Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 35 SHARP SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR OPERATION GUIDE <Write View> Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 1 SHARP CONTENTS HOW TO OPERATE Read Before Using Key layout Reset switch/Display pattern Display format and decimal setting function Exponent display Angular unit 2 3 3-4 4 5 Functions and Key Operations ON/OFF, entry correction keys Data entry keys Random key Modify key Basic arithmetic keys, parentheses Percent Inverse, square, cube, xth power of y, square root, cube root, xth root of y 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 10 to the power of x, common logarithm, logarithm of x to base a e to the power of x, natural logarithm Factorials Permutations, combinations Time calculation Fractional calculations Memory calculations Last answer memory User-defined functions Absolute value Trigonometric functions Arc trigonometric functions Hyperbolic functions Coordinate conversion Binary, pental, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal operations (N-base) STATISTICS FUNCTIONS Data input and correction “ANS” keys for 1-variable statistics Data correction “ANS” keys for 2-variable statistics © Sharp Corporation ~ ~ 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30-32 33 1 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 2 SHARP How to Operate ≈Read Before Using≈ This operation guide has been written based on the EL-W531, EL-W531G, and EL-W531H models. Some functions described here are not featured on other models. In addition, key operations and symbols on the display may differ according to the model. 1. KEY LAYOUT Mode key This calculator can operate in three different modes as follows. <Example> [Normal mode] •Mode = 0; normal mode for performing normal arithmetic and function calculations. [STAT mode] •Mode = 1; mode for performing 1- or 2-variable statistical calculations. To select the statistical submode, press the corresponding number key after . (SD): Single variable statistic calculation (LINE): Linear regression calculation (QUAD): Quadratic regression calculation (E_EXP): Eular Exponential regression calculation (LOG): Logarithmic regression calculation (POWER): Power regression calculation 2nd function, ALPHA keys Pressing these keys will enable the functions written in orange (2nd F) or green (ALPHA) above the calculator buttons. 2nd function Written in orange above the ON/C key <Power off> ON/C, OFF key Direct function (INV): Inverse regression calculation (EXP): Exponential regression calculation [Drill mode] •Mode = 2; mode for performing drill calculations. To select the drill sub-mode, press the corresponding number key after . (MATH): Math drill (TABLE): Multiplication table drill <Power on> 2 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 3 SHARP 2. RESET SWITCH RESET If the calculator fails to operate normally, press the reset switch on the back to reinitialise the unit. The display format and calculation mode will return to their initial settings. 3. DISPLAY PATTERN Hyperbolic symbol (HYP) 2ndF symbol Reset switch RESET Appears when the entire equation cannot be displayed. Equation display Memory symbol Appears when the entire equation cannot be displayed. NOTE: Pressing the reset switch will erase any data stored in memory. Alphabet Angular unit WriteView mode symbol indicator (View as it is written) (ALPHA) (DEG/RAD/GRAD) Answer display Display format indicator (ENG, SCI, FIX, N2, N1) The actual display does not appear like this. This illustration is for explanatory purposes only. 4. DISPLAY FORMAT AND DECIMAL SETTING FUNCTION For convenient and easy operation, this model can be used in one of five display modes. The selected display status is shown in the lower left part of the display (Format Indicator). Note: If more 0’s (zeros) than needed are displayed when the ON/C key is pressed, check • Floating decimal point format 1/2 (N1/N2 is displayed) Valid values beyond the maximum range are displayed in the form of [10-digit (mantissa) + 2-digit (exponent)] • Fixed decimal point format (FIX is displayed) Displays the fractional part of the calculation result according to the specified number of decimal places. • Scientific notation (SCI is displayed) Frequently used in science to handle extremely small or large numbers. • Engineering scientific notation (ENG is displayed) Convenient for converting between different units. <Example> Let’s compare the display result of [10000 ÷ 8.1 =] in each display format. (specifies normal mode) Note: The calculator has two settings for displaying a floating point number: NORM1 (default setting) and NORM2. In each display setting, a number is automatically displayed in scientific notation outside a preset range: • NORM1: 0.000000001 ≤ x ≤ 9999999999 • NORM2: 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 9999999999 10000 © Sharp Corporation 8.1 3 Initial display Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 4 SHARP (FIX mode TAB = 3) (SCI mode) (ENG mode) (normal mode) 5. EXPONENT DISPLAY The distance from the earth to the sun is approx. 