ANEXO 06 - OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT

ANEXO 06 - OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT
International Standards
and Recommended Practices
Annex 6
to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation
Operation of Aircraft
Par t I
International Commercial
Air Transport — Aeroplanes
This edition incorporates all amendments
adopted by the Council prior to 10 March 2001
and supersedes, on 1 November 2001, all previous
editions of Part I of Annex 6.
For information regarding the applicability
of the Standards and Recommended Practices,
see Foreword.
Eighth Edition
July 2001
International Civil Aviation Organization
AMENDMENTS
The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the
monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual
Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below is
provided to keep a record of such amendments.
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA
AMENDMENTS
No.
1-26
Date
applicable
Date
entered
CORRIGENDA
Entered
by
No.
Incorporated in this Edition
(ii)
Date
of issue
Date
entered
Entered
by
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Page
Abbreviations and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(vi)
6.6
Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(viii)
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ix)
6.7
6.8
6.9
CHAPTER 1.
Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
CHAPTER 2.
Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
6.10
6.11
6.12
CHAPTER 3.
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
6.13
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Compliance with laws, regulations and
procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accident prevention and flight safety
programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dangerous goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use of psychoactive substances . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4-1
Operating facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operational certification and supervision . . . .
Flight preparation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-flight procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duties of pilot-in-command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duties of flight operations officer/
flight dispatcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional requirements for extended range
operations by aeroplanes with two turbine
power-units (ETOPS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carry-on baggage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
4-1
4-3
4-7
4-8
6-1
ANNEX 6 — PART 1
6.19
6.20
6.21
CHAPTER 7. Aeroplane communication and
navigation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1
7.2
7.3
5-1
CHAPTER 6. Aeroplane instruments, equipment
and flight documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All aeroplanes on all flights . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight recorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All aeroplanes operated as VFR flights . . . . . .
All aeroplanes on flights over water . . . . . . . .
6.17
6.18
4-9
4-9
5-1
5-2
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.16
4-8
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applicable to aeroplanes certificated in
accordance with Parts IIIA and IIIB
of Annex 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Obstacle data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3
6.14
6.15
3-1
3-2
3-2
Flight operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 5. Aeroplane performance operating
limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1
5.2
3-1
All aeroplanes on flights over designated
land areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All aeroplanes on high altitude flights . . . . . . .
All aeroplanes in icing conditions . . . . . . . . . .
All aeroplanes operated in accordance with
instrument flight rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All aeroplanes when operated at night . . . . . . .
Pressurized aeroplanes when carrying
passengers — weather radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All aeroplanes operated above 15 000 m
(49 000 ft) — radiation indicator . . . . . . . . . . .
All aeroplanes complying with the
noise certification Standards in
Annex 16, Volume I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mach number indicator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aeroplanes required to be equipped with
ground proximity warning systems (GPWS) . .
Aeroplanes carrying passengers — cabin
crew seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency locator transmitter (ELT). . . . . . . .
Aeroplanes required to be equipped with an
airborne collision avoidance system
(ACAS II) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aeroplanes required to be equipped with a
pressure-altitude reporting transponder . . . . . .
Microphones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbo-jet aeroplanes — forward-looking
wind shear warning system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
6-8
6-9
6-9
6-9
6-9
6-9
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-10
6-10
7-1
7-1
7-1
7-2
CHAPTER 8. Aeroplane maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
Operator’s maintenance responsibilities. . . . . .
Operator’s maintenance control manual . . . . . .
Maintenance programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuing airworthiness information . . . . . . .
Modifications and repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approved maintenance organization . . . . . . . .
Maintenance release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-2
8-2
8-3
CHAPTER 9. Aeroplane flight crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
9.1
(iii)
6-8
6-8
Communication equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigation equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-6
6-6
6-7
6-7
6-7
Composition of the flight crew . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Page
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
Flight crew member emergency duties . . . . . .
Flight crew member training programmes. . . .
Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight crew equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight time, flight duty periods
and rest periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-3
10-1
CHAPTER 11.
Manuals, logs and records. . . . . . . . . .
11-1
Flight manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operator’s maintenance control manual . . . . .
Maintenance programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Journey log book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Records of emergency and survival
equipment carried. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.6 Flight recorder records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-1
11-1
11-1
11-2
CHAPTER 12.
12-1
12.1 Assignment of emergency duties . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Cabin crew at emergency evacuation
stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Protection of cabin crew during flight . . . . . . .
12.4 Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5 Flight time, flight duty periods
and rest periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-1
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
Security of the flight crew compartment . . . . .
Aeroplane search procedure checklist . . . . . . .
Training programmes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reporting acts of unlawful interference. . . . . .
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-1
13-1
13-1
13-1
13-1
APPENDIX 1. Lights to be displayed by
aeroplanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APP 1-1
1. Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Navigation lights to be displayed in the air
3. Lights to be displayed on the water . . . . . .
APP 1-1
APP 1-1
APP 1-1
APPENDIX 2. Contents of an operations manual. .
APP 2-1
1. Operations administration and
supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Accident prevention and flight safety
programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Personnel training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Fatigue and flight time limitations. . . . . . .
5. Flight operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Aeroplane performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Route guides and charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Minimum flight altitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
ATT A-1
First-aid medical supplies . . . ATT B-1
Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of first-aid kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATT B-1
ATT B-1
ATT B-1
ATT B-1
ATTACHMENT C. Aeroplane performance
operating limitatisons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-1
Example 1
Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Stalling speed — minimum steady
flight speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Take-off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. En route. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-1
13-1
APP 2-2
APP 2-2
APP 2-2
APP 2-2
APP 2-2
APP 2-3
APP 2-3
1. Purpose and scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-1
2. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-1
3. Types of limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-1
12-1
12-1
12-1
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aerodrome operating minima. . . . . . . . . . .
Search and rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dangerous goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Human Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATTACHMENT A. Flight time and flight duty
period limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-2
11-2
Cabin crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 13.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
9-3
CHAPTER 10. Flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
Page
ATT C-1
ATT C-1
ATT C-2
ATT C-2
ATT C-3
ATT C-4
Appendix to Example 1
1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-5
2. Take-off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-5
3. Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-8
Example 2
Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-9
1. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-9
2. Take-off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-10
3. En route. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-11
4. Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-12
Appendix to Example 2
1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-12
2. Take-off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-13
3. Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-16
APP 2-1
APP 2-1
APP 2-1
APP 2-1
APP 2-1
APP 2-2
APP 2-2
APP 2-2
Example 3
Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-17
1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-17
2. Aeroplane take-off performance
limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-18
3. Take-off obstacle clearance limitations . . . ATT C-18
(iv)
Table of Contents
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Page
Page
4. En-route limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-18
5. Landing limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-19
3. Airworthiness certification requirements
for extended range operations. . . . . . . . . . . ATT E-2
4. Propulsion system maturity and reliability . ATT E-2
5. Airworthiness modifications and maintenance
programme requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT E-2
6. Flight dispatch requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . ATT E-2
7. Operational principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT E-2
8. Operational authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT E-3
ATTACHMENT D.
Flight recorders . . . . . . . . . . ATT D-1
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. Flight data recorder (FDR) . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Cockpit voice recorder (CVR) . . . . . . . . .
3. Inspections of FDR and CVR systems. . . .
ATT D-1
ATT D-1
ATT D-1
ATT D-2
ATTACHMENT F. Air operator certificate
or equivalent document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT F-1
ATTACHMENT E. Extended range operations by
aeroplanes with two turbine power-units . . . . . . . ATT E-1
1. Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT E-1
2. Glossary of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT E-1
ATTACHMENT G. Minimum equipment list
(MEL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT G-1
(v)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Page
ABBREVIATIONS
AND SYMBOLS
(used in this Annex)
Abbreviations
Abbreviations
hPa
IFR
ILS
IMC
INS
ISA
kg
kg/m2
km
km/h
kt
kt/s
lb
LDA
m
MDA
MDA/H
MDH
MEL
MHz
MLS
MMEL
MNPS
MOPS
m/s
m/s2
N
N1
N2
N3
NAV
NM
OCA
OCA/H
OCH
PANS
RNP
RVR
SICASP
AC
ACAS
ADREP
ADS
AFCS
AGA
AIG
AOC
AOC
APU
ASDA
ASIA/PAC
ATC
ATM
ATS
CAS
CAT I
CAT II
CAT III
CAT IIIA
CAT IIIB
CAT IIIC
cm
CDL
CFIT
CPDLC
CVR
DA
DA/H
DC
D-FIS
DH
DME
DSTRK
ECAM
EFIS
EGT
EICAS
ELT
ELT(AD)
ELT(AF)
ELT(AP)
ELT(S)
EPR
ETOPS
Alternating current
Airborne collision avoidance system
Accident/incident reporting
Automatic dependent surveillance
Automatic flight control system
Aerodromes, air routes and ground aids
Accident investigation and prevention
Aeronautical operational control
Air operator certificate
Auxiliary power unit
Accelerate stop distance available
Asia/Pacific
Air traffic control
Air traffic management
Air traffic services
Calibrated airspeed
Category I
Category II
Category III
Category IIIA
Category IIIB
Category IIIC
Centimetre
Configuration deviation list
Controlled flight into terrain
Controller-pilot data link communications
Cockpit voice recorder
Decision altitude
Decision altitude/height
Device control
Data link-flight information services
Decision height
Distance measuring equipment
Desired track
Electronic centralized aircraft monitor
Electronic flight instrument system
Exhaust gas temperature
Engine indication and crew alerting system
Emergency locator transmitter
Automatically deployable ELT
Automatic fixed ELT
Automatic portable ELT
Survival ELT
Engine pressure ratio
Extended range operations by
turbine-engined aeroplanes
EUROCAE European Organization for
Civil Aviation Equipment
FDAU
Flight data acquisition unit
FDR
Flight data recorder
FL
Flight level
FM
Frequency modulation
ft
Foot
ft/min
Feet per minute
g
Normal acceleration
GCAS
Ground collision avoidance system
GNSS
Global navigation satellite system
GPWS
Ground proximity warning system
1/11/01
Page
SOP
SST
STOL
TAS
TAWS
TCAS
TLA
TODA
TORA
UTC
VFR
VD
VMC
VMC
VOR
V S0
(vi)
Hectopascal
Instrument flight rules
Instrument landing system
Instrument meteorological conditions
Inertial navigation system
International standard atmosphere
Kilogram
Kilogram per metre squared
Kilometre
Kilometre per hour
Knot
Knots per second
Pound
Landing distance available
Metre
Minimum descent altitude
Minimum descent altitude/height
Minimum descent height
Minimum equipment list
Megahertz
Microwave landing system
Master minimum equipment list
Minimum navigation performance specifications
Minimum Operational Performance Specification
Metres per second
Metres per second squared
Newton
High pressure turbine speed
Fan speed
Compressor speed
Navigation
Nautical mile
Obstacle clearance altitude
Obstacle clearance altitude/height
Obstacle clearance height
Procedures for Air Navigation Services
Required navigation performance
Runway visual range
Secondary Surveillance Radar Improvements and
Collision Avoidance Systems Panel
Standard operating procedures
Supersonic transport
Short take-off and landing
True airspeed
Terrain awareness warning system
Traffic alert and collision avoidance system
Thrust lever angle
Take-off distance available
Take-off run available
Coordinated universal time
Visual flight rules
Design diving speed
Visual meteorological conditions
Minimum control speed with the critical engine
inoperative
VHF omnidirectional radio range
Stalling speed or the minimum steady flight
speed in the landing configuration
Table of Contents
Abbreviations
and symbols
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Abbreviations
V S1
VSM
VTOL
WXR
Page
Page
Stalling speed or the minimum steady flight
speed in a specified configuration
Vertical separation minima
Vertical take-off and landing
Weather
Symbols
°C
%
Degrees Celsius
Per cent
(vii)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Page
PUBLICATIONS
(referred to in this Annex)
Page
Annex 16 — Environmental Protection
Volume I — Aircraft Noise
Convention on International Civil Aviation (Doc 7300)
European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE)
Documents ED55 and ED56A
Annex 18 — The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air
Procedures for Air Navigation Services
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
OPS — Aircraft Operations (Doc 8168)
Volume I — Flight Procedures
Volume II — Construction of Visual and Instrument
Volume II — Flight Procedures
Policy and Guidance Material on the Regulation of International Air
Transport (Doc 9587)
Protocol Relating to an Amendment to the Convention on International
Civil Aviation (Article 83 bis) (Doc 9318)
ATM — Air Traffic Management (Doc 4444)
Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030)
Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation
Manuals
Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing
Accident/Incident Reporting Manual (ADREP Manual)
(Doc 9156)
Annex 2 — Rules of the Air
Annex 3 — Meteorological Service for International
Air Navigation
Accident Prevention Manual (Doc 9422)
Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137)
Part 1 — Rescue and Fire Fighting
Part 8 — Airport Operational Services
Annex 4 — Aeronautical Charts
Annex 5 — Units of Measurement to be Used in Air
and Ground Operations
Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760)
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II — International General Aviation — Aeroplanes
Part III — International Operations — Helicopters
Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683)
Annex 7 — Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks
Manual of Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations
(Doc 9640)
Annex 8 — Airworthiness of Aircraft
Manual of All-Weather Operations (Doc 9365)
Annex 9 — Facilitation
Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of
Flight Simulators (Doc 9625)
Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications
Manual of Procedures for Operations Inspection, Certification
and Continued Surveillance (Doc 8335)
Volume III (Part I — Digital Data Communication Systems,
Volume III (Part II — Voice Communication Systems)
Volume IV (Surveillance Radar and Collision
Volume IV Avoidance Systems)
Manual on Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft)
Vertical Separation Minimum Between FL 290
and FL 410 Inclusive (Doc 9574)
Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services
Annex 12 — Search and Rescue
Manual on Required Navigation Performance (RNP)
(Doc 9613)
Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation
Preparation of an Operations Manual (Doc 9376)
Circulars
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I — Aerodrome Design and Operations
Guidance Material on SST Aircraft Operations
(Circ. 126)
Annex 15 — Aeronautical Information Services
1/11/01
(viii)
ANNEX 6 — PART I
INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT — AEROPLANES
FOREWORD
Historical background
Amendment 142 relating to the provisions in Chapter 6 for the
carriage of portable emergency radio transmitters. The
Amendment became effective on 1 May 1960 and applicable
on 1 August 1960. On 2 December 1960 the Council adopted
Amendment 143 relating to the provisions in Chapter 4 for coordination of operational instructions involving a change in the
air traffic control flight plan. The Amendment became
effective on 1 April 1961 and applicable on 1 July 1961. On
24 March 1961 the Council adopted Amendment 144 relating
to the establishment of limitations upon flight duty periods and
provision of rest periods for flight crew members, and the
Attachment to the Annex of guidance material on the
establishment of flight time and flight duty period limitations
and rest periods. The Amendment became effective on
1 August 1961 and applicable on 1 October 1961. The Council
on 24 March 1961 approved Amendment 145 containing the
Note under 6.2.2 a). On 13 December 1961 the Council
adopted Amendments 146 and 147 and approved Amendment 148. These relate respectively to the modernizing of the
specifications concerning the provision and use of oxygen
supply systems, the installation of high intensity anti-collision
lights on aeroplanes and to purely editorial changes respecting
references to other documents. The Amendments became
effective on 1 April 1962 and applicable on 1 July 1962. On
8 April 1963 the Council adopted Amendment 149. This
Amendment related to the specification of the circumstances
under which emergency and survival equipment shall be
carried on long-range over-water flights. The Amendment
became effective on 1 August 1963 and applicable on
1 November 1963.
Standards and Recommended Practices for the Operation of
Aircraft — International Commercial Air Transport were first
adopted by the Council on 10 December 1948 pursuant to the
provisions of Article 37 of the Convention on International
Civil Aviation (Chicago, 1944) and designated as Annex 6 to
the Convention. They became effective on 15 July 1949. The
Standards and Recommended Practices were based on
recommendations of the Operations Division at its first session
in April 1946, which were further developed at the second
session of the Division in February 1947.
Amendments to the Annex, which included additional
Standards and Recommended Practices as well as modifications to existing Standards, and which were based on
recommendations of the Operations Division at its third and
fourth sessions in February–March 1949 and March–April
1951, were adopted by the Council on 5 December 1950
(Amendments 1–127), 4 December 1951 (Amendments 128–
131), 28 November 1952 (Amendments 132 and 133),
2 December 1952 (Amendment 134), 20 October 1953
(Amendment 135), 23 February 1956 (Amendment 136),
8 May 1956 (Amendment 137) and 15 May 1956 (Amendment 138), and became effective on 1 June 1951, 1 May 1952,
1 April 1953, 1 May 1953, 1 March 1954, 1 July 1956,
1 September 1956 and 15 September 1956 respectively.
The Third Air Navigation Conference (Montreal,
September–October 1956) made, among other things, a
complete review of Chapter 5 of the Annex. As a result of
those recommendations, their submission to all Contracting
States, and their review by the Air Navigation Commission, a
complete new text of Chapter 5 was adopted by the Council as
Amendment 139 on 13 June 1957 and became effective on
1 October 1957.
As a result of the adoption of Amendment 150, a sixth
edition of the Annex was published. This was necessitated by
the extensive nature of the Amendment which followed
recommendations of the Fourth Air Navigation Conference
(Montreal, November–December 1965) for extensive revision
of the Annex, chiefly with the aim of bringing it up to date to
meet the operational needs of high performance turbo-jet
aeroplanes. Furthermore, on the recommendation of the
Conference, the applicability of the Annex is now limited to
‘‘aeroplanes’’ engaged in scheduled and non-scheduled
international air transport operations. Previously this limitation
applied only to non-scheduled international air transport
operations. Amendment 150 was adopted by the Council on
14 December 1966, became effective on 14 April 1967 and
applicable on 24 August 1967.
Additionally, the Council adopted Amendment 140 on
13 June 1957, containing amendments to Chapter 6 covering
the marking of break-in points on aircraft and the
characteristics of navigation lights, to Chapter 8 respecting the
qualification of persons to certify aircraft as airworthy, to
Chapter 9 respecting the route and aerodrome qualification of
pilots and to Chapter 10 respecting requirements for licensing
of flight operations officers, which became effective on
1 October 1957. Subsequent to the issuance of the fifth
edition, Amendment 141 (4.1.1 and 4.1.2) was adopted by the
Council on 12 May 1958 and became applicable on
1 December 1958. On 8 December 1959 the Council adopted
ANNEX 6 — PART I
The Council, on 8 November 1967, adopted Amendment 151 which redefined ‘‘Aircraft’’ as a result of adoption
(ix)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
by Council of Amendment 2 to Annex 7 to the Convention and
amended 5.2.7.2.2 to cater for three-engined aeroplanes. The
Amendment became effective on 8 March 1968 and applicable
on 22 August 1968.
The purpose of Annex 6, Part I, is to contribute to the
safety of international air navigation by providing criteria of
safe operating practice and to contribute to the efficiency and
regularity of international air navigation by encouraging States
to facilitate the passage over their territories of aeroplanes in
international commercial air transport belonging to other
States that operate in conformity with such Standards.
Amendment 152 was adopted by the Council on 23 January
1969. Besides revising certain paragraphs in Chapters 4, 7 and
8 to give them more precision, the Amendment also adds a
provision in Chapter 4 which prohibits, when passengers are
being carried, the in-flight simulation of emergency situations
affecting the flight characteristics of the aeroplane. The
opportunity presented by this Amendment was also taken to
introduce changes to the Annex as a consequence of the
adoption by the Council of a companion document — International Standards and Recommended Practices — Operation
of Aircraft — Annex 6, Part II — International General
Aviation. These changes consisted of designating this
document, previously known as Annex 6, ‘‘Annex 6, Part I,
First Edition’’. Amendment 152 became effective on 23 May
1969 and applicable on 18 September 1969.
Chapter 5
An element of the safety of an operation is the intrinsic safety
of the aircraft, that is, its level of airworthiness. The level of
airworthiness of an aircraft is, however, not fully defined by
the application of the airworthiness Standards of Annex 8, but
also requires the application of those Standards in the present
Annex that are complementary to them.
As originally adopted and also as amended by Amendments 1 to 138, the Annex contained a chapter ‘‘Aeroplane
Operating Limitations’’ which included general provisions
applicable to the operation of all aeroplanes within the scope
of the Annex, a section or sections applicable to aeroplanes
certificated in ICAO categories according to the then existent
Annex 8, and a section applicable to aeroplanes not so
certificated.
Consequent to the adoption of Annex 6, Part III, International Operations — Helicopters, an amendment to the title
was introduced to indicate that Annex 6, Part I was applicable
only to aeroplanes.
Table A shows the origin of subsequent amendments
together with a list of the principal subjects involved and the
dates on which the Annex and the amendments were adopted
by the Council, when they became effective and when they
became applicable.
At its fourth session, the Operations Division, collaborating
with the Airworthiness Division, made, in addition to the
proposals that resulted in Amendments 128 to 133, recommendations concerning the use of a performance code as an
alternative to the one prescribed for ICAO Category A
aeroplanes in which some essential climb values had the status
of Recommended Practices. Further, the Airworthiness
Division made recommendations concerning certain aspects of
the certification in ICAO categories. As a result of those
recommendations, the Council, on 2 December 1952, adopted
Amendment 134 (which became effective 1 May 1953), and
approved the incorporation of the alternative performance
code as Attachment A but stated its belief that since agreement
had not yet been reached on Standards covering performance,
there existed no basis for certification in ICAO Category A. It
urged the Contracting States to refrain from such certification
pending the becoming effective of Standards on performance
or until such time as the Council decides on the basic policy
on airworthiness.
Applicability
The present edition of Annex 6, Part I, contains Standards and
Recommended Practices adopted by the International Civil
Aviation Organization as the minimum Standards applicable to
the operation of aeroplanes by operators authorized to conduct
international commercial air transport operations. These international commercial air transport operations include scheduled
international air services and non-scheduled international air
transport operations for remuneration or hire.
In conjunction, these two types of operations include all
international air transport operations conducted for remuneration or hire by aeroplanes. The distinction between them lies
in the fact that scheduled international air services are
especially provided for in the Convention in contradistinction
to international air transport operations in general, of which
non-scheduled international air transport operations for
remuneration or hire were considered most urgently to
require the establishment of International Standards and
Recommended Practices. It is no longer considered necessary
to differentiate in the Standards and Recommended Practices
between scheduled international air services and nonscheduled international air transport operations.
1/11/01
The Assembly at its seventh session (June 1953) endorsed
the action already taken by the Council and the Air Navigation
Commission to initiate a fundamental study of ICAO policy on
international airworthiness and directed the Council to
complete the study as rapidly as practicable.
In pursuing such study, the Air Navigation Commission
was helped by an international body of experts designated as
the ‘‘Airworthiness Panel’’, which contributed to the
preparation of the work of the Third Air Navigation
Conference.
(x)
Foreword
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
As a result of these studies, a revised policy on
international airworthiness was developed and it was approved
by the Council in 1956. According to this policy the principle
of certification in an ICAO Category was abandoned. Instead,
Annex 8 included broad Standards which defined, for
application by the competent national authorities, the complete
minimum international basis for the recognition by States of
certificates of airworthiness for the purpose of the flight of
aircraft of other States into or over their territories, thereby
achieving, among other purposes, protection of other aircraft,
third persons and property. It was considered that this met the
obligation of the Organization under Article 37 of the
Convention to adopt international Standards of airworthiness.
of the problems and recommended that the concept of
developing airworthiness specifications in the form of Acceptable Means of Compliance and Provisional Acceptable Means
of Compliance be abandoned and a provision be made for an
airworthiness technical manual to be prepared and published
by ICAO to include guidance material intended to facilitate the
development and uniformity of national airworthiness codes
by Contracting States.
The Air Navigation Commission reviewed the recommendations of the Airworthiness Committee in the light of the
history of the development of the airworthiness policy
approved by the Council in 1956. It came to the conclusion
that the basic objectives and principles on which the ICAO
airworthiness policy had been based were sound and did not
require any significant change. It was also concluded that the
main reason for the slow progress in the development of
airworthiness specifications in the form of Acceptable Means
of Compliance and Provisional Acceptable Means of
Compliance was the degree of mandatory status to the former
implied by the following statement included in the Forewords
of Annexes 6 and 8:
It was recognized that the ICAO Standards of airworthiness
would not replace national regulations and that national codes
of airworthiness containing the full scope and extent of detail
considered necessary by individual States would be necessary
as the basis for the certification of individual aircraft. Each
State would establish its own comprehensive and detailed code
of airworthiness or would select a comprehensive and detailed
code established by another Contracting State. The level of
airworthiness defined by this code would be indicated by the
Standards, supplemented, if necessary, by Acceptable Means
of Compliance.
‘‘To adopt a code giving an appreciably lower level of
airworthiness than that given in an Acceptable Means of
Compliance would be a violation of the Standard
supplemented by that Acceptable Means of Compliance.’’
A revised text consistent with the above principles was
prepared for Chapter 5 of Annex 6. It included: a) broad
Standards that were complementary to the Standards related to
aeroplane performance in Annex 8; and b) two Acceptable
Means of Compliance which illustrated by examples the level
of performance intended by the broad Standards. To adopt a
code giving an appreciably lower level of performance than
that illustrated by these Acceptable Means of Compliance was
considered to be a violation of the Standards in Chapter 5 of
this Annex.
Several approaches were examined by the Air Navigation
Commission to eliminate this difficulty. Finally, it came to the
conclusion that the idea of developing airworthiness
specifications in the form of Acceptable Means of Compliance
and Provisional Acceptable Means of Compliance should be
abandoned and ICAO should declare that the States’
obligations, for the purpose of Article 33 of the Convention,
shall be met by their compliance with the broad Standards in
Annex 8 supplemented, as necessary, by airworthiness
technical guidance material, devoid of all mandatory implications or obligations. Also the requirement that each Contracting State should either establish its own comprehensive
and detailed code of airworthiness or select a comprehensive
and detailed code established by another Contracting State
should be retained.
Present policy on international airworthiness. There had
been some concern about the slow progress that had been
made over the years with respect to developing supplementary
airworthiness specifications in the form of Acceptable Means
of Compliance. It was noted that the majority of the Acceptable Means of Compliance in Annexes 6 and 8 had been
developed in 1957 and were therefore applicable to only those
aeroplane types operating at that time. No effort had been
made to update the specifications in these Acceptable Means
of Compliance nor had there been any recommendations from
the Airworthiness Committee for upgrading of any of the
Provisional Acceptable Means of Compliance, which had been
developed as potential material for full-fledged Acceptable
Means of Compliance. The Air Navigation Commission therefore requested the Airworthiness Committee to review the
progress made by it since its inception with a view to determining whether or not desired results had been achieved and
to recommend any changes to improve the development of
detailed airworthiness specifications.
The Council on 15 March 1972 approved the above
approach to form the basis for the present policy of ICAO in
the field of airworthiness.
It also approved the issuance of the airworthiness guidance
material under the title of Airworthiness Technical Manual. It
was understood that the guidance material would have no
formal status and its main purpose would be to provide
guidance to Contracting States in developing the detailed
national airworthiness code mentioned in 2.2 of Part II of
Annex 8.
With respect to Annex 6, Part I, it was agreed that the
guidance material in the Acceptable Means of Compliance for
Aeroplane Performance Operating Limitations should be
The Airworthiness Committee at its Ninth Meeting
(Montreal, November/December 1970) made a detailed study
(xi)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
edited suitably and retained in the Annex but in the form of an
Attachment (green pages).
Promulgation of information. The establishment and
withdrawal of and changes to facilities, services and procedures affecting aircraft operations provided in accordance
with the Standards and Recommended Practices specified in
this Annex should be notified and take effect in accordance
with the provisions of Annex 15.
Performance Standards of Annex 8. Chapter 2, Part IIIA,
and Sub-part B, Part IIIB, of Annex 8 contain aeroplane performance Standards that are complementary to the Standards
in Chapter 5 of this Annex. Both state broad objectives. The
Council has urged Contracting States not to impose on visiting
aeroplanes, not exempted by Article 41, operational requirements other than those established by the State of Registry,
provided that those requirements assure the level of performance equivalent to that intended by the Standards of
Chapter 5 of this Annex and the complementary Standards of
Chapter 2, Part IIIA, and Sub-part B, Part IIIB, of Annex 8.
Status of Annex components
An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not
all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex;
they have the status indicated.
In respect of aircraft exempted by Article 41, Chapter 5 of
this Annex contains a Recommended Practice to the effect that
the State of Registry should ensure that the level of
performance specified in 5.2 applicable to aeroplanes not
exempted should be met as far as practicable by those
aeroplanes. The Council has urged Contracting States not to
impose on visiting aircraft exempted by Article 41 requirements other than those established by the State of Registry
provided that in establishing those requirements the State of
Registry complied with the Recommended Practice. These
recommendations complement one made by the Council in
respect of aircraft exempted by Article 41, to the effect that
Contracting States apply as far as practicable to aeroplanes
over 5 700 kg mass intended for the carriage of passengers or
cargo or mail in international air navigation, the Standards of
Parts IIIA and IIIB of Annex 8.
1.—Material comprising the Annex proper
a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by
the Council under the provisions of the Convention.
They are defined as follows:
Standard: Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance,
personnel or procedure, the uniform application of
which is recognized as necessary for the safety or
regularity of international air navigation and to which
Contracting States will conform in accordance with
the Convention; in the event of impossibility of
compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38.
Recommended Practice: Any specification for
physical characteristics, configuration, matériel,
performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform
application of which is recognized as desirable in the
interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of
international air navigation, and to which Contracting
States will endeavour to conform in accordance with
the Convention.
Action by Contracting States
Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting States
is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the
Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify
the Organization of any differences between their national
regulations and practices and the International Standards
contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto.
Contracting States are invited to extend such notification to
any differences from the Recommended Practices contained in
this Annex, and any amendments thereto when the notification
of such differences is important for the safety of air navigation. Further, Contracting States are invited to keep the
Organization currently informed of any differences which may
subsequently occur or of the withdrawal of any differences
previously notified. A specific request for notification of
differences will be sent to Contracting States immediately after
the adoption of each Amendment to this Annex.
b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately
for convenience but forming part of the Standards
and Recommended Practices adopted by the
Council.
c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and
Recommended Practices which are not selfexplanatory in that they do not have accepted
dictionary meanings. A definition does not have an
independent status but is an essential part of each
Standard and Recommended Practice in which the
term is used, since a change in the meaning of the
term would affect the specification.
Attention of States is also drawn to the provision of
Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between
their national regulations and practices and the related ICAO
Standards and Recommended Practices through the Aeronautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation of States
under Article 38 of the Convention.
1/11/01
d) Tables and
Standard or
referred to
Standard or
same status.
(xii)
Figures which add to or illustrate a
Recommended Practice and which are
therein, form part of the associated
Recommended Practice and have the
Foreword
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
It is to be noted that some Standards in this Annex incorporate, by reference, other specifications having the status
of Recommended Practices. In such cases, the text of the
Recommended Practice becomes part of the Standard.
Contracting State is requested to select one of those texts for
the purpose of national implementation and for other effects
provided for in the Convention, either through direct use or
through translation into its own national language, and to
notify the Organization accordingly.
2.— Material approved by the Council for publication in
association with the Standards and Recommended Practices
a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory
material based on the action of the Council and
including an explanation of the obligations of States
with regard to the application of the Standards and
Recommended Practices ensuing from the Convention and the Resolution of Adoption;
Editorial practices
The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate
at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been
printed in light face roman; Recommended Practices have
been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by
the prefix Recommendation; Notes have been printed in light
face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note.
b) Introductions comprising explanatory material introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or sections
of the Annex to assist in the understanding of the
application of the text;
The following editorial practice has been followed in the
writing of specifications: for Standards the operative verb
‘‘shall’’ is used, and for Recommended Practices the operative
verb ‘‘should’’ is used.
c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give
factual information or references bearing on the Standards or Recommended Practices in question but not
constituting part of the Standards or Recommended
Practices;
The units of measurement used in this document are in
accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as
specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative
units, these are shown in parentheses following the basic units.
Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that
the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may,
however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is
achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.
d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to
the Standards and Recommended Practices or
included as a guide to their application.
Selection of language
Any reference to a portion of this document, which is
identified by a number and/or title, includes all subdivisions
of that portion.
This Annex has been adopted in six languages — English,
Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish. Each
(xiii)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Table A.
Amendment
1st Edition
1
(2nd Edition)
Amendments to Annex 6
Source(s)
Subject(s)
Derived from Sixth
Edition of Annex 6,
including Amendment 152
Sixth Air
Navigation
Conference
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
23 January 1969
23 May 1969
18 September 1969
a) A shift in emphasis of the responsibility for the establishment of minimum
en-route flight altitudes from the operator to the State flown over;
25 May 1970
25 September 1970
4 February 1971
b) the requirement for additional instruments in aeroplanes operated as
controlled VFR flights in the en-route phase; and, of special importance;
c) the permitting of aeroplanes, when unable to navigate by visual references to
landmarks, to be navigated by equipment other than radio navigation
equipment, e.g. solely by self-contained navigation means, provided that
certain equipment capabilities are met, thus eliminating any requirement for
the carriage of radio navigation equipment.
2
Special Meeting on
Aircraft Noise in the
Vicinity of Aerodromes
(1969) and the Second
Meeting of the
Supersonic Transport
Panel
a) The weight of an aeroplane at the start of take-off or at the expected time of
landing not to exceed, except in prescribed circumstances, the relative
maximum weights at which compliance has been demonstrated with the
applicable Noise Certification Standards;
2 April 1971
2 August 1971
6 January 1972
b) the carriage on board an aeroplane of a document attesting noise
certification;
c) all aeroplanes intended to be operated above 15 000 m (49 000 ft) to carry
equipment to measure and indicate continuously the total cosmic radiation
being received.
3
4
(3rd Edition)
Council action in
pursuance of
Assembly
Resolution A17-10
Inclusion in the Annex of a Recommended Practice to the effect that, in all
passenger-carrying aeroplanes, the flight crew compartment door should be
capable of being locked from within the compartment.
10 December 1971
10 April 1972
7 December 1972
Air Navigation
Commission Review
of the Annex
a) Deletion from Chapter 2 of the provision which allowed, in prescribed
circumstances, certain specifications classed as Standards to have the status
of Recommended Practices;
27 June 1972
27 October 1972
1 March 1973
b) introduction of the term “Aerodrome operating minima” in lieu of
“Aerodrome meteorological minima”;
c) introduction of the terms “Decision height”, “Instrument meteorological
conditions”, “Runway visual range” and “Visual meteorological conditions”;
d) Introduction of provisions to require the operator to provide a copy of its
Operations Manual to the State of Registry and to incorporate in the Manual
certain mandatory material;
e) the inclusion of an updated list of the supplies, etc., to be carried aboard
aircraft in first-aid kits;
f) a change in the equivalent of 5 700 kg from 12 500 lb to 12 566 lb;
1/11/01
(xiv)
Foreword
Amendment
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Source(s)
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
g) the introduction of a reference to the need for certain types of aeroplanes to
be equipped with a Mach number indicator;
h) the introduction of a provision for cabin attendants to be seated and secured
during certain prescribed flight phases.
5
Seventh Air
Navigation
Conference
Inclusion in the Annex of definitions of “Flight recorder” and “Maximum
weight” (of aircraft) and revision of the specifications for the carriage, recording
parameters and operation of flight recorders.
29 May 1973
1 October 1973
23 May 1974
6
In pursuance of
new policy on
international
airworthiness and
action in pursuance
of Assembly
Resolution A18-16
Replacement of the Acceptable Means of Compliance on Aeroplane
Performance Operating Limitations by guidance material on the subject in the
form of an Attachment, and incorporation of provisions for emergency power
supply to operate attitude indicating instruments on the total failure of the main
electrical generating system. The opportunity presented by this Amendment was
also taken to revise the Introductory Note to Chapter 3 of the Annex. The
revision points to a practical method for States to discharge their functions in the
cases of lease, charter, and interchange of aircraft in international operations.
30 October 1973
28 February 1974
23 May 1974
7
Council action in
pursuance of
Assembly
Resolutions A17-10
and A18-10
Introduced provisions relating to practices to be followed in the event that an
aircraft is being subjected to unlawful interference.
7 December 1973
7 April 1974
23 May 1974
8
Pursuant to an
Air Navigation
Commission study
concerning the
interception of
civil aircraft
Introduced provisions designed to reduce the risk for intercepted aircraft.
9
Accident Investigation and
Prevention
Divisional
Meeting (1974).
Fifth Meeting of
the Supersonic
Transport Panel.
Consequent to
amendments to
Annexes 3 and 14
Introduced requirements for the safeguarding and preservation of flight recorder
records of aeroplanes involved in accidents and incidents, provision and use of
flight crew restraining devices, procedures to be followed in the event of
excessive cosmic radiation exposure during flight, and the maintenance of
records for crew members on total cosmic radiation dosages. The Amendment
also provided amplification of the specifications for the type of timepiece
required for operations in accordance with Instrument Flight Rules and
controlled VFR flights and provided a cross-reference to guidance material on
SST fuel supplies. The opportunity presented by this Amendment was also taken
to introduce changes to the Annex as a result of the adoption by the Council of
amendments to companion documents — Annex 3 and Annex 14. These
changes consist of the elimination of reference to PANS-MET and the revision
of the definitions of Aerodrome, Runway Visual Range, Take-off Run Available
and Landing Distance Available.
7 April 1976
7 August 1976
30 December 1976
10
ASIA/PAC
Regional
Air Navigation
Meeting (1973)
The requirement for the carriage of survival radio equipment over those areas in
which search and rescue would be especially difficult to be determined by States
rather than regional air navigation agreement.
16 June 1976
16 October 1976
6 October 1977
11
Seventh Air
Navigation Conference
and Air Navigation
Commission Study
Required the operator to establish operational procedures designed to ensure that
an aeroplane conducting precision approaches crosses the threshold by a safe
margin.
23 June 1977
23 October 1977
23 February 1978
(xv)
4 February 1975
4 June 1975
9 October 1975
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Amendment
Part I
Source(s)
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
12
Air Navigation
Commission Study
Required the fitting of ground proximity warning systems to certain aeroplanes.
15 December 1977
15 April 1978
10 August 1978
13
Air Navigation
Commission Study
Required the fitting of seats with safety harness and their use by cabin attendants
assigned emergency evacuation duties.
13 December 1978
13 April 1979
29 November 1979
14
Air Navigation
Commission Study
New definition of “operational control” and introduction of requirements for
navigation equipment to meet minimum navigational performance specifications
(MNPS)
2 April 1980
2 August 1980
27 November 1980
15
Air Navigation
Commission Study
Revision of the provisions relating to exterior lights to align with new provisions
in Annexes 2 and 8, and requirements to include a checklist of emergency and
safety equipment, including instructions for its use, in the Operations Manual.
22 March 1982
22 July 1982
25 November 1982
16
(4th Edition)
Third and Fourth
meetings of the
Operations Panel,
AGA Divisional
Meeting (1981),
amendments
consequent to
adoption of
Annex 18 and an
Air Navigation
Study
Introduced provisions related to aircraft operating procedures for noise
abatement, development and use of instrument flight procedures, authority and
competence to taxi aeroplanes and refuelling with passengers on board. Changes
to the Annex were introduced as a result of adoption by the Council of Annex
18 in respect to the carriage of dangerous goods and requirements for crew
training programmes in their carriage in commercial aeroplanes. The provisions
in respect of aerodromes operating minima were revised to clarify the
requirements and to include a requirement for RVR information. Units of
measurement were brought in line with the provisions of Annex 5, and the Note
in Chapter 3 concerning lease, charter and interchange was updated.
29 March 1983
29 July 1983
24 November 1983
17
Accident Prevention
and Investigation
Divisional Meeting,
AIG (1979)
Revision of the provisions relating to flight recorders. Introduction of related
guidance material in an attachment.
6 March 1985
29 July 1985
21 November 1985
18
Seventh meeting of
the Obstacle
Clearance Panel,
Air Navigation
Commission studies
and a proposal by a
State
Provision of climb performance data with all engines operating; extended range
operations by aeroplanes with two power-units; the provision of obstacle data;
take-off alignment distance accountability.
25 March 1986
27 July 1986
20 November 1986
19
(5th Edition)
Air Navigation
Commission
review of the
Annex, Stage I.
Third meeting
of the Visual
Flight Rules
Operations Panel.
Air Navigation
Commission Study
a) Introduction of new definitions for commercial air transport operations, air
operator certificate, master minimum equipment list and minimum
equipment list. Introduction of revised definitions of aerial work and general
aviation to Annex 6, Part I. Revision of the definition of alternate aerodrome
to introduce take-off, en-route and destination alternate aerodromes;
19 March 1990
30 July 1990
15 November 1990
b) elimination of the differences between the specifications for scheduled and
non-scheduled operations;
c) introduction of the concept of the applicability of Annex 6, Part I to the
operation of aeroplanes by operators authorized to conduct international
commercial air transport operations;
d) requirements for the issue of an air operator certificate and the introduction
of guidance material;
e) requirements for the development of minimum equipment lists and the
introduction of guidance material;
1/11/01
(xvi)
Foreword
Amendment
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Source(s)
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
f) requirements for the specification of alternate aerodromes;
g) requirement for the provision of an aircraft operating manual;
h) requirement for the operator to establish an accident prevention and flight
safety programme and specifications related to carry-on baggage;
i) differentiation in Annex 6, Part I between operational and ATS flight plans;
j) requirements for the pilot-in-command to demonstrate knowledge of longrange navigation procedures where appropriate;
k) elimination of the term “controlled VFR flight” and recognition that a
VFR flight may be a controlled flight;
l) amendment to Chapter 13 — Security to make the recommendation on the
provision of a lockable flight crew compartment door applicable to all
aeroplanes rather than only passenger-carrying aeroplanes, to require
guidance material to support the aeroplane search procedure checklist,
and to require the operator to establish a training programme for
employees in preventative measures and techniques in relation to acts of
sabotage or unlawful interference;
m) introduction of guidance material concerning flight data recording of
important operational information in aeroplanes with electronic displays;
n) revision of the requirements for the contents of the operations manual;
o) requirements concerning carry-on baggage;
p) change of the expression “flight check system” to “checklist”;
20
Fifth meeting of the
Operations Panel,
Seventh and Eighth
meetings of the Review
of the General Concept
of Separation Panel,
Accident Investigation
Divisional meeting
(AIG/1992), Third
meeting of the
Continuing
Airworthiness Panel,
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Revision of definitions of aerodrome operating minima, decision
altitude/height, minimum descent altitude/height and obstacle
clearance altitude/height;
21 March 1994
25 July 1994
10 November 1994
b) introduction of new definitions for emergency locator transmitters (ELTs),
required navigation performance (RNP) and RNP type;
c) introduction of the definition for the classification of instrument approach
and landing operations;
d) introduction of a reference to the Continuing Airworthiness Manual;
e) revision of the requirements concerning the use of engraving metal foil flight
data recorders;
f) introduction of carriage requirements for emergency locator transmitters
(ELTs) to replace provisions regarding survival radio equipment and
emergency location beacon;
g) introduction of a requirement that the navigation equipment carried shall
enable the aircraft to proceed in accordance with RNP types prescribed for
the intended route(s) or areas(s), provisions to permit the uniform
implementation of 300 m (1 000 ft) VSM above FL 290 and reference to the
requirements relating to operations in RNP airspace in the operations
manual;
h) revision of the requirements concerning maintenance inspection,
modifications and repairs and continuing airworthiness information.
(xvii)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Amendment
21
(6th Edition)
Part I
Source(s)
Air Navigation
Commission studies,
Fourteenth meeting of
the Dangerous Goods
Panel, editorial
amendment, text
alignment with
Annex 6, Part II
and/or Part III,
consequential
amendment
Subject(s)
a) Introduction of new and revised definitions for cabin attendant, flight
manual, large aeroplane, operations manual and small aeroplane;
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
8 March 1995
24 July 1995
9 November 1995
b) revision of the provisions concerning operating facilities, flight preparation,
flight time, flight duty periods and rest periods for crew members, oxygen
supply and extended range operations (ETOPS);
c) new requirements for determining the length of the runway available;
d) revised and new provisions concerning ground proximity warning systems
(GPWS), medical supplies, oxygen equipment for aeroplanes on high altitude
flights;
e) revision of the provisions concerning aeroplanes operated in accordance with
instrument flight rules (IFR);
f) inclusion of references to the ICAO Manual of Criteria for the Qualification
of Flight Simulators (Doc 9625) and new requirements for the flight crew
training programme concerning knowledge and skills related to human
performance and limitations;
g) revision of the denomination of flight operations officer to align with
Annex 1;
h) revision of the contents of the operations manual and new provisions
concerning aerodrome operating minima, oxygen supply, flight and duty
time limitations, departure contingency procedures, instructions for mass and
balance control and instructions and training requirements for the avoidance
of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and policy for the use of ground
proximity warning systems (GPWS);
i) new provisions on flight time, flight duty periods and rest periods for cabin
attendants and revision of the provisions concerning training; and
j) revised and new requirements related to the incorporation of security into
aircraft design.
22
Fourth and Fifth
meetings of the
Secondary
Surveillance Radar
Improvements and
Collision Avoidance
Systems Panel
(SICASP/4 and 5)
Requirements concerning pressure-altitude reporting transponders and carriage
of airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS).
19 February 1996
15 July 1996
7 November 1996
23
(7th Edition)
First meeting of the
Flight Recorder Panel,
Fourth meeting of the
Continuing
Airworthiness Panel,
ICAO and Industry
CFIT Task Force,
Air Navigation
Commission studies,
Amendment 162 to
Annex 1, Amendment 38 to Annex 11,
editorial amendment
a) Introduction of new and revised definitions for aircraft operating manual,
configuration deviation list, ETOPS en-route alternate, Human Factors
principles, human performance, master minimum equipment list,
maintenance, psychoactive substances and required navigation performance;
19 March 1998
20 July 1998
5 November 1998
1/11/01
b) revision of the notes concerning lease and interchange;
c) new and revised requirements concerning flight recorders;
d) introduction of a note concerning the use of psychoactive substances;
e) new provisions concerning airborne forward-looking wind shear warning
systems;
(xviii)
Foreword
Amendment
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Source(s)
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
f) new and revised provisions concerning continuing airworthiness to reflect
the use of approved maintenance organizations and to clarify the
responsibilities of the operator and the maintenance organization;
g) new and revised provisions concerning the content of an operations manual
relocated in an appendix and a new Recommended Practice for the carriage
of the ground proximity warning system in piston-engined aeroplanes;
h) new provisions concerning the responsibility of States with regard to
supervision of operations subject to an air operator certificate, acceptance of
an operations manual and establishment of a system for certification and
continued surveillance of the operator;
i) new provisions related to the de/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground,
aeroplane performance operating limitations, mass limitation, sensitive
pressure altimeters and recent experience of the co-pilot;
j) new provisions concerning the carriage of airborne collision avoidance
(ACAS) systems and pressure-altitude reporting transponders; and
k) new provisions concerning Human Factors.
24
25
Second meeting of
the Flight Recorder
Panel, 32nd Session
of the Assembly,
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Change of terminology from “cabin attendant” to “cabin crew”;
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Revised definitions; and
b) revised definitions;
c) new provisions concerning the mandatory carriage of ELTs operating on
406 MHz and 121.5 MHz, the addition of a predictive terrain hazard warning
function to the ground proximity warning system (GPWS) and the
introduction of an implementation date for the recording of digital
communications.
b) introduction of requirements for the provision of RVR and criteria for
instrument approach operations, and revision of the duties of the pilot-incommand.
26
(8th Edition)
Second meeting of
the Flight Recorder
Panel, AIG
Divisional Meeting
(1999), Third
meeting of the
Global Navigation
Satellite System
Panel, Fifth meeting
of the Continuing
Airworthiness Panel,
Air Navigation
Commission studies
15 March 1999
19 July 1999
4 November 1999
a) Update the provisions pertaining to flight recorders, including the recording
of digital communications; FDR requirements for new aircraft; revised
parameter listings; introduction of two-hour duration CVRs;
15 March 2000
17 July 2000
2 November 2000
9 March 2001
16 July 2001
1 November 2001
b) new provisions pertaining to flight data analysis programmes;
c) amendment of the classification of instrument approach and landing
operations;
d) new provisions pertaining to approach with vertical guidance (APV)
operations;
e) new definitions and update of provisions pertaining to maintenance-related
requirements; and
f) translation into English of documents attesting noise certification.
(xix)
1/11/01
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
CHAPTER 1. DEFINITIONS
When the following terms are used in the Standards and
Recommended Practices for operation of aircraft in
international commercial air transport, they have the following
meanings:
Note.— The aircraft operating manual is part of the
operations manual.
Air operator certificate (AOC). A certificate authorizing an
operator to carry out specified commercial air transport
operations.
Aerial work. An aircraft operation in which an aircraft is used
for specialized services such as agriculture, construction,
photography, surveying, observation and patrol, search and
rescue, aerial advertisement, etc.
Alternate aerodrome. An aerodrome to which an aircraft may
proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable
to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended
landing. Alternate aerodromes include the following:
Aerodrome. A defined area on land or water (including any
buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used
either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and
surface movement of aircraft.
Take-off alternate. An alternate aerodrome at which an
aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly
after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome
of departure.
Aerodrome operating minima. The limits of usability of an
aerodrome for:
En-route alternate. An aerodrome at which an aircraft
would be able to land after experiencing an abnormal or
emergency condition while en route.
a) take-off, expressed in terms of runway visual range
and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions;
b) landing in precision approach and landing operations,
expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual
range and decision altitude/height (DA/H) as appropriate
to the category of the operation;
ETOPS en-route alternate. A suitable and appropriate
alternate aerodrome at which an aeroplane would be
able to land after experiencing an engine shutdown or
other abnormal or emergency condition while en route
in an ETOPS operation.
c) landing in approach and landing operations with vertical
guidance, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway
visual range and decision altitude/height (DA/H); and
Destination alternate. An alternate aerodrome to which an
aircraft may proceed should it become either impossible
or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended
landing.
d) landing in non-precision approach and landing
operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or
runway visual range, minimum descent altitude/height
(MDA/H) and, if necessary, cloud conditions.
Note.— The aerodrome from which a flight departs may
also be an en-route or a destination alternate aerodrome for
that flight.
Aeroplane. A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving
its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on
surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of
flight.
Approach and landing operations using instrument approach
procedures. Instrument approach and landing operations
are classified as follows:
Aircraft. Any machine that can derive support in the
atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the
reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.
Non-precision approach and landing operations. An
instrument approach and landing which utilizes lateral
guidance but does not utilize vertical guidance.
Aircraft operating manual. A manual, acceptable to the State
of the Operator, containing normal, abnormal and
emergency procedures, checklists, limitations, performance
information, details of the aircraft systems and other
material relevant to the operation of the aircraft.
Approach and landing operations with vertical guidance.
An instrument approach and landing which utilizes
lateral and vertical guidance but does not meet the
requirements established for precision approach and
landing operations.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
1-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Precision approach and landing operations. An instrument
approach and landing using precision lateral and vertical
guidance with minima as determined by the category of
operation.
Commercial air transport operation. An aircraft operation
involving the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for
remuneration or hire.
Configuration deviation list (CDL). A list established by the
organization responsible for the type design with the
approval of the State of Design which identifies any
external parts of an aircraft type which may be missing at
the commencement of a flight, and which contains, where
necessary, any information on associated operating
limitations and performance correction.
Note.— Lateral and vertical guidance refers to the
guidance provided either by:
a) a ground-based navigation aid; or
b) computer generated navigation data.
Categories of precision approach and landing operations:
Crew member. A person assigned by an operator to duty on an
aircraft during a flight duty period.
Category I (CAT I) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with a decision height not lower
than 60 m (200 ft) and with either a visibility not less
than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than
550 m.
Cruising level. A level maintained during a significant portion
of a flight.
Category II (CAT II) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with a decision height lower than
60 m (200 ft), but not lower than 30 m (100 ft), and a
runway visual range not less than 350 m.
Dangerous goods. Articles or substances which are capable of
posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment
and which are shown in the list of dangerous goods in the
Technical Instructions or which are classified according to
those Intructions.
Category IIIA (CAT IIIA) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with:
Note.— Dangerous goods are classified in Annex 18,
Chapter 3.
a) a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft) or no
decision height; and
Decision altitude (DA) or decision height (DH). A specified
altitude or height in the precision approach or approach
with vertical guidance at which a missed approach must be
initiated if the required visual reference to continue the
approach has not been established.
b) a runway visual range not less than 200 m.
Category IIIB (CAT IIIB) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with:
Note 1.— Decision altitude (DA) is referenced to mean sea
level and decision height (DH) is referenced to the threshold
elevation.
a) a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft) or no
decision height; and
Note 2.— The required visual reference means that section
of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have
been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an
assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of
position, in relation to the desired flight path. In Category III
operations with a decision height the required visual reference
is that specified for the particular procedure and operation.
b) a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less
than 50 m.
Category IIIC (CAT IIIC) operation. A precision
instrument approach and landing with no decision height
and no runway visual range limitations.
Note.— Where decision height (DH) and runway visual
range (RVR) fall into different categories of operation, the
instrument approach and landing operation would be
conducted in accordance with the requirements of the most
demanding category (e.g. an operation with a DH in the range
of CAT IIIA but with an RVR in the range of CAT IIIB would
be considered a CAT IIIB operation or an operation with a
DH in the range of CAT II but with an RVR in the range of
CAT I would be considered a CAT II operation).
Note 3.— For convenience where both expressions are
used they may be written in the form “decision
altitude/height” and abbreviated “DA/H”.
Emergency locator transmitter (ELT). A generic term
describing equipment which broadcast distinctive signals
on designated frequencies and, depending on application,
may be automatically activated by impact or be manually
activated. An ELT may be any of the following:
Cabin crew member. A crew member who performs, in the
interest of safety of passengers, duties assigned by the
operator or the pilot-in-command of the aircraft, but who
shall not act as a flight crew member.
1/11/01
Automatic fixed ELT (ELT(AF)). An automatically
activated ELT which is permanently attached to an
aircraft.
1-2
Chapter 1
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Automatic portable ELT (ELT(AP)). An automatically
activated ELT which is rigidly attached to an aircraft but
readily removable from the aircraft.
Human performance. Human capabilities and limitations
which have an impact on the safety and efficiency of
aeronautical operations.
Automatic deployable ELT (ELT(AD)). An ELT which is
rigidly attached to an aircraft and which is automatically
deployed and activated by impact, and, in some cases,
also by hydrostatic sensors. Manual deployment is also
provided.
Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). Meteorological
conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from
cloud, and ceiling*, less than the minima specified for
visual meteorological conditions.
Note.— The specified minima for visual meteorological
conditions are contained in Chapter 4 of Annex 2.
Survival ELT (ELT(S)). An ELT which is removable from
an aircraft, stowed so as to facilitate its ready use in an
emergency, and manually activated by survivors.
Large aeroplane. An aeroplane of a maximum certificated
take-off mass of over 5 700 kg.
Flight crew member. A licensed crew member charged with
duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight
duty period.
Maintenance. The performance of tasks required to ensure the
continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or
combination of overhaul, inspection, replacement, defect
rectification, and the embodiment of a modification or
repair.
Flight Data Analysis. A process of analysing recorded flight
data in order to improve the safety of flight operations.
Flight duty period. The total time from the moment a flight
crew member commences duty, immediately subsequent to
a rest period and prior to making a flight or a series of
flights, to the moment the flight crew member is relieved of
all duties having completed such flight or series of flights.
Maintenance organization’s procedures manual. A document
endorsed by the head of the maintenance organization
which details the maintenance organization’s structure and
management responsibilities, scope of work, description of
facilities, maintenance procedures and quality assurance or
inspection systems.
Flight manual. A manual, associated with the certificate of
airworthiness, containing limitations within which the
aircraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and
information necessary to the flight crew members for the
safe operation of the aircraft.
Maintenance programme. A document which describes the
specific scheduled maintenance tasks and their frequency of
completion and related procedures, such as a reliability
programme, necessary for the safe operation of those
aircraft to which it applies.
Flight plan. Specified information provided to air traffic
services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a
flight of an aircraft.
Maintenance release. A document which contains a certification confirming that the maintenance work to which it
relates has been completed in a satisfactory manner, either
in accordance with the approved data and the procedures
described in the maintenance organization’s procedures
manual or under an equivalent system.
Flight recorder. Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft
for the purpose of complementing accident/incident
investigation.
Flight time — aeroplanes. The total time from the moment an
aeroplane first moves for the purpose of taking off until the
moment it finally comes to rest at the end of the flight.
Master minimum equipment list (MMEL). A list established
for a particular aircraft type by the organization responsible
for the type design with the approval of the State of Design
containing items, one or more of which is permitted to be
unserviceable at the commencement of a flight. The
MMEL may be associated with special operating
conditions, limitations or procedures.
Note.— Flight time as here defined is synonymous with the
term “block to block” time or “chock to chock” time in
general usage which is measured from the time an aeroplane
first moves for the purpose of taking off until it finally stops at
the end of the flight.
Maximum mass. Maximum certificated take-off mass.
General aviation operation. An aircraft operation other than a
commercial air transport operation or an aerial work
operation.
Minimum descent altitude (MDA) or minimum descent
height (MDH). A specified altitude or height in a nonprecision approach or circling approach below which
descent must not be made without the required visual
reference.
Human Factors principles. Principles which apply to
aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and
maintenance and which seek safe interface between the
human and other system components by proper
consideration to human performance.
* As defined in Annex 2.
1-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Note 1.— Minimum descent altitude (MDA) is referenced to
mean sea level and minimum descent height (MDH) is
referenced to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold
elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome
elevation. A minimum descent height for a circling approach
is referenced to the aerodrome elevation.
Operational flight plan. The operator’s plan for the safe
conduct of the flight based on considerations of aeroplane
performance, other operating limitations and relevant
expected conditions on the route to be followed and at the
aerodromes concerned.
Operations manual. A manual containing procedures,
instructions and guidance for use by operational personnel
in the execution of their duties.
Note 2.— The required visual reference means that section
of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have
been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an
assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of
position, in relation to the desired flight path. In the case of a
circling approach the required visual reference is the runway
environment.
Operator. A person, organization or enterprise engaged in or
offering to engage in an aircraft operation.
Operator’s maintenance control manual. A document which
describes the operator’s procedures necessary to ensure that
all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance is performed
on the operator’s aircraft on time and in a controlled and
satisfactory manner.
Note 3.— For convenience when both expressions are used
they may be written in the form “minimum descent
altitude/height” and abbreviated “MDA/H”.
Pilot-in-command. The pilot designated by the operator, or in
the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in
command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight.
Minimum equipment list (MEL). A list which provides for the
operation of aircraft, subject to specified conditions, with
particular equipment inoperative, prepared by an operator
in conformity with, or more restrictive than, the MMEL
established for the aircraft type.
Pressure-altitude. An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms
of altitude which corresponds to that pressure in the
Standard Atmosphere*.
Night. The hours between the end of evening civil twilight and
the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period
between sunset and sunrise, as may be prescribed by the
appropriate authority.
Psychoactive substances. Alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids,
sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psychostimulants,
hallucinogens, and volatile solvents, whereas coffee and
tobacco are excluded.
Note.— Civil twilight ends in the evening when the centre
of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon and begins in
the morning when the centre of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees
below the horizon.
Repair. The restoration of an aeronautical product to an
airworthy condition to ensure that the aircraft continues to
comply with the design aspects of the appropriate
airworthiness requirements used for the issuance of the type
certificate for the respective aircraft type, after it has been
damaged or subjected to wear.
Obstacle clearance altitude (OCA) or obstacle clearance
height (OCH). The lowest altitude or the lowest height
above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or the
aerodrome elevation as applicable, used in establishing
compliance with appropriate obstacle clearance criteria.
Required navigation performance (RNP). A statement of the
navigation performance necessary for operation within a
defined airspace.
Note 1.— Obstacle clearance altitude is referenced to mean
sea level and obstacle clearance height is referenced to the
threshold elevation or in the case of non-precision approaches
to the aerodrome elevation or the threshold elevation if that is
more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation. An
obstacle clearance height for a circling approach is
referenced to the aerodrome elevation.
Note.— Navigation performance and requirements are
defined for a particular RNP type and/or application.
Rest period. Any period of time on the ground during which a
flight crew member is relieved of all duties by the operator.
RNP type. A containment value expressed as a distance in
nautical miles from the intended position within which
flights would be for at least 95 per cent of the total flying
time.
Note 2.— For convenience when both expressions are used
they may be written in the form “obstacle clearance
altitude/height” and abbreviated “OCA/H”.
Operational control. The exercise of authority over the
initiation, continuation, diversion or termination of a flight
in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity
and efficiency of the flight.
1/11/01
* As defined in Annex 8.
1-4
Chapter 1
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Example.— RNP 4 represents a navigation accuracy of
plus or minus 7.4 km (4 NM) on a 95 per cent containment
basis.
A
Runway visual range (RVR). The range over which the pilot
of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the
runway surface markings or the lights delineating the
runway or identifying its centre line.
flight simulator, which provides an accurate
representation of the flight deck of a particular aircraft
type to the extent that the mechanical, electrical,
electronic, etc. aircraft systems control functions, the
normal environment of flight crew members, and the
performance and flight characteristics of that type of
aircraft are realistically simulated;
A flight procedures trainer, which provides a realistic flight
deck environment, and which simulates instrument
responses, simple control functions of mechanical,
electrical, electronic, etc. aircraft systems, and the
performance and flight characteristics of aircraft of a
particular class;
Small aeroplane. An aeroplane of a maximum certificated
take-off mass of 5 700 kg or less.
State of Registry. The State on whose register the aircraft is
entered.
Note.— In the case of the registration of aircraft of an
international operating agency on other than a national basis,
the States constituting the agency are jointly and severally
bound to assume the obligations which, under the Chicago
Convention, attach to a State of Registry. See, in this regard,
the Council Resolution of 14 December 1967 on Nationality
and Registration of Aircraft Operated by International
Operating Agencies which can be found in Policy and
Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of
International Air Transport (Doc 9587).
A basic instrument flight trainer, which is equipped with
appropriate instruments, and which simulates the flight
deck environment of an aircraft in flight in instrument
flight conditions.
Visual meteorological conditions (VMC). Meteorological
conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from
cloud, and ceiling*, equal to or better than specified
minima.
State of the Operator. The State in which the operator’s
principal place of business is located or, if there is no such
place of business, the operator’s permanent residence.
Note.— The specified minima are contained in Chapter 4
of Annex 2.
Synthetic flight trainer. Any one of the following three types
of apparatus in which flight conditions are simulated on the
ground:
* As defined in Annex 2.
1-5
1/11/01
CHAPTER 2.
APPLICABILITY
The Standards and Recommended Practices contained in
Annex 6, Part I, shall be applicable to the operation of
aeroplanes by operators authorized to conduct international
commercial air transport operations.
Note 1.— Standards and Recommended Practices
applicable to international general aviation operations with
aeroplanes are to be found in Annex 6, Part II.
Note 2.— Standards and Recommended Practices
applicable to international commercial air transport
operations or international general aviation operations with
helicopters are to be found in Annex 6, Part III.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
2-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 3.
Note 1.— Although the Convention on International Civil
Aviation allocates to the State of Registry certain functions
which that State is entitled to discharge, or obligated to
discharge, as the case may be, the Assembly recognized, in
Resolution A23-13 that the State of Registry may be unable to
fulfil its responsibilities adequately in instances where aircraft
are leased, chartered or interchanged — in particular without
crew — by an operator of another State and that the
Convention may not adequately specify the rights and
obligations of the State of an operator in such instances until
such time as Article 83 bis of the Convention enters into force.
Accordingly, the Council urged that if, in the above-mentioned
instances, the State of Registry finds itself unable to discharge
adequately the functions allocated to it by the Convention, it
delegate to the State of the Operator, subject to acceptance by
the latter State, those functions of the State of Registry that can
more adequately be discharged by the State of the Operator. It
was understood that pending entry into force of Article 83 bis
of the Convention the foregoing action would only be a matter
of practical convenience and would not affect either the provisions of the Chicago Convention prescribing the duties of the
State of Registry or any third State. However, as Article 83 bis
of the Convention entered into force on 20 June 1997, such
transfer agreements will have effect in respect of Contracting
States which have ratified the related Protocol (Doc 9318)
upon fulfilment of the conditions established in Article 83 bis.
GENERAL
3.1.3 An operator or a designated representative shall
have responsibility for operational control.
Note.— The rights and obligations of a State in respect to
the operation of aeroplanes registered in that State are not
affected by this provision.
3.1.4 If an emergency situation which endangers the
safety of the aeroplane or persons necessitates the taking of
action which involves a violation of local regulations or
procedures, the pilot-in-command shall notify the appropriate
local authority without delay. If required by the State in which
the incident occurs, the pilot-in-command shall submit a report
on any such violation to the appropriate authority of such
State; in that event, the pilot-in-command shall also submit a
copy of it to the State of the Operator. Such reports shall be
submitted as soon as possible and normally within ten days.
3.1.5 Operators shall ensure that pilots-in-command have
available on board the aeroplane all the essential information
concerning the search and rescue services in the area over
which the aeroplane will be flown.
Note.— This information may be made available to the
pilot by means of the operations manual or such other means
as is considered appropriate.
Note 2.— In the case of international operations effected
jointly with aeroplanes not all of which are registered in the
same Contracting State, nothing in this Part prevents the States
concerned entering into an agreement for the joint exercise of
the functions placed upon the State of Registry by the
provisions of the relevant Annexes.
3.2 Accident prevention and
flight safety programme
3.2.1 An operator shall establish and maintain an accident
prevention and flight safety programme.
3.1 Compliance with laws,
regulations and procedures
Note.— Guidance on accident prevention is contained in
the Accident Prevention Manual (Doc 9422) and in the
Preparation of an Operations Manual (Doc 9376).
3.1.1 An operator shall ensure that all employees when
abroad know that they must comply with the laws, regulations
and procedures of those States in which operations are conducted.
3.2.2 Recommendation.— From 1 January 2002, an
operator of an aeroplane of a certificated take-off mass in
excess of 20 000 kg should establish and maintain a flight data
analysis programme as part of its accident prevention and
flight safety programme.
3.1.2 An operator shall ensure that all pilots are familiar
with the laws, regulations and procedures, pertinent to the
performance of their duties, prescribed for the areas to be
traversed, the aerodromes to be used and the air navigation
facilities relating thereto. The operator shall ensure that other
members of the flight crew are familiar with such of these laws,
regulations and procedures as are pertinent to the performance
of their respective duties in the operation of the aeroplane.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
3.2.3 From 1 January 2005, an operator of an aeroplane of
a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 27 000 kg
shall establish and maintain a flight data analysis programme
as part of its accident prevention and flight safety programme.
3-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Note.— An operator may contract the operation of a flight
data analysis programme to another party while retaining
overall responsibility for the maintenance of such a
programme.
3.3 Dangerous goods
Note 1.— Provisions for carriage of dangerous goods are
contained in Annex 18.
Note 2.— Article 35 of the Convention refers to certain
classes of cargo restrictions.
3.2.4 A flight data analysis programme shall be nonpunitive and contain adequate safeguards to protect the
source(s) of the data.
3.4 Use of psychoactive substances
Note.— Guidance on flight data analysis programmes is
contained in the Accident Prevention Manual (Doc 9422).
1/11/01
Note.— Provisions concerning the use of psychoactive
substances are contained in Annex 1, 1.2.7 and Annex 2, 2.5.
3-2
CHAPTER 4. FLIGHT OPERATIONS
4.1
Operating facilities
4.2.1.4 The continued validity of an air operator certificate or equivalent document shall depend upon the operator
maintaining the requirements of 4.2.1.3 under the supervision
of the State of the Operator.
4.1.1 An operator shall ensure that a flight will not be
commenced unless it has been ascertained by every reasonable
means available that the ground and/or water facilities available
and directly required on such flight, for the safe operation of
the aeroplane and the protection of the passengers, are
adequate for the type of operation under which the flight is to
be conducted and are adequately operated for this purpose.
4.2.1.5 The air operator certificate or equivalent document
shall contain at least the following:
a) operator’s identification (name, location);
b) date of issue and period of validity;
Note.— “Reasonable means” in this Standard is intended
to denote the use, at the point of departure, of information
available to the operator either through official information
published by the aeronautical information services or readily
obtainable from other sources.
c) description of the types of operations authorized;
d) the type(s) of aircraft authorized for use; and
e) authorized areas of operation or routes.
4.1.2 An operator shall ensure that any inadequacy of
facilities observed in the course of operations is reported to the
authority responsible for them, without undue delay.
4.2.1.6 The State of the Operator shall establish a system
for both the certification and the continued surveillance of the
operator to ensure that the required standards of operations
established in 4.2 are maintained.
4.1.3 Subject to their published conditions of use,
aerodromes and their facilities shall be kept continuously
available for flight operations during their published hours of
operations, irrespective of weather conditions.
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
Operations manual
4.2.2.1 An operator shall provide, for the use and
guidance of operations personnel concerned, an operations
manual in accordance with Appendix 2. The operations
manual shall be amended or revised as is necessary to ensure
that the information contained therein is kept up to date. All
such amendments or revisions shall be issued to all personnel
that are required to use this manual.
Operational certification
and supervision
The air operator certificate
4.2.1.1 An operator shall not engage in commercial air
transport operations unless in possession of a valid air operator
certificate or equivalent document issued by the State of the
Operator.
4.2.2.2 The State of the Operator shall establish a requirement for the operator to provide a copy of the operations
manual together with all amendments and/or revisions, for
review and acceptance and, where required, approval. The
operator shall incorporate in the operations manual such
mandatory material as the State of the Operator may require.
4.2.1.2 The air operator certificate or equivalent document
shall authorize the operator to conduct commercial air transport operations in accordance with such conditions and
limitations as may be specified.
Note 1.— Requirements for the content of an operations
manual are provided in Appendix 2.
4.2.1.3 The issue of an air operator certificate or
equivalent document by the State of the Operator shall be
dependent upon the operator demonstrating an adequate organization, method of control and supervision of flight operations,
training programme and maintenance arrangements consistent
with the nature and extent of the operations specified.
Note 2.— Specific items in the operations manual require
the approval of the State of the Operator in accordance with
the Standards in 4.2.7, 6.1.2, 9.3.1 and 12.4.
Note.— Attachment F contains guidance on the issue of an
air operator certificate.
4.2.3.1 An operator shall ensure that all operations
personnel are properly instructed in their particular duties and
ANNEX 6 — PART I
4.2.3 Operating instructions — general
4-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
responsibilities and the relationship of such duties to the
operation as a whole.
4.2.6.2 An operator shall specify the method by which it
is intended to determine minimum flight altitudes for operations conducted over routes for which minimum flight altitudes have not been established by the State flown over or the
responsible State, and shall include this method in the
operations manual. The minimum flight altitudes determined
in accordance with the above method shall not be lower than
specified in Annex 2.
4.2.3.2 An aeroplane shall not be taxied on the movement
area of an aerodrome unless the person at the controls:
a) has been duly authorized by the operator or a designated
agent;
b) is fully competent to taxi the aeroplane;
4.2.6.3 Recommendation.— The method for establishing
the minimum flight altitudes should be approved by the State
of the Operator.
c) is qualified to use the radio telephone; and
d) has received instruction from a competent person in
respect of aerodrome layout, routes, signs, marking,
lights, air traffic control (ATC) signals and instructions,
phraseology and procedures, and is able to conform to
the operational standards required for safe aeroplane
movement at the aerodrome.
4.2.6.4 Recommendation.— The State of the Operator
should approve such method only after careful consideration
of the probable effects of the following factors on the safety of
the operation in question:
a) the accuracy and reliability with which the position of
the aeroplane can be determined;
4.2.3.3 Recommendation.— The operator should issue
operating instructions and provide information on aeroplane
climb performance with all engines operating to enable the
pilot-in-command to determine the climb gradient that can be
achieved during the departure phase for the existing take-off
conditions and intended take-off technique. This information
should be included in the operations manual.
4.2.4
b) the inaccuracies in the indications of the altimeters
used;
c) the characteristics of the terrain (e.g. sudden changes in
the elevation);
d) the probability of encountering unfavourable meteorological conditions (e.g. severe turbulence and descending air currents);
In-flight simulation of emergency situations
An operator shall ensure that when passengers or cargo are
being carried, no emergency or abnormal situations shall be
simulated.
4.2.5
e) possible inaccuracies in aeronautical charts; and
f) airspace restrictions.
Checklists
4.2.7
The checklists provided in accordance with 6.1.3 shall be used
by flight crews prior to, during and after all phases of
operations, and in emergency, to ensure compliance with the
operating procedures contained in the aircraft operating manual
and the aeroplane flight manual or other documents associated
with the certificate of airworthiness and otherwise in the
operations manual, are followed. The design and utilization of
checklists shall observe Human Factors principles.
4.2.7.1 The State of the Operator shall require that the
operator establish aerodrome operating minima for each aerodrome to be used in operations, and shall approve the method
of determination of such minima. Such minima shall not be
lower than any that may be established for such aerodromes by
the State in which the aerodrome is located, except when
specifically approved by that State.
