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Analog 410 Series
TDM410/AEX410
User Manual
601-00006B
Release 2.0
Digium, Inc.
445 Jan Davis Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
United States
Main Number: 1.256.428.6000
Tech Support: 1.256.428.6161
U.S. Toll Free: 1.877.344.4861
Sales: 1.256.428.6262
www.digium.com
www.asterisk.org
www.asterisknow.org
© Digium, Inc. 2008
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be copied, distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a
retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language without the prior written
permission of Digium, Inc.
Digium, Inc. has made every effort to ensure that the instructions contained in this document
are adequate and error free. The manufacturer will, if necessary, explain issues which may
not be covered by this documentation. The manufacturer’s liability for any errors in the
documents is limited to the correction of errors and the aforementioned advisory services.
This document has been prepared for use by professional and properly trained personnel,
and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it.
Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks, and Acrobat Reader is a trademark of Adobe
Systems Incorporated.
Asterisk and Digium are registered trademarks and Asterisk Business Edition, AsteriskNOW,
AsteriskGUI, and Asterisk Appliance are trademarks of Digium, Inc.
Any other trademarks mentioned in the document are the property of their respective owners.
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Page 2
Safety Certification and Agency Approvals
Safety: US/CSA 60950
IEC 60950
EN 60950
Other:
CE Mark
2002/95/EC Restrictions on Hazardous Substances (RoHS), 2005/747/EC
lead free exemption (Annex C)
Telecom:
FCC Part 68, ANSI/TIA-968-A, Including Amendment A1 and A2
Industry Canada IC-CS-03
Australia S002 (POTS line) / S003 (POTS Extn)
TBR-21
EMC:
FCC Part 15 Class A
EN55022/CISPR22 Class A
EN55024
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Federal Communications Commission Part 68
This equipment complies with Part 68 of the FCC rules and the
requirements adopted by the ACTA. On the back of the Analog 410 Series
printed circuit board is a label that contains, among other information, a
product identifier in the format US:AAAEQ##TXXXX. If requested, this
number must be provided to the telephone company.
A plug and jack used to connect this equipment to the premises wiring
and telephone network must comply with the applicable FCC Part 68
rules and requirements adopted by the ACTA.
The REN is used to determine the number of devices that may be
connected to a telephone line. Excessive RENs on a telephone line may
result in the devices not ringing in response to an incoming call. In most
but not all areas, the sum of RENs should not exceed five (5.0). To be
certain of the number of devices that may be connected to a line, as
determined by the total RENs, contact the local telephone company. For
products approved after July 23, 2001, the REN is part of the product
identifier that has the format US:AAAEQ##TXXXX. The digits
represented by ## are the REN without a decimal point (e.g., 03 is a REN
of 0.3).
If your Analog 410 Series card causes harm to the telephone network, the
telephone company may notify you in advance that temporary
discontinuance of service may be required. But if advance notice is not
practical, the telephone company will notify you as soon as possible.
Also, you will be advised of your right to file a complaint with the FCC if
you believe it is necessary.
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The telephone company may make changes in its facilities, equipment,
operations or procedures that could affect the operation of the equipment.
If this happens, the telephone company will provide advance notice in
order for you to make necessary modifications to maintain uninterrupted
service.
If you experience problems with your Analog 410 Series card, contact
Digium, Inc. at 1.877.DIGIUM.1 (1.877.344.4861) for repair and/or
warranty information. If the equipment is causing harm to the telephone
network, the telephone company may request that you disconnect the
equipment until the problem is resolved.
Connection to party line service is subject to state tariffs. Contact the state
public utility commission, public service commission, or corporation
commission for information.
Federal Communications Commission Part 15
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to
the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful
interference, and (2) This device must accept any interference received,
including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Industry Canada
This Class A digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian
Interference-Causing Equipment Regulation.
Cet appareil numerique de la class A respecte les exigences du Reglement
sur le Material Brouilleur du Canada.
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Introduction to Analog 410 Series Documentation
This manual contains product information for the Analog 410 Series
cards. Be sure to refer to any supplementary documents or release notes
that were shipped with your equipment. The manual is organized in the
following manner:
Chapter/
Appendix
Title
Description
1
Overview
Identifies the card and type of modules you received
with your Analog 410 Series card. This chapter
covers applications and uses of the Analog 410 Series
card in the real world.
2
Card Installation
Provides instructions for installing the card in your
PC, acquiring correct drivers, and checking device
compatibility.
3
Configuration
Provides examples for configuring dial plan options.
4
FXS and FXO
Explained
Describes the FXO (Foreign Exchange Office) and
FXS (Foreign Exchange Station) modules and their
significance.
5
Troubleshooting
Explains resolutions to common problems and
frequently asked questions pertaining to card
installation and usage.
A
Pin Assignments
Lists the connectors and pin assignments.
B
Specifications
Details card specifications.
C
Glossary and
Acronyms
A list of terms and acronyms used throughout this
manual.
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Symbol Definitions
Caution statements indicate a condition where damage to the unit or
its configuration could occur if operational procedures are not
followed. To reduce the risk of damage or injury, follow all steps or
procedures as instructed.
