VMware | VMWARE CLOUD DIRECTOR 1.0 - TECHNICAL NOTE | User`s guide | VMware VMWARE CLOUD DIRECTOR 1.0 - TECHNICAL NOTE User`s guide

Technical Note:
Using VMware vCenter
Chargeback Manager with
VMware vCloud Director
®
™
™
®
T e c h n i c a l W HI T E P A P E R
™
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
vCenter Chargeback Manager Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
vCenter Chargeback Manager Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Data Collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
vCenter Chargeback Manager Web Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
vCenter Chargeback Manager API. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Data Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Hierarchy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Allocation Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Allocation Unit Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Cost Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Billing Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Base Rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Fixed Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
VM Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
vApp Lifecycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Configure Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Report Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Cost Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Calculating Resource Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Calculating Fixed Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Calculating VM Instance Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
User Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Availability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Integration with External Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Key Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Appendix A: Configuration Maximums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Appendix B: Port Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Introduction
VMware vCloud® Director™ makes broad deployment of clouds possible by enabling self-service access to
infrastructure resources. It provides the interface, automation and management feature set that enables
enterprises and service providers to supply VMware vSphere® resources as a Web-based service. With the
advent of massive cloud environments, keeping track of dynamic cloud resources becomes an increasingly
important task.
VMware® vCenter™ Chargeback Manager™ provides the metering capability to measure, analyze, and report on
utilization and costs associated with VMware®-based cloud infrastructures. It offers the ability to configure and
associate various cost models with vCloud Director entities. The cost transparency enabled by vCenter
Chargeback Manager allows cloud providers to validate and adjust financial models based on resource
consumption.
This paper has been written to explain the integration of vCloud Director and vCenter Chargeback Manager.
Shared deployment design considerations for vCenter Chargeback Manager are also covered. The intended
audience is virtualization personnel who have a strong understanding of vSphere and vCloud Director concepts
and terminology.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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Overview
The process for installing and configuring vCenter Chargeback Manager is as follows:
1.Install vCenter Chargeback Manager along with the vCenter Chargeback Manager, VMware vCloud Director,
and VMware® vShield Manager™ data collectors. Refer to the vCenter Chargeback Manager Installation and
Upgrade Guide for detailed installation instructions.
2.Validate vCenter Chargeback Manager data collector settings. Change vShield Manager login credentials
accordingly.
3.Add all vCenter Servers attached to the VMware vCloud Director instance. Refer to the vCenter Chargeback
Manager User’s Guide for detailed instructions.
4.Validate synchronization of inventories between vCloud Director and vCenter Chargeback Manager.
5.Based on approved service definition, create and configure cost models, fixed costs or virtual machine
instance.
6.Configure costs for specific vCenter Chargeback Manager entities.
7.Schedule reports manually or leverage automatic scheduler.
8.Create users and associate the appropriate roles and access.
9.(optional) Integrate vCenter Chargeback Manager with external systems.
This technical note provides additional details and best practices for each step in the process.
Architecture
vCenter Chargeback Manager components include:
•vCenter Chargeback Manager server
•vCenter Chargeback Manager database
•vCenter Chargeback Manager data collectors
•vCenter Chargeback Manager web interface
•vCenter Chargeback Manager API
The data collectors gather and send data to the vCenter Chargeback Manager database. The vCenter
Chargeback Manager Web interface handles cost modeling, user management, and report generation.
Integration with other management products, such as VMware® vCenter™ Orchestrator™ and VMware® vCenter™
Operations Manager™, is available through the appropriate plug-in/adaptor.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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Data
Collectors
CBM Application/
Web UI
• Configuration
• Reporting
HTTP(S)
CBM DB
JDBC
vCenter Chargeback
Server
• Rest API
• vCenter Orchestrator
• vCenter Operations
• ITBM
• Stores Org Hierarchy
• Stores Cost/Rate Plan
VC APIs/JDBC
• Global CB Configuration
HTTP(S)
• VC DB Statistics
Multi VC Deployment
VC1
vSphere
Client
• CB Plug-in
VC2
Figure 1. VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager Components
vCenter Chargeback Manager Server
The vCenter Chargeback Manager server runs the web interface, load balancer, and data collector services. This
server can be virtual or physical and has the following recommended specifications:
•2.0GHz or faster Intel or AMD x86 processor
•4GB or more of RAM
•3GB disk storage
•1Gb Ethernet (1GbE) adaptor
Refer to the vCenter Chargeback Manager Installation and Upgrade Guide for more details.
vCenter Chargeback Manager servers can be clustered together to provide improved performance and
availability for the web interface. A cluster configuration leverages the Apache load balancer, which is bundled
with the vCenter Chargeback Manager software. The built-in load balancer can be installed on any vCenter
Chargeback Manager server instance, but cannot be replaced by a third-party load balancer. All instances in a
cluster must run the same version of vCenter Chargeback Manager.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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1
Session 1
Session 2
Session 3
Load Balancer
Chargeback
Server 1
2
Chargeback
Server 3
3
Chargeback
Server 2
Chargeback
database
Figure 2. User Request Routing with Clustering
Load balancing is active/active. Each user request, whether it comes from the web interface or API, routes
through the load balancer. The load balancer forwards the request to a vCenter Chargeback Manager instance in
the cluster, based on the number of requests currently serviced by each instance in the cluster. Sticky sessions
are enabled, so sessions always stick to one vCenter Chargeback Manager server. If there are multiple sessions,
the load balancer uses the number of requests to find the best worker. With multiple vCenter Chargeback
Manager servers, the report processing load is balanced by the internal Quartz Scheduler.
