Bay Networks | Baystream 7 | Outsourcing Remote Access Services White

Outsourcing Remote Access Services
White Paper
October 1998
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
Contents
Remote Access: In-house or Outsource?
Concentric Network RemoteLink™ Product
Virtual Private Network Technology: An Overview
Concentric Network Corporation Background
Local Access Numbers
TradeMarks
Concentric RemoteLink™, Concentric Network Corporation™, FullChannel™, and FlexChannel™ are trademarks of Concentric Network Corporation.
Baystream DVS™ is a trademark of Bay Networks.
Concentric Network Corporation
10590 N. Tantau Avenue
Cupertino, Califorinia 95014
1.408.342.2800
1.800.939.4262
www.concentric.net
10/1/1998
2
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
Remote Access: In House or Outsource?
According to Forrester Research, “The Remote LAN Access market is growing explosively.” All
of the Fortune 1000 companies that Forrester spoke to “permit dial-in access to their corporate
LANs, and almost nine out of 10 firms see the number of remote access users expanding by the
year 2,000.1” According to Cahners In-Stat Group, the number of remote access dial-in ports will
grow 76% from 1998 to 2000.2 “More than 25% of corporate users implement or plan to
implement outsourced remote access, and this is just the beginning,” said Greg Cline, Principal
Analyst for Cahners In-Stat Group’s Internet Architecture Service. “Smart carriers will be adding
value by providing this service, then going the extra mile to comprehensively manage end-user
remote access.” Driven by compelling economics, the outsourced remote access solution mix is
shifting in favor of Internet-based solutions. According to Cahners In-Stat Group, the stage is
being set for virtual private networks.
As the number of users needing remote access continues to explode, many organizations have
struggled with the additional demands placed upon their already stretched resources. The need
to provide 7x24 support, keep up with technological change in access technologies, control
communications costs, and simply add enough hardware and phone lines to satisfy demand has
caused many of these organizations to rethink their strategy regarding supporting remote access
as an in-house service.
Business Outsourcing Issues
With the increase in numbers and mobility of remote users comes the need to manage costs. Most
organizations support their mobile users through 1-800 numbers, and large modem pools managed at
the periphery of the corporate LAN. Typical costs on these 1-800 facilities for long distance usage
range from $3.60 to over $6 per hour, depending on long distance provider and other factors.
Outsourcing to a Network Service Provider with significant local call access coverage provides the
potential for significant cost reduction.
Management control is an important issue for most organizations, and can be a reason that
organizations hesitate to consider outsourcing of remote access. Fortunately, recent developments
such as the de facto standard RADIUS (RFC 2058) protocol, and advanced tunneling technology, now
allow organizations to maintain the security and control of their remote access user base, while still
outsourcing the access component and accruing significant benefits. In addition, new tools are
available which allow network managers to gain visibility into their outsourced network, for determining
user activity, load on the access links, and other important status information.
The ability (or lack thereof) of an in-house staff or a potential outsourcing partner to support users
outside of the normal 8-5 business hours is another consideration. For mobile user communities, the
usage of the remote access facilities in many cases stretches well beyond what is considered normal
help desk support hours.
1
The Forrester Report, Telecom Strategies: Analyzing Telecommunications in an Era of Deregulation
and the Internet, Volume Three, Number Three, August 1998, Freeze, Goodtree, Schmidt, and Goldberg.
2
Cahner’s In-Stat Group, Remote Access and the Rise of the Corporate VPN: Market Opportunities and
Trends, August 1998, Greg Cline.
10/1/1998
3
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
Technical Outsourcing Issues
Probably the single biggest obstacle to outsourcing remote access has historically been a lack of
adequate tunneling technology and security measures. The recent development of standards for
tunneling technology, such as Mobile IP, as well as authentication protocols such as RADIUS, now
allows for management of the security function by the end user organization.
This same technology permits the use of user authentication tokens to produce one-time passwords,
and allows for a very high level of security and user authentication. The Network Service Provider
now need not be the keeper of the user ID and password database, as the security server can reside
at the end user customer site.
An additional technical issue which impacts the ability to outsource a remote access network, is the
“transparency” of the solution. End users need for their remote access solution, whether an in-house
service, or an outsourced one, to provide multiprotocol support for IP and IPX clients, and IP
addressing via dynamic assignment (using the end user customer’s address space, not the NSP’s IP
addresses). In addition, the solution should not impose restrictions on the client software supported, or
on the customer premises routing equipment to be used. Until recently this was not possible with an
outsourced offering. With RemoteLink™ (which is based on the mobile IP and Generic Routing
Encapsulation IETF draft standards and RFC’s), it is now possible to outsource your remote access,
and provide an elegant solution which addresses these issues.