The ESD symbol indicates electrostatic sensitive devices. Observe
precautions for handling devices. Wear a properly grounded
electrostatic discharge (ESD) wrist strap while handling the device.
The Electrical Hazard Symbol indicates a possibility of electrical
shock when operating this unit in certain situations. To reduce the
risk of damage or injury, follow all steps or procedures as
instructed.
Important Safety Instructions
User Cautions
Warning
This card must be used with the PC lid screwed down.
Telecommunications network voltages exist inside the PC!
The PC must be shut down and telecommunications line connection
shall be removed before opening the PC.
Electrical Shock.
To reduce the risk of injury, damage to the unit or your equipment, do
not attempt to touch the modules while they are powered. The case
should be securely closed before power is applied to the unit.
Alarm Dialing Equipment.
If your home has specially wired alarm equipment connected to the
telephone line, ensure the installation of the Analog 410 Series does
not disable your alarm equipment. If you have questions, consult
your telephone company or a qualified installer.
Servicing.
Do not attempt to service this card unless specifically instructed to do
so. Do not attempt to remove the card from your equipment while
power is present. Refer servicing to qualified service personnel.
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User Cautions
Water and Moisture.
Do not spill liquids on this unit. Do not operate this equipment in a
wet environment.
Heat.
Do not operate or store this product near heat sources such as
radiators, air ducts, areas subject to direct, intense sunlight, or other
products that produce heat.
Caution.
To reduce the risk of fire, use only No. 26 AWG or larger
telecommunication wiring for network connections.
Caution.
This card is not intended for home use. It must be used in restricted
access locations and installed in UL Listed I.T.E. only.
Static Electricity.
To reduce the risk of damaging the unit or your equipment, do not
attempt to open the enclosure or gain access to areas where you are
not instructed to do so. Refer servicing to qualified service personnel.
Save these instructions for future reference.
Service Personnel Cautions
Warning.
This card must be used with the PC lid screwed down.
Telecommunications network voltages exist inside the PC!
The PC must be shut down and telecommunications line connection
shall be removed before opening the PC.
Electrical Shock.
To reduce the risk of injury, damage to the unit or your equipment, do
not attempt to touch the modules while they are powered. The case
should be securely closed before power is applied to the unit.
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Service Personnel Cautions
Servicing.
Disconnect telecommunications network cable before opening the
cover or removing the card from the motherboard.
Labeling.
For safety reasons, only connect equipment with a
Telecommunications Compliance label. This includes customer
equipment previously labelled Permitted or Certified.
Caution.
Only connect regulatory equipment (approved for use in your specific
country) to the telecommunications network voltage circuit ports.
Caution.
This card is not intended for home use. It must be used in restricted
access locations and installed in UL Listed I.T.E. only.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
What is Asterisk®? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Asterisk as a Switch (PBX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Asterisk as a Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Asterisk in the Call Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Asterisk in the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Asterisk Everywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Chapter 2
Card Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Unpacking the Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Shipment Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Module Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Port Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
FXS and FXO Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Slot Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Hardware Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Software Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Chapter 3
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
General Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Voicemail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
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Table Of Contents
Dial Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Testing Your Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Chapter 4
FXS and FXO Explained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
FXS Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
FXO Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Appendix A
Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Appendix B
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Appendix C
Glossary and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
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List of Tables
Table 1:
Table 2:
Table 3:
Table A-1:
Table B-2:
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Example TDM410 Card Configurations . . . . . . . . . . 23
Example AEX410 Card Configurations . . . . . . . . . . 23
Device Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
RJ11 Telco Port Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Maximum Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
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List of Figures
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:
Figure 6:
Figure 7:
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Sample Card Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
TDM410 Card with Four Single Modules . . . . . . . . . 21
AEX410 Card with Four Single Modules . . . . . . . . . 22
Motherboard PCI Slots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Insert the Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Connect Power for FXS Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Sample Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
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Chapter 1
Overview
The Analog 410 Series cards are versatile devices used for connecting
your phone network to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)
world. This is accomplished through phone lines connected to the FXO
(Foreign Exchange Office) ports and phones connected via the FXS
(Foreign Exchange Station) ports. The cards allow Asterisk software to
connect to your phone network, creating an office type telephony
environment.
There are a variety of applications where an Analog 410 Series card
(either the TDM410 or the AEX410) proves useful. An example is
provided in the following figure.
Figure 1: Sample Card Application
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Chapter 1: Overview
What is Asterisk®?
Asterisk is the world’s leading open source telephony engine and tool kit.
Offering flexibility unheard of in the world of proprietary
communications, Asterisk empowers developers and integrators to create
advanced communication solutions...for free. Asterisk® is released as
open source under the GNU General Public License (GPL), and it is
available for download free of charge. Asterisk® is the most popular open
source software available, with the Asterisk Community being the top
influencer in VoIP.
Asterisk as a Switch (PBX)
Asterisk can be configured as the core of an IP or hybrid PBX, switching
calls, managing routes, enabling features, and connecting callers with the
outside world over IP, analog (POTS), and digital (T1/E1) connections.
