SEA_FROSTBG1000-134
372 ROUTE 4 BARRINGTON, NH 03825 USA
TEL (603) 868-5720
FAX (603) 868-1040
E-Mail:[email protected]
1-800-435-6708
www.seafrost.com
OPERATION & INSTALLATION
INSTRUCTIONS
BG 1000-B COBRA
134A SERIES
C.F. HORTON & CO., INC.
372 ROUTE 4
BARRINGTON NH 03825
U.S.A.
(603) 868-5720
SEA FROST is a registered trade mark of C.F. Horton & Co., Inc.
Aspects of the SEA FROST design are covered by
US Patent # 4,356,708
Revised 2001
Copyright © 1992 by C.F. Horton & Co., Inc.
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BG 1000 OPERATION
ICE MAKING
MAINTENANCE
HOW REFRIGERATION WORKS
INSTALLATION
SWAGELOK FITTINGS
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
VALVE UNIT
THERMOSTAT
SAFETY
GAUGES
LEAK CHECKING
NEW SYSTEM CHARGING
CHECKING THE CHARGE / ADDING CHARGE
TROUBLESHOOTING
ACCESS PORT LOCATION (DWG)
WATER CIRCUIT (DWG)
SINGLE VALVE SERIES (DWG)
SINGLE ZONE WIRING (DWG)
SYSTEM PRESSURE CHARTS
MARCH PUMP
THERMOSTAT CALIBRATION INSTRUCTIONS
NOTICE OF RESPONSIBILITY
It is the SEA FROST/ C.F. Horton & Co., Inc. intent to provide the safest, most
accurate and detailed instructions. SEA FROST/ C.F. Horton & Co., Inc. can not
be responsible for problems or damage caused by omissions, inaccuracy or interpretations of these instructions.
2
4
5
6
8-9
10
11-13
14
15
17
18
20
23-24
25-26
27-28
29-31
33
34
35
36-37
37-39
39
40-41
372 ROUTE 4 BARRINGTON, NH 03825 USA
TEL (603) 868-5720
E-Mail:[email protected]
FAX (603) 868-1040
1-800-435-6708
www.seafrost.com
A VIEW OF THE FUTURE:
As a once wonderful invention, refrigerants are now the latest enemy as our awareness
of the universe increases. To the end regarding conservation we have always offered a
leak proof system. We have also always designed our systems to operate with the
lowest quantity of refrigerant. We are concerned.
There is a global impact from all refrigerants and it is time now to address the concept
of "invisible pollutants".
Your new R-134a system has little environmental impact that we know of at this time.
This not to say those millions of tons of refrigerant won't make some problem in the
future. We must enjoy the benefits of refrigeration but be conscious of the
maintenance of the machinery to avoid unnecessary leaks and waste. Everyone must
be involved.
Thank you for supporting our product. We are proud to be providing what we feel is the
best equipment available, bar none.
Cleave Horton
3
BG 1000 OPERATION
The SEA FROST BG 1000 system is an electrically driven refrigeration plant. Operation
of the compressor will freeze the contents of the holdover plates in the boat's icebox
providing refrigeration by cold holdover for an extended period after the compressor has
been turned off. A boat without continuous power can benefit from this by operating the
SEA FROST BG 1000 system when the generator plant is operated. Operation time will
vary with each boat.
A little time-spent learning about your system and some experimentation will be best.
Maximum holdover will be reached when the cabinet is at the desired temperature and
the holdover plates are frozen. Running times beyond this have no advantage other
than to delay warming the plates.
The system is water-cooled. Water should begin to flow from the discharge at the same
time the unit starts. Be sure the water is flowing. If no water flows, stop the system and
inspect the water pump and strainer for obstructions. (See troubleshooting and
maintenance sections.)
After starting a warm system check the holdover plates for a temperature drop. If a
temperature drop is not indicated, stop the unit and read; "Checking The Charge", and;
"Reading The Sight Glass".
CONTROLS
The BG 1000 thermostat control is labeled with "off", one, two, and three snowflakes.
When the boat’s breaker panel is switched on and 220-volt power is available, turning
the knob from "off" to one snowflake will start the compressor. Turning the knob to
three snowflakes will increase the time the compressor operates, making the
temperature cooler. Experiment with the control position to obtain the best setting.
4
ICE MAKING
Your SEA FROST 809 holdover plate(s) may be equipped with vertical ice trays. The
ice trays are held in contact with the plates by a stainless steel rod.
Fill the vertical trays with water and hang them on the face of the plate. Try to get some
water between the tray and the plate surface to increase the thermal contact (increasing
freezing ability).
HARVESTING ICE
Plan to wait some time after the trays are frozen for them to thaw in a sink or away from
the plate in the refrigerator. When the outside surface is wet, invert the tray and let the
ice slide out.
STORAGE OF ICE CUBES
After ice has been made and harvested, store it in sealable plastic bags in the
refrigerator or if so equipped in the freezer. Ice trays left in contact with the plate will
melt rapidly if the plate goes above freezing.
DEFROSTING
It is important to defrost the holdover plates regularly. This will maximize the efficiency
of the system and ice making performance. It is not necessary to turn off the system to
defrost. Scrape off any frost with a piece of wood or galley utensil. A noticeable drop in
the cabinet temperature will occur.
BAG STYLE ICE MAKING
If your SEA FROST system is not equipped with the vertical tray kit, you can still make
ice. One method is to use ziplock bags. When filled with water a clip binder or a clamp
of your own invention can hold the bag in contact with the plate.
5
BG 1000 MAINTENANCE
Like your engine, your SEA FROST needs periodic checking.
ROUTINELY CHECK:
1. The refrigerant charge (see "Checking The Refrigerant Charge" text NEVER
OPERATE SYSTEM WITHOUT PROPER CHARGE)
2. All components, all tubing, fittings, and hose clamps for corrosion and wear. BE
SURE TO LOCATE AND INSPECT ALL FITTINGS AND COMPONENTS IN THE
SYSTEM. KNOW THE LOCATION OF ALL CONNECTION POINTS. Spray with a
petroleum rust inhibitor REGULARLY. Corrosion unchecked in the marine environment
will severely reduce the life of your system.