Losing the vCenter Chargeback Manager server that contains the load balancer removes access to the Web
interface. Point users to the IP addresses of the remaining vCenter Chargeback Manager servers until the first
server is restored.
vCenter Chargeback Manager Database
The vCenter Chargeback Manager database stores organization hierarchies, cost/rate plans and global vCenter
Chargeback Manager configuration data. Currently, Microsoft SQL Express, Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle
are supported.
SQL scripts are available that enable administrators to manage and retrieve usage data from the vCenter
Chargeback Manager database. Refer to the vCenter Chargeback Manager User’s Guide for more details.
Data Collectors
vCenter Chargeback Manager uses data collectors to pull information from various sources. Each data collector
runs on its own schedule, so polling intervals are unique to each and are modifiable.
•vCenter Chargeback Manager data collector – Connects to vCenter Servers to pull vCenter information. Add
connections to all vCenter Servers attached to the vCloud instance. VMware vSphere® vApp™ virtual machines
are not displayed in the vCloud hierarchies until their respective vCenter Servers are registered with vCenter
Chargeback Manager.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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•vCloud Director data collector – Connects to the vCloud Director database and monitors all vCenter Chargeback Manager–related events. The vCloud Director data collector populates the vCenter Chargeback Manager
database with vCloud hierarchies, vCloud entities and allocation unit information.
•vShield Manager data collector – Connects to vCloud-associated vShield Managers to collect statistics for
networks included in vCloud hierarchies.
vCloud
Director
database
JDBC
vShield
Manager
REST
vCenter
database
vCenter
Server
1:1
many: 1
vCloud data
collector
VSM data
collector
JDBC
REST
REST
Chargeback
Manager
Server
JDBC
JDBC
JDBC
Chargeback
Manager
database
JDBC
SOAP
Chargeback
data collector
JDBC
many: 1
Figure 3. VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager Data Collectors
Install additional vCloud and vShield Manager data collectors on separate servers for increased availability.
Data collector instances update their heartbeat every 480 seconds. If instance 1 fails updating its heartbeat,
instance 2 takes over event processing after 1,200 seconds (active/passive). The values are not user modifiable.
By default, the vCloud Director data collector processes chargeable events in the vCloud Director database
every five minutes. This can be reduced to thirty seconds, or increased, depending on the frequency of
operations in vCloud Director. Chargeable events that fail to get processed are retained in a temporary store for
up to ten days (default setting) and are reprocessed when the system is available again.
A vCenter Chargeback Manager environment can have multiple vCloud Director data collectors, but it can
connect to only one vCloud Director database. Without vCloud Director, vCenter Chargeback Manager cannot
connect to vShield Manager. There is a dependency between the vCloud Director data collector and the vShield
Manager data collector. The vCloud Director data collector populates the network IDs and corresponding
MOREF IDs, which are then consumed by the vShield Manager data collector.
The vShield Manager data collector carries the external traffic information for private routed organization
networks, routed vApp networks, and fenced vApp networks. If a routed or fenced vApp network is connected
to a private routed organization network, the external traffic information of the corresponding virtual machine is
recorded at the vApp network level and the organization network level.
vShield Managers are automatically discovered by the vCloud Director data collector. After installation, make
sure to set the appropriate username and password for all vShield Managers in the vCenter Chargeback Manager
Web interface. If the password is not set properly, no external network statistics will be gathered.
On the vCloud Director system settings page, there is a user-configurable field that defines the number of days
to keep vCenter Chargeback Manager event history within the vCloud Director database. By default, this is set to
365 days. After that, there is a daily job that runs in the vCloud Director database once every 24 hours, cleaning
up jobs older than 365 days.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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NOTE: To avoid errors in event processing and data collection, ensure that all vCloud components—including
vSphere environment, vCloud Director, vShield Manager, and vCenter Chargeback Manager—are pointed to the
same network time source.
vCenter Chargeback Manager Web Interface
Access to the vCenter Chargeback Manager Web interface requires a supported browser and Adobe Flash
Player. vCenter Chargeback Manager provides a utility to generate self-signed SSL certificates.
vCenter Chargeback Manager API
The vCenter Chargeback Manager API is based on representational state transfer (REST) and provides a
programming interface for vCenter Chargeback Manager functionality. This includes hierarchy management,
cost configuration, and cost reporting. All actions in the Web interface can be performed through the
vCenter Chargeback Manager REST API. For more on the API, refer to the vCenter Chargeback Manager
Programming Guide.