Asterisk runs on a wide variety of operating systems including Linux,
Mac OS X, OpenBSD, FreeBSD and Sun Solaris and provides all of the
features you would expect from a PBX including many advanced features
that are often associated with high end (and high cost) proprietary PBXs.
Asterisk's architecture is designed for maximum flexibility and supports
Voice over IP in many protocols, and can interoperate with almost all
standards-based telephony equipment using relatively inexpensive
hardware.
Asterisk as a Gateway
It can also be built out as the heart of a media gateway, bridging the
legacy PSTN to the expanding world of IP telephony. Asterisk’s modular
architecture allows it to convert between a wide range of communications
protocols and media codecs.
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Chapter 1: Overview
Asterisk as a Feature/Media Server
Need an IVR? Asterisk’s got you covered. How about a conference
bridge? Yep. It’s in there. What about an automated attendant? Asterisk
does that too. How about a replacement for your aging legacy voicemail
system? Can do. Unified messaging? No problem. Need a telephony
interface for your web site? Ok.
Asterisk in the Call Center
Asterisk has been adopted by call centers around the world based on its
flexibility. Call center and contact center developers have built complete
ACD systems based on Asterisk. Asterisk has also added new life to
existing call center solutions by adding remote IP agent capabilities,
advanced skills-based routing, predictive and bulk dialing, and more.
Asterisk in the Network
Internet Telephony Service Providers (ITSPs), competitive local
exchange carriers (CLECS) and even first-tier incumbents have
discovered the power of open source communications with Asterisk.
Feature servers, hosted services clusters, voicemail systems, pre-paid
calling solutions, all based on Asterisk have helped reduce costs and
enabled flexibility.
Asterisk Everywhere
Asterisk has become the basis for thousands of communications
solutions. If you need to communicate, Asterisk is your answer. For more
information on Asterisk visit http://www.asterisk.org or http://
www.digium.com.
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Chapter 2
Card Installation
This chapter provides the following information:
„ Unpacking the Card on page 18
„ Shipment Inspection on page 19
„ Module Identification on page 19
„ FXS and FXO Connection on page 24
„ Hardware Installation on page 26
„ Software Installation on page 29
Note: The Analog 410 Series card installation instructions are written
so that they will apply to any card in the series. Examples and card
specific information are included as needed.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Unpacking the Card
When you unpack your card, carefully inspect it for any damage that may
have occurred in shipment. If damage is suspected, file a claim with the
carrier and contact the reseller from which the card was purchased, or
Digium Technical Support at 1.256.428.6161. Keep the original shipping
container to use for future shipment or proof of damage during shipment.
Note: Only qualified service personnel should install the card. Users
should not attempt to perform this function themselves. The installer
must ensure that the equipment is permanently connected equipment,
pluggable type B or connected to a socket-outlet that has been checked
to ensure that it is reliably earthed in accordance with the National
Electrical Code.
This card is intended for installation in a Restricted Access
Location (RAL) only.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Shipment Inspection
The following items are included in shipment of an Analog 410 Series
analog card:
„ A TDM410 or AEX410 card
„ A combination of FXO and/or FXS modules
Module Identification
The Analog 410 Series cards ship with FXO and/or FXS modules in
place. These are identified by their color. Take a moment to identify
which modules were shipped with your card.
„ FXO (Foreign Exchange Office) modules are Red
„ FXS (Foreign Exchange Station) modules are Green
See Figure 2 on page 21 for an example of the TDM410 card shown with
two of each single module.
See Figure 3 for an example of the AEX410 card shown with two of each
single module.
The Analog 410 Series cards may also be combined with Digium’s
hardware-based echo canceler, model VPMADT032.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Port Identification
Each card consists of four RJ11 ports located on the bracket. Each port
correlates to a single module port (containing either FXO or FXS
modules). The ports are numbered in sequence from one to four. The top
port is Port 1 and the bottom port is Port 4. See Figure 2 on page 21 for
appropriate identification of these ports. The port identification is the
same for all cards in this series.
It is important to identify the type and location of your Analog 410 Series
modules. You will need this information during the Asterisk
configuration.
The ports available for use on the Analog 410 Series cards are continuous.
The cards can accept 4 single modules, for a total of 4 ports. The single
module ports are identified on the card and their corresponding RJ11 ports
are identified below. The RJ11 port available for use will be the port
corresponding to the location of the module on the card. The following
ports correspond to the single module ports as shown in Figure 2.
„
„
„
„
RJ11 Port 1 is used by Single Module Port 1
RJ11 Port 2 is used by Single Module Port 2
RJ11 Port 3 is used by Single Module Port 3
RJ11 Port 4 is used by Single Module Port 4
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Single
Modules
3
1
4
2
1
2
Power
3
Supply
Connection
4
VPMADT032 Echo
Cancellation Module
Figure 2: TDM410 Card with Four Single Modules
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Single
Modules
3
1
4
2
1
2
3
Power
Supply
4
Connection
VPMADT032 Echo
Cancellation Module
Figure 3: AEX410 Card with Four Single Modules
There are multiple configurations in which an Analog 410 Series card
may be purchased. Each configuration consists of a combination of single
modules. See Table 1 on page 23 for a list of the most common TDM410
configurations. The lists are not complete, but rather an example of the
configurations available.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
It is easiest to identify your card by understanding the naming scheme for
each card. The second digit provides the number of FXS modules present
on the card. The third digit provides the number of FXO modules present
on the card.
