Ensemble Designs | BrightEye 30 | User guide | Ensemble Designs BrightEye 30 User guide

BrightEye 56
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and
Sync Pulse Generator
User Guide
Revision 1.3 SW v1.2.1
Clearly, Ensemble wants to be in the broadcast equipment business. It’s so rare anymore to find a company of this
caliber that has not been gobbled up by a large corporation. They are privately held so they don’t have to please the
money people. They really put their efforts into building products and working with customers.
I’m really happy with the BrightEye products and Ensemble’s service, and even more important my engineers are
happy. We’ve continued to upgrade the product and add more cards. We will be rebuilding our production control
room and we will use BrightEye again.
~ Don McKay, Vice President Engineering, Oregon Public Broadcasting
Who is Ensemble Designs?
By Engineers, For Engineers
In 1989, a former television station engineer who loved
designing and building video equipment, decided to
start a new company. He relished the idea of taking
an existing group of equipment and adding a few
special pieces in order to create an even more elegant
ensemble. So, he designed and built his first product and
the company was born.
BrightEye frames handle 270
Mb/s, 1.5 Gb/s and 3 Gb/s signals,
audio and MPEG signals. Used
worldwide in broadcast, mobile,
production, and post.
Focused On What You Need
As the company has grown, more former TV station
engineers have joined Ensemble Designs and this wealth
of practical experience fuels the company’s innovation.
Everyone at the company is focused on providing the
very equipment you need to complete your ensemble
of video and audio gear. We offer those special pieces
that tie everything together so that when combined, the
whole ensemble is exactly what you need.
We’re focused on
processing gear–
3G/HD/SD/ASI video,
audio and optical units.
Notably Great Service for You
We listen to you – just tell us what you need and we’ll
do our best to build it. We are completely focused on
you and the equipment you need. Being privately held
means we don’t have to worry about a big board of
directors or anything else that might take attention away
from real business. And, you can be sure that when you
call a real person will answer the phone. We love this
business and we’re here to stay.
Come on by and visit us.
Drop in for lunch and a tour!
Bricks and Mortar of Your Facility
The bricks and mortar of a facility include pieces like
up/downconverters, audio embedders, video converters,
routers, protection switches and SPGs for SD, HD and
3 Gb/s. That’s what we’re focused on, that’s all we do
– we make proven and reliable signal processing and
infrastructure gear for broadcasters worldwide, for you.
Shipped with care to
television broadcasters
and video facilities all
over the world.
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Contents
Product Overview
5
Sync Generator and Test Signal Generator
5
Outputs5
Adjustments and Controls
5
Tri Level Sync
5
Tone Generator Locked to Master Clock or External Reference
6
Configurable Tone Generator
6
Internal Timecode Generator
6
Functional Description
7
External House Reference or Internal Precision Standard Reference
7
Temperature Compensated Oscillator
7
Block Diagram
8
Time Code Generator
10
Outputting Timecode
10
Table: Timecode Output Types and Output Connectors
11
Table: SDI Output Selections and Corresponding Timecode
12
Audio Generation and Routing
13
Audio Generators
13
Sixteen Independently Programmable Audio Channels
13
Audio Embedded in the SDI Outputs
13
Support for Analog and Digital Audio
13
Applications16
Analog, HD SDI and Audio Reference Outputs
16
Genlocked Test Signals
17
Rear Connectors
18
Power Connection
18
USB Connector
18
Audio Out
18
Balanced Analog Audio Connection
19
For Unbalanced Audio to a RCA Phono Input
19
AES 1/2 Out
19
TLS Out
19
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 3
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
SDI Out
19
SD Composite Out
19
Ref In (Reference In)
20
Programmable Outputs
20
Module Configuration and Control
21
Front Panel Controls and Indicators
21
Status Indicators 21
Adjusting Parameters from the Front Panel
Using the BrightEye Control Application
22
23
Format Menu
23
Pattern Menu
24
SDI Out Menu
26
Cpst Out Menu
27
TLS Menu
28
Audio Menu
29
Timecode Menu
31
Aux Out Menu
32
Config Menu
33
Troubleshooting34
No signal output
34
Software Updating
35
Warranty and Factory Service
35
Warranty35
Factory Service
35
Specifications36
Glossary38
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 4
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Product Overview
Sync Generator and Test Signal Generator
The BrightEye 56 is a genlockable sync generator and test signal generator that can be used as either
a slave or master reference generator. It can lock to house reference or it can lock to its own internal
precision standard. BrightEye 56 is well suited for remote trucks, post, helicopters and fly packs.
Outputs
The SDI Outputs 1 and 2 provide 1.5 Gb/s HD or SD SDI test signals or black with embedded audio.
There are also outputs for Composite, Tri Level Sync and AES digital audio. There are three userprogrammable outputs that are selectable between AES, LTC, Word clock or 6 Hz Pulse. Analog audio
and AES outputs provide tone or silence.
The SDI and analog composite outputs provide simultaneously available signals including Color Black,
Bars, Crosshatch, Multi-burst, and SDI Checkfield (Pathogenic). The Cyclops feature adds a motion
element to the selected video test signal. An ID slate with user-programmable text can overlay the test
pattern.
Adjustments and Controls
Many controls can be adjusted through the intuitive front panel. Additionally, BrightEye Mac and
BrightEye PC software provides a complete user interface for all adjustments and controls. Please note
that BrightEye Mac or BrightEye PC version 2.0 or later is required.
Tri Level Sync
Tri Level Sync offers improved timing accuracy over traditional Bi-Level Sync. The analog output of a
standard sync generator is Bi-Level Sync. The timing reference is the 50% point of the leading edge.
The relative timing of this point shifts with changes in gain, DC reference, and frequency response.
The timing reference in Tri Level Sync is also at the 50% point of the sync pulse, but because this pulse
has both the positive and negative excursions, this point is the same as the DC ground reference. This
symmetry makes the signal virtually immune to time shift from gain, DC and response errors. The zero
point never drifts. The zero crossing is easy to detect every time which ensures timing accuracy.
The Tri Level Sync Generator block is configured in the BrightEye Control application to one of four HD
formats (1080i, 1080p, 720p, or 1080sF). The Tri Level Sync output frame rate can be selected between
23.98/50/59.94, the most commonly used family of frame rates, and 24/30/60, reserved for use with
special applications such as film.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 5
BrightEye 56
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
TM
The BrightEye 56 will apply the selected TLS frame rates to specific formats and line rates as shown in
the table below.
Frame Rate
Line Rate
1080i
720p
1080p
1080sF
23.98/50/59.94 Hz
NTSC
PAL
59.94
50
59.94
50
23.98
25
23.98
25
24/30/60 Hz
NTSC
60
60
24
24
PAL
50
50
25
25
Tone Generator Locked to Master Clock or External Reference
The Tone Generator is also locked to the master clock or the external reference, so the 48 kHz AES
output will be synchronous to the video outputs. In NTSC there are exactly 8008 audio samples in
every five video frames. There will be exactly 1920 audio samples in every PAL video frame.
Configurable Tone Generator
The Tone Generator can be configured for silence, a continuous tone, or an interrupted tone which is
coordinated with the Cyclops moving element. The Tone Generator feeds the Analog Audio outputs
through a precision digital-to-analog converter. It feeds an AES formatter to produce a standard AES
output. And finally, it is fed to an embedder (audio inserter) so that it will also be a part of the SDI
outputs.
Internal Timecode Generator
The internal Timecode Generator feeds DVITC on the SDI outputs and VITC on the composite outputs.
Timecode can also be selected in LTC form on the programmable Aux 1, Aux 2, and Aux 3 outputs.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 6
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Functional Description
External House Reference or Internal Precision Standard Reference
The BrightEye 56 can lock to an external house reference or it can lock to its own internal precision
standard reference.
The Ref In BNC on the rear of the unit will accept 1 V P-P PAL, NTSC, 10 MHz or Tri Level Sync as a
reference. The outputs will all be synchronous relative to this reference. The overall vertical and
horizontal timing of the outputs can be adjusted in the BrightEye PC or Mac Timing menu. Reference
status is reported on the front of the unit and in BrightEye PC or Mac. The Composite video output will
have the same ScH phase (or color framing) as the external reference.
A special case exists when simultaneously using PAL and NTSC. If the output standard for the module
is PAL and an NTSC reference is connected, BrightEye 56 will lock to the reference at the fundamental
clock frequency common to PAL and NTSC. This is referred to as “clock-locked”. There is no horizontal
and vertical relationship but BrightEye 56 will have the same frequency accuracy as the reference. The
AES audio output will be synchronous simultaneously to the BrightEye 56 PAL output and the NTSC
reference. The same case is true for an NTSC standard with a PAL reference.