150,000,000 (1.5 x 108) km. Values such as this with many zeros are often used in scientific calculations, but entering the zeros one by one is a great deal of work and it’s easy to make mistakes. In such cases, the numerical values are divided into mantissa and exponent portions, displayed and calculated. <Example> What is the number of electrons flowing in a conductor when the electrical charge across a given cross-section is 0.32 coulombs. (The charge on a single electron = 1.6 x 10-19 coulombs). 0.32 1.6 19 4 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 5 SHARP 6. ANGULAR UNIT Angular values are converted from DEG to RAD to GRAD with each push of the DRG key. This function is used when doing calculations related to trigonometric functions or coordinate geometry conversions. Degrees (DEG is shown at the top of the display) A commonly used unit of measure for angles. The angular measure of a circle is expressed as 360°. Radians (RAD is shown at the top of the display) Radians are different from degrees and express angles based on the circumference of a circle. 180° is equivalent to π radians. Therefore, the angular measure of a circle is 2π radians. Grads (GRAD is shown at the top of the display) Grads are a unit of angular measure used in Europe, particularly in France. An angle of 90 degrees is equivalent to 100 grads. The relationships between the three types of angular units can be expressed as right: 90˚ (DEG) = π/2 (RAD) = 100 (GRAD) = π 2 <Example> Check to confirm 90 degrees equalling π/2 radians equalling 100 grads. (π=3.14159...) Operation Display 90 © Sharp Corporation 5 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 6 SHARP ≈Functions and Key Operations≈ ON/OFF, Entry Correction Keys Turns the calculator on or clears the data. It also clears the contents of the calculator display and voids any calculator command; however, coefficients in 3-variable linear equations and statistics, as well as values stored in the independent memory in normal mode, are not erased. Turns the calculator off. Clears all internal values, including the last answer (ANS) and statistics. Values stored in memory in normal mode are not erased. These arrow keys are useful for Multi-Line playback, which lets you scroll through calculation steps one by one. These keys are useful for editing equations. The key moves the cursor to the left, and the key moves the cursor to the right. The key deletes the symbol/number at the left of the cursor, and the key deletes the symbol/number at the cursor. 6 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 7 SHARP Data Entry Keys 0 to 9 Numeric keys for entering data values. Decimal point key. Enters a decimal point. Enters the minus symbol. The subtraction key is not used for entering negative numbers. Pressing π automatically enters the value for π (3.14159...). The constant π, used frequently in function calculations, is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. Pressing this key switches to scientific notation data entry. <Example> Provided the earth is moving around the sun in a circular orbit, how many kilometers will it travel in a year? * The average distance between the earth and the sun being 1.496 x 108 km. Circumference equals diameter x π; therefore, 1.496 x 108 x 2 x π Operation 1.496 © Sharp Corporation 8 Display 2 7 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 8 SHARP Random Key Generates random numbers. Random numbers are three-decimal-place values between 0.000 and 0.999. Using this function enables the user to obtain unbiased sampling data derived from random values generated by the calculator. (Using line mode is preferable since in W-View mode, the numbers are generated by fractions.) <Example> 0. *** (A random number is generated.) [Random Dice] To simulate a die-rolling, a random integer between 1 and 6 can be generated by pressing . To generate the next random dice number, press . [Random Coin] To simulate a coin flip, 0 (heads) or 1 (tails) can be randomly generated by pressing . To generate the next random coin number, press . [Random Integer] An integer between 0 and 99 can be generated randomly by pressing To generate the next random integer, press . APPLICATIONS: Building sample sets for statistics or research. 8 © Sharp Corporation . Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 9 SHARP Modify Key Function to round calculation results. Even after setting the number of decimal places on the display, the calculator performs calculations using a larger number of decimal places than that which appears on the display. By using this function, internal calculations will be performed using only the displayed value. <Example> FIX mode TAB = 1 (normal calculation) 5 9 0.6 9 5.0 (internally, 0.5555...) Rounded calculation (MDF) 5 9 (In W-View mode, press 0.6 (internally, 0.5555...) to show the answer in decimal.) (internally, 0.6) 9 5.4 APPLICATIONS: Frequently used in scientific and technical fields, as well as business, when performing chained calculations. © Sharp Corporation 9 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 10 SHARP Basic Arithmetic Keys, Parentheses The four basic operators. Each is used in the same way as a standard calculator: + (addition), – (subtraction), x (multiplication), and ÷ (division). Finds the result in the same way as a standard calculator. Used to specify calculations in which certain operations have precedence. You can make addition and subtraction operations have precedence over multiplication and division by enclosing them in parentheses. 