Note.— This Standard does not require the State in which
the aerodrome is located to establish aerodrome operating
minima.
Note.— Guidance material on the application of Human
Factors principles can be found in the Human Factors Training
Manual (Doc 9683).
4.2.6
4.2.7.2 The State of the Operator shall require that in
establishing the aerodrome operating minima which will apply
to any particular operation, full account shall be taken of:
Minimum flight altitudes
4.2.6.1 An operator shall be permitted to establish
minimum flight altitudes for those routes flown for which
minimum flight altitudes have been established by the State
flown over or the responsible State, provided that they shall
not be less than those established by that State.
1/11/01
Aerodrome operating minima
a) the type, performance and handling characteristics of the
aeroplane;
b) the composition of the flight crew, their competence and
experience;
4-2
Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
c) the dimensions and characteristics of the runways which
may be selected for use;
d) the adequacy and performance of the available visual
and non-visual ground aids;
flight duty periods and for the provision of adequate rest
periods for all its crew members. These rules shall be in
accordance with the regulations established by the State of
the Operator, or approved by that State, and included in the
operations manual.
e) the equipment available on the aeroplane for the purpose
of navigation and/or control of the flight path during the
approach to landing and the missed approach;
4.2.10.3 An operator shall maintain current records of the
flight time, flight duty periods and rest periods of all its crew
members.
f) the obstacles in the approach and missed approach areas
and the obstacle clearance altitude/height for the instrument approach procedures;
Note.— Guidance on the establishment of limitations is
given in Attachment A.
4.2.10.4 For each flight of an aeroplane above 15 000 m
(49 000 ft), the operator shall maintain records so that the total
cosmic radiation dose received by each crew member over a
period of 12 consecutive months can be determined.
g) the means used to determine and report meteorological
conditions; and
h) the obstacles in the climb-out areas and necessary
clearance margins.
Note.— Guidance on the maintenance of cumulative
radiation records is given in Circular 126 — Guidance
Material on SST Aircraft Operations.
Note.— Guidance on the establishment of aerodrome
operating minima is contained in the Manual of All-Weather
Operations (Doc 9365).
4.2.11 Passengers
4.2.7.3 Category II and Category III instrument approach
and landing operations shall not be authorized unless RVR
information is provided.
4.2.11.1 An operator shall ensure that passengers are
made familiar with the location and use of:
4.2.7.4 Recommendation.— For instrument approach
and landing operations, aerodrome operating minima below
800 m visibility should not be authorized unless RVR information is provided.
a) seat belts;
b) emergency exits;
c) life jackets, if the carriage of life jackets is prescribed;
d) oxygen dispensing equipment, if the provision of
oxygen for the use of passengers is prescribed; and
4.2.8 Threshold crossing height
for precision approaches
e) other emergency equipment provided for individual use,
including passenger emergency briefing cards.
An operator shall establish operational procedures designed to
ensure that an aeroplane being used to conduct precision
approaches crosses the threshold by a safe margin, with the
aeroplane in the landing configuration and attitude.
4.2.11.2 The operator shall inform the passengers of the
location and general manner of use of the principal emergency
equipment carried for collective use.
4.2.9 Fuel and oil records
4.2.11.3 In an emergency during flight, passengers shall
be instructed in such emergency action as may be appropriate
to the circumstances.
4.2.9.1 An operator shall maintain fuel and oil records to
enable the State of the Operator to ascertain that, for each
flight, the requirements of 4.3.6 have been complied with.
4.2.11.4 The operator shall ensure that during take-off and
landing and whenever, by reason of turbulence or any
emergency occurring during flight, the precaution is considered necessary, all passengers on board an aeroplane shall
be secured in their seats by means of the seat belts or harnesses
provided.
4.2.9.2 Fuel and oil records shall be retained by the
operator for a period of three months.
4.2.10
Crew
4.2.10.1 Pilot-in-command. For each flight, the operator
shall designate one pilot to act as pilot-in-command.
4.3
Flight preparation
4.3.1 A flight shall not be commenced until flight
preparation forms have been completed certifying that the
pilot-in-command is satisfied that:
4.2.10.2 Flight time, flight duty periods and rest periods.
An operator shall formulate rules to limit flight time and
4-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
a) the aeroplane is airworthy;
a) aeroplanes having two power-units. Not more than a
distance equivalent to a flight time of one hour at the
single-engine cruise speed; and
b) the instruments and equipment prescribed in Chapter 6,
for the particular type of operation to be undertaken, are
installed and are sufficient for the flight;
b) aeroplanes having three or more power-units. Not more
than a distance equivalent to a flight time of two hours
at the one-engine inoperative cruise speed.
c) a maintenance release as prescribed in 8.7 has been
issued in respect of the aeroplane;
d) the mass of the aeroplane and centre of gravity location
are such that the flight can be conducted safely, taking
into account the flight conditions expected;
4.3.4.1.3 For an aerodrome to be selected as a take-off
alternate the available information shall indicate that, at the
estimated time of use, the conditions will be at or above the
aerodrome operating minima for that operation.
e) any load carried is properly distributed and safely
secured;
4.3.4.2
f) a check has been completed indicating that the operating
limitations of Chapter 5 can be complied with for the
flight to be undertaken; and
En-route alternate aerodromes
En-route alternate aerodromes, required by 4.7 for extended
range operations by aeroplanes with two turbine power-units,
shall be selected and specified in the operational and air traffic
services (ATS) flight plans.
g) the Standards of 4.3.3 relating to operational flight
planning have been complied with.
4.3.4.3
4.3.2 Completed flight preparation forms shall be kept by
an operator for a period of three months.
4.3.3
For a flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument
flight rules, at least one destination alternate aerodrome shall
be selected and specified in the operational and ATS flight
plans, unless:
Operational flight planning
4.3.3.1 An operational flight plan shall be completed for
every intended flight. The operational flight plan shall be
approved and signed by the pilot-in-command and, where
applicable, signed by the flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher, and a copy shall be filed with the operator or a
designated agent, or, if these procedures are not possible, it
shall be left with the aerodrome authority or on record in a
suitable place at the point of departure.
a) the duration of the flight and the meteorological
conditions prevailing are such that there is reasonable
certainty that, at the estimated time of arrival at the
aerodrome of intended landing, and for a reasonable
period before and after such time, the approach and
landing may be made under visual meteorological
conditions; or
b) the aerodrome of intended landing is isolated and there
is no suitable destination alternate aerodrome.
Note.— The duties of a flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher are contained in 4.6.
4.3.3.2 The operations manual must describe the content
and use of the operational flight plan.
4.3.4
4.3.4.1
4.3.5 Weather conditions
4.3.5.1 A flight to be conducted in accordance with the
visual flight rules shall not be commenced unless current
meteorological reports or a combination of current reports and
forecasts indicate that the meteorological conditions along the
route or that part of the route to be flown under the visual
flight rules will, at the appropriate time, be such as to render
compliance with these rules possible.
Alternate aerodromes
Take-off alternate aerodrome
4.3.4.1.1 A take-off alternate aerodrome shall be selected
and specified in the operational flight plan if the weather
conditions at the aerodrome of departure are at or below the
applicable aerodrome operating minima or it would not be
possible to return to the aerodrome of departure for other
reasons.
4.3.5.2 A flight to be conducted in accordance with
instrument flight rules shall not be commenced unless information is available which indicates that conditions at the
aerodrome of intended landing or, where a destination alternate
is required, at least one destination alternate aerodrome will, at
the estimated time of arrival, be at or above the aerodrome
operating minima.
4.3.4.1.2 The take-off alternate aerodrome shall be
located within the following distance from the aerodrome of
departure:
1/11/01
Destination alternate aerodromes
4-4
Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Note.— It is the practice in some States to declare, for flight
planning purposes, higher minima for an aerodrome when
nominated as a destination alternate than for the same
aerodrome when planned as that of intended landing.
2) two hours,
whichever is less.
4.3.6.2.2
required:
4.3.5.3 A flight to be operated in known or expected icing
conditions shall not be commenced unless the aeroplane is
certificated and equipped to cope with such conditions.
When a destination alternate aerodrome is not
a) in terms of 4.3.4.3 a), to fly to the aerodrome to which
the flight is planned and thereafter for a period of
45 minutes; or
4.3.5.4 A flight to be planned or expected to operate in
suspected or known ground icing conditions shall not take off
unless the aeroplane has been inspected for icing and, if
necessary, has been given appropriate de-icing/anti-icing
treatment. Accumulation of ice or other naturally occurring
contaminants shall be removed so that the aeroplane is kept in
an airworthy condition prior to take-off.
b) in terms of 4.3.4.3 b), to fly to the aerodrome to which
the flight is planned and thereafter for:
1) 45 minutes plus 15 per cent of the flight time planned
to be spent at the cruising level(s), or
Note.— Guidance material is given in the Manual of
Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations (Doc 9640).
2) two hours,
whichever is less.
4.3.6 Fuel and oil supply
4.3.6.3 Aeroplanes equipped with turbo-jet engines. The
fuel and oil carried in order to comply with 4.3.6.1 shall, in the
case of turbo-jet aeroplanes, be at least the amount sufficient
to allow the aeroplane:
Note.— Fuel and oil reserves for supersonic aeroplanes
will require special consideration to account for the particular
operating characteristics of this type of aeroplane. Guidance
on fuel supplies for supersonic aeroplanes is given in
Circular 126 — Guidance Material on SST Aircraft
Operations.
4.3.6.3.1 When a destination alternate aerodrome is
required, either:
4.3.6.1 All aeroplanes. A flight shall not be commenced
unless, taking into account both the meteorological conditions
and any delays that are expected in flight, the aeroplane carries
sufficient fuel and oil to ensure that it can safely complete the
flight. In addition, a reserve shall be carried to provide for
contingencies.
a) to fly to and execute an approach, and a missed
approach, at the aerodrome to which the flight is
planned, and thereafter:
4.3.6.2 Propeller-driven aeroplanes. The fuel and oil
carried in order to comply with 4.3.6.1 shall, in the case of
propeller-driven aeroplanes, be at least the amount sufficient to
allow the aeroplane:
2) to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m
(1 500 ft) above the alternate aerodrome under
standard temperature conditions, and approach and
land; and
4.3.6.2.1 When a destination alternate aerodrome is
required, either:
3) to have an additional amount of fuel sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the
occurrence of any of the potential contingencies
specified by the operator to the satisfaction of the
State of the Operator; or
1) to fly to the alternate aerodrome specified in the
operational and ATS flight plans; and then
a) to fly to the aerodrome to which the flight is planned
thence to the most critical (in terms of fuel
consumption) alternate aerodrome specified in the
operational and ATS flight plans and thereafter for a
period of 45 minutes; or
b) to fly to the alternate aerodrome via any predeter-mined
point and thereafter for 30 minutes at 450 m (1 500 ft)
above the alternate aerodrome, due provision having
been made for an additional amount of fuel sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the occurrence
of any of the poten-tial contingencies specified by the
operator to the satisfaction of the State of the Operator;
provided that fuel shall not be less than the amount of
fuel required to fly to the aerodrome to which the flight
is planned and thereafter for two hours at normal cruise
consumption.
b) to fly to the alternate aerodrome via any predetermined
point and thereafter for 45 minutes, provided that this
shall not be less than the amount required to fly to the
aerodrome to which the flight is planned and thereafter
for:
1) 45 minutes plus 15 per cent of the flight time planned
to be spent at the cruising level(s), or
4-5
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
4.3.6.3.2
required:
Part I
When a destination alternate aerodrome is not
Note 1.— The provisions of 4.3.7.1 do not necessarily
require the deployment of integral aeroplane stairs or the
opening of emergency exits as a prerequisite to refuelling.
a) in terms of 4.3.4.3 a), to fly to the aerodrome to which
the flight is planned and additionally:
Note 2.— Provisions concerning aircraft refuelling are
contained in Annex 14, Volume I, and guidance on safe
refuelling practices is contained in the Airport Services
Manual, (Doc 9137), Parts 1 and 8.
1) to fly 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m ( 150 0ft)
above the aerodrome to which the flight is planned
under standard temperature conditions; and
Note 3.— Additional precautions are required when
refuelling with fuels other than aviation kerosene or when
refuelling results in a mixture of aviation kerosene with other
aviation turbine fuels, or when an open line is used.
2) to have an additional amount of fuel, sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the
occurrence of any of the potential contingencies
specified by the operator to the satisfaction of the
State of the Operator; and
b) in terms of 4.3.4.3 b), to fly to the aerodrome to which
the flight is planned and thereafter for a period of two
hours at normal cruise consumption.
4.3.8
Oxygen supply
Note.— Approximate altitudes in the Standard Atmosphere
corresponding to the values of absolute pressure used in the
text are as follows:
4.3.6.4 In computing the fuel and oil required in 4.3.6.1 at
least the following shall be considered:
Absolute pressure
Metres
Feet
700 hPa
620 hPa
376 hPa
3 000
4 000
7 600
10 000
13 000
25 000
a) meteorological conditions forecast;
b) expected air traffic control routings and traffic delays;
c) for IFR flight, one instrument approach at the
destination aerodrome, including a missed approach;
4.3.8.1 A flight to be operated at flight altitudes at which
the atmospheric pressure in personnel compartments will be
less than 700 hPa shall not be commenced unless sufficient
stored breathing oxygen is carried to supply:
d) the procedures prescribed in the operations manual for
loss of pressurization, where applicable, or failure of one
power unit while en route; and
a) all crew members and 10 per cent of the passengers for
any period in excess of 30 minutes that the pressure in
compartments occupied by them will be between
700 hPa and 620 hPa; and
e) any other conditions that may delay the landing of the
aeroplane or increase fuel and/or oil consumption.
Note.— Nothing in 4.3.6 precludes amendment of a flight
plan in flight in order to replan the flight to another aerodrome, provided that the requirements of 4.3.6 can be
complied with from the point where the flight has been
replanned.
4.3.7
b) the crew and passengers for any period that the atmospheric pressure in compartments occupied by them will
be less than 620 hPa.
4.3.8.2 A flight to be operated with a pressurized aeroplane shall not be commenced unless a sufficient quantity of
stored breathing oxygen is carried to supply all the crew
members and passengers, as is appropriate to the circumstances of the flight being undertaken, in the event of loss of
pressurization, for any period that the atmospheric pressure in
any compartment occupied by them would be less than
700 hPa. In addition, when an aeroplane is operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than
376 hPa, or which, if operated at flight altitudes at which the
atmospheric pressure is more than 376 hPa and cannot descend
safely within four minutes to a flight altitude at which the
atmospheric pressure is equal to 620 hPa, there shall be no less
than a 10-minute supply for the occupants of the passenger
compartment.
Refuelling with passengers on board
4.3.7.1 An aeroplane shall not be refuelled when passengers are embarking, on board or disembarking unless it is
properly attended by qualified personnel ready to initiate and
direct an evacuation of the aeroplane by the most practical and
expeditious means available.
4.3.7.2 When refuelling with passengers embarking, on
board or disembarking, two-way communication shall be
maintained by the aeroplane’s inter-communication system or
other suitable means between the ground crew supervising the
refuelling and the qualified personnel on board the aeroplane.
1/11/01
4-6
Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
4.4
In-flight procedures
their absence is necessary for the performance of duties in
connection with the operation of the aeroplane or for
physiological needs.
4.4.1 Aerodrome operating minima
4.4.4.3 Seat belts. All flight crew members shall keep
their seat belts fastened when at their stations.
4.4.1.1 A flight shall not be continued towards the aerodrome of intended landing, unless the latest available information indicates that at the expected time of arrival, a landing
can be effected at that aerodrome or at least one destination
alternate aerodrome, in compliance with the operating minima
established in accordance with 4.2.7.1.
4.4.4.4 Safety harness. Any flight crew member occupying
a pilot’s seat shall keep the safety harness fastened during the
take-off and landing phases; all other flight crew members shall
keep their safety harnesses fastened during the take-off and
landing phases unless the shoulder straps interfere with the
performance of their duties, in which case the shoulder straps
may be unfastened but the seat belt must remain fastened.
4.4.1.2 An instrument approach shall not be continued
beyond the outer marker fix in case of precision approach, or
below 300 m (1 000 ft) above the aerodrome in case of nonprecision approach, unless the reported visibility or controlling
RVR is above the specified minimum.
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder straps and a seat
belt which may be used independently.
4.4.1.3 If, after passing the outer marker fix in case
of precision approach, or after descending below 300 m
(1 000 ft) above the aerodrome in case of non-precision
approach, the reported visibility or controlling RVR falls
below the specified minimum, the approach may be continued
to DA/H or MDA/H. In any case, an aeroplane shall not
continue its approach-to-land at any aerodrome beyond a point
at which the limits of the operating minima specified for that
aerodrome would be infringed.
4.4.5
Use of oxygen
4.4.5.1 All flight crew members, when engaged in
performing duties essential to the safe operation of an aeroplane in flight, shall use breathing oxygen continuously whenever the circumstances prevail for which its supply has been
required in 4.3.8.1 or 4.3.8.2.
4.4.5.2 All flight crew members of pressurized aeroplanes
operating above an altitude where the atmospheric pressure is
less than 376 hPa shall have available at the flight duty station
a quick-donning type of oxygen mask which will readily
supply oxygen upon demand.
Note.— Controlling RVR means the reported values of one
or more RVR reporting locations (touchdown, mid-point and
stop-end) used to determine whether operating minima are or
are not met. Where RVR is used, the controlling RVR is the
touchdown RVR, unless otherwise specified by State criteria.
4.4.6 Safeguarding of cabin crew and passengers
in pressurized aeroplanes in the event of loss
of pressurization
4.4.2 Meteorological observations
Note.— The procedures for making meteorological
observations on board aircraft in flight and for recording and
reporting them are contained in Annex 3, the PANS-ATM
(Doc 4444) and the appropriate Regional Supplementary
Procedures (Doc 7030).
Recommendation.— Cabin crew should be safeguarded so
as to ensure reasonable probability of their retaining
consciousness during any emergency descent which may be
necessary in the event of loss of pressurization and, in
addition, they should have such means of protection as will
enable them to administer first aid to passengers during
stabilized flight following the emergency. Passengers should be
safeguarded by such devices or operational procedures as will
ensure reasonable probability of their surviving the effects of
hypoxia in the event of loss of pressurization.
4.4.3 Hazardous flight conditions
Hazardous flight conditions encountered, other than those
associated with meteorological conditions, shall be reported to
the appropriate aeronautical station as soon as possible. The
reports so rendered shall give such details as may be pertinent
to the safety of other aircraft.
Note.— It is not envisaged that cabin crew will always be
able to provide assistance to passengers during emergency
descent procedures which may be required in the event of loss
of pressurization.
4.4.4 Flight crew members at duty stations
4.4.7
4.4.4.1 Take-off and landing. All flight crew members
required to be on flight deck duty shall be at their stations.
In-flight operational instructions
Operational instructions involving a change in the ATS flight
plan shall, when practicable, be coordinated with the appropriate ATS unit before transmission to the aeroplane.
4.4.4.2 En route. All flight crew members required to be
on flight deck duty shall remain at their stations except when
4-7
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Note.— When the above coordination has not been
possible, operational instructions do not relieve a pilot of the
responsibility for obtaining an appropriate clearance from an
ATS unit, if applicable, before making a change in flight plan.
4.5.3 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for
notifying the nearest appropriate authority by the quickest
available means of any accident involving the aeroplane,
resulting in serious injury or death of any person or substantial
damage to the aeroplane or property.
4.4.8 Instrument flight procedures
Note.— A definition of the term “serious injury” is contained in Annex 13 and an explanation of the term “substantial
damage” is given in the Accident/Incident Reporting Manual
(ADREP Manual) (Doc 9156).
4.4.8.1 One or more instrument approach procedures
designed in accordance with the classification of instrument
approach and landing operations shall be approved and
promulgated by the State in which the aerodrome is located to
serve each instrument runway or aerodrome utilized for
instrument flight operations.
4.5.4 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for
reporting all known or suspected defects in the aeroplane, to
the operator, at the termination of the flight.
4.5.5 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for the
journey log book or the general declaration containing the
information listed in 11.4.1.
4.4.8.2 All aeroplanes operated in accordance with
instrument flight rules shall comply with the instrument flight
procedures approved by the State in which the aerodrome is
located.
Note.— By virtue of Resolution A10-36 of the Tenth Session
of the Assembly (Caracas, June–July 1956) “the General
Declaration, [described in Annex 9] when prepared so as to
contain all the information required by Article 34 [of the
Convention on International Civil Aviation] with respect to the
journey log book, may be considered by Contracting States to
be an acceptable form of journey log book”.
Note 1.— Definitions for the classification of instrument
approach and landing operations are in Chapter 1.
Note 2.— Operational procedures recommended for the
guidance of operations personnel involved in instrument flight
operations are described in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I.
Note 3.— Criteria for the construction of instrument flight
procedures for the guidance of procedure specialists are
provided in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume II.
4.6 Duties of flight operations officer/
flight dispatcher
4.6.1 A flight operations officer/flight dispatcher when
employed in conjunction with a method of flight supervision
in accordance with 4.2.1 shall:
4.4.9 Aeroplane operating procedures for
noise abatement
4.4.9.1 Recommendation.— Aeroplane operating procedures for noise abatement should comply with the provisions
of PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I, Part V.
a) assist the pilot-in-command in flight preparation and
provide the relevant information required;
b) assist the pilot-in-command in preparing the operational
and ATS flight plans, sign when applicable and file the
ATS flight plan with the appropriate ATS unit;
4.4.9.2 Recommendation.— Noise abatement procedures
specified by an operator for any one aeroplane type should be
the same for all aerodromes.
c) furnish the pilot-in-command while in flight, by appropriate means, with information which may be necessary
for the safe conduct of the flight; and
4.5 Duties of pilot-in-command
d) in the event of an emergency, initiate such procedures as
may be outlined in the operations manual.
4.5.1 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for the
safety of all crew members, passengers and cargo on board
when the doors are closed. The pilot-in-command shall also be
responsible for the operation and safety of the aeroplane from
the moment the aeroplane is ready to move for the purpose of
taking off until the moment it finally comes to rest at the end
of the flight and the engine(s) used as primary propulsion units
are shut down.
4.6.2 A flight operations officer/flight dispatcher shall
avoid taking any action that would conflict with the procedures
established by:
a) air traffic control;
b) the meteorological service; or
4.5.2 The pilot-in-command shall ensure that the checklists specified in 4.2.5 are complied with in detail.
1/11/01
c) the communications service.
4-8
Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
4.7 Additional requirements for extended
range operations by aeroplanes with
two turbine power-units (ETOPS)
Note 1.— Guidance on compliance with the requirements of
this provision is contained in Attachment E.
Note 2.— The Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760) contains
guidance on the level of performance and reliability of
aeroplane systems intended by 4.7.2, as well as guidance on
continuing airworthiness aspects of the requirements of 4.7.2.
4.7.1 Unless the operation has been specifically approved
by the State of the Operator, an aeroplane with two turbine
power-units shall not, except as provided in 4.7.4, be operated
on a route where the flight time at single engine cruise speed
to an adequate en-route alternate aerodrome exceeds a
threshold time established for such operations by that State.
4.7.3 A flight to be conducted in accordance with 4.7.1
shall not be commenced unless, during the possible period of
arrival, the required en-route alternate aerodrome(s) will be
available and the available information indicates that conditions at those aerodromes will be at or above the aerodrome
operating minima approved for the operation.
Note 1.— Guidance on the value of the threshold time is
contained in Attachment E.
Note 2.— In the context of the approval of operations at
which the requirements of 5.2.11 can be met, guidance
material on adequate and suitable alternate aerodromes is
contained in Attachment E.
4.7.4 Recommendation.— The State of the Operator of
an aeroplane type with two turbine power-units which, prior to
25 March 1986 was authorized and operating on a route where
the flight time at single-engine cruise speed to an adequate enroute alternate aerodrome exceeded the threshold time
established for such operations in accordance with 4.7.1
should give consideration to permitting such an operation to
continue on that route after that date.
4.7.2 In approving the operation, the State of the Operator
shall ensure that:
a) the airworthiness certification of the aeroplane type;
b) the reliability of the propulsion system; and
c) the operator’s maintenance procedures, operating practices,
flight dispatch procedures and crew training programmes;
4.8 Carry-on baggage
provide the overall level of safety intended by the provisions
of Annexes 6 and 8. In making this assessment, account shall
be taken of the route to be flown, the anticipated operating
conditions and the location of adequate en-route alternate
aerodromes.
The operator shall ensure that all baggage carried onto an
aeroplane and taken into the passenger cabin is adequately and
securely stowed.
4-9
1/11/01
CHAPTER 5. AEROPLANE PERFORMANCE
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
5.1
General
5.2.5 A flight shall not be commenced unless the
performance information provided in the flight manual
indicates that the Standards of 5.2.6 to 5.2.11 can be complied
with for the flight to be undertaken.
5.1.1 Aeroplanes shall be operated in accordance with a
comprehensive and detailed code of performance established
by the State of Registry in compliance with the applicable
Standards of this chapter.
5.2.6 In applying the Standards of this chapter, account
shall be taken of all factors that significantly affect the
performance of the aeroplane (such as: mass, operating
procedures, the pressure-altitude appropriate to the elevation of
the aerodrome, temperature, wind, runway gradient and
condition of runway, i.e. presence of slush, water and/or ice,
for landplanes, water surface condition for seaplanes). Such
factors shall be taken into account directly as operational
parameters or indirectly by means of allowances or margins,
which may be provided in the scheduling of performance data
or in the comprehensive and detailed code of performance in
accordance with which the aeroplane is being operated.
5.1.2 Single-engined aeroplanes shall only be operated in
conditions of weather and light, and over such routes and
diversions therefrom, that permit a safe forced landing to be
executed in the event of engine failure.
5.1.3 Recommendation.— For aeroplanes for which
Parts IIIA and IIIB of Annex 8 is not applicable because of the
exemption provided for in Article 41 of the Convention, the
State of Registry should ensure that the level of performance
specified in 5.2 should be met as far as practicable.
5.2.7
5.2 Applicable to aeroplanes certificated
in accordance with Parts IIIA and IIIB of Annex 8
a) The mass of the aeroplane at the start of take-off shall
not exceed the mass at which 5.2.8 is complied with, nor
the mass at which 5.2.9, 5.2.10 and 5.2.11 are complied
with, allowing for expected reductions in mass as the
flight proceeds, and for such fuel jettisoning as is
envisaged in applying 5.2.9 and 5.2.10 and, in respect of
alternate aerodromes, 5.2.7 c) and 5.2.11.
5.2.1 The Standards contained in 5.2.2 to 5.2.11 inclusive
are applicable to the aeroplanes to which Parts IIIA and IIIB
of Annex 8 is applicable.
Note.— The following Standards do not include quantitative specifications comparable to those found in national
airworthiness codes. In accordance with 5.1.1, they are to be
supplemented by national requirements prepared by Contracting States.
b) In no case shall the mass at the start of take-off exceed
the maximum take-off mass specified in the flight
manual for the pressure-altitude appropriate to the
elevation of the aerodrome, and, if used as a parameter
to determine the maximum take-off mass, any other
local atmospheric condition.
5.2.2 The level of performance defined by the appropriate
parts of the comprehensive and detailed national code referred
to in 5.1.1 for the aeroplanes designated in 5.2.1 shall be at
least substantially equivalent to the overall level embodied in
the Standards of this chapter.
c) In no case shall the estimated mass for the expected time
of landing at the aerodrome of intended landing and at
any destination alternate aerodrome, exceed the
maximum landing mass specified in the flight manual
for the pressure-altitude appropriate to the elevation of
those aerodromes, and if used as a parameter to
determine the maximum landing mass, any other local
atmospheric condition.
Note.— Attachment C contains guidance material which
indicates by examples the level of performance intended by the
Standards and Recommended Practices of this chapter.
5.2.3 An aeroplane shall be operated in compliance with
the terms of its certificate of airworthiness and within the
approved operating limitations contained in its flight manual.
d) In no case shall the mass at the start of take-off, or at the
expected time of landing at the aerodrome of intended
landing and at any destination alternate aerodrome,
exceed the relevant maximum masses at which compliance has been demonstrated with the applicable noise
certification Standards in Annex 16, Volume I, unless
otherwise authorized in exceptional circumstances for a
5.2.4 The State of Registry shall take such precautions as
are reasonably possible to ensure that the general level of
safety contemplated by these provisions is maintained under
all expected operating conditions, including those not covered
specifically by the provisions of this chapter.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
Mass limitations
5-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
certain aerodrome or a runway where there is no noise
disturbance problem, by the competent authority of the
State in which the aerodrome is situated.
aerodromes and the total duration of the flight are such that the
probability of a second power-unit becoming inoperative must
be allowed for if the general level of safety implied by the
Standards of this chapter is to be maintained, the aeroplane
shall be able, in the event of any two power-units becoming
inoperative, to continue the flight to an en-route alternate
aerodrome and land.
5.2.8 Take-off. The aeroplane shall be able, in the event
of a critical power-unit failing at any point in the take-off,
either to discontinue the take-off and stop within the
accelerate-stop distance available, or to continue the take-off
and clear all obstacles along the flight path by an adequate
margin until the aeroplane is in a position to comply with
5.2.9.
5.2.11 Landing. The aeroplane shall, at the aerodrome of
intended landing and at any alternate aerodrome, after clearing
all obstacles in the approach path by a safe margin, be able to
land, with assurance that it can come to a stop or, for a
seaplane, to a satisfactorily low speed, within the landing
distance available. Allowance shall be made for expected
variations in the approach and landing techniques, if such
allowance has not been made in the scheduling of performance
data.
Note.— “An adequate margin” referred to in this provision
is illustrated by the appropriate examples included in
Attachment C.
5.2.8.1 In determining the length of the runway available,
account shall be taken of the loss, if any, of runway length due
to alignment of the aeroplane prior to take-off.
5.2.9 En route — one power-unit inoperative. The
aeroplane shall be able, in the event of the critical power-unit
becoming inoperative at any point along the route or planned
diversions therefrom, to continue the flight to an aerodrome at
which the Standard of 5.2.11 can be met, without flying below
the minimum flight altitude at any point.
5.3
5.3.1 Obstacle data shall be provided to enable the
operator to develop procedures to comply with 5.2.8.
Note.— See Annex 4 and Annex 15 for methods of
presentation of certain obstacle data.
5.2.10 En route — two power-units inoperative. In the
case of aeroplanes having three or more power-units, on any
part of a route where the location of en-route alternate
1/11/01
Obstacle data
5.3.2 The operator shall take account of charting accuracy
when assessing compliance with 5.2.8.
5-2
CHAPTER 6. AEROPLANE INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT
AND FLIGHT DOCUMENTS
Note.— Specifications for the provision of aeroplane
communication and navigation equipment are contained in
Chapter 7.
6.1
6.2.2 An aeroplane shall be equipped with:
a) accessible and adequate medical supplies appropriate to
the number of passengers the aeroplane is authorized to
carry;
General
Recommendation.—
comprise:
6.1.1 In addition to the minimum equipment necessary for
the issuance of a certificate of airworthiness, the instruments,
equipment and flight documents prescribed in the following
paragraphs shall be installed or carried, as appropriate, in
aeroplanes according to the aeroplane used and to the
circumstances under which the flight is to be conducted. The
prescribed instruments and equipment, including their
installation, shall be approved or accepted by the State of
Registry.
should
2) a medical kit, for the use of medical doctors or
other qualified persons in treating in-flight
medical emergencies for aeroplanes authorized to
carry more than 250 passengers.
Note.— Guidance on the types, number, location
and contents of the medical supplies is given in
Attachment B.
b) portable fire extinguishers of a type which, when
discharged, will not cause dangerous contamination of
the air within the aeroplane. At least one shall be located
in:
1) the pilot’s compartment; and
Note.— Attachment G contains guidance on the minimum
equipment list.
2) each passenger compartment that is separate from the
pilot’s compartment and that is not readily accessible
to the flight crew;
6.1.3 The operator shall provide operations staff and
flight crew with an aircraft operating manual, for each aircraft
type operated, containing the normal, abnormal and emergency
procedures relating to the operation of the aircraft. The manual
shall include details of the aircraft systems and of the
checklists to be used. The design of the manual shall observe
Human Factors principles.
Note.— Any portable fire extinguisher so fitted in
accordance with the certificate of airworthiness of the
aeroplane may count as one prescribed.
c) 1) a seat or berth for each person over an age to be
determined by the State of the Operator;
Note.— Guidance material on the application of Human
Factors principles can be found in the Human Factors Training
Manual (Doc 9683).
2) a seat belt for each seat and restraining belts for each
berth; and
3) a safety harness for each flight crew seat. The safety
harness for each pilot seat shall incorporate a device
which will automatically restrain the occupant’s
torso in the event of rapid deceleration;
All aeroplanes on all flights
6.2.1 An aeroplane shall be equipped with instruments
which will enable the flight crew to control the flight path of
the aeroplane, carry out any required procedural manoeuvres
and observe the operating limitations of the aeroplane in the
expected operating conditions.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
supplies
1) one or more first-aid kits; and
6.1.2 The operator shall include in the operations manual
a minimum equipment list (MEL), approved by the State of the
Operator which will enable the pilot-in-command to determine
whether a flight may be commenced or continued from any
intermediate stop should any instrument, equipment or systems
become inoperative. Where the State of the Operator is not the
State of Registry, the State of the Operator shall ensure that the
MEL does not affect the aeroplane’s compliance with the
airworthiness requirements applicable in the State of Registry.
6.2
Medical
Recommendation.— The safety harness for each
pilot seat should incorporate a device to prevent a
suddenly incapacitated pilot from interfering with the
flight controls.
6-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder straps
and a seat belt which may be used independently.
operation of the aeroplane within the terms of its
certificate of airworthiness, unless these data are
available in the operations manual; and
d) means of ensuring that the following information and
instructions are conveyed to passengers:
c) current and suitable charts to cover the route of the
proposed flight and any route along which it is
reasonable to expect that the flight may be diverted.
1) when seat belts are to be fastened;
2) when and how oxygen equipment is to be used if the
carriage of oxygen is required;
6.2.4 Marking of break-in points
3) restrictions on smoking;
6.2.4.1 If areas of the fuselage suitable for break-in by
rescue crews in emergency are marked on an aeroplane such
areas shall be marked as shown below (see figure following).
The colour of the markings shall be red or yellow, and if
necessary they shall be outlined in white to contrast with the
background.
4) location and use of life jackets or equivalent
individual flotation devices where their carriage is
required; and
5) location and method of opening emergency exits; and
6.2.4.2 If the corner markings are more than 2 m apart,
intermediate lines 9 cm x 3 cm shall be inserted so that there
is no more than 2 m between adjacent markings.
e) spare electrical fuses of appropriate ratings for
replacement of those accessible in flight.
6.2.3
An aeroplane shall carry:
Note.— This Standard does not require any aeroplane to
have break-in areas.
a) the operations manual prescribed in 4.2.2, or those parts
of it that pertain to flight operations;
6.3 Flight recorders
b) the flight manual for the aeroplane, or other documents
containing performance data required for the application
of Chapter 5 and any other information necessary for the
9 cm
Note 1.— Flight recorders comprise two systems, a flight
data recorder (FDR) and a cockpit voice recorder (CVR).
9 cm
3 cm
9 cm
3 cm
3 cm
Not over 2 m
MARKING OF BREAK-IN POINTS (see 6.2.4)
1/11/01
6-2
Chapter 6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Note 2.— Combination recorders (FDR/CVR) can only be
used to meet the flight recorder equipage requirements as
specifically indicated in this Annex.
6.3.1.7 Recommendation.— All multi-engined turbinepowered aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass
of 5 700 kg or less, required to be equipped with a FDR and/or
a CVR, may alternatively be equipped with one combination
recorder (FDR/CVR).
Note 3.— Detailed guidance on flight recorders is
contained in Attachment D.
6.3.1.8 A Type IA FDR shall record the parameters
required to determine accurately the aeroplane flight path,
speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation. The
parameters that satisfy the requirements for a Type IA FDR are
listed in the paragraphs below. The parameters without an
asterisk (*) are mandatory parameters which shall be recorded.
In addition, the parameters designated by an asterisk (*) shall
be recorded if an information data source for the parameter is
used by aeroplane systems or the flight crew to operate the
aeroplane.
6.3.1 Flight data recorders — types
6.3.1.1 A Type I FDR shall record the parameters
required to determine accurately the aeroplane flight path,
speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation.
6.3.1.2 Types II and IIA FDRs shall record the
parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane
flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and configuration of
lift and drag devices.
6.3.1.8.1 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for flight path and speed:
6.3.1.3 The use of engraving metal foil FDRs shall be
discontinued by 1 January 1995.
– Pressure altitude
– Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed
– Air-ground status and each landing gear air-ground
sensor when practicable
– Total or outside air temperature
– Heading (primary flight crew reference)
– Normal acceleration
– Lateral acceleration
– Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
– Time or relative time count
– Navigation data*: drift angle, wind speed, wind
direction, latitude/longitude
– Groundspeed*
– Radio altitude*
6.3.1.4 Recommendation.— The use of analogue FDRs
using frequency modulation (FM) should be discontinued by 5
November 1998.
6.3.1.4.1 The use of photographic film FDRs shall be
discontinued from 1 January 2003.
6.3.1.5 All aeroplanes for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2005, which
utilize data link communications and are required to carry a
CVR, shall record on a flight recorder, all data link communications to and from the aeroplane. The minimum recording
duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR, and shall
be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
6.3.1.8.2 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for attitude:
6.3.1.5.1 From 1 January 2007, all aeroplanes which
utilize data link communications and are required to carry a
CVR shall record on a flight recorder, all data link
communications to and from the aeroplane. The minimum
recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR,
and shall be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
–
–
–
–
Pitch attitude
Roll attitude
Yaw or sideslip angle*
Angle of attack*
6.3.1.8.3 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for engine power:
6.3.1.5.2 Sufficient information to derive the content of
the data link communications message and, whenever
practical, the time the message was displayed to or generated
by the crew shall be recorded.
– Engine thrust/power: propulsive thrust/power on each
engine, cockpit thrust/power lever position
– Thrust reverse status*
– Engine thrust command*
– Engine thrust target*
– Engine bleed valve position*
– Additional engine parameters*: EPR, N1, indicated
vibration level, N2, EGT, TLA, fuel flow, fuel cut-off
lever position, N3
Note.— Data link communications include, but are not
limited to, automatic dependent surveillance (ADS),
controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC), data linkflight information services (D-FIS) and aeronautical
operational control (AOC) messages
6.3.1.6 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass over 5 700 kg, required to be
equipped with a FDR and a CVR, may alternatively be
equipped with two combination recorders (FDR/CVR).
6.3.1.8.4 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for configuration:
6-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
– Pitch trim surface position
– Flaps*: trailing edge flap position, cockpit control
selection
– Slats*: leading edge flap (slat) position, cockpit control
selection
– Landing gear*: landing gear, gear selector position
– Yaw trim surface position*
– Roll trim surface position*
– Cockpit trim control input position pitch*
– Cockpit trim control input position roll*
– Cockpit trim control input position yaw*
– Ground spoiler and speed brake*: Ground spoiler
position, ground spoiler selection, speed brake position,
speed brake selection
– De-icing and/or anti-icing systems selection*
– Hydraulic pressure (each system)*
– Fuel quantity*
– AC electrical bus status*
– DC electrical bus status*
– APU bleed valve position*
– Computed centre of gravity*
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Note 1.— Parameter requirements, including range,
sampling, accuracy and resolution, as contained in the
Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS)
document for Flight Recorder Systems of the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) or
equivalent documents.
6.3.1.8.5 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for operation:
– Warnings
– Primary flight control surface and primary flight control
pilot input: pitch axis, roll axis, yaw axis
– Marker beacon passage
– Each navigation receiver frequency selection
– Manual radio transmission keying and CVR/FDR
synchronization reference
– Autopilot/autothrottle/AFCS mode and engagement
status*
– Selected barometric setting*: pilot, first officer
– Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
– Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
– Selected Mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
– Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of
operation)*
– Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
– Selected flight path (all pilot selectable modes of
operation)*: course/DSTRK, path angle
– Selected decision height*
– EFIS display format*: pilot, first officer
– Multi-function/engine/alerts display format*
– GPWS/TAWS/GCAS status*: selection of terrain
display mode including pop-up display status, terrain
alerts, both cautions and warnings, and advisories,
on/off switch position
– Low pressure warning*: hydraulic pressure, pneumatic
pressure
– Computer failure*
– Loss of cabin pressure*
– TCAS/ACAS (traffic alert and collision avoidance
system/airborne collision avoidance system)*
– Ice detection*
– Engine warning each engine vibration*
– Engine warning each engine over temperature*
1/11/01
Engine warning each engine oil pressure low*
Engine warning each engine over speed*
Wind shear warning*
Operational stall protection, stick shaker and pusher
activation*
All cockpit flight control input forces*: control wheel,
control column, rudder pedal cockpit input forces
Vertical deviation*: ILS glide path, MLS elevation,
GNSS approach path
Horizontal deviation*: ILS localizer, MLS azimuth,
GNSS approach path
DME 1 and 2 distances*
Primary navigation system reference*: GNSS, INS,
VOR/DME, MLS, Loran C, ILS
Brakes*: left and right brake pressure, left and right
brake pedal position
Date*
Event marker*
Head up display in use*
Para visual display on*
Note 2.— The number of parameters to be recorded will
depend on aeroplane complexity. Parameters without an (*)
are to be recorded regardless of aeroplane complexity. Those
parameters designated by an (*) are to be recorded if an
information source for the parameter is used by aeroplane
systems and/or flight crew to operate the aeroplane.
6.3.2 Flight data recorders — duration
All FDRs shall be capable of retaining the information
recorded during at least the last 25 hours of their operation,
except for the Type IIA FDR which shall be capable of
retaining the information recorded during at least the last 30
minutes of its operation.
6.3.3 Flight data recorders — aeroplanes for which
the individual certificate of airworthiness is first
issued on or after 1 January 1989
6.3.3.1 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 27 000 kg shall be equipped with a Type I FDR.
6.3.3.2 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 5 700 kg, up to and including 27 000 kg, shall be
equipped with a Type II FDR.
6.3.3.3 Recommendation.— All multi-engined turbinepowered aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass
6-4
Chapter 6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
of 5 700 kg or less for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1990 should
be equipped with a Type IIA FDR.
6.3.7 Cockpit voice recorders — aeroplanes for
which the individual certificate of airworthiness is
first issued on or after 1 January 1987
6.3.4 Flight data recorders — aeroplanes for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness was first issued
on or after 1 January 1987 but before 1 January 1989
6.3.7.1 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 5 700 kg shall be equipped with a CVR, the
objective of which is the recording of the aural environment on
the flight deck during flight time.
6.3.4.1 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg, except those in
6.3.4.3, shall be equipped with a FDR which shall record time,
altitude, airspeed, normal acceleration and heading.
6.3.7.2 Recommendation.— All multi-engined turbinepowered aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass
of 5 700 kg or less for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1990 should
be equipped with a CVR, the objective of which is the
recording of the aural environment on the flight deck during
flight time.
6.3.4.2 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
5 700 kg, except those in 6.3.4.3, should be equipped with a
FDR which shall record time, altitude, airspeed, normal
acceleration, heading and such additional parameters as are
necessary to determine pitch attitude, roll attitude, radio
transmission keying and power on each engine.
6.3.8 Cockpit voice recorders — aeroplanes
for which the individual certificate of airworthiness
was first issued before 1 January 1987
6.3.4.3 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg that are of types
of which the prototype was certificated by the appropriate
national authority after 30 September 1969 shall be equipped
with a Type II FDR.
Note.— CVR performance requirements are as contained in
the Minimum Operational Performance Specifications (MOPS)
document for Flight Recorder Systems of the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) or
equivalent documents.
6.3.8.1 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass of over 27 000 kg that are of types
of which the prototype was certificated by the appropriate
national authority after 30 September 1969 shall be equipped
with a CVR, the objective of which is the recording of the
aural environment on the flight deck during flight time.
6.3.5 Flight data recorders — aeroplanes for which
the individual certificate of airworthiness was first
issued before 1 January 1987
6.3.5.1 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg shall be equipped
with a FDR which shall record time, altitude, airspeed, normal
acceleration and heading.
6.3.8.2 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700
kg up to and including 27000 kg that are of types of which the
prototype was certificated by the appropriate national
authority after 30 September 1969 should be equipped with a
CVR, the objective of which is the recording of the aural
environment on the flight deck during flight time.
6.3.5.2 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
27 000 kg that are of types of which the prototype was
certificated by the appropriate national authority after
30 September 1969 should be equipped with a FDR which
should record, in addition to time, altitude, airspeed, normal
acceleration and heading, such additional parameters as are
necessary to meet the objectives of determining:
6.3.9
a) the attitude of the aeroplane in achieving its flight path;
and
Cockpit voice recorders — duration
6.3.9.1 A CVR shall be capable of retaining the
information recorded during at least the last 30 minutes of its
operation.
b) the basic forces acting upon the aeroplane resulting in
the achieved flight path and the origin of such basic
forces.
6.3.6 Flight data recorders — aeroplanes for which
the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued after 1 January 2005
6.3.9.2 Recommendation.— A CVR, installed in
aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over
5 700 kg for which the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued on or after 1 January 1990, should be capable
of retaining the information recorded during at least the last
two hours of its operation.
All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of
over 5 700 kg shall be equipped with a Type IA FDR.
6.3.9.3 A CVR, installed in aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg for which the
6-5
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after
1 January 2003, shall be capable of retaining the information
recorded during at least the last two hours of its operation.
6.3.10
c) a sensitive pressure altimeter;
d) an airspeed indicator; and
e) such additional instruments or equipment as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
Flight recorders — construction
and installation
6.4.2 VFR flights which are operated as controlled flights
shall be equipped in accordance with 6.9.
Flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so
as to provide maximum practical protection for the recordings
in order that the recorded information may be preserved,
recovered and transcribed. Flight recorders shall meet the
prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications.
6.5 All aeroplanes on flights over water
Note.— Industry crashworthiness and fire protection
specifications can be found in documents such as the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE)
documents ED55 and ED56A.
6.3.11
6.5.1 Seaplanes
All seaplanes for all flights shall be equipped with:
a) one life jacket, or equivalent individual flotation device,
for each person on board, stowed in a position easily
accessible from the seat or berth of the person for whose
use it is provided;
Flight recorders — operation
6.3.11.1 Flight recorders shall not be switched off during
flight time.
b) equipment for making the sound signals prescribed in
the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions
at Sea, where applicable; and
6.3.11.2 To preserve flight recorder records, flight
recorders shall be de-activated upon completion of flight time
following an accident or incident. The flight recorders shall
not be re-activated before their disposition as determined in
accordance with Annex 13.
c) one sea anchor (drogue).
Note.— “Seaplanes” includes amphibians operated as
seaplanes.
Note 1.— The need for removal of the flight recorder
records from the aircraft will be determined by the investigation authority in the State conducting the investigation with
due regard to the seriousness of an occurrence and the
circumstances, including the impact on the operation.
6.5.2 Landplanes
6.5.2.1 Landplanes shall carry the equipment prescribed
in 6.5.2.2:
Note 2.— The operator’s responsibilities regarding the
retention of flight recorder records are contained in 11.6.
6.3.12
a) when flying over water and at a distance of more than
93 km (50 NM) away from the shore, in the case of
landplanes operated in accordance with 5.2.9 or 5.2.10;
Flight recorders — continued serviceability
Operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the
FDR and CVR systems shall be conducted to ensure the
continued serviceability of the recorders.
b) when flying en route over water beyond gliding distance
from the shore, in the case of all other landplanes; and
c) when taking off or landing at an aerodrome where, in
the opinion of the State of the Operator, the take-off or
approach path is so disposed over water that in the event
of a mishap there would be a likelihood of a ditching.
Note.— Procedures for the inspections of the FDR and CVR
systems are given in Attachment D.
6.4 All aeroplanes operated as VFR flights
a) a magnetic compass;
6.5.2.2 The equipment referred to in 6.5.2.1 shall
comprise one life jacket or equivalent individual flotation
device for each person on board, stowed in a position easily
accessible from the seat or berth of the person for whose use
it is provided.
b) an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours,
minutes and seconds;
Note.— ‘‘Landplanes’’ includes amphibians operated as
landplanes.
6.4.1 All aeroplanes when operated as VFR flights shall
be equipped with:
1/11/01
6-6
Chapter 6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
6.5.3 All aeroplanes on long-range
over-water flights
oxygen storage and dispensing apparatus capable of storing
and dispensing the oxygen supplies required in 4.3.8.1.
6.5.3.1 In addition to the equipment prescribed in 6.5.1 or
6.5.2 whichever is applicable, the following equipment shall
be installed in all aeroplanes when used over routes on which
the aeroplane may be over water and at more than a distance
corresponding to 120 minutes at cruising speed or 740 km
(400 NM), whichever is the lesser, away from land suitable for
making an emergency landing in the case of aircraft operated
in accordance with 5.2.9 or 5.2.10, and 30 minutes or 185 km
(100 NM), whichever is the lesser, for all other aeroplanes:
6.7.2 An aeroplane intended to be operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than
700 hPa but which is provided with means of maintaining
pressures greater than 700 hPa in personnel compartments
shall be provided with oxygen storage and dispensing
apparatus capable of storing and dispensing the oxygen
supplies required in 4.3.8.2.
6.7.3 Pressurized aeroplanes newly introduced into
service on or after 1 July 1962 and intended to be operated at
flight altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than
376 hPa shall be equipped with a device to provide positive
warning to the pilot of any dangerous loss of pressurization.
a) life-saving rafts in sufficient numbers to carry all
persons on board, stowed so as to facilitate their ready
use in emergency, provided with such life-saving
equipment including means of sustaining life as is
appropriate to the flight to be undertaken; and
6.7.4 Recommendation.— Pressurized aeroplanes introduced into service before 1 July 1962 and intended to be
operated at flight altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure
is less than 376 hPa should be equipped with a device to
provide positive warning to the pilot of any dangerous loss of
pressurization.
b) equipment for making the pyrotechnical distress signals
described in Annex 2.
6.5.3.2 Each life jacket and equivalent individual
flotation device, when carried in accordance with 6.5.1 a),
6.5.2.1 and 6.5.2.2, shall be equipped with a means of electric
illumination for the purpose of facilitating the location of
persons, except where the requirement of 6.5.2.1 c) is met by
the provision of individual flotation devices other than life
jackets.
6.6
6.7.5 An aeroplane intended to be operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than
376 hPa, or which, if operated at flight altitudes at which the
atmospheric pressure is more than 376 hPa, cannot descend
safely within four minutes to a flight altitude at which the
atmospheric pressure is equal to 620 hPa and for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or after
9 November 1998, shall be provided with automatically
deployable oxygen equipment to satisfy the requirements of
4.3.8.2. The total number of oxygen dispensing units shall
exceed the number of passenger and cabin crew seats by at
least 10 per cent.
All aeroplanes on flights over
designated land areas
Aeroplanes, when operated across land areas which have been
designated by the State concerned as areas in which search and
rescue would be especially difficult, shall be equipped with
such signalling devices and life-saving equipment (including
means of sustaining life) as may be appropriate to the area
overflown.
6.7
6.7.6 Recommendation.— An aeroplane intended to be
operated at flight altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure
is less than 376 hPa, or which, if operated at flight altitudes at
which the atmospheric pressure is more than 376 hPa cannot
descend safely within four minutes to a flight altitude at which
the atmospheric pressure is equal to 620 hPa, and for
which the individual certificate of airworthiness was first
issued before 9 November 1998, should be provided with
automatically deployable oxygen equipment to satisfy the
requirements of 4.3.8.2. The total number of oxygen dispensing
units should exceed the number of passenger and cabin crew
seats by at least 10 per cent.
All aeroplanes on high altitude flights
Note.— Approximate altitude in the Standard Atmosphere
corresponding to the value of absolute pressure used in this
text is as follows:
Absolute pressure
Metres
Feet
700 hPa
620 hPa
376 hPa
3 000
4 000
7 600
10 000
13 000
25 000
6.8 All aeroplanes in
icing conditions
All aeroplanes shall be equipped with suitable de-icing and/or
anti-icing devices when operated in circumstances in which
icing conditions are reported to exist or are expected to be
encountered.
6.7.1 An aeroplane intended to be operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than
700 hPa in personnel compartments shall be equipped with
6-7
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
6.9
Part I
All aeroplanes operated in accordance
with instrument flight rules
(artificial horizon), clearly visible to the pilot-in-command.
The emergency power supply shall be automatically operative
after the total failure of the main electrical generating system
and clear indication shall be given on the instrument panel that
the attitude indicator(s) is being operated by emergency
power.
6.9.1 All aeroplanes when operated in accordance with
the instrument flight rules, or when the aeroplane cannot be
maintained in a desired attitude without reference to one or
more flight instruments, shall be equipped with:
6.9.2.2 Those instruments that are used by any one pilot
shall be so arranged as to permit the pilot to see their
indications readily from his or her station, with the minimum
practicable deviation from the position and line of vision
normally assumed when looking forward along the flight path.
a) a magnetic compass;
b) an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours,
minutes and seconds;
c) two sensitive pressure altimeters with counter drumpointer or equivalent presentation;
6.10 All aeroplanes when operated at night
All aeroplanes, when operated at night shall be equipped with:
Note.— Neither three-pointer nor drum-pointer
altimeters satisfy the requirement in 6.9.1 c).
a) all equipment specified in 6.9;
d) an airspeed indicating system with means of preventing
malfunctioning due to either condensation or icing;
b) the lights required by Annex 2 for aircraft in flight or
operating on the movement area of an aerodrome;
e) a turn and slip indicator;
Note.— Specifications for lights meeting the
requirements of Annex 2 for navigation lights are
contained in Appendix 1. The general characteristics of
lights are specified in Annex 8. Detailed specifications
for lights meeting the requirements of Annex 2 for
aircraft in flight or operating on the movement area of
an aerodrome are contained in the Airworthiness
Manual (Doc 9760).
f) an attitude indicator (artificial horizon);
g) a heading indicator (directional gyroscope);
Note.— The requirements of 6.9.1 e), f) and g) may
be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated
flight director systems provided that the safeguards
against total failure, inherent in the three separate
instruments, are retained.
c) two landing lights;
Note.— Aeroplanes not certificated in accordance
with Annex 8 which are equipped with a single landing
light having two separately energized filaments will be
considered to have complied with 6.10 c).
h) a means of indicating whether the power supply to the
gyroscopic instrument is adequate;
i) a means of indicating in the flight crew compartment the
outside air temperature;
d) illumination for all instruments and equipment that are
essential for the safe operation of the aeroplane that are
used by the flight crew;
j) a rate-of-climb and descent indicator; and
e) lights in all passenger compartments; and
k) such additional instruments or equipment as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
f) an electric torch for each crew member station
6.9.2 All aeroplanes over 5 700 kg —
Emergency power supply for electrically
operated attitude indicating instruments
.
6.11 Pressurized aeroplanes when carrying
passengers — weather radar
6.9.2.1 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 5 700 kg newly introduced into service after
1 January 1975 shall be fitted with an emergency power
supply, independent of the main electrical generating system,
for the purpose of operating and illuminating, for a minimum
period of 30 minutes, an attitude indicating instrument
1/11/01
Recommendation.— Pressurized aeroplanes when
carrying passengers should be equipped with operative
weather radar whenever such aeroplanes are being operated
in areas where thunderstorms or other potentially hazardous
weather conditions, regarded as detectable with airborne
6-8
Chapter 6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
weather radar, may be expected to exist along the route either
at night or under instrument meteorological conditions.
6.15.2 Recommendation.— All piston-engined aeroplanes
of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or
authorized to carry more than nine passengers should be
equipped with a ground proximity warning system.
6.12 All aeroplanes operated
above 15 000 m (49 000 ft) —
radiation indicator
6.15.3 A ground proximity warning system shall provide
automatically a timely and distinctive warning to the flight
crew when the aeroplane is in potentially hazardous proximity
to the earth’s surface.
All aeroplanes intended to be operated above 15 000 m
(49 000 ft) shall carry equipment to measure and indicate
continuously the dose rate of total cosmic radiation being
received (i.e. the total of ionizing and neutron radiation of
galactic and solar origin) and the cumulative dose on each
flight. The display unit of the equipment shall be readily
visible to a flight crew member.
6.15.4 A ground proximity warning system shall provide,
as a minimum, warnings of the following circumstances:
a) excessive descent rate;
b) excessive terrain closure rate;
c) excessive altitude loss after take-off or go-around;
Note.— The equipment is calibrated on the basis of
assumptions acceptable to the appropriate national
authorities.
d) unsafe terrain
configuration;
clearance
while
not
in
landing
1) gear not locked down;
6.13 All aeroplanes complying with
the noise certification Standards
in Annex 16, Volume I
2) flaps not in a landing position; and
e) excessive descent below the instrument glide path.
An aeroplane shall carry a document attesting noise
certification. When the document, or a suitable statement
attesting noise certification as contained in another document
approved by the State of Registry, is issued in a language other
than English, it shall include an English translation.
6.15.5 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass in excess of 15 000 kg or authorized to carry more than 30 passengers, for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued on or
after 1 January 2001, shall be equipped with a ground
proximity warning system which has a predictive terrain
hazard warning function.
Note.— The attestation may be contained in any document,
carried on board, approved by the State of Registry.
6.14
6.15.6 From 1 January 2003, all turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of
15 000 kg or authorized to carry more than 30 passengers shall
be equipped with a ground proximity warning system which
has a predictive terrain hazard warning function.
Mach number indicator
All aeroplanes with speed limitations expressed in terms of
Mach number, shall be equipped with a Mach number
indicator.
6.15.7 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes
of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or
authorized to carry more than nine passengers should be
equipped with a ground proximity warning system which has a
predictive terrain hazard warning function.
Note.— This does not preclude the use of the airspeed
indicator to derive Mach number for ATS purposes.
6.16
6.15 Aeroplanes required to be
equipped with ground proximity
warning systems (GPWS)
Aeroplanes carrying passengers —
cabin crew seats
6.16.1 Aeroplanes for which the individual
certificate of airworthiness is first
issued on or after 1 January 1981
6.15.1 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or authorized
to carry more than nine passengers shall be equipped with a
ground proximity warning system.
All aeroplanes shall be equipped with a forward or rearward
facing (within 15 degrees of the longitudinal axis of the
6-9
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
aeroplane) seat, fitted with a safety harness for the use of each
cabin crew member required to satisfy the intent of 12.1 in
respect of emergency evacuation.
6.17.8 ELT equipment carried to satisfy the requirements
of 6.17.1, 6.17.2, 6.17.3, 6.17.4, 6.17.5, 6.17.6 and 6.17.7
shall operate in accordance with the relevant provisions of
Annex 10, Volume III.
6.16.2 Aeroplanes for which the individual
certificate of airworthiness was first
issued before 1 January 1981
6.18 Aeroplanes required to be equipped with an
airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS II)
Recommendation.— All aeroplanes should be equipped
with a forward or rearward facing (within 15 degrees of the
longitudinal axis of the aeroplane) seat, fitted with a safety
harness for the use of each cabin crew member required to
satisfy the intent of 12.1 in respect of emergency evacuation.
6.18.1 From 1 January 2003, all turbine-engined aeroplanes
of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 15 000 kg
or authorized to carry more than 30 passengers shall be
equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system
(ACAS II).
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder straps and a seat
belt which may be used independently.
6.16.3
6.16.1 and
emergency
emergency
6.18.2 From 1 January 2005, all turbine-engined
aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess
of 5 700 kg or authorized to carry more than 19 passengers
shall be equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system
(ACAS II).
Cabin crew seats provided in accordance with
6.16.2 shall be located near floor level and other
exits as required by the State of Registry for
evacuation.
6.17
6.18.3 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes should be
equipped with an airborne collision avoidance system
(ACAS II).
Emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
6.18.4 An airborne collision avoidance system shall
operate in accordance with the relevant provisions of
Annex 10, Volume IV.
6.17.1 Except as provided for in 6.17.2, until 1 January
2005 all aeroplanes operated on long-range over-water flights
as described in 6.5.3 shall be equipped with at least two
ELT(S).
6.19 Aeroplanes required to be equipped
with a pressure-altitude reporting transponder
6.17.2 All aeroplanes for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2002, operated
on long-range over-water flights as described in 6.5.3, shall be
equipped with at least two ELTs, one of which shall be
automatic.
All aeroplanes shall be equipped with a pressure-altitude
reporting transponder which operates in accordance with the
relevant provisions of Annex 10, Volume IV.
6.17.3 From 1 January 2005, all aeroplanes operated on
long-range over-water flights as described in 6.5.3 shall be
equipped with at least two ELTs, one of which shall be
automatic.
Note.— This provision is intended to improve the
effectiveness of air traffic services as well as airborne collision
avoidance systems.
6.17.4 Except as provided for in 6.17.5, until 1 January
2005 aeroplanes on flights over designated land areas as
described in 6.6 shall be equipped with at least one ELT(S).
6.20
Microphones
All flight crew members required to be on flight deck duty
shall communicate through boom or throat microphones below
the transition level/altitude.
6.17.5 All aeroplanes for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2002, on flights
over designated land areas as described in 6.6, shall be
equipped with at least one automatic ELT.
6.17.6 From 1 January 2005, aeroplanes on flights over
designated land areas as described in 6.6 shall be equipped
with at least one automatic ELT.
6.21 Turbo-jet aeroplanes —
forward-looking wind shear
warning system
6.17.7 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes should carry
an automatic ELT.
6.21.1 Recommendation.— All turbo-jet aeroplanes of
a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg
1/11/01
6-10
Chapter 6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
or authorized to carry more than nine passengers should be
equipped with a forward-looking wind shear warning system.
.
6.21.2 Recommendation.— A forward-looking wind shear
warning system should be capable of providing the pilot with a
timely aural and visual warning of wind shear ahead of the
aircraft, and the information required to permit the pilot to
safely commence and continue a missed approach or go-around
or to execute an escape manoeuvre if necessary. The system
should also provide an indication to the pilot when the limits
specified for the certification of automatic landing equipment
are being approached, when such equipment is in use.
6-11
1/11/01
CHAPTER 7. AEROPLANE COMMUNICATION AND
NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
7.1 Communication equipment
navigation performance specifications (MNPS) are prescribed,
an aeroplane shall be provided with navigation equipment
which:
7.1.1 An aeroplane shall be provided with radio
communication equipment capable of:
a) conducting two-way communication for aerodrome
control purposes;
a) continuously provides indications to the flight crew of
adherence to or departure from track to the required
degree of accuracy at any point along that track; and
b) receiving meteorological information at any time during
flight; and
b) has been authorized by the State of the Operator for
MNPS operations concerned.
c) conducting two-way communication at any time during
flight with at least one aeronautical station and with
such other aeronautical stations and on such frequencies
as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority.
Note.— The prescribed minimum navigation performance
specifications and the procedures governing their application
are published in the Regional Supplementary Procedures
(Doc 7030).
Note.— The requirements of 7.1.1 are considered fulfilled
if the ability to conduct the communications specified therein
is established during radio propagation conditions which are
normal for the route.
7.2.3 For flights in defined portions of airspace where,
based on Regional Air Navigation Agreement, a vertical
separation minimum (VSM) of 300 m (1 000 ft) is applied
above FL 290, an aeroplane:
a) shall be provided with equipment which is capable of:
7.1.2 The radio communication equipment required in
accordance with 7.1.1 shall provide for communications on the
aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5 MHz.
1) indicating to the flight crew the flight level being
flown;
2) automatically maintaining a selected flight level;
3) providing an alert to the flight crew when a deviation
occurs from the selected flight level. The threshold
for the alert shall not exceed ± 90 m (300 ft); and
7.2 Navigation equipment
7.2.1 An aeroplane shall be provided with navigation
equipment which will enable it to proceed:
4) automatically reporting pressure-altitude; and
a) in accordance with its operational flight plan;
b) shall be authorized by the State of the Operator for
operation in the airspace concerned.
b) in accordance with prescribed RNP types; and
7.2.4 The aeroplane shall be sufficiently provided with
navigation equipment to ensure that, in the event of the failure
of one item of equipment at any stage of the flight, the
remaining equipment will enable the aeroplane to navigate in
accordance with 7.2.1 and where applicable 7.2.2 and 7.2.3.
c) in accordance with the requirements of air traffic
services;
except when, if not so precluded by the appropriate authority,
navigation for flights under the visual flight rules is
accomplished by visual reference to landmarks.
Note.— Information on RNP and associated procedures is
contained in the Manual on Required Navigation Performance
(RNP) (Doc 9613).
Note.— Guidance material relating to aircraft equipment
necessary for flight in airspace where a 300 m (1 000 ft) VSM
is applied above FL 290 is contained in the Manual on
Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft) Vertical Separation
Minimum Between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive (Doc 9574).
7.2.2 For flights in defined portions of airspace where,
based on Regional Air Navigation Agreement, minimum
7.2.5 On flights in which it is intended to land in
instrument meteorological conditions, an aeroplane shall be
ANNEX 6 — PART I
7-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
provided with radio equipment capable of receiving signals
providing guidance to a point from which a visual landing can
be effected. This equipment shall be capable of providing such
guidance at each aerodrome at which it is intended to land in
instrument meteorological conditions and at any designated
alternate aerodromes.
1/11/01
7.3
Installation
The equipment installation shall be such that the failure of any
single unit required for either communications or navigation
purposes or both will not result in the failure of another unit
required for communications or navigation purposes.
7-2
CHAPTER 8. AEROPLANE MAINTENANCE
Note 1.— For the purpose of this chapter, “aeroplane”
includes: powerplants, propellers, components, accessories,
instruments, equipment and apparatus including emergency
equipment.
8.2.2 The operator shall ensure that the maintenance
control manual is amended as necessary to keep the
information contained therein up to date.
8.2.3 Copies of all amendments to the operator’s
maintenance control manual shall be furnished promptly to all
organizations or persons to whom the manual has been issued.
Note 2.— Reference is made throughout this chapter to the
requirements of the State of Registry. When the State of the
Operator is not the same as the State of Registry, it may be
necessary to consider any additional requirements of the State
of the Operator.
8.2.4 The operator shall provide the State of the Operator
and the State of Registry with a copy of the operator’s maintenance control manual, together with all amendments and/or
revisions to it and shall incorporate in it such mandatory
material as the State of the Operator or the State of Registry
may require.
Note 3.— Guidance on continuing airworthiness requirements is contained in the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
8.1
Operator’s maintenance responsibilities
8.1.1 Operators shall ensure that, in accordance with
procedures acceptable to the State of Registry:
8.3 Maintenance programme
a) each aeroplane they operate is maintained in an
airworthy condition;
8.3.1 The operator shall provide, for the use and guidance
of maintenance and operational personnel concerned, a
maintenance programme, approved by the State of Registry,
containing the information required by 11.3. The design and
application of the operator’s maintenance programme shall
observe Human Factors principles.
b) the operational and emergency equipment necessary for
an intended flight is serviceable;
c) the Certificate of Airworthiness of each aeroplane they
operate remains valid.
Note.— Guidance material on the application of Human
Factors principles can be found in the Human Factors Training
Manual (Doc 9683).
8.1.2 An operator shall not operate an aeroplane unless it
is maintained and released to service by an organization
approved in accordance with 8.7, or under an equivalent
system, either of which shall be acceptable to the State of
Registry.
8.3.2 Copies of all amendments to the maintenance
programme shall be furnished promptly to all organizations or
persons to whom the maintenance programme has been issued.
8.1.3 When the State of Registry accepts an equivalent
system, the person signing the maintenance release shall be
licensed in accordance with Annex 1.
8.1.4 An operator shall employ a person or group of
persons to ensure that all maintenance is carried out in
accordance with the maintenance control manual.
8.4
8.4.1 An operator shall ensure that the following records
are kept for the periods mentioned in 8.4.2:
8.1.5 The operator shall ensure that the maintenance of its
aeroplanes is performed in accordance with the maintenance
programme.
a) the total time in service (hours, calendar time and
cycles, as appropriate) of the aeroplane and all life
limited components;
8.2 Operator’s maintenance control manual
b) the current status of compliance with all mandatory
continuing airworthiness information;
8.2.1 The operator shall provide, for the use and guidance
of maintenance and operational personnel concerned, a
maintenance control manual, acceptable to the State of
Registry, in accordance with the requirements of 11.2.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
Maintenance records
c) appropriate details of modifications and repairs;
8-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
d) the time in service (hours, calendar time and cycles, as
appropriate) since the last overhaul of the aeroplane or
its components subject to a mandatory overhaul life;
8.7
Approved maintenance organization
8.7.1
e) the current status of the aeroplane’s compliance with the
maintenance programme; and
Issue of approval
8.7.1.1 The issue of a maintenance organization approval
by a State shall be dependent upon the applicant demonstrating
compliance with the requirements of 8.7 for such organizations.
f) the detailed maintenance records to show that all
requirements for the signing of a maintenance release
have been met.
8.7.1.2 The approval document shall contain at least the
following:
8.4.2 The records in 8.4.1 a) to e) shall be kept for a
minimum period of 90 days after the unit to which they refer
has been permanently withdrawn from service, and the records
in 8.4.1 f) for a minimum period of one year after the signing
of the maintenance release.
a) organization’s name and location;
b) date of issue and period of validity;
c) terms of approval.
8.4.3 In the event of a temporary change of operator, the
records shall be made available to the new operator. In the
event of any permanent change of operator, the records shall
be transferred to the new operator.
8.7.1.3 The continued validity of the approval shall
depend upon the organization remaining in compliance with the
requirements of 8.7 for an approved maintenance organization.
Note.— In the context of 8.4.3, a judgement on what should
be considered as a temporary change of operator will need to
be made by the State of Registry in the light of the need to
exercise control over the records, which will depend on access
to them and the opportunity to update them.
8.5
8.7.2
8.7.2.1 The maintenance organization shall provide for
the use and guidance of maintenance personnel concerned a
procedures manual which may be issued in separate parts
containing the following information:
Continuing airworthiness information
a) a general description of the scope of work authorized
under the organization’s terms of approval;
8.5.1 The operator of an aeroplane over 5 700 kg
maximum certificated take-off mass shall monitor and assess
maintenance and operational experience with respect to
continuing airworthiness and provide the information as
prescribed by the State of Registry and report through the
system specified in Annex 8, Part II, 4.3.5 and 4.3.8.
b) a description of the organization’s procedures and
quality or inspection system in accordance with 8.7.3;
c) a general description of the organization’s facilities;
8.5.2 The operator of an aeroplane over 5 700 kg
maximum certificated take-off mass shall obtain and assess
continuing airworthiness information and recommendations
available from the organization responsible for the type design
and shall implement resulting actions considered necessary in
accordance with a procedure acceptable to the State of
Registry.
d) names and duties of the person or persons required by
8.7.5.1;
e) a description of the procedures used to establish the
competence of maintenance personnel as required by
8.7.5.3;
f) a description of the method used for the completion and
retention of the maintenance records required by 8.7.6;
Note.— Guidance on the interpretation of “the organization
responsible for the type design” is contained in the
Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
8.6
g) a description of the procedures for preparing the maintenance release and the circumstances under which the
release is to be signed;
Modifications and repairs
h) the personnel authorized to sign the maintenance release
and the scope of their authorization;
All modifications and repairs shall comply with airworthiness
requirements acceptable to the State of Registry. Procedures
shall be established to ensure that the substantiating data
supporting compliance with the airworthiness requirements are
retained.
1/11/01
Maintenance organization’s
procedures manual
i) a description, when applicable, of the additional procedures for complying with an operator’s maintenance
procedures and requirements;
8-2
Chapter 8
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
j) a description of the procedures for complying with the
service information reporting requirements of Annex 8,
Part II, 4.3.5 and 4.3.8; and
8.7.5.2 The maintenance organization shall employ the
necessary personnel to plan, perform, supervise, inspect and
release the work to be performed.
k) a description of the procedure for receiving, assessing,
amending and distributing within the maintenance
organization all necessary airworthiness data from the
type certificate holder or type design organization.
8.7.5.3 The competence of maintenance personnel shall
be established in accordance with a procedure and to a level
acceptable to the State granting the approval. The person
signing a maintenance release shall be qualified in accordance
with Annex 1.
8.7.2.2 The maintenance organization shall ensure that the
procedures manual is amended as necessary to keep the
information contained therein up to date.
8.7.5.4 The maintenance organization shall ensure that all
maintenance personnel receive initial and continuation training
appropriate to their assigned tasks and responsibilities. The
training programme established by the maintenance organization shall include training in knowledge and skills related to
human performance, including co-ordination with other maintenance personnel and flight crew.
8.7.2.3 Copies of all amendments to the procedures
manual shall be furnished promptly to all organizations or
persons to whom the manual has been issued.
8.7.3
Maintenance procedures and
quality assurance system
Note.— Guidance material to design training programmes
to develop knowledge and skills in human performance can be
found in the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
8.7.3.1 The maintenance organization shall establish
procedures, acceptable to the State granting the approval,
which ensure good maintenance practices and compliance with
all relevant requirements of this chapter.
8.7.6
8.7.6.1 The maintenance organization shall retain detailed
maintenance records to show that all requirements for the
signing of a maintenance release have been met.
