TUT5436
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Keywords: ISM, radio, modulation, antenna, RF, industrial, medical, radio frequency, Tx, Rx, power supply
TUTORIAL 5436
Getting Started with a Radio Design
By: Martin Stoehr, Principal Member of the Technical Staff, Applications
Jan 31, 2013
Abstract: The process of designing a radio system can be complex and often involves many project tradeoffs. With
a little insight, balancing these various characteristics can make the job of designing a radio system easier. This
tutorial explores these tradeoffs and provides details to consider for various radio applications. With a focus on the
industrial, scientific, medical (ISM) bands, the subjects of frequency selection, one-way versus two-way systems,
modulation techniques, cost, antenna options, power-supply influences, effects on range, and protocol selection
are explored.
A similar version of this article appeared on Electronic Design, December 21,
2012.
Selecting the Right Frequency
Why would a designer want to operate in the 868MHz/915MHz band rather
than the 433.92MHz part of the spectrum? In other words, how do you
choose which frequency to use? The answer is affected by two primary
considerations: either the application has a traditional and/or predefined band
in which it operates, or the designer must balance the tradeoffs of each
parameter in the design to make the best band selection (Figure 1).
Click here for an overview of the wireless
components used in a typical radio
transceiver.
Figure 1. Common radio design trade-offs.
Page 1 of 12
Commonly the most important parameter of a new design is meeting a targeted range for the system. The answer
to "which band is a better choice" would be simplified if the application had an unrestricted antenna size and
placement, if the distance between radios were clear from obstructions, and if the unit were wired to line voltage
supplies. If however, the application is a consumer product that must have an unexposed antenna, if its signal
must penetrate walls in a home, and its system needs to run for several years off of a coin cell battery, these
tradeoffs become more important.
In general, the lower-frequency bands provide better range capabilities and are less dependent on line-of-sight
(LOS) communication, but in practice the other impacts tend to dominate the ultimate range obtained by the
system. Parameters such as the antenna size and radiation pattern, true operating environment (fewer obstructions
versus worst-case planning), and the noise impact from the application surroundings tend to have the greatest
influence on the actual range of the system.
What about output power in these bands? How does that limit aspects like range or harmonics? The transmitter
power can help compensate for other deficiencies in the system. However, this must be balanced by the
restrictions imposed by regulating authorities. It is very common to push the limits of the transmitter to make up for
losses and inefficiencies in the antenna and matching system.
To further explore path loss in RKE systems, refer to application note 3945, "Path Loss in Remote Keyless Entry
Systems." To help estimate and plan the range of a system (link budget), refer to application note 5142, "Radio
Link-Budget Calculations for ISM-RF Products," and its related Link Budget Spreadsheet.
One-Way and Two-Way Systems
There still exists a broad range of applications that only require a one-way communication system. For example,
actions like unlocking a car door or opening the window blinds in a house do not require any form of wireless
feedback. Because of this, there will always be a need for simple, cost-effective, one-way wireless communication.
Although a single-direction form of communication will likely always find a market, the need for monitoring,
feedback, status display, and other user interactions is increasing. Thus the one-way system may trend to a full
transceiver arrangement. For example, in a remote keyless entry system, the user may want to make sure their
vehicle is locked; or in the case of adjusting the window blinds in a house, the user may want to know what the
air temperature is at the window. These are both examples of a simple one-way technology which could migrate to
a two-way application.
Modulation
There are many styles of modulation from which to select in the ISM bands. Designers tend to gravitate toward
ASK in the low bands (< 470MHz portion of the IEEE® UHF band) due to its ease of use and because the
hardware tends to be less expensive. Alternatively, FSK got a start in the low band with tire-pressure-monitoring
system (TPMS) applications; it was found to be less prone to the detrimental effects of the application environment
(a rotating tire in a wheel well tends to cause amplitude modulation (AM)). Any form of AM uses a linear
demodulation method, so a good deal of noise gets through the system, while an FM system has better signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) with wider modulation (200kHz on a standard FM channel). However, FM loses carrier lock
quickly beyond a certain sensitivity threshold (waterfall).