CLEANING
The holdover plate’s surface protects itself with a layer of oxidation. You might find that
after a long period of storage the plates will look chalky. This will not effect operation
and is easily cleaned up with a pot scrubber and soap.
WATER STRAINER
The water pump must be protected from damage and blockage by a seawater strainer.
This strainer must be inspected and cleaned routinely.
ROUTINE SERVICE AND INSPECTION
We recommend sea strainer inspection before leaving the boat unattended dockside
with the unit on. A visual inspection may be adequate depending on the type of
strainer. To clean most types of strainers, close the seacock, open the strainer, remove
the screen or basket, clean, reassemble and open the seacock. Operate the system
and check for water flow and leaks around the strainer opening.
PUMP IMPELLER INSPECTION (if pump is inoperative)
The LC3 pump is a sealed liquid cooled magnetic drive centrifugal pump. The impeller
may be inspected for obstructions and wear by first closing the seacock. Drain the
pump housing by removing a hose if necessary.
6
It is IMPORTANT that NO WATER flows between the plastic housing and the pump
body. The screws that hold the cover also seal the housing. Water behind the housing
will ruin the motor bearings.
BE SURE THE PUMP HOUSING IS ABSOLUTELY DRY BEFORE DISASSEMBLY.
Remove the phillips screws holding the inlet fitting plate (larger hose size). The impeller
may then be removed with its ceramic seal and thrust washer. Reassemble in the
reverse order. (An exploded diagram is in this manual.) Observe the "O" ring that seals
the housing cover plate. Make sure it is in good condition. Open the seacock. Inspect
for leaks.
NEVER OPERATE THE PUMP WHILE DRY. IF IT IS SUSPECTED THAT THIS
CONDITION HAS OCCURRED, INSPECT THE IMPELLER AND HOUSING FOR
WEAR.
CHECKING THE REFRIGERANT CHARGE
SIGHT GLASS LOCATION
The BG 1000 system is fitted with a sight glass located in the top of the RFD (receiver
/filter/dryer). The RFD is a round blue canister about 9 inches high and 3 inches in
diameter. It is located in the left corner of the compressor housing.
CHECKING THE CHARGE
The charge level should be inspected to be sure refrigerant is of the proper amount and
that there are no slow leaks. Switch the unit on and immediately inspect the sight glass.
White foam with high velocity should be observed and after a minute or two show a
black or clear condition. A clear glass and an empty glass will look the same. A
transition must be seen to be sure that refrigerant is present. Do not operate a low or
empty system. See; "Leak Checking and Adding Charge".
LAY-UP (Winterizing)
Flush the pump and condenser with plenty of fresh water. Pressure water should be
flushed through the inlet side of the water pump. In freezing climates a 50/50 mix of
antifreeze and water should be pumped through, after flushing, by operating the system
for a very brief period. Connect a short hose to the suction side of the pump to draw
from a bucket. Run the pump (switch on unit) until antifreeze is discharged. (The pump
is not self-priming and may require filling the hose and pump with a funnel). DO NOT
RUN THE PUMP DRY. It is water lubricated.
7
HOW REFRIGERATION WORKS
There are two important concepts to understand in order to learn about refrigeration.
They are latent heat and phase changes.
A great deal of heat is required to change a solid to a liquid, and a liquid to a gas. A
great deal of heat must be removed to reverse these changes. These changes are
called phase changes, or changes of state. The heat removed or added at these phase
changes has no effect on the temperature of the substances until the change is
complete. For instance, ice melts at 32 degrees F; water freezes at 32 degrees F also.
Ice and water will remain at 32 degrees F until the freezing or melting process is
complete. Latent heat is this hidden energy required to make or break the bonds in a
phase change.
By evaporating liquid to a vapor, we can absorb heat. By condensing a vapor to a
liquid, we give up heat. Refrigeration is the use of these phase changes to move heat
out of the icebox (cooling it).
We all know that cold is the absence of heat. A practical example of heat absorption by
evaporation is that of rubbing alcohol evaporating in your hand and cooling it. The
alcohol is actually using the heat from your hand to boil. The absorption of heat cools
your hand.
Pressure effects the temperature at which a gas phase change will occur. Using water
as an example, water boils at sea level at 212 degrees F. On top of Mt. Everest it boils
at a much lower temperature. The air pressure is lower allowing the water-to-steam
phase change to occur more easily. A pressure cooker increases the pressure on water
to restrict boiling to a higher temperature. A pressure cooker will cook food faster
because the temperature is higher. Remember that a phase change involves latent
heat. The temperature of boiling water is only 212 degrees F. at sea level. The
evaporation action is absorbing heat at a rate equal to the rate of heat applied,
preventing further temperature rise.
Let's look at Refrigerant-134-a (R-134-a). R-134-a will boil at minus 15 degrees F. at
sea level. By evaporating liquid R-134a in the SEA FROST plates heat is absorbed
making refrigerant vapor. To dispose of this heat, a condensing phase change is
necessary. By increasing the pressure (compressing) we can raise the boiling point of
the gas vapor. Heat is removed from the pressurized gas vapor at the condenser.
Seawater passing the condenser coils removes the heat, forcing the vapor to a liquid
state again. Pressure, therefore, is the key that allows passing the heat we have taken
from the icebox to a warmer place (the seawater) and converting the gas to a liquid to
be re-evaporated again.
8
By causing R-134a to boil (evaporate) in the SEA FROST plates, we absorb the heat
energy there. This activity cools the liquid solution within the plates, causing it to
change phase (freezing to a solid). By freezing this solution, we have increased its heat
absorption capacity more than 100 times.
When the cycle is stopped (compressor is turned off) the plates will begin to absorb the
heat that leaks through the insulation in the icebox. The absorption will be at a constant
temperature until the phase change to liquid (melting) is complete. This is the principle
of holdover refrigeration and the function of your SEA FROST.