Table 1: Example TDM410 Card Configurations
FXO/FXS
Ports
Card ID
TDM411B
1 FXO module
TDM404B
4 FXO modules
TDM422B
2 FXS and 2 FXO modules
TDM440B
4 FXS modules
Table 2: Example AEX410 Card Configurations
FXO/FXS
Ports
Card ID
AEX411B
1 FXO module
AEX404B
4 FXO modules
AEX422B
2 FXS and 2 FXO modules
AEX440B
4 FXS modules
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
FXS and FXO Connection
The Analog 410 Series cards provide four RJ11 connectors for access to
the FXS and/or FXO modules installed in the available slots. The diagram
in Table A-1 on page 43 provides the pinout for this connector.
Caution.
Only qualified service personnel should continue with
hardware installation and configuration of the Analog 410
Series card. Users should not attempt to perform these
functions themselves.
Slot Compatibility
Check the type of card you received to be sure it is compatible with your
PCI slot. To determine which slot you have, identify it by comparing it to
those shown in Figure 4 on page 25.
Slot Number:
0: AGP Pro Slot
1: 64-bit 5.0 volt PCI Slot
2: 64-bit 3.3 volt PCI Slot
3: 32-bit 5.0 volt PCI Slot
4: PCI Express Slot
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Slots
0
1
2
3
4
Figure 4: Motherboard PCI Slots
The TDM410 card is a 32-bit 33MHz card keyed for universal 3.3 volt or
5.0 volt operation and works in any PCI 2.2 (or greater) compliant slot.
This means that in the motherboard shown in Figure 4, the TDM410 card
will fit into Slots 1, 2, or 3 (PCI slots) but will not fit into Slot 0 (AGP
slot) or Slot 4 (PCI Express slot).
The AEX410 card is a PCI Express card. Slot 4, illustrated above, is a 1
lane (X1) PCI Express compliant slot. The AEX410 will work in any PCI
Express compliant slot, including lane lengths X4, X8, and X16. This
means that in the motherboard shown in Figure , the AEX410 will only fit
into Slot 4. The AEX410 can not be used in Slots 0 through 3
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Hardware Installation
1. Now that you are acquainted with your card, power down your computer and unplug it from its power source.
2. Attach a static strap to your wrist and open the case.
3. Remove the bracket place holder and insert the card into a PCI
(TDM410) PCI-X (AEX410) slot. See Figure 5.
Figure 5: Insert the Card
4. If your card has any FXS modules, you will also need to connect the
power cable from your computer’s power supply to the back of the
card. Insert a four-pin 12 volt connector (disk drive power supply
cable, e.g. hard drive) into the white plastic connector on the rear of
the card. See Figure 6.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Figure 6: Connect Power for FXS Modules
Many modern PCs and servers do not have either spare or any 12V power
connectors. If you have FXS modules on your card and your computer
does not have power cables available, then power must be provided to the
card by an alternate means. Digium provides a solution to this problem
with the optional PWR2400B (available separately). This card is
essentially a PCI bracket assembly that takes power from an external DC
power supply and routes it to two 15” power cables inside the computer.
You must have an available bracket slot to use the PWR2400B (either
PCI, PCI Express or AGP).
A strap on the PWR2400B card allows the two power cables to take
power from the same DC supply. The PWR2400B does not connect to
any bus inside the computer. It may be used wherever there is an available
PCI-size bracket such as a PCI slot, PCI Express slot, or AGP slot.
Note: The PWR2400B is not intended to supply power to any other
device, it is intended only to be used with UL Listed Digium Analog
410 Series cards.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
5. Replace the cover to your computer.
Electrical Shock.
To reduce the risk of injury, damage to the unit or your
equipment, do not attempt to apply power to the unit while the
case is open.Personal injury or damage to the unit could occur
if the modules are touched while powered is applied.
6. Plug all outside phone lines to the FXO (red) ports and connect all
phones to the FXS (green) ports as needed. See Table A-1 on page 43
for the pin assignments.
Caution.
This unit must be connected to the Telecommunications
Network in your country using an approved line cord, e.g.: for
Australia use only line cords complying with ACA Technical
Standard TS008.
Caution.
Only connect regulatory equipment (approved for use in your
specific country) to the telecommunications network voltage
circuit ports.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Software Installation
Digium hardware requires drivers and libraries that are integrated with the
Linux kernel. The Analog 410 Series cards are only supported under
Linux. Digium, Inc. recommends Debian, Fedora, and Red Hat. You can
obtain the source code from downloads.digium.com. Detailed instructions
are provided in this section.
Note: Please refer to asterisk.org for an introduction to Asterisk, its
configuration and features, and set up and use of Zaptel channels.
To install your Analog 410 Series card, you will need:
Full Linux kernel 2.6 (or later) source code.