vCenter Chargeback Manager APIs are divided into the following categories:
•Administration
•Cost management
•Hierarchy management
•Report management
•User management
•Event management
•Search
The vCenter Chargeback Manager SDK for Java provides packages containing classes and methods that
encapsulate the interfaces, objects and operations supported by the vCenter Chargeback Manager API. Java
developers can use the SDK to quickly build applications that integrate with the vCenter Chargeback Manager
platform. The SDK uses the JAXB framework to create classes for resources defined in the vCenter Chargeback
Manager API XML schemas.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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Data Flow
vCenter Chargeback Manager gathers data from various sources through data collectors. The flow of data for a
vCloud Director with vCenter Chargeback Manager deployment is depicted in Figure 4:
vCloud
Director UI
vCloud API
1
2
vCD
DB
vCloud
cell
REST
3
vCloud
data
collector
JDBC
CBM
DB
REST
vShield
Manager
vCenter
DB
vCenter
Server
VMS data
collector
Chargeback
data
collector
CBM
Server
4
REST
Billing
System
Figure 4. VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager Data Flow
1. vCloud entities are created within vCloud Director through the vCloud Director API or vCloud Director Web
console. These entities persist in the vCloud Director database.
2.The vCloud Director data collector connects to the vCloud Director database to process chargebackspecific events. External network traffic counters are pulled from vShield Manager by the VSM data
collector.
3. The vCloud Director and vShield Manager data collectors make vCenter Chargeback Manager API calls to
perform chargeback-related functions. If changes must be made to data collector settings, the settings are
updated directly in the vCenter Chargeback Manager database.
4. Optionally, the vCenter Chargeback Manager REST APIs can be leveraged to pull XML reports from vCenter
Chargeback Manager. The XML reports are parsed and passed to the external billing system.
Hierarchy Management
A chargeback hierarchy is automatically created in vCenter Chargeback Manager when an organization is
created in vCloud Director. Each imported organization appears as a vCenter Chargeback Manager hierarchy
and includes all the organization virtual datacenters (vDCs), the media and template files, vApps, virtual
machines and networks.
All organization hierarchies have four folders: Allocation Pool, Networks, Pay As You Go and Reservation Pool.
Organization vDCs are assigned to folders based on the allocation model configured. The Networks folder
consists of all the networks defined in the organization.
Each organization vDC has two folders: Media and Template Files and vApps. The Media and Template Files
folder consists of media files and template files associated with the organization vDC. The vApp folder includes
all the vApps created in the organization vDC. Each vApp consists of the corresponding virtual machines and a
Network folder containing the organization networks used by the vApp.
By default, the polling interval between vCloud Director and vCenter Chargeback Manager is five minutes. This is
a user-configurable setting that cannot go below thirty seconds. There is no option to refresh or resynchronize
with vCloud Director.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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Backdate functionality is not currently available for vCloud hierarchies; it can be applied against only
vCenter hierarchies.
Custom attributes can be defined against any object within the hierarchy. By default, the system creates
an attribute called vCloudEntityID, which is an identifier that provides a unique mapping to the corresponding
vCloud Director entity. This system-defined attribute indicates the object type and ID as stored in the
vCloud Director database (e.g., vCloudOrgEntity-123456789, vCloudvDCEntity-123456789,
vCloudVMEntity-123456789).
If a vApp, network, or catalog file is deleted using vCloud Director, it is automatically removed from vCenter
Chargeback Manager. If an organization or organization vDC is deleted using vCloud Director, it remains in
vCenter Chargeback Manager with “DELETED_” pre-pended and a time stamp post-pended to the name.
Cost data associated with that organization/chargeback hierarchy is not automatically deleted. These hierarchies
persist until deleted from the vCenter Chargeback Manager UI.
NOTE: If an object or hierarchy is deleted using vCenter Chargeback Manager but still exists in vCloud Director,
this is an irreversible operation. There is no method for selectively resynchronizing the hierarchy structure
between the two products. vCloud hierarchies deleted from vCenter Chargeback Manager are not recreated
by the vCloud Director data collector. Exercise caution when deleting hierarchy objects within vCenter
Chargeback Manager.
Allocation Units
vCenter Chargeback Manager tracks resource allocations for all vCloud entities in each hierarchy. The vCloud
Director data collector sets allocation unit values in vCenter Chargeback Manager. When the allocations change
in vCloud Director, the allocation units are updated accordingly.
NOTE: For vCloud entities such as vDCs and vApps, vCenter Chargeback Manager solely tracks allocation. Usage
or reservation data from vCenter Server is not correlated. vCenter Chargeback Manager gets usage and
reservation data for the virtual machines pulled from vCenter Server.
Allocation Pool vDCs have allocation units assigned at the organization vDC level. Allocation unit values for CPU
and memory are based on the overage flags configured. Modify the VMware vCloud Director apply overage
charge on Allocation Pool vDC attribute on the vCloud Director data collector to enable or disable overage
charging.
•If set to false (default), allocation unit = configured limit in vCloud Director.
•If set to true, allocation unit = configured limit in vCloud Director* percentage of resources guaranteed.
This enables overage charging.
For example:
vCloud Director memory allocation = 10GB, guarantee = 50 percent
global overage flag = true
allocation unit: 10GB* 50 percent = 5GB
It is possible to override the global setting by assigning the EntityLevelOverageFlag attribute on an individual
entity. Overage flags are applicable only to newly created Allocation Pool vDCs. The allocation units of existing
Allocation Pool vDCs are not changed.