9
INSTALLATION
Installer's care should be stressed. No matter how good SEA FROST equipment is, its
performance and life are in the hands of the installer. To insure your work:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Read this manual.
Reread any aspect your don't understand.
Follow Swagelok fitting instructions carefully.
Spend enough time leak checking to be sure there are no leaks.
Thanks from all of us who have to guarantee your work.
There are two contaminants that will give you problems in any refrigeration system.
They are WATER and DIRT. Moisture is always present and cannot be eliminated,
water in this case refers to puddles and drops. Dirt is any solid. The installer's habits
will be most important in ensuring a trouble-free start-up. We have added a large
receiver filter dryer (RFD) to take care of all dirt and moisture that might get into the
system during a careful installation. Moisture in the system is boiled off when the
system is evacuated, or it is captured in the desiccant. There is a screen in the
expansion valve to prevent dirt from plugging it.
Excess moisture that the RFD can't handle will plug the expansion valve with ice. This
ice stops the cycle. The only cure is to discharge the refrigerant, replace the RFD, reevacuate the system, and recharge it. This remedy takes time and is somewhat costly.
Keep the system clean when installing it to save time for something more fun.
TUBE HANDLING
Installation is quite simple. All the copper tube comes to you with the ends capped.
Any routing of the tube must be done with the tube either taped or capped. Cap both
tube ends after each cut. (Spare caps have been included). Work with only one line at
a time, and only uncap one end at a time.
TUBE CUTTING
Use only a tube cutter; hacksawing or any other method will introduce chips to the
system and also distort the tube, making connections difficult and leak-prone. A
miniature cutter is essential for this work. CUT SLOWLY to avoid a ridge on the inside
of the tube. We do not recommend reaming or dressing the cut, as it is very easy to get
chips of copper in the system, which may cause trouble.
TUBE BENDING
Make all but the long sweep bends with a spring bender; one kink and the line must be
rerun. Don't add any more fittings than are absolutely necessary. Route all lines in
such a way that they are most direct but out of the way. Again, keep everything sealed
until you are ready to make that connection.
10
NOTES ON SWAGELOK FITTINGS
Swagelok fittings come to you completely assembled, finger-tight. (Pieces a, b, and c in
Drawing #1 are already together). They are ready for immediate use.
Disassembly before use can result in dirt and foreign material getting into the fitting and
causing leaks. If disassembly is necessary, reassemble per Drawing # 1.
This is a double ferrule system. The most serious installation problem encountered with
SEA FROST is the incorrect assembly of these fittings. Be absolutely sure that you
assemble all fittings as in Drawing #1.
To ease assembly slacken the fitting nut slightly before pushing onto the tube, then
retighten with fingers before tightening with a wrench. (This is to avoid cross threading.)
Step 1. Always leave two inches of straight, undistorted tubing leading to all Swagelok
fittings to allow a proper connection.
Step 2. Prior to inserting 1/2" tubing into Swagelok tube fitting, make a pencil mark one
inch from the end of the tube. Prior to inserting 3/8" tubing, make a pencil mark 3/4"
from the end of the tube. With 1/4" tubing make the mark 5/8" from the end.
Step 3. Insert clean, smooth tubing with the pencil mark into the Swagelok tube fitting.
You can be sure the tube is resting firmly on the shoulder of the fitting when the pencil
mark is flush with the nut.
Step 4. Tighten the Swagelok nut to a wrench snug* position. Scribe the nut with a
pencil at the 6:00 o'clock position. (See drawing #1 step # 2.)
* Wrench snug is the first point in the assembly tightening when the tube can not be
pulled from the fitting, (i.e. when the ferrules tighten enough to contact the tubing).
Step 5. Now, while holding the fitting body with a back-up wrench, tighten the nut oneand-one-quarter turns (1-1/4). To do so, watch the scribe mark, make one complete
revolution, and continue to the 9:00 o'clock position. (See drawing # 1, step #3.)
11
DRAWING 1
STEP 1
Simply insert the tubing into the
SWAGELOK tube fitting. Make sure that
the tubing rest firmly on the shoulder of
the fitting and that the nut is wrench
snug.
STEP 2
Before tightening the SWAGELOK nut,
scribe the nut at the six o'clock position.
12
STEP 3
Now, while holding the fitting body steady
with a backup wrench, tighten the nut 1 1/4
turns. Watch the scribe mark, make one
complete revolution and continue to the 9
o'clock position. By scribing the nut at the
6 o'clock position as it appears to you,
there will be no doubt as to the starting
position. When tightened 1 1/4 turns to
the 9 o'clock position you can easily see
that the fitting has been properly installed.
* SWAGELOK FITTINGS ARE TO BE TIGHTENED TO A TORQUE SPEC, NOT
INFINITE TIGHTNESS. BE SURE YOUR STARTING POINT IS WRENCH SNUG.
(SEE STEP 4 on page 10.) A DISTORTED TUBE MIGHT GIVE A FALSE STARTING
POINT.
* Swagelok fittings have a built-in spring interaction between the ferrules. This
compensates for temperature changes and allows the fittings to be reconnected many
times. As the fitting is tightened, a burnishing occurs between the body of the fitting and
the ferrules and between the ferrules and the tube. This action provides the tightest
connection available.
* When making all connections, USE TWO WRENCHES. Don't allow the fittings to turn
or twist when tightening.
RECONNECTING PRE-SWAGED FITTINGS
Connections can be disconnected and retightened many times.
When reconnecting, insert the tubing with pre-swaged ferrules into the fitting until the
front ferrule seats in the fitting. Tighten the nut by hand to prevent cross threading.
Tighten the nut one-quarter of a turn with a wrench (or to original one-and-one-quarter
tight position). Then snug slightly with the wrench. No more than an additional 1/8 turn.
13
INSTALLATION
CONDENSING UNIT LOCATION AND MOUNTING
The design of the BG 1000 allows placement of the unit in an enclosed space such as a
cabin locker, sail locker or engine area.
