five times.
The LVD icon blinks and the display shows ON.
2 To set the Parking Heater shutdown to ON/OFF, press the SET button (Heat and
LVD icon will blink).
3 Use the “+” or “-” knob to chose ON/OFF.
4 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
The LVD is set to shut down the parking heater. The display returns to the clock and
the LVD icon is illuminated The setting is active only if the LVD is set in the On
position and the Heater is active.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 121
Turning the Lamp Timer ON/OFF
Lamp Timer Turns interior lamps off after a set time.
To turn the Lamp Timer On/Off for the Sleeper Control Panel, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button six times.
The Lamp Icon flashes.
2 Press ON/OFF.
3 Press the SET button to confirm settings.
The Lamp Timer is turned On/Off, and the display returns to the clock. The Lamp
icon toggles between On/Off accordingly.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
Setting the Lamp Timer
To set the Lamp Timer, perform the following:
1 Press the MENU button six times.
The Lamp Icon flashes.
2 Press the SET button.
3 To set the timer minutes, use the “+” or “-” knob.
4 Press the SET button.
5 To set the timer seconds, use the “+” or “-” knob.
6 Press the SET button to confirm settings..
The Lamp timer is set to the desired time. The display returns to the clock and the
Lamp Icon is illuminated.
Note: After 7 seconds of inactivity the display returns to clock. Press the MENU
button to restart.
122 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
MISCELLANEOUS CAB EQUIPMENT
Cup Holders and Trash Compartment
There is a trash bin holder at the lower part of the dash. To open, press the top part
of the lid in and the lid will fold out. To close, press the lid in until the latch closes.
There are also two dash-mounted cup holders convenient to the driver and passenger.
Trash bin: (Removable), Located below the 12 V power outlet.
W8003490
1 Driver Cup Holder
2 Trash Bin
3 Passenger Cup Holder
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 123
Sleeper cup holder:
Located on the left lower tower cabinet, for the bottom bunk. There is another cup
holder located on the left upper tower cabinet for the upper bunk.
W8003181
124 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Curtains
Curtains are available for all the sleeper cabs to ensure privacy and to darken the cabin
from outside light. Various configurations are available. Curtains can cover the whole
windshield area or go across the sleeper opening.
When the curtains are not in use, they are stored out of the way and held in place
with velcro straps.
W8028428
1 Windshield Curtains
2 Sleeper Curtain
3 Sleeper Window Cover
4 Sky Light Cover
Covers for the VN 670 are to be stored in a rolled-up position in the opening behind
the cabinet.
The covers for the VN 780 side windows are stored behind the backrest cushions. All
covers are put on with snap buttons that are on the cover and window rim, with the
exception of the sky light cover.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 125
STEERING COLUMN
Ignition Switch
The ignition switch is located on the right side of the steering column just under the
steering wheel. Standard equipment is a normal ignition switch.
Note: The vehicle is delivered with 2 identical keys. If more keys are needed, order
them through your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
The ignition positions are:
•
•
•
•
A — Radio, Accessories
B — Off
C — Drive
D — Start
The key can only be removed when in the B or Off position. For full starting
instructions, see “STARTING THE ENGINE”, page 298.
W3028429
126 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Windshield Wiper/Washer
Note: Make sure the ignition is in the Off position to avoid draining the battery.
The wiper/washer functions are operated by the same lever. The wipers have normal
and fast speeds which are activated by moving the lever down one or two positions. To
let the wipers engage for a few passes, lightly depress the lever until the wipers start
and hold it there. The wipers return to the parking position when the lever is released.
The interval wiper function is engaged by moving the lever up. The normal
programmed speed is one pass every 10 seconds. To shorten the interval time, move
the lever to normal wipe position and then to the interval position again when the next
wiper pass is desired. This way, the interval can be programmed between 1 to 10
seconds between each pass.
To operate the windshield washer, pull the lever toward the steering wheel. If washer
fluid needs to be added, use a commercially reputable washer fluid that has good
cleaning capability and does not freeze in cold weather.
An indicator will appear in the DID when the washer fluid level is low. See
"Windshield Washer Reservoir" on page435 for washer level capacity. A 10 second
activation delay allows for fluid slosh.
W3006064
Note: In the VNM 200 Day Cab (Short fairing) the washer fluid indicator is NOT
displayed in the instrument cluster.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 127
ADJUSTABLE STEERING COLUMN
DANGER
DO NOT try to make adjustments to
the steering wheel while the vehicle
is moving. Never operate the vehicle
with the steering wheel adjusted to
its uppermost position (exiting cab
position). Make all adjustments before
starting the vehicle, to prevent loss
of vehicle control, which can cause
personal injury or death.
The adjustment device is operated by a pedal on the left side of the floor. To make
adjustments, press the pedal down and move the steering column to the desired
position, then release the pedal.
W8003840
128 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
STEERING WHEEL CONTROLS
Left-Hand Controls
• Marker Interrupt (Bottom)
• Headlamp Interrupt (Top)
When either switch is pressed, the corresponding lights toggle from their current state.
If OFF they change to ON and if ON they change to OFF. When pressed for more than
3 seconds, the lights revert automatically to the initial state.
W3005294
Right-Hand Controls
•
Radio controls
Press +, up or -, down to change the radio volume.
Press the switch left or right to change radio stations. The radio will seek the next
station with a strong signal.
W3005304
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 129
MISCELLANEOUS SWITCHES
Horn Switches
Electric and air horns are standard equipment. They are both operated from the
steering wheel or center pad.
The airbag can be pressed down anywhere around the edge to engage the air horn.
W6001503
1 Air Horn
2 Electric Horn (city horn)
130 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
INTERIOR LIGHTS
The cab is equipped with separate and combined interior and reading lights in various
locations in the cab. The front seat overhead lights can be turned on at any time using
the switch in the fixture. This is a three-way switch, pressing the lamp turns the light
ON, OFF or the light comes on with the door being opened. When the switch is in the
middle position, the light does not turn on, even when the door is opened.
WARNING
Using bulbs or lamps other than those
specified may result in failures that
could overheat and lead to a fire or a
vehicle accident caused by improper
lighting.
W3006790
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 131
Interior Lights
Chart Number
Description
1
Overhead Dome Lamp
1
Overhead Dome/Spot Lamp connected to door
2
Door Courtesy Lamp
3
Dome Lamp — Sleeper
4
Reading Lamp under bunk storage
5
Reading Lamp
6
Overhead Lamp — Short
7
Overhead Lamp — Long
8
Overhead Dome/Spot Lamp
Note: To prevent short service lift, DO NOT touch the glass surface of the
replacement bulb.
WARNING
The lamp assemblies may get warm to
the touch. DO NOT cover the lamps
with any object.
Most of the vehicle interior lights are activated by pressing on a push button on the
lower end of the lamp. There are two external switches for the interior lights, one
located on the dash panel, to the immediate left of the steering column, and the other
is on the sleeper area control panel.
132 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
The red courtesy light comes on when the door is opened. The lens is red to alert
oncoming traffic from the rear that the door is open. It is also used during night driving
to light up the floor area and steps without distracting the driver with a glaring light.
CAUTION
DO NOT use sleeves of any kind over
bulbs in the interior lamps. The bulbs
may over heat causing damage to the
fixture including possible fire.
W8003521
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 133
The door latch has an internal switch that operates all door-activated lights.
W8003522
134 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Fresh Air Vent
A. Closed
B. Open
C. Vertical Air Flow
D. Lateral Air Flow
T0008094
When heating the cab, all vents should be closed. However, the vents on the outer parts
of the dash can be used for defrosting the cab door windows. When operating the air
conditioning, all air vents should be completely open and the air flow directed upward.
DANGER
DO NOT breathe the engine exhaust
gas. It contains carbon monoxide,
which has no color or odor. Carbon
monoxide is a dangerous gas which can
cause unconsciousness or death.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 135
CAB VENTILATION, SLEEPER
In sleeper versions (except the VN 780 and VN 730) there is a fresh air vent located
on each cab side wall. It opens to two positions so the air flow can be regulated.
W8003135
The vent also opens toward the front or toward the rear. This can be used for forcing
air into the cab (open toward the front) or for venting air out of the cab (open toward
the rear).
CAUTION
The vent should not be used during
rain, while washing the vehicle or other
circumstances where water may enter
the cab while the vent is open. To
prevent leaks, make sure the handle
rollers are on the top center part of the
cams.
Earlier production versions of the VN 780 are equipped with four hinged side
windows in the sleeper area. Later production versions have two hinged side windows
in the sleeper area and two upper vent windows.
Earlier production versions of the VN 670 have only the two upper windows. Later
production versions have two upper vent windows.
136 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W8003823
1 VN 780 and VN 670 Vent Window
2 VN 780 Hinged Side Window
The VN 730 is equipped with two hinged side windows in the sleeper area.
DO NOT force the window crank mechanism in the fully open position. The
mechanism can be damaged if you try to open the window beyond the stop position.
CAUTION
Make sure the windows are closed
before washing the cab. Water can enter
the cab through the window opening.
CAUTION
Do not open the cab sleeper windows
when the vehicle is in motion. Opening
the windows while the vehicle is
in motion will damage the sleeper
windows.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 137
12 Volt Power Outlets
CAUTION
DO NOT connect a device with a
current rating in excess of 10 amps or
the amount labeled.
There are a number of 12 V outlets that can be accessed in the cab.
There is a power outlet on the sleeper control panel. The outlet is covered by a cap
that is pulled out for access.
W3005298
The outlet is made for 12 V accessory-type plug.
138 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
12 Volt Locations
There is an optional power outlet in the driver and passenger side cabinets.
Accessories for this cabinet will have ON/OFF switches of their own.
The cabinet 12 V outlets are made for 12 V accessory-type plugs.
W3005508
VN 780, VN 730
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 139
W3005500
VN 780, VN 730
140 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Inverter Switch 12 V DC to 120 V AC
DANGER
When parked on wet ground, avoid
using an external power source to
connect the cab power plug. Water
is a conductor of electricity. In wet
conditions, electrical shock can occur
which can result in personal injury or
death.
This switch turns ON the optional power inverter, located near the battery
compartment.
The power inverter takes the DC voltage from the batteries and changes it to AC
voltage, which is then fed to the 120 V shore power electrical system within the cab
area.
The power inverter option can be ordered only if the 120 V shore power electrical
system is specified.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 141
W3005980
This is a typical setup with a factory-installed inverter.
1 External Power Plug
2 Load Center
3 Inverter (if equipped)
142 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Note: A tripped circuit is usually an indication of a fault in the circuit, or of an
appliance being supplied with power. Every effort should be made to identify and
correct any fault that exists.
120 Volt System and Outlets
DANGER
When parked on wet ground, avoid
using an external power source to
connect the cab power plug. Water
is a conductor of electricity. In wet
conditions, electrical shock can occur
which can result in personal injury or
death.
The VN 730, 780, 670 and 630 are available with an optional 120 V AC service, used
for longer parking while still living in the vehicle. The 120 V AC service is supplied
from outside sources. To hook up the service, there is a socket located behind the
driver side door.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 143
W3005284
Power goes through a circuit breaker box located on the front wall in the driver side
luggage compartment. On the right is an ON/OFF switch and on the left is the ground
fault circuit interrupter. The controls may also be reached from inside the cab through
the hatch under the mattress or cushion.
144 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W3005967
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 145
From the breaker box in the VN 780 and 730, power goes to the three outlets as a
standard feature. In the VN 670 and 630 models, the outlet on the driver side lower
bunk box is standard, and the tower cabinet middle compartments (1) each have
an optional outlet.
W3005340
1 120 Volt Outlet
2 External 120 Volt Receptacle
3 Circuit Breaker Box
146 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W3005343
120 Volt System Wiring, VN 670, VN 630
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 147
W3005342
120 Volt System Components, VN 670, VN 630
1 120 Volt Outlet
2 External 120 Volt Receptacle
3 Circuit Breaker Box
148 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Cigar Lighter
To operate the cigar lighter, press the center in until it stays in. The heating element
will heat up and pop the lighter out when it is ready for use. The ash tray is located
next to the cigar lighter.
W3005271
The cigar lighter socket is optimized for use with cigar lighter heating element. This
socket should not be used as an auxiliary 12 V power supply because there are many
aftermarket power plugs available, with different dimensions. Some of these may
deform the lighter socket’s tangs and cause it not to work properly. If an auxiliary
socket is needed, the cigar lighter assembly may be replaced with the approved Volvo
12 V power socket.
CAUTION
DO NOT connect a device with a
current rating in excess of 10 amps or
the amount labeled.
CAUTION
Using a 12 V power plug in the lighter
socket may damage the socket.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 149
PARKING HEATER (OPTIONAL, SLEEPER
MODELS ONLY)
DANGER
DO NOT fuel the vehicle or handle
flammable liquids in the vicinity of
an operating parking heater. The fuel
vapors can be ignited, causing an
explosion or fire resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
DANGER
DO NOT store flammable items close
to the parking heater or put items on top
of it. Flammable items should not be
closer than 50 mm (2 inches). The item
may ignite and cause a fire resulting in
severe personal injury or death.
WARNING
The parking heater is a very hot object.
DO NOT touch the heater when it
is in operation or shortly thereafter.
Touching a heater may cause burns to
exposed skin.
CAUTION
The heater air inlet is located in the
bunk wall in front of the heater. DO
NOT attempt to put small items or store
flat items between the bunk and the
cabinet/refrigerator. The air intake can
be blocked which causes the heater to
overheat and shut down.
DANGER
DO NOT run heater while vehicle is in
an enclosed area. The exhaust gasses
contain carbon monoxide (CO). If not
vented to the atmosphere, there could
be a buildup of dangerous levels of CO
which may lead to unconsciousness and
later death.
The parking heater is a diesel fuel burner that heats the air in the cab. Air is taken from
the cab and returned heated. Combustion air and exhaust is taken from, and released
to the outside air.
To safeguard from the heater operating after a turnover accident, there is a fuel
shut-off valve in the fuel delivery system.
150 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Fuel Parking Heater
Note: The parking heater is not available if the vehicle is equipped with a sink.
A fuel heated parking heater is available as an option. It is located in the left-hand
luggage compartment. The heater provides automatically regulated heat that is
distributed through its own vents into the sleeper section of the cab.
W8002480
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 151
ANTENNAS
General
3 Radio AM/FM
1 Multiband
4 TV Antenna
2 Multiplexer (Rami)
Multiband Antenna
There are antennas mounted on the top of the mirror brackets for wideband reception.
They receive or send signals for radio, CB and telephone. Each antenna carries
multiple wire windings that work together with mirror bracket devices to cover the
needs of many uses.
If the antenna is damaged, replace it only with a multiband type antenna. A regular
antenna does not have the wiring necessary to give good reception for all uses.
W3005287
152 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Antenna Multiplexer
W3005509
1 Cellular Phone Antenna Cable
2 Radio Antenna Cable Connection
3 Phone Cable Connection
4 CB Radio Antenna Cable Connection
Communication signals that travel to and from the antennas go through the antenna
multiplexer. It is standard in the VN 670 and VN 780, and optional on other models.
Coaxial cables for the cellular phone, CB radio and radio are included in the
multiplexer system — all using the same set of antennas.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 153
The multiplexer is accessed through the lower dash panels. Cable routing is as
shown in the illustration above. Use only genuine Volvo replacement parts for this
multiplexer system; standard antennas will give unsatisfactory performance. The
windings in the antennas are specific to this system: different sections of the antenna
are used for the cellular phone, radio and CB.
Note: The location of the CB may vary. CB connections can be located
either in the dash or overhead storage area, depending on vehicle options. See
"COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT" “COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT”, page
155.
TELEVISION
WARNING
All items within the cab must be secured
before the vehicle is set in motion. This
includes, but is not limited to, drinks,
clothes, books, televisions, etc. In the
event of a sudden stop or collision,
loose items could fly around inside the
cab. This could cause personal injury.
The VN 780, VN 730, VN 670 and VN 630 are already equipped for TV with a
pre-installed antenna. The TV should be installed in the passenger side cabinet where
there is a standard 12 V connection or an optional 120 V connection.
To prevent the TV set from moving when the vehicle is driven, the strap in the TV
storage area should be tight around the set. Position the strap across the front corners
of the TV.
154 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W0002361
There is an optional television speaker available, located in the top of the sleeper
switch panel. Beside the speaker, there is a jack for headphones. This is provided for
silent viewing of the TV. When the headset jack is plugged in, the speaker is cut out.
Note: The TV prep kit is optional.
TV Antenna
CAUTION
DO NOT pierce or drill through the
headliner. The TV antenna may be
damaged.
The TV antenna for the VN 780, VN 730 and VN 830 is standard equipment.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 155
COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT
CB Radio
There is an optional platform provided for a CB radio on top of the dash. The unit is
held in place with a strap which can accommodate a variety of sizes.
W3006382
The CB radio can also be mounted in the overhead storage. See "STORAGE
COMPARTMENTS" “STORAGE COMPARTMENTS”, page 156.
156 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Telephone
There is room on the dash for a mobile telephone. This can be hooked up to the
multiplex box.
If the vehicle is delivered with a multiplex box, the connecting end of the telephone
coaxial cable should be located at the lower dash cover.
Note: The panel must be removed to access the cable.
Road Relay (Optional)
The Road Relay is an engine communication tool that allows the driver to have fuel
consumption, time and mileage readouts and also programmed reminders for service
intervals. The Road Relay should be permanently mounted directly below the radio.
Collected data can be downloaded for use in a stationary computer where the data can
be collected and compared over time.
STORAGE COMPARTMENTS
DANGER
Heavy objects must be stored only in
the outside storage areas or secured
on the floor. Cabinets and storage
compartments are designed for clothing
and lighter personal effects only. In the
event of a collision, heavy, unsecured
objects in overhead storage can come
loose and cause severe personal injury
or death to the driver or passengers.
WARNING
All items within the cab must be secured
before the vehicle is set in motion. This
includes, but is not limited to, drinks,
clothes, books, televisions, etc. In the
event of a collision, loose items could
fly around inside the cab. This could
cause personal injury.
CAUTION
DO NOT overload the cab suspension.
Make sure the weight distribution is
equal in the cab. Overloading the
suspension leads to poor ride and
lowered driving comfort.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 157
To prevent the television and microwave oven from moving when the vehicle is
driven, the strap in the storage area should be tight around the unit. Position the strap
across the front corners of the unit. Periodically, check that the strap is tight and
retighten as necessary.
W0002361
158 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Front Overhead Storage
There are two configurations of overhead storage compartments mounted over the
windshield: five openings with nets, or CB radio, switch panel, and three openings
with nets.
The storage compartments have a maximum storage weight limit of approximately 1.1
kg (2.5 lb.) per opening or a total of 5.6 kg (12.5 lb.) evenly distributed.
W8003782
Five Openings with Nets
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 159
W8003821
CB Radio, Switch Panel and Three Openings with Nets
160 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
There are two configurations of forward overhead shelves at the front of the sleeper:
without cabinets or with cabinets. The storage compartments have a maximum storage
weight limit of approximately 3.6 kg (8 lb.) per section.
W8003794
Forward Overhead Shelf without Cabinets
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 161
W8003793
Forward Overhead Shelf with Cabinets
162 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
VN 780 Storage
W8003805
1. 3 kg (6.6 lb.)
2. 3 kg (6.6 lb.)
3. 4 kg (8.8 lb.)
4. 15 kg (33.1 lb.) with TV, 6 kg (13
lb.) without TV
5. Hang Rod (Standard) 9 kg (19.8
lb.)
6. (Standard) 18 kg (39.6 lb.)
7. 3 kg (6.6 lb.)8.3 kg (6.6 lb.)
9. 4 kg (8.8 lb.)
10. 15 kg (33.1 lb.) with TV, 6 kg (13
lb.) without TV
11. 4 kg (8.8 lb.)
12. 5 kg (9.9 lb.)
13. 6 kg (13.2 lb.)
14. 6 kg (13.2 lb.)
15. 45 kg (99 lb.) with refrigerator,
6.5 kg (14 lb.) without refrigerator
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 163
VN 780 Bunk Storage
W8003157
1 Storage Bins
2 Storage Compartment
3 Storage Compartment
4 Exterior Side Storage Compartment
164 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
VNL 730 Storage
W0002358
1. 6 kg (13 lb.) without refrigerator,
45 kg (99 lb.) equally distributed with
78 L refrigerator
2. 6 kg (13 lb.) without refrigerator,
45 kg (99 lb.) equally distributed with
78 L refrigerator
3. 4 kg (8.8 lb.)
4. 15 kg (33.1 lb.)
Note: Do not load the sink, if equipped.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
3 kg (6.6 lb.)
3 kg (6.6 lb.)
13.6 kg (30 lb.)
10 kg (22 lb.) on hanger rod
9 kg (19.8 lb.)
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 165
W8028486
Load Limits
166 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
1. 5 kg (9.9
lb.) with 44 L
refrigerator
2. 4 kg (8.8 lb.)
if shelf, 5 kg (9.9
lb.) if refrigerator
3. 15 kg (33.1 lb.)
4. 3 kg (6.6 lb.)
5. 13.6 kg (30 lb.)
6. 10 kg (22 lb.)
on hanger rod
W8028487
Load Limits
1. 15 kg (33 lb) with 44 L refrigerator
2. 10 kg (22 lb)
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 167
VNL 730 Bunk Storage
W8028488
Load Limits
1. Storage Compartment
2. Storage Compartment
3.Exterior Side Storage Compartment
168 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
VN 670, 630, 430
W8028489
Load Limits
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lower Bunk Floor Panel
Release Handle
Restraint Cylinders
Outside Storage Compartments
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 169
SLEEPER BUNKS
General
Upper and lower bunks are available in the VN 780, 730, 670 and 630 models. The
lower bunk is standard while the upper bunk is optional. The VN 430 are equipped
with one lower bunk.
The bunks for the VN 670, 630, 430 cover the luggage compartment. They are hinged
for access to luggage from inside of the cab.
To gain access, release the latch mechanism and lift by the edge of the bunk platform.
Gas springs aid in opening and closing the platform in some models.
The upper bunks for the VN 780, 670 and 630 may also be hinged (optional), and can
be raised out of the way. The VN 670 and VN 630 use the safety bunk harness latch
to hold up the bunk. The VN 780 has latches on both sides of the wall that hold the
bunk in position. To release the latches, pull the latch strap in the middle of the bunk
underside.
When the bunk is raised and latched, make sure that the latches on both sides close
170 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
and hold the bunk properly. For more information on bunk safety restraints, see
“Safety Restraint VN 430, VN 630, VN 670 ”, page 238.
W8028490
1 Cushions: These can be moved and placed to the side.
2 Cushions
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 171
VN 780 Sleeper Upper Bunk
DANGER
Always have three limbs (one foot and
two hands or two feet and one hand)
in contact with the floor, bunk or step
at all times when entering or exiting
the upper bunk. Failure to follow this
procedure can lead to a fall and cause
severe personal injury or death.
WARNING
Support the bunk with one hand while
releasing the latches. Failure to support
the bunk may lead to the bunk falling
without control, causing personal injury.
172 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W8028491
1 Upper Bunk
2 Upper Bunk in Lowered Position
3 Release/Pull Strap
4 Upper Bunk in Raised Position
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 173
VNL 730 Sleeper Bunk
DANGER
Always have three limbs (one foot and
two hands or two feet and one hand)
in contact with the floor, bunk or step
at all times when entering or exiting
the upper bunk. Failure to follow this
procedure can lead to a fall and cause
severe personal injury or death.
W8028491
1 Upper Bunk
2 Upper Bunk in Lowered Position
3 Release/Pull Strap
4 Upper Bunk in Raised Position
174 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
The VNL 730 can be equipped with a single 53-inch lower bunk, or a 42-inch lower
bunk and an upper bunk. For information on bunk safety restraints, see “Safety
Restraint VN 430, VN 630, VN 670 ”, page 238.
W8028524
53-Inch Lower Bunk
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 175
The 42-inch bunk cushions cover the luggage compartment. They can be moved for
access to luggage from inside the cab.
W8028524
1 Cushions: These can be moved for access to the luggage compartment.
2 Cushions: These can be moved and placed to the side.
176 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
The upper bunk is hinged and can be raised out of the way. The bunk is supported
by a strut on each side in the raised and lowered positions. Use the handle in the
middle of the bunk to raise and lower it.
W8028525
1 Upper Bunk in Raised Position
2 Upper Bunk in Lowered Position
3 Support Strut
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 177
VN 670, 630 42-Inch Sleeper Bunk
W8028526
VN 670, 630 Lower Bunk
WARNING
Support the bunk with one hand while
releasing the latch. Failure to support
the bunk may lead to the bunk falling
without control, causing personal injury.
178 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
W8028527
VN 670, 630 Lower and Upper Bunks
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 179
VN 670 Optional Fold Down Step
In the VN 670 sleeper there is an option on the passenger side which offers a fold
down step. See illustration.
W8028528
1 Fold Down Step
2 Cabinet Grab Handle
180 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
VN 670
W8028529
Moveable Cushions in Lower Bunk
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 181
VN 430 Sleeper Bunk
W8028530
1 Bunk
2 Bunk Restraints
3 Lower Bunk Restraint Attachment Buckles
4 Tenting Buckles
182 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
Upper Bunk Access VN 780
DANGER
Always have three limbs (one foot and
two hands or two feet and one hand)
in contact with the floor, bunk or step
at all times when entering or exiting
the upper bunk. Failure to follow this
procedure can lead to a fall and cause
severe personal injury or death.
WARNING
Support the ladder with one hand while
releasing the lock straps. Failure to
support the ladder may lead to the
ladder falling out, causing injury to leg
or foot.
Access to the upper bunk is provided by lowering foldable ladder and securing the
ladder into the floor locator (6) and retainer bracket (2) in the upper bunk.
The ladder stored in its collapsed position behind the passenger side cabinet. To
release the ladder, unsnap the lock straps. Support the ladder so it does not fall out
unaided.
To access the upper bunk, start the climb by grabbing the grab handles with both
hands. Place the right foot on the bunk bottom to the right of the cabinet and the left
foot on the upper step. Put both feet on the upper step and move the right hand to the
upper bunk for support. Swing the upper body into the bunk and sit down.
The grab handle for upper bunk access is located on the cabinet.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 183
W8028531
1.Ladder in
Down Position
2.Retainer
3.Grab Handle
(on Optional
Fixed Bunk,
Grab Handle is
Not Available)
4.Ladder (Stored)
5.Cabinet Grab
Handle
6.Ladder Security
Positioning
184 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
VN 780, VNL 730, VN 670 OFFICE
DANGER
Do not sit at the table when the vehicle
is moving. It is intended for use only
when the vehicle is parked. Passengers
should be in the passenger seat wearing
the safety belt or in the bunk with
the bunk restraint attached. Failure to
follow these instructions may result in
severe personal injury or death in the
event of a sudden stop or accident.
To raise table, remove the cushions from the bunk, place them to the sides.
Line up the latch pegs with the holes in the back wall.
Push the table firmly into the holes. Make sure the latches are caught properly by
pulling out on the table. When the table is in place, put the cushions in place to form a
seat and backrest.