Reservation Pool vDCs have allocation units assigned at the organization vDC level, with the allocation unit equal
to the configured limit in vCloud Director. For this allocation model, the CPU and memory reservations are fully
reserved (set to the limit) and the customer should be billed accordingly.
Pay As You Go vDCs have allocation units assigned at the virtual machine level. Parent entities do not have
allocation units assigned. vCPU count, total memory and total storage metrics are tracked. If virtual machine details
do not appear, ensure that a connection to the vCenter Server hosting the cloud workloads has been established.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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Storage allocation units for vCloud entities are set as thick, regardless of provisioning. If the billing policy uses
the usage attribute for storage, it is possible to charge for thin-provisioned disks as thick-provisioned disks.
To view allocation units, go to Manage Hierarchy, select the hierarchy, right-click the object and select
Set allocation units. Click Show to view historical allocation units.
NOTE: Do not set any allocation units on vCloud objects, because this is done automatically by the vCloud
Director data collector. If allocation units are modified in the vCenter Chargeback Manager Web interface, they
persist until overridden by a vCloud Director chargeback event.
The allocation units tracked for vCloud objects are listed in Table 1.
O b j e ct
Pay A s You G o
A l location
P oo l
R e s e rvation
P oo l
Organization Virtual
Datacenter (vDC)
None
CPU
Memory
Storage
CPU
Memory
Storage
vApp
None
None
None
Virtual Machine
vCPU
Memory
Storage
vCPU
Memory
Storage
vCPU
Memory
Storage
Template
Storage
Storage
Storage
Media File
Storage
Storage
Storage
Network
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
NAT
NAT
NAT
Firewall
Firewall
Firewall
Enabled IPSec VPN
Tunnel Count
Enabled IPSec VPN
Tunnel Count
Enabled IPSec VPN
Tunnel Count
Count of Networks
Count of Networks
Count of Networks
Table 1. VMware vCloud Object Allocation Units
External network Rx/Tx is tracked by vShield Manager data collector by polling vShield Manager, not vCenter
Server. The data collector gathers information for External Network Routed Connection for Org and Routed or
Fence Deploy of vApp Network. External network Rx/Tx is collected only by the vShield Manager data
collector. Network Rx/Tx is collected by the vCenter Chargeback Manager data collector. Therefore, use external
network Rx/Tx rather than network Rx/Tx for vCloud-specific network entities.
The vShield Manager data collector compiles information on external network Rx/Tx and no other counters.
Network service counters such as NAT, DHCP, Firewall, and Enabled IPSec VPN Tunnel Count are gathered by
the vCloud Director data collector. The network services are charged based on the service being enabled or
disabled for a particular network (disabled = 0 or enabled = 1 for this counter). For example, if you set $1/day
for DHCP, the charge depends on whether DHCP is enabled or disabled for that deployed network
(1 or 0 respectively).
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The (NA) metric unit for NAT, DHCP and Firewall resources indicates that the vShield Manager data collector
tracks the count of vShield Edges with those specific services enabled.
Count of networks is set in the allocation units on the Networks folder. Each change to number of networks is
tracked by vCenter Chargeback Manager.
Figure 5. Count of Networks
Allocation Unit Examples
Allocation Pool example
•Organization vDC created using the Allocation Pool model
•CPU = 10GHz, 20 percent reserved
•Memory = 20GB, 20 percent reserved
•Storage = 100GB, thin provisioned
•Global overage flag = false
•Allocation units: CPU = 10.0GHz, Memory = 20.0GB, Storage = 100.0GB
Figure 6. VMware vCloud Director Allocation Pool vDC Configuration
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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Figure 7. VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager Allocation Units
Reservation Pool example
•Organization vDC created using the Reservation Pool model
•CPU = 10GHz, Memory = 20GB, Storage = 100GB
•Allocation units: CPU = 10.0GHz, Memory = 20.0GB, Storage = 100.0GB
Pay As You Go example
•Organization vDC created using Pay As You Go model
•vApp deployed in PAYG vDC
•vCPU count = 2, Memory = 4GB, Storage = 40GB
•Allocation units: vCPU = 2.0, Memory = 4.0GB, Storage = 40.0GB
Although the Allocation Pool and Reservation Pool examples differ as to the percentage of guaranteed
resources, the two vDCs are sized identically to the end user and vCenter Chargeback Manager. Without
overage enabled, the allocation units for the two vDCs are the same.
Although actual CPU GHz allocation is not provided for PAYG entities, it is possible to calculate this value by
multiplying the vCPU count by the vCPU speed set on the PAYG organization vDC. For instance, if the vCPU
speed is set to 1vCPU = 1GHz, the vCPU count always equates to the CPU allocation (vCPU Count value =
CPU GHz) for each virtual machine.
After vCenter Chargeback Manager has allocation units populated for vCloud entities, cost calculations can be
performed through the use of cost models, billing policies and fixed costs.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
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Cost Models
Cost models are used to associate base rates, billing policies and fixed costs with chargeable entities.
vCenter Chargeback Manager comes with the following default cost models for vCloud Director entities. These
vCD-specific cost models are mapped to the appropriate billing policy and have no base rates defined.