The BG 1000 is a high powered unit. It produces some noise and vibration. Its duty
cycle will be short however, consider that dockside operation may be noticed when the
generator is not masking the sound. Bulkhead mounting is fine, but avoid mounting on
a bulkhead that may resonate into the cabin area. If an under bunk installation is used,
turning off the thermostat at night will avoid a startling sound should the unit start.
SERVICE ACCESS
Service access and installation require that the front and left end (water fitting end) be
accessible.
RECEIVER FILTER DRYER (RFD) VISIBILITY
LOCATION: The RFD is in the left corner of the compressor unit. Be sure that it can be
viewed from the top. A mirror might be mounted above the glass to allow ease of
inspection if the unit is to be mounted close to an overhang or under a deck.
MOUNTING
Mount the BG 1000 level. The unit may be bulkhead or platform mounted. It may be
hung from its case. Use the aluminum ell brackets supplied. The 1/4-20 X 1-3/4
Stainless screws thread into the Well-nut mounts at the back corners of the housing.
Mount holes for standard fasteners are also drilled in the forward edge of the bottom of
the cabinet.
PLATES
SEA FROST holdover plates mount with a
"Wellnut" expandable neoprene blind hole
fastener. A template or the part itself
should be used to locate the mounting
holes. Drill 1/4" pilot holes then increase
them to 1/2". Install the screw into the
mounting tab then screw the mount onto
the screw. Install the plate pushing the
rubber mounts Into the predrilled holes.
Tighten the screws firmly.
14
VALVE UNIT
For appearance and convenience of installation, the valve unit (V/U) may mount outside
the icebox. The valve will attract moisture and drip if it is not well insulated with the
valve blanket and additional insulation. Insulate the valve after installation and leak
checking. In certain applications it may be necessary and easier to mount the valve
inside the cabinet. Refer to schematic drawings when connecting more than one plate.
Before cutting the tubing:
1. Leave a minimum of one inch of tube beyond a bulkhead.
2. Allow room for wrench access.
- 90-degree elbows can be installed on the valve unit to reduce space requirements if
necessary.
- The tubing will support the valve unit.
- The tubing must bottom in the fitting. Refer to the Swagelok assembly instructions.
RUNNING THE TUBING
Make the connection to the compressor and RFD after all other connections are
made. A 1/4" copper tube runs between the compressor unit and the valve. Multiple
plate hook-ups should be assembled as indicated by the specific diagram provided.
A 1/2" line connects the valve unit to the compressor.
If possible run the 1/4" liquid line in contact with the 1/2” line. This will be insulated in
proper sequence. Support the tubing (every 12 to 18 inches) as necessary with tie
wraps. After leak checking and, insulating.
WARNING: READ SAFETY SECTION BEFORE PROCEEDING
15
FINAL ASSEMBLY
The RFD contains desiccant to absorb moisture and the compressor oil is hydroscopic
therefore it is important to open the compressor and RFD fittings after all other
connections are made and the system is ready to be commissioned.
The BG 1000 unit is shipped under some nitrogen pressure. Before removing the caps
on the connection ports remove the screw caps on the service valves and depress the
cores with a clean retracted pen point to vent any existing pressure.
After depressurizing, working with one connection at a time, remove the Swagelok caps
from compressor and liquid line. Attach in the proper assembly sequence the front and
back ferrules and the Swagelok nuts. (Refer to the Swagelok instructions on page 11.)
RFD (Receiver Filter Drier)
The RFD contains desiccant to absorb moisture and
the absorption is limited. Leaving the RFD installed
on a partially open system may reduce its capacity
by allowing it to absorb moisture in free air before the
system is sealed. See "Work Habits."
The RFD is a reservoir for excess refrigerant. The
RFD also contains a sight glass in the top. A pick-up
tube extends from the bottom of the canister to the
outlet.
16
THERMOSTAT
For the best looking job the thermostat should be cut into a panel. (We do not
recommend installation in the insulation or in the box, as the control is not moisture
protected.) A cutting template is provided. Locate the thermostat close enough for the
"bulb" tube to reach. It is only necessary that the bulb end of the sensing tube be
installed on the plates. Use one of the mount screws for attaching the copper clip on
the plates. The sensing tube is hollow and filled with refrigerant; avoid bending it, which
could cause it to crack and leak. Secure any excess capillary tube in a coil inside the
refrigerated cabinet. Do not allow the capillary tube to contact any of the copper tubes.
THERMOSTAT WIRING
The thermostat electrical leads are low voltage for safety. Connect the red thermostat
wires to the two terminal screws on the BG 1000. Use the # 10 ring terminals provided.
220-VOLT CIRCUIT
A separate 10-amp breaker is required for the 220-volt circuit. Black is L-1, white is
neutral, and the green is ground. An installer supplied electrical junction box mounted
next to the unit is recommended for making the wiring connections. Secure all wiring as
necessary. We recommend following ABYC wiring guidelines for specifications and
procedures.
PUMP INSTALLATION
Proper pump installation is important for pump operation. The BG 1000 uses a
centrifugal pump, which is not self-priming. Air pockets caused by loops or descending
lines from one component to the other may cause pump problems. The pump is watercooled and lubricated and must never be run dry, doing so will destroy the wet end if it
is started or run dry. A separate through hull fitting 3/4" or larger should be used. It
should be as low in the boat as possible and away from head and cockpit drains. A
forward facing scoop will prevent problems if the unit is operating underway.
A large seawater strainer should be mounted above the seacock.
The pump should be mounted horizontally and it should be higher than the strainer.
The discharge should be on the top. Refer to the drawing at the back of this manual.
WIRING THE PUMP
The pump is connected to the terminal strip in the condensing unit.
17
REFRIGERANT HANDLING AND SAFETY
Do not proceed with any aspect of a procedure if you do not fully understand the
procedure and know what to expect in results from it. Understand fully that pressure
exists in refrigeration systems. Be careful.