Concentric Network RemoteLink™ Service
Service Overview
The Concentric RemoteLink™ service is a Virtual Private Network (“VPN”) application that gives
remote or mobile PC equipped users secure IP dial up access to an IP based private network via
the Concentric Network. It is specifically designed for the corporate network manager who has a
large number of remote end users and needs to give remote access to centrally located
corporate information access points. The technology infrastructure supporting Concentric
RemoteLink™ is based on Bay Networks remote access servers, routers and dial virtual private
network services software, however the customer premises equipment router may be from other
vendors.
Key Service Features
Concentric Network’s RemoteLink™ is an ideal solution for organizations seeking to grow their
remote access usage, while managing costs.
1) Remote Access Server (RAS) Focus: Concentric is one of the few Network Service
Providers to focus on the Remote Access to corporate LANs market segment. Concentric
has a total package for network monitoring, support, and control which allows an MIS
manager to outsource the operation of their RAS with peace of mind.
2) Multi-protocol support: The RemoteLink™ service supports IP and also supports remote IPX
clients.
3) Performance and Reliability: Concentric is now offering SLA's for call success rate and initial
modem connect speeds. Concentric Network's dial SLA's are measured using research
10/1/1998
4
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
conducted by Inverse Network Technology, which rates the performance of service providers
on a letter grade system, from A+ to D, each month. For call success rates, Concentric
Network will meet or exceed industry average for business hours. For initial modem
connection speed, Concentric Network will also meet or exceed the industry average. If
Concentric fails to meet these measurements, it will credit the customer's monthly bill for 10
percent for each grade level below the industry average. And, in another first for the
industry, Concentric is the first provider to handle SLAs proactively—if Concentric fails to
meet these SLA commitments, it will credit the customer account automatically. Most
providers today require the customer to prove that the agreement wasn't met, to request a
credit, and to give the service provider 60 days to address the problem.
4) Network architecture: Private ATM partially meshed T3 backbone network with SuperPOPs
supporting local access. Two data centers, equipped with onsite UPS and diesel generators,
provide for reliable network operation.
5) IP Security: Concentric has deployed the Bay Network’s Baystream Dial VPN Service
tunneling technology which creates secure tunnels through the network. Concentric will also
be offering an encryption option for the service.
6) Physical Security: Concentric SuperPOP locations are in secure, hardened
telecommunication facilities. Concentric is a privately managed network, hence customers
data traffic will never touch the open Internet.
7) Authentication, Authorization and Accounting: Through the use of RADIUS proxy calls, user
authentication and authorization is controlled by the customer, NOT Concentric. Concentric
is also able to return RADIUS accounting information to customer premise located
Authentication Servers.
8) Ease of Use for the Mobile User: Only standard dialer software already present on all
remote systems is required. However, Concentric has developed a WIN95 Installshield
compliant client/server application, called Access Finder, that determines the nearest local
access phone number. Through a single button selection, an 800 number is dialed and
automatically returns to the client application the local access phone number(s). The remote
user can then dial the local number. In addition each time this application is used, a
complete local access list is updated on the client system. The end result is that a remote
user can always find a Concentric local access number easily and connect.
9) Minimal infrastructure changes: No change to remote client application system on the PC.
Standard Frame Relay circuit required between Concentric Gateway router and the customer
network. Any RFC 1490 compliant frame relay WAN port off of a CPE router is required
(Cisco , Bay, etc.).
10) End User Support: Concentric provides two levels of support for a RAS customer. Concentric
can provide second tier escalation support for the customer’s in-house support desk if the
customer supports its end users directly. Alternatively, Concentric can provide direct first tier
telephone based support for RAS end users for basic connectivity on a 7 x 24 basis if the
optional support service is purchased.
11) Cost Reduction: Concentric Remote Access can reduce costs by over 40% below the cost of
in-house managed RAS solutions, depending on the nature of the implementation. In
addition to direct reduction in costs, Concentric can shield customers from the headcount
responsible for supporting these services.
10/1/1998
5
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
User/Tunnel Interaction
The following is a summary of the steps involved in establishing a connection over the
Concentric Network. This scenario assumes that RADIUS is the user authentication method and
the Authentication Server resides in the customer network:
1. The remote user invokes AccessFinder, finds & dials a local number, and the initial PPP
handshake begins with the Remote Access Server (RAS).