To lower the table, remove the cushions and pull the handle underneath the tabletop
to release the latches. Lower the table to its resting position. Place the seat cushions
toward the walls and then position the backrest cushions as illustrated. Press down on
the cushions in the middle to form a mattress. See "VN 780 Bunk Storage" in this
manual.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 185
W8003158
186 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
SLEEPER COMPARTMENT SINK
A built-in sink is available as optional equipment in some sleeper models. It is located
on the left side, in the cabinet behind the driver.
The sink is mounted in the drawer space. To pull out, grasp the drawer lip and release
the latch. Pull out until the faucet can be raised without hitting the cabinet.
CAUTION
Never run the pump without water in
the freshwater tank. The pump may be
damaged if run dry.
W8028573
1 Increase Flow
2 Decrease Flow
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 187
To operate the water pump, there is a combined valve and switch in the knob (see
arrow in illustration) on the base. Turn the knob slightly toward you to start the pump;
see arrow in illustration. Turn the knob further to increase water flow. When the knob
is turned fully back to rest position, the pump will stop.
CAUTION
Make sure the pump is turned off before
pushing the drawer in. If the pump
continues to deliver water, overflowing
water can flood the cab floor.
In the bottom of the sink there is a spring-loaded drain plug that is sealed by
pressing down and twisting clockwise. To release for letting water drain off, turn
counterclockwise and the spring will lift the plug and open the drain.
Fresh Water Tank
Water is drawn from the fresh water tank (1) located beside the waste water tank (2) in
the left-hand side luggage compartment. Refill fresh water tank with potable drinking
water only. Tank volume is 9 gallons (34 liters). On top of the tank is a hose (3) that
serves as a filler and a vent tube. In the bottom of the tank is a drain valve (4), with a
hose attached, for draining the tank to the outside.
188 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
It is not recommended to keep unused water in the tank for over one month. Clean
and refill as necessary.
W8002168
CAUTION
USE POTABLE DRINKING WATER
ONLY. Verify with the supplier of any
water prior to filling the fresh water tank
that it is potable to avoid contamination
of the tank. In the event that non-potable
or contaminated water enters the fresh
water tank, it should be drained and the
tank should be cleaned out with a good
commercial cleaner/disinfectant. The
tank should also be tested for purity
prior to being used for drinking. It may
be necessary to replace the tank if it
cannot be cleaned properly.
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 189
CAUTION
Fresh water and waste water tanks
must be drained if the vehicle is not
being used and the outside temperature
is below freezing. Also drain the
hose from the pump to the faucet.
Failure to drain the system may result
in component damage due to water
forming ice.
To fill the fresh water tank, unscrew the fill hose from the elbow fitting and remove
the fill cap (5) from the tank. The fill hose is connected to a hose with a garden
hose-type fitting. Before turning the water on, turn the valve handle (6) to close the
valve (see lower illustration). When the end of the fill hose is inserted in the water
reservoir, open the valve slowly to fill. The valve is fully open when the handle is
parallel with the hose.
W8028577
190 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS
When the tank is full, reinstall the fill hose on the elbow fitting. Do not tighten more
than finger tight. Make sure that the valve handle is fully open (1) to allow venting. If
the valve is left in any of the closed positions (2), the pumped out water may generate
an under-pressure in the tank, interfering with the pump operation.
Note: The valve positions are shown as viewed from inside the cab.
W8028578
INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS 191
Waste Water Tank
When the water is drained from the sink, it is collected in a waste water tank behind
the fresh water tank. Waste water tank volume is 19 liters (5 gallons). The tank is
fastened to the floor with a strap that can be easily opened for tank removal.
Before removing the waste water tank, loosen the strap around the tank and unscrew
the drain hose from the inlet cap. Carry the tank to an approved dump station and
empty by removing the inlet cap and tilting the tank up to let the waste water drain.
Flush the tank with fresh water. Replace the inlet cap, strap the tank into the cab
and attach the drain hose.
W8028580
192 OPERATION
PRE-TRIP INSPECTION AND DAILY MAINTENANCE
DANGER
Before working on or inspecting a
vehicle, set the parking brakes, place
the transmission in neutral and block
the wheels. Failure to do so can result in
unexpected vehicle movement and can
cause serious personal injury or death.
Safety is the most important and obvious reason for doing a pre-trip inspection.
Federal and state laws require inspection performed by the driver. Federal and state
inspectors also inspect commercial vehicles. An unsafe vehicle can be placed "out
of service" until the driver or owner corrects the deficiency. Owners and operators
should familiarize themselves with sections 49 CFR 396.11 and 396.13 concerning
Federal requirements for vehicle inspection. Certain other laws may also apply.
Section 49 CFR 396.13 states that all motor carrier drivers must complete a written
report at the end of each work day for each vehicle operated, covering most of what is
covered in the pre-trip list. The report should list all defects or deficiencies discovered
by the driver. A pre-trip inspection prepares for the end-of-work report.
Starting on the next page are suggested guidelines to be used in performing truck,
tractor and trailer pre-trip inspections. Depending on the application of the vehicle
being used, these guidelines should be modified to include other necessary inspection
points. For example, steps and grab handles should be checked daily on refuse trucks
because the operator is getting in and out of the cab more frequently.
If any component or system does not pass this inspection, it must be corrected before
operating the vehicle. Whenever equipment requires adjustment, replacement, repair
or lubrication, refer to the Service Manuals or contact an authorized Volvo Truck
dealer for the correct procedures, specifications and intervals.
Also, available through the vehicles driver information display (DID) is a pre-trip
inspection system that will assist in performing the manual pre-trip inspection.
Pre-Trip Assistance
The Pre-Trip Assistance option is a tool to assist the driver in completing the pre-trip
inspection of the vehicle. This option is not a substitute for a complete pre-trip
inspection. If any system of the vehicle does not pass inspection, the error must be
corrected before operating the vehicle.
The available pre-trip tests include a Switch/Circuit Status check, Exterior Light
Inspection check, and a Air Leakage check.
OPERATION 193
Switch/Circuit Status Check
The Switch/Circuit Status check tests the functionality of the switches and their
corresponding circuits. To start the check the driver must turn the individual switches
on/off. As the switches turn on/off, the cluster updates the DID to show switch option
being tested and it’s status.
Note: The Hazard and High/Low Switches are momentary switches and return to the
OFF position when released during testing.
1. The initial Pre-Trip screen displays.
Using the stalk controls, select Switch
Status.
W3035544
2.After the diagnostic is completed, the
following screen displays detailing the
status of each switch.
W3035548
194 OPERATION
Exterior Light Inspection Check
The Exterior Light Inspection check repeatedly turns all exterior lights on/off for the
vehicle. This allows the operator to start the test, exit the vehicle and do a visual check
that all exterior lighting is functioning properly.
The following exterior lights are cycled through the check:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Parking
Hazard
Turn signals (left and right)
High/Low beam headlights
Brake
Fog/Driving (Optional)
1. From the Pre-Trip Assistant main
screen select Exterior Light Inspection.
W3035554
OPERATION 195
2. The Test Started screen displays. You
can stop the test by pressing ’ESC’ on the
stalk or by starting the ignition.
W3035557
Once the test is started all exterior lights
flash on and off so that you can perform
a visual check.
196 OPERATION
Air Leakage Check
The Air Leakage check allows the driver to accurately measure the amount of air
pressure drop in the front and rear brake air systems. After selecting this test from the
DID, you are prompted to apply the service brake for 60 seconds. After applying and
holding the service brake for 60 seconds, the DID will display the amount of pressure
drop in the brake system.
Before starting the test through the DID, complete the following:
•
Start the engine and check that the brake pressure gauges are greater than 136
Nm (100 psi).
•
•
Turn engine off.
Release all brakes and allow the system to settle (air gauge needle stops moving).
1. When running the brake pressure test the following screen displays. Press and hold
the brake pedal for a total of 60 seconds.
W3035558
If the air tanks are not full, in order to complete the air leakage test, the following
screen displays.
W3035559
OPERATION 197
2. When the system is ready to be checked, the following screen displays. Press
Enter to begin the test.
W3035566
Press and hold the brake pedal for 60 seconds. If the brake pedal is not pressed and
held for 60 seconds the following warning screen displays.
W3035571
3. Once the brake pressure test is completed the pressure leak test results are displayed.
198 OPERATION
W3035574
OPERATION 199
Take your time going through the pre-trip inspection. Remember that a careful pre-trip
inspection saves time by eliminating unscheduled stops for correcting a faulty item.
The following information has been provided by the American Trucking Association
as developed by the D.O.T. Office of Motor Carriers (BMCS).
Pre-Trip Inspection Quick List
W0001230
VN
Pre-Trip Inspection Quick List
Inspect the vehicle in a circular manner.
Approaching the Vehicle
• Check under the vehicle for oil, fuel, coolant leaks or other signs of damage.
• Check body surfaces for signs of breaks or damage.
Preparation
• Open drain cocks on air tanks to let the tanks drain.
• Chock wheels on vehicle and, if hooked up, trailer.
• Close air tank drain cocks.
• Start the engine and let the air pressure build up to normal. Stop engine
check for air leaks.
• Switch on parking lights and hazard lights.
• Apply parking brakes. Listen for air leaks
200 OPERATION
• Raise cab so belts can be checked
Step 1: Left Side of the Cab
Left Front Wheel
• Check condition of wheel rim. Especially look for cracks, missing lockrings,
bent or broken studs, missing clamps or lug nuts.
• Check condition of tire: properly inflated, no serious cuts, bulges, tread
wear or any signs of misalignment; valve stem not touching wheel, rim or
brake drum; valve cap in place.
• Check wheel bearing and hub: no obvious leaking on outside or inside
wheel. Verify correct oil level in hub.
Left Front Suspension
• Check condition of spring, spring hangers, shackles, U-bolts: no cracks,
breaks or shifting.
• Check shock absorber condition.
Left Front Brake
• Condition of brake drum. With brakes released, look for a noticeable gap
between lining and drum. (This check cannot be made if dust covers are
in place.)
• Condition of brake air hose.
• Check brake chamber mounting bolts and bracket.
• Check slack adjuster and chamber pushrod travel for proper brake
adjustment.
Condition of Front Axle and Steering System, Left Side
• No loose, worn, bent, damaged or missing parts.
Engine Compartment, Left Side
• Check coolant hose condition.
• Check condition of fan drive belts.
• Check engine and surrounding areas for coolant, oil and fuel leaks.
• Check wiring harnesses for signs of damage.
OPERATION 201
Engine Compartment, Right Side
• Check condition of coolant and heater hoses.
• Check condition of fan drive belts.
• Check engine and surrounding areas for coolant, oil and fuel leaks.
• Check fuel separator sight glass and drain if necessary. Check for leaks.
• Check wiring harnesses for signs of damage.
• Check air filter with brackets and hoses for loose connections or damage.
Check filter gauge, if mounted on the filter.
Step 2: Front of Cab Area
Condition of Windshield
• Check for damage and clean if dirty.
• Check windshield wiper arms for proper spring tension.
• Check wiper blades for any damage, "dead" rubber and attachment to arm.
Lights and Reflectors
• Lower cab and inspect parking, clearance and identification lights on cab.
They should be clean, operating and of the proper color.
• Reflectors clean and proper color.
• Turn on headlights. High and low beams should be operating and lenses
clean. If equipped, check daytime running lights.
• Left and right front turn signal lights clean, operating and proper color.
Grille
• Check that charge air cooler and radiator or bugscreens are clean and
undamaged.
Step 3: Right Side of Cab Area
Right Front Wheel
• Check condition of wheel rim. Especially look for cracks, missing lockrings,
bent or broken studs, missing clamps or lug nuts.
202 OPERATION
• Check condition of tire: properly inflated, no serious cuts, bulges, tread
wear or any signs of misalignment; valve stem not touching wheel, rim or
brake drum; valve cap in place.
• Check wheel bearing and hub: no obvious leaking on outside or inside
wheel. Verify correct oil level in hub.
Right Front Suspension
• Check condition of spring, spring hangers, shackles, U-bolts: no cracks,
breaks or shifting.
• Shock absorber condition.
Right Front Brake
• Condition of brake drum. With brakes released, look for a noticeable gap
between lining and drum. (This check cannot be made if dust covers are
in place.)
• Condition of brake air hose: check for any chafing.
• Check brake chamber mounting bolts and bracket.
• Check slack adjuster and chamber pushrod travel. With brakes applied
or released, look for conspicuously different positions of the slack adjusters
for proper brake adjustment..
Condition of Front Axle and Steering System, Right Side
• No loose, worn, bent, damaged or missing parts.
Step 4: Right Saddle Tank Area
Right Fuel Tank(s)
• Securely mounted Diesel and Diesel Exhaust Fluid are not damaged or
leaking.
• Fuel lines secure and not leaking. Check that shut-off valves are open.
• Tank(s) full of fuel. Cap on and secure.
Condition of Visible Components
• Rear of engine: not leaking.
• Transmission: not leaking. If equipped with oil cooler, check cooler, hoses
and fittings for leaks.
OPERATION 203
• Check drive shaft.
• Exhaust system: secure, not leaking, not touching wires, fuel or air tubing.
• Frame and cross members: no bends, cracks or breaks.
DPF/SCR check hoses and fittings for leaks.
• Air tubing and electrical wiring: secured against snagging and chafing.
Step 5: Right Rear Vehicle Area
Dual Wheels, One or Two Axles
• Check condition of wheels and rims. Especially look for cracks, missing
lockrings, bent or broken spacers, studs, missing clamps or lug nuts.
• Check condition of tires: properly inflated, no serious cuts, bulges, tread
wear or any signs of misalignment; valve stems not touching wheels, rims or
brake drums; valve caps in place and no objects stuck between the wheels.
• Check that both tires are of same type, for example, not mixed radial and
bias type and that their circumferences are matched.
• Check wheel bearing and hub: no obvious leaking on outside or inside wheel.
Suspension
• Check condition of springs (leaf), spring hangers, shackles and U-bolts.
• Axle alignment.
Brakes
• Condition of brake drums. With brakes released, look for a noticeable gap
between lining and drum. (This check cannot be made if dust covers are
in place.)
• Condition of brake hoses: check for any chafing.
• Check brake chamber mounting bolts and brackets.
• Check slack adjusters and chamber push rod travel. With brakes applied
or released, look for conspicuously different positions of the slack adjusters
for proper adjustment.
• Check spring brakes.
Step 6: Rear of Vehicle Area
Frame Area
• Frame or cross members not bent, cracked or otherwise damaged or missing.
204 OPERATION
• Check that air tubing and electrical lines are properly secured to the frame
with no damage or chafing.
Lights and Reflectors
• Tail lights, brake lights and turn signal lights: operating, clean and proper
color.
Step 7: Coupling System Area
Fifth Wheel
• Securely mounted to the frame.
• No missing or damaged parts.
• Check that trunnion and plate are properly lubricated.
Sliding Fifth Wheel
• Mechanism not worn, bent, damaged or parts missing.
• Properly lubricated.
• All locking pins present and locked in place.
• If air operated: no air leaks.
Air Tubing and Electric Lines Visible From This Point
• Should be secure from dangling.
• Both air lines and electric line should be free from damage, oil and grease.
Step 8: Left Saddle Tank and Left Rear Vehicle Wheels Area
Dual Wheels, One or Two Axles
• Check condition of wheels and rims. Especially look for cracks, missing
lockrings, bent or broken spacers, studs, missing clamps or lug nuts.
• Check condition of tires: properly inflated, no serious cuts, bulges, tread
wear or any signs of misalignment; valve stems not touching wheels, rims or
brake drums; valve caps in place and no objects stuck between the wheels.
• Check that both tires are of same type, for example, not mixed radial and
bias type and that their circumferences are matched.
• Check wheel bearing and hub: no obvious leaking on outside or inside wheel.
OPERATION 205
Suspension
• Check condition of springs (leaf or air), spring hangers, shackles and U-bolts,
no cracks, breaks or shifting.
Brakes
• Condition of brake drums. With brakes released, look for a noticeable gap
between lining and drum. (This check cannot be made if dust covers are
in place.)
• Condition of brake hoses: check for any chafing.
• Check brake chamber mounting bolts and brackets.
• Check slack adjusters and chamber push rod travel. With brakes applied
or released, look for conspicuously different positions of the slack adjusters
for proper brake adjustment..
• Check spring brakes.
Condition of Visible Components
• Transmission: not leaking.
• Drive shaft: looks OK.
• Exhaust system: secure, not leaking, not touching wires, fuel or air tubing.
• Frame and cross members: no bends, cracks or breaks.
• Air tubing and electrical wiring: secured against snagging and chafing.
Left Fuel Tank(s)
• Securely mounted and not damaged or leaking.
• Fuel lines secure and not leaking. Check that shut-off valves are open.
• Tank(s) full of fuel. Cap on and secure.
Battery Area
• Open the battery box. Battery box securely mounted to vehicle.
• Batteries secured against movement.
• Battery cases not broken or leaking. Battery cables free from damage.
• Tops of batteries and terminals clean and free from foreign material.
• If equipped, replace battery lid and make sure it is securely fastened.
206 OPERATION
In the Cab
• Check steps and grab handles for looseness or breakage. Also, clean
them if there is any substance that makes them slippery, which makes cab
entry/exit hazardous.
• Start the engine. If equipped, check that exhaust rain cap opens when
accelerating engine.
• Check gauges and tell-tale light function. See the Instruments and Controls
section.
• Check function of low air warning.
• Check clutch function. If equipped, check for clutch brake function.
• Check windshield wipers and washers and horns, including back-up alarm,
if equipped.
• Clean inside windshield, door windows and instruments. Clean mirrors.
• Check temperature control and defroster. If equipped, check mirror heater.
• Check condition of warning triangles, fire extinguisher and flares.
• Adjust the seat. Check mirror adjustment.
• Check safety belts for function and damage.
• Apply service brakes. After initial drop, pressure should hold steady, or
increase slightly, with engine at idle.
• Check steering wheel for excessive free play.
• Check for loose items in the cab. Secure them if necessary.
Hooking Up To Trailer
Hook-Up Preparation
• Check kingpin and mounting plate on trailer, free from wear, bends or
damage.
• Chock trailer wheels.
Fifth Wheel or Trailer Hitch
• No visible space between fifth wheel and trailer.
• Locking jaws around the shank and not the head of kingpin.
• Release lever properly seated and safety latch/lock engaged.
• Check all connections to dolly or trailer hitch and safety chains are secured.
• Check function of trailer air supply valve and trailer brakes.
OPERATION 207
Sliding Fifth Wheel
• Check that fifth wheel is not so far forward that the tractor frame will strike
the landing gear during turns.
Note: Refer to the trailer manufacturer’s manual for specific information on the
trailer checks.
Step 9: Trailer Front Area
Air and Electrical Connections
• Glad hands properly mounted, free from damage and not leaking.
• Trailer cord receptacle properly mounted, free of damage; plug properly
seated and safety catch engaged to prevent accidental disconnect.
• Air and electrical lines properly secured against tangling, snagging and
chafing with sufficient slack for turns.
Step 10: Right Side of Trailer Area
Landing Gear or Dolly Area
• Fully raised; no missing or damaged parts.
• Crank handle present and secured.
• If power operated, no air/hydraulic leaks.
Spare Wheel(s)
• Carrier or rack not damaged.
• Spare wheel securely mounted in rack.
• Tire and wheel condition adequate for a spare: proper size, properly inflated.
Lights and Reflectors
• Trailer side clearance lights: clean, operating and proper color.
• Reflectors clean and proper color.
Frame and Body
• Frame and crossmembers not bent, cracked, damaged or missing.
• Proper placarding.
208 OPERATION
• Body parts not damaged or missing.
Step 11: Right Rear Trailer Wheel
Dual Wheels, One or Two Axles
• Check condition of wheels and rims. Especially look for cracks, missing
lockrings, bent or broken spacers, studs, missing clamps or lug nuts.
• Check condition of tires: properly inflated, no serious cuts, bulges, tread
wear or any signs of misalignment; valve stems not touching wheels, rims or
brake drums; valve caps in place and no objects stuck between the wheels.
• Check that both tires are of same type, for example, not mixed radial and
bias type and that their circumferences are matched.
• Check wheel bearing and hub: no obvious leaking on outside or inside wheel.
Suspension
• Condition of springs (leaf or air), spring hangers, shackles and U-bolts.
• Axle alignment.
• Condition of torque rod arms.
• If equipped with sliding axles, check position and alignment. Look for
damaged, worn or missing parts, all locks present, fully in place and locked.
• Flexible air tubing not cracked, cut, crimped or otherwise damaged. Secured
against tangling, dragging and chafing.
Brakes
• Condition of brake drums. With brakes released, look for a noticeable gap
between lining and drum. (This check cannot be made if dust covers are
in place.)
• Condition of brake hoses: check for any chafing.
• Check brake chamber mounting bolts and brackets.
• Check slack adjusters and chamber push rod travel. With brakes applied
or released, look for conspicuously different positions of the slack adjusters
for proper brake adjustment..
• Check spring brakes.
Step 12: Rear of Trailer Area
Lights and Reflectors
OPERATION 209
• Rear clearance, identification and tail lights clean, operating and proper color.
• Reflectors clean and proper color.
Cargo Securement
• Cargo properly blocked, braced, tied, chained, etc.
• Tailboard up and properly secured. End gates free from damage, properly
secured in stake pockets.
• Canvas or tarp (if required) properly latched down to prevent water damage,
tearing, billowing or blockage of either mirrors or tail lights.
• Rear doors securely closed, latched or locked; required security seals in
place.
• Underside guard in place: not cracked, bent or broken.
Step 13: Left Rear Trailer Wheels Area
Dual Wheels, One or Two Axles
• Check condition of wheels and rims. Especially look for cracks, lockrings
missing, bent or broken spacers, studs, missing clamps or lug nuts.
• Check condition of tires: properly inflated, no serious cuts, bulges, tread
wear or any signs of misalignment; valve stems not touching wheels, rims or
brake drums; valve caps in place and no objects stuck between the wheels.
• Check that both tires are of same type, for example, not mixed radial and
bias type and that their circumferences are matched.
• Check wheel bearing and hub: no obvious leaking on outside or inside wheel.
Suspension
• Condition of springs (leaf or air), spring hangers, shackles and U-bolts.
• Axle alignment.
• Condition of torque rod arms.
• If equipped with sliding axles, check position and alignment. Look for
damaged, worn or missing parts, all locks present, fully in place and locked.
• Flexible air tubing not cracked, cut, crimped or otherwise damaged. It should
be secured against tangling, dragging and chafing.
Brakes
210 OPERATION
• Condition of brake drums. With brakes released, look for a noticeable gap
between lining and drum. (This check can not be made if dust covers are
in place.)
• Condition of brake hoses: check for any chafing.
• Check brake chamber mounting bolts and brackets.
• Check slack adjusters and chamber push rod travel. With brakes applied or
released, look for conspicuously different positions of the slack adjusters.
• Check spring brakes.
Step 14: Left Side of Trailer Area
Landing Gear or Dolly Area
• Fully raised; no missing or damaged parts.
• Crank handle present and secured.
• If power operated, no air/hydraulic leaks.
Spare Wheel(s)
• Spare wheel securely mounted in rack with no damage to rack.
• Tire and wheel condition adequate for a spare: proper size, properly inflated.
Lights and Reflectors
• Trailer side clearance lights: clean, operating and proper color.
• Reflectors clean and proper color.
Frame and Body
• Frame and crossmembers not bent, cracked, damaged or missing.
• Proper placarding.
• Body parts not damaged or missing.
Before Leaving the Parking Area
• Remove chocks from the wheels.
• Test trailer hook-up by slowly pulling while applying the trailer brakes with
the trailer brake hand control valve.
OPERATION 211
• Test the service brakes before leaving the parking area.
• Test parking brakes by stopping on a 20% grade and applying the parking
brakes. The parking brakes shall hold the combined vehicle and trailer without
moving.
New Vehicle Break-In
To ensure many years of reliable, trouble-free operation, the following break-in
procedures are recommended:
Note: Oil change, filter change and chassis lubrication are no longer required at
the 3,000-mile vehicle break-in interval.
Refer to the preventive maintenance schedules outlined in the Maintenance
and Lubrication Manual (21394653) for recommended lubrication change
intervals for the following items:
• Gear oils (transmission, rear axle carrier[s], front drive axle carrier, transfer
case, flywheel PTO)
• Engine oil
• Oil filters
• Fuel filters
• Coolant conditioner
Note: It is important that components be filled with lubricants meeting the
specifications as given in the Maintenance and Lubrication Manual (21394653)
Note: When checking oil levels, the vehicle must be parked on level ground, and
the units at normal operating temperature. Components must be filled to the correct
level. DO NOT OVERFILL.
Note: Oil and filter change intervals in this manual pertain to components built by
Volvo Truck. For information concerning oil and oil filter change intervals for vendor
components, refer to the specific vendor component service literature.
During the First 5000 Kilometers (3000 Miles)
• After the first 200 km (125 miles), retorque the wheel nuts using an accurately
calibrated torque wrench. Recheck this torque again after 800 km (500 miles).
• Check oil and coolant levels frequently.
• Check brake and clutch adjustments per recommended maintenance
schedule, and adjust as needed.
212 OPERATION
• Observe the instruments often, and shut down the engine at the first sign of
any abnormal readings.
• Report all leaks, loose fasteners, unusual noises, etc., to the service
representative at the nearest Volvo dealership so they can be checked and
corrected.
• Check the spring clip torque (U-bolts). (On REYCO suspensions, also check
equalizer nut torque.)
• On chassis equipped with AIRTEK™ front axle air suspensions, retorque
the U-bolts.
• Check the U-bolt torque on the Volvo air suspension at the end of the first
1600 km (1000 miles).
After the First 5000 Kilometers (3000 Miles) or Before 6400 Kilometers
(4000 Miles) or Before 3 to 4 Months
• Retorque the spring clip (U-bolts). (On REYCO suspensions, also retorque
the equalizer nut.)
Note: On chassis equipped with AIRTEK™ front axle air suspensions, check the
torque of the front axle U-bolts at 24 000 kilometers (15,000 miles).
At the First A Inspection Interval
• Check front and rear axle alignment and adjust if the alignment is out of
specifications.
• Check steering knuckle to axle beam clearance.
Although this quality-built vehicle has been inspected, lubricated and adjusted
at the Volvo Trucks Assembly Plant, an occasional air, oil or coolant leak may
develop. Quick action to correct these minor items will prevent a major repair
later. Take the vehicle to the nearest Volvo service center as soon as any
abnormal condition becomes evident.
Initial Valve Adjustment Intervals
Refer to the Maintenance and Lubrication Manual (21394653) for detailed
information concerning the Initial Valve Adjustment Interval also see page 223.
OPERATION 213
HOOD OPERATION
WARNING
Avoid tilting the hood under high or
gusty wind conditions. Failure to follow
this recommendation may result in the
hood unexpectedly closing, which can
cause personal injury.
WARNING
Make sure that no one is in the way of
the hood when opening or closing. The
hood could injure a person under the
hood.
