Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors

Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Carbon Trust Networks Project:
Food & Drink Industry
Refrigeration Efficiency Initiative
Guide 1
Appointing and Managing
Refrigeration Contractors
Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Chapters
1. Introduction...................................................................................................... 3
2. Service and Maintenance Contracts ................................................................ 4
3. Pre Tender Qualification .................................................................................. 4
3. Pre Tender Qualification .................................................................................. 5
4. Selecting a Service and Maintenance Contractor............................................. 5
5. Managing the Contract..................................................................................... 6
Appendices
1.
Appendix Glossary......................................................................................... 7
2.
Sources of Further Information ...................................................................... 8
3.
Maintenance and Service Contracts .............................................................. 9
4.
Maintenance Check List............................................................................... 10
5.
Pre Tender Screening Template .................................................................. 11
6.
Tender Document Template ........................................................................ 12
7.
Interview Format .......................................................................................... 13
8.
Refrigeration Contractor Audit...................................................................... 14
The Food & Drink Industry Refrigeration Efficiency Initiative
is a
Carbon Trust Networks Project
Supported by ..........................................
The Carbon Trust
Project managed by ...............................
The Food and Drink Federation
Participating organisations .....................
Dairy UK
British Beer and Pub Association
Cold Storage and Distribution Federation
Institute of Refrigeration
Project Consultants ................................
Enviros
Cool Concerns
Star Technical Solutions
Published................................................
July 2007
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
This guide will help you to save money if you:
1.
Appoint and manage refrigeration service / maintenance contractors.
2.
Are responsible for service and maintenance which is carried out in house.
1. Introduction
The maintenance and service of refrigeration equipment has a significant impact on its
running costs as well as its reliability. Good maintenance can save money by:
Maximising plant efficiency and therefore reducing electricity costs;
Reducing equipment failure and the costs associated with plant down time and stock
or product loss.
This guide covers the whole process of appointing and managing a refrigeration contractor,
from deciding what type of contract is best, through interviewing and selecting the right
contractor, to checking the quality of service provided. You do not need to be a refrigeration
engineer to use this Guide. The technical terms used are explained in the glossary in
Appendix 1 and sources of further information are given in Appendix 2.
The guide outlines different types of maintenance contract and
what should be included to minimise energy use. It shows how to
appoint the best contractor for your business and includes check
lists for tender documents, interview questions and contractor audit
forms.
A good refrigeration contractor will:
Service – a reactive
repair of faults;
Maintenance – proactive,
preventative work which
should reduce overall
plant running costs.
Maintain plant effectively to maximise reliability and energy efficiency;
Provide information to you and your staff on efficient operation of the plant;
Suggest cost effective improvements which will reduce power consumption and
improve reliability.
Life Cycle
Costs £
Equipment and installation
Service and maintenance
Energy
You will often make investments in refrigeration
equipment, either to improve existing plant or to add
new. Your overall aim should be to reduce life cycle
costs (capital plus energy plus service / maintenance).
The energy component of the life cycle cost is the most
significant during its lifetime.
The department
responsible for capital expenditure must understand this.
Saving money on capital cost rarely provides equipment
with the lowest running costs.
This Guide is one of a series of eight being produced under the
Food & Drink Industry Refrigeration Efficiency Initiative, a project
sponsored by the Carbon Trust and supported by the Food and
Drink Federation, the British Beer and Pub Association, the Cold
Storage and Distribution Federation, Dairy UK and the Institute of
Refrigeration.
Page 3 of 14
Refrigerant regulations
There are now regulations
that cover the use and
management of refrigerants
such as R22 and R404A –
see Guide 4 for essential
information on this.
July 2007
Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
2. Service and Maintenance Contracts
There are four main types of service and maintenance contract and they are explained in
more detail in Appendix 3, with advantages and disadvantages. The table below summarises
them and shows which are best for plant energy efficiency.
Contract Type
Impact on Efficiency
Labour and maintenance
Fully comprehensive
Maintenance only
Pay as you go
The duration of the contract is also important.
It is
recommended that contracts are awarded on at least a three
year rolling programme to enable the contractor to make
investments which will benefit your equipment.
The degree of maintenance required will depend on the
equipment type and condition. Appendix 4 includes a checklist
of activities required to maximise efficiency and reduce running
costs.
Be prepared to spend time on the appointment process – time
at this stage improves the effectiveness of the contract and
should reduce your refrigerant systems’ running costs.
Recommissioning –
experience has shown that it
is possible to reduce running
costs by up to 20% by
recommissioning equipment,
especially multi compressor
systems. Include this in
your maintenance contract.