2. The user is logged in to the RAS using a combination of user name and domain name, along
with their password. (Example: jsmith@customersite.com).
3. The RAS queries a Tunnel Management Server (TMS) with the domain name to find a
matching entry in the database.
4. If the entry is found, the TMS responds to the RAS with the information necessary to build an
IP “Tunnel” between the dial port and a specific Frame Relay port, identified by a Data Link
Connection Identifier (DLCI).
5. The RAS then sends a registration message including the DLCI, user name, password, and
the IP address of the customer’s authentication server to the gateway node. A secure
cryptographic handshake is performed between the RAS and the gateway node to verify the
identity of each.
6. The gateway sends out a RADIUS access request message to the specified authentication
server. The request message is encrypted between the gateway and the authentication
server.
7. The gateway then passes a RADIUS authentication acknowledgment to the RAS to complete
the authentication.
8. The connection is established, the tunnel is then built, and data begins to pass through the
network.
9. The tunnel exists until the connection is dropped, then the gateway router sends a RADIUS
accounting disconnect message so that IP address can be reassigned.
Security of Concentric RemoteLink™
The RemoteLink™ service has been designed to provide a high degree of security. In terms of user
authentication, remote users are assigned user ID’s and passwords, which are authenticated against
the customer’s RADIUS server. Concentric supports time synchronous handheld user authentication
tokens (tokens not requiring a challenge), via an extension to the RADIUS server. There is also a
cryptographic authentication handshake that occurs between the entry RAS server, and the gateway
router, to verify identity of each device to the other. Finally, the users ID/password are encrypted
using a shared secret between the RADIUS proxy in Concentric’s network, and the RADIUS server at
the customer premise.
The tunneling technology used by RemoteLink™ provides further security, by hiding the existence of
the customer’s network from the Concentric network, and the Internet. No routes to the customer
network are advertised on Concentric’s network, or the Internet.
Because the data transmitted from end users to their corporate LAN is sent entirely on Concentric’s
nationwide network, data privacy is no more or less an issue than a typical private network. This is in
contrast to other VPN solutions where the data is transmitted over the Internet, and where encryption
is pretty much mandatory.
10/1/1998
6
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
Ease of Use & Manageability
Access Finder
The remote user can find the local Concentric access number by selecting the locate button. The
application (Access Finder) will dial an 800 number. Once connected, the server will “learn” the user
location and return the local access number. The system will also download the latest access list. The
client application disconnects from the 800 number and then dials the local access number. The
remote user can use the location name provided by the server or replace it with a name that he wants,
such as, the name of a hotel or company.
10/1/1998
7
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
RemoteLink™ Management Control
RemoteLink™ provides many capabilities that allow the organization to effectively manage their
remote user population. The service returns RADIUS accounting information to the RADIUS server
located at the customer premise, enabling usage reporting by the organization. The RADIUS server
also allows the organization to control adds, deletes, and changes to their remote user population.
Concentric RemoteLink vs. In-House RAS: Cost Analysis
The analysis below provides a comparison between costs of an in-house RAS solution and the
Concentric RemoteLink service. The analysis uses both the lowest price point that the RemoteLink
service is offered at, based on volume, as well as the lowest 1-800 per minutes rates that we have
identified (and which are given only to the largest 1-800 users). Concentric Network can make this
spreadsheet available to you upon request, so that you can plug in your actual numbers to determine
savings for your situation.
10/1/1998
8
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
Virtual Private Network Technology: An Overview
One of the hottest topics in the networking industry is switched access to Virtual Private
Networks (VPNs). Driven by the boom in Internet usage, as well as a sharp increase in the
number of workers that dial in to their own corporate networks, the use of generically
encapsulated “tunnels” is already making switched access to these network resources more
efficient and practical for customers, service providers, and the telephone companies that
provide the physical infrastructure for all of these networks.
Concentric’s solution for providing switched connectivity to VPNs is based upon Bay Network’s
Baystream DVS™. This technology provides a set of capabilities that runs across Bay Networks
remote access server and router platforms. It is available now as a fully functional end-to-end
solution that has many capabilities unique in the industry today. Concentric’s testing indicates
that this technology is interoperable with any standards-based client PPP software, any
standards-based Frame Relay router, and any existing Frame Relay service.
