Celestron | NexStar 5i | Instruction manual | Celestron NexStar 5i Instruction manual

INSTRUCTION MANUAL
INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4
WARNING ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 4
QUICK SETUP................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 5
ASSEMBLING THE NEXSTAR ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 8
Powering the NexStar................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 8
The Hand Control ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 9
The Star Diagonal ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 9
The Eyepiece................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 9
The Star Pointer Finderscope ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 10
HAND CONTROL ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 12
HAND CONTROL OPERATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 13
Alignment Procedure................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 13
OBJECT CATALOG ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 15
Selecting an Object................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 15
Slewing to an Object................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 16
Finding Planets ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 16
Tour Mode ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 16
DIRECTION BUTTONS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 17
Rate Button ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 17
SETUP PROCEDURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 17
Tracking Mode................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 17
Tracking Rate................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 18
Date/Time ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 18
User Defined Objects ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 18
Get RA/DEC................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 19
Get Alt-Az ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 19
Goto R.A/Dec................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 19
Goto Alt-Az ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 19
UTILITY FEATURES................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 19
Demo ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 19
RS-232 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 19
Light Control ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 19
Cord Wrap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 19
Anti-backlash ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 19
Hand Control Command Tree ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 20
TELESCOPE BASICS ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 21
IMAGE ORIENTATION ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 21
FOCUSING ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 22
CALCULATING MAGNIFICATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 22
DETERMINING FIELD OF VIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 22
General Observing Hints................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 23
ASTRONOMY BASICS................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 24
THE CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM ................................ ................................ ................................ . 24
MOTION OF THE STARS ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 25
POLAR ALIGNMENT (WITH OPTIONAL WEDGE) ................................ ................................ ..................... 26
Finding the North Celestial Pole................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 27
CELESTIAL OBSERVING ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 28
ii
OBSERVING THE MOON ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 28
OBSERVING THE PLANETS................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 28
OBSERVING THE SUN ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 29
OBSERVING DEEP SKY OBJECTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 29
SEEING CONDITIONS................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 29
Transparency ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 29
Sky Illumination ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 29
Seeing ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 30
CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 31
SHORT EXPOSURE PRIME FOCUS PHOTOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ .................. 31
EYEPIECE PROJECTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 32
LONG E XPOSURE PRIME FOCUS PHOTOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ .................... 33
TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 35
CCD IMAGING ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 35
TELESCOPE MAINTENANCE................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 36
CARE AND CLEANING OF THE OPTICS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 36
COLLIMATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 36
OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 38
APPENDIX A - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS ................................ ................................ ............ 41
APPENDIX B - GLOSSARY OF TERMS................................ ................................ ........................... 42
APPENDIX C –LONGITUDES AND LATITUDES ................................ ................................ ........... 45
APPENDIX D - RS-232 CONNECTION ................................ ................................ ............................. 50
APPENDIX E – MAPS OF TIME ZONES ................................ ................................ .......................... 51
SKY MAPS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 53
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Congratulations on your purchase of the Celestron NexStar! The NexStar ushers in a whole new generation of
computer automated technology. Simple and friendly to use, the NexStar is up and running after locating just two
alignment stars. It’s the perfect combination of power and portability. If you are new to astronomy, you may wish to
start off by using the NexStar's built-in Sky Tour feature, which commands the NexStar to find the most interesting
objects in the sky and automaticall slews to each one. Or if you are an experienced amateur, you will appreciate the
comprehensive database of over 18,000 objects, including customized lists of all the best deep-sky objects, bright
double stars and variable stars. No matter at what level you are starting out, the NexStar will unfold for you and your
friends all the wonders of the Universe.
Some of the many standard features of the NexStar include:
•
Incredible 6°/second (or faster) slew speed.
•
Fully enclosed optical encoders for position location.
•
Integrated hand controller – built into the side of the fork arm.
•
RS-232 port allows use with a computer and software programs like The Sky for point and click slewing.
•
Storage for programmable user defined objects; and
Many other high performance features
The NexStar’s deluxe features combine with Celestron’s legendary Schmidt-Cassegrain optical system to give amateur
astronomers one of the most sophisticated and easy to use telescopes available on the market today.
Take time to read through this manual before embarking on your journey through the Universe. It may take a few
observing sessions to become familiar with your NexStar, so you should keep this manual handy until you have full
mastered your telescope’s operation. The NexStar hand control has built-in instructions to guide you through all the
alignment procedures needed to have the telescope up and running in minutes. Use this manual in conjunction with the
on-screen instructions provided by the hand control. The manual gives detailed information regarding each step as
well as needed reference material and helpful hints guaranteed to make your observing experience as simple and
pleasurable as possible.
Your NexStar telescope is designed to give you years of fun and rewarding observations. However, there are a few
things to consider before using your telescope that will ensure your safety and protect your equipment.
Warning
Never look directly at the sun with the naked eye or with a telescope (unless you have the proper solar
filter). Permanent and irreversible eye damage may result.
Never use your telescope to project an image of the sun onto any surface. Internal heat build-up can damage the
telescope and any accessories attached to it.
Never use an eyepiece solar filter or a Herschel wedge. Internal heat build-up inside the telescope can cause these
devices to crack or break, allowing unfiltered sunlight to pass through to the eye.
Never leave the telescope unsupervised, either when children are present or adults who may not be familiar with
the correct operating procedures of your telescope.
4
3
1
Press ENTER on the hand control to begin
alignment. Use the Up and Down arrow buttons to
position the tube horizontal to the ground. Attac
the included accessories (star diagonal, eyepiece and
Star Pointer finderscope) and remove the front lens
cover. Turn on Star Pointer by rotating the dial on
the side. (For instructions on aligning the Star
Pointer see page 9).
Remove the NexStar from its packaging and place
the base on a sturdy, level surface. Remove the
accessories from their individual boxes.
4
2
AC Adapter
Direction
Buttons
On / Off Switch
Up and Down
Scroll Buttons
Plug-in the supplied 12v AC adapter* into the jac
at the base of the fork arm and an AC outlet. Power
the NexStar by flipping the "On/Off" switch to th
"On" position.
Use the Up and Down scroll buttons to get to the
AutoAlign menu. Press ENTER. Use the direction
arrow keys to level the tube and rotate it towards
North. (See Astronomy Basics for help on finding
North). Input the necessary date and time information
as instructed by the hand control. (See Hand Control
section for complete instruction on entering data).
*Note: Use only the AC adapter supplied b
Celestron. Using any other adapter may
damage the electronics and will void your
manufacturer's warranty.
5
5
APPENDIX C LONGITUDE
LATITUDE
degrees
min degrees min
Torrance
118
19.8
33
48
Travis AFB
121
55.8
38
16.2
Tahoe
120
7.8
39
19.2
7
The first time the NexStar is used, the longitude and latitude
must be entered into the hand control. When the display reads,
Select Location, use Appendix C to look up the longitude an
latitude of your nearest city and enter it into the hand control.
When asked to Save Location, press ENTER and assign the
number 1 to the current location. This number can be used for
future alignments. (See page 13 for complete alignment
procedures.)
Catalog Keys
Object List
Button
TOUR Button
6
Star Pointer Finderscope
Press the TOUR button on the hand control. Use the Up and
Down scroll keys to select the current month and press
ENTER. The hand control will display the first object that is
visible for that month. Press INFO to read information about
the object displayed. Press the DOWN scroll key to display the
next object. Press ENTER to slew to (go to) the displayed
object.
Alignment Star
8
Focuser Knob
The NexStar will automatically pick an alignment star and slew
the telescope close to that star. Once there, the display will as
you to use the arrow buttons to aim the Star Pointer at the star. If
the star is not visible (perhaps behind a tree), press UNDO to
select a new star. Next, center the star in the eyepiece and press
ALIGN. Repeat these steps for the second star alignment. When
complete, display will read " .
Use the focus knob to bring objects into a sharp focus.
Use arrow keys to center objects in the eyepiece. (See
page 27 for observing hints and techniques).
6
1
2
9
3
8
4
5
6
7
Figure 1-A - The NexStar
1
2
Optical Tube
Star Pointer Finderscope
5
6
Focuser Knob
Battery Compartment
3
Eyepiece
7
ON/OFF Switch
4
Star Diagonal
8
Hand Control
9
Liquid Crystal Display
7
The NexStar comes completely pre-assembled and can be operational in a matter of minutes. The NexStar is convenientl
packaged in one reusable shipping carton that contains all of the following accessories
•
•
•
•
•
25mm Plossl Eyepiece – 1 ¼"
1¼" Star Diagonal
Star Pointer Finderscope and Mounting Bracket
1¼" Visual Back (attached to the optical tube)
AC adapter
Assembling the NexStar
Start by removing the telescope from its shipping carton and setting the round base on a flat table or surface. It is best to
carry the telescope by holding it from the lower portion of the fork arm and from the bottom of the base. Do not try to move
the optical tube at this time. It should remain facing down until the telescope is powered up . Remove all of the
accessories from their individual boxes. Remember to save all of the containers so that they can be used to transport the
telescope. Before attaching the visual accessories, the telescope tube should be positioned horizontal to the ground. To do
this, the telescope needs to be powered up and the optical tube must be moved remotely with the hand control.
Powering the NexStar
The NexStar can be powered by the supplied 12v AC adapter or eight AA batteries (not included). Batteries should only
be used when using the telescope out in the field, where AC power is not available. The battery compartment is located in
the center of the telescope's base (see figure 3-1). Before the battery compartment can be removed, the telescope tube must
first be moved into a horizontal position. Read the Hand Control section below before installing batteries.
To power the NexStar with the 12v AC adapter, simply plug the round post into the 12v outlet on the side of the fork arm
and plug the adapter into any wall outlet.
To install the batteries:
1.
Remove the battery cover from the center of the base by gently lifting up on the round portion of the cover.
2.
Insert the batteries into the battery compartment of the base.
3.
Reattach the battery compartment door by gently pushing down on the cover until it snaps into place.
4.
Turn on the power to the NexStar by flipping the switch, located next to the 12v outlet, to the "On" position.
Battery Compartment
On/Off Switch
Figure 3-1: The NexStar can be powered by either an AC adapter or with AA batteries.
8
The Hand Control
The hand control is located on the side of the fork arm and can be removed and used remotely or used while attached to the
fork. The hand control attaches to the fork arm by resting on two posts, located on the bottom of the hand control cradle,
and a clip inside the fork arm. To remove the hand control from the fork arm cradle, gently lift the hand control upwards
and pull out. To return the hand control into the fork arm, lower the hand control into the cradle so that the two holes in the
bottom of the hand control go over the posts on the bottom of the cradle, and the opening in the back of the hand control
slides over the clip inside the fork arm.
Once the telescope is powered up, use the hand control to move the optical tube to the horizontal position
•
•
Press UNDO. This will bypass the normal alignment procedures and will still allow you to control the telescope.
Use the Up arrow directional button to move the telescope tube until it is roughly parallel to the ground. This will
make it more convenient to attach the necessary accessories as well as remove the front lens cover and install batteries
when they are needed.
You are now ready to attach the included visual accessories onto the telescope optical tube.
The Star Diagonal
The star diagonal diverts the light at a right angle from the light path of the telescope. For astronomical observing, this
allows you to observe in positions that are more comfortable than if you were to look straight through. To attach the star
diagonal:
1.
Turn the thumbscrew on the visual back until its tip no longer extends
into (i.e., obstructs) the inner diameter of the visual back.
2.
Slide the chrome portion of the star diagonal into the visual back.
3.
Tighten the thumbscrew on the visual back to hold the star diagonal in
place.
Eyepiece
If you wish to change the orientation of the star diagonal, loosen the
thumbscrew on the visual back until the star diagonal rotates freely
Rotate the diagonal to the desired position and tighten the thumbscrew.
Star
Diagonal
The Eyepiece
The eyepiece, or ocular, is the optical element that magnifies the image
focused by the telescope. The eyepiece fits into either the visual back
directly or the star diagonal. To install the eyepiece
Visual
Back
Figure 3-2 - The visual accessories
1.
Loosen the thumbscrew on the star diagonal so it does not obstruct the inner diameter of the eyepiece end of the diagonal.
2.
Slide the chrome portion of the eyepiece into the star diagonal.
3.
Tighten the thumbscrew to hold the eyepiece in place.
To remove the eyepiece, loosen the thumbscrew on the star diagonal and slide the eyepiece out.
Eyepieces are commonly referred to by focal length and barrel diameter. The focal length of each eyepiece is printed on the
eyepiece barrel. The longer the focal length (i.e., the larger the number) the lower the eyepiece power or magnification; and
the shorter the focal length (i.e., the smaller the number) the higher the magnification. Generally, you will use low-tomoderate power when viewing. For more information on how to determine power, see the section on “Calculating
Magnification.”
Barrel diameter is the diameter of the barrel that slides into the star diagonal or visual back. The NexStar uses eyepieces
with a standard 1-1/4" barrel diameter.
9
The Star Pointer Finderscope
The Star Pointer is the quickest and easiest way to point your telescope exactly at a desired object in the sky. It's like having
a laser pointer that you can shine directly onto the night sky. The Star Pointer is a zero magnification pointing tool that uses
a coated glass window to superimpose the image of a small red dot onto the night sky. While keeping both eyes open when
looking through the Star Pointer, simply move your telescope until the red dot, seen through the Star Pointer, merges with
the object as seen with your unaided eye. The red dot is produced by a light-emitting diode (LED); it is not a laser beam and
will not damage the glass window or your eye. The Star Pointer comes equipped with a variable brightness control, two axes
alignment control and two quick-release dovetail mounting brackets (one for the NexStar telescope and one for mounting
the Star Pointer on other sized telescopes). Before the Star Pointer is ready to be used, it must be attached to the telescope
tube and properly aligned
ON/OFF
Variable Brightness
Control
Glass Window
Azimuth Control
Knob
Mounting Track
Altitude Control
Knob
Dovetail Mounting Bracket
Figure 3-3: The Star Pointer Finderscope with Mounting Bracket
Star Pointer Installation
1.
First, remove the two 8-32 x ¼" screws located on the top portion of the telescope's rear cell.
2.
Locate the square dovetail bracket that has the proper curvature for the NexStar tube and align the holes with the two
holes in the telescope body.
3.
Use the two 8-32 x ¼" screws to tighten down the bracket to the rear cell.
4.
Once the bracket is mounted, slide the mounting track at the bottom of the Star Pointer over the dovetail portion of the
bracket. It may be necessary to loosen the two screws on the side of the mounting track before sliding it over the
dovetail. The end of the Star Pointer with the glass window should be facing out towards the front of the telescope.
5. Tighten the two screws on the side of the mounting track to secure the Star Pointer to the dovetail bracket.
Star Pointer Operation
The star pointer is powered by a long life 3-volt lithium battery (#CR2032) located underneath the front portion of the Star
Pointer. Like all finderscopes, the Star Pointer must be properly aligned with the main telescope before it can be used. This
is a simple process using the azimuth and altitude control knobs located on the side and bottom of the Star Pointer. The
alignment procedure is best done at night since the LED dot will be difficult to see during the day.
1.
To turn on the Star Pointer, rotate the variable brightness control (see figure 3-3) clockwise until you here a "click". To
increase the brightness level of the red dot, continue rotating the control knob about 180º until it stops.
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2.
Locate a bright star or planet and center it in a low power eyepiece in the main telescope.
3.
With both eyes open, look through the glass window at the alignment star.
4.
If the Star Pointer is perfectly aligned, you will see the red LED dot overlap the alignment star. If the Star Pointer is not
aligned, take notice of where the red dot is relative to the bright star.
5.
Without moving the main telescope, turn the Star Pointer's azimuth and altitude alignment controls until the red dot is
directly over the alignment star.
If the LED dot is brighter than the alignment star, it may make it difficult to see the star. Turn the variable brightness
control counterclockwise, until the red dot is the same brightness as the alignment star. This will make it easier to get an
accurate alignment. The Star Pointer is now ready to be used . Remember to always turn the power off after you have
found an object. This will extend the life of both the battery and the LED.
11
The NexStar has a removable hand controller built into the side of the fork arm designed to give you instant access to all the
functions the NexStar has to offer. With automatic slewing to over 18,000 objects, and common sense menu descriptions,
even a beginner can master its variety of features in just a few observing sessions. Below is a brief description of the
individual components of the NexStar hand controller:
1.
2.
3.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Window: Has a dual-line, 16 character display screen that is backlit for comfortable
viewing of telescope information and scrolling text.
Align: Instructs the NexStar to use a selected star or object as an alignment position.
Direction Keys: Allows complete control of the NexStar in any direction. Use the direction keys to move the
telescope to the initial alignment stars or for centering objects in the eyepiece.
1
7
2
8
3
9
10
4
5
11
6
12
Figure 4-1
The NexStar Hand Control
4.
Catalog Keys: The NexStar has keys on the hand control to allow direct access to each of the catalogs in its 18,000+
object database. The NexStar contains the following catalogs in its database
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Messier – Complete list of all Messier objects.
NGC – Complete list of all the deep-sky objects in the Revised New General Catalog.
Caldwell – A combination of the best NGC and IC objects.
Planets - All 8 planets in our Solar System plus the Sun.
Stars – A compiled list of the brightest stars from the SAO catalog.
List – For quick access, all of the best and most popular objects in the NexStar database have been broken
down into lists based on their type and/or common name
Alignment Stars
Named Objects
Double Stars
Variable Stars
Asterisms
Common name listing of the brightest stars in the sky.
Alphabetical listing of over 50 of the most popular deep
sky objects.
Numeric-alphabetical listing of the most visually stunning
double, triple and quadruple stars in the sky.
Select list of the brightest variable stars with the shortest
period of changing magnitude.
A unique list of some of the most recognizable star
patterns in the sky.
Info: Displays coordinates and useful information about objects selected from the NexStar database.
Tour: Activates the tour mode, which seeks out all the best objects for a given month and automaticall slews the
NexStar to those objects.
7. Enter: Pressing Enter allows you to selects any of the NexStar functions and accept entered parameters.
8. Undo: Undo will take you out of the current menu and display the previous level of the menu path. Press Undo
repeatedly to get back to a main menu or use it to erase data entered by mistake.
9. Menu: Displays the many setup and utilities functions such as tracking rate and user defined objects and many others.
10. Scroll Keys: Used to scroll up and down within any of the menu lists. A double-arrow will appear on the right side of
the LCD when there are sub-menus below the displayed menu. Using these keys will scroll through those sub-menus.
11. Rate: Instantly changes the rate of speed of the motors when the direction buttons are pressed.
12. RS-232 Jack: Allows use with a computer and software programs like The Sky for point and click slewing.
5.
6.
Hand Control Operation
This section describes the basic hand control procedures needed to operate the NexStar. These procedures are grouped into
three categories: Alignment, Setup and Utilities. The alignment section deals with the initial telescope alignment as well as
finding objects in the sk ; the setup section discusses changing parameters such as tracking mode and tracking rate; finally,
the last section reviews all of the utilities functions such as the RS-232 connection, activating the cord wrap feature and
backlash compensation.