Temperature Compensated Oscillator
When no external reference is connected to the unit, the fundamental clock source for BrightEye 56
is taken from a temperature compensated oscillator which guarantees frequency accuracy to within
1 cycle of subcarrier (better than 0.2 ppm) across the full operating temperature range. In addition,
because it does not require a crystal oven, BrightEye 56 is accurate immediately upon power up. This
ensures that the BrightEye 56 outputs meet the most stringent standards.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 7
BrightEye 56
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
TM
Block Diagram
Please see the functional block diagram on the following two pages. It appears twice, first in a portrait
view, then larger as a landscape view.
Black
Gen
Genlock Input will accept:
525 or 625 Composite
TLS
10 MHz 1VP-P Sine or Square
Sync
Separator
External
Reference
Input
Internal
Precision
Standard
Sync
Reference
Selection
Video/Audio
Clock
Generation
Timing
Adjustments
Composite
Output Timing
Simple
Colorbars
SDI Output Timing
Standard Internal
Test Patterns
TLS Out
Tri-Level
Sync
Generator
TLS Timing
Black
Gen
Test Signal
Generator
Slate
Gen
VITC
Insert
Composite
Encoder
Composite 1
VITC
Insert
Composite
Encoder
Composite 2
Audio
Embed
DVITC
Insert
Audio
Embed
DVITC
Insert
HD/SD
Serializer
SDI Out 1
HD/SD
Serializer
SDI Out 2
LTC
Timecode
Generator
Audio
Clock
Generator
TLS Out
Aux 1
6 Hz Pulse
Aux
Output
Select
Wordclock
Audio
Generators
Tones and
Silence
Aux 2
AES
Encoders
Aux 3
AES Encode
AES 1/2
Stereo
DAC
Analog Audio
Outputs
BrightEye 56 Functional Block Diagram, Portrait View
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 8
Internal
Precision
Standard
Sync
Separator
Genlock Input will accept:
525 or 625 Composite
TLS
10 MHz 1VP-P Sine or Square
External
Reference
Input
Sync
Reference
Selection
Video/Audio
Clock
Generation
Timing
Adjustments
TLS Timing
Composite
Output Timing
SDI Output Timing
Standard Internal
Test Patterns
Black
Gen
Simple
Colorbars
Test Signal
Generator
TLS Out
TLS Out
Composite 1
Tri-Level
Sync
Generator
Composite
Encoder
SDI Out 1
VITC
Insert
HD/SD
Serializer
SDI Out 2
Composite 2
DVITC
Insert
HD/SD
Serializer
Composite
Encoder
Audio
Embed
DVITC
Insert
VITC
Insert
Black
Gen
Audio
Embed
Aux 1
Aux 2
Aux 3
Aux
Output
Select
AES
Encoders
Analog Audio
Outputs
AES 1/2
Stereo
DAC
AES Encode
Wordclock
6 Hz Pulse
LTC
Slate
Gen
Timecode
Generator
Audio
Clock
Generator
Audio
Generators
Tones and
Silence
BrightEye 56 Functional Block Diagram, Landscape View
Page 9
BrightEye 56
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
TM
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Time Code Generator
The output of the BrightEye 56’s Timecode Generator is available simultaneously in multiple output
types through multiple output connectors as shown in the Timecode Output Types and Output
Connectors table on the next page.
The Timecode Generator will always run at the same frame rate as the main SDI outputs. If that output
is in the NTSC family (29.97 or 59.94), you can configure for the choice of Drop Frame or non-Drop
Frame operation. Drop Frame is necessary if you want the timecode value to track the actual time of
day. By dropping specific frames, it makes up for the fact that the frame rate is just shy (by 1/1.001) of
60 Hz.
You can load the Timecode Generator with a preset value through the control system. When a
BrightEye 56 powers up, the Timecode Generator starts at 0:0:0:0. Alternatively, the BrightEye 56
can read VITC present on the reference input. This timecode value will be used continuously by the
BrightEye 56’s internal generator. When this option is selected, the timecode presented on the many
different outputs will all match the timecode on the reference input.
Outputting Timecode
The BrightEye 56 has one timecode generator. The timecode that it produces can be output through a
number of methods:
1. Routing LTC (linear timecode) to one of the Programmable Output BNCs (Aux 1, Aux 2, Aux 3). This
is an analog, unbalanced, single-ended 1V P-P signal at 75 Ohm impedance.
2. Routing LTC to the Analog Audio Output connector. This will be exactly the same signal as when it
is routed to a BNC, but it will be a differential (balanced) twisted pair analog signal coming out of
the green Phoenix connector on the rear of the unit. Choose Timecode LTC on one of the 16 audio
channel selectors, then route that audio to the Analog Audio Output connector.
3. Routing LTC as an audio channel in an AES bitstream. Choose Timecode LTC on one of the audio
channel selectors, then select AES on any of the Programmable Outputs (Aux 1, Aux 2, Aux 3).
There are 9 different AES choices which correspond to channel pairs 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, etc, and the
choice of AES Silence. Choose the appropriate audio pair so that the particular AES stream being
fed to an output includes the timecode signal.
4. Routing LTC as one of the audio signals embedded in the SDI Output stream.
5. Routing VITC (vertical interval timecode) on an analog composite output.
6. Routing DVITC (digital vertical interval timecode) on an SD SDI output.
7. Routing ATC (ancillary timecode) on an HD SDI output.
You can output an analog timecode signal with any of the methods described above. The difference
between them is a choice between balanced or unbalanced. If you need to feed timecode to a device
with an XLR input, you would generally want to use the balanced output. However, it is also possible
to use the unbalanced output through Programmable Outputs (Aux 1, Aux 2, Aux 3) and connect it to
the destination with a balancing transformer. This would be much like the DATS adaptors for AES.
The advantage of using the unbalanced output through the Programmable Outputs (Aux 1, Aux 2,
Aux 3) is that you can run it through a BrightEye 41 Distribution Amplifier to make more copies.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 10
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Table: Timecode Output Types and Output Connectors
Timecode Output Type
LTC (Linear or Longitudinal
Timecode) single-ended
Note: An LTC signal is a very
low data rate bit stream that
fits within the bandwidth of an
analog audio signal.
LTC balanced
LTC embedded in an audio
channel
VITC (Vertical Interval
Timecode)
Output Connectors
Aux 1, Aux 2, Aux 3
One of the two Analog Audio Outputs (Channel 1 or Channel 2)
One of the 16 audio channels in the SDI Out (either SD or HD)
The vertical interval of the Analog Composite Out. Outputs can be
Black or any test signal.
SDI Out when it is SD. This is a digitized version of the VITC that
would be in an analog composite signal.
VITC can be assigned to any of the following line pairs:
DVITC (Digital Vertical
Interval Timecode)
• Lines 13, 15
• Lines 14, 16
• Lines 15, 17
• Lines 16, 18
• Lines 17, 19
• Lines 18, 20
The vertical interval of the SDI Out when it is SD. Outputs can be
Black or any test signal.
SDI Out when it is HD. Can have DVITC packets carried in the
ancillary data spaces.
DVITC can be assigned to any of the following line pairs:
ATC (Ancillary Timecode)
• Lines 13, 15
• Lines 14, 16
• Lines 15, 17
• Lines 16, 18
• Lines 17, 19
• Lines 18, 20
The vertical interval when the output is HD SDI. SDI outputs can be
Black or any test signal.
There is no concept of line assignment for the ATC packet.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 11
BrightEye 56
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
TM
Table: SDI Output Selections and Corresponding Timecode
SDI Output
720p/59.94
1080i/59.94
1080i/50
1080sF/23.98
1080sF/24
SD 525
SD 625
TC Frame Rate
The current SMPTE
spec (SMPTE-12M)
does not allow > 30Hz
framerate
29.97 Frames/second
25 Frames/second
23.98 Frames/second
24 Frames/second
29.97 Frames/second
25 Frames/second
www.ensembledesigns.com
VITC on SD Output
Drop
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
On or Off
N/A
On or Off
N/A
On or Off
N/A
BrightEye 56
Page 12
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Audio Generation and Routing
Audio Generators
The diagram shown on the following two pages depicts the audio signal generation and routing for
the BrightEye 56. It appears twice, first in a portrait view, then larger as a landscape view.