Data from recommissioning
can help identify
improvements needed on a
system.
Make it clear that energy efficiency is important!
Many maintenance contracts do not specify any work related to energy efficiency. You need
to make it clear in your specification that you want to include energy efficiency in the contract.
Decide on the contract type (Appendices 3 and 4) and duration.
Decide what capital works the service and maintenance contractor will do.
Clearly specify your requirements related to energy efficiency
Decide how many contractors you will appoint (large sites or companies with many sites).
Set the budget.
Prepare pre tender questionnaire (Section 2 and Appendix 5).
Identify potential contractors and carry out pre tender screening (Section 2).
Decide criteria for selection of contractor(s) (Section 2 and Appendix 6).
Interview qualifying contractors (Appendix 7).
Appoint contractor(s).
Build up an effective working partnership with your contractor(s) (Section 4).
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
3. Pre Tender Qualification
You should contact as many potential contractors as possible
(you can find them through word of mouth from other
organisations, the RAC Yearbook (published by EMAP), Yellow
Pages, the internet, the British Refrigeration Association – see
Appendix 2). You need to ensure that potential contractors
understand your priorities of low life cycle costs (i.e. that energy
costs should be as low as possible). To do this you should ask
some key questions before the tender process begins:
Contractor priorities Contractors have not
traditionally been
concerned with energy
efficient operation of
plant. Ensure the
tendering contractors
understand your
requirements.
Does the contractor have an environmental policy?
• This should cover items such as reducing energy use of systems, reducing
refrigerant loss and waste management.
Does the contractor understand how their service and maintenance activities effect
energy consumption?
• For example they should understand the concept of low temperature lift and
that simple jobs like cleaning condensers significantly reduce condensing
temperature, minimise temperature lift and therefore reduce energy use.
What are their priorities with regard to refrigerants?
• They should understand the relationship between refrigerant leakage and
increased energy consumption - reducing leakage must be a priority for them.
Do they have a refrigerant management policy?
• They should understand the implications on the use of R22 of the Ozone
Depleting Substances regulation and on HFCs such as R404A of the
Fluorinated Gas (F Gas) regulation. They should also understand the impact
on system performance of the correct refrigerant charge and the importance
of identifying and correcting systems which have significant refrigerant
losses. For example, do they weigh refrigerant into systems, log the amount
used and have a strategy for dealing with systems which leak.
What qualifications and equipment do their site engineers have?
• As a minimum they should have a refrigerant handling qualification such as
City and Guilds 2078 or a current CITB refrigerant handling certificate.
Does the contractor have experience of monitoring refrigeration systems?
• This would provide you with energy consumption data and also advance
warning of problems which would otherwise result in failure and plant down
time.
Appendix 5 provides a template for this. During this screening process you should be able to
gauge the level of understanding of the potential contractors. This procedure allows you to
set your budget and decide additional needs such as monitoring.
4. Selecting a Service and Maintenance Contractor
Golden rules:
Draw up a tender document which clearly identifies what work is included and on
what basis (see Appendix 6 for a template);
Interview as many potential contractors as possible (who have passed the pre tender
screening process). A suggested interview format is provided in Appendix 7;
If appropriate, include capital works related to efficiency improvement in the service
and maintenance contract to provide an incentive to carry out improvements which
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
will reduce energy consumption. Note - high cost improvements or replacements
should always be tendered separately;
For large sites or multi site organisations consider appointing more than one
contractor (ensure there is a clear division of work). This will give you greater
flexibility if you need to re-allocate contracts and stop contractors becoming
complacent;
Give potential contractors access to the refrigeration equipment to ensure they are
able to tender to your exact requirements;
Key question – can the
Include refrigeration equipment electricity consumption as
potential contractor
a Key Performance Indicator (KPI). Ensure this takes into
demonstrate a
account ambient temperature and load – both have a
successful strategy for
significant effect on power consumption. See the Guide
reducing power
3 on operational checks for more information on
consumption of
monitoring refrigeration systems.
refrigeration equipment?
5. Managing the Contract
The tender document will provide the basis for the maintenance contract. Your refrigeration
maintenance contracting company is a valuable source of information about refrigeration, so
take advantage of this:
Ask advice on ways to reduce power consumption;
Get recommendations on system upgrade (this need not involve replacing the whole
system, in many cases replacing or modifying key components will be very effective);
Ask the contractor to provide information for your staff (e.g. training or information
sheets) showing how they can reduce plant operating costs;
If you are investing in new refrigeration equipment get advice from your contractor as
well as seeking independent advice.