Alignment Procedure
In order for the NexStar to accurately point to objects in the sky, it must first be aligned to two known positions (stars) in
the sky. With this information, the telescope can create a model of the sky, which it uses to locate any object with known
coordinates. There are two ways to align the NexStar with the sky depending on what information the user is able to
provide. If you know the names of two bright, visible stars in the sky, you can use the two-star alignment method; if you
do not know the names of two stars in the sky, you can enter the longitude and latitude (provided in Appendix C) of your
observing location and NexStar will auto-align itself to two stars in the sky for you.
Two Star Alignment
With the two-star alignment method, the NexStar requires the user to know the positions of only two bright stars in order to
accurately align the telescope with the sky and begin finding objects. Once the telescope is powered on, the LCD displa
will guide you through all the steps to align the telescope properly. Before the telescope is ready to be aligned, it should be
set up in an outside location with all accessories (eyepiece, diagonal and Star Pointer) attached and lens cover removed as
described in the Assembly section of the manual. Here is an overview of the alignment procedure
1.
2.
3.
Once the NexStar is powered on , Press ENTE to begin alignment.
Use the Up and Down scroll keys to select , and press ENTER.
The NexStar display will ask you to move the telescope tube until it is horizontal to the ground. To do this, use the
direction keys (3) to move the telescope until it is roughly level with the ground. Press ENTER.
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4.
5.
Helpfu
Hint
The message will appear in the top row of the display. Use the up and down scroll keys (10) to select
the star you wish to use for the first alignment star. Press ENTER.
NexStar then asks you to center in the eyepiece the alignment star you selected. Use the direction buttons to slew the
telescope to the alignment star.
In order to accurately center the alignment star in the eyepiece, it will be necessary to decrease the slew rate of the
motors for fine centering. This is done by pressing the RATE key (11) on the hand controller then selecting the number
that corresponds to the speed you desire. (9 = fastest , 1 = slowest).
5.
6.
Once the alignment star is centered in the field of view of the eyepiece, press the ALIGN key (2) to accept this position.
NexStar will then ask you to select and center a second alignment star and press the ALIGN key. It is best to choose
alignment stars that are a good distance away from one another. Stars that are at least 40º to 60º apart from each other
will give you a more accurate alignment than stars that are close to each other.
Once the second star alignment is completed properly, the display will read tracking motors turn-on and begin to track.
, and you will hear the
Auto-Align
Alternatively, if you do not know the names of two bright stars , you can align the telescope by entering the longitude and
latitude of your observing location, and the NexStar will automatically choose two stars for alignment and roughly center
the stars in the field of view of the Star Pointer. Once again the telescope should be set up outside with all accessories
attached and the lens cover removed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Once the NexStar is powered on , Press ENTE to begin alignment.
Use the Up and Down scroll keys to select AutoAlign if it is not already displayed, and press ENTER.
The telescope will then ask you to use the arrow keys (10) to level the telescope tube and point the front of the
telescope towards north. North can be found by finding the direction of the North Star (Polaris) or by using a compass.
You do not need to point at the North Star, only the north horizon. For help finding the direction of the North Star, see
the Astronomy Basics section of the manual. Alignment only needs to be approximate, however a close alignment will
make the auto alignment more accurate.
The hand control display will then ask for the following information
Date - Enter the month, day and year of your observing session. The display will read Time - Enter the current local time for your area. You can enter either the local time (i.e. ), or you can
enter military time (i.e. ).
•
Select PM or AM. If military time was entered, the hand control will bypass this step.
•
Choose between Standard time or Daylight Savings time. Use the Up and Down scroll buttons (10) to toggle
between options.
•
Select the time zone that you are observing from. Again, use the Up and Down buttons (10) to scroll through
the choices.
Finally, you must enter the longitude and latitude of the location of your observing site. The coordinates can be obtained
from a listing in the appendix of this manual. These coordinates can be saved so that the longitude and latitude only has to be
entered once from any given location.
1.
2.
3.
Press ENTER at the display
Use the Up and Down scroll keys to select , if it is not already displayed.
Use the table in Appendix C to locate the closest longitude and latitude for your current observing location and enter
those numbers when asked in the hand control, pressing ENTER after each entre.
The display will then ask if you would like to save these coordinates for future use. If you press "Yes", the next time you
AutoAlign the telescope, you can choose ! "
instead of the , and enter the number for that
observing location. To save the entered longitude and latitude, simply press "Yes" and enter a number from 0-9. Pressing
ENTER will assign that number to your current position.
Based on this information, the NexStar will automatically select a bright star that is above the horizon and slew towards it. At
this point the telescope is only roughly aligned, so the alignment star should only be close to the field of view of the Star
Pointer finder. Once finished slewing, the display will ask you to use the arrow buttons to center the selected star with the red
dot in the center of the Star Pointer. If for some reason the chosen star is not visible (perhaps behind a tree or building) you
can press UNDO to select and slew to a different star. Once centered in the finder, press ENTER. The display will then
instruct you to center the star in the field of view of the eyepiece. When the star is centered, press ALIGN to accept this star
14
as an alignment star. (There is no need to adjust the slewing rate of the motors after each alignment step. The NexStar
automatically selects the best slewing rate for aligning objects in both the Star Pointer and the eyepiece). After the first
alignment star has been entered the NexStar will automatically slew to a second alignment star and have you repeat this
procedure for that star. When the telescope has been aligned to both stars the display will read " , and you are now ready to find your first object.
Trouble
Shooting
If the wrong star was centered and aligned to, the NexStar display will read Bad Alignment. Should this occur, the displa
will automatically ask you to re-center the last alignment star and press ALIGN. If you believe that the wrong star may have
been centered (remember the alignment star will always be the brightest star nearest the field of view of the finder), then recenter the star and press ALIGN. If you wish to try aligning on a different star, press UNDO and the NexStar will select two
new alignment stars and automatically slew to the first star.
Third Star Alignment
The NexStar has a third star alignment feature which allows you to replace either of the two original
alignment stars with a new star. This can be useful in several situations:
•
•
If you are observing over a period of a few hours, you may notice that your original two alignment stars have drifted
towards the west considerably. (Remember that the stars are moving at a rate of 15º every hour). Aligning on a ne
star that is in the eastern part of the sky will improve your pointing accuracy, especially on objects in that part of the
sky.
When trying to locate a very faint or small object that may be difficult to find in the eyepiece, you can improve your
pointing accuracy by aligning to a third star that is nearest to the object you are trying to find.
To replace an existing alignment star with a new alignment star
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Locate and center the desired star in the eyepiece.
Press the ALIGN key on the hand control.
The display will then ask you which alignment star you want to replace.
Use the UP and Down scroll keys to select the alignment star to be replaced. It is usually best to replace the star closest
to the new star. This will space out your alignment stars across the sky.
Press ENTER to make the change.
Object Catalog
Selecting an Object
Now that the telescope is properly aligned, you can choose an object from any of the catalogs in the NexStar's extensive
database. The hand control has a key (4) designated for each of the catalogs in its database. There are two ways to select
objects from the database: scrolling through the named object lists and entering object numbers.
1.
Helpful
Hint
Pressing the LIST key on the hand control will access all objects in the database that have common names or types.
Each list is broken down into the following categories: Named Stars, Named Object, Double Stars, Variable Stars and
Asterisms. Selecting any one of these options will display a numeric-alphabetical listing of the objects under that list.
Pressing the Up and Down keys (10) allows you to scroll through the catalog to the desired object.
When scrolling through a long list of objects, holding down either the Up or Down key will allow you to scroll through the
catalog at a rapid speed.
2.
Pressing any of the other catalog keys (M, CALD, NGC, or STAR) will display a blinking cursor below the name of
the catalog chosen. Use the numeric key pad to enter the number of any object within these standardized catalogs. For
example, to find the Orion Nebula, press the "M" key and enter "042".
15
Slewing to an Object
Once the desired object is displayed in the hand control screen, you have two options
1.
2.
Press the INFO Key. This will give you useful information about the selected object such as R.A. and declination,
magnitude and most importantly, altitude above the horizon. (If a star alignment has not yet been performed, the
altitude will not be displayed).
Press the ENTER Key. This will automatically slew the telescope to the coordinates of the object.
Caution: Never slew the telescope when someone is looking into the eyepiece. The telescope can move at very
slew speeds and may hit an observer in the eye.
fast
Object information can be obtained without having to do a star alignment. After the telescope is powered on, press the
UNDO key. Pressing any of the catalog keys allows you to scroll through object lists or enter catalog numbers as described
above. However, information such as R.A. and declination of planets and altitude above the horizon will not be displayed
unless the telescope is first properly aligned.
There are two special object catalogs which require the input of additional information before the NexStar can slew to the
object; they are Planet and Tour:
Finding Planets
Since the planets are not fixed points in the sky, but rather appear to move relative to the background stars, the NexStar
needs to have time and date information before it can go to any solar system object. To locate the planets, press the
PLANET key on the hand control. The on screen display will ask for the following information
Date Time -
Enter the month, day and year of your observing session.
Enter the current local time for your area.
Select PM or AM.
Choose between Standard time or Daylight Savings time.
Select the time zone that you are observing from.
Once this information is entered, use the Up and Down keys to select the Planet that you wish to observe. Press
ENTER.
If AutoAlign was used to align the telescope , all the necessary information has already been entered into the hand
control and you are ready to select a planet to observe.
Tour Mode
The NexStar includes a tour feature which automatically allows the user to choose from a list of interesting objects based on
the month in which you are observing. The Tour mode is activated by pressing the TOUR key (6) on the hand control. Once
activated, simply use the scroll keys to select the current month and press ENTER. The NexStar will display from a list of
the best objects to observe based on the month entered.
Observing
Tip
•
•
•
To see information and data about the displayed object, press the INFO key.
To slew to the object displayed, press ENTER.
To see the next tour object, press the Up key
When going through any of the object catalogs in the database, you can easily find out which objects are above the horizon
and visible simply by pressing the INFO button when the desired object is displayed. This will display the objects altitude
above the horizon based on the date and time entered. Pressing the UP button once will display any scrolling text associated
with that object. The scrolling text can be viewed even if a star alignment has not been performed.
16
Direction Buttons
The NexStar has four direction buttons in the center of the hand control which control the telescope motion in altitude (up
and down) and azimuth (left and right). The telescope can be controlled at nine different speed rates.
Rate Button
Pressing the RATE key (11) allows you to instantly change the speed rate of the motors from high speed slew rate to precise
guiding rate or anywhere in between. Each rate corresponds to a number on the hand controller key pad. The number 9 is
the fastest rate (6º per second, depending on power source) and is used for slewing between objects and locating alignment
stars. The number 1 on the hand control is the slowest rate (1x sidereal) and can be used for accurate centering of objects in
the eyepiece and photographic guiding. To change the speed rate of the motors
•
•
Press the RATE key on the hand control. The LCD will display the current speed rate.
Press the number on the hand control that corresponds to the desired speed. The LCD will display "NexStar
Read " indicating that the rate has been changed.
The hand control has a "double button" feature that allows you to instantly speed up the motors without having to choose a
speed rate. To use this feature, simply press the arrow button that corresponds to the direction that you want to move the
telescope. While holding that button down, press the opposite directional button. This will increase the slew rate to
approximately 1.5º per second (equal to rate 7 on the hand control). This feature will not function if the telescope is
currently set at a speed rate of 8 or 9.
The slower slew rates (6 and lower) move the motors in the opposite direction than the faster slew rates (8 and 9). This is
done so that an object will move in the appropriate direction when looking into the eyepiece (i.e. pressing the right arrow
button will move the star towards the right in the field of view of the eyepiece). However, if any of the slower slew rates
(rate 6 and below) are used to center an object in the Star Pointer , you may need to press the opposite directional button to
make the telescope move in the correct direction.
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
1x (sidereal)
2x
8x
16x
64x
6
7
8
9
=
=
=
=
128x
1.5º / sec
3º / sec
6.5º / sec
Nine available slew speeds
Setup Procedures
The NexStar contains many user defined setup functions designed to give the user control over the telescope's man
advanced features. All of the setup and utility features can be accessed by pressing the MENU key and scrolling through the
options
Tracking Mode
This allows you to change the way the telescope tracks depending on the type of mount
being used to support the telescope. The NexStar has three different tracking modes
Alt-Az
This is the default tracking rate and is used when the telescope is placed on
a flat surface or tripod without the use of an equatorial wedge. The
telescope must be aligned with two stars before it can track in Alt-Az.
17
EQ North
Used to track the sky when the telescope is polar aligned using an
equatorial wedge in the Northern Hemisphere.
EQ South
Used to track the sky when the telescope is polar aligned using an
equatorial wedge in the Southern Hemisphere.
Off
Tracking Rate
In addition to being able to move the telescope with the hand control buttons, the NexStar
will continually track a celestial object as it moves across the night sky. The tracking rate
can be changed depending on what type of object is being observed
Sidereal
Lunar
Date/Time -
When using the telescope for terrestrial (land) observation, the tracking
can be turned off so that the telescope never moves.
This rate compensates for the rotation of the earth by moving the
telescope at the same rate as the rotation of the earth, but in the opposite
direction. When the telescope is polar aligned, this can be accomplished
by moving the telescope in Right Ascension only. When mounted in AltAz mode, the telescope must make corrections in both R.A. and
declination.
Used for tracking the moon when observing the lunar landscape.
Solar
Used for tracking the Sun when solar observing.
King
As light passes through our atmosphere, atmospheric refraction affects the
apparent motion of objects across the sky. The King rate takes this into
account and compensates for the refraction of the atmosphere.
Allows you to update both the date and the time to improve pointing accuracy on many objects.
User Defined Objects
The NexStar can store up to 25 different user defined objects in its memory. The objects can
be daytime land objects or an interesting celestial object that you discover that is not included
in the regular database. There are several ways to save an object to memory depending on
what type of object it is
.
Save Sky Object:
The NexStar stores celestial objects to its database by saving its right ascension and
declination in the sky. This way the same object can be found each time the telescope is
aligned. Once a desired object is centered in the eyepiece, simply scroll to the " # $
%&' command and press ENTER. The display will ask you to enter a number between 1-20
to identify the object. Press ENTER again to save this object to the database.
Save Land Object: The NexStar can also be used as a spotting scope on terrestrial objects. Fixed land objects
can be stored by saving their altitude and azimuth relative to the location of the telescope at
the time of observing. Since these objects are relative to the location of the telescope, the
are only valid for that exact location. To save land objects, once again center the desired
object in the eyepiece. Scroll down to the " #
# %&'" command and press
ENTER. The display will ask you to enter a number between 21-25 to identify the object.
Press ENTER again to save this object to the database.
Enter R.A. - Dec:
You can also store a specific set of coordinates for an object just by entering the R.A. and
declination for that object. Scroll to the "
("
("
(" command and press ENTER.
The display will then ask you to enter first the R.A. and then the declination of the desired
object.
GoTo Object:
To go to any of the user defined objects stored in the database, scroll down to " )
) %&'"
and enter the number of the object you wish to select and press ENTER. NexStar will
automatically retrieve the coordinates and slew to the object.
18
To replace the contents of any of the user defined objects, simply save a new object using one of the existing identification
numbers; NexStar will replace the previous user defined object with the current one.
Get RA/DEC - Displays the right ascension and declination for the current position of the telescope.
Get Alt-A
- Displays the relative altitude and azimuth for the current position of the telescope.
Goto R.A/ Dec - Allows you to input a specific R.A. and declination and slew to it.
Goto Alt-A
Helpful
Hint
- Allows you to enter a specific altitude and azimuth position and slew to it.
To store a set of coordinates (R.A./Dec) permanently into the NexStar database, save it as a User Defined Object as
described above.
Utility Features
Scrolling through the MENU options will also provide access to several advanced utility functions within the NexStar such
as; motor demo, RS-232 interface, key pad light control, cord wrap and anti-backlash.
Demo - This feature will test both the altitude and azimuth motors by slewing to randomly chosen coordinates in the sky.
RS-232 – The NexStar has an RS-232 port allowing it to communicate with many astronomy computer programs (such as
The Sky by Software Bisque). Before attempting to create a link with a computer or laptop , go to the RS-232 option and
press ENTER. Follow the connection procedures outlined by your software instructions.
Light Control – This feature allows you to turn off both the red key pad light and LCD display for daytime use to
conserve power and to help preserve your night vision.
Cord Wra – Cord wrap safeguards against the telescope slewing more than 360º in azimuth and wrapping the power
cord around the base of the telescope. By default, the cord wrap feature is active when the telescope is powered on. Cord
wrap should be turned off when powering the NexStar with batteries.
Anti-backlash – All mechanical gears have a certain amount of backlash or play between the gears. This play is evident
by how long it takes for a star to move in the eyepiece when the hand control arrow buttons are pressed (especially when
changing directions). The NexStar's anti-backlash features allows the user to compensate for backlash by inputting a value
which quickly rewinds the motors just enough to eliminate the play between gears. The amount of compensation needed
depends on the slewing rate selected ; the slower the slewing rate the longer it will take for the star to appear to move in the
eyepiece. Therefore, the anti-backlash compensation will have to be set higher. You will need to experiment with
different values; a value between 20 and 50 is usually best for most visual observing, whereas a higher value may be
necessary for photographic guiding.
To set the anti-backlash value, scroll down to the anti-backlash option and press ENTER. Enter a value from 0100 for both azimuth and altitude and press ENTER after each one to save these values. NexStar will remember these
values and use them each time it is turned on until they are changed.
Observing
Tip
For the best possible pointing accuracy, always center the alignment stars using the up arrow button and the right arrow
button. Approaching the star from this direction when looking through the eyepiece will eliminate much of the backlash
between the gears and assure the most accurate alignment possible.
19
NexStar Ready
M ENU
AL IG NM ENT
T RAC KING M ODE
L IST
AUT O AL IG N
A L T -A Z
E Q N O R TH
E Q S O U TH
O FF
T RAC KING R AT E
P O IN T TU B E N O R TH & L E V E L
S ID E R E A L
S O LA R
L UN A R
K IN G
G E T R A-D EC
G E T ALT -AZ
G OT O RA-D EC
G OT O ALT -AZ
DEM O
R S 232
U S ER OBJE C T S
S E L E C T L O C A TIO N
G O T O O B JE C T
S AV E LAND O B J
SAVE SKY OBJ
E N TE R R A / D E C
D AT E & T IM E
L IG HT S ON /OFF
D IS P L A Y
D IS P L A Y
KEY PAD
KEY PAD
C OR D W R AP
O FF
ON
O FF
ON
M M/DD/YY
...
...
...