•vCloud Director actual usage cost model
•vCloud Director Allocation Pool cost model
•vCloud Director Networks cost model
•vCloud Director overage Allocation Pool cost model
•vCloud Director Pay As You Go – fixed-based–charging cost model
•vCloud Director Pay As You Go – resource–based–charging cost model
•vCloud Director Reservation Pool cost model
Use the default vCloud Director cost models or define new, custom cost models. Do not use the default vCenter
Chargeback Manager cost model, which has preexisting base rates defined.
Use the Pay As You Go – fixed-based–charging cost model if you intend to charge a flat, fixed fee per virtual
machine; use the Pay As You Go – resource-based–charging cost model if you intend to charge based on the
amount of vCPU, memory and storage allocated to the vApp.
Consider the following options for applying costs to vCloud entities:
•Define standard units of consumption (small, medium, large, x-large). Create cost models for each allocation
type. Define fixed costs for each unit of consumption and apply them to the appropriate vCloud vDC entities.
•Create a cost model for each allocation type and set base rates. Apply the cost model to the vCloud entity
regardless of allocation size. This assumes that the wanted charge scales linearly with changes in allocation
units. For example, a 2GHz, 4GB virtual machine is double the cost of a 1GHz, 2GB virtual machine.
•Determine pricing for range of offerings and create virtual machine matrices.
Each cost model contains a tab for Other Costs, which include definable fixed costs for guest operating systems
and vServices such as VMware vSphere® High Availability (VMware HA), VMware vSphere® Fault Tolerance
(VMware FT) and virtual machine creation and deletion costs.
Billing Policies
Billing policy expressions define how vCenter Chargeback Manager associates a cost to a particular metered
resource. The attributes available for the resource depend on the resource type. For example, memory has the
following assignable attributes:
•Allocation – Custom allocation unit value set in vCenter Chargeback Manager
•Size – Configured size of the resource
•Usage – Usage of the resource
•Reservation – Reservation set for the resource
Figure 6 depicts a graph of the attributes for memory over time. Typically, only usage shows variance unless the
user modifies the size, allocation or reservation of the resource.
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 1 4
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Figure 8. Memory Attributes Example
Therefore, the billing policy indicates to vCenter Chargeback Manager which attribute to use for each metered
resource when calculating costs for report generation. With vCloud entities, the allocation unit value is set by the
vCloud Director data collector and maps to the limit specified in vCloud Director.
NOTE: Fixed costs are not included by default in any of the above billing policies, with the exception of Pay As
You Go – fixed charging. Inclusion of fixed costs can be enabled for any of the above policies by selecting
Add/Include Fixed Cost in the Edit Billing Policy wizard.
Figure 9. Including Fixed Costs in Billing Policy
You can apply 95th-percentile billing to external network transfer rate and external network receive rate by
adding the resource and selecting Burstable Utilization as the attribute. vCenter Chargeback Manager performs
the calculation on daily data recorded from vShield Manager.
vCenter Chargeback Manager comes with the following default vCloud Director billing policies:
•vCloud Director billing policy – actual usage
•vCloud Director billing policy – Allocation Pool
•vCloud Director billing policy – Networks
•vCloud Director billing policy – Overage Allocation Pool
•vCloud Director billing policy – Pay As You Go fixed-based charging
•vCloud Director billing policy – Pay As You Go resource-based charging
•vCloud Director billing policy – Reservation Pool
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 1 5
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Other default billing policies are specific to vCenter Server only (e.g., fixed cost and CPU reservation). Use the
default vCloud Director billing policies or define new billing policies.
Table 2 presents the expressions used to construct the default vCloud billing policies.
Bi l l ing P o l ic y
R e s ourc e
E x pr e s s ion
Actual Usage Pool
Count of networks
Enabled IPsec VPN tunnel count
NAT service
DHCP service
Firewall service
All other resources
Allocation
Allocation
Allocation
Allocation
Allocation
Usage
Allocation Pool
External network transfer
External network receive
All other resources
Usage
Usage
Allocation
Networks
External network transfer
External network receive
All other resources
Usage
Usage
Allocation
Overage Allocation Pool
CPU
Memory
External network transfer
External network receive
All other resources
Usage
Usage
Usage
Usage
Allocation
Pay As You Go
Fixed-Based
Fixed cost
External network transfer
External network receive
All other resources
Include
Usage
Usage
Allocation
Pay As You Go
Resource-Based
vCPU
External network transfer
External network receive
All other resources
If (vmpoweron){
allocation
}
if(vmpoweron){
allocation
}
usage
usage
allocation
External network transfer
External network receive
All other resources
Usage
Usage
Allocation
Memory
Reservation Pool
Table 2. VMware vCloud Billing Policy Expressions
Base Rates
Base rates are those charged to metered computing resources over a specific time interval. Work with the
appropriate stakeholders to define base rates and fixed costs. In the absence of concrete costs, use approximate
values to provide an estimation.
vCenter Chargeback Manager includes a built-in base rate calculator to help compute base rates for CPU,
memory and storage. Refer to the vCenter Chargeback Manager User’s Guide for detailed instructions.