FSK is used more prominently in the high band (> 470MHz portion of the IEEE UHF band) because of the need to
meet tighter regulatory specifications. Running a frequency-base form of modulation allows the transmitter to
operate as a CW signal, which cuts back on the kicking effects suffered from turning a PA on and off (ASK or
OOK). Upper frequency bands (> 1GHz, commonly L-, S-, and C-Bands as defined by IEEE) tend to use more
sophisticated methods of modulation, mostly due to the overcrowding at those frequencies. This in turn
necessitates better co-channel interference rejection.
Page 2 of 12
Cost
Another driving force in ISM radio system design is the need for inexpensive yet reliable operation. Most of
Maxim's portfolio of ISM radios available provides small integrated devices with few peripheral components and
relatively small footprints. Available transmitters tend to be very simple—low pin-count circuits that require only
rudimentary interfacing for the data to be transmitted, plus some minor impedance matching components and
common decoupling capacitors. Likewise, the receivers tend to keep the bill of material (BOM) component counts
low, while still allowing enough flexibility for the system designer to make adjustments to meet the needs of a
particular application. Printed circuit board (PCB) costs are reduced with small footprint ICs, small BOMs, and no
special requirements for more than two-layer stack-ups. Beyond the board and peripheral component cost, the
only other external components needed are an antenna and a battery (for non-line-voltage systems).
Antenna
An antenna's physical properties, such as type, size, shape, and orientation, can have a great impact on the
design and effectiveness of a system. Since form factor can be a major constraint in any ISM application, these
properties may dictate what frequency band is chosen and ultimately, which radio is used.
Antennas take many forms, from simple 1/4λ monopoles and 1/2λ dipoles, to loop, F, and others. They can also be
categorized as E-field or M-field, depending on which form of current model they utilize. Antenna design can be an
art form unto itself. The first step in selecting an antenna is to determine the largest dimensional length permitted
within constraints of the application and whether to use a "trace" or a physically attached antenna. Table 1
provides relevant antenna geometries based on the band of interest:
Table 1. Antenna Geometries
f
(MHz)
λ (m)
λ/4
(cm)
λ/4 on FR4
(cm)
Aperture Size
(cm²)
Reactive Near
Field (cm)
Far Field
(m)
260
1.153
28.83
16.72
1058
18.35
2.31
300
0.9993
24.98
14.49
795
15.90
2.00
315
0.9517
23.79
13.80
721
15.15
1.90
330
0.9085
22.71
13.17
657
14.46
1.82
434
0.6907
17.27
10.02
380
10.99
1.38
435
0.6892
17.23
9.99
378
10.97
1.38
470
0.6379
15.95
9.25
324
10.15
1.28
[868]
0.3454
8.63
5.01
95
5.50
0.691
902
0.3324
8.31
4.82
88
5.29
0.665
915
0.3276
8.19
4.75
85
5.21
0.655
928
0.3231
8.08
4.68
83
5.14
0.646
Trace antennas on FR4 "shrink" by 0.58 due to the board dielectric, reactive near field is calculated as λ/2π, far
field is 2λ, and aperture is for a lossless isotropic antenna λ²/4π.
Based on Table 1, it should be apparent that smaller antennas can be used efficiently in the higher frequency
bands. However, there is an upper limit to this process: as the physical size of the antenna shrinks, so too does
the aperture. A smaller aperture results in less energy being transferred from the antenna to the environment and
vice versa.
Page 3 of 12
Some basic tips to keep in mind when selecting an antenna design:
The dielectric material of a board will shorten the effective length of a trace antenna.
Loop antennas generate a magnetic field while other "aerial" antennas generate an electric field.
Magnetic antennas (loops) are less susceptible to the near-field environment (such as a user's hand on a
remote control).
The antenna's ground plane (counterpoise) distance and orientation can greatly impact the radiation pattern.
For a deeper discussion of ISM antennas, refer to application note 3401, "Matching Maxim's 300MHz to 450MHz
Transmitters to Small Loop Antennas," application note 3621, "Small Loop Antennas: Part 1 - Simulations and
Applied Theory," and application note 4302, "Small Antennas for 300MHz to 450MHz Transmitters."