N A M E D S TA R
N A M E D O B JE C T
D O U B L E S TA R
V A R IA B L E S TA R
A S T E R IS M
TO UR
P L A N E TS
ENTER LO NG / LA T
E NTER LO NG
E NTER LAT
S AVE LO CATIO N
U S E R D E FIN E D
ENTER SA VED LO CATIO N
T W O-S T AR AL IG NM E NT
LE VEL TUBE
SE LE CT STAR 1
CENTE R STAR 1
SE LE CT STAR 2
CENTE R STAR 2
PO W ER CO RD
B A TTE R Y
AN T I-BACK LAS H
NexStar Menu Tree:
The following figure is a menu tree showing the sub-menus associated with the
primary command functions
20
A telescope is an instrument that collects and focuses light. The nature of the optical design determines how the light is focused.
Some telescopes, known as refractors, use lenses. Other telescopes, known as reflectors, use mirrors. The Schmidt-Cassegrain
optical system (or Schmidt-Cass for short) uses a combination of mirrors and lenses and is referred to as a compound or
catadioptric telescope. This unique design offers large-diameter optics while maintaining very short tube lengths, making them
extremely portable. The Schmidt-Cassegrain system consists of a zero power corrector plate, a spherical primary mirror, and a
secondary mirror. Once light rays enter the optical system, they travel the length of the optical tube three times.
Figure 5-1
A cutaway view of the light path of the Schmidt-Cassegrain optical design
The optics of the NexStar have Starbright coatings - enhanced multi-layer coatings on the primary and secondary mirrors for
increased reflectivity and a fully coated corrector for the finest anti-reflection characteristics.
Inside the optical tube, a black tube extends out from the center hole in the primary mirror. This is the primary baffle tube and it
prevents stray light from passing through to the eyepiece or camera.
Image Orientation
The image orientation changes depending on how the eyepiece is inserted into the telescope. When using the star diagonal, the
image is right-side-up, but reversed from left-to-right (i.e., reverted). If inserting the eyepiece directly into the visual back (i.e.,
without the star diagonal), the image is upside-down and reversed from left-to-right (i.e., inverted). This is normal for the
Schmidt-Cassegrain design.
Actual image orientation as see
with the unaided eye
Reversed from left to right, as
viewed with a Star Diagonal
Figure 5-2
21
Inverted image, as viewed with
the eyepiece directly in telescope
Focusing
The NexStar's focusing mechanism controls the primary mirror which is mounted on a ring
that slides back and forth on the primary baffle tube. The focusing knob, which moves the
primary mirror, is on the rear cell of the telescope just below the star diagonal and eyepiece.
Turn the focusing knob until the image is sharp. If the knob will not turn, it has reached the
end of its travel on the focusing mechanism. Turn the knob in the opposite direction until
the image is sharp. Once an image is in focus, turn the knob clockwise to focus on a closer
object and counterclockwise for a more distant object. A single turn of the focusing knob
moves the primary mirror only slightly. Therefore, it will take many turns (about 30) to go
from close focus (approximately 20 feet) to infinity.
For astronomical viewing, out of focus star images are very diffuse, making them difficult to
see. If you turn the focus knob too quickly, you can go right through focus without seeing
the image. To avoid this problem, your first astronomical target should be a bright object
(like the Moon or a planet) so that the image is visible even when out of focus. Critical
focusing is best accomplished when the focusing knob is turned in such a manner that the
mirror moves against the pull of gravity. In doing so, any mirror shift is minimized. For
astronomical observing, both visually and photographically, this is done by turning the focus
knob counterclockwise.
Figure 5-3
The emblem on the end of
the focus knob shows the
correct rotational direction
for focusing the NexStar .
Calculating Magnification
You can change the power of your telescope just by changing the eyepiece (ocular). To determine the magnification of your
telescope, simply divide the focal length of the telescope by the focal length of the eyepiece used. In equation format, the
formula looks like this
Focal Length of Telescope (mm)
Magnification = 
Focal Length of Eyepiece (mm)
Let’s say, for example, you are using the 25mm Plossl eyepiece. To determine the magnification you simply divide the focal
length of your telescope (the NexStar has a focal length of 1250mm) by the focal length of the eyepiece, 25mm. Dividing 1250
by 25 yields a magnification of 50 power.
Although the power is variable, each instrument under average skies has a limit to the highest useful magnification. The general
rule is that 60 power can be used for every inch of aperture. For example, the NexStar is 5" in diameter. Multiplying 5 by 60
gives a maximum useful magnification of 300 power. Although this is the maximum useful magnification, most observing is
done in the range of 20 to 35 power for every inch of aperture which is 100 to 175 times for the NexStar telescope.
Determining Field of View
Determining the field of view is important if you want to get an idea of the angular size of the object you are observing. To
calculate the actual field of view, divide the apparent field of the eyepiece (supplied by the eyepiece manufacturer) by the
magnification. In equation format, the formula looks like this
Apparent Field of Eyepiece
True Field = 
Magnification
As you can see, before determining the field of view, you must calculate the magnification. Using the example in the previous
section, we can determine the field of view using the same 25mm eyepiece. The 25mm Plossl eyepiece has an apparent field of
view of 52°. Divide the 52° by the magnification, which is 50 power. This yields an actual field of 1.04°, or a little over a full
degree.
To convert degrees to feet at 1,000 yards, which is more useful for terrestrial observing, simply multiply by 52.5. Continuing
with our example, multiply the angular field 1.04° by 52.5. This produces a linear field width of 54.6 feet at a distance of one
thousand yards. The apparent field of each eyepiece that Celestron manufactures is found in the Celestron Accessory Catalog
(#93685).
22
General Observing Hints
When working with any optical instrument, there are a few things to remember to ensure you get the best possible image.
•
•
•
•
Never look through window glass. Glass found in household windows is optically imperfect, and as a result, may vary in
thickness from one part of a window to the next. This inconsistency can and will affect the ability to focus your telescope.
In most cases you will not be able to achieve a truly sharp image, while in some cases, you may actually see a double image.
Never look across or over objects that are producing heat waves. This includes asphalt parking lots on hot summer days or
building rooftops.
Hazy skies, fog, and mist can also make it difficult to focus when viewing terrestrially. The amount of detail seen under
these conditions is greatly reduced. Also, when photographing under these conditions, the processed film may come out a
little grainier than normal with lower contrast and underexposed.
If you wear corrective lenses (specifically glasses) , you may want to remove them when observing with an eyepiece
attached to the telescope. When using a camera, however, you should always wear corrective lenses to ensure the sharpest
possible focus. If you have astigmatism, corrective lenses must be worn at all times.
23
Up to this point, this manual covered the assembly and basic operation of your NexStar telescope. However, to
understand your telescope more thoroughly , you need to know a little about the night sky. This section deals with
observational astronomy in general and includes information on the night sky and polar alignment.
The Celestial Coordinate System
To help find objects in the sky, astronomers use a celestial coordinate system that is similar to our geographical
coordinate system here on Earth. The celestial coordinate system has poles, lines of longitude and latitude, and an
equator. For the most part, these remain fixed against the background stars.
The celestial equator runs 360 degrees around the Earth and separates the northern celestial hemisphere from the
southern. Like the Earth's equator, it bears a reading of zero degrees. On Earth this would be latitude. However, in the
sky this is referred to as declination, or DEC for short. Lines of declination are named for their angular distance above
and below the celestial equator. The lines are broken down into degrees, minutes of arc, and seconds of arc.
Declination readings south of the equator carry a minus sign (-) in front of the coordinate and those north of the
celestial equator are either blank (i.e., no designation) or preceded by a plus sign (+).
The celestial equivalent of longitude is called Right Ascension, or R.A. for short. Like the Earth's lines of longitude,
they run from pole to pole and are evenly spaced 15 degrees apart. Although the longitude lines are separated by an
angular distance, they are also a measure of time. Each line of longitude is one hour apart from the next. Since the
Earth rotates once every 24 hours, there are 24 lines total. As a result, the R.A. coordinates are marked off in units of
time. It begins with an arbitrary point in the constellation of Pisces designated as 0 hours, 0 minutes, 0 seconds. All
other points are designated by how far (i.e., how long) they lag behind this coordinate after it passes overhead moving
toward the west.
Figure 6-1
The celestial sphere seen from the outside showing R.A. and DEC.
24
Motion of the Stars
The daily motion of the Sun across the sky is familiar to even the most casual observer. This daily trek is not the Sun
moving as early astronomers thought, but the result of the Earth's rotation. The Earth's rotation also causes the stars to
do the same, scribing out a large circle as the Earth completes one rotation. The size of the circular path a star follows
depends on where it is in the sky. Stars near the celestial equator form the largest circles rising in the east and setting in
the west. Moving toward the north celestial pole, the point around which the stars in the northern hemisphere appear to
rotate, these circles become smaller. Stars in the mid-celestial latitudes rise in the northeast and set in the northwest.
Stars at high celestial latitudes are always above the horizon, and are said to be circumpolar because they never rise and
never set. You will never see the stars complete one circle because the sunlight during the day washes out the starlight.
However, part of this circular motion of stars in this region of the sky can be seen by setting up a camera on a tripod
and opening the shutter for a couple hours. The processed film will reveal semicircles that revolve around the pole.
(This description of stellar motions also applies to the southern hemisphere except all stars south of the celestial equator
move around the south celestial pole.)
Figure 6-2
All stars appear to rotate around the celestial poles. However, the appearance of this motion
varies depending on where you are looking in the sky. Near the north celestial pole the stars
scribe out recognizable circles centered on the pole (1). Stars near the celestial equator also
follow circular paths around the pole. But, the complete path is interrupted by the horizon.
These appear to rise in the east and set in the west (2). Looking toward the opposite pole, stars
curve or arc in the opposite direction scribing a circle around the opposite pole (3).
25
Polar Alignment (with optional Wedge)
Even though the NexStar can precisely track a celestial object while in the Alt-Az position, it is still necessary to align
the polar axis of the telescope (the fork arm) to the Earth's axis on rotation in order to do long exposure astro
photography. To do an accurate polar alignment, the NexStar requires an optional equatorial wedge between the
telescope and a tripod. This allows the telescope's tracking motors to rotate the telescope around the celestial pole, the
same way as the stars. Without the equatorial wedge, you would notice the stars in the eyepiece would slowly rotate
around the center of the field of view. Although this gradual rotation would go unnoticed when viewing with an
eyepiece, it would be very noticeable on film.
Polar alignment is the process by which the telescope's axis of rotation (called the polar axis) is aligned (made parallel)
with the Earth's axis of rotation. Once aligned, a telescope with a clock drive will track the stars as they move across
the sky. The result is that objects observed through the telescope appear stationary (i.e., they will not drift out of the
field of view). If not using the clock drive, all objects in the sky (day or night) will slowly drift out of the field. This
motion is caused by the Earth's rotation.
Whether you are using your NexStar in the Alt-Az configuration or polar aligned, it will be necessary to locate where
north is and more specifically where the North Star is.
Definition
The polar axis is the axis around which the telescope rotates when moved in right ascension. This axis points
the same direction even when the telescope moves in right ascension and declination.
Figure 6-3
This is how the telescope is to be set up for polar
alignment. The tube should be parallel to the
fork arm and the mount should point to Polaris.
26
Finding the North Celestial Pole
In each hemisphere, there is a point in the sky around which all the other stars appear to rotate. These points are called
the celestial poles and are named for the hemisphere in which they reside. For example, in the northern hemisphere all
stars move around the north celestial pole. When the telescope's polar axis is pointed at the celestial pole, it is parallel
to the Earth's rotational axis.
Figure 6-4 –
The position of the Big
Dipper changes throughout
the year and the night.
Definition
Many methods of polar alignment require that you know how to find the celestial
pole by identifying stars in the area. For those in the northern hemisphere, finding
the celestial pole is not too difficult. Fortunately, we have a naked eye star less than
a degree away. This star, Polaris, is the end star in the handle of the Little Dipper.
Since the Little Dipper (technically called Ursa Minor) is not one of the brightest
constellations in the sky, it may be difficult to locate from urban areas. If this is the
case, use the two end stars in the bowl of the Big Dipper (the pointer stars). Draw an
imaginary line through them toward the Little Dipper. They point to Polaris (see
Figure 6-5). The position of the Big Dipper changes during the year and throughout
the course of the night (see Figure 6-4). When the Big Dipper is low in the sky (i.e.,
near the horizon), it may be difficult to locate. During these times, look for
Cassiopeia (see Figure 6-5). Observers in the southern hemisphere are not as
fortunate as those in the northern hemisphere. The stars around the south celestial
pole are not nearly as bright as those around the north. The closest star that is
relatively bright is Sigma Octantis. This star is just within naked eye limit
(magnitude 5.5) and lies about 59 arc minutes from the pole.
The north celestial pole is the point in the northern hemisphere around which all stars
appear to rotate. The counterpart in the southern hemisphere is referred to as the south
celestial pole.
Figure 6-5
The two stars in the front of the bowl of the Big Dipper point to Polaris which is less than
one degree from the true (north) celestial pole. Cassiopeia, the “W” shaped constellation,
is on the opposite side of the pole from the Big Dipper. The North Celestial Pole (N.C.P.)
is marked by the “+” sign.
27
With your telescope set up, you are ready to use it for observing. This section covers visual observing hints for both
solar system and deep sky objects as well as general observing conditions which will affect your ability to observe.
Observing the Moon
Often, it is tempting to look at the Moon when it is full. At this time,
the face we see is fully illuminated and its light can be overpowering.
In addition, little or no contrast can be seen during this phase.
One of the best times to observe the Moon is during its partial phases
(around the time of first or third quarter). Long shadows reveal a great
amount of detail on the lunar surface. At low power you will be able to
see most of the lunar disk at one time. The optional Reducer/Corrector
lens allows for breath-taking views of the entire lunar disk when used
with a low power eyepiece. Change to higher power (magnification) to
focus in on a smaller area. Choose the lunar tracking rate from the
NexStar's MENU tracking rate options to keep the moon centered in the
eyepiece even at high magnifications.
Lunar Observing Hints
•
To increase contrast and bring out detail on the lunar surface, use filters. A yellow filter works well at improving
contrast while a neutral density or polarizing filter will reduce overall surface brightness and glare.
Observing the Planets
Other fascinating targets include the five naked eye planets. You can
see Venus go through its lunar-like phases. Mars can reveal a host of
surface detail and one, if not both, of its polar caps. You will be able to
see the cloud belts of Jupiter and the great Red Spot (if it is visible at
the time you are observing). In addition, you will also be able to see the
moons of Jupiter as they orbit the giant planet. Saturn, with its beautiful
rings, is easily visible at moderate power.
Planetary Observing Hints
•
Remember that atmospheric conditions are usually the limiting
factor on how much planetary detail will be visible. So, avoid
observing the planets when they are low on the horizon or when
they are directly over a source of radiating heat, such as a rooftop
or chimney. See the "Seeing Conditions" section later in this section.
•
To increase contrast and bring out detail on the planetary surface, try using Celestron eyepiece filters.
28
Observing the Sun
Although overlooked by many amateur astronomers, solar observation is both rewarding and fun. However, because
the Sun is so bright, special precautions must be taken when observing our star so as not to damage your eyes or your
telescope.
Never project an image of the Sun through the telescope. Because of the folded optical design, tremendous heat buildup will result inside the optical tube. This can damage the telescope and/or any accessories attached to the telescope.
For safe solar viewing, use a solar filter that reduces the intensity of the Sun's light, making it safe to view. With a
filter you can see sunspots as they move across the solar disk and faculae, which are bright patches seen near the Sun's
edge.
Solar Observing Hints
•
The best time to observe the Sun is in the early morning or late afternoon when the air is cooler.
•
To center the Sun without looking into the eyepiece, watch the shadow of the telescope tube until it forms a
circular shadow.
•
To ensure accurate tracking, be sure to select solar tracking rate.
Observing Deep Sky Objects
Deep-sky objects are simply those objects outside the boundaries of our solar system. They include star clusters,
planetary nebulae, diffuse nebulae, double stars and other galaxies outside our own Milky Way. Most deep-sky objects
have a large angular size. Therefore, low-to-moderate power is all you need to see them. Visually, they are too faint to
reveal any of the color seen in long exposure photographs. Instead, they appear black and white. And, because of their
low surface brightness, they should be observed from a dark-sky location. Light pollution around large urban areas
washes out most nebulae making them difficult, if not impossible, to observe. Light Pollution Reduction filters help
reduce the background sky brightness, thus increasing contrast.
Seeing Conditions
Viewing conditions affect what you can see through your telescope during an observing session. Conditions include
transparency, sky illumination, and seeing. Understanding viewing conditions and the effect they have on observing
will help you get the most out of your telescope.
Transparency
Transparency is the clarity of the atmosphere which is affected by clouds, moisture, and other airborne particles. Thick
cumulus clouds are completely opaque while cirrus can be thin, allowing the light from the brightest stars through.
Hazy skies absorb more light than clear skies making fainter objects harder to see and reducing contrast on brighter
objects. Aerosols ejected into the upper atmosphere from volcanic eruptions also affect transparency. Ideal conditions
are when the night sky is inky black.
Sky Illumination
General sky brightening caused by the Moon , aurorae, natural airglow, and light pollution greatly affect transparency.
While not a problem for the brighter stars and planets, bright skies reduce the contrast of extended nebulae making
them difficult, if not impossible, to see. To maximize your observing, limit deep sky viewing to moonless nights far
from the light polluted skies found around major urban areas. LPR filters enhance deep sky viewing from light
polluted areas by blocking unwanted light while transmitting light from certain deep sky objects. You can, on the other
hand, observe planets and stars from light polluted areas or when the Moon is out.
29
Seeing
Seeing conditions refers to the stability of the atmosphere and directly affects the amount of fine detail seen in extended
objects. The air in our atmosphere acts as a lens which bends and distorts incoming light rays. The amount of bending
depends on air density. Varying temperature layers have different densities and, therefore, bend light differently. Light
rays from the same object arrive slightly displaced creating an imperfect or smeared image. These atmospheric
disturbances vary from time-to-time and place-to-place. The size of the air parcels compared to your aperture
determines the "seeing" quality. Under good seeing conditions, fine detail is visible on the brighter planets like Jupiter
and Mars, and stars are pinpoint images. Under poor seeing conditions, images are blurred and stars appear as blobs.
The conditions described here apply to both visual and photographic observations.
Figure 7-1
Seeing conditions directly affect image quality. These drawing represent a point source (i.e., star)
under bad seeing conditions (left) to excellent conditions (right). Most often, seeing conditions produce
images that lie some where between these two extremes.
30
After looking at the night sky for a while you may want to try photographing it. Several forms of celestial photograph
are possible with your telescope, including short exposure prime focus, eyepiece projection, long exposure deep sky,
terrestrial and even CCD imaging. Each of these is discussed in moderate detail with enough information to get you
started. Topics include the accessories required and some simple techniques. More information is available in some of
the publications listed at the end of this manual.
In addition to the specific accessories required for each type of celestial photography, there is the need for a camera but not just any camera. The camera does not have to have many of the features offered on today's state-of-the-art
equipment. For example, you don't need auto focus capability or mirror lock up. Here are the mandatory features a
camera needs for celestial photography. First, a “B” setting which allows for time exposures. This excludes point and
shoot cameras and limits the selection to SLR cameras, the most common type of 35mm camera on the market today.