In most cases it is the design or project department rather than a site technician who will be
most helpful to you. You will find it helpful to provide a forum for discussions to improve your
refrigeration plant which should include the contractor (including on site engineers),
equipment suppliers where appropriate and managers or operators of cooling equipment such
as cold stores and process cooling.
It is beneficial to audit the contractor’s work occasionally to check maintenance is being
carried out to the required standard. Ideally the audit should be done by an independent
refrigeration engineer, but you could also do this. An example audit form is included in
Appendix 8. You can find independent consultant to audit plant through the Institute of
Refrigeration (see Appendix 2).
Summary
Appropriate plant maintenance will save money through reduced energy bills, reduced service
costs and less plant down time. Appointing a good maintenance contractor is key to
achieving these savings.
Specify a contract which will provide pro-active maintenance;
Ensure contractors understand your priorities with regard to energy consumption
minimisation;
Screen potential contractors to ensure they have the experience, knowledge and
approach to be able to improve your plant’s efficiency;
Work effectively with your contractor and use them as an expert resource to improve
your plant’s performance and when upgrading your equipment.
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appendix 1:
Glossary
CITB refrigerant handling
certificate
Construction Industry Training Board training qualification
for refrigerant handlers.
City and Guilds 2078
City and Guilds training qualification for refrigerant
handlers.
F-Gas
Fluorinated gases which are global warming gases
covered by the Kyoto Protocol. F-Gases include HFCs,
PFCs and SF6 (ibid.)
Food & Drink Industry
Refrigeration Efficiency Initiative
Project sponsored by the Carbon Trust that led to
production of this Guide
HCFC
Hydrochlorofluorocarbon. HCFCs are ozone depleting
substances, being phased out under the Montreal
Protocol and the EU Ozone Regulation. This is not a gas
covered by the EU F-Gas Regulation.
HFC
Hydrofluorocarbon, one of the types of F-Gas covered by
the Kyoto Protocol.
Key Performance Indicator
(KPI)
A parameter used to compare performance between
different plants or between different time periods.
Life cycle costs
The total cost of a plant over its lifetime, including initial
capital costs, energy costs, regular maintenance, end of
life decommissioning etc.
Liquid Line Sight Glass
A small window in the liquid line (that carries refrigerant
liquid from the condenser to the expansion valve of a
refrigeration plant, used to check whether any vapour
bubbles are present.
PFC
Perfluorocarbon, one of the types of F-Gas covered by the
Kyoto Protocol.
R22
A commonly used HCFC refrigerant, which is being
phased out under the the EU Ozone Regulation.
R404A
A commonly used HFC refrigerant, which is affected by
the new EU F-Gas Regulation .
RAC Yearbook
Refrigeration Yearbook published by RAC Magazine
(Refrigeration and Air-conditioning)
Recommissioning
Setting up a plant for operation after a maintenance
shutdown.
SF6
Sulphur hexafluoride, one of the types of F-Gas covered
by the Kyoto Protocol.
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appendix 2:
Sources of Further Information
Food and Drink
Federation
Trade association for food and drink
manufacturers.
www.fdf.org.uk
Institute of
Refrigeration
Professional body for refrigeration
and air conditioning engineers.
www.ior.org.uk
British Beer and Pub
Association
Trade association for brewing and
pub sector.
www.beerandpub.com
Dairy UK
Trade association for dairy sector.
www.dairyuk.org
Cold Storage and
Distribution
Federation
Trade association for the temperature
controlled supply chain.
www.csdf.org.uk
British Refrigeration
Association
Trade organisation for companies in
the refrigeration and air conditioning
industry.
www.feta.co.uk
Carbon Trust
Information and support regarding
climate change issues.
www.carbontrust.co.uk
Guide 1
Appointing and managing
refrigeration contractors.
www.ior.org.uk
Guide 2
Procurement of new plant.
Checklist for operational
improvements.
HCFC phase out and F gas
regulations.
www.ior.org.uk
Guide 5
Reducing heat loads.
www.ior.org.uk
Guide 6
Avoiding high head pressures.
www.ior.org.uk
Guide 7
Improving part load performance.
www.ior.org.uk
Guide 8
Reducing auxiliary fan and pump
power.
www.ior.org.uk
EN378
Refrigerating systems and heat
pumps. Safety and environmental
requirements.
www.bsi-global.com
Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning
Comprehensive text book covering all
aspect of refrigeration and air
conditioning.