Audio can be output as follows:
•
Analog audio (one stereo pair)
•
AES digital audio (BNC)
•
Digital audio embedded in the SD SDI and/or HD SDI video outputs
Sixteen Independently Programmable Audio Channels
The BrightEye 56 supports sixteen audio channels and the content of each channel is independently
programmable. Choices include adjustable frequency tone generators, tone sweeps, silence, timecode,
and the external AES input. Left/right channel ID that synchronizes to the cyclops feature can also be
selected.
Audio Embedded in the SDI Outputs
All sixteen of these channels can be embedded in the SDI outputs. Each AES output can select from
any of the eight pairs that make up these sixteen channels. Similarly, the stereo analog output can be
driven from any of these audio signal pairs.
Support for Analog and Digital Audio
The AES digital audio outputs are always synchronous with all of the video outputs – regardless
of format – because all of the video outputs can be locked to a common time base. Multiple tone
generators can be used to identify multi-channel content. Analog audio is output as one stereo pair or
as two mono channels.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 13
BrightEye 56
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
TM
Video from TSG
BrightEye 56/57
Group 1
Embedder
Enable
Group 2
Embedder
Enable
Group 3
Embedder
Enable
Group 4
Embedder
Enable
Ch 1:4
3G/HD/SD Sync Pulse / Test Signal Generator
Audio Generation and Routing
Ch 5:8
Ch 9:12
Ch 13:16
8 Channel Pairs
To Serializer
300 Hz
400 Hz
500 Hz
600 Hz
Tone
Generator
800 Hz
1.0 KHz
AES
Encoder
AES 1/2 Output
AES
Encoder
To Aux 1 Output Selector
AES
Encoder
To Aux 2 Output Selector
AES
Encoder
To Aux 3 Output Selector
Ch 1/2
1.2 KHz
Ch 3/4
1.6 KHz
Ch 5/6
Silence
Timecode
Channel
Pairing
External AES
Ch 7/8
Ch 9/10
Ch 11/12
DDR2
Audio
Playback
Ch 12/14
Left/Ch 1
Right/Ch 2
Ch 15/16
Silence
External
AES
Input
Left/Ch 1
Right/Ch 2
Channel Source Selector
typical of 16 places
Audio Pair Selector
4 Places
Stereo
ADC
To Analog Output Port
WorkClock
Aligned
Shaped LTC
from
Timecode
Generator
LTC
DGSW 21 May 2009
BrightEye 56 Audio Generation and Routing Functional Diagram, Portrait View
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 14
BrightEye 56/57
3G/HD/SD Sync Pulse / Test Signal Generator
300 Hz
400 Hz
500 Hz
600 Hz
800 Hz
1.0 KHz
1.2 KHz
1.6 KHz
Silence
Timecode
External AES
Left/Ch 1
Right/Ch 2
Left/Ch 1
Right/Ch 2
LTC
typical of 16 places
Channel Source Selector
Audio Generation and Routing
Tone
Generator
DDR2
Audio
Playback
External
AES
Input
WorkClock
Aligned
Shaped LTC
from
Timecode
Generator
Channel
Pairing
Ch 1/2
Ch 3/4
Ch 5/6
Ch 7/8
Ch 9/10
Ch 11/12
Ch 12/14
Silence
Ch 15/16
8 Channel Pairs
4 Places
Audio Pair Selector
Video from TSG
Ch 1:4
Group 1
Embedder
Ch 5:8
Group 2
Embedder
Ch 9:12
Group 3
Embedder
Group 4
Embedder
Enable
Enable
Enable
Enable
AES
Encoder
AES
Encoder
To Aux 2 Output Selector
To Aux 1 Output Selector
AES 1/2 Output
To Serializer
AES
Encoder
To Aux 3 Output Selector
Ch 13:16
AES
Encoder
To Analog Output Port
DGSW 21 May 2009
Stereo
ADC
BrightEye 56 Audio Generation and Routing Functional Diagram, Landscape View
Page 15
BrightEye 56
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
TM
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
TM
Applications
BrightEye 56’s complete feature set makes it a versatile genlock sync and test signal generator. Its small
size also makes it an excellent choice for use in mobile applications. Two examples of BrightEye 56
applications are given below.
Analog, HD SDI and Audio Reference Outputs
In the example below, the BrightEye 56 is providing analog, HD SDI and audio reference outputs.
A BrightEye 41 distributes copies of the composite signal output. BrightEye 56 can provide all the
reference signals needed for post, mobile or broadcast applications.
BrightEye 41
Distribution
Amplifier
Composite
Tri-Level Sync
Distribute
reference to
other equipment
Non-linear
Editor
HD or SD SDI Black
BrightEye 56
HD or SD SDI Bars
AES with tone
AES with silence
LTC (Timecode)
Word clock
BrightEye 56 providing analog, HD SDI and audio reference outputs
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 16
BrightEye 56
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
TM
Genlocked Test Signals
BrightEye 56 can be used to provide bars and other test signals to facility devices timed to the same
house reference. A number of test signals can be fed to a router, switcher, and other devices in a facility
where genlocked timing is important.
As shown in the example below, a BrightEye 56 is fed with the house reference to the Ref In BNC. The
audio tone can be embedded into the SDI timed test signal output and fed to an HD or SD SDI router
and switcher. This allows each of the test signals to be in time with the signals fed to the other devices.
SDI Router
BrightEye 56
SDI Test Signal
with Embedded
Audio Tone
SDI Switcher
Ref In
House Ref
NTSC or PAL
BrightEye 56 Genlocked Test Signal Application
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 17
BrightEye 56
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
TM
Rear Connectors
All connections to the BrightEye 56 are made on the rear of the unit. Refer to the illustration below.
SD Composite Outputs
capable of simultaneous
Bars and Black — even
when SDI Output is HD
Tri-Level Sync
available with either
HD or SD SDI Out
TSG (if SD)
TSG (if SD)
Independent
Bars
Bars
Selection
Black
Black
AES Output
Power Input
Easily powered
from battery
or AC supply
Balanced Audio
Outputs
USB Interface
Comprehensive control
from PC or Mac
Programmable
Outputs
Choose:
AES Silence
AES Audio 1/2, 3/4,
5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12,
13/14, 15/16
LTC (Timecode)
Word Clock
6 Hz Pulse
HD / SD SDI Outputs
available with either
capable of simultaneous
Bars and Black
TSG,
TSG,
Color Bars Color Bars
or Black
or Black
Genlock Reference
Input
Accepts:
Analog Composite
TLS
10 MHz
Power Connection
Connect a modular power supply to the 12 volt DC power input connection on the far left of the unit.
Use the locking ring to secure it. Make sure you are using a power supply that provides at least 12V at
1.5A.
USB Connector
The USB connector is used to provide more comprehensive control, diagnostics, and upgrades to the
unit from a PC or Mac. Use the BrightEye Control application (version 2.1.2 or later) included on CDROM to make adjustments as described in the Operation section of this user guide.
Audio Out
The Audio Out provides two channels of an analog audio reference tone. Wiring is done by inserting a
6 pin connector provided with the unit. Analog reference levels can be configured from the BrightEye
Control application.
To connect audio to this connector type, strip the audio wire to about 3/8” (8 mm). Solder tinning is
not required. Push the wire into the opening at the bottom of the connector to seat the connection.
This will snap the wire into place.
To remove the wire, push in the pin above the connection with a small pointed tool. This will release
the wire from the connector.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 18
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Balanced Analog Audio Connection
To connect the audio output to an audio XLR connector, connect the pins as follows:
•
Attach Ground from Pin 1 of the Audio Out to Pin 1 of the XLR.
•
Attach the + (plus) signal from Pin 2 of the Audio Out to Pin 2 of the XLR.
•
Attach the – (minus) signal from Pin 3 of the Audio Out to Pin 3 of the XLR.
For Unbalanced Audio to a RCA Phono Input
To connect the audio output to a consumer audio connector such as an RCA phono jack, connect the
pins as follows:
•
Attach Ground from Pin 1 of the Audio Out to the shell, Shield or Ground of the RCA Phono
jack.
•
Attach the + (plus) signal from Pin 2 of the Audio Out to the center pin of the RCA Phono
jack.
•
The – (minus) signal is not used in this application.
AES 1/2 Out
The AES 1/2 Out is a BNC connector that provides a digital audio output in the AES format. The AES
Output can be configured from the front panel and from the BrightEye Control application.
TLS Out
The Tri Level Sync Out is an output BNC connector that supplies Tri Level Sync in a number of userselected formats. Use either the front panel or the BrightEye Control application to select the desired
format.