Second, the “B” or manual setting should NOT run off the battery. Many new electronic cameras use the battery to
keep the shutter open during time exposures. Once the batteries are drained, usually after a few minutes, the shutter
closes, whether you were finished with the exposure or not. Look for a camera that has a manual shutter when
operating in the time exposure mode. Olympus, Nikon, Minolta, Pentax, Canon and others have made such camera
bodies.
The camera must have interchangeable lenses so you can attach it to the telescope and so you can use a variety of
lenses for piggyback photography. If you can't find a new camera, you can purchase a used camera body that is not
100-percent functional. The light meter, for example, does not have to be operational since you will be determining the
exposure length manually.
You also need a cable release with a locking function to hold the shutter open while you do other things. Mechanical
and air release models are available.
Short Exposure Prime Focus Photography
Short exposure prime focus photography is the best way to begin recording celestial objects. It is done with the camera
attached to the telescope without an eyepiece or camera lens in place. To attach your camera you need the Celestron TAdapter (#93633-A) and a T-Ring for your specific camera (i.e., Minolta, Nikon, Pentax, etc.). The T-Ring replaces
the 35mm SLR camera's normal lens. Prime focus photography allows you to capture the majority of the lunar disk or
solar disk. To attach your camera to your telescope.
1.
Remove all visual accessories.
2.
Thread the T-Ring onto the T-Adapter.
3.
Mount your camera body onto the T-Ring the same as you would any other lens.
4.
Thread the T-Adapter onto the back of the telescope while holding the camera in the desired orientation (either
vertical or horizontal).
With your camera attached to the telescope, you are ready for prime focus photography. Start with an easy object like
the Moon. Here's how to do it
1.
Load your camera with film that has a moderate-to-fast speed (i.e., ISO rating). Faster films are more desirable
when the Moon is a crescent. When the Moon is near full, and at its brightest, slower films are more desirable.
Here are some film recommendations
31
•
•
•
•
•
T-Max 100
T-Max 400
Any 100 to 400 ISO color slide film
Fuji Super HG 400
Ektar 25 or 100
1.
Center the Moon in the field of your NexStar telescope.
2.
Focus the telescope by turning the focus knob until the image is sharp.
3.
Set the shutter speed to the appropriate setting (see table below).
4.
Trip the shutter using a cable release.
5.
Advance the film and repeat the process.
Lunar Phase
Crescent
Quarter
Full
ISO 50
1/2
1/15
1/30
ISO 100
1/4
1/30
1/60
ISO 200
1/8
1/60
1/125
ISO 400
1/15
1/125
1/250
Table 8-1
Above is a listing of recommended exposure times when photographing the Moon at the
prime focus of your NexStar telescope.
The exposure times listed in table 8-1 should be used as a starting point. Always make exposures that are longer and
shorter than the recommended time. Also, take a few photos at each shutter speed. This will ensure that you will get a
good photo.
If using black and white film, try a yellow filter to reduce the light intensity and to increase contrast.
Keep accurate records of your exposures. This information is useful if you want to repeat your results or if you want to
submit some of your photos to various astronomy magazines for possible publication
This technique is also used for photographing the Sun with the proper solar filter.
Eyepiece Projection
This form of celestial photography is designed for objects with small angular sizes, primarily the Moon and planets.
Planets, although physically quite large, appear small in angular size because of their great distances. Moderate to high
magnification is, therefore, required to make the image large enough to see any detail. Unfortunately, the
camera/telescope combination alone does not provide enough magnification to produce a usable image size on film. In
order to get the image large enough, you must attach your camera to the telescope with the eyepiece in place. To do so,
you need two additional accessories ; a deluxe tele-extender (#93643), which attaches to the visual back, and a T-ring
for your particular camera make (i.e., Minolta, Nikon, Pentax, etc.).
Because of the high magnifications during eyepiece projection, the field of view is quite small which makes it difficult
to find and center objects. To make the job a little easier, align the finder as accurately as possible. This allows you to
get the object in the telescope's field based on the finder's view alone.
Another problem introduced by the high magnification is vibration. Simply tripping the shutter  even with a cable
release  produces enough vibration to smear the image. To get around this, use the camera's self-timer if the
exposure time is less than one second  a common occurrence when photographing the Moon. For exposures over
one second, use the "hat trick." This technique incorporates a hand-held black card placed over the aperture of the
telescope to act as a shutter. The card prevents light from entering the telescope while the shutter is released. Once the
shutter has been released and the vibration has diminished (a few seconds), move the black card out of the way to
expose the film. After the exposure is complete, place the card over the front of the telescope and close the shutter.
32
Advance the film and you're ready for your next shot. Keep in mind that the card should be held a few inches in front
of the telescope, and not touching it. It is easier if you use two people for this process; one to release the camera shutter
and one to hold the card. Here's the process for making the exposure.
1.
Find and center the desired target in the viewfinder of your camera.
2.
Turn the focus knob until the image is as sharp as possible.
3.
Place the black card over the front of the telescope.
4.
Release the shutter using a cable release.
5.
Wait for the vibration caused by releasing the shutter to diminish. Also, wait for a moment of good seeing.
6.
Remove the black card from in front of the telescope for the duration of the exposure (see accompanying table).
7.
Replace the black card over the front of the telescope.
8.
Close the camera's shutter.
Advance the film and you are ready for your next exposure. Don't forget to take photos of varying duration and keep
accurate records of what you have done. Record the date, telescope, exposure duration, eyepiece, f/ratio, film, and
some comments on the seeing conditions.
The following table lists exposures for eyepiece projection with a 10mm eyepiece. All exposure times are listed in
seconds or fractions of a second.
Planet
Moon
Mercury
Venus
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
ISO 50
4
16
1/2
16
8
16
ISO 100
2
8
1/4
8
4
8
ISO 200
1
4
1/8
4
2
4
ISO 400
1/2
2
1/15
2
1
2
Table 8-2
Recommended exposure time for photographing planets.
The exposure times listed here should be used as a starting point. Always make exposures that are longer and shorter
than the recommended time. Also, take a few photos at each shutter speed. This will ensure that you get a good photo.
It is not uncommon to go through an entire roll of 36 exposures and have only one good shot.
NOTE: Don't expect to record more detail than you can see visually in the eyepiece at the time you are photographing.
Once you have mastered the technique, experiment with different films, different focal length eyepieces, and even
different filters.
Long Exposure Prime Focus Photography
This is the last form of celestial photography to be attempted after others have been mastered. It is intended primarily
for deep sky objects, that is objects outside our solar system which includes star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. While
it may seem that high magnification is required for these objects, just the opposite is true. Most of these objects cover
large angular areas and fit nicely into the prime focus field of your telescope. The brightness of these objects, however,
requires long exposure times and, as a result, are rather difficult.
There are several techniques for this type of photography, and the one chosen will determine the standard accessories
needed. The best method for long exposure deep sky astro photography is with an off-axis guider. This device allows
33
you to photograph and guide through the telescope simultaneously. Celestron offers a very special and advanced offaxis guider, called the Radial Guider (#94176). In addition, you will need a T-Ring to attach your camera to the Radial
Guider.
Other equipment needs include a guiding eyepiece. Unlike other forms of astro photography which allows for fairly
loose guiding, prime focus requires meticulous guiding for long periods. To accomplish this you need a guiding ocular
with an illuminated reticle to monitor your guide star. For this purpose, Celestron offers the Micro Guide Eyepiece
(#94171) Here is a brief summary of the technique.
1.
Polar align the telescope using an optional equatorial wedge.
2.
Remove all visual accessories.
3.
Thread the Radial Guider onto your telescope.
4.
Thread the T-Ring onto the Radial Guider.
5.
Mount your camera body onto the T-Ring the same as you would any other lens.
6.
Set the shutter speed to the "B" setting.
7.
Focus the telescope on a star.
8.
Center your subject in the field of your camera.
9.
Find a suitable guide star in the telescope field. This can be the most time consuming process.
10. Open the shutter using a cable release.
11. Monitor your guide star for the duration of the exposure using the buttons on the hand controller to make the
needed corrections.
12. Close the camera's shutter.
When getting started, use fast films to record as much detail in the shortest possible time.
recommendations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Here are proven
Ektar 1000 (color print)
Konica 3200 (color print)
Fujichrome 1600D (color slide)
3M 1000 (color slide)
Scotchchrome 400
T-Max 3200 (black and white print)
T-Max 400 (black and white print)
As you perfect your technique, try specialized films, that is films that are designed or specially treated for celestial
photography. Here are some popular choices
•
•
•
•
Ektar 125 (color print)
Fujichrome 100D (color slide)
Tech Pan, gas hypered (black and white print)
T-Max 400 (black and white print)
There is no exposure determination table to help you get started. The best way to determine exposure length is look at
previously published photos to see what film/exposure combinations were used. Or take unguided sample photos of
various parts of the sky while the drive is running. Always take exposures of various lengths to determine the best
exposure time.
34
Terrestrial Photography
Your NexStar makes an excellent 1250mm telephoto lens for terrestrial (land) photography. Terrestrial photography is
best done will the telescope in Alt-Az configuration and the tracking drive turned off. To turn the tracking drive off,
press the MENU (9) button on the hand control and scroll down to the Tracking Mode sub menu. Use the Up and
Down scroll keys (10) to select the Off option and press ENTER. This will turn the tracking motors off, so that objects
will remain in your camera's field of view.
Metering
The NexStar has a fixed aperture and, as a result, fixed f/ratios. To properly expose your subjects photographically, you
need to set your shutter speed accordingly. Most 35mm SLR cameras offer through-the-lens metering which lets you
know if your picture is under or overexposed. Adjustments for proper exposures are made by changing the shutter
speed. Consult your camera manual for specific information on metering and changing shutter speeds.
Reducing Vibration
Releasing the shutter manually can cause vibrations, producing blurred photos. To reduce vibration when tripping the
shutter, use a cable release. A cable release keeps your hands clear of the camera and lens, thus eliminating the
possibility of introducing vibration. Mechanical shutter releases can be used, though air-type releases are best.
Blurry pictures can also result from shutter speeds that are too slow. To prevent this, use films that produce shutter
speeds greater than 1/250 of a second when hand-holding the lens. If the lens is mounted on a tripod, the exposure
length is virtually unlimited.
Another way to reduce vibration is with the Vibration Suppression Pads (#93503). These pads rest between the ground
and tripod feet. They reduce the vibration amplitude and vibration time.
CCD Imaging
CCD Imaging is the most challenging form of astro photography and involves the use of a CCD (Charged Coupled
Device) camera attached to the telescope at prime focus. The benefits of CCD imaging is the extreme light sensitivit
of the electronic chip inside the camera. This allows you to record much fainter detail in a shorter period of time than
would be possible with film photography. Due to the relative small size of the CCD chip, the field of view when
imaging will be less than the field of view of a film camera. Using Celestron's optional f/6.3 Reducer/Corrector
accessory in conjunction with a CCD camera (or film camera) will greatly increase the photographic field of view and
will make finding and tracking a celestial object much easier.
35
While your NexStar telescope requires little maintenance, there are a few things to remember that will ensure your telescope
performs at its best.
Care and Cleaning of the Optics
Occasionally, dust and/or moisture may build up on the corrector plate of your telescope. Special care should be taken when
cleaning any instrument so as not to damage the optics.
If dust has built up on the corrector plate, remove it with a brush (made of camel’s hair) or a can of pressurized air. Spray at an
angle to the lens for approximately two to four seconds. Then, use an optical cleaning solution and white tissue paper to remove
any remaining debris. Apply the solution to the tissue and then apply the tissue paper to the lens. Low pressure strokes should
go from the center of the corrector to the outer portion. Do NOT rub in circles!
You can use a commercially made lens cleaner or mix your own. A good cleaning solution is isopropyl alcohol mixed with
distilled water. The solution should be 60% isopropyl alcohol and 40% distilled water. Or, liquid dish soap diluted with water (a
couple of drops per one quart of water) can be used.
Occasionally, you may experience dew build-up on the corrector plate of your telescope during an observing session. If you want
to continue observing, the dew must be removed, either with a hair dryer (on low setting) or by pointing the telescope at the
ground until the dew has evaporated.
If moisture condenses on the inside of the corrector, remove the accessories from the rear cell of the telescope. Place the
telescope in a dust-free environment and point it down. This will remove the moisture from the telescope tube.
To minimize the need to clean your telescope, replace all lens covers once you have finished using it. Since the rear cell is NOT
sealed, the cover should be placed over the opening when not in use. This will prevent contaminants from entering the optical
tube.
Internal adjustments and cleaning should be done only by the Celestron repair department. If your telescope is in need of internal
cleaning, please call the factory for a return authorization number and price quote.
Collimation
Corrector
Plate
Collimation
Screws
Figure 9-1
The three collimation screws are located on th
secondary mirror holder in the center of the corrector
plate.
The optical performance of your NexStar telescope is directly related
to its collimation, that is the alignment of its optical system. Your
NexStar was collimated at the factory after it was completel
assembled. However, if the telescope is dropped or jarred severel
during transport, it may have to be collimated. The only optical
element that may need to be adjusted, or is possible, is the tilt of the
secondary mirror.
To check the collimation of your telescope you will need a light
source. A bright star near the zenith is ideal since there is a minimal
amount of atmospheric distortion. Make sure that tracking is on so that
you won’t have to manually track the star. Or, if you do not want to
power up your telescope, you can use Polaris. Its position relative to
the celestial pole means that it moves very little thus eliminating the
need to manually track it.
Before you begin the collimation process, be sure that your telescope
is in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Allow 45 minutes for
the telescope to reach equilibrium if you move it between large
temperature extremes.
36
To verify collimation, view a star near the zenith. Use a medium to high power ocular — 12mm to 6mm focal length. It is
important to center a star in the center of the field to judge collimation.
Slowly cross in and out of focus and judge the
symmetry of the star. If you see a systematic skewing of the star to one side, then recollimation is needed.
Figure 9-2 -- Even though the star pattern appears the same on both sides of focus, they are asymmetric. The
dark obstruction is skewed off to the left side of the diffraction pattern indicating poor collimation.
To accomplish this, you need to tighten the secondary collimation screw(s) that move the star across the field toward the
direction of the skewed light. These screws are located in the secondary mirror holder (see figure 9-1). Make only a small 1/6 to
1/8 field correction and re-center the star by moving the scope before making any improvements or before making further
adjustments.
To make collimation a simple procedure, follow these easy steps
1.
While looking through a medium to high power eyepiece, de-focus a bright star until a ring pattern with a dark shadow
appears (see figure 9-2). Center the de-focused star and notice in which direction the central shadow is skewed.
2.
Place your finger along the edge of the front cell of the telescope (be careful not to touch the corrector plate), pointing
towards the collimation screws. The shadow of your finger should be visible when looking into the eyepiece. Rotate your
finger around the tube edge until its shadow is seen closest to the narrowest portion of the rings (i.e. the same direction in
which the central shadow is skewed).
3.
Locate the collimation screw closest to where your finger is positioned. This will be the collimation screw you will need to
adjust first. (If your finger is positioned exactly between two of the collimation screws, then you will need to adjust the
screw opposite where your finger is located).
4.
Use the hand control buttons to move the de-focused star image to the edge of the field of view, in the same direction that
the central obstruction of the star image is skewed.
5.
While looking through the eyepiece, use an Allen wrench to turn the collimation screw you located in step 2 and 3. Usuall
a tenth of a turn is enough to notice a change in collimation. If the star image moves out of the field of view in the direction
that the central shadow is skewed, than you are turning the collimation screw the wrong way. Turn
the screw in the opposite direction, so that the star image is moving towards the center of the field
of view.
6. If while turning you notice that the screws get very loose, then simply tighten the other two
screws by the same amount. Conversely, if the collimation screw gets too tight, then loosen the
other two screws by the same amount.
Figure 9-3
A collimated telescope
should appear
symmetrical with the
central obstruction
centered in the star's
diffraction pattern.
7. Once the star image is in the center of the field of view, check to see if the rings are
concentric. If the central obstruction is still skewed in the same direction, then continue turning the
screw(s) in the same direction. If you find that the ring pattern is skewed in a different direction,
than simply repeat steps 2 through 6 as described above for the new direction.
Perfect collimation will yield a star image very symmetrical just inside and outside of focus. In
addition, perfect collimation delivers the optimal optical performance specifications that your
telescope is built to achieve.
If seeing (i.e., air steadiness) is turbulent, collimation is difficult to judge. Wait until a better night if
it is turbulent or aim to a steadier part of the sky. A steadier part of the sky is judged by steady versus twinkling stars.
37
You will find that additional accessories enhance your viewing pleasure and expand the usefulness of you
telescope. For ease of reference, all the accessories are listed in alphabetical order.
Adapter, Car Battery (#18769) -
Celestron offers the Car Battery Adapter that allows you to run the NexStar
drive off an external power source. The adapter attaches to the cigarette
lighter of your car, truck, van, or motorcycle.
Barlow Lens - A Barlow lens is a negative lens that increases the focal length
of a telescope. Used with any eyepiece, it doubles the magnification of that
eyepiece. Celestron offers two Barlow lens in the 1-1/4" size for the
NexStar. The 2x Ultima Barlow (#93506) is a compact triplet design that is
fully multicoated for maximum light transmission and parfocal when use
with the Ultima eyepieces. Model #93507 is a compact achromatic Barlow
lens that is under three inches long and weighs only 4 oz. It works very well
with all Celestron eyepieces.
Carrying Case (#302070) - This rugged case is constructed of space age resin, making it waterproof, unbreakable, airtight
and extremely durable. It’s designed so your telescope can be packed with the standard finderscope in place, a convenience
you’ll be sure to appreciate. The case is lined with die cut foam for custom fitting. It features large handles and is equipped
with wheels, for easy transportation. Weight: 17 lbs. (31.5"x 21.75"x 11.5").
CD-ROM (#93700) - Celestron and Software Bisque have joined together to
present this comprehensive CD-ROM calle The Sky™ Level 1 - from Celestron.
It features a 10,000 object database, 75 color images, horizontal projection, custom
sky chart printing, zoom capability and more! A fun, useful and educational product.
PC format.
Erect Image Diagonal (#94112-A) - This accessory is an Amici prism
arrangement that allows you to look into the telescope at a 45° angle with
images that are oriented properly (upright and correct from left-to-right). It is useful for daytime, terrestria
viewing.
Eyepieces - Like telescopes, eyepieces come in a variety of designs. Each design has its own advantages and
disadvantages. For the 1-1/4" barrel diameter there are four different eyepiece designs available.
• Super Modified Achromatic (SMA) Eyepieces: 1 1/4"
The SMA design is an improved version of the Kellner eyepiece. SMAs are very good, economical, general purpose
eyepieces that deliver a wide apparent field, good color correction and an excellent image at the center of the field of view.