10 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 11 SHARP Percent For calculating percentages. Four methods of calculating percentages are presented as follows. 1) $125 increased by 10%…137.5 125 10 2) $125 reduced by 20%…100 125 20 3) 15% of $125…18.75 125 15 4) When $125 equals 5% of X, X equals…2500 125 © Sharp Corporation 5 11 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 12 SHARP Inverse, Square, Cube, xth Power of y,Square Root, Cube Root, xth Root of y Calculates the inverse of the value on the display. Squares the value on the display. Cubes the value on the display. Calculates exponential values. Calculates the square root of the value on the display. Calculates the cube root of the value on the display. Calculates the xth root of y. <Example> Operation 2 2 4 Display 2 2 2 4 16 12 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 13 SHARP 10 to the Power of x, Common Logarithm, Logarithm of x to Base a Calculates the value of 10 raised to the xth power. Calculates the logarithm, the exponent of the power to which 10 must be raised to equal the given value. Calculates the logarithm of x to power a. <Example> Display Operation 3 1000 3 © Sharp Corporation 45 13 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 14 SHARP e to the Power of x, Natural Logarithm Calculates powers based on the constant e (2.718281828). Computes the value of the natural logarithm, the exponent of the power to which e must be raised to equal the given value. <Example> Operation Display 5 10 14 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 15 SHARP Factorials The product of a given positive integer n multiplied by all the lesser positive integers from 1 to n-1 is indicated by n! and called the factorial of n. <Example> Operation Display 7 c.f n! = 1 x 2 x 3 x …xn APPLICATIONS: Used in statistics and mathematics. In statistics, this function is used in calculations involving combinations and permutations. © Sharp Corporation 15 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 16 SHARP Permutations, Combinations This function finds the number of different possible orderings in selecting r objects from a set of n objects. For example, there are six different ways of ordering the letters ABC in groups of three letters—ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, and CBA. The calculation equation is 3P3 = 3 x 2 x 1 = 6 (ways). This function finds the number of ways of selecting r objects from a set of n objects. For example, from the three letters ABC, there are three ways we can extract groups of two different letters—AB, AC, and CB. The calculation equation is 3C2. <Example> Operation 6 4 6 4 Display APPLICATIONS: Used in statistics (probability calculations) and in simulation hypotheses in fields such as medicine, pharmaceutics, and physics. Also, can be used to determine the chances of winning in lotteries. 16 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 17 SHARP Time Calculation Converts a sexagesimal value displayed in degrees, minutes, seconds to decimal notation. Also, converts a decimal value to sexagesimal notataion (degrees, minutes, seconds). Inputs values in sexagesimal notation (degrees, minutes, seconds). <Example> Convert 24° 28’ 35” (24 degrees, 28 minutes, 35 seconds) to decimal notation. Then convert 24.476° to sexagesimal notation. Operation 24 28 Display 35 Convert to decimal notation Repeat last key operation to return to the previous display. APPLICATIONS: Used in calculations of angles and angular velocity in physics, and latitude and longitude in geography. © Sharp Corporation 17 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 18 SHARP Fractional Calculations Inputs proper or improper fractions which consist of a numerator and denominator. Inputs a mixed fraction. 5 1 <Example> Add 3 2 and 7 , and convert to decimal notation. Operation 3 1 5 Display 2 7 Convert to an improper fraction Convert to decimal notation APPLICATIONS: There is a wide variety of applications for this function because fractions are such a basic part of mathematics. This function is useful for calculations involving electrical circuit resistance. 