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 1 6
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Fixed Costs
Fixed costs are costs defined for any resources not directly metered by vCenter Chargeback Manager. For
example, a provider might want to inject costs for datacenter space, power, cooling, one-time setup fee,
and physical load balancers into the customer’s cost report.
vCenter Chargeback Manager can consider virtual machine state when applying fixed costs to entities
containing virtual machines. By default, fixed costs are prorated. It is possible to disable proration if wanted.
After defining fixed costs, apply the fixed costs through the Configure Cost tab.
VM Instance
VM Instance enables the creation of a matrix of fixed costs that apply to a hard bundle of vCPU (count) and
memory (MB). VM Instance matrices are linked with a cost model and consist of the hierarchy selection criteria,
a fixed-cost table and a default fixed cost. Selection criteria can be based on name-pattern matching or customattribute matching. VM Instance uses a stepping function, where the virtual machine charge steps up to the next
instance size. Costs are applied only for the duration when a virtual machine is powered on and is not prorated.
VM Instance costing is specific to Pay As You Go vDCs.
Figure 10. VM Instance Matrix
Multiple cost matrices can be created for a cost model and ordered by selection criteria priority. In this case, the
criteria must be unique for each matrix.
See the “Configuring a Pricing Matrix for Virtual Machines” section in the vCenter Chargeback Manager User’s
Guide for additional details.
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 1 7
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
vApp Lifecycle
Pay As You Go service offerings monitor the consumption of vSphere resources during the lifecycle of a vApp.
When vApps are instantiated or composed, vCloud Director instructs vCenter Server to begin a clone or create
operation. Storage resources are consumed during this process and are used until the vApp is deleted. Table 3
illustrates how vApp or virtual machine operations correlate to the usage of CPU, memory, network and
storage resources.
✓
vA pp U I
VM UI
Add/New
vC loud D ir e ctor A P I
CPU
M e mor y
N e t w or k
Instantiate/Compose
Storag e
✓
Deploy
✓
✓
Start
Reset
Power On
Power On
✓
✓
✓
✓
Reset
Reset
✓
✓
✓
✓
Suspend (vApp)
✓
✓
Suspend (virtual machine)
✓
✓
Suspend
Suspend
Power Off
Shut Down
✓
✓
✓
✓
Reboot
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Power Off
Stop
Delete
Delete
Undeploy
✓
Delete
✓
Table 3. VMware vSphere vApp Resource Usage Lifecycle
Configure Costs
Costs can be individually configured on vDCs, vApps, virtual machines, media, template files and networks
within an organization. Fixed costs and rate factors can be set for each computing resource for a selected cost
model. This enables differentiation of costing between hierarchies while using the same cost model. For
example, you can define a fixed cost for the operating system at the virtual machine level and a fixed cost for
network maintenance at the network level.
Billing can be enabled or disabled at any level within the hierarchy. vCenter Chargeback Manager does not
account for an entity on which billing is disabled when a report is generated on any of its parent levels. The cost
configuration on an entity can vary for different time periods. vCenter Chargeback Manager can apply a specific
cost configuration that is applicable for a certain time interval.
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 1 8
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Report Generation
Automatic report schedulers can be used to generate reports on demand for hierarchies and entities that match
the specified criteria. This is especially useful for the onboarding of new organizations into vCloud environments.
See the “Managing Automatic Report Scheduler” section in the vCenter Chargeback Manager User’s Guide for
additional details.
During report generation, deselect resources from computation resources, report summary, and details that are
not used for cost calculation. This improves report generation time and produces a cleaner report. Usage
processing is ignored if the cost model contains no defined base rates.
Figure 11. Pay As You Go–Resource Based
Figure 12. Allocation Pool and Reservation Pool
To generate a single report against an organization that uses multiple cost models, use Ctrl-Shift to multiselect
the entities to be included in the report. In the Create Report wizard, select Use different cost models for
entities and choose the appropriate cost models in the drop-down menus. In Figure 13, five different vCloud
entities are selected and mapped to the appropriate cost model for report generation.
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 1 9
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Figure 13. Multiple Cost Models in a Report
Dashboard functionality is currently limited to one cost model and might not yield accurate results for
organizations with multiple vDC types and cost models.
Cost Calculation
This example consists of an organization vDC (CPU = 10GHz, Memory = 20GB, Storage = 100GB) containing a
vApp with two virtual machines (vCPU = 1, Memory = 4GB, Storage = 50GB). VM2 is powered off at 10:40 a.m.
and a second vCPU is added. VM2 is subsequently powered on at 11:30 a.m.
The report interval is two hours, from 10:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m.
Figure 14. VMware vCloud Entity State Timeline
Cost calculation components include report interval length, base rates, fixed costs and billing policy chosen.
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Calculating Resource Costs
Base-rate calculation includes: time interval* rate cost* used units* rate factor.
Performing this calculation on the organization vDC for CPU (allocation), with a base rate of $0.1 USD GHz/hour
and no rate factor: 2 hours* $0.02 USD GHz/hour* 10GHz* 1.0 = $0.4 USD.
Doing the same for memory (allocation) with a base rate of $0.5 USD GB/hour and no rate factor yields the
following result: 2 hours* $0.05 USD GB/hour* 20GB* 1.0 = $2 USD.