Celestron offers SMA eyepieces in 1-1/4" sizes in the following focal lengths: 6mm, 10mm, 12mm, 17mm and 25mm.
• Plössl - Plössl eyepieces have a 4-element lens designed for low-to-high power observing. The Plössls offer razor
sharp views across the entire field, even at the edges! In the 1-1/4" barrel diameter, they are available in th
following focal lengths: 6.3mm, 7.5mm, 10mm, 12.5mm, 17mm, 20mm, 26mm, 32mm and 40mm.
38
• Ultima - Ultima is not really a design, but a trade name for our 5-element,
wide field eyepieces. In the 1-1/4" barrel diameter, they are available in th
following focal lengths: 5mm, 7.5mm, 12.5mm, 18mm, 24mm, 30mm,
35mm, and 42mm. These eyepieces are all parfocal. The 35mm Ultima
gives the widest possible field of view with a 1-1/4" diagonal and is idea
for the NexStar with or without the Reducer/Corrector.
• Lanthanum Eyepieces (LV Series) - Lanthanum is a unique rare earth glas
used in one of the field lenses of this new eyepiece. The Lanthanum glass
reduces aberrations to a minimum. All are fully multicoated and have a
astounding 20mm of eye relief — perfect for eyeglass wearers! In the 1-1/4"
barrel diameter, they are available in the following focal lengths: 2.5mm,
4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 9mm, 10mm, 12mm and 15mm. Celestron also offers th
LV Zoom eyepiece (#3777) with a focal length of 8mm to 24mm. It offers an apparent field of 40 o at 24mm and
60o at 8mm. Eye relief ranges from 15mm to 19mm.
Eyepiece Filters - To enhance your visual observations of solar system objects, Celestron offers a wide range of
colored filters that thread into the 1-1/4" oculars. Available individually are: #12 deep yellow, #21 orange, #25
red, #58 green, #80A light blue, #96 neutral density - 25%T, #96 neutral density - 13%T, and polarizing. These
and other filters are also sold in sets.
Night Vision Flashlight - (#93588) - Celestron’s premium model for astronomy,
using two red LEDs to preserve night vision better than red filters or other devices.
Brightness is adjustable. Operates on a single 9 volt battery (included).
Red Astro Lite – (#93590) – An economical squeeze-type flashlight fitted with a
red cap to help preserve your night vision. Remove the red cap for normal
flashlight operation. Very compact size and handy keychain.
Light Pollution Reduction (LPR) Filters - These filters are designed to enhance
your views of deep sky astronomical objects when viewed from urban areas. LPR
Filters selectively reduce the transmission of certain wavelengths of light,
specifically those produced by artificial lights. This includes mercury and high and low pressure sodium vapor lights. In
addition, they also block unwanted natural light (sky glow) caused by neutral oxygen emission in our atmosphere. Celestron
offers a model for 1-1/4" eyepieces (#94126A) and a model that attaches to the rear cell ahead of the star diagonal and visual
back (#94127A).
Micro Guide Eyepiece (#94171) - This multipurpose 12.5mm illuminated reticle can be used for guiding deep-sk
astrophotos, measuring position angles, angular separations, and more. The laser etched reticle provides razor sharp lines
and the variable brightness illuminator is completely cordless. The micro guide eyepiece produces 100 power when used
with the NexStar at f/10.
Moon Filters (#94119-A) - Celestron’s Moon Filters is an economical eyepiece filter for reducing the brightness of the
moon and improving contrast, so greater detail can be observed on the lunar surface. The clear aperture is 21mm and the
transmission is about 18%.
Planisphere (#93720) - A simple and inexpensive tool for all levels of observers, from naked eye viewers to users of highl
sophisticated telescopes. The Celestron Planisphere makes it easy to locate stars for observing and is a great planet finder as
well. A map of the night sky, oriented by month and day, rotates within a depiction of the 24 hours of the day, to display
exactly which stars and planets will be visible at any given time. Ingeniously simple to use, yet quite effective. Made of
durable materials and coated for added protection. Celestron Planispheres come in three different models, to match the
latitude from which you’re observing
For 20° to 40° of latitude
For 30° to 50°of latitude
For 40° to 60° of latitude
#93720-30
#93720-40
#93720-50
Polarizing Filter Set (#93608) - The polarizing filter set limits the transmission of light to a specific plane, thu
increasing contrast between various objects. This is used primarily for terrestrial, lunar and planetary observing.
39
Radial Guider (#94176) - The Celestron ® Radial Guider is specifically designed for use
in prime focus, deep sky stro photography and takes the place of the T-Adapter. This
device allows you to photograph and guide simultaneously through the optical tube
assembly of your telescope. This type of guiding produces the best results since what you
see through the guiding eyepiece is exactly reproduced on the processed film. The Radial
Guider is a “T”-shaped assembly that attaches to the rear cell of the telescope. As light
from the telescope enters the guider, most passes straight through to the camera. A small
portion, however, is diverted by a prism at an adjustable angle up to the guiding eyepiece.
This guider has two features not found on other off-axis guiders; first, the prism and
eyepiece housing rotate independently of the camera orientation making the acquisition of
a guide star quite easy. Second, the prism angle is tunable allowing you to look at guide stars on-axis. This accessory works
especially well with the Reducer/Corrector.
Reducer/Corrector (#94175) - This lens reduces the focal length of the telescope b
37%, making your NexStar a 787.5mm f/6.3 instrument. In addition, this unique lens also
corrects inherent aberrations to produce crisp images all the way across the field when
used visually. When used photographically, there is some vignetting that produces a
26mm circular image on the processed film. It also increases the field of view
significantly and is ideal for wide-field, deep-space viewing. It is also perfect for
beginning prime focus, long-exposure astro photography when used with the radial
guider. It makes guiding easier and exposures much shorter.
Sky Maps (#93722) - Celestron Sky Maps are the ideal teaching guide for learning the
night sky. You wouldn’t set off on a road trip without a road map, and you don’t need to
try to navigate the night sky without a map either. Even if you already know your way around the major constellations,
these maps can help you locate all kinds of fascinating objects.
Skylight Filter (#93621) - The Skylight Filter is used on the Celestron NexStar telescope as a dust seal. The filter threads
onto the rear cell of your telescope. All other accessories, both visual and photographic (with the exception of Barlow
lenses), thread onto the skylight filter. The light loss caused by this filter is minimal.
T-Adapter (#93633-A) - T-Adapter (with additional T-Ring) allows you to attach your SLR camera to the rear cell of your
Celestron NexStar. This turns your NexStar into a 1250mm telephoto lens perfect for terrestrial photography and short
exposure lunar and filtered solar photography.
T-Ring - The T-Ring couples your 35mm SLR camera body to the T-Adapter, radial guider, or tele-extender. This
accessory is mandatory if you want to do photography through the telescope. Each camera make (i.e., Minolta, Nikon,
Pentax, etc.) has its own unique mount and therefore, its own T-Ring. Celestron has 8 different models for 35mm cameras.
Tele-Extender, Deluxe (#93643) - The tele-extender is a hollow tube that allows you to attach a camera to the telescope
when the eyepiece is installed. This accessory is used for eyepiece projection photography which allows you to capture ver
high power views of the Sun, Moon, and planets on film. The tele-extender fits over the eyepiece onto the visual back. This
tele-extender works with eyepieces that have large housings, like the Celestron
Ultima series.
Tripod, NexStar - A stable tripod is a must for serious astronomical observing and
photography. The lightweight field tripod (#93593) weighs less than 10 pounds and
folds down to a compact 6"x36". It has a center brace and is perfectly sized for the
NexStar. It come with the accessory tray tripod for added stabilit .
Vibration Suppression Pads (#93503) - These pads rest between the ground and
tripod feet of your telescope. They reduce the amplitude and vibration time of your
telescope when shaken by the wind or an accidental bump. This accessory is a must
for long exposure prime focus photography.
Wedge, NexStar – The wedge allows you to tilt the telescope so that its polar
axis is parallel to the earth's axis of rotation. Ideal for using your NexSta
for guided astro photography.
NexStar shown on NexStar tripod
A full description of all Celestron accessories can be found in the Celestron
Accessory Catalog (#93685).
40
Appendix A - Technical Specifications
O
Oppttiiccaall S
Sppeecciiffiiccaattiioonn
Design
Aperture
Focal Length
F/ratio of the Optical System
Primary Mirror:
Material
Coatings
Secondary Mirror: Material
Coatings
Central Obstruction
Corrector Plate:
Material
Coatings
Highest Useful Magnification
Lowest Useful Magnification (7mm exit pupil)
Resolution: Rayleigh Criterion
Dawes Limit
Photographic Resolution
Light Gathering Power
Near Focus standard eyepiece or camera
Field of View: Standard Eyepiece
: 35mm Camera
Linear Field of View (at 1000 yds)
Magnification: Standard Eyepiece
: Camera
Optical Tube Length
Weight of Telescope
Schmidt-Cassegrain Catadioptric
5 inches (127mm)
50 inches (1250mm)
10
Fine Annealed Pyrex
Starbright Coatings - 5 step multilayer process
Hand Figured Fine Annealed Pyrex
Starbright Coatings - 5 step multilayer process
2” (16% by area)
Optical Quality Glass
A-R Coatings both sides
300x ( ~ 4mm eyepiece)
23x ( ~ 54mm eyepiece)
( ~ 34mm eyepiece with optional Reducer/Corrector)
1.09 arc seconds
.91arc seconds
182 lines/mm
330x unaided eye
~ 20 feet
1.04º
1.6º x 1.1º (2.5º x 1.75º) - with optional Reducer/Corrector)
55 feet
50x
25x
11 inches
17.6 Lbs.
E
Elleeccttrroonniicc S
Sppeecciiffiiccaattiioonnss
Input Voltage
Maximum
Minimum
Batteries Required
Power Supply Requirements
12 V DC Nominal
18 V DC Max.
8 V DC Min.
8 AA Alkaline
12 VDC-750 mA (Tip positive)
M
Meecchhaanniiccaall S
Sppeecciiffiiccaattiioonnss
Motor: Type
Resolution
Slew speeds
Hand Control
Fork Arm
DC Servo motors with encoders, both axes
.26 arc sec
Nine slew speeds: 6.5º /sec, 3º /sec, 1.5º/sec, 128x, 64x, 16x, 8x, 2x, 1x
Double line, 16 character Liquid Crystal Display
19 fiber optic backlit LED buttons
Cast aluminum, with integrated hand control receptacle
S
Sooffttw
waarree S
Sppeecciiffiiccaattiioonnss
Software Precision
Ports
Tracking Rates
Tracking Modes
Alignment Procedures
Database
16 bit, 20 arc sec. calculations
RS-232 communication port on hand control
Sidereal, Solar, Lunar and King
Alt-Az, EQ North & EQ South
2-Star Alignment, AutoAlign
25 user defined programmable object.
Enhanced information on over 100 objects
Complete Revised NGC Catalog
Complete Messier Catalog
Complete Caldwell
Solar System objects
Famous Asterisms
Selected SAO Star
Total Object Database
7,840
110
109
9
20
10,385
18,473
41
Appendix B - Glossary of Terms
AAbsolute magnitude
Airy disk
Alt-Azimuth Mounting
Altitude
Aperture
Apparent Magnitude
Arcminute
Arcsecond
Asterism
Asteroid
Astrology
Astronomical unit (AU)
Aurora
Azimuth
BBinary Stars
CCelestial Equator
Celestial pole
Celestial Sphere
Collimation
DDeclination (DEC)
EEcliptic
Equatorial mount
The apparent magnitude that a star would have if it were observed from a standard distance of 10
parsecs, or 32.6 light-years. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is 4.8. at a distance of 10 parsecs, it
would just be visible on Earth on a clear moonless night away from surface light.
The apparent size of a star's disk produced even by a perfect optical system. Since the star can never
be focused perfectly, 84 per cent of the light will concentrate into a single disk, and 16 per cent into
a system of surrounding rings.
A telescope mounting using two independent rotation axis allowing movement of the instrument in
Altitude and Azimuth.
In astronomy, the altitude of a celestial object is its Angular Distance above or below the celestial
horizon.
the diameter of a telescope's primary lens or mirror; the larger the aperture, the greater the
telescope's light-gathering power.
A measure of the relative brightness of a star or other celestial object as perceived by an observer on
Earth.
A unit of angular size equal to 1/60 of a degree.
A unit of angular size equal to 1/3,600 of a degree (or 1/60 of an arcminute).
A small unofficial grouping of stars in the night sky.
A small, rocky body that orbits a star.
The pseudoscientific belief that the positions of stars and planets exert an influence on human
affairs; astrology has nothing in common with astronom
The distance between the Earth and the Sun. It is equal to 149,597,900 km., usually rounded off to
150,000,000 km.
The emission of light when charged particles from the solar wind slams into and excites atoms and
molecules in a planet's upper atmosphere.
The angular distance of an object eastwards along the horizon, measured from due north, between
the astronomical meridian (the vertical line passing through the center of the sky and the north and
south points on the horizon) and the vertical line containing the celestial body whose position is to
be measured. .
Binary (Double) stars are pairs of stars that, because of their mutual gravitational attraction, orbit
around a common Center of Mass. If a group of three or more stars revolve around one another, it is
called a multiple system. It is believed that approximately 50 percent of all stars belong to binary or
multiple systems. Systems with individual components that can be seen separately by a telescope are
called visual binaries or visual multiples. The nearest "star" to our solar system, Alpha Centauri, is
actually our nearest example of a multiple star system, it consists of three stars, two very similar to
our Sun and one dim, small, red star orbiting around one another.
The projection of the Earth's equator on to the celestial sphere. It divides the sky into two equal
hemispheres.
The imaginary projection of Earth's rotational axis north or south pole onto the celestial sphere.
An imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth, concentric with the Earth's center.
The act of putting a telescope's optics into perfect alignment.
The angular distance of a celestial body north or south of the celestial equator. It may be said to
correspond to latitude on the surface of the Earth.
The projection of the Earth's orbit on to the celestial sphere. It may also be defined as "the apparent
yearly path of the Sun against the stars".
A telescope mounting in which the instrument is set upon an axis which is parallel to the axis of the
Earth; the angle of the axis must be equal to the observer's latitude.
42
FFocal length
JJovian Planets
KKuiper Belt
LLight-Year (ly)
MMagnitude
Meridian
Messier
NNebula
North Celestial Pole
Nova
OOpen Cluster
PParallax
Parfocal
Parsec
Point Source
RReflector
The distance between a lens (or mirror) and the point at which the image of an object at infinity is
brought to focus. The focal length divided by the aperture of the mirror or lens is termed the focal
ratio.
Any of the four gas giant planets that are at a greater distance form the sun than the terrestrial
planets.
A region beyond the orbit of Neptune extending to about 1000 AU which is a source of many short
period comets.
A light-year is the distance light traverses in a vacuum in one year at the speed of 299,792 km/ sec.
With 31,557,600 seconds in a year, the light-year equals a distance of 9.46 X 1 trillion km (5.87 X 1
trillion mi).
Magnitude is a measure of the brightness of a celestial body. The brightest stars are assigned
magnitude 1 and those increasingly fainter from 2 down to magnitude 5. The faintest star that can be
seen without a telescope is about magnitude 6. Each magnitude step corresponds to a ratio of 2.5 in
brightness. Thus a star of magnitude 1 is 2.5 times brighter than a star of magnitude 2, and 100 times
brighter than a magnitude 5 star. The brightest star, Sirius, has an apparent magnitude of -1.6, the
full moon is -12.7, and the Sun's brightness, expressed on a magnitude scale, is -26.78. The zero
point of the apparent magnitude scale is arbitrary.
A reference line in the sky that starts at the North celestial pole and ends at the South celestial pole
and passes through the zenith. If you are facing South, the meridian starts from your Southern
horizon and passes directly overhead to the North celestial pole.
A French astronomer in the late 1700’s who was primarily looking for comets. Comets are haz
diffuse objects and so Messier cataloged objects that were not comets to help his search. This
catalog became the Messier Catalog, M1 through M110.
Interstellar cloud of gas and dust. Also refers to any celestial object that has a cloudy appearance.
The point in the Northern hemisphere around which all the stars appear to rotate. This is caused b
the fact that the Earth is rotating on an axis that passes through the North and South celestial poles.
The star Polaris lies less than a degree from this point and is therefore referred to as the "Pole Star".
Although Latin for "new" it denotes a star that suddenly becomes explosively bright at the end of its
life cycle.
One of the groupings of stars that are concentrated along the plane of the Milky Way. Most have an
asymmetrical appearance and are loosely assembled. They contain from a dozen to many hundreds
of stars.
Parallax is the difference in the apparent position of an object against a background when viewed b
an observer from two different locations. These positions and the actual position of the object form a
triangle from which the apex angle (the parallax) and the distance of the object can be determined i
the length of the baseline between the observing positions is known and the angular direction of the
object from each position at the ends of the baseline has been measured. The traditional method in
astronomy of determining the distance to a celestial object is to measure its parallax.
Refers to a group of eyepieces that all require the same distance from the focal plane of the
telescope to be in focus. This means when you focus one parfocal eyepiece all the other parfocal
eyepieces, in a particular line of eyepieces, will be in focus.
The distance at which a star would show parallax of one second of arc. It is equal to 3.26 light-years,
206,265 astronomical units, or 30,8000,000,000,000 km. (Apart from the Sun, no star lies within
one parsec of us.)
An object which cannot be resolved into an image because it to too far away or too small is
considered a point source. A planet is far away but it can be resolved as a disk. Most stars cannot
be resolved as disks, they are too far away.
A telescope in which the light is collected by means of a mirror.
43
Resolution
Right Ascension: (RA
SSchmidt Telescope
Sidereal Rate
TTerminator
UUniverse
VVariable Star
WWaning Moon
The minimum detectable angle an optical system can detect. Because of diffraction, there is a limit
to the minimum angle, resolution. The larger the aperture, the better the resolution.
The angular distance of a celestial object measured in hours, minutes, and seconds along the
Celestial Equator eastward from the Vernal Equinox.
Rated the most important advance in optics in 200 years, the Schmidt telescope combines the best
features of the refractor and reflector for photographic purposes. It was invented in 1930 b
Bernhard Voldemar Schmidt (1879-1935).
This is the angular speed at which the Earth is rotating. Telescope tracking motors drive the
telescope at this rate. The rate is 15 arc seconds per second or 15 degrees per hour.
The boundary line between the light and dark portion of the moon or a planet.
The totality of astronomical things, events, relations and energies capable of being described
objectively.
A star whose brightness varies over time due to either inherent properties of the star or something
eclipsing or obscuring the brightness of the star.
The period of the moon's cycle between full and new, when its illuminated portion is decreasing.
Waxing Moon
Z-
The period of the moon's cycle between new and full, when its illuminated portion is increasing.
Zenith
The point on the Celestial Sphere directly above the observer.
