Write View - Lehrerhandbuch (Englisch)

Write View - Lehrerhandbuch (Englisch)
Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 35
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SCIENTIFIC
CALCULATOR
OPERATION GUIDE
<Write View>
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CONTENTS
HOW TO OPERATE
Read Before Using
Key layout
Reset switch/Display pattern
Display format and decimal setting function
Exponent display
Angular unit
2
3
3-4
4
5
Functions and Key Operations
ON/OFF, entry correction keys
Data entry keys
Random key
Modify key
Basic arithmetic keys, parentheses
Percent
Inverse, square, cube, xth power of y,
square root, cube root, xth root of y
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
10 to the power of x, common logarithm,
logarithm of x to base a
e to the power of x, natural logarithm
Factorials
Permutations, combinations
Time calculation
Fractional calculations
Memory calculations
Last answer memory
User-defined functions
Absolute value
Trigonometric functions
Arc trigonometric functions
Hyperbolic functions
Coordinate conversion
Binary, pental, octal, decimal, and
hexadecimal operations (N-base)
STATISTICS FUNCTIONS
Data input and correction
“ANS” keys for 1-variable statistics
Data correction
“ANS” keys for 2-variable statistics
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How to Operate
≈Read Before Using≈
This operation guide has been written based on the EL-W531, EL-W531G, and
EL-W531H models. Some functions described here are not featured on other models.
In addition, key operations and symbols on the display may differ according to the model.
1. KEY LAYOUT
Mode key
This calculator can operate in three different
modes as follows.
<Example>
[Normal mode] •Mode = 0; normal mode
for performing normal
arithmetic and function
calculations.
[STAT mode]
•Mode = 1; mode for
performing 1- or 2-variable
statistical calculations. To
select the statistical submode, press the
corresponding number key
after
.
(SD):
Single variable statistic calculation
(LINE):
Linear regression calculation
(QUAD): Quadratic regression calculation
(E_EXP): Eular Exponential regression calculation
(LOG):
Logarithmic regression calculation
(POWER): Power regression calculation
2nd function, ALPHA keys
Pressing these keys will enable the
functions written in orange (2nd F)
or green (ALPHA) above the
calculator buttons.
2nd function
Written in orange
above the ON/C key
<Power off>
ON/C, OFF key
Direct function
(INV):
Inverse regression calculation
(EXP):
Exponential regression calculation
[Drill mode]
•Mode = 2; mode for
performing drill
calculations. To select the
drill sub-mode, press the
corresponding number
key after
.
(MATH): Math drill
(TABLE): Multiplication table drill
<Power on>
2
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2. RESET SWITCH
RESET
If the calculator fails to operate
normally, press the reset switch on
the back to reinitialise the unit. The
display format and calculation mode
will return to their initial settings.
3. DISPLAY PATTERN
Hyperbolic
symbol (HYP)
2ndF symbol
Reset switch
RESET
Appears when the
entire equation
cannot be displayed.
Equation display
Memory
symbol
Appears
when the
entire
equation
cannot be
displayed.
NOTE:
Pressing the reset switch
will erase any data stored
in memory.
Alphabet
Angular unit
WriteView mode
symbol
indicator
(View as it is written)
(ALPHA) (DEG/RAD/GRAD)
Answer display
Display format indicator
(ENG, SCI, FIX, N2, N1)
The actual display does not appear like this.
This illustration is for explanatory purposes only.
4. DISPLAY FORMAT AND
DECIMAL SETTING FUNCTION
For convenient and easy operation, this model can be used in one of five display modes.
The selected display status is shown in the lower left part of the display (Format
Indicator).
Note: If more 0’s (zeros) than needed are displayed when the ON/C key is pressed, check
• Floating decimal point format 1/2 (N1/N2 is displayed)
Valid values beyond the maximum range are displayed in the form of [10-digit
(mantissa) + 2-digit (exponent)]
• Fixed decimal point format (FIX is displayed)
Displays the fractional part of the calculation result according to the specified
number of decimal places.
• Scientific notation (SCI is displayed)
Frequently used in science to handle extremely small or large numbers.
• Engineering scientific notation (ENG is displayed)
Convenient for converting between different units.
<Example> Let’s compare the display result of
[10000 ÷ 8.1 =] in each display format.