If the billing policy is set to charge based on usage instead of allocation, the used units is the usage value for the
resource that is obtained from vCenter Server.
At the virtual machine level, the billing policy dictates whether costs are applied for the entire report duration or
for only the duration when a virtual machine is powered on.
Calculating Fixed Costs
Fixed-cost calculation considers: time interval* fixed cost/duration of the resource.
Applying a weekly prorated fixed cost of $125 USD to the organization vDC and generating the report will result
in the following: 2 hours* $125 USD/168 hours in a week = $1.49 USD.
Calculating VM Instance Costs
The second virtual machine is powered off during the middle of the reporting interval. The time interval for this
virtual machine is approximately 70 minutes. If using VM Instance to apply costs, the fixed costs are not prorated
and are applied only for the duration when a virtual machine is powered on. The change in virtual machine size
will trigger a separate line item in the report, reflecting the configuration change and the new fixed cost applied.
The two totals are added together for the final cost.
User Management
vCenter Chargeback Manager does not extract, consume or sync with vCloud Director user logins, roles or
permissions. After initial installation of vCenter Chargeback Manager, an administrator user is created in it, and
all the vCloud Director objects belong to this user. Only the administrator/supervisor user can grant permissions.
There are no per-organization users, and no vCloud Director user information is passed on to vCenter
Chargeback Manager.
Example use case: Grant vCloud Director organization administrators the ability to view and run cost reports for
their organizations.
Creating users
•Create local users in vCenter Chargeback Manager that map to those created in vCloud Director.
•Import LDAP users into vCenter Chargeback Manager that map to those created in vCloud Director.
vCenter Chargeback Manager supports Microsoft Active Directory but does not support OpenLDAP.
•Import LDAP groups into vCenter Chargeback Manager that map to those created in vCloud Director.
Assigning roles to users
•Assigning a role on vCenter Chargeback Manager, other than the supervisor user role, defines only the actions
that the user can perform in the application. This does not implicitly give access to the resources created in the
application. To access a resource, the user either must have created it or explicitly be assigned a role for it.
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 2 1
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Assigning roles to users (e.g., organization administrator) for a resource (e.g., organization)
•The hierarchy manager role is assigned to vCenter Server, so the user can view the vCenter Server. To make an
existing hierarchy visible to the user, assign the hierarchy manager role to the hierarchy.
•Assigning the hierarchy manager role in vCenter Chargeback Manager enables a user to create hierarchies.
Assigning a role (other than the supervisor user role) defines the actions that the user can perform on the
application but does not provide access to the existing resources. To access the existing resources, apply roles
to each resource explicitly.
Availability
What happens if access is lost to components in the vCloud environment?
vCenter Server scenarios
•If a vCloud-associated vCenter Server is removed from vCloud Director (through the UI and not some failure)
but is present in vCenter Chargeback Manager, the vCenter Server is not used by vCloud Director data
collector anymore in vCenter Chargeback Manager. If there are any unprocessed events from the removed
vCenter Server, they are not processed.
•If a vCloud-associated vCenter Server experiences a failure and becomes inaccessible, corresponding virtual
machines are not added in vCenter Chargeback Manager until the vCenter Server has been recovered. Keep track
of the configurable property Unprocessed VMware vCloud Director chargeback event lifetime (in seconds).
If vCenter Server is recovered after the above-specified value, some events are flushed out before they
are processed. Virtual machines from the inaccessible vCenter Server might not be added to vCenter
Chargeback Manager.
•If the vCloud-associated vCenter Servers are not added, or if those vCenter Servers go down, this can
cause issues with Pay As You Go allocation model reporting. The absence of virtual machine data results in
inaccurate reports.
vCloud Director scenarios
•If the vCloud Director database goes down, the vCloud data collector installed with vCenter Chargeback
Manager tries to reconnect. The retry interval/count (stops retrying after a certain number of attempts)
is configurable.
•If an error occurs while the vCloud Director data collector is reading the events from the vCloud Director
database, the current job cycle fails immediately and the vCloud Director data collector tries to read the events
in the next scheduled cycle.
vCenter Chargeback Manager scenarios
•If the vCenter Chargeback Manager server goes down while the vCloud Director data collector is processing
the events, all the events in the current cycle are reprocessed in the next cycle.
•If the vCenter Chargeback Manager database goes down while the vCloud Director data collector is processing
the events, the whole cycle is repeated again.
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 2 2
Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Integration with External Systems
Integration between vCenter Chargeback Manager and external systems requires the use of the vCenter
Chargeback Manager API. Data is exported in XML format through an API call and then formatted to meet the
input requirements of the billing system. Table 4 lists the primary task flows when integrating vCenter
Chargeback Manager with a billing system. Task flows that require integration effort are highlighted in grey.
Ta s k N am e
D e s cription
R e s u lt
APIs Used
Initial Setup
•Configure the vCenter Chargeback Manager
server and the vCloud Director connection
information inside the internal billing system.
All the components
are able to talk to
each other.
•None
Create a New User
Account
•The customer submits a request for a new
account from the self-service portal.
•The self-service portal creates a vCloud
organization and user inside the
organization.