„ Development libraries and headers for libncurses (only necessary for
Asterisk).
„ Development libraries and headers for zlib and openssl.
„ GCC and standard build tools.
„ Development libraries and headers for libnewt (only necessary for
Zaptel).
„ If you are using the 1.4.x series of Asterisk and Zaptel, you will need
Asterisk 1.4.20 or newer and Zaptel 1.4.11 or newer. If you are using
Asterisk Business Edition, you will need version C.1 or newer.
„
Note: It is recommended that you use the most recent version of the
Asterisk and Zaptel distributions for the best results.
Note: If you already have both Asterisk and Zaptel installed, you will
need to upgrade to the latest version of both.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
1. Check your lspci PCI device listing. Boot the computer into Linux.
After the machine has loaded, log in and execute the following:
# lspci -n | grep d161
Confirm your lspci PCI device listing by scanning for the following
information in the output screen:
0000:01:00.0 0200:d161:<device identifier>
In the device listing shown above, <device identifier> will be
populated with one of the identifiers listed in the table below. If an
identifier is not displayed, then your machine is not PCI 2.2 (or higher)
compatible and the card will not work with your equipment.
Table 3: Device Identifiers
Model
Release 2.0
Identifier
TDM410
8005
AEX410
8006
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
2. Download the latest Zaptel drivers (1.4.11 or later) to your /usr/src
directory. The Zaptel drivers are accessible via http from http://
downloads.digium.com/pub/telephony/zaptel/.
3. Expand the downloaded tarball and install the drivers. Substitute the
version of Zaptel you are using for the X.X in the command lines
below:
#tar -zxvf zaptel-1.X.X.tar.gz
#cd zaptel-1.X.X
#make clean
#./configure (applies to 1.4.X only)
#make menuselect (applies to 1.4.X only if you wish
to customize the install)
#make
#make install
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
4. Download the latest released version of Asterisk, version 1.4.20 or
later. If you are using Asterisk Business edition, it should be version
C.1 or later. Asterisk can be downloaded from http://
downloads.digium.com/pub/telephony/asterisk. You will need access
to the Business Edition portal in order to obtain the latest version of
Business Edition.
5. Expand the downloaded tarballs. Substitute the version of Asterisk
you are using with the X.X in the command lines below.
# tar -zxvf asterisk-1.X.X.tar.gz
# cd asterisk-1.X.X/
# make clean
# ./configure (applies to 1.4.X only)
# make menuselect (applies to 1.4.X only if you wish
to customize the install)
# make
# make install
If you don’t already have configuration files installed, you can type
“make samples” to install the default sample configuration files. This
will override any sample files you previously installed.
Your installation of Zaptel and Asterisk should now be complete.
If the build fails, it may be because you are missing one of the build
dependencies, the kernel source, or development tools. Feel free to
contact your reseller where the card was purchased, or e-mail Digium
Technical Support via support@digium.com for assistance.
Note: Complete instructions for installing Asterisk are available at
www.asterisk.org.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Zaptel Configuration
The Zaptel Configuration file, /etc/zaptel.conf, needs to be edited in order
for your Analog 410 Series card to work properly. When configuring the
settings in zaptel.conf, you are configuring the port signalling, not the
port type. FXO ports use FXS signalling, and FXS ports use FXO
signalling. If you have an FXS port in position 1 and an FXO port in
position 4, your zaptel.conf will look like:
fxs_ks=1
fxo_ks=4
loadzone=us
defaultzone=us
The following steps are necessary for Zaptel configuration:
1. If your card has any red FXO modules, add the following:
fxsks
This uses kewl start signalling which is loop start with disconnect
supervision. For example, a TDM440B card would be configured as
follows:
fxsks=1,2,3,4
Note: You should have identified the type of Analog 410 Series card
you have when you received it. If you are not sure, refer to Module
Identification on page 19 for assistance.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
2. If your card has any green FXS modules, add the following:
fxoks
This uses kewl start signalling which is loop start with disconnect
supervision. For example, a TDM440 card would be configured as
the following:
fxoks=1,2,3,4
An example TDM422B card configuration would be:
fxoks=1,2
fxsks=3,4
3. Set your loadzone and default zone for your country. If you are not in
the United States, you will want to change the default configuration
from US to your own two letter country abbreviation. Save the file
and return to the command line.
#modprobe wctdm24xxp
#ztcfg -vv
Note: The Analog 410 Series cards use the same driver for this setting
as the TDM2400.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
4. Confirm the card configuration by initiating a dmesg command. The
output will identify the card type (such as TDM410), as well as the
number of FXO and FXS modules present.
Note: You will make changes to the configuration files to set up
your dial plan and customize Asterisk to suit your particular needs.
These changes are stored in the /etc/zaptel.conf configuration file.
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Chapter 3
Configuration
This chapter provides sample configurations to demonstrate customizing
the Asterisk software to meet your individual needs. Each section
explains basic options as examples. Once you have familiarized yourself
with the samples, you can edit the configuration files to meet your
specific needs.
Note: Only qualified service personnel should install the card. Users
should not attempt to perform this function themselves.