REFRIGERANT
SEA FROST is charged with REFRIGERANT-134a. R-134a is a chemical compound
called tetrafloroethane and is almost odorless. Its boiling point is -15. Degrees F. at sea
level. It is heavier than air. It's label and container color is cloud blue.
GENERAL SAFETY THIS IS IMPORTANT. READ THIS!
R-134a is safe if handled properly. Avoid breathing vapors and prolonged skin
exposure. Avoid using in areas of open flames. The vapor is heavier than air and may
reduce oxygen available for breathing. Use with sufficient ventilation to keep exposure
below recommended limits. Do not mix with air for leak testing or use with air for
any purpose above atmospheric pressure. Liquid R-134a will freeze skin. It's
especially dangerous to the irreparable tissues of the eyes.
--WEAR EYE PROTECTION-Do not pressurize an empty system with R-134a without first evacuating the
system with a vacuum pump.
WARNING: DANGER! NEVER OPERATE A SYSTEM WITH THE HIGH SIDE
(DISCHARGE) OPEN TO THE REFRIGERANT SUPPLY. PRESSURIZATION OF THE
REFRIGERANT SUPPLY COULD CAUSE IT TO BURST.
18
PROCEDURES FOR WORKING WITH R-134a
1) A new uncharged system must be evacuated before adding R-134a.
2) An R-134a system must only be pressurized with R-134a or nitrogen.
3) Only service tools dedicated to R-134a are to be used. No parts, tubing, fittings,
receivers, dryers, service gauges, or any refrigerant carrying components may be fitted
to a R-134a system from a used system or from a CFC based system. Damage caused
by the use of parts not supplied by Sea Frost for a R-134a system will cancel all claims
against Sea Frost.
4) No oil is to be added to the BG 1000 system but the polyoester oil supplied by Sea
Frost, labeled and capped for BG 1000 use. No oil is to be added to a system with out
prior consultation with Sea Frost.
5) The oils used in R-134a systems are extremely moisture sensitive (hydroscopic). Do
not leave any tube end or component connection open to air while assembling the
system. Be sure to use only new capped copper tubing and be sure to cap the copper
coil after cutting it.
ACCESS TO THE SYSTEM: SERVICE PORTS
The service ports are two small-capped valves. The low-pressure valve is mounted on
the compressor. The high pressure is mounted on an upper tube behind the RFD. (See
drawing pg. 33) The ports are different sizes. The smaller fitting is the suction port. The
larger port is the discharge. These ports are the service access to the system and are
covered with plastic caps to seal the system. Without the caps the valves may leak. To
access these valves the proper R-134a service valve must be used.
Be sure the caps are installed tightly after charging or service.
NOTE: THIS SYSTEM IS CHARGED WITH R-134a. IT MUST BE CHARGED WITH
R-134a ONLY. ONLY DEDICATED R-134a GAUGES AND EQUIPMENT ARE TO BE
USED. ANY CONTAMINATION FROM CFC BASED REFRIGERANTS WILL
DESTROY THIS SYSTEM.
19
GAUGES
Must be used in the evacuation and charging. They will provide information on the
operation of the system when troubleshooting.
A gauge sets consist of two gauges installed in a manifold with two valves and hoses to
connect the gauges to the system. The left gauge (blue) is a compound device; it
indicates pressure and also vacuum. The right gauge (red) indicates pressure only.
The valves open a center port (yellow) to the left or right side respectively. Operation of
the valves is only necessary when moving refrigerant or evacuating. With the valves
closed, the gauges read the pressures of the connection points. At the end of the red
and blue service hoses are R-134a service port access fittings.
R-134a SERVICE PORT ACCESS FITTINGS
The R-134a service port access fittings on the gauge hose ends are quick connect
fittings with a specially designed valve that opens the hose end valve while opening the
system service port valve.
20
CONNECTING GAUGES
To connect these fittings to the system service ports; remove the protective sealing
caps on the service port. (See, "Access to the System”) Note that the ports are of
different sizes. The larger diameter port is the discharge side and the smaller port is the
suction side. Pull back the collar on the access-fitting valve and push it over the
appropriate system access port. Turn the access-fitting valve clockwise to open the
valves. When you see the manifold gauge pressure change, you have access to the
system. Continuing to turn the access fitting valve clockwise may damage the service
port. During the service operation these valves are left open. Control of refrigerant and
vacuum is by the manifold hand wheels.
VENTING THE GAUGE SET TO ATTACH TO A CHARGED SYSTEM
If the gauge set is not fitted with sealing valves or has not been purged with refrigerant,
vent the hoses for a few seconds by slacking the connections at the manifold body after
connecting to a charged system. This will prevent air from entering the system through
the suction port.
DISCONNECTING GAUGES
Disconnecting the gauge set after running the system may be done by turning off
the discharge service port access fitting first. Disconnect the discharge service valve
and re-cap the port. With the center port on the gauge set turned off at the refrigerant
supply both hand wheels on the gauge set may be opened and the compressor
operated to extract the refrigerant from the gauges. When the pressure in both gauges
drops to the low side operating pressure turn off the gauge valves and the suction
service valve. Turn off the compressor. Remove the suction service valve and re-cap
the service port. (This procedure will remove excess refrigerant from the gauges
preventing an excessive discharge of refrigerant on the next job.)
Disconnecting the gauge set on a static system may be done by turning off the
service valves and disconnecting them from the service ports on the service port block.
Re-cap the service ports.
Refer to the gauge drawing on page 20.
21
Adding charge to a working system should be done through the suction side (blue)
as vapor. (See; "Safety") The center hose is connected to the can tap. Be sure to vent
the hoses to displace any air that might be in them (see venting the charge hose). Keep
your gauges clean. Inspect the rubber gaskets and "O" rings on the hose ends, leakcheck gauge valve packing and all hose connections.
Check and reset the "O" on the low side gauge, if necessary.