Recently, the IETF decided that the "standard" Layer-3 tunneling solution would be based on
Mobile IP. Today, Concentric RemoteLink(tm) is 80%-85% compliant with the Mobile IP
specification. In addition to the Layer-3 tunneling approach currently offered, Concentric
Network will implement Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) as the standard evolves and is
finalized.
The goal of RemoteLink™ is to allow remote devices simple and secure access to a
corporation’s LAN. RemoteLink™ is based on the concept of encapsulating multiprotocol data in
IP “tunnels” that exist between a RAS (Remote Access Server) and a gateway router using GRE.
RemoteLink dynamically establishes and tears down “tunnels” over an IP routed backbone in
order to facilitate the connection between the remote user and his/her “home” network. In
addition to GRE, this technology borrows heavily from IETF working groups, draft specifications,
and standards such as IP Mobility, RADIUS, and IP Security (IPSEC) in addition to IP routing,
Frame Relay, and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).
Some Benefits of a Dial VPN Service
Corporate customers no longer need to invest in massive banks of modem racks or ISDN
equipment to terminate subscriber calls at their premises since the RAS is placed in Concentric
Network SuperPOP sites. Additionally, corporate IS staffs are no longer required to deal with the
many headaches associated with remote network connectivity or performance issues because
these calls can be deflected to Concentric Network’s customer service organization.
Finally, corporate customers will save money on toll, calling card, 1-800, and 950 charges while
giving end users more convenient access to their home networks.
How It Works
The Concentric RemoteLink™ service incorporates a technique known as Layer 3 Forwarding.
With Layer 3 Forwarding, the incoming call to the network is terminated at the Remote Access
Server (RAS) and the Layer 2 protocol header, usually a PPP header, is stripped off leaving only
the Layer 3 (Network Layer) payload. The payload is then encapsulated with a GRE header and
an IP header in which the source IP address is the tunnel initiation point and the destination IP
address is the tunnel termination point.
10/1/1998
9
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
The payload is then routed over the IP backbone to the endpoint of the tunnel that resides in the
gateway router. It is then forwarded to a specific Frame Relay Data Link Connection Identifier
(DLCI). There, the payload is re-encapsulated with a standard Frame Relay RFC 1490 header
and sent to the customers network via the Frame Relay connection.
Layer 3 Forwarding and Layer 2 Forwarding
The RemoteLink™ service carries only the Layer 3 (and above) payload through the IP tunnel.
Layer 2 Forwarding, on the other hand, tunnels the entire PPP frame over the Service Provider’s
IP backbone. This not only adds framing overhead, but introduces potential timing issues, since
PPP network control protocol negotiation are time sensitive. In many cases the endpoints of the
tunnel are separated by long distances and/or many router hops. Under these conditions, PPP
connections carried over tunnels based on Layer 2 Forwarding may be prone to timeouts and/or
frequent resets.
The IP tunnel is both created and terminated in Concentric’s network. The remote user’s PPP
session is terminated at the remote access server entry point into our network. This contrasts
with Layer 2 Forwarding technologies such as Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), in which
the tunnel is created in the service provider’s network, but requires termination at an NT server
that usually resides at the customer’s premise.
The diagrams below depict examples of both Layer 3 and Layer 2 Forwarding. RemoteLink™ is
based on Layer 3 forwarding and therefore the tunnel is between the RAS and the gateway
router on Concentric’s network. Modifications in client laptop computer and corporate routers are
not required.
Layer 3 (Virtual Tunneling Protocol)
RADIUS
Gateway
Router
RAS
Tunnel
Mgt Sys
Authentication
Server
PPP session
GRE Encapsulated Tunnel
Concentric Network
Laptop
computer
Frame Relay link
Router
Concentric RemoteLink™ service - From edge to
edge of Concentric's Network
10/1/1998
10
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
Layer 2 PPTP/L2TP tunneling in a
Layer 3 (Virtual Tunneling Protocol) session
Gateway
Router
RAS
Router
PPP session
GRE Encapsulated Tunnel
IP Network
Laptop
computer
Frame Relay link
Layer 2 tunneling is a session between the client
and a NT server located on the corporate network
NT Server
Tunnel Registration and User Authentication
Two critical components of the Concentric RemoteLink™ service are the Tunnel Management
Server (TMS) and the Authentication Server (AS) processes.
The TMS is used to store relevant information about the customer’s network including the
customer’s two IP tunnel endpoints and characteristics associated with the tunnel such as tunnel
refresh timers, type of encryption used, and the customer’s IP domain name.
The AS is used to authenticate individual users attempting to gain access to the customer’s
“home” network.