General Options
Open the zapata.conf file from the /etc/asterisk/ directory.
The following is a sample configuration for a TDM422E card. You can
place this at the bottom of your zapata.conf file.
;General options
usecallerid=yes
hidecallerid=no
callwaiting=yes
threewaycalling=yes
transfer=yes
echocancel=yes
echocancelwhenbridged=yes
rxgain=0.0
txgain=0.0
;FXS Modules
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Group=1
signalling=fxo_ks
context=Internal
channel=1-2
;FXO Modules
Group=2
echocancel=yes
signalling=fxs_ks
context=Incoming
channel=3-4
Users of Digium's hardware echo cancellation module, the VPMADT032,
should set the echocancel option to "yes." The module will automatically
configure itself to run at full capacity, 1024 taps (128ms), on each
channel.
Users without the VPMADT032 using open source echo cancelers
included with Zaptel should configure echocancel to the values 128
(16ms) or 256 (32ms). Setting "yes" will default the option to 128
(16ms).
Users who have not purchased the Analog 410 series card with the
hardware echo cancellation module are encouraged to take advantage of
Digium's High Performance Echo Canceler software. This commercially
licensed software, which is made available at no charge to in-warranty
Digium analog interface card customers, provide toll quality echo
cancellation, performed on the host CPU, at up to 1024 taps (128ms) per
channel. For further details about HPEC, please refer to the Digium
website here:
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Chapter 3: Configuration
http://www.digium.com/en/products/software/hpec.php
When HPEC is enabled, users may set the value of the echocancel
parameter to any of the following values:
128 - 16ms
256 - 32ms
512 - 64ms
1024 - 128ms
Note: Higher values will result in dramatically increased CPU
consumption. In order to optimize system performance, users are
encouraged to choose the minimum value required to cancel their
echo.
Voicemail
Open voicemail.conf and find the following line at the bottom:
[default]
1234 => 4242,Mark Spencer,root@localhost
In this example, 1234 is the mailbox number, 4242 is the password, Mark
Spencer is the person’s name, and root@localhost is his email address.
You can add extensions by adding the following:
1000 => 1234,Moose Member,moose@digium.com
2000 => 1234,Bill Savage,bsavage@digium.com
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Dial Plan
Open extensions.conf, which contains a large, complex sample dial
plan. In this step, you will configure a basic dial plan which will allow
you to send and receive calls. Go to the bottom of the file and add the
following lines:
[Internal]
exten => 1000,1,Dial(zap/1,20,t)
exten => 1000,n,Set(CURRENT_EXTEN=${EXTEN})
exten => 1000,n,Goto(s-${DIALSTATUS},1)
exten => 2000,1,Dial(zap/2,20,t)
exten => 2000,n,Set(CURRENT_EXTEN=${EXTEN})
exten => 2000,n,Goto(s-${DIALSTATUS},1)
; Handle
exten =>
exten =>
exten =>
Voicemail
s-NOANSWER,1,Voicemail(${CURRENT_EXTEN},u)
s-BUSY,1,Voicemail(${CURRENT_EXTEN},b)
_s-.,1,Goto(s-NOANSWER,1)
exten => 8500,1,VoiceMailMain()
exten => 8501,1,MusicOnHold()
exten => _9.,1,Dial(Zap/g2/www${EXTEN:1})
exten => _9.,2,Congestion
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Chapter 3: Configuration
[Incoming]
exten => s,1,Answer()
exten => s,n,Set(VM_EXTEN=1000)
exten => s,n,Dial(zap/g1,20,t)
exten => s,n,Goto(s-${DIALSTATUS},1)
exten => s-NOANSWER,1,Voicemail(${VM_EXTEN},u)
exten => s-BUSY,1,Voicemail(${VM_EXTEN},b)
exten => _s-.,1,Goto(s-NOANSWER,1)
In this example there are two internal extensions (1000 and 2000), a
number to check voicemail (8500), a number to listen to musiconhold,
(8501), and a prefix to dial to get an outside line (9). It is configured for
incoming calls, and voicemail is routed to mailbox 1000.
Testing Your Configuration
1. Start Asterisk by typing:
asterisk
2. Connect to Asterisk and view the output by typing:
asterisk -vvvvr
3. Dial tone should be present on phones connected to the FXS ports.
Test your configuration by placing an outgoing call, placing a call
from extension 1 to 2, or receiving an incoming call. Successful
completion of these tasks indicates your configuration is working
properly.
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Figure 7: Sample Application
Note: More detailed information is provided on troubleshooting at the
Asterisk website (www.asterisk.org) as well as the Digium Knowledge
Base (kb.digium.com). You may also obtain assistance by contacting
Digium Technical Support at 1.256.428.6161 or visiting the website at
www.digium.com.
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Chapter 4
FXS and FXO Explained
Identification
There are multiple standard configurations in which an Analog 410 Series
card may be purchased. Each configuration consists of one to four FXS
and/or FXO modules. These modules are identified by their color.
„ FXS - Foreign Exchange Station (Green Modules)
„ FXO - Foreign Exchange Office (Red Modules)
This chapter provides an in-depth review of the two module types and
their uses within your Asterisk server.