ISBN 0-13-323775-3
GPG 278
Purchasing efficient refrigeration – the
value for money option.
www.carbontrust.co.uk
GPG 279
Running refrigeration plant efficiently
– a cost saving guide for owners.
www.carbontrust.co.uk
www.ior.org.uk
GPG 280
Energy efficient refrigeration
technology – the fundamentals.
www.carbontrust.co.uk
www.ior.org.uk
GPG 347
Installing and commissioning of
refrigeration systems.
www.carbontrust.co.uk
www.ior.org.uk
GPG 364
Service and maintenance technicians
guide.
www.carbontrust.co.uk
www.ior.org.uk
RAC
Monthly subscription trade journal
and year book.
www.emap.com
Guide 3
Guide 4
Page 8 of 14
www.ior.org.uk
www.ior.org.uk
www.ior.org.uk
July 2007
Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appendix 3:
Maintenance and Service Contracts
Type of
contract
What’s included
Advantages
Disadvantages
Labour &
Maintenance
(Semi
comprehensive)
All reactive service visits
and all planned
maintenance visits.
Excludes all parts. Note:
sometimes calls out of
hours are chargeable.
Possibly the best option
as the contractor
concentrates on
maintenance and will
make suggestions about
your plant knowing that
he does not have to pay
for part replacement out
of his budget.
You do not have total
control over the budget.
The best option for
energy efficient plant
operation.
Fully
comprehensive
All reactive service visits
and all planned
maintenance visits. All
parts and materials.
Note: sometimes
excludes refrigerant
and/or compressors.
Appears the highest cost
option, but could be the
most cost effective. It
does allow you to budget
for the year.
Maintenance
Only
All planned maintenance
visits and materials.
Reactive service visits
and materials are
chargeable.
A good option on new
plant where the
emphasis is on
maintenance.
Pay As You Go
All chargeable.
The older your
equipment the higher the
cost will be.
The contractor takes all
the risk so will not
necessarily spend the
money required to keep
your plant running at its
optimum, especially if
the contract runs over
budget or is close to
renewal.
Careful control needs to
be exercised on the
control of material
expenditure.
Careful management of
the contractor is required
and you need to ensure
you budget for Planned
maintenance.
This looks the cheapest
option, but will be the
worst for system
efficiency – regular
maintenance is very
important.
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appendix 4:
Condensers:
Maintenance Check List
Clean them regularly, especially air cooled types. The frequency
of cleaning will depends on the condenser location and its
surrounding environment;
Check fan / pump motors all work;
Check fans are not loose on motors.
Compressors:
Carry out standard maintenance if required;
Recover oil and re charge compressors as necessary (ammonia
systems).
Air coolers:
Clean them regularly;
Check the defrost (where necessary) is working correctly;
Check the defrost control allows the optimum time for defrost;
Check fan / pump motors all work;
Check fans are not loose on motors.
Liquid chillers:
Check water pump operation.
Refrigerant charge:
Check liquid level in receiver or check for bubbling in the liquid
line sight glass;
Check for leaks all round the system and repair (note – this is
required under the Fluorinated Gas Regulations – see Guide 4
for full information).
Liquid line filter drier:
Check for blockage and replace if necessary.
Control:
Ensure the discharge pressure as low as possible – in particular
check that Head Pressure Control Settings are not too high;
Check that the suction pressure is as high as possible;
Check cold room / process temperature set points (they should
not be lower than required);
Check superheat setting of expansion valves and adjust if
necessary.
Insulation:
Replace suction line insulation if necessary;
Replace chilled liquid line insulation if necessary;
Repair or replace cold store insulation if necessary.
Cold store doors:
Ensure doors are not left open unnecessarily;
Repair or replace door seals if necessary;
Repair or replace strip curtains if necessary;
Repair or replace air curtain if necessary.
Investigate Energy
Wasting Faults
See Guide 3 for more details on how this can be done.
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appendix 5:
Pre Tender Screening Template
Introduction
The purpose of this document is to screen potential contractors to ensure they understand the
requirements of the contract, and to ensure they have the necessary resources and
procedures to provide a service that will minimise energy consumption of refrigeration
equipment.
The contractor should provide:
Item
Check list
?
Environmental
policy
Understand the impact of ozone depleting substance and
fluorinated gas regulations.
Reference to EN378 as the basic standard for refrigeration
systems.
Systems designed, installed and maintained for minimum energy
consumption.
Systems designed, installed and maintained for minimum
refrigerant usage.
Training provided to design and site engineers covering
environmental awareness.
Disposal of equipment, components and fluids in accordance with
environmental legislation.