•The self-service portal provisions the
infrastructure as a service (IaaS) inside
vCloud Director.
•The self-service portal passes a request to
the billing system, which creates a billing
account.
•The billing system updates a mapping of the
billing account to the organization.
The customer can
log in to the vCloud
account and use the
provisioned service.
•vCloud
administrator APIs
•Billing system APIs
Create a New
Hierarchy in vCenter Chargeback
Manager
•The vCloud Director data collector performs
this task automatically.
The vCloud
organization and the
services provisioned
are reflected inside
vCenter Chargeback
Manager.
•N/A
Schedule a Cost
Report
•A cost report for the newly created hierarchy
is scheduled with a frequency that matches
the customer’s billing cycle.
A report schedule is
created inside
vCenter Chargeback
Manager.
•Automated
vCenter
Chargeback
Manager report
management APIs
Export Report in
XML
•The billing system searches the vCenter
Chargeback Manager report archive and
exports the appropriate reports in XML
format.
Cost reports are
now available in the
billing system.
•vCenter
Chargeback
Manager search
API
• vCenter
Chargeback
Manager report
management API
Generate
Invoice
•The billing system generates the invoice for
each customer on the billing anniversary.
Customers receive
invoices.
•N/A
Payment Processing
•The billing system handles payments against
invoices.
Payments are
processed.
•N/A
Table 4. Integration Task Flows
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Summary
Metering is a core component of a cloud service offering. Providers can govern and shape end-user behavior
through pricing schemes for infrastructure resources consumed. Collected data can be used to plug into
advanced analytics engines such as ITBM for cost optimization and planning. vCenter Chargeback Manager
provides the metering and cost calculation capabilities for vCloud environments.
Key Points
•vCenter Chargeback Manager servers can be clustered together for higher availability.
•Multiple data collectors can be installed for active/passive redundancy.
•One vCenter Chargeback Manager instance can manage one vCloud Director database.
•Define standard units of consumption and allocation models.
•Simplify service offerings where possible.
•Determine pricing through financial analysis.
•Map pricing scheme through vCenter Chargeback Manager/vCloud cost models.
•Metering enables differentiation of service offerings through cost models.
Authors
Ben Lin
Catherine Fan
Amrainder Singh
References
Item
URL
VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager
http://www.vmware.com/products/vcenter-chargeback/
VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager documentation
http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs/vcbm_pubs.html
VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager API
http://communities.vmware.com/community/developer/forums/chargeback
VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager Java SDK
http://communities.vmware.com/community/vmtn/developer/forums/
cbmsdkjava
VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager connector for ITBM suite
https://www.vmware.com/support/vcbm/doc/cbm_itbm_connector.pdf
VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager communities
http://communities.vmware.com/community/vmtn/mgmt/chargeback
VMware vCloud Director API
http://vmware.com/go/vcloudapi
VMware vCloud Director
http://www.vmware.com/products/vcloud-director/
Table 5. VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager References
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Appendix A: Configuration Maximums
C on s traint
Limit
VMware vCenter Servers in a vCenter Chargeback Manager system
10
VMware vCenter Servers per data collector
5
Virtual machines per data collector
15,000
Virtual machines/entities in a vCenter Chargeback Manager system
35,000
Virtual machines/entities per hierarchy
1,000
Hierarchies in a vCenter Chargeback Manager system
5,000
Concurrent reports (approximately 3,000 pages)
per vCenter Chargeback Manager system
5
Concurrent reports (approximately 10 pages)
per vCenter Chargeback Manager system
150
Table 6. VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager Configuration Maximums
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Technical Note: Using VMware vCenter Chargeback
Manager with VMware vCloud Director
Appendix B: Port Requirements
D e s cription
P ort( s )
P rotoco l
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager Web interface to
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager server
8,080
TCP
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager Web interface to
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager server
443
TCP
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager server (load balancer) to
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager server
8,009
TCP
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager server to
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager database (JDBC)
Varies*
TCP
Data collector (all) to
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager database (JDBC)
Varies*
UDP
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager data collector to
VMware vCenter Server database (JDBC)
Varies*
TCP
VMware vCloud Director data collector to
VMware vCloud Director database (JDBC)
1,521
TCP
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager data collector to
VMware vCenter Server
443
TCP
VMware vShield data collector to VMware vShield Manager
443
TCP
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager server to LDAP server
389
TCP, UDP
VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager server to SMTP server
25
TCP
*Depends on database—Oracle: 1,521 ports; SQL server: 1,433 ports.
Table 7. VMware vCenter Chargeback Manager Port Requirements
T ECHNICAL W HI T E P A P E R / 2 6
VMware, Inc. 3401 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto CA 94304 USA Tel 877-486-9273 Fax 650-427-5001 www.vmware.com
Copyright © 2012 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. This product is protected by U.S. and international copyright and intellectual property laws. VMware products are covered by one or more patents listed
at http://www.vmware.com/go/patents. VMware is a registered trademark or trademark of VMware, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. All other marks and names mentioned herein may be
trademarks of their respective companies. Item No: VMW-WP-vCNTR-CHRGBK-MNGT-vCLD-USLET-101-WEB
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