Note: Only qualified service personnel should install the card. Users
should not attempt to perform this function themselves.
FXS Module
The FXS module allows an Analog 410 Series card to initiate and send
ringing voltage to an FXO device such as an analog telephone.
FXO Module
The FXO module allows an Analog 410 Series card to terminate analog
telephone lines (POTS). Because of the modular design, you can activate
additional ports at any time with more FXS or FXO daughter cards. The
FXO module passes all the call features any standard analog telephone
line will support. The phone receiving the call is the last FXO device in
the chain. When it receives voltage from an FXS device, the phone rings.
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Appendix A
Pin Assignments
All eight ports on the Analog 410 Series card’s bracket are 6-pin RJ11
ports. The pin assignments are identified in Table A-1.
Table A-1: RJ11 Telco Port Connector
Release 2.0
Pin
Description
1
Not used
2
Not used
Pin 1
3
Tip
Pin 6
4
Ring
5
Not used
6
Not used
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Appendix B
Specifications
This appendix provides specifications, required environmental
conditions, and maximum power consumption for the 800 Series
cards.
Physical (All Cards).
Size:
Weight:
6.48” × 4.2” × 0.68” (31.19 x 10.67 x 1.72 cm)
PCB size, does not include the PCI bracket.
Check your model carefully to be sure it will accept
this PCI card.
3.5 oz (99.22 gm) with no modules loaded
Each single module adds 0.4 oz (11.34 gm)
VPMADT032 adds 0.63 oz (17.86 gm)
Interfaces.
Local Loop Access: Industry standard 6-pin RJ-11.
(TDM410) - PCI Bus: 3.3V or 5V bus slot, half-length full-height PCI
card, 33MHz minimum bus speed, compliant with PCI 2.2 or greater.
Additional Power: four-pin 12V connector for FXS power supply
(required only if FXS modules are installed)
(AEX410) - PCI-E X1, compliant with PCI-E X1 1.0 or greater.
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Appendix B: Specifications
Environment.
Temperature: 0 to 50° C (32 to 122° F) operation
-20 to 65° C (-4 to 149° F) storage
Humidity: 10 to 90% non-condensing
Note: Operating temperature is limited to 0 to 40° C (32 to 104°F)
when used with optional PWR2400B Power Bracket
Hardware and Software Requirements.
500-Mhz Pentium III or better
64MB RAM
Available PCI Slot
Power Consumption.
The following table lists the power consumption for both the TDM410
card (and its permutations) and the AEX410 (and its permutations).
Note: 3.3 and 5 volt power is taken from the PCI slot. 12 volt power is
taken only from the four-pin hard disk drive connector or optional
PWR2400B.
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Appendix B: Specifications
Table B-2: Maximum Power Consumption
Model
Release 2.0
Power
3.3V All TDM models
4.25W
5.0V All TDM models
0.1W
5.0V All AEX models
0W
12V AEX/TDM404E
0W
AEX/TDM414E into 1REN
0W
AEX/TDM411E into 3REN
2.5W
AEX/TDM422E into 3REN
3.5W
AEX/TDM440E into 3REN
5W
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Appendix C
Glossary and Acronyms
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
An organization which proposes and establishes standards for
international communications.
asynchronous
Not synchronized; not timed to an outside clock source. Transmission is
controlled by start bits at the beginning and stop bits at the end of each
character. Asynchronous communications are often found in internet
access and remote office applications.
attenuation
The dissipation of a transmitted signal’s power as it travels over a wire.
bandwidth
The capacity to carry traffic. Higher bandwidth indicates the ability to
transfer more data in a given time period.
bit
The smallest element of information in a digital system. A bit can be
either a zero or a one.
bps
bits per second
A measurement of transmission speed across a data connection.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
broadband
Broadband transmission shares the bandwidth of a particular medium
(copper or fiber optic) to integrate multiple signals. The channels take up
different frequencies on the cable, integrating voice, data, and video over
one line.
channel
A generic term for an individual data stream. Service providers can use
multiplexing techniques to transmit multiple channels over a common
medium.
Cat5
Category of Performance for wiring and cabling. Cat 5 cabling support
applications up to 100 MHz.
Cat5E
Category of Performance for wiring and cabling. Category 5 Enhanced
wiring supports signal rates up to 100 MHz but adheres to stricter quality
specifications.
CLEC
competitive local exchange carrier
A term for telephone companies established after the
Telecommunications Act of 1996 deregulated the LECs. CLECs compete
with ILECs to offer local service. See also LEC and ILEC.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
CO
central office
The CO houses local switching equipment. All local access lines in a
particular geographic area terminate at this facility (which is usually
owned and operated by an ILEC).
CPE
customer premises equipment
Terminal equipment which is connected to the telecommunications
network and which resides within the home or office of the customer. This
includes telephones, modems, terminals, routers, and television set-top
boxes.
DS0
Digital Signal, Level 0
A voice grade channel of 64 Kbps. The worldwide standard speed for
digitizing voice conversation using PCM (Pulse Code Modulation).