Opening the Hood
The hood is locked down by two latches, one on each side of the back end of the hood
The hood release handle is at the bottom of the steering column. Pull the lever as
shown in the illustration to open the hood. The hood is raised about two inches off
its resting position and remains there.
W8003185
214 OPERATION
Make sure the hood can be opened fully without hitting anything. There are two
methods for opening the hood.
1. Stand in front of the hood with feet in line with the vehicle. Place feet well apart
and grasp the recessed handle in the front part of the hood. Transfer the body weight
by leaning away from the hood. Lift the hood until it is past the balance point. Release
the hood and let it complete the opening movement unaided.
W8003113
OPERATION 215
2. Stand at the rear fender edge on the driver side of the vehicle. Lift the hood
from under the fender, push the hood forward, release the hood and let it complete
the opening movement unaided.
W8003546
Two restraint cylinders will engage during the last part of the opening. The cylinders
will slow and dampen the hood down to its resting position.
216 OPERATION
Closing the Hood
To close the hood, stand with feet well apart, place hands along the front edge of the
hood. Bend the knees and let the leg muscles do the work when lifting.
Raise the hood up to the halfway point. Carefully guide the hood down with enough
speed that the hood latches lock the hood in place when it comes to its normal resting
position.
W8003543
OPERATION 217
Hood Latch (Optional) VNM 200 Day
Cab, Short Fairing
The VNM Day cab hood is opened by unlocking and releasing both sides of the latch
located underneath the left and right-hand side panels. See illustration.
W8003446
218 OPERATION
CHASSIS FAIRING/STEPS OPEN AND LOCKED POSITIONS
WARNING
Always check security of fairing and
steps before use. Ensure that the fairing
is completely closed and the handles are
in the locked position to prevent injury
from slip and fall.
The chassis fairing on the VN vehicle folds up and down for battery and air tank
access.
CAUTION
DO NOT open fairing while the cab
door is open. This can result in paint
damage on the fairing.
To open fairing: Rotate both handles to unlocked position, and pull fairing open.
OPERATION 219
W5001359
W5001358
1 Unlocked Position
2 Locked Position
220 OPERATION
Closing and Locking Fairing
WARNING
Make sure the fairing/steps are
locked into position. Failure to lock
fairing/steps could result in personal
injury due to slip and fall.
To close and lock the fairings: Use your fingers to pull the handles to the unlocked
position (1) as indicated in the illustration. Push with your palms against the fairings
(2). Once the fairing is closed, make sure both handles are returned to the locked
position.
Note: Slot 4 must be completely engaged
into bushing 3 before fairing is closed and
can be locked.
W8003105
OPERATION 221
Securing the Fairing/Step
Make sure the handle is rotated to the locked position. Pull on the fairing/step to
ensure the fairing/step is locked into position. See illustration.
W8003196
222 OPERATION
LUGGAGE COMPARTMENT
WARNING
Always place heavy objects in the
luggage compartment. Sudden stops
or sudden turns could cause personal
injury if heavy objects fall from
overhead storage shelves.
To gain access to the luggage compartments, there is a pull-ring connected to the
lock, located at the lower rear corner of the cab door opening, on each side (not
shown). Pull ring to unlock the door. The lock has a safety latch that will hold the
door in place, even if the door is not fully locked. To open door, hold pull-ring out
while pulling the door out.
W8003124
OPERATION 223
The door swings out from the bottom on hinges mounted on the top. To assist in
opening and to hold the door open, there are two compressed gas cylinders mounted
on each door. The door will swing up by itself when pulled out a short distance and
then released. Manually switch the luggage lamp ON. Switch lamp OFF before
closing door.
W8003123
Safety equipment and tow hooks are stored in the luggage compartments. If equipped,
the sleeper heater and air conditioning unit are located in the passenger side luggage
compartment.
224 OPERATION
CAB DOORS AND DOOR LOCK
DANGER
To lessen the chance of being thrown
from the vehicle in case of an accident,
always lock the doors and wear the
safety belt while driving. Failure to do
so can cause serious personal injury or
death if involved in an accident.
The cab doors can be unlocked and locked with the same key used for the ignition
lock. There is also a keyless remote entry available. Keys can be made to fit only
one vehicle or all the vehicles in a fleet of Volvo vehicles. The key fits in the door
lock either way. Insert the key and turn it 1/4 turn counterclockwise to unlock or
clockwise to lock the door.
W3028591
1 Press once to unlock driver side. Press twice to unlock both doors.
2 Press once to lock doors.
OPERATION 225
Note: The vehicle is delivered with two identical keys. If more keys are needed, order
them through your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
The door locks are mechanically or electronically operated. The lock is activated
by either the key from the outside or the door lock handle from the inside. With
mechanical locks, only one door can be locked and unlocked at a time. With electrical
locks, both doors will be locked and unlocked by operating either the key or the inner
door lock handle on either side.
Note: No door can be locked while it is still open. The door must be closed for the
lock to work.
With manual locks, to lock either door from inside the cab, push the door lock
handle forward. The handle will stay in place, indicating the door is locked. It can
be unlocked without opening the door by moving the door lock handle to the middle
position.
W8003089
Push the lever back to open the door. Push the lever forward to lock the door
226 OPERATION
With electronic locks, to lock both doors from inside the cab, push the door lock
handle forward on either door. The handle will stay in place, indicating the door is
locked. Either door can be unlocked without opening the door by moving the door
lock handle to the middle position. Each door must be unlocked individually from
inside the cab. To unlock the doors using the key, insert the key in either door look.
Turn the key to the unlock position to unlock that door. To unlock both doors, turn
the key to the unlock position, turn the key to the lock position and turn the key to
the unlock position.
W8028592
Unlocking Electronic Locks
The door has a position lock that enables the door to remain open in two different
positions. An indented bar is holding the door at approximately 30° and in the fully
open position at approximately 85°.
To close the door from the inside, place the hand in the handhold and pull the door in.
OPERATION 227
W8003116
To close the door from the outside, place the hand flat against the door lock area
and push the door shut.
CAUTION
DO NOT shut the door by pushing
on the door panel. Hard pushing may
distort the metal in the door panel.
W8003114
228 OPERATION
Power Door Locks (Optional)
Press button 2 to lock both doors or unlock the passenger door. In the event of a power
failure the electrical lock system reverts back to a mechanical functioning system.
W8003087
Central Locking
The central locking is operated using a remote control. There is no alarm in this unit.
The central locking unit provides a means for the driver to electronically control the
vehicle’s door locks, for increased personal safety and driver comfort.
Unlock Doors Using Remote Control
To unlock the driver door, press the UNLOCK button. The side indicators will flash.
To unlock the passenger door, press the UNLOCK button again. The side indicators
will flash.
Lock Doors Using Remote Control
Press the LOCK button. The side indicators will flash.
OPERATION 229
Heated Rear View Mirrors (Optional)
Press button 1 once to start electric heating for 15minutes. The indicator light in the
button flashes. The heating is on for 15minutes.
Hold button 1 in for longer than 1second to start electric heating.
The indicator light in the button comes on.
The heating remains on until the engine is switched off.
Heater will run at 100% capacity for the first 30 minutes, after which it reduces to
75% capacity.
W8003087
Power Rear View Mirrors (Optional)
1 Choose the mirror which is to be adjusted by pressing buttons 3.L for left mirror
and R for right mirror. The light in the button comes on.
2 Adjust the mirror using lever 3.
The light in the button goes OFF after 10minutes. If new adjustments are to be made
after this, the mirror must be selected again.
230 OPERATION
Power Windows (Optional)
Open Window (Auto-Down)
1 Depress the down position (2) on the button for 1second.
2 Release the button.
3 The window opens.
The window stops when it is completely open, when the down position (2) on the
button is depressed again or when the up position (1) on the button is depressed.
Make small adjustments with short pushes on the button.
Close Window
Depress the up position (1) on the button until the window is completely closed.
SAFETY BELTS
General
DANGER
Safety belts must be properly worn at all
times by the driver and all passengers
while the vehicle is in motion even if the
vehicle is equipped with a Supplemental
Restraint System (SRS or air bag).
Failure to do so can result in serious
personal injury or death in the event of
a collision.
DANGER
Fasten the safety belt before starting to
drive. Trying to fasten the safety belt
while the vehicle is moving may lead
to an accident, causing serious personal
injury or death.
OPERATION 231
Safety belt assemblies installed in this vehicle meet FMVSS 209, "Type 1" and "Type
2" requirements. They are recommended for all persons weighing over 25 kg (50 lb.).
T8009149
232 OPERATION
A child restraint system should also be provided for each child weighing 25 kg (50 lb.)
or less. It should meet the requirements of FMVSS 213, "Child Restraint System."
Carefully read and follow all manufacturer’s instructions on installation and use.
Be certain the child remains in the restraint system at all times while the vehicle
is in motion.
W8002741
Safety belts must be worn by the driver and all passengers at all times. Before
adjusting or fastening the safety belt, move the seat forward or backward and adjust
the seat height as necessary. Sit erect and adjust the seat cushion and seat back for a
comfortable driving position. In the event of a collision, a correct driving position
maximizes the effectiveness of the safety belt.
There are both Federal and State laws governing the use of safety belts. As laws differ
from state to state, make yourself familiar with the current rules.
Tether straps are installed on all suspension-type seats. Tether straps help secure the
seat to the floor and are intended to restrain the seat and safety belt in case of an
accident or sudden stop.
The tethers are not adjustable and do not need any adjustment.
OPERATION 233
Operating the Safety Belt
To fasten the safety belt, pull the belt out from the retractor and insert the latch into
the buckle. Verify proper lock of the latch by pulling on the latch.
Adjust the slack by pulling on the top part of the belt until the lower part, or the
part that crosses the lap, is adjusted to fit "snug." Release the top part and let the
retractor pull the belt in.
W8001835
The lap portion of the safety belt should be worn low across the pelvic region (hip
bone) and adjusted snugly. Never adjust the lap belt across the abdomen. A push
button on the buckle is used to release the safety belt latch by pushing in the button
release on the buckle.
234 OPERATION
The buckle portion of the safety belt system is different depending on the seat option
chosen. The National Standard and Comfort seat has a separate buckle that is attached
to a floor anchor by a seat strap. This seat strap is not adjustable, and does not need
to be adjusted.
Comfort Clip Operation
When provided, the comfort clip is located on the shoulder strap just below the D-ring.
When adjusting the comfort clip, the following procedure must be followed for proper
adjustment:
1 Pull out only enough webbing to allow slight pressure to the shoulder and chest.
Allow no more than a 25 mm (1 inch) slack when measured between the chest
and the belt.
2 To activate the clip mechanism feature, lift the lever up to clamp the webbing
in place.
Note: When the safety belt is not in use, the clip should be in the open position to
allow the seat belt to retract to its proper position. Also make sure that the adjustment
of the comfort clip does not interfere with the operation of the safety belt.
W8002388
OPERATION 235
Always adjust the clip so that there is a maximum of 25 mm (1 inch) of slack
between the belt and chest (about two fingers width). If a larger slack is allowed, the
effectiveness of the safety belt is decreased in the event of a collision.
W8001837
236 OPERATION
Sleeper Safety Restraint
DANGER
Always use the safety restraint when
the vehicle is in motion. Failure to do
so not only may cause severe injuries
or death to the passenger in the event
of an accident, but also poses a danger
of injuries to other occupants of the
vehicle.
DANGER
Anytime the vehicle is in motion, a
passenger using the sleeper bunk should
be strapped in using the safety restraint.
The top bunk should always be used
with the harness in place, whether the
vehicle is in motion or not. Falling
from the upper bunk can result in severe
personal injury or death.
The restraint netting can be used for securing loose articles. Any loose articles that
can shift in the cab during hard cornering or braking should be kept restrained.
W8003171
OPERATION 237
Fasten the restraint by connecting the buckle with the latch. Make sure the belts are
not twisted. Test the latch connection by pulling on the belt. If they come apart,
reconnect and test again. If the connection cannot be made, replace the belt before
using the bunk for sleeping during driving.
To loosen the restraint, press the red release button on the latch. Restraints should
be properly stored when not used. Having the restraint laying loose in the cab can
be a source for unintentional snagging.
W8002475
1 Release Button
238 OPERATION
Safety Restraint VN 430, VN 630, VN 670
The restraint has latches in one end and buckles in the other so it can only be installed
one way. Connect the restraint to the back wall and the buckles on the floor. Connect
the side tethers and adjust the straps to form a "tent" over the bunk (VN 670 upper
bunk does not have the "tenting" feature).
W8003206
OPERATION 239
W8003169
Upper Bunk
W8003170
Lower Bunk
240 OPERATION
Safety Restraint VN 730
Connect the restraint to the back wall first. The wall connectors are located on the
back wall. Connect the lower part of the restraint to the lower buckles. Connect the
side tethers and adjust the straps to form a "tent" over the bunk.
Note: The restraints for top and bottom bunks are different. Each belt can only be
installed to the correct bunk.
W8003822
53-Inch Lower Bunk
OPERATION 241
W8028593
42-Inch Lower Bunk
242 OPERATION
W8028594
Upper Bunk
OPERATION 243
Safety Restraint VN 780
Connect the restraint to the back wall first. The wall connectors are located in the
storage units. Connect the lower part of the restraint to the lower buckles. Connect the
side tethers and adjust the straps to form a "tent" over the bunk.
Note: The restraints for top and bottom bunks are different. Each belt can only be
installed to the correct bunk.
W8003217
Lower Bunk
244 OPERATION
Inspection
DANGER
Failure to properly inspect and maintain
the safety belts can cause serious
personal injury or death.
DANGER
It is critical that any time a vehicle has
been involved in an accident, the entire
safety belt system must be replaced in
the vehicle (which also includes the
sleeper bunk restraints) if they were in
use at the time of the accident. Failure
to replace the safety belt system may
result in serious injury or death.
DANGER
A damaged safety belt, whether visibly
damaged or not, could result in serious
personal injury or death in the event of
an accident. The safety belt systems
should be replaced at least every five
years.
DANGER
DO NOT bleach or re-dye the color
webbing because it may cause a severe
loss of belt strength. This loss of
strength could allow the safety belt to
break under stress, thus resulting in
severe personal injury or death.
OPERATION 245
Check the belts, buckles, latch plates, retractors, anchorages, and guide loops to ensure
that they are working properly. Look for loose/damaged parts (without disassembling)
that could keep the restraint system from working properly. If the safety belt, retractor
and hardware were in use during a collision, they must be replaced. The restraint
system anchorage fasteners must be replaced if necessary. If there is any doubt about
the restraint system’s effectiveness, replace the entire safety belt assembly.
The following maintenance guidelines detail how to inspect safety belts and tethers for
cuts, fraying, extreme or unusual wear of the webbing, etc., and damage to the buckle,
retractor, hardware or other factors which indicate that safety belt system replacement
is necessary.
Check the web wear at the buckle/latch area. The webbing must be closely examined
to determine if there are any cuts, fraying or extreme wear in the webbing. Cuts,
fraying or excessive wear would indicate the need for replacement of the safety belt
system.
W8001406
246 OPERATION
The D-loop web guide is an area where almost constant movement of the safety belt
webbing occurs because of the relative movement between the seat and the cab. This
constant movement forms an area where wear will often occur. The webbing must be
closely examined to determine if there are any cuts, fraying or extreme wear in the
webbing. Cuts, fraying or excessive wear would indicate the need for replacement of
the safety belt system.
W8002478
OPERATION 247
Check the buckle by inserting the latch and verifying proper operation. Determine
if the latch plate is worn or deformed. Check the buckle and latch casing for cracks
or breakage.
W8001404
248 OPERATION
The retractor web storage device is mounted on the B-pillar, just behind the door
in the cab. The retractor is the heart of the safety belt system and can be damaged
if abused, even unintentionally. Check the retractor web storage device operation to
ensure that it is not locked and that it spools out and retracts the webbing properly.
W8002481
If tethers are being used to anchor the safety belts to the floor, make sure that they
are properly attached to the seat. Tethers must also be inspected for web wear and
proper tightness of mounting hardware.
OPERATION 249
W8001387
250 OPERATION
All hardware for safety belt mounting points should be evaluated for corrosion. All
attachment points of the system should be checked for tightness of mounting hardware.
Check the web in areas exposed to ultraviolet rays from the sun or extreme dust or
dirt. If the original color of the web in these areas is extremely faded, the physical
strength of this web may have deteriorated. If this condition exists, replace the safety
belt system.
Important Facts About Safety Belts in Heavy Trucks
The high mileage associated with heavy trucks, the continual relative movement of
the seat with the cab, the possible contact with the vehicle seat or other parts of the
cab structure, and the potential exposure of this safety belt to severe environmental
conditions make it crucial to inspect the seat belt system regularly. It is recommended
that the system is inspected every 24,000 km (15,000 miles) or more often if the
vehicle is exposed to severe environmental or vocational conditions. Any safety belt
system that shows cuts, fraying, extreme or unusual wear, significant discolorations
due to ultraviolet ray exposure, dusty-dirty conditions, abrasion to the safety belt
webbing or damage to the buckle, latch plate, retractor, hardware or any other obvious
problem should be replaced immediately, regardless of the mileage.
Once replacement of the safety belt has been determined necessary, be certain that it is
replaced only with a Volvo original replacement safety belt. See your authorized Volvo
Truck dealer for replacement. Your Volvo safety belt system has been developed and
tested specifically for heavy trucks. Replace it only with the exact same design that
the vehicle was equipped with.
If the inspection indicates that any other part of the safety belt system requires
replacement, the entire belt system must be replaced. An installation guide is attached
to every replacement system, entitled "Three-Point Safety Belt Installation Guide."
There are separate safety belt instruction guides for suspension and stationary seats.
Use the proper guide for your type of seat and follow the instructions very closely. It
is vitally important that all components are mounted back in the same positions as the
original components that were removed. This will maintain the design integrity of the
mounting points for the safety belt assembly.
OPERATION 251
SEATS, GENERAL
Several seats can be used in the vehicles. If the seat installed in the vehicle is not
explained in this section, see your authorized Volvo dealer.
Before adjusting or fastening the seat belt, move the seat forward or rearward and
adjust the seat height as necessary. Sit erect and adjust the seat cushion and seat back
to obtain a comfortable driving position.
DANGER
All adjustments are to be made while
the operator is seated and the vehicle
is stationary. DO NOT adjust the seat
position while driving the vehicle.
Failure to follow this warning can result
in loss of vehicle control, which can
result in serious personal injury or death
in the event of a vehicle accident.
Driver Seats
Passenger Seats
•
National
Standard Seat
•
National
Standard Seat
•
National
Comfort Seat
•
National
Comfort Seat
•
Bostrom
Standard Seat
•
National
Toolbox Seat
•
Bostrom
Comfort Seat
•
Bostrom
Standard Seat
•
Bostrom
Comfort Seat
•
Bostrom
Toolbox Seat
252 OPERATION
NATIONAL STANDARD SEAT
Seat Adjustments
W8002745
National Standard Seat
1 Backrest Tilt: By rotating the round handle, the backrest recline angle can be
adjusted within 12 degrees.
2 Cushion Front Tilt and Length: Pulling the handle up and out adjusts the tilt
and length of the seat cushion. Support your body weight with your feet while
adjusting.
3 Fore and Aft Movement: Press the lever sideways to unlock the seat. Move seat
fore or aft to a new position.
4 Ride Height Adjustment: Push the upper part of the switch up to increase ride
height. Push the lower part of the switch to deflate the airbag and lower the ride
height.
5 Lumbar Support Adjustment: Push the upper part of the switch to inflate the
support for a firmer support. Push the lower part of the switch to deflate the support.
6 Cushion Rear Tilt: Rotate the lever to get different height positions. Support your
body weight with your feet while adjusting.
7 Chugger Snubber: Moving the handle down isolates the seat from the fore and aft
movement of the cab.
OPERATION 253
NATIONAL COMFORT SEAT
Some National Comfort seats are equipped with a BackCycler® feature. Some
National Comfort seats have a swivel mount.
Seat Adjustments
W8002744
National Comfort Seat
1.Seat Adjustment
Fore and Aft
2.Isolator Lock
3.Cushion Tilt
4.Ride Height
Adjustment
5.Lumbar Support
Adjustment
6.Recliner Tilt
7.Armrest Angle
Adjustment
254 OPERATION
Bostrom Comfort Seat
Some Bostrom Comfort seats have a swivel mount.
W8002744
National Comfort Seat
1.Seat Adjustment Fore and Aft
2.Isolator Lock
3.Dampening Adjustment
4.Cushion Tilt
5.Ride Height Adjustment
6.Lumbar Support Adjustment
7.Recliner Tilt
8.Armrest Angle Adjustment
OPERATION 255
PASSENGER SEATS
National Bench Seat
The bench passenger seat has the option for a two-man storage seat. The base of the
seat is a storage box that is accessed by lifting the seat cushion up.
W8003482
National Bench Seat
256 OPERATION
National Toolbox Seat
The toolbox passenger seat has an optional accessible or non-accessible toolbox in
the base of the seat. If the toolbox is an option, the storage box is accessed by lifting
the seat cushion up.
Note: There is a release latch behind the seat.
W8003146
National Toolbox Seat
OPERATION 257
Bostrom Toolbox Seat
W8003851
Bostrom Toolbox Seat
1 Seat Cushion Release Lever
The toolbox passenger seat has an optional accessible or non-accessible toolbox in
the base of the seat. If the toolbox is an option, the storage box is accessed by lifting
the seat cushion up.
Note: There is a release latch behind the seat.
258 OPERATION
No Passenger Seat (Optional)
WARNING
Using a temporary passenger seating
without the benefit of proper seat
mounting and safety belt can, in the
event of a loss of control of the vehicle,
cause serious personal injury or death.
In vehicles with no passenger seat installed, DO NOT let a passenger ride on
temporary seating. This is against the law and can be very dangerous.
OPERATION 259
ENGINE OPERATION
General
Proper operation, driving techniques and maintenance are key factors in obtaining the
maximum life and economy from a modern turbocharged diesel engine. This section
has operational information about the components that make up the engine.
When changing gears, avoid lugging to extend engine life. When the engine is
operating at full throttle and maximum governed speed cannot be reached or
maintained, the engine is lugging. When approaching a hill requiring more power,
it is necessary to downshift the transmission as the vehicle goes into the grade.
Accelerating to the governed engine speed will give additional power at approximately
the same road speed. For shifting instructions, see the transmission manufacturer’s
operator’s manual.
Always start moving the load in a gear low enough so that the engine can be
accelerated to the governed speed. Then shift to the next gear as the engine
decelerates. For loaded vehicles, do not skip a gear or lug the engine while getting up
to cruising speed. For empty or light loads, it is permissible to skip gears.
When operating on a level highway or at cruising speed, hold the engine speed at
approximately 1400 to 1600 rpm for large displacement engines to achieve power and
economical fuel consumption.
The operator should understand the operating characteristics of the engine the vehicle
is equipped with. Modern diesel engines have maximum torques at much lower
engine speeds than in the past. As such, these engines are designed to perform
satisfactorily at a lower speed. New transmissions with wide ratio steps between
gears demand the use of these engines.
260 OPERATION
This vehicle is equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system which virtually
eliminates exhaust smoke. Exhaust vapor may be visible during a cold start. If
exhaust smoke is visible during engine operation, this indicates a problem with the
exhaust aftertreatment system. Take the vehicle to an authorized Volvo Truck dealer
immediately.
IMMOBILIZER FEATURE
Volvo Engines Only
The Immobilizer Feature is used to prevent the engine from starting. If your vehicle
was not ordered with this feature, it may be available from your dealer as an option
using VCADS Pro.
To secure the vehicle, the driver needs to enter the correct 3-digit code (PIN code) into
the Driver Information Display (DID) via the stalk switch.
W3006348
OPERATION 261
If the vehicle has not been placed in the Immobilizer Mode during the previous
key-off, the driver will be able to start the vehicle as normal.
After the password is entered (at shutdown) "Security Mode Active" is displayed.
W3006349
262 OPERATION
CONTROL AWARENESS FEATURE
Volvo Engines Only
Volvo engine and transmission. In addition, it provides a mechanical safety to the
existing Power Take-Off (PTO) functionality.
•
Parameters are set in VCADS. If the vehicle exceeds the maximum vehicle speed
for the corresponding PTO mode, a message appears on the DID screen as shown:
W3006376
WARNING
Do NOT exceed PTO maximum vehicle
speed or the PTO may be damaged.
OPERATION 263
FUEL ECONOMY DRIVING
General
The absolute fuel consumption (counted in liters per 100 kilometers or miles per US
gallon) is determined by a large number of circumstances which can be related to one
of the following main areas:
•
•
•
•
Build specification and equipment
Service and maintenance
External environment
Driving habits
Due to these factors, fuel consumption can vary considerably within what is called
"normal fuel consumption." Fuel consumption can vary from over 24 L/100 km (10
mpg) when driving empty on a nice and dry summer road to 67 L/100 km (3.5 mpg)
while driving with maximum permitted GVW, with vehicle and trailer, on a hilly
and slushy winter road.
Build Specification and Equipment
Whenever a vehicle is used for transportation, its build specification, equipment and
gross vehicle weight have a decisive effect on both fuel consumption and performance.
The factors which have the greatest influence on fuel consumption are primarily:
driveline combination, height of trailer or superstructure, use of air fairings, tire type,
number of wheels, gross vehicle weight, and accessories.
Driveline Combination
Engine, transmission and final drive must be selected in such a way that the engine
can operate within the economic speed range at normal driving speed. This range is
defined as where the engine makes the best use of the energy content of the diesel fuel.
A poorly selected rear axle ratio, which results in the engine speed being constantly
above the optimum speed, will increase fuel consumption.
264 OPERATION
Tires
Heavy duty threaded tires increase rolling resistance considerably. For long haul,
choose a smoother, ribbed type tire. Choose a lugged type tire only when the added
traction in mud and snow is needed.
The number of wheels (axles) has a direct effect on the rolling resistance and, thereby,
the fuel consumption. For volume and/or low weight transports, the use of a 4x2
instead of a 6x4 should be considered.
If the tire pressure is too low, the rolling resistance increases and, thereby, increases
the fuel consumption. The overall economy is also affected as tire wear increases
considerably.
Gross Vehicle Weight
The gross vehicle weight of a vehicle combination has a large impact on the rolling
resistance.
Accessories
As a rule, accessories such as roof rack, advertising signs, bug screens, exposed air
horns, etc., have a negative effect on fuel consumption.
Service and Maintenance
A modern heavy-duty vehicle requires regular and preventive maintenance to ensure
that all its components function as they should. Use the recommended preventive
maintenance (PM) program that Volvo Trucks North America has developed for
the vehicles. This ensures optimal energy efficiency from all components that are
important to fuel consumption.
OPERATION 265
Brakes
Dragging brakes increase fuel consumption. They should be checked regularly. It is
important that the release action of the air valves is fast and that the moving parts of
the wheel brakes are checked for good adjustment and operation.
Axles
An axle out of alignment increases rolling resistance. Regularly check the front wheel
alignment and axles on both the tractor and trailer/semi-trailer. If they are correct,
there will be less rolling resistance and, therefore, lower fuel consumption.