VENTING THE CHARGE HOSE
WHEN ATTACHING GAUGES TO A CHARGED SYSTEM
Note: This procedure will vary with the type of gauges being used. This section will not
apply to gauges fitted with valves in the hose ends.
To avoid pulling air or other contaminants into the system, it is necessary to vent the air
out of the hoses that are used to carry R-134a into the system. To vent the hose, open
the can tap valve with the can upright (vapor) then open the service valve to allow the
some vapor to escape. Make the connection as this vapor is escaping. Follow this
procedure when adding refrigerant to an evacuated system or to a system low on
refrigerant.
TAPPING A CAN OF REFRIGERANT
Be sure the can of R-134a is clean and dry. Any contaminants on the top of the can or
in the hose will enter the system. First, screw the tap assembly on the top of the can.
Next, screw the valve wheel into the valve body, closing the valve. (The metal point will
protrude from the gasket, but it will make its own seal while piercing the can. Be certain
that the gasket is present and is smooth and elastic.) Now, with the can upright, screw
the valve body assembly into the clamp on the can, turning until the point pierces the
can and the rubber gasket has sealed. The can is now tapped.
LIQUID OR VAPOR
REFRIGERANT IS EITHER a vapor or liquid. To supply vapor to a system, keep the
refrigerant can in the upright position. To supply liquid to the system, invert the can,
valve down. Be sure the can is handled carefully to ensure the correct refrigerant
condition is supplied.
CHANGING CANS
The compressor should be turned off while changing cans. Close the valve on the
empty can. Unscrew the can from the valve body. Some pressure may be present. Let
this drop before completely removing the can tap. Switch the tap to the other can, and
rethread onto the can.
22
COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE
EVACUATION WITH A VACUUM PUMP
Evacuation removes air, readying the system for charging.
Connect a gauge set to the service ports.
Connect the gauge center hose to a high vacuum pump. Start the pump and slowly
open the low side/suction gauge hand wheel. As the vacuum drops below 20 inches
open both hand wheels fully.
EVACUATION LEAK TEST
Evacuate the system to the best vacuum (lowest pressure). As the gauge reaches this
low pressure close the valves to the pump. Observe the vacuum gauge and be sure the
pressure remains constant for 5 minutes. If the pressure rises rapidly check all the
connections again. Re evacuate to the lowest pressure and test by holding a vacuum
with the gauges closed. Be sure the system will hold this vacuum. Proceed by
opening the valves and continuing the evacuation process for 30 minutes or more. A
micron gauge can be used to measure vacuum. Proper dehydration and evacuation
should be in the range of 200 to 500 microns.
NEW SYSTEM CHARGING
INTRODUCING INITIAL CHARGE
After the evacuation leak test and pump down, shut off the manifold valves, disconnect
the center hose from the pump, and connect it to a can of refrigerant. Vent the hose
from can tap (refrigerant supply) to the manifold. With the refrigerant can in the inverted
(liquid) position, open the discharge side valve (high side) valve and feed in about 1/2 of
a can of refrigerant (6 to 8 ounces). Close the valve and begin an inspection and leak
check of all the connections in the system.
LEAK CHECKING
Leak checking is a very important step, which should be done with diligence. A leak will
cripple this system. Please take the time needed to be sure all connections are tight.
Check every connection even the ones that were pre-made in manufacture.
The evacuation leak check is a preliminary check and is not to be considered a system
leak check.
23
LEAK CHECKING A CHARGED SYSTEM
ABOUT PRESSURES
Refrigerant in a saturated condition, i.e. part liquid and part vapor, will exert a pressure
that is a function of its temperature. The higher the temperature, the higher the
pressure. Avoid leak checking in cold weather or on a cold system.
A refrigerant leak will show with moderate pressure. (A leak is not a function of
pressure. Pressure is only required to aid in detection).
In cold weather, it is possible to raise the pressure in the system by warming the plate
with a light bulb left in close proximity to the plate for several hours.
There are two ways to leak-check a pressurized system:
1. Soap bubbles (a solution of dish soap and water works well).
2. An R- 134a electronic leak detector probe, which senses the presence of
refrigerant molecules.
TO CHECK WITH BUBBLES
Soap each connection and observe all sides of the connection with a strong light and a
mirror. A leak will blow bubbles. Without careful examination and plenty of pressure
this test is not reliable.
TO CHECK WITH AN ELECTRONIC DETECTOR
Use a detector designed for R- 134-A. Slowly trace the area with the probe.
Refrigerant is heavier than air, therefore, trace below the fitting. Most units can be
calibrated to home in, on a leak. (See detector instructions). (We use and recommend
electronic detection. TIF brand detectors can accurately detect leaks as low as 1/2-oz
loss per year. This sensitivity exceeds S.A.E. leak specifications.) Be sure to test the
operation of the detector before and after you leak check the system
IF A LEAK IS DETECTED
Try tightening the fitting nut slightly more. (See Swagelok fitting instructions) If the leak
is not stopped, it is possible that the fitting was incorrectly assembled. Reclaim the
refrigerant and then disassemble the connection for inspection. After reassembly,
proceed with the evacuation leak check procedure.
24
SPECIAL NOTES
- Be aware that propellants and solvents in sprays and foams may upset electronic
detectors.
- To confirm a leak detected with a detector use bubbles and be sure it is a leak and not
some erroneous vapor that is upsetting the machine.
- Electronic detectors do not function below 40.F.
- A good leak detector is able to pick up leaks as low as 1/2 oz per year.
FINAL CHARGING
This procedure must follow "Evacuation Leak Test" and "Introducing Initial Charge".
1. With the refrigerant supply still attached to the suction service port from the
previous procedure, open the can tap valve (or appropriate gauge wheel).
2. While closely observing the sight glass in the RFD, start the compressor by
switching on the circuit breaker and then turning on the thermostat.
3. The sight glass will show a stream of foam indicating a partial charge. When a
sufficient amount of refrigerant has been added to the system (A new system
holds 24 oz.) the sight glass will clear, indicating sufficient charge. (See
"READING THE SIGHT GLASS”) The compressor (Thermostat) should be
turned off while changing cans. When charging a hot system, (cabinet and
plates over 80 degrees F) the sight glass will usually clear as the return line at
the valve unit becomes frosted).