Summary & Future Directions
Today there are no vendors today currently implementing standards-based tunneling. PPTP has
been retired in favor of L2TP. L2F has been retired for the same reason. Concentric is closely
monitoring the activities surrounding L2TP. As L2TP becomes closer to standardization,
Concentric will support this alternative tunneling scheme. Supporting both Layer 3 Forwarding
and Layer 2 Forwarding will give our customers the option of choosing a VPN architecture that
most closely fits the requirements of the service being offered. In either case, the service can be
deployed using the technology infrastructure currently in Concentric’s network.
10/1/1998
11
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
Concentric Network Corporation: An Overview
A leader in IP network innovation, Concentric Network provides wide area intranets, extranets,
and application hosting solutions for the enterprise. These high-performance, secure, costeffective, and reliable IP-based network services connect enterprises with their remote sites,
mobile users, business partners, and customers. For individuals and small to medium size
businesses, Concentric Network also offers a complete line of access and hosting products. The
Concentric network architecture is based on “super” points of presence (SuperPOPs), an
advanced ATM backbone, and distributed data and hosting centers which enable high
functionality, low/fixed latency, high throughput, and superior reliability to support a wide range of
applications.
Operational since late 1994, Concentric Network is traded on NASDAQ under the symbol
“CNCX.”
Concentric Network Mission Statement
To be the premier provider of value-added IP network application and services worldwide.
Enterprise Solutions
Virtual Private Networks:
The Concentric Enterprise VPN™ (EVPN) is a business-critical wide-area networking solution that
enables an organization to securely and reliably communicate with its offices, business partners,
vendors, customers, and employees (both local and remote). Customers can also take advantage of
turnkey security solutions with Concentric’s Managed Security Service.
Concentric CustomLink™ is a unique VPN offering that gives an organization a direct,
individualized online connection to their customers.
Concentric RemoteLink™ enables mobile employees, telecommuters, and business partners to
securely and cost effectively dial into their enterprise network and use network resources as if they
were locally connected.
Application Hosting:
ConcentricHost™ is a complete line of application hosting services that provide tailored, highperformance, scalable solutions. The service offerings range from bundled packages for individual
consumers and small businesses to managed Web server and colocation services for large
enterprises.
Access Services:
Concentric offers a full-range of high-speed dedicated access services to connect multiple, dispersed
network sites, providing Internet, intranet and LAN access across a VPN. Most of these services have
latency and throughput guarantees and are priced based on average usage. Options include
FullChannel T1™ and T3, FlexChannel T1™ and T3, LECFrame Relay, and Digital Subscriber Line
(DSL). Concentric is working with several carriers to offer DSL services in parts of Northern and
Southern California, and plans to expand coverage nationally throughout 1998.
10/1/1998
12
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
A broad range of Internet access options are available for individuals, telecommuters, and small
businesses, including Internet access, Web hosting, e-mail, chat, file transfer protocol (FTP), and
online shareware services. A team of customer support experts back all Concentric services, 24 hours
a day, 7 days a week.
Video Services:
Concentric Video IP Services™ are the industry’s first business-quality IP-based
videoconferencing services. Created in partnership with videoconferencing leader PictureTel,
Concentric Video IP Services combine high-performance IP transport services with value-added
directory and gateway services that bridge the IP and ISDN video worlds.
Voice Services:
Coming Soon: Concentric’s IP voice services will enable high-quality, cost-effective voice
communications across a VPN. Concentric’s Carrier IP Voice Services will deliver aggressively
priced, toll-quality international phone-to-phone calling to more than 200 countries around the
world.
NETWORK
Concentric designed and operates a low/fixed latency, high-throughput, scaleable network.
Based on an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) backbone, the Concentric network offers
customers access via dial-up modems as well as high-speed connections. Concentric offers
service level guarantees on dedicated connections that cover latency, network availability and
dial access.
The Concentric network in the United States and Canada consists of 16 SuperPOPs in major
metropolitan calling areas supplemented by approximately 135 traditional POPs located in
smaller markets. Through a partnership with Telecom Italia, Concentric is rolling out service in
Europe, Asia and South America throughout 1998.