Link between
service /
maintenance
and energy
consumption
Understand that condensing temperature and evaporating
temperature effect efficiency.
Understand that poor condenser condition increases condensing
temperature and hence energy use.
Understand the impact of set points on efficiency.
Identify and improve high energy usage systems.
Refrigerant
priorities
Understand that low refrigerant levels increase energy use.
Know how to reduce leakage.
Use effective leak detection methods.
Refrigerant
management
Engineer
qualifications
and equipment
Monitoring
Log refrigerant usage per system.
Identify and improve high refrigerant usage systems.
All site engineers have either City and Guilds 2078 or the CITB
refrigerant handling qualification
How many engineers are equipped with vacuum pump, recovery
machines, weighing scales, leak detection equipment?
Have experience with system monitoring as a tool for fault
prediction and diagnosis.
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appendix 6:
Tender Document Template
Introduction
To include summary of what you want from the contract:
•
•
•
Improved energy efficiency;
Reduced service costs;
Reduced plant down time.
And the basis of the contract:
•
•
e.g. fully comprehensive, etc;
e.g. rolling three year contract.
Equipment
•
•
•
A brief description of your business;
A brief description of the refrigeration equipment, type, age, condition and environment;
Whether the maintenance contractor will also install new equipment.
The Maintenance and Service Contract
•
•
•
•
•
•
What equipment is included (e.g. all refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, or just
specific refrigeration equipment);
Start date and hand over procedure;
Outline of what maintenance is to be included in the contract (see ?? for more detail);
Outline of how reactive service is to be provided;
Recommissioning of equipment where appropriate;
Communication and contacts.
Performance Indicators
•
•
•
•
Refrigeration system energy consumption (taking into account load and ambient
temperature);
Refrigerant usage;
Fix time and first fix rate;
Plant down time.
Equipment Improvement
•
•
Identify equipment which needs major improvement;
Outline how contractor would deal with equipment in need of major improvement.
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appendix 7:
Interview Format
Before the interview:
•
•
Provide details of the information you will require;
Provide an opportunity for the contractor to visit site to see the refrigeration equipment.
Short presentation about your company (for example as a 10 minute presentation):
•
•
•
Refrigeration applications;
Equipment type, age and condition;
Management of refrigeration.
Information to be provided by the contractor (for example as a 30 minutes presentation):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
General company information:
- Size and turnover;
- Number of refrigeration engineers – design and site – and apprentices;
- Geographical area covered;
- Training of engineers;
- Quality assurance systems;
- Extent of experience of installation, commissioning as well as service and
maintenance;
- Where the business aims to be in three years.
How the maintenance schedule will be devised (contractor should demonstrate ability to
put together a schedule specifically for the plant, e.g. by specifying condenser cleaning
frequency appropriate to the age, condition and environment of air cooled condensers);
How the contractor will provide pro active service (e.g. by monitoring plant to provide
information about fault development before failure or a significant power consumption
increase occurs);
How the contractor will reduce power consumption (examples of previous success in this
area would be beneficial);
How the contractor will reduce refrigerant leakage (including previous examples);
Communication between your company and the contractor (e.g. will there be a specific
account manager);
Discussion of performance indicators, specifically energy consumption.
Question and answer session for both parties (15 minutes).
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Appointing and Managing Refrigeration Contractors
Appendix 8:
Refrigeration Contractor Audit
This is a suggested tick sheet to by used by a non refrigeration engineer when carrying out a
visual audit on the work done by service and maintenance contractors. It is not a full audit,
but concentrates on areas which affect energy efficiency. For a more detailed audit an
independent refrigeration expert should be used.
Plant room
Is ventilation working correctly?
Plant
Is pipe work secure and free from vibration?
Is all suction pipe work well insulated (the cold pipes connected to
compressors)?
Are liquid line sight glasses clear when the system is running
(bubbles indicate low refrigerant charge)?
Do liquid refrigerant receivers show a level of at least 10% when
the system is running (a lower level indicates low charge)?
Air cooled
condensers
Are the fin blocks clean and in good condition?
Water
cooled
condensers
Is the water inlet temperature less than 6K below the water outlet
temperature.
Cold rooms
Are the evaporators continually iced up?
Is the water pump working correctly.
Are the evaporator fans working?
Are the door seals in good condition?
Are strip curtains in good condition?
Cooled
liquid
Is the process liquid pipe work insulation in good condition?
Contract
Is maintenance carried out according to the schedule?
Are the pumps working correctly?
Is refrigerant usage documented?
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