Zodiac
The zodiac is the portion of the Celestial Sphere that lies within 8 degrees on either side of the
Ecliptic. The apparent paths of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets, with the exception of some
portions of the path of Pluto, lie within this band. Twelve divisions, or signs, each 30 degrees in
width, comprise the zodiac. These signs coincided with the zodiacal constellations about 2,000 years
ago. Because of the Precession of the Earth's axis, the Vernal Equinox has moved westward b
about 30 degrees since that time; the signs have moved with it and thus no longer coincide with the
constellations.
44
APPENDIX C
LONGITUDES AND
LATITUDES
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
ALABAMA
Anniston
Auburn
Birmingha
Centreville
Dothan
Fort Rucker
Gadsden
Huntsville
Maxwell AFB
Mobile
Mobile Aeros
Montgomery
Muscle Shoal
Selma
Troy
Tuscaloosa
ALASKA
Anchorage
Barrow
Fairbanks
Haines Hrbor
Homer
Juneau
Ketchikan
Kodiak
Nome
Sitka
Sitkinak
Skagway
Valdez
ARIZONA
Davis-M AFB
Deer Valley
Douglas
Falcon Fld
Flagstaff
Fort Huachuc
Gila Bend
Goodyear
GrandCanyon
Kingman
Luke
Page
Payson
Phoeni
Prescott
Safford Awrs
Scottsdale
Show Low
Tucson
Williams AFB
Winslow
Yuma
Yuma Mcas
Yuma Prv Gd
ARKANSAS
Blytheville
Camden
El Dorado
Fayetteville
Ft Smith
Harrison
Hot Springs
Jonesboro
Little Rock
Pine Bluff
Springdale
Texarkana
Walnut Ridge
CALIFORNIA
Alameda
Alturas
Arcata
Bakersfield
Beale AFB
Beaumont
Bicycle Lk
Big Bear
Bishop
Blue Canyon
LATITUDE
degrees
min
85
85
86
87
85
85
86
86
86
88
88
86
87
86
86
87
51
26.4
45
15
27
43.2
5.4
46.2
22.2
15
4.2
2.4
37.2
59.4
1.2
37.2
33
32
33
32
31
31
33
34
32
30
30
32
34
32
31
33
34.8
40.2
34.2
54
19.2
16.8
58.2
39
22.8
40.8
37.8
18
45
20.4
52.2
13.8
149
156
147
135
151
134
131
152
165
135
154
135
146
51
46.8
52.2
25.8
3
34.8
4.2
3
25.8
21
1.2
31.8
21
61
71
64
59
59
58
55
57
64
57
56
59
61
13.2
18
49.2
13.8
37.8
22.2
21
45
30
4.2
52.8
45
7.8
110
112
109
111
111
110
113
112
112
113
112
111
111
112
112
109
111
110
110
111
110
115
114
114
52.8
4.8
3.6
43.8
40.2
21
10.2
22.8
9
57
22.8
27
19.8
1.2
25.8
40.8
55.2
0
55.8
40.2
43.8
0
37.2
2.4
32
33
31
33
35
31
33
33
35
35
33
36
34
33
34
32
33
34
32
33
35
33
32
32
10.2
40.8
27
28.2
7.8
36
33
25.2
57
16.2
31.8
55.8
13.8
25.8
39
49.2
37.2
16.2
7.2
18
1.2
6
39
51
89
92
92
94
94
93
93
90
92
91
94
94
90
57
2.4
4.8
10.2
22.2
9
0.6
39
22.8
55.8
7.8
0
55.8
35
33
33
36
35
36
34
35
35
34
36
33
36
58.2
31.2
13.2
0
19.8
16.2
28.8
49.8
13.2
10.2
10.8
27
7.8
122
120
124
119
121
116
116
116
118
120
19.2
31.8
0.6
3
27
57
37.2
40.8
3.6
4.2
37
41
40
35
39
33
35
34
37
39
46.8
28.8
58.8
25.8
7.8
55.8
16.8
16.2
36
16.8
Blythe
Burbank
Campo
Carlsbad
Castle AFB
Chico
China Lake
Chino
Concord
Crescent Cty
Daggett
Edwards AFB
El Centro
El Monte
El Toro
Eureka
Fort Hunter
Fort Ord
Fresno
Fullerton
George AFB
Hawthorne
Hayward
Imperial
Imperial Bch
La Verne
Lake Tahoe
Lancaster
Livermore
Long Beach
Los Alamitos
Los Angeles
Mammoth
March AFB
Marysville
Mather AFB
Mcclellan
Merced
Miramar NAS
Modesto
Moffet
Mojave
Montague
Monterey
Mount Shasta
Mount Wilson
Napa
Needles
North Is
Norton AFB
Oakland
Ontario Intl
Oxnard
Palm Springs
Palmdale
Palo Alto
Paso Robles
Pillaro Pt
Point Mugu
Pt Arena
Pt Arguello
Pt Piedras
Red Bluff
Redding
Riverside
Sacramento
Salinas
San Carlos
San
Clemente
San Diego
San
Francisco
San Jose
San Luis Obi
San Mateo
San Miguel
Sandburg
Santa Ana
Santa Barb
Santa Maria
Santa Monica
Santa Rosa
LONGITUDE
degrees
114
118
116
117
120
121
117
117
122
124
116
117
115
118
117
124
121
121
119
117
117
118
122
115
117
117
120
118
121
118
118
118
118
117
121
121
121
120
117
120
122
118
122
121
122
118
122
114
117
117
122
117
119
116
118
122
120
122
119
124
121
121
122
122
117
121
121
122
117
min
43.2
22.2
28.2
16.8
34.2
51
40.8
37.8
3
13.8
46.8
52.8
40.8
1.8
43.8
16.8
19.2
46.2
43.2
58.2
22.8
19.8
7.2
34.2
7.2
46.8
0
13.2
49.2
9
3
2.4
55.2
16.2
34.2
1.8
2.4
31.2
9
57
3
9
31.8
51
19.2
4.2
16.8
37.2
1.2
13.8
13.2
37.2
1.2
3
7.8
7.2
37.8
49.8
7.2
13.2
7.2
16.8
15
1.8
27
3
3.6
15
37.2
117
122
7.8
22.8
32
37
49.2
37.2
121
120
117
120
118
117
119
120
118
122
55.2
39
34.8
2.4
43.8
52.8
49.8
27
27
49.2
37
35
33
34
34
33
34
34
34
38
22.2
13.8
22.8
1.8
45
40.2
25.8
54
1.2
31.2
45
LATITUDE
degrees
33
34
32
33
37
39
35
33
37
41
34
34
32
34
33
41
36
36
36
33
34
33
37
32
32
34
38
34
37
33
33
33
37
33
39
38
38
37
32
37
37
35
41
36
41
34
38
34
32
34
37
34
34
33
35
37
35
37
34
39
34
35
40
40
33
38
36
37
33
min
37.2
12
37.2
7.8
22.8
46.8
40.8
58.2
58.8
46.8
52.2
54
49.2
4.8
40.2
19.8
0
40.8
46.2
52.2
34.8
55.2
39
49.8
34.2
6
54
43.8
42
49.2
46.8
55.8
37.8
52.8
6
34.2
40.2
16.8
52.2
37.8
25.2
3
43.8
34.8
19.2
13.8
13.2
46.2
42
6
43.8
3
12
49.8
3
28.2
40.2
49.8
7.2
34.8
57
40.2
9
30
57
31.2
40.2
31.2
25.2
Shelter Cove
Siskiyou
Stockton
Superior Val
Susanville
Thermal
Torrance
Travis AFB
Tahoe
Tustin Mcas
Ukiah
Van Nuys
Vandenberg
Visalia
COLORADO
Air Force A
Akron
Alamosa
Aspen
Brmfield/Jef
Buckley
Colo Sprgs
Cortez
Craig-Moffat
Denver
Durango
Eagle
Englewood
Fort Carson
Fraser
Ft Col/Lovel
Ft Collins
Grand Jct
Greeley-Wld
Gunnison
La Junta
Lamar
Leadville
Limon
Montrose
Pueblo
Rifle
Salida
Trinidad
Winter Park
LONGITUDE
degrees
124
122
121
117
120
116
118
121
120
117
123
118
120
119
min
4.2
28.2
15
0.6
57
10.2
19.8
55.8
7.8
49.8
1.2
28.8
57
2.4
LATITUDE
degrees
40
41
37
35
40
33
33
38
39
33
39
34
35
36
105
103
105
106
105
104
104
108
107
104
107
106
104
104
105
105
105
108
104
106
103
102
106
103
107
104
107
106
104
105
21
13.2
52.2
52.2
7.2
45
43.2
37.8
31.8
52.2
45
55.2
49.8
46.2
3
1.2
4.8
31.8
37.8
55.8
31.2
3.6
1.8
4.2
52.8
31.2
4.8
3
19.8
52.2
39
40
37
39
39
39
38
37
40
39
37
39
39
38
39
40
40
39
40
38
38
38
39
39
38
38
39
38
37
40
31.2
10.2
27
13.2
54
43.2
49.2
18
30
45
9
39
34.2
40.8
34.2
27
34.8
7.2
25.8
33
3
7.2
15
10.8
30
16.8
31.8
31.8
15
0
73
73
72
72
72
72
72
7.8
28.8
3
39
40.2
4.8
40.8
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
10.2
22.2
19.8
43.8
13.2
18
55.8
75
75
28.2
3.6
39
39
7.8
40.2
min
1.8
46.8
54
19.8
37.8
37.8
48
16.2
19.2
42
7.8
13.2
12
19.2
CONNECTICU
Bridgeport
Danbury
Groton
Hartford
New Haven
New London
Windsor Loc
DELAWARE
Dover
Wilmington
D.C. WASH
Washington
FLORIDA
Apalachicola
Astor NAS
Avon Park G
Cape
Canaveral
Cecil
Crestview
Cross City
Daytona Bch
Duke Fld
Eglin AFB
Egmont Key
Fort Myers
Ft Lauderdale
Ft Myers
Gainesville
Homestead
Hurlburt Fld
Jacksonville
Key West
Lakeland
Macdill AFB
Marianna
Mayport NAS
77
27.6
38
57
85
81
81
80
1.8
34.2
33
33
29
29
28
28
43.8
7.2
4.8
28.2
81
86
83
81
86
86
82
81
80
81
82
80
86
81
81
81
82
85
81
52.8
31.2
0.6
3
31.2
31.8
46.2
52.2
9
52.2
16.2
22.8
40.8
40.8
45
57
31.2
10.8
25.2
30
30
29
29
30
30
27
26
26
26
29
25
30
30
24
28
27
30
30
13.2
46.8
37.2
10.8
39
28.8
36
34.8
4.2
39
40.8
28.8
25.8
13.8
33
1.8
51
50.4
24
Melbourne
Miami
Naples
Nasa Shuttle
Orlando
Panama City
Patrick AFB
Pensacola
Ruskin
Saint Peters
Sanford
Sarasota
Tallahassee
Tampa Intl
Titusville
Tyndall AFB
Vero Beach
West Palm
Beach
Whiting Fld
GEORGIA
Albany
Alma
Athens
Atlanta
Augusta/Bush
Brunswick
Columbus
Dobbins AFB
Fort Benning
Ft Stewart
Hunter Aaf
La Grange
Macon/Lewis
Moody AFB
Robins AFB
Rome/Russell
Valdosta
Waycross
HAWAII
Barbers Pt
Barking San
Fr Frigate
Hilo
Honolulu Int
Kahului Maui
Kaneohe Mca
Kilauea Pt
Lanai-Lanai
Lihue-Kauai
Maui
Molokai
Upolo Pt Ln
WaimeaKoha
IDAHO
Boise
Burley
Challis
Coeur
d'Alene
Elk City
Gooding
Grangeville
Idaho Falls
Lewiston
Malad City
Malta
Mccall
Mullan
Pocatello
Salmon
Soda Springs
Sun Valley
Twin Falls
ILLINOIS
Alton
Aurora
Bistate Park
Bloomington
Bradford
Cairo
Carbondale
Centralia
Champaign
Chicago
Danville
DeKalb
Decatur
Du Page
Galesburg
LONGITUDE
degrees
80
80
81
80
81
85
80
87
82
82
81
82
84
82
80
85
80
80
min
37.8
16.8
4.8
40.8
19.2
40.8
3.6
19.2
3.6
40.8
15
33
22.2
31.8
4.8
34.8
25.2
7.2
LATITUDE
degrees
28
25
26
28
28
30
28
30
27
27
28
27
30
27
28
30
27
26
87
1.2
30
43.2
84
82
83
84
81
81
84
84
85
81
81
85
83
83
83
85
83
82
10.8
31.2
19.2
25.2
58.2
22.8
55.8
31.2
0
34.2
9
4.2
39
1.2
3.6
10.2
16.8
2.4
31
31
33
33
33
31
32
33
32
31
32
33
32
30
32
34
30
31
31.8
31.8
57
39
22.2
9
31.2
55.2
19.8
52.8
1.2
0.6
42
58.2
37.8
21
46.8
15
158
160
166
155
157
156
158
159
156
159
156
157
156
156
7.2
1.8
28.2
4.2
55.8
25.8
16.8
40.2
57
21
49.8
0.6
28.2
7.2
21
22
24
19
21
20
21
22
20
21
20
21
20
20
31.8
3
27
43.2
21
54
45
22.8
48
58.8
58.2
9
25.2
0
116
113
114
116
13.2
46.2
13.2
49.2
43
42
44
47
34.2
31.8
31.2
46.2
115
115
116
112
117
112
113
116
115
112
113
111
114
114
25.8
10.2
7.8
4.2
1.2
19.2
22.2
0.6
4.8
3.6
5.4
34.8
1.8
28.8
45
43
45
43
46
42
42
44
47
42
45
42
43
42
49.2
0
55.2
31.2
22.8
10.2
18
52.8
28.2
55.2
10.8
39
30
28.8
90
88
90
88
89
89
89
89
88
87
87
88
88
88
90
3
19.2
9
55.8
3.6
13.2
15
5.4
16.8
39
3.6
43.2
52.2
15
25.8
38
41
38
40
41
37
37
38
40
41
40
41
39
41
40
52.8
46.2
34.2
28.8
9.6
4.2
46.8
30.6
1.8
54
12
55.8
49.8
55.2
55.8
min
6
49.2
7.8
37.2
25.8
12
13.8
21
58.2
55.2
46.8
24
22.8
58.2
31.2
4.2
39
40.8
Glenview
NAS
Kankakee
Macomb
Marion
Marseilles
Mattoon
Moline/Quad
Mount
Vernon
Peoria
Quincy
Rockford
Salem
Scott AFB
Springfield
Sterling
Taylorville
Vandalia
INDIANA
Bakalar
Bloomington
Elkhart
Evansville
Fort Wayne
Gary
Grissom AFB
Indianapolis
Muncie
South Bend
Terre Haute
W Lafayette
IOWA
Burlington
Cedar Rapids
Des Moines
Dubuque
Estherville
Fort Dodge
Lamoni
Mason City
Ottumwa
Sioux City
Spencer
Waterloo Mun
KANSAS
Chanute
Col. J Jabar
Concordia
Dodge City
Elkhart
Emporia
Ft Leavnwrth
Ft Riley
Garden City
Goodland
Hays
Hill City
Hutchinson
Johnson Cnty
Liberal
Manhatten
Mcconnell Af
Medicine Ldg
Olathe
Russell
Salina
Topeka
Topeka/Forbe
Wichita
KENTUCKY
Bowling Gren
Ft Campbell
Ft Kno
Jackson
Lexington
London
Louisville
Owensboro
Paducah
Pikeville
LOUISIANA
Alexandria
Barksdale
Baton Rouge
Boothville
Cameron Heli
Claiborne R
England AFB
Eugene Is.