STRATEGIC PARTNERS
Williams Communications Group, Telecom Italia, SOFTBANK Holdings, Inc., Kleiner Perkins
Caufield & Byers
DISTRIBUTION
Direct sales team: 39 members, IMPACT Partner Program: 56 channel partners
DATA CENTER LOCATIONS
In California: Santa Clara, San Francisco, Los Angeles Outside California: Washington, D.C.;
Chicago International hosting facilities: Toyko, Hong Kong, Stockholm
EMPLOYEES
550
HEADQUARTERS
10590 N. Tantau Avenue, Cupertino, California 95014, 408.342.2800, www.concentric.net
4
10/1/1998
13
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
Local Access Numbers in the US and Canada: October 2, 1998
Concentric is continually adding new access numbers and broadening our local reach of our
network. To access the most current local access numbers, visit http://home.concentric.net/POP/.
State
AB
AB
AK
AL
AL
AL
AR
AZ
AZ
BC
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
City
Calgary
Edmonton
Anchorage
Birmingham
Huntsville
Mobile
Little Rock
Phoenix
Tucson
Vancouver
Angels Camp
Antioch
Auburn
Bakersfield
Benicia
Boulder Creek
Brockway
Burbank
Butte City
Cambria
Challenge
Chico
Chico
Chowchilla
Cloverdale
Compton
Concord
Corona
Crows Landing
Cypress
Davis
Dinuba
Dublin/San Ramon
Earlimart
El Centro
El Monte
Eureka
Fairfield
Firebaugh
Fort Bragg
Number
403-265-4590
403-423-7800
907-561-7746
205-322-8833
256-881-4494
334-433-0095
501-707-1054
602-651-0180
520-547-0432
604-669-9044
209-729-0025
925-775-0025
530-883-0025
805-316-3202
707-749-0025
831-337-0001
530-548-0025
818-531-0611
530-884-0025
805-926-0025
530-236-0025
530-540-0025
530-571-0025
209-663-0025
707-893-0025
310-361-0025
925-826-0503
909-281-0025
209-856-0025
714-763-0520
530-298-0025
209-590-0025
925-557-1620
805-851-0025
760-332-0025
626-532-0531
707-440-0025
707-430-0009
209-657-0025
707-969-0025
10/1/1998
14
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
Fremont/Newark
Fresno
Garden Grove
Grass Valley
Hollister
Irvine
Jackson
Joshua Tree
King City
Lakeport
Laton
Lodi
Lompoc
Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Los Banos
Los Molinos
Lower Lake
Madera
Martinez
Marysville
Merced
Moccasin
Modesto
Modesto
Monterey
Monterey
Mt Shasta
Oakland
Oakland
Occidental
Oceanside
Ontario USA
Orland
Oroville
Palm Desert
Palm Springs
Palmdale
Palo Alto
Paso Robles
Placerville
Pleasanton
Porterville
Portola
Quincy
Ramona
Rancho Bernardo
Redding
Redwood City
510-404-0503
209-420-0025
714-591-0523
530-270-0025
831-665-0025
949-930-0611
209-231-0025
760-821-0025
831-387-0025
707-264-0025
209-921-0025
209-340-0025
805-741-0025
323-332-0510
323-603-0515
209-828-0025
530-390-0025
707-993-0025
209-660-0025
925-369-0025
530-770-0025
209-721-0025
209-927-0025
209-554-0025
209-653-0025
831-886-0025
831-887-0025
530-239-0025
510-288-0025
510-982-0610
707-873-0025
760-826-0025
909-457-0025
530-936-0025
530-871-0025
760-797-0025
760-841-0025
805-280-0025
650-687-0610
805-221-0025
530-291-0025
925-397-0025
209-792-0025
530-831-0025
530-280-0025
760-825-0025
619-815-0025
530-248-0025
650-423-0025
10/1/1998
15
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CA
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CT
CT
CT
Redwood City
Riverside
S Tahoe
Sacramento
Saddleback Valley
Salinas
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Francisco
San Jacinto
San Jose W
San Luis Obispo
San Martin
San Mateo
San Pedro
San Rafael
San Rafael
Santa Barbara
Santa Clarita
Santa Cruz
Santa Maria
Santa Rosa
Santa Rosa
Santa Ynez
Saticoy
Soledad
Sonoma
Stockton
Thousand Oaks
Three Rivers
Tracy
Truckee
Ukiah