SDI Out
The SDI Out is a BNC connector that provides test patterns or black in serial digital component format.
Test patterns and video standard can be selected from the front panel as well as from the BrightEye
Control application. The AES audio test signals can be embedded in this signal using the BrightEye
Control application. The SDI Out can deliver 270 Mb/s SD Serial Digital, and 1.485 Gb/s HD Serial
Digital.
SD Composite Out
The SD Composite Out 1 and 2 are BNC connectors that present either an NTSC or PAL composite
output. These outputs provide the same test patterns as SDI Out, only in composite format. The test
patterns can be selected from the front panel and from the BrightEye Control application.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 19
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Ref In (Reference In)
The Ref In BNC accepts 1 V P-P PAL, NTSC, 10 MHz or Tri Level Sync reference input to provide an
overall genlock timing reference for the unit.
Programmable Outputs
The Programmable Outputs (Aux 1, Aux 2 and Aux 3) BNCs are programmable outputs that can deliver
LTC (Timecode), AES Audio 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16, AES Silence, Word Clock or
6 Hz Pulse.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 20
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Module Configuration and Control
Control and operation of the BrightEye 56 is performed from the front panel and with the BrightEye
Control application (version 2.1.2 or later). Some control settings and parameter choices are available
only with BrightEye PC or Mac; these parameters cannot be monitored from the front panel.
Front Panel Controls and Indicators
The front panel shown in the figure below provides status indicators and control over video and audio
output.
Status Indicators
The following status indicators are provided on the front panel:
Pattern
The currently selected video pattern will illuminate green. Choices include:
Black (choices include Black, Flat Field 20, Flat Field 80), Bars (choices include 75% Full Bars,
100% Full Bars, 75% Split Bars, 100% Split Bars, SMPTE Bars, SMPTE 219 Color Bars), Safe (Safe Title),
Crosshatch, Preset 1, Preset 2 or Preset 3.
“Preset” refers to menu selections available in the Pattern menu in the BrightEye Control application.
Each of the Preset fields (Preset 1, Preset 2, Preset 3) have fifteen pattern types available to select in the
Pattern menu.
Audio
Illuminates green when the option is selected to embed Audio.
Slate
Illuminates green when the signal identification slate is enabled. To change the Slate Text ID, use the
ID, ID Mode, and Slate Text fields in the Pattern menu in the BrightEye Control application.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 21
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
HD Format
The currently selected HD Format (1080i, 720p, 1080p, or 1080sF) is illuminated green. The Tri Level
Sync (TLS) frame rate is determined by the selections made in the Standard, Mode and HD Format
fields in the Format menu of the BrightEye Control application.
Ref (Reference)
The status indicator will be green when a valid reference is present and locked.
Std (Standard)
The currently selected output standard (NTSC or PAL) will illuminate green.
Mode
The currently selected mode (SD, HD) Illuminates green.
Pwr (Power)
Illuminates green when the BrightEye unit has power and the internal voltage regulator is functioning
correctly.
Adjusting Parameters from the Front Panel
Use the Mode, Right Arrow, and Left Arrow buttons to select and adjust parameters from the front
panel.
Pressing the Mode button activates the front panel for editing and tabs between each section of
editable parameters.
Pressing the Right Arrow or Left Arrow advances the selection within a given section of parameters,
or increases (Right Arrow) or decreases (Left Arrow) the value of a selected parameter.
Note: The LED of an edited parameter will blink for 15 seconds, after which time its value is
stored in memory. If power is interrupted before this 15 second timeout period has
elapsed, the edited state will not be saved.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 22
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Using the BrightEye Control Application
The BrightEye PC and BrightEye Mac applications (version 2.1.2 or later) included on CD-ROM
are designed to allow you to configure and control the BrightEye 56 from a personal computer.
Instructions for installing and using this software application are given in the PDF manual on the CDROM.
If the BrightEye 56 is connected to a computer running this software, the following menus are
available for controlling and monitoring the unit:
Format Menu
To select the output format of the Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator, select the Format menu
shown below. Use the drop-down menus to set the parameters for the Standard, Mode, and HD
Format fields.
•
Standard – select the output standard you want to use. Choices are: NTSC, PAL
•
Mode – select the mode you want to use. Choices are: SD, HD
•
HD Format – select the HD Format. Choices are: 1080i, 720p, 1080p, 1080sF
• 1080p Frame Rate – select the 1080p Frame Rate. Choices are: 1080p - 23/24 fps,
1080p - 29/30 fps. Applicable only when 1080p is selected from the HD Format control.
The remaining fields, SDI Format, Cpst Format, and TLS Format, are status indicators. They are not
editable. They reflect the format selections made in the Standard, Mode, HD Format and 1080p
Frame Rate controls.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 23
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Pattern Menu
To select the video test pattern, select the Pattern menu shown below. Use the drop-down menus to
set the parameters for the Pattern Sel, Preset 1, Preset 2, and Preset 3 fields. Determine the Slate ID
parameters. Select Video ID Mode and Audio ID Mode. Enable or disable the Y, Cr and Cb Channels.
•
Pattern Sel – select the video test pattern for output from the drop-down menu. Choices are:
Black, Flat Field 20, Flat Field 80, 75% Full Bars, 100% Full Bars, 75% Split Bars, 100% Split Bars,
SMPTE Bars, SMPTE 219 Bars, Safe Title, Crosshatch, Preset 1, Preset 2, Preset 3.
•
Preset 1, Preset 2, Preset 3 – select the video test pattern for the Preset fields. To use one
of the Preset test patterns, select from each Preset drop-down menu: Flat Field 50, White,
Red Field Bars, Video Ramp, Data Ramp, Shallow Ramp, 5 Step, Sweep, MultiBurst, Full Field
Window, Component Window, Digital Blanking, Cosite, Interlace, Pathological.
•
Slate Text – enter the Slate Text ID to be displayed on screen. This is useful for identifying a
location or destination; for example, Truck 1, News 2, Studio A, Helicopter 4, etc.
•
ID – On or Off. When On, the Slate Text ID displays on screen over the top of the selected video
test pattern. When Off, the Slate Text ID will not display.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 24
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
•
Video ID Mode – select one of three modes: Slate Only, Cyclops Only, or Slate Cyclops. Slate
Only means that only the Slate Text ID will display over the selected video test pattern. Cyclops
Only means that Cyclops will display over the selected video test pattern. (Cyclops adds a
moving element to the test signal in order to assist in checking that a particular signal path is
live.) Slate Cyclops means that both the Slate Text ID and Cyclops will display on screen over
the top of the selected video test pattern.
•
Audio ID Mode – select Off, Pop or Beep. The left/right Pop and Beep synchronizes to the
Cyclops feature and assists with left/right audio channel identification. Please note that audio
embedding must be enabled from the Audio menu in order for the Pop or Beep to be present
in the test signal.
•
Y Channel, Cr Channel, Cb Channel – use each of the three check box fields to enable
or disable each channel independently. This is useful for setting up monitors or troubleshooting.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 25
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
SDI Out Menu
From the SDI Out menu, you can select a value for the SDI video outputs (SDI Out 1 and SDI Out 2).
Vertical and Horizontal Timing adjustments are provided for timing the outputs with respect to the
reference input.
•
SDI Format – reports which HD or SD format has been selected for the SDI Output BNCs. To
change the format, use the Format menu described earlier.
•
SDI 1 OutSel – select from these values: Black, Color Bars, or TSG for the SDI BNC video
outputs.
•
SDI 2 OutSel – select from these values: Black, Color Bars, or TSG for the SDI BNC video
outputs.
•
Vert Timing – Set the vertical timing in lines. Range is -1000 to 1000 lines, default is zero.
Use the slider controls or arrows to select a value or enter a value directly into the number
field.
•
Hor Timing – Set the horizontal timing in clocks. Range is -2000 to 2000 clocks, default is zero.
Use the slider controls or arrows to select a value or enter a value directly into the number
field.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 26
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Cpst Out Menu
From the Cpst Out menu, you can select a value for the Cpst video outputs (Composite Out 1 and
Composite Out 2). You can time the outputs with respect to the reference input by adjusting the
Vertical Timing, Horizontal Timing and Fine Phase adjustments.
•
Cpst Format – reports what format has been selected for the Composite BNC Output. To
change the format, use the Format menu described earlier.
•
Cpst 1 OutSel – select from these values: Black, Color Bars, or Follow SDI Out for the
Composite Out BNC video outputs.