8.7.3.2 The maintenance organization shall ensure
compliance with 8.7.3.1 by either establishing an independent
quality assurance system to monitor compliance with and
adequacy of the procedures, or by providing a system of
inspection to ensure that all maintenance is properly performed.
8.7.4
Records
8.7.6.2 The records required by 8.7.6.1 shall be kept for a
minimum period of one year after the signing of the
maintenance release
Facilities
8.8
8.7.4.1 The facilities and working environment shall be
appropriate for the task to be performed.
Maintenance release
8.7.4.2 The maintenance organization shall have the
necessary technical data, equipment, tools and material to
perform the work for which it is approved.
8.8.1 A maintenance release shall be completed and
signed to certify that the maintenance work performed has
been completed satisfactorily and in accordance with approved
data and the procedures described in the maintenance
organization’s procedures manual.
8.7.4.3 Storage facilities shall be provided for parts,
equipment, tools and material. Storage conditions shall be such
as to provide security and prevent deterioration of and damage
to stored items.
8.8.2 A maintenance release shall contain a certification
including:
a) basic details of the maintenance carried out including
detailed reference of the approved data used;
8.7.5 Personnel
b) date such maintenance was completed;
8.7.5.1 The maintenance organization shall nominate a
person or group of persons whose responsibilities include
ensuring that the maintenance organization is in compliance
with 8.7 the requirements for an approved maintenance
organization.
c) when applicable, the identity of the approved maintenance organization; and
d) the identity of the person or persons signing the release.
8-3
1/11/01
CHAPTER 9. AEROPLANE FLIGHT CREW
9.1
Composition of the flight crew
9.3 Flight crew member
training programmes
9.1.1 The number and composition of the flight crew
shall not be less than that specified in the operations manual.
The flight crews shall include flight crew members in addition
to the minimum numbers specified in the flight manual or
other documents associated with the certificate of airworthiness, when necessitated by considerations related to the type of
aeroplane used, the type of operation involved and the duration
of flight between points where flight crews are changed.
9.3.1 An operator shall establish and maintain a ground
and flight training programme, approved by the State of the
Operator, which ensures that all flight crew members are
adequately trained to perform their assigned duties. Ground
and flight training facilities and properly qualified instructors
as determined by the State of the Operator shall be provided.
The training programme shall consist of ground and flight
training in the type(s) of aeroplane on which the flight crew
member serves, and shall include proper flight crew coordination and training in all types of emergency or abnormal
situations or procedures caused by powerplant, airframe or
systems malfunctions, fire or other abnormalities. The training
programme shall also include training in knowledge and skills
related to human performance and in the transport of dangerous goods. The training for each flight crew member, particularly that relating to abnormal or emergency procedures, shall
ensure that all flight crew members know the functions for
which they are responsible and the relation of these functions
to the functions of other crew members. The training programme shall be given on a recurrent basis, as determined by
the State of the Operator and shall include an examination to
determine competence.
9.1.2 Radio operator
The flight crew shall include at least one member who holds
a valid licence, issued or rendered valid by the State of
Registry, authorizing operation of the type of radio transmitting equipment to be used.
9.1.3
Flight engineer
When a separate flight engineer’s station is incorporated in the
design of an aeroplane, the flight crew shall include at least
one flight engineer especially assigned to that station, unless
the duties associated with that station can be satisfactorily
performed by another flight crew member, holding a flight
engineer licence, without interference with regular duties.
9.1.4
Note 1.— Paragraph 4.2.4 prohibits the in-flight simulation
of emergency or abnormal situations when passengers or
cargo are being carried.
Flight navigator
Note 2.— Flight training may, to the extent deemed
appropriate by the State of the Operator, be given in aeroplane synthetic flight trainers approved by the State for that
purpose.
The flight crew shall include at least one member who holds
a flight navigator licence in all operations where, as
determined by the State of the Operator, navigation necessary
for the safe conduct of the flight cannot be adequately
accomplished by the pilots from the pilot station.
Note 3.— The scope of the recurrent training required by
9.2 and 9.3 may be varied and need not be as extensive as the
initial training given in a particular type of aeroplane.
Note 4.— The use of correspondence courses and
written examinations as well as other means may, to the extent
deemed feasible by the State of the Operator, be utilized in
meeting the requirements for periodic ground training.
9.2 Flight crew member
emergency duties
An operator shall, for each type of aeroplane, assign to all
flight crew members the necessary functions they are to
perform in an emergency or in a situation requiring emergency
evacuation. Annual training in accomplishing these functions
shall be contained in the operator’s training programme and
shall include instruction in the use of all emergency and lifesaving equipment required to be carried, and drills in the
emergency evacuation of the aeroplane.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
Note 5.— Provisions for training in the transport of
dangerous goods are contained in Annex 18.
Note 6.— Guidance material to design training programmes to develop knowledge and skills in human
performance can be found in the Human Factors Training
Manual (Doc 9683).
9-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
9.3.2 The requirement for recurrent flight training in a
particular type of aeroplane shall be considered fulfilled by:
5) the navigational facilities and procedures, including
any long-range navigation procedures, associated
with the route along which the flight is to take place;
and
a) the use, to the extent deemed feasible by the State of the
Operator, of aeroplane synthetic flight trainers approved
by that State for that purpose; or
b) procedures applicable to flight paths over heavily
populated areas and areas of high air traffic density,
obstructions, physical layout, lighting, approach aids
and arrival, departure, holding and instrument approach
procedures, and applicable operating minima.
b) the completion within the appropriate period of the
proficiency check required by 9.4.4 in that type of
aeroplane.
9.4
9.4.1
Note.— That portion of the demonstration relating to
arrival, departure, holding and instrument approach procedures may be accomplished in an appropriate training
device which is adequate for this purpose.
Qualifications
Recent experience — pilot-in-command
9.4.3.3 A pilot-in-command shall have made an actual
approach into each aerodrome of landing on the route,
accompanied by a pilot who is qualified for the aerodrome, as
a member of the flight crew or as an observer on the flight
deck, unless:
An operator shall not assign a pilot to act as pilot-in-command
of an aeroplane unless, on the same type of aeroplane within
the preceding 90 days, that pilot has made at least three takeoffs and landings.
9.4.2
a) the approach to the aerodrome is not over difficult
terrain and the instrument approach procedures and aids
available are similar to those with which the pilot is
familiar, and a margin to be approved by the State of the
Operator is added to the normal operating minima, or
there is reasonable certainty that approach and landing
can be made in visual meteorological conditions; or
Recent experience — co-pilot
An operator shall not assign a co-pilot to operate at the flight
controls during take-off and landing unless, on the same type
of aeroplane within the preceding 90 days, that co-pilot has
operated the flight controls, as pilot-in-command or as
co-pilot, during three take-offs and landings or has otherwise
demonstrated competence to act as co-pilot on a flight
simulator approved for the purpose.
b) the descent from the initial approach altitude can be
made by day in visual meteorological conditions; or
c) the operator qualifies the pilot-in-command to land at
the aerodrome concerned by means of an adequate
pictorial presentation; or
9.4.3 Pilot-in-command
route and airport qualification
d) the aerodrome concerned is adjacent to another aerodrome at which the pilot-in-command is currently
qualified to land.
9.4.3.1 An operator shall not utilize a pilot as pilot-incommand of an aeroplane on a route or route segment for
which that pilot is not currently qualified until such pilot has
complied with 9.4.3.2 and 9.4.3.3.
9.4.3.4 The operator shall maintain a record, sufficient to
satisfy the State of the Operator of the qualification of the pilot
and of the manner in which such qualification has been
achieved.
9.4.3.2 Each such pilot shall demonstrate to the operator
an adequate knowledge of:
a) the route to be flown, and the aerodromes which are to
be used. This shall include knowledge of:
9.4.3.5 An operator shall not continue to utilize a pilot as
a pilot-in-command on a route unless, within the preceding 12
months, the pilot has made at least one trip between the
terminal points of that route as a pilot member of the flight
crew, or as a check pilot, or as an observer on the flight deck.
In the event that more than 12 months elapse in which a pilot
has not made such a trip on a route in close proximity and over
similar terrain, prior to again serving as a pilot-in-command on
that route, that pilot must requalify in accordance with 9.4.3.2
and 9.4.3.3.
1) the terrain and minimum safe altitudes;
2) the seasonal meteorological conditions;
3) the meteorological, communication and air traffic
facilities, services and procedures;
4) the search and rescue procedures; and
1/11/01
9-2
Chapter 9
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
9.4.4 Pilot proficiency checks
9.5
Flight crew equipment
A flight crew member assessed as fit to exercise the privileges
of a licence subject to the use of suitable correcting lenses,
shall have a spare set of the correcting lenses readily available
when exercising those privileges.
An operator shall ensure that piloting technique and the ability
to execute emergency procedures is checked in such a way as
to demonstrate the pilot’s competence. Where the operation
may be conducted under instrument flight rules, an operator
shall ensure that the pilot’s competence to comply with such
rules is demonstrated to either a check pilot of the operator or
to a representative of the State of the Operator. Such checks
shall be performed twice within any period of one year. Any
two such checks which are similar and which occur within a
period of four consecutive months shall not alone satisfy this
requirement.
9.6
Flight time, flight duty periods
and rest periods
Note 1.— Flight simulators approved by the State of the
Operator may be used for those parts of the checks for which
they are specifically approved.
The State of the Operator shall establish regulations specifying
the limitations applicable to the flight time and flight duty
periods for flight crew members. These regulations shall also
make provision for adequate rest periods and shall be such as
to ensure that fatigue occurring either in a flight or successive
flights or accumulated over a period of time due to these and
other tasks, does not endanger the safety of a flight.
Note 2.— See ICAO Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulators (Doc 9625).
Note.— Guidance on the establishment of limitations is
given in Attachment A.
9-3
1/11/01
CHAPTER 10. FLIGHT OPERATIONS OFFICER/FLIGHT DISPATCHER
10.1 A flight operations officer/flight dispatcher, when
employed in conjunction with an approved method of flight
supervision requiring the services of licensed flight operations
officers/flight dispatchers, shall be licensed in accordance with
the provisions of Annex 1.
is responsible and areas in which that individual is
authorized to exercise flight supervision:
Note.— The above provisions do not necessarily require a
flight operations officer/flight dispatcher to hold the licence
specified in Annex 1. In accordance with 4.2.1 the method of
flight supervision is subject to approval by the State of the
Operator which may accept proof of qualifications other than
the holding of the licence.
2) the effects of meteorological conditions on radio
reception in the aeroplanes used;
1) the seasonal meteorological conditions and the
sources of meteorological information;
3) the peculiarities and limitations of each navigation
system which is used by the operation; and
4) the aeroplane loading instructions;
10.2 Recommendation.— A flight operations officer/
flight dispatcher should not be assigned to duty unless that
officer has:
d) demonstrated to the operator knowledge and skills
related to human performance relevant to dispatch
duties; and
a) made within the preceding 12 months, at least a oneway qualification flight on the flight deck of an
aeroplane over any area in which that individual is
authorized to exercise flight supervision. The flight
should include landings at as many aerodromes as
practicable;
e) demonstrated to the operator the ability to perform
the duties specified in 4.6.
10.3 Recommendation.— A flight operations officer/
flight dispatcher assigned to duty should maintain complete
familiarization with all features of the operation which are
pertinent to such duties, including knowledge and skills related
to human performance.
b) demonstrated to the operator a knowledge of:
1) the contents of the operations manual described in
Appendix 2;
Note.— Guidance material to design training programmes
to develop knowledge and skills in human performance can be
found in the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
2) the radio equipment in the aeroplanes used; and
3) the navigation equipment in the aeroplanes used;
10.4 Recommendation.— A flight operations officer/
flight dispatcher should not be assigned to duty after 12 consecutive months of absence from such duty, unless the
provisions of 10.2 are met.
c) demonstrated to the operator a knowledge of the following details concerning operations for which the officer
ANNEX 6 — PART I
10-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 11. MANUALS, LOGS AND RECORDS
Note.— The following additional manuals, logs and records
are associated with this Annex but are not included in this
chapter:
c) a reference to the maintenance programme required by
8.3.1;
d) a description of the methods used for the completion and
retention of the operator’s maintenance records required
by 8.4;
Fuel and oil records — see 4.2.9
Maintenance records — see 8.4
e) a description of the procedures for monitoring, assessing
and reporting maintenance and operational experience
required by 8.5.1;
Flight time records — see 4.2.10.3
Flight preparation forms — see 4.3
f) a description of the procedures for complying with the
service information reporting requirements of Annex 8,
Part II, 4.3.5 and 4.3.8;
Operational flight plan — see 4.3.3.1
Pilot-in-command route and airport
qualification records — see 9.4.3.4
g) a description of procedures for assessing continuing
airworthiness information and implementing any
resulting actions, as required by 8.5.2;
h) a description of the procedures for implementing action
resulting from mandatory continuing airworthiness
information;
11.1 Flight manual
Note.— The flight manual contains the information specified in Annex 8.
i) a description of establishing and maintaining a system of
analysis and continued monitoring of the performance
and efficiency of the maintenance programme, in order
to correct any deficiency in that programme;
The flight manual shall be updated by implementing changes
made mandatory by the State of Registry.
j) a description of aircraft types and models to which the
manual applies;
11.2 Operator’s maintenance
control manual
k) a description of procedures for ensuring that unserviceabilities affecting airworthiness are recorded and
rectified; and
The operator’s maintenance control manual provided in
accordance with 8.2, which may be issued in separate parts,
shall contain the following information:
l) a description of the procedures for advising the State of
Registry of significant in-service occurrences.
a) a description of the procedures required by 8.1.1
including, when applicable:
1) a description of the administrative arrangements
between the operator and the approved maintenance
organization;
11.3
11.3.1 A maintenance programme for each aeroplane as
required by 8.3 shall contain the following information:
2) a description of the maintenance procedures and the
procedures for completing and signing a maintenance release when maintenance is based on a
system other than that of an approved maintenance
organization.
a) maintenance tasks and the intervals at which these are to
be performed, taking into account the anticipated utilization of the aeroplane;
b) names and duties of the person or persons required by
8.1.4;
ANNEX 6 — PART I
Maintenance programme
b) when applicable, a continuing structural integrity programme;
11-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
IX — Hours of flight.
c) procedures for changing or deviating from a) and b)
above; and
X — Nature of flight (private, aerial work, scheduled
or non-scheduled).
d) when applicable, condition monitoring and reliability
programme descriptions for aircraft systems, components and powerplants.
XI — Incidents, observations, if any.
XII — Signature of person in charge.
11.3.2 Maintenance tasks and intervals that have been
specified as mandatory in approval of the type design shall be
identified as such.
11.4.2 Recommendation.— Entries in the journey log
book should be made currently and in ink or indelible pencil.
11.3.3 Recommendation.— The maintenance programme
should be based on maintenance programme information made
available by the State of Design or by the organization responsible for the type design, and any additional applicable
experience.
11.4.3 Recommendation.— Completed journey log book
should be retained to provide a continuous record of the last
six months’ operations.
11.5
11.4
Journey log book
Records of emergency and survival
equipment carried
Operators shall at all times have available for immediate
communication to rescue coordination centres, lists containing
information on the emergency and survival equipment carried
on board any of their aeroplanes engaged in international air
navigation. The information shall include, as applicable, the
number, colour and type of life rafts and pyrotechnics, details
of emergency medical supplies, water supplies and the type
and frequencies of the emergency portable radio equipment.
11.4.1 Recommendation.— The aeroplane journey log
book should contain the following items and the corresponding
roman numerals:
I — Aeroplane nationality and registration.
II — Date.
III — Names of crew members.
IV — Duty assignments of crew members.
11.6
Flight recorder records
V — Place of departure.
An operator shall ensure, to the extent possible, in the event
the aeroplane becomes involved in an accident or incident, the
preservation of all related flight recorder records and, if
necessary, the associated flight recorders, and their retention in
safe custody pending their disposition as determined in
accordance with Annex 13.
VI — Place of arrival.
VII — Time of departure.
VIII — Time of arrival.
1/11/01
11-2
CHAPTER 12. CABIN CREW
12.1 Assignment of emergency duties
the event of an emergency or in a situation requiring
emergency evacuation;
An operator shall establish, to the satisfaction of the State of
the Operator, the minimum number of cabin crew required for
each type of aeroplane, based on seating capacity or the
number of passengers carried, in order to effect a safe and
expeditious evacuation of the aeroplane, and the necessary
functions to be performed in an emergency or a situation
requiring emergency evacuation. The operator shall assign
these functions for each type of aeroplane.
12.2
b) drilled and capable in the use of emergency and lifesaving equipment required to be carried, such as life
jackets, life rafts, evacuation slides, emergency exits,
portable fire extinguishers, oxygen equipment and firstaid kits;
c) when serving on aeroplanes operated above 3 000 m
(10 000 ft), knowledgeable as regards the effect of lack
of oxygen and, in the case of pressurized aeroplanes, as
regards physiological phenomena accompanying a loss
of pressurization;
Cabin crew at emergency
evacuation stations
Each cabin crew member assigned to emergency evacuation
duties shall occupy a seat provided in accordance with 6.16
during take-off and landing and whenever the pilot-incommand so directs.
12.3
d) aware of other crew members’ assignments and
functions in the event of an emergency so far as is
necessary for the fulfilment of the cabin crew member’s
own duties;
e) aware of the types of dangerous goods which may, and
may not, be carried in a passenger cabin and has
completed the dangerous goods training programme
required by Annex 18; and
Protection of cabin crew
during flight
Each cabin crew member shall be seated with seat belt or,
when provided, safety harness fastened during take-off and
landing and whenever the pilot-in-command so directs.
f) knowledgeable about human performance as related to
passenger cabin safety duties including flight crew-cabin
crew coordination.
Note.— The foregoing does not preclude the pilot-incommand from directing the fastening of the seat belt only, at
times other than during take-off and landing.
12.4
Note.— Guidance material to design training programmes
to develop knowledge and skills in human performance can be
found in the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
Training
An operator shall establish and maintain a training programme, approved by the State of the Operator, to be completed by all persons before being assigned as a cabin crew
member. Cabin crew shall complete a recurrent training programme annually. These training programmes shall ensure that
each person is:
The State of the Operator shall establish regulations specifying
the limits applicable to flight time, flight duty periods and rest
periods for cabin crew.
a) competent to execute those safety duties and functions
which the cabin crew member is assigned to perform in
Note.— Guidance on the establishment of limitations is
given in Attachment A.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
12.5 Flight time, flight duty periods
and rest periods
12-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 13. SECURITY*
13.1 Security of the flight crew compartment
for carriage on an aeroplane so that they contribute to the
prevention of acts of sabotage or other forms of unlawful
interference.
In all aeroplanes which are equipped with a flight crew
compartment door, this door shall be capable of being locked.
It shall be lockable from within the compartment only.
13.4
13.2
Aeroplane search procedure checklist
Reporting acts of unlawful interference
Following an act of unlawful interference, the pilot-incommand shall submit, without delay, a report of such an act
to the designated local authority.
An operator shall ensure that there is on board a checklist of
the procedures to be followed in searching for a bomb in case
of suspected sabotage. The checklist shall be supported by
guidance on the course of action to be taken should a bomb or
suspicious object be found and information on the least-risk
bomb location specific to the aeroplane.
13.5
Miscellaneous
13.5.1 Recommendation.— Specialized means of
attenuating and directing the blast should be provided for use
at the least-risk bomb location.
13.3 Training programmes
13.3.1 An operator shall establish and maintain a training
programme which enables crew members to act in the most
appropriate manner to minimize the consequences of acts of
unlawful interference.
13.5.2 Recommendation.— Where an operator accepts
the carriage of weapons removed from passengers, the
aeroplane should have provision for stowing such weapons in
a place so that they are inaccessible to any person during
flight time.
13.3.2 An operator shall also establish and maintain a
training programme to acquaint appropriate employees with
preventive measures and techniques in relation to passengers,
baggage, cargo, mail, equipment, stores and supplies intended
* In the context of this Chapter, the word ‘‘security’’ is used in the
sense of prevention of illicit acts against civil aviation.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
13-1
1/11/01
APPENDIX 1.
LIGHTS TO BE DISPLAYED BY AEROPLANES
(Note.— See Chapter 6, 6.10)
1.
Terminology
Visible. Visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere.
When the following terms are used in this Appendix, they
have the following meanings:
2.
Angles of coverage.
a) Angle of coverage A is formed by two intersecting
vertical planes making angles of 70 degrees to the right
and 70 degrees to the left respectively, looking aft along
the longitudinal axis to a vertical plane passing through
the longitudinal axis.
Navigation lights to be displayed in the air
Note.— The lights specified herein are intended to meet the
requirements of Annex 2 for navigation lights.
As illustrated in Figure 1, the following unobstructed
navigation lights shall be displayed:
b) Angle of coverage F is formed by two intersecting
vertical planes making angles of 110 degrees to the right
and 110 degrees to the left respectively, looking forward
along the longitudinal axis to a vertical plane passing
through the longitudinal axis.
a) a red light projected above and below the horizontal
plane through angle of coverage L;
c) Angle of coverage L is formed by two intersecting
vertical planes, one parallel to the longitudinal axis of
the aeroplane, and the other 110 degrees to the left of
the first, when looking forward along the longitudinal
axis.
c) a white light projected above and below the horizontal
plane rearward through angle of coverage A.
b) a green light projected above and below the horizontal
plane through angle of coverage R;
d) Angle of coverage R is formed by two intersecting
vertical planes, one parallel to the longitudinal axis of
the aeroplane, and the other 110 degrees to the right of
the first, when looking forward along the longitudinal
axis.
Horizontal plane. The plane containing the longitudinal axis
and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the
aeroplane.
Longitudinal axis of the aeroplane. A selected axis parallel to
the direction of flight at a normal cruising speed, and
passing through the centre of gravity of the aeroplane.
3.
Lights to be displayed on the water
Making way. An aeroplane on the surface of the water is
“making way” when it is under way and has a velocity
relative to the water.
Under command. An aeroplane on the surface of the water is
“under command” when it is able to execute manoeuvres as
required by the International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea for the purpose of avoiding other vessels.
Under way. An aeroplane on the surface of the water is
“under way” when it is not aground or moored to the
ground or to any fixed object on the land or in the water.
3.1
Note.— The lights specified herein are intended to meet the
requirements of Annex 2 for lights to be displayed by
aeroplanes on the water.
The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
require different lights to be displayed in each of the following
circumstances:
Vertical planes. Planes perpendicular to the horizontal plane.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
General
APP 1-1
a) when under way;
b) when towing another vessel or aeroplane;
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
c) when being towed;
3.3 When towing another
vessel or aeroplane
d) when not under command and not making way;
As illustrated in Figure 3, the following appearing as steady,
unobstructed lights:
e) when making way but not under command;
f) when at anchor;
a) the lights described in 3.2;
g) when aground.
b) a second light having the same characteristics as the
light described in 3.2 d) and mounted in a vertical line
at least 2 m above or below it; and
The lights required by aeroplanes in each case are described
below.
c) a yellow light having otherwise the same characteristics
as the light described in 3.2 c) and mounted in a vertical
line at least 2 m above it.
3.2
When under way
As illustrated in Figure 2, the following appearing as steady
unobstructed lights:
a) a red light projected above and below the horizontal
through angle of coverage L;
b) a green light projected above and below the horizontal
through angle of coverage R;
c) a white light projected above and below the horizontal
through angle of coverage A; and
d) a white light projected through angle of coverage F.
The lights described in 3.2 a), b) and c) should be visible at a
distance of at least 3.7 km (2 NM). The light described in 3.2
d) should be visible at a distance of 9.3 km (5 NM) when fitted
to an aeroplane of 20 m or more in length or visible at a
distance of 5.6 km (3 NM) when fitted to an aeroplane of less
than 20 m in length.
3.4 When being towed
The lights described in 3.2 a), b) and c) appearing as steady,
unobstructed lights.
3.5 When not under command
and not making way
As illustrated in Figure 4, two steady red lights placed where
they can best be seen, one vertically over the other and not less
than 1 m apart, and of such a character as to be visible all
around the horizon at a distance of at least 3.7 km (2 NM).
1/11/01
APP 1-2
Appendix 1
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
3.6
When making way but
not under command
As illustrated in Figure 5, the lights described in 3.5 plus the
lights described in 3.2 a), b) and c).
Note.— The display of lights prescribed in 3.5 and 3.6 is to
be taken by other aircraft as signals that the aeroplane
showing them is not under command and cannot therefore get
out of the way. They are not signals of aeroplanes in distress
and requiring assistance.
c) If 50 m or more in span a steady white light on each side
(Figures 8 and 9) to indicate the maximum span and
visible, so far as practicable, all around the horizon at a
distance of at least 1.9 km (1 NM).
3.7 When at anchor
a) If less than 50 m in length, where it can best be seen, a
steady white light (Figure 6), visible all around the
horizon at a distance of at least 3.7 km (2 NM).
3.8
b) If 50 m or more in length, where they can best be seen,
a steady white forward light and a steady white rear
light (Figure 7) both visible all around the horizon at a
distance of at least 5.6 km (3 NM).
When aground
The lights prescribed in 3.7 and in addition two steady red
lights in vertical line, at least 1 m apart so placed as to be
visible all around the horizon.
APP 1-3
1/11/01
APPENDIX 2.
CONTENTS OF AN OPERATIONS MANUAL
(See Chapter 4, 4.2.2.1)
An operations manual, which may be issued in separate parts
corresponding to specific aspects of operations, provided in
accordance with Chapter 4, 4.2.2.1, shall contain at least the
following:
5.
Flight operations
5.1 The flight crew for each type of operation including
the designation of the succession of command.
5.2 The in-flight and the emergency duties assigned to
each crew member.
1.
Operations administration and supervision
1.1 Instructions outlining the responsibilities of operations personnel pertaining to the conduct of flight operations.
1.2 Checklist of emergency and safety equipment and
instructions for its use.
1.3 The minimum equipment list for the aeroplane types
operated and specific operations authorized, including any
requirements relating to operations in RNP airspace.
1.4 Safety precautions during refuelling with passengers
on board.
5.3 Specific instructions for the computation of the
quantities of fuel and oil to be carried, having regard to all
circumstances of the operation including the possibility of the
failure of one or more powerplants while en route.
5.4 The conditions under which oxygen shall be used
and the amount of oxygen determined in accordance with
Chapter 4, 4.3.8.2.
5.5
5.6 Instructions for the conduct and control of ground
de-icing/anti-icing operations.
5.7
2.
Instructions for mass and balance control.
The specifications for the operational flight plan.
5.8 The normal, abnormal and emergency procedures to
be used by the flight crew, the checklists relating thereto and
aircraft systems information as required by Chapter 6, 6.1.3.
Accident prevention and flight
safety programme
Details of the accident prevention and flight safety programme
provided in accordance with Chapter 3, 3.2, including a statement of safety policy and the responsibility of personnel.
5.9 Standard operating procedures (SOP) for each phase
of flight.
5.10 Instructions on the use of normal checklists and the
timing of their use.
3.
Personnel training
5.11 Emergency evacuation procedures.
3.1 Details of the flight crew training programme and
requirements.
3.2 Details of the cabin crew duties training programme
as required by Chapter 12, 12.4.
5.12 Departure contingency procedures.
5.13 Instructions on the maintenance of altitude
awareness and the use of automated or flight crew altitude callout.
5.14 Instructions on the use of autopilots and autothrottles in IMC.
4. Fatigue and
flight time limitations
Rules limiting the flight time and flight duty periods and
providing for adequate rest periods for flight crew members
and cabin crew as required by Chapter 4, 4.2.10.2.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
5.15 Instructions on the clarification and acceptance of
ATC clearances, particularly where terrain clearance is
involved.
APP 2-1
5.16 Departure and approach briefings.
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
5.17 Route and destination familiarization.
7.
5.18 Stabilized approach procedure.
5.19 Limitation on high rates of descent near the surface.
5.20 Conditions required to commence or to continue an
instrument approach.
A route guide to ensure that the flight crew will have, for each
flight, information relating to communication facilities, navigation aids, aerodromes, and such other information as the
operator may deem necessary for the proper conduct of flight
operations.
8.
5.21 Instructions for the conduct of precision and nonprecision instrument approach procedures.
5.22 Allocation of flight crew duties and procedures for
the management of crew workload during night and IMC
instrument approach and landing operations.
5.23 Instructions and training requirements for the
avoidance of controlled flight into terrain and policy for the
use of the ground proximity warning system (GPWS).
5.24 Information and instructions relating to the interception of civil aircraft including:
a) procedures, as prescribed in Annex 2, for pilots-incommand of intercepted aircraft; and
b) visual signals for use by intercepting and intercepted
aircraft, as contained in Annex 2.
5.25 For aeroplanes intended to be operated above
15 000 m (49 000 ft):
a) information which will enable the pilot to determine the
best course of action to take in the event of exposure to
solar cosmic radiation; and
Route guides and charts
8.1
Minimum flight altitudes
The method for determining minimum flight altitudes.
8.2 The minimum flight altitudes for each route to be
flown.
9.
Aerodrome operating minima
9.1 The methods for determining aerodrome operating
minima.
9.2 Aerodrome operating minima for each of the aerodromes that are likely to be used as aerodromes of intended
landing or as alternate aerodromes.
9.3 The increase of aerodrome operating minima in case
of degradation of approach or aerodrome facilities.
10.
Search and rescue
10.1 The ground-air visual signal code for use by
survivors, as contained in Annex 12.
10.2 Procedures, as prescribed in Annex 12, for
pilots-in-command observing an accident.
b) procedures in the event that a decision to descend is
taken, covering:
11.
Dangerous goods
1) the necessity of giving the appropriate ATS unit prior
warning of the situation and of obtaining a provisional descent clearance; and
Information and instructions on the carriage of dangerous
goods, including action to be taken in the event of an
emergency.
2) the action to be taken in the event that communication with the ATS unit cannot be established or is
interrupted.
12. Navigation
Note.— Guidance material on the information to
be provided is contained in Circular 126 —
Guidance Material on SST Aircraft Operations.
12.1 A list of the navigational equipment to be carried
including any requirements relating to operations in RNP
airspace.
12.2 Where relevant to the operations, the long-range
navigation procedures to be used.
6.
Aeroplane performance
13.
Operating instructions and information on climb performance
with all engines operating, if provided in accordance with
Chapter 4, 4.2.3.3.
1/11/01
Communications
The circumstances in which a radio listening watch is to be
maintained.
APP 2-2
Appendix 2
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
14.
Security
14.1 Security instructions and guidance.
14.2 The search procedure checklist provided in accordance with Chapter 13, 13.2.
15.
Human Factors
Information on the operators’ training programme for the
development of knowledge and skills related to human
performance.
Note.— Information on knowledge and skills related to
human performance can be found in the Human Factors
Training Manual (Doc 9683).
APP 2-3
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT A. FLIGHT TIME
AND FLIGHT DUTY PERIOD LIMITATIONS
Supplementary to Chapter 4, 4.2.10.3
1.
Purpose and scope
2.2
1.1 Flight time and flight duty period limitations are
established for the sole purpose of reducing the probability
that fatigue of flight crew members may adversely affect the
safety of flight.
1.2 In order to guard against this, two types of fatigue
must be taken into account, namely, transient fatigue and
cumulative fatigue. Transient fatigue may be described as
fatigue which is normally experienced by a healthy individual
following a period of work, exertion or excitement, and it is
normally dispelled by a single sufficient period of sleep. On
the other hand cumulative fatigue may occur after delayed or
incomplete recovery from transient fatigue or as the aftereffect of more than a normal amount of work, exertion or
excitement without sufficient opportunity for recuperation.
1.3 Limitations based on the provisions of this Part will
provide safeguards against both kinds of fatigue because they
will recognize:
1.3.1 The necessity to limit flight time in such a way as
to guard against both kinds of fatigue.
1.3.2 The necessity to limit time spent on duty on the
ground immediately prior to a flight or at intermediate points
during a series of flights in such a way as to guard particularly
against transient fatigue.
Flight duty periods
2.2.1 The definition of flight duty period is intended to
cover a continuous period of duty which always includes a
flight or a series of flights. It is meant to include all duties
flight crew members may be required to carry out from the
moment they report at their place of employment on the day
of a flight until they are relieved of duties, having completed
the flight or series of flights. It is considered necessary that
this period should be subject to limitations because a flight
crew member’s activities within the limits of such period
would eventually induce fatigue — transient or cumulative —
which could endanger the safety of a flight. There is on the
other hand (from the point of view of flight safety) insufficient
reason to establish limitations for any other time during which
flight crew members are performing a task assigned to them by
the operator. Such a task should, therefore, only be taken into
account when making provisions for rest periods as one among
many factors which could lead to fatigue.
2.2.2 The definition does not imply the inclusion of such
periods as time taken for a flight crew member to travel from
home to the place of employment.
2.2.3 An important safeguard may be established if States
and operators recognize the right of a crew member to refuse
further flight duty when suffering from fatigue of such a nature
as to affect adversely the safety of flight.
1.3.3 The necessity to provide flight crew members with
adequate opportunity to recover from fatigue.
2.3 Rest periods
1.3.4 The necessity of taking into account other related
tasks the flight crew member may be required to perform in
order to guard particularly against cumulative fatigue.
The definition of rest period implies an absence of duty and is
intended to be for the purpose of recovering from fatigue; the
way in which this recovery is achieved is the responsibility of
the individual.
2. Definitions
3.
2.1
The definition of flight time is of necessity very general but in
the context of limitations it is, of course, intended to apply to
flight crew members in accordance with the relevant definition
of a flight crew member. Pursuant to that latter definition,
licensed crew personnel travelling as passengers cannot be
considered flight crew members, although this should be taken
into account in arranging rest periods.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
Types of limitations
Flight time
3.1 Limitations are broadly divided by time; for example,
the majority of States reporting to ICAO prescribe daily,
monthly and yearly flight time limitations, and a considerable
number also prescribe quarterly flight time limitations. It will
probably be sufficient to prescribe flight duty period limitations on a daily basis. It must be understood, however, that
these limitations will vary considerably taking into account a
variety of situations.
ATT A-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
3.2 In formulating regulations or rules governing flight
time limitations, the size of the crew complement and the
extent to which the various tasks to be performed can be
divided among the crew members should be taken into
account; and in the case where adequate facilities for relief are
provided in the aircraft in such a way that a crew member may
have horizontal rest and a degree of privacy, flight duty
1/11/01
periods could be extended. Adequate rest facilities on the
ground are required at places where relief periods are to be
given. Also, States or operators should give due weight to the
following factors: traffic density; navigational and communication facilities; rhythm of work/sleep cycle; number of
landings and take-offs; aircraft handling and performance
characteristics and weather conditions.
ATT A-2
ATTACHMENT B. FIRST-AID MEDICAL SUPPLIES
Supplementary to Chapter 6, 6.2.2 a)
TYPES, NUMBER, LOCATION AND
CONTENTS OF MEDICAL SUPPLIES
1.
4.1.1 First-aid kit:
— a handbook on first aid
— ‘‘ground-air visual signal code for use by survivors’’
as contained in Annex 12
— materials for treating injuries
— ophthalmic ointment
— a decongestant nasal spray
— insect repellant
— emollient eye drops
— sunburn cream
— water-miscible antiseptic/skin cleanser
— materials for treatment of extensive burns
— oral drugs as follows: analgesic, antispasmodic, central
nervous system stimulant, circulatory stimulant,
coronary vasodilator, antidiarrhoeic and motion
sickness medications
— an artificial plastic airway and splints.
Types
Two types of medical supplies should be provided: first-aid
kit(s) for carriage in all aeroplanes and a medical kit for
carriage where the aeroplane is authorized to carry more than
250 passengers.
2.
Number of first-aid kits
The number of first-aid kits should be appropriate to the
number of passengers which the aeroplane is authorized to
carry:
Passenger
4.1.2 Medical kit:
First-aid kits
0 – 50
51 – 150
151 – 250
More than 250
Equipment
— one pair of sterile surgical gloves
— sphygmomanometer
— stethoscope
— sterile scissors
— haemostatic forceps
— haemostatic bandages or tourniquet
— sterile equipment for suturing wounds
— disposable syringes and needles
— disposable scalpel handle and blade
1
2
3
4
3.
Location
3.1 It is essential that the required first-aid kits be
distributed as evenly as practicable throughout the passenger
cabin. They should be readily accessible to cabin crew, and, in
view of the possible use of medical supplies outside the
aeroplane in an emergency situation, they should be located
near an exit.
Drugs
— coronary vasodilators
— analgesics
— diuretics
— anti-allergics
— steroids
— sedatives
— ergometrine
— where compatible with regulations of the appropriate
authority, a narcotic drug in injectable form
— injectable broncho dilator.
3.2 The medical kit, when carried, should be stored in an
appropriate secure location.
4. Contents
4.1 Different factors must be taken into consideration in
deciding the contents of first-aid kits and medical kits. The
following are typical contents of first-aid and medical kits for
carriage aboard an aeroplane.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
Note.— The United Nations Conference for Adoption of a
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in March 1961 adopted
such a Convention, Article 32 of which contains special
provisions concerning the carriage of drugs in medical kits of
aircraft engaged in international flight.
ATT B-1
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT C. AEROPLANE PERFORMANCE
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
Example 1
Purpose and scope
instrument error. (As a result of the sea level adiabatic
compressible flow correction to the airspeed instrument
dial, CAS is equal to the true airspeed (TAS) in Standard
Atmosphere at sea level.)
The purpose of the following example is to illustrate the level
of performance intended by the provisions of Chapter 5 as
applicable to the types of aeroplanes described below.
Declared distances.
The Standards and Recommended Practices in Annex 6
effective on 14 July 1949 contained specifications similar to
those adopted by some Contracting States for inclusion in their
national performance codes. A very substantial number of civil
transport aeroplanes have been manufactured and are being
operated in accordance with these codes. Those aeroplanes are
powered with reciprocating engines including turbo-compound
design. They embrace twin-engined and four-engined
aeroplanes over a mass range from approximately 4 200 kg to
70 000 kg over a stalling speed range,V S0 from approximately
100 to 175 km/h (55 to 95 kt) and over a wing loading range
from approximately 120 to 360 kg/m2. Cruising speeds range
over 555 km/h (300 kt). Those aeroplanes have been used in a
very wide range of altitude, air temperature and humidity
conditions. At a later date, the code was applied with respect
to the evaluation of certification of the so-called “first
generation” of turboprop and turbo-jet aeroplanes.
Although only past experience can warrant the fact that this
example illustrates the level of performance intended by the
Standards and Recommended Practices of Chapter 5, it is
considered to be applicable over a wide range of aeroplane
characteristics and atmospheric conditions. Reservation should
however be made concerning the application of this example
with respect to conditions of high air temperatures. In certain
extreme cases, it has been found desirable to apply additional
temperature and/or humidity accountability, particularly for
the obstacle limited take-off flight path.
This example is not intended for application to aeroplanes
having short take-off and landing (STOL) or vertical take-off
and landing (VTOL) capabilities.
No detailed study has been made of the applicability of this
example to operations in all-weather conditions. The validity of
this example has not therefore been established for operations
which may involve low decision heights and be associated with
low minima operating techniques and procedures.
1.
b) Take-off distance available (TODA). The length of the
take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if
provided.
c) Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA). The length
of the take-off run available plus the length of the
stopway, if provided.
d) Landing distance available (LDA). The length of
runway which is declared available and suitable for the
ground run of an aeroplane landing.
Note.— The calculation of declared distances is
described in Annex 14, Volume I, Attachment A.
Height. The vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object
considered as a point, measured from a specified datum.
Note.— For the purposes of this example, the point
referred to above is the lowest part of the aeroplane and
the specified datum is the take-off or landing surface,
whichever is applicable.
Landing surface. That part of the surface of an aerodrome
which the aerodrome authority has declared available for
the normal ground or water run of aircraft landing in a
particular direction.
Take-off surface. That part of the surface of an aerodrome
which the aerodrome authority has declared available for
the normal ground or water run of aircraft taking off in a
particular direction.
VS0 . A stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the
landing configuration. (Note.— See 2.4.)
Definitions
CAS (Calibrated airspeed). The calibrated airspeed is equal to
the airspeed indicator reading corrected for position and
ANNEX 6 — PART I
a) Take-off run available (TORA). The length of runway
declared available and suitable for the ground run of an
aeroplane taking off.
VS1 . A stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed. (Note.—
See 2.5.)
ATT C-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Note.— See Chapter 1 and Annexes 8 and 14, Volume I, for
other definitions.
f) centre of gravity in that position within the permissible
landing range which gives the maximum value of
stalling speed or of minimum steady flight speed;
2. Stalling speed —
minimum steady flight speed
g) aeroplane mass equal to the mass involved in the
specification under consideration.
2.1 For the purpose of this example, the stalling speed is
the speed at which an angle of attack greater than that of
maximum lift is reached, or, if greater, the speed at which a
large amplitude pitching or rolling motion, not immediately
controllable, is encountered, when the manoeuvre described in
2.3 is executed.
2.5 VS1
VS1 denotes the stalling speed if obtained in flight tests
conducted in accordance with 2.3, or the minimum steady
flight speed, CAS, as defined in 2.2, with:
a) engines at not more than sufficient power for zero thrust
at a speed not greater than 110 per cent of the stalling
speed;
Note.— It should be noted that an uncontrollable pitching
motion of small amplitude associated with pre-stall buffeting
does not necessarily indicate that the stalling speed has been
reached.
b) propeller pitch controls in the position recommended for
normal use during take-off;
2.2 The minimum steady flight speed is that obtained while
maintaining the elevator control in the most rearward possible
position when the manoeuvre described in 2.3 is executed. This
speed would not apply when the stalling speed defined in 2.1
occurs before the elevator control reaches its stops.
2.3
c) aeroplane in the configuration in all other respects and
at the mass prescribed in the specification under
consideration.
Determination of stalling speed —
Minimum steady flight speed
3.
2.3.1 The aeroplane is trimmed for a speed of approximately 1.4VS1 . From a value sufficiently above the stalling
speed to ensure that a steady rate of decrease is obtainable, the
speed is reduced in straight flight at a rate not exceeding
0.5 m/s2 (1 kt/s) until the stalling speed or the minimum steady
flight speed, defined in 2.1 and 2.2, is reached.
Take-off
3.1 Mass
The mass of the aeroplane at take-off is not to exceed the
maximum take-off mass specified in the flight manual for the
altitude at which the take-off is to be made.
2.3.2 For the purpose of measuring stalling speed and
minimum steady flight speed, the instrumentation is such that
the probable error of measurement is known.
3.2
Performance
The performance of the aeroplane as determined from the
information contained in the flight manual is such that:
2.4 VS0
a) the accelerate-stop distance required does not exceed the
accelerate-stop distance available;
VS0 denotes the stalling speed if obtained in flight tests
conducted in accordance with 2.3, or the minimum steady
flight speed, CAS, as defined in 2.2, with:
b) the take-off distance required does not exceed the takeoff distance available;
a) engines at not more than sufficient power for zero thrust
at a speed not greater than 110 per cent of the stalling
speed;
c) the take-off path provides a vertical clearance of not less
than 15.2 m up to D = 500 m (50 ft up to D = 1 500 ft)
and 15.2 + 0.01 [D – 500] m (50 + 0.01 [D – 1 500] ft)
thereafter, above all obstacles lying within 60 m plus
half the wing span of the aeroplane plus 0.125D on
either side of the flight path, except that obstacles lying
beyond 1 500 m on either side of the flight path need not
be cleared.
b) propeller pitch controls in the position recommended for
normal use during take-off;
c) landing gear extended;
d) wing flaps in the landing position;
e) cowl flaps and radiator shutters closed or nearly closed;
1/11/01
The distance D is the horizontal distance that the aeroplane
has travelled from the end of the take-off distance available.
ATT C-2
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Note.— This need not be carried beyond the point at which
the aeroplane would be able, without further gaining in height,
to commence a landing procedure at the aerodrome of takeoff or, alternatively, has attained the minimum safe altitude for
commencing flight to another aerodrome.
However, the lateral obstacle clearance is liable to be
reduced (below the values stated above) when, and to the
extent that, this is warranted by special provisions or
conditions which assist the pilot to avoid inadvertent lateral
deviations from the intended flight path. For example,
particularly in poor weather conditions, a precise radio aid
may assist the pilot to maintain the intended flight path. Also,
when the take-off is made in sufficiently good visibility
conditions, it may, in some cases, be possible to avoid
obstacles which are clearly visible but may be within the
lateral limits noted in 3.2 c).
Note 1.— The procedures used in defining the acceleratestop distance required, the take-off distance required and the
take-off flight path are described in the Appendix to this
example.
Note 2.— In some national codes similar to this example,
the specification for “performance” at take-off is such that no
credit can be taken for any increase in length of acceleratestop distance available and take-off distance available beyond
the length specified in Section 1 for take-off run available.
Those codes specify a vertical clearance of not less than
15.2 m (50 ft) above all obstacles lying within 60 m on either
side of the flight path while still within the confines of the
aerodrome, and 90 m on either side of the flight path when
outside those confines. It is to be observed that those codes are
such that they do not provide for an alternative to the method
of elements (see the Appendix to this example) in the
determination of the take-off path. It is considered that those
codes are compatible with the general intent of this example.
less than 150 per cent of the reported wind component
in the direction of take-off. In certain cases of operation
of seaplanes, it has been found necessary to take account
of the reported wind component normal to the direction
of take-off.
3.4
Critical point
In applying 3.2 the critical point chosen for establishing
compliance with 3.2 a) is not nearer to the starting point than
that used for establishing compliance with 3.2 b) and 3.2 c).
3.5
Turns
In case the flight path includes a turn with bank greater than
15 degrees, the clearances specified in 3.2 c) are increased by
an adequate amount during the turn, and the distance D is
measured along the intended track.
4. En route
4.1
One power-unit inoperative
4.1.1 At all points along the route or planned diversion
therefrom, the aeroplane is capable, at the minimum flight
altitudes en route, of a steady rate of climb with one powerunit inoperative, as determined from the flight manual, of at
least
2
 VS 0 
1) K  ------------ m/s, VS being expressed in km/h;
0
 185.2
3.3 Conditions
For the purpose of 3.1 and 3.2, the performance is that
corresponding to:
a) the mass of the aeroplane at the start of take-off;
 VS 
2) K  --------0-
 100
2
 VS 
3) K  --------0-
 100
2
m/s, VS being expressed in kt;
0
ft/min, VS being expressed in kt;
0
b) an altitude equal to the elevation of the aerodrome;
and for the purpose of 3.2:
and K having the following value:
c) the ambient temperature at the time of take-off for 3.2 a)
and b) only;
5.40
K = 4.04 – ---------- in the case of 1) and 2); and
N
d) the runway slope in the direction of take-off
(landplanes);
e) not more than 50 per cent of the reported wind
component opposite to the direction of take-off, and not
1 060
K = 797 – --------------- in the case of 3)
N
where N is the number of power-units installed.
ATT C-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
It should be noted that minimum flight altitudes are usually
considered to be not less than 300 m (1 000 ft) above terrain
along and adjacent to the flight path.
4.2 Two power-units inoperative
(applicable only to aeroplanes
with four power-units)
4.1.2 As an alternative to 4.1.1 the aeroplane is operated
at an all power-unit operating altitude such that, in the event
of a power-unit failure, it is possible to continue the flight to
an aerodrome where a landing can be made in accordance with
5.3, the flight path clearing all terrain and obstructions along
the route within 8 km (4.3 NM) on either side of the intended
track by at least 600 m (2 000 ft). In addition, if such a
procedure is utilized, the following provisions are complied
with:
The possibility of two power-units becoming inoperative when
the aeroplane is more than 90 minutes at all power-units
operating cruising speed from an en-route alternate aerodrome
is catered for. This is done by verifying that at whatever such
point such a double failure may occur, the aeroplane in the
configuration and with the engine power specified in the flight
manual can thereafter reach the alternate aerodrome without
coming below the minimum flight altitude. It is customary to
assume such fuel jettisoning as is consistent with reaching the
aerodrome in question.
a) the rate of climb, as determined from the flight manual
for the appropriate mass and altitude, used in calculating
the flight path is diminished by an amount equal to
5.
2
 VS 0 
1) K  ------------ m/s, VS being expressed in km/h;
0
 185.2
Landing
5.1 Mass
2
 VS 0
2) K  --------- m/s, VS being expressed in kt;
0
 100
 VS 
3) K  --------0-
 100
The calculated mass for the expected time of landing at the
aerodrome of intended landing or any destination alternate
aerodrome is not to exceed the maximum specified in the
flight manual for the elevation of that aerodrome.
2
ft/min, VS being expressed in kt;
0
5.2
and K having the following value:
Landing distance
5.2.1 Aerodrome of intended landing
The landing distance at the aerodrome of the intended landing,
as determined from the flight manual, is not to exceed 60 per
cent of the landing distance available on:
5.40
K = 4.04 – ---------- in the case of 1) and 2); and
N
1 060
K = 797 – --------------- in the case of 3)
N
a) the most suitable landing surface for a landing in still
air; and, if more severe,
where N is the number of power-units installed;
b) any other landing surface that may be required for
landing because of expected wind conditions at the time
of arrival.
b) the aeroplane complies with 4.1.1 at 300 m (1 000 ft)
above the aerodrome used as an alternate in this
procedure;
5.2.2 Alternate aerodromes
c) after the power-unit failure considered, account is taken
of the effect of winds and temperatures on the flight
path;
The landing distance at any alternate aerodrome, as
determined from the flight manual, is not to exceed 70 per cent
of the landing distance available on:
d) it is assumed that the mass of the aeroplane as it
proceeds along its intended track is progressively
reduced by normal consumption of fuel and oil;
a) the most suitable landing surface for a landing in still
air; and, if more severe,
e) it is customary to assume such fuel jettisoning as is
consistent with reaching the aerodrome in question.
1/11/01
ATT C-4
b) any other landing surface that may be required for
landing because of expected wind conditions at the time
of arrival.
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Note.— The procedure used in determining the landing
distance is described in the Appendix to this example.
b) an altitude equal to the elevation of the aerodrome;
c) for the purpose of 5.2.1 a) and 5.2.2 a), still air;
5.3 Conditions
For the purpose of 5.2, the landing distances are not to exceed
those corresponding to:
a) the calculated mass of the aeroplane for the expected
time of landing;
d) for the purpose of 5.2.1 b) and 5.2.2 b), not more than
50 per cent of the expected wind component along the
landing path and opposite to the direction of landing and
not less than 150 per cent of the expected wind
component in the direction of landing.
APPENDIX TO EXAMPLE 1 ON AEROPLANE PERFORMANCE OPERATING LIMITATIONS —
PROCEDURES USED IN DETERMINING TAKE-OFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE
1. General
2.
Take-off
1.1 Unless otherwise specified, Standard Atmosphere and
still air conditions are applied.
2.1
General
1.2 Engine powers are based on a water vapour pressure
corresponding to 80 per cent relative humidity in standard
conditions. When performance is established for temperature
above standard, the water vapour pressure for a given altitude
is assumed to remain at the value stated above for standard
atmospheric conditions.
1.3 Each set of performance data required for a particular
flight condition is determined with the powerplant accessories
absorbing the normal amount of power appropriate to that
flight condition.
2.1.1 The take-off performance data are determined:
a) for the following conditions:
1) sea level;
2) aeroplane mass equal to the maximum take-off mass
at sea level;
3) level, smooth, dry and hard take-off surfaces
(landplanes);
4) smooth water of declared density (seaplanes);
1.4 Various wing flap positions are selected. These
positions are permitted to be made variable with mass, altitude
and temperature in so far as this is considered consistent with
acceptable operating practices.
1.5 The position of the centre of gravity is selected within
the permissible range so that the performance achieved in the
configuration and power indicated in the specification under
consideration is a minimum.
1.6 The performance of the aeroplane is determined in
such a manner that under all conditions the approved
limitations for the powerplant are not exceeded.
1.7 The determined performance is so scheduled that it
can serve directly in showing compliance with the aeroplane
performance operating limitations.
ATT C-5
b) over selected ranges of the following variables:
1) atmospheric conditions, namely: altitude and also
pressure-altitude and temperature;
2) aeroplane mass;
3) steady wind velocity parallel to the direction of takeoff;
4) steady wind velocity normal to the direction of takeoff (seaplanes);
5) uniform take-off surface slope (landplanes);
6) type of take-off surface (landplanes);
7) water surface condition (seaplanes);
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
8) density of water (seaplanes);
9) strength of current (seaplanes).
2.1.2 The methods of correcting the performance data to
obtain data for adverse atmospheric conditions include
appropriate allowance for any increased airspeeds and cowl
flap or radiator shutter openings necessary under such
conditions to maintain engine temperatures within appropriate
limits.
2.1.3 For seaplanes appropriate interpretations of the term
landing gear, etc., are made to provide for the operation of
retractable floats, if employed.
2.3.3 From the time at which the power-unit is made
inoperative to the time at which recovery is complete,
exceptional skill, alertness, or strength on the part of the pilot
is not required to prevent any loss of altitude other than that
implicit in the loss of performance or any change of heading
in excess of 20 degrees, nor does the aeroplane assume any
dangerous attitude.
2.3.4 It is demonstrated that to maintain the aeroplane in
steady straight flight at this speed after recovery and before
retrimming does not require a rudder control force exceeding
800 N and does not make it necessary for the flight crew to
reduce the power of the remaining power-units.
2.4
2.2 Take-off safety speed
2.2.1 The take-off safety speed is an airspeed (CAS) so
selected that it is not less than:
a) 1.20VS1 , for aeroplanes with two power-units;
b) 1.15VS1 , for aeroplanes having more than two powerunits;
c) 1.10 times the minimum control speed, VMC established
as prescribed in 2.3;
where VS1 is appropriate to the configuration, as described in
2.3.1 b), c) and d).
2.4.1 The critical point is a selected point at which, for
the purpose of determining the accelerate-stop distance and the
take-off path, failure of the critical power-unit is assumed to
occur. The pilot is provided with a ready and reliable means of
determining when the critical point has been reached.
2.4.2 If the critical point is located so that the airspeed at
that point is less than the take-off safety speed, it is demonstrated that, in the event of sudden failure of the critical powerunit at all speeds down to the lowest speed corresponding with
the critical point, the aeroplane is controllable satisfactorily and
that the take-off can be continued safely, using normal piloting
skill, without reducing the thrust of the remaining power-units.
2.5
2.3
Minimum control speed
2.3.1 The minimum control speed, VMC, is determined
not to exceed a speed equal to 1.2VS1 , where VS1 corresponds
with the maximum certificated take-off mass with:
a) maximum take-off power on all power-units;
Critical point
Accelerate-stop distance required
2.5.1 The accelerate-stop distance required is the distance
required to reach the critical point from a standing start and,
assuming the critical power-unit to fail suddenly at this point,
to stop if a landplane, or to bring the aeroplane to a speed of
approximately 6 km/h (3 kt) if a seaplane.
2.5.2 Use of braking means in addition to, or in lieu of,
wheel brakes is permitted in determining this distance,
provided that they are reliable and that the manner of their
employment is such that consistent results can be expected
under normal conditions of operation, and provided that
exceptional skill is not required to control the aeroplane.
b) landing gear retracted;
c) wing flaps in take-off position;
d) cowl flaps and radiator shutters in the position
recommended for normal use during take-off;
2.5.3 The landing gear remains extended throughout this
distance.
e) aeroplane trimmed for take-off;
f) aeroplane airborne and ground effect negligible.
2.6
2.3.2 The minimum control speed is such that, when any
one power-unit is made inoperative at that speed, it is possible
to recover control of the aeroplane with the one power-unit
still inoperative and to maintain the aeroplane in straight flight
at that speed either with zero yaw or with a bank not in excess
of 5 degrees.
1/11/01
Take-off path
2.6.1 General
2.6.1.1 The take-off path is determined either by the
method of elements, 2.6.2, or by the continuous method, 2.6.3,
or by any acceptable combination of the two.
ATT C-6
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
2.6.1.2 Adjustment of the provisions of 2.6.2.1 c) 1) and
2.6.3.1 c) is permitted when the take-off path would be
affected by the use of an automatic pitch changing device,
provided that a level of performance safety exemplified by 2.6
is demonstrated.
2.6.2
4) the inoperative propeller is windmilling with the
propeller pitch control in the position recommended
for normal use during take-off.
d) The horizontal distance traversed and the height attained
by the aeroplane in the time elapsed from the end of
2.6.2.1 c) until the time limit on the use of take-off
power is reached, while operating at the take-off safety
speed, with:
Method of elements
2.6.2.1 In order to define the take-off path, the following
elements are determined:
1) the inoperative propeller stopped;
2) the landing gear retracted.
a) The distance required to accelerate the aeroplane from a
standing start to the point at which the take-off safety
speed is first attained, subject to the following
provisions:
The elapsed time from the start of the take-off need not extend
beyond a total of 5 minutes.
e) The slope of the flight path with the aeroplane in the
configuration prescribed in 2.6.2.1 d) and with the
remaining power-unit(s) operating within the maximum
continuous power limitations, where the time limit on
the use of take-off power is less than 5 minutes.
1) the critical power-unit is made inoperative at the
critical point;
2) the aeroplane remains on or close to the ground;
3) the landing gear remains extended.
b) The horizontal distance traversed and the height attained
by the aeroplane operating at the take-off safety speed
during the time required to retract the landing gear,
retraction being initiated at the end of 2.6.2.1 a) with:
1) the critical power-unit inoperative, its propeller
windmilling, and the propeller pitch control in the
position recommended for normal use during takeoff, except that, if the completion of the retraction of
the landing gear occurs later than the completion of
the stopping of the propeller initiated in accordance
with 2.6.2.1 c) 1), the propeller may be assumed to
be stopped throughout the remainder of the time
required to retract the landing gear;
2) the landing gear extended.
2.6.2.2 If satisfactory data are available, the variations in
drag of the propeller during feathering and of the landing gear
throughout the period of retraction are permitted to be taken into
account in determining the appropriate portions of the elements.
2.6.2.3 During the take-off and subsequent climb
represented by the elements, the wing flap control setting is
not changed, except that changes made before the critical point
has been reached, and not earlier than 1 minute after the
critical point has been passed, are permitted; in this case, it is
demonstrated that such changes can be accomplished without
undue skill, concentration, or effort on the part of the pilot.
2.6.3 Continuous method
2.6.3.1 The take-off path is determined from an actual
take-off during which:
c) When the completion of the retraction of the landing
gear occurs earlier than the completion of the stopping
of the propeller, the horizontal distance traversed and
the height attained by the aeroplane in the time elapsed
from the end of 2.6.2.1 b) until the rotation of the
inoperative propeller has been stopped, when:
1) the operation of stopping the propeller is initiated not
earlier than the instant the aeroplane has attained a
total height of 15.2 m (50 ft) above the take-off
surface;
2) the aeroplane speed is equal to the take-off safety
speed;
3) the landing gear is retracted;
ATT C-7
a) the critical power-unit is made inoperative at the critical
point;
b) the climb-away is not initiated until the take-off safety
speed has been reached and the airspeed does not fall
below this value in the subsequent climb;
c) retraction of the landing gear is not initiated before the
aeroplane reaches the take-off safety speed;
d) the wing flap control setting is not changed, except that
changes made before the critical point has been reached,
and not earlier than 1 minute after the critical point has
been passed, are permitted; in this case, it is
demonstrated that such changes can be accomplished
without undue skill, concentration, or effort on the part
of the pilot;
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
e) the operation of stopping the propeller is not initiated
until the aeroplane has cleared a point 15.2 m (50 ft)
above the take-off surface.
1) sea level;
2) aeroplane mass equal to the maximum landing mass
at sea level;
2.6.3.2 Suitable methods are provided and employed to
take into account, and to correct for, any vertical gradient of
wind velocity which may exist during the take-off.
3) level, smooth, dry and hard landing surfaces (landplanes);
4) smooth water of declared density (seaplanes);
2.7 Take-off distance required
b) over selected ranges of the following variables:
The take-off distance required is the horizontal distance along
the take-off flight path from the start of the take-off to a point
where the aeroplane attains a height of 15.2 m (50 ft) above
the take-off surface.
1) atmospheric conditions, namely: altitude and also
pressure-altitude and temperature;
2) aeroplane mass;
2.8
Temperature accountability
3) steady wind velocity parallel to the direction of
landing;
Operating correction factors for take-off mass and take-off
distance are determined to account for temperature above and
below those of the Standard Atmosphere. These factors are
obtained as follows:
a) For any specific aeroplane type the average full
temperature accountability is computed for the range of
mass and altitudes above sea level, and for ambient
temperatures expected in operation. Account is taken of
the temperature effect both on the aerodynamic
characteristics of the aeroplane and on the engine power.
The full temperature accountability is expressed per
degree of temperature in terms of a mass correction, a
take-off distance correction and a change, if any, in the
position of the critical point.
b) Where 2.6.2 is used to determine the take-off path, the
operating correction factors for the aeroplane mass and
take-off distance are at least one half of the full
accountability values. Where 2.6.3 is used to determine
the take-off path, the operating correction factors for the
aeroplane mass and take-off distance are equal to the
full accountability values. With both methods, the
position of the critical point is further corrected by the
average amount necessary to assure that the aeroplane
can stop within the runway length at the ambient
temperature, except that the speed at the critical point is
not less than a minimum at which the aeroplane can be
controlled with the critical power-unit inoperative.
3.
Landing
3.1
General
4) uniform landing-surface slope (landplanes);
5) type of landing surface (landplanes);
6) water surface condition (seaplanes);
7) density of water (seaplanes);
8) strength of current (seaplanes).
3.2
3.2.1 The landing distance is the horizontal distance
between that point on the landing surface at which the aeroplane is brought to a complete stop or, for seaplanes, to a
speed of approximately 6 km/h (3 kt) and that point on the
landing surface which the aeroplane cleared by 15.2 m (50 ft).
3.3 Landing technique
3.3.1 In determining the landing distance:
a) immediately before reaching the 15.2 m (50 ft) height, a
steady approach is maintained, landing gear fully
extended, with an airspeed of not less than 1.3VS0 ;
b) the nose of the aeroplane is not depressed in flight nor
the forward thrust increased by application of engine
power after reaching the 15.2 m (50 ft) height;
c) the wing flap control is set in the landing position, and
remains constant during the final approach, flare out and
touch down, and on the landing surface at air speeds
above 0.9VS0 . When the aeroplane is on the landing
surface and the airspeed has fallen to less than 0.9VS0 ,
change of the wing-flap-control setting is permitted;
The landing performance is determined:
a) for the following conditions:
1/11/01
Landing distance
ATT C-8
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
d) the landing is made in a manner such that there is no
excessive vertical acceleration, no excessive tendency to
bounce, and no display of any uncontrollable or
otherwise undesirable ground (water) handling characteristics, and such that its repetition does not require
either an exceptional degree of skill on the part of the
pilot, or exceptionally favourable conditions;
e) wheel brakes are not used in a manner such as to
produce excessive wear of brakes or tires, and the
operating pressures on the braking system are not in
excess of those approved.
3.3.2 In addition to, or in lieu of, wheel brakes, other
reliable braking means are permitted to be used in determining
the landing distance, provided that the manner of their
employment is such that consistent results can be expected
under normal conditions of operation and that exceptional skill
is not required to control the aeroplane.
3.3.3 The gradient of the steady approach and the details
of the technique used in determining the landing distance,
together with such variations in the technique as are
recommended for landing with the critical power-units
inoperative, and any appreciable variation in landing distance
resulting therefrom, are entered in the flight manual.
Example 2
Purpose and scope
The purpose of the following example is to illustrate the level
of performance intended by the provisions of Chapter 5 as
applicable to the types of aeroplanes described below.
This material was contained in substance in Attachment A
to the now superseded edition of Annex 6 which became
effective on 1 May 1953. It is based on the type of requirements developed by the Standing Committee on Performance*
with such detailed changes as are necessary to make it reflect
as closely as possible a performance code that has been used
nationally.
A substantial number of civil transport aeroplanes have
been manufactured and are being operated in accordance with
these codes. Those aeroplanes are powered with reciprocating
engines, turbo-propellers and turbo-jets. They embrace twinengined and four-engined aeroplanes over a mass range from
approximately 5 500 kg to 70 000 kg over a stalling speed
range, VS0 , from approximately 110 to 170 km/h (60 to 90 kt)
and over a wing loading range from approximately 120 to
350 kg/m2. Cruising speeds range up to 740 km/h (400 kt).
Those aeroplanes have been used in a very wide range of
altitude, air temperature and humidity conditions.
Although only past experience can warrant the fact that this
example illustrates the level of performance intended by the
Standards and Recommended Practices of Chapter 5, it is
considered to be applicable, except for some variations in
detail as necessary to fit particular cases, over a much wider
range of aeroplane characteristics. Reservation should,
however, be made concerning one point. The landing distance
specification of this example, not being derived from the same
method as other specifications, is valid only for the range of
conditions stated for Example 1 in this Attachment.
This example is not intended for application to aeroplanes
having short take-off and landing (STOL) or vertical take-off
and landing (VTOL) capabilities.
No detailed study has been made of the applicability of this
example to operations in all-weather conditions. The validity
of this example has not therefore been established for
operations which may involve low decision heights and be
associated with low weather minima operating techniques and
procedures.
1.
Definitions
Declared distances.
a) Take-off run available (TORA). The length of runway
declared available and suitable for the ground run of an
aeroplane taking off.
b) Take-off distance available (TODA). The length of the
take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if
provided.
* The ICAO Standing Committee on Performance, established as a
result of recommendations of the Airworthiness and Operations
Divisions at their Fourth Sessions, in 1951, met four times between
1951 and 1953.
ATT C-9
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
c) Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA). The length
of the take-off run available plus the length of the
stopway, if provided.
d) Landing distance available (LDA). The length of
runway which is declared available and suitable for the
ground run of an aeroplane landing.
TAS (True airspeed). The speed of the aeroplane relative to
undisturbed air.
Note.— See Chapter 1 and Annexes 8 and 14, Volume I, for
other definitions.
2.
Take-off
Note.— The calculation of declared distances is described
in Annex 14, Volume I, Attachment A.
2.1 Mass
Declared temperature. A temperature selected in such a way
that when used for performance purposes, over a series of
operations, the average level of safety is not less than
would be obtained by using official forecast temperatures.
Expected. Used in relation to various aspects of performance
(e.g. rate or gradient of climb), this term means the
standard performance for the type, in the relevant
conditions (e.g. mass, altitude and temperature).
The mass of the aeroplane at take-off is not to exceed the
maximum take-off mass specified in the flight manual for the
altitude and temperature at which the take-off is to be made.
2.2
Performance
The performance of the aeroplane, as determined from the
information contained in the flight manual, is such that:
Height. The vertical distance of a level, a point, or an object
considered as a point, measured from a specified datum.
a) the accelerate-stop distance required does not exceed the
accelerate-stop distance available;
Note.— For the purposes of this example, the point referred
to above is the lowest part of the aeroplane and the specified
datum is the take-off or landing surface, whichever is
applicable.
b) the take-off run required does not exceed the take-off
run available;
c) the take-off distance required does not exceed the takeoff distance available;
Landing surface. That part of the surface of an aerodrome
which the aerodrome authority has declared available for
the normal ground or water run of aircraft landing in a
particular direction.
Net gradient. The net gradient of climb throughout these
requirements is the expected gradient of climb diminished
by the manoeuvre performance (i.e. that gradient of climb
necessary to provide power to manoeuvre) and by the
margin (i.e. that gradient of climb necessary to provide for
those variations in performance which are not expected to
be taken explicit account of operationally).
d) the net take-off flight path starting at a point 10.7 m
(35 ft) above the ground at the end of the take-off
distance required provides a vertical clearance of not
less than 6 m (20 ft) plus 0.005D above all obstacles
lying within 60 m plus half the wing span of the aeroplane plus 0.125D on either side of the intended track
until the relevant altitude laid down in the operations
manual for an en-route flight has been attained; except
that obstacles lying beyond 1 500 m on either side of the
flight path need not be cleared.
Reference humidity. The relationship between temperature
and reference humidity is defined as follows:
The distance D is the horizontal distance that the aeroplane
has travelled from the end of the take-off distance available.
— at temperatures at and below ISA, 80 per cent relative
humidity,
Note.— This need not be carried beyond the point at which
the aeroplane would be able, without further gaining in height,
to commence a landing procedure at the aerodrome of take-off
or, alternatively, has attained the minimum safe altitude for
commencing flight to another aerodrome.
— at temperatures at and above ISA + 28°C, 34 per cent
relative humidity,
— at temperatures between ISA and ISA + 28°C, the
relative humidity varies linearly between the humidity
specified for those temperatures.
Take-off surface. That part of the surface of an aerodrome
which the aerodrome authority has declared available for
the normal ground or water run of aircraft taking off in a
particular direction.
1/11/01
However, the lateral obstacle clearance is liable to be
reduced (below the values stated above) when, and to the
extent that, this is warranted by special provisions or conditions which assist the pilot to avoid inadvertent lateral
deviations from the intended flight path. For example,
particularly in poor weather conditions, a precise radio aid
may assist the pilot to maintain the intended flight path. Also,
when the take-off is made in sufficiently good visibility
ATT C-10
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
conditions, it may, in some cases, be possible to avoid
obstacles which are clearly visible but may be within the
lateral limits noted in 2.2 d).
3. En route
3.1 All power-units operating
Note.— The procedures used in determining the acceleratestop distance required, the take-off run required, the take-off
distance required and the net take-off flight path are described
in the Appendix to this example.
2.3 Conditions
For the purpose of 2.1 and 2.2, the performance is that
corresponding to:
At each point along the route and planned diversion therefrom,
the all power-units operating performance ceiling appropriate
to the aeroplane mass at that point, taking into account the
amount of fuel and oil expected to be consumed, is not less
than the minimum altitude (see Chapter 4, 4.2.6) or, if greater,
the planned altitude which it is intended to maintain with all
power-units operating, in order to ensure compliance with 3.2
and 3.3.
a) the mass of the aeroplane at the start of take-off;
3.2
b) an altitude equal to the elevation of the aerodrome;
c) either the ambient temperature at the time of take-off, or
a declared temperature giving an equivalent average
level of performance;
and for the purpose of 2.2:
One power-unit inoperative
From each point along the route and planned diversions
therefrom, it is possible in the event of one power-unit
becoming inoperative to continue the flight to an en-route
alternate aerodrome where a landing can be made in
accordance with 4.2 and, on arrival at the aerodrome, the net
gradient of climb is not less than zero at a height of 450 m
(1 500 ft) above the elevation of the aerodrome.
d) the surface slope in the direction of take-off (landplanes);
e) not more than 50 per cent of the reported wind
component opposite to the direction of take-off, and not
less than 150 per cent of the reported wind component
in the direction of take-off. In certain cases of operation
of seaplanes, it has been found necessary to take account
of the reported wind component normal to the direction
of take-off.
2.4
3.3 Two power-units inoperative
(applicable only to aeroplanes with four power-units)
For each point along the route or planned diversions
therefrom, at which the aeroplane is more than 90 minutes’
flying time at all power-units operating cruising speed from an
en-route alternate aerodrome, the two power-units inoperative
net flight path is such that a height of at least 300 m (1 000 ft)
above terrain can be maintained until arrival at such an
aerodrome.
Power failure point
In applying 2.2 the power failure point chosen for establishing
compliance with 2.2 a) is not nearer to the starting point than
that used for establishing compliance with 2.2 b) and 2.2 c).
2.5
Note.— The net flight path is that attainable from the
expected gradient of climb or descent diminished by 0.2 per
cent.
3.4 Conditions
Turns
The net take-off flight path may include turns, provided that:
The ability to comply with 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 is assessed:
a) the radius of steady turn assumed is not less than that
scheduled for this purpose in the flight manual;
b) if the planned change of direction of the take-off flight
path exceeds 15 degrees, the clearance of the net takeoff flight path above obstacles is at least 30 m (100 ft)
during and after the turn, and the appropriate allowance,
as prescribed in the flight manual, is made for the
reduction in assumed gradient of climb during the turn;
c) the distance D is measured along the intended track.
ATT C-11
a) either on the basis of forecast temperatures, or on the
basis of declared temperatures giving an equivalent
average level of performance;
b) on the forecast data on wind velocity versus altitude and
locality assumed for the flight plan as a whole;
c) in the case of 3.2 and 3.3, on the scheduled gradient of
climb or gradient of descent after power failure
appropriate to the mass and altitude at each point
considered;
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
d) on the basis that, if the aeroplane is expected to gain
altitude at some point in the flight after power failure
has occurred, a satisfactory positive net gradient of
climb is available;
a) the most suitable landing surface for a landing in still
air; and, if more severe,
b) any other landing surface that may be required for
landing because of expected wind conditions at the time
of arrival.
e) in the case of 3.2 on the basis that the minimum altitude
(see Chapter 4, 4.2.6), appropriate to each point between
the place at which power failure is assumed to occur and
the aerodrome at which it is intended to alight, is
exceeded;
f) in the case of 3.2, making reasonable allowance for
indecision and navigational error in the event of powerunit failure at any point.
4.3 Conditions
For the purpose of 4.2, the landing distance required is that
corresponding to:
a) the calculated mass of the aeroplane for the expected
time of landing;
4.
Landing
b) an altitude equal to the elevation of the aerodrome;
4.1 Mass
c) the expected temperature at which landing is to be made
or a declared temperature giving an equivalent average
level of performance;
The calculated mass for the expected time of landing at the
aerodrome of intended landing or any destination alternate
aerodrome is not to exceed the maximum specified in the
flight manual for the altitude and temperature at which the
landing is to be made.