4. When the sight glass runs clear, top off with approximately 4 oz. (1/4 of can).
Remember maximum charge is 24 oz.
5. When observation and test operation have been completed, disconnect the
gauges. Replace the service port caps.
6. Re-check all connection points for leaks.
7. Spray the acrylic coating, or similar rust inhibitor, on all the components and
fittings while they are clean and dry.
25
READING THE SIGHT GLASS
A clear sight glass when the compressor is operating signifies a sufficiently charged
SEA FROST BG 1000 System. To determine the meaning of "clear", notice the
appearance of the RFD sight glass when the system is at rest with the compressor off.
This is a "clear" glass.
SPECIAL WARNING: A clear sight glass can also indicate a completely EMPTY
system. Any time the compressor is started, a white stream of foam should
appear in the sight glass indicating that refrigerant is present. This foam may
disappear quite quickly, but IF NO FOAM IS EVIDENT, the system is empty. DO
NOT OPERATE THE SYSTEM if empty. Operation in this mode will ruin the
compressor. Turn off the main breaker to prevent operation until system can be
properly leak tested and recharged.
A white stream of fast moving foam with the compressor operating indicates an
insufficient charge level. Watch closely for a transition from foam to total liquid,
indicated by a clear sight glass. This transition point can be missed if proper attention is
not given. Also, IT IS POSSIBLE for the sight glass to show large bubbles even when
the charge is sufficient, so it is important to differentiate between foam and bubbles.
The foam condition has velocity and direction; the bubbles are large, temporary, and
nearly stationary. Do not try to chase away these larger bubbles with more refrigerant,
overcharging must be avoided. Air in the system may give a false sight glass reading,
which could lead to overcharging. If in doubt, discharge a suspected overcharged
system and charge again. MONITOR THE SIGHT GLASS CONTINUALLY. The glass
will not indicate when the system is overcharged.
In a warm system, when the plates are above freezing (32.F) upon start-up, the sight
glass may take several minutes to clear. A cold system, in cold water, may show a
clear glass within seconds of start-up.
RFD SIGHT GLASS DETAIL
CLEAR (OR EMPTY)
STATIONARY BUBBLES
26
FOAM
PROPER CHARGE AMOUNT
THE BG 1000 SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO HOLD 24 OUNCES. THIS IS EQUAL TO 2
CANS OF R-134a AS SUPPLIED WITH THE SYSTEM. THIS IS THE MAXIMUM
CHARGE. The sight glass must clear by the time the return line (suction/large diameter
tube) goes below 32 degrees F.
GENERAL INFORMATION
OPERATING PRESSURES will vary with water temperature, and water flow.
Generally, the HIGH SIDE will peak with warm plates in two to four minutes. Increasing
pressure indicates an overcharge or no water flow. The LOW SIDE will drop rapidly to
the 20 to 10 range, and then slowly drop. The low side tubing will freeze and after
extended operation the low side pressure will remain at a slight vacuum. The low side
pressure will drop more rapidly when the seawater is cold. A vacuum will be indicated
with less running time. A deep vacuum and proper charge with no cooling indicates that
the valve unit is frozen with moisture or it is plugged. Failure to "pull down" indicates
the Valve Unit is malfunctioning or flooding. See the system pressure charts on
pages 37-39.
The compressor will feel warm in normal operation.
Every Valve Unit has been operated prior to shipment. There are no field superheat
adjustments.
SPECIAL NOTE
WE DO NOT RECOMMEND charging SEA FROST gear with bulk cylinders since it is
hard to determine how much refrigerant has been installed. The feed pressure with a
bulk cylinder can be higher which may cause skipping through the condenser, causing
bubbles in the sight glass. However, if bulk cylinders are used, keep the feed pressure
below 20 psi.
R-134a will become cloudy and indicate similar foaming in the sight glass as the
pressure on the hi-pressure side of the systems becomes too great. Adding charge to
clear this condition will damage the compressor. Be sure you know the pressures you
should have for the corresponding water temperature.
27
CHECKING THE REFRIGERANT CHARGE
PERIODIC INSPECTION
Checking the refrigerant charge must be incorporated into a routine maintenance
schedule.
1) Locate the RFD (receiver filter drier). It is a blue metal can about 10 inches high and
3 inches in diameter, with brass fittings connecting it to copper tubing. The RFD has a
sight glass for viewing the flow of the refrigerant. It is located in the left corner of the
compressor housing.
2) Start the BG 1000. Check to be sure that it is pumping water.
3) MONITOR THE SIGHT GLASS CONTINUALLY. See READING THE SIGHT
GLASS. If the sight glass does not show a presence of refrigerant within a minute of
operation the system is empty. TURN OFF THE SYSTEM, and follow the procedure in
the TROUBLE SHOOTING section.
4) If the white foam is evident watch closely for the transition to "clear". If the glass
indicates insufficient charge level, additional charge will be needed. Turn off the
compressor. Attach a can of Refrigerant-134a with a properly vented charge hose to
the suction service port. Monitoring the sight glass continually, start compressor and
slowly add refrigerant until the glass clears. After the glass clears add an additional 4
oz of refrigerant.
5) Feel the SEA FROST plates in the icebox 10 minutes after start up. If the sight glass
clears yet the plate’s temperature does not drop, turn the system off and follow the
procedure in TROUBLE SHOOTING.
6) If the proper charge is indicated, make ice, go sailing.
DISCHARGING THE SYSTEM (RECLAIMING)
Before the connections or components can be disassembled, the system must be
discharged. Connect a gauge set to the suction service port. (See "Access To The
System" text). Slowly vent the refrigerant (keeping the pressure under 20 psi) into an
approved reclaiming system. Do not loosen any connections until the gauge on the
refrigeration system shows 10” vacuum for 10 minutes.