Fort Polk
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
87
49.2
LATITUDE
degrees
42
min
4.8
87
90
89
88
88
90
88
51
39.6
0
40.8
16.8
31.2
51.6
41
40
37
41
39
41
38
4.2
31.2
45
22.2
28.8
27
19.2
89
91
89
88
89
89
89
89
89
40.8
1.2
0.6
57.6
51
40.2
40.2
19.8
10.2
40
39
42
38
38
39
41
39
38
40.2
55.8
12
37.8
33
51
44.4
31.8
59.4
86
86
86
87
85
87
86
86
85
86
87
86
3
37.2
0
31.8
1.2
25.2
9
16.2
22.8
19.2
1.8
55.8
39
39
41
38
41
41
40
39
40
41
39
40
22.8
7.8
43.2
3
0
37.2
39
43.8
13.8
42
27
25.2
91
91
93
90
94
94
93
93
92
96
95
92
7.2
4.2
39
4.2
45
10.8
55.8
19.8
27
22.8
9
2.4
40
41
41
42
43
42
40
43
41
42
43
42
46.8
52.8
31.8
24
24
33
37.2
9
6
24
10.2
33
95
97
97
99
101
96
94
96
100
101
99
99
97
94
100
96
97
98
94
98
97
95
95
97
28.8
13.2
39
58.2
52.8
1.2
55.2
46.2
43.2
4.2
16.2
49.8
52.2
52.8
58.2
40.2
16.2
34.8
5.4
49.2
39
37.2
40.2
25.8
37
37
39
37
37
38
39
39
37
39
38
39
38
38
37
39
37
37
38
38
38
39
38
37
40.2
45
33
46.2
0
19.8
22.2
3
55.8
22.2
51
22.8
4.2
49.2
3
9
37.2
18
51
52.2
48
4.2
57
39
86
87
85
83
85
84
85
87
88
82
25.8
3
58.2
19.2
0
4.2
40.2
10.2
46.2
31.2
36
36
37
37
38
37
38
37
37
37
58.2
40.2
54
36
3
4.8
13.8
45
4.2
28.8
92
93
91
89
93
92
92
91
93
1.8
40.2
9
40.2
1.8
57
33
46.8
1.2
31
32
30
29
29
31
31
28
31
22.8
30
31.8
33
46.8
13.2
19.8
28.2
3
46
Grand Isle
High Island
Houma
Intercoastal
Lafayette
Lake Charles
Lk Palourde
Missippi Can
Monroe
Morgan City
New Iberia
New Orleans
S Marsh Isl
Shreveport
Slidel
MAINE
Augusta
Bangor
Bar Harbor
Brunswick
Caribou Mun
Greenville
Houlton
Loring AFB
Portland
Presque Isle
Rockland
Rumford
MARYLAND
Andrews AFB
Baltimore
Fort Meade
Hagerstown
Ocean City
Patuxent
Phillips
Salisbury
MASSACHUSETTS
Bedford
Beverly
Boston
Cape Cod
Chatha
Fort Devens
Hyannis
Lawrence
Marthas Vine
Nantucket
New Bedford
Norwood
Otis ANGB
Pittsfield
S Weymouth
Westfield
Westover
Worcester
MICHIGA
Alpena
Ann Arbor
Battle Creek
Benton
Harbor
Chippewa
Coopersville
Copper Harb
Detroit
Escanaba
Flint/Bishop
Grand Rapids
Hancock
Harbor Beach
Houghton
Lake
Iron Mtn
Ironwood
Jackson
Kalamazoo
Lansing
Manistee
Marquette
Menominee
Muskegon
Pellston
Pontiac
Saginaw
Sault Ste M
Sawyer AFB
Selfridge
Seul Choi
Traverse Cty
LONGITUDE
degrees
90
94
90
92
92
93
91
89
92
91
91
90
91
93
89
min
4.2
2.4
39
7.2
0
13.2
0.6
3
3
1.2
52.8
15
58.8
45
49.2
LATITUDE
degrees
29
28
29
29
30
30
29
28
32
29
30
29
28
32
30
69
68
68
69
68
69
67
67
70
68
69
70
4.8
49.2
22.2
55.8
1.2
33
46.8
52.8
19.2
3
7.2
52.8
44
44
44
43
46
45
46
46
43
46
44
44
19.2
48
27
52.8
52.2
27
7.8
57
39
40.8
4.2
52.8
76
76
76
77
75
76
76
75
52.2
40.2
46.2
43.2
7.8
2.4
10.2
3
38
39
39
39
38
38
39
38
49.2
10.8
4.8
42
33
16.8
28.2
19.8
71
70
71
70
69
71
70
71
70
70
70
71
70
73
70
72
72
71
16.8
55.2
1.8
3
58.2
3.6
16.8
7.2
37.2
4.2
58.2
10.8
31.2
10.8
55.8
43.2
31.8
52.2
42
42
42
41
41
42
41
42
41
41
41
42
41
42
42
42
42
42
28.2
34.8
22.2
46.8
40.2
34.2
40.2
43.2
24
15
40.8
10.8
39
15.6
9
10.2
12
16.2
83
83
85
86
34.2
45
13.8
25.8
45
42
42
42
4.2
13.2
18
7.8
84
85
87
83
87
83
85
88
82
84
28.2
57
51
1.2
4.8
45
31.2
3
31.8
40.8
46
43
47
42
45
42
42
47
43
44
15
4.2
28.2
25.2
43.8
58.2
52.8
10.2
49.8
22.2
88
90
84
85
84
86
87
87
86
84
83
84
84
87
82
85
85
7.2
7.8
28.2
33
3.6
15
57
37.8
15
4.8
25.2
4.8
22.2
2.4
49.8
55.2
34.8
45
46
42
42
42
44
46
45
43
45
42
43
46
46
42
45
44
49.2
31.8
16.2
13.8
46.2
16.2
52.8
7.2
10.2
34.2
40.2
31.8
28.2
21
37.2
55.2
43.8
min
10.8
7.8
34.2
43.8
12
7.2
42
46.8
31.2
42
1.8
58.8
18
31.2
21
Wurtsmith
Ypsilanti
MINNESOT
Albert Lea
Alexandria
Bemidji Muni
Brainerd-Crw
Detroit Laks
Duluth
Ely
Fairmont
Fergus Falls
Grand Rapids
Hibbing
Intl Falls
Litchfield
Mankato
Marshall Arpt
Minneapolis
Park Rapids
Pequot Lake
Rochester
Saint Paul
St Cloud
Thief River
Tofte
Warroad
Worthington
MISSISSIPPI
Columbus
AFB
Golden Trian
Greenville
Greenwood
Gulfport
Hattiesburg
Jackson
Keesler AFB
Laurel
Mccomb
Meridian NAS
Meridian/Key
Natchez
Oxford
Tupelo
MISSOURI
Columbia
Cape
Girardeau
Ft Leonard
Jefferson City
Joplin
Kansas City
Kirksville
Monett
Muskogee
Poplar Bluff
Richards-Geb
Spickard
Springfield
St Joseph
St Louis
Vichy/Rolla
West Plains
Whiteman
AFB
MONTANA
Billings
Bozeman
Broadus
Butte
Cut Bank
Dillon
Drummond
Glasgow
Glendive
Great Falls
Harlowton
Havre
Helena
Jordan
Kalispell
Lewiston
Livingston
Malmstrom
Miles City
Missoula
Monida
Sidney
W Yellowston
NEBRASK
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
83
2.4
83
31.8
LATITUDE
degrees
44
42
min
27
13.8
93
95
94
94
95
92
91
94
96
93
92
93
94
93
95
93
95
94
92
93
94
96
90
95
95
22.2
22.8
55.8
7.8
52.8
10.8
49.2
25.2
4.2
31.2
51
22.8
31.2
55.2
49.2
28.2
4.2
19.2
3
3
4.2
10.8
49.8
21
34.8
43
45
47
46
46
46
47
43
46
47
47
48
45
44
44
44
46
46
43
44
45
48
47
48
43
40.8
52.2
30
24
49.2
49.8
54
39
18
13.2
22.8
34.2
7.8
13.2
27
49.8
54
36
55.2
55.8
33
4.2
34.8
55.8
39
88
27
33
39
88
90
90
89
89
90
88
89
90
88
88
91
89
88
34.8
58.8
4.8
4.2
19.8
4.8
55.2
10.2
28.2
34.2
45
15
32.4
46.2
33
33
33
30
31
32
30
31
31
32
32
31
34
34
27
28.8
30
24
28.2
19.2
25.2
40.2
10.8
33
19.8
37.2
23.4
16.2
92
89
13.2
34.8
38
37
49.2
13.8
92
92
94
94
92
94
95
90
94
93
93
95
90
91
92
93
7.8
10.2
3
43.2
33
21
21.6
28.2
33
43.2
22.8
31.8
22.2
46.2
25.2
33
37
38
37
39
40
37
35
36
38
40
37
40
38
38
37
38
45
36
10.2
19.2
6
19.8
39.6
46.2
51
15
13.8
16.8
45
7.8
13.2
43.8
108
111
105
112
112
112
113
106
104
111
109
109
112
106
114
109
110
111
105
114
112
104
111
31.8
9
40.2
3
22.2
33
9
37.2
4.8
22.2
49.8
46.2
0
55.8
16.2
27
25.8
10.8
52.2
4.8
19.2
10.8
0.6
45
45
45
45
48
45
46
48
47
47
46
48
46
47
48
47
45
47
46
46
44
47
44
48
46.8
40.2
57
36
15
40.2
13.2
7.8
28.8
25.8
33
36
19.8
18
3
42
30
25.8
55.2
34.2
43.2
39
Ainsworth
Alliance
Beatrice
Broken Bow
Burwell
Chadron
Columbus
Cozad
Falls City
Grand Island
Hastings
Imperial
Kearney
Lincoln Muni
Mccook
Mullen
Norfolk
North Omaha
North Platte
O'neill
Offutt AFB
Omaha
Ord/Sharp
Scottsbluff
Sidney Muni
Valentine
NEVAD
Austin
Battle Mtn
Caliente
Elko
Ely/Yelland
Eureka
Fallon NAS
Hawthorne
Ind Sprng Rn
Las Vegas
Lovelock
Mercury
Nellis AFB
Owyhee
Reno
Tonopah
Wildhorse
Winnemucca
Yucca Flat
NEW
HAMPSHIRE
Berlin
Concord
Jaffrey
Keene
Laconia
Lebanon
Manchester
Mt Washingtn
Nashua
Pease AFB
Wolfeboro
NEW
JERSEY
Atlantic CtIy
Barnegat Ls
Fairfield
Lakehurst
Mcguire AFB
Millville
Morristown
Newark Intl
Teterboro
Trenton
NEW
MEXICO
Albuquerque
Cannon
Carlsbad
Clayton Arpt
Corona
Deming
Farmington
Gallup/Clark
Grants
Hobbs
Holloman
AFB
Las Cruces
Las Vegas
Los Alamos
Moriarity
Northrup Str
Raton
LONGITUDE
degrees
99
102
96
99
99
103
97
100
95
98
98
101
99
96
100
101
97
96
100
98
95
95
98
103
102
100
min
58.8
4.8
45
39
9
4.8
21
0
34.8
19.2
25.8
23.4
0
45
34.8
3
25.8
1.2
40.8
40.8
55.2
5.4
57
3.6
58.8
33
117
116
114
115
114
115
118
118
115
115
118
116
115
116
119
117
116
117
116
7.8
52.2
31.2
46.8
51
58.2
4.2
37.8
34.2
10.2
55.2
1.2
1.8
10.2
46.8
4.8
15
4.8
4.8
39
40
37
40
39
39
39
38
36
36
40
36
36
42
39
38
41
40
37
49.8
37.2
37.2
49.8
16.8
30
25.2
33
31.8
4.8
6
37.2
13.8
34.8
30
4.2
19.8
54
34.8
71
71
72
72
71
72
71
71
71
70
71
10.8
3
0
16.2
25.8
1.8
25.8
1.8
31.2
49.2
22.8
44
43
42
42
43
43
42
44
42
43
44
34.8
12
48
54
34.2
37.8
55.8
16.2
46.8
4.8
0
74
74
74
74
74
75
74
74
74
74
34.2
16.8
16.8
21
3.6
4.2
25.2
10.2
3
49.2
39
40
40
40
40
39
40
40
40
40
27
16.8
52.2
1.8
1.2
22.2
48
42
51
16.8
106
103
104
103
105
107
108
108
107
103
106
3.6
19.2
16.2
9
40.8
4.2
13.8
46.8
5.4
1.2
0.6
35
34
32
36
34
32
36
35
35
32
32
3
22.8
19.8
27
6
15
45
31.2
10.2
40.8
51
106
105
106
106
106
104
46.2
9
16.8
3
2.4
3
32
35
35
34
32
36
18
39
52.8
58.8
54
44.4
47
LATITUDE
degrees
42
42
40
41
41
42
41
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
42
41
41
41
42
41
41
41
41
41
42
min
34.8
3
19.2
25.8
46.8
49.8
27
52.2
4.2
58.2
36
19.8
43.8
51
13.2
3
58.8
22.2
7.8
28.2
7.2
18
37.2
52.2
6
52.2
Roswell
Santa Fe
Silver City
Socorro
Taos
Truth Or Con
Tucumcari
White Sands
NEW YORK
Albany
Ambrose
Binghamton
Buffalo
Dansville
Elmira
Farmingdale
Fort Drum
Glens Falls
Griffiss AFB
Islip
Ithaca
Jamestown
Massena
Monticello
New York
Newburgh
Niagara Fall
Ogdensburg
Oneonta
Plattsburgh
Rochester
Saranac Lk
Schenectady
Syracuse
Utica
Watertown
Westhampton
White Plains
NORTH
CAROLINA
Asheville
Cape Hattera
Charlotte
Cherry Point
Dare Co Gr
Diamond Sho
Elizabeth
Fayetteville
Fort Bragg
Greensboro
Hickory
Hot Springs
Jacksonville
Kinston
Mackall Aaf
Manteo Arpt
New Bern
New River
Pope AFB
Raleigh-Durh
Rocky Mt
Southern Pin
Wilmington
WinstonSalem
NORTH
DAKOTA
Bismarck
Devil's Lake
Dickenson
Fargo
Grand Forks
Jamestown
Lidgerwood
Minot
Roseglen
Williston
OHIO
Athens
Canton
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Columbus
Dayton
Findlay
Mansfield
Rickenbacker
Toledo
Willoughby
Youngstown
Zanesville
LONGITUDE
degrees
104
106
108
106
105
107
103
106
min
31.8
4.8
10.2
5.4
34.2
16.2
3.6
2.4
LATITUDE
degrees
33
35
32
34
36
33
35
32
73
74
75
78
78
76
73
75
73
75
73
76
79
74
74
73
74
78
75
75
73
77
74
73
76
75
76
72
73
4.8
22.2
58.8
43.8
1.2
5.4
25.8
43.8
37.2
2.4
0.6
28.2
15
51
4.8
58.8
0.6
57
2.4
7.2
28.2
40.2
1.2
55.8
7.2
22.8
1.2
37.8
43.2
42
40
42
42
42
42
40
44
43
43
40
42
42
44
41
40
41
43
44
42
44
43
44
42
43
43
44
40
41
45
45
13.2
55.8
58.2
10.2
43.8
3
21
13.8
46.8
28.8
9
55.8
42
46.2
30
6
40.8
52.2
39
7.2
22.8
51
7.2
9
0
51
4.2
82
75
80
76
76
75
76
78
78
79
81
82
77
77
79
75
77
77
79
78
77
79
77
80
33
33
55.8
52.8
3
3
10.8
52.8
55.8
57
22.8
49.2
37.2
37.8
3
40.8
3
25.8
1.2
46.8
52.8
23.4
55.2
13.8
35
35
35
34
36
35
36
35
35
36
35
35
34
35
35
35
35
34
35
35
35
35
34
36
25.8
16.2
13.2
54
7.8
15
16.2
0
7.8
4.8
45
54
49.2
19.2
1.8
55.2
4.8
42
10.2
52.2
51
14.4
16.2
7.8
100
98
102
96
97
98
97
101
101
103
45
5.4
4.8
4.8
10.8
40.8
9
16.8
49.8
37.8
46
48
46
46
47
46
46
48
47
48
46.2
7.2
46.8
54
57
55.2
6
16.2
45
10.8
82
81
84
81
82
84
83
82
82
83
81
80
81
13.8
25.8
40.2
40.8
52.8
1.2
40.2
31.2
55.8
4.8
2.4
40.2
5.4
39
40
39
41
40
39
41
40
39
41
41
41
39
12.6
55.2
3
31.2
0
54
1.2
49.2
49.2
36
37.8
16.2
57
min
18
37.2
37.8
4.2
25.2
13.8
10.8
37.8
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
OKLAHOMA
Altus AFB
Ardmore
Bartlesville
Clinton
Enid
Fort Sill
Gage
Hobart
Lawton
Mcalester
Norman
Oklahoma
Page
Ponca City
Stillwater
Tinker AFB
Tulsa
Vance AFB
OREGON
Astoria
Aurora
Baker
Brookings
Burns Arpt
Cape Blanco
Cascade
Corvallis
Eugene
Hillsboro
Klamath Fall
La Grande
Lake View
Meacha
Medford
Newport
North Bend
Ontario
Pendleton
Portland
Redmond
Roseburg
Salem
Sexton
The Dalles
Troutdale
PENNSYLVANIA
Allentown
Altoona
Beaver Falls
Blairsville
Bradford
Dubois
Erie
Franklin
Harrisburg
Johnstown
Lancaster
Latrobe
Middletown
Muir
Nth Philadel
Philadelphia
Philipsburg
Pittsburgh
Reading
Site R
State Colleg
Wilkes-Barre
Williamsport
Willow Grove
RHODE
ISLAND
Block Island
Nth Kingston
Providence
SOUTH
CAROLINA
Anderson
Beaufort
Charleston
Columbia
Florence
LATITUDE
degrees
min
99
97
96
99
97
98
99
99
98
95
97
97
94
97
97
97
95
97
16.2
1.2
0
1.2
4.8
2.4
46.2
3
25.2
46.8
28.2
3.6
37.2
0.6
5.4
22.8
5.4
55.2
34
34
36
35
36
34
36
35
34
34
35
35
34
36
36
35
36
36
40.2
18
45
21
22.8
39
18
0
34.2
52.8
13.8
24
40.8
43.8
9.6
25.2
12
19.8
123
122
117
124
118
124
121
123
123
122
121
118
120
118
122
124
124
117
118
122
121
123
123
123
121
122
52.8
45
49.2
28.2
57
57
52.8
16.8
13.2
57
43.8
0
21
2.4
52.2
3
15
1.2
51
3.6
9
22.2
0
22.2
9
2.4
46
45
44
42
43
43
45
44
44
45
42
45
42
45
42
44
43
44
45
45
44
43
44
42
45
45
9
15
49.8
4.8
36
22.8
40.8
30
7.2
31.8
9
16.8
10.8
30
22.2
37.8
25.2
1.2
40.8
36
16.2
13.8
55.2
37.2
37.2
33
75
78
80
79
78
78
80
79
76
78
76
79
76
76
75
75
78
79
75
77
77
75
76
75
25.8
19.2
19.8
5.4
37.8
5.4
10.8
52.2
51
49.8
1.8
2.4
46.2
34.2
1.2
15
7.8
55.8
58.2
25.8
49.8
43.8
55.2
9
40
40
40
40
41
41
42
41
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
39
41
40
40
39
40
41
41
40
39
18
45
16.2
48
10.8
4.8
22.8
13.2
19.2
7.8
16.8
12
25.8
4.8
52.8
28.2
21
22.8
43.8
51
19.8
15
12
71
71
71
34.8
25.2
25.8
41
41
41
10.2
36
43.8
82
80
80
81
79
43.2
43.2
1.8
7.2
43.2
34
32
32
33
34
30
28.8
54
57
10.8
Greenville
Mcentire
Myrtle Beach
Shaw AFB
Spartanburg
SOUTH
DAKOTA
Aberdeen
Brookings
Chamberlain
Custer
Ellsworth
Huron
Lemmon
Mitchell
Mobridge
Philip
Pierre
Rapid City
Redig
Sioux Falls
Watertown
Yankton
TENNESSEE
Bristol
Chattanooga
Clarksville
Crossville
Dyersburg
Jackson
Knoxville
Memphis Intl
Monteagle
Nashville
Smyrna
TEXAS
Abilene
Alice
Amarillo
Austin
Bergstrom Af
Big Sky
Big Spring
Brownsville
Brownwood
Carswell AFB
Chase NAS
Childress
College Stn
Corpus Chrst
Cotulla
Dalhart
Dallas/FW
Del Rio
Dyess AFB
El Paso
Ellington Af
Fort Worth
Ft Hood Aaf
Galveston
Gray AFB
Greenville
Guadalupe
Harlingen
Hondo
Houston
Junction
Kelly AFB
Kerrville
Killeen
Kingsville
Laredo Intl
Laughlin AFB
Longview
Lubbock
Lufkin
Marfa
Mcallen
Midland
Mineral Wlls
Palacios
Paris/Cox
Plainview
Port Arthur
Reese AFB
Rockport
LONGITUDE
degrees
82
80
78
80
81
min
21
4.8
55.8
28.2
57.6
98
96
99
103
103
98
102
98
100
101
100
103
103
96
97
97
25.8
4.8
19.2
3.6
0.6
13.2
10.2
1.8
25.8
3.6
16.8
4.2
19.2
43.8
9
22.8
45
44
43
43
44
44
45
43
45
44
44
44
45
43
44
42
27
18
48
46.2
9
22.8
55.8
46.2
31.8
3
22.8
3
9.6
34.8
55.2
55.2
82
85
87
85
89
88
83
90
85
86
86
2.4
1.2
25.2
4.8
2.4
55.2
58.8
0
30.6
40.8
3
36
35
36
35
36
35
35
35
35
36
36
28.8
1.8
37.2
57
1.2
36
49.2
3
9
7.2
0
99
98
101
97
97
101
101
97
98
97
97
100
96
97
99
102
97
100
99
106
95
97
97
94
97
96
104
97
99
95
99
98
99
97
97
99
100
94
101
94
104
98
102
98
96
95
101
94
102
97
40.8
1.8
4.2
4.2
40.8
28.8
27
25.8
57.6
25.8
40.2
16.8
22.2
3
13.2
33
1.8
55.2
51
2.4
10.2
21
43.2
52.2
49.8
4.2
4.8
40.2
10.2
21
46.2
34.8
4.8
40.8
49.2
28.2
46.8
43.2
49.2
45
1.2
13.8
10.8
4.2
15
27
42.6
1.2
3
1.8
32
27
35
30
30
32
32
25
31
32
28
34
30
27
28
36
32
29
32
31
29
32
31
29
31
33
31
26
29
29
30
29
29
31