Vacaville
Van Nuys
Visalia
Walnut Creek
Wasco
Willits
Yosemite
Yreka
Colorado Springs
Ft Collins
Greeley
Lafayette/Louisville
Littleton
Bridgeport
Danbury
Hartford
650-481-0896
909-344-0025
530-494-0025
916-282-0025
949-767-0025
831-785-0025
909-385-0025
619-210-2103
415-659-0610
909-651-0025
408-490-0610
805-476-0025
408-692-0025
650-653-0610
310-507-0516
415-450-0013
415-784-0025
805-880-0025
805-244-0025
831-480-0025
805-357-0025
707-536-0010
707-581-0025
805-697-0025
805-243-0025
831-677-0025
707-940-0025
209-926-0025
805-435-0025
209-566-0025
209-820-0025
530-579-0025
707-466-0025
707-470-0025
818-742-0522
209-746-0025
925-948-1591
805-759-0025
707-370-0025
209-885-0025
530-937-0025
719-636-2685
970-282-6540
970-346-8579
303-664-4600
303-486-9740
203-330-1077
203-730-0242
860-233-7400
10/1/1998
16
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
CT
CT
CT
DC
DE
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
FL
GA
GA
GA
GA
GA
HI
IA
ID
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
New Haven
Norwich
Stamford
Washington
Wilmington
Boca Raton
Cocoa Beach
Ft. Lauderdale
Gainesville
Jacksonville
Lakeland
Miami
Orlando
Sarasota
St Petersburg
Tallahassee
Tampa
West Palm Beach
Augusta
Chamblee
Marietta
Norcross
Smyrna
Honolulu
Des Moines
Meridian
Antioch
Arlington Heights
Aurora
Bellwood
Bensenville
Champaign-Urbana
Chicago
Chicago
Chicago
Chicago
Chicago
Chicago
Crystal Lake
Des Plaines
Downers Grove
E Moline
Elk Grove
Elmhurst
Hinsdale
Lockport
Lombard
Naperville
Northbrook
203-389-7722
860-204-0099
203-977-0662
202-478-0503
302-252-9100
561-226-0010
407-784-5667
954-845-0336
352-372-0066
904-292-1466
941-686-6153
305-994-7441
407-245-1273
941-342-0000
727-323-0348
850-222-8015
813-879-0174
561-227-0012
706-723-4039
770-225-0001
770-250-0001
770-325-0001
770-308-0001
808-536-8900
515-243-8393
208-893-9720
847-838-7150
847-463-0526
630-518-0008
708-401-0525
630-477-0596
217-378-7250
312-453-7228
312-803-0927
773-442-0536
773-584-0841
773-598-0523
773-632-0531
815-261-0007
847-227-0511
630-874-0964
309-796-3377
847-631-0555
630-589-0528
630-203-0590
815-886-8069
630-282-0577
630-300-0540
847-400-0690
10/1/1998
17
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IL
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
KS
KY
KY
LA
LA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MA
MB
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
MD
ME
MI
Pekin
Peoria
Rockford
Roselle
Skokie
Summit
Wheeling
Ft. Wayne
Gary
Indianapolis
Lafayette
Osceola
Wichita
Lexington
Louisville
Baton Rouge
New Orleans
Acton
Billerica
Boston
Brockton
Brookline
Burlington
Cambridge
Framingham
Lawrence
Lexington
Lowell
Malden
Medford
Newton
Quincy
Salem
Springfield
Waltham
Woburn
Worcester
Winnipeg
Baltimore
Berwyn
Bethesda
Capitol Heights
Gaithersburg
Gaithersburg
Hyattsville
Kensington
Silver Spring
Portland
Ann Arbor
309-353-7346
309-687-2900
815-987-4520
847-273-0531
847-745-0526
708-929-0573
847-777-0571
219-486-8181
219-939-8001
317-655-0043
765-463-7075
219-679-0167
316-267-0066
606-252-2113
502-589-7009
225-925-8601
504-362-7977
978-635-9000
978-964-0519
617-531-0669
508-894-4952
617-992-0502
781-852-0503
617-588-0946
508-861-0532
978-681-6074
781-778-0504
978-275-3900
781-480-0503
781-658-0502
617-831-0503
617-249-0503
978-740-3921
413-827-7026
781-663-0829
781-970-0503
508-853-1270
204-943-6680
410-246-1872
301-479-0503
301-968-0528
301-778-0503
301-296-0570
301-337-0607
301-364-0531
301-348-0538
301-755-0502
207-842-3700
734-585-0061
10/1/1998
18
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MI