A good sign of an axle or wheel out of alignment is uneven tire wear. Check the tires
often.
Engine
Faulty or incorrectly adjusted engine components increase fuel consumption. The list
below gives some typical components that can influence fuel consumption:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Blocked (on the outside) charge air cooler/radiator package
Faulty thermostat
Blocked fuel filters
Blocked air intake filter
Faulty injectors
Dirty turbocharger
Air in fuel system
Faulty fuel supply pump
Faulty fuel relief valve
Faulty fan thermostat/clutch
266 OPERATION
External Environment
Under unfavorable conditions, the external environment can have a negative effect on
fuel consumption. This can be broken down into two main groups: weather and wind,
and the nature of the roads. Rain, snow, icy conditions and headwinds have a large
negative impact on fuel economy, as do hilly roads and uneven road surfaces.
Headwinds
Headwinds have a large negative impact on fuel consumption. With tailwinds, fuel
saving is only marginal.
A good sign of an axle or wheel out of alignment is uneven tire wear. Check the tires
often.
Air Temperature
Low ambient temperature contributes to increased fuel consumption.
Rain, Snow and Road Surface
A wet road surface increases rolling resistance and, thereby, fuel consumption. Slush
will increase consumption even more. In certain cases, the surface structure of the
road can also have a negative effect on fuel consumption.
Gradients
A hilly road with many bends demands a higher output from the engine. The
difference between flat, straight roads and hilly, winding roads can amount to as much
as a 50 percent increase in fuel consumption.
When choosing your route, avoid hills, rough roads and frequent stops.
OPERATION 267
Driving Habits
The way in which a vehicle is being driven is the one factor which has the greatest
influence on fuel consumption. Correct driving saves fuel and reduces vehicle wear.
To achieve optimal running economy, the driver should always remember to:
•
•
•
•
Start the engine correctly (especially important in winter season).
Maintain an even and correct speed.
Keep the engine at its optimum speed range.
Use the correct uphill and downhill driving technique.
Starting the Engine
Start the engine according to the instructions in the operator’s manual of the engine
manufacturer (for a Volvo engine, see "STARTING THE ENGINE" “STARTING
THE ENGINE”, page 298). A proper start, especially during the cold season, saves
fuel and reduces engine wear.
Sluggish lube oil in the engine makes cold starting more difficult. Therefore, it is
important to always use engine oil with the correct viscosity. (For the sake of the
overall fuel economy, it is also important to have the right viscosity of transmission
and rear axle oils.)
A good sign of an axle or wheel out of alignment is uneven tire wear. Check the tires
often.
Avoid High Engine Speeds
High engine speeds mean high fuel consumption. "Jerky" driving also increases fuel
consumption when the vehicle is constantly accelerated and slowed down. Avoid a
higher consumption by steady, even driving.
Refer to each engine manufacturer’s operator’s manual for information on the engine’s
optimum operating range.
Rain, Snow and Road Surface
A wet road surface increases rolling resistance and, thereby, fuel consumption. Slush
will increase consumption even more. In certain cases, the surface structure of the
road can also have a negative effect on fuel consumption.
Hill Driving Technique
Use the inertia of the vehicle to go over the crest of a hill under reduced power. Use
gravity to help with acceleration when going down the hill. Build up speed before
reaching the next uphill.
268 OPERATION
Air Tanks
All air tanks on the vehicle should be drained daily. Empty any moisture from air
tanks by pulling the drain valve wire or by opening the drain cocks and allowing
the air pressure to drain completely. Make sure the drain cocks close properly after
draining. During draining the tanks should be checked for condensation fluid even
if an automatic drain valve is installed.
WARNING
When draining the air tanks, do not look
into the area of the draining air. Dirt or
sludge particles may be in the air stream
and could cause eye injury.
W8003393
Trucks with Wabco air dryers: Periodically drain the purge tank to check for
contamination, water, oil, etc.
OPERATION 269
Trucks with automated Meritor Transmission: Drain the transmission air supply tank
located on the right-hand rail daily to check for contamination, water, oil, etc.
Charging Air to Another Vehicle
DANGER
Before working on a vehicle, set the
parking brakes, place the transmission
in neutral, and block the wheels. Failure
to do so can result in unexpected vehicle
movement and can cause serious
personal injury or death.
There are many methods which may be used to charge the air system of another
vehicle. Vehicles equipped with the standard two-valve system (trailer supply and
parking brake) must use the following procedure when using the emergency trailer air
line as an auxiliary air source, other than to charge the trailer air reservoirs.
1 Connect the emergency trailer air line to the auxiliary source.
2 Start the engine.
270 OPERATION
CRUISE CONTROL
DANGER
DO NOT use the cruise control in
heavy traffic, with ice/snow on the
road or during other unfavorable
conditions. This may lead to a loss of
vehicle control, causing a vehicle crash,
personal injury or death.
Engaging
W3002499
To engage and set desired speed:
1 Set the cruise control switch to ON.
2 When the desired vehicle speed has been reached, momentarily press in the SET+
or SET- switch on the end of the lever.
3 To increase speed, press the SET+ switch. A momentary press of the switch (half
second or less) will bump up vehicle speed in small increments. Hold down the
switch (more than a half second) to ramp up vehicle speed. The vehicle speed will
increase as long as the SET+ switch is pressed (speed will not increase above the
maximum programmed speed). Release the switch when the desired speed has been
reached. The new set speed will be the vehicle speed when the switch is released.
4 To decrease speed, press the SET- switch. A momentary press of the switch (half
second or less) will bump down vehicle speed in small increments. Hold down
the switch (more than a half second) to ramp down vehicle speed. The vehicle
speed will decrease as long as the SET- switch is pressed (speed will not decrease
below the minimum programmed speed). Release the switch when the desired
speed has been reached. The new set speed will be the vehicle speed when the
switch is released.
OPERATION 271
Note: The cruise control cannot be engaged at speeds below approximately 30 km/h
(18 mph).
Disengaging
The cruise control is disengaged if the brake is depressed, or if the cruise control
switch is set to OFF. If the ignition key is turned back to the accessories position (I),
the cruise control system will automatically be disengaged.
If configured, the cruise control will remain engaged if the clutch pedal is depressed
for short durations (to allow shifting while in cruise control). However, if the clutch
pedal is depressed for an extended period (typically greater than 5 seconds), cruise
control will be disengaged.
Resuming Vehicle Speed
The previously selected cruise speed is retained in the memory. When the cruise
control switch is pushed to the RESUME position, the vehicle resumes the previously
set speed (provided vehicle speed exceeds approximately 15 km/h [10 mph] when the
switch is pressed and the speed is not above the maximum programmed speed).
272 OPERATION
Note: Read the Eaton VORAD Collision Warning System Driver Reference Manual
before taking a vehicle equipped with VORAD out on the road.
CAUTION
On vehicles equipped with Eaton
VORAD SmartCruise, cruise control is
disengaged in the event the SmartCruise
system fails to operate. You must stop
the truck, turn the ignition off and on,
and activate the control twice in order
for the cruise control to operate.
Acceleration
Momentary acceleration (such as for passing another vehicle) does not interrupt cruise
control operation. After passing, release accelerator and let the vehicle slow to cruise
control speed. The previously set speed will then be maintained without having to set
the switch to RESUME.
Volvo Engine Brake (I-VEB)
The Volvo Engine Brake (I-VEB) is standard on the Volvo 16F engine and optional on
the 13F engine. It has a higher braking effect than the variable geometry turbo brake.
When the engine brake is in the A position and cruise control is engaged, the engine
brake automatically engages if vehicle speed exceeds the set cruise control speed.
The I-VEB will engage with infinite control (within the limits of the engine brake)
to maintain that speed.
The Volvo Engine Brake (I-VEB) is standard on the Volvo 16F engine and optional on
the 13F engine. It has a higher braking effect than the variable geometry turbo brake.
When the engine brake is in the A position and cruise control is engaged, the engine
brake automatically engages if vehicle speed exceeds the set cruise control speed.
The I-VEB will engage with infinite control (within the limits of the engine brake)
to maintain that speed.
OPERATION 273
BRAKE OPERATION
Brake Safety Information
DANGER
DO NOT inspect or adjust parts or
components in the brake system without
setting the parking brake, placing the
transmission in neutral and securely
chocking the wheels. If the vehicle is
not secured to prevent uncontrolled
vehicle movement, it could roll and
cause severe personal injury or death.
DANGER
DO NOT use replacement parts
anywhere in the brake system unless
it conforms exactly to original
specifications. A nonconforming part
in your vehicle’s brake system could
cause a malfunction, leading to loss of
control of the vehicle resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
DANGER
DO NOT ride the brakes going down
steep hills. The brakes could overheat
and lose their effectiveness. Always
choose a low gear before going down
the grade and reduce speed to help
control vehicle speed. Losing the
brakes going downhill can lead to an
accident causing serious personal injury
or death.
274 OPERATION
DANGER
DO NOT operate the vehicle when there
is a malfunction in the compressed air
system. An air brake system with leaks
or other malfunctions may prevent the
brake system from operating properly.
The vehicle should not be operated until
the system is repaired and all brake
circuits are working properly. Failure
to repair the system can lead to loss of
control of the vehicle resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
DANGER
The brake system is a critical vehicle
safety system. For your safety and
for those around you, follow the
recommended preventive maintenance
checks. If any problems occur, have
them investigated immediately by an
authorized service facility. Failure to
properly maintain the brake system can
result in compromised brake efficiency
and may lead to loss of control of the
vehicle resulting in severe personal
injury or death.
DANGER
DO NOT drive through deep water.
The brake system can be affected so the
braking efficiency is less or the brakes
pull the vehicle to one side. This could
lead to an accident, personal injury or
death.
OPERATION 275
DANGER
Automatic slack adjusters MUST
NOT be manually adjusted in an
effort to correct excessive push rod
stroke, as this condition indicates that
a problem exists with the automatic
adjuster, installation of the automatic
slack adjuster or problems related to
components of the foundation brakes.
These conditions will not be corrected
by manually adjusting the automatic
slack adjusters.
Manual adjustment of the automatic
slack adjusters is a dangerous
practice that could result in serious
consequences. This practice gives the
vehicle operator a false sense of security
about the effectiveness of the brakes,
and the brakes will likely soon be out of
adjustment again.
General
All Volvo vehicles are designed to meet or exceed all applicable federal brake
standards and regulations. They use a dual circuit, compressed air system. It consists
of two independent brake systems that use a single set of brake controls. Each circuit
is supplied by its own compressed air tank. Both air tanks receive compressed air
from the same supply tank (wet tank) and are charged with equal pressure. The two
circuits are interconnected for the parking brake system.
DANGER
DO NOT release the parking brake or
attempt to move the vehicle until brake
air pressure in both circuits is at least
690 kPa (100 psi). Failure to follow
this procedure may lead to uncontrolled
vehicle movement and cause severe
personal injury or death.
276 OPERATION
DANGER
Never release or drive a truck that has
a brake discrepancy — no matter how
minor — until it has been repaired
or corrected. Failure to repair brake
discrepancies can result in compromised
brake efficiency and may lead to loss of
control of the vehicle resulting in severe
personal injury or death.
Air pressures in the two circuits are monitored by two pressure gauges on the right
side of the instrument cluster. The primary (rear) brake circuit gauge is marked with
an "R" within a symbol and the secondary (front) brake circuit gauge is marked with
an "F" within a symbol. The two pointers should register equal or nearly equal
pressure. By observing the gauge pointers, the operator is forewarned in the event of a
pressure drop in either or both of the circuits.
OPERATION 277
W3006936
W3006937
Gauge 1 and Gauge 2
Before operating the vehicle, check the air gauges which indicate air pressure. They
should not register less than 420 kPa (65 psi).
278 OPERATION
Both circuits are piped into a dual brake valve, which simultaneously applies front
and rear axle service brakes during each brake application. In the event of a failure
in either one of the circuits, the other circuit becomes the emergency circuit for
applying the brakes.
W5001486
1 Clutch Fluid Reservoir
2 Windshield Washer Fluid Fill
3 Brake Valve
DANGER
The Master Warning Tell-Tale and
buzzer alerts of a dangerous situation.
Air pressure is low and the remaining
air volume may not be enough for
repeated braking. Failure to heed this
warning can result in loss of braking
control, vehicle accident and injury or
death.
OPERATION 279
W3005171
Master Warning Tell-Tale
An important feature of the brake system is that an automatic spring brake application
does not take place as a result of an air loss in only one of the two circuits. In this
case, brake control remains in the foot brake valve. In each air pressure gauge, there
is a warning light connected to a low pressure switch that comes on if air pressure
goes below 420 kPa (60 psi). At the same time, the buzzer will sound and the main
warning tell-tale will come on. This pressure drop warns the operator to make a
manual emergency stop before an automatic emergency stop takes place.
Brake System Controls
The air compressor, governor, pressure regulator valve and reservoirs are control
devices. Their function is to build up, maintain and control air pressure in the
reservoirs. This is so that pressure is held constant between the minimum and
maximum range established for air brake operation.
The brake valve, quick release valve, brake chambers and slack adjusters are
application devices. They distribute the air pressure and convert its energy into the
mechanical force necessary to apply or release the brakes.
280 OPERATION
Foot Brake Valve
The foot brake valve is directly connected to the brake pedal. The valve gives a
progressive output against the pedal travel. This allows better control of the pressure
in the first half of the pedal travel. In the last half of the pedal travel, the pressure
output increase is faster.
The foot brake valve applies the service brakes, incorporating both the primary
and secondary air systems. The primary system controls the rear brakes and the
secondary system controls the front brakes. The foot brake valve receives air from
the compressed air tanks. Air pressure is then delivered to the wheel brake chambers
as required by the amount of pressure exerted on the foot brake pedal. The brake
chamber force then applies the wheel brakes.
From the operator’s viewpoint, operating the foot brake valve of a vehicle equipped
with air brakes differs very little from the operation of a conventionally braked
vehicle. Because the operation of the brake pedal requires scarcely more effort than
depressing the average throttle pedal, air brakes are naturally much easier to control.
If the driver gives full attention to the following suggestions, a little experience will
make him/her thoroughly familiar with the air-controlled braking of this vehicle.
DANGER
Failure to observe these precautions
can result in loss of vehicle control and
serious personal injury or death.
OPERATION 281
1 The best possible stop will be made when the first brake application is as firm as
the speed and road condition permit. Then, ease off as the speed is reduced. Never
apply the brakes lightly at first and increase the pressure as the speed diminishes.
2 DO NOT fan the brake pedal. Fanning gives poor brake performance and wastes
air.
3 The air brake is designed so that when the brake pedal is fully depressed, an
emergency application results. This application should be made only in an
emergency situation.
4 In making a stop or a slow-down, allow the transmission to remain in gear with the
throttle closed, disengaging the clutch only when engine idling speed is reached.
5 When parking the vehicle, place the transmission in neutral and set the parking
brake before shutting down the engine.
6 When descending a long grade, do not use the service brakes too long or too often.
The brakes may overheat and lose their effectiveness.
7 Before descending a steep grade, the transmission should be shifted into a lower
gear and the vehicle speed reduced. Other speed retarding devices should also be
used if available (engine brakes, retarders or trailer hand control valves).
282 OPERATION
Parking Brake/Trailer Supply Valves
Trucks/Tractors may have two air control valves on the instrument panel:
•
•
Trailer Supply (red octagonal knob)
System Park (yellow diamond knob)
W5001116
The System Park valve knob (yellow) should be pushed in first, after sufficient air
pressure is built up (apply foot brake to prevent vehicle from rolling). The Trailer Air
Supply valve knob may then be pushed in.
The Trailer Air Supply valve knob and System Park valve knob will automatically
pop out if the system pressure (both front and rear circuits) drops to 170 to 240 kPa
(25 to 35 psi). The tractor protection valve will then close, the tractor spring brakes
will apply and the trailer emergency system will be activated.
OPERATION 283
On vehicles equipped with the standard two valve system, the operation of one valve
together with the other permits the operator to select the desired functions described
below:
Red Valve (Trailer
Air Supply)
Yellow Valve (System
Park)
Function (Mode)
Out
Out
System Park
In
Out
Trailer Charge
In
In
Normal Running
Out
In
Bobtail
Parking Brake Release
VN models have engines equipped with engine electronic control units (EECU).
These have two features that may impact the brake system. One is the anti-stall
device in the EECU which senses torque demand and automatically controls the
engine to compensate and maintain speed. On tractors equipped with parking brakes
on only one axle, the anti-stall device keeps the engine from stalling, allowing the
driver to pull away with the brakes dragging. This may result in overheated brakes
and damaged wheel hubs.
WARNING
Continual dragging of the brakes will
cause brakes to overheat. This may lead
to wheel end fire. To avoid overheating,
make sure both parking brake knobs are
pushed in before driving off.
If the yellow knob is pulled out and the red knob is pushed in, a condition is created
where the trailer parking brakes are not applied and only the single drive axle brakes
are applied. In this condition, the vehicle can be driven away. Therefore, it is very
important that the driver make sure the yellow AND red knobs are pushed in all the
way before driving the vehicle.
284 OPERATION
There is also an engine shut-down device in the EECU that shuts down the engine
after a pre-programmed time in order to save fuel. This is activated when the yellow
parking brake knob is pulled out. Therefore, some drivers park and release the parking
brakes using only the red knob to keep the engine running. It is then easily overlooked
that in a vehicle parked with both the yellow and red knobs activated, only the red
knob is pushed in by habit.
W5001429
Incorrect Parking or Driving Position
OPERATION 285
Spring Brake for Parking
DANGER
Never leave the vehicle without being
certain the parking brakes are set or that
other precautions are taken to prevent
the vehicle from rolling. Failure to do
so can result in serious personal injury
or death.
DANGER
Before working on or inspecting a
vehicle, set the parking brakes, place
the transmission in neutral and block
the wheels. Failure to do so can result in
unexpected vehicle movement and can
cause serious personal injury or death.
The parking brake mechanism uses spring pressure as a separate power medium to
apply the service brakes on the driving axles. The parking brake is released by the
same compressed air source used to apply the service brakes. Since this brake is
released by air pressure, the system must be charged to at least 420 kPa (60 psi)
before the parking brake may be released.
286 OPERATION
W5001430
The parking brake spring tension is sufficient to hold a fully loaded vehicle on
maximum grades permitted on modern highways, provided the brake drums and
linings are in good condition and the brakes are properly adjusted.
CAUTION
DO NOT use the spring parking brakes
if the service brakes are hot, such as
after descending a steep grade. Also,
do not use the spring parking brakes
during freezing temperatures if the
wheel brakes are wet. To do so could
damage the brakes, if hot, or may cause
them to freeze during cold weather.
If the brakes are wet, drive the vehicle in low gear and lightly apply the brakes to heat
and dry them. Allow hot brakes to cool before using the parking spring brakes.
OPERATION 287
There are several ways to determine if the parking brakes have been set. By pulling
out the yellow knob:
•
•
•
•
•
An audible rush of air will be heard when the parking brake knob is pulled. The
air exhausts from the park brake valve itself and from the spring brake chambers
on the rear axle(s).
A black ring around the base of the yellow control knob will be seen.
The engine will stall if an attempt is made to set the vehicle in motion.
There will be a fluctuation in the air pressure gauge needles.
The knob cannot be pulled out any further.
DANGER
DO NOT attempt in any way to
disassemble or tamper with the spring
brake chamber. The force stored in the
spring, if suddenly released, can cause
serious personal injury or death.
DANGER
DO NOT apply the parking brake while
the vehicle is moving. The rear wheels
may lock up causing loss of vehicle
control leading to an accident, personal
injury or death.
288 OPERATION
Trailer Brake Hand Control
DANGER
The trailer hand brake control is not a
parking brake valve and must not be
used as one. This brake is not designed
to hold the vehicle stationary. Failure
to follow these instructions can result
in the unintentional movement of the
vehicle and may cause personal injury
or death.
DANGER
DO NOT use the trailer brake hand
control as a parking brake. The brakes
could release and the vehicle could roll,
causing a vehicle accident, personal
injury or death.
The hand control valve for the trailer brakes engages the trailer brakes independently
from the vehicle brakes. The valve can be fully or partially engaged but in any partial
position it will be overridden by a full application of the foot brake valve.
To supply air to the trailer brakes to slow the trailer down, pull the valve handle down.
The farther the handle is pulled down, the more air pressure is applied to the trailer
brakes. Releasing the self-returning handle releases the trailer brakes.
OPERATION 289
W5001442
The "121" Brake Standard
This manual refers occasionally to "121" brakes. Although some operators believe
"121" only applies to vehicles equipped with anti-lock devices, the "121" standard
applies to all vehicles that are capable of on-highway operation.
The "121" is a Federal requirement also covering alterations or changes to parts or
systems related to the "121" standard once the vehicle has been placed in service. The
owner and operator should be aware that it is a violation for any repair facility to make
any part or component inoperative when it is required for "121" compliance.
290 OPERATION
ANTI-LOCK BRAKING SYSTEM (ABS)
The vehicle has a standard brake system, equipped with an electronic speed monitoring
and control system, Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). ABS monitors wheel speed
continuously but is not involved in controlling the wheel speed unless there is an
emergency. In normal braking applications, the standard air brake system is in effect.
WARNING
For proper ABS operation, DO NOT
change tire sizes. The size of the
tires installed during production are
programmed into the electronic control
unit. Installing different sized tires
could result in a reduced brake force,
leading to longer stopping distances or
accidents.
There is a sensor installed in each wheel on a monitored axle. The sensors transmit
information to the electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU interprets the signals
and calculates wheel speed, wheel retarding and a vehicle reference speed. If the
calculations indicate a wheel lock-up situation, a signal is sent from the ECU to the
appropriate ABS modulator valve to reduce braking pressure. During emergency
braking, the modulator valve alternately reduces, increases or maintains air pressure
in the brake chamber to prevent wheel lock-up.
During emergency or reduced-traction stops, fully depress the foot brake pedal until
the vehicle comes to a safe stop. DO NOT PUMP the brake pedal. With the brake
pedal fully depressed, the ABS will control all wheels to provide steering control and
a reduced braking distance.
Although the ABS improves vehicle control during emergency braking situations, the
operator still has the responsibility to change driving styles depending on the existing
traffic, road and/or weather conditions. For example, the ABS cannot prevent an
accident if the driver is speeding or following too closely on slippery surfaces.
OPERATION 291
The ABS control unit contains a self-testing program that is engaged each time the
ignition is turned on. The operator can verify the testing by listening for the ABS
modulator valves actuating twice in series. To increase the sound, hold down the foot
brake pedal when the ignition is turned on.
If any of the ABS tell-tales come on during driving or do not go out after a short time
after turning on the ignition, take the vehicle to an authorized Volvo Truck dealer to
repair the ABS or brake system. The vehicle can still be driven with a problem in the
ABS system. However, ABS will not be working and the standard braking system
will be in effect.
W3005149
ABS Malfunction Truck/Tractor
The instrument cluster also contains an ABS tell-tale lamp, which indicates when
there is a problem being reported by the Trailer ABS system.
W3005148
ABS Malfunction Trailer
292 OPERATION
VOLVO ENHANCED STABILITY
TECHNOLOGY
Some vehicles are equipped with Volvo Enhanced Stability Technology (VEST).
VEST is an advanced stability control system designed to provide both roll stability
and under- and over-steer correction in a wide variety of driving conditions. VEST
continuously monitors a variety of vehicle parameters and sensors (including steering
angle sensor) to determine whether the vehicle is reaching critical stability threshold.
At that point, VEST is designed to intervene by instantly de-throttling the engine and
applying individual tractor and trailer brakes as needed to regain control.
TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM (TCS)
(OPTIONAL)
CAUTION
DO NOT engage the differential locks
while wheels are spinning. Serious
damage to the differential will occur.
See “AXLES”, page 342 for more
information.
The Traction Control System (TCS) uses the same wheel sensors as the ABS to
determine if one set of drive wheels is spinning faster than the other wheel set. If the
TCS determines that a wheel is spinning (with vehicle speed below 40 km/h [25
mph]), it operates the brake system to apply some brake force to stop the spinning
wheel(s). This puts the drive power over to the stationary wheel(s).
If vehicle speed is above 40 km/h (25 mph), a signal is sent to the engine ECU, which
reduces the engine speed to be consistent with vehicle speed. This action helps reduce
the amount of wheel spin and gives the operator greater vehicle control.
OPERATION 293
W3000962
The TCS includes a switch to turn off the function. When the switch is in the OFF
position, the TCS operates normally to increase traction if the drive wheels begin
spinning. When the switch is pressed once, the TCS tell-tale in the instrument cluster
blinks continuously, indicating that the TCS is in mud/snow mode.
W3001336
The mud/snow mode increases available traction on soft surfaces like snow, slush or
mud by slightly increasing the allowable wheel spin. This prevents the wheels from
getting bogged down. The TCS will resume normal operation when the TCS switch is
pressed again and the TCS tell-tale goes out or when the ignition is turned off.
294 OPERATION
Tire Pressure System (If Equipped)
The tire pressure/temperature sensor is attached to each wheel with a stainless steel
tire strap and is located in line with the wheels valve stem. This self powered sensor is
responsible for transmitting the tire cavity pressure and temperature to the system via
a radio frequency sign that is received by the system antenna.
1. Tire Pressure
W3035597
OPERATION 295
Air Pressure Monitoring and Alert
The air pressure of each programmed tire can monitored by the operator via the DID.
The system monitors tire air pressure in all cab tires independently and alerts the
operator of low tire pressures in two stages;
1. Low Pressure Alert — The low pressure alert is triggered when tire pressure
is 8% below it’s “Set Point”. The operator is alerted by an amber warning telltale
light/buzzer that is displayed in the instrument cluster. The set point pressure is a
nominal tire pressure that is set at the factory.
2. Critically Low Air Pressure — The critically low air pressure alert is triggered
when tire pressure is 18% below it’s “Set Point”. The driver is alerted by a red
flashing telltale light/buzzer that is displayed in the instrument cluster. The set point
pressure is a nominal tire pressure that is set at the factory.
W3035599
296 OPERATION
Tire Temperature Monitoring and Alert
The cavity air temperature of each programmed tire can monitored by the operator via
the DID. The system monitors cavity air temperature in all cab tires independently and
alerts the operator when any of these tire cavity temperature reaches 77°C (170°F).
The operator is alerted by a red flashing telltale light/buzzer that is displayed in the
instrument cluster.
W3035599
OPERATION 297
VEHICLE SPEED RETARDING DEVICES
DANGER
When operating a tractor bobtail
(without a trailer) or on slippery roads,
the engine brake switch must be in the
"OFF" position. Failure to follow this
instruction can result in loss of vehicle
control and serious personal injury or
death.
Note: The vehicle ABS will automatically turn off the vehicle speed retarding
device, IF one of the sensed rear wheels is locking up as a result of vehicle speed
retarding device operation. The vehicle speed retarding device will be turned back
on automatically when the wheels become unlocked. Consider switching to a lower
braking level if this occurs frequently.