18 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 19 SHARP Memory Calculations ~ Stores displayed values in memories A~F, X, Y, M. Recalls values stored in A~F, X, Y, M. Adds the displayed value to the value in the independent memory M. Subtracts the displayed value from the value in the independent memory M. Temporary memories ~ Independent memory Operation <Example 1> Display 0 (Enter 0 for M) 25 27 7 3 <Example 2> Calculates $/¥ at the designated exchange rate. $1 = ¥110 ¥26,510 = $? $2,750 = ¥? Operation 110 26510 2750 © Sharp Corporation 19 Display Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 20 SHARP Last Answer Memory Automatically recalls the last answer calculated by pressing <Example> Solve for x first and then solve for y using x. x = 2 + 3 Operation 2 and y = 4 ÷ x Display 3 4 20 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 21 SHARP User-Defined Functions ~ ~ Recall a function that was defined by the user. <Example> Operation Display 26 APPLICATIONS: Functions that you have previously defined, including those using common 2nd Function buttons, can be stored in D1~ D4 for later use, thus saving time on keystrokes. © Sharp Corporation 21 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 22 SHARP Absolute Value Returns an absolute value. <Example> Operation Display 3 –4 22 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 23 SHARP Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric functions determine the ratio of three sides of a right triangle. The combinations of the three sides are sin, cos, and tan. Their relations are: Calculates the sine of an angle. b sinθ = a Calculates the cosine of an angle. c cosθ = a a b θ c b Calculates the tangent of an angle. tanθ = c <Example> The angle from a point 15 meters from a building to the highest floor of the building is 45°. How tall is the building? [DEG mode] Operation 45 1 Display 15 5 View point APPLICATIONS: Trigonometric functions are useful in mathematics and various engineering calculations. They are often used in astronomical observations, civil engineering and in calculations involving electrical circuits, as well as in calculations for physics such as parabolic motion and wave motion. © Sharp Corporation 23 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 24 SHARP Arc Trigonometric Functions Arc trigonometric functions, the inverse of trigonometric functions, are used to determine an angle from ratios of a right triangle. The combinations of the three sides are sin-1, cos-1, and tan-1. Their relations are; a b θ c b (arc sine) Determines an angle based on the ratio b/a of two sides of a right triangle. θ = sin-1 a (arc cosine) Determines an angle based on the ratio c/a for two sides of a right triangle. θ = cos-1 a (arc tangent) Determines an angle based on the ratio b/c for two sides of a right triangle. θ = tan-1 c c b <Example> At what angle should an airplane climb in order to climb 80 meters in 100 meters? [DEG mode] Operation Display 80 100 24 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 25 SHARP Hyperbolic Functions The hyperbolic function is defined by using natural exponents in trigonometric functions. Arc hyperbolic functions are defined by using natural logarithms in trigonometric functions. APPLICATIONS: Hyperbolic and arc hyperbolic functions are very useful in electrical engineering and physics. © Sharp Corporation 25 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 26 SHARP Coordinate Conversion Converts rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates (x, y → r, θ ) Converts polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates (r, θ → x, y) Splits data used for dual-variable data input. y Rectangular coordinates y Polar coordinates P (r,θ) P (x,y) y o r x x o θ x <Example> Determine the polar coordinates (r, θ ) when the rectangular coordinates of Point P are (x = 7, y = 3). [DEG mode] Operation 7 Display 3 7.6 23.2 APPLICATIONS: Coordinate conversion is often used in mathematics and engineering, especially for impedance calculations in electronics and electrical engineering. 26 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 27 SHARP Binary, Pental, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Operations (N-Base) This calculator can perform conversions between numbers expressed in binary, pental, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal systems. It can also perform the four basic arithmetic operations, calculations with parentheses and memory calculations using binary, pental, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal numbers. In addition, the calculator can carry out the logical operations AND, OR, NOT, NEG, XOR, and XNOR on binary, pental, octal, and hexadecimal numbers. Converts to the binary system. Converts to the hexadecimal system. "BIN" appears. "HEX" appears. Converts to the pental system. Converts to the decimal system. "PEN" appears. "BIN", "PEN", "OCT", and "HEX" disappear from the display. Converts to the octal system. "OCT" appears. Conversion is performed on the displayed value when these keys are pressed. <Example 1> HEX(1AC) ➞BIN ➞PEN ➞OCT ➞DEC Operation Display 1AC <Example 2> 1011 AND 101 = (BIN) ➞DEC Operation Display 1011 101 © Sharp Corporation 27 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 28 SHARP Statistics Functions The statistics function is excellent for analyzing qualities of an event. Though primarily used for engineering and mathematics, the function is also applied to nearly all other fields including economics and medicine. DATA INPUT AND CORRECTION Enters data for statistical calculations. Clears data input. Splits data used for dual-variable data input. (Used for dual-variable statistical calculations.) <Example 1> Here is a table of examination results. Input this data for analysis. Data table 1 No. Score No. of pupils 1 30 2 2 40 4 3 50 5 4 60 7 Operation 5 70 12 6 80 10 7 8 90 100 8 2 Display Select single-variable statistics mode 30 2 . . . 