MN
MO
MO
MS
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NE
NE
NH
NH
NH
NJ
NJ
NJ
NJ
NJ
NJ
NJ
NJ
Auburn Heights
Birmingham
Centerline
Detroit
Detroit
Detroit
Detroit
Detroit
Detroit
Farmington
Flint
Flint
Grand Rapids
Kalamazoo
Lansing
Midland
Pontiac
Royal Oak
Saginaw
Southfield
Troy
Warren
Wayne
West Bloomfield
Wyandotte
Wyandotte
Wyandotte
Minneapolis
Bridgeton
Kansas City
Jackson
Charlotte
Durham
Greensboro
Raleigh
Winston-Salem
Lincoln
Omaha
Dover
Merrimack
Rye Beach
Belmar
Bloomfield
Ewing
Freehold
Hackensack
Haddonfield
Jersey City
Metuchen
248-270-0038
248-430-0074
810-467-0024
313-731-0517
313-743-0042
313-749-0710
313-915-0018
313-952-0019
313-989-0179
248-957-0524
810-249-5697
810-275-0042
616-776-1118
616-226-9900
517-332-4844
517-837-3101
248-365-0710
248-581-0133
517-249-6220
248-936-0710
248-729-0710
810-819-0057
734-629-0710
248-702-0023
734-286-0020
734-286-0020
734-286-0206
612-374-6110
314-813-0001
816-842-1765
601-354-4008
704-358-3540
919-572-2224
336-373-0290
919-821-0194
336-659-9771
402-466-0262
402-731-2424
603-743-2100
603-423-1000
603-964-9760
732-312-1998
973-655-0082
609-362-9100
732-358-1997
201-270-4999
609-325-9100
201-356-1996
732-548-8989
10/1/1998
19
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
NJ
NJ
NJ
NJ
NM
NM
NV
NV
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
NY
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OK
OK
ON
ON
OR
OR
OR
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
Middletown
Morristown
Newark
Toms River
Albuquerque
Los Alamos
Las Vegas
Reno
Albany
Brooklyn
Buffalo
Elmsford
Hempstead
Larchmont
New York
New York
Pt. Chester
Rochester
Syracuse
Tarrytown
Utica
White Plains
White Plains
Akron
Dayton
Hamilton
Independence
Little Miami
Middletown
Toledo
Worthington
Youngstown
Oklahoma City
Tulsa
Ottawa
Toronto
Eugene
Portland
Salem
Bethlehem
Collegeville
Harrisburg
Lancaster
Lansdowne
Norristown
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Scranton
Willow Grove
732-368-1999
973-984-0062
973-776-1999
732-504-1996
505-873-5445
505-662-1409
702-247-6105
702-323-3001
518-242-1000
718-210-0541
716-796-0566
914-460-3100
516-417-0200
914-998-0000
212-271-5988
212-328-9066
914-996-0000
716-720-1902
315-233-0700
914-598-0100
315-235-0700
914-461-0000
914-461-1515
330-376-7996
937-291-1323
513-868-3900
216-524-1498
513-583-0791
513-424-3381
419-324-8100
614-885-6569
330-270-0165
405-427-7144
918-583-1600
613-231-5805
416-777-2064
541-334-6726
503-972-2525
503-361-8868
610-297-9100
610-226-0501
717-233-5011
717-393-3910
610-553-9100
610-233-0501
215-399-0516
412-281-3600
717-344-6051
215-392-0501
10/1/1998
20
Concentric Network Corporation White Paper, Outsourcing Remote Access Services
QU
RI
SC
SC
SC
TN
TN
TN
TN
TX
TX
TX
TX
TX
TX
TX
UT
UT
VA
VA
VA
VA
VA
WA
WA
WA
WA
WI
WI
WI
WI
Montreal
Providence
Charleston
Columbia
Greenville
Chattanooga
Knoxville
Memphis
Nashville
Austin
Dallas
El Paso
Grand Prairie
Grapevine
Houston/Buffalo
San Antonio
Provo
Salt Lake City
Arlington
Fairfax/Vienna
Falls Church
Richmond
Virginia Beach
Richland
Seattle
Spokane
Tacoma
Kenosha
Madison
Milwaukee
Neenah
514-395-1038
401-521-0121
843-805-7006
803-252-3685
864-288-1843
423-624-1340
423-470-2296
901-353-5206
615-297-1100
512-419-0808
214-210-0523
915-585-9665
972-375-0501
817-421-8600
281-529-0020
210-357-2833
801-373-3044
801-924-0603
703-682-0016
703-995-0141
703-852-0074
804-649-1394
757-631-1215
509-371-0628
206-336-0001
509-456-2650
253-474-9333
414-942-4500
608-280-4900
414-449-9651
920-727-0961
10/1/1998
21
Download PDF