(specifies normal mode)
Note: The calculator has two settings for displaying a
floating point number: NORM1 (default setting) and
NORM2. In each display setting, a number is
automatically displayed in scientific notation outside a
preset range:
• NORM1: 0.000000001 ≤ x ≤ 9999999999
• NORM2: 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 9999999999
10000
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8.1
3
Initial display
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(FIX mode TAB = 3)
(SCI mode)
(ENG mode)
(normal mode)
5. EXPONENT DISPLAY
The distance from the earth to the sun is approx. 150,000,000 (1.5 x 108) km. Values
such as this with many zeros are often used in scientific calculations, but entering the
zeros one by one is a great deal of work and it’s easy to make mistakes. In such
cases, the numerical values are divided into mantissa and exponent portions,
displayed and calculated.
<Example> What is the number of electrons flowing in a conductor when
the electrical charge across a given cross-section is 0.32 coulombs. (The charge on a single electron = 1.6 x 10-19 coulombs).
0.32
1.6
19
4
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6. ANGULAR UNIT
Angular values are converted from DEG to RAD to GRAD with each push of the DRG
key. This function is used when doing calculations related to trigonometric functions or
coordinate geometry conversions.
Degrees (DEG is shown at the top of the display)
A commonly used unit of measure for angles. The angular measure of a circle
is expressed as 360°.
Radians (RAD is shown at the top of the display)
Radians are different from degrees and express angles based on the circumference of a circle. 180° is equivalent to π radians. Therefore, the angular measure of a circle is 2π radians.
Grads (GRAD is shown at the top of the display)
Grads are a unit of angular measure used in Europe, particularly in France. An
angle of 90 degrees is equivalent to 100 grads.
The relationships between the three types
of angular units can be expressed as right:
90˚ (DEG) =
π/2 (RAD) =
100 (GRAD) =
π
2
<Example> Check to confirm 90 degrees equalling π/2 radians
equalling 100 grads. (π=3.14159...)
Operation
Display
90
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≈Functions and Key Operations≈
ON/OFF, Entry
Correction Keys
Turns the calculator on or clears the data. It also clears the contents of the
calculator display and voids any calculator command; however, coefficients in
3-variable linear equations and statistics, as well as values stored in the
independent memory in normal mode, are not erased.
Turns the calculator off.
Clears all internal values, including the last answer (ANS) and statistics. Values
stored in memory in normal mode are not erased.
These arrow keys are useful for Multi-Line playback, which lets you
scroll through calculation steps one by one.
These keys are useful for editing equations. The
key moves the
cursor to the left, and the
key moves the cursor to the right.
The
key deletes the symbol/number at the left of the cursor, and
the
key deletes the symbol/number at the cursor.
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Data Entry Keys
0 to 9
Numeric keys for entering data values.
Decimal point key. Enters a decimal point.
Enters the minus symbol.
The subtraction key
is not used for entering negative numbers.
Pressing π automatically enters the value for π (3.14159...).
The constant π, used frequently in function calculations, is the ratio of the
circumference of a circle to its diameter.
Pressing this key switches to scientific notation data entry.
<Example> Provided the earth is moving around the sun in a circular orbit,
how many kilometers will it travel in a year?
* The average distance between the earth and the sun being
1.496 x 108 km.
Circumference equals diameter x π; therefore,
1.496 x 108 x 2 x π
Operation
1.496
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Display
2
7
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Random Key
Generates random numbers.
Random numbers are three-decimal-place values between 0.000 and 0.999. Using this
function enables the user to obtain unbiased sampling data derived from random
values generated by the calculator. (Using line mode is preferable since in W-View
mode, the numbers are generated by fractions.)
<Example>
0. ***
(A random number is generated.)
[Random Dice]
To simulate a die-rolling, a random integer between 1 and 6 can be generated by
pressing
. To generate the next random dice number, press
.
[Random Coin]
To simulate a coin flip, 0 (heads) or 1 (tails) can be randomly generated by pressing
. To generate the next random coin number, press
.
[Random Integer]
An integer between 0 and 99 can be generated randomly by pressing
To generate the next random integer, press
.
APPLICATIONS:
Building sample sets for statistics or research.
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Modify Key
Function to round calculation results.
Even after setting the number of decimal places on the display, the calculator performs calculations using a larger number of decimal places than that which appears
on the display. By using this function, internal calculations will be performed using
only the displayed value.