27
27
29
32
33
31
30
26
31
32
28
33
34
30
33
28
25.2
43.8
13.8
18
12
23.4
18
54
47.4
46.8
22.2
25.8
34.8
46.2
27
1.2
54
22.2
25.8
48
37.2
49.2
9
16.2
4.2
4.2
49.8
13.8
21
58.2
30
22.8
58.8
4.8
30
31.8
22.2
22.8
39
13.8
22.2
10.8
57
46.8
43.2
37.8
10.2
34.8
36
4.8
48
LATITUDE
degrees
34
33
33
33
34
min
51
55.2
40.8
58.2
55.2
San Angelo
San Antonio
Sanderson
South Brazos
Stephenville
Temple
Tyler/Pounds
Victoria
Wichita Flls
Wink
UTAH
Blanding
Bullfrog Mar
Cedar City
Delta
Eagle Range
Green River
Hanksville
Hill AFB
Logan
Milford
Moab
Ogden
Price/Carbon
Prov
Roosevelt
Saint George
Salt Lake Ct
Tooele
Vernal
Wendover
VERMONT
Burlington
Montpelier
Newport
Rutland
St Johnsbury
Wilmington
VIRGINIA
Charlottes
Chesapeake
Danville
Fort Belvoir
Fort Eustis
Hot Springs
Langley AFB
Lynchburg
Newport
News
Norfolk NAS
Norfolk Rgnl
Oceana NAS
Quantico Mca
Richmond
Roanoke
Muni
Staunton
Volens
Wallops Sta
WASHINGTON
Bellingha
Bremerton
Burlington
Colville
Ephrata
Everet/Paine
Fairchild
Fort Lewis
Hanford
Hoquia
Mcchord AFB
Moses Lake
Oak Harbor
Olympia
Omak
Pasco
Port Angeles
Pullman
Quillayute
Renton
Seattle
Shelton
Spokane
Tacoma
Toledo
LONGITUDE
degrees
100
98
102
95
98
97
95
96
98
103
min
3
28.2
25.2
52.2
10.8
25.2
2.4
55.2
3
1.2
LATITUDE
degrees
31
29
30
28
32
31
32
28
33
31
109
110
113
112
113
110
110
111
111
113
109
112
110
111
110
113
111
112
109
114
46.8
4.2
0.6
34.8
4.2
9
43.2
58.2
51
1.8
45
1.2
45
43.2
37.8
3.6
58.2
1.2
31.2
3
38
37
37
39
41
39
38
41
41
38
38
41
39
40
40
37
40
40
40
41
1.8
30
42
19.8
3
0
22.2
7.2
46.8
43.2
46.2
10.8
37.2
13.2
30
4.8
46.8
10.2
27
13.2
73
72
72
73
72
72
9
34.2
19.8
57
1.2
52.8
44
44
45
43
44
42
28.2
12
33
31.8
25.2
52.8
78
76
79
77
76
79
76
79
76
27
1.2
19.8
10.8
37.2
49.2
22.2
1.2
3
38
37
36
38
37
37
37
37
37
7.8
30
34.2
43.2
7.8
57
4.8
19.8
7.8
76
76
76
77
77
79
16.8
1.2
1.8
1.8
19.8
58.2
36
36
36
38
37
37
55.8
54
49.2
30
30
19.2
78
78
75
51
58.8
28.8
38
36
37
16.2
57
51
122
122
122
118
119
122
117
122
119
123
122
119
122
122
119
119
123
117
124
122
122
123
117
122
122
31.8
46.2
19.8
28.2
31.2
16.8
39
34.8
3.6
58.2
28.8
19.2
40.8
5.4
31.8
7.2
3
7.2
33
13.2
1.8
9
31.8
34.8
4.8
48
47
48
48
47
47
47
47
46
46
47
47
48
46
48
46
48
46
47
47
47
47
47
47
46
48
28.8
30
52.8
19.2
55.2
37.2
4.8
34.2
58.2
9
12
15
58.2
25.2
16.2
7.2
45
57
30
27
15
37.8
16.2
28.8
min
22.2
31.8
10.2
1.8
13.2
9
22.2
51
58.8
46.8
Walla Walla
Wenatchee
Whidbey Is
Yakima
WEST
VIRGINIA
Beckley
Bluefield
Charleston
Clarksburg
Elkins
Huntington
Lewisburg
Martinsburg
Morgantown
Parkersburg
Wheeling
LONGITUDE
LATITUDE
degrees
min degrees
118
16.8
46
120
1.2
47
122
39
48
120
31.8
46
81
81
81
80
79
82
80
77
79
81
80
7.2
13.2
3.6
13.8
51
33
2.4
58.8
55.2
25.8
39
37
37
38
39
38
38
37
39
39
39
40
min
6
24
21
34.2
Wh Sulphur
WISCONSIN
Appleton
Eau Claire
Green Bay
Janesville
La Crosse
Lone Rock
Madison
Manitowac
Milwaukee
Mosinee
Neenah
Oshkosh
Rhinelander
Rice Lake
Volk Fld
Wausau
46.8
18
22.2
16.8
52.8
22.2
52.2
24
39
21
10.8
LONGITUDE
LATITUDE
degrees
min degrees
80
1.2
37
88
91
88
89
91
90
89
87
87
89
88
88
89
91
90
89
31.2
28.8
7.8
1.8
15
10.8
19.8
40.2
5.4
40.2
31.8
34.2
27
43.2
16.2
37.2
44
44
44
42
43
43
43
44
42
44
44
44
45
45
43
44
min
27.6
15
52.2
28.8
37.2
52.2
12
7.8
7.8
57
46.8
13.2
0
37.8
28.8
55.8
55.2
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
WYOMING
Big Piney
Casper
Cheyenne
Cody
Douglas
Evanston
Gillette
Jackson
Lander
Laramie
Moorcroft
Rawlins
Riverton
Rock Springs
Sheridan
Worland
Yellowstone
110
106
104
109
105
111
105
110
108
105
104
107
108
109
106
107
110
LATITUDE
degrees
0.6
28.2
49.2
1.2
22.8
0
31.8
43.8
43.8
40.8
48.6
1.2
27
4.2
58.2
58.2
25.2
CANADA
CITY
Calgary
Churchill
Coppermine
Edmonton
Frederickton
Ft Mcpherson
Goose Bay
Halifa
Hazelton
Kenora
Labrador City
Montreal
Mt. Logan
Nakina
Ottawa
Peace River
Pr. Edward Isl
Quebec
Regina
Saskatoon
St. Johns
Toronto
Vancouver
Victoria
Whitehorse
Winnipeg
PROVINCE
Alberta
Newfoundland
Northwest Terr.
Alberta
New Brunswick
Northwest Terr
Newfoundland
Nova Scotia
BC
Ontario
Labrador
Quebec
Yukon
Yukon
Ontario
Alberta
Nova Scotia
Quebec
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Newfoundland
Ontario
BC
BC
Yukon
Manitoba
LONGITUDE
114
7
94
0
115
21
113
25
66
40
134
50
60
20
63
34
127
38
94
29
66
52
73
39
140
24
132
48
75
45
117
18
63
9
71
15
104
38
101
32
52
43
79
23
123
7
123
20
135
3
97
9
LATITUDE
51
14
58
45
67
49
53
34
45
57
67
29
53
15
44
39
55
15
49
47
52
56
45
32
60
34
59
12
45
18
56
15
46
14
46
50
50
30
52
10
47
34
43
39
49
16
48
26
60
43
49
53
CITY
Glasgow
Guatemala City
Guayaquil
Hamburg
Hammerfest
Havana
Helsinki
Hobart
Iquique
Irkutsk
Jakarta
Johannesburg
Kingston
La Paz
Leeds
Lima
Liverpool
London
Lyons
Madrid
Manchester
Manila
Marseilles
Mazatlán
Mecca
Melbourne
Mexico City
Milan
Montevideo
Moscow
Munich
Nagasaki
Nagoya
Nairobi
Nanjing
Naples
Newcastle
Odessa
Osaka
Oslo
Panama City
Paramaribo
Paris
Beijing
Perth
Plymouth
Rio de Janeiro
Rome
Salvador
Santiago
St. Petersburg
Sao Paulo
Shanghai
Sofia
Stockholm
Sydney
Tananarive
Teheran
Tokyo
Tripoli
Venice
Veracruz
Vienna
Warsaw
Wellington
Zürich
INTERNATIONAL
Aberdeen
Adelaide
Amsterdam
Ankara
Asunción
Athens
Auckland
Bangkok
Barcelona
Belém
Belfast
Belgrade
Berlin
Birmingha
Bombay
Bordeau
Bremen
Brisbane
Bristol
Brussels
Bucharest
Budapest
Buenos Aires
Cairo
Canton
Cape Town
Caracas
Chihuahua
Chongqing
Copenhagen
Córdoba
Darwin
Dublin
Durban
Edinburgh
Frankfurt
Georgetown
Scotland
Australia
Holland
Turkey
Paraguay
Greece
New Zealand
Thailand
Spain
Brazil
Northern Ireland
Yugoslavia
Germany
England
India
France
Germany
Australia
England
Belgium
Romania
Hungary
Argentina
Egypt
China
South Africa
Venezuela
Mexico
China
Denmark
Argentina
Australia
Ireland
South Africa
Scotland
Germany
Guyana
2
138
4
32
57
23
174
100
2
48
5
20
13
1
72
0
8
153
2
4
26
19
58
31
113
18
67
106
106
12
64
130
6
30
3
8
58
9w
36 e
53 e
55 e
40 w
43 e
45 e
30 e
9e
29 w
56 w
32 e
25 e
55 w
48 e
31 w
49 e
8e
35 w
22 e
7e
5e
22 w
21 e
15 e
22 e
2w
5w
34 e
34 e
10 w
51 e
15 w
53 e
10 w
41 e
15 w
57
34
52
39
25
37
36
13
41
1
54
44
52
52
19
44
53
27
51
50
44
47
34
30
23
33
10
28
29
55
31
12
53
29
55
50
6
9n
55 s
22 n
55 n
15 s
58 n
52 s
45 n
23 n
28 s
37 n
52 n
30 n
25 n
0n
50 n
5n
29 s
28 n
52 n
25 n
30 n
35 s
2n
7n
55 s
28 n
37 n
46 n
40 n
28 s
28 s
20 n
53 s
55 n
7n
45 n
49
COUNTRY
Scotland
Guatemala
Ecuador
Germany
Norway
Cuba
Finland
Tasmania
Chile
Russia
Indonesia
South Africa
Jamaica
Bolivia
England
Peru
England
England
France
Spain
England
Phillipines
France
Mexico
Saudi Arabia
Australia
Mexico
Italy
Uruguay
Russia
Germany
Japan
Japan
Kenya
China
Italy
England
Ukraine
Japan
Norway
Panama
Surinam
France
China
Australia
England
Brazil
Italy
Brazil
Chile
Russia
Brazil
China
Bulgaria
Sweden
Australia
Madagascar
Iran
Japan
Libya
Italy
Mexico
Austria
Poland
New Zealand
Switzerland
LONGITUDE
4
15 w
90
31 w
79
56 w
10
2e
23
38 e
82
23 w
25
0e
147
19 e
70
7w
104
20 e
106
48 e
28
4e
76
49 w
68
22 w
1
30 w
77
2w
3
0w
0
5w
4
50 e
3
42 w
2
15 w
120
57 e
5
20 e
106
25 w
39
45 e
144
58 e
99
7w
9
10 e
56
10 w
37
36 e
11
35 e
129
57 e
136
56 e
36
55 e
118
53 e
14
15 e
1
37 w
30
48 e
135
30 e
10
42 e
79
32 w
55
15 w
2
20 e
116
25 e
115
52 e
4
5w
43
12 w
12
27 e
38
27 w
70
45 w
30
18 e
46
31 w
121
28 e
23
20 e
18
3e
151
0e
47
33 e
51
45 e
139
45 e
13
12 e
12
20 e
96
10 w
16
20 e
21
0e
174
47 e
8
31 e
LATITUDE
55
50 n
14
37 n
2
10 s
53
33 n
70
38 n
23
8n
60
10 n
42
52 s
20
10 s
52
30 n
6
16 s
26
12 s
17
59 n
16
27 s
53
45 n
12
0s
53
25 n
51
32 n
45
45 n
40
26 n
53
30 n
14
35 n
43
20 n
23
12 n
21
29 n
37
47 s
19
26 n
45
27 n
34
53 s
55
45 n
48
8n
32
48 n
35
7n
1
25 s
32
3n
40
50 n
54
58 n
46
27 n
34
32 n
59
57 n
8
58 n
5
45 n
48
48 n
39
55 n
31
57 s
50
25 n
22
57 s
41
54 n
12
56 s
33
28 s
59
56 n
23
31 s
31
10 n
42
40 n
59
17 n
34
0s
18
50 s
35
45 n
35
40 n
32
57 n
45
26 n
19
10 n
48
14 n
52
14 n
41
17 s
47
21 n
42
42
41
44
42
41
44
43
42
41
44
41
43
41
44
43
44
min
34.2
55.2
9
31.2
45
19.8
21
36
49.2
19.2
21
48
3
36
46.2
58.2
33
Appendix D - RS-232 Connection
To make a RS-232 connection with the NexStar , the hand control must be in RS-232 mode – which can be accessed
through the Menu button. Once in the RS-232 mode, the hand control still has the following abilities
•
•
•
Direction buttons – Allowing you to move the telescope in both directions
Rate changes – Allows you to change the telescope's rate of speed when using the direction buttons.
Und – Use to escape from RS-232 mode.
Protocol:
NexStar5 communicates at 9600 bits/sec, No parity and stop bit.. All angles are communicated with 16 bit numbers
.
Before all commands, the following INITIALIZATION is necessary
•
PC sends one byte (63=Ascii “?”) to check that NexStar is ready.
•
NexStar responds with one byte (35) when NexStar is ready to respond. After NexStar sends a 35, the
buttons to the hand control do not respond until the command from the PC has been received, then the
direction, rate, and undo buttons are active.
Goto RA-Dec positions
•
INITIALIZATION
•
PC sends (82=Ascii “R”)
•
PC sends the RA high byte, RA low byte, Dec high byte, Dec low byte.
•
When the scope is finished slewing, it will send back a “@”.
Goto Alt-Az positions
•
INITIALIZATION
•
PC sends (65=Ascii “A”)
•
PC sends the Azm high byte, Azm low byte, Alt high byte, Alt low byte.
•
When the scope is finished slewing, it will send back a “@”.
Get RA-Dec positions:
•
INITIALIZATION
•
PC sends (69=Ascii “E”)
•
NexStar sends the RA high byte, RA low byte, Dec high byte, Dec low byte.
Get Alt-Az positions:
•
INITIALIZATION
•
PC sends (90=Ascii “Z”)
•
NexStar sends the Azm high byte, Azm low byte, Alt high byte, Alt low byte.
4-4 Modular
Phone Jac
DB9 Pin 2
PC Receive
DB9 Pin 3
PC Transmit
DB9 Pin 5
Ground
50
Appendix E – Maps of Time Zones
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
CELESTRON ONE YEAR WARRANTY
A.
Celestron International (CI) warrants this telescope to be free from defects in materials and workmanship for one year. CI will
repair or replace such product or part thereof which, upon inspection by CI, is found to be defective in materials or
workmanship. As a condition to the obligation of CI to repair or replace such product, the product must be returned to CI
together with proof-of-purchase satisfactory to CI.
B.
The Proper Return Authorization Number must be obtain ed from CI in advance of return. Call Celestron at (310) 328-9560 to
receive the number to be displayed on the outside of your shipping container.
All returns must be accompanied by a written statement setting forth the name, address, and daytime telephone number of the
owner, together with a brief description of any claimed defects. Parts or product for which replacement is made shall become
the property of CI.
The customer shall be responsible for all costs of transportation and insurance, both to and from the factory of CI, and
shall be required to prepay such costs.
CI shall use reasonable efforts to repair or replace any telescope covered by this warranty within thirty days of receipt. In the
event repair or replacement shall require more than thirty days, CI shall notify the customer accordingly. CI reserves the right to
replace any product which has been discontinued from its product line with a new product of comparable value and function.
This warranty shall be void and of no force of effect in the event a covered product has been modified in design or
function, or subjected to abuse, misuse, mishandling or unauthorized repair. Further, product malfunction or
deterioration due to normal wear is not covered by this warranty.
CI DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WHETHER OF MERCHANTABILITY OF FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR USE, EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH HEREIN.
THE SOLE OBLIGATION OF CI UNDER THIS LIMITED WARRANTY SHALL BE TO REPAIR OR REPLACE THE
COVERED PRODUCT, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TERMS SET FORTH HEREIN. CI EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS
ANY LOST PROFITS, GENERAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHICH MAY RESULT
FROM BREACH OF ANY WARRANTY, OR ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE ANY CI PRODUCT.
ANY WARRANTIES WHICH ARE IMPLIED AND WHICH CANNOT BE DISCLAIMED SHALL BE LIMITED IN
DURATION TO A TERM OF ONE YEAR FROM THE DATE OF ORIGINAL RETAIL PURCHASE.
Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages or limitation on how long an implied
warranty lasts, so the above limitations and exclusions may not apply to you.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.
CI reserves the right to modify or discontinue, without prior notice to you, any model or style telescope.
If warranty problems arise, or if you need assistance in using your telescope contact:
Celestron International
Customer Service Department
2835 Columbia Street
Torrance, CA 90503
Tel. (310) 328-9560
Fax. (310) 212-5835
Monday-Friday 8AM-4PM PST
This warranty supersedes all other product warranties.
NOTE:
This warranty is valid to U.S.A. and Canadian customers who have purchased this product from an Authorized
CI Dealer in the U.S.A. or Canada. Warranty outside the U.S.A. and Canada is valid only to customers who
purchased from a CI International Distributor or Authorized CI Dealer in the specific country and please contact
them for any warranty service.
Celestron International
2835 Columbia Street
Torrance, CA 90503
Tel. (310) 328-9560
Fax. (310) 212-5835
Web site at http//www.celestron.com
Copyright 1999 Celestron International
All rights reserved.
(Products or instructions may change
without notice or obligation.)
Item # 11031-INST
0899
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