28
TROUBLESHOOTING
The most common problems that can occur in a SEAFROST BG 1000 system are:
1. Overcharge or loss of water flow switching off the manual reset high-pressure
switch.
2. Loss of refrigerant charge resulting from leaks.
3. Moisture or dirt plugging the expansion valve.
4. Compressor damage due to loss of refrigerant charge.
STEP 1. Gather information as to the nature of the problem before operating the
system. A leak often leaves a trace of oil. Inspect the fittings and tubing for wear,
corrosion, and chafe. DO NOT OPERATE THE COMPRESSOR UNTIL THE
TROUBLE IS CORRECTED.
HIGH PRESSURE CUTOUT/MANUAL RESET BUTTON
The compressor is fitted with a MANUAL RESET high-pressure switch. The switch is
located on the left end of the BG 1000 unit. (See drawing). This switch will disconnect
the thermostat circuit switching off the compressor and water pump. Pushing the red
rubber button after the unit has rested for a few minutes may reset the switch. A
faint click will be heard when the button resets.
BEFORE RESETTING the switch, inspect the pump and strainer. If the installation
location of the through hull allows air to enter the system it may be necessary to bleed
the air from a hose connection after the pump but below the waterline by loosening a
hose connection. When water flows from the connection, retighten the connection.
*This switch will disconnect if the water flow stops.
*This switch will disconnect if the system is overcharged.
Overcharge may not appear until the boat moves into warmer water than it has been
commissioned in. Discharge the system until the unit operates without disconnecting the
high-pressure switch. Be sure that the sight glass still runs clear.
For further troubleshooting, attach purged gauges to compressor service ports.
29
a) If the refrigerator box and SEA FROST plates are warm and pressure readings
are below 50 psi with compressor off (in 50 degree F or higher ambient conditions),
pressurize system with R-134a and leak-check. After leak (s) has been located,
repaired, and tested, install new RFD (Receiver/filter/drier) - see instructions below in
Step 3.
b) If pressure reading is over 50 psi with compressor off, proceed to check charge
level via sight glass and charge if needed.
CHARGE LOSS INDICATES A LEAK THAT MUST BE CORRECTED
STEP 2. If a system continues to operate inefficiently after Step 1, check for moisture
or dirt plugging the valve. Run the system, observing closely the gauge readings and
plates temperature, noting the following.
a) If system is warm upon start-up, a DIRT-PLUGGED Valve will show an
immediate deep vacuum reading on low side. Consult Sea Frost for cleaning
techniques.
b) MOISTURE-PLUGGED VALVE on a properly charged system is indicated by
deep vacuum readings on low side after a few minutes of operation from warm,
FOLLOWED BY any combination of these symptoms:
-High side compressor discharge fitting temperature drops from hot to warm.
-Suction line from Valve Unit remains warm.
-Compressor current draw (running amperes.) drops.
-Moisture enters either through a low side leak or during initial installation and will freeze
at the Valve Unit, reducing or eliminating refrigeration. Turning off system and allowing
the valve to warm to above freezing, then restarting, may temporarily solve the problem.
If not, change RFD as follows.
30
STEP 3. To change a saturated RFD, allow the system to warm to ambient
temperature, thereby preventing moisture from condensing in the circuit upon opening.
(A light bulb in the refrigerator box will speed the warming of the plates. RECOVER the
refrigerant from system through the suction service port SLOWLY to prevent liquid and
oil from escaping. WARNING: BEFORE DISASSEMBLY OF ANY PART IN THIS
SYSTEM BE SURE CHARGE IS COMPLETELY RECOVERED. With a backup wrench
holding the brass body of the Swagelok fittings loosen and back off the nuts. The tubing
may be pulled out of the fittings. Remove the RFD. Replace only with an identical unit
by size and color: THE SEA FROST RFD is a drier and also a receiver/filter. The
DESICCANT and the oil in the Sea Frost RFD are special to this system and R134a. Using the wrong oil will destroy the system.
NOTE: This system contains a measured amount of lubricating oil. Be sure the RFD
being installed is a cloud blue SEA FROST BG 1000 R-134-a RFD. Record all
component exchanges in this on-board owner's manual.
Follow the "re-make" instructions for Swagelok fittings.
Reminder: To ensure the total removal of moisture from the system use a high vacuum
pump, and evacuate the system with the highest possible plate temperature (100
degrees F.). A light bulb or heat lamp in contact with the plates is a good technique.
Recharge. Refer to "Recharging section"
MOISTURE IS A SYMPTOM. Carefully leak check the low side of the system if
moisture becomes a problem. Moisture leaks in!
CALL US WITH ANY QUESTIONS
INTERNATIONAL 603-868-5720
TOLL FREE IN THE UNITED STATES,
CANADA, AND CARIBBEAN
800-435-6708
FAX 603 868 1040
SHIPPING AND MAIL:
SEA FROST
372 ROUTE 4
BARRINGTON NH 03825
USA
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372 ROUTE 4 BARRINGTON, NH 03825 USA
TEL (603) 868-5720
FAX (603) 868-1040
E-Mail:[email protected]
1-800-435-6708
www.seafrost.com
THERMOSTAT CALIBRATION INSTRUCTIONS
Note: Be sure that the unit is operating properly before making any thermostat
adjustments. The sensing bulb must be in excellent thermal contact with the plate or
block.
The range of this control may be changed. To access the adjustment screw, remove
the four mounting screws on the thermostat panel. Tip the panel forward and remove
the protective tape to expose a slot in the case. Make the adjustment with a torx or
small phillips head screwdriver.
Make small adjustments. Record all adjustments.
If the lowest setting on the thermostat panel (1-snowflake) is too cold:
•
Turn the adjustment screw clockwise. One 360-degree turn will raise the box
temperature approximately 6 degrees f.
If the highest setting on the thermostat panel (3-snowflakes) is too warm:
•
Turn the adjustment screw counterclockwise.
40
HOLDOVER PLATES
STAINLESS STEEL
EVAPORATOR PLATES
41
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