Power Supply
The methods and sources of powering the radio system can be as numerous as the applications in which they are
designed. Common supplies include AC line voltage, car batteries (12V) and 5V automotive buses, lithium batteries
(3V), multicell alkaline batteries (1.5V), rechargeable cells (1.2V), energy-harvested sources, and more. In most
cases, the transmitter is run from one source and the receiver from another (such as lithium cell in the TX, and 5V
automotive bus for the RX). With these configurations, the most common power-supply tradeoff is battery life in a
transmitter (or transceiver) versus the output power of the PA. When focusing on batteries, it is recommended to
use both highly efficient transmitter and receiver circuits, along with a well-disciplined protocol. Battery life must be
considered in all aspects of the system, such as startup time of the radio circuit, microcontroller usage, on/off duty
cycle, PA efficiency, usable voltage levels, receiver "listen" power, and the sleep current of all circuits.
Maxim's ISM radios are some of the most efficient, lowest current drain parts on the market. Table 2 provides a
summary of the ISM transmitters' current drain:
Table 2. ISM Transmitter Current Drain
Part
Mod
315MHz TX
Current (mA)
434MHz TX
Current (mA)
915MHz TX
Current (mA)
Sleep
Current (µA)
MAX1472
ASK
9.1
9.6
—
0.005
ASK
6.7*
7.3*
—
FSK
10.5*
11.4*
—
MAX7032
< 12.5*
< 6.7
—
< 0.8
MAX7044
ASK
7.7†
8.0†
—
0.04
ASK
16*
16*
16*, 27‡
FSK
21*
21*
21*, 41‡
ASK
8.1*
8.5*
—
FSK
12.2*
12.4*
—
ASK
8.0*
8.3* (390MHz)
—
ASK
12.5*
14.2*
—
FSK
19*
25*
—
MAX1479
0.0002
MAX7049
< 0.35
MAX7057
MAX7058
< 1.0
MAX7060
< 1.0
< 0.05
3.0V supply levels, 50% duty cycle for ASK, * at +10dBm, † at +13dBm, ‡ at +15dBm.
Page 4 of 12
Inherently the FSK transmitters will drain more current because the signal is "always on" during a transmission
(because the data is encoded in the frequency of the signal). In contrast, an ASK transmitter turns the PA on and
off, so during the "off" cycle the system is not using as much current. The importance of current drain becomes
more apparent when compared to the batteries that will provide the current. Each manufacturer provides
information on their battery dimensions, capacities, and usage models. Common battery information is shown in
Table 3.
Table 3. Common Battery Specifications
Battery
Technology
Nom Voltage
(V)
Capacity
(mAh)
Ø/Thick (mm)
Weight
(g)
A27
Alkaline
12*
22
8.0/28
4.4
394
Silver Oxide
1.55
63
9.4/3.5
1.1
A312
Zinc - Air
1.4
160
7.9/0.5
3.6
CR2032
Lithium
3.0
225
20/3.2
2.9
CR2450
Lithium
3.0
620
24.5/5.0
6.8
CR3032
Lithium
3.0
500
30/3.2
6.8
CR2
Lithium
3.0
850
15.6/27.0
11
AAA
Alkaline
1.5
1000
10/44
11
AAA
NiCd
1.2
250+
10/44
9.5
AAA
NiMH
1.2
550+
10.5/44
13
9V
Alkaline
9†
550
25.5 x 16.5 x
46
46
AA
Alkaline
1.5
2500
14/50
23
AA
NiCd
1.2
600+
14/50
22.7
AA
NiMH
1.2
1500+
14.5/50
26
CGR18650
Li-Ion
3.6
2250
18.6/65
45
C
Alkaline
1.5
7+ Ah
25/49
70
D
Alkaline
1.5
16+ Ah
34/60
141
Automotive
Lead - Acid
12‡
40+ Ah
Various
Various
*button stack (12-cell), †6-cell, ‡6-cell
In addition to measuring the current draw of the circuitry, another impact on battery life is the self-discharge rate.
For the types of batteries used in ISM applications, this rate is strongly linked to the technology used (Table 4).