4.2
d) the surface slope in the direction of landing;
e) for the purpose of 4.2 a), still air;
Landing distance required
f) for the purpose of 4.2 b), not more than 50 per cent of
the expected wind component along the landing path
and opposite to the direction of landing and not less than
150 per cent of the expected wind component in the
direction of landing.
The landing distance required at the aerodrome of the intended
landing or at any alternate aerodrome, as determined from the
flight manual, is not to exceed the landing distance available on:
APPENDIX TO EXAMPLE 2 ON AEROPLANE PERFORMANCE OPERATING LIMITATIONS —
PROCEDURES USED IN DETERMINING TAKE-OFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE
1. General
1.1 Unless otherwise stated, reference humidity and still
air conditions are applied.
1.2 The performance of the aeroplane is determined in
such a manner that the approved airworthiness limitations for
the aeroplane and its systems are not exceeded.
1.3 The wing flap positions for showing compliance with
the performance specifications are selected.
1/11/01
Note.— Alternative wing flap positions are made available,
if so desired, in such a manner as to be consistent with
acceptably simple operating techniques.
1.4 The position of the centre of gravity is selected within
the permissible range so that the performance achieved in the
configuration and power indicated in the specification under
consideration is a minimum.
1.5 The performance of the aeroplane is determined in
such a manner that under all conditions the approved
limitations for the powerplant are not exceeded.
ATT C-12
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
1.6 While certain configurations of cooling gills have
been specified based upon maximum anticipated temperature,
the use of other positions is acceptable provided that an
equivalent level of safety is maintained.
f) take-off surface slope over the take-off distance required
(landplanes);
1.7 The determined performance is so scheduled that it
can serve directly in showing compliance with the aeroplane
performance operating limitations.
h) density of water (seaplanes);
g) water surface condition (seaplanes);
i) strength of current (seaplanes);
j) power failure point (subject to provisions of 2.4.3).
2.
Take-off
2.1
General
2.1.3 For seaplanes appropriate interpretations of the term
landing gear, etc., are made to provide for the operation of
retractable floats, if employed.
2.1.1 The following take-off data are determined for sea
level pressure and temperature in the Standard Atmosphere,
and reference humidity conditions, with the aeroplane at the
corresponding maximum take-off mass for a level, smooth,
dry and hard take-off surface (landplanes) and for smooth
water of declared density (seaplanes):
2.2 Take-off safety speed
2.2.1 The take-off safety speed is an airspeed (CAS) so
selected that it is not less than:
a) 1.20VS1 , for aeroplanes with two power-units;
b) 1.15VS1 , for aeroplanes having more than two powerunits;
a) take-off safety speed and any other relevant speed;
b) power failure point;
c) power failure point criterion,
e.g. airspeed indicator reading;
c) 1.10 times the minimum control speed, VMC, established
as prescribed in 2.3;
associated with
items d), e), f)
d) the minimum speed prescribed in 2.9.7.6;
d) accelerate-stop distance required;
where VS1 is appropriate to the take-off configuration.
e) take-off run required;
Note.— See Example 1 for definition of VS1 .
f) take-off distance required;
2.3
g) net take-off flight path;
Minimum control speed
h) radius of a steady Rate 1 (180 degrees per minute) turn
made at the airspeed used in establishing the net takeoff flight path, and the corresponding reduction in
gradient of climb in accordance with the conditions
of 2.9.
2.3.1 The minimum control speed is such that, when any
one power-unit is made inoperative at that speed, it is possible
to recover control of the aeroplane with the one power-unit
still inoperative and to maintain the aeroplane in straight flight
at that speed either with zero yaw or with a bank not in excess
of 5 degrees.
2.1.2 The determination is also made over selected ranges
of the following variables:
2.3.2 From the time at which the power-unit is made
inoperative to the time at which recovery is complete,
exceptional skill, alertness, or strength, on the part of the pilot
is not required to prevent any loss of altitude other than that
implicit in the loss of performance or any change of heading
in excess of 20 degrees, nor does the aeroplane assume any
dangerous attitude.
a) aeroplane mass;
b) pressure-altitude at the take-off surface;
c) outside air temperature;
d) steady wind velocity parallel to the direction of take-off;
e) steady wind velocity normal to the direction of take-off
(seaplanes);
2.3.3 It is demonstrated that to maintain the aeroplane in
steady straight flight at this speed after recovery and before
retrimming does not require a rudder control force exceeding
800 N and does not make it necessary for the flight crew to
reduce the power of the remaining power-units.
ATT C-13
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
2.4
Part I
Power failure point
2.7 Take-off distance required
2.4.1 The power failure point is the point at which sudden
complete loss of power from the power-unit, critical from the
performance aspect in the case considered, is assumed to
occur. If the airspeed corresponding to this point is less than
the take-off safety speed, it is demonstrated that, in the event
of sudden failure of the critical power-unit at all speeds down
to the lowest speed corresponding with the power failure point,
the aeroplane is controllable satisfactorily and that the take-off
can be continued safely, using normal piloting skill, without:
2.7.1 The take-off distance required is the distance
required to reach a height of:
a) reducing the thrust of the remaining power-units; and
2.7.2 The heights mentioned above are those which can
be just cleared by the aeroplane when following the relevant
flight path in an unbanked attitude with the landing gear
extended.
b) encountering characteristics which would result in
unsatisfactory controllability on wet runways.
10.7 m (35 ft), for aeroplanes with two power-units,
15.2 m (50 ft), for aeroplanes with four power-units,
above the take-off surface, with the critical power-unit failing
at the power failure point.
2.4.2 If the critical power-unit varies with the configuration, and this variation has a substantial effect on performance, either the critical power-unit is considered separately for
each element concerned, or it is shown that the established
performance provides for each possibility of single power-unit
failure.
Note.— Paragraph 2.8 and the corresponding operating
requirements, by defining the point at which the net take-off
flight path starts as the 10.7 m (35 ft) height point, ensure that
the appropriate net clearances are achieved.
2.4.3 The power failure point is selected for each take-off
distance required and take-off run required, and for each
accelerate-stop distance required. The pilot is provided with a
ready and reliable means of determining when the applicable
power failure point has been reached.
2.8 Net take-off flight path
2.5
Accelerate-stop distance required
2.5.1 The accelerate-stop distance required is the distance
required to reach the power failure point from a standing start
and, assuming the critical power-unit to fail suddenly at this
point, to stop if a landplane, or to bring the aeroplane to a
speed of approximately 9 km/h (5 kt) if a seaplane.
2.5.2 Use of braking means in addition to, or in lieu of,
wheel brakes is permitted in determining this distance,
provided that they are reliable and that the manner of their
employment is such that consistent results can be expected
under normal conditions of operation, and provided that
exceptional skill is not required to control the aeroplane.
2.6 Take-off run required
2.8.1 The net take-off flight path is the one-power-unitinoperative flight path which starts at a height of 10.7 m (35 ft)
at the end of the take-off distance required and extends to a
height of at least 450 m (1 500 ft) calculated in accordance
with the conditions of 2.9, the expected gradient of climb
being diminished at each point by a gradient equal to:
0.5 per cent, for aeroplanes with two power-units,
0.8 per cent, for aeroplanes with four power-units.
2.8.2 The expected performance with which the aeroplane
is credited in the take-off wing flap, take-off power condition,
is available at the selected take-off safety speed and is
substantially available at 9 km/h (5 kt) below this speed.
2.8.3 In addition the effect of significant turns is
scheduled as follows:
Radius. The radius of a steady Rate 1 (180 degrees per
minute) turn in still air at the various true airspeeds
corresponding to the take-off safety speeds for each wing-flap
setting used in establishing the net take-off flight path below
the 450 m (1 500 ft) height point, is scheduled.
The take-off run required is the greater of the following:
1.15 times the distance required with all power-units
operating to accelerate from a standing start to takeoff safety speed;
1.0
1/11/01
Performance change. The approximate reduction in
performance due to the above turns is scheduled and
corresponds to a change in gradient of
times the distance required to accelerate from a
standing start to take-off safety speed assuming the
critical power-unit to fail at the power failure point.
ATT C-14
V 2
0.5 
 185.2
% where V is the true airspeed
in km/h; and
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
prescribed in 2.2 retraction of the landing gear may be initiated
when a speed greater than the minimum value prescribed in
2.2 has been reached.
% where V is the true airspeed
in knots.
V 2
0.5 
 100
2.9.3.3 In establishing the net take-off flight path, the
retraction of the landing gear is assumed to have been initiated
not earlier than the point prescribed in 2.9.3.2.
2.9 Conditions
2.9.1
Air speed
2.9.4 Cooling
2.9.1.1 In determining the take-off distance required, the
selected take-off safety speed is attained before the end of the
take-off distance required is reached.
2.9.1.2 In determining the net take-off flight path below a
height of 120 m (400 ft), the selected take-off safety speed is
maintained, i.e. no credit is taken for acceleration before this
height is reached.
2.9.1.3 In determining the net take-off flight path above a
height of 120 m (400 ft), the airspeed is not less than the
selected take-off safety speed. If the aeroplane is accelerated
after reaching a height of 120 m (400 ft) and before reaching
a height of 450 m (1 500 ft), the acceleration is assumed to
take place in level flight and to have a value equal to the true
acceleration available diminished by an acceleration equivalent to a climb gradient equal to that specified in 2.8.1.
2.9.1.4 The net take-off flight path includes transition to
the initial en-route configuration and airspeed. During all
transition stages, the above provisions regarding acceleration
are complied with.
2.9.2
Wing flaps
The wing flaps are in the same position (take-off position)
throughout, except:
a) that the flaps may be moved at heights above 120 m
(400 ft), provided that the airspeed specifications of
2.9.1 are met and that the take-off safety speed
applicable to subsequent elements is appropriate to the
new flap position;
b) the wing flaps may be moved before the earliest power
failure point is reached, if this is established as a
satisfactory normal procedure.
2.9.3
For that part of the net take-off flight path before the 120 m
(400 ft) height point, plus any transition element which starts
at the 120 m (400 ft) height point, the cowl flap position is
such that, starting the take-off at the maximum temperatures
permitted for the start of take-off, the relevant maximum
temperature limitations are not exceeded in the maximum
anticipated air temperature conditions. For any subsequent part
of the net take-off flight path, the cowl flap position and
airspeed are such that the appropriate temperature limitations
would not be exceeded in steady flight in the maximum
anticipated air temperatures. The cowl flaps of all power-units
at the start of the take-off are as above, and the cowl flaps of
the inoperative power-unit may be assumed to be closed upon
reaching the end of the take-off distance required.
2.9.5 Power unit conditions
2.9.5.1 From the starting point to the power failure point,
all power-units may operate at maximum take-off power
conditions. The operative power-units do not operate at
maximum take-off power limitations for a period greater than
that for which the use of maximum take-off power is
permitted.
2.9.5.2 After the period for which the take-off power may
be used, maximum continuous power limitations are not
exceeded. The period for which maximum take-off power is
used is assumed to begin at the start of the take-off run.
2.9.6 Propeller conditions
At the starting point, all propellers are set in the condition
recommended for take-off. Propeller feathering or pitch
coarsening is not initiated (unless it is by automatic or autoselective means) before the end of the take-off distance
required.
Landing gear
2.9.7 Technique
2.9.3.1 In establishing the accelerate-stop distance
required and the take-off run required, the landing gear are
extended throughout.
2.9.3.2 In establishing the take-off distance required,
retraction of the landing gear is not initiated until the selected
take-off safety speed has been reached, except that, when the
selected take-off safety speed exceeds the minimum value
2.9.7.1 In that part of the net take-off flight path prior to
the 120 m (400 ft) height point, no changes of configuration or
power are made which have the effect of reducing the gradient
of climb.
2.9.7.2 The aeroplane is not flown or assumed to be
flown in a manner which would make the gradient of any part
of the net take-off flight path negative.
ATT C-15
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
2.9.7.3 The technique chosen for those elements of the
flight path conducted in steady flight, which are not the subject
of numerical climb specifications, are such that the net
gradient of climb is not less than 0.5 per cent.
2.10.3
Take-off distance required
Satisfactory corrections for the vertical gradient of wind
velocity are made.
2.9.7.4 All information which it may be necessary to
furnish to the pilot, if the aeroplane is to be flown in a manner
consistent with the scheduled performance, is obtained and
recorded.
2.9.7.5 The aeroplane is held on, or close to the ground
until the point at which it is permissible to initiate landing gear
retraction has been reached.
3.
Landing
3.1
General
The landing distance required is determined:
a) for the following conditions:
2.9.7.6 No attempt is made to leave the ground until a
speed has been reached which is at least:
1) sea level;
15 per cent above the minimum possible unstick speed with
all power-units operating;
2) aeroplane mass equal to the maximum landing mass
at sea level;
7 per cent above the minimum possible unstick speed with
the critical power-unit inoperative;
3) level, smooth, dry and hard landing surfaces
(landplanes);
except that these unstick speed margins may be reduced to
10 per cent and 5 per cent, respectively, when the limitation is
due to landing gear geometry and not to ground stalling
characteristics.
4) smooth water of declared density (seaplanes);
b) over selected ranges of the following variables:
1) atmospheric conditions, namely:
pressure-altitude and temperature;
Note.— Compliance with this specification is determined by
attempting to leave the ground at progressively lower speeds
(by normal use of the controls except that up-elevator is
applied earlier and more coarsely than is normal) until it has
been shown to be possible to leave the ground at a speed
which complies with these specifications, and to complete the
take-off. It is recognized that during the test manoeuvre, the
usual margin of control associated with normal operating
techniques and scheduled performance information will not be
available.
altitude,
or
2) aeroplane mass;
3) steady wind velocity parallel to the direction of
landing;
4) uniform landing surface slope (landplanes);
5) nature of landing surface (landplanes);
6) water surface condition (seaplanes);
2.10
2.10.1
Methods of derivation
7) density of water (seaplanes);
General
8) strength of current (seaplanes).
The take-off field lengths required are determined from
measurements of actual take-offs and ground runs. The net
take-off flight path is determined by calculating each section
separately on the basis of performance data obtained in steady
flight.
2.10.2
Net take-off flight path
Credit is not taken for any change in configuration until that
change is complete, unless more accurate data are available to
substantiate a less conservative assumption; ground effect is
ignored.
1/11/01
3.2
Landing distance required
The landing distance required is the measured horizontal
distance between that point on the landing surface at which the
aeroplane is brought to a complete stop or, for seaplanes, to a
speed of approximately 9 km/h (5 kt) and that point on the
landing surface which the aeroplane cleared by 15.2 m (50 ft)
multiplied by a factor of 1/0.7.
Note.— Some States have found it necessary to use a factor
of 1/0.6 instead of 1/0.7.
ATT C-16
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
3.3 Landing technique
3.3.1
e) the wing flap control is set in the landing position, and
remains constant during the final approach, flare out and
touch down, and on the landing surface at airspeeds
above 0.9VS0 . When the aeroplane is on the landing
surface and the airspeed has fallen to less than 0.9VS0 ,
change of the wing-flap-control setting is acceptable;
In determining the measured landing distance:
a) immediately before reaching the 15.2 m (50 ft) height, a
steady approach is maintained, landing gear fully
extended, with an airspeed of at least 1.3VS0 ;
f) the landing is made in a manner such that there is no
excessive vertical acceleration, no excessive tendency to
bounce, and no display of any other undesirable
handling characteristics, and such that its repetition
does not require either an exceptional degree of skill on
the part of the pilot, or exceptionally favourable
conditions;
Note.— See Example 1 for definition of VS0 .
b) the nose of the aeroplane is not depressed in flight nor
the forward thrust increased by application of engine
power after reaching the 15.2 m (50 ft) height;
c) the power is not reduced in such a way that the power
used for establishing compliance with the balked
landing climb requirement would not be obtained within
5 seconds if selected at any point down to touch down;
d) reverse pitch or reverse thrust are not used when
establishing the landing distance using this method and
field length factor. Ground fine pitch is used if the
effective drag/weight ratio in the airborne part of the
landing distance is not less satisfactory than that of
conventional piston-engined aeroplane;
Note.— This does not mean that reverse pitch or
reverse thrust, or use of ground fine pitch, are to be
discouraged.
g) wheel brakes are not used in a manner such as to
produce excessive wear of brakes or tires, and the
operating pressures on the braking system are not in
excess of those approved.
3.3.2 The gradient of the steady approach and the details
of the technique used in determining the landing distance,
together with such variations in the technique as are
recommended for landing with the critical engine inoperative,
and any appreciable variation in landing distance resulting
therefrom, are entered in the flight manual.
Example 3
Purpose and scope
The purpose of the following example is to illustrate the level
of performance intended by the provisions of Chapter 5 as
applicable to turbine-powered subsonic transport type
aeroplanes over 5 700 kg maximum certificated take-off mass
having two or more engines. However, where relevant, it can
be applied to all turbine-powered or piston-engined subsonic
aeroplanes having two, three or four engines. This example is
shown to be compatible with principal national airworthiness
codes in effect in 1969.
No study has been made of the applicability of this material
to turbine-powered subsonic aeroplanes having characteristics
other than those of the transport aeroplanes introduced into
service up to 1969.
This example is not intended for application to aeroplanes
having short take-off and landing (STOL) or vertical take-off
and landing (VTOL) capabilities.
No detailed study has been made of the applicability of this
example to operations in all-weather conditions. The validity
of this example has not therefore been established for
operations which may involve low decision heights and be
associated with low minima operating techniques and
procedures.
1. General
1.1 The provisions of 1 to 5 are to be complied with,
unless deviations therefrom are specifically authorized by the
State of Registry on the ground that the special circumstances
of a particular case make a literal observance of these
provisions unnecessary for safety.
1.2 Compliance with 1 to 5 is to be established using
performance data in the flight manual and in accordance with
other applicable operating requirements. In no case may the
limitations in the flight manual be exceeded. However,
ATT C-17
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
additional limitations may be applied when operational
conditions not included in the flight manual are encountered.
3. Take-off obstacle
clearance limitations
1.3 The procedures scheduled in the flight manual are to
be followed except where operational circumstances require
the use of modified procedures in order to maintain the
intended level of safety.
3.1 No aeroplane is taken off at a mass in excess of that
shown in the flight manual to correspond with a net take-off
flight path which clears all obstacles either by at least a height
of 10.7 m (35 ft) vertically or at least 90 m plus 0.125D
laterally, where D is the horizontal distance the aeroplane has
travelled from the end of take-off distance available, except as
provided in 3.1.1 to 3.1.3 inclusive. In determining the
allowable deviation of the net take-off flight path in order to
avoid obstacles by at least the distances specified, it is
assumed that the aeroplane is not banked before the clearance
of the net take-off flight path above obstacles is at least
15.2 m (50 ft) and that the bank thereafter does not exceed
15 degrees. The net take-off flight path considered is for the
altitude of the aerodrome and for the ambient temperature and
wind component existing at the time of take-off.
Note.— See the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760) for the
related airworthiness performance guidance material.
2. Aeroplane take-off
performance limitations
2.1 No aeroplane is taken off at a mass which exceeds the
take-off mass specified in the flight manual for the altitude of
the aerodrome and for the ambient temperature existing at the
time of the take-off.
3.1.1 Where the intended track does not include any
change of heading greater than 15 degrees,
2.2 No aeroplane is taken off at a mass such that,
allowing for normal consumption of fuel and oil in flight to the
aerodrome of destination and to the destination alternate
aerodromes, the mass on arrival will exceed the landing mass
specified in the flight manual for the altitude of each of the
aerodromes involved and for the ambient temperatures
anticipated at the time of landing.
2.3 No aeroplane is taken off at a mass which exceeds the
mass at which, in accordance with the minimum distances for
take-off scheduled in the flight manual, compliance with 2.3.1
to 2.3.3 inclusive is shown. These distances correspond with
the altitude of the aerodrome, the runway, stopway and clearway to be used, the runway slope, the stopway slope, the clearway plane slope, and the ambient temperature and wind
existing at the time of take-off.
2.3.1 The take-off run required does not exceed the length
of the runway.
2.3.2 The accelerate-stop distance required does not
exceed the length of the runway plus the length of the
stopway, where present.
a) for operations conducted in VMC by day, or
b) for operations conducted with navigation aids such that
the pilot can maintain the aeroplane on the intended
track with the same precision as for operations specified
in 3.1.1 a),
obstacles at a distance greater than 300 m on either side of the
intended track need not be cleared.
3.1.2 Where the intended track does not include any
change of heading greater than 15 degrees for operations
conducted in IMC, or in VMC by night, except as provided in
3.1.1 b); and where the intended track includes changes of
heading greater than 15 degrees for operations conducted in
VMC by day, obstacles at a distance greater than 600 m on
either side of the intended track need not be cleared.
3.1.3 Where the intended track includes changes of
heading greater than 15 degrees for operations conducted in
IMC, or in VMC by night, obstacles at a distance greater than
900 m on either side of the intended track need not be cleared.
2.3.3 The take-off distance required does not exceed the
length of the runway, plus the length of the clearway, where
present, except that the sum of the lengths of the runway and
the clearway is in no case considered as being greater than 1.5
times the length of the runway.
4.
En-route limitations
4.1
2.4 Credit is not taken for the length of the stopway or the
length of the clearway unless they comply with the relevant
specifications in Annex 14, Volume I.
Note.— In determining the length of the runway available,
account is taken of the loss, if any, of runway length due to
alignment of the aeroplane prior to take-off.
1/11/01
General
At no point along the intended track, is an aeroplane having
three or more engines to be more than 90 minutes at normal
cruising speed away from an aerodrome at which the distance
specifications for alternate aerodromes (see 5.2) are complied
with and where it is expected that a safe landing can be made,
unless it complies with 4.3.1.1.
ATT C-18
Attachment C
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Note.— For the authorization of extended range operations
by aeroplanes with two turbine engines, see 4.7 of this Part.
4.2
One engine inoperative
4.2.1 No aeroplane is taken off at a mass in excess of that
which, in accordance with the one-engine-inoperative en-route
net flight path data shown in the flight manual, permits
compliance either with 4.2.1.1 or 4.2.1.2 at all points along the
route. The net flight path has a positive slope at 450 m
(1 500 ft) above the aerodrome where the landing is assumed
to be made after engine failure. The net flight path used is for
the ambient temperatures anticipated along the route. In
meteorological conditions where icing protection systems are
to be operable, the effect of their use on the net flight path data
is taken into account.
4.2.1.1 The slope of the net flight path is positive at an
altitude of at least 300 m (1 000 ft) above all terrain and
obstructions along the route within 9.3 km (5 NM) on either
side of the intended track.
4.2.1.2 The net flight path is such as to permit the
aeroplane to continue flight from the cruising altitude to an
aerodrome where a landing can be made in accordance with
5.2, the net flight path clearing vertically, by at least 600 m
(2 000 ft), all terrain and obstructions along the route within
9.3 km (5 NM) on either side of the intended track. The
provisions of 4.2.1.2.1 to 4.2.1.2.5 inclusive are applied.
4.2.1.2.1 The engine is assumed to fail at the most critical
point along the route, allowance being made for indecision and
navigational error.
4.2.1.2.2
flight path.
net flight path data shown in the flight manual, permits the
aeroplane to continue flight from the point where two engines
are assumed to fail simultaneously, to an aerodrome at which
the landing distance specification for alternate aerodromes (see
5.2) is complied with and where it is expected that a safe
landing can be made. The net flight path clears vertically, by
at least 600 m (2 000 ft) all terrain and obstructions along the
route within 9.3 km (5 NM) on either side of the intended
track. The net flight path considered is for the ambient
temperatures anticipated along the route. In altitudes and
meteorological conditions where icing protection systems are
to be operable, the effect of their use on the net flight path data
is taken into account. The provisions of 4.3.1.1.1 to 4.3.1.1.5
inclusive apply.
4.3.1.1.1 The two engines are assumed to fail at the most
critical point of that portion of the route where the aeroplane
is at more than 90 minutes at normal cruising speed away from
an aerodrome at which the landing distance specification for
alternate aerodromes (see 5.2) is complied with and where it is
expected that a safe landing can be made.
4.3.1.1.2 The net flight path has a positive slope at 450 m
(1 500 ft) above the aerodrome where the landing is assumed
to be made after the failure of two engines.
4.3.1.1.3 Fuel jettisoning is permitted to an extent
consistent with 4.3.1.1.4, if a safe procedure is used.
4.3.1.1.4 The aeroplane mass at the point where the two
engines are assumed to fail is considered to be not less than
that which would include sufficient fuel to proceed to the
aerodrome and to arrive there at an altitude of at least 450 m
(1 500 ft) directly over the landing area and thereafter to fly
for 15 minutes at cruise power and/or thrust.
Account is taken of the effects of winds on the
4.2.1.2.3 Fuel jettisoning is permitted to an extent
consistent with reaching the aerodrome with satisfactory fuel
reserves, if a safe procedure is used.
4.3.1.1.5 The consumption of fuel and oil after the
engines become inoperative is that which is accounted for in
the net flight path data shown in the flight manual.
4.2.1.2.4 The aerodrome, where the aeroplane is assumed
to land after engine failure, is specified in the operational
flight plan and it meets the appropriate aerodrome operating
minima.
5.
5.1
4.2.1.2.5 The consumption of fuel and oil after the engine
becomes inoperative is that which is accounted for in the net
flight path data shown in the flight manual.
4.3
Two engines inoperative
4.3.1 Aeroplanes which do not comply with 4.1 comply
with 4.3.1.1.
4.3.1.1 No aeroplane is taken off at a mass in excess of
that which according to the two-engines-inoperative en-route
Landing limitations
Aerodrome of destination
5.1.1 No aeroplane is taken off at a mass in excess of that
which, in accordance with the landing distances required as
shown in the flight manual for the altitude of the aerodrome of
intended destination, permits the aeroplane to be brought to
rest at the aerodrome of intended destination within the
effective length of the runway, this length being as declared by
the aerodrome authorities with regard to the obstructions in the
approach. The mass of the aeroplane is assumed to be reduced
by the mass of the fuel and oil expected to be consumed in
flight to the aerodrome of intended destination. Compliance is
shown with 5.1.1.3 and with either 5.1.1.4 or 5.1.1.5.
ATT C-19
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
5.1.1.1 The runway slope is assumed to be zero, unless
the runway is usable in only one direction.
ground handling characteristics of the aeroplane, and of other
conditions (i.e. landing aids, terrain, etc.).
5.1.1.2 A runway condition (wet or dry) not more
favourable than that expected is taken into account.
5.1.1.5 If full compliance with 5.1.1.4 is not shown, the
aeroplane may be taken off if a destination alternate
aerodrome is designated which permits compliance with 5.2.
Note.— National authorities will need to develop suitable
methods for dealing with accountability for wet and dry
runways.
5.2
5.1.1.3 It is assumed that the aeroplane is landed on the
most favourable runway and in the most favourable direction
in still air.
5.1.1.4 It is assumed that the aeroplane is landed on the
runway which is the most suitable for the wind conditions
anticipated at the aerodrome at the time of landing, taking due
account of the probable wind speed and direction, of the
1/11/01
Destination alternate aerodrome
No aerodrome is designated as a destination alternate
aerodrome unless the aeroplane, at the mass anticipated at the
time of arrival at such aerodrome, can comply with 5.1, in
accordance with the landing distance required as shown in the
flight manual for the altitude of the alternate aerodrome and in
accordance with other applicable operating requirements for
the alternate aerodrome.
ATT C-20
ATTACHMENT D.
FLIGHT RECORDERS
Supplementary to Chapter 6, 6.3
Introduction
The material in this Attachment concerns flight recorders
intended for installation in aeroplanes engaged in international
air navigation. Flight recorders comprise two systems — a
flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder. Flight data
recorders are classified as Type I, Type II and Type IIA
depending upon the number of parameters to be recorded and
the duration required for retention of the recorded information.
1.
1.1.2
1.3
Additional information
1.3.1 A Type IIA FDR, in addition to a 30-minute
recording duration, is to retain sufficient information from the
preceding take-off for calibration purposes.
Flight data recorder (FDR)
1.3.2 The measurement range, recording interval and
accuracy of parameters on installed equipment is usually verified
by methods approved by the appropriate certificating authority.
1.1 General requirements
1.1.1
time.
1.2.2 Types II and IIA FDRs. These FDRs will be capable
of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane, at least the first
15 parameters in Table D-1. However, other parameters may
be substituted with due regard to the aeroplane type and the
characteristics of the recording equipment.
The FDR is to record continuously during flight
The FDR container is to:
1.3.3 The manufacturer usually provides the national
certificating authority with the following information in
respect of the FDR:
a) manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment limitations and installation procedures;
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
b) carry reflective material to facilitate its location; and
b) parameter origin or source and equations which relate
counts to units of measurement; and
c) have securely attached an automatically activated underwater locating device.
1.1.3
c) manufacturer’s test reports.
The FDR is to be installed so that:
a) the probability of damage to the recording is minimized.
To meet this requirement it should be located as far aft as
practicable. In the case of pressurized aeroplanes it should
be located in the vicinity of the rear pressure bulkhead;
b) it receives its electrical power from a bus that provides
the maximum reliability for operation of the FDR without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads;
and
1.3.4 Documentation concerning parameter allocation,
conversion equations, periodic calibration and other serviceability/maintenance information should be maintained by the
operator. The documentation must be sufficient to ensure that
accident investigation authorities have the necessary information to read out the data in engineering units.
2.
Cockpit voice recorder (CVR)
c) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking
that the FDR is operating properly.
2.1 General requirements
1.2
Parameters to be recorded
2.1.1 The CVR is to be designed so that it will record at
least the following:
1.2.1 Type I FDR. This FDR will be capable of recording,
as appropriate to the aeroplane, at least the 32 parameters in
Table D-1. However, other parameters may be substituted with
due regard to the aeroplane type and the characteristics of the
recording equipment.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
ATT D-1
a) voice communication transmitted from or received in
the aeroplane by radio;
b) aural environment on the flight deck;
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the
flight deck using the aeroplane’s interphone system;
Track 2 — pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Track 3 — area microphone
d) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or
approach aids introduced in the headset or speaker;
e) voice communication of flight crew members using the
passenger address system, if installed; and
Track 4 — time reference plus the third and fourth crew
members’ headphone and live microphone, if
applicable.
f) digital communications with ATS, unless recorded by
the FDR.
Note 1.— Track 1 is located closest to the base of the
recording head.
2.1.2
The CVR container is to:
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
b) carry reflective material to facilitate its location; and
c) have securely attached an automatically activated underwater locating device.
2.1.3 To aid in voice and sound discrimination, microphones in the cockpit are to be located in the best position for
recording voice communications originating at the pilot and
co-pilot stations and voice communications of other crew
members on the flight deck when directed to those stations.
This can best be achieved by wiring suitable boom microphones to record continuously on separate channels.
2.1.4
Note 2.— The preferred track allocation presumes use of
current conventional magnetic tape transport mechanisms, and
is specified because the outer edges of the tape have a higher
risk of damage than the middle. It is not intended to preclude
use of alternative recording media where such constraints may
not apply.
2.2.3 The CVR, when tested by methods approved by the
appropriate certificating authority, will be demonstrated to be
suitable for the environmental extremes over which it is
designed to operate.
2.2.4 Means will be provided for an accurate time
correlation between the FDR and CVR.
Note.— One method of achieving this is by superimposing
the FDR time signal on the CVR.
The CVR is to be installed so that:
a) the probability of damage to the recording is minimized.
To meet this requirement it should be located as far aft
as practicable. In the case of pressurized aeroplanes it
should be located in the vicinity of the rear pressure
bulkhead;
b) it receives its electrical power from a bus that provides
the maximum reliability for operation of the CVR without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads;
2.3
The manufacturer usually provides the national certificating
authority with the following information in respect of the
CVR:
a) manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment limitations and installation procedures; and
c) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking
of the CVR for proper operation; and
b) manufacturer’s test reports.
d) if the CVR has a bulk erasure device, the installation
should be designed to prevent operation of the device
during flight time or crash impact.
3.
2.2 Performance requirements
2.2.1 The CVR will be capable of recording on at least
four tracks simultaneously except for the CVR in Chapter 6,
6.3.7.2. To ensure accurate time correlation between tracks,
the CVR is to record in an in-line format. If a bi-directional
configuration is used, the in-line format and track allocation
should be retained in both directions.
2.2.2
Inspections of FDR
and CVR systems
3.1 Prior to the first flight of the day, the built-in test
features on the flight deck for the CVR, FDR and Flight Data
Acquisition Unit (FDAU), when installed, should be
monitored.
The preferred track allocation is as follows:
Track 1 — co-pilot headphones and live boom microphone
1/11/01
Additional information
ATT D-2
3.2
Annual inspections should be carried out as follows:
a) the read-out of the recorded data from the FDR and
CVR should ensure that the recorder operates correctly
for the nominal duration of the recording;
Attachment D
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
b) the analysis of the FDR should evaluate the quality of
the recorded data to determine if the bit error rate is
within acceptable limits and to determine the nature and
distribution of the errors;
c) a complete flight from the FDR should be examined in
engineering units to evaluate the validity of all recorded
parameters. Particular attention should be given to parameters from sensors dedicated to the FDR. Parameters
taken from the aircraft’s electrical bus system need not
be checked if their serviceability can be detected by
other aircraft systems;
examined for evidence that the intelligibility of the
signal is acceptable.
3.3 Flight recorder systems should be considered unserviceable if there is a significant period of poor quality data,
unintelligible signals, or if one or more of the mandatory
parameters is not recorded correctly.
3.4 A report of the annual inspection should be made
available on request to the State’s regulatory authority for
monitoring purposes.
d) the read-out facility should have the necessary software
to accurately convert the recorded values to engineering
units and to determine the status of discrete signals;
e) an annual examination of the recorded signal on the CVR
should be carried out by re-play of the CVR recording.
While installed in the aircraft, the CVR should record
test signals from each aircraft source and from relevant
external sources to ensure that all required signals meet
intelligibility standards; and
f) where practicable, during the annual examination, a
sample of in-flight recordings of the CVR should be
ATT D-3
3.5
Calibration of the FDR system:
a) the FDR system should be re-calibrated at least every
five years to determine any discrepancies in the engineering conversion routines for the mandatory parameters, and to ensure that parameters are being
recorded within the calibration tolerances; and
b) when the parameters of altitude and airspeed are
provided by sensors that are dedicated to the FDR
system, there should be a re-calibration performed as
recommended by the sensor manufacturer, or at least
every two years.
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
Table D-1
Parameters for Flight Data Recorders
Serial
number
Parameter
Measurement range
Accuracy limits
(sensor input compared
to FDR read-out)
Recording
interval
(seconds)
1
Time (UTC when available,
otherwise elapsed time)
24 hours
4
±0.125% per hour
2
Pressure-altitude
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to
maximum certificated
altitude of aircraft
+1 500 m (+5 000 ft)
1
±30 m to ±200 m
(±100 ft to ±700 ft)
3
Indicated airspeed
95 km/h (50 kt) to max
VSo (Note 1)
VSo to 1.2 VD (Note 2)
1
±5%
1
±3%
±2°
4
Heading
360°
5
Normal acceleration
–3 g to +6 g
6
Pitch attitude
±75°
1
±2°
7
Roll attitude
±180°
1
±2°
8
Radio transmission keying
On-off (one discrete)
1
9
Power on each engine
(Note 3)
Full range
10
Trailing edge flap or cockpit
control selection
Full range or each
discrete position
2
±5% or as pilot’s indicator
11
Leading edge flap or cockpit
control selection
Full range or each
discrete position
2
±5% or as pilot’s indicator
12
Thrust reverser position
Stowed, in transit, and
reverse
13
Ground spoiler/speed brake
selection
Full range or each discrete
position
1
±2% unless higher accuracy
uniquely required
14
Outside air temperature
Sensor range
2
±2°C
15
Autopilot/auto
throttle/AFCS
mode and engagement status
A suitable combination of
discretes
1
0.125
1 (per
engine)
±1% of maximum range
excluding datum error of ±5%
±2%
1 (per
engine)
Note.— The preceding 15 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type II FDR.
16
Longitudinal acceleration
±1 g
0.25
±1.5% max range excluding datum
error of ±5%
17
Lateral acceleration
±1 g
0.25
±1.5% max range excluding datum
error of ±5%
18
Pilot input and/or control
surface position-primary
controls (pitch, roll, yaw)
(Note 4)
Full range
1/11/01
1
ATT D-4
±2° unless higher accuracy
uniquely required
Attachment D
Serial
number
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Parameter
Measurement range
Accuracy limits
(sensor input compared
to FDR read-out)
Recording
interval
(seconds)
19
Pitch trim position
Full range
1
±3% unless higher accuracy
uniquely required
20
Radio altitude
–6 m to 750 m
(–20 ft to 2 500 ft)
1
±0.6 m (±2 ft) or ±3%
whichever is greater below 150 m
(500 ft) and ±5% above 150 m
(500 ft)
21
Glide path deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
22
Localizer deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
23
Marker beacon passage
Discrete
1
24
Master warning
Discrete
1
25
NAV 1 and 2 frequency
selection (Note 5)
Full range
4
As installed
26
DME 1 and 2 distance
(Notes 5 and 6)
0 – 370 km
4
As installed
27
Landing gear squat switch
status
Discrete
1
28
GPWS (ground proximity
warning system)
Discrete
1
29
Angle of attack
Full range
30
Hydraulics, each system
(low pressure)
Discrete
2
31
Navigation data
(latitude/longitude, ground
speed and drift angle) (Note 7)
As installed
1
As installed
32
Landing gear or gear
selector position
Discrete
4
As installed
0.5
As installed
Note.— The preceding 32 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type I FDR.
Notes.—
1. VSo stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration.
2. VD design diving speed.
3. Record sufficient inputs to determine power.
4. For aeroplanes with conventional control systems ‘‘or’’ applies. For aeroplanes with non-mechanical control systems ‘‘and’’ applies. In
aeroplanes with split surfaces, a suitable combination of inputs is acceptable in lieu of recording each surface separately.
5. If signal available in digital form.
6. Recording of latitude and longitude from INS or other navigation system is a preferred alternative.
7. If signals readily available.
ATT D-5
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I
If further recording capacity is available, recording of the following additional information should be considered:
a) operational information from electronic display systems, such as electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS), electronic
centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS). Use the following order of
priority:
1) parameters selected by the flight crew relating to the desired flight path, e.g. barometric pressure setting, selected
altitude, selected airspeed, decision height, and autoflight system engagement and mode indications if not recorded from
another source;
2) display system selection/status, e.g. SECTOR, PLAN, ROSE, NAV, WXR, COMPOSITE, COPY, ETC.;
3) warnings and alerts;
4) the identity of displayed pages for emergency procedures and checklists;
b) retardation information including brake application for use in the investigation of landing overruns and rejected take-offs; and
c) additional engine parameters (EPR, N1, EGT, fuel flow, etc.).
1/11/01
ATT D-6
ATTACHMENT E. EXTENDED RANGE OPERATIONS BY AEROPLANES
WITH TWO TURBINE POWER-UNITS
Supplementary to Chapter 4, 4.7
1.
Purpose and scope
2.
Where the following terms are used in this Attachment, they
have the meaning indicated:
1.1 Introduction
The purpose of this Attachment is to give guidance on the
value of the threshold time which is to be established in
compliance with Chapter 4, 4.7.1 and also to give guidance on
the means of achieving the required level of safety envisaged
by Chapter 4, 4.7.2 where operations beyond the established
threshold are approved.
1.2 Threshold time
It should be understood that the threshold time established in
accordance with Chapter 4, 4.7.1 is not an operating limit, but
is a flight time from an adequate en-route alternate aerodrome
beyond which the State of the Operator must give particular
consideration to the aeroplane and the operation before
granting authorization. Pending the acquisition of additional
data for such operations by twin-engined commercial transport
aeroplanes and taking into account the level of safety intended
by Chapter 4, 4.7.2, it is suggested that the threshold time be
60 minutes.
1.3
Basic concepts
In order to maintain the required level of safety on routes
where an aeroplane with two power-units is permitted to
operate beyond the threshold time, it is necessary that:
a) the airworthiness certification of the aeroplane type
specifically permits operations beyond the threshold
time, taking into account the aeroplane system design
and reliability aspects;
b) the reliability of the propulsion system is such that the
risk of double power-unit failure from independent
causes is extremely remote;
c) any necessary special maintenance requirements are
fulfilled;
d) specific flight dispatch requirements are met;
e) necessary in-flight
established; and
operational
procedures
are
f) specific operational authorization is granted by the State
of the Operator.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
Glossary of terms
Adequate alternate aerodrome. An adequate alternate
aerodrome is one at which the landing performance
requirements can be met and which is expected to be
available, if required, and which has the necessary facilities
and services, such as air traffic control, lighting, communications, meteorological services, navigation aids, rescue
and fire-fighting services and one suitable instrument
approach procedure.
Aeroplane system. An aeroplane system includes all elements
of equipment necessary for the control and performance of
a particular major function. It includes both the equipment
specifically provided for the function in question and other
basic related aeroplane equipment such as that required
to supply power for the equipment operation. As used
herein the power-unit is not considered to be an aeroplane
system.
Extended range operation. Any flight by an aeroplane with
two turbine power-units where the flight time at the one
power-unit inoperative cruise speed (in ISA and still air
conditions), from a point on the route to an adequate
alternate aerodrome, is greater than the threshold time
approved by the State of the Operator.
Power-unit. A system consisting of an engine and all ancillary
parts installed on the engine prior to installation on the
aeroplane to provide and control power/thrust and for the
extraction of energy for aeroplane systems, but not
including independent short-period thrust-producing
devices.
Propulsion system. A system consisting of a power-unit and
all other equipment utilized to provide those functions
necessary to sustain, monitor and control the power/thrust
output of any one power-unit following installation on the
airframe.
Suitable alternate aerodrome. A suitable alternate aerodrome
is an adequate aerodrome where, for the anticipated time of
use, weather reports, or forecasts, or any combination
thereof, indicate that the weather conditions will be at or
above the required aerodrome operating minima, and the
runway surface condition reports indicate that a safe
landing will be possible.
ATT E-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
3.
Part I
Airworthiness certification requirements
for extended range operations
c) a reliability reporting programme is developed and
implemented prior to approval and continued after
approval;
During the airworthiness certification procedure for an
aeroplane type intended for extended range operations, special
attention should be paid to ensuring that the required level of
safety will be maintained under conditions which may be
encountered during such operations, e.g. flight for extended
periods following failure of an engine and/or essential
systems. Information or procedures specifically related to
extended range operations should be incorporated into the
aeroplane flight manual, maintenance manual or other
appropriate document.
d) prompt implementation of required modifications and
inspections which could affect propulsion system
reliability is undertaken;
e) procedures are established which prevent an aeroplane
from being dispatched for an extended range operation
after power-unit shutdown or primary system failure on
a previous flight until the cause of such failure has been
positively identified and the necessary corrective action
is completed. Confirmation that such corrective action
has been effective may, in some cases, require the
successful completion of a subsequent flight prior to
dispatch on an extended range operation; and
Note.— Criteria for aeroplane systems performance and
reliability for extended range operations are contained in the
Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
4.
f) a procedure is established to ensure that the airborne
equipment will continue to be maintained at the level of
performance and reliability required for extended range
operations.
Propulsion system maturity
and reliability
4.1 Basic elements to be considered for the authorization
of extended range operations are the maturity and reliability of
the propulsion system. These should be such that the risk of
complete loss of power from independent causes is extremely
remote.
4.2 The only way to assess the maturity of the propulsion
system and its reliability in service is to exercise engineering
judgement, taking account of the worldwide experience with
the power-unit.
4.3 For a propulsion system whose reliability has already
been assessed, each national authority must evaluate the ability
of the operator to maintain that level of reliability, taking into
account the operator’s record of reliability vis-à-vis powerunits of closely related types.
6.
Flight dispatch requirements
In applying the general flight dispatch requirements of
Chapter 4 particular attention should be paid to the conditions
which might prevail during extended range operations, e.g.
extended flight with one power-unit inoperative, major
systems degradation, reduced flight altitude, etc. In addition to
the requirement of Chapter 4, 4.7.3, at least the following
aspects should be considered:
a) pre-flight system serviceability;
b) communication and navigation facilities and capabilities;
c) fuel requirements; and
5. Airworthiness modifications and
maintenance programme requirements
d) availability of relevant performance information.
Each operator’s maintenance programme should ensure that:
a) the titles and numbers of all airworthiness modifications, additions and changes which were made to
qualify aeroplane systems for extended range operations
are provided to the State of Registry and, where
applicable, to the State of the Operator;
7. Operational principles
An aeroplane which is engaged in an extended range operation
should normally, in the event of:
b) any changes to maintenance and training procedures,
practices or limitations established in the qualification
for extended range operations are submitted to the State
of the Operator and, where applicable, to the State of
Registry before such changes are adopted;
1/11/01
ATT E-2
a) shutdown of a power-unit, fly to and land at the nearest
(in terms of the least flying time) aerodrome suitable for
landing;
b) a single or multiple primary aeroplane system failure,
fly to and land at the nearest suitable aerodrome unless
Attachment E
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
it has been demonstrated, in view of the flight
consequences of the failure and the probability and
consequences of subsequent failures, that no substantial
degradation of safety results from continuation of the
planned flight; and
c) changes impacting the status of items on the minimum
equipment list, the communications and navigation
facilities, fuel and oil supply, en-route alternate
aerodromes or aeroplane performance, make appropriate
adjustments to the flight plan.
8.
a) the operator’s past experience and compliance record is
satisfactory;
b) the operator has demonstrated that the flight can
continue to a safe landing under the anticipated
degraded operating conditions which would arise from:
1) total loss of thrust from one power-unit; or
2) total loss of power-unit generated electric power; or
3) any other condition which the State of the Operator
considers to be equivalent in airworthiness and
performance risk;
Operational authorization
In authorizing the operation of an aeroplane with two powerunits on an extended range route in accordance with Chapter 4,
4.7.2, the State of the Operator should, in addition to the
requirements previously set forth in this Attachment, ensure
that:
ATT E-3
c) that the operator’s crew training programme is adequate
for the proposed operation; and
d) that documentation accompanying the authorization
covers all relevant aspects.
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT F. AIR OPERATOR CERTIFICATE
OR EQUIVALENT DOCUMENT
Supplementary to Chapter 4, 4.2.1
1. The State of the Operator regulations and rules for the
operational certification of operators and the conduct of
subsequent commercial air transport operations should be in
conformity with the Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation and have sufficient detail to ensure that
compliance will result in the desired level of safety.
4. The State of the Operator, in addition to assessing the
operator’s ability and competence, should guide the operator in
regulatory, organizational and procedural matters. The State of
the Operator should be satisfied concerning the operator’s
eligibility for operational certification. This includes the ability
and competence to conduct safe and efficient operations and
proof of compliance with applicable regulations.
2. The State of the Operator regulations should provide a
framework of positive control and guidance but also allow the
operator sufficient flexibility to develop and update instructions for the detailed guidance of personnel essential to the
conduct of operations.
5. Continuing surveillance by the State of the Operator of
an air operator certificate holder’s operations is inherent in the
system of certification and is an essential part of the State’s
responsibility to ensure that the required standards of operations are maintained in order to provide a safe and reliable
commercial air transportation service to the public. Adequate
authority for certification and continuing surveillance of an air
operator certificate holder’s operations should be contained in
the provisions of the basic aviation law of the State.
3. The State of the Operator regulations should require the
operator to submit detailed information on the organization,
method of control and supervision of flight operations, training
programme and maintenance arrangements as a basis for operational certification. As required by this Part, the operator’s
material should be submitted in the form of an operations
manual, a maintenance control manual and a maintenance programme containing at least the material specified in Appendix 2
and Chapter 11, 11.2 and 11.3 respectively and such other
material as the State may require.
ANNEX 6 — PART I
Note 1.— Guidance on the operations manual is given in
the manual Preparation of an Operations Manual (Doc 9376).
Note 2.— Guidance on the certification and continued
surveillance of the operator is given in the Manual of Procedures for Operations Inspection, Certification and Continued
Surveillance (Doc 8335).
ATT F-1
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT G.
MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL)
Supplementary to Chapter 6, 6.1.2
1. If deviations from the requirements of States in the
certification of aircraft were not permitted an aircraft could not
be flown unless all systems and equipment were operable.
Experience has proved that some unserviceability can be
accepted in the short term when the remaining operative
systems and equipment provide for continued safe operations.
2. The State should indicate through approval of a
minimum equipment list those systems and items of equipment
that may be inoperative for certain flight conditions with the
intent that no flight can be conducted with inoperative systems
and equipment other than those specified.
3. A minimum equipment list, approved by the State of
the Operator, is therefore necessary for each aircraft, based on
the master minimum equipment list established for the aircraft
type by the organization responsible for the type design in
conjunction with the State of Design.
4. The State of the Operator should require the operator to
prepare a minimum equipment list designed to allow the
operation of an aircraft with certain systems or equipment
inoperative provided an acceptable level of safety is
maintained.
5. The minimum equipment list is not intended to provide
for operation of the aircraft for an indefinite period with
inoperative systems or equipment. The basic purpose of the
minimum equipment list is to permit the safe operation of an
aircraft with inoperative systems or equipment within the
framework of a controlled and sound programme of repairs
and parts replacement.
6. Operators are to ensure that no flight is commenced
with multiple minimum equipment list items inoperative
without determining that any interrelationship between
inoperative systems or components will not result in an
unacceptable degradation in the level of safety and/or undue
increase in the flight crew workload.
7. The exposure to additional failures during continued
operation with inoperative systems or equipment must also be
considered in determining that an acceptable level of safety is
being maintained. The minimum equipment list may not
deviate from requirements of the flight manual limitations
section, emergency procedures or other airworthiness
requirements of the State of Registry or of the State of the
Operator unless the appropriate airworthiness authority or
the flight manual provides otherwise.
8. Systems or equipment accepted as inoperative for a
flight should be placarded where appropriate and all such
items should be noted in the aircraft technical log to inform the
flight crew and maintenance personnel of the inoperative
system or equipment.
9. For a particular system or item of equipment to be
accepted as inoperative, it may be necessary to establish a
maintenance procedure, for completion prior to flight, to deactivate or isolate the system or equipment. It may similarly be
necessary to prepare an appropriate flight crew operating
procedure.
10. The responsibilities of the pilot-in-command in
accepting an aeroplane for operation with deficiencies in
accordance with a minimum equipment list are specified
in Chapter 4, 4.3.1.
— END —
ANNEX 6 — PART I
ATT G-1
1/11/01
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT
ANNEX 6
TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
PART II
INTERNATIONAL GENERAL AVIATION — AEROPLANES
SIXTH EDITION OF PART II — JULY 1998
This edition incorporates all amendments adopted by the Council prior
to 21 March 1998 and supersedes, on 5 November 1998, all previous editions
of Part II of Annex 6.
For information regarding the applicability of the Standards and
Recommended Practices, see Foreword.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION
AMENDMENTS
The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the
monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual
Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below is
provided to keep a record of such amendments.
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA
AMENDMENTS
No.
Date
applicable
1-18
Date
entered
CORRIGENDA
Entered
by
No.
Incorporated in this Edition
19
4/11/99
20
2/11/00
21
1/11/01
(ii)
Date
of issue
Date
entered
Entered
by
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Abbreviations and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(v)
Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(vi)
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(vii)
CHAPTER 1.
CHAPTER 2.
CHAPTER 3.
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
5
CHAPTER 4. Flight preparation and in-flight
procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
Adequacy of operating facilities . . . . . . . . . .
Aerodrome operating minima . . . . . . . . . . . .
Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aeroplane airworthiness and safety
precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weather reports and forecasts . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations imposed by weather
conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Destination alternate aerodromes . . . . . . . . .
Fuel and oil supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use of oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-flight emergency instruction . . . . . . . . . . .
Weather reporting by pilots. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazardous flight conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fitness of flight crew members. . . . . . . . . . .
Flight crew members at duty stations. . . . . .
Instrument flight procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instruction — general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refuelling with passengers on board . . . . . .
CHAPTER 5. Aeroplane performance operating
limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
12
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
16A
16A
16A
16B
CHAPTER 7. Aeroplane communication and
navigation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
7.1 Communication equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Navigation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
17
CHAPTER 8.
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
Aeroplane maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . .
19
Responsibilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuing airworthiness information . . . . . .
Modifications and repairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
19
19
19
19A
CHAPTER 9.
Aeroplane flight crew . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
9.1 Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 Composition of the flight crew . . . . . . . . . . .
20
20
APPENDIX. Lights to be displayed by
aeroplanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
10
CHAPTER 6. Aeroplane instruments and
equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
6.1 All aeroplanes on all flights . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 All aeroplanes operated as VFR flights . . . .
11
12
ANNEX 6 — PART II
6.3 All aeroplanes on flights over water . . . . . . .
6.4 All aeroplanes on flights over designated
land areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 All aeroplanes on high altitude flights . . . . .
6.6 All aeroplanes operated in accordance
with the instrument flight rules . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7 All aeroplanes when operated at night . . . . .
6.8 All aeroplanes complying with the noise
certification Standards in Annex 16,
Volume I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9 Aeroplanes required to be equipped with
ground proximity warning systems
(GPWS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.10 Flight recorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.11 Mach number indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.12 Emergency locator transmitter
(ELT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.13 Aeroplanes required to be equipped with a
pressure-altitude reporting transponder . . . . .
6.14 Microphones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Page
1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Navigation lights to be displayed
in the air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(iii)
21
21
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
Page
3. Lights to be displayed on the water . . . . . . .
ATTACHMENT A.
21
Flight recorders . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. Flight data recorder (FDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Cockpit voice recorder (CVR) . . . . . . . . . . .
25
25
25
5/11/98
Page
3. Inspections of flight data and cockpit
voice recorder systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATTACHMENT B.
(iv)
26
Carriage and use of oxygen . . .
31
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. Oxygen supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Use of oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
31
31
Table of Contents
Abbreviations
and symbols
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Page
ABBREVIATIONS
AND SYMBOLS
(used in this Annex)
Abbreviations
ADREP
AFCS
AGA
AIG
ASIA/PAC
ATC
ATS
CAT I
CAT II
CAT III
CAT IIIA
CAT IIIB
CAT IIIC
CFIT
cm
CVR
DA
DA/H
DH
DME
ECAM
EFIS
EGT
EICAS
ELT
ELT(AF)
ELT(AP)
ELT(AD)
ELT(S)
EPR
EUROCAE
FDAU
FDR
FL
FM
ft
g
Page
Abbreviations
GPWS
hPa
IFR
IMC
INS
kg
km
km/h
kt
m
MDA
MDA/H
MDH
MHz
MNPS
NAV
NM
N1
OCA
OCA/H
OCH
RNP
RVR
SI
SICASP
Accident/incident reporting
Automatic flight control system
Aerodromes, air routes and ground aids
Accident investigation and prevention
Asia/Pacific
Air traffic control
Air traffic services
Category I
Category II
Category III
Category IIIA
Category IIIB
Category IIIC
Controlled flight into terrain
Centimetre
Cockpit voice recorder
Decision altitude
Decision altitude/height
Decision height
Distance measuring equipment
Electronic centralized aircraft monitor
Electronic flight instrument system
Exhaust gas temperature
Engine indication and crew alerting system
Emergency locator transmitter
Automatic fixed ELT
Automatic portable ELT
Automatically deployable ELT
Survival ELT
Engine pressure ratio
European Organization for
Civil Aviation Equipment
Flight data acquisition unit
Flight data recorder
Flight level
Frequency modulation
Foot
Normal acceleration
UTC
VD
VFR
VMC
VSM
VS0
WXR
Symbols
°C
%
(v)
Ground proximity warning system
Hectopascal
Instrument flight rules
Instrument meteorological conditions
Inertial navigation systems
Kilogram
Kilometre
Kilometres per hour
Knot
Metre
Minimum descent altitude
Minimum descent altitude/height
Minimum descent height
Megahertz
Minimum navigation performance specifications
Navigation
Nautical mile
High pressure turbine speed
Obstacle clearance altitude
Obstacle clearance altitude/height
Obstacle clearance height
Required navigation performance
Runway visual range
International System of Units
Secondary Surveillance Radar Improvements and
Collision Avoidance Systems Panel
Coordinated universal time
Design diving speed
Visual flight rules
Visual meteorological conditions
Vertical separation minima
Stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed
in the landing configuration
Weather
Degrees Celsius
Per cent
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
Page
PUBLICATIONS
(referred to in this Annex)
Convention on International Civil Aviation (Doc 7300)
Annex 15 — Aeronautical Information Services
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
Annex 16 — Environmental Protection
Volume I — Aircraft Noise
European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE)
Documents ED55 and ED56A
Page
Annex 18 — The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air
Policy and Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of
International Air Transport (Doc 9587)
Procedures for Air Navigation Services
OPS — Aircraft Operations (Doc 8168)
Volume I — Flight Procedures
Volume II — Construction of Visual and Instrument
Flight Procedures
Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation
Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing
Annex 2 — Rules of the Air
ATM — Air Traffic Management (Doc 4444)
Annex 3 — Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation
Annex 5 — Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and
Ground Operations
Protocol Relating to an Amendment to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation (Article 83 bis) (Doc 9318)
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I — International Commercial Air Transport —
Part I — Aeroplanes
Part III — International Operations — Helicopters
Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030)
Manuals
Accident/Incident Reporting Manual (ADREP Manual)
(Doc 9156)
Annex 8 — Airworthiness of Aircraft
Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications
Volume III (Part I — Digital Data Communication
Volume III Systems, Part II — Voice Communication Systems)
Volume IV (Surveillance Radar and Collision
Volume IV Avoidance Systems)
Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137)
Part 1 — Rescue and Fire Fighting
Part 8 — Airport Operational Services
Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760)
Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services
Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984)
Annex 12 — Search and Rescue
Manual on Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft) Vertical
Separation Minimum Between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive
(Doc 9574)
Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I — Aerodrome Design and Operations
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Manual on Required Navigation Performance (RNP) (Doc 9613)
(vi)
ANNEX 6 — PART II
INTERNATIONAL GENERAL AVIATION — AEROPLANES
FOREWORD
Historical background
Applicability. Although the definition of general aviation
originally used in this Annex encompassed aerial work
operations, these were specifically excluded from the
provisions of this Annex by Chapter 2 — Applicability.
Standards and Recommended Practices for the Operation of
Aircraft — International General Aviation were first adopted
by the Council on 2 December 1968 pursuant to the provisions
of Article 37 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation
(Chicago, 1944) and designated as Annex 6, Part II, to the
Convention. They became effective on 2 April 1969 and
applicable on 18 September 1969.
Level of safety. The Annex should ensure an acceptable level
of safety to third parties (third parties meaning persons on the
ground and persons in the air in other aircraft). Also, as some
international general aviation operations will be performed:
a) by crews less experienced and less skilled;
Annex 6, Part II, was developed in the following manner:
the Fifteenth Session of the Assembly, Montreal, June-July
1965, adopted Resolution A15-15: “Consideration of the needs
of international general aviation in relation to the scope of
ICAO technical activities”. Subsequently, the Fourth Air
Navigation Conference (Montreal, November-December
1965) recommended a series of factors which it considered
should be taken into account in extending the scope of
Annex 6 to meet the needs of general aviation in accordance
with the directives of Assembly Resolution A15-15.
b) by less reliable equipment;
c) to less rigorous standards; and
d) with greater freedom of action than in commercial air
transport operations;
it has to be accepted that the passenger in international general
aviation aircraft will not necessarily enjoy the same level of
safety as the fare-paying passenger in commercial air
transport. However, it was recognized that in ensuring an
acceptable degree of safety for third parties, an acceptable
level of safety for flight crews and passengers would be
achieved.
The Fourth Air Navigation Conference recommended that
the International Standards and Recommended Practices to be
developed for International General Aviation Operations
exclude for the present aerial work operations. It was however
clearly the view of the conference that the Annex should be
framed in such a manner as to facilitate its extension to cover
aerial work operations at a later date, should such extension
prove desirable.
Freedom of Action. The maximum freedom of action
consistent with maintaining an acceptable level of safety
should be granted to international general aviation.
Responsibility. The responsibility that devolves upon the
operator in Annex 6, Part I, should, in Part II of the Annex, fall
upon the pilot-in-command. Precedent for this course of action
exists in Annex 2.
Based on the above considerations, draft International
Standards and Recommended Practices for the Operation
of International General Aviation Aircraft were developed by
the Air Navigation Commission and, after amendment
following the usual consultation with the Member States of the
Organization, were adopted by the Council so as to become,
together with the Foreword approved by the Council, the
text of this Annex. In developing this material the Air
Navigation Commission was guided by the following
philosophies:
Consequent to the adoption of Annex 6, Part III,
International Operations — Helicopters, an amendment to the
title was introduced to indicate that Annex 6, Part II was
applicable only to aeroplanes.
In 1986 the Air Navigation Commission commenced a
review of Annex 6, Part II and concluded that the definition of
general aviation should be revised to exclude aerial work thus
recognizing that aerial work was a distinct aspect of civil
aviation and recognizing the exclusion of aerial work from the
applicability of Annex 6, Part II. As with the Fourth Air
Navigation Conference in 1965, the Air Navigation
Presentation and conformity with Annex 6, Part I. The
Annex should be, as nearly as practicable, equivalent in scope
and conform as closely as possible to Annex 6 (now Annex 6,
Part I).
ANNEX 6 — PART II
(vii)
5/11/98
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
Commission was not aware of any degree of international
aerial work operations which would necessitate the
development of International Standards and Recommended
Practices. The revised definitions for general aviation and
aerial work and the revised applicability chapter were
submitted to States in the usual manner and approved by the
Council in March 1990.
Contracting States are invited to extend such notification to
any differences from the Recommended Practices contained in
this Annex, and any amendments thereto, when the
notification of such differences is important for the safety of
air navigation. Further, Contracting States are invited to keep
the Organization currently informed of any differences which
may subsequently occur, or of the withdrawal of any
differences previously notified. A specific request for
notification of differences will be sent to Contracting States
immediately after the adoption of each amendment to this
Annex.
Table A shows the origin of amendments together with a
list of the principal subjects involved and the dates on which
the Annex and the amendments were adopted by the Council,
when they became effective and when they became applicable.
The attention of States is also drawn to the provision of
Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between
their national regulations and practices and the related ICAO
Standards and Recommended Practices through the
Aeronautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation
of States under Article 38 of the Convention.
Applicability
The Standards and Recommended Practices of Annex 6,
Part II are applicable to international general aviation
operations with aeroplanes.
Promulgation of information. The establishment and
withdrawal of and changes to facilities, services and procedures affecting aircraft operations provided in accordance
with the Standards and Recommended Practices specified in
this Annex should be notified and take effect in accordance
with the provisions of Annex 15.
The Standards and Recommended Practices represent
minimum provisions and, together with those of Annex 6 —
Operation of Aircraft: Part I — International Commercial Air
Transport — Aeroplanes, now cover the operation of all
aeroplanes in international civil aviation, except in aerial work
operations.
It will be noted that the Standards and Recommended
Practices contained in Annex 6, Part II, when applied to the
operation of large aeroplanes, are less stringent than those in
Annex 6, Part I, applicable to the same or similar aeroplanes
when used in commercial air transport operations.
Nevertheless, it is considered that, in conjunction with existing
provisions in Annexes 1 and 8, Annex 6, Part II, ensures an
adequate level of safety for the operations envisaged for the
large aeroplanes in question. In this connexion attention is
drawn to the point that the entire performance standards of
Annex 8 are applicable to all aeroplanes of over 5 700 kg mass
intended for the carriage of passengers or cargo or mail for
international air navigation, of which the prototype was
submitted for certification on or after 13 December 1964.
Moreover, by virtue of Annex 1 the holder of a private pilot
licence, piloting an aircraft in excess of 5 700 kg unless as the
sole occupant thereof is required to have a type rating entered
on his licence. Since the certificates of airworthiness of the
types of aeroplanes in question would preclude solo flight in
all normal circumstances, it may be accepted that the private
pilot of these aeroplanes must have a type rating entered on
his licence.
Status of Annex components
An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not
all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex;
they have the status indicated:
1.—Material comprising the Annex proper:
a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by
the Council under the provisions of the Convention.
They are defined as follows:
Standard: Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance,
personnel or procedure, the uniform application of
which is recognized as necessary for the safety or
regularity of international air navigation and to
which Contracting States will conform in accordance
with the Convention; in the event of impossibility of
compliance, notification to the Council is
compulsory under Article 38.
Action by Contracting States
Recommended Practice: Any specification for
physical characteristics, configuration, matériel,
performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform
application of which is recognized as desirable in the
interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting
States will endeavour to conform in accordance with
the Convention.
Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting States
is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the
Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify
the Organization of any differences between their national
regulations and practices and the International Standards
contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto.
5/11/98
(viii)
Foreword
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately
for convenience but forming part of the Standards
and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council.
d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to
the Standards and Recommended Practices, or
included as a guide to their application.
c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and
Recommended Practices which are not selfexplanatory in that they do not have accepted
dictionary meanings. A definition does not have
independent status but is an essential part of each
Standard and Recommended Practice in which the
term is used, since a change in the meaning of the
term would affect the specification.
d) Tables and
Standard or
referred to
Standard or
same status.
Selection of language
This Annex has been adopted in six languages — English,
Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish. Each
Contracting State is requested to select one of those texts for
the purpose of national implementation and for other effects
provided for in the Convention, either through direct use or
through translation into its own national language, and to
notify the Organization accordingly.
Figures which add to or illustrate a
Recommended Practice and which are
therein, form part of the associated
Recommended Practice and have the
Editorial practices
It is to be noted that some Standards in this Annex incorporate, by reference, other specifications having the status
of Recommended Practices. In such cases, the text of the
Recommended Practice becomes part of the Standard.
The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate
at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been
printed in light face roman; Recommended Practices have
been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by
the prefix Recommendation; Notes have been printed in light
face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note.
2.— Material approved by the Council for publication in
association with the Standards and Recommended Practices:
The following editorial practice has been followed in the
writing of specifications: for Standards the operative verb
“shall” is used, and for Recommended Practices the operative
verb “should” is used.
a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory
material based on the action of the Council and
including an explanation of the obligations of States
with regard to the application of the Standards and
Recommended Practices ensuing from the Convention and the Resolution of Adoption;
The units of measurement used in this document are in
accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as
specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative
units these are shown in parentheses following the basic units.
Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that
the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may,
however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is
achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.
b) Introductions comprising explanatory material
introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or
sections of the Annex to assist in the understanding
of the application of the text;
c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give
factual information or references bearing on the
Standards or Recommended Practices in question,
but not constituting part of the Standards or
Recommended Practices;
Any reference to a portion of this document, which is
identified by a number and/or title, includes all subdivisions of
that portion.
(ix)
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
Table A.
Amendment
Source(s)
1st Edition
Fifteenth Session
of the Assembly
(Resolution A15-15)
and Fourth Air
Navigation Conference
1
Sixth Air
Navigation
Conference
Amendments to Annex 6, Part II
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
2 December 1968
2 April 1969
18 September 1969
a) The requirement for additional instruments in aeroplanes operated as
controlled VFR flights in the en-route phase; and
1 June 1970
1 October 1970
4 February 1971
b) the permitting of aeroplanes, when unable to navigate by visual references
to landmarks, to be navigated by equipment other than radio navigation
equipment, e.g. solely by self-contained navigation means, provided that
certain equipment capabilities are met, thus eliminating any requirement
for the carriage of radio navigation equipment.
2
(2nd Edition)
Special Meeting on
Aircraft Noise in
the Vicinity of
Aerodromes
The inclusion of a specification for aeroplanes to be operated within the
weight limitations imposed by the applicable Noise Certification Standards,
except in prescribed circumstances, and to carry a document attesting noise
certification.
2 April 1971
2 August 1971
6 January 1972
3
Seventh Air
Navigation
Conference
The inclusion of a Recommended Practice covering the design, carriage and
installation of Emergency Location Beacons — Aircraft, in such aeroplanes
and on such flights as may be determined by the appropriate authority.
29 May 1973
1 October 1973
23 May 1974
4
Revision of
Annex 12, the Air
Navigation
Commission’s Study
concerning
interception of civil
aircraft and the
Council action in
pursuance of
Assembly Resolution
A18-16
a) Provisions for the marking of break-in points on aircraft;
5
Studies by the
Air Navigation
Commission,
Amendment 60 to
Annex 3 and
Amendment 30 to
Annex 14
Requirements for the provision and use of flight crew safety harnesses;
amplification of specifications for the type of timepiece required for
operations in accordance with Instrument Flight Rules and controlled VFR
flights; and revision of the definitions of Aerodrome and Meteorological
information.
7 April 1976
7 August 1976
30 December 1976
6
ASIA/PAC
Regional Air
Navigation Meeting
The requirement for the carriage of survival radio equipment over those
areas in which search and rescue would be especially difficult to be
determined by States rather than regional air navigation agreement.
16 June 1976
16 October 1976
6 October 1977
7
Air Navigation
Commission Study
Recommendation for the fitting of ground proximity warning systems to
certain aeroplanes.
15 December 1977
15 April 1978
10 August 1978
5/11/98
b) provisions for reducing the risk for intercepted aircraft;
4 February 1975
4 June 1975
9 October 1975
c) the revision of the Introductory Note to Chapter 3 of the Annex. The
revision points to a practical method for States to discharge their
functions in the cases of lease, charter and interchange of aircraft in
international operations.
(x)
Foreword
Amendment
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Source(s)
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
8
Air Navigation
Commission Study
Introduction of requirements for navigation equipment to meet minimum
navigational performance specifications (MNPS).
2 April 1980
2 August 1980
27 November 1980
9
Air Navigation
Commission Study
Revision of the provisions relating to exterior lights to align with new
provisions in Annexes 2 and 8.
22 March 1982
22 July 1982
25 November 1982
10
(3rd Edition)
Seventh meeting of
the Obstacle
Clearance Panel,
AGA Divisional
Meeting (1981),
amendments
consequential to
adoption of
Annexes 5 and 18
Introduced provisions related to development and use of instrument
approach procedures, authority and competence to taxi aeroplanes. Changes
to the requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods as a result of
adoption by the Council of Annex 18. Units of measurement were brought
in line with the provisions of Annex 5 and the Note in Chapter 3 concerning
lease, charter and interchange was updated. The term “aerodrome operating
minima” was introduced in lieu of “aerodrome meteorological minima”, and
definitions of “decision altitude/height” and “minimum descent
altitude/height” entered in Chapter 1.
20 May 1983
20 September
1983
24 November 1983
11
Accident Prevention
and Investigation
Divisional Meeting,
AIG (1979)
Introduction of provisions relating to flight recorders. Introduction of related
guidance material in an attachment.
8 March 1985
29 July 1985
21 November 1985
12
Air Navigation
Commission
Carriage of information on board aircraft; communication equipment on
121.5 MHz.
14 March 1986
27 July 1986
20 November 1986
13
Seventh meeting of
the Obstacle
Clearance Panel,
Air Navigation
Commission studies
Supply and use of oxygen and pressurization failure warning; refuelling with
passengers on board; provision of climb performance data with all engines
operating.
14 March 1986
27 July 1986
20 November 1986
14
(4th Edition)
Air Navigation
Commission review
of the Annex,
Stage I,
Third meeting of
the Visual Flight
Rules Operations
Panel,
Air Navigation
Commission Study
a) Revision of the definitions of aerial work and general aviation. Revision
of the definition of alternate aerodrome to introduce take-off, en-route
and destination alternate aerodromes. Introduction of a new definition
for a commercial air transport operation and the definitions for flight
plan and flight recorder;
19 March 1990
30 July 1990
15 November 1990
b) deletion of the reference to aerial work from the applicability;
c) alignment with Annex 6, Part I, particularly with respect to flight recorder
records subsequent to accidents or incidents and the requirement for a
Mach number indicator;
d) elimination of the term “controlled VFR flight”;
e) introduction of guidance material concerning flight data recording of
important operational information in aeroplanes with electronic displays.
(xi)
5/11/98
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Amendment
15
Part II
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
a) Revision of definitions of aerodrome operating minima, decision altitude/
height, minimum descent altitude/height and introduction of definition of
obstacle clearance altitude/height;
21 March 1994
25 July 1994
10 November 1994
Source(s)
Fifth meeting of the
Operations Panel,
Seventh and Eighth
meetings of the
Review of the
General Concept of
Separation Panel,
Accident Investigation
Divisional Meeting
(AIG/1992),
Air Navigation
Commission studies
b) introduction of new definitions for emergency locator transmitters (ELTs)
required navigation performance (RNP) and RNP type;
c) introduction of the definition for the classification of instrument approach
and landing operations;
d) revision of the requirements concerning the use of engraving metal foil
flight data recorders;
e) introduction of carriage requirements for emergency locator transmitters
(ELTs) to replace provisions regarding survival radio equipment and
emergency location beacon;
f) introduction of a requirement that the navigation equipment carried shall
enable the aircraft to proceed in accordance with RNP types prescribed
for the intended route(s) or area(s) and provisions to permit the uniform
implementation of 300 m (1 000 ft) VSM above FL 290.