DS1
Digital Signal, Level 1
1.544 Mbps in North America (T1) and Japan (J1) -up to 24 voice
channels (DS0s), 2.048 Mbps in Europe (E1) - up to 32 voice channels
(DS0s). DS1/T1/E1 lines are part of the PSTN.
DS3
Digital Signal, Level 3
T3 in North America and Japan, E3 in Europe. Up to 672 voice channels
(DS0s). DS3/T3/E3 lines are not part of the PSTN.
DTMF
Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
Push-button or touch tone dialing.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
E1
The European equivalent of North American T1, transmits data at 2.048
Mbps, up to 32 voice channels (DS0s).
E3
The European equivalent of North American T3, transmits data at 34.368
Mbps, up to 512 voice channels (DS0s). Equivalent to 16 E1 lines.
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
Unwanted electrical noise present on a power line
full duplex
Data transmission in two directions simultaneously.
FXO
Foreign Exchange Office
Receives the ringing voltage from an FXS device. Outside lines are
connected to the FXO port on your 800 Series card.
FXS
Foreign Exchange Station
Initiates and sends ringing voltage. Phones are connected to the FXS ports
on the 800 Series card.
G
grams
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
G.711
The International Telecommunications Union recommendation for an
algorithm designed to transmit and receive µ -law PCM voice and A-law
at digital bit rate 64 Kbps. This algorithm is used for digital telephone sets
on digital PBX.
G.729
The International Telecommunications Union standard for voice
algorithm.
H.323
The International Telecommunications Union standard for multimedia
communications over packet-based networks.
IAX
Inter-Asterisk eXchange
The protocol used by Asterisk. It is used to enable VoIP connections
between Asterisk servers, and between servers and clients that also use
the IAX protocol.
iLBC
internet Low Bitrate Codec
A free speech codec used for voice over IP. It is designed for narrow band
speech with a payload bitrate of 13.33 kbps (frame length = 30ms) and
15.2 kbps (frame length = 20 ms).
ILEC
incumbent local exchange carrier
The LECs that were the original carriers in the market prior to the entry of
competition and therefore have the dominant position in the market.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
interface
A point of contact between two systems, networks, or devices.
ISO
International Standards Organization
LED
light-emitting diode
Linux
A robust, feature-packed open source operating system based on Unix
that remains freely available on the internet. It boasts dependability and
offers a wide range of compatibility with hardware and software. Asterisk
runs exclusively on Linux.
loopback
A state in which the transmit signal is reversed back as the receive signal,
typically by a far-end network element.
MGCP
Media Gateway Control Protocol
multiplexing
Transmitting multiple signals over a single line or channel. FDM
(frequency division multiplexing) and TDM (time division multiplexing)
are the two most common methods. FDM separates signals by dividing
the data onto different carrier frequencies, and TDM separates signals by
interleaving bits one after the other.
MUX
multiplexer
A device which transmits multiple signals over a single communications
line or channel. See multiplexing.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
PBX
private branch exchange
A smaller version of a phone company’s large central switching office.
Example: Asterisk.
PCI
peripheral component interconnect
A standard bus used in most computers to connect peripheral devices.
POP
point of presence
The physical connection point between a network and a telephone
network. A POP is usually a network node serving as the equivalent of a
CO to a network service provider or an interexchange carrier.
POTS
plain old telephone service
Standard phone service over the public switched telephone network
(PSTN). This service provides analog bandwidth of less than 4 kHz.
PPP
point-to-point protocol
Type of communications link that connects a single device to another
single device, such as a remote terminal to a host computer.
PSTN
public switched telephone network
A communications network which uses telephones to establish
connections between two points. Also referred to as the dial network.
QoS
quality of service
A measure of telephone service, as specified by the Public Service
Commission.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
RJ11
A six pin jack typically used for connecting telephones, modems, and fax
machines in residential and business settings to PBX or the local
telephone CO.
SIP
Session Initiation Protocol
An IETF proposed standard for setting up sessions between one or more
clients. It is currently the leading signaling protocol for Voice over IP,
gradually replacing H.323.
T1
A dedicated digital carrier facility which transmits up to 24 voice
channels (DS0s) and transmits data at 1.544 Mbps. Commonly used to
carry traffic to and from private business networks and ISPs.
T3
A dedicated digital carrier facility which consists of 28 T1 lines and
transmits data at 44.736 Mbps. Equivalent to 672 voice channels (DS0s).
TDM
time division multiplexer
A device that supports simultaneous transmission of multiple data streams
into a single high-speed data stream. TDM separates signals by
interleaving bits one after the other.
telco
A generic name which refers to the telephone companies throughout the
world, including RBOCs, LECs, and PTTs.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
tip and ring
The standard termination on the two conductors of a telephone circuit;
named after the physical appearance of the contact areas on the jack plug.
twisted pair
Two copper wires commonly used for telephony and data
communications. The wires are wrapped loosely around each other to
minimize radio frequency interference or interference from other pairs in
the same bundle.
V
volts
VoIP
Voice over IP
Technology used for transmitting voice traffic over a data network using
the Internet Protocol.
W
watts
Zap
Digium hardware interface.
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