Page 5 of 12
Table 4. Battery Self-Discharge Rate
Technology
Anode
Cathode
Electrolyte
Self-Discharge
(%/month)
Lithium
Li
MnO 2
LiClO 4
< 0.08
Alkaline
Zn
MnO 2
KOH
< 0.17
Silver Oxide
Zn
Ag2 O
NaOH/KOH
< 0.17
Li-ion
LiCoO2
LiC 6
Li Salt (var)
2–3
Lead - Acid
PbO 2
PbO 2
H 2 SO4
~6
Zinc - Air
Zn
O2
Zn
~ 8 (exposed)
NiCd
NiOOH
Cd
KOH
15–20
NiMH
NiOOH
(var)
KOH
~ 30
Lithium (Li+) batteries are the most popular for small consumer devices, due to their compact size and long life
(low self-discharge). Other influences on battery selection are the peak discharge rate and the storage and usage
temperature. Even though these batteries can provide stable voltages for a majority of their lifetime, each
technology suffers from a form of voltage fade caused by a gradual increase of the series resistance within the cell
(internal resistance (IR)). This fade is often used to specify the minimum operating voltage of a radio. However,
when lithium batteries reach 90% of their nominal voltage, the remaining useful current begins to reach its limit as
well.
For example, when a CR2032 battery has been used for 200mAh, the internal resistance typically doubles from
the nominal value of about 15Ω to about 30Ω, while the voltage drops from 3.0V to 2.8V. There is commonly a
knee around 225mAh where the IR of the battery reaches approximately 50Ω and the supply level drops to about
2.3V. By the time the capacity is drained off to 240mAh, the internal resistance can be over 120Ω, and the voltage
has usually dropped below 1.8V. Thus the voltage drop is a less critical aspect of the battery life than the complete
loss of current capacity.
Range
The predicted range of system is highly dependent on many factors, particularly operating frequency, transmitter
output power, antenna efficiencies, and the receiver sensitivity. Obstacles, motion, and even atmospheric
conditions can greatly influence the operating distance, but these are variables outside the control of a system
designer. Thus, planning for worst-case environments usually limits the design options to TX power, antenna
selection, and RX sensitivity.
Transmitter output power can have the biggest impact on the range of the system. Often, higher-than-permitted
power is used from the PA to make up for poor antenna efficiencies, due to smaller than 1/4-wave geometries,
especially in the low bands where antenna efficiencies can be less than 10% (key fob sizes). It is particularly
important to stay within any regulatory requirements of the targeted region of operation. More power may be
permitted if the duty cycle of the transmitter is varied according to the governing bodies.
When selecting a PA based on output power, remember:
A higher output power requires higher supply current.
The higher frequency bands require higher operating current (commonly due to PLL current).
Higher output power may impact regulatory limits such as maximum radiated power, occupied bandwidth, and
Page 6 of 12
harmonic power.
Table 5 summarizes Maxim's ISM transmitters' capabilities.
Table 5. ISM Transmitter Capabilities
Part
Bands (MHz)
Typical TX Power
(dBm)
MAX1472
300 to 450
10
MAX1479
300 to 450
10
MAX7032
300 to 450
10
MAX7044
300 to 450
13
MAX7049
288 to 945
15 (adjustable)
MAX7057
300 to 450
10
MAX7058
315/390 (300
to 450)
10
MAX7060
280 to 450
10, 14*
All power specs are driving a 50Ω load and include the matching/harmonic filter loss.
*With 5V supply.
On the receiver side of the system, the sensitivity is the overwhelming governor of obtainable range. Similar to the
transmit side, a receiver that can pick out a signal with 3dB less power may be able to compensate for a bad
antenna or a poor link environment.
When selecting for a receiver's sensitivity, remember:
Generally receivers have better sensitivity for ASK modulation.
Receivers typically exhibit better sensitivity for lower frequencies.
The data rate has a noticeable impact on sensitivity with much better numbers for low speeds.
Table 6 summarizes Maxim's ISM receivers' sensitivity specifications.
Page 7 of 12
Table 6. ISM Receiver Sensitivity Specifications
Part
Mod
315MHz RX
Sensitivity
(dBm)
434MHz RX
Sensitivity
(dBm)
MAX1470
ASK
-115
-110
ASK
-116
-115
FSK
-109
-108
ASK
-118
-116
ASK
-114
-113
FSK
-110
-107
MAX7033
ASK
-118
-116
MAX7034
ASK
-114
-113
MAX7036
ASK
-109
-107
MAX7042
FSK
-107
-106
MAX1471
MAX1473
MAX7032
All sensitivities listed as "average power." "Average carrier power" would be 3dB lower and "peak power" would be
3dB higher.