16
(5th Edition)
Air Navigation
Commission studies,
Fourteenth meeting of
the Dangerous Goods
Panel, editorial
amendment, text
alignment with
Annex 6, Part I and/or
Part III, consequential
amendment
a) Introduction of revised definitions;
b) inclusion of references to Article 35 of the Convention;
10 March 1995
24 July 1995
9 November 1995
c) revision of the provisions concerning operating facilities, briefing,
aeroplane airworthiness and safety precautions, destination alternate
aerodromes, limitations imposed by weather conditions, use of oxygen
and safety harness;
d) new provisions concerning all aeroplanes on all flights, all aeroplanes
operated as VFR flights and ground proximity warning systems (GPWS);
e) revision of the provisions concerning aeroplanes operated in accordance
with instrument flight rules (IFR);
f) revision of the provisions concerning the composition of the flight crew;
and
g) revision of the provisions concerning the carriage and use of oxygen.
17
5/11/98
Fourth meeting
of the Secondary
Surveillance Radar
Improvements and
Collision Avoidance
Systems Panel
(SICASP/4)
Requirement for aeroplanes to be equipped with pressure-altitude reporting
transponders.
(xii)
19 February 1996
15 July 1996
7 November 1996
Foreword
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Amendment
Source(s)
Subject(s)
18
(6th Edition)
First meeting of the
Flight Recorder Panel,
ICAO and Industry
CFIT Task Force, Air
Navigation Commission
studies, Amendment
162 to Annex 1,
Amendment 38 to
Annex 11, editorial
amendment
a) Introduction of new and revised definitions for psychoactive substances
and required navigation performance;
Second meeting of the
Flight Recorder Panel,
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Revised definitions; and
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Revised definitions; and
19
20
Second meeting of the
Flight Recorder Panel,
Third meeting of the
Global Navigation
Satellite System Panel,
Fifth meeting of the
Continuing
Airworthiness Panel
20 March 1998
20 July 1998
5 November 1998
b) revision of the notes concerning lease and interchange;
c) introduction of a note concerning use of psychoactive substances; and
d) new and revised provisions concerning ground proximity warning
systems, pressure-altitude reporting transponders and flight recorders.
b) new provisions concerning the mandatory carriage of ELTs operating on
406 MHz and 121.5 MHz, the addition of a predictive terrain hazard
warning function to the ground proximity warning system (GPWS),
pressure-altitude reporting transponders and the introduction of an
implementation date for the recording of digital communications.
b) revision of the duties of the pilot-in-command and the introduction of
criteria for instrument approach operations.
21
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
a) Update of the provisions pertaining to flight recorders, including the
recording of digital communications; FDR requirements for new aircraft;
revised parameter listings; introduction of two-hour duration CVRs;
15 March 1999
19 July 1999
4 November 1999
15 March 2000
17 July 2000
2 November 2000
9 March 2001
16 July 2001
1 November 2001
b) amendment of the classification of instrument approach and landing
operations;
c) new provisions pertaining to approach with vertical guidance (APV)
operations; and
d) new definitions and update of provisions pertaining to
maintenance-related requirements.
(xiii)
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
CHAPTER 1. DEFINITIONS
When the following terms are used in the Standards,
Recommended Practices and Definitions for the operation of
aeroplanes in international general aviation, they have the
following meanings:
Take-off alternate. An alternate aerodrome at which an
aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly
after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome
of departure.
Aerial work. An aircraft operation in which an aircraft is used
for specialized services such as agriculture, construction,
photography, surveying, observation and patrol, search and
rescue, aerial advertisement, etc.
En-route alternate. An aerodrome at which an aircraft would
be able to land after experiencing an abnormal or
emergency condition while en route.
Destination alternate. An alternate aerodrome to which an
aircraft may proceed should it become either impossible
or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended
landing.
Aerodrome. A defined area on land or water (including any
buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used
either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and
surface movement of aircraft.
Note.— The aerodrome from which a flight departs may
also be an en-route or a destination alternate aerodrome for
that flight.
Aerodrome operating minima. The limits of usability of an
aerodrome for:
a) take-off, expressed in terms of runway visual range
and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions;
Approach and landing operations using instrument approach
procedures. Instrument approach and landing operations
are classified as follows:
b) landing in precision approach and landing operations,
expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual
range and decision altitude/height (DA/H) as appropriate
to the category of the operation;
Non-precision approach and landing operations. An
instrument approach and landing which utilizes lateral
guidance but does not utilize vertical guidance.
c) landing in approach and landing operations with vertical
guidance, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway
visual range and decision altitude/height (DA/H); and
Approach and landing operations with vertical guidance.
An instrument approach and landing which utilizes
lateral and vertical guidance but does not meet the
requirements established for precision approach and
landing operations.
d) landing in non-precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway
visual range, minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H)
and, if necessary, cloud conditions.
Precision approach and landing operations. An instrument
approach and landing using precision lateral and vertical
guidance with minima as determined by the category of
operation.
Aeroplane. A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving
its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on
surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of
flight.
Note.— Lateral and vertical guidance refers to the
guidance provided either by:
a) a ground-based navigation aid; or
Aircraft. Any machine that can derive support in the
atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the
reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.
b) computer generated navigation data.
Alternate aerodrome. An aerodrome to which an aircraft may
proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable
to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended
landing. Alternate aerodromes include the following:
Category I (CAT I) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with a decision height not lower
than 60 m (200 ft) and with either a visibility not less than
800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m.
ANNEX 6 — PART II
Categories of precision approach and landing operations:
1
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
Category II (CAT II) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with a decision height lower than
60 m (200 ft), but not lower than 30 m (100 ft), and a
runway visual range not less than 350 m.
Note 2.— The required visual reference means that section
of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have
been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an
assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of
position, in relation to the desired flight path. In Category III
operations with a decision height the required visual reference
is that specified for the particular procedure and operation.
Category IIIA (CAT IIIA) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with:
Note 3.— For convenience where both expressions are
used they may be written in the form “decision
altitude/height” and abbreviated “DA/H”.
a) a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft) or no
decision height; and
b) a runway visual range not less than 200 m.
Emergency locator transmitter (ELT). A generic term
describing equipment which broadcast distinctive signals
on designated frequencies and, depending on application,
may be automatically activated by impact or be manually
activated. An ELT may be any of the following:
Category IIIB (CAT IIIB) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with:
a) a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft) or no
decision height; and
Automatic fixed ELT (ELT(AF)). An automatically activated
ELT which is permanently attached to an aircraft.
b) a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less
than 50 m.
Automatic portable ELT (ELT(AP)). An automatically
activated ELT which is rigidly attached to an aircraft but
readily removable from the aircraft.
Category IIIC (CAT IIIC) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with no decision height and no
runway visual range limitations.
Automatic deployable ELT (ELT(AD)). An ELT which is
rigidly attached to an aircraft and which is automatically
deployed and activated by impact, and, in some cases,
also by hydrostatic sensors. Manual deployment is also
provided.
Note.— Where decision height (DH) and runway visual
range (RVR) fall into different categories of operation, the
instrument approach and landing operation would be
conducted in accordance with the requirements of the most
demanding category (e.g. an operation with a DH in the range
of CAT IIIA but with an RVR in the range of CAT IIIB would
be considered a CAT IIIB operation or an operation with a
DH in the range of CAT II but with an RVR in the range of
CAT I would be considered a CAT II operation).
Survival ELT (ELT(S)). An ELT which is removable from an
aircraft, stowed so as to facilitate its ready use in an
emergency, and manually activated by survivors.
Flight crew member. A licensed crew member charged with
duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight
duty period.
Commercial air transport operation. An aircraft operation
involving the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for
remuneration or hire.
Flight manual. A manual, associated with the certificate of
airworthiness, containing limitations within which the
aircraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and
information necessary to the flight crew members for the
safe operation of the aircraft.
Dangerous goods. Articles or substances which are capable of
posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment
and which are shown in the list of dangerous goods in the
Technical Instructions or which are classified according to
those Instructions.
Flight plan. Specified information provided to air traffic
services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a
flight of an aircraft.
Note.— Dangerous goods are classified in Annex 18,
Chapter 3.
Flight recorder. Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft
for the purpose of complementing accident/incident
investigation.
Decision altitude (DA) or decision height (DH). A specified
altitude or height in the precision approach or approach
with vertical guidance at which a missed approach must be
initiated if the required visual reference to continue the
approach has not been established.
Flight time — aeroplanes. The total time from the moment an
aeroplane first moves for the purpose of taking off until the
moment it finally comes to rest at the end of the flight.
Note 1.— Decision altitude (DA) is referenced to mean sea
level and decision height (DH) is referenced to the threshold
elevation.
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Note.— Flight time as here defined is synonymous with the
term “block to block” time or “chock to chock” time in
2
Chapter 1
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
general usage which is measured from the time an aeroplane
first moves for the purpose of taking off until it finally stops at
the end of the flight.
position, in relation to the desired flight path. In the case of a
circling approach the required visual reference is the runway
environment.
General aviation operation. An aircraft operation other than a
commercial air transport operation or an aerial work
operation.
Note 3.— For convenience when both expressions are used
they may be written in the form “minimum descent
altitude/height” and abbreviated “MDA/H”.
Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). Meteorological
conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from
cloud, and ceiling*, less than the minima specified for
visual meteorological conditions.
Night. The hours between the end of evening civil twilight and
the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period
between sunset and sunrise, as may be prescribed by the
appropriate authority.
Note.— The specified minima for visual meteorological
conditions are contained in Chapter 4 of Annex 2.
Note.— Civil twilight ends in the evening when the centre
of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon and begins in
the morning when the centre of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees
below the horizon.
Maintenance. The performance of tasks required to ensure the
continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or
combination of overhaul, inspection, replacement, defect
rectification, and the embodiment of a modification or
repair.
Obstacle clearance altitude (OCA) or obstacle clearance
height (OCH). The lowest altitude or the lowest height
above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold
or the aerodrome elevation as applicable, used in establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle clearance
criteria.
Maintenance programme. A document which describes the
specific scheduled maintenance tasks and their frequency of
completion and related procedures, such as a reliability
programme, necessary for the safe operation of those
aircraft to which it applies.
Note 1.— Obstacle clearance altitude is referenced to mean
sea level and obstacle clearance height is referenced to the
threshold elevation or in the case of non-precision approaches
to the aerodrome elevation or the threshold elevation if that is
more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation. An
obstacle clearance height for a circling approach is
referenced to the aerodrome elevation.
Maintenance release. A document which contains a
certification confirming that the maintenance work to which
it relates has been completed in a satisfactory manner,
either in accordance with the approved data and the
procedures described in the maintenance organization’s
procedures manual or under an equivalent system.
Note 2.— For convenience when both expressions are used
they may be written in the form “obstacle clearance
altitude/height” and abbreviated “OCA/H”.
Meteorological information. Meteorological report, analysis,
forecast, and any other statement relating to existing or
expected meteorological conditions.
Pilot-in-command. The pilot designated by the operator, or in
the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in
command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight.
Minimum descent altitude (MDA) or minimum descent height
(MDH). A specified altitude or height in a non-precision
approach or circling approach below which descent must not
be made without the required visual reference.
Psychoactive substances. Alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids,
sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psychostimulants,
hallucinogens, and volatile solvents, whereas coffee and
tobacco are excluded.
Note 1.— Minimum descent altitude (MDA) is referenced to
mean sea level and minimum descent height (MDH) is
referenced to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold
elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome
elevation. A minimum descent height for a circling approach
is referenced to the aerodrome elevation.
Repair. The restoration of an aeronautical product to an
airworthy condition to ensure that the aircraft continues to
comply with the design aspects of the appropriate
airworthiness requirements used for the issuance of the type
certificate for the respective aircraft type, after it has been
damaged or subjected to wear.
Note 2.— The required visual reference means that section
of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have
been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an
assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of
Required navigation performance (RNP). A statement of the
navigation performance necessary for operation within a
defined airspace.
Note.— Navigation performance and requirements are
defined for a particular RNP type and/or application.
*As defined in Annex 2.
3
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
RNP type. A containment value expressed as a distance in
nautical miles from the intended position within which flights
would be for at least 95 per cent of the total flying time.
Example.— RNP 4 represents a navigation accuracy of
plus or minus 7.4 km (4 NM) on a 95 per cent containment
basis.
bound to assume the obligations which, under the Chicago
Convention, attach to a State of Registry. See, in this regard,
the Council Resolution of 14 December 1967 on Nationality
and Registration of Aircraft Operated by International
Operating Agencies which can be found in Policy and
Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of
International Air Transport (Doc 9587).
Runway visual range (RVR). The range over which the pilot
of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the
runway surface markings or the lights delineating the
runway or identifying its centre line.
Visual meteorological conditions (VMC). Meteorological
conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from
cloud, and ceiling*, equal to or better than specified
minima.
State of Registry. The State on whose register the aircraft is
entered.
Note.— The specified minima are contained in Chapter 4 of
Annex 2.
Note.— In the case of the registration of aircraft of an
international operating agency on other than a national basis,
the States constituting the agency are jointly and severally
* As defined in Annex 2.
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
43A
Chapter 1
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
53B
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
CHAPTER 2.
APPLICABILITY
The Standards and Recommended Practices contained in
Annex 6, Part II shall be applicable to international general
aviation operations with aeroplanes.
Note 1.— Standards and Recommended Practices
applicable to the operation of aeroplanes by operators
authorized to conduct international commercial air transport
operations are to be found in Annex 6, Part I.
Note 2.— Standards and Recommended Practices
applicable to international commercial air transport
operations or international general aviation operations with
helicopters are to be found in Annex 6, Part III.
5/11/98
4
ANNEX 6 — PART II
CHAPTER 3.
Note 1.— Although the Convention on International Civil
Aviation allocates to the State of Registry certain functions
which that State is entitled to discharge, or obligated to
discharge, as the case may be, the Assembly recognized, in
Resolution A23-13, that the State of Registry may be unable to
fulfil its responsibilities adequately in instances where aircraft
are leased, chartered or interchanged — in particular without
crew — by an operator of another State and that the
Convention may not adequately specify the rights and
obligations of the State of an operator in such instances until
such time as Article 83 bis of the Convention enters into force.
Accordingly, the Council urged that if, in the above-mentioned
instances, the State of Registry finds itself unable to discharge
adequately the functions allocated to it by the Convention, it
delegate to the State of the Operator, subject to acceptance by
the latter State, those functions of the State of Registry that can
more adequately be discharged by the State of the Operator. It
was understood that pending entry into force of Article 83 bis
of the Convention the foregoing action would only be a matter
of practical convenience and would not affect either the
provisions of the Chicago Convention prescribing the duties
of the State of Registry or any third State. However, as
Article 83 bis of the Convention entered into force on 20 June
1997, such transfer agreements will have effect in respect of
Contracting States which have ratified the related Protocol
(Doc 9318) upon fulfilment of the conditions established in
Article 83 bis.
when the doors are closed. The pilot-in-command shall also be
responsible for the operation and safety of the aeroplane from
the moment the aeroplane is ready to move for the purpose of
taking off until the moment it finally comes to rest at the end
of the flight and the engine(s) used as primary propulsion units
are shut down.
3.3 If an emergency situation which endangers the safety
of the aeroplane or persons necessitates the taking of action
which involves a violation of local regulations or procedures,
the pilot-in-command shall notify the appropriate local
authority without delay. If required by the State in which the
incident occurs, the pilot-in-command shall submit a report on
any such violation to the appropriate authority of such State;
in that event, the pilot-in-command shall also submit a copy of
it to the State of Registry. Such reports shall be submitted as
soon as possible and normally within ten days.
3.4 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for
notifying the nearest appropriate authority by the quickest
available means of any accident involving the aeroplane
resulting in serious injury or death of any person or substantial
damage to the aeroplane or property.
Note.— A definition of the term “serious injury” is
contained in Annex 13, and an explanation of the term
“substantial damage” is given in the Accident/Incident
Reporting Manual (ADREP Manual) (Doc 9156).
Note 2.— In the case of international operations effected
jointly with aeroplanes not all of which are registered in the
same Contracting State, nothing in this Part prevents the States
concerned entering into an agreement for the joint exercise of
the functions placed upon the State of Registry by the
provisions of the relevant Annexes.
3.5 Recommendation.— The pilot-in-command should
have available on board the aeroplane essential information
concerning the search and rescue services in the areas over
which it is intended the aeroplane will be flown.
3.1 The pilot-in-command shall comply with the relevant
laws, regulations and procedures of the States in which the
aeroplane is operated.
3.6
Dangerous goods.
Note 1.— Provisions for carriage of dangerous goods are
contained in Annex 18.
Note 1.— Compliance with more restrictive measures, not
in contravention of the provisions of 3.1, may be required by
the State of Registry.
Note 2.— Article 35 of the Convention refers to certain
classes of cargo restrictions.
Note 2.— Rules covering flight over the high seas are
contained in Annex 2.
3.7
3.2 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for the
safety of all crew members, passengers and cargo on board
ANNEX 6 — PART II
GENERAL
Use of psychoactive substances.
Note.— Provisions concerning the use of psychoactive
substances are contained in Annex 1, 1.2.7 and Annex 2, 2.5.
5
2/11/00
5/11/98
No. 20
CHAPTER 4. FLIGHT PREPARATION
AND IN-FLIGHT PROCEDURES
4.1
Adequacy of operating facilities
4.4
The pilot-in-command shall not commence a flight unless it
has been ascertained by every reasonable means available that
the ground and/or water areas and facilities available and
directly required for such flight and for the safe operation of
the aeroplane are adequate, including communication facilities
and navigation aids.
Aeroplane airworthiness
and safety precautions
4.4.1 A flight shall not be commenced until the pilot-incommand is satisfied that:
a) the aeroplane is airworthy, duly registered and that
appropriate certificates with respect thereto are aboard
the aeroplane;
Note.— “Reasonable means” in this Standard is intended
to denote the use, at the point of departure, of information
available to the pilot-in-command either through official
information published by the aeronautical information
services or readily obtainable from other sources.
b) the instruments and equipment installed in the aeroplane
are appropriate, taking into account the expected flight
conditions;
c) any necessary maintenance has been performed in
accordance with Chapter 8;
4.2
Aerodrome operating minima
d) the mass of the aeroplane and centre of gravity location
are such that the flight can be conducted safely, taking
into account the flight conditions expected;
The pilot-in-command shall not operate to or from an
aerodrome using operating minima lower than those which
may be established for that aerodrome by the State in which it
is located, except with the specific approval of that State.
e) any load carried is properly distributed and safely
secured; and
Note.— It is the practice in some States to declare, for
flight planning purposes, higher minima for an aerodrome
when nominated as an alternate, than for the same aerodrome
when planned as that of intended landing.
f) the aeroplane operating limitations, contained in the
flight manual, or its equivalent, will not be exceeded.
4.4.2 Recommendation.— The pilot-in-command should
have sufficient information on climb performance with all
engines operating to enable determination of the climb
gradient that can be achieved during the departure phase for
the existing take-off conditions and intended take-off
technique.
4.3 Briefing
4.3.1 The pilot-in-command shall ensure that crew
members and passengers are made familiar, by means of an
oral briefing or by other means, with the location and the
use of:
4.5
Weather reports and forecasts
a) seat belts; and, as appropriate,
e) other emergency equipment provided for individual use,
including passenger emergency briefing cards.
Before commencing a flight the pilot-in-command shall be
familiar with all available meteorological information
appropriate to the intended flight. Preparation for a flight away
from the vicinity of the place of departure, and for every flight
under the instrument flight rules, shall include: 1) a study of
available current weather reports and forecasts; and 2) the
planning of an alternative course of action to provide for the
eventuality that the flight cannot be completed as planned,
because of weather conditions.
4.3.2 The pilot-in-command shall ensure that all persons
on board are aware of the location and general manner of use
of the principal emergency equipment carried for collective
use.
Note.— The requirements for flight plans are contained in
Annex 2 — Rules of the Air and Procedures for Air
Navigation Services — Rules of the Air and Air Traffic
Services (PANS-RAC, Doc 4444).
b) emergency exits;
c) life jackets;
d) oxygen dispensing equipment; and
5/11/98
6
ANNEX 6 — PART II
Chapter 4
4.6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Limitations imposed by weather conditions
4.6.1
below 300 m (1 000 ft) above the aerodrome in case of nonprecision approach, unless the reported visibility or controlling
RVR is above the specified minimum.
Flight in accordance with the
visual flight rules
4.6.3.3 If, after passing the outer marker fix in case of
precision approach, or after descending below 300 m (1 000 ft)
above the aerodrome in case of non-precision approach, the
reported visibility or controlling RVR falls below the specified
minimum, the approach may be continued to DA/H or
MDA/H. In any case, an aeroplane shall not continue its
approach-to-land beyond a point at which the limits of the
aerodrome operating minima would be infringed.
A flight, except one of purely local character in visual
meteorological conditions, to be conducted in accordance with
the visual flight rules shall not be commenced unless available
current meteorological reports, or a combination of current
reports and forecasts, indicate that the meteorological
conditions along the route, or that part of the route to be flown
under the visual flight rules, will, at the appropriate time, be
such as to render compliance with these rules possible.
4.6.2
Note.— Controlling RVR means the reported values of one
or more RVR reporting locations (touchdown, mid-point and
stop-end) used to determine whether operating minima are or
are not met. Where RVR is used, the controlling RVR is the
touchdown RVR, unless otherwise specified by State criteria.
Flight in accordance with the
instrument flight rules
4.6.2.1 When a destination alternate aerodrome is
required. A flight to be conducted in accordance with the
instrument flight rules shall not be commenced unless the
available information indicates that conditions, at the
aerodrome of intended landing and at least one destination
alternate will, at the estimated time of arrival, be at or above
the aerodrome operating minima.
4.6.4
Flight in icing conditions
A flight to be operated in known or expected icing conditions
shall not be commenced unless the aeroplane is certificated
and equipped to cope with such conditions.
4.6.2.2 When no destination alternate aerodrome is
required. A flight to be conducted in accordance with the
instrument flight rules to an aerodrome when no alternate
aerodrome is required shall not be commenced unless:
4.7 Destination alternate aerodromes
For a flight to be conducted in accordance with the instrument
flight rules, at least one destination alternate aerodrome shall
be selected and specified in the flight plan, unless:
a) a standard instrument approach procedure is prescribed
for the aerodrome of intended landing; and
a) the duration of the flight and the meteorological
conditions prevailing are such that there is reasonable
certainty that, at the estimated time of arrival at the
aerodrome of intended landing, and for a reasonable
period before and after such time, the approach and
landing may be made under visual meteorological
conditions; or
b) available current meteorological information indicates
that the following meteorological conditions will exist
from two hours before to two hours after the estimated
time of arrival:
1) a cloud base of at least 300 m (1 000 ft) above the
minimum associated with the instrument approach
procedure; and
b) the aerodrome of intended landing is isolated and there
is no suitable destination alternate aerodrome.
2) visibility of at least 5.5 km or of 4 km more than the
minimum associated with the procedure.
4.8
4.6.3 Aerodrome operating minima
Fuel and oil supply
4.8.1 A flight shall not be commenced unless, taking into
account both the meteorological conditions and any delays that
are expected in flight, the aeroplane carries sufficient fuel and
oil to ensure that it can safely complete the flight, and, as
applicable, the following special provisions are complied with:
4.6.3.1 A flight shall not be continued towards the
aerodrome of intended landing unless the latest available
meteorological information indicates that conditions at that
aerodrome, or at least one destination alternate aerodrome,
will, at the estimated time of arrival, be at or above the
specified aerodrome operating minima.
4.8.1.1 Flight in accordance with the instrument flight
rules. At least sufficient fuel and oil shall be carried to allow
the aeroplane:
4.6.3.2 An instrument approach shall not be continued
beyond the outer marker fix in case of precision approach, or
7
2/11/00
5/11/98
No. 20
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
a) when, in accordance with the exception contained in
4.6.2.2, a destination alternate aerodrome is not
required, to fly to the aerodrome to which the flight is
planned and thereafter for a period of 45 minutes; or
4.14
Fitness of flight crew members
The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for ensuring that a
flight:
a) will not be commenced if any flight crew member is
incapacitated from performing duties by any cause such
as injury, sickness, fatigue, the effects of alcohol or
drugs; and
b) when a destination alternate aerodrome is required, to
fly to the aerodrome to which the flight is planned, thence
to an alternate aerodrome, and thereafter for a period of
45 minutes.
b) will not be continued beyond the nearest suitable
aerodrome when flight crew members’ capacity to
perform functions is significantly reduced by impairment
of faculties from causes such as fatigue, sickness, lack
of oxygen.
Note.— Nothing in 4.8 precludes amendment of a flight
plan in flight in order to re-plan the flight to another
aerodrome, provided that the requirements of 4.8 can be
complied with from the point where the flight is re-planned.
4.9 Oxygen supply
4.15
Flight crew members at duty stations
The pilot-in-command shall ensure that breathing oxygen is
available to crew members and passengers in sufficient
quantities for all flights at such altitudes where a lack of
oxygen might result in impairment of the faculties of crew
members or harmfully affect passengers.
All flight crew members required to be on flight deck duty
shall be at their stations.
Note.— Guidance on the carriage and use of oxygen is
given in Attachment B.
4.15.2 En route
4.10
4.15.1 Take-off and landing
All flight crew members required to be on flight deck duty
shall remain at their stations except when their absence is
necessary for the performance of duties in connection with the
operation of the aeroplane, or for physiological needs.
Use of oxygen
All flight crew members, when engaged in performing duties
essential to the safe operation of an aeroplane in flight,
shall use breathing oxygen continuously whenever the
circumstances prevail for which its supply has been required
in 4.9.
4.15.3
Seat belts
All flight crew members shall keep their seat belts fastened
when at their stations.
4.11
In-flight emergency instruction
4.15.4
In an emergency during flight, the pilot-in-command shall
ensure that all persons on board are instructed in such
emergency action as may be appropriate to the circumstances.
4.12
Recommendation.— When safety harnesses are provided,
any flight crew member occupying a pilot’s seat should keep
the safety harness fastened during the take-off and landing
phases; all other flight crew members should keep their safety
harnesses fastened during the take-off and landing phases
unless the shoulder straps interfere with the performance of
their duties, in which case the shoulder straps may be
unfastened but the seat belt must remain fastened.
Weather reporting by pilots
Recommendation.— When weather conditions likely to
affect the safety of other aircraft are encountered, they should
be reported as soon as possible.
4.13
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder strap(s) and a
seat belt which may be used independently.
Hazardous flight conditions
Recommendation.— Hazardous flight conditions, other
than those associated with meteorological conditions,
encountered en route should be reported as soon as possible.
The reports so rendered should give such details as may be
pertinent to the safety of other aircraft.
2/11/00
5/11/98
No. 20
Safety harness
4.16
Instrument flight procedures
4.16.1 One or more instrument approach procedures
designed in accordance with the classification of instrument
8
Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
approach and landing operations shall be approved and
promulgated by the State in which the aerodrome is located to
serve each instrument runway or aerodrome utilized for
instrument flight operations.
information on routes, signs, marking, lights, ATC signals
and instructions, phraseology and procedures, and is
able to conform to the operational standards required for
safe aeroplane movement at the aerodrome.
4.16.2 All aeroplanes operated in accordance with
instrument flight rules shall comply with the instrument flight
procedures approved by the State in which the aerodrome is
located.
4.18 Refuelling with
passengers on board
4.18.1 Recommendation.— An aeroplane should not be
refuelled when passengers are embarking, on board or
disembarking unless it is attended by the pilot-in-command or
other qualified personnel ready to initiate and direct an
evacuation of the aeroplane by the most practical and
expeditious means available.
Note 1.— Definitions for the classification of instrument
approach and landing operations are in Chapter 1.
Note 2.— Operational procedures recommended for the
guidance of operations personnel involved in instrument
flight operations are described in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168),
Volume I.
4.18.2 Recommendation.— When refuelling with
passengers embarking, on board or disembarking, two-way
communications should be maintained by aeroplane
intercommunications system or other suitable means between
the ground crew supervising the refuelling and the pilot-incommand or other qualified personnel required by 4.18.1.
Note 3.— Criteria for the construction of instrument flight
procedures for the guidance of procedure specialists are
provided in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume II.
4.17 Instruction — general
Note 1.— The provisions of 4.18.1 do not necessarily
require the deployment of integral aeroplane stairs or the
opening of emergency exits as a prerequisite to refuelling.
An aeroplane shall not be taxied on the movement area of an
aerodrome unless the person at the controls:
Note 2.— Provisions concerning aircraft refuelling are
contained in Annex 14, Volume I and guidance on safe
refuelling practices is contained in the Airport Services
Manual (Doc 9137), Parts 1 and 8.
a) has been duly authorized by the owner or in the case
where it is leased the lessee, or a designated agent;
b) is fully competent to taxi the aeroplane;
c) is qualified to use the radio telephone if radio
communications are required; and
Note 3.— Additional precautions are required when
refuelling with fuels other than aviation kerosene or
when refuelling results in a mixture of aviation kerosene
with other aviation turbine fuels, or when an open line is
used.
d) has received instruction from a competent person in
respect of aerodrome layout, and where appropriate,
9
5/11/98
CHAPTER 5. AEROPLANE PERFORMANCE
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
5.1
An aeroplane shall be operated:
competent authority of the State in which the aerodrome
is situated.
a) in compliance with the terms of its airworthiness certificate or equivalent approved document;
b) within the operating limitations prescribed by the certificating authority of the State of Registry; and
5.2 Placards, listings, instrument markings, or combinations thereof, containing those operating limitations
prescribed by the certificating authority of the State of
Registry for visual presentation, shall be displayed in the
aeroplane.
c) within the mass limitations imposed by compliance with
the applicable noise certification Standards in Annex 16,
Volume I, unless otherwise authorized, in exceptional
circumstances for a certain aerodrome or a runway
where there is no noise disturbance problem, by the
Note.— The Standards of Annex 8 — Airworthiness of
Aircraft, Parts IIIA and IIIB, apply to all aeroplanes of over
5 700 kg maximum certificated take-off mass intended for the
carriage of passengers or cargo or mail in international air
navigation.
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
10
ANNEX 6 — PART II
CHAPTER 6.
AEROPLANE INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
Note.— Specifications for the provision of aeroplane
communication and navigation equipment are contained in
Chapter 7.
2) a seat belt for each seat and restraining belts for each
berth;
d) the following manuals, charts and information:
1) the flight manual or other documents or information
concerning any operating limitations prescribed for
the aeroplane by the certificating authority of the
State of Registry, required for the application of
Chapter 5;
6.1 All aeroplanes on all flights
6.1.1 General
In addition to the minimum equipment necessary for the
issuance of a certificate of airworthiness, the instruments,
equipment and flight documents prescribed in the following
paragraphs shall be installed or carried, as appropriate, in
aeroplanes according to the aeroplane used and to the
circumstances under which the flight is to be conducted. The
prescribed instruments and equipment, including their
installation, shall be approved or accepted by the State of
Registry.
6.1.2
2) current and suitable charts for the route of the
proposed flight and all routes along which it is
reasonable to expect that the flight may be diverted;
3) procedures, as prescribed in Annex 2, for pilots-incommand of intercepted aircraft; and
4) visual signals for use by intercepting and intercepted
aircraft, as contained in Annex 2;
e) spare electrical fuses of appropriate ratings for replacement of those accessible in flight.
Instruments
An aeroplane shall be equipped with instruments which will
enable the flight crew to control the flight path of the
aeroplane, carry out any required procedural manoeuvre, and
observe the operating limitations of the aeroplane in the
expected operating conditions.
6.1.3
6.1.3.1.2 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes on all
flights should be equipped with the ground-air signal codes for
search and rescue purposes.
6.1.3.1.3 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes on all
flights should be equipped with a safety harness for each flight
crew member seat.
Equipment
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder strap(s) and a
seat belt which may be used independently.
6.1.3.1 All aeroplanes on all flights.
6.1.3.1.1
with:
All aeroplanes on all flights shall be equipped
6.1.4 Marking of break-in points
a) an accessible first-aid kit;
6.1.4.1 If areas of the fuselage suitable for break-in by
rescue crews in an emergency are marked on an aeroplane,
such areas shall be marked as shown below (see figure
following). The colour of the markings shall be red or yellow,
and if necessary they shall be outlined in white to contrast with
the background.
b) portable fire extinguishers of a type which, when
discharged, will not cause dangerous contamination of
the air within the aeroplane. At least one shall be located
in:
1) the pilot’s compartment; and
2) each passenger compartment that is separate from the
pilot’s compartment and not readily accessible to the
pilot or co-pilot;
6.1.4.2 If the corner markings are more than 2 m apart,
intermediate lines 9 cm x 3 cm shall be inserted so that there
is no more than 2 m between adjacent markings.
c) 1) a seat or berth for each person over an age to be
determined by the State of Registry; and
Note.— This Standard does not require any aeroplane to
have break-in areas.
ANNEX 6 — PART II
11
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
6.2 All aeroplanes operated as VFR flights
b) equipment for making the sound signals prescribed in the
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at
Sea, where applicable;
6.2.1 All aeroplanes when operated as VFR flights shall
be equipped with:
c) one anchor;
a) a magnetic compass;
d) one sea anchor (drogue), when necessary to assist in
manoeuvring.
b) an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours,
minutes and seconds;
Note.— “Seaplanes” includes amphibians operated as
seaplanes.
c) a sensitive pressure altimeter;
d) an airspeed indicator; and
6.3.2 Landplanes
e) such additional instruments or equipment as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
6.3.2.1 Single-engined aeroplanes.
6.2.2 Recommendation.— VFR flights which are operated as controlled flights should be equipped in accordance
with 6.6.
6.3
Recommendation.— All single-engined landplanes when
flying en route over water beyond gliding distance from the
shore should carry one life jacket or equivalent individual
floatation device for each person on board, stowed in a
position easily accessible from the seat or berth of the person
for whose use it is provided.
All aeroplanes on flights over water
Note.— “Landplanes” includes amphibians operated as
landplanes.
6.3.1 Seaplanes
All seaplanes for all flights shall be equipped with:
6.3.3
a) one life jacket, or equivalent individual floatation device,
for each person on board, stowed in a position readily
accessible from the seat or berth;
All aeroplanes on extended flights over water
All aeroplanes when operated on extended flights over water
shall be equipped with:
MARKING OF BREAK-IN POINTS (see 6.1.4)
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
12
Chapter 6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
a) when the aeroplane may be over water at a distance of
more than 93 km (50 NM) away from land suitable for
making an emergency landing:
6.5.3 Aeroplanes for which the individual
certificate of airworthiness is first
issued before 1 January 1990
— one life jacket or equivalent individual floatation
device for each person on board, stowed in a position
easily accessible from the seat or berth of the person
for whose use it is provided;
Recommendation.— Pressurized aeroplanes intended to
be operated at flight altitudes at which the atmospheric
pressure is less than 376 hPa should be equipped with a
device to provide positive warning to the flight crew of any
dangerous loss of pressurization.
b) when over water away from land suitable for making an
emergency landing at a distance of more than 185 km
(100 NM), in the case of single-engined aeroplanes, and
more than 370 km (200 NM), in the case of multi-engined
aeroplanes capable of continuing flight with one engine
inoperative:
6.6
All aeroplanes operated in accordance
with the instrument flight rules
All aeroplanes when operated in accordance with the
instrument flight rules or when the aeroplane cannot be
maintained in a desired attitude without reference to one or
more flight instruments, shall be equipped with:
1) life-saving rafts in sufficient numbers to carry all
persons on board, stowed so as to facilitate their
ready use in emergency, provided with such lifesaving equipment including means of sustaining
life as is appropriate to the flight to be undertaken;
and
a) a magnetic compass;
b) an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours,
minutes and seconds;
2) equipment for making the pyrotechnical distress
signals described in Annex 2.
c) a sensitive pressure altimeter;
Note.— Due to the long history of misreadings, the use
of drum-pointer altimeters is not recommended.
6.4
All aeroplanes on flights over
designated land areas
d) an airspeed indicating system with a means of preventing
malfunctioning due to either condensation or icing;
Aeroplanes when operated across land areas which have been
designated by the State concerned as areas in which search and
rescue would be especially difficult shall be equipped with
such signalling devices and life-saving equipment (including
means of sustaining life) as may be appropriate to the area
overflown.
6.5
e) a turn and slip indicator;
f) an attitude indicator (artificial horizon);
g) a heading indicator (directional gyroscope);
Note.— The requirements of e), f) and g), may be met
by combinations of instruments or by integrated flight
director systems provided that the safeguards against
total failure, inherent in the three separate instruments,
are retained.
All aeroplanes on high altitude flights
h) means of indicating whether the supply of power to the
gyroscopic instruments is adequate;
6.5.1 All aeroplanes intended to be operated at high
altitudes shall be equipped with oxygen storage and dispensing
apparatus capable of storing and dispensing the oxygen
supplies required in 4.9.
i) a means of indicating in the flight crew compartment the
outside air temperature;
j) a rate-of-climb and descent indicator; and
6.5.2 Aeroplanes for which the individual
certificate of airworthiness is first
issued on or after 1 January 1990
k) such additional instruments or equipment as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
Pressurized aeroplanes intended to be operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than
376 hPa shall be equipped with a device to provide positive
warning to the flight crew of any dangerous loss of
pressurization.
6.7 All aeroplanes when operated at night
All aeroplanes, when operated at night, shall be equipped with:
13
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
a) all the equipment specified in 6.6;
b) excessive terrain closure rate;
b) the lights required by Annex 2 for aircraft in flight or
operating on the movement area of an aerodrome;
c) excessive altitude loss after take-off or go-around;
d) unsafe terrain clearance while not in landing configuration;
Note.— Specifications for lights meeting the requirements of Annex 2 for navigation lights are contained in
the Appendix. The general characteristics of lights are
specified in Annex 8. Detailed specifications for lights
meeting the requirements of Annex 2 for aircraft in flight
or operating on the movement area of an aerodrome are
contained in the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
1) gear not locked down;
2) flaps not in a landing position; and
e) excessive descent below the instrument glide path.
c) a landing light;
6.9.5 Recommendation.— All turbine-engined aeroplanes
of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or
authorized to carry more than nine passengers, should be
equipped with a ground proximity warning system which has a
predictive terrain hazard warning function.
d) illumination for all flight instruments and equipment that
are essential for the safe operation of the aeroplane;
e) lights in all passenger compartments; and
f) an electric torch for each crew member station.
6.10 Flight recorders
Note 1.— Flight recorders comprise two systems, a flight
data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder.
6.8 All aeroplanes complying with the
noise certification Standards in
Annex 16, Volume I
Note 2.— Combination recorders (FDR/CVR) can only be
used to meet the flight recorder equipage requirements as
specifically indicated in this Annex.
An aeroplane shall carry a document attesting noise
certification.
Note 3.— Detailed guidance on flight recorders is contained
in Attachment A.
Note.— The attestation may be contained in any document,
carried on board, approved by the State of Registry.
6.10.1 Flight data recorders — types
6.9
6.10.1.1 A Type I flight data recorder shall record the
parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane flight
path, speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation.
Aeroplanes required to be equipped
with ground proximity warning
systems (GPWS)
6.10.1.2 A Type II flight data recorder shall record the
parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane
flight path, speed, attitude, engine power and configuration of
lift and drag devices.
6.9.1 All turbine-engined aeroplanes of a maximum
certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg or authorized
to carry more than nine passengers shall be equipped with a
ground proximity warning system.
6.10.1.3 The use of engraving metal foil flight data
recorders shall be discontinued by 1 January 1995.
6.9.2 Recommendation.— All piston-engined aeroplanes
of a maximum certificated take-off mass in excess of 5 700 kg
or authorized to carry more than nine passengers should be
equipped with a ground proximity warning system.
6.10.1.4 Recommendation.— The use of analogue flight
data recorders using frequency modulation (FM) should be
discontinued by 5 November 1998.
6.9.3 A ground proximity warning system shall provide
automatically a timely and distinctive warning to the flight
crew when the aeroplane is in potentially hazardous proximity
to the earth’s surface.
6.10.1.4.1 The use of photographic film flight data
recorders shall be discontinued from 1 January 2003.
6.10.1.5 All aeroplanes for which the individual
certificate of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2005,
which utilize data link communications and are required to
carry a cockpit voice recorder (CVR), shall record on a flight
recorder, all data link communications to and from the
6.9.4 A ground proximity warning system shall provide,
as a minimum, warnings of the following circumstances:
a) excessive descent rate;
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
14
Chapter 6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
aeroplane. The minimum recording duration shall be equal to
the duration of the CVR, and shall be correlated to the
recorded cockpit audio.
–
–
–
–
6.10.1.5.1 From 1 January 2007, all aeroplanes which
utilize data link communications and are required to carry a
CVR, shall record on a flight recorder, all data link communications to and from the aeroplane. The minimum
recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR,
and shall be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
Pitch attitude
Roll attitude
Yaw or sideslip angle*
Angle of attack*
6.10.1.7.3 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for engine power:
– Engine thrust/power: propulsive thrust/power on each
engine, cockpit thrust/power lever position
– Thrust reverse status*
– Engine thrust command*
– Engine thrust target*
– Engine bleed valve position*
– Additional engine parameters*: EPR, N1, indicated
vibration level, N2, EGT, TLA, fuel flow, fuel cut-off
lever position, N3
6.10.1.5.2 Sufficient information to derive the content of
the data link communications message, and, whenever
practical, the time the message was displayed to or generated
by the crew shall be recorded.
Note.— Data link communications include, but are not
limited to, automatic dependent surveillance (ADS),
controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC), data linkflight information services (D-FIS) and aeronautical
operational control (AOC) messages.
6.10.1.7.4 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for configuration:
– Pitch trim surface position
– Flaps*: trailing edge flap position, cockpit control
selection
– Slats*: leading edge flap (slat) position, cockpit control
selection
– Landing gear*: landing gear, gear selector position
– Yaw trim surface position*
– Roll trim surface position*
– Cockpit trim control input position pitch*
– Cockpit trim control input position roll*
– Cockpit trim control input position yaw*
– Ground spoiler and speed brake*: ground spoiler
position, ground spoiler selection, speed brake position,
speed brake selection
– De-icing and/or anti-icing systems selection*
– Hydraulic pressure (each system)*
– Fuel quantity*
– AC electrical bus status*
– DC electrical bus status*
– APU bleed valve position*
– Computed centre of gravity*
6.10.1.6 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a
maximum certificated take-off mass over 5 700 kg, required to
be equipped with a flight data recorder and a cockpit voice
recorder, may alternatively be equipped with two combination
recorders (FDR/CVR).
6.10.1.7 A Type IA flight data recorder shall record the
parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane
flight path, speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and
operation. The parameters that satisfy the requirements for a
Type IA flight data recorder are listed in the paragraphs below.
The parameters without an asterisk (*) are mandatory
parameters which shall be recorded. In addition, the
parameters designated by an asterisk (*) shall be recorded if an
information data source for the parameter is used by aeroplane
systems or the flight crew to operate the aeroplane.
6.10.1.7.1 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for flight path and speed:
– Pressure altitude
– Indicated airspeed or calibrated airspeed
– Air – ground status and each landing gear air-ground
sensor when practicable
– Total or outside air temperature
– Heading (primary flight crew reference)
– Normal acceleration
– Lateral acceleration
– Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
– Time or relative time count
– Navigation data*: drift angle, wind speed, wind direction,
latitude/longitude
– Groundspeed*
– Radio altitude*
6.10.1.7.5 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for operation:
– Warnings
– Primary flight control surface and primary flight control
pilot input: pitch axis, roll axis, yaw axis
– Marker beacon passage
– Each navigation receiver frequency selection
– Manual radio transmission keying and CVR/FDR
synchronization reference
– Autopilot/autothrottle/AFCS mode and engagement
status*
– Selected barometric setting*: pilot, first officer
– Selected altitude (all pilot selectable modes of
operation)*
6.10.1.7.2 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for attitude:
15
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
– Selected speed (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
– Selected mach (all pilot selectable modes of operation)*
– Selected vertical speed (all pilot selectable modes of
operation)*
– Selected heading (all pilot selectable modes of
operation)*
– Selected flight path (all pilot selectable modes of
operation)*: course/DSTRK, path angle
– Selected decision height*
– EFIS display format*: pilot, first officer
– Multi-function/engine/alerts display format*
– GPWS/TAWS/GCAS status*: selection of terrain display
mode including pop-up display status, terrain alerts, both
cautions and warnings, and advisories, on/off switch
position
– Low pressure warning*: hydraulic pressure, pneumatic
pressure
– Computer failure*
– Loss of cabin pressure*
– TCAS/ACAS (traffic alert and collision avoidance
system/airborne collision avoidance system)*
– Ice detection*
– Engine warning each engine vibration*
– Engine warning each engine over temperature*
– Engine warning each engine oil pressure low*
– Engine warning each engine over speed*
– Wind shear warning*
– Operational stall protection, stick shaker and pusher
activation*
– All cockpit flight control input forces*: control wheel,
control column, rudder pedal cockpit input forces
– Vertical deviation*: ILS glide path, MLS elevation,
GNSS approach path
– Horizontal deviation*: ILS localizer, MLS azimuth,
GNSS approach path
– DME 1 and 2 distances*
– Primary navigation system reference*: GNSS, INS,
VOR/DME, MLS, Loran C, ILS
– Brakes*: left and right brake pressure, left and right brake
pedal position
– Date*
– Event marker*
– Head up display in use*
– Para visual display on*
6.10.2
Types I and II flight data recorders shall be capable of
retaining the information recorded during at least the last
25 hours of their operation.
6.10.3 Flight data recorders — aeroplanes for
which the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued on or after 1 January 1989
6.10.3.1 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated takeoff mass of over 27 000 kg shall be equipped with a Type I
flight data recorder.
6.10.3.2 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a
maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg up to and
including 27 000 kg should be equipped with a Type II flight
data recorder.
6.10.4 Flight data recorders — aeroplanes for which
the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued after 1 January 2005
All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of
over 5 700 kg shall be equipped with a Type IA flight data
recorder.
6.10.5 Cockpit voice recorders — aeroplanes
for which the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued on or after 1 January 1987
Note.— Cockpit voice recorder performance requirements
are as contained in the Minimum Operational Performance
Specifications (MOPS) document for Flight Recorder Systems
of the European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment
(EUROCAE) or equivalent documents.
6.10.5.1 All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated takeoff mass of over 27 000 kg shall be equipped with a cockpit
voice recorder, the objective of which is the recording of the
aural environment on the flight deck during flight time.
Note 1.— Parameter requirements, including range,
sampling, accuracy and resolution, as contained in the
Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS)
document for Flight Recorder Systems of the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) or
equivalent documents.
6.10.5.2 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes of a
maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg up to and
including 27 000 kg should be equipped with a cockpit voice
recorder, the objective of which is the recording of the aural
environment on the flight deck during flight time.
Note 2.— The number of parameters to be recorded will
depend on aeroplane complexity. Parameters without an (*)
are to be recorded regardless of aeroplane complexity. Those
parameters designated by an (*) are to be recorded if an
information source for the parameter is used by aeroplane
systems and/or flight crew to operate the aeroplane.
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Flight data recorders — duration
6.10.6 Cockpit voice recorders — duration
6.10.6.1 A cockpit voice recorder shall be capable of
retaining the information recorded during at least the last 30
minutes of its operation.
16
Chapter 6
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
6.10.6.2 Recommendation.— A cockpit voice recorder,
installed in aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 5 700 kg for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1990, should
be capable of retaining the information recorded during at
least the last two hours of its operation.
6.10.6.3 A cockpit voice recorder, installed in aeroplanes
of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5 700 kg for
which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued
after 1 January 2003, shall be capable of retaining the
information recorded during at least the last two hours of its
operation.
6.10.7
6.10.10 Flight recorders — continued serviceability
Operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the
flight data and cockpit voice recorder systems shall be
conducted to ensure the continued serviceability of the
recorders.
Note.— Procedures for the inspections of the flight data and
cockpit voice recorder systems are given in Attachment A.
Flight recorders — construction
and installation
Flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so
as to provide maximum practical protection for the recordings
in order that the recorded information may be preserved,
recovered and transcribed. Flight recorders shall meet the
prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications.
Note.— Industry crashworthiness and fire protection
specifications can be found in documents such as the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE)
documents ED55 and ED56A.
6.10.8
retention in safe custody pending their disposition as
determined in accordance with Annex 13.
Flight recorders — operation
6.10.8.1 Flight recorders shall not be switched off during
flight time.
6.10.8.2 To preserve flight recorder records, flight
recorders shall be de-activated upon completion of flight time
following an accident or incident. The flight recorders shall
not be re-activated before their disposition as determined in
accordance with Annex 13.
Note 1.— The need for removal of the flight recorder
records from the aircraft will be determined by the
investigation authority in the State conducting the
investigation with due regard to the seriousness of an
occurrence and the circumstances, including the impact on the
operation.
Note 2.— The pilot-in-command’s responsibilities regarding
the retention of flight recorder records are contained in 6.10.9.
6.10.9
6.11
Mach number indicator
All aeroplanes with speed limitations expressed in terms of
Mach number shall be equipped with a Mach number indicator.
Note.— This does not preclude the use of the airspeed
indicator to derive Mach number for ATS purposes.
6.12 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
6.12.1 Except as provided for in 6.12.2, until 1 January
2005 all aeroplanes operated on extended flights over water as
described in 6.3.3 b) and when operated on flights over
designated land areas as described in 6.4 shall be equipped
with one ELT.
6.12.2 All aeroplanes for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2002, operated
on extended flights over water as described in 6.3.3 b) and
when operated on flights over designated land areas as
described in 6.4 shall be equipped with one automatic ELT.
6.12.3 From 1 January 2005, all aeroplanes operated on
extended flights over water as described in 6.3.3 b) and when
operated on flights over designated land areas as described in
6.4 shall be equipped with one automatic ELT.
6.12.4 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes should carry
an automatic ELT.
6.12.5 ELT equipment carried to satisfy the requirements
of 6.12.1, 6.12.2, 6.12.3 and 6.12.4 shall operate in accordance
with the relevant provisions of Annex 10, Volume III.
Flight recorder records
6.13
The pilot-in-command shall ensure, to the extent possible, in
the event the aeroplane becomes involved in an accident or
incident, the preservation of all related flight recorder records,
and if necessary the associated flight recorders, and their
Aeroplanes required to be equipped with a
pressure-altitude reporting transponder
6.13.1 From 1 January 2003, unless exempted by the
appropriate authorities, all aeroplanes shall be equipped with a
16A
17
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
pressure-altitude reporting transponder which operates in
accordance with the relevant provisions of Annex 10,
Volume IV.
pressure-altitude reporting transponders to be operated so as
not to share airspace used by aircraft equipped with airborne
collision avoidance systems. To this end, exemptions from the
carriage requirement for pressure-altitude reporting transponders could be given by designating airspace where such
carriage is not required.
6.13.2 Recommendation.— All aeroplanes should be
equipped with a pressure-altitude reporting transponder which
operates in accordance with the relevant provisions of
Annex 10, Volume IV.
Note.— The provisions in 6.13.1 and 6.13.2 are intended to
support the effectiveness of ACAS as well as to improve
effectiveness of air traffic services. Effective dates for carriage
requirements of ACAS are contained in Annex 6, Part I, 6.18.1
and 6.18.2. The intent is also for aircraft not equipped with
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
6.14
Microphones
Recommendation.— All flight crew members required to
be on flight deck duty should communicate through boom or
throat microphones below the transition level/altitude.
16B
18
CHAPTER 7. AEROPLANE COMMUNICATION
AND NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
7.1 Communication equipment
except when, if not so precluded by the appropriate authority,
navigation for flights under the visual flight rules is
accomplished by visual reference to landmarks at least every
110 km (60 NM).
7.1.1 An aeroplane to be operated in accordance with the
instrument flight rules or at night shall be provided with radio
communication equipment. Such equipment shall be capable
of conducting two-way communication with those aeronautical
stations and on those frequencies prescribed by the appropriate
authority.
Note.— Information on RNP and associated procedures is
contained in the Manual on Required Navigation Performance
(RNP) (Doc 9613).
Note.— The requirements of 7.1.1 are considered fulfilled
if the ability to conduct the communications specified therein
is established during radio propagation conditions which are
normal for the route.
7.2.2 For flights in defined portions of airspace where,
based on Regional Air Navigation Agreement, minimum
navigation performance specifications (MNPS) are prescribed,
an aeroplane shall be provided with navigation equipment
which:
7.1.2 When compliance with 7.1.1 requires that more
than one communications equipment unit be provided, each
shall be independent of the other or others to the extent that a
failure in any one will not result in failure of any other.
a) continuously provides indications to the flight crew of
adherence to or departure from track to the required
degree of accuracy at any point along that track; and
b) has been authorized by the State of Registry for MNPS
operations concerned.
7.1.3 An aeroplane to be operated in accordance with the
visual flight rules, but as a controlled flight, shall, unless
exempted by the appropriate authority, be provided with radio
communication equipment capable of conducting two-way
communication at any time during flight with such
aeronautical stations and on such frequencies as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
Note.— The prescribed minimum navigation performance
specifications and the procedures governing their application
are published in Regional Supplementary Procedures
(Doc 7030).
7.2.3 For flights in defined portions of airspace where,
based on Regional Air Navigation Agreement, a vertical
separation minimum (VSM) of 300 m (1 000 ft) is applied
above FL 290, an aeroplane:
7.1.4 An aeroplane to be operated on a flight to which the
provisions of 6.3.3 or 6.4 apply shall, unless exempted by the
appropriate authority, be provided with radio communication
equipment capable of conducting two-way communication at
any time during flight with such aeronautical stations and on
such frequencies as may be prescribed by the appropriate
authority.
a) shall be provided with equipment which is capable of:
1) indicating to the flight crew the flight level being
flown;
7.1.5 The radio communication equipment required in
accordance with 7.1.1 to 7.1.4 shall provide for communication on the aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5 MHz.
2) automatically maintaining a selected flight level;
3) providing an alert to the flight crew when a deviation
occurs from the selected flight level. The threshold
for the alert shall not exceed ±90 m (300 ft); and
7.2 Navigation equipment
4) automatically reporting pressure-altitude; and
7.2.1 An aeroplane shall be provided with navigation
equipment which will enable it to proceed:
b) shall be authorized by the State of Registry for operation
in the airspace concerned.
a) in accordance with the flight plan;
7.2.4 The aeroplane shall be sufficiently provided with
navigation equipment to ensure that, in the event of the failure
of one item of equipment at any stage of the flight, the
remaining equipment will enable the aeroplane to proceed in
accordance with 7.2.1 and where applicable 7.2.2 and 7.2.3.
b) in accordance with prescribed RNP types; and
c) in accordance with the requirements of air traffic
services;
ANNEX 6 — PART II
17
5/11/98
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
Note 1.— This requirement may be met by means other
than the duplication of equipment.
7.2.5 On flights in which it is intended to land in
instrument meteorological conditions, an aeroplane shall be
provided with radio equipment capable of receiving signals
providing guidance to a point from which a visual landing can
be effected. This equipment shall be capable of providing such
guidance for each aerodrome at which it is intended to land in
instrument meteorological conditions and for any designated
alternate aerodromes.
Note 2.— Guidance material relating to aircraft equipment
necessary for flight in airspace where a 300 m (1 000 ft) VSM
is applied above FL 290 is contained in the Manual on
Implementation of a 300 m (1 000 ft) Vertical Separation
Minimum Between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive (Doc 9574).
5/11/98
18
CHAPTER 8.
AEROPLANE MAINTENANCE
Note 1.— For the purpose of this chapter “aeroplane”
includes: powerplants, propellers, components, accessories,
instruments, equipment and apparatus including emergency
equipment.
c) appropriate details of modifications and repairs;
d) the time in service (hours, calendar time and cycles, as
appropriate) since last overhaul of the aeroplane or its
components subject to a mandatory overhaul life;
Note 2.— Guidance on continuing airworthiness requirements is contained in the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
8.1
e) the current status of the aeroplane’s compliance with the
maintenance programme; and
f) the detailed maintenance records to show that all
requirements for signing a maintenance release have
been met.
Responsibilities
8.1.1 The owner of an aeroplane, or in the case where it
is leased, the lessee, shall ensure that:
8.2.2 The records referred to in 8.2.1 a) to e) shall be kept
for a minimum period of 90 days after the unit to which they
refer has been permanently withdrawn from service, and the
records in 8.2.1 f) for a minimum period of one year after the
signing of the maintenance release.
a) the aeroplane is maintained in an airworthy condition;
b) the operational and emergency equipment necessary for
the intended flight is serviceable;
c) the Certificate of Airworthiness of the aeroplane remains
valid; and
8.2.3 The lessee of an aeroplane shall comply with the
requirements of 8.2.1 and 8.2.2, as applicable, while the
aeroplane is leased.
d) the maintenance of the aeroplane is performed in accordance with a maintenance programme acceptable to the
State of Registry.
Note.— Maintenance records or related documents, other
than a valid certificate of airworthiness, need not be carried in
the aeroplane during international flights.
8.1.2 The aeroplane shall not be operated unless it is
maintained and released to service under a system acceptable
to the State of Registry.
8.3
8.1.3 When the maintenance release is not issued by
an approved maintenance organization in accordance with
Annex 6, Part I, 8.7, the person signing the maintenance
release shall be licensed in accordance with Annex 1.
8.2
Continuing airworthiness
information
The owner of an aeroplane over 5 700 kg maximum
certificated take-off mass, or in the case where it is leased, the
lessee, shall, as prescribed by the State of Registry, ensure that
the information resulting from maintenance and operational
experience with respect to continuing airworthiness, is
transmitted as required by Annex 8, Part II, 4.3.5 and 4.3.8.
Maintenance records
8.2.1 The owner shall ensure that the following records
are kept for the periods mentioned in 8.2.2:
8.4
a) the total time in service (hours, calendar time and
cycles, as appropriate) of the aeroplane and all life
limited components;
All modifications and repairs shall comply with airworthiness
requirements acceptable to the State of Registry. Procedures
shall be established to ensure that the substantiating data
supporting compliance with the airworthiness requirements are
retained.
b) the current status of compliance with all mandatory
continuing airworthiness information;
ANNEX 6 — PART II
Modifications and repairs
19
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
8.5
Part II
Maintenance release
a) basic details of the maintenance carried out;
8.5.1 A maintenance release shall be completed and
signed, as prescribed by the State of Registry, to certify that
the maintenance work performed has been completed
satisfactorily.
b) date such maintenance was completed;
c) when applicable, the identity
maintenance organization; and
8.5.2 A maintenance release shall contain a certification
including:
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
of
the
approved
d) the identity of the person or persons signing the release.
19A
20
Chapter 8
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
19B
21
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
CHAPTER 9.
AEROPLANE FLIGHT CREW
9.1
Qualifications
The pilot-in-command shall ensure that the licences of each
flight crew member have been issued or rendered valid by the
State of Registry, and are properly rated and of current
validity, and shall be satisfied that flight crew members have
maintained competence.
9.2
Composition of the flight crew
The number and composition of the flight crew shall not be
less than that specified in the flight manual or other documents
associated with the certificate of airworthiness.
5/11/98
20
ANNEX 6 — PART II
APPENDIX.
LIGHTS TO BE DISPLAYED BY AEROPLANES
(Note.— See Chapter 6)
1.
Terminology
Vertical planes. Planes perpendicular to the horizontal plane.
When the following terms are used in this Appendix, they
have the following meanings:
Visible. Visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere.
Angles of coverage.
2.
a) Angle of coverage A is formed by two intersecting
vertical planes making angles of 70 degrees to the right
and 70 degrees to the left respectively, looking aft along
the longitudinal axis to a vertical plane passing through
the longitudinal axis.
Navigation lights to be displayed in the air
Note.— The lights specified herein are intended to meet the
requirements of Annex 2 for navigation lights.
As illustrated in Figure 1, the following unobstructed
navigation lights shall be displayed:
b) Angle of coverage F is formed by two intersecting
vertical planes making angles of 110 degrees to the right
and 110 degrees to the left respectively, looking forward
along the longitudinal axis to a vertical plane passing
through the longitudinal axis.
c) Angle of coverage L is formed by two intersecting
vertical planes, one parallel to the longitudinal axis of
the aeroplane, and the other 110 degrees to the left of
the first, when looking forward along the longitudinal
axis.
d) Angle of coverage R is formed by two intersecting
vertical planes, one parallel to the longitudinal axis of
the aeroplane, and the other 110 degrees to the right of
the first, when looking forward along the longitudinal
axis.
a) a red light projected above and below the horizontal
plane through angle of coverage L;
b) a green light projected above and below the horizontal
plane through angle of coverage R;
Horizontal plane. The plane containing the longitudinal axis
and perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the
aeroplane.
c) a white light projected above and below the horizontal
plane rearward through angle of coverage A.
Longitudinal axis of the aeroplane. A selected axis parallel to
the direction of flight at a normal cruising speed, and
passing through the centre of gravity of the aeroplane.
3.
Lights to be displayed on the water
Making way. An aeroplane on the surface of the water is
‘‘making way’’ when it is under way and has a velocity
relative to the water.
3.1
Note.— The lights specified herein are intended to meet the
requirements of Annex 2 for lights to be displayed by
aeroplanes on the water.
Under command. An aeroplane on the surface of the water is
‘‘under command’’ when it is able to execute manoeuvres
as required by the International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea for the purpose of avoiding other vessels.
The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
require different lights to be displayed in each of the following
circumstances:
Under way. An aeroplane on the surface of the water is
‘‘under way’’ when it is not aground or moored to the
ground or to any fixed object on the land or in the water.
ANNEX 6 — PART II
General
a) when under way;
21
5/11/98
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
b) when towing another vessel or aeroplane;
b) a second light having the same characteristics as the
light described in 3.2 d) and mounted in a vertical line
at least 2 m above or below it; and
c) when being towed;
d) when not under command and not making way;
c) a yellow light having otherwise the same characteristics
as the light described in 3.2 c) and mounted in a vertical
line at least 2 m above it.
e) when making way but not under command;
f) when at anchor;
g) when aground.
The lights required by aeroplanes in each case are described
below.
3.2
When under way
As illustrated in Figure 2, the following appearing as steady
unobstructed lights:
a) a red light projected above and below the horizontal
through angle of coverage L;
3.4 When being towed
b) a green light projected above and below the horizontal
through angle of coverage R;
The lights described in 3.2 a), b) and c) appearing as steady,
unobstructed lights.
c) a white light projected above and below the horizontal
through angle of coverage A; and
3.5
When not under command and not making way
As illustrated in Figure 4, two steady red lights placed where
they can best be seen, one vertically over the other and not less
than 1 m apart, and of such a character as to be visible all
around the horizon at a distance of at least 3.7 km (2 NM).
d) a white light projected through angle of coverage F.
The lights described in a), b) and c) should be visible at a
distance of at least 3.7 km (2 NM). The light described in d)
should be visible at a distance of 9.3 km (5 NM) when fitted
to an aeroplane of 20 m or more in length or visible at a
distance of 5.6 km (3 NM) when fitted to an aeroplane of less
than 20 m in length.
3.6
When making way but not under command
As illustrated in Figure 5, the lights described in 3.5 plus the
lights described in 3.2 a), b) and c).
3.3 When towing another vessel or aeroplane
Note.— The display of lights prescribed in 3.5 and 3.6
above is to be taken by other aircraft as signals that the
aeroplane showing them is not under command and cannot
therefore get out of the way. They are not signals of aeroplanes in distress and requiring assistance.
As illustrated in Figure 3, the following appearing as steady,
unobstructed lights:
a) the lights described in 3.2 above;
5/11/98
22
Appendix
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
3.7 When at anchor
a) If less than 50 m in length, where it can best be seen, a
steady white light (Figure 6), visible all around the
horizon at a distance of at least 3.7 km (2 NM).
b) If 50 m or more in length, where they can best be seen,
a steady white forward light and a steady white rear
light (Figure 7) both visible all around the horizon at a
distance of at least 5.6 km (3 NM).
c) If 50 m or more in span a steady white light on each side
(Figures 8 and 9) to indicate the maximum span and
visible, so far as practicable, all around the horizon at a
distance of at least 1.9 km (1 NM).
3.8
When aground
The lights prescribed in 3.7 and in addition two steady red
lights in vertical line, at least 1 m apart so placed as to be
visible all around the horizon.
23
5/11/98
ATTACHMENT A.
FLIGHT RECORDERS
Supplementary to 6.10
Introduction
1.2.2 Type II flight data recorder. This recorder will be
capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane, at least
the first 15 parameters in Table A-1. However, other
parameters may be substituted with due regard to the
aeroplane type and the characteristics of the recording
equipment.
The material in this Attachment concerns flight recorders
intended for installation in aeroplanes engaged in international
air navigation. Flight recorders comprise two systems — a
flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder. Flight data
recorders are classified as Type I and Type II depending upon
the number of parameters to be recorded.
1.3
1.
Additional information
1.3.1 The measurement range, recording interval and
accuracy of parameters on installed equipment is usually
verified by methods approved by the appropriate certificating
authority.
Flight data recorder (FDR)
1.1 General requirements
1.1.1
time.
1.1.2
1.3.2 The manufacturer usually provides the national
certificating authority with the following information in
respect of the flight data recorder:
The recorder is to record continuously during flight
The recorder container is to:
a) manufacturer’s operating instructions,
limitations and installation procedures;
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
equipment
b) carry reflective material to facilitate its location; and
b) parameter origin or source and equations which relate
counts to units of measurement; and
c) have securely attached an automatically activated
underwater locating device.
c) manufacturer’s test reports.
1.1.3
1.3.3 Documentation concerning parameter allocation,
conversion equations, periodic calibration and other
serviceability/maintenance information should be maintained
by the operator. The documentation must be sufficient to
ensure that accident investigation authorities have the
necessary information to read out the data in engineering units.
The recorder is to be installed so that:
a) the probability of damage to the recording is minimized.
To meet this requirement it should be located as far aft
as practicable. In the case of pressurized aeroplanes it
should be located in the vicinity of the rear pressure
bulkhead;
b) it receives its electrical power from a bus that provides
the maximum reliability for operation of the recorder
without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency
loads; and
2.
2.1 General requirements
c) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking
that the recorder is operating properly.
1.2
2.1.1 The recorder is to be designed so that it will record
at least the following:
a) voice communication transmitted from or received in
the aeroplane by radio;
Parameters to be recorded
1.2.1 Type I flight data recorder. This recorder will be
capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane, at least
the 32 parameters in Table A-1. However, other parameters
may be substituted with due regard to the aeroplane type and
the characteristics of the recording equipment.
ANNEX 6 — PART II
Cockpit voice recorder (CVR)
b) aural environment on the flight deck;
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the
flight deck using the aeroplane’s interphone system;
25
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
d) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or
approach aids introduced in the headset or speaker;
Track 2 — pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Track 3 — area microphone
e) voice communication of flight crew members using the
passenger address system, if installed; and
Track 4 — time reference plus the third and fourth crew
member’s headphone and live microphone, if
applicable.
f) digital communications with ATS, unless recorded by
the flight data recorder.
2.1.2
Note 1.— Track 1 is located closest to the base of the
recording head.
The recorder container is to:
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
Note 2.— The preferred track allocation presumes use of
current conventional magnetic tape transport mechanisms, and
is specified because the outer edges of the tape have a higher
risk of damage than the middle. It is not intended to preclude
use of alternative recording media where such constraints may
not apply.
b) carry reflective material to facilitate its location; and
c) have securely attached an automatically activated
underwater locating device.
2.1.3 To aid in voice and sound discrimination, microphones in the cockpit are to be located in the best position for
recording voice communications originating at the pilot and
co-pilot stations and voice communications of other crew
members on the flight deck when directed to those stations.
This can best be achieved by wiring suitable boom microphones to record continuously on separate channels.
2.1.4
2.2.3 The recorder, when tested by methods approved by
the appropriate certificating authority, will be demonstrated to
be suitable for the environmental extremes over which it is
designed to operate.
2.2.4 Means will be provided for an accurate time
correlation between the flight data recorder and the cockpit
voice recorder.
The recorder is to be installed so that:
a) the probability of damage to the recording is minimized.
To meet this requirement it should be located as far aft
as practicable. In the case of pressurized aeroplanes it
should be located in the vicinity of the rear pressure
bulkhead;
Note.— One method of achieving this is by superimposing
the FDR time signal on the CVR.
b) it receives its electrical power from a bus that provides
the maximum reliability for operation of the recorder
without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency
loads;
2.3.1 The manufacturer usually provides the national
certificating authority with the following information in
respect of the cockpit voice recorder:
2.3
a) manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment
limitations and installation procedures; and
c) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking
of the recorder for proper operation; and
b) manufacturer’s test reports.
d) if the recorder has a bulk erasure device, the installation
should be designed to prevent operation of the device
during flight time or crash impact.
3. Inspections of flight data and
cockpit voice recorder systems
2.2 Performance requirements
3.1 Prior to the first flight of the day, the built-in test
features on the flight deck for the CVR, FDR and Flight Data
Acquisition Unit (FDAU), when installed, should be
monitored.
2.2.1 The recorder will be capable of recording on at least
four tracks simultaneously. To ensure accurate time correlation
between tracks, the recorder is to record in an in-line format.
If a bi-directional configuration is used, the in-line format and
track allocation should be retained in both directions.
3.2
2.2.2
Annual inspections should be carried out as follows:
The preferred track allocation is as follows:
Track 1 — co-pilot headphones
microphone
5/11/98
Additional information
and
live
a) the readout of the recorded data from the FDR and CVR
should ensure that the recorder operates correctly for the
nominal duration of the recording;
boom
26
Attachment A
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
b) the analysis of the FDR should evaluate the quality of
the recorded data to determine if the bit error rate is
within acceptable limits and to determine the nature and
distribution of the errors;
examined for evidence that the intelligibility of the
signal is acceptable.
3.3 Flight recorder systems should be considered
unserviceable if there is a significant period of poor quality
data, unintelligible signals, or if one or more of the mandatory
parameters is not recorded correctly.
c) a complete flight from the FDR should be examined in
engineering units to evaluate the validity of all recorded
parameters. Particular attention should be given to
parameters from sensors dedicated to the FDR.
Parameters taken from the aircraft’s electrical bus
system need not be checked if their serviceability can be
detected by other aircraft systems;
3.4 A report of the annual inspection should be made
available on request to the State’s regulatory authority for
monitoring purposes.
3.5
d) the readout facility should have the necessary software
to accurately convert the recorded values to engineering
units and to determine the status of discrete signals;
Calibration of the FDR system:
a) the FDR system should be re-calibrated at least every
five years to determine any discrepancies in the
engineering conversion routines for the mandatory
parameters, and to ensure that parameters are being
recorded within the calibration tolerances; and
e) an annual examination of the recorded signal on the
CVR should be carried out by replay of the CVR
recording. While installed in the aircraft the CVR should
record test signals from each aircraft source and from
relevant external sources to ensure that all required
signals meet intelligibility standards; and
b) when the parameters of altitude and airspeed are
provided by sensors that are dedicated to the FDR
system, there should be a re-calibration performed as
recommended by the sensor manufacturer, or at least
every two years.
f) where practicable, during the annual examination, a
sample of in-flight recordings of the CVR should be
27
5/11/98
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
Table A-1
Parameters for Flight Data Recorders
Serial
number
Parameter
Measurement range
Accuracy limits
(sensor input compared
to FDR read-out)
Recording
interval
(seconds)
1
Time (UTC when available,
otherwise elapsed time)
24 hours
4
±0.125% per hour
2
Pressure-altitude
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to
maximum certificated
altitude of aircraft
+1 500 m (+5 000 ft)
1
±30 m to ±200 m
(±100 ft to ±700 ft)
3
Indicated airspeed
95 km/h (50 kt) to max
VS0 (Note 1)
VS0 to 1.2 VD (Note 2)
1
±5%
1
±3%
±2°
4
Heading
360°
5
Normal acceleration
–3 g to +6 g
6
Pitch attitude
±75°
1
±2°
7
Roll attitude
±180°
1
±2°
8
Radio transmission keying
On-off (one discrete)
1
9
Power on each engine
(Note 3)
Full range
10
Trailing edge flap or cockpit
control selection
Full range or each
discrete position
2
±5% or as pilot’s indicator
11
Leading edge flap or cockpit
control selection
Full range or each
discrete position
2
±5% or as pilot’s indicator
12
Thrust reverser position
Stowed, in transit, and
reverse
13
Ground spoiler/speed brake
selection
Full range or each discrete
position
1
±2% unless higher accuracy
uniquely required
14
Outside air temperature
Sensor range
2
±2°C
15
Autopilot/auto
throttle/AFCS
mode and engagement status
A suitable combination of
discretes
1
0.125
1 (per
engine)
±1% of maximum range
excluding datum error of ±5%
±2%
1 (per
engine)
Note.— The preceding 15 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type II FDR.