<Example>
FIX mode TAB = 1 (normal calculation)
5
9
0.6
9
5.0
(internally, 0.5555...)
Rounded calculation (MDF)
5
9
(In W-View mode, press
0.6
(internally, 0.5555...)
to show the answer in decimal.)
(internally, 0.6)
9
5.4
APPLICATIONS:
Frequently used in scientific and technical fields, as well as business,
when performing chained calculations.
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Basic Arithmetic
Keys, Parentheses
The four basic operators. Each is used in the same way as a standard
calculator:
+ (addition), – (subtraction), x (multiplication), and ÷ (division).
Finds the result in the same way as a standard calculator.
Used to specify calculations in which certain operations have precedence.
You can make addition and subtraction operations have precedence over
multiplication and division by enclosing them in parentheses.
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Percent
For calculating percentages. Four methods of calculating percentages
are presented as follows.
1) $125 increased by 10%…137.5
125
10
2) $125 reduced by 20%…100
125
20
3) 15% of $125…18.75
125
15
4) When $125 equals 5% of X, X equals…2500
125
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Inverse, Square, Cube,
xth Power of y,Square Root,
Cube Root, xth Root of y
Calculates the inverse of the value on the display.
Squares the value on the display.
Cubes the value on the display.
Calculates exponential values.
Calculates the square root of the value on the display.
Calculates the cube root of the value on the display.
Calculates the xth root of y.
<Example>
Operation
2
2
4
Display
2
2
2
4
16
12
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10 to the Power of x,
Common Logarithm,
Logarithm of x to Base a
Calculates the value of 10 raised to the xth power.
Calculates the logarithm, the exponent of the power to which 10 must be
raised to equal the given value.
Calculates the logarithm of x to power a.
<Example>
Display
Operation
3
1000
3
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e to the Power of x,
Natural Logarithm
Calculates powers based on the constant e (2.718281828).
Computes the value of the natural logarithm, the exponent of the power
to which e must be raised to equal the given value.
<Example>
Operation
Display
5
10
14
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Factorials
The product of a given positive integer n multiplied by all the lesser positive
integers from 1 to n-1 is indicated by n! and called the factorial of n.
<Example>
Operation
Display
7
c.f
n! = 1 x 2 x 3 x …xn
APPLICATIONS:
Used in statistics and mathematics. In statistics, this function is used
in calculations involving combinations and permutations.
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Permutations, Combinations
This function finds the number of different possible orderings in selecting
r objects from a set of n objects. For example, there are six different
ways of ordering the letters ABC in groups of three letters—ABC, ACB,
BAC, BCA, CAB, and CBA.
The calculation equation is 3P3 = 3 x 2 x 1 = 6 (ways).
This function finds the number of ways of selecting r objects from a set of
n objects. For example, from the three letters ABC, there are three ways
we can extract groups of two different letters—AB, AC, and CB.
The calculation equation is 3C2.
<Example>
Operation
6
4
6
4
Display
APPLICATIONS:
Used in statistics (probability calculations) and in simulation hypotheses
in fields such as medicine, pharmaceutics, and physics. Also, can be used
to determine the chances of winning in lotteries.
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Time Calculation
Converts a sexagesimal value displayed in degrees, minutes, seconds to
decimal notation. Also, converts a decimal value to sexagesimal notataion
(degrees, minutes, seconds).
Inputs values in sexagesimal notation (degrees, minutes, seconds).
<Example> Convert 24° 28’ 35” (24 degrees, 28 minutes, 35 seconds)
to decimal notation. Then convert 24.476° to sexagesimal
notation.
Operation
24
28
Display
35
Convert to decimal notation
Repeat last key operation to return to the previous display.
APPLICATIONS:
Used in calculations of angles and angular velocity in physics, and
latitude and longitude in geography.
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Fractional Calculations
Inputs proper or improper fractions which consist of a numerator and
denominator.
Inputs a mixed fraction.
5
1
<Example> Add 3 2 and 7 , and convert to decimal notation.
Operation
3
1
5
Display
2
7
Convert to an improper fraction
Convert to decimal notation
APPLICATIONS:
There is a wide variety of applications for this function because
fractions are such a basic part of mathematics. This function is useful
for calculations involving electrical circuit resistance.
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Memory Calculations
~
Stores displayed values in memories A~F, X, Y, M.
Recalls values stored in A~F, X, Y, M.
Adds the displayed value to the value in the independent memory M.
Subtracts the displayed value from the value in the independent memory M.
Temporary memories
~
Independent memory
Operation
<Example 1>
Display
0
(Enter 0 for M)
25
27
7
3
<Example 2>
Calculates $/¥ at the designated exchange rate.
$1 = ¥110
¥26,510 = $?
$2,750 = ¥?
Operation
110
26510
2750
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Display
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Last Answer Memory
Automatically recalls the last answer calculated by pressing
<Example> Solve for x first and then solve for y using x.
x = 2 + 3
Operation
2
and
y = 4 ÷ x
Display
3
4
20
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User-Defined Functions
~
~
Recall a function that was defined by the user.
<Example>
Operation
Display
26
APPLICATIONS:
Functions that you have previously defined, including those using
common 2nd Function buttons, can be stored in D1~ D4 for
later use, thus saving time on keystrokes.
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Absolute Value
Returns an absolute value.
<Example>
Operation
Display
3
–4
22
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Trigonometric Functions
Trigonometric functions determine the ratio of three sides
of a right triangle. The combinations of the three sides are
sin, cos, and tan. Their relations are:
Calculates the sine of an angle.
b
sinθ = a
Calculates the cosine of an angle.
c
cosθ = a
a
b
θ
c
b
Calculates the tangent of an angle. tanθ = c
<Example>
The angle from a point 15 meters from
a building to the highest floor of the
building is 45°. How tall is the building?
[DEG mode]
Operation
45
1
Display
15
5
View point
APPLICATIONS:
Trigonometric functions are useful in mathematics and various engineering
calculations. They are often used in astronomical observations, civil engineering and in calculations involving electrical circuits, as well as in calculations for physics such as parabolic motion and wave motion.
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Arc Trigonometric Functions
Arc trigonometric functions, the inverse of trigonometric functions, are used to determine an angle from ratios
of a right triangle. The combinations of the three sides
are sin-1, cos-1, and tan-1. Their relations are;
a
b
θ
c
b
(arc sine) Determines an angle based on the ratio
b/a of two sides of a right triangle.
θ = sin-1 a
(arc cosine) Determines an angle based on the ratio
c/a for two sides of a right triangle.
θ = cos-1 a
(arc tangent) Determines an angle based on the
ratio b/c for two sides of a right triangle.
θ = tan-1 c
c
b
<Example>
At what angle should an airplane climb in order
to climb 80 meters in 100 meters?
[DEG mode]
Operation
Display
80
100
24
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Hyperbolic Functions
The hyperbolic function is defined by using natural exponents in trigonometric functions.
Arc hyperbolic functions are defined by using natural logarithms in trigonometric functions.
APPLICATIONS:
Hyperbolic and arc hyperbolic functions are very useful in electrical
engineering and physics.
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Coordinate Conversion
Converts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates (x, y → r, θ )
Converts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates (r, θ → x, y)
Splits data used for dual-variable data input.
y Rectangular coordinates
y Polar coordinates
P (r,θ)
P (x,y)
y
o
r
x
x
o
θ
x
<Example> Determine the polar coordinates (r, θ ) when the rectangular coordinates of Point P are (x = 7, y = 3).
[DEG mode]
Operation
7
Display
3
7.6
23.2
APPLICATIONS:
Coordinate conversion is often used in mathematics and engineering, especially for impedance calculations in electronics and electrical engineering.
26
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Binary, Pental, Octal,
Decimal, and Hexadecimal
Operations (N-Base)
This calculator can perform conversions between numbers expressed in binary, pental, octal,
decimal, and hexadecimal systems. It can also perform the four basic arithmetic operations,
calculations with parentheses and memory calculations using binary, pental, octal, decimal,
and hexadecimal numbers. In addition, the calculator can carry out the logical operations
AND, OR, NOT, NEG, XOR, and XNOR on binary, pental, octal, and hexadecimal numbers.
Converts to the binary system.
Converts to the hexadecimal system.
"BIN" appears.
"HEX" appears.
Converts to the pental system.
Converts to the decimal system.
"PEN" appears.
"BIN", "PEN", "OCT", and "HEX"
disappear from the display.
Converts to the octal system.
"OCT" appears.
Conversion is performed on the displayed value when these keys are pressed.