Protocols
Selecting a protocol for your application can be the final step of the system design or the starting point, depending
on the application. Protocols govern how the radios will exchange information and include parameters such as
telephony (analog audio) requirements, data/bit structure, encoding methods, handshaking exchange processes,
and network disciplines for sharing the airwaves. There are many standard protocols to choose from and just as
many proprietary forms of communication. Usually the design parameter that has the greatest impact on the
protocol selection is whether a one-way or two-way system is being used. Two-way systems tend to be more
complicated, due to a need to negotiate the airwaves and prevent collisions between different radio nodes.
Common Applications
Various applications tend to group into specific communication direction, frequencies, and modulation techniques
due to their common requirements or limitations. Table 7 summarizes typical usage models based on the
application and provides guidance for frequencies and modulation methods commonly found in each application:
Table 7. Common Applications
Application
Direct
Remote keyless
entry (RKE)
1-way
Frequency
315MHz,
434MHz
Modulation
Notes
ASK
After-market systems
and high-end luxury
automobiles are moving
toward two-way
communication to
provide feedback to the
user in addition to the
RKE function.
Page 8 of 12
Passive keyless
entry (PKE)
2-way
125kHz,
13.56MHz
ASK
—
Tire-pressure
monitoring
system (TPMS)
1-way
315MHz,
434MHz
FSK
—
Automotive
Garage-door
opener (GDO)
1-way
315MHz,
390MHz
ASK
The U.S. Military uses
390MHz in certain
locations; as such
315MHz is used to cover
those areas
Electronic toll
collection (ETC)
and automatic
vehicle
identification
(AVI)
1-way
—
—
—
Wireless OBDII
1-way
315MHz,
434MHz
ASK
Monitor maintenance
conditions, driving habits,
etc.
Water meter
1-way
470MHz,
868MHz,
915MHz
FSK
AMR is a growing field of
automation for large
utilities and the metermanufacturing industry. It
is a subset of sensor
networks (HAN, NAN,
mesh network),
collector/concentrator
structures, etc.
Gas meter
1-way
868MHz,
915MHz
FSK
—
2-way
868MHz,
915MHz
FSK
Occasionally designed as
the "collector" for a
home area network
(HAN)
Automatic
meter
reading
(AMR)
Electric meter
Home
automation
(HA)
Wireless remote
control
1-way
434MHz
ASK, FSK
IR replacement, AV
systems, set-top boxes,
multiroom controls,
wireless data streaming
(control channel)
Lighting
1-way
390MHz,
418MHz,
434MHz
ASK
Mood lighting,
coordinated with AV
Motor control
1-way
434MHz
ASK
Projector screens,
blinds/shades,
coordinated with HVAC
Security/fire
1-way
2-way
345MHz,
434MHz
ASK
—
GDO
1-way
315MHz,
390MHz
ASK
Gate opener, driveway
security
Page 9 of 12
Heat allocation
1-way
—
—
—
Energy
management
2-way
—
—
Programmable
thermostats, watt-meter
displays
Home weather
stations
1-way
—
—
Remote sensing
Product tracking
2-way
915MHz,
2.45GHz,
5.8GHz
ASK, FSK,
BPSK
—
Rail trucking
2-way
915MHz,
2.45GHz,
5.8GHz
ASK, FSK,
BPSK
—
Bluetooth LE
2-way
2.45GHz
FHSS
IEEE 802.15.1
Wi-Fi
2-way
2.45GHz,
5GHz
DSSS,
FHSS,
OFDM
IEEE 802.11
Land/aquatic/air
1-way
410MHz
PSK
ARGOS satellite system
RFID
Wireless
networking
Wildlife
tracking
Tradeoffs
Each application, market, and design will be different and thus each will have different priorities. Table 8
summarizes the various tradeoffs encountered by ISM radio system designers and provides suggestions for
operating bands and modulation.
Table 8. Operating Band Tradeoffs
Priority
Range
Cost
Battery life
Size
Band
Lower,
mid
Lower
Lower
Mid
Modulation
Reasoning
Tradeoffs
ASK
Assuming a large antenna, lower
frequencies allow for better RX sensitivity.
ASK commonly has better RX sensitivity
than FSK. Midband regulation allows for
more radiated TX power.
Cost,
battery
life, size,
simplicity,
DR, IR
ASK
Small and simple circuits. ASK is a
preferred modulation for a simple TX. ASK
RX chips tend to require the fewest
peripheral components.
Range,
battery
life, DR,
IR,
tolerance
ASK
Lower current drain at lower operating
frequencies for both the TX and RX
provide longer life from a limited source.