A vehicle speed retarding device is not intended to bring the vehicle to a stop. A
vehicle speed retarding device is only intended to retard the vehicle speed under
certain conditions.
Note: It is normal for there to be a slight delay in the application of a vehicle speed
retarding device. When using devices of this type, be sure to think ahead and analyze
conditions in order to use the device properly.
Volvo Variable Geometry Turbo Brake
The variable geometry turbo brake is standard with the Volvo 11F and 13F engine. It
uses software to close the variable geometry turbocharger to create retardation.
Note: For both variable geometry turbocharger and engine brakes, use a "one gear"
driving strategy when going downhill to keep engine speed up for effective braking
(for example: uphill in 7th gear and downhill in 6th).
298 OPERATION
STARTING THE ENGINE
Start Procedure
Note: For cold weather starting, see “COLD WEATHER OPERATION”, page 306.
These starting and operating procedures should be followed for all engines. For more
detailed information about design and function on a non-Volvo engine, read the
operator’s manual from the engine manufacturer.
Note: Before starting the engine, see "Instruments and Controls" section for detailed
information on how the gauges and tell-tales work.
DANGER
DO NOT use ether or other combustible
starting aids in any Volvo engine.
Introduction of ether or similar starting
aids could cause a fire or explosion
resulting in severe property damage,
serious personal injury or death.
W0001484
DANGER
Never operate the starter without first
placing the transmission in neutral or
depressing the clutch pedal. Failure to
follow these instructions may result
in the unintentional movement of the
vehicle resulting in property damage,
personal injury or death.
OPERATION 299
1. Before starting the engine, perform the engine pre-trip inspection and
daily maintenance checks in on “PRE-TRIP INSPECTION AND DAILY
MAINTENANCE”, page 192.
2. Make sure the parking brakes are engaged.
3. Place the transmission in neutral or depress the clutch pedal.
CAUTION
DO NOT crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds at a time; wait two
minutes after each try to allow the
starter to cool. Failure to follow these
instructions could cause starter damage.
Note: Some starters are equipped with starter protection. If the engine is running, the
starter temperature is too high, the transmission is not in neutral or the clutch pedal is
not depressed, starter engagement is inhibited. Also, when the key is turned to the
start position, there is a one second delay before the starter is engaged.
Note: The starter will not operator if the PTO is engaged.
4. Turn on the ignition with the switch key. Some tell-tales will come on in a routine
check that shows the bulbs and systems are OK If any of the tell-tales stay lit, that
function of the vehicle may not be operable. DO NOT operate the vehicle until
the problem is repaired. For an explanation of the tell-tales, Refer to the Driver
Information Display Manual.
5. Turn the key to the start position. Release key as soon as the engine has started. For
the Volvo engine, the preheater can be engaged to help starting in cold temperatures.
CAUTION
If at start-up, or thereafter, the oil
pressure gauge indicates any drop in oil
pressure, the engine must be shut down
immediately. Failure to stop the engine
may cause major engine damage.
300 OPERATION
W3006933
6. When the engine has started, it takes a while to send lubricating oil to all bearings
and shafts, and between pistons and liners. Wait for the oil pressure gauge to settle
at a normal level, then bring engine speed up gradually. Increase speed as it warms
up. Check all gauges during warm-up.
7. During warm-up, apply load gradually until the oil temperature reaches 60°C
(140°F). To move a loaded vehicle, the minimum coolant temperature must be
approximately 50°C (120°F).
Engine Break-In
Engines are run on dynamometers before being shipped from the manufacturer. In
most applications, the engine can be put to work immediately, but the operator should
be extra observant of the operating conditions shown on the gauges during the initial
100 hours or 5,000 km (3,000 miles).
A more frequent check of the engine compartment for fluid leaks, fluid levels and
fastener tightness is also recommended during the initial period.
OPERATION 301
Engine Overspeed
This vehicle is equipped with a diesel engine and should not be operated in an area
with a concentration of hydrocarbon vapors (for example gasoline or diesel fuel
fumes). Be especially cautious of low-lying or closed-in areas. The vapors may be
drawn into the engine through the air intake and cause the engine to overspeed. Hot
carbon and other sparks may come from the exhaust system, and cause an explosion
and fire.
If the vehicle is in an area where hydrocarbon vapors may be present, shut the engine
off immediately if any abnormalities are experienced. DO NOT leave it unattended.
DANGER
Idling
The diesel engine will operate on any
fuel which enters the cylinder, whether
it is from the injectors or from the air
intake system. Therefore, if any solvent
is used to flush out the air cleaner
element, the engine may overspeed
during start-up. Engine damage and
severe injury and/or death from burns
or explosion can occur.
Diesel engines are electronically governed. The idle speed is pre-programmed from
the manufacturer. Low idle speed is adjustable within certain limits (for most engines
between 600 to 750 rpm).
The common belief that idling a diesel engine causes no engine damage is wrong.
Idling produces sulfuric acid, which breaks down the oil and eats into bearings, rings,
valve stems and engine surfaces.
Note: Avoid excessive idling. If the vehicle is parked for more than 5 minutes, stop
the engine. An engine can burn from 3 to 5.5 liters (0.75 to 1.5 gallons) of fuel per
hour while idling. During long engine idling periods, the engine coolant temperature
may fall below the normal operating range. Incomplete combustion of fuel during the
warm-up period can cause dilution of the oil in the crankcase, formation of lacquer or
gummy deposits on the valves, pistons and rings, and rapid accumulation of sludge
in the engine.
Low Idle Adjustment
DANGER
Before setting the idle, apply the parking
brakes and place the transmission in
neutral. Failure to do so can result in
unexpected vehicle movement and can
cause serious personal injury or death.
302 OPERATION
If the engine coolant temperature is above 50°C (122°F), the vehicle is stationary
(engine running; accelerator released; parking brake on) and the PTO not engaged, the
engine low idle speed can be adjusted with the use of the cruise control function.
W3002499
1 Set the cruise control switch to the ON position.
2 Depress the foot brake pedal. Hold it down during the entire procedure.
3 Move the cruise control switch to the RESUME position and hold it there for four
seconds. Release the switch. The engine speed will drop to the default low idle
(Volvo engines), or a slight drop in idle speed will occur (Cummins).
4 The idle speed is adjusted up with the SET+ switch. Each time the SET+ switch is
pressed momentarily, idle speed will increase approximately 10 rpm (the speed
cannot be increased above the maximum allowed by the engine manufacturer).
5 The idle speed is adjusted down with the SET- switch. Each time the SET- switch
is pressed momentarily, the idle speed will decrease approximately 10 rpm (the
speed cannot be adjusted below the low idle set by the engine manufacturer).
6 When the desired engine idle speed is reached, push and hold the SET and move
the cruise control switch to the RESUME position at the same time and hold them
in position for four seconds. Release the switches.
7 Release the brake pedal to set the new idle speed. If an error was made during the
adjustment procedure, the default idle speed will be maintained.
If the engine coolant temperature is above 50°C (122°F), the vehicle is stationary
(engine running; accelerator released; parking brake on) and the PTO not engaged, the
engine low idle speed can be adjusted with the use of the cruise control function.
OPERATION 303
Idle Shutdown Timer
The idle shutdown timer can be programmed to shut the engine down after a specific
engine idling time. This programming cannot be changed by the operator, but can be
done using special tools. Contact your authorized Volvo Truck dealer for details.
The permitted idle time can be set to the following time intervals:
Volvo – 1 to 40 minutes
Cummins – 1 to 100 minutes
When the idle shutdown feature is enabled, the engine will typically shut down at the
set time under the following conditions:
Vehicle speed is 0.
Engine is running at idle speed.
Coolant temperature is above 45°C (113°F).
Parking brake is applied (Volvo engines only).
These are standard choices when the vehicle is delivered. For more information about
other customer adaptation choices, contact your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
Uphill Operation
For best performance, allow engine speed to reach the bottom of the rated torque range
before downshifting. Continue to downshift in this manner until a gear is reached that
will maintain the desired speed. Continue to operate at the rated torque if the vehicle
will make it to the top without a downshift. Begin upshifting as the grade of the hill
decreases and the engine begins to accelerate above 1600 rpm. Driving this way will
give the best fuel economy and performance.
Note: Allowing the engine to lug down to the end of maximum torque range is
permissible if the vehicle is cresting the top of a hill. However, extended operation at
engine speeds below the maximum torque range (usually 1000 to 1200 rpm) will raise
exhaust temperature and cylinder pressure. This can lead to reduced engine life.
304 OPERATION
Downhill Operation
CAUTION
DO NOT exceed engine manufacturer’s
recommended maximum engine speed.
Engine damage can occur. If equipped
with an engine or exhaust brake, DO
NOT exceed 2300 rpm.
On a downgrade, do not coast with the clutch pedal depressed or the transmission
in neutral. Select a gear that does not allow the engine speed to exceed the engine
manufacturer’s maximum engine speed recommendation. Use the engine or exhaust
brake and/or the service brakes to control the vehicle speed. A simple rule is to select
the same gear used to go up the grade.
High Altitude Operation
Engines lose power when operated at high altitude because the air is too thin to allow
burning as much fuel as at sea level. Closely monitor the gauges during high altitude
operation. The thinner ambient air reduces the efficiency of the engine cooling system.
Engine overheat or cylinder damage could occur if the engine is operated at full load
for extended periods at high altitudes in hot weather. Downshift and reduce vehicle
speed to reduce engine load when driving on long grades in these conditions. This
will help keep engine air intake manifold and coolant temperatures within safe limits.
OPERATION 305
Stopping the Engine
Allow the engine to slow down and idle for 3 to 5 minutes before shutting it off. This
allows the turbo to slow down and the cooling system to dissipate the engine heat.
Switch the engine off by turning the ignition key to the B, or OFF, position.
CAUTION
Shutting off an engine immediately
after high speed or full load operation
can damage the turbo and cause heat
stress in the engine. Always let the
engine idle for 3 to 5 minutes before
shutting it off.
DANGER
Failure to take the necessary precautions
when the CHECK or STOP tell-tales are
on, can ultimately result in automatic
engine shut-down and the loss of power
steering. Vehicle crash can occur.
Engine Shut-Down System
W3005170
W3005171
The engine shut-down system will automatically derate or stop the engine when one
or more of the systems listed below reaches a critical stage:
•
•
•
•
•
High Coolant Temperature
Low Oil Pressure
Low Coolant Level
High Crankcase Pressure
High Diesel Particulate Filter Soot Level
Derate and shut-down functions may be applied differently, or added to, depending on
the engine manufacturer. See the engine operator’s manual for more information.
When the shut-down is activated, the tell-tales come on and the buzzer is also
activated. From that time it will take 30 seconds before the engine shuts down. In this
time period, find a safe place to pull off of the road.
After the engine has been shut down by the system, the override will allow a restart
of the engine for 30 seconds. This is so the vehicle may be pulled off the road, if
necessary. The alarm will remain activated until repairs have been made to correct the
problem.
The operator should not continually override the system as this can cause serious
damage to the vehicle’s engine.
306 OPERATION
COLD WEATHER OPERATION
Volvo Engine Cold Start
Note: These cold start instructions are for Volvo engines only. For other engine
makes, see the manufacturer’s handbook.
DANGER
DO NOT use ether or other combustible
starting aids on any Volvo engine.
Introduction of ether or similar starting
aids could cause a fire or explosion
resulting in severe property damage,
serious personal injury or death.
Note: Volvo engines have a unique cold start feature. Depending on the ambient
temperature, the engine cranks two to four turns without injecting fuel. This provides
cleaner combustion at start-up and promotes longer engine life.
When starting a cold engine, the intake air should be warmed up by using the
preheater. Turn the ignition key to the drive position and push the key in to request
preheater engagement. The preheater does not engage at coolant temperatures above
12°C (54°F). If the coolant temperature is below 12°C (54°F), the preheater will
engage and will light the preheater tell-tale between 0 and 50 seconds, depending on
the engine coolant temperature.
OPERATION 307
T3008841
If necessary, once the engine has started, the preheater will reengage (post heating) for
the same length of time as the preheat time.
Engines Without Preheater
Engines not equipped with a preheater may, depending on coolant temperature, take
longer to start. If this should happen, DO NOT release the ignition key until the
engine has started (while still observing the 30 second maximum cranking time).
Ether Start
DANGER
DO NOT use ether or other combustible
starting aids on any Volvo engine.
Introduction of ether or similar starting
aids could cause a fire or explosion
resulting in severe property damage,
serious personal injury or death.
W0001484
308 OPERATION
Cold Weather Operation
If the engine is in good mechanical condition and the necessary preparations are taken
for cold weather operation, ordinary cold weather will not cause difficulty in starting
or loss of efficiency.
Cold weather operation does require changes in operating practices, maintenance
procedures, lubrication and fuel. Additions to the vehicle, such as heated fuel filters,
fuel tank heater, engine block heater, winterfront, etc., can make winter operation
easier. Contact your authorized Volvo Truck dealer for the correct accessories and
information about installation.
If satisfactory engine temperature is not maintained, increased engine wear will result
in higher maintenance cost. Accessories should be designed to be easily disconnected
when switching to driving in warmer weather so they do not affect the operation
of the engine.
OPERATION 309
For cold weather operation, follow these recommendations:
•
When starting the engine in temperatures below 15°C (5°F), use engine lubricants
of lower viscosity. See the Operator’s Manual Vehicle Maintenance for additional
information.
•
When the temperature is below freezing, make sure the concentration of antifreeze
in the coolant is sufficient to prevent freezing. Refer to the Operator’s Manual
Vehicle Maintenance for additional information.
•
During cold weather, pay more attention to the condition of the batteries. Test them
frequently to ensure sufficient power for starting. A dead battery may freeze.
•
Fuel cloud point is the temperature at which wax crystals become visible, which is
generally above the pour point of the fuel. To keep the fuel filter elements from
plugging with wax crystals, the cloud point should be no higher than the lowest
ambient temperature at which the engine must start
To prevent wear and possible damage to the engine when it is cold, gradually bring
it up to operating temperature before operating at high engine speeds or full load.
After starting and before moving the vehicle, run the engine at 800 to 1000 rpm for
3 to 5 minutes. Operate at partial engine load until the coolant temperature reaches
75°C (165°F).
310 OPERATION
Engine Block Heater (Optional)
An electric engine block heater can be installed for keeping the coolant hot when the
vehicle is parked. The heater is mounted through the side of the engine block with the
heater coils in the coolant jacket. The heater does not interfere with normal operation
and can be permanently installed.
The heater runs on 120 V and has an easily accessible plug, located beside the driver
side door. The plug will hook up to a normal extension cable.
Note: Location of the block heater depends on vehicle model.
W3005284
OPERATION 311
Oil Pan Heater (Optional)
Oil pan heaters aid low temperature starting by improving oil flow to critical parts in
the engine. This helps prevent engine wear. They are similar to block heaters and are
wired into the same plug as the engine coolant heater.
Fuel Heater Filter (Optional)
If running in very cold weather, a heated fuel filter should be added. A number
of different fuel heaters are available as options. They are electrically heated and
regulated by a thermostat or coolant heated. They are typically built into the primary
fuel filter housing.
W2003931
312 OPERATION
Fuel Tank Heater (Optional)
An in-tank fuel heater is also available. In-tank heaters use hot engine coolant to
warm the fuel. This prevents wax formation in the fuel during cold season operation.
These heaters are thermostatically controlled and will automatically raise the fuel
temperature to an optimum level.
Winterfront
Volvo Trucks North America does not recommend the use of winterfronts,
shutters or any other shield in front of the grille or radiator package under
normal circumstances.
Today’s electronically controlled engines are designed to operate in cold temperatures
without a winterfront. These devices, if not used properly, can cause higher exhaust
temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage, failure of the charge-air-cooler and a
reduction in fuel economy.
Winterfronts are properly used in the wintertime during very cold weather. In these
cases, coolant and inlet manifold temperatures must also be carefully monitored and
controlled.
CAUTION
Failure to remove the winterfront
when temperatures go above severely
cold temperatures could cause severe
damage to engine, charge-air-cooler
and/or loss of fuel economy.
If a winterfront is used, it must conform to these specifications:
•
The grille coverage should be such that airflow through to the charge-air-cooler is
at a uniform rate over the entire area. This means that a single, small opening in
the winterfront is not acceptable.
•
Air passage must be distributed evenly across the grille and no more than 85%
can be covered.
Please see your authorized Volvo Truck dealer for Volvo recommended winterfronts.
Note: If there is engine or related damage that can be traced to an improperly used
winterfront, the warranty is no longer valid for those parts.
OPERATION 313
FIFTH WHEEL INSTRUCTIONS
Fifth Wheel General Information
DANGER
Always have all fifth wheel maintenance
and repairs done by a qualified
technician. An incorrect repair can
cause the trailer to separate from the
tractor causing an accident with serious
personal injury or death.
Things to think about with trailer hook-up:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check the load distribution between axles.
Always chock the trailer wheels.
Grease the plate unless it is a low lube or no lube top plate.
Verify visually that coupling has occurred.
Verify visually that plungers have locked on slider.
Check for slack between the fifth wheel and the trailer kingpin
Follow the instructions on the advisory labels attached to the various manufacturers’
fifth wheels. An operator’s manual for each fifth wheel is provided in the Owner’s
package.
314 OPERATION
If the fifth wheel is equipped with a sliding mounting, follow the advisory labels
attached to the component. Also, read the literature provided by the manufacturer.
DANGER
Always keep the fifth wheel plate well
lubricated to prevent binding between
the tractor and trailer. A binding fifth
wheel could cause erratic steering and
loss of vehicle control that may result in
serious personal injury or death.
There are three operating positions for the fifth wheel locking mechanism (ASF fifth
wheel is shown as a typical fifth wheel):
Locked — This is the position that the fifth wheel will be in with a trailer hooked
up. In the locked position, the operating rod is retracted and the safety latch will
freely swing back and forth.
W9000180
Lockset — This is the position the fifth wheel is in when uncoupling the trailer. To
achieve the lockset position, the operating rod is pulled out with a slight upward
motion. The operating rod shoulder will catch on the plate casting. The safety latch is
rotated toward the rear of the fifth wheel.
OPERATION 315
W9000242
Open — This is the position the fifth wheel is in after the trailer is uncoupled. The jaw
is open and the operating rod is now dropped down and can be freely moved around.
The safety latch is rotated toward the rear of the fifth wheel. This is the position the
fifth wheel must be in when being coupled to a trailer.
W9000203
316 OPERATION
Fifth Wheel Slider (Optional)
Open — This is the position the fifth wheel is in after the trailer is uncoupled. The jaw
is open and the operating rod is now dropped down and can be freely moved around.
The safety latch is rotated toward the rear of the fifth wheel. This is the position the
fifth wheel must be in when being coupled to a trailer.
Fifth Wheel Slider (Optional)
The fifth wheel comes standard with an air operational slider. To remain within legal
weight limits, this feature allows the driver to distribute the load easily on the axles.
The air operated slider takes the work out of adjusting the tractor for various trailer
loads. The fifth wheel portion is easily adjusted, even with a fully loaded trailer
connected.
Movement between the adjustable saddle plate and the stationary base plate rail can
result in wear, causing longitudinal, latitudinal and vertical slack. Field repairs can
be made to reduce this slack for additional service life.
W9000205
OPERATION 317
Unlocking the Fifth Wheel
Always check out the entire fifth wheel before attempting to couple to a trailer (ASF
fifth wheel is shown).
•
•
If not lubricated properly, add grease to the top of the fifth wheel plate.
•
If using a sliding fifth wheel, make sure the slide locking plungers are in a locked
position.
Make sure the mounting of the fifth wheel to the frame is tight and in good
condition.
The following instructions are for preparing the fifth wheel for coupling to a trailer:
Rotate the safety latch toward the rear of the fifth wheel.
W9000180
318 OPERATION
Using a slight upward motion, pull the operating rod out until the operating rod
shoulder is outside the fifth wheel operating slot.
W9000202
When the shoulder of the operating rod is outside of the operating slot, raise the
operating rod handle to its maximum upward position.
W9000242
OPERATION 319
Release the operating rod. The upper shoulder of the operating rod should now be in
contact with the plate casting above the operating slot. The fifth wheel is now in the
lockset position and a trailer can be coupled.
W9000274
Trailer Coupling Procedures
DANGER
It is important that the operating
procedures contained in this manual are
fully understood and closely followed.
Failure to properly couple the tractor
and trailer can result in their separation,
causing death and property damage.
Proper pick-up and coupling to a
trailer is a serious matter. A trailer
that becomes disconnected while in
motion is extremely dangerous to other
traffic and may result in death or severe
personal injury. To ensure a positive
hook-up or coupling, the procedures
should be followed in every case.
This procedure covers vehicles with and without air suspension.
320 OPERATION
Using the following procedures, inspect the equipment before coupling to a trailer:
Make sure the fifth wheel is properly lubricated and the jaw is in the open position.
W9000659
WARNING
If the jaw is not in the open position, use
a pry bar to rotate the jaw to the open
position. The lock is spring loaded.
Keep hands away to avoid injury.
Use a pry bar to open the fifth wheel jaw, if necessary.
W9000660
OPERATION 321
Make sure the plate is tilted downward to the proper position at the rear.
W9000236
Make sure the mounting of the fifth wheel to the tractor frame is tight and in good
condition.
Make sure the plate is tilted downward to the proper position at the rear.
If using a sliding fifth wheel, make sure the slide locking plungers are fully engaged.
W9000205
322 OPERATION
Chock the trailer wheels. Use two chocks (both on the front and rear of the wheel) on
both sides of the trailer.
Back up close to the trailer, centering the kingpin on the throat of the fifth wheel,
and STOP.
Note: For tractors with air ride suspension, make sure the suspension control switch is
in the "RIDE" position (switch pushed in at the top) and the air springs are inflated.
W3001341
Connect the air brake lines and the electrical power cord. Make sure that any slack in
the lines is supported so that the brake lines do not become entangled. Set the trailer
brakes by pulling out the Trailer Supply control on the dashboard.
W3005321
OPERATION 323
CAUTION
Attempting to couple with the trailer
at an improper height could result in
a false or improper couple and cause
damage to the tractor, fifth wheel and
trailer.
Check to see that the trailer is at the proper height for coupling. The leading edge of
the trailer plate should initially contact the fifth wheel top plate surface about 200 mm
(8 in.) behind the pivot point as the tractor backs under the trailer. Raise or lower the
trailer landing gear as required to obtain this position.
Back under the trailer, keep the trailer kingpin centered in the throat of the fifth wheel.
After picking up the trailer — STOP — then continue backing until the fifth wheel
locks firmly on the kingpin. Stopping helps prevent hitting the kingpin too hard.
DANGER
To ensure a positive hook-up or
coupling, these procedures should be
followed in every case. A trailer that is
not connected correctly may disconnect
from the tractor while in motion,
resulting in an accident, personal injury
or death.
324 OPERATION
As an initial check, pull forward to test the completeness of the coupling.
W9000237
A direct visual check is required to ensure proper coupling. Several types of improper
couplings will pass the initial pull test. Sound is not reliable. Do not take for granted
that you are properly coupled. Get out of the cab and look.
W9000286
Failed Trailer Coupling
OPERATION 325
Make sure the trailer kingpin is in the jaw slot and that the jaw is closed behind the pin.
The kingpin should not overhang the fifth wheel or be caught in the grease groove.
To verify that the kingpin is actually in the fifth wheel slot and the jaw is closed, the
pin must be visually inspected from the rear. Use a flashlight if necessary.
W9000181
Make sure the trailer bed is resting on the top surface of the fifth wheel plate, and that
there is no visible gap between the fifth wheel and the trailer bed plate.
326 OPERATION
W9000240
Make sure the operating rod is fully retracted, the safety latch is positioned above the
handle, and the latch swings freely.
If the fifth wheel is equipped with a manual secondary lock, check to see that it is
properly engaged.
Note: If you cannot get a proper coupling, repeat this procedure. DO NOT use any
fifth wheel which fails to operate properly.
W9000180
Check the kingpin to fifth wheel clearance by moving the tractor backward and
forward with the trailer brakes set. If the clearance appears excessive (more than 3
mm [1/8 in.]), or if the jaw does not lock, the fifth wheel should be inspected by a
qualified technician before proceeding.
Wind up the trailer landing gear (trailer support) to its fully retracted position. Fold
down or remove the crank handle and place it in the crank handle holder.
Check the air brake lines and the trailer light cord connections.
Remove the wheel chocks from the trailer wheels.
OPERATION 327
Trailer Uncoupling Procedures
For Tractors With Air Ride Suspension
Set the system park brake on the tractor.
Set the trailer brakes by pulling out the trailer air supply knob.
W5001433
Chock the trailer wheels. Use two chocks (one on the front and one on the rear of the
wheel) on both sides of the trailer.
Wind down the landing gear until it touches the ground and then give it a few extra
turns in low gear. Do not raise the trailer off of the fifth wheel. Fold down or remove
the crank handle and place it in the crank handle holder.
Note: In poor ground conditions, it may be necessary to provide a stable base for the
landing gear.
328 OPERATION
Disconnect the light cord and air brake lines. Use the dummy air couplings to keep
foreign material from entering the brake lines.
Unlock the fifth wheel.
Note: If the operating rod is too difficult to pull, back the tractor up slightly to relieve
any kingpin load against the fifth wheel jaw.
W9000275
Release the tractor park brakes and pull the tractor away from the kingpin about
300 mm (12 in.) and STOP. Do not allow the fifth wheel to leave the underside of
the trailer.
OPERATION 329
W9000239
Select the "UNCOUPLE" position (push down the latch and press in the bottom part
of the switch) on the suspension control switch to deflate the air springs.
W3006386
330 OPERATION
Wait about 30 seconds for the air springs to deflate.
W9000238
With the suspension lowered, pull clear of the trailer and immediately select the
"RIDE" position (press the top part of the switch in) on the suspension control. This
restores the suspension to operating height.
CAUTION
The vehicle must never be driven with
the air springs deflated. Damage to air
suspension parts will occur if springs
are not inflated properly.
OPERATION 331
After the trailer is uncoupled, the fifth wheel will be in the open position. The
operating rod will drop and can be moved around freely.
W9000203
332 OPERATION
Operating the Fifth Wheel Slider
CAUTION
The trailer must be stopped and the
trailer brakes locked, or damage to the
tractor and/or trailer may result from
uncontrolled sliding of the fifth wheel.
Stop the tractor and trailer in a straight line on level ground.
Lock the trailer brakes by pulling out the Trailer Supply knob.
Release the slide locking plungers by moving the switch to the "UNLOCK" position
(press down the latch and push in the bottom part of the switch).
W3006383
Check to see that both of the slide plungers have released. If the plungers do not come
out, lower the landing gear to relieve the pressure on the plungers. Lowering the
landing gear will also allow the fifth wheel to slide easier.
OPERATION 333
W9000205
Slowly drive the tractor forward or backward to position the fifth wheel.
After sliding the fifth wheel to the desired position, engage the slide locking plungers
by moving the cab switch to the "LOCK" position (press in the top part of the switch).
W3001346
334 OPERATION
CAUTION
DO NOT operate the vehicle if the
plungers are not fully engaged and the
trailer landing gear is not fully retracted.