•
Cpst 2 OutSel – select from these values: Black, Color Bars, or Follow SDI Out for the
Composite Out BNC video outputs.
•
Vert Timing – Set the vertical timing in lines. Range is -525 to 525 lines, default is zero. Use the
slider controls or arrows to select a value or enter a value directly into the number field.
•
Hor Timing – Set the horizontal timing in clocks. Range is -1716 to 1716 clocks, default is zero.
Use the slider controls or arrows to select a value or enter a value directly into the number
field.
•
Fine Phase – Set the fine phase in nanoseconds (nsec). Range is -35 to 35 nsec, default is zero.
Use the slider controls or arrows to select a value or enter a value directly into the number
field.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 27
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
TLS Menu
From the TLS menu, you can adjust the Vertical and Horizontal Timing of the Tri Level Sync with respect
to the reference input.
•
TLS Format – Mirrors the TLS Format field in the Format menu. Reports the TLS format that
has been selected from the Format menu described earlier.
•
Vert Timing – Set the vertical timing in lines. Range is -1000 to 1000 lines, default is zero. Use
the slider controls or arrows to select a value or enter a value directly into the number field.
•
Hor Timing – Set the horizontal timing in clocks. Range is -2000 to 2000 clocks, default is zero.
Use the slider controls or arrows to select a value or enter a value directly into the number
field.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 28
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Audio Menu
The BrightEye 56’s tone generator supports sixteen audio channels. The content of each channel is
independently programmable. Choices include adjustable frequency tone generators, tone sweeps,
silence and timecode. All sixteen of these channels can be embedded in the SDI outputs. Each AES
output can select from any of the eight pairs that make up these sixteen channels.
This menu affects the SDI Out and AES 1/2 Out BNCs.
There are three types of audio output: Embedded, AES (goes to AES 1/2 Out) and Analog (goes to the
Analog Audio output).
The Audio menu shown below allows you to select a Channel Number and Audio Source, to make
Embedded Audio selections, and to choose the channel pair for Analog Out.
Use the controls to set the following:
•
Chan Number – Select a channel, 1 through 16, and then use the Audio Source control to
select the desired contents for that channel.
•
Audio Source – Available selections are:
300 Hz Tone
400 Hz Tone
500 Hz Tone
600 Hz Tone
800 Hz Tone
1.0 kHz Tone
1.2 kHz Tone
1.6 kHz Tone
Silence
Timecode
External AES
•
Embed Grp 1 through 4 – Use the checkbox controls to enable or disable each group.
Group 1 includes channels 1/2 and 3/4.
Group 2 includes channels 5/6 and 7/8.
Group 3 includes channels 9/10 and 11/12.
Group 4 includes channels 13/14 and 15/16.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 29
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
•
Embedding – Turn embedding on or off. When checked, embedding is on and the green
Audio light is illuminated on the BrightEye 56 front panel. When not checked, embedding is off
and the green Audio light on the front panel is not illuminated.
•
Analog Out – Available selections are:
Channels 1/2
Channels 3/4
Channels 5/6
Channels 7/8
Channels 9/10
Channels 11/12
Channels 13/14
Channels 15/16
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 30
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Timecode Menu
You can load the Timecode Generator with a preset value through the control system. When a
BrightEye 56 powers up, the Timecode Generator starts at 0:0:0:0. Alternatively, the BrightEye 56
can read VITC present on the reference input. This timecode value will be used continuously by the
BrightEye 56’s internal generator. When this option is selected, the timecode presented on the many
different outputs will all match the timecode on the reference input.
The Timecode menu shown below allows you to set the following parameters:
•
Hours – 0 through 23
•
Minutes – 0 through 59
•
Seconds – 0 through 59
•
TCG Mode – select from these values: Run, Track Ref, Jam!, Hold.
•
Drop Frame – Select the checkbox to enable Drop Frame (dropping two frames every minute
except on every tenth minute) to allow timecode to match a real-time clock.
•
Cpst VITC – Vertical interval timecode (VITC) can be routed to an analog composite output.
Select which lines you want to route to from these menu values: Lines 13, 15; Lines 14, 16;
Lines 15, 17; Lines 16, 18; Lines 17, 19; Lines 18, 20; Lines 19, 21, or select Off to disable.
•
SDI DVITC – Digital vertical interval timecode (DVITC) can be routed to an SD SDI output.
Select which lines you want to route to from these menu values: Lines 13, 15; Lines 14, 16;
Lines 15, 17; Lines 16, 18; Lines 17, 19; Lines 18, 20; Lines 19, 21, or select Off to disable.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 31
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Aux Out Menu
The Aux Out menu shown below allows you to set the output standards for the Programmable Output
BNCs Aux 1, Aux 2 and Aux 3.
The available selections are identical for all three controls. Choose from the following values:
LTC Timecode
AES Audio 1/2
AES Audio 3/4
AES Audio 5/6
AES Audio 7/8
AES Audio 9/10
AES Audio 11/12
AES Audio 13/14
AES Audio 15/16
AES Silence
Word Clock
6 Hz Pulse
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 32
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Config Menu
The BrightEye 56 can lock to an external house reference or it can lock to its own internal precision
standard reference. From the Config Menu, you can select the overall genlock timing reference,
enable or disable Composite Setup, and select levels for Digital and Analog Audio Reference Levels.
Use the controls to set the following:
•
Ref Mode – Affects which source the BrightEye 56 uses for the overall genlock timing
reference. Select Internal to lock to the internal precision standard or Genlock to lock to the
input reference signal. If Genlock is selected but no reference signal is connected, BrightEye
56 will free run. When Internal is selected, the internal precision standard runs at a 10 MHz
accuracy.
•
Reference – Reports if a reference signal is connected to the Ref In BNC.
•
Sync Lock – Reports the standard the module is locked to. If the module is not locked to a
standard, it displays No Lock.
•
Cpst Setup – Select the Enabled checkbox to enable Composite Setup. Composite Setup is
typically enabled.
•
Dig Ref Level – Select the digital audio reference level. Choices are -20 dBFS and -18 dBFS.
•
Anlg Ref Level – Select the analog audio reference level. Choices are -10 dB, -6 dB, -4 dB,
0 dB, +4 dB.
•
Ref VITC Line – Use this control to select the line on which VITC is present. Available choices
are Line 12, Line 13, Line 14, Line 15, Line 16, Line 17, Line 18, Line 19, Line 20, Line 21.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 33
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Troubleshooting
As a troubleshooting aid, the reference signal status and presence, power and CPU status can be easily
monitored from the front panel using the front panel indicators.
Refer to the overall troubleshooting tips given below for the BrightEye 56.
No signal output
•
Check that the expected signal output matches the output selected in the Format Menu.
•
Check the configuration of Ref Mode in the Config Menu. Make sure that the appropriate
setting (Internal or Genlock) is selected for the expected signal output.
You may also refer to the technical support section of the Ensemble Designs web site for the latest
information on your equipment at the URL below:
http://www.ensembledesigns.com/support
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 34
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Software Updating
Software upgrades for BrightEyes are available at:
http://www.ensembledesigns.com/support/brighteye-support/
Use BrightEye Mac or PC software (version 2.1.2 or later) to install the software update into your
BrightEye.
Warranty and Factory Service
Warranty
This unit is covered by a five-year limited warranty. If you require service (under warranty or not),
please contact Ensemble Designs and ask for customer service before you return the unit. This will
allow the service technician an opportunity to provide any other suggestions for identifying the
problem and to recommend possible solutions.
Factory Service
If you return equipment for repair, please get a Return Material Authorization Number (RMA) from the
factory first.
Ship the product and a written description of the problem to:
Ensemble Designs, Inc.