ASK only requires a duty cycle % versus
constant transmissions for FSK.
Range,
cost, LOS,
simplicity,
DR, IR
—
If size includes the antenna, then the
868MHz/915MHz bands are the best target
because small antennas can be used with
reasonable aperture sizes and electrical
lengths. If there is no restriction on the
Range,
LOS
Page 10 of 12
antenna, then refer to the "Cost" priority.
Line-of-sight
(LOS)/obstacles
Simplicity
Data rate (DR)
Interference
rejection (IR)
Frequency
tolerance
Lower
Lower
Higher
Mid,
Higher
Lower
FSK
Lower frequencies penetrate obstacles,
bend around objects more easily, and
suffer less absorption than higher
frequencies. FSK is less influenced by
multipath and possible amplitude changes
caused by motion (TPMS example).
Battery
life, size
ASK
ASK is an easier and more tolerant
modulation scheme to handle. Larger
wavelengths (lower frequencies) are less
influenced by board and component sizes.
Range,
battery
life, DR,
IR,
tolerance
FSK, PSK
spread
spectrum
Higher data rates will require wider
bandwidths for operation and the regulatory
requirements are easier in the higher
bands. High data rate, spread spectrum,
and the high bands all require more
operating current. Smaller aperture and
wider bandwidth negatively impacts the
range.
Range,
cost,
battery
life,
simplicity
Spread
spectrum
Spread-spectrum modulation rejects
carriers and other interference very well.
The wider bandwidths needed for operation
are available in the higher bands.
Range,
cost,
battery
life,
simplicity
—
More important at higher bands. Narrower
IF filters will provide better sensitivity and
longer range. Absolute frequency accuracy
is easier to obtain at lower bands. TCXOs
are more expensive than standard crystals.
Cost,
simplicity
Guidelines
All ISM radio products offered by Maxim include a good typical application circuit in the product data sheet. These
circuits provide a nice place to start for the design of a system. When building up a schematic for transmitters,
typically the only other components necessary are a microcontroller or simple encoder interface, an antenna
matching network, and some form of power supply. For the receivers, a number of tuned circuits will have to be
configured for the frequency of interest and data rate, in addition to the microcontroller or decoder interface and
the power-supply system. Once the schematic is ready, keep in mind that most of the design problems
encountered in RF systems can be traced back to a bad PCB layout. Reading up on the most common critical
issues to avoid in PCB layout can save some time in the testing and debug phases of system development. Refer
to tutorials 4636, "Avoid PC-Layout 'Gotchas' in ISM-RF Products" and 5100, "General Layout Guidelines for RF
and Mixed-Signal PCBs" for more information.
For Maxim's ISM transmitters be sure to consult these application notes:
Application note 1954, "Designing Output-Matching Networks for the MAX1472 ASK Transmitter"
Application note 3401, "Matching Maxim's 300MHz to 450MHz Transmitters to Small Loop Antennas"
For Maxim's ISM receivers, refer to these application notes:
Application note 1017, "How to Choose a Quartz Crystal Oscillator for the MAX1470 Superheterodyne Receiver"
Page 11 of 12
Application note 1830, "How to Tune and Antenna Match the MAX1470 Circuit"
Application note 3671, "Data Slicing Techniques for UHF ASK Receivers"
IEEE is a registered service mark of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
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Free Samples MAX7044
300MHz to 450MHz High-Efficiency, Crystal-Based +13dBm
ASK Transmitter
Free Samples MAX7049
High-Performance, 288MHz to 945MHz ASK/FSK ISM
Transmitter
Free Samples MAX7057
300MHz to 450MHz Frequency-Programmable ASK/FSK
Transmitter
Free Samples MAX7058
315MHz/390MHz Dual-Frequency ASK Transmitter
Free Samples MAX7060
280MHz to 450MHz Programmable ASK/FSK Transmitter
Free Samples More Information
For Technical Support: http://www.maximintegrated.com/support
For Samples: http://www.maximintegrated.com/samples
Other Questions and Comments: http://www.maximintegrated.com/contact
Application Note 5436: http://www.maximintegrated.com/an5436
TUTORIAL 5436, AN5436, AN 5436, APP5436, Appnote5436, Appnote 5436
© 2013 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
Additional Legal Notices: http://www.maximintegrated.com/legal
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