16
Longitudinal acceleration
±1 g
0.25
±1.5% max range excluding datum
error of ±5%
17
Lateral acceleration
±1 g
0.25
±1.5% max range excluding datum
error of ±5%
18
Pilot input and/or control
surface position-primary
controls (pitch, roll, yaw)
(Note 4)
Full range
5/11/98
1
28
±2° unless higher accuracy
uniquely required
Attachment A
Serial
number
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Parameter
Measurement range
Accuracy limits
(sensor input compared
to FDR read-out)
Recording
interval
(seconds)
19
Pitch trim position
Full range
1
±3% unless higher accuracy
uniquely required
20
Radio altitude
–6 m to 750 m
(–20 ft to 2 500 ft)
1
±0.6 m (±2 ft) or ±3%
whichever is greater below 150 m
(500 ft) and ±5% above 150 m
(500 ft)
21
Glide path deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
22
Localizer deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
23
Marker beacon passage
Discrete
1
24
Master warning
Discrete
1
25
NAV 1 and 2 frequency
selection (Note 5)
Full range
4
As installed
26
DME 1 and 2 distance
(Notes 5 and 6)
0 – 370 km
4
As installed
27
Landing gear squat switch
status
Discrete
1
28
GPWS (ground proximity
warning system)
Discrete
1
29
Angle of attack
Full range
30
Hydraulics, each system (low
pressure)
Discrete
2
31
Navigation data
(latitude/longitude, ground
speed and drift angle) (Note 7)
As installed
1
As installed
32
Landing gear or gear
selector position
Discrete
4
As installed
0.5
As installed
Note.— The preceding 32 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type I FDR.
Notes.—
1. VS0 stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration.
2. VD design diving speed.
3. Record sufficient inputs to determine power.
4. For aeroplanes with conventional control systems “or” applies. For aeroplanes with non-mechanical control systems “and” applies. In aeroplanes with split
surfaces, a suitable combination of inputs is acceptable in lieu of recording each surface separately.
5. If signal available in digital form.
6. Recording of latitude and longitude from INS or other navigation system is a preferred alternative.
7. If signals readily available.
29
5/11/98
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part II
If further recording capacity is available, recording of the following additional information should be considered:
a) operational information from electronic display systems, such as electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS), electronic
centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS). Use the following order of
priority:
1) parameters selected by the flight crew relating to the desired flight path, e.g. barometric pressure setting, selected
altitude, selected airspeed, decision height, and autoflight system engagement and mode indications if not recorded from
another source;
2) display system selection/status, e.g. SECTOR, PLAN, ROSE, NAV, WXR, COMPOSITE, COPY, ETC.;
3) warnings and alerts;
4) the identity of displayed pages for emergency procedures and checklists;
b) retardation information including brake application for use in the investigation of landing overruns and rejected take-offs; and
c) additional engine parameters (EPR, N1, EGT, fuel flow, etc.).
5/11/98
30
ATTACHMENT B.
CARRIAGE AND USE OF OXYGEN
Supplementary to 4.9
Introduction
being undertaken, in the event of loss of pressurization, for any
period that the atmospheric pressure in any compartment
occupied by them would be less than 700 hPa. In addition,
when an aeroplane is operated at flight altitudes at which the
atmospheric pressure is less than 376 hPa, or which, if
operated at flight altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure
is more than 376 hPa and cannot descend safely within four
minutes to a flight altitude at which the atmospheric pressure
is equal to 620 hPa, there shall be no less than a 10-minute
supply for the occupants of the passenger compartment.
The performance of crew members and the well-being of
passengers during flights at such altitudes where a lack of
oxygen might result in impairment of faculties are of major
concern. Research conducted in altitude chambers or by
exposure to mountain elevations indicates that human
tolerance could be related to the altitude concerned and the
exposure time. The subject is dealt with in detail in the Manual
of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984). In the light of the
above and to further assist the pilot-in-command in providing
the oxygen supply intended by 4.9 of this Annex, the
following guidelines, which take into account the requirements
already established in Annex 6, Part I, are considered relevant.
2.
Use of oxygen
2.1 All flight crew members, when engaged in
performing duties essential to the safe operation of an
aeroplane in flight, should use breathing oxygen continuously
whenever the circumstances prevail for which its supply has
been indicated to be necessary in 1.1 or 1.2.
1. Oxygen supply
1.1 A flight to be operated at altitudes at which the
atmospheric pressure in personnel compartments will be less
than 700 hPa should not be commenced unless sufficient
stored breathing oxygen is carried to supply:
2.2 All flight crew members of pressurized aeroplanes
operating above an altitude where the atmospheric pressure is
less than 376 hPa should have available at the flight duty
station a quick donning type of mask which will readily supply
oxygen upon demand.
a) all crew members and at least 10 per cent of the
passengers for any period in excess of 30 minutes that
the pressure in compartments occupied by them will be
between 700 hPa and 620 hPa; and
Note.— Approximate altitudes in the Standard Atmosphere
corresponding to the values of absolute pressure used in the
text are as follows:
b) all crew members and passengers for any period that the
atmospheric pressure in compartments occupied by
them will be less than 620 hPa.
1.2 A flight to be operated with a pressurized aeroplane
should not be commenced unless a sufficient quantity of stored
breathing oxygen is carried to supply all crew members and
passengers, as is appropriate to the circumstances of the flight
Absolute pressure
Metres
Feet
700 hPa
620 hPa
376 hPa
3 000
4 000
7 600
10 000
13 000
25 000
— END —
ANNEX 6 — PART II
31
1/11/01
5/11/98
No. 21
International Standards
and Recommended Practices
Annex 6
to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation
Operation of Aircraft
Part III
International Operations — Helicopters
This edition incorporates all amendments
adopted by the Council prior to 13 March 2001
and supersedes, on 1 November 2001, all previous
editions of Part III of Annex 6.
For information regarding the applicability
of the Standards and Recommended Practices,
see Foreword.
Fifth Edition
July 2001
International Civil Aviation Organization
AMENDMENTS
The issue of amendments is announced regularly in the ICAO Journal and in the
monthly Supplement to the Catalogue of ICAO Publications and Audio-visual
Training Aids, which holders of this publication should consult. The space below is
provided to keep a record of such amendments.
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS AND CORRIGENDA
AMENDMENTS
No.
1-8
Date
applicable
Date
entered
CORRIGENDA
Entered
by
No.
Incorporated in this Edition
(ii)
Date
of issue
Date
entered
Entered
by
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Page
Abbreviations and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(vi)
4.4
Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(vii)
4.5
4.6
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(ix)
SECTION I.
All helicopters operated in accordance
with visual flight rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All helicopters on flights over water . . . . . . .
All helicopters on flights over
designated land areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) . . . . . .
All helicopters on high altitude flights . . . . .
All helicopters in icing conditions. . . . . . . . .
All helicopters operated in accordance
with instrument flight rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All helicopters when operated at night . . . . .
Helicopters when carrying passengers —
significant-weather detection . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All helicopters complying with the
noise certification Standards in
Annex 16, Volume I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopters carrying passengers —
cabin crew seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopters required to be equipped with a
pressure-altitude reporting transponder . . . . .
Microphones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II-4-8
II-4-8
CHAPTER 5. Helicopter communication and
navigation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II-5-1
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
GENERAL
CHAPTER 1.
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-1-1
CHAPTER 2.
Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I-2-1
4.11
4.12
4.13
SECTION II. INTERNATIONAL
COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
CHAPTER 1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
Compliance with laws, regulations
and procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dangerous goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use of psychoactive substances . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
II-1-1
II-1-1
II-1-1
Operating facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operational certification and supervision . . .
Flight preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-flight procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duties of pilot-in-command . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duties of flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carry-on baggage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II-2-1
II-2-1
II-2-3
II-2-6
II-2-7
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applicable to helicopters certificated
in accordance with Part IV of Annex 8 . . . .
Obstacle data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All helicopters on all flights . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight recorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ANNEX 6 — PART III
4.15
4.16
II-2-1
CHAPTER 4. Helicopter instruments,
equipment and flight documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1
4.2
4.3
II-1-1
Flight operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 3. Helicopter performance operating
limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1
3.2
4.14
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
II-3-1
II-3-1
II-3-1
II-3-3
II-4-1
II-4-1
II-4-2
II-4-2
(iii)
II-4-7
II-4-7
II-4-8
II-4-8
II-4-8
Helicopter maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . II-6-1
Operator’s maintenance responsibilities . . . .
Operator’s maintenance control manual . . . .
Maintenance programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuing airworthiness information . . . . . .
Modifications and repairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
II-4-6
II-4-6
II-4-6
II-4-7
Communication equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-5-1
Navigation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-5-1
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-5-1
CHAPTER 6.
II-2-7
II-2-8
II-4-5
II-4-5
II-6-1
II-6-1
II-6-1
II-6-1
II-6-2
II-6-2
II-6-2
II-6-2
Helicopter flight crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-7-1
Composition of the flight crew . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight crew member emergency duties . . . . .
Flight crew member training programmes . .
Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight crew equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight time, flight duty periods and
rest periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II-7-1
II-7-1
II-7-1
II-7-1
II-7-2
II-7-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Page
Page
CHAPTER 8. Flight operations officer/
flight dispatcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-8-1
CHAPTER 9.
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
Manuals, logs and records . . . . . . . . .
II-9-1
Flight manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operator’s maintenance control manual . . . .
Maintenance programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Journey log book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Records of emergency and survival
equipment carried . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight recorder records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II-9-1
II-9-1
II-9-1
II-9-2
CHAPTER 10.
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
All helicopters on all flights . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All helicopters operated as VFR flights . . . .
All helicopters on flights over water . . . . . . .
All helicopters on flights over
designated land areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 All helicopters on high altitude flights . . . . .
4.6 All helicopters operated in accordance
with the instrument flight rules . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7 All helicopters when operated at night . . . . .
4.8 All helicopters complying with the
noise certification Standards in
Annex 16, Volume I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9 Flight recorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.10 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) . . . . . .
4.11 Helicopters required to be equipped with a
pressure-altitude reporting transponder . . . . .
4.12 Microphones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II-10-1
II-10-1
II-10-1
II-10-1
Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-11-1
SECTION III. INTERNATIONAL
GENERAL AVIATION
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
1/11/01
5.1
5.2
III-4-3
III-4-3
III-4-3
III-4-3
III-4-4
III-4-4
III-4-6
III-4-7
III-4-7
Communication equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-5-1
Navigation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-5-1
CHAPTER 6.
Flight operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-2-1
Adequacy of operating facilities . . . . . . . . . .
Heliport operating minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Helicopter airworthiness and
safety precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weather reports and forecasts . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations imposed by weather
conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternate heliports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel and oil supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oxygen supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use of oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-flight emergency instruction . . . . . . . . . . .
Weather reporting by pilots. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hazardous flight conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fitness of flight crew members. . . . . . . . . . .
Flight crew members at duty stations. . . . . .
III-4-1
III-4-2
III-4-2
CHAPTER 5. Helicopter communication and
navigation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-5-1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1-1
Compliance with laws, regulations
and procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1-1
Dangerous goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1-1
Use of psychoactive substances . . . . . . . . . . III-1-1
CHAPTER 2.
III-2-5
III-2-5
CHAPTER 4. Helicopter instruments,
equipment and flight documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-4-1
II-9-2
II-9-2
11.1 Helicopter search procedure checklist . . . . . II-11-1
11.2 Training programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-11-1
11.3 Reporting acts of unlawful interference . . . . II-11-1
CHAPTER 1.
III-2-4
III-2-5
CHAPTER 3. Helicopter performance operating
limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-3-1
Cabin crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-10-1
Assignment of emergency duties . . . . . . . . .
Protection of cabin crew during flight . . . . .
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flight time, flight duty periods and
rest periods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 11.
2.16 Instrument flight procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.17 Instruction — general. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.18 Refuelling with passengers on board
or rotors turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.19 Over-water flights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
III-2-1
III-2-1
III-2-1
III-2-1
III-2-1
Responsibilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuing airworthiness information . . . . . .
Modifications and repairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 7.
7.1
7.2
III-2-1
III-2-1
III-2-1
III-2-1
III-2-4
III-2-4
III-2-4
III-2-4
III-2-4
III-2-4
Helicopter maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . III-6-1
III-6-1
III-6-1
III-6-1
III-6-1
III-6-1
Helicopter flight crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-7-1
Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-7-1
Composition of the flight crew . . . . . . . . . . . III-7-1
APPENDIX
APPENDIX.
1.
2.
(iv)
Contents of an operations manual . . . . APP-1
Operations administration and supervision . . APP-1
Accident prevention and flight safety
programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP-1
Table of Contents
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Page
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Personnel training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fatigue and flight time limitations . . . . . . . .
Flight operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Route guides and charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum flight altitudes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heliport operating minima . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Search and rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dangerous goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Human Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page
APP-1
APP-1
APP-1
APP-2
APP-2
APP-2
APP-2
APP-2
APP-2
APP-2
APP-2
APP-2
ATTACHMENT B.
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.
Flight data recorder (FDR) . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
Cockpit voice recorder (CVR). . . . . . . . . .
3.
Inspections of FDR and
CVR systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
ATTACHMENT A. Helicopter performance
and operating limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-1
ATT
ATT
ATT
ATT
ATT
ATT B-1
ATT B-1
ATT B-1
ATT B-2
ATTACHMENT C. Flight time and flight
duty period limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT C-1
ATTACHMENTS
Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.
Operating area considerations . . . . . . . . . .
4.
Limitations resulting from performance . .
Flight recorders . . . . . . . . . . . ATT B-1
Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comments about the definitions . . . . . . . .
Types of limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pro forma table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ATTACHMENT D.
A-1
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-2
ATT
ATT
ATT
ATT
ATT
ATT
C-1
C-1
C-1
C-2
C-2
C-2
Medical supplies . . . . . . . . . . ATT D-1
ATTACHMENT E. Minimum equipment list
(MEL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT E-1
ATTACHMENT F. Air operator certificate
or equivalent document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT F-1
(v)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
ABBREVIATIONS
AND SYMBOLS
Page
(used in this Annex)
Abbreviations
Abbreviations
kg
km
LDAH
LDP
LDRH
m
MDA
MDA/H
MDH
MEL
MHz
MLS
MMEL
MOPS
NAV
N1
Nf
Ng
NM
OCA
OCA/H
OCH
PANS
PNR
R
RNP
RTODR
RVR
SAR
SI
SICASP
ADREP
ADS
AFCS
AIG
AOC
AOC
ATC
ATM
ATS
CAT I
CAT II
CAT III
CAT IIIA
CAT IIIB
CAT IIIC
CDL
CFIT
cm
CPDLC
CVR
DA
DA/H
D-FIS
DH
DME
Distance DR
Accident/incident reporting
Automatic dependent surveillance
Automatic flight control system
Accident investigation and prevention
Aeronautical operational control
Air operator certificate
Air traffic control
Air traffic management
Air traffic services
Category I
Category II
Category III
Category IIIA
Category IIIB
Category IIIC
Configuration deviation list
Controlled flight into terrain
Centimetre
Controller-pilot data link communications
Cockpit voice recorder
Decision altitude
Decision altitude/height
Data link-flight information services
Decision height
Distance measuring equipment
The horizontal distance that the helicopter has
travelled from the end of the take-off distance
available
ECAM
Electronic centralized aircraft monitor
EFIS
Electronic flight instrument system
EGT
Exhaust gas temperature
EICAS
Engine indication and crew alerting system
ELT
Emergency locator transmitter
ELT(AF)
Automatic fixed ELT
ELT(AP)
Automatic portable ELT
ELT(AD)
Automatically deployable ELT
ELT(S)
Survival ELT
EUROCAE European Organization for
Civil Aviation Equipment
EPR
Engine pressure ratio
FATO
Final approach and take-off area
FDAU
Flight data acquisition unit
FDR
Flight data recorder
FM
Frequency modulation
ft
Foot
g
Normal acceleration
GNSS
Global navigation satellite system
hPa
Hectopascal
HUMS
Health and usage monitor system
IFR
Instrument flight rules
ILS
Instrument landing system
IMC
Instrument meteorological conditions
INS
Inertial navigation system
1/11/01
Page
SOP
T4
TDP
TIT
TLOF
TODAH
TODRH
UTC
VFR
VMC
VTOSS
Vy
WXR
Symbols
°C
%
(vi)
Kilogram
Kilometre
Landing distance available
Landing decision point
Landing distance required
Metre
Minimum descent altitude
Minimum descent altitude/height
Minimum descent height
Minimum equipment list
Megahertz
Microwave landing system
Master minimum equipment list
Minimum operational performance specification
Navigation
High pressure turbine speed
Free power turbine speed
Engine gas generator speed
Nautical mile
Obstacle clearance altitude
Obstacle clearance altitude/height
Obstacle clearance height
Procedures for Air Navigation Services
Point of no return
Rotor radius
Required navigation performance
Rejected take-off distance required
Runway visual range
Search and rescue
International System of Units
Secondary Surveillance Radar Improvements and
Collision Avoidance Systems Panel
Standard operating procedures
Engine exhaust gas temperature
Take-off decision point
Turbine inlet temperature
Touchdown and lift-off area
Take-off distance available
Take-off distance required
Coordinated universal time
Visual flight rules
Visual meteorological conditions
The minimum speed at which climb shall be
achieved with the critical power-unit inoperative,
the remaining power-units operating within
approved operating limits
Best rate of climb speed
Weather
Degrees Celsius
Per cent
Table of Contents
Publications
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
PUBLICATIONS
Page
(referred to in this Annex)
Page
Annex 14 — Aerodromes
Volume I — Aerodrome Design and Operations
Volume II — Heliports
Convention on International Civil Aviation (Doc 7300)
European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment
(EUROCAE) Documents ED55 and ED56A
Annex 15 — Aeronautical Information Services
Policy and Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of
International Air Transport (Doc 9587)
Annex 16 — Environmental Protection
Volume I — Aircraft Noise
Protocol Relating to an Amendment to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation (Article 83 bis) (Doc 9318)
Annex 18 — The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air
Procedures for Air Navigation Services
OPS — Aircraft Operations (Doc 8168)
Volume I — Flight Procedures
Volume II — Construction of Visual and Instrument
Volume II — Flight Procedures
Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation
Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing
ATM — Air Traffic Management (Doc 4444)
Annex 2 — Rules of the Air
Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030)
Annex 3 — Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation
Annex 4 — Aeronautical Charts
Manuals
Annex 5 — Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and
Ground Operations
Accident/Incident Reporting Manual (ADREP Manual)
(Doc 9156)
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part I — International Commercial Air Transport —
Part I — Aeroplanes
Part II — International General Aviation — Aeroplanes
Accident Prevention Manual (Doc 9422)
Annex 8 — Airworthiness of Aircraft
Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137)
Part 1 — Rescue and Fire Fighting
Part 8 — Airport Operational Services
Annex 9 — Facilitation
Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760)
Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications
Volume III (Part I — Digital Data Communication
Volume III Systems; Part II — Voice Communication Systems)
Volume IV (Surveillance Radar and Collision
Volume IV Avoidance Systems)
Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683)
Manual of Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations
(Doc 9640)
Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services
Manual of Procedures for Operations Inspection,
Certification and Continued Surveillance (Doc 8335)
Annex 12 — Search and Rescue
Manual on Required Navigation Performance (RNP) (Doc 9613)
Annex 13 — Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation
Preparation of an Operations Manual (Doc 9376)
(vii)
1/11/01
ANNEX 6 — PART III
INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS — HELICOPTERS
FOREWORD
Historical background
Action by Contracting States
Standards and Recommended Practices for the Operation of
Aircraft were first adopted by the Council, pursuant to the
provisions of Article 37 of the Convention on International Civil
Aviation (Chicago 1944), on 10 December 1948 for International Air Transport and on 2 December 1968 for
International General Aviation. The documents containing these
Standards and Recommenced Practices are now designated as
Annex 6, Parts I and II, respectively, to the Convention. In
general, Parts I and II address aeroplane operations; neither part
is specifically applicable to helicopter operations.
Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting States
is drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the
Convention by which Contracting States are required to notify
the Organization of any differences between their national
regulations and practices and the International Standards
contained in this Annex and any amendments thereto.
Contracting States are invited to extend such notification to
any differences from the Recommended Practices contained in
this Annex, and any amendments thereto when the notification
of such differences is important for the safety of air
navigation. Further, Contracting States are invited to keep the
Organization currently informed of any differences which may
subsequently occur or of the withdrawal of any differences
previously notified. A specific request for notification of
differences will be sent to Contracting States immediately after
the adoption of each Amendment to this Annex.
Therefore, Part III was introduced as a means of including
provisions for helicopter operations. Initially, provisions
related to flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders for
helicopters were developed by the Air Navigation Commission
following Recommendation 10/1 of the Accident Prevention
and Investigation Meeting AIG, (1979) and adopted by the
Council on 14 March 1986. They became effective on 27 July
1986 and applicable on 20 November 1986. Subsequently,
proposals for comprehensive Standards and Recommended
Practices covering other aspects of helicopter operations were
developed with the assistance of the Helicopter Operations
Panel; these provisions, incorporated in Amendment 1, were
adopted by the Council on 21 March 1990. The amendment
became effective on 30 July 1990 and applicable on
15 November 1990.
Attention of States is also drawn to the provision of
Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between
their national regulations and practices and the related ICAO
Standards and Recommended Practices through the
Aeronautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation
of States under Article 38 of the Convention.
Promulgation of information. The establishment and withdrawal of and changes to facilities, services and procedures
affecting aircraft operations provided in accordance with the
Standards and Recommended Practices specified in this Annex
should be notified and take effect in accordance with the
provisions of Annex 15.
Table A shows the origin of subsequent amendments
together with a list of the principal subjects involved and the
dates on which the Annex and the amendments were adopted
by the Council, when they became effective and when they
became applicable.
Status of Annex components
An Annex is made up of the following component parts, not
all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex;
they have the status indicated.
Applicability
1. — Material comprising the Annex proper
The Standards and Recommended Practices included in
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft, Parts I and II, cover the
operation of all aeroplanes in international civil aviation,
except where specifically excluded. Similarly, the Standards
and Recommended Practices in Annex 6, Part III, cover the
operation of all helicopters in international civil aviation,
general aviation as well as commercial air transport
operations.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by
the Council under the provisions of the Convention.
They are defined as follows:
Standard: Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of which is
(ix)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of
international air navigation and to which Contracting
States will conform in accordance with the
Convention; in the event of impossibility of
compliance, notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38.
sections of the Annex to assist in the understanding
of the application of the text;
c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give
factual information or references bearing on the
Standards or Recommended Practices in question but
not constituting part of the Standards or
Recommended Practices;
Recommended Practice: Any specification for
physical characteristics, configuration, matériel,
performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform
application of which is recognized as desirable in the
interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting
States will endeavour to conform in accordance with
the Convention.
d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to
the Standards and Recommended Practices or
included as a guide to their application.
Selection of language
b) Appendices comprising material grouped separately
for convenience but forming part of the Standards
and Recommended Practices adopted by the
Council.
This Annex has been adopted in six languages — English,
Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish. Each
Contracting State is requested to select one of those texts for
the purpose of national implementation and for other effects
provided for in the Convention, either through direct use or
through translation into its own national language, and to
notify the Organization accordingly.
c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and
Recommended Practices which are not selfexplanatory in that they do not have accepted
dictionary meanings. A definition does not have an
independent status but is an essential part of each
Standard and Recommended Practice in which the
term is used, since a change in the meaning of the
term would affect the specification.
d) Tables and
Standard or
referred to
Standard or
same status.
Editorial practices
The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate
at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been
printed in light face roman; Recommended Practices have
been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by
the prefix Recommendation; Notes have been printed in light
face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note.
Figures which add to or illustrate a
Recommended Practice and which are
therein, form part of the associated
Recommended Practice and have the
The following editorial practice has been followed in the
writing of specifications: for Standards the operative verb
“shall” is used, and for Recommended Practices the operative
verb “should” is used.
It is to be noted that some Standards in this Annex may
incorporate, by reference, other specifications having the
status of Recommended Practices. In such case, the text of the
Recommended Practice becomes part of the Standard.
The units of measurement used in this document are in
accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as
specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil
Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative
units, these are shown in parentheses following the basic units.
Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that
the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may,
however, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is
achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.
2. — Material approved by the Council for publication in
association with the Standards and Recommended Practices
a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory
material based on the action of the Council and
including an explanation of the obligations of States
with regard to the application of the Standards and
Recommended Practices ensuing from the Convention and the Resolution of Adoption;
Any reference to a portion of this document, which is
identified by a number and/or title, includes all subdivisions
of that portion.
b) Introductions comprising explanatory material
introduced at the beginning of parts, chapters or
1/11/01
Throughout this Annex, the use of the male gender should
be understood to include male and female persons.
(x)
Foreword
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Table A. Amendments to Annex 6, Part III
Amendment
1st Edition
1
(2nd Edition)
Source
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
Accident Prevention
and Investigation
Divisional Meeting
AIG (1979)
Provisions for flight recorders in helicopters.
14 March 1986
27 July 1986
20 November 1986
Fourth Meeting
of the Helicopter
Operations Panel.
Amendments
consequential
to 1990
amendments to
Annex 6,
Parts I and II.
Air Navigation
Commission —
directed studies
a) Introduction of provisions pertaining to helicopter operations, similar in
scope to those contained in Annex 6, Parts I and II, for aeroplanes. These
provisions, together with the flight recorder provisions previously
introduced in the First Edition of Annex 6, Part III, complete the initial
development of Standards and Recommended Practices for helicopter
operations;
21 March 1990
30 July 1990
15 November 1990
b) introduction of provisions pertaining to the air operator certificate,
minimum equipment lists, the operations manual, and some new
definitions. These provisions serve to preserve the parallelism among the
three parts of Annex 6;
c) introduction of guidance material concerning recording on FDRs of
operational flight information for those helicopters equipped with
electronic displays.
2
Fifth meeting of the
Operations Panel,
Eighth meeting
of the Review
of the General Concept
of Separation Panel,
Accident Investigation
Divisional Meeting
(AIG/1992),
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Revision of definitions of heliport operating minima, decision altitude/
height, minimum descent altitude/height and introduction of definition of
obstacle clearance altitude/height;
21 March 1994
25 July 1994
10 November 1994
b) introduction of new definitions for emergency locator transmitters
(ELTs), required navigation performance (RNP) and RNP type;
c) introduction of a requirement concerning the use of engraving metal foil
flight data recorders;
d) introduction of carriage requirements for emergency locator transmitters
(ELTs) to replace provisions regarding survival radio equipment and
emergency location beacon;
e) introduction of a requirement that the navigation equipment carried shall
enable the aircraft to proceed in accordance with RNP types prescribed
for the intended route(s) or areas(s).
3
(3rd Edition)
Air Navigation
Commission studies,
Fourteenth meeting of
the Dangerous Goods
Panel, editorial
amendment, text
alignment with
Annex 6, Part I and/or
Part II, consequential
amendment
a) Introduction of new and revised definitions;
b) new provisions concerning accident prevention and flight safety
programmes;
10 March 1995
24 July 1995
9 November 1995
c) revision of the provisions concerning operating facilities, in-flight
simulation of emergency situations, minimum flight altitudes, flight time,
flight duty periods and rest periods for crew members, flight preparation,
oxygen supply, flight crew members at duty stations, duties of flight
operations officers and new provisions for carry-on baggage;
(xi)
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Amendment
Part III
Source
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
d) revision of provisions concerning mass limitations and medical supplies;
e) new provisions related to oxygen equipment, revision of the provisions
for helicopters operated in accordance with visual flight rules (VFR) and
instrument flight rules (IFR);
f) new requirements for the flight crew training programme concerning
knowledge and skills related to human performance and limitations;
g) revision of the denomination of flight operations officers to align with
Annex 1;
h) revision of the contents of the operations manual; new provisions
concerning heliport operating minima, oxygen supply, flight and duty
time limitations, procedures and checklists used by flight crew,
specifications for the operational flight plan, the flight crew training
programme, the cabin attendant duties training programme, security
instruction and guidance, accident prevention and flight safety
programme, departure contingency procedures and instructions for mass
and balance control;
i) new provisions on flight time, flight duty periods and rest periods for
cabin attendants and revision of the provisions concerning training;
j) revision of the provisions concerning first-aid medical supplies; and
k) new provisions concerning the minimum equipment list (MEL).
4
5
(4th Edition)
Fourth meeting
of the Secondary
Surveillance Radar
Improvements and
Collision Avoidance
Systems Panel
(SICASP/4)
Requirement for helicopters to be equipped with pressure-altitude reporting
transponders.
19 February 1996
15 July 1996
7 November 1996
First meeting of the
Flight Recorder Panel,
ICAO and Industry
CFIT Task Force, Air
Navigation Commission
studies, Amendment
162 to Annex 1,
Amendment 38 to
Annex 11, editorial
amendment
a) Introduction of new and revised definitions for aircraft operating manual,
configuration deviation list, human factors principles, human
performance, master minimum equipment list, psychoactive substances
and required navigation performance;
20 March 1998
20 July 1998
5 November 1998
b) revision of the notes concerning lease and interchange;
c) introduction of a note concerning the use of psychoactive substances;
d) new and revised requirements concerning flight recorders;
e) new and revised provisions concerning the content of an operations
manual relocated in an appendix;
f) new provisions concerning the responsibility of States with regard to
supervision of operations subject to an air operator certificate, acceptance
of an operations manual and establishment of a system for certification
and continued surveillance of the operator;
g) new provisions related to the de/anti-icing of aircraft on the ground,
aeroplane performance operating limitations, mass limitations, sensitive
pressure altimeters and recent experience of the co-pilot;
1/11/01
(xii)
Foreword
Amendment
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Source
Subject(s)
Adopted
Effective
Applicable
h) revised provisions concerning pressure-altitude reporting transponders;
and
i) new provisions concerning Human Factors.
6
7
Second meeting of
the Flight Recorder
Panel, 32nd Session
of the Assembly,
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Change of terminology from “cabin attendant” to “cabin crew”;
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Revised definitions and introduction of the definition for instrument
approach and landing operations; and
b) revised definitions;
15 March 1999
19 July 1999
4 November 1999
c) new provisions concerning the mandatory carriage of ELTs operating on
406 MHz and 121.5 MHz, pressure-altitude reporting transponders and
the introduction of an implementation date for the recording of digital
communications.
15 March 2000
17 July 2000
2 November 2000
b) introduction of requirements for the provision of RVR information and
criteria for instrument approach operations, revision of the duties of the
pilot-in-command.
8
(5th Edition)
Second meeting of the
Flight Recorder Panel,
Third meeting of the
Global Navigation
Satellite System Panel,
Fifth meeting of the
Continuing
Airworthiness Panel,
Air Navigation
Commission studies
a) Update the provisions concerning flight recorders, including the
recording of digital communications; FDR requirements for new aircraft;
revised parameter listings; introduction of two-hour-duration CVRs;
12 March 2001
16 July 2001
1 November 2001
b) amendment of the classification of instrument approach and landing
operations;
c) new provisions pertaining to approach with vertical guidance (APV)
operations;
d) new definitions and update of provisions pertaining to maintenancerelated requirements; and
e) translation in the English language for documents attesting noise
certification.
(xiii)
1/11/01
ANNEX 6 — PART III
SECTION I
GENERAL
1/11/01
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
CHAPTER 1. DEFINITIONS
When the following terms are used in the Standards and
Recommended Practices for international operations with
helicopters, they have the following meanings:
Precision approach and landing operations. An instrument
approach and landing using precision lateral and vertical
guidance with minima as determined by the category of
operation.
Aerial work. An aircraft operation in which an aircraft is used
for specialized services such as agriculture, construction,
photography, surveying, observation and patrol, search and
rescue, aerial advertisement, etc.
Note.— Lateral and vertical guidance refers to the
guidance provided either by:
a) a ground-based navigation aid; or
Aircraft. Any machine that can derive support in the
atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the
reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.
b) computer generated navigation data.
Categories of precision approach and landing operations:
Aircraft operating manual. A manual, acceptable to the State
of the Operator, containing normal, abnormal and
emergency procedures, checklists, limitations, performance
information, details of the aircraft systems and other
material relevant to the operation of the aircraft.
Category I (CAT I) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with a decision height not lower
than 60 m (200 ft) and with either a visibility not less than
800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m.
Note.— The aircraft operating manual is part of the
operations manual.
Category II (CAT II) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with a decision height lower than
60 m (200 ft), but not lower than 30 m (100 ft), and a
runway visual range not less than 350 m.
Air operator certificate (AOC). A certificate authorizing an
operator to carry out specified commercial air transport
operations.
Category IIIA (CAT IIIA) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with:
Alternate heliport. A heliport specified in the flight plan to
which a flight may proceed when it becomes inadvisable to
land at the heliport of intended landing.
a) a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft) or no
decision height; and
Note.— An alternate heliport may be the heliport of
departure.
b) a runway visual range not less than 200 m.
Approach and landing operations using instrument approach
procedures. Instrument approach and landing operations
are classified as follows:
Category IIIB (CAT IIIB) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with:
a) a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft) or no
decision height; and
Non-precision approach and landing operations. An
instrument approach and landing which utilizes lateral
guidance but does not utilize vertical guidance.
b) a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less
than 50 m.
Approach and landing operations with vertical guidance.
An instrument approach and landing which utilizes
lateral and vertical guidance but does not meet the
requirements established for precision approach and
landing operations.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
Category IIIC (CAT IIIC) operation. A precision instrument
approach and landing with no decision height and no
runway visual range limitations.
I-1-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Note.— Where decision height (DH) and runway visual
range (RVR) fall into different categories of operation, the
instrument approach and landing operation would be
conducted in accordance with the requirements of the most
demanding category (e.g. an operation with a DH in the range
of CAT IIIA but with an RVR in the range of CAT IIIB would
be considered a CAT IIIB operation or an operation with a
DH in the range of CAT II but with an RVR in the range of
CAT I would be considered a CAT II operation).
Note 2.— The required visual reference means that section
of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have
been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an
assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of
position, in relation to the desired flight path. In Category III
operations with a decision height the required visual reference
is that specified for the particular procedure and operation.
Note 3.— For convenience where both expressions are
used they may be written in the form “decision
altitude/height” and abbreviated “DA/H”.
Approach and landing phase — helicopters. That part of the
flight from 300 m (1 000 ft) above the elevation of the
FATO, if the flight is planned to exceed this height, or from
the commencement of the descent in the other cases, to
landing or to the balked landing point.
Defined point after take-off. The point, within the take-off
and initial climb phase, before which the helicopter’s
ability to continue the flight safely, with one engine
inoperative, is not assured and a forced landing may be
required.
Cabin crew member. A crew member who performs, in the
interest of safety of passengers, duties assigned by the
operator or the pilot-in-command of the aircraft, but who
shall not act as a flight crew member.
Defined point before landing. The point, within the approach
and landing phase, after which the helicopter’s ability to
continue the flight safely, with one engine inoperative, is
not assured and a forced landing may be required.
Commercial air transport operation. An aircraft operation
involving the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for
remuneration or hire.
Note.— Defined points apply to performance Class 2
helicopters only.
Configuration deviation list (CDL). A list established by the
organization responsible for the type design with the
approval of the State of Design which identifies any
external parts of an aircraft type which may be missing at
the commencement of a flight, and which contains, where
necessary, any information on associated operating
limitations and performance correction.
Elevated heliport. A heliport located on a raised structure on
land.
Emergency locator transmitter (ELT). A generic term
describing equipment which broadcast distinctive signals
on designated frequencies and, depending on application,
may be automatically activated by impact or be manually
activated. An ELT may be any of the following:
Congested area. In relation to a city, town or settlement, any
area which is substantially used for residential, commercial
or recreational purposes.
Automatic fixed ELT (ELT(AF)). An automatically activated
ELT which is permanently attached to an aircraft.
Crew member. A person assigned by an operator to duty on an
aircraft during a flight duty period.
Automatic portable ELT (ELT(AP)). An automatically
activated ELT which is rigidly attached to an aircraft but
readily removable from the aircraft.
Dangerous goods. Articles or substances which are capable of
posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment
and which are shown in the list of dangerous goods in the
Technical Instructions or which are classified according to
those Instructions.
Automatic deployable ELT (ELT(AD)). An ELT which is
rigidly attached to an aircraft and which is automatically
deployed and activated by impact, and, in some cases,
also by hydrostatic sensors. Manual deployment is also
provided.
Note.— Dangerous goods are classified in Annex 18,
Chapter 3.
Survival ELT (ELT(S)). An ELT which is removable from
an aircraft, stowed so as to facilitate its ready use in an
emergency, and manually activated by survivors.
Decision altitude (DA) or decision height (DH). A specified
altitude or height in the precision approach or approach
with vertical guidance at which a missed approach must be
initiated if the required visual reference to continue the
approach has not been established.
En-route phase. That part of the flight from the end of the
take-off and initial climb phase to the commencement of
the approach and landing phase.
Note 1.— Decision altitude (DA) is referenced to mean sea
level and decision height (DH) is referenced to the threshold
elevation.
Note.— Where adequate obstacle clearance cannot be
guaranteed visually, flights must be planned to ensure that
obstacles can be cleared by an appropriate margin. In the
1/11/01
I-1-2
Section I, Chapter 1
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
event of failure of the critical power-unit, operators may need
to adopt alternative procedures.
b) landing in precision approach and landing operations,
expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual
range and decision altitude/height (DA/H) as appropriate to the category of the operation;
Final approach and take-off area (FATO). A defined area
over which the final phase of the approach manoeuvre to
hover or landing is completed and from which the take-off
manoeuvre is commenced. Where the FATO is to be used
by performance Class 1 helicopters, the defined area
includes the rejected take-off area available.
c) landing in approach and landing operations with vertical
guidance, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway
visual range and decision altitude/height (DA/H); and
Flight crew member. A licensed crew member charged with
duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight
duty period.
d) landing in non-precision approach and landing
operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or
runway visual range, minimum descent altitude/height
(MDA/H) and, if necessary, cloud conditions.
Flight duty period. The total time from the moment a flight
crew member commences duty, immediately subsequent to
a rest period and prior to making a flight or a series of
flights, to the moment the flight crew member is relieved of
all duties having completed such flight or series of flights.
Human Factors principles. Principles which apply to
aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and
maintenance and which seek safe interface between the
human and other system components by proper
consideration to human performance.
Flight manual. A manual, associated with the certificate of
airworthiness, containing limitations within which the
aircraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and
information necessary to the flight crew members for the
safe operation of the aircraft.
Human performance. Human capabilities and limitations
which have an impact on the safety and efficiency of
aeronautical operations.
Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). Meteorological
conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from
cloud, and ceiling*, less than the minima specified for
visual meteorological conditions.
Flight plan. Specified information provided to air traffic
services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a
flight of an aircraft.
Note.— The specified minima for visual meteorological
conditions are contained in Chapter 4 of Annex 2.
Flight recorder. Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft
for the purpose of complementing accident/incident
investigation.
Landing decision point (LDP). The point used in determining
landing performance from which, a power-unit failure
occurring at this point, the landing may be safely continued
or a balked landing initiated.
Flight time — helicopters. The total time from the moment a
helicopter’s rotor blades start turning until the moment the
helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and
the rotor blades are stopped.
Note.— LDP applies to performance Class 1 helicopters.
General aviation operation. An aircraft operation other than a
commercial air transport operation or an aerial work
operation.
Maintenance. The performance of tasks required to ensure the
continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or
combination of overhaul, inspection, replacement, defect
rectification, and the embodiment of a modification or
repair.
Helicopter. A heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight
chiefly by the reactions of the air on one or more powerdriven rotors on substantially vertical axes.
Maintenance programme. A document which describes the
specific scheduled maintenance tasks and their frequency of
completion and related procedures, such as a reliability
programme, necessary for the safe operation of those
aircraft to which it applies.
Helideck. A heliport located on a floating or fixed off-shore
structure.
Heliport. An aerodrome or a defined area on a structure
intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival,
departure and surface movement of helicopters.
Maintenance organization’s procedures manual. A document
endorsed by the head of the maintenance organization
which details the maintenance organization’s structure and
Heliport operating minima. The limits of usability of a
heliport for:
a) take-off, expressed in terms of runway visual range
and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions;
* As defined in Annex 2.
I-1-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
management responsibilities, scope of work, description of
facilities, maintenance procedures and quality assurance or
inspection systems.
Obstacle clearance altitude (OCA) or obstacle clearance
height (OCH). The lowest altitude or the lowest height
above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or the
aerodrome elevation as applicable, used in establishing
compliance with appropriate obstacle clearance criteria.
Maintenance release. A document which contains a
certification confirming that the maintenance work to which
it relates has been completed in a satisfactory manner,
either in accordance with the approved data and the
procedures described in the maintenance organization’s
procedures manual or under an equivalent system.
Note 1.— Obstacle clearance altitude is referenced to mean
sea level and obstacle clearance height is referenced to the
threshold elevation or in the case of non-precision approaches
to the aerodrome elevation or the threshold elevation if that is
more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome elevation. An
obstacle clearance height for a circling approach is
referenced to the aerodrome elevation.
Master minimum equipment list (MMEL). A list established
for a particular aircraft type by the organization responsible
for the type design with the approval of the State of Design
containing items, one or more of which is permitted to be
unserviceable at the commencement of a flight. The
MMEL may be associated with special operating conditions, limitations or procedures.
Note 2.— For convenience when both expressions are used
they may be written in the form “obstacle clearance
altitude/height” and abbreviated “OCA/H”.
Operational control. The exercise of authority over the
initiation, continuation, diversion or termination of a flight
in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity
and efficiency of the flight.
Maximum mass. Maximum certificated take-off mass.
Minimum descent altitude (MDA) or minimum descent height
(MDH). A specified altitude or height in a non-precision
approach or circling approach below which descent must
not be made without the required visual reference.
Operational flight plan. The operator’s plan for the safe
conduct of the flight based on considerations of helicopter
performance, other operating limitations and relevant
expected conditions on the route to be followed and at the
heliports concerned.
Note 1.— Minimum descent altitude (MDA) is referenced to
mean sea level and minimum descent height (MDH) is
referenced to the aerodrome elevation or to the threshold
elevation if that is more than 2 m (7 ft) below the aerodrome
elevation. A minimum descent height for a circling approach
is referenced to the aerodrome elevation.
Operations manual. A manual containing procedures,
instructions and guidance for use by operational personnel
in the execution of their duties.
Note 2.— The required visual reference means that section
of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have
been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an
assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of
position, in relation to the desired flight path. In the case of a
circling approach the required visual reference is the runway
environment.
Operator. A person, organization or enterprise engaged in or
offering to engage in an aircraft operation.
Operator’s maintenance control manual. A document which
describes the operator’s procedures necessary to ensure that
all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance is performed
on the operator’s aircraft on time and in a controlled and
satisfactory manner.
Note 3.— For convenience when both expressions are used
they may be written in the form “minimum descent
altitude/height” and abbreviated “MDA/H”.
Performance Class 1 helicopter. A helicopter with
performance such that, in case of critical power-unit failure,
it is able to land on the rejected take-off area or safely
continue the flight to an appropriate landing area,
depending on when the failure occurs.
Minimum equipment list (MEL). A list which provides for the
operation of aircraft, subject to specified conditions, with
particular equipment inoperative, prepared by an operator
in conformity with, or more restrictive than, the MMEL
established for the aircraft type.
Night. The hours between the end of evening civil twilight and
the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period
between sunset and sunrise, as may be prescribed by the
appropriate authority.
Performance Class 2 helicopter. A helicopter with
performance such that, in case of critical power-unit failure,
it is able to safely continue the flight, except when the
failure occurs prior to a defined point after take-off or after
a defined point before landing, in which cases a forced
landing may be required.
Note.— Civil twilight ends in the evening when the centre
of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon and begins in
the morning when the centre of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees
below the horizon.
Performance Class 3 helicopter. A helicopter with
performance such that, in case of power-unit failure at any
point in the flight profile, a forced landing must be
performed.
1/11/01
I-1-4
Section I, Chapter 1
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Pilot-in-command. The pilot designated by the operator, or in
the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in
command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight.
State of the Operator. The State in which the operator’s
principal place of business is located or, if there is no such
place of business, the operator’s permanent residence.
Psychoactive substances. Alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids,
sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psychostimulants,
hallucinogens, and volatile solvents, whereas coffee and
tobacco are excluded.
Synthetic flight trainer. Any one of the following three types
of apparatus in which flight conditions are simulated on the
ground:
A flight simulator, which provides an accurate representation of the flight deck of a particular aircraft type to
the extent that the mechanical, electrical, electronic, etc.
aircraft systems control functions, the normal environment of flight crew members, and the performance and
flight characteristics of that type of aircraft are
realistically simulated;
Repair: The restoration of an aeronautical product to an
airworthy condition to ensure that the aircraft continues to
comply with the design aspects of the appropriate
airworthiness requirements used for the issuance of the type
certificate for the respective aircraft type, after it has been
damaged or subjected to wear.
A flight procedures trainer, which provides a realistic flight
deck environment, and which simulates instrument
responses, simple control functions of mechanical,
electrical, electronic, etc. aircraft systems, and the
performance and flight characteristics of aircraft of a
particular class;
Required navigation performance (RNP). A statement of the
navigation performance necessary for operation within a
defined airspace.
Note.— Navigation performance and requirements are
defined for a particular RNP type and/or application.
A basic instrument flight trainer, which is equipped with
appropriate instruments, and which simulates the flight
deck environment of an aircraft in flight in instrument
flight conditions.
Rest period. Any period of time on the ground during which a
flight crew member is relieved of all duties by the operator.
RNP type. A containment value expressed as a distance in
nautical miles from the intended position within which
flights would be for at least 95 per cent of the total flying
time.
Take-off and initial climb phase. That part of the flight from
the start of take-off to 300 m (1 000 ft) above the elevation
of the FATO, if the flight is planned to exceed this height,
or to the end of the climb in the other cases.
Example.— RNP 4 represents a navigation accuracy of
plus or minus 7.4 km (4 NM) on a 95 per cent containment
basis.
Take-off decision point (TDP). The point used in determining
take-off performance from which, a power-unit failure
occurring at this point, either a rejected take-off may be
made or a take-off safely continued.
Runway visual range (RVR). The range over which the pilot
of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the
runway surface markings or the lights delineating the
runway or identifying its centre line.
Note.— TDP applies to performance Class 1 helicopters.
Safe forced landing. Unavoidable landing or ditching with a
reasonable expectancy of no injuries to persons in the
aircraft or on the surface.
Visual meteorological conditions (VMC). Meteorological
conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from
cloud, and ceiling,* equal to or better than specified
minima.
State of Registry. The State on whose register the aircraft is
entered.
Note.— The specified minima are contained in Chapter 4
of Annex 2.
Note.— In the case of the registration of aircraft of an
international operating agency on other than a national basis,
the States constituting the agency are jointly and severally
bound to assume the obligations which, under the Chicago
Convention, attach to a State of Registry. See, in this regard,
the Council Resolution of 14 December 1967 on Nationality
and Registration of Aircraft Operated by International
Operating Agencies which can be found in Policy and
Guidance Material on the Economic Regulation of
International Air Transport (Doc 9587).
VTOSS. The minimum speed at which climb shall be achieved
with the critical power-unit inoperative, the remaining
power-units operating within approved operating limits.
Note.— The speed referred to above may be measured by
instrument indications or achieved by a procedure specified in
the flight manual.
* As defined in Annex 2.
I-1-5
1/11/01
CHAPTER 2.
APPLICABILITY
The Standards and Recommended Practices contained in
Annex 6, Part III, shall be applicable to all helicopters
engaged in international commercial air transport operations
or in international general aviation operations, except that
these Standards and Recommended Practices are not applicable to helicopters engaged in aerial work.
Note 1.— Standards and Recommended Practices
applicable to the operation of aeroplanes by operators
authorized to conduct international commercial air transport
operations are to be found in Annex 6, Part I.
Note 2.— Standards and Recommended Practices
applicable to international general aviation operations with
aeroplanes are to be found in Annex 6, Part II.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
I-2-1
1/11/01
ANNEX 6 — PART III
SECTION II
INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
1/11/01
CHAPTER 1.
Note 1.— Although the Convention on International Civil
Aviation allocates to the State of Registry certain functions
which that State is entitled to discharge, or obligated to
discharge, as the case may be, the Assembly recognized, in
Resolution A23-13 that the State of Registry may be unable to
fulfil its responsibilities adequately in instances where aircraft
are leased, chartered or interchanged — in particular without
crew — by an operator of another State and that the Convention
may not adequately specify the rights and obligations of the
State of an operator in such instances until such time as
Article 83 bis of the Convention enters into force. Accordingly,
the Council urged that if, in the above-mentioned instances, the
State of Registry finds itself unable to discharge adequately the
functions allocated to it by the Convention, it delegate to the
State of the Operator, subject to acceptance by the latter State,
those functions of the State of Registry that can more adequately
be discharged by the State of the Operator. It was understood
that pending entry into force of Article 83 bis of the Convention
the foregoing action would only be a matter of practical
convenience and would not affect either the provisions of the
Chicago Convention prescribing the duties of the State of
Registry or any third State. However, as Article 83 bis of the
Convention entered into force on 20 June 1997, such transfer
agreements will have effect in respect of Contracting States
which have ratified the related Protocol (Doc 9318) upon
fulfilment of the conditions established in Article 83 bis.
regulations and procedures as are pertinent to the performance
of their respective duties in the operation of the helicopter.
1.1.3 An operator or a designated representative shall
have responsibility for operational control.
Note.— The rights and obligations of a State in respect to
the operation of helicopters registered in that State are not
affected by this provision.
1.1.4 If an emergency situation which endangers the
safety of the helicopter or persons necessitates the taking of
action which involves a violation of local regulations or
procedures, the pilot-in-command shall notify the appropriate
local authority without delay. If required by the State in which
the incident occurs, the pilot-in-command shall submit a report
on any such violation to the appropriate authority of such
State; in that event, the pilot-in-command shall also submit a
copy of it to the State of the Operator. Such reports shall be
submitted as soon as possible and normally within ten days.
1.1.5 Operators shall ensure that pilots-in-command have
available on board the helicopter all the essential information
concerning the search and rescue services in the area over
which the helicopter will be flown.
Note.— This information may be made available to the
pilot by means of the operations manual or such other means
as is considered appropriate.
Note 2.— In the case of international operations effected
jointly with helicopters not all of which are registered in the
same Contracting State, nothing in this Part of the Annex
prevents the States concerned entering into an agreement for
the joint exercise of the functions placed upon the State of
Registry by the provisions of the relevant Annexes.
1.1.6 An operator shall establish and maintain an accident
prevention and flight safety programme.
Note.— Guidance on accident prevention is contained in
the Accident Prevention Manual (Doc 9422) and in the
manual Preparation of an Operations Manual (Doc 9376).
1.1 Compliance with laws,
regulations and procedures
1.2
1.1.1 Operators shall ensure that their employees when
abroad know that they must comply with the laws, regulations
and procedures of the States in which their helicopters are
operated.
Dangerous goods
Note 1.— Provisions for carriage of dangerous goods are
contained in Annex 18.
Note 2.— Article 35 of the Convention refers to certain
classes of cargo restrictions.
1.1.2 Operators shall ensure that all pilots are familiar
with the laws, regulations and procedures, pertinent to the
performance of their duties, prescribed for the areas to be
traversed, the heliports to be used and the air navigation
facilities relating thereto. The operator shall ensure that other
members of the flight crew are familiar with such of these
ANNEX 6 — PART III
GENERAL
1.3 Use of psychoactive substances
Note.— Provisions concerning the use of psychoactive
substances are contained in Annex 1, 1.2.7 and Annex 2, 2.5.
II-1-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 2.
2.1
FLIGHT OPERATIONS
Operating facilities
Note.— Attachment F to Part I of Annex 6 contains
guidance on the issue of an air operator certificate.
2.1.1 An operator shall ensure that a flight will not be
commenced unless it has been ascertained by every reasonable
means available that the ground and/or water facilities
available and directly required on such flight, for the safe
operation of the helicopter and the protection of the
passengers, are adequate for the type of operation under which
the flight is to be conducted and are adequately operated for
this purpose.
2.2.1.4 The continued validity of an air operator
certificate or equivalent document shall depend upon the
operator maintaining the requirements of 2.2.1.3 under the
supervision of the State of the Operator.
2.2.1.5 The air operator certificate or
document shall contain at least the following:
Note.— “Reasonable means” in this Standard is intended
to denote the use, at the point of departure, of information
available to the operator either through official information
published by the aeronautical information services or readily
obtainable from other sources.
a) operator’s identification (name, location);
2.1.2 An operator shall ensure that any inadequacy of
facilities observed in the course of operations is reported to the
authority responsible for them, without undue delay.
d) the type(s) of aircraft authorized for use; and
b) date of issue and period of validity;
c) description of the types of operations authorized;
e) authorized areas of operation or routes.
2.2.1.6 The State of the Operator shall establish a system
for both the certification and the continued surveillance of the
operator to ensure that the required standards of operations
established in 2.2 are maintained.
2.1.3 Subject to their published conditions of use,
heliports and their facilities shall be kept continuously
available for flight operations during their published hours of
operations, irrespective of weather conditions.
2.2.2
2.2 Operational certification
and supervision
2.2.1
Operations manual
2.2.2.1 An operator shall provide, for the use and guidance
of operations personnel concerned, an operations manual in
accordance with the Appendix. The operations manual shall be
amended or revised as is necessary to ensure that the
information contained therein is kept up to date. All such
amendments or revisions shall be issued to all personnel that
are required to use this manual.
The air operator certificate
2.2.1.1 An operator shall not engage in commercial air
transport operations unless in possession of a valid air operator
certificate or equivalent document issued by the State of the
Operator.
2.2.2.2 The State of the Operator shall establish a
requirement for the operator to provide a copy of the
operations manual together with all amendments and/or
revisions, for review and acceptance and, where required,
approval. The operator shall incorporate in the operations
manual such mandatory material as the State of the Operator
may require.
2.2.1.2 The air operator certificate or equivalent
document shall authorize the operator to conduct commercial
air transport operations in accordance with such conditions and
limitations as may be specified.
2.2.1.3 The issue of an air operator certificate or
equivalent document by the State of the Operator shall be
dependent upon the operator demonstrating an adequate
organization, method of control and supervision of flight
operations, training programme and maintenance arrangements
consistent with the nature and extent of the operations
specified.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
equivalent
Note 1.— Requirements for the contents of an operations
manual are provided in the Appendix.
Note 2.— Specific items in an operations manual require
the approval of the State of the Operator in accordance with
the Standards in Section II, 2.2.7, 4.1.2, 7.3.1 and 10.3.
II-2-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
2.2.3 Operating instructions — general
operations manual. The minimum flight altitudes determined
in accordance with the above method shall not be lower than
specified in Annex 2.
2.2.3.1 An operator shall ensure that all operations
personnel are properly instructed in their particular duties and
responsibilities and the relationship of such duties to the
operation as a whole.
2.2.6.3 Recommendation.— The method for establishing
the minimum flight altitudes should be approved by the State
of the Operator.
2.2.3.2 A helicopter rotor shall not be turned under power
without a qualified pilot at the controls.
2.2.6.4 Recommendation.— The State of the Operator
should approve such method only after careful consideration
of the probable effects of the following factors on the safety of
the operation in question:
2.2.3.3 Recommendation.— The operator should issue
operating instructions and provide information on helicopter
climb performance with all engines operating to enable the
pilot-in-command to determine the climb gradient that can be
achieved during the take-off and initial climb phase for the
existing take-off conditions and intended take-off technique.
This information should be included in the operations manual.
a) the accuracy and reliability with which the position of
the helicopter can be determined;
b) the inaccuracies in the indications of the altimeters
used;
c) the characteristics of the terrain (e.g. sudden changes in
the elevation);
2.2.4 In-flight simulation of
emergency situations
d) the probability of encountering unfavourable meteorological conditions (e.g. severe turbulence and
descending air currents);
An operator shall ensure that when passengers or cargo are
being carried, no emergency or abnormal situations shall be
simulated.
2.2.5
e) possible inaccuracies in aeronautical charts; and
f) airspace restrictions.
Checklists
The checklists provided in accordance with 4.1.3 shall be used
by flight crews prior to, during and after all phases of
operations, and in emergency, to ensure compliance with the
operating procedures contained in the aircraft operating
manual, the flight manual or other documents associated with
the certificate of airworthiness and otherwise in the operations
manual. The design and utilization of checklists shall observe
human factors principles.
2.2.7
2.2.7.1 The State of the Operator shall require that the
operator establish heliport operating minima for each heliport
to be used in operations and shall approve the method of
determination of such minima. Such minima shall not be lower
than any that may be established for such heliports by the State
in which the heliport is located, except when specifically
approved, by that State.
Note.— Guidance material on the application of human
factors principles can be found in the Human Factors Training
Manual (Doc 9683).
2.2.6
Note.— This Standard does not require the State in which
the heliport is located to establish heliport operating minima.
2.2.7.2 The State of the Operator shall require that in
establishing the heliport operating minima which will apply to
any particular operation, full account shall be taken of:
Minimum flight altitudes
2.2.6.1 An operator shall be permitted to establish
minimum flight altitudes for those routes flown for which
minimum flight altitudes have been established by the State
flown over or the responsible State, provided that they shall
not be less than those established by that State, unless
specifically approved.
a) the type, performance and handling characteristics of the
helicopter;
b) the composition of the flight crew, their competence and
experience;
2.2.6.2 An operator shall specify the method by which it
is intended to determine minimum flight altitudes for
operations conducted over routes for which minimum flight
altitudes have not been established by the State flown over, or
the responsible State, and shall include this method in the
1/11/01
Heliport operating minima
c) the declared distances;
d) the adequacy and performance of the available visual
and non-visual ground aids;
II-2-2
Section II, Chapter 2
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
e) the equipment available on the helicopter for the
purpose of navigation and/or control of the flight path
during the approach to landing and the missed approach;
2.2.10
Passengers
2.2.10.1 An operator shall ensure that passengers are
made familiar with the location and use of:
f) the obstacles in the approach and missed approach areas
and the obstacle clearance altitude/height for the
instrument approach procedures;
a) seat belts;
b) emergency exits;
g) the means used to determine and report meteorological
conditions; and
c) life jackets, if the carriage of life jackets is prescribed;
h) the obstacles in the climb-out areas and necessary
clearance margins.
d) oxygen dispensing equipment, if the provision of
oxygen for the use of passengers is prescribed; and
e) other emergency equipment provided for individual use,
including passenger emergency briefing cards.
2.2.7.3 Category II and Category III instrument approach
and landing operations shall not be authorized unless RVR
information is provided.
2.2.10.2 The operator shall inform the passengers of the
location and general manner of use of the principal emergency
equipment carried for collective use.
2.2.7.4 Recommendation.— For instrument approach
and landing operations, heliport operating minima below
800 m visibility should not be authorized unless RVR
information or an accurate measurement or observation of
visibility is provided.
2.2.10.3 In an emergency during flight, passengers shall
be instructed in such emergency action as may be appropriate
to the circumstances.
Note.— Guidance on the operationally desirable and
currently attainable accuracy of measurement or observation
is given in Annex 3 — Meteorological Service for International
Air Navigation, Attachment B.
2.2.10.4 The operator shall ensure that during take-off
and landing and whenever, by reason of turbulence or any
emergency occurring during flight, the precaution is
considered necessary, all passengers on board a helicopter
shall be secured in their seats by means of the seat belts or
harnesses provided.
2.2.8 Fuel and oil records
2.2.8.1 An operator shall maintain fuel and oil records to
enable the State of the Operator to ascertain that, for each
flight, the requirements of 2.3.6 have been complied with.
2.2.11 Over-water flights
All helicopters on flights over water in accordance with 4.5.1
shall be certificated for ditching. Sea state shall be an integral
part of ditching information.
2.2.8.2 Fuel and oil records shall be retained by the
operator for a period of three months.
2.2.9
Crew
2.3
2.2.9.1 Pilot-in-command. For each flight, the operator
shall designate one pilot to act as pilot-in-command.
Flight preparation
2.3.1 A flight shall not be commenced until flight
preparation forms have been completed certifying that the
pilot-in-command is satisfied that:
2.2.9.2 Flight time, flight duty periods and rest periods.
An operator shall formulate rules to limit flight time and flight
duty periods and for the provision of adequate rest periods for
all its crew members. These rules shall be in accordance with
the regulations established by the State of the Operator, or
approved by that State, and included in the operations manual.
a) the helicopter is airworthy;
b) the instruments and equipment prescribed in Chapter 4,
for the particular type of operation to be undertaken, are
installed and are sufficient for the flight;
2.2.9.3 An operator shall maintain current records of the
flight time, flight duty periods and rest periods of all its crew
members.
c) a maintenance release as prescribed in 6.7 has been
issued in respect of the helicopter;
d) the mass of the helicopter and centre of gravity location
are such that the flight can be conducted safely, taking
into account the flight conditions expected;
Note.— Guidance on the establishment of limitations is
given in Attachment C.
II-2-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
e) any load carried is properly distributed and safely
secured;
— mechanical reliability of critical control systems and
critical components shall be considered and taken into
account when determining the suitability of the
alternates;
f) a check has been completed indicating that the operating
limitations of Chapter 3 can be complied with for the
flight to be undertaken; and
— one engine inoperative performance capability shall be
attainable prior to arrival at the alternate;
g) the Standards of 2.3.3 relating to operational flight
planning have been complied with.
— deck availability shall be guaranteed;
— weather information must be reliable and accurate.
2.3.2 Completed flight preparation forms shall be kept by
an operator for a period of three months.
2.3.3
Note.— The landing technique specified in the flight
manual following control system failure may preclude the
nomination of certain helidecks as alternate heliports.
Operational flight planning
2.3.4.3 Recommendation.— Off-shore alternates should
not be used when it is possible to carry enough fuel to have an
on-shore alternate. Such circumstances should be exceptional
and should not include payload enhancement in adverse
weather conditions.
2.3.3.1 An operational flight plan shall be completed for
every intended flight. The operational flight plan shall be
approved and signed by the pilot-in-command and, where
applicable, signed by the flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher, and a copy shall be filed with the operator or a
designated agent, or, if these procedures are not possible, it
shall be left with the heliport authority or on record in a
suitable place at the point of departure.
2.3.5
2.3.5.1 A flight to be conducted in accordance with the
visual flight rules shall not be commenced unless current
meteorological reports or a combination of current reports and
forecasts indicate that the meteorological conditions along the
route or that part of the route to be flown under the visual
flight rules will, at the appropriate time, be such as to render
compliance with these rules possible.
Note.— The duties of a flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher are contained in 2.6.
2.3.3.2 The operations manual must describe the content
and use of the operational flight plan.
2.3.4
2.3.5.2 A flight to be conducted in accordance with
instrument flight rules shall not be commenced unless the
information is available which indicates that conditions at the
heliport of intended landing or, when an alternate is required,
at least one alternate heliport will, at the estimated time of
arrival, be at or above the heliport operating minima.
Alternate heliports
2.3.4.1 For a flight to be conducted in accordance with
the instrument flight rules, at least one suitable alternate shall
be specified in the operational flight plan and the flight plan,
unless:
Note.— It is the practice in some States to declare, for
flight planning purposes, higher minima for a heliport when
nominated as an alternate than for the same heliport when
planned as that of intended landing.
a) the duration of the flight and the meteorological
conditions prevailing are such that there is reasonable
certainty that, at the estimated time of arrival at the
heliport of intended landing, and for a reasonable period
before and after such time, the approach and landing
may be made under visual meteorological conditions as
prescribed by the State of the Operator; or
2.3.5.3 A flight to be operated in known or expected icing
conditions shall not be commenced unless the helicopter is
certificated and equipped to cope with such conditions.
b) the heliport of intended landing is isolated and no
suitable alternate is available. A point of no return
(PNR) shall be determined.
2.3.5.4 A flight to be planned or expected to operate in
suspected or known ground icing conditions shall not be
commenced unless the helicopter has been inspected for icing
and, if necessary, has been given appropriate de-icing/antiicing treatment. Accumulation of ice or other naturally
occurring contaminants shall be removed so that the helicopter
is kept in an airworthy condition prior to take-off.
2.3.4.2 Suitable off-shore alternates may be specified
subject to the following:
— the off-shore alternates shall be used only after a point
of no return (PNR). Prior to PNR on-shore alternates
shall be used;
1/11/01
Weather conditions
Note.— Guidance material is given in the Manual of
Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations (Doc 9640).
II-2-4
Section II, Chapter 2
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
2.3.6 Fuel and oil supply
2.3.6.3.3 When no suitable alternate is available, in terms
of 2.3.4.1 b), to fly to the heliport to which the flight is
planned and thereafter for a period of two hours at holding
speed.
2.3.6.1 All helicopters. A flight shall not be commenced
unless, taking into account both the meteorological conditions
and any delays that are expected in flight, the helicopter
carries sufficient fuel and oil to ensure that it can safely
complete the flight. In addition, a reserve shall be carried to
provide for contingencies.
2.3.6.4 In computing the fuel and oil required in 2.3.6.1,
at least the following shall be considered:
a) meteorological conditions forecast;
2.3.6.2 Visual flight rules (VFR) operations. The fuel and
oil carried in order to comply with 2.3.6.1 shall, in the case of
VFR operations, be at least the amount sufficient to allow the
helicopter:
b) expected air traffic control routings and traffic delays;
c) for IFR flight, one instrument approach at the destination heliport, including a missed approach;
a) to fly to the heliport to which the flight is planned;
d) the procedures prescribed in the operations manual for
loss of pressurization, where applicable, or failure of
one power-unit while en route; and
b) to fly thereafter for a period of 20 minutes at best-range
speed plus 10 per cent of the planned flight time; and
e) any other conditions that may delay the landing of the
helicopter or increase fuel and/or oil consumption.
c) to have an additional amount of fuel, sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the occurrence
of any of the potential contingencies specified by the
operator to the satisfaction of the State of the Operator.
Note.— Nothing in 2.3.6 precludes amendment of a flight
plan in flight in order to re-plan the flight to another heliport,
provided that the requirements of 2.3.6 can be complied with
from the point where the flight has been replanned.
2.3.6.3 Instrument flight rules (IFR) operations. The fuel
and oil carried in order to comply with 2.3.6.1 shall, in the
case of IFR operations, be at least the amount sufficient to
allow the helicopter:
2.3.7
2.3.6.3.1 When an alternate is not required, in terms of
2.3.4.1 a), to fly to the heliport to which the flight is
planned, and thereafter:
Refuelling with passengers on board
or rotors turning
Recommendation.— A helicopter should not be refuelled
when passengers are embarking, on board, disembarking or
when the rotor is turning unless the operator is granted
specific authorization by the State of the Operator setting
forth the conditions under which such fuelling may be carried
out.
a) to fly 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m ( 1500 ft)
above the destination heliport under standard
temperature conditions and approach and land; and
b) to have an additional amount of fuel, sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the
occurrence of any of the potential contingencies
specified by the operator to the satisfaction of the
State of the Operator.
Note 1.— Provisions concerning aircraft refuelling are
contained in Annex 14, Volume I, and guidance on safe
refuelling practices is contained in the Airport Services
Manual (Doc 9137), Parts 1 and 8.
2.3.6.3.2 When an alternate is required, to fly to and
execute an approach, and a missed approach, at the heliport
to which the flight is planned, and thereafter:
Note 2.— Additional precautions are required when
refuelling with fuels other than aviation kerosene or when
refuelling results in a mixture of aviation kerosene with other
aviation turbine fuels, or when an open line is used.
a) to fly to the alternate specified in the flight plan; and
then
2.3.8
b) to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m
(1 500 ft) above the alternate under standard
temperature conditions, and approach and land; and
Oxygen supply
Note.— Approximate altitudes in the Standard Atmosphere
corresponding to the values of absolute pressure used in the
text are as follows:
c) to have an additional amount of fuel sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the
occurrence of any of the potential contingencies
specified by the operator to the satisfaction of the
State of the Operator.
II-2-5
Absolute pressure
Metres
Feet
700 hPa
620 hPa
376 hPa
3 000
4 000
7 600
10 000
13 000
25 000
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
2.3.8.1 A flight to be operated at flight altitudes at which
the atmospheric pressure in personnel compartments will be
less than 700 hPa shall not be commenced unless sufficient
stored breathing oxygen is carried to supply:
2.4.2 Meteorological observations
Note.— The procedures for making meteorological
observations on board aircraft in flight and for recording and
reporting them are contained in Annex 3, the PANS-ATM
(Doc 4444) and the appropriate Regional Supplementary
Procedures (Doc 7030).
a) all crew members and 10 per cent of the passengers for
any period in excess of 30 minutes that the pressure in
compartments occupied by them will be between
700 hPa and 620 hPa;
2.4.3 Hazardous flight conditions
b) the crew and passengers for any period that the
atmospheric pressure in compartments occupied by
them will be less than 620 hPa.
Hazardous flight conditions encountered, other than those
associated with meteorological conditions, shall be reported to
the appropriate aeronautical station as soon as possible. The
reports so rendered shall give such details as may be pertinent
to the safety of other aircraft.
2.3.8.2 A flight to be operated with a pressurized
helicopter shall not be commenced unless a sufficient quantity
of stored breathing oxygen is carried to supply all the crew
members and passengers, as is appropriate to the circumstances of the flight being undertaken, in the event of loss of
pressurization, for any period that the atmospheric pressure in
any compartment occupied by them would be less than
700 hPa. In addition, when the helicopter is operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is more than
376 hPa and cannot descend safely to a flight altitude at which
the atmospheric pressure is equal to 620 hPa within four
minutes, there shall be no less than a 10-minute supply for the
occupants of the passenger compartment.
2.4.4 Flight crew members at duty stations
2.4.4.1 Take-off and landing. All flight crew members
required to be on flight deck duty shall be at their stations.
2.4.4.2 En route. All flight crew members required to be
on flight deck duty shall remain at their stations except when
their absence is necessary for the performance of duties in
connection with the operation of the helicopter or for
physiological needs.
2.4.4.3 Seat belts. All flight crew members shall keep
their seat belt fastened when at their stations.
2.4 In-flight procedures
2.4.1
2.4.4.4 Safety harness. Any flight crew member
occupying a pilot’s seat shall keep the safety harness fastened
during the take-off and landing phases; all other flight crew
members shall keep their safety harness fastened during the
take-off and landing phases unless the shoulder straps interfere
with the performance of their duties, in which case the
shoulder straps may be unfastened but the seat belt must
remain fastened.
Heliport operating minima
2.4.1.1 A flight shall not be continued towards the
heliport of intended landing, unless the latest available
information indicates that at the expected time of arrival, a
landing can be effected at that heliport, or at least one alternate
heliport, in compliance with the operating minima established
in accordance with 2.2.7.1.
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder straps and a seat
belt which may be used independently.
2.4.1.2 An instrument approach shall not be continued
beyond the outer marker fix in case of precision approach, or
below 300 m (1 000 ft) above the heliport in case of nonprecision approach, unless the reported visibility or controlling
RVR is above the specified minimum.
2.4.5
All flight crew members, when engaged in performing duties
essential to the safe operation of a helicopter in flight, shall use
breathing oxygen continuously whenever the circumstances
prevail for which its supply has been required in 2.3.8.1
or 2.3.8.2.
2.4.1.3 If, after passing the outer marker fix in case of
precision approach, or after descending below 300 m (1 000 ft)
above the heliport in case of non-precision approach, the
reported visibility or controlling RVR falls below the specified
minimum, the approach may be continued to DA/H or
MDA/H. In any case, a helicopter shall not continue its
approach-to-land at any heliport beyond a point at which the
limits of the operating minima specified for that heliport
would be infringed.
1/11/01
Use of oxygen
2.4.6 Safeguarding of cabin crew and passengers
in pressurized aircraft in the event of loss
of pressurization
Recommendation.— Cabin crew should be safeguarded so
as to ensure reasonable probability of their retaining
II-2-6
Section II, Chapter 2
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
consciousness during any emergency descent which may be
necessary in the event of loss of pressurization and, in
addition, they should have such means of protection as will
enable them to administer first aid to passengers during
stabilized flight following the emergency. Passengers should be
safeguarded by such devices or operational procedures as will
ensure reasonable probability of their surviving the effects of
hypoxia in the event of loss of pressurization.
2.5 Duties of
pilot-in-command
2.5.1 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for the
operation and safety of the helicopter and for the safety of all
crew members, passengers and cargo on board, from the
moment the engine(s) are started until the helicopter finally
comes to rest at the end of the flight, with the engine(s) shut
down and the rotor blades stopped.
Note.— It is not envisaged that cabin crew will always be
able to provide assistance to passengers during emergency
descent procedures which may be required in the event of loss
of pressurization.
2.4.7
2.5.2 The pilot-in-command shall ensure that
checklists specified in 2.2.5 are complied with in detail.
the
2.5.3 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for
notifying the nearest appropriate authority by the quickest
available means of any accident involving the helicopter,
resulting in serious injury or death of any person or substantial
damage to the helicopter or property.
In-flight operational
instructions
Operational instructions involving a change in the ATS flight
plan shall, when applicable, be coordinated with the appropriate ATS unit before transmission to the helicopter.
Note.— A definition of the term “serious injury” is
contained in Annex 13 and an explanation of the term
“substantial damage” is given in the Accident/Incident
Reporting Manual (ADREP Manual) (Doc 9156).
Note.— When the above coordination has not been
possible, operational instructions do not relieve a pilot of the
responsibility for obtaining an appropriate clearance from an
ATS unit, if applicable, before making a change in flight plan.
2.5.4 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for
reporting all known or suspected defects in the helicopter, to
the operator, at the termination of the flight.