Attention: Customer Service RMA #####
870 Gold Flat Rd.
Nevada City, CA. 95959 USA
(530) 478-1830
Fax: (530) 478-1832
service@ensembledesigns.com
http://www.ensembledesigns.com
Be sure to put your RMA number on the outside of the box.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 35
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Specifications
Reference Input
Number Signal Type Return Loss One
1V P-P PAL, NTSC, 10 MHz or Tri-Level Sync
>40 dB to 5.5 MHz
Composite Output
Number Two
Signal Type
NTSC / PAL
Impedance
75 Ω
Return Loss
>40 dB to 5.5 MHz
Frequency Response -0.1 dB 10 KHz to 5.0 MHz
Output DC
±50 mV
K Factor
<1.0%
Differential Phase <1.0 degree
SCH Phase
±5 degrees
Accuracy and Timing Stability
Internal TCXO
PAL Fsc
4.43361875 MHz +/- 1 Hz
NTSC Fsc
3.579545 MHz +/- 1 Hz
601 Fs
27.000000 MHz +/- 5 Hz
Long Term Drift
<1 ppm/year
Analog Jitter
<1 ns
Digital Jitter
<0.2 UI (0.13 UI typical)
Serial Digital Output
Number Two
Signal Type
270 Mb/s SD Serial Digital (SMPTE 259M)
1.485 Gb/s HD Serial Digital (SMPTE 274M, 292M or 296M)
Return Loss
>15 dB for 270 Mb/s
>15 dB for 1.485 Gb/s
Max Cable Length 300 meters for 270 Mb/s
100 meters for 1.485 Gb/s
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 36
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Tri Level Sync Output
Number
Two, 75 Ω
Output DC ±50 mV
Return Loss
>30 dB to 30 MHz
Standards Supported
1080i (SMPTE 274M -4, 5, 6) 50, 59.94 or 60 Hz
720p (SMPTE 296M -1, 2, 3) 50, 59.94 or 60 Hz
1080p (SMPTE 274M -9, 10, 11) 23.98, 24, 25 Hz
1080sF (RP211 -14, 15, 16) 23.98, 24, 25 Hz
625i 50, 525i 59.94, Composite PAL, NTSC
AES Audio Output
Number One
Type
AES3id, 1 KHz tone or silence
Resolution
24 bit
Analog Audio Output
Number
One stereo pair or two mono
Type
1 KHz tone or silence
Impedance
30 Ω, balanced
Reference Level
-10 to + 4 dBu, adjustable
Programmable Outputs
Number Three
Type
Selectable between AES, LTC, VITC, Word Clock or 6 Hz Pulse
Impedance
75 Ω
General Specifications
Size
5.625” W x 1.7” H x 5.5” D
(143 mm x 20 mm x 140 mm) including connectors
Weight
1 lb 7 oz
Power
12 volts, 12 watts
(100-230 VAC modular power supply not included)
Temperature Range 0 to 40° C ambient
Relative Humidity 0 to 95%, non-condensing
Due to ongoing product development, all specifications are subject to change.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 37
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Glossary
AES/EBU
The digital audio standard defined as a joint effort of the Audio Engineering Society and the European
Broadcast Union. AES/EBU or AES3 describes a serial bitstream that carries two audio channels,
thus an AES stream is a stereo pair. The AES/EBU standard covers a wide range of sample rates and
quantizations (bit depths). In television systems, these will generally be 48 KHz and either 20 or 24 bits.
AFD
Active Format Description is a method to carry information regarding the aspect ratio of the video
content. The specification of AFD was standardized by SMPTE in 2007 and is now beginning to appear
in the marketplace. AFD can be included in both SD and HD SDI transport systems. There is no legacy
analog implementation. (See WSS).
ASI
A commonly used transport method for MPEG video streams, ASI or Asynchronous Serial Interface,
operates at the same 270 Mb/s data rate as SD SDI. This makes it easy to carry an ASI stream through
existing digital television infrastructure. Known more formally as DVB-ASI, this transport mechanism
can be used to carry multiple program channels.
Aspect Ratio
The ratio of the vertical and horizontal measurements of an image. 4:3 is the aspect ratio for standard
definition video formats and television and 16:9 for high definition. Converting formats of unequal
ratios is done by letterboxing (horizontal bars) or pillar boxing (vertical pillars) in order to keep the
original format’s aspect ratio.
Bandwidth
Strictly speaking, this refers to the range of frequencies (i.e. the width of the band of frequency) used
by a signal, or carried by a transmission channel. Generally, wider bandwidth will carry and reproduce
a signal with greater fidelity and accuracy.
Beta
Sony Beta SP video tape machines use an analog component format that is similar to SMPTE, but
differs in the amplitude of the color difference signals. It may also carry setup on the luminance
channel.
Bit
A binary digit, or bit, is the smallest amount of information that can be stored or transmitted digitally
by electrical, optical, magnetic, or other means. A single bit can take on one of two states: On/Off,
Low/High, Asserted/ Deasserted, etc. It is represented numerically by the numerals 1 (one) and 0
(zero). A byte, containing 8 bits, can represent 256 different states. The binary number 11010111, for
example, has the value of 215 in our base 10 numbering system. When a value is carried digitally, each
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 38
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
additional bit of resolution will double the number of different states that can be represented. Systems
that operate with a greater number of bits of resolution, or quantization, will be able to capture a
signal with more detail or fidelity. Thus, a video digitizer with 12 bits of resolution will capture 4 times
as much detail as one with 10 bits.
Blanking
The Horizontal and Vertical blanking intervals of a television signal refer to the time periods between
lines and between fields. No picture information is transmitted during these times, which are required
in CRT displays to allow the electron beam to be repositioned for the start of the next line or field.
They are also used to carry synchronizing pulses which are used in transmission and recovery of the
image. Although some of these needs are disappearing, the intervals themselves are retained for
compatibility purposes. They have turned out to be very useful for the transmission of additional
content, such as teletext and embedded audio.
CAV
Component Analog Video. This is a convenient shorthand form, but it is subject to confusion. It is
sometimes used to mean ONLY color difference component formats (SMPTE or Beta), and other times
to include RGB format. In any case, a CAV signal will always require 3 connectors – either Y/R-Y/B-Y,
or R/G/B.
Checkfield
A Checkfield signal is a special test signal that stresses particular aspects of serial digital transmission.
The performance of the Phase Locked-Loops (PLLs) in an SDI receiver must be able to tolerate long
runs of 0’s and 1’s. Under normal conditions, only very short runs of these are produced due to a
scrambling algorithm that is used. The Checkfield, also referred to as the Pathological test signal, will
“undo” the scrambling and cause extremely long runs to occur. This test signal is very useful for testing
transmission paths.
Chroma
The color or chroma content of a signal, consisting of the hue and saturation of the image.
See also Color Difference.
Component
In a component video system, the totality of the image is carried by three separate but related
components. This method provides the best image fidelity with the fewest artifacts, but it requires
three independent transmission paths (cables). The commonly used component formats are
Luminance and Color Difference (Y/Pr/Pb), and RGB. It was far too unwieldy in the early days of color
television to even consider component transmission.
Composite
Composite television dates back to the early days of color transmission. This scheme encodes the
color difference information onto a color subcarrier. The instantaneous phase of the subcarrier is the
color’s hue, and the amplitude is the color’s saturation or intensity. This subcarrier is then added onto
the existing luminance video signal. This trick works because the subcarrier is set at a high enough
frequency to leave spectrum for the luminance information. But it is not a seamless matter to pull
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 39
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
the signal apart again at the destination in order to display it or process it. The resultant artifacts of
dot crawl (also referred to as chroma crawl) are only the most obvious result. Composite television is
the most commonly used format throughout the world, either as PAL or NTSC. It is also referred to as
Encoded video.
Color Difference
Color Difference systems take advantage of the details of human vision. We have more acuity in our
black and white vision than we do in color. This means that we need only the luminance information to
be carried at full bandwidth, we can scrimp on the color channels. In order to do this, RGB information
is converted to carry all of the luminance (Y is the black and white of the scene) in a single channel.
The other two channels are used to carry the “color difference”. Noted as B-Y and R-Y, these two signals
describe how a particular pixel “differs” from being purely black and white. These channels typically
have only half the bandwidth of the luminance.
Decibel (dB)
The decibel is a unit of measure used to express the ratio in the amplitude or power of two signals. A
difference of 20 dB corresponds to a 10:1 ratio between two signals, 6 dB is approximately a 2:1 ratio.
Decibels add while the ratios multiply, so 26 dB is a 20:1 ratio, and 14 dB is a 5:1 ratio. There are several
special cases of the dB scale, where the reference is implied. Thus, dBm refers to power relative to 1
milliwatt, and dBu refers to voltage relative to .775V RMS. The original unit of measure was the Bel
(10 times bigger), named after Alexander Graham Bell.
dBFS
In Digital Audio systems, the largest numerical value that can be represented is referred to as Full
Scale. No values or audio levels greater than FS can be reproduced because they would be clipped.
The nominal operating point (roughly corresponding to 0 VU) must be set below FS in order to have
headroom for audio peaks. This operating point is described relative to FS, so a digital reference level
of -20 dBFS has 20 dB of headroom before hitting the FS clipping point.
DVI
Digital Visual Interface. DVI-I (integrated) provides both digital and analog connectivity. The larger
group of pins on the connector are digital while the four pins on the right are analog.
EDH
Error Detection and Handling is a method to verify proper reception of an SDI or HD-SDI signal at the
destination. The originating device inserts a data packet in the vertical interval of the SDI signal and
every line of the HD signal which contains a checksum of the entire video frame. This checksum is
formed by adding up the numerical values of all of the samples in the frame, using a complex formula.
At the destination this same formula is applied to the incoming video and the resulting value is
compared to the one included in the transmission. If they match, then the content has all arrived with
no errors. If they don’t, then an error has occurred.
Embedded Audio
Digital Audio can be carried along in the same bitstream as an SDI or HD-SDI signal by taking
advantage of the gaps in the transmission which correspond to the horizontal and vertical intervals
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 40
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
of the television waveform. This technique can be very cost effective in transmission and routing, but
can also add complexity to signal handling issues because the audio content can no longer be treated
independently of the video.
Eye Pattern
To analyze a digital bitstream, the signal can be displayed visually on an oscilloscope by triggering the
horizontal timebase with a clock extracted from the stream. Since the bit positions in the stream form
a very regular cadence, the resulting display will look like an eye – an oval with slightly pointed left and
right ends. It is easy to see from this display if the eye is “open”, with a large central area that is free of
negative or positive transitions, or “closed” where those transitions are encroaching toward the center.
In the first case, the open eye indicates that recovery of data from the stream can be made reliably and
with few errors. But in the closed case data will be difficult to extract and bit errors will occur. Generally
it is jitter in the signal that is the enemy of the eye.
Frame Sync
A Frame Synchronizer is used to synchronize the timing of a video signal to coincide with a timing
reference (usually a color black signal that is distributed throughout a facility). The synchronizer
accomplishes this by writing the incoming video into a frame buffer memory under the timing
direction of the sync information contained in that video. Simultaneously the memory is being read
back by a timing system that is genlocked to a house reference. As a result, the timing or alignment of
the video frame can be adjusted so that the scan of the upper left corner of the image is happening
simultaneously on all sources. This is a requirement for both analog and digital systems in order to
perform video effects or switch glitch-free in a router. Frame synchronization can only be performed
within a single television line standard. A synchronizer will not convert an NTSC signal to a PAL signal,
it takes a standards converter to do that.
Frequency Response
A measurement of the accuracy of a system to carry or reproduce a range of signal frequencies. Similar
to Bandwidth.
H.264
The latest salvo in the compression wars is H.264 which is also known as MPEG-4 Part 10. MPEG-4
promises good results at just half the bit rate required by MPEG-2.
HD
High Definition. This two letter acronym has certainly become very popular. Here we thought it was all
about the pictures – and the radio industry stole it.
HDMI
The High Definition Multimedia Interface comes to us from the consumer marketplace where it is
becoming the de facto standard for the digital interconnect of display devices to audio and video
sources. It is an uncompressed, all-digital interface that transmits digital video and eight channels of
digital audio. HDMI is a bit serial interface that carries the video content in digital component form
over multiple twisted-pairs. HDMI is closely related to the DVI interface for desktop computers and
their displays.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 41
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
IEC
The International Electrotechnical Commission provides a wide range of worldwide standards. They
have provided standardization of the AC power connection to products by means of an IEC line cord.
The connection point uses three flat contact blades in a triangular arrangement, set in a rectangular
connector. The IEC specification does not dictate line voltage or frequency. Therefore, the user must
take care to verify that a device either has a universal input (capable of 90 to 230 volts, either 50 or
60 Hz), or that a line voltage switch, if present, is set correctly.
Interlace
Human vision can be fooled to see motion by presenting a series of images, each with a small change
relative to the previous image. In order to eliminate the flicker, our eyes need to see more than 30
images per second. This is accomplished in television systems by dividing the lines that make up
each video frame (which run at 25 or 30 frames per second) into two fields. All of the odd-numbered
lines are transmitted in the first field, the even-numbered lines are in the second field. In this way, the
repetition rate is 50 or 60 Hz, without using more bandwidth. This trick has worked well for years, but
it introduces other temporal artifacts. Motion pictures use a slightly different technique to raise the
repetition rate from the original 24 frames that make up each second of film—they just project each
one twice.
IRE
Video level is measured on the IRE scale, where 0 IRE is black, and 100 IRE is full white. The actual
voltages that these levels correspond to can vary between formats.
ITU-R 601
This is the principal standard for standard definition component digital video. It defines the luminance
and color difference coding system that is also referred to as 4:2:2. The standard applies to both PAL
and NTSC derived signals. They both will result in an image that contains 720 pixels horizontally, with
486 vertical pixels in NTSC, and 576 vertically in PAL. Both systems use a sample clock rate of 27 MHz,
and are serialized at 270 Mb/s.
Jitter
Serial digital signals (either video or audio) are subject to the effects of jitter. This refers to the
instantaneous error that can occur from one bit to the next in the exact position of each digital
transition. Although the signal may be at the correct frequency on average, in the interim it varies.
Some bits come slightly early, others come slightly late. The measurement of this jitter is given
either as the amount of time uncertainty or as the fraction of a bit width. For 270 Mb/s SD video, the
allowable jitter is 740 picoseconds, or 0.2 UI (Unit Interval – one bit width). For 1.485 Gb/s HD, the
same 0.2UI spec corresponds to just 135 pico seconds.
Luminance
The “black & white” content of the image. Human vision had more acuity in luminance, so television
systems generally devote more bandwidth to the luminance content. In component systems, the
luminance is referred to as Y.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 42
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
MPEG
The Moving Picture Experts Group is an industry group that develops standards for the compression
of moving pictures for television. Their work is an on-going effort. The understanding of image
processing and information theory is constantly expanding. And the raw bandwidth of both the
hardware and software used for this work is ever increasing. Accordingly, the compression methods
available today are far superior to the algorithms that originally made the real-time compression and
decompression of television possible. Today, there are many variations of these techniques, and the
term MPEG has to some extent become a broad generic label.
Metadata
This word comes from the Greek, meta means ‘beyond’ or ‘after’. When used as a prefix to ‘data’, it can
be thought of as ‘data about the data’. In other words, the metadata in a data stream tells you about
that data – but it is not the data itself. In the television industry, this word is sometimes used correctly
when, for example, we label as metadata the timecode which accompanies a video signal. That
timecode tells you something about the video, i.e. when it was shot, but the timecode in and of itself
is of no interest. But in our industry’s usual slovenly way in matters linguistic, the term metadata has
also come to be used to describe data that is associated with the primary video in a datastream. So
embedded audio will (incorrectly) be called metadata when it tells us nothing at all about the pictures.
Oh well.
Multi-mode
Multi-mode fibers have a larger diameter core than single mode fibers (either 50 or 62.5 microns
compared to 9 microns), and a correspondingly larger aperture. It is much easier to couple light energy
into a multi-mode fiber, but internal reflections will cause multiple “modes” of the signal to propagate
down the fiber. This will degrade the ability of the fiber to be used over long distances.
See also Single Mode.
NTSC
The color television encoding system used in North America was originally defined by the National
Television Standards Committee. This American standard has also been adopted by Canada, Mexico,
Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. (This standard is referred to disparagingly as Never Twice Same Color.)
Optical
An optical interface between two devices carries data by modulating a light source. This light source
is typically a laser or laser diode (similar to an LED) which is turned on and off at the bitrate of the
datastream. The light is carried from one device to another through a glass fiber. The fiber’s core acts
as a waveguide or lightpipe to carry the light energy from one end to another. Optical transmission
has two very significant advantages over metallic copper cables. Firstly, it does not require that the
two endpoint devices have any electrical connection to each other. This can be very advantageous
in large facilities where problems with ground loops appear. And secondly, and most importantly, an
optical interface can carry a signal for many kilometers or miles without any degradation or loss in the
recovered signal. Copper is barely useful at distances of just 1000 feet.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 43
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Oversampling
A technique to perform digital sampling at a multiple of the required sample rate. This has the
advantage of raising the Nyquist Rate (the maximum frequency which can be reproduced by a given
sample rate) much higher than the desired passband. This allows more easily realized anti-aliasing
filters.
PAL
During the early days of color television in North America, European broadcasters developed a
competing system called Phase Alternation by Line. This slightly more complex system is better able
to withstand the differential gain and phase errors that appear in amplifiers and transmission systems.
Engineers at the BBC claim that it stands for Perfection At Last.
Pathological Test Pattern – see Checkfield
Progressive
An image scanning technique which progresses through all of the lines in a frame in a single pass.
Computer monitors all use progressive displays. This contrasts to the interlace technique common to
television systems.
Return Loss
An idealized input or output circuit will exactly match its desired impedance (generally 75 ohms) as a
purely resistive element, with no reactive (capacitive or inductive) elements. In the real world, we can
only approach the ideal. So, our real inputs and outputs will have some capacitance and inductance.
This will create impedance matching errors, especially at higher frequencies. The Return Loss of
an input or output measures how much energy is returned (reflected back due to the impedance
mismatch). For digital circuits, a return loss of 15 dB is typical. This means that the energy returned is
15 dB less than the original signal. In analog circuits, a 40 dB figure is expected.
RGB
RGB systems carry the totality of the picture information as independent Red, Green, and Blue signals.
Television is an additive color system, where all three components add to produce white. Because the
luminance (or detail) information is carried partially in each of the RGB channels, all three must be
carried at full bandwidth in order to faithfully reproduce an image.
ScH Phase
Used in composite systems, ScH Phase measures the relative phase between the leading edge of sync
on line 1 of field 1 and a continuous subcarrier sinewave. Due to the arithmetic details of both PAL and
NTSC, this relationship is not the same at the beginning of each frame. In PAL, the pattern repeats ever
4 frames (8 fields) which is also known as the Bruch Blanking sequence. In NTSC, the repeat is every 2
frames (4 fields). This creates enormous headaches in editing systems and the system timing of analog
composite facilities.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 44
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
Setup
In the NTSC Analog Composite standard, the term Setup refers to the addition of an artificial offset
or pedestal to the luminance content. This places the Black Level of the analog signal 54 mV (7.5 IRE)
positive with respect to ground. The use of Setup is a legacy from the early development of television
receivers in the vacuum tube era. This positive offset helped to prevent the horizontal retrace of the
electron beam from being visible on the CRT, even if Brightness and Contrast were mis-adjusted.
While the use of Setup did help to prevent retrace artifacts, it did so at the expense of dynamic range
(contrast) in the signal because the White Level of the signal was not changed.
Setup is optional in NTSC systems, but is never used in PAL systems (see ‘Perfection’ characteristic of
PAL). This legacy of Setup continues to persist in North American NTSC systems, while it has been
abandoned in Japan.
In the digital component world (SD and HD SDI) there is obviously no need for, and certainly every
reason to avoid, Setup. In order for the interfaces between analog and digital systems to operate
as transparently as possible, Setup must be carefully accounted for in conversion products. When
performing analog to digital conversion, Setup (if present) must be removed and the signal range
gained up to account for the 7.5% reduction in dynamic range. And when a digital signal is converted
back to analog form, Setup (if desired on the output) must be created by reducing the dynamic range
by 7.5% and adding the 54 mV positive offset. Unfortunately, there is no truly foolproof algorithm to
detect the presence of Setup automatically, so it’s definitely a case of installer beware.
SDI
Serial Digital Interface. This term refers to inputs and outputs of devices that support serial digital
component video. This could refer to standard definition at 270 Mb/s, HD SDI or High Definition Serial
Digital video at 1.485 Gb/s, or to the newer 3G standard of High Definition video at 2.97 Gb/s.
SMPTE
The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers is a professional organization which has done
tremendous work in setting standards for both the film and television industries. The term “SMPTE’” is
also shorthand for one particular component video format - luminance and color difference.
Single Mode
A Single mode (or mono mode) optical fiber carries an optical signal on a very small diameter (9
micron) core surrounded with cladding. The small diameter means that no internally reflected
lightwaves will be propagated. Thus only the original “mode” of the signal passes down the fiber.
A single mode fiber used in an optical SDI system can carry a signal for up to 20 kilometers. Single
mode fibers require particular care in their installation due to the extremely small optical aperture that
they present at splice and connection points. See also Multi-mode.
TBC
A Time Base Corrector is a system to reduce the Time Base Error in a signal to acceptable levels. It
accomplishes this by using a FIFO (First In, First Out) memory. The incoming video is written into the
memory using its own jittery timing. This operation is closely associated with the actual digitization of
the analog signal because the varying position of the sync timing must be mimicked by the sampling
function of the analog to digital converter. A second timing system, genlocked to a stable reference,
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 45
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
is used to read the video back out of the memory. The memory acts as a dynamically adjusting delay
to smooth out the imperfections in the original signal’s timing. Very often a TBC will also function as a
Frame Synchronizer. See also Frame Sync.
Time Base Error
Time base error is present when there is excessive jitter or uncertainty in the line to line output
timing of a video signal. This is commonly associated with playback from video tape recorders, and
is particularly severe with consumer type heterodyne systems like VHS. Time base error will render a
signal unusable for broadcast or editing purposes.
Timecode
Timecode, a method to uniquely identify and label every frame in a video stream, has become one of
the most recognized standards ever developed by SMPTE. It uses a 24 hour clock, consisting of hours,
minutes, seconds, and television frames. Originally recorded on a spare audio track, this 2400 baud
signal was a significant contributor to the development of video tape editing. We now refer to this as
LTC or Longitudinal Time Code because it was carried along the edge of the tape. This allowed it to
be recovered in rewind and fast forward when the picture itself could not. Timecode continues to be
useful today and is carried in the vertical interval as VITC, and as a digital packet as DVITC. Timecode is
the true metadata.
Tri-Level Sync
For many, many years, television systems used composite black as a genlock reference source. This
was a natural evolution from analog systems to digital implementations. With the advent of High
Definition television, with even higher data rates and tighter jitter requirements, problems with this
legacy genlock signal surfaced. Further, a reference signal with a 50 or 60 Hz frame rate was useless
with 24 Hz HD systems running at film rates. Today we can think of composite black as a bi-level sync
signal – it has two levels, one at sync tip and one at blanking. For HD systems, Tri-Level Sync, which has
the same blanking level (at ground) of bi-level sync, but the sync pulse now has both a negative and
a positive element. This keeps the signal symmetrically balanced so that its DC content is zero. And it
also means that the timing pickoff point is now at the point where the signal crosses blanking and is
no longer subject to variation with amplitude. This makes Tri-Level Sync a much more robust signal
and one which can be delivered with less jitter.
USB
The Universal Serial Bus, developed in the computer industry to replace the previously ubiquitous
RS-232 serial interface, now appears in many different forms and with many different uses. It actually
forms a small local area network, allowing multiple devices to coexist on a single bus where they can
be individually addressed and accessed.
VGA
Video Graphics Array. Traditional 15-pin, analog interface between a PC and monitor.
Word Clock
Use of Word Clock to genlock digital audio devices developed in the audio recording industry. Early
digital audio products were interconnected with a massive parallel connector carrying a twisted pair
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 46
HD/SD/Analog Test Signal and Sync Pulse Generator User Guide
BrightEye 56
TM
for every bit in the digital audio word. A clock signal, which is a square wave at the audio sampling
frequency, is carried on a 75 ohm coaxial cable. Early systems would daisychain this 44.1 or 48 kilohertz
clock from one device to another with coax cable and Tee connectors. On the rising edge of this Work
Clock these twisted pairs would carry the left channel, while on the falling edge, they would carry the
right channel. In most television systems using digital audio, the audio sample clock frequency (and
hence the ‘genlock’ between the audio and video worlds) is derived from the video genlock signal. But
products that are purely audio, with no video reference capability, may still require Word Clock.
WSS
Wide Screen Signaling is used in the PAL/625 video standards, both in analog and digital form, to
convey information about the aspect ratio and format of the transmitted signal. Carried in the vertical
interval, much like closed captioning, it can be used to signal a television receiver to adjust its vertical
or horizontal sizing to reflect incoming material. Although an NTSC specification for WSS exists, it
never achieved any traction in the marketplace.
YUV
Strictly speaking, YUV does not apply to component video. The letters refer to the Luminance (Y), and
the U and V encoding axes using in the PAL composite system. Since the U axis is very close to the B-Y
axis, and the V axis is very close to the R-Y axis, YUV is often used as a sort of shorthand for the more
long-winded “Y/R-Y/B-Y”.
Y/Cr/Cb
In digital component video, the luminance component is Y, and the two color difference signals are
Cr (R-Y) and Cb (B-Y).
Y/Pr/Pb
In analog component video, the image is carried in three components. The luminance is Y, the R-Y
color difference signal is Pr, and the B-Y color difference signal is Pb.
www.ensembledesigns.com
BrightEye 56
Page 47
Download PDF