<Example 1>
HEX(1AC) ➞BIN ➞PEN ➞OCT ➞DEC
Operation
Display
1AC
<Example 2>
1011 AND 101 = (BIN) ➞DEC
Operation
Display
1011
101
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Statistics Functions
The statistics function is excellent for analyzing qualities of an event. Though primarily
used for engineering and mathematics, the function is also applied to nearly all other
fields including economics and medicine.
DATA INPUT AND CORRECTION
Enters data for statistical calculations.
Clears data input.
Splits data used for dual-variable data input.
(Used for dual-variable statistical calculations.)
<Example 1> Here is a table of examination results. Input this data
for analysis.
Data table 1
No.
Score
No. of pupils
1
30
2
2
40
4
3
50
5
4
60
7
Operation
5
70
12
6
80
10
7
8
90 100
8
2
Display
Select single-variable statistics mode
30
2
.
.
.
100
2
28
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“ANS” KEYS FOR 1-VARIABLE STATISTICS
Calculates the average value of the data (sample data x).
Calculates the standard deviation for the data (sample data x).
Calculates the standard deviation of a data population (sample data x).
Displays the number of input data (sample data x).
Calculates the sum of the data (sample data x).
Calculates the sum of the data (sample data x) raised to the second power.
NOTE:
1. Sample data refers to data selected randomly from the population.
2. Standard deviation of samples is determined by the sample data
shift from an average value.
3. Standard deviation for the population is standard deviation when
the sample data is deemed a population (full data).
Let’s check the results based on the previous data.
69 (average value)
17.75686128 (standard deviation)
17.57839583 (standard deviation of the population)
50 (total count of data)
3450 (total)
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DATA CORRECTION
Correction prior to pressing
immediately after a data entry: Delete incorrect
data with
, then enter the correct data.
Correction after pressing
:
Use
to display the data previously entered.
Press
to display data items in ascending (oldest first) order. To
reverse the display order to descending (latest first), press the
key.
Each item is displayed with 'X:', 'Y:', or 'F:' (n is the sequential number
of the data set).
Display the data item to modify, input the correct value, then press
.
Using
, you can correct the values of the data set all at once.
• When or appears, more data items can be browsed by pressing
or
.
• To delete a data set, display an item of the data set to delete, then
press
. The data set will be deleted.
• To add a new data set, press
and input the values, then press
.
<Example 2>
Data table 2
X: 30, 40, 40, 50
X: 30, 45, 45, 45, 60
Operation
Display
Select single-variable statistics mode
30
40
2
50
30
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Operation
45
Display
3
60
APPLICATIONS:
Single-variable statistical calculations are used in a broad range of
fields, including engineering, business, and economics. They are
most often applied to analysis in atmospheric observations and
physics experiments, as well as for quality control in factories.
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<Example 3> The table below summarizes the dates in April when cherry
blossoms bloom, and the average temperature for March in
that same area. Determine basic statistical quantities for
data X and data Y based on the data table.
Data table 3
Year
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
x Average temperature 6.2 7.0 6.8 8.7 7.9 6.5 6.1 8.2
y Date blossoms bloom 13
9
11
5
7
12
15
7
Operation
Display
Select dual-variable statistics mode and linear regression calculation in sub-mode.
6.2
13
.
.
.
6.1
15
8.2
7
32
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“ANS” KEYS FOR 2-VARIABLE STATISTICS
In addition to the 1-variable statistic keys, the following keys have been added for calculating 2-variable statistics.
Calculates the sum of the product for sample data x and sample data y.
Calculates the sum of the data (sample data y).
Calculates the sum of the data (sample data y) raised to the second power.
Calculates the average value of the data (sample data y).
Calculates the standard deviation for the data (sample data y).
Calculates the standard deviation of a data population (sample data y).
NOTE:
The codes for basic statistical quantities of sample data x and their meanings
are the same as those for single-variable statistical calculations.
Let’ s check the results based on the previous data.
7.175
(Average for data x)
0.973579551
(Standard deviation for data x)
0.91070028
(Standard deviation of the population for data x)
9.875
(Average for data y)
3.440826313
(Standard deviation for data y)
3.218598297
(Standard deviation of the population for data y)
8
(Total count of data)
57.4
(Sum of data x)
418.48
(Sum of data x raised to the second power)
544.1
(Sum of the product of data x and data y)
79
(Sum of data y)
863
(Sum of data y raised to the second power)
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SHARP
©SHARP CORP. (MAR. '07)
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