2.4.8 Instrument flight procedures
2.5.5 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for the
journey log book or the general declaration containing the
information listed in 9.4.1.
2.4.8.1 One or more instrument approach procedures to
serve each final approach and take-off area or heliport utilized
for instrument flight operations shall be approved and
promulgated by the State in which the heliport is located, or by
the State which is responsible for the heliport when located
outside the territory of any State.
Note.— By virtue of Resolution A10-36 of the Tenth Session
of the Assembly (Caracas, June-July 1956) “the general
declaration, [described in Annex 9] when prepared so as to
contain all the information required by Article 34 [of the
Convention on International Civil Aviation] with respect to the
journey log book, may be considered by Contracting States to
be an acceptable form of journey log book”.
2.4.8.2 All helicopters operated in accordance with
instrument flight rules shall comply with the instrument
approach procedures approved by the State in which the
heliport is located, or by the State which is responsible for the
heliport when located outside the territory of any State.
Note 1.— Operational procedures recommended for the
guidance of operations personnel involved in instrument flight
operations are described in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I.
2.6
Note 2.— Criteria for the construction of instrument flight
procedures for the guidance of procedure specialists are
provided in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume II.
2.4.9
Duties of flight operations
officer/flight dispatcher
2.6.1 A flight operations officer/flight dispatcher when
employed in conjunction with a method of flight supervision
in accordance with 2.2 shall:
a) assist the pilot-in-command in flight preparation and
provide the relevant information required;
Helicopter operating procedures for
noise abatement
Recommendation.— Noise abatement procedures
specified by an operator for any one helicopter type should be
the same for all heliports.
b) assist the pilot-in-command in preparing the operational
and the ATS flight plans, sign when applicable and file
the ATS flight plan with the appropriate ATS unit;
II-2-7
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
c) furnish the pilot-in-command while in flight, by
appropriate means, with information which may be
necessary for the safe conduct of the flight; and
b) the meteorological service; or
c) the communications service.
d) in the event of an emergency, initiate such procedures as
may be outlined in the operations manual.
2.7 Carry-on baggage
2.6.2 A flight operations officer/flight dispatcher shall
avoid taking any action that would conflict with the
procedures established by:
The operator shall ensure that all baggage carried onto a
helicopter and taken into the passenger cabin is adequately and
securely stowed.
a) air traffic control;
1/11/01
II-2-8
CHAPTER 3. HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
3.1
General
3.2.3 A helicopter shall be operated in compliance with
the terms of its certificate of airworthiness and within
the approved operating limitations contained in its flight
manual.
3.1.1 Helicopters shall be operated in accordance with a
comprehensive and detailed code of performance established
by the State of Registry in compliance with the applicable
Standards of this chapter.
3.2.4 The State of Registry shall take such precautions as
are reasonably possible to ensure that the general level of
safety contemplated by these provisions is maintained under
all expected operating conditions, including those not covered
specifically by the provisions of this chapter.
3.1.2 Performance Class 3 helicopters shall only be
operated in conditions of weather and light, and over such
routes and diversions therefrom, that permit a safe forced
landing to be executed in the event of engine failure. The
conditions of this paragraph apply also to performance Class 2
helicopters prior to the defined point after take-off and after
the defined point before landing.
3.2.5 A flight shall not be commenced unless the
performance information provided in the flight manual
indicates that the Standards of 3.2.6 and 3.2.7 can be complied
with for the flight to be undertaken.
3.1.3 Recommendation.— For helicopters for which
Part IV of Annex 8 is not applicable because of the exemption
provided for in Article 41 of the Convention, the State of
Registry should ensure that the level of performance specified
in 3.2 should be met as far as practicable.
3.2.6 In applying the Standards of this chapter, account
shall be taken of all factors that significantly affect the
performance of the helicopter (such as: mass, operating
procedures, the pressure-altitude appropriate to the elevation of
the operating site, temperature, wind and condition of the
surface). Such factors shall be taken into account directly as
operational parameters or indirectly by means of allowances or
margins, which may be provided in the scheduling of
performance data or in the comprehensive and detailed code of
performance in accordance with which the helicopter is being
operated.
3.1.4 Only performance Class 1 helicopters shall be
permitted to operate from elevated heliports in congested
areas.
3.1.5 Recommendation.— Performance Class 3 helicopters should not be permitted to operate from elevated
heliports or helidecks.
3.2.7
3.2 Applicable to helicopters certificated in
accordance with Part IV of Annex 8
a) The mass of the helicopter at the start of take-off shall
not exceed the mass at which 3.2.7.1 is complied with,
nor the mass at which 3.2.7.2 and 3.2.7.3 are complied
with, allowing for expected reductions in mass as the
flight proceeds, and for such fuel jettisoning as is
envisaged in applying 3.2.7.2 and in respect of alternates
3.2.7 c) and 3.2.7.3.
3.2.1 The Standards contained in 3.2.2 to 3.2.7 inclusive
are applicable to the helicopters to which Part IV of Annex 8
is applicable.
Note.— The following Standards do not include quantitative specifications comparable to those found in national
airworthiness codes. In accordance with 3.1.1, they are to be
supplemented by national requirements prepared by
Contracting States.
b) In no case shall the mass at the start of take-off exceed
the maximum take-off mass specified in the flight
manual for the pressure-altitude and temperature
appropriate to the elevation of the operating site, and, if
used as a parameter to determine the maximum take-off
mass, any other local atmospheric condition.
3.2.2 The level of performance defined by the appropriate
parts of the comprehensive and detailed national code referred
to in 3.1.1 for the helicopters designated in 3.2.1 shall be at
least substantially equivalent to the overall level embodied in
the Standards of this chapter.
c) In no case shall the estimated mass for the expected
time of landing at the destination and at any alternate,
exceed the maximum landing mass specified in
the flight manual for the pressure-altitude and
temperature appropriate to the elevation of those
operating sites, and, if used as a parameter to
Note.— Attachment A contains guidance material which
indicates, by an example, the level of performance intended by
the Standards and Recommended Practices of this chapter.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
Mass limitations
II-3-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
determine the maximum landing mass, any other local
atmospheric condition.
any part of the route where the location of suitable intermediate operating sites and the total duration of the flight are
such that the probability of a second power-unit becoming
inoperative must be allowed for if the general level of safety
implied by the Standard of this chapter is to be maintained, the
helicopter shall be able, in the event of any two power-units
becoming inoperative, to continue the flight to a suitable
operating site and make a landing thereat.
d) In no case shall the mass at the start of take-off, or at
the expected time of landing at the destination and at
any alternate, exceed the relevant maximum mass at
which compliance has been demonstrated with the
applicable noise certification Standards in Annex 16,
Volume I, unless otherwise authorized in exceptional
circumstances for a certain operating site where there is
no noise disturbance problem, by the competent
authority of the State in which the operating site is
situated.
3.2.7.1
3.2.7.2.2 For performance Class 3 helicopters. The helicopter shall be able, with all power-units operating, to
continue along its intended route or planned diversions without
flying at any point below the appropriate minimum flight
altitude. At any point of the flight path, failure of a power-unit
will cause the helicopter to force land, therefore the conditions
stated in 3.1.2 shall apply.
Take-off and initial climb phase
3.2.7.1.1 For performance Class 1 helicopters. The helicopter shall be able, in the event of the critical power-unit
failing at or before the take-off decision point, to discontinue
the take-off and stop within the rejected take-off area
available, or, in the event of the failure occurring at or past the
take-off decision point, to continue the take-off and then
climb, clearing all obstacles along the flight path by an
adequate margin until the helicopter is in a position to comply
with 3.2.7.2.1.
3.2.7.3
3.2.7.3.1 For performance Class 1 helicopters. In the
event of the critical power-unit becoming inoperative at any
point during the approach and landing phase, before the
landing decision point, the helicopter shall, at the destination
and at any alternate, after clearing all obstacles in the approach
path by a safe margin, be able to land and stop within the
landing distance available or to perform a balked landing and
clear all obstacles in the flight path by an adequate margin
equivalent to that specified in 3.2.7.1.1. In case of the failure
occurring after the landing decision point, the helicopter shall
be able to land and stop within the landing distance available.
3.2.7.1.2 For performance Class 2 helicopters. The helicopter shall be able, with all engines operating, to clear all
obstacles along its flight path by an adequate margin until it is
in a position to comply with 3.2.7.2.1. The helicopter shall be
able, in the event of the critical power-unit becoming
inoperative at any time after reaching a defined point after
take-off, to continue the take-off and initial climb and clear all
obstacles along its flight path by an adequate margin until it is
in a position to comply with 3.2.7.2.1. Before the defined
point, failure of a critical power-unit may cause the helicopter
to force land, therefore the conditions stated in 3.1.2 shall
apply before the defined point.
3.2.7.3.2 For performance Class 2 helicopters. With all
engines operating, the helicopter shall, at the destination and at
any alternate, after clearing all obstacles in the approach path
by a safe margin, be able either to land and stop within the
landing distance available or to perform a balked landing and
clear all obstacles in the flight path by an adequate margin
equivalent to that specified in 3.2.7.1.2. In the event of the
critical power-unit becoming inoperative before the defined
point before landing, the same specifications are applicable.
After the defined point, failure of a power-unit may cause the
helicopter to force land, therefore the conditions stated in 3.1.2
shall apply.
3.2.7.1.3 For performance Class 3 helicopters. The helicopter shall be able, with all engines operating, to clear all
obstacles along its flight path by an adequate margin until it is
in a position to comply with 3.2.7.2.2. At any point of the
flight path, failure of a power-unit will cause the helicopter
to force land, therefore the conditions stated in 3.1.2 shall
apply.
3.2.7.2
3.2.7.3.3 For performance Class 3 helicopters. With all
engines operating, the helicopter shall, at the destination and at
any alternate, after clearing all obstacles in the approach path
by a safe margin, be able to land and stop within the landing
distance available or to perform a balked landing and clear all
obstacles in the flight path by an adequate margin equivalent
to that specified in 3.2.7.1.3. At any point of the flight path,
failure of a power-unit will cause the helicopter to force land,
therefore the conditions stated in 3.1.2 shall apply.
En-route phase
3.2.7.2.1 For performance Class 1 and Class 2 helicopters. The helicopter shall be able, in the event of the critical
power-unit becoming inoperative at any point in the en-route
phase, to continue the flight to an operating site at which the
Standard of 3.2.7.3.1 for Class 1 helicopters, or the Standard
of 3.2.7.3.2 for Class 2 helicopters can be met, without flying
below the appropriate minimum flight altitude at any point. In
the case of helicopters having three or more power-units, on
1/11/01
Approach and landing phase
Note.— “An adequate margin” referred to in these
provisions, and applicable to all performance classes, is
illustrated by the examples included in Attachment A to this
Annex.
II-3-2
Section II, Chapter 3
3.3
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Obstacle data
Note.— See Annex 4 and Annex 15 for methods of
presentation of certain obstacle data.
3.3.1 Obstacle data shall be provided to enable the
operator to develop procedures to comply with 3.2.7.1 and
3.2.7.3.
3.3.2 The operator shall take account of charting accuracy
when assessing compliance with 3.2.7.1 and 3.2.7.3.
II-3-3
1/11/01
CHAPTER 4. HELICOPTER INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT,
AND FLIGHT DOCUMENTS
Note.— Specifications for the provision of helicopter communication and navigation equipment are contained in
Chapter 5.
4.1
4.2.2 A helicopter shall be equipped with:
a) one or more first-aid kits as appropriate to the number
of passengers the helicopter is authorized to carry;
Note.— Guidance on the contents of first-aid kits is
given in Attachment D.
General
b) portable fire extinguishers of a type which, when
discharged, will not cause dangerous contamination of
the air within the helicopter. At least one shall be
located in:
4.1.1 In addition to the minimum equipment necessary for
the issuance of a certificate of airworthiness, the instruments,
equipment and flight documents prescribed in the following
paragraphs shall be installed or carried, as appropriate, in
helicopters according to the helicopter used and to the
circumstances under which the flight is to be conducted. The
prescribed instruments and equipment, including their installation,
shall be approved or accepted by the State of Registry.
1) the pilot’s compartment; and
2) each passenger compartment that is separate from the
pilot’s compartment and that is not readily accessible
to the flight crew.
4.1.2 The operator shall include in the operations manual
a minimum equipment list (MEL), approved by the State of the
Operator which will enable the pilot-in-command to determine
whether a flight may be commenced or continued from any
intermediate stop should any instrument, equipment or systems
become inoperative. Where the State of the Operator is not the
State of Registry, the State of the Operator shall ensure that the
MEL does not affect the helicopter’s compliance with the
airworthiness requirements applicable in the State of Registry.
Note.— Any portable fire extinguisher so fitted in
accordance with the certificate of airworthiness of the
helicopter may count as one prescribed.
c) 1) a seat or berth for each person over an age to be
determined by the State of the Operator;
2) a seat belt for each seat and restraining belts for each
berth; and
Note.— Attachment E contains guidance on the minimum
equipment list.
3) a safety harness for each flight crew seat. The safety
harness for each pilot seat shall incorporate a device
which will automatically restrain the occupant’s
torso in the event of rapid deceleration.
4.1.3 The operator shall provide operations staff and
flight crew with an aircraft operating manual, for each aircraft
type operated, containing the normal, abnormal and
emergency procedures relating to the operation of the aircraft.
The manual shall include details of the aircraft systems and of
the checklists to be used. The design of the manual shall
observe human factors principles.
Recommendation.— The safety harness for each
pilot seat should incorporate a device to prevent a
suddenly incapacitated pilot from interfering with the
flight controls.
Note.— Guidance material on the application of Human
Factors principles can be found in the Human Factors
Training Manual (Doc 9683).
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder straps
and a seat belt which may be used independently.
d) means of ensuring that the following information and
instructions are conveyed to passengers:
4.2 All helicopters on all flights
1) when seat belts are to be fastened;
4.2.1 A helicopter shall be equipped with instruments
which will enable the flight crew to control the flight path of
the helicopter, carry out any required procedural manoeuvres
and observe the operating limitations of the helicopter in the
expected operating conditions.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
2) when and how oxygen equipment is to be used if the
carriage of oxygen is required;
3) restrictions on smoking;
II-4-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
4) location and use of life jackets or equivalent
individual floatation devices where their carriage is
required; and
The colour of the markings shall be red or yellow, and if
necessary they shall be outlined in white to contrast with the
background.
5) location and method of opening emergency exits; and
4.2.4.2 If the corner markings are more than 2 m apart,
intermediate lines 9 cm x 3 cm shall be inserted so that there
is no more than 2 m between adjacent markings.
e) spare electrical fuses of appropriate ratings for
replacement of those accessible in flight.
4.2.3
Note.— This Standard does not require any helicopter to
have break-in areas.
A helicopter shall carry:
a) the operations manual prescribed in 2.2.2; or those parts
of it that pertain to flight operations;
4.3 Flight recorders
b) the helicopter flight manual for the helicopter, or other
documents containing performance data required for the
application of Chapter 3 and any other information
necessary for the operation of the helicopter within the
terms of its certificate of airworthiness, unless these data
are available in the operations manual; and
Note 1.— Flight recorders comprise two systems, a flight
data recorder (FDR) and a cockpit voice recorder (CVR).
Note 2.— Combination recorders (FDR/CVR) can only be
used to meet the flight recorder equipage requirements as
specifically indicated in this Annex.
c) current and suitable charts to cover the route of the
proposed flight and any route along which it is
reasonable to expect that the flight may be diverted.
Note 3.— Detailed guidance on flight recorders is contained
in Attachment B.
4.2.4 Marking of break-in points
4.3.1
4.2.4.1 If areas of the fuselage suitable for break-in by
rescue crews in an emergency are marked on a helicopter, such
areas shall be marked as shown below (see figure following).
4.3.1.1 A Type IV FDR shall record the parameters
required to determine accurately the helicopter flight path,
speed, attitude, engine power and operation.
MARKING OF BREAK-IN POINTS (see 4.2.4)
1/11/01
Flight data recorders — types
II-4-2
Section II, Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
4.3.1.2 A Type V FDR shall record the parameters
required to determine accurately the helicopter flight path,
speed, attitude and engine power.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Pressure altitude
Indicated airspeed
Outside air temperature
Heading
Normal acceleration
Lateral acceleration
Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
Time or relative time count
Navigation data*: drift angle, wind speed, wind
direction, latitude/longitude
– Radio altitude*
4.3.1.3 The use of engraving metal foil FDRs shall be
discontinued by 1 January 1995.
4.3.1.4 Recommendation.— The use of analogue FDRs
using frequency modulation (FM) should be discontinued by 5
November 1998.
4.3.1.4.1 The use of photographic film FDRs shall be
discontinued from 1 January 2003.
4.3.1.7.2 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for attitude:
4.3.1.5 All helicopters for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2005, which
utilize data link communications and are required to carry a
CVR, shall record on a flight recorder, all data link
communications to and from the helicopter. The minimum
recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR,
and shall be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
– Pitch attitude
– Roll attitude
– Yaw rate
4.3.1.7.3 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for engine power:
– Power on each engine: free power turbine speed (Nf),
engine torque, engine gas generator speed (Ng), cockpit
power control position
– Rotor: main rotor speed, rotor brake
– Main gearbox oil pressure*
– Gearbox oil temperature*: main gearbox oil temperature, intermediate gearbox oil temperature, tail rotor
gearbox oil temperature
– Engine exhaust gas temperature (T4)*
– Turbine inlet temperature (TIT)*
4.3.1.5.1 From 1 January 2007, all helicopters which
utilize data link communications and are required to carry a
CVR, shall record on a flight recorder, all data link
communications to and from the helicopter. The minimum
recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR,
and shall be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
4.3.1.5.2 Sufficient information to derive the content of
the data link communications message, and, whenever
practical, the time the message was displayed to or generated
by the crew shall be recorded.
4.3.1.7.4 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for configuration:
Note.— Data link communications include, but are not
limited to, automatic dependent surveillance (ADS),
controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC), data linkflight information services (D-FIS) and aeronautical
operational control (AOC) messages.
– Landing gear or gear selector position*
– Fuel quantity*
– Ice detector liquid water content*
4.3.1.7.5 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for operation:
4.3.1.6 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a
maximum certificated take-off mass over 2 700 kg, required to
be equipped with an FDR and/or a CVR, may alternatively be
equipped with one combination recorder (FDR/CVR).
– Hydraulics low pressure
– Warnings
– Primary flight controls — pilot input and/or control
output position: collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic
pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, tail rotor pedal, controllable
stabilator, hydraulic selection
– Marker beacon passage
– Each navigation receiver frequency selection
– AFCS mode and engagement status*
– Stability augmentation system engagement*
– Indicated sling load force*
– Vertical deviation*: ILS glide path, MLS elevation,
GNSS approach path
– Horizontal deviation*: ILS localizer, MLS azimuth,
GNSS approach path
– DME 1 and 2 distances*
4.3.1.7 A Type IVA FDR shall record the parameters
required to determine accurately the helicopter flight path,
speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation. The
parameters that satisfy the requirements for a Type IVA FDR
are listed in the paragraphs below. The parameters without an
asterisk (*) are mandatory parameters which shall be recorded.
In addition, the parameters designated by an asterisk (*) shall
be recorded if an information data source for the parameter is
used by helicopter systems or the flight crew to operate the
helicopter.
4.3.1.7.1 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for flight path and speed:
II-4-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
– Altitude rate*
– Ice detector liquid water content*
– Helicopter health and usage monitor system (HUMS)*:
engine data, chip detectors, track timing, exceedance
discretes, broadband average engine vibration
objective of which is the recording of the aural environment on
the flight deck during flight time. For helicopters not equipped
with an FDR, at least main rotor speed shall be recorded on
one track of the CVR.
4.3.5.2 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 3 180 kg up to and including 7 000 kg shall be
equipped with a CVR the objective of which is the recording
of the aural environment on the flight deck during flight time.
For helicopters not equipped with an FDR, at least main rotor
speed shall be recorded on one track of the CVR.
Note 1.— Parameter requirements, including range,
sampling, accuracy and resolution, as contained in the
Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS)
document for Flight Recorder Systems of the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) or
equivalent documents.
Note 2.— The number of parameters to be recorded will
depend on helicopter complexity. Parameters without an (*)
are to be recorded regardless of helicopter complexity. Those
parameters designated by an (*) are to be recorded if an
information source for the parameter is used by helicopter
systems and/or flight crew to operate the helicopter.
4.3.2
4.3.6
All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off mass of
over 7 000 kg shall be equipped with a CVR, the objective of
which is the recording of the aural environment on the flight
deck during flight time. For helicopters not equipped with an
FDR, at least main rotor speed shall be recorded on one track
of the CVR.
Flight data recorders — duration
Types IV and V FDRs shall be capable of retaining the
information recorded during at least the last ten hours of their
operation.
Note.— CVR performance requirements are as contained in
the Minimum Operational Performance Specifications (MOPS)
document for Flight Recorder Systems of the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) or
equivalent documents.
4.3.3 Flight data recorders — helicopters
for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued
on or after 1 January 1989
4.3.7
4.3.3.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 7 000 kg shall be equipped with a Type IV FDR.
Cockpit voice recorders — duration
4.3.7.1 A CVR shall be capable of retaining the
information recorded during at least the last 30 minutes of its
operation.
4.3.3.2 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a
maximum certificated take-off mass of over 2 700 kg up to and
including 7 000 kg should be equipped with a Type V FDR.
4.3.4
Cockpit voice recorders — helicopters
for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness was first issued
before 1 January 1987
4.3.7.2 Recommendation.— A CVR, installed in
helicopters for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1990, should
be capable of retaining the information recorded during at
least the last two hours of its operation.
Flight data recorders — helicopters for which
the individual certificate of airworthiness
is first issued after 1 January 2005
4.3.7.3 A CVR, installed in helicopters for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after 1
January 2003, shall be capable of retaining the information
recorded during at least the last two hours of its operation.
4.3.4.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 3 180 kg shall be equipped with a Type IVA FDR
with a recording duration of at least 10 hours.
Note.— A single, combination CVR/FDR is acceptable.
4.3.5
4.3.8 Flight recorders — construction
and installation
Cockpit voice recorders — helicopters
for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued
on or after 1 January 1987
Flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so
as to provide maximum practical protection for the recordings
in order that the recorded information may be preserved,
recovered and transcribed. Flight recorders shall meet the
prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications.
4.3.5.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 7 000 kg shall be equipped with a CVR the
1/11/01
II-4-4
Section II, Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Note.— Industry crashworthiness and fire protection
specifications can be found in documents such as the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE)
documents ED55 and ED56A.
4.5
4.5.1 Means of flotation
All helicopters intended to be flown over water shall be fitted
with a permanent or rapidly deployable means of flotation so
as to ensure a safe ditching of the helicopter when:
4.3.9 Flight recorders — operation
4.3.9.1 Flight recorders shall not be switched off during
flight time.
a) flying over water at a distance from land corresponding
to more than 10 minutes at normal cruise speed in the
case of performance Class 1 or 2 helicopters; or
4.3.9.2 To preserve flight recorder records, flight
recorders shall be de-activated upon completion of flight time
following an accident or incident. The flight recorders shall
not be re-activated before their disposition as determined in
accordance with Annex 13.
b) flying over water beyond autorotational or safe forced
landing distance from land in the case of performance
Class 3 helicopters.
Note 1.— The need for removal of the flight recorder
records from the aircraft will be determined by the investigation authority in the State conducting the investigation with
due regard to the seriousness of an occurrence and the
circumstances, including the impact on the operation.
4.5.2
Emergency equipment
4.5.2.1 Performance Class 1 and 2 helicopters, operating in
accordance with the provisions of 4.5.1, shall be equipped with:
a) one life jacket, or equivalent individual flotation device,
for each person on board, stowed in a position easily
accessible from the seat or berth of the person for whose
use it is provided;
Note 2.— The operator’s responsibilities regarding the
retention of flight recorder records are contained in 9.6.
4.3.10
All helicopters on flights over water
Flight recorders — continued serviceability
Operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the
FDR and CVR systems shall be conducted to ensure the
continued serviceability of the recorders.
b) life-saving rafts in sufficient numbers to carry all
persons on board, stowed so as to facilitate their ready
use in emergency, provided with such life-saving
equipment including means of sustaining life as is
appropriate to the flight to be undertaken; and
Note.— Procedures for the inspections of the flight data and
CVR systems are given in Attachment B.
c) equipment for making the pyrotechnical distress signals
described in Annex 2.
4.4
4.5.2.2 Performance Class 3 helicopters when operating
beyond autorotational distance from land but within a distance
from land specified by the appropriate authority of the
responsible State shall be equipped with one life jacket, or
equivalent individual flotation device, for each person on
board, stowed in a position easily accessible from the seat or
berth of the person for whose use it is provided.
All helicopters operated in accordance
with visual flight rules
4.4.1 All helicopters when operated in accordance with
visual flight rules shall be equipped with:
a) a magnetic compass;
Note.— When determining the distance from land referred
to in 4.5.2.2, consideration should be given to environmental
conditions and the availability of SAR facilities.
b) an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours,
minutes and seconds;
4.5.2.3 Performance Class 3 helicopters when operating
outside the provisions of 4.5.2.2 shall be equipped as in
4.5.2.1.
c) a sensitive pressure altimeter;
d) an airspeed indicator; and
4.5.2.4 In the case of performance Class 2 and Class 3
helicopters, when taking off or landing at a heliport where, in
the opinion of the State of the Operator, the take-off or
approach path is so disposed over water that in the event of a
mishap there would be likelihood of a ditching, at least the
equipment required in 4.5.2.1 a) shall be carried.
e) such additional instruments or equipment as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
4.4.2 VFR flights which are operated as controlled flights
shall be equipped in accordance with 4.10.
II-4-5
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
4.5.2.5 Each life jacket and equivalent individual
flotation device, when carried in accordance with this 4.5,
shall be equipped with a means of electric illumination for the
purpose of facilitating the location of persons.
4.7.4 Except as provided for in 4.7.5, until 1 January 2005
helicopters on flights over designated land areas as described
in 4.6 shall be equipped with at least one ELT.
4.7.5 Helicopters for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2002, on flights
over designated land areas as described in 4.6 shall be
equipped with at least one automatic ELT.
4.5.2.6 Recommendation.— On any helicopter for
which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued
on or after 1 January 1991, at least 50 per cent of the life rafts
carried in accordance with the provisions of 4.5.2 should be
deployable by remote control.
4.7.6 From 1 January 2005, helicopters on flights over
designated land areas as described in 4.6 shall be equipped
with at least one automatic ELT.
4.5.2.7 Recommendation.— Rafts which are not
deployable by remote control and which have a mass of more
than 40 kg should be equipped with some means of
mechanically assisted deployment.
4.7.7 Recommendation.— All helicopters should carry
an automatic ELT.
4.7.8 ELT equipment carried to satisfy the requirements
of 4.7.1, 4.7.2, 4.7.3, 4.7.4, 4.7.5, 4.7.6 and 4.7.7 shall operate
in accordance with the relevant provisions of Annex 10,
Volume III.
4.5.2.8 Recommendation.— On any helicopter for which
the individual certificate of airworthiness was first issued
before 1 January 1991, the provisions of 4.5.2.6 and 4.5.2.7
should be complied with no later than 31 December 1992.
4.8
4.6 All helicopters on flights
over designated land areas
Note.— Approximate altitude in the Standard Atmosphere
corresponding to the value of absolute pressure used in this
text is as follows:
Helicopters, when operated across land areas which have been
designated by the State concerned as areas in which search and
rescue would be especially difficult, shall be equipped with such
signalling devices and life-saving equipment (including means
of sustaining life) as may be appropriate to the area overflown.
4.7
Emergency locator
transmitter (ELT)
Absolute pressure
Metres
Feet
700 hPa
620 hPa
376 hPa
3 000
4 000
7 600
10 000
13 000
25 000
4.8.1 A helicopter intended to be operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than
700 hPa in personnel compartments shall be equipped with
oxygen storage and dispensing apparatus capable of storing
and dispensing the oxygen supplies required in 2.3.8.1.
4.7.1 Except as provided for in 4.7.2, until 1 January 2005
all Performance Class 1 and 2 helicopters operating on flights
over water as described in 4.5.1 a) and Performance Class 3
helicopters operating as described in 4.5.1 b) shall be equipped
with at least one ELT(S) per raft carried but not more than a
total of two ELTs are required.
4.8.2 A helicopter intended to be operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is less than
700 hPa but which is provided with means of maintaining
pressures greater than 700 hPa in personnel compartments
shall be provided with oxygen storage and dispensing
apparatus capable of storing and dispensing the oxygen
supplies required in 2.3.8.2.
4.7.2 Performance Class 1 and 2 helicopters for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after
1 January 2002, operating on flights over water as described in
4.5.1 a) and Performance Class 3 helicopters for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after
1 January 2002, operating as described in 4.5.1 b) shall be
equipped with at least one automatic ELT and at least one
ELT(S) in a raft.
4.8.3 A helicopter intended to be operated at flight
altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure is more than
376 hPa which cannot descend safely within four minutes to a
flight altitude at which the atmospheric pressure is equal to
620 hPa, and for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness was issued on or after 9 November 1998, shall
be provided with automatically deployable oxygen equipment
to satisfy the requirements of 2.3.8.2. The total number of
oxygen dispensing units shall exceed the number of passenger
and cabin crew seats by at least 10 per cent.
4.7.3 From 1 January 2005, all Performance Class 1 and
2 helicopters operating on flights over water as described in
4.5.1 a) and Performance Class 3 helicopters operating as
described in 4.5.1 b) shall be equipped with at least one
automatic ELT and at least one ELT(S) in a raft.
1/11/01
All helicopters on high altitude flights
II-4-6
Section II, Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
4.8.4 Recommendation.— A helicopter intended to be
operated at flight altitudes at which the atmospheric pressure
is more than 376 hPa which cannot descend safely within four
minutes to a flight altitude at which the atmospheric pressure
is equal to 620 hPa, and for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is issued before 9 November 1998, should be
provided with automatically deployable oxygen equipment to
satisfy the requirements of 2.3.8.2. The total number of oxygen
dispensing units should exceed the number of passenger and
cabin crew seats by at least 10 per cent.
4.9
h) a means of indicating whether the power supply to the
gyroscopic instrument is adequate;
i) a means of indicating in the flight crew compartment the
outside air temperature;
j) a rate of climb and descent indicator;
k) a stabilization system, unless it has been demonstrated
to the satisfaction of the certificating authority that the
helicopter possesses, by nature of its design, adequate
stability without such a system; and
l) such additional instruments or equipment as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
All helicopters in
icing conditions
4.10.2 All performance Class 1 and Class 2 helicopters
when operated in accordance with the instrument flight rules
shall be fitted with an emergency power supply, independent
of the main electrical generating system, for the purpose of
operating and illuminating, for a minimum period of
30 minutes, an attitude indicating instrument (artificial
horizon), clearly visible to the pilot-in-command. The
emergency power supply shall be automatically operative after
the total failure of the main electrical generating system and
clear indication shall be given on the instrument panel that the
attitude indicator(s) is being operated by emergency power.
All helicopters shall be equipped with suitable anti-icing and/
or de-icing devices when operated in circumstances in which
icing conditions are reported to exist or are expected to be
encountered.
4.10
All helicopters operated
in accordance with
instrument flight rules
4.10.1 All helicopters when operated in accordance with
the instrument flight rules, or when the helicopter cannot be
maintained in a desired attitude without reference to one or
more flight instruments, shall be equipped with:
4.11
a) a magnetic compass;
All helicopters when
operated at night
4.11.1 All helicopters, when operated at night shall be
equipped with:
b) an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours,
minutes and seconds;
a) all equipment specified in 4.10;
c) two sensitive pressure altimeters with counter drumpointer or equivalent presentation;
b) the lights required by Annex 2 for aircraft in flight or
operating on the movement area of a heliport;
Note.— Neither three-pointer nor drum-pointer
altimeters satisfy the requirement in 4.10.1 c).
Note.— The general characteristics of lights are
specified in Annex 8. Detailed specifications for lights
meeting the requirements of Annex 2 for aircraft in
flight or operating on the movement area of a heliport
are contained in the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
d) an airspeed indicating system with means of preventing
malfunctioning due to either condensation or icing;
e) a slip indicator;
c) two landing lights;
f) three attitude indicators (artificial horizon), one of
which may be replaced by a turn indicator;
d) illumination for all instruments and equipment that are
essential for the safe operation of the helicopter that are
used by the flight crew;
g) a heading indicator (directional gyroscope);
e) lights in all passenger compartments; and
Note.— The requirements of 4.10.1 e), f) and g) may
be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated
flight director systems provided that the safeguards
against total failure, inherent in the separate
instruments, are retained.
f) an electric torch for each crew member station.
4.11.2 Recommendation.— One of the landing lights
should be trainable, at least in the vertical plane.
II-4-7
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
4.12 Helicopters when carrying passengers —
significant-weather detection
helicopter) seat, fitted with a safety harness for the use of each
cabin crew member required to satisfy the intent of 10.1 in
respect of emergency evacuation.
Recommendation.—
Helicopters
when
carrying
passengers should be equipped with operative weather radar
or other significant-weather detection equipment whenever
such helicopters are being operated in areas where
thunderstorms or other potentially hazardous weather
conditions, regarded as detectable, may be expected to exist
along the route either at night or under instrument
meteorological conditions.
Note 1.— In accordance with the provisions of 4.2.2 c) 1),
a seat and seat belt shall be provided for the use of each
additional cabin crew member.
Note 2.— Safety harness includes shoulder straps and a
seat belt which may be used independently.
4.14.2 Cabin crew seats shall be located near floor level
and other emergency exits as required by the State of Registry
for emergency evacuation.
4.13 All helicopters complying with
the noise certification Standards in
Annex 16, Volume I
4.15
All helicopters shall carry a document attesting noise
certification. When the document, or a suitable statement
attesting noise certification as contained in another document
approved by the State of Registry, is issued in a language other
than English, it shall include an English translation.
All helicopters shall be equipped with a pressure-altitude
reporting transponder which operates in accordance with the
provisions of Annex 10, Volume IV.
Note.— This provision is intended to improve the
effectiveness of air traffic services as well as airborne collision
avoidance systems.
Note.— The attestation may be contained in any document,
carried on board, approved by the State of Registry.
4.14
4.16
Helicopters carrying passengers —
cabin crew seats
Microphones
All flight crew members required to be on flight deck duty
shall communicate through boom or throat microphones below
the transition level/altitude.
4.14.1 All helicopters shall be equipped with a forward or
rearward facing (within 15° of the longitudinal axis of the
1/11/01
Helicopters required to be equipped with a
pressure-altitude reporting transponder
II-4-8
CHAPTER 5. HELICOPTER COMMUNICATION
AND NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
5.1 Communication equipment
c) in accordance with the requirements of air traffic
services;
5.1.1 A helicopter shall be provided with radio communication equipment capable of:
except when, if not so precluded by the appropriate authority,
navigation for flights under the visual flight rules is
accomplished by visual reference to landmarks.
a) conducting two-way communication for heliport control
purposes;
Note.— Information on RNP and associated procedures is
contained in the Manual on Required Navigation Performance
(RNP) (Doc 9613).
b) receiving meteorological information at any time during
flight;
c) conducting two-way communication at any time during
flight with at least one aeronautical station and with
such other aeronautical stations and on such frequencies
as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority.
5.2.2 The helicopter shall be sufficiently provided with
navigation equipment to ensure that, in the event of the failure
of one item of equipment at any stage of the flight, the
remaining equipment will enable the helicopter to navigate in
accordance with 5.2.1.
Note.— The requirements of 5.1.1 are considered fulfilled
if the ability to conduct the communications specified therein
is established during radio propagation conditions which are
normal for the route.
5.2.3 On flights in which it is intended to land in
instrument meteorological conditions a helicopter shall be
provided with radio equipment capable of receiving signals
providing guidance to a point from which a visual landing can
be effected. This equipment shall be capable of providing such
guidance at each heliport at which it is intended to land in
instrument meteorological conditions and at any designated
alternate heliports.
5.1.2 The radio communication equipment required in
accordance with 5.1.1 shall provide for communications on the
aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5 MHz.
5.2 Navigation equipment
5.2.1 A helicopter shall be provided with navigation
equipment which will enable it to proceed:
5.3
The equipment installation shall be such that the failure of any
single unit required for either communications or navigation
purposes or both will not result in the failure of another unit
required for communications or navigation purposes.
a) in accordance with its operational flight plan;
b) in accordance with prescribed RNP types; and
ANNEX 6 — PART III
Installation
II-5-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 6.
HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE
Note 1.— For the purpose of this chapter “helicopter”
includes: powerplants, power transmissions, rotors,
components, accessories, instruments, equipment and
apparatus including emergency equipment.
maintenance control manual, acceptable to the State of
Registry, in accordance with the requirements of 9.2.
6.2.2 The operator shall ensure that the maintenance
control manual is amended as necessary to keep the
information contained therein up to date.
Note 2.— Reference is made throughout this chapter to the
requirements of the State of Registry. When the State of the
Operator is not the same as the State of Registry, it may be
necessary to consider any additional requirements of the State
of the Operator.
6.2.3 Copies of all amendments to the operator’s
maintenance control manual shall be furnished promptly to all
organizations or persons to whom the manual has been issued.
Note 3.— Guidance on continuing airworthiness requirements is contained in the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
6.1
6.2.4 The operator shall provide the State of the Operator
and the State of Registry with a copy of the operator’s
maintenance control manual, together with all amendments
and/or revisions to it and shall incorporate in it such
mandatory material as the State of the Operator or the State of
Registry may require.
Operator’s maintenance responsibilities
6.1.1 Operators shall ensure that, in accordance with
procedures acceptable to the State of Registry:
6.3 Maintenance programme
a) each helicopter they operate is maintained in an
airworthy condition;
6.3.1 The operator shall provide, for the use and guidance
of maintenance and operational personnel concerned, a
maintenance programme, approved by the State of Registry,
containing the information required by 9.3. The design and
application of the operator’s maintenance programme shall
observe Human Factors principles.
b) the operational and emergency equipment necessary for
the intended flight is serviceable; and
c) the Certificate of Airworthiness of the helicopter they
operate remains valid.
Note.— Guidance material on the application of Human
Factors principles can be found in the Human Factors Training
Manual (Doc 9683).
6.1.2 An operator shall not operate a helicopter unless it
is maintained and released to service by an organization
approved in accordance with Annex 6, Part I, 8.7 or under an
equivalent system, either of which shall be acceptable to the
State of Registry.
6.3.2 Copies of all amendments to the maintenance
programme shall be furnished promptly to all organizations or
persons to whom the maintenance programme has been issued.
6.1.3 When the State of Registry accepts an equivalent
system, the person signing the maintenance release shall be
licensed in accordance with Annex 1.
6.4
6.1.4 An operator shall employ a person or group of
persons to ensure that all maintenance is carried out in
accordance with the maintenance control manual.
Maintenance records
6.4.1 An operator shall ensure that the following records
are kept for the periods mentioned in 6.4.2:
6.1.5 The operator shall ensure the maintenance of its
helicopters is performed in accordance with the maintenance
programme approved by the State of Registry.
a) the total time in service (hours, calendar time and
cycles, as appropriate) of the helicopter and all lifelimited components;
6.2 Operator’s maintenance control manual
b) the current status of compliance with all mandatory
continuing airworthiness information;
6.2.1 The operator shall provide, for the use and guidance
of maintenance and operational personnel concerned, a
c) appropriate details of modifications and repairs to the
helicopter and its major components;
ANNEX 6 — PART III
II-6-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
d) the time in service (hours, calendar time and cycles, as
appropriate) since last overhaul of the helicopter or its
components subject to a mandatory overhaul life;
6.7
6.7.1 A maintenance release shall be completed and
signed to certify that the maintenance work has been
completed satisfactorily and in accordance with approved data
and the procedures described in the maintenance
organization’s procedures manual.
e) the current status of the helicopter’s compliance with the
maintenance programme; and
f) the detailed maintenance records to show that all
requirements for a maintenance release have been met.
6.7.2 A maintenance release shall contain a certification
including:
6.4.2 The records in 6.4.1 a) to e) shall be kept for a
minimum period of 90 days after the unit to which they refer
has been permanently withdrawn from service, and the records
in 6.4.1 f) for a minimum period of one year after the signing
of the maintenance release.
a) basic details of the maintenance carried out including
detailed reference of the approved data used;
b) date such maintenance was completed;
6.4.3 In the event of a temporary change of operator, the
records shall be made available to the new operator. In the
event of any permanent change of operator, the records shall
be transferred to the new operator.
6.5
c) when applicable, the identity
maintenance organization; and
6.8
6.5.1 The operator of a helicopter over 3 180 kg
maximum mass shall monitor and assess maintenance and
operational experience with respect to continuing
airworthiness and provide the information as prescribed by the
State of Registry and report through the system specified in
Annex 8, Part II, 4.3.5 and 4.3.8.
the
approved
Records
6.8.1 An operator shall ensure that the following records
are kept:
a) in respect of the entire helicopter: the total time in
service;
b) in respect of the major components of the helicopter:
6.5.2 The operator of a helicopter over 3 180 kg
maximum mass shall obtain and assess continuing
airworthiness information and recommendations available
from the organization responsible for the type design and shall
implement resulting actions considered necessary in
accordance with a procedure acceptable to the State of
Registry.
1) the total time in service;
2) the date of the last overhaul;
3) the date of the last inspection;
c) in respect of those instruments and equipment, the
serviceability and operating life of which are determined
by their time in service;
Note.— Guidance on interpretation of “the organization
responsible for the type design” is contained in the
Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
1) such records of the time in service as are necessary to
determine their serviceability or to compute their
operating life;
Modifications and repairs
All modifications and repairs shall comply with airworthiness
requirements acceptable to the State of Registry. Procedures
shall be established to ensure that the substantiating data
supporting compliance with the airworthiness requirements are
retained.
1/11/01
of
d) the identity of the person or persons signing the release.
Continuing airworthiness information
6.6
Maintenance release
2) the date of the last inspection.
6.8.2 These records shall be kept for a period of 90 days
after the end of the operating life of the unit to which they
refer.
II-6-2
CHAPTER 7.
7.1
HELICOPTER FLIGHT CREW
Composition of the flight crew
members know the functions for which they are responsible
and the relation of these functions to the functions of other
crew members. The training programme shall be given on a
recurrent basis, as determined by the State of the Operator and
shall include an examination to determine competence.
7.1.1 The number and composition of the flight crew shall
not be less than that specified in the operations manual. The
flight crews shall include flight crew members in addition to
the minimum numbers specified in the flight manual or other
documents associated with the certificate of airworthiness,
when necessitated by considerations related to the type of
helicopter used, the type of operation involved and the duration
of flight between points where flight crews are changed.
Note 1.— Paragraph 2.2.4 prohibits the in-flight simulation
of emergency or abnormal situations when passengers or
cargo are being carried.
Note 2.— Flight training may, to the extent deemed
appropriate by the State of the Operator, be given in
helicopter synthetic flight trainers approved by the State for
that purpose.
7.1.2 The flight crew shall include at least one member
who holds a valid licence, issued or rendered valid by the
State of Registry, authorizing operation of the type of radio
transmitting equipment to be used.
Note 3.— The scope of the recurrent training required by
7.2 and 7.3 may be varied and need not be as extensive as the
initial training given in a particular type of helicopter.
7.2 Flight crew member
emergency duties
Note 4.— The use of correspondence courses and written
examinations as well as other means may, to the extent
deemed feasible by the State of the Operator, be utilized in
meeting the requirements for periodic ground training.
An operator shall, for each type of helicopter, assign to all
flight crew members the necessary functions they are to
perform in an emergency or in a situation requiring emergency
evacuation. Annual training in accomplishing these functions
shall be contained in the operator’s training programme and
shall include instruction in the use of all emergency and lifesaving equipment required to be carried, and drills in the
emergency evacuation of the helicopter.
Note 5.— Provisions for training in the transport of
dangerous goods are contained in Annex 18.
Note 6.— Guidance material to design training
programmes to develop knowledge and skills in human
performance can be found in the Human Factors Training
Manual (Doc 9683).
7.3 Flight crew member
training programmes
7.3.2 The requirement for recurrent flight training in a
particular type of helicopter shall be considered fulfilled by:
7.3.1 An operator shall establish and maintain a ground
and flight training programme, approved by the State of the
Operator, which ensures that all flight crew members are
adequately trained to perform their assigned duties. Ground
and flight training facilities and properly qualified instructors
as determined by the State of the Operator shall be provided.
The training programme shall consist of ground and flight
training in the type(s) of helicopter on which the flight
crew member serves, and shall include proper flight crew coordination and training in all types of emergency or abnormal
situations or procedures caused by powerplant, transmission,
rotor, airframe or systems malfunctions, fire or other
abnormalities. The training programme shall also include
training in knowledge and skills related to human performance
and in the transport of dangerous goods. The training for all
flight crew members, particularly that relating to abnormal or
emergency procedures, shall ensure that all flight crew
ANNEX 6 — PART III
a) the use, to the extent deemed feasible by the State of the
Operator, of helicopter synthetic flight trainers approved
by that State for that purpose; or
b) the completion within the appropriate period of the
proficiency check required by 7.4.4 in that type of
helicopter.
7.4 Qualifications
7.4.1 Recent experience — pilot-in-command
An operator shall not assign a pilot to act as pilot-in-command
of a helicopter unless, on the same type of helicopter within
II-7-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
the preceding 90 days, that pilot has made at least three takeoffs and landings.
a) the approach to the heliport is not over difficult terrain
and the instrument approach procedures and aids
available are similar to those with which the pilot is
familiar, and a margin to be approved by the State of the
Operator is added to the normal operating minima, or
there is reasonable certainty that approach and landing
can be made in visual meteorological conditions; or
7.4.2 Recent experience — co-pilot
An operator shall not assign a co-pilot to operate at the flight
controls during take-off and landing unless, on the same type
of helicopter within the preceding 90 days, that co-pilot has
operated the flight controls, as pilot-in-command or as
co-pilot, during three take-offs and landings or has otherwise
demonstrated competence to act as co-pilot on a flight
simulator approved for the purpose.
b) the descent from the initial approach altitude can be
made by day in visual meteorological conditions; or
c) the operator qualifies the pilot-in-command to land at
the heliport concerned by means of an adequate pictorial
presentation.
7.4.3 Pilot-in-command route
and heliport qualification
7.4.3.4 The operator shall maintain a record, sufficient to
satisfy the State of the Operator of the qualification of the pilot
and of the manner in which such qualification has been
achieved.
7.4.3.1 An operator shall not utilize a pilot as pilot-incommand of a helicopter on a route or route segment for
which that pilot is not currently qualified until such pilot has
complied with 7.4.3.2 and 7.4.3.3.
7.4.3.5 An operator shall not continue to utilize a pilot as
a pilot-in-command on a route unless, within the preceding 12
months, the pilot has made at least one trip between the
terminal points of that route as a pilot member of the flight
crew, or as a check pilot, or as an observer on the flight deck.
In the event that more than 12 months elapse in which a pilot
has not made such a trip on a route in close proximity and over
similar terrain, prior to again serving as a pilot-in-command on
that route, that pilot must requalify in accordance with 7.4.3.2
and 7.4.3.3.
7.4.3.2 Each such pilot shall demonstrate to the operator
an adequate knowledge of:
a) the route to be flown, and the heliports which are to be
used. This shall include knowledge of:
1) the terrain and minimum safe altitudes;
2) the seasonal meteorological conditions;
7.4.4 Pilot proficiency checks
3) the meteorological, communication and air traffic
facilities, services and procedures;
An operator shall ensure that piloting technique and the ability
to execute emergency procedures is checked in such a way as
to demonstrate the pilot’s competence. Where the operation
may be conducted under instrument flight rules, an operator
shall ensure that the pilot’s competence to comply with such
rules is demonstrated to either a check pilot of the operator or
to a representative of the State of the Operator. Such checks
shall be performed twice within any period of one year. Any
two such checks which are similar and which occur within a
period of four consecutive months shall not alone satisfy this
requirement.
4) the search and rescue procedures; and
5) the navigational facilities and procedures associated
with the route along which the flight is to take place;
and
b) procedures applicable to flight paths over heavily
populated areas and areas of high air traffic density,
obstructions, physical layout, lighting, approach aids
and arrival, departure, holding and instrument approach
procedures, and applicable operating minima.
Note.— Flight simulators approved by the State of the
Operator may be used for those parts of the checks for which
they are specifically approved.
Note.— That portion of the demonstration relating to
arrival, departure, holding and instrument approach
procedures may be accomplished in an appropriate training
device which is adequate for this purpose.
7.5 Flight crew equipment
7.4.3.3 A pilot-in-command shall have made an actual
approach into each heliport of landing on the route,
accompanied by a pilot who is qualified for the heliport, as a
member of the flight crew or as an observer on the flight deck,
unless:
1/11/01
A flight crew member assessed as fit to exercise the privileges
of a licence subject to the use of suitable correcting lenses,
shall have a spare set of the correcting lenses readily available
when exercising those privileges.
II-7-2
Section II, Chapter 7
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
7.6 Flight time, flight duty periods
and rest periods
be such as to ensure that fatigue occurring either in a flight
or successive flights or accumulated over a period of time due
to these and other tasks, does not endanger the safety of a
flight.
The State of the Operator shall establish regulations specifying
the limitations applicable to the flight time and flight duty
periods for flight crew members. These regulations shall
also make provision for adequate rest periods and shall
Note.— Guidance on the establishment of limitations is
given in Attachment A.
II-7-3
1/11/01
CHAPTER 8.
FLIGHT OPERATIONS OFFICER/FLIGHT DISPATCHER
8.1 A flight operations officer/flight dispatcher, when
employed in conjunction with an approved method of flight
supervision requiring the services of licensed flight operations
officers/flight dispatchers shall be licensed in accordance with
the provisions of Annex 1.
1) the seasonal meteorological conditions and the
sources of meteorological information;
2) the effects of meteorological conditions on radio
reception in the helicopters used;
3) the peculiarities and limitations of each navigation
system which is used by the operation; and
Note.— The above provisions do not necessarily require a
flight operations officer/flight dispatcher to hold the licence
specified in Annex 1. In accordance with 2.2 the method of
flight supervision is subject to approval by the State of the
Operator, which may accept proof of qualifications other than
the holding of the licence.
4) the helicopter loading instructions;
c) satisfied the operator as to knowledge and skills related
to human performance as they apply to dispatch duties;
and
8.2 Recommendation.— A flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher should not be assigned to duty unless that officer
has:
d) demonstrated to the operator the ability to perform the
duties specified in 2.6.
8.3 Recommendation.— A flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher assigned to duty should maintain complete
familiarization with all features of the operations which are
pertinent to such duties, including knowledge and skills related
to human performance.
a) demonstrated to the operator a knowledge of:
1) the contents of the operations manual described in the
Appendix;
2) the radio equipment in the helicopters used; and
3) the navigation equipment in the helicopters used;
Note.— Guidance material to design training programmes
to develop knowledge and skills in human performance can be
found in the Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683).
b) demonstrated to the operator a knowledge of the
following details concerning operations for which the
officer is responsible and areas in which that individual
is authorized to exercise flight supervision:
8.4 Recommendation.— A flight operations officer/flight
dispatcher should not be assigned to duty after 12 consecutive
months of absence from such duty, unless the provisions of 8.2
are met.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
II-8-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 9.
MANUALS, LOGS AND RECORDS
Note.— The following additional manuals, logs and
records are associated with this Annex but are not included in
this chapter:
d) a description of the methods used for the completion and
retention of the operator’s maintenance records required
by 6.4;
Fuel and oil records — see 2.2.8
e) a description of the procedures for monitoring, assessing
and reporting maintenance and operational experience
required by 6.5.1;
Maintenance records — see 6.8
Flight time, flight duty periods and rest periods records —
see 2.2.9.3
f) a description of the procedures for complying with the
service information reporting requirements of Annex 8,
Part II, 4.3.5 and 4.3.8;
Flight preparation forms — see 2.3
g) a description of procedures for assessing continuing
airworthiness information and implementing any
resulting actions, as required by 6.5.2;
Operational flight plan — see 2.3.3
Pilot-in-command route and heliport qualification records
— see 7.4.3.4
h) a description of the procedures for implementing action
resulting from mandatory continuing airworthiness
information;
9.1 Flight manual
i) a description of establishing and maintaining a system of
analysis and continued monitoring of the performance
and efficiency of the maintenance programme, in order
to correct any deficiency in that programme;
Note.— The flight manual contains the information
specified in Annex 8.
The flight manual shall be updated by implementing changes
made mandatory by the State of Registry.
j) a description of helicopter types and models to which
the manual applies;
k) a description of procedures for ensuring that
unserviceabilities affecting airworthiness are recorded
and rectified;
9.2 Operator’s maintenance control manual
The operator’s maintenance control manual provided in
accordance with 6.2, which may be issued in separate parts,
shall contain the following information:
l) a description of the procedures for advising the State of
Registry of significant in-service occurrences;
a) description of the procedures required by 6.1.1
including, when applicable:
m) a description of procedures to control the leasing of
aircraft and related aeronautical products; and
1) a description of the administrative arrangements
between the operator and the approved maintenance
organization;
n) a description of the Maintenance Control Manual
amendment procedures.
2) a description of the maintenance procedures and the
procedures for completing and signing a maintenance
release when maintenance is based on a system other
than that of an approved maintenance organization;
9.3 Maintenance programme
9.3.1 A maintenance programme for each helicopter as
required by 6.3 shall contain the following information:
b) names and duties of the person or persons required
by 6.1.4;
a) maintenance tasks and the intervals at which these are to
be performed, taking into account the anticipated
utilization of the helicopter;
c) a reference to the maintenance programme required
by 6.3.1;
ANNEX 6 — PART III
II-9-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
b) when applicable, a continuing structural integrity
programme;
VIII — Time of arrival.
IX — Hours of flight.
c) procedures for changing or deviating from a) and b)
above; and
X — Nature of flight (private, scheduled or nonscheduled).
d) when applicable, condition monitoring and reliability
programme descriptions for helicopter systems,
components, power transmissions, rotors and
powerplants.
XI — Incidents, observations, if any.
XII — Signature of person in charge.
9.3.2 Maintenance tasks and intervals that have been
specified as mandatory in approval of the type design shall be
identified as such.
9.4.2 Recommendation.— Entries in the journey log
book should be made currently and in ink or indelible pencil.
9.4.3 Recommendation.— Completed journey log books
should be retained to provide a continuous record of the last
six months’ operations.
9.3.3 Recommendation.— The maintenance programme
should be based on maintenance programme information made
available by the State of Design or by the organization
responsible for the type design, and any additional applicable
experience.
9.4
9.5 Records of emergency and
survival equipment carried
Journey log book
Operators shall at all times have available for immediate
communication to rescue coordination centres, lists containing
information on the emergency and survival equipment carried
on board any of their helicopters engaged in international air
navigation. The information shall include, as applicable, the
number, colour and type of life rafts and pyrotechnics, details
of emergency medical supplies, water supplies and the type
and frequencies of the emergency portable radio equipment.
9.4.1 Recommendation.— The helicopter journey log
book should contain the following items and the corresponding
roman numerals:
I — Helicopter nationality and registration.
II — Date.
III — Names of crew members.
9.6
Flight recorder records
IV — Duty assignments of crew members.
An operator shall ensure, to the extent possible, in the event
the helicopter becomes involved in an accident or incident, the
preservation of all related flight recorder records, and if
necessary the associated flight recorders, and their retention in
safe custody pending their disposition as determined in
accordance with Annex 13.
V — Place of departure.
VI — Place of arrival.
VII — Time of departure.
1/11/01
II-9-2
CHAPTER 10.
10.1
CABIN CREW
Assignment of emergency duties
jackets, life rafts, evacuation slides, emergency exits,
portable fire extinguishers, oxygen equipment and firstaid kits;
An operator shall establish, to the satisfaction of the State of
the Operator, the minimum number of cabin crew required for
each type of helicopter, based on seating capacity or the
number of passengers carried, in order to effect a safe and
expeditious evacuation of the helicopter, and the necessary
functions to be performed in an emergency or a situation
requiring emergency evacuation. The operator shall assign
these functions for each type of helicopter.
c) when serving on helicopters operated above 3 000 m
(10 000 ft), knowledgeable as regards the effect of lack
of oxygen and, in the case of pressurized helicopters, as
regards physiological phenomena accompanying a loss
of pressurization;
d) aware of other crew members’ assignments and
functions in the event of an emergency so far as is
necessary for the fulfilment of the cabin crew member’s
own duties;
10.2 Protection of cabin crew during flight
Each cabin crew member shall be seated with seat belt or,
when provided, safety harness fastened during take-off and
landing and whenever the pilot-in-command so directs.
e) aware of the types of dangerous goods which may, and
may not, be carried in a passenger cabin and has
completed the dangerous goods training programme
required by Annex 18; and
Note.— The foregoing does not preclude the pilot-incommand from directing the fastening of the seat belt only, at
times other than during take-off and landing.
10.3
Training
An operator shall establish and maintain a training
programme, approved by the State of the Operator, to be
completed by all persons being assigned as a cabin crew
member. Cabin crew shall complete a recurrent training
programme annually. These training programmes shall ensure
that each person is:
f) knowledgeable about human performance as related to
passenger cabin safety duties and including flight crewcabin crew coordination.
Note.— Guidance material to design training programmes
to develop knowledge in human performance and crew coordination can be found in the Human Factors Training
Manual (Doc 9683).
10.4 Flight time, flight duty periods
and rest periods
a) competent to execute those safety duties and functions
that the cabin attendant is assigned to perform in the
event of an emergency or in a situation requiring
emergency evacuation;
The State of the Operator shall establish regulations specifying
the limits applicable to flight time, flight duty periods and rest
periods for cabin crew.
b) drilled and capable in the use of emergency and lifesaving equipment required to be carried, such as life
Note.— Guidance on the establishment of limitations is
given in Attachment A.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
II-10-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 11.
11.1
Helicopter search procedure checklist
An operator shall ensure that there is on board a checklist of
the procedures to be followed in searching for a bomb in case
of suspected sabotage. The checklist shall be supported by
guidance on the course of action to be taken should a bomb or
suspicious object be found.
SECURITY*
preventive measures and techniques in relation to passengers,
baggage, cargo, mail, equipment, stores and supplies intended
for carriage on a helicopter so that they contribute to the
prevention of acts of sabotage or other forms of unlawful
interference.
11.3 Reporting acts of unlawful interference
11.2
Training programmes
11.2.1 An operator shall establish and maintain a training
programme which enables crew members to act in the most
appropriate manner to minimize the consequences of acts of
unlawful interference.
11.2.2 An operator shall also establish and maintain a
training programme to acquaint appropriate employees with
ANNEX 6 — PART III
Following an act of unlawful interference the pilot-incommand shall submit, without delay, a report of such an act
to the designated local authority.
* In the context of this Chapter, the word ‘‘security’’ is used in the
sense of prevention of illicit acts against civil aviation.
II-11-1
1/11/01
ANNEX 6 — PART III
SECTION III
INTERNATIONAL GENERAL AVIATION
1/11/01
CHAPTER 1.
GENERAL
Note 1.— Although the Convention on International Civil
Aviation allocates to the State of Registry certain functions
which that State is entitled to discharge, or obligated to
discharge, as the case may be, the Assembly recognized, in
Resolution A23-13 that the State of Registry may be unable
to fulfil its responsibilities adequately in instances where
aircraft are leased, chartered or interchanged — in
particular without crew — by an operator of another State
and that the Convention may not adequately specify the
rights and obligations of the State of an operator in such
instances until such time as Article 83 bis of the Convention
enters into force. Accordingly, the Council urged that if, in
the above-mentioned instances, the State of Registry finds
itself unable to discharge adequately the functions allocated
to it by the Convention, it delegate to the State of the
Operator, subject to acceptance by the latter State, those
functions of the State of Registry that can more adequately be
discharged by the State of the Operator. It was understood
that pending entry into force of Article 83 bis of the
Convention the foregoing action would only be a matter of
practical convenience and would not affect either the
provisions of the Chicago Convention prescribing the duties
of the State of Registry or any third State. However, as
Article 83 bis of the Convention entered into force on 20 June
1997, such transfer agreements will have effect in respect of
Contracting States which have ratified the related Protocol
(Doc 9318) upon fulfilment of the conditions established in
Article 83 bis.
1.1.2 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for the
operation and safety of the helicopter and for the safety of all
crew members, passengers and cargo on board, from the
moment the engine(s) are started until the helicopter finally
comes to rest at the end of the flight, with the engine(s) shut
down and the rotor blades stopped.
Note 2.— In the case of international operations effected
jointly with helicopters not all of which are registered in the
same Contracting State, nothing in this Part of the Annex
prevents the States concerned entering into an agreement for
the joint exercise of the functions placed upon the State of
Registry by the provisions of the relevant Annexes.
1.1.5 Recommendation.— The pilot-in-command should
have available on board the helicopter essential information
concerning the search and rescue services in the areas over
which it is intended the helicopter will be flown.
1.1.3 If an emergency situation which endangers the
safety of the helicopter or persons necessitates the taking of
action which involves a violation of local regulations or
procedures, the pilot-in-command shall notify the appropriate
local authority without delay. If required by the State in which
the incident occurs, the pilot-in-command shall submit a report
on any such violation to the appropriate authority of such
State; in that event, the pilot-in-command shall also submit a
copy of it to the State of Registry. Such reports shall be
submitted as soon as possible and normally within ten days.
1.1.4 The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for
notifying the nearest appropriate authority by the quickest
available means of any accident involving the helicopter
resulting in serious injury or death of any person or substantial
damage to the helicopter or property.
Note.— A definition of the term “serious injury” is
contained in Annex 13 and an explanation of the term
“substantial damage” is given in the Accident/Incident
Reporting Manual (ADREP Manual) (Doc 9156).
1.2
1.1 Compliance with laws,
regulations and procedures
Dangerous goods
Note 1.— Provisions for carriage of dangerous goods are
contained in Annex 18.
1.1.1 The pilot-in-command shall comply with the
relevant laws, regulations and procedures of the States in
which the helicopter is operated.
Note 2.— Article 35 of the Convention refers to certain
classes of cargo restrictions.
Note 1.— Compliance with more restrictive measures, not
in contravention of the provisions of 1.1.1, may be required by
the State of Registry.
1.3 Use of psychoactive substances
Note 2.— Rules covering flight over the high seas are
contained in Annex 2.
Note.— Provisions concerning the use of psychoactive
substances are contained in Annex 1, 1.2.7 and Annex 2, 2.5.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
III-1-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 2.
2.1
FLIGHT OPERATIONS
Adequacy of operating facilities
The pilot-in-command shall not commence a flight unless it
has been ascertained by every reasonable means available that
the ground and/or water areas and facilities available and
directly required for such flight and for the safe operation of
the helicopter are adequate including communication facilities
and navigation aids.
Note.— “Reasonable means” in this Standard is intended
to denote the use, at the point of departure, of information
available to the pilot-in-command either through official
information published by the aeronautical information
services or readily obtainable from other sources.
2.3.2 The pilot-in-command shall ensure that all persons
on board are aware of the location and general manner of use
of the principal emergency equipment carried for collective
use.
2.4
Helicopter airworthiness and safety precautions
A flight shall not be commenced until the pilot-in-command is
satisfied that:
a) the helicopter is airworthy, duly registered and that
appropriate certificates with respect thereto are aboard
the helicopter;
b) the instruments and equipment installed in the helicopter
are appropriate, taking into account the expected flight
conditions;
2.2
Heliport operating minima
c) any necessary maintenance has been performed in
accordance with Chapter 6;
The pilot-in-command shall not operate to or from a heliport
using operating minima lower than those which may be
established for that heliport by the State in which it is located,
except with the specific approval of that State.
d) the mass of the helicopter and centre of gravity location
are such that the flight can be conducted safely, taking
into account the flight conditions expected;
Note.— It is the practice in some States to declare, for
flight planning purposes, higher minima for a heliport when
nominated as an alternate, than for the same heliport when
planned as that of intended landing.
e) any load carried is properly distributed and safely
secured; and
f) the helicopter operating limitations, contained in
the flight manual, or its equivalent, will not be
exceeded.
2.3 Briefing
2.5
2.3.1 The pilot-in-command shall ensure that crew
members and passengers are made familiar, by means of an oral
briefing or by other means, with the location and the use of:
a) seat belts; and, as appropriate,
b) emergency exits;
c) life jackets;
d) oxygen dispensing equipment; and
e) other emergency equipment provided for individual use,
including passenger emergency briefing cards.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
Weather reports and forecasts
Before commencing a flight the pilot-in-command shall be
familiar with all available meteorological information appropriate to the intended flight. Preparation for a flight away from
the vicinity of the place of departure, and for every flight
under the instrument flight rules, shall include: 1) a study of
available current weather reports and forecasts; and 2) the
planning of an alternative course of action to provide for the
eventuality that the flight cannot be completed as planned,
because of weather conditions.
Note.— The requirements for flight plans are contained in
Annex 2 — Rules of the Air; and Procedures for Air
Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM)
(Doc 4444).
III-2-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
2.6
Part III
Limitations imposed by weather conditions
heliport, or at least one alternate heliport, will, at the estimated
time of arrival, be at or above the specified heliport operating
minima.
2.6.1 Flight in accordance with
the visual flight rules
A flight, except one of purely local character in visual
meteorological conditions, to be conducted in accordance with
the visual flight rules shall not be commenced unless available
current meteorological reports, or a combination of current
reports and forecasts, indicate that the meteorological
conditions along the route, or that part of the route to be flown
under the visual flight rules, will, at the appropriate time, be
such as to render compliance with these rules possible.
2.6.2 Flight in accordance with
the instrument flight rules
2.6.2.1 When an alternate is required. A flight to be
conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules shall
not be commenced unless the available information indicates
that conditions, at the heliport of intended landing and at least
one alternate heliport will, at the estimated time of arrival, be
at or above the heliport operating minima.
2.6.3.2 An instrument approach shall not be continued
beyond the outer marker fix in case of precision approach, or
below 300 m (1 000 ft) above the heliport in case of nonprecision approach, unless the reported visibility or controlling
RVR is above the specified minimum.
2.6.3.3 If, after passing the outer marker fix in case of
precision approach, or after descending below 300 m (1 000 ft)
above the heliport in case of non-precision approach, the
reported visibility or controlling RVR falls below the specified
minimum, the approach may be continued to DA/H or
MDA/H. In any case, a helicopter shall not continue its
approach-to-land beyond a point at which the limits of the
heliport operating minima would be infringed.
2.6.4
Flight in icing conditions
A flight to be operated in known or expected icing conditions
shall not be commenced unless the helicopter is certificated
and equipped to cope with such conditions.
Note.— It is the practice in some States to declare, for
flight planning purposes, higher minima for a heliport when
nominated as an alternate than for the same heliport when
planned as that of intended landing.
2.7 Alternate heliports
2.6.2.2 When no alternate is required. A flight to be
conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules to a
heliport when no alternate heliport is required shall not be
commenced unless available current meteorological information indicates that the following meteorological conditions
will exist from two hours before to two hours after the
estimated time of arrival: or from the actual time of departure
to two hours after the estimated time of arrival, whichever is
the shorter period:
2.7.1 For a flight to be conducted in accordance with the
instrument flight rules, at least one suitable alternate shall be
specified in the operational flight plan and the flight plan,
unless:
a) a cloud base of at least 120 m (400 ft) above the
minimum associated with the instrument approach
procedure; and
2) an instrument approach procedure is prescribed for the
isolated heliport of intended landing; and
a) the weather conditions in 2.6.2.2 prevail, or
b) 1) the heliport of intended landing is isolated and no
suitable alternate is available; and
3) a point of no return (PNR) is determined in case of an
off-shore destination.
b) visibility of at least 1.5 km more than the minimum
associated with the procedure.
Note.— These should be considered as minimum values
where a reliable and continuous meteorological watch is
maintained. When only an “area” type forecast is available
these values should be increased accordingly.
2.6.3
2.7.2 Suitable off-shore alternates may be specified
subject to the following:
Heliport operating minima
2.6.3.1 A flight shall not be continued towards the
heliport of intended landing unless the latest available
meteorological information indicates that conditions at that
1/11/01
— the off-shore alternates shall be used only after passing
a point of no return (PNR). Prior to PNR on-shore
alternates shall be used;
III-2-2
— mechanical reliability of critical control systems and
critical components shall be considered and taken into
account when determining the suitability of the
alternate;
Section III, Chapter 2
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
— one engine inoperative performance capability shall be
attainable prior to arrival at the alternate;
2.8.3.2 When an alternate is required, in terms of 2.6.2.1,
to fly to and execute an approach, and a missed approach, at
the heliport to which the flight is planned, and thereafter:
— deck availability shall be guaranteed;
a) to fly to the alternate specified in the flight plan; and
then
— weather information must be reliable and accurate.
Note.— The landing technique specified in the flight
manual following control system failure may preclude the
nomination of certain helidecks as alternate heliports.
b) to fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m
(1 500 ft) above the alternate under standard
temperature conditions, and approach and land; and
2.7.3 Recommendation.— Off-shore alternates should
not be used when it is possible to carry enough fuel to have an
on-shore alternate. Such circumstances should be exceptions
and should not include payload enhancement in adverse
weather conditions.
c) to have an additional amount of fuel sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the occurrence
of potential contingencies.
2.8
2.8.3.3 When no suitable alternate is available, in terms
of 2.7.1 b), to fly to the heliport to which the flight is planned
and thereafter for a period of two hours at holding speed.
Fuel and oil supply
2.8.1 All helicopters. A flight shall not be commenced
unless, taking into account both the meteorological conditions
and any delays that are expected in flight, the helicopter
carries sufficient fuel and oil to ensure that it can safely
complete the flight. In addition, a reserve shall be carried to
provide for contingencies.
2.8.4 In computing the fuel and oil required in 2.8.1, at
least the following shall be considered:
a) meteorological conditions forecast;
b) expected air traffic control routings and traffic delays;
c) for IFR flight, one instrument approach at the
destination heliport, including a missed approach;
2.8.2 Visual flight rules (VFR) operations. The fuel and
oil carried in order to comply with 2.8.1 shall, in the case of
VFR operations, be at least the amount sufficient to allow the
helicopter:
d) the procedures for loss of pressurization, where
applicable, or failure of one power-unit while en route;
and
a) to fly to the heliport to which the flight is planned;
e) any other conditions that may delay the landing of the
helicopter or increase fuel and/or oil consumption.
b) to fly thereafter for a period of 20 minutes at best-range
speed plus 10 per cent of the planned flight time; and
c) to have an additional amount of fuel, sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the occurrence
of potential contingencies, as determined by the State
and specified in the State regulations governing general
aviation.
2.8.3 Instrument flight rules (IFR) operations. The fuel
and oil carried in order to comply with 2.8.1 shall, in the case
of IFR operations, be at least the amount sufficient to allow the
helicopter:
Note.— Nothing in 2.8 precludes amendment of a flight
plan in flight in order to re-plan the flight to another heliport,
provided that the requirements of 2.8 can be complied with
from the point where the flight has been replanned.
2.9 Oxygen supply
Note.— Approximate altitudes in the Standard Atmosphere
corresponding to the values of absolute pressure used in the
text are as follows:
2.8.3.1 When no alternate is required, in terms of 2.6.2.2,
to fly to the heliport to which the flight is planned, and
thereafter:
a) to fly 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m (1 500 ft)
above the destination heliport under standard temperature conditions and approach and land; and
b) to have an additional amount of fuel, sufficient to
provide for the increased consumption on the occurrence
of potential contingencies.
Absolute pressure
Metres
Feet
700 hPa
620 hPa
3 000
4 000
10 000
13 000
2.9.1 A flight to be operated at altitudes at which the
atmospheric pressure in personnel compartments will be less
than 700 hPa shall not be commenced unless sufficient stored
breathing oxygen is carried to supply:
III-2-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
a) all crew members and 10 per cent of the passengers for
any period in excess of 30 minutes that the pressure in
compartments occupied by them will be between
700 hPa and 620 hPa;
a) will not be commenced if any flight crew member is
incapacitated from performing duties by any cause such
as injury, sickness, fatigue, the effects of alcohol or
drugs; and
b) the crew and passengers for any period that the
atmospheric pressure in compartments occupied by
them will be less than 620 hPa.
b) will not be continued beyond the nearest suitable
heliport when flight crew members’ capacity to perform
functions is significantly reduced by impairment of
faculties from causes such as fatigue, sickness, lack of
oxygen.
2.9.2 A flight to be operated with a pressurized helicopter
shall not be commenced unless a sufficient quantity of stored
breathing oxygen is carried to supply all the crew members
and a proportion of the passengers, as is appropriate to the
circumstances of the flight being undertaken, in the event of
loss of pressurization, for any period that the atmospheric
pressure in any compartment occupied by them would be less
than 700 hPa.
2.15
Flight crew members
at duty stations
2.15.1
2.10
All flight crew members required to be on flight deck duty
shall be at their stations.
Use of oxygen
All flight crew members, when engaged in performing duties
essential to the safe operation of a helicopter in flight, shall
use breathing oxygen continuously whenever the circumstances prevail for which its supply has been required in 2.9.1
or 2.9.2.