100 2 28 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 29 SHARP “ANS” KEYS FOR 1-VARIABLE STATISTICS Calculates the average value of the data (sample data x). Calculates the standard deviation for the data (sample data x). Calculates the standard deviation of a data population (sample data x). Displays the number of input data (sample data x). Calculates the sum of the data (sample data x). Calculates the sum of the data (sample data x) raised to the second power. NOTE: 1. Sample data refers to data selected randomly from the population. 2. Standard deviation of samples is determined by the sample data shift from an average value. 3. Standard deviation for the population is standard deviation when the sample data is deemed a population (full data). Let’s check the results based on the previous data. 69 (average value) 17.75686128 (standard deviation) 17.57839583 (standard deviation of the population) 50 (total count of data) 3450 (total) © Sharp Corporation 29 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 30 SHARP DATA CORRECTION Correction prior to pressing immediately after a data entry: Delete incorrect data with , then enter the correct data. Correction after pressing : Use to display the data previously entered. Press to display data items in ascending (oldest first) order. To reverse the display order to descending (latest first), press the key. Each item is displayed with 'X:', 'Y:', or 'F:' (n is the sequential number of the data set). Display the data item to modify, input the correct value, then press . Using , you can correct the values of the data set all at once. • When or appears, more data items can be browsed by pressing or . • To delete a data set, display an item of the data set to delete, then press . The data set will be deleted. • To add a new data set, press and input the values, then press . <Example 2> Data table 2 X: 30, 40, 40, 50 X: 30, 45, 45, 45, 60 Operation Display Select single-variable statistics mode 30 40 2 50 30 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 31 SHARP Operation 45 Display 3 60 APPLICATIONS: Single-variable statistical calculations are used in a broad range of fields, including engineering, business, and economics. They are most often applied to analysis in atmospheric observations and physics experiments, as well as for quality control in factories. © Sharp Corporation 31 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 32 SHARP <Example 3> The table below summarizes the dates in April when cherry blossoms bloom, and the average temperature for March in that same area. Determine basic statistical quantities for data X and data Y based on the data table. Data table 3 Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 x Average temperature 6.2 7.0 6.8 8.7 7.9 6.5 6.1 8.2 y Date blossoms bloom 13 9 11 5 7 12 15 7 Operation Display Select dual-variable statistics mode and linear regression calculation in sub-mode. 6.2 13 . . . 6.1 15 8.2 7 32 © Sharp Corporation Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 33 SHARP “ANS” KEYS FOR 2-VARIABLE STATISTICS In addition to the 1-variable statistic keys, the following keys have been added for calculating 2-variable statistics. Calculates the sum of the product for sample data x and sample data y. Calculates the sum of the data (sample data y). Calculates the sum of the data (sample data y) raised to the second power. Calculates the average value of the data (sample data y). Calculates the standard deviation for the data (sample data y). Calculates the standard deviation of a data population (sample data y). NOTE: The codes for basic statistical quantities of sample data x and their meanings are the same as those for single-variable statistical calculations. Let’ s check the results based on the previous data. 7.175 (Average for data x) 0.973579551 (Standard deviation for data x) 0.91070028 (Standard deviation of the population for data x) 9.875 (Average for data y) 3.440826313 (Standard deviation for data y) 3.218598297 (Standard deviation of the population for data y) 8 (Total count of data) 57.4 (Sum of data x) 418.48 (Sum of data x raised to the second power) 544.1 (Sum of the product of data x and data y) 79 (Sum of data y) 863 (Sum of data y raised to the second power) © Sharp Corporation 33 Guide Book_EL-W531 07.2.5 2:48 PM ページ 34 SHARP ©SHARP CORP. (MAR. '07)

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