Doing so may cause damage to the
tractor, trailer and landing gear.
Visually check to see that the slide plungers are fully engaged. It may be necessary
to leave the trailer brakes locked and to move the tractor slightly to engage the slide
plungers into the rail.
Wind up the trailer landing gear to its fully retracted position.
W9000205
OPERATION 335
Clutch
DANGER
General
Before starting the engine, set
the parking brakes and place the
transmission in neutral. Failure to do
so can result in unexpected vehicle
movement and can cause serious
personal injury and death.
DO NOT allow the clutch to slip excessively. This would cause excessive heat to
be generated and the clutch will be damaged and bring on premature failure. As
soon as the vehicle is moving, remove the foot from the pedal for complete clutch
engagement. Once the clutch is fully engaged, heat and wear does not affect it.
DO NOT shock load the drive line through rapid engagement of the clutch. Extreme
care should be taken when driving heavy loads up hills. Always use the lowest gear
when starting out under adverse conditions.
When operating a vehicle equipped with a clutch brake, the clutch pedal should not be
depressed more than halfway to the floor while shifting, except when the vehicle is
at a stop. To re-enter the low gear from neutral or reverse, or to enter reverse gear
from neutral or low, the clutch should be depressed all the way to engage the clutch
brake. This stops the rotation of the transmission input shaft and provides an easy,
quiet gear engagement.
336 OPERATION
PERFORMANCE BONUS FEATURE
Description
•
•
The Performance Bonus Feature is a tool used to promote driver efficiency.
•
The reward of higher RSL increases driver productivity and income. It also
promotes increased driver and fuel efficiency.
This feature rewards the driver with a higher Road Speed Limit (RSL) only if the
performance targets set by the fleet management are achieved. Targets are set
based upon fuel economy, idle time or a combination of both, or by the Sweet
Spot Indicator.
To obtain more information about the Performance Bonus Feature, contact your
Volvo dealer.
Note: The Performance Bonus Feature is programmable (by your dealer) using
VCADS Pro or VCADS Pro Elite.
Performance Bonus Status Reward
Driver reward is shown in the Driver Information Display screen (DID). Once the
ignition is turned ON, the Performance Bonus status appears and remains on the
screen for 15 seconds.
Note: Only priority 1 messages will temporarily close the rewards status menu. For
additional information about the DID, refer to the Driver Information Display Manual.
W3028719
OPERATION 337
Rolling Buffer
The "rolling buffer" is set to measure distance driven. The buffer may be set at a
short or long distance. A short buffer results in a faster reward, (or loss of reward)
which provides driving fuel economy training to the driver, permitting the driver easy
memory of the input to the buffer during this short period of time. A long buffer
setting allows for the daily activities to "smooth out". In this case the reward is based
on weekly/monthly activity.
W3028720
The DID will indicate the Performance Bonus status by showing the actual status and target
within the parenthesis.
338 OPERATION
W3028721
Performance Bonus Guide
Volvo Engines Only
The Performance Bonus Guide is an aid that provides comprehensive feedback to the
driver about the optimum engine operating range during a trip. If adhered to, this
results in improved fuel efficiency. Icons in the Driver Information Display (DID)
guide drivers to the most efficient engine operating range for any given engine load
and speed. This is referred to as the engine’s "Sweet Spot".
The Performance Bonus Guide is inactive at low vehicle speeds. The engine is
designed to allow the driver to stay within the Sweet Spot during most normal
operating conditions. There may be situations where it is necessary to operate the
engine outside the Sweet Spot, however, this will negatively affect fuel consumption.
OPERATION 339
Status Symbols
Meaning
Engine Operating in the Sweet Spot Mode. Fuel
consumed in this mode will count 100% toward
the Sweet Spot Percentage.
W3006755
Engine Operating in a less efficient area of
the Sweet Spot Mode. Fuel consumed in this
mode will count 50% toward the Sweet Spot
Percentage.
W3028749
Decrease Engine Speed
W3006756
Increase Engine Speed
W3006757
Decrease Gas Pedal
W3006758
Increase Gas Pedal
W3006759
Engine Operating Outside Sweet Spot (No
guidance)
W3006760
340 OPERATION
Symbol
Meaning
Performance Bonus Guide (shows Sweet Spot Percentage
[Large Symbol])
W3006755
Driving Mode
The Sweet Spot Status icons are displayed at the bottom left of the DID screen. The
Sweet Spot symbol is displayed at the top of the screen underneath Fuel Data. The
Sweet Spot percentage page is displayed in the Fuel Data menu. The DID shows the
screen with Sweet Spot Trip Data Percentage.
W3028761
In the example shown, 50% means the engine has operated 50% of the driven distance,
since the last trip data reset, within the engine’s most efficient operating range.
OPERATION 341
If Performance Bonus is enabled, and the Sweet Spot percentage target is a chosen
condition, the DID also displays the Sweet Spot target percentage in parenthesis.
W3028762
The Performance Bonus Guide is a standard feature for all Volvo engines on vehicles
equipped with the mid or high level instrument cluster. Performance Bonus does not
work with the basic instrument cluster.
Note: When Sweet Spot percentage is used as a chosen condition in Performance
Bonus, the target percentage is programmable by Volvo.
Non-Driving Mode
If Performance Bonus is disabled, the Sweet Spot percentage data can be reset by
resetting the vehicle trip information.
If Performance Bonus is enabled, and the Sweet Spot percentage target is chosen as
a condition, the Sweet Spot data CANNOT be reset.
Total Data menu displays the percentage of distance the vehicle has spent in the Sweet
Spot during the life of the vehicle.
For more information about this feature, contact your local Volvo Truck dealer.
342 OPERATION
AXLES
Differential Locks
DANGER
DO NOT drive on dry, paved surface
with the differential locks engaged.
The vehicle will strive to maintain a
straight line. Taking a curve with the
differential locks engaged may cause
an accident, leading to serious personal
injury or death.
CAUTION
Never operate the vehicle with the
differentials locked any longer than is
necessary, as this places a great strain on
the axles and may cause rapid tire wear.
Under normal traction conditions, do not engage the differential locks. If at all
possible, do not use the differential locks while taking a curve. With good traction
and the differential locks engaged, the vehicle will be understeered and therefore will
tend to drive straight in a curve. When using locks on good traction surface, drive
cautiously and do not exceed 40 km/h (25 mph). Disengage the locks as soon as
possible.
When the differential locks are disengaged, the couplings may be under tension.
Disengage the locks by returning the switch to the OFF position. Help with the
disengagement by briefly letting up on the accelerator to relieve the torque on the
couplings.
The drive axle(s) may be equipped with differential locks. The single drive axle will
only have a wheel differential lock. With tandem drive axles, there could be both
wheel differential locks and an inter-axle differential lock.
OPERATION 343
W3001991
The differential lock should be used on icy or slippery surfaces. As soon as the
slippery surface has been passed, the differential lock should be disengaged.
Differential locks must not, under any circumstances, be engaged when in a
wheel-spin situation. Engage the locks ahead of the slippery area. If already slipping,
stop the wheels, engage the locks and then continue. If the differential locks are
engaged when the wheels are spinning, the differential will be damaged and the rear
axle drive unit could possibly fail.
All efforts must be made to avoid spinning the wheels at high speeds on slippery
surfaces. This is true whether the differential locks are engaged or not. Excessive
wheel spin may result in failure of the cluster gears and other components found
within the rear axle housing(s). If you are unable to obtain traction, engage the
differential locks as described below. If you are still unable to move the truck, seek
assistance from a qualified tow operator.
Engaging the differential locks must always be done as follows “PRE-TRIP
INSPECTION AND DAILY MAINTENANCE”, page 192 for switch location):
1 Depress the clutch pedal. Wait for the drive wheels to stop spinning.
2 Engage the differential lock.
3 Engage a suitable gear.
4 Carefully release the clutch pedal.
344 OPERATION
CAUTION
DO NOT rely on gauges to determine
axle pressure. Weight must be verified
on scales, and pressure in the air springs
should then be adjusted accordingly.
Regulators for adjusting the air spring pressure are located on the outside of the cab,
below the rear corner of the driver side door. Regulators are operated by turning the
knob counterclockwise for lowering pressure, and clockwise for increasing pressure.
W7001173
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 345
Exhaust Aftertreatment System
W2029933
1. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Catalyst
2. Aftertreatment DEF Dosing Unit
3. Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF)
4.Aftertreatment DEF Tank
346 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Safety Information
Volvo utilizes the use of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic
Reduction (SCR) to meet EPA2010 emissions. The system is designed to require very
little driver interface to maintain correct operation. The technology utilizes a passive
regeneration; requiring no fuel to be injected to clean the DPF. In EPA2007 an active
regeneration (fuel was injected) was required to clean out the DPF producing very
high exhaust outlet temperatures. Certain vocational duty cycles will require the use
of fuel and/or a parked regeneration to clean out built-up soot in the particulate filter.
Exhaust temperature will increase during a parked regeneration. When parking the
vehicle to perform a parked regeneration keep away from any flammable material,
vapors or structures.
DANGER
Exhaust gases and components can
be at extremely high temperatures
during regeneration. When parking the
vehicle, keep away from any flammable
materials, vapors, or structures.
DANGER
The temperature of the exhaust system
components during the regeneration
process can exceed 350 degrees C
(660 F). The exhaust gas leaving
the system can reach 420 degrees C
(788 F). Various factors (including
ambient temperature and duration of the
regeneration process) determine when
these components will return to normal
operating temperature after regeneration
has completed. Be extremely careful
around these hot components. Contact
with these components can result in
serious personal injury.
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 347
Exhaust Aftertreatment System Components
and Operation
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is an emissions-reduction technology with the
ability to deliver near-zero emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), a smog-causing
pollutant and greenhouse gas. SCR’s performance has been proved in millions of
miles of real-world truck operations in other countries, as well as in long-term field
tests in the U.S.
SCR reduces NOx emissions to very low levels, while at the same time delivering
excellent fuel economy and reliability. The system doesn’t change the design or
operation of the basic engine. Rather, SCR is an Aftertreatment system which
converts NOx in the exhaust stream into harmless gases. Modern diesels already use
exhaust Aftertreatment systems, called diesel particulate filters, to control emissions
of another pollutant, soot (also known as particulate matter or PM).
SCR works by injecting Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) into the exhaust. DEF is a
solution of ultra- pure water and urea. DEF works with the heat of the exhaust and
a catalyst to convert NOx into nitrogen and water vapor - two harmless and natural
components of the air we breathe. The end result is cleaner air, excellent fuel
efficiency and a reliable emissions control system for today’s modern diesel engine.
348 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
W2031651
1. Diesel Engine
2. Aftertreatment DEF Tank
3. Aftertreatment DEF Pump
4. Aftertreatment DEF Dosing Unit
5. Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
6. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalyst
7. Aftertreatment DEF Tank Gauge
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 349
System Operation
1 Diesel engine optimized for high performance, low particle emissions and low
fuel consumption.
2
Aftertreatment DEF tank
3
The Aftertreatment Control Module (ACM) continuously monitors and adjusts the
Aftertreatment DEF pump pressure in response to current engine load conditions.
4
DEF is injected into the exhaust gases in between the Aftertreatment DPF (5)
and the SCR catalyst (6).
5 Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
6
In the SCR catalyst, nitrogen oxides are transformed into harmless nitrogen gas
and water.
7 The system notifies the driver when it is time to refill tank with DEF.
The Volvo SCR system is simple and effective, with few components. It consists
of a Aftertreatment DEF tank positioned near the standard diesel tank, plus a
Aftertreatment DEF pump, Aftertreatment DEF Dosing unit and SCR catalyst.
The advantage of using DEF is that it enables the engine to use less EGR -- and
higher oxygen levels -- for better combustion, while meeting the EPA near-zero NOx
emissions requirement of 0.2 g/hp-hr NOx. By using DEF, we avoid the disadvantages
of increasing EGR to massive levels. This results in better fuel economy from your
Volvo engine.
W2055491
Vertical SCR, vertical inlet
350 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
W2055492
Horizontal SCR, full sive
W2055493
Horizontal SCR, compact sive
CAUTION
Do not put diesel fuel in the
Aftertreatment DEF tank. Diesel
fuel, if sprayed into the hot exhaust
along with the DEF, could ignite
explosively causing a fire resulting
in personal injury or damage to the
exhaust system.
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 351
W3036787
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) is a reactant that’s key to the SCR process. It’s a nontoxic,
aqueous solution of urea and ultra-pure water. Urea is a compound of nitrogen that
turns to ammonia when heated. The fluid is non flammable, and is not dangerous when
handled as recommended. However, it is highly corrosive to certain metals, espically
copper and brass. Read the separate section concerning the handling of DEF solution.
Use only Diesel Exhaust Fluid that is clearly labeled as meeting ISO-22241
standards, and certified by the American Petroleum Institute. The container must
display the API certification seal. Never use agricultural or industrial grade
urea. Use of fluids other than API certified Diesel Exhaust Fluid will compromise
aftertreatment system performance, increase emissions, and may impact your product
warranties. Never dilute DEF with water or any other fluid.
It is recommended that DEF not be stored in extreme hot or cold conditions, or
for prolonged periods. Follow the instructions for proper storage and handling as
indicated on the container or provided with the purchase.
Note: Agriculture mixtures are not pure enough for use in the SCR system and
impurities in the solution will comprise the SCR system.
352 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Handling
When handling DEF solution, it is important that electrical connectors to be connected
or well encapsulated, otherwise there is a risk that the DEF will cause oxidation that
cannot be removed. Water or compressed air do not help, since DEF quickly oxidizes
certain metal. If a disconnected connector comes into contact with the DEF solution it
must be replaced immediately to prevent the DEF solution from creeping further into
the copper wiring, which takes place at a speed of about 60 mm (2.4 in) per hour.
CAUTION
When detaching hoses and components,
do not spill DEF on disconnected
or unsealed connectors. If DEF is
spilled on a disconnected or unsealed
connector, the connector must be
replaced immediately.
Things to know about spilled Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
If DEF solution comes into contact with the skin: rinse with plenty of water and
remove contaminated clothing.
If DEF solution comes into contact with the eyes: rinse for several minutes and call
for medical help if necessary.
If inhaled: breathe fresh air and call for medical help if necessary.
Do not allow the DEF solution to come into contact with other chemicals.
The DEF solution is not flammable. If the DEF solution is exposed to high
temperatures, it breaks down into ammonia and carbon dioxide.
The DEF solution is highly corrosive to certain metals, including copper and brass.
If the DEF solution is spilled onto the vehicle, wipe off the excess and rinse with
water. Spilled DEF solution can form concentrated white crystals on the vehicle.
Rinse off these crystals with water.
Note: Do not flush DEF spillage into the
normal drain system.
WARNING
DEF spilled onto hot components will
quickly vaporize. Turn your face away!
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 353
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Availability
DEF will be available in 2.5-gallon containers, 55-gallon drums, 275 gallon IBC and
in bulk storage for fleet locations, truck stops and dealerships. All major truck stops,
dealers and distributors will carry DEF.
DEF will freezes to a "slush" type consistency at –11 degrees C (12 F), but not to a
solid, so just as with diesel fuel, stored DEF needs to be protected from extended
periods of severe cold. For more information on DEF and availability please visit the
website www.Volvoscr.com or call 1–800–52VOLVO.
354 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
W2030326
CAUTION
Use of diesel fuel other than ULSD and
engine oils other than EO-O Premium
Plus (or VDS-4), will adversely affect
performance, efficiency and durability
of the Aftertreatment DPF system and
the engine, to the point where the engine
may not run at all. Manufacturer’s
warranties can also be rendered void due
to usage of improper fuel. Unapproved
fuel additives (including engine oil)
are NOT permitted. Blends of No.
1D and No. 2D grades of ULSD are
recommended and allowable for cold
weather operations.
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 355
The exhaust Aftertreatment system virtually eliminates exhaust smoke. White
Exhaust vapor (water condensation) may be visible during a cold start. If black
exhaust smoke is visible during engine operation, this indicates a problem with the
exhaust Aftertreatment system. Take the vehicle to an authorized Volvo Truck dealer
immediately.
Vehicles equipped with a 2010 emission compliant engine have an exhaust
Aftertreatment system which includes a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system
and a Catalyzed Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The Aftertreatment
DPF takes the place of the standard muffler, and it reduces soot and particulate
emissions into the atmosphere. Soot and other particulate matter are collected by a
filter where it is eventually oxidized. Vehicles equipped with a Aftertreatment DPF
require the use of EO-O Premium Plus (or VDS-4) specification high performance
diesel engine oil and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel.
356 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Aftertreatment Control Module (ACM)
W2029917
The ACM controls the following components in the exhaust Aftertreatment
system:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aftertreatment DEF Dosing Unit
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Heater Valve
Aftertreatment DEF Line Heaters
Aftertreatment DEF Pump
Aftertreatment DEF Return Valve
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Level Sensor
The ACM also monitors the following values in the exhaust Aftertreatment
system:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aftertreatment DEF Dosing Absolute Pressure
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Temperature
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Level
Aftertreatment DPF Inlet/Outlet Temperature
Aftertreatment DPF Differential Pressure
NOX Sensors
The ACM is a stand alone module. Depending on your configuration it may be
mounted as part of the DEF tank (as shown above) or on a bracket near the DEF tank.
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 357
Exhaust Aftertreatment System Operation
The stalk switch control lever is used to interact with the Driver Information Display
(DID) in the center of the instrument cluster. The lever is located on the right-hand
side of the steering wheel.
W3005262
1 Esc or Escape button is used to return to the previous menu or display.
2 ↵ or Enter button is used to display a list of menus, open a menu, and select the
highlighted area.
3 Up arrow button is used to scroll up through a menu.
4 Down arrow button is used to scroll down through a menu.
358 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Aftertreatment Menu
1 The Aftertreatment system menu is in the DID. Press the Esc button to display the
main menus in the DID.
2 Use the up and down buttons on the stalk switch to scroll to the Aftertreatment
menu.
3 Press the ↵ button to select the Aftertreatment menu.
W3007527
The Aftertreatment menu has two submenus: Request Parked REGEN and ATS status.
W3054903
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 359
Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration
CAUTION
During the Parked Regeneration,
the exhaust gas temperature will be
elevated. DO NOT park the vehicle
with the exhaust outlet near flammable
objects such as trees, awnings, etc. that
could be damaged by elevated exhaust
gas temperatures.
CAUTION
If the vehicle is PARKED in a location
that may be hazardous when a parked
Regeneration begins (i.e., in close
proximity to flammable materials
or gases, inside tunnels, parked
under flammable objects, etc.), the
Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration
should be stopped. If Regeneration
is stopped by the vehicle operator,
it must be initiated at a later time
when the vehicle is in a safer location.
Regeneration that are stopped and never
restarted at a later time, however, will
require that the vehicle be taken to an
authorized Volvo Truck dealer to have
the Aftertreatment parked Regeneration
manually started with special service
tools.
Note: If passive Regeneration occurs during vehicle operation, idle speed may
increase when the vehicle is stopped at a traffic light to maintain proper Regeneration
conditions.
360 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
There are two types of Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration: Passive regeneration and
Parked regeneration.
Passive Regeneration occurs when the exhaust gas within the aftertreatment system
is hot enough to burn soot without injecting additional fuel into the DPF system.
On chassis equipped with a US07 aftertreatment system, DPF”s needed an active
regeneration, that includes this injection of fuel. With the addition of the SCR system
active regenerations are no longer needed in US10.
Parked regeneration is initated manually by the driver when alerted by the dash.
The vehicle must be stationary to begin the regeneration, and remain stationary to
complete.
The Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration system is self-monitoring. Under certain duty
cycles driver action is needed to perform a parked regeneration. When driver action is
needed to perform a parked regeneration the Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Needed
icon on the instrument cluster flashes and the message “Parked REGEN Needed” is
displayed. Initiate a parked Aftertreatment DPF regeneration at the next stop.
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 361
The Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration system is self-monitoring. When the
Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter is becoming full and Aftertreatment DPF
regeneration is needed, the Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Needed icon on
the instrument cluster illuminates and the message ."Parked REGEN Needed" is
displayed. To return to the main menu, press the Esc button on the stalk switch.
W3007445
Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required Icon
W3055322
Parked REGEN Needed
To return to the main menu, press the Esc button on the stalk switch.
362 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
If the vehicle has not had a parked REGEN completed after the “Parked REGEN
Needed” screen displays the vehicle must be stopped. Perform the parked REGEN
now. The vehicle will also be in Engine Derate.
W3055326
Parked REGEN Required Now Engine in Derate
If the vehicle is driven when the “Soot Level High” screen displays. The REGEN
is needed immediately.
W3055332
Soot Level High
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 363
If a parked REGEN is not done when the” Soot Level High” displays the “Soot Level
Critically High” screen displays.
W3055333
Soot Level Critically High
When the ATS Service DID and the Stop Light illuminates screen displays stop the
vehicle immediately and perform a Parked Regen. If that Parked Regen doesn’t work
take the vehicle immediately to a service center for ATS.
W3055405
ATS Service Required
W3005171
364 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
The High Exhaust System Temperature (HEST) Icon comes on when the vehicle
temperature becomes excessive. The Icon also comes on during the REGEN.
W3007444
High Exhaust System Temperature (HEST) Icon
Note: It is important to perform a Regeneration when required to avoid engine
problems. Long-term engine operation with Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration
Required screen displayed may result in a loss of engine performance, reduced
horsepower, torque and speed, and temperature derate. Also, the Aftertreatment DPF
may become overloaded with soot and require service at a authorized VOLVO dealer.
Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required cannot be initiated if it is not required.
The following conditions must be met for parked Regeneration:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Parking brake on and transmission in neutral
Minimum 10 volts battery charge
Engine running
Accelerator and clutch pedal released
PTO not active
Parked Aftertreatment Regeneration required, message displayed
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 365
If the conditions are not met and a parked REGEN is attempted the “Parked REGEN
Conditions Not Met Check Menu Status” screen displays.
W3055181
Parked REGEN Conditions Not Met
Scroll to the Aftertreament menu in the Driver information Display (DID) and select
“ATS Status” to determine why the Regeneration did not initiate.
W3054903
366 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
If the Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required icon is flashing, the Aftertreatment
Diesel Particulate Filter is over full. Maintain uninterrupted highway speed for a
passive Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required or move the vehicle to a safe
location and initiate a parked Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration.
W3007445
Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required Icon
If the Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required icon is flashing and the CHECK
light illuminates, the Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter is critically full. Engine
performance will be limited. To avoid further engine derate, immediately move the
vehicle to a safe location and initiate a parked Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration , or
take the vehicle to an authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
W3005170
If the Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required icon is flashing and the STOP
light illuminates, a serious engine problem has occurred. The Aftertreatment Diesel
Particulate Filter may be over its maximum capacity and the engine may shut down.
The vehicle must be taken immediately to an authorized Volvo Truck dealer for
service.
W3005171
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 367
Refer to the Exhaust Aftertreatment System Information sun visor label for additional
Aftertreatment DPF information.
W8056652
Exhaust Aftertreatment System (ATS) Status
The ATS status submenus provide information about the conditions required for
performing a parked DPF Regeneration.
The status can be OK (regeneration allowed), Check (regeneration not allowed) or N/A
(not applicable). When ATS Status is selected, the following submenus are available.
To perform a parked Regeneration, the clutch pedal must not be depressed, the service
brake must not be engaged and a PTO must not be engaged or the PTO must be able
to operate above the minimum engine speed required.
W3054893
368 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
To perform a parked Regeneration, the accelerator pedal (AP) must not be depressed,
the transmission must be in the neutral position and the vehicle speed must not be zero.
W3054889
To perform a parked Regeneration, the park brake must be engaged and there can be
no active Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) codes.
W3054886
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 369
Temporary lockout prevents performing a parked DPF Regeneration when it is not
needed. Permanent lockout prevents performing a parked Regeneration when a
condition exists that requires vehicle service. Take the vehicle to a Volvo Truck
dealer. A minimum engine temperature (ECT) of 35°C (95°F) is required for parked
DPF Regeneration.
W3054884
When Disable REGEN is selected in the Cancel REGEN submenu, regeneration is
inhibited. Select REGEN to allow Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration.
W3054900
370 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Driver Warnings and On Board Diagnostics
(OBD)
On Board Diagnostics (OBD)
Beginning with your US 2010 compliant
Vehicle, On Board Diagnostics (OBD) is
introduced. This is very similar to the On
Board Diagnostics (OBD) system that has
been required on passenger cars for many
years.
On Board Diagnostics (OBD) is a
system that monitors the functions of
emissions related components and alert
the vehicle operator to any detected need
for an emission related repair. When the
systems detects a needed repair to an
emissions related component it activates
the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL).
The list of emissions related components
can be found in the Warranty and
Maintenance section of this manual.
Instrument Cluster
The Aftertreatment icons are located in the
lower left corner of the instrument cluster.
applies to Volvo vehicles equipped with a
Volvo or Cummins engine.
Note: The following exhaust
Aftertreatment system information
W3031645
1. Malfunction Indicator
Lamp (MIL)
2. CHECK Lamp
3. Aftertreatment DEF
Low Lamp
4. High Exhaust
Temperature (HEST)
Lamp
5. Aftertreatment DPF
Regeneration Required
Lamp
6. Aftertreatment DEF
Tank Gauge
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 371
Instrument Cluster Icons
Aftertreatment icons are displayed on the instrument cluster. There are three
Aftertreatment icons:
•
•
•
Parked Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required
High Exhaust System Temperature (HEST)
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Low Level Indicator
The Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required icon flashes when the Diesel
Particulate Filter is full or overfull and regeneration is needed..
W3007445
Aftertreatment DPF Regeneration Required Icon
The High Exhaust System Temperature icon illuminates when a parked Regeneration
is initiated. It also indicates high exhaust gas temperature during a passive
regeneration. When the HEST icon is illuminated, do not park or operate the vehicle
near people, or any flammable materials, vapors, or structures.
W3007444
High Exhaust System Temperature (HEST) Icon
372 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
The Aftertreatment DEF Tank Low Level Indicator icon illuminates when the fluid
level is low. It also Flashes when the level becomes critically low.
W2029416
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Low Level Indicator (DEF)
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
W3031200
MIL Lamp
•
•
MIL indicates government Regulation On Board Diagnostics (OBD) faults
Lamp may remain active after repair until system operation confirms repair
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 373
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Level - Driver Warning
& Inducement
Aftertreatment DEF tanks are sized to have no less than two times the diesel fuel tank
mileage or hour range
The vehicle instrument cluster has a Aftertreatment DEF Tank Level Gauge
Triggers
Aftertreatment
DEF Tank Low
Level Indicator
Amber Warning
Lamp
Inducement
>12%
Aftertreatment
DEF Tank Level
Gauge (>16% DEF
Remaining)
None
None
None
None
None
None
25% torque
reduction
None
8 km/h (5 mph)
Road Speed Limit
(RSL)1
<=12%
Aftertreatment
DEF Tank Level
Gauge (~16% DEF
Remaining)
W2029416
0% Aftertreatment
DEF Tank Level
Gauge (~4% DEF
Remaining)
W2029415
0%Aftertreatment
DEF Tank Gauge
Insufficient DEF
Pump Pressure
Diesel Fuel
Refueling >15%
W2029415
1 Vehicle has to be stationary before 8 km/h (5 mph) RSL becomes Active
Note: "Repeated acts of tampering will
result in more severe Inducement."
374 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Aftertreatment DEF Quality - Driver Warning &
Inducement
Triggers
Aftertreatment
DEF Tank Low
Level Indicator
Amber Warning
Lamp
Good DEF Quality
None
None
Poor DEF Quality
DTC Initial
Detected
None
Inducement
None
None
W2029417
Poor DEF Quality
DTC Initial
Detected + 10
hours
None
Poor DEF Quality
DTC Initial
Detected + 20
hours Diesel Fuel
Refueling >15%
None
Temporary Exit
from 8 km/h (5
mph) Inducement
None
25% torque reduction
W2029417
8 km/h (5 mph) Road
Speed Limit (RSL)
W2029417
25% torque reduction
W2029417
Exit conditions for DEF Quality " 8 km/h (5 mph) road speed limit" Inducement:
Next 1 Engine Starts: Return to 25% torque reduction until proper DEF quality
evaluation. If poor DEF quality is detected during the next monitoring cycle then and
8 km/h (5 mph) resumed after vehicle stationary for 20 minutes. After 1 engine starts
have been exhausted then a Service Tool is required to exit the 8 km/h (5 mph) RSL.
With Scan Tool DTC Clearing: Invoke 25% torque reduction until proper DEF
quality evaluation. If poor DEF Quality is detected during the next monitoring cycle
then 8 km/h (5 mph) resumed after vehicle stationary for 20 minutes.
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 375
Misfilling Diesel or Aftertreatment DEF Tanks
Although diesel fuel and Aftertreatment DEF caps are clearly labeled and filler necks
and nozzles are different accidents can happen.
Contamination of fluids by- misfilling of diesel or DEF in the wrong tank may result
in vehicle malfunction.
Results of misfilling DEF in Diesel Tank
•
•
•
•
•
Engine may run poorly or not at all
Injectors may be damaged
Exhaust system corrosion may occur between turbocharger and Aftertreatment DPF
On Board Diagnostic (OBD) Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC)
Costly repairs
Results of misfilling diesel in Aftertreatment DEF Tank
•
•
•
•
•
Aftertreatment SCR system may be damaged by Diesel
SCR Catalyst may be damaged by diesel (chemical damage)
Emissions may be non-compliant
On Board Diagnostic (OBD)Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC)
Costly repairs
376 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
SCR Tampering - Driver Warning & Inducement
1. Disconnected Aftertreatment DEF tank
level sensor
2. Blocked Aftertreatment DEF line or
dosing unit
4. Disconnected Aftertreatment DEF
pump
5. Disconnected SCR wiring harness
3. Disconnected Aftertreatment DEF
dosing unit
6. Disconnected NOx Sensor
Triggers
Aftertreatment
DEF Tank Low
Level Indicator
Warning Lamp
Inducement
No Tampering
None
None
None
Tampering DTC
Pending
None
None
W2029417
Tampering DTC
Confirmed
None
None
W2029417
Tampering DTC
Initial Detected +
10 hour
None
25% torque
reduction
W2029417
Tampering DTC
Initial Detected +
40 hours Diesel
Fuel Refueling
>15%
None
Note: "Repeated acts of tampering will
result in more severe Inducement."
8 km/h (5 mph)
road speed limit
W2029417
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 377
Warranty and Maintenance
Exhaust Aftertreatment System Maintenance
The vehicle must be taken to an authorized Volvo Truck dealer to remove the ash from
the Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter and clean the Aftertreatment Doser.
Emissions Maintenance
1. If owner’s manual recommends Aftertreatment DPF replacement within useful life,
the manufacturer must pay for the replacement; however, a random failure within the
useful life is covered only per the above warranty provisions.
2. First maintenance interval in life of the engine is allowed at 100,000 miles, 3000
hours.
378 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Engine Maintenance Intervals
Component
Operation
Interval
Fuel Filter
Change
Every oil change. Under certain
conditions (for example, irregular
fuel quality), the fuel/water separator
filters may require more frequent
replacement.
Air Cleaner
Change
Control lamp indication or 24
months, whichever comes first
Valves/Injectors Lash
adjustment,
D13H
Initial Adjust
200 000 km (125,000 miles) or 12
months, whichever comes first
Injectors Lash Adjustment,
D13H
Adjust
Every 400 000 km (250,000 miles) or
24 months, whichever comes first
Aftertreatment DPF Ash
Cleaning
Clean
400 000 km (250,000 miles) or 4,500
hours, whichever occurs first
Aftertreatment Doser
Clean
240 000 km (150,000 miles) or 4,500
hours, whichever occurs first
Aftertreatment Diesel
Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Pump Filter
Change
First change at 161 000 km (100,000
miles) 3200 hours or 3 years
whichever occurs first, 241,000 km
(150,000 miles) 4800 hours or 3
years there after
Aftertreatment Diesel
Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Filler
Neck Filter
Clean
280 000km (175,000 miles) or 12
months, whichever comes first
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 379
Engine Gaseous Emission Control Systems
WARRANTY MAINTENANCE
Note: For emission control systems information on engines other than Volvo, refer to
the engine vendor’s publication
GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS WARRANTY
Volvo Trucks North America. warrants the Emission Control Systems on each new
Volvo diesel engine in a new Volvo truck to comply with all United States Federal
and Canadian emissions regulations applicable at the time of manufacture of the
engine, and to be free from defects in material and workmanship under normal use
and service up to 60 months, or 100,000 miles, whichever occurs first, provided all
Volvo Trucks North America, maintenance requirements are followed as described
in this manual. All warranty periods are calculated from the date-in-service of the
new vehicle. The repair or replacement of defective parts will be made without charge
for the cost of parts and, if repairs are made at an authorized Volvo Trucks North
America dealership, there will be no charge for labor. Volvo Trucks North America’s
obligation under this warranty is limited to the repair or replacement, at Volvo Trucks
North America’s option, of any part(s) of the Emission Control Systems of such
engine and/or vehicle found to be defective upon examination by Volvo Trucks North
America and provided that such part(s) were returned to Volvo Trucks North America
or its nearest authorized Dealer within a reasonable period of time.
Qualifications and Limitations:
Note: Not covered by the Emissions Control Systems Warranty:
•
Malfunctions caused by misuse, improper adjustments, modification, alteration,
tampering, disconnection, improper or inadequate maintenance and use of
improper diesel fuel or DEF.
•
Damage resulting from accident, acts of nature or other events beyond the control
of Volvo Trucks North America.
•
Inconvenience, loss of use of the vehicle, commercial loss of any kind including,
but not limited to, consequential or incidental damages
•
Any vehicle in which the odometer has been altered or damaged so that mileage
cannot be readily determined.
THIS WARRANTY IS EXPRESSLY IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES
AND REPRESENTATIONS OR CONDITIONS, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
380 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Emissions Control System Warranty
The following engine components are covered by the supplemental emissions control
system warranty policy as required by the Federal code of emission regulations.
•
Discharge Recirculation Valve
(DRV) (Heat Mode)
•
Discharge Recirculation Valve
(DRV) Solenoid
•
Engine Turbocharger Compressor
Bypass Actuator (Heat Mode)
•
Engine Turbocharger Compressor
Bypass Actuator Solenoid
•
Engine Exhaust Gas Temperature
(EGT) Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DPF Intake
Temperature Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DPF Outlet
Temperature Sensor
8 EGR Valve and EGR Valve Control
•
9 EGR Pipes - Engine Exhaust Manifold
to EGR Cooler
Aftertreatment DPF Differential
Pressure Sensor
•
Aftertreament Doser Air Supply
Regulator (if applicable), Supply
Lines, and Fittings
•
Engine Exhaust Gas Temperature
(EGT) Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DPF Intake
Temperature Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DPF Outlet
Temperature Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DPF Differential
Pressure Sensor
1 Turbocharger Assembly
•
VGT Actuator
2 Charge Air Cooler
•
•
CAC Pipes (Air inlet to/from CAC)
CAC Hoses
3 Engine Control Module (ECM)
4
Injectors
5 Engine and Vehicle Wire harness (
repair to circuits related to Emissions
Warrantable Components )
6 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Mixer
7 EGR Cooler
10 EGR Pipes - EGR Cooler to Inlet
Manifold
11 Crankcase Breather
12 Crankcase Separator
13 Crankcase Tubing and Hoses before
Separator
14 Aftertreatment Wiring Harness
15 After treatment Control Module (ACM)
16 Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF) Assembly
A. Aftertreatment DPF Assembly
with Aftertreatment Diesel Oxidation
Catalyst (DOC)
•
•
•
•
•
Aftertreatment Doser
Diffuser Pipe (Aftertreatment Doser
Mounting)
Fuel lines to Aftertreatment Doser
Aftertreatment Fuel Shutoff Valve
Aftertreatment Fuel Pressure Sensor
17 Sensors:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Crankshaft Position (CKP)
Camshaft Position (CMP)
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Intake Manifold Air Temperature
Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP)
EGR Temperature
Aftertreatment Outlet NOx
Aftertreatment Intake NOx
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 381
•
•
EGR Differential Pressure
Ambient Air Temperature (AAT)
•
•
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Heater
•
Aftertreatment DEF Tank
Temperature Sensor
•
•
Aftertreatment DEF Level Sensor
18 SCR
•
Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic
Reduction (SCR) Catalyst
•
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF) Pump
•
•
•
•
Aftertreatment DEF Dosing
Absolute Pressure Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DEF Return
Valve
Aftertreatment DEF Dosing Valve
Aftertreatment DEF Tank
Aftertreatment DEF Tank
Heater/Sender
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Heater
Valve
Aftertreatment DEF Heated Lines
19. Instrument Cluster (Repair of
microprocessor , OBD MIL, Real Time
Clock, Aftertreatment DEF Tank Gauge
and, Aftertreatment DEF Tank Low Level
Indicator)
20. Exhaust Gas Piping (from
Turbocharger to Aftertreatment System )
21. Data Link Connector (DLC)
Engine Gaseous Emissions Control System
Warranty
The emission warranty for the diesel particulate filter and SCR Systems covers defects
in workmanship only. Normal maintenance, such as cleaning ash from the filter at
regular maintenance intervals and cleaning the Aftertreatment fuel injector on Diesel
Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) DPF systems, is not covered by the emission warranty.
With the Thermal Regeneration DPF system, cleaning the ignition electrodes and
fuel injection nozzle at the regular maintenance intervals is considered normal
maintenance and not covered by the emission warranty.
Note: In response to customer requests, Volvo Trucks North America, may build
vehicles with engines supplied by other manufacturers. In these cases, each engine
manufacturer through its service organization, is responsible for emission control
systems warranty on all parts of the engine assembly, as furnished.
Federal Emission Requirements
This section covers the requirement of the United States Clean Air Act which states:
“The manufacturer shall furnish with each new motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine
such written instructions for the maintenance and use of the vehicle or engine by
the ultimate purchaser as may be reasonable and necessary to assure the proper
functioning of emission control devices and systems. ”This section also covers the
requirements of the emissions regulations promulgated under the Motor Vehicle
Safety Act in Canada.
382 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
TAMPERING WITH GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS
PROHIBITED
The Federal Clean Air Act prohibits the removal or rendering inoperative of any
device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine
in compliance with Federal Emission Regulations by:
1 Any person prior to its sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser, or
2 Any manufacturer or distributor after its sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser,
or
3 Any person engaged in the business of repairing, servicing, selling, leasing, or
trading motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines following its sale and delivery
to the ultimate purchaser, or
4 Any person who operates a fleet of motor vehicles following its sale and delivery
to the ultimate purchaser.
Note: For specifics of the prohibited vehicle/engine modifications refer to the Volvo
Body Builders documentation .
Emission Control System Warranty — California
The California Air Resources Board and Volvo Trucks North America. are pleased to
explain the California emission control system warranty on your new motor vehicle
engine. In California, new motor vehicle engines must be designed, built and equipped
to meet the State’s stringent anti-smog standards. Volvo Trucks North America. must
warrant the emission control system on your engine for the period of time listed below
provided there has been no abuse, neglect, or improper maintenance of your engine.
Your emission control system may include parts such as the fuel-injection system,
turbocharger assembly, electronic control module and other emission-related
assemblies.
Where a warrantable condition exists, Volvo Trucks North America. will repair your
engine at no cost to you including diagnosis, parts, and labor.
MANUFACTURER’S WARRANTY COVERAGE:
If an emission-related part of your engine is defective, the part will be repaired
or replaced by Volvo Trucks North America. This is your emission control system
DEFECTS WARRANTY.
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 383
OWNER’S WARRANTY RESPONSIBILITIES:
As the motor vehicle engine owner, you are responsible for the performance of
the required maintenance listed in this manual. Volvo Trucks North America.
recommends that you retain all receipts covering maintenance of your vehicle, but
Volvo Trucks North America. cannot deny warranty solely for the lack of receipts or
for your failure to ensure the performance of all scheduled maintenance listed in other
manuals which were supplied with your vehicle.
You are responsible for presenting your motor vehicle engine to a Volvo dealer as
soon as a problem exists. The warranty repairs should be completed in a reasonable
amount of time, not to exceed 30 days. As the motor vehicle engine owner, you should
also be aware that Volvo Trucks North America. may deny you warranty coverage
if your vehicle or a part has failed due to abuse, neglect, improper maintenance, or
unapproved modifications.
If you have any questions regarding your warranty rights and responsibilities, you
should contact the Volvo Trucks North America. Warranty Activities P.O.Box 26259,
Greensboro, NC 27402, or the California Air Resources Board at 9480 Telstar Avenue,
El Monte, California 91731.
(Applicable only to vehicles and/or engines certified for sale and registered in the
State of California) Volvo Trucks North America. warrants the Emission Control
Systems on each new Volvo diesel engine in a new Volvo truck to comply with all
State of California emissions regulations applicable at the time of manufacture of the
engine, and to be free from defects in material and workmanship under normal use and
service up to 60 months, or 100,000 miles, or 3,000 engine operating hours, whichever
occurs first, provided all Volvo Trucks North America. maintenance requirements are
followed as described in this manual. All warranty periods are calculated from the
date-in-service of the new vehicle. The repair or replacement of defective parts will
be made without charge for the cost of parts and, if repairs are made at an authorized
Volvo Trucks North America. dealership, there will be no charge for labor.
Volvo Trucks North America.’s obligation under this warranty is limited to the
repair or replacement, at Volvo Trucks North America.’s option, of any part(s) of
Emission Control Systems of such engine and/or vehicle found to be defective upon
examination by Volvo Trucks North America. and provided that such part(s) were
returned to Volvo Trucks North America. or its nearest authorized Dealer within a
reasonable period of time.
384 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
Qualifications and Limitations:
Not covered by the Emissions Control Systems Warranty:
•
Malfunctions caused by misuse, improper adjustments, modification, alteration,
tampering, disconnection, improper or inadequate maintenance and use of
improper diesel fuel or DEF.
•
Damage resulting from accident, acts of nature or other events beyond the control
of Volvo Trucks North America.
•
Inconvenience, loss of use of the vehicle, commercial loss of any kind including,
but not limited to, consequential or incidental damages.
•
Any vehicle in which the odometer has been altered or damaged so that mileage
cannot be readily determined.
THIS WARRANTY IS EXPRESSLY IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES
AND REPRESENTATIONS OR CONDITIONS, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 385
Emissions Control System Warranty
The following engine components are covered by the supplemental emissions control
system warranty policy as required by the California code of regulations.
1 Turbocharger Assembly
•
VGT Actuator
2 Charge Air Cooler
•
•
CAC Pipes (Air inlet to/from CAC)
CAC Hoses
•
•
•
•
Fuel lines to Aftertreatment Doser
Aftertreatment Fuel Shutoff Valve
Aftertreatment Fuel Pressure Sensor
Discharge Recirculation Valve
(DRV) (Heat Mode)
•
Discharge Recirculation Valve
(DRV) Solenoid
•
Engine Turbocharger Compressor
Bypass Actuator (Heat Mode)
•
6 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Mixer
Engine Turbocharger Compressor
Bypass Actuator Solenoid
•
7 EGR Cooler
Engine Exhaust Gas Temperature
(EGT) Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DPF Intake
Temperature Sensor
9 EGR Pipes - Engine Exhaust Manifold
to EGR Cooler
•
Aftertreatment DPF Outlet
Temperature Sensor
10 EGR Pipes - EGR Cooler to Inlet
Manifold
•
Aftertreatment DPF Differential
Pressure Sensor
11 Crankcase Breather
•
Aftertreament Doser Air Supply
Regulator (if applicable), Supply
Lines and Fittings
•
Engine Exhaust Gas Temperature
(EGT) Sensor
15 After treatment Control Module (ACM)
•
16 Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF) Assembly
Aftertreatment DPF Intake
Temperature Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DPF Outlet
Temperature Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DPF Differential
Pressure Sensor
3 Engine Control Module (ECM)
4
Injectors
5 Engine and Vehicle Wire harness (
repair to circuits related to Emissions
Warrantable Components )
8 EGR Valve and EGR Valve Control
12 Crankcase Separator
13 Crankcase Tubing and Hoses before
Separator
14 Aftertreatment Wiring Harness
A. Aftertreatment DPF Assembly
with Aftertreatment Diesel Oxidation
Catalyst (DOC)
•
•
Aftertreatment Doser
Diffuser Pipe (Aftertreatment Doser
Mounting)
386 Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution
17 Sensors:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Crankshaft Position (CKP)
Camshaft Position (CMP)
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Intake Manifold Air Temperature
Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP)
EGR Temperature
Aftertreatment Outlet NOx
Aftertreatment Intake NOx
EGR Differential Pressure
Ambient Air Temperature (AAT)
18 SCR
•
Aftertreatment Selective Catalytic
Reduction (SCR) Catalyst
•
Aftertreatment Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF) Pump
•
Aftertreatment DEF Dosing
Absolute Pressure Sensor
•
Aftertreatment DEF Return
Valve
•
•
•
Aftertreatment DEF Dosing Valve
Aftertreatment DEF Tank
Aftertreatment DEF Tank
Heater/Sender
•
•
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Heater
•
Aftertreatment DEF Tank
Temperature Sensor
•
•
Aftertreatment DEF Level Sensor
Aftertreatment DEF Tank Heater
Valve
Aftertreatment DEF Heated Lines
19. Instrument Cluster (Repair of
microprocessor , OBD MIL, Real Time
Clock, Aftertreatment DEF Tank Gauge
and, Aftertreatment DEF Tank Low Level
Indicator)
20. Exhaust Gas Piping (from
Turbocharger to Aftertreatment System )
21. Data Link Connector (DLC)
Volvo, US10 Emissions Solution 387
Oil Change Intervals
The length of time an engine can operate before an oil change depends on the quality
oil used, the type of fuel used, fuel consumption, engine oil consumption, vehicle
application, level of dust in the air, and fuel consumption. The change intervals given
in this manual are maximum intervals. If the vehicle is operating in heavy-duty
operation, dusty or off-road conditions, etc., reduce the intervals for more frequent oil
changes.
Note: Use the information in the table below to determine the operating condition and
usage applicable to your vehicle.
Engine Operating Condition
Medium
Heavy
Severe
Total Fuel Consumption (mpg)
more than 6
more than
4.7
more than 3.7
Total Fuel Consumption (L/ 100 km)
less than 39
less than 50
less than 64
D11H and D13H Engine Oil and Filter
Change Interval, km (miles) — 36L (38
quart) oil capacity
56 000
(35,000)
40 000
(25,000)
24 000
(15,000)
Note: If idle time is greater than 25%, use the next lower drain interval.
For additional information about oil change intervals, see your Volvo Truck dealer.
Also, refer to Bulletin 175-60, Oil and Filters, Volvo Components.
For a complete list of approved oils, see your Volvo Truck dealer. Also, refer to
Bulletin 175-61, Approved Oils, Volvo Components.
388 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
DAILY MAINTENANCE
DANGER
Before working on or inspecting a
vehicle, set the parking brakes, place
the transmission in neutral and block
the wheels. Failure to do so can result in
unexpected vehicle movement and can
cause serious personal injury or death.
CAUTION
Engines equipped with automatic start
systems can start automatically. An
alarm sounds before automatic start.
Failure to turn off ignition before
working on fan or belts can result in
personal injury.
Note: Make sure that all fluid levels are at their proper levels. If the fluids are not
at their proper levels, add as necessary. Refer to the Operator’s Manual Vehicle
Maintenance for information on what types of fluids are recommended for your Volvo
vehicle.
WARNING
Keep yourself clear of all moving or hot
engine parts. A hot engine can cause
serious burns.
While checking the fluid levels, visually inspect hoses, pipes and their connections for
signs of leakage. Inspect the ground under the engine, transmission and rear axle(s)
for signs of leakage.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 389
TOWING PROCEDURE
General
WARNING
If a vehicle with air suspension is lifted
by the rear frame member, there is a
risk that the air springs will separate
from the spring plates. When towing
has been completed, DO NOT under
any circumstances use your hands to
reposition the air springs. There is a
great risk that your hand will be caught
between spring and plate causing
personal injury.
WARNING
WARNING
Vehicles with air fairings are tall. Make
sure that the total height of the vehicle,
when it is raised up behind the wrecker,
does not exceed the maximum allowed
height for local underpasses. Failure
to follow this instruction may lead to
personal injury and vehicle damage.
CAUTION
Failure to disconnect the driveshaft,
remove the drive axle shaft(s) or lift
the drive wheels off the ground before
towing or pushing the vehicle, can
cause serious transmission damage.
DO NOT tow a vehicle backwards
when equipped with roof air fairings.
The fairings act as an air scoop and
may break off. Failure to follow this
warning may lead to personal injury
and vehicle damage.
Remove the driveshaft from the rear axle before moving the vehicle, unless it only
needs to be moved a small distance for safety reasons. When the transmission is
driven from the rear wheels without the engine running, there is no lubrication in the
transmission.
Axle shafts must be removed if the vehicle is to be towed at speeds over 40 km/h (25
mph) or for a long distance. Openings should be covered to prevent loss of oil and
entry of dirt and grit. Where oil-lubricated bearings are used, openings should be
thoroughly sealed with metal discs and new gaskets before towing.
If the vehicle is towed with the drive wheels still in contact with the road surface, the
vehicle axle shafts or driveline must be removed or disconnected.
390 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
T0006670
The vehicle may now be towed. It is recommended that a wrecker with a lift bar is
used since the service brakes will not function. The system must be filled with air to
release the parking brake or follow the mechanical spring brake caging procedures on
“Caging Spring Brake Chambers”, page 396.
Note: The power steering does not function when towing a vehicle with a disabled
engine.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 391
Towing Instructions
DANGER
DO NOT use the tow eyes for raising
the front of the vehicle; the tow eyes
can break. DO NOT crawl under a
vehicle suspended by tow eyes. Failure
to follow these instructions can result in
serious personal injury or death.
W9000752
Fig. Fig. 2 DO NOT lift or tow vehicle as shown in this illustration.
392 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
CAUTION
If the vehicle becomes disabled, it
is very important to tow it properly.
Failure to do so can cause damage to
the frame and body parts. Follow the
instructions below to avoid damage.
In the event that the vehicle cannot be reached to place the wrecker lift bar under the
front axle, use the optional tow eyes. The front tow eyes are used as a point at the
front of the vehicle where the vehicle can be pulled.
On day cab models, the tow eyes are stored bolted to the back of the cab wall.
On sleeper cab models, the tow eyes are stored bolted to the back wall of the luggage
compartment wall.
W8003124
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 393
The tow eyes are held in place when mounted on the front of the vehicle by tractor
pins. These pins are stored in the tow eye mounting holes when not being used.
If the vehicle is equipped with the optional rock guard installed, insert the lock pin
into the tow hook from the opposite side during installation.
W8003186
394 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
If the vehicle is equipped with the optional rock/stone guard installed, the driver will
have to insert the lock pin into the tow hook from the opposite side during installation.
W9000751
When the vehicle is located properly, lift the front and locate the lift bar under the
front axle and secure. Using the front axle for towing minimizes the possibility for
damage to the vehicle body, frame and suspension.
W9000588
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 395
Note: When the driveshaft or axle shafts are reinstalled, make sure the nuts are
tightened to the correct torques. Also make sure the axle shafts are installed in the
proper sides, with the left shaft in the left side and the right shaft in the right side.
Towing Pintle
DANGER
DO NOT exceed the maximum towing
capacity of the pintle hook system
(4,000 lb.). Exceeding the maximum
towing capacity may result in vehicle
accident, serious injury or death.
Note: If your vehicle is equipped with a pintle hook system installed by Volvo Trucks
North America, please note that the entire pintle hook system — including the frame
and attachment to the frame — is rated at a maximum capacity of 1814 Kg (4,000 lb).
W7001269
Pintle Hook Advisory Label
Acceptable loads per hook:
•
•
•
Straight pull: Less than or equal to 18 143 kg/hook (40,000 lb).
Vertical pull: Less than or equal to 5 170 kg/hook (11,400 lb).
45° cone (combination loads): Less than or equal to 7239 kg (15,960 lb).
396 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
Caging Spring Brake Chambers
DANGER
Always start by chocking the wheels
to prevent the vehicle from rolling.
Failure to do so can result in unexpected
vehicle movement and serious personal
injury or death can occur.
DANGER
DO NOT attempt in any way to
disassemble or tamper with the spring
brake chamber. If the force stored on
the spring is suddenly released, it can
cause serious personal injury or death.
The parking spring brake chambers may be released mechanically if there is no
compressed air available.
Remove the plastic plug in the front end of the chamber. Remove the screw from the
holder in the side of the brake chamber. Insert the screw into the front hole and push
in until it bottoms. Screw into the cylinder so at least 4 to 6 threads have entered.
Install the washer and nut. Tighten the nut. This compresses the brake chamber spring
and releases the parking brake.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 397
W5001430
398 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
Towing Procedure — AIRTEK®
Suspension
®HENDRICKSON recommends that a vehicle equipped with a STEERTEK axle
be towed using the following methods for ON HIGHWAY or ON ROADWAY
applications. Methods listed are in order of preference.
1 Wheel lift method, the ideal towing procedure
2 Axle fork method
3 Towing vehicle from the rear method
4 Spring eye and hanger lift method
®HENDRICKSON is not responsible for any damage to the axle, suspension or
other vehicle components resulting from any towing method or fixture not authorized
by ®HENDRICKSON.
Please contact ®HENDRICKSON Tech. Services with any questions regarding
proper towing procedures for vehicles equipped with a STEERTEK axle.
Wheel Lift Method
This method provides the greatest ease for towing the vehicle. Lifting at the tires helps
reduce the risk of possible damage to the axle, suspension, and engine components
during towing operations. See illustration.
W7001300
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 399
CAUTION
DO NOT tow the vehicle from the axle.
Towing the vehicle by the axle will
cause scarring and resultant damage to
the axle and void warranty.
When lifting a vehicle with an under lift boom, care must be taken not to damage the
engine’s oil pan. It may also be necessary to remove the front fairing.
This is an alternative method for towing the vehicle, but it requires SPECIAL forks
(see illustration showing designated lift points). The following procedure must be
used:
•
Place a block of wood on top of the boom and lift the vehicle in order to place
spacers under tires. This will provide sufficient room under the axle to locate forks
in the proper position.
•
•
Install the fork in the boom properly with the angled arm of the fork facing forward.
•
Position the forks directly under the center of the bottom axle wraps, and lift
vehicle. The indentions in the center of the wrap will locate the forks and maintain
their position.
When securing the vehicle to the boom, use (preferably) nylon safety straps.
Chains have a tendency to bind and may cause damage to the axle.
400 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
W7001301
Towing Vehicle From Rear Method
This method is preferred when the proper equipment is not available to perform the
wheel lift method or the axle fork method, and is necessary for wreckers not equipped
with an under lift system.
Spring Eye and Hanger Lift Method
This method is permitted for under lift equipped units. Caution must be taken not to
damage the leaf spring (see illustration for proper installation).
•
Inspect the ends of the spring cradles for burrs or sharp edges that could damage
spring.
•
When securing the vehicle to the boom, use (preferably) nylon safety straps.
Chains have a tendency to bind and may cause damage to the axle.
Note: When lifting a vehicle with the under lift boom (see illustration) care must be
taken not to damage the engine oil pan. It may be necessary to remove front fairing.
If necessary, place a block of wood between the top of the boom and the bottom of
the axle.
W7001302
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 401
Off Roadway Towing Method
WARNING
When a truck is disabled and equipped
with a STEERTEK axle, care must be
taken to ensure there is no damage to
the suspension when towing the vehicle.
The use of a tow strap is necessary
to tow a disabled truck into a repair
facility. The tow straps should be
connected to the tow hooks provided
by the manufacturer at the front of the
bumper. If the use of tow hooks is
not an option, then a tow strap may
be wrapped around the front axle
(see illustration) in a manner that is
acceptable for towing the vehicle into
the shop.
DO NOT use a tow chain around the
front axle to tow the vehicle. Doing so
will damage the axle and void warranty.
See illustration.
THE FOLLOWING METHODS IN THESE ILLUSTRATIONS ARE NOT
RECOMMENDED FOR ON HIGHWAY TOWING
W7001303
Nylon straps are acceptable for only Off roadway towing.
402 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
W7001304
Chains are not acceptable for Off roadway towing.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 403
ENGINE OIL LEVEL CHECK
CAUTION
Make sure the oil added is the same
type of oil that is in the engine. The
wrong type of oil could accelerate wear
on engine if not suited for application.
Check the oil level in the engine with the dipstick. The oil level should be between the
minimum and maximum marks on the dipstick DO NOT overfill!
To add oil to the engine, remove cap from right-side oil fill and fill through the
hole. See the Operator’s Manual Vehicle Maintenance for correct types of oil used
in Volvo engines.
W0056532
1 Oil Fill
2 Dipstick
404 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
Clutch Fluid Check
Check the fluid level in the clutch fluid reservoir. The fluid level should be between
the level marks on the reservoir. If fluid needs to be added, use brake fluid, DOT 4.
W4056530
1 Clutch Fluid Reservoir
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 405
Engine Maintenance Intervals
Components
Operation
Intervals
Water Seperator
Filter
Change
Every oil change. Under certain
conditions (for example, irregular
fuel quality), the fuel/water seperator
filters may require more frequent
replacement.
Coolant (Standard)
Change
500,000 km (300,000 miles) or 24
months, whichever comes first
Coolant (ELC)
Change
500,000 km (300,000 miles) or 24
months, whichever comes first
Coolant Filter (Standard)
Change
80,000 km (50,000 miles) or 6
months, whichever comes first
Coolant Filter (ELC)
Change
240,000 km (150,000 miles) or 12
months, whichever comes first
Main drive and accessory
drive belts, Highway usage
D13H
Change
500,000 km (300,000 miles) or 36
months, whichever comes first
Main drive and accessory
drive belts, Vocational usage
D13H
Change
240,000 km (150,000 miles) or 12
months, whichever comes first
406 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
POWER STEERING, GENERAL
The VN power steering consists of an integrated gear. There is also a power steering
pump with fluid container. The pump, driven by the engine, provides hydraulic
pressure to the power steering. If the engine is not working, the steering is only
manual. With the power steering not working, the effort required to turn the steering
wheel is much greater than with power assist. If the power steering assist fails, bring
the vehicle to a safe stop. DO NOT drive the vehicle until correcting the cause of the
problem.
While operating the vehicle, avoid ruts and obstructions which cause binding condition
on the sides of the front wheels. Drive the vehicle out of the rut, then turn the steering
wheel. If possible, avoid turning the wheels while the vehicle is at a standstill as this
places a considerable load on the power steering system and front axle.
Periodically check the power steering fluid reservoir and keep it filled to the proper
level with the recommended fluid. See the Operator’s Manual Vehicle Maintenance
for more information.
W6056531
1 Power Steering Fluid Reservoir
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 407
Windshield Washer Reservoir
Check level in the windshield washer reservoir. If washer fluid needs to be added,
use a commercially reputable washer fluid that has good cleaning capability and
does not freeze in cold weather.
Windshield Washer Capacity
Model
VN
Reserve
6.35 liters (1.5 gallons)
Total Capacity
13.70 liters (3.26 gallons)
W2006043
1 Clutch Fluid Reservoir
2 Windshield Washer Fluid Fill
3 Brake Valve
408 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
COOLING SYSTEM
Coolant Level Check
WARNING
DO NOT remove the cap to the surge
tank while the engine and radiator are
still hot and under pressure. Scalding
fluid and/or steam may be blown out
under pressure if the cap is taken off
too soon.
CAUTION
Add only premixed coolant made
up of 50% clean water and 50%
antifreeze. See the Operator’s Manual
Vehicle Maintenance for more detailed
information.
Check coolant level in the coolant tank. The tank should be full. Add coolant as
necessary.
W2006041
1 Fill Cap
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 409
CAB
Air going into the cab passes a filter located on the right, front side of the cab. Remove
the filter and check it every 19,200 km (12,000 miles).
W8003189
The filter should not be cleaned and reused. Replace with a new filter as necessary.
Change the filter more often if driving in dusty conditions. A clogged filter decreases
the efficiency of the air conditioning system.
If the vehicle is equipped with a sleeper heater-A/C, there is a filter for recirculating
air. It is located behind the passenger seat on the bunk support. The filter should be
checked after 19,200 km (12,000 miles), more often in dusty conditions. Replace the
filter as necessary.
To inspect or to change the filter, open the luggage storage lid and pull out the filter.
410 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
HEADLIGHTS
Changing Headlight Bulb
Note: To prevent short service life, DO NOT touch the glass surface of the
replacement bulb.
VNM Instructions
The headlight bulb can be accessed from the rear of the headlight assembly. Raise the
hood and remove the cover.
Remove the terminal from the back of the bulb by bending up the lock tabs and
pulling back at the same time. Turn the lock ring counterclockwise and remove.
Pull out the bulb.
W3004382
VNM
Install the bulb and line up with the location tab by turning it and then push it in until
fully seated. Install the lock ring. Push the terminal back on. Check that the rubber
seal is clean and then install cover and snap the clamps over it.
W3004383
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 411
VNL Instructions
The headlight bulb can be accessed from the rear of the headlight assembly. Raise the
hood. In early production vehicles, remove the bulb cover by turning clockwise.
In later production vehicles, the cover can be removed in the normal counterclockwise
direction.
Note: In some cases, the cover seal may stick to the housing, which makes removal
difficult. Use special tool 85104355 to assist in removal. Contact your authorized
Volvo dealer for the tool.
With the cover removed, grasp the bulb assembly and turn counterclockwise to
remove. Disengage the wiring connector and remove the bulb from the vehicle.
Engage the wiring harness connector to the replacement bulb assembly. Install into
the headlamp housing. Check the bulb cover seal and install the bulb cover. Lower
the hood and check for proper headlamp operation.
W3005350
1 Low Beam Headlight (Cover Installed)
2 High Beam Headlight (Cover Removed)
412 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
ROOF EXTENDER
The roof extender increases fuel economy. The extender is adjustable to five positions
which are shown in the illustration and in the graphs.
The vehicle is delivered with the extender or deflector lowered or down, which is the
transport position, see A in illustration.
W8003470
To set the extender to normal riding position, measure points H and G, then select
positions 1 through 5 in the rod as determined by the adjustment chart.
•
•
•
H = Height from the top of the trailer to the top of the frame rail.
G = Gap or distance from the back of the cab to the trailer.
F = Frame rail height.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 413
Note: For 630 and 670 vehicle models, the frame height must be measured. See F
in illustration. If F measures 266 mm (10-1/2 inches), subtract 17 mm (5/8-inch)
from the value determined for H.
W8003466
VN Roof Extender Measurements
W8003472
VN 630/670 Roof Extender Adjustment
Chart
414 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
W8003473
VN 630/670 Roof Extender Adjustment
Chart
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 415
FRONT BUMPER/LICENSE PLATE
MOUNTING
CAUTION
DO NOT cover the opening in the front
bumper with a license plate. Covering
this hole will restrict airflow to the
lower portion of the radiator. This can
cause the engine to overheat, which can
damage the engine.
When placing the license plate on the vehicle, make sure the opening in the bumper is
not covered.
W8003518
VN
416 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
Multiple License Plate Mounting
Install multiple license plates as shown.
W8003370
VN
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 417
VORAD License Plate Mounting
Install multiple license plates as shown.
W8003371
Fig. Fig. 3 VN
1 Install license plates below this edge.
418 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
MODIFICATIONS TO VEHICLE
Chassis Frame
WARNING
DO NOT weld on any part of the frame
or drill holes in the top or bottom
flanges. Serious structural damage
could occur.
Frame side rails are heat treated. No welding is permitted because this can result in
structural failure. DO NOT drill through either top or bottom flanges. A warning label
is also attached to the frame for information.
W7001277
Drilling is permitted in the frame web in accordance with a specified hole spacing
pattern. Consult an authorized Volvo Truck dealer to obtain approved hole spacing
dimensions or refer to the Frame Rail and Cross Member Service Manual.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 419
Frame rail and cross member nuts and bolts should be checked periodically and
tightened to the specified torque if necessary.
Frame Alterations
Under no circumstances can the frame be cut and an extension piece added to increase
the wheelbase. The only alteration allowed is wheel base shortening, where the only
change in the frame rail is a new hole pattern drilled for the new location of the rear
suspension.
Welding in Vehicle
CAUTION
Use only electric welders due to the
coating on material used to build cabs.
Oxygen and Acetylene welding will not
bond properly due to coating.
Do not weld anywhere in or on the vehicle before disconnecting batteries, all
electronic control units (ECUs) and instrument cluster.
DO NOT use oxy/acetylene welding to repair cab panels.
420 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
WHEELS
General
Due to the size, equipment needed and the procedures used to change wheels, this
should be done through the Volvo Truck dealer. By having an expert technician
perform this procedure, personal injury and property damage may be avoided.
Note: When replacing the wheel equipment or tires, use the same size wheels or
tires as originally manufactured. Changing the tire or wheel size will affect brake
performance. If changing tire size, ABS and speedometer must be recalibrated.
Check Wheel Nuts Torque
DANGER
Failure to properly tighten the wheel
nuts can result in the breakage of wheel
studs and the subsequent loss of wheels.
Loss of vehicle control and serious
personal injury or death can occur.
Check all wheel nuts torque after the first 80 to 160 km (50 to 100 miles) and the first
80 to 160 km (50 to 100 miles) after each tire service. This applies to both single and
dual wheels in connection with normal service but should be performed at least every
six months.
The torque check is particularly important when rims or brake drums are newly
painted. Paint can flake off from these surfaces, causing the nuts to lose their grip and
the wheel to loosen.
See the Operator’s Manual Vehicle Maintenance for correct procedures on tightening
the wheel nuts.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 421
W7001270
Inflating Tires
DANGER
Tires and wheels must be serviced
only by a qualified technician. DO
NOT attempt to perform this work
yourself. Inflated tires on wheels
contain compressed air and if suddenly
released, do so with an explosive force.
Serious personal injury or death can
occur.
CAUTION
Never bleed the air from hot tires.
Increased tire pressure measured in
a hot tire is normal. Lower than
recommended pressures may cause side
wall flexing resulting in increased tire
heat. This may cause premature tire
failure.
Always check inflation pressures when the tires are cool, using an accurate tire
pressure gauge. Check the pressures at regular intervals.
If a tire has low air pressure during a mid-trip inspection and the tire is at operating
temperature, have the tire checked and then increase the air pressure to the
recommended pressure identified on the tire.
422 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
W2002684
For specific information and warranty on rims and tires, contact the tire manufacturer’s
distributor. Check tires for abnormal wear. Also, check the tread depth.
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
DANGER
Failure to keep wheel bearings properly
adjusted may result in accelerated tire
wear, poor handling and, in extreme
cases, wheel separation from the hub
or from the spindle. It is important
that wheel bearings are checked and
adjusted regularly. Failure to properly
maintain these bearings can ultimately
result in loss of vehicle control and
cause serious personal injury or death.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 423
For reliable operation and adequate service life, the wheel bearings must be properly
adjusted and checked during the service period. Loose wheel bearings could cause
premature tire wear and possibly affect vehicle handling. See your authorized Volvo
Truck dealer for proper servicing.
Watch carefully for oil leaks and listen for unusual noises. These are indications of
worn bearings, bad seals or misadjusted bearings. These are problems which must be
corrected as soon as possible.
W7001271
424 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
BATTERY
Battery Box Access for Jump Start
DANGER
When inspecting or cleaning batteries,
never smoke or expose batteries (or
the areas around them) to spark or
flames. The battery area may contain an
explosive gas mixture that can ignite,
causing an explosion, leading to serious
personal injury or death.
WARNING
Always wear eye protection when
working around batteries to prevent
the risk of injury due to contact with
sulfuric acid or an explosion.
W3006385
DANGER
When installing the battery cover, make
sure it is resting properly on the box
before fastening the latches. Faulty
installation may cause the cover to shift
when the steps are used, which may
lead to a fall, causing serious personal
injury or death.
WARNING
Battery posts, terminals and related
accessories contain lead compounds,
chemicals known to the state of
California to cause cancer and
reproductive harm. Wash hands after
handling.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 425
The battery cover may also be a base for the cab steps. To remove the cover, unhook
the two rubber latches and lift the cover up and out. This applies to the vehicle
models without fairings.
W3005334
There may be up to four batteries installed. Always make sure the batteries are
fastened properly in the box.
When disconnecting battery terminals, always disconnect the engine ECU fuse(s)
first, then the ECU ground wire(s), then the main ground cable, and finally the main
positive cable.
Reverse this order when reconnecting the cables and wires.
426 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
Battery Jump Starting and Charging
DANGER
DO NOT attempt to jump-start a vehicle
equipped with Delco Maintenance Free
batteries if the test indicator is light
yellow. Replace the battery instead.
Jump-starting may cause battery to
explode causing skin burns from acid or
serious personal injury or death.
WARNING
Always wear eye protection when
working around batteries to prevent
the risk of injury due to contact with
sulfuric acid or an explosion.
To access the batteries on a vehicle equipped with side fairings, open the fold-out
fairing. On the second battery from the front, there are special, larger brass posts
installed to accept jumper cables.
When jumping batteries to start an engine, it is important that the jumper cables are
connected directly from one set of batteries in one vehicle to the other set of batteries
in the other vehicle (unless vehicle is equipped with optional Emergency Start
System). This way the cranking current is carried through the proper starter wiring.
Note: Make sure the cables are routed under the fairing, then connected as shown in
illustration. Close and lock the fairing before climbing into the cab.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 427
W3005322
Connect the jumper cables in the following sequence:
•
•
•
•
Good battery positive,
Dead battery positive,
Dead battery negative,
Disconnect the cables in the reverse order.
Avoid creating sparks by making all connections quickly and firmly. DO NOT permit
vehicles to touch each other when jump starting.
428 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
Battery to Battery Charging
High voltage machines that are used for work on the vehicle can do damage to the
electrical system, especially to its electronic components. Welding or quick-charging
machines subject the wiring to excessive voltage, which may result in damage to
electrical and electronic components anywhere on the vehicle.
W3006384
CAUTION
Attempting to work on electronic
components without proper equipment
can damage internal parts due to static
electric discharges.
DO NOT work on the electrical system without the proper tools and training. Repair
work to the electrical system must always be done by trained professionals. Your
Volvo Truck dealer has the right tools and trained technicians.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 429
Battery, Low State of Charge
If the batteries are discharged to the point where they do not have enough stored
energy to start the engine, they should be recharged using a low charge current, not to
exceed 14.5 to 15.0 volts.
If the vehicle needs to be started immediately, use a starting batteries charger.
Note: If the voltage power is exceeded, this can cause damage to the lighting system
and bulbs.
DO NOT use battery chargers with very high "boosting" capability. These produce
a high voltage that may cause damage to the vehicle electrical and electronic
components.
Welding
CAUTION
Welding on the vehicle can damage the
electrical system or components due
to the high voltage and current spikes
that normally occur when welding. It
is preferable to avoid welding on an
assembled vehicle. However, if any
structure on or in contact with the
vehicle must be welded, follow the
recommendations below.
430 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
CAUTION
If there are other ground cables
connected to the battery (such as
engine ECU, transmission ECU, etc.),
disconnect those wires in the sequence
shown, then remove the main battery
ground cable. Electronic modules
may be damaged when their ground(s)
are connected/disconnected with the
main battery ground disconnected.
Therefore, disconnect the main battery
ground last or when installing, connect
the main ground first.
CAUTION
DO NOT weld on the engine or engine
components. Welding on the engine
or components mounted on the engine
can cause serious damage to the engine
ECU.
Before welding on the vehicle, electrical power needs to be disconnected and some
components must also be disconnected:
Ignition OFF position.
W8003619
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 431
The vehicle is equipped with systems that have their own electronics, including
vehicle ECU (VECU), ABS, air bag (SRS), gauge cluster and some transmissions.
Disconnect each ECU at its electrical connectors.
W8003198
Disconnect the power harness (engine electronic control unit [EECU]) and vehicle
interface harness at the battery.
W8003199
Disconnect the electrical connections at the negative side of the battery.
432 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
Reposition or shield any parts that would be damaged by high temperatures during
welding.
W8003200
Complete the battery cable removal by removing the positive cable last.
•
Attach the welder ground cable as close to the weld area as possible (6 inches
or less from the place being welded).
•
DO NOT connect the welder ground cable near any electronic module, such as
the EECU or its cooling plate.
•
•
•
Welding cables should not be allowed to lie on, or run parallel with any wiring.
Welding cables should not be allowed to lie near any electronic component during
welding.
After welding is complete and the welded areas have cooled, inspect wiring and
components for possible shorts, nicks, abrasion or other damage.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 433
Battery Voltage Protection System
The vehicle is equipped with a battery protection system. The vehicle detects when
the batteries are excessively discharged and will flash the indication light and sound an
audible alarm. Should the battery voltage remain low for an additional 30 seconds the
indication light and alarm rate increases (fast flash). This indicates that some circuits
will be disconnected in 30 seconds to maintain engine starting capacity.
Once these circuits are disconnected the indication light will have a slower flash rate
(every 2 seconds).
To reset the system, press the dash fan control switch or start the engine and allow
the vehicle’s charging system to recharge the batteries.
W3030258
1 LED
2 Fuses
434 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
W3030711
Battery Protection Data Flow from LVD
Note: Pressing the fan speed button over rides for approximately 10 minutes, enabling
all loads.
When the batteries are charged, either through the vehicle alternator or a connected
battery charger, the monitor will automatically restore power to the disconnected
circuits.
Unless the batteries are held at an elevated voltage for several hours, they will only
develop a "surface" charge. That charge will quickly go away and the system will
retrip.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 435
W3030520
In situations where there is a short or overcurrent (over 100 Amps), the battery voltage
protection system will initiate a different audible and visual alarm. The alarms are
activated at a series of three 30 second intervals. If the short or overcurrent situation
is not resolved by the final alarm series, the LVD shuts down in order to protect the
vehicle lectrical system. If the system is shut down, you must perform a battery
disconnect to reset the system.
In situations where overcurrent is the most likely cause (e.g., multiple pieces of
electrical equipment on at once), turn off all unnecessary electrical equipment. The
system should return to normal. If not, then turn off any remaining equipment and
allow the system to return to normal.
If you have turned off all unnecessary equipment, and the alarm is still active, then
a vehicle short is the most likely cause. Take the vehicle to a service center for
maintenance.
436 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
ELECTRICAL
General Safety Guidelines
WARNING
Failure to repair a malfunction in the
electrical system can result in serious
damage due to vehicle fire. Always
let an experienced electrical technician
perform repairs. Always determine the
source of the fault; do not just treat the
symptoms.
WARNING
Always wear eye protection when
working around batteries to prevent
the risk of injury due to contact with
sulfuric acid or an explosion.
WARNING
Before replacing a damaged fuse, turn
off all functions for that circuit. Damage
to the circuit can happen. Always
replace fuses and circuit breakers with
the same current/amperage rating.
Never substitute a fuse with foil, wire or
nails. Increasing fuse or circuit breaker
ratings or substituting a fuse with foil,
wire or nails may result in electrical
circuit overheating and possibly fire.
WARNING
Over-charging a poorly charged battery
can cause an explosion, which can lead
to serious personal injury.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 437
CAUTION
Attempting to work on electronic
components without proper equipment
can damage internal parts with static
electricity.
CAUTION
Today’s vehicles contain a high number
of electronic devices. It is very
important to exercise caution when
working on a modern electrical system,
charging batteries or jump starting the
engine. To minimize the risk of any
damage to the electronic components,
follow the procedures below when work
is being done to the electrical system.
CAUTION
Welding on the vehicle can damage the
electrical system or components due
to the high voltage and current spikes
that normally occur when welding. It
is preferable to avoid welding on an
assembled vehicle. However, if any
structure on or in contact with the
vehicle must be welded, follow the
recommendations below.
CAUTION
If there are other ground cables
connected to the battery (such as
engine ECU, transmission ECU,
etc.), disconnect those wires first,
then remove the main battery ground
cable. Electronic modules may be
damaged when their ground(s) are
connected/disconnected with the main
battery ground disconnected. Therefore,
disconnect the main battery ground last
or when installing, connect the main
ground first.
438 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
CAUTION
DO NOT weld on the engine or engine
components. Welding on the engine
or components mounted on the engine
can cause serious damage to the engine
ECU.
Note: DO NOT work on the electric
system without proper tools and training.
Repair work to the electrical system must
be done by trained professionals. Your
authorized Volvo Truck dealer has the
right tools and trained technicians.
Charging System
An alternator with an integrated regulator is used to supply power to the vehicle
electrical system. The charging system voltage should be checked periodically to
prevent overcharging or undercharging the batteries.
W3005339
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 439
Electrical Center
WARNING
Failure to repair a malfunction in the
electrical system may result in a vehicle
fire and personal injury.
WARNING
Always replace fuses and
circuit breakers with the same
current/amperage rating. Using larger
fuse or circuit breaker ratings may
result in electrical circuit overheating
and possibly fire.
The vehicle has an electrical center located in the middle of the dash under the top
cover.
W3006730
440 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
The cover panels are fastened with screws. Most relays and fuses are accessible from
under the top cover. Since the function of some fuses or relays may change for the
vehicle application, refer to the list of functions that is attached beneath each panel.
W3007220
Additional relays are located in the left-hand luggage compartment, attached to the
sleeper harness.
Note: These relays have limited optional sleeper functions.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 441
Additional fuses are located in the Sleeper Control Panel.
W3007222
Sleeper Control Panel Fuses
Fuses are standard. Reset breakers are available as an option for some circuits. If
a fuse continues to blow or disconnect, the circuit has a malfunction and must be
repaired.
If a breaker trips, the ignition or main switch must be switched off before the breaker
resets.
One type of fuse in the electrical center is termed "mini-fuse." DO NOT use
needle-nose pliers to remove fuses.
442 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION
CB Power Studs
CB Studs are available either in the overhead storage compartment, or on the dash.
W3005282
The red stud is the positive terminal and the black stud is the ground terminal.
For a proper hook-up, use fork-type connectors on the wires or use "banana" plugs.
CAUTION
If stripped wire ends are used, make
sure there are no wire strands that can
bridge between the studs.
MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION 443
Before connecting any electrical accessory, make sure it is made for 12 V operation.
This circuit is fused at 20 A maximum, or optional circuits are fused at higher amps
(30 A). DO NOT overload this circuit.
CAUTION
DO NOT connect a device with a
current rating in excess of the amount
specified on the fuse and relay panels.
The dash top tray or the overhead radio shelf is available with an optional CB mount
power strap to hold different size radios securely in place.
444 METRIC CONVERSIONS
METRIC CONVERSIONS
Note: Use all tools on the fasteners they were made to be used on. Use metric tools
on Sl metric units only. Never try to use metric tools on U.S. standard fasteners or
U.S. standard tools on Sl metric units.
CAUTION
Potential external/internal thread mismatch condition(s) may occur with certain
metric thread-inch thread fastener combinations, and with fastener combinations
involving incompatible metric fastener systems. A given thread mismatch condition
can result in thread stripping and/or assembly weakness leading to potential service
failure, thereby rendering a vehicle non-operational and/or unsafe for operation.
The specific external/internal thread combinations from which such problems can
result are identified and set forth in Maintenance and Lubrication Manual (TS494).
METRIC CONVERSIONS 445
SI to U.S. Conversions
25.4 millimeters
=
1 inch
1.61 kilometers
=
1 mile
.473 liter
=
1 pint (U.S. liquid)
.946 liter
=
1 quart (U.S. liquid)
.01639 liter
=
1 cubic inch
1.3558 Newton meters
=
1 pound-foot
.746 kilowatt
=
1 horsepower
6.895 kilopascals
=
1 pound/square inch
(1.8 x degrees Celsius) + 32
=
degrees Fahrenheit
.83267 Imperial gallon
=
1 gallon (U.S. liquid)
U.S. to SI Conversions
.03937 inch
=
1 millimeter
.6214 mile
=
1 kilometer
2.1134 pints (U.S. liquid)
=
1 liter
1.0567 quarts (U.S. liquid)
=
1 liter
61.024 cubic inches
=
1 liter
.7376 pound-foot
=
1 Newton meter
1.34 horsepower
=
1 kilowatt
.145 pound/square inch
=
1 kilopascal
.556 x (degrees Fahrenheit -32)
=
degrees Celsius
1.2009 gallons (U.S. liquid)
=
1 Imperial gallon
Last page
Volvo Trucks North America
P.O. Box 26115, Greensboro, NC 27402-6115
Volvo Trucks Canada, Ltd.
5600A Cancross Court, Missisauga, Ontario L5R 3E9
http://www.volvotrucks.com
PV776-21232734 English 4.2010© Volvo Group North America, Inc., 2010
Download PDF