2.11
All flight crew members required to be on flight deck duty
shall remain at their stations except when their absence is
necessary for the performance of duties in connection with the
operation of the helicopter, or for physiological needs.
2.15.3
2.15.4
Hazardous flight conditions
Recommendation.— Hazardous flight conditions, other
than those associated with meteorological conditions,
encountered en route should be reported as soon as possible.
The reports so rendered should give such details as may be
pertinent to the safety of other aircraft.
Seat belts
All flight crew members shall keep their seat belt fastened
when at their stations.
Weather reporting by pilots
Recommendation.— When weather conditions likely to
affect the safety of other aircraft are encountered, they should
be reported as soon as possible.
2.13
2.15.2 En route
In-flight emergency instruction
In an emergency during flight, the pilot-in-command shall
ensure that all persons on board are instructed in such
emergency action as may be appropriate to the circumstances.
2.12
Take-off and landing
Safety harness
Recommendation.— When safety harnesses are provided,
any flight crew member occupying a pilot’s seat should keep
the safety harness fastened during the take-off and landing
phases; all other flight crew members should keep their safety
harness fastened during the take-off and landing phases unless
the shoulder straps interfere with the performance of their
duties, in which case the shoulder straps may be unfastened
but the seat belt must remain fastened.
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder strap(s) and a
seat belt which may be used independently.
2.16
Instrument flight procedures
2.14 Fitness of flight crew members
The pilot-in-command shall be responsible for ensuring that a
flight:
1/11/01
2.16.1 One or more instrument approach procedures shall
be approved and promulgated by the State in which the
heliport is located, or by the State which is responsible for the
III-2-4
Section III, Chapter 2
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
heliport when located outside the territory of any State, to
serve each final approach and take-off area or heliport utilized
for instrument flight operations.
2.16.2 All helicopters operated in accordance with
instrument flight rules shall comply with the instrument
approach procedures approved by the State in which the
heliport is located, or by the State which is responsible for the
heliport when located outside the territory of any State.
Note 1.— Operational procedures recommended for the
guidance of operations personnel involved in instrument flight
operations are described in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I.
Note 2.— Criteria for the construction of instrument flight
procedures for the guidance of procedure specialists are
provided in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume II.
2.17 Instruction — general
A helicopter rotor shall not be turned under power without a
qualified pilot at the controls.
2.18
disembarking or when the rotor is turning unless it is attended
by the pilot-in-command or other qualified personnel ready to
initiate and direct an evacuation of the helicopter by the most
practical and expeditious means available.
2.18.2 Recommendation.— When refuelling with
passengers embarking, on board or disembarking, two-way
communications should be maintained by helicopter intercommunications system or other suitable means between
the ground crew supervising the refuelling and the
pilot-in-command or other qualified personnel required
by 2.18.1.
Note 1.— Provisions concerning aircraft refuelling are
contained in Annex 14, Volume I, and guidance on safe
refuelling practices is contained in the Airport Services
Manual (Doc 9137), Parts 1 and 8.
Note 2.— Additional precautions are required when
refuelling with fuels other than aviation kerosene or when
refuelling results in a mixture of aviation kerosene with other
aviation turbine fuels, or when an open line is used.
Refuelling with passengers on board
or rotors turning
2.19 Over-water flights
2.18.1 Recommendation.— A helicopter should not be
refuelled when passengers are embarking, on board or
All helicopters on flights over water in accordance with 4.3.1
shall be certificated for ditching. Sea state shall be an integral
part of ditching information.
III-2-5
1/11/01
CHAPTER 3. HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE
OPERATING LIMITATIONS
3.1
A helicopter shall be operated:
a) in compliance with the terms of its airworthiness
certificate or equivalent approved document;
prescribed by the certificating authority of the State of
Registry for visual presentation, shall be displayed in the
helicopter.
b) within the operating limitations prescribed by the
certificating authority of the State of Registry; and
Note.— The Standards of Annex 8 — Airworthiness of
Aircraft, Part IV, apply to all helicopters intended for the
carriage of passengers or cargo or mail in international air
navigation.
c) within the mass limitations imposed by compliance with
the applicable noise certification Standards in Annex 16,
Volume I, unless otherwise authorized, in exceptional
circumstances for a certain heliport where there is no
noise disturbance problem, by the competent authority
of the State in which the heliport is situated.
3.3 Only performance Class 1 helicopters shall be
permitted to operate from elevated heliports in congested
areas.
3.2 Placards, listings, instrument markings, or
combinations thereof, containing those operating limitations
ANNEX 6 — PART III
3.4 Recommendation.— Performance Class 3 helicopters
should not be permitted to operate from elevated heliports or
helidecks.
III-3-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 4.
HELICOPTER INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENT
AND FLIGHT DOCUMENTS
Note.— Specifications for the provision of helicopter
communication and navigation equipment are contained in
Chapter 5.
2) a seat belt for each seat and restraining belts for each
berth;
d) the following manuals, charts and information:
1) the flight manual or other documents or information
concerning any operating limitations prescribed for
the helicopter by the certificating authority of the State
of Registry, required for the application of Chapter 3;
4.1 All helicopters on all flights
4.1.1 General
2) current and suitable charts for the route of the
proposed flight and all routes along which it is
reasonable to expect that the flight may be diverted;
In addition to the minimum equipment necessary for the
issuance of a certificate of airworthiness, the instruments,
equipment and flight documents prescribed in the following
paragraphs shall be installed or carried, as appropriate, in
helicopters according to the helicopter used and to the
circumstances under which the flight is to be conducted. The
prescribed instruments and equipment, including their
installation, shall be approved or accepted by the State of
Registry.
4.1.2
4) a list of visual signals for use by intercepting and
intercepted aircraft, as contained in Annex 2; and
e) spare electrical fuses of appropriate ratings for
replacement of those accessible in flight.
Instruments
A helicopter shall be equipped with instruments which will
enable the flight crew to control the flight path of the helicopter, carry out any required procedural manoeuvre, and
observe the operating limitations of the helicopter in the
expected operating conditions.
4.1.3
3) procedures, as prescribed in Annex 2, for pilots-incommand of intercepted aircraft; and
Equipment
4.1.3.1 All helicopters on all flights shall be equipped
with:
4.1.3.2 Recommendation.— All helicopters on all flights
should be equipped with the ground-air signal codes for
search and rescue purposes.
4.1.3.3 Recommendation.— All helicopters on all flights
should be equipped with a safety harness for each flight crew
member seat.
Note.— Safety harness includes shoulder strap(s) and a
seat belt which may be used independently.
a) an accessible first-aid kit;
4.1.4 Marking of break-in points
b) portable fire extinguishers of a type which, when
discharged, will not cause dangerous contamination of
the air within the helicopter. At least one shall be
located in:
1) the pilot’s compartment; and
4.1.4.1 If areas of the fuselage suitable for break-in by
rescue crews in an emergency are marked on a helicopter, such
areas shall be marked as shown below (see figure following).
The colour of the markings shall be red or yellow, and if
necessary they shall be outlined in white to contrast with the
background.
2) each passenger compartment that is separate from the
pilot’s compartment and not readily accessible to the
pilot or co-pilot;
4.1.4.2 If the corner markings are more than 2 m apart,
intermediate lines 9 cm x 3 cm shall be inserted so that there
is no more than 2 m between adjacent markings.
c) 1) a seat or berth for each person over an age to be
determined by the State of Registry; and
Note.— This Standard does not require any helicopter to
have break-in areas.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
III-4-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
4.2 All helicopters operated as VFR flights
b) flying over water beyond autorotational or safe forced
landing distance from land in the case of performance
Class 3 helicopters.
4.2.1 All helicopters when operated as VFR flights shall
be equipped with:
a) a magnetic compass;
4.3.2
b) an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours,
minutes and seconds;
c) a sensitive pressure altimeter;
4.3.2.1 Performance Class 1 and 2 helicopters operating
in accordance with the provisions of 4.3.1, shall be equipped
with:
d) an airspeed indicator; and
a) one life jacket, or equivalent individual flotation device,
for each person on board, stowed in a position easily
accessible from the seat or berth of the person for whose
use it is provided;
e) such additional instruments or equipment as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
4.2.2 Recommendation.— VFR flights which are
operated as controlled flights shall be equipped in accordance
with 4.6.
4.3
b) life-saving rafts in sufficient numbers to carry all
persons on board, stowed so as to facilitate their ready
use in emergency, provided with such life-saving
equipment including means of sustaining life as is
appropriate to the flight to be undertaken; and
All helicopters on flights over water
c) equipment for making the pyrotechnical distress signals
described in Annex 2.
4.3.1 Means of flotation
All helicopters intended to be flown over water shall be fitted
with a permanent or rapidly deployable means of flotation so
as to ensure a safe ditching of the helicopter when:
a) flying over water at a distance from land corresponding
to more than 10 minutes at normal cruise speed in the
case of performance Class 1 or 2 helicopters; or
4.3.2.2 Performance Class 3 helicopters when operating
beyond autorotational distance from land but within a distance
from land specified by the appropriate authority of the
responsible State shall be equipped with one life jacket, or
equivalent individual flotation device, for each person on
board, stowed in a position easily accessible from the seat or
berth of the person for whose use it is provided.
MARKING OF BREAK-IN POINTS (see 4.1.4)
1/11/01
Emergency equipment
III-4-2
Section III, Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Note.— When determining the distance from land referred
to in 4.3.2.2, consideration should be given to environmental
conditions and the availability of SAR facilities.
4.3.2.3 Performance Class 3 helicopters when operating
outside the provisions of 4.3.2.2 shall be equipped as in
4.3.2.1.
4.3.2.4 In the case of performance Class 2 and Class 3
helicopters, when taking off or landing at a heliport where the
take-off or approach path is so disposed over water that in the
event of a mishap there would be likelihood of a ditching, at
least the equipment required in 4.3.2.1 a) shall be carried.
4.3.2.5 Each life jacket and equivalent individual
floatation device, when carried in accordance with this 4.3,
shall be equipped with a means of electric illumination for the
purpose of facilitating the location of persons.
4.5.2
Pressurized helicopters
Recommendation.— Pressurized helicopters intended to
be operated at high altitudes should carry emergency oxygen
storage and dispensing equipment capable of storing and
dispensing the oxygen supplies required in 2.9.2.
4.6
All helicopters operated in accordance
with the instrument flight rules
All helicopters, when operated in accordance with the
instrument flight rules or when the helicopter cannot be
maintained in a desired attitude without reference to one or
more flight instruments, shall be equipped with:
a) a magnetic compass;
b) an accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours,
minutes and seconds;
4.3.2.6 Recommendation.— On any helicopter for
which the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued
on or after 1 January 1991, at least 50 per cent of the life rafts
carried in accordance with the provisions of 4.3.2 should be
deployable by remote control.
c) a sensitive pressure altimeter;
Note.— Due to the long history of misreadings, the
use of drum-pointer altimeters is not recommended.
4.3.2.7 Recommendation.— Rafts which are not
deployable by remote control and which have a mass of more
than 40 kg should be equipped with some means of
mechanically assisted deployment.
d) an airspeed indicating system with a means of preventing malfunctioning due to either condensation or icing;
e) a slip indicator;
4.3.2.8 Recommendation.— On any helicopter for
which the individual certificate of airworthiness was
first issued before 1 January 1991, the provisions of 4.3.2.6
and 4.3.2.7 should be complied with no later than
31 December 1992.
f) two attitude indicators (artificial horizon), one of which
may be replaced by a turn indicator;
g) a heading indicator (directional gyroscope);
Note.— The requirements of 4.6 e), f) and g), may be
met by combinations of instruments or by integrated
flight director systems provided that the safeguards
against total failure, inherent in the separate instruments, are retained.
4.4 All helicopters on flights
over designated land areas
Helicopters, when operated across land areas which have been
designated by the State concerned as areas in which search and
rescue would be especially difficult, shall be equipped with
such signalling devices and life-saving equipment (including
means of sustaining life) as may be appropriate to the area
overflown.
h) means of indicating whether the supply of power to the
gyroscopic instruments is adequate;
i) a means of indicating in the flight crew compartment the
outside air temperature;
j) a rate-of-climb and descent indicator; and
4.5
k) such additional instruments or equipment as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
All helicopters on high altitude flights
4.5.1
Unpressurized helicopters
4.7 All helicopters when operated at night
Unpressurized helicopters intended to be operated at high
altitudes shall carry equipment for storing and dispensing the
oxygen supplies required in 2.9.1.
4.7.1 All helicopters, when operated at night, shall be
equipped with:
III-4-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
a) all the equipment specified in 4.6;
4.9.1.3 The use of engraving metal foil FDRs shall be
discontinued by 1 January 1995.
b) the lights required by Annex 2 for aircraft in flight or
operating on the movement area of a heliport;
Note.— The general characteristics of lights are
specified in Annex 8. Detailed specifications for lights
meeting the requirements of Annex 2 for aircraft in
flight or operating on the movement area of a heliport
are contained in the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
c) a landing light;
d) illumination for all flight instruments and equipment
that are essential for the safe operation of the helicopter;
e) lights in all passenger compartments; and
f) an electric torch for each crew member station.
4.7.2 Recommendation.— The landing light should be
trainable, at least in the vertical plane.
4.8 All helicopters complying with
the noise certification Standards in
Annex 16, Volume I
4.9.1.4 Recommendation.— The use of analogue FDRs
using frequency modulation (FM) should be discontinued by 5
November 1998.
4.9.1.4.1 The use of photographic film FDRs shall be
discontinued from 1 January 2003.
4.9.1.5 All helicopters for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2005, which
utilize data link communications and are required to carry a
CVR, shall record on a flight recorder all data link
communications to and from the helicopter. The minimum
recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR,
and shall be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
4.9.1.5.1 From 1 January 2007, all helicopters which
utilize data link communications and are required to carry a
CVR, shall record on a flight recorder, all data link
communications to and from the helicopter. The minimum
recording duration shall be equal to the duration of the CVR,
and shall be correlated to the recorded cockpit audio.
4.9.1.5.2 Sufficient information to derive the content of
the data link communications message, and, whenever
practical, the time the message was displayed to or generated
by the crew shall be recorded.
A helicopter shall carry a document attesting noise
certification.
Note.— The attestation may be contained in any document,
carried on board, approved by the State of Registry.
4.9 Flight recorders
Note 1.— Flight recorders comprise two systems — a flight
data recorder (FDR) and a cockpit voice recorder (CVR).
Note 2.— Combination recorders (FDR/CVR) can only be
used to meet the flight recorder equipage requirements as
specifically indicated in this Annex.
Note 3.— Detailed guidance on flight recorders is contained
in Attachment B.
4.9.1 Flight data recorders — types
4.9.1.1 A Type IV FDR shall record the parameters
required to determine accurately the helicopter flight path,
speed, attitude, engine power and operation.
Note.— Data link communications include, but are not
limited to, automatic dependent surveillance (ADS),
controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC), data linkflight information services (D-FIS) and aeronautical
operational control (AOC) messages.
4.9.1.6 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a
maximum certificated take-off mass over 2 700 kg, required to
be equipped with an FDR and/or a CVR, may alternatively be
equipped with one combination recorder (FDR/CVR).
4.9.1.7 A Type IVA FDR shall record the parameters
required to determine accurately the helicopter flight path,
speed, attitude, engine power, configuration and operation. The
parameters that satisfy the requirements for a Type IVA FDR
are listed in the paragraphs below. The parameters without an
asterisk (*) are mandatory parameters which shall be recorded.
In addition, the parameters designated by an asterisk (*) shall
be recorded if an information data source for the parameter is
used by helicopter systems or the flight crew to operate the
helicopter.
4.9.1.7.1 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for flight path and speed:
4.9.1.2 A Type V FDR shall record the parameters
required to determine accurately the helicopter flight path,
speed, attitude and engine power.
1/11/01
III-4-4
–
–
–
–
Pressure altitude
Indicated airspeed
Outside air temperature
Heading
Section III, Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
–
–
–
–
–
Normal acceleration
Lateral acceleration
Longitudinal acceleration (body axis)
Time or relative time count
Navigation data*: drift angle, wind speed, wind direction,
latitude/longitude
– Radio altitude*
4.9.1.7.2 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for attitude:
– Pitch attitude
– Roll attitude
– Yaw rate
Note 1.— Parameter requirements, including range,
sampling, accuracy and resolution, as contained in the
Minimum Operational Performance Specification (MOPS)
document for Flight Recorder Systems of the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) or
equivalent documents.
Note 2.— The number of parameters to be recorded will
depend on helicopter complexity. Parameters without an (*)
are to be recorded regardless of helicopter complexity. Those
parameters designated by an (*) are to be recorded if an
information source for the parameter is used by helicopter
systems and/or flight crew to operate the helicopter.
4.9.1.7.3 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for engine power:
– Power on each engine: free power turbine speed (Nf),
engine torque, engine gas generator speed (Ng), cockpit
power control position
– Rotor: main rotor speed, rotor brake
– Main gearbox oil pressure*
– Gearbox oil temperature*: main gearbox oil temperature,
intermediate gearbox oil temperature, tail rotor gearbox
oil temperature
– Engine exhaust gas temperature (T4)*
– Turbine inlet temperature (TIT)*
4.9.1.7.4 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for configuration:
– Landing gear or gear selector position*
– Fuel contents*
– Ice detector liquid water content*
4.9.2 Flight data recorders — duration
Types IV and V FDRs shall be capable of retaining the
information recorded during at least the last ten hours of their
operation.
4.9.3 Flight data recorders — helicopters
for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued
on or after 1 January 1989
4.9.3.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 7 000 kg shall be equipped with a Type IV FDR.
4.9.3.2 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a
maximum certificated take-off mass of over 2 700 kg up to and
including 7 000 kg should be equipped with a Type V FDR.
4.9.1.7.5 The following parameters satisfy the requirements for operation:
– Hydraulics low pressure
– Warnings
– Primary Flight Controls — Pilot input and/or control
output position: collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic
pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, tail rotor pedal, controllable
stabilator, hydraulic selection
– Marker beacon passage
– Each navigation receiver frequency selection
– AFCS mode and engagement status*
– Stability augmentation system engagement*
– Indicated sling load force*
– Vertical deviation*: ILS glide path, MLS elevation,
GNSS approach path
– Horizontal deviation*: ILS localizer, MLS azimuth,
GNSS approach path
– DME 1 and 2 distances*
– Altitude rate*
– Ice detector liquid water content*
– Helicopter health and usage monitor system (HUMS)*:
engine data, chip detectors, track timing, exceedance
discretes, broadband average engine vibration
4.9.4 Flight data recorders — helicopters
for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2005
4.9.4.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 3 180 kg shall be equipped with a Type IVA FDR
with a recording duration of at least 10 hours.
Note.— A single, combination CVR/FDR is acceptable.
4.9.5
Cockpit voice recorders — helicopters
for which the individual certificate
of airworthiness is first issued
on or after 1 January 1987
Note.— CVR performance requirements are as contained in
the Minimum Operational Performance Specifications (MOPS)
document for Flight Recorder Systems of the European
Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) or
equivalent documents.
4.9.5.1 All helicopters of a maximum certificated take-off
mass of over 7 000 kg shall be equipped with a CVR the
III-4-5
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
objective of which is the recording of the aural environment on
the flight deck during flight time. For helicopters not equipped
with an FDR, at least main rotor speed shall be recorded on
one track of the CVR.
Note 2.— The operator’s responsibilities regarding the
retention of flight recorder records are contained in 9.6.
4.9.9
4.9.5.2 Recommendation.— All helicopters of a
maximum certificated take-off mass of over 3 180 kg, up to and
including 7 000 kg, should be equipped with a CVR, the
objective of which is the recording of the aural environment on
the flight deck during flight time. For helicopters not equipped
with an FDR, at least main rotor speed should be recorded on
one track of the CVR.
4.9.6
Flight recorders — continued serviceability
Operational checks and evaluations of recordings from the
FDR and CVR systems shall be conducted to ensure the
continued serviceability of the recorders.
Note.— Procedures for the inspections of the flight data and
CVR systems are given in Attachment B.
Cockpit voice recorders — duration
4.10 Emergency locator transmitter (ELT)
4.9.6.1 A CVR shall be capable of retaining the
information recorded during at least the last 30 minutes of its
operation.
4.9.6.2 Recommendation.— A CVR, installed in
helicopters for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued on or after 1 January 1990, should
be capable of retaining the information recorded during at
least the last two hours of its operation.
4.9.6.3 A CVR, installed in helicopters for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after 1
January 2003, shall be capable of retaining the information
recorded during at least the last two hours of its operation.
4.9.7
Flight recorders — construction and installation
Flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so
as to provide maximum practical protection for the recordings
in order that the recorded information may be preserved,
recovered and transcribed.
4.10.1 Except as provided for in 4.10.2, until 1 January 2005
all Performance Class 1 and 2 helicopters operating on flights
over water as described in 4.3.1 a) and Performance Class 3
helicopters operating as described in 4.3.1 b) shall be equipped
with at least one ELT(S) per raft carried but not more than a total
of two ELTs are required.
4.10.2 Performance Class 1 and 2 helicopters for which
the individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after
1 January 2002, operating on flights over water as described in
4.3.1 a) and Performance Class 3 helicopters for which the
individual certificate of airworthiness is first issued after
1 January 2002, operating as described in 4.3.1 b) shall be
equipped with at least one automatic ELT and one ELT(S) in
a raft.
4.10.3 From 1 January 2005, all Performance Class 1 and
2 helicopters operating on flights over water as described in
4.3.1 a) and Performance Class 3 helicopters operating as
described in 4.3.1 b) shall be equipped with at least one
automatic ELT and one ELT(S) in a raft.
4.10.4 Except as provided for in 4.10.5, until 1 January 2005
helicopters on flights over designated land areas as described in
4.4. shall be equipped with at least one ELT.
4.9.8 Flight recorders — operation
4.9.8.1 Flight recorders shall not be switched off during
flight time.
4.10.5 Helicopters for which the individual certificate of
airworthiness is first issued after 1 January 2002, on flights
over designated land areas as described in 4.4 shall be
equipped with at least one automatic ELT.
4.9.8.2 To preserve flight recorder records, flight
recorders shall be de-activated upon completion of flight time
following an accident or incident. The flight recorders shall
not be re-activated before their disposition as determined in
accordance with Annex 13.
4.10.6 From 1 January 2005, helicopters on flights over
designated land areas as described in 4.4 shall be equipped
with at least one automatic ELT.
Note 1.— The need for removal of the flight recorder
records from the aircraft is to be determined by the
investigation authority in the State conducting the
investigation with due regard to the seriousness of an
occurrence and the circumstances, including the impact on the
operation.
1/11/01
4.10.7 Recommendation.— All helicopters should carry
an automatic ELT.
4.10.8 ELT equipment carried to satisfy the requirements
of 4.10.1, 4.10.2, 4.10.3, 4.10.4, 4.10.5, 4.10.6 and 4.10.7
shall operate in accordance with the relevant provisions of
Annex 10, Volume III.
III-4-6
Section III, Chapter 4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
4.11 Helicopters required to be
equipped with a pressure-altitude
reporting transponder
4.11.1 From 1 January 2003, unless exempted by the
appropriate authorities, all helicopters shall be equipped with
a pressure-altitude reporting transponder which operates in
accordance with the relevant provisions of Annex 10,
Volume IV.
effectiveness of air traffic services. Effective dates for carriage
requirements of ACAS are contained in Annex 6, Part I, 6.18.1
and 6.18.2. The intent is also for aircraft not equipped with
pressure-altitude reporting transponders to be operated so as
not to share airspace used by aircraft equipped with airborne
collision avoidance systems. To this end, exemptions from the
carriage requirement for pressure-altitude reporting transponders could be given by designating airspace where such
carriage is not required.
4.11.2 Recommendation.— All helicopters should be
equipped with a pressure-altitude reporting transponder which
operates in accordance with the relevant provisions of Annex 10,
Volume IV.
Note.— The provisions in 4.11.1 and 4.11.2 are intended to
support the effectiveness of ACAS as well as to improve
4.12
Microphones
Recommendation.— All flight crew members required to
be on flight deck duty should communicate through boom or
throat microphones below the transition level/altitude.
III-4-7
1/11/01
CHAPTER 5. HELICOPTER COMMUNICATION
AND NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
5.1 Communication equipment
5.2 Navigation equipment
5.1.1 A helicopter to be operated in accordance with the
instrument flight rules or at night shall be provided with radio
communication equipment. Such equipment shall be capable
of conducting two-way communication with those aeronautical
stations and on those frequencies prescribed by the appropriate
authority.
5.2.1 A helicopter shall be provided with navigation
equipment which will enable it to proceed:
Note.— The requirements of 5.1.1 are considered fulfilled
if the ability to conduct the communications specified therein
is established during radio propagation conditions which are
normal for the route.
c) in accordance with the requirements of air traffic
services;
5.1.2 When compliance with 5.1.1 requires that more
than one communication equipment unit be provided, each
shall be independent of the other or others to the extent that a
failure in any one will not result in failure of any other.
5.1.3 A helicopter to be operated in accordance with the
visual flight rules, but as a controlled flight, shall, unless
exempted by the appropriate authority, be provided with radio
communication equipment capable of conducting two-way
communication at any time during flight with such
aeronautical stations and on such frequencies as may be
prescribed by the appropriate authority.
5.1.4 A helicopter to be operated on a flight to which the
provisions of 4.3 or 4.4 apply shall, unless exempted by the
appropriate authority, be provided with radio communication
equipment capable of conducting two-way communication at
any time during flight with such aeronautical stations and on
such frequencies as may be prescribed by the appropriate
authority.
5.1.5 Recommendation.— The radio communication
equipment required in accordance with 5.1.1 to 5.1.4 should
provide for communication on the aeronautical emergency
frequency 121.5 MHz.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
a) in accordance with its flight plan;
b) in accordance with prescribed RNP types; and
except when, if not so precluded by the appropriate authority,
navigation for flights under the visual flight rules is
accomplished by visual reference to landmarks. For
international general aviation, landmarks shall be located at
least every 110 km (60 NM).
Note.— Information on RNP and associated procedures is
contained in the Manual on Required Navigation Performance
(RNP) (Doc 9613).
5.2.2 The helicopter shall be sufficiently provided with
navigation equipment to ensure that, in the event of the failure
of one item of equipment at any stage of the flight, the
remaining equipment will enable the helicopter to navigate in
accordance with 5.2.1.
Note.— For international general aviation, this requirement may be met by means other than the duplication of
equipment.
5.2.3 On flights in which it is intended to land in
instrument meteorological conditions a helicopter shall be
provided with radio equipment capable of receiving signals
providing guidance to a point from which a visual landing can
be effected. This equipment shall be capable of providing such
guidance at each heliport at which it is intended to land in
instrument meteorological conditions and at any designated
alternate heliports.
III-5-1
1/11/01
CHAPTER 6.
HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE
Note 1.— For the purpose of this chapter “helicopter”
includes: powerplants, power transmissions, rotors,
components, accessories, instruments, equipment and
apparatus including emergency equipment.
d) the time in service (hours, calendar time and cycles, as
appropriate) since last overhaul of the helicopter or its
components subject to a mandatory overhaul life;
e) the current status of the helicopter’s compliance with the
maintenance programme; and
Note 2.— Guidance on continuing airworthiness requirements is contained in the Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760).
f) the detailed maintenance records to show that all
requirements for signing of a maintenance release have
been met.
6.1
Responsibilities
6.2.2 The records in 6.2.1 a) to e) shall be kept for a
minimum period of 90 days after the unit to which they refer
has been permanently withdrawn from service, and the records
in 6.2.1 f) for a minimum period of one year after the signing
of the maintenance release.
6.1.1 The owner of a helicopter, or in the case where it is
leased, the lessee shall ensure that:
a) the helicopter is maintained in an airworthy condition;
b) the operational and emergency equipment necessary for
the intended flight is serviceable;
6.2.3 The lessee of a helicopter shall comply with the
requirements of 6.2.1 and 6.2.2, as applicable, while the
helicopter is leased.
c) the Certificate of Airworthiness of the helicopter
remains valid; and
d) the maintenance of the helicopter is performed in
accordance with a maintenance programme acceptable
to the State of Registry.
6.1.2 The helicopter shall not be operated unless it is
maintained and released to service under a system acceptable
to the State of Registry.
6.1.3 When the maintenance release is not issued by an
organization approved in accordance with Annex 6, Part I, 8.7,
the person signing the maintenance release shall be licensed in
accordance with Annex 1.
6.3
The owner of a helicopter over 3 180 kg maximum certificated
take-off mass, or in the case where it is leased, the lessee,
shall, as required by the State of Registry, ensure that, the
information resulting from maintenance and operational
experience with respect to continuing airworthiness, is
transmitted as required by Annex 8, Part II, paragraphs 4.3.5
and 4.3.8.
6.4
6.2
Maintenance records
6.2.1 The owner shall ensure that the following records
are kept for the periods mentioned in 6.2.2:
Continuing airworthiness
information
Modifications and repairs
All modifications and repairs shall comply with airworthiness
requirements acceptable to the State of Registry. Procedures
shall be established to ensure that the substantiating data
supporting compliance with the airworthiness requirements are
retained.
a) the total time in service hours, calendar time and cycles,
as appropriate of the helicopter and all life-limited
components;
6.5
b) the current status of compliance with all mandatory
continuing airworthiness information;
c) appropriate details of modifications and repairs to the
helicopter;
ANNEX 6 — PART III
Maintenance release
6.5.1 A maintenance release shall be completed and
signed, as prescribed by the State of Registry, to certify that
the maintenance work performed has been completed
satisfactorily.
III-6-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
6.5.2 A maintenance release shall contain a certification
including:
a) basic details of the maintenance carried out;
of
the
approved
d) the identity of the person or persons signing the
release. 1
b) date such maintenance was completed;
1/11/01
c) when applicable, the identity
maintenance organization; and
III-6-2
CHAPTER 7.
HELICOPTER FLIGHT CREW
7.1
Qualifications
The pilot-in-command shall ensure that the licences of each
flight crew member have been issued or rendered valid by the
State of Registry, and are properly rated and of current
validity, and shall be satisfied that flight crew members have
maintained competence.
7.2
Composition of the flight crew
The number and composition of the flight crew shall not be
less than that specified in the flight manual or other documents
associated with the certificate of airworthiness.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
III-7-1
1/11/01
ANNEX 6 — PART III
APPENDIX
1/11/01
APPENDIX.
CONTENTS OF AN OPERATIONS MANUAL
(See Section II, Chapter 2, 2.2.2.1)
An operations manual, which may be issued in separate parts
corresponding to specific aspects of operations, provided in
accordance with Section II, Chapter 2, 2.2.2.1 shall contain at
least the following:
5.
Flight operations
5.1 The flight crew for each type of operation including
the designation of the succession of command.
5.2 The in-flight and the emergency duties assigned to
each crew member.
1.
Operations administration
and supervision
1.1 Instructions outlining the responsibilities of operations personnel pertaining to the conduct of flight operations.
1.2 Checklist of emergency and safety equipment and
instructions for its use.
1.3 The minimum equipment list for the helicopter types
operated and specific operations authorized.
1.4 Safety precautions during refuelling with passengers
on board.
5.3 Specific instructions for the computation of the
quantities of fuel and oil to be carried, having regard to all
circumstances of the operation including the possibility of the
failure of one or more powerplants while en route.
5.4 The conditions under which oxygen shall be used
and the amount of oxygen determined in accordance with
Section II, Chapter 2, 2.3.8.2.
5.5
5.6 Instructions for the conduct and control of ground deicing/anti-icing operations.
5.7
2.
Accident prevention and
flight safety programme
Details of the accident prevention and flight safety programme
provided in accordance with Section II, Chapter 1, 1.6,
including a statement of safety policy and the responsibility of
personnel.
3.
Instructions for mass and balance control.
The specifications for the operational flight plan.
5.8 The normal, abnormal and emergency procedures to
be used by the flight crew, the checklists relating thereto
and aircraft systems information as required by Section II,
Chapter 4, 4.1.3.
5.9 Standard operating procedures (SOP) for each phase
of flight.
5.10 Instructions on the use of normal checklists and the
timing of their use.
Personnel training
5.11 Emergency evacuation procedures.
3.1 Details of the flight crew training programme and
requirements.
5.12 Departure contingency procedures.
3.2 Details of the cabin crew duties training programme
as required by Section II, Chapter 10, 10.3.
4.
5.13 Instructions
awareness.
the
maintenance
of
altitude
5.14 Instructions on the clarification and acceptance of
ATC clearances, particularly where terrain clearance is
involved.
Fatigue and flight time
limitations
Rules limiting the flight time and flight duty periods and
providing for adequate rest periods for flight crew members
and cabin crew.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
on
APP-1
5.15 Departure and approach briefings.
5.16 Route and destination familiarization.
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
5.17 Conditions required to commence or to continue an
instrument approach.
5.18 Instructions for the conduct of precision and nonprecision instrument approach procedures.
5.19 Allocation of flight crew duties and procedures for
the management of crew workload during night and IMC
instrument approach and landing operations.
9.
9.1 The ground-air visual signal code for use by
survivors, as contained in Annex 12.
9.2 Procedures, as prescribed in
pilots-in-command observing an accident.
5.20 Information and instructions relating to the interception of civil aircraft including:
a) procedures, as prescribed in Annex 2, for pilots-incommand of intercepted aircraft; and
Search and rescue
10.
Annex
12,
for
Dangerous goods
Information and instructions on the carriage of dangerous
goods, including action to be taken in the event of an
emergency.
b) visual signals for use by intercepting and intercepted
aircraft, as contained in Annex 2.
11. Navigation
6.
A list of the navigational equipment to be carried.
Route guides and charts
A route guide to ensure that the flight crew will have, for each
flight, information relating to communication facilities,
navigation aids, aerodromes, and such other information as the
operator may deem necessary for the proper conduct of flight
operations.
7.
7.1
12.
The circumstances in which a radio listening watch is to be
maintained.
Minimum flight altitudes
13.
The method for determining minimum flight altitudes.
7.2 The minimum flight altitudes for each route to be
flown.
8.
Security
13.1 Security instructions and guidance.
13.2 The search procedure checklist
accordance with Section II, Chapter 11, 11.1.
provided
in
Heliport operating minima
14.
8.1 The methods for determining heliport operating
minima.
8.2 Heliport operating minima for each of the heliports
that are likely to be used as heliports of intended landing or as
alternate heliports.
8.3 The increase of heliport operating minima in case of
degradation of approach or heliport facilities.
1/11/01
Communications
Human Factors
Information on the operator’s training programme for the
development of knowledge and skills related to human
performance.
Note.— Information on knowledge and skills related to
human performance can be found in the Human Factors
Training Manual (Doc 9683).
APP-2
ANNEX 6 — PART III
ATTACHMENTS
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT A. HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE
AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS
Purpose and scope
2. General
The purpose of the following example is to illustrate the level
of performance intended by the provisions of Section II,
Chapter 3, and Section III, Chapter 3.
2.1
Significant factors
To determine the performance of the helicopter, account is
taken of at least the following factors:
1. Definitions
a) mass of the helicopter;
b) elevation or pressure-altitude and temperature;
1.1 Only applicable to
performance Class 1 helicopters
c) wind; for take-off and landing, accountability for wind
shall be no more than 50 per cent of any reported steady
head wind component of 5 knots or more. Where
take-off and landing with a tail wind component is
permitted in the flight manual, not less than 150 per cent
of any reported tail wind component shall be allowed.
Where precise wind measuring equipment enables
accurate measurement of wind velocity over the
point of take-off and landing, these values may be
varied; and
Landing distance required (LDRH). The horizontal distance
required to land and come to a full stop from a point 10.7 m
(35 ft) above the landing surface.
Rejected take-off distance required (RTODR). The horizontal
distance required from the start of the take-off to the point
where the helicopter comes to a full stop following a
power-unit failure and rejection of the take-off at the takeoff decision point.
Take-off distance required (TODRH). The horizontal distance
required from the start of the take-off to the point at which
VTOSS, a height of 10.7 m (35 ft) above the take-off surface,
and a positive climb gradient are achieved, following
failure of the critical power-unit at TDP, the remaining
power-units operating within approved operating limits.
d) operating techniques.
2.2 For performance Class 2 or 3 helicopters in any flight
phase where a power-unit failure may cause the helicopter to
force land:
a) a minimum visibility must be defined by the operator,
taking into account the characteristics of the helicopter,
but never less than 1 000 m for performance Class 2
helicopters and 1 500 m for performance Class 3
helicopters;
1.2 Applicable to all classes of helicopters
Distance DR. DR is the horizontal distance that the helicopter
has travelled from the end of the take-off distance
available.
b) the operator is obliged to verify that the surface below
the intended flight path permits the pilot to execute a
safe forced landing; in addition, in case of a flight over
water, the operator must also verify that the helicopter
has been certificated for ditching.
Landing distance available (LDAH). The length of the final
approach and take-off area plus any additional area
declared available and suitable for helicopters to complete
the landing manoeuvre from a defined height.
Take-off distance available (TODAH). The length of the final
approach and take-off area plus the length of helicopter
clearway (if provided) declared available and suitable for
helicopters to complete the take-off.
In addition, performance Class 3 operations are not to be
performed:
c) out of the sight of the surface; or
Touchdown and lift-off area (TLOF). A load bearing area on
which a helicopter may touch down or lift off.
d) at night; or
Vy. Best rate of climb speed.
e) when the cloud ceiling is less than 180 m (600 ft).
ANNEX 6 — PART III
ATT A-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
3.
Part III
Operating area considerations
3.1
b) the take-off distance required does not exceed the takeoff distance available; or
As an alternative (Figure A-2), the take-off distance
required may be disregarded provided that the helicopter
with the critical power-unit failure at the TDP can, when
continuing the take-off, clear all obstacles between the
end of the take-off distance available and the point at
which it becomes established in a climb at VTOSS by a
vertical margin of 10.7 m (35 ft) or more. An obstacle
is considered to be in the path of the helicopter if its
distance from the nearest point on the surface below the
intended line of flight does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times
the maximum dimension of the helicopter, whichever is
greater.
Touchdown and lift-off area
On surface level heliports, the length or width of the
undercarriage, whichever is the greater, does not exceed 2/3
the diameter of the circle contained in the touchdown and liftoff area. On elevated heliports and on helidecks, it is presumed
that the FATO and the touchdown and lift-off area will be
coincidental.
3.2
FATO
The over-all length or width of the helicopter, whichever is the
greater, does not exceed 2/3 the smallest dimension of the
FATO except in case of a water heliport. In this case, it does
not exceed 1/2 the width of the FATO. If the FATO includes
water surface, the helicopter is to be specifically approved in
its flight manual for routine water operations including
rejected take-off onto water surfaces. For performance Class 1
helicopters, the dimensions of the FATO are not less than
those which are indicated in the flight manual of the
helicopter.
4.1.1.3 Take-off from an elevated
4.1.1.3 heliport or helideck (Figure A-3)
The take-off mass is such that:
a) it is possible to reject the take-off and land on the FATO
in case of the critical power-unit failure occurring before
the TDP;
b) it is possible to continue the flight if the critical powerunit failure occurs at or after the TDP. In this case, the
flight path of the helicopter may descend below the
height of the FATO in order to achieve VTOSS if the
following conditions are satisfied:
3.3 Helicopter clearway
The over-all length or width of the helicopter, whichever is
greater, does not exceed 2/3 the width of the helicopter
clearway in case of a land heliport or half the width of the
helicopter clearway in case of a water heliport.
4.
1) A clearance margin is established in relation to the
elevated heliport or helideck itself and to all obstacles
located on the elevated heliport or helideck. 4.5 m
(15 ft) has been found appropriate to a wide range of
helicopters.
Limitations resulting from performance
2) The vertical clearance above all obstacles not located
on the elevated heliport or helideck is at least equal to
10.7 m (35 ft). An obstacle is considered if its distance
from the flight path does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times
the maximum dimension of the helicopter, whichever
is greater.
4.1 Performance Class 1 helicopters
4.1.1
Take-off
4.1.1.1 No helicopter is taken off at a mass that exceeds
the maximum take-off mass specified in the flight manual for
the altitude of the heliport and for the ambient temperature
existing at the time of the take-off.
4.1.1.2 Take-off from a surface-level
4.1.1.2 heliport (Figure A-1)
The take-off mass is such that:
a) the rejected take-off distance required does not exceed
the rejected take-off distance available;
1/11/01
4.1.2
Initial climb
4.1.2.1 The take-off mass is such that the climb path
provides a vertical clearance of not less than 10.7 m (35 ft) for
VFR operations and 10.7 m (35 ft) + 0.01 DR for IFR
operations above all obstacles located in the climb path, the
critical power-unit failure occurring at the TDP.
4.1.2.2 An obstacle is considered if its lateral distance
from the nearest point on the surface below the intended flight
path does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times the over-all length of
the helicopter, whichever is greater, plus:
ATT A-2
Attachment A
0.10
0.15
0.30
0.15
0.10
DR
DR
DR
DR
DR
for
for
for
for
for
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
VFR day operations
VFR night operations
IFR operations without electronic guidance
IFR operations with electronic guidance
IFR operations with ILS or MLS guidance
An obstacle is considered if its lateral distance from the
nearest point on the surface below the intended line of flight
does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times the over-all length of the
helicopter, whichever is greater, plus:
0.10
0.15
0.30
0.15
0.10
except obstacles may be disregarded if they are situated
beyond:
a) 7 R* for day operations if it is assured that navigational
accuracy can be achieved by reference to suitable visual
cues during the climb;
b) 10 R* for night operations if it is assured that
navigational accuracy can be achieved by reference to
suitable visual cues during the climb;
f) 10 R* for night operations if it is assured that
navigational accuracy can be achieved by reference to
suitable visual cues during the climb;
4.1.2.3 Where a change of direction of more than 15° is
made, obstacle clearance requirements are to be increased by
5 m (15 ft) from the point at which the turn is initiated. This
turn is not to be initiated before reaching a height of 30 m
(100 ft) above the take-off surface.
The take-off mass is such that it is possible, in case of the
critical power-unit failure occurring at any point of the flight
path, to continue the flight to an appropriate landing site and
achieve the minimum flight altitudes for the route to be flown.
4.1.4
4.1.4
VFR day operations
VFR night operations
IFR operations without electronic guidance
IFR operations with electronic guidance
IFR operations with ILS or MLS guidance
e) 7 R* for day operations if it is assured that navigational
accuracy can be achieved by reference to suitable visual
cues during the climb;
d) 900 m in the other cases.
En route
for
for
for
for
for
except obstacles may be disregarded if they are situated
beyond:
c) 300 m if navigational accuracy can be achieved by
navigation aids; and
4.1.3
DR
DR
DR
DR
DR
g) 300 m if navigational accuracy can be achieved by
navigation aids; and
h) 900 m in the other cases.
4.1.4.2 In case of a landing on an elevated heliport or
helideck, the flight path may descend below the height of the
landing surface in order to achieve VTOSS if the following
conditions are satisfied:
a) A clearance margin is established in relation to the
elevated heliport or helideck itself and to all obstacles
located on the elevated heliport or helideck. 4.5 m
(15 ft) has been found appropriate to a wide range of
helicopters.
Approach, landing and balked landing
(Figures A-7 and A-8)
b) The vertical clearance above all obstacles not located on
the elevated heliport or helideck is at least equal to that
specified in 4.1.4.1.
4.1.4.1 The estimated landing mass at the destination or
alternate is such that:
a) it does not exceed the maximum landing mass specified
in the flight manual, taking into account the parameters
specified in 2.1;
4.2 Performance Class 2 helicopters
b) the landing distance required does not exceed the
landing distance available;
4.2.1
4.2.1
Take-off
(Figures A-4 and A-5)
c) in case of the critical power-unit failure occurring at any
point after the LDP, it is possible to land and stop within
the FATO; and
4.2.1.1 The mass of the helicopter at take-off does not
exceed the maximum take-off mass specified in the flight
manual taking into account the parameters specified in 2.1.
d) in case of the critical power-unit failure occurring at any
point before the LDP, it is possible either to land and
stop within the FATO, or to overshoot and clear all
obstacles in the flight path by a vertical interval
of 10.7 m (35 ft) for VFR plus an additional margin of
0.01 DR for IFR.
4.2.1.2 The take-off mass is such that a safe forced
landing can be achieved in the event of a power-unit failure
prior to reaching the defined point after take-off.
* R is the rotor radius.
ATT A-3
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
4.2.1.3 In case of a take-off from an elevated heliport or
helideck and a failure of the critical power-unit occurring
before Vy is obtained, the flight path may descend to achieve
Vy if the following conditions are satisfied:
4.2.4
4.2.4
4.2.4.1 The estimated landing mass at the destination or
alternate is such that:
a) A clearance margin is established in relation to the
elevated heliport or helideck itself and to all obstacles
located on the elevated heliport or helideck. 4.5 m
(15 ft) has been found appropriate to a wide range of
helicopters.
a) it does not exceed the maximum landing mass specified
in the flight manual, taking into account the parameters
specified in 2.1;
b) a safe forced landing can be achieved in the event of an
engine failure after reaching the defined point before
landing;
b) The vertical clearance above all obstacles not located on
the elevated heliport or helideck is at least equal to
10.7 m (35 ft). An obstacle is considered if its distance
from the flight path does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times
the over-all length of the helicopter whichever is greater.
4.2.2
c) it is possible to perform a balked landing, all engines
operating, at any point of the flight path and clear all
obstacles in the flight path by a vertical clearance of not
less than:
Initial climb
10.7 m (35 ft) for VFR operations; and
10.7 m (35 ft) + 0.01 DR for IFR operations; and
4.2.2.1 The take-off mass is such that the climb path
provides a vertical clearance of not less than 10.7 m (35 ft) for
VFR operations and 10.7 m (35 ft) + 0.01 DR for IFR
operations above all obstacles located in the climb path, the
critical power-unit failure occurring at the defined point after
take-off.
4.2.2.2 An obstacle is considered if its lateral distance
from the nearest point on the surface below the intended flight
path does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times the over-all length of
the helicopter, whichever is greater, plus:
0.10
0.15
0.30
0.15
0.10
DR
DR
DR
DR
DR
for
for
for
for
for
VFR day operations
VFR night operations
IFR operations without electronic guidance
IFR operations with electronic guidance
IFR operations with ILS or MLS guidance
d) it is possible, in case of the critical power-unit failure
occurring before the defined point before landing, either
to land and stop within the FATO, or to overshoot and
clear all obstacles in the flight path by a vertical interval
of 10.7 m (35 ft).
An obstacle is considered if its lateral distance from the
nearest point on the surface below the intended line of flight
does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times the over-all length of the
helicopter, whichever is greater, plus:
0.10
0.15
0.30
0.15
0.10
except obstacles may be disregarded if they are situated
beyond:
a) 7 R* for day operations if it is assured that navigational
accuracy can be achieved by reference to suitable visual
cues during the climb;
for
for
for
for
for
VFR day operations
VFR night operations
IFR operations without electronic guidance
IFR operations with electronic guidance
IFR operations with ILS or MLS guidance
e) 7 R* for day operations if it is assured that navigational
accuracy can be achieved by reference to suitable visual
cues during the climb;
f) 10 R* for night operations if it is assured that
navigational accuracy can be achieved by reference to
suitable visual cues during the climb;
c) 300 m if navigational accuracy can be achieved by
navigation aids; and
g) 300 m if navigational accuracy can be achieved by
navigation aids; and
d) 900 m in the other cases.
En route
h) 900 m in the other cases.
The take-off mass is such that it is possible, in case of the
critical power-unit failure occurring at any point of the flight
path, to continue the flight to an appropriate landing site and
achieve the minimum flight altitudes for the route to be flown.
1/11/01
DR
DR
DR
DR
DR
except obstacles may be disregarded if they are situated
beyond:
b) 10 R* for night operations if it is assured that
navigational accuracy can be achieved by reference to
suitable visual cues during the climb;
4.2.3
Approach, landing and balked landing
(Figures A-9 and A-10)
* R is the rotor radius.
ATT A-4
Attachment A
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
4.2.4.2 In case of a landing on an elevated heliport or
helideck, the flight path may descend below the height of the
FATO in order to achieve Vy if the following conditions are
satisfied:
a) A clearance margin is established in relation to the
elevated heliport or helideck itself and to all obstacles
located on the elevated heliport or helideck. 4.5 m
(15 ft) has been found appropriate to a wide range of
helicopters;
b) The vertical clearance above all obstacles not located on
the elevated heliport or helideck is at least equal to that
specified in 4.2.4.1.
4.3.3
The take-off mass is such that it is possible to achieve the
minimum flight altitudes for the route to be flown, all engines
operating.
4.3.4
4.3.4
Approach, landing and balked landing
(Figure A-11)
a) it does not exceed the maximum landing mass specified
in the flight manual, taking into account the parameters
specified in 2.1;
Take-off
(Figure A-6)
b) a safe forced landing can be achieved in the event of an
engine failure;
4.3.1.1 The mass of the helicopter at take-off does not
exceed the maximum take-off mass specified in the flight
manual taking into account the parameters specified in 2.1.
c) it is possible to perform a balked landing, all engines
operating, at any point of the flight path and clear all
obstacles by a vertical interval of 10.7 m (35 ft).
4.3.1.2 The take-off mass is such that a safe forced
landing can be achieved in the event of an engine failure.
4.3.2
En route
The estimated landing mass at the destination or alternate is
such that:
4.3 Performance Class 3 helicopters
4.3.1
4.3.1
4.3.2.2 An obstacle is considered if its lateral distance
from the nearest point on the surface below the intended flight
path does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times the over-all length of
the helicopter, whichever is greater, plus 0.10 DR, except
obstacles may be disregarded if they are situated beyond 7 R*.
Initial climb
4.3.2.1 The take-off mass is such that the climb path
provides a vertical clearance of not less than 10.7 m (35 ft)
above all obstacles located along the climb path, all engines
operating.
An obstacle is considered if its lateral distance from the
nearest point on the surface below the intended line of flight
does not exceed 30 m or 1.5 times the over-all length of the
helicopter, whichever is greater, plus 0.10 DR, except
obstacles may be disregarded if they are situated beyond 7 R*.
* R is the rotor radius.
ATT A-5
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Figure A-1
1/11/01
ATT A-6
Attachment A
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Figure A-2
ATT A-7
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Figure A-3
1/11/01
ATT A-8
Attachment A
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Figure A-4
ATT A-9
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Figure A-5
1/11/01
ATT A-10
Attachment A
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Figure A-6
ATT A-11
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Figure A-7
1/11/01
ATT A-12
Attachment A
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Figure A-8
ATT A-13
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Figure A-9
1/11/01
ATT A-14
Attachment A
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Figure A-10
ATT A-15
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Figure A-11
1/11/01
ATT A-16
ATTACHMENT B.
FLIGHT RECORDERS
Supplementary to Section II, Chapter 4, 4.3 and Section III, Chapter 4, 4.9
Introduction
The material in this Attachment concerns flight recorders
intended for installation in helicopters engaged in international
air navigation. Flight recorders comprise two systems — a
flight data recorder and a cockpit voice recorder. Flight data
recorders for helicopters are classified as Type IV and Type V
depending upon the number of parameters to be recorded.
1.
Flight data recorder (FDR)
1.1.2
1.3
1.3.1 The measurement range, recording interval and
accuracy of parameters on installed equipment is usually
verified by methods approved by the appropriate certificating
authority.
The FDR is to record continuously during flight
a) manufacturer’s operating instructions,
limitations and installation procedures;
The FDR container is to:
b) parameter origin or source and equations which relate
counts to units of measurement; and
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
equipment
c) manufacturer’s test reports.
b) carry reflective material to facilitate its location; and
c) have securely attached an automatically activated
underwater locating device.
1.1.3
Additional information
1.3.2 The manufacturer usually provides the national
certificating authority with the following information in
respect of the FDR:
1.1 General requirements
1.1.1
time.
parameters in Table B-1. However, other parameters may be
substituted with due regard to the helicopter type and the
characteristics of the recording equipment.
The FDR is to be installed so that:
1.3.3 Documentation concerning parameter allocation,
conversion equations, periodic calibration and other
serviceability/maintenance information should be maintained
by the operator. The documentation must be sufficient to
ensure that accident investigation authorities have the
necessary information to read out the data in engineering units.
a) the probability of damage to the recording is minimized;
2.
b) it receives its electrical power from a bus that provides
the maximum reliability for operation of the FDR
without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency
loads; and
c) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking
that the FDR is operating properly.
Cockpit voice recorder (CVR)
2.1 General requirements
2.1.1 The CVR is to be designed so that it will record at
least the following:
a) voice communication transmitted from or received in
the aircraft by radio;
1.2
Parameters to be recorded
b) aural environment on the flight deck;
1.2.1 Type IV FDR. This FDR will be capable of
recording, as appropriate to the helicopter, at least the thirty
parameters in Table B-1. However, other parameters may be
substituted with due regard to the helicopter type and the
characteristics of the recording equipment.
c) voice communication of flight crew members on the
flight deck using the interphone system;
1.2.2 Type V FDR. This FDR will be capable of recording,
as appropriate to the helicopter, at least the first fifteen
e) voice communication of flight crew members using the
passenger address system, if installed; and
ANNEX 6 — PART III
ATT B-1
d) voice or audio signals identifying navigation or
approach aids introduced in the headset or speaker;
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
f) digital communications with ATS, unless recorded by
the FDR.
Note 1.— Track 1 is located closest to the base of the
recording head.
2.1.2
Note 2.— The preferred track allocation presumes use of
current conventional magnetic tape transport mechanisms,
and is specified because the outer edges of the tape have a
higher risk of damage than the middle. It is not intended to
preclude use of alternative recording media where such
constraints may not apply.
The CVR container is to:
a) be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
b) carry reflective material to facilitate its location; and
c) have securely attached an automatically activated
underwater locating device.
2.1.3 To aid in voice and sound discrimination,
microphones in the cockpit are to be located in the best
position for recording voice communications originating at the
pilot and co-pilot stations and voice communications of other
crew members on the flight deck when directed to those
stations. This can best be achieved by wiring suitable boom
microphones to record continuously on separate channels.
2.1.4
2.2.3 The CVR, when tested by methods approved by the
appropriate certificating authority, will be demonstrated to be
suitable for the environmental extremes over which it is
designed to operate.
2.2.4 Means will be provided for an accurate time
correlation between the FDR and CVR.
Note.— One method of achieving this is by superimposing
the FDR time signal on the CVR.
The CVR is to be installed so that:
2.3
a) the probability of damage to the recording is minimized;
b) it receives its electrical power from a bus that provides
the maximum reliability for operation of the CVR
without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency
loads;
The manufacturer usually provides the national certificating
authority with the following information in respect of the
CVR:
a) manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment
limitations and installation procedures; and
c) there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking
of the CVR for proper operation; and
b) manufacturer’s test reports.
d) if the CVR has a bulk erasure device, the installation
should be designed to prevent operation of the device
during flight time or crash impact.
2.2 Performance requirements
2.2.1 The CVR will be capable of recording on at least
four tracks simultaneously. To ensure accurate time correlation
between tracks, the CVR is to record in an in-line format. If a
bi-directional configuration is used, the in-line format and
track allocation should be retained in both directions.
2.2.2
3. Inspections of FDR and CVR systems
3.1 Prior to the first flight of the day the built-in test
features on the flight deck for the CVR, FDR and Flight Data
Acquisition Unit (FDAU), when installed, should be
monitored.
The preferred track allocation is as follows:
Track 1 — co-pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Track 2 — pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Track 3 — area microphone
Track 4 — time reference, main rotor speed or the flight
deck vibration environment, the third and
fourth crew member’s headphone and live
microphone, if applicable.
1/11/01
Additional information
ATT B-2
3.2
Annual inspections should be carried out as follows:
a) the read-out of the recorded data from the FDR and
CVR should ensure that the recorder operates correctly
for the nominal duration of the recording;
b) the analysis of the FDR should evaluate the quality of
the recorded data to determine if the bit error rate is
within acceptable limits and to determine the nature and
distribution of the errors;
c) a complete flight from the FDR should be examined in
engineering units to evaluate the validity of all recorded
parameters. Particular attention should be given to
parameters from sensors dedicated to the FDR.
Parameters taken from the aircraft’s electrical bus
system need not be checked if their serviceability can be
detected by other aircraft systems;
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
d) the read-out facility should have the necessary software
to accurately convert the recorded values to engineering
units and to determine the status of discrete signals;
3.4 A report of the annual inspection should be made
available on request to the State’s regulatory authority for
monitoring purposes.
e) an annual examination of the recorded signal on the
CVR should be carried out by re-play of the CVR
recording. While installed in the aircraft the CVR should
record test signals from each aircraft source and from
relevant external sources to ensure that all required
signals meet intelligibility standards; and
f) where practicable, during the annual examination, a
sample of in-flight recordings of the CVR should be
examined for evidence that the intelligibility of the
signal is acceptable.
3.3 Flight recorder systems should be considered unserviceable if there is a significant period of poor quality data,
unintelligible signals, or if one or more of the mandatory
parameters is not recorded correctly.
1/11/01
ATT B-3
3.5
Calibration of the FDR system:
a) the FDR system should be re-calibrated at least every
five years to determine any discrepancies in the
engineering conversion routines for the mandatory
parameters, and to ensure that parameters are being
recorded within the calibration tolerances; and
b) when the parameters of altitude and airspeed are
provided by sensors that are dedicated to the FDR
system, there should be a re-calibration performed as
recommended by the sensor manufacturer, or at least
every two years.
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
Table B-1
Helicopters — Parameters for Flight Data Recorders
Serial
number
Parameter
Measurement range
Accuracy limits
(sensor input compared
to FDR read-out)
Recording
interval
(seconds)
1
Time (UTC when available,
otherwise elapsed time)
24 hours
4
±0.125% per hour
2
Pressure-altitude
–300 m (–1 000 ft) to
maximum certificated
altitude of aircraft
+1 500 m (+5 000 ft)
1
±30 m to ±200 m
(±100 ft to ±700 ft)
3
Indicated airspeed
As the installed
measuring system
1
±3%
4
Heading
360°
1
±2°
5
Normal acceleration
–3 g to +6 g
0.125
±1%
6
Pitch attitude
±75°
0.5
±2°
7
Roll attitude
±180°
0.5
±2°
8
Radio transmission keying
On-off (one discrete)
9
Power on each engine
(Note 1)
Full range
1 (per
engine)
±2%
10
Main rotor speed
50-130%
0.5
±2%
11
Pilot input and/or control
surface position-primary
controls (Collective pitch,
longitudinal cyclic pitch,
lateral cyclic pitch, tail
rotor pedal) (Note 2)
Full range
1
12
Hydraulics, each system
(low pressure)
Discrete
2
13
Outside air temperature
Sensor range
2
14
Autopilot/auto
throttle/AFCS
mode and engagement status
A suitable combination of
discretes
1
15
Stability augmentation system
engagement
Discrete
1
1
±2% unless higher accuracy
uniquely required.
±2°C
Note.— The preceding 15 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type V FDR.
16
Main gearbox oil pressure
As installed
1
As installed
17
Main gearbox oil temperature
As installed
2
As installed
18
Yaw acceleration
(or yaw rate)
±1 g
0.25
±1.5% max range excluding datum
error of ±5%
19
Sling load force
0-200%
of certified load
0.5
±3% of max range
1/11/01
ATT B-4
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Serial
number
Part III
Parameter
Measurement range
Accuracy limits
(sensor input compared
to FDR read-out)
Recording
interval
(seconds)
20
Longitudinal acceleration
±1 g
0.25
±1.5% max range excluding datum
error of ±5%
21
Lateral acceleration
±1 g
0.25
±1.5% max range excluding datum
error of ±5%
22
Radio altitude
–6 m to 750 m
(–20 ft to 2 500 ft)
1
±0.6 m (±2 ft) or ±3%
whichever is greater below 150 m
(500 ft) and ±5% above 150 m
(500 ft)
23
Glide path deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
24
Localizer deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
25
Marker beacon passage
Discrete
1
26
Master warning
Discrete
1
27
NAV 1 and 2 frequency
selection (Note 3)
Full range
4
As installed
28
DME 1 and 2 distance
(Notes 3 and 4)
0-370 km
4
As installed
29
Navigation data
(latitude/longitude, ground
speed) (Note 5)
As installed
2
As installed
30
Landing gear or gear
selector position
Discrete
4
As installed
Note.— The preceding 30 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type IV FDR.
Notes.—
1. Record sufficient inputs to determine power.
2. For helicopters with conventional control systems ‘‘or’’ applies. For helicopters with non-mechanical control systems ‘‘and’’ applies.
3. If signal available in digital form.
4. Recording of latitude and longitude from INS or other navigation system is a preferred alternative.
5. If signals readily available.
1/11/01
ATT B-5
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
If further recording capacity is available, recording of the
following additional information should be considered:
height, and autoflight system engagement and mode
indications if not recorded from another source;
a) operational information from electronic display systems,
such as electronic flight instrument systems (EFIS),
electronic centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and
engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS).
2) display system selection/status, e.g. SECTOR,
PLAN, ROSE, NAV, WXR, COMPOSITE, COPY,
etc.;
Use the following order of priority:
4) the identity of displayed pages for emergency
procedures and checklists; and
1) parameters selected by the flight crew relating to
the desired flight path, e.g. barometric pressure
setting, selected altitude, selected airspeed, decision
1/11/01
3) warnings and alerts data; and
ATT B-6
b) additional engine parameters (EPR, N1, EGT, fuel flow,
etc.).
ATTACHMENT C. FLIGHT TIME
AND FLIGHT DUTY PERIOD LIMITATIONS
Supplementary to Section II, Chapter 2, 2.2.9.3
1.
Purpose and scope
a) the crew composition of the aircraft;
1.1 Flight time and flight duty period limitations are
established for the sole purpose of reducing the probability
that fatigue of flight crew members may adversely affect the
safety of flight.
b) the probability of operational delays;
c) the type of aircraft and route complexities such as traffic
density, navigation aids, standard of equipment carried,
communication difficulties, and high altitude flying in
unpressurized aircraft, or flying with high cabin
altitudes in pressurized aircraft;
1.2 In order to guard against this, two types of fatigue
must be taken into account, namely, transient fatigue and
cumulative fatigue. Transient fatigue may be described as
fatigue which is normally experienced by a healthy individual
following a period of work, exertion or excitement, and it is
normally dispelled by a single sufficient period of sleep. On
the other hand cumulative fatigue may occur after delayed or
incomplete recovery from transient fatigue or as the aftereffect of more than a normal amount of work, exertion or
excitement without sufficient opportunity for recuperation.
d) the proportion of night flying involved;
e) the extent to which the accommodation at layovers is
such as to permit crews to secure real rest;
f) the number of landings and take-offs;
g) the need for an orderly scheduling system, giving a high
degree of stability (for this, provision of adequate
reserves is an important factor);
1.3 Limitations based on the provisions of this Part of the
Annex will provide safeguards against both kinds of fatigue
because they will recognize:
h) especially sleep deprivation arising from interruption of
the normal sleep/wake cycle; and
1.3.1 The necessity to limit flight time in such a way as
to guard against both kinds of fatigue.
i) cockpit environment.
1.3.2 The necessity to limit time spent on duty on the
ground immediately prior to a flight or at intermediate points
during a series of flights in such a way as to guard particularly
against transient fatigue.
1.3.3 The necessity to provide flight crew members with
adequate opportunity to recover from fatigue.
1.3.4 The necessity of taking into account other related
tasks the flight crew member may be required to perform in
order to guard particularly against cumulative fatigue.
2.
General
2.1 The responsibility rests with the pilot, not to exercise
the privileges of the licence and related ratings at any time
when aware of any decrease in medical fitness which might
render the pilot unable to safely exercise these privileges,
including any decrease in medical fitness through fatigue.
2.2 The limitations laid down in the following paragraphs
are to be considered as minimum requirements and it is the
responsibility of the operator to adjust them in certain cases,
having regard to the factors mentioned below. Specific factors
to be taken into consideration are:
ANNEX 6 — PART III
2.3 For reasons of flight safety, the operator has the
responsibility to ensure that crew members engaged in duties
other than flight duties performed on behalf of the employer
are provided with at least the minimum required rest periods
before engaging in flight duties.
3.
Definitions
Deadheading crew. A crew member positioned by the
operator in flight or by surface transport.
Duty period. The time during which a flight crew member
carries out any duty at the behest of the flight crew
member’s employer.
Flight duty period. The total time from the moment a flight
crew member commences duty, immediately subsequent to
a rest period and prior to making a flight or a series of
flights, to the moment the flight crew member is relieved of
all duties having completed such flight or series of flights.
Flight sector. A flight or one of a series of flights which
commences at a parking place of the aircraft and terminates
at a parking place of the aircraft.
ATT C-1
1/11/01
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Part III
It is composed of:
time during which a flight crew member is performing a task
assigned by the operator. Such task should, therefore, only be
taken into account when making provisions for rest periods as
one among many factors which could lead to fatigue.
— flight preparation,
— flight time,
— post-flight period after the flight sector or series of flight
sectors.
4.2.2 The definition does not imply the inclusion of such
periods as time taken for a flight crew member to travel from
the flight crew member’s home to the place of employment.
Flight time — helicopters. The total time from the moment a
helicopter’s rotor blades start turning until the moment the
helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and
the rotor blades are stopped.
4.2.3 An important safeguard may be established if States
and operators recognize the right of a crew member to refuse
further flight duty when suffering from fatigue of such a nature
as to affect adversely the safety of flight.
Rest period. Any period of time on the ground during which a
flight crew member is relieved of all duties by the operator.
4.3 Rest periods
Series of flights. Two or more flight sectors accomplished in
between two rest periods.
Standby. A defined period during which a crew member may
be called for duty with minimum notice.
The definition of rest period implies an absence of duty and is
intended to be for the purpose of recovering from fatigue; the
way in which this recovery is achieved is the responsibility of
the individual.
Turnaround time. The time spent on the ground during a
flight duty period between two flight sectors.
4.
Comments about the definitions
4.1
Flight time
The definition of flight time is of necessity very general but in
the context of limitations it is, of course, intended to apply to
flight crew members in accordance with the relevant definition
of a flight crew member. Pursuant to that latter definition,
licensed crew personnel travelling as passengers cannot be
considered flight crew members, although this should be taken
into account in arranging rest periods.
4.2
Flight duty periods
4.2.1 The definition of flight duty period is intended to
cover a continuous period of duty which always includes a
flight or a series of flights. It is meant to include all duties a
flight crew member may be required to carry out from the
moment the flight crew member reports at the place of
employment on the day of a flight until relieved of duties,
having completed the flight or series of flights. It is considered
necessary that this period should be subject to limitations
because a flight crew member’s activities within the limits of
such period would eventually induce fatigue — transient or
cumulative — which could endanger the safety of a flight.
There is on the other hand (from the point of view of flight
safety) insufficient reason to establish limitations for any other
1/11/01
5.
Types of limitations
5.1 Limitations are broadly divided by time; for example,
the majority of States reporting to ICAO prescribe daily,
monthly and yearly flight time limitations, and a considerable
number also prescribe quarterly flight time limitations. It will
probably be sufficient to prescribe flight duty period
limitations on a daily basis. It must be understood, however,
that these limitations will vary considerably taking into
account a variety of situations.
5.2 In formulating regulations or rules governing flight
time limitations the size of the crew complement and the
extent to which the various tasks to be performed can be
divided among the crew members should be taken into
account; and in the case where adequate facilities for relief are
provided in the aircraft in such a way that a crew member may
have horizontal rest and a degree of privacy, flight duty
periods could be extended. Adequate rest facilities on the
ground are required at places where relief periods are to be
given. Also States or operators should give due weight to the
following factors: traffic density; navigational and
communication facilities; rhythm of work/sleep cycle; number
of landings and take-offs; aircraft handling and performance
characteristics and weather conditions.
6.
Pro forma table
For example, the following pro forma table is provided
to illustrate one of many forms in which the Standard
at Section II, 2.2.9.3, may be implemented.
ATT C-2
Attachment C
Crew
Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft
Maximum
flight duty
period
in 24 hours
Maximum flight time (hours)
Daily
24 hours
Monthly
Quarterly
Rest periods
Annually
Daily
Per week
Pilot-in-command
1st Officer
ATT C-3
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT D.
MEDICAL SUPPLIES
Supplementary to Section II, Chapter 4, 4.2.2 a)
The following is suggested as being typical contents of a firstaid kit for carriage aboard a helicopter:
— a handbook on first aid
— “ground-air visual signal code for use by survivors” as
contained in Annex 12
— materials for treating injuries
— ophthalmic ointment
— a decongestant nasal spray
ANNEX 6 — PART III
ATT D-1
— insect repellent
— emollient eye drops
— sunburn cream
— water-miscible antiseptic/skin cleanser
— materials for treatment of extensive burns
— oral drugs as follows:
analgesic, antispasmodic, central nervous system
stimulant, circulatory stimulant, coronary vasodilator,
antidiarrhoeic and motion sickness medications.
— an artificial plastic airway and splints.
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT E.
MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL)
Supplementary to Section II, Chapter 4, 4.1.2
1. If deviations from the requirements of States in the
certification of aircraft were not permitted an aircraft could not
be flown unless all systems and equipment were operable.
Experience has proved that some unserviceability can
be accepted in the short term when the remaining operative systems and equipment provide for continued safe
operations.
2. The State should indicate through approval of a
minimum equipment list those systems and items of equipment
that may be inoperative for certain flight conditions with the
intent that no flight can be conducted with inoperative systems
and equipment other than those specified.
3. A minimum equipment list, approved by the State of
the Operator, is therefore necessary for each aircraft, based on
the master minimum equipment list established for the aircraft
type by the organization responsible for the type design in
conjunction with the State of Design.
4. The State of the Operator should require the operator to
prepare a minimum equipment list designed to allow the
operation of an aircraft with certain systems or equipment
inoperative provided an acceptable level of safety is
maintained.
5. The minimum equipment list is not intended to provide
for operation of the aircraft for an indefinite period with
inoperative systems or equipment. The basic purpose of the
minimum equipment list is to permit the safe operation of an
aircraft with inoperative systems or equipment within the
framework of a controlled and sound programme of repairs
and parts replacement.
ANNEX 6 — PART III
6. Operators are to ensure that no flight is commenced
with multiple minimum equipment list items inoperative
without determining that any interrelationship between
inoperative systems or components will not result in an
unacceptable degradation in the level of safety and/or undue
increase in the flight crew workload.
7. The exposure to additional failures during continued
operation with inoperative systems or equipment must also be
considered in determining that an acceptable level of safety is
being maintained. The minimum equipment list may not
deviate from requirements of the flight manual limitations
section, emergency procedures or other airworthiness requirements of the State of Registry or of the State of the Operator
unless the appropriate airworthiness authority or the flight
manual provides otherwise.
8. Systems or equipment accepted as inoperative for a
flight should be placarded where appropriate and all such
items should be noted in the aircraft technical log to inform the
flight crew and maintenance personnel of the inoperative
system or equipment.
9. For a particular system or item of equipment to be
accepted as inoperative, it may be necessary to establish a
maintenance procedure, for completion prior to flight, to deactivate or isolate the system or equipment. It may similarly be
necessary to prepare an appropriate flight crew operating
procedure.
10. The responsibilities of the pilot-in-command in
accepting a helicopter for operation with deficiencies in
accordance with a minimum equipment list are specified
in Section II, Chapter 2, 2.3.1.
ATT E-1
1/11/01
ATTACHMENT F. AIR OPERATOR CERTIFICATE
OR EQUIVALENT DOCUMENT
Supplementary to Section II, Chapter 2, 2.2.1
1. The State of the Operator regulations and rules for the
operational certification of operators and the conduct of
subsequent commercial air transport operations should be in
conformity with the Annexes to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation and have sufficient detail to ensure
that compliance will result in the desired level of safety.
2. The State of the Operator regulations should provide a
framework of positive control and guidance but also allow the
operator sufficient flexibility to develop and update
instructions for the detailed guidance of personnel essential to
the conduct of operations.
3. The State of the Operator regulations should require the
operator to submit detailed information on the organization,
method of control and supervision of flight operations, training
programme and maintenance arrangements as a basis for
operational certification. As required by this part, the
operator’s material should be submitted in the form of an
operations manual (see Appendix) and a maintenance manual
containing at least the material specified in Section II, 9.2 and
9.3 and such other material as the State may require.
4. The State of the Operator, in addition to assessing the
operator’s ability and competence, should guide the operator in
regulatory, organizational and procedural matters. The State of
the Operator should be satisfied concerning the operator’s
eligibility for operational certification. This includes the ability
and competence to conduct safe and efficient operations and
proof of compliance with applicable regulations.
5. Continuing surveillance by the State of the Operator of
an air operator certificate holder’s operations is inherent in the
system of certification and is an essential part of the State’s
responsibility to ensure that the required standards of
operations are maintained in order to provide a safe and
reliable commercial air transportation service to the public.
Adequate authority for certification and continuing
surveillance of an air operator certificate holder’s operations
should be contained in the provisions of the basic aviation law
of the State.
Note 1.— Guidance on the operations manual is given in
the manual Preparation of an Operations Manual (Doc 9376).
Note 2.— Guidance on the certification and continued
surveillance of the operator is given in the Manual of
Procedures for Operations Inspection, Certification and
Continued Surveillance (Doc 8335).
— END —
ANNEX 6 — PART III
ATT F-1
1/11/01
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement