ProCurve | 2510G Series | System information | ProCurve 2510G Series System information

management and
configuration guide
hp procurve series 2500 switches
www.hp.com/go/procurve
HP ProCurve Switches
2512 and 2524
Software Release F.01or Greater
Management and Configuration Guide
© Copyright 2000 Hewlett-Packard Company
All Rights Reserved.
This document contains information which is protected by
copyright. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without
prior permission is prohibited, except as allowed under the
copyright laws.
Publication Number
5969-2354
August 2000
Applicable Product
Disclaimer
The information contained in this document is subject to
change without notice.
HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY MAKES NO WARRANTY
OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS MATERIAL,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Hewlett-Packard shall not
be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this material.
Hewlett-Packard assumes no responsibility for the use or
reliability of its software on equipment that is not furnished
by Hewlett-Packard.
HP ProCurve Switch 2512 (J4812A)
HP ProCurve Switch 2524 (J4813A)
Warranty
Trademark Credits
Microsoft, Windows, Windows 95, and Microsoft Windows
NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
Internet Explorer is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Corporation.
Netscape is a registered trademark of Netscape Corporation.
Hewlett-Packard Company
8000 Foothills Boulevard, m/s 5551
Roseville, California 95747-5551
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
See the Customer Support/Warranty booklet included with
the product.
A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your
Hewlett-Packard products and replacement parts can be
obtained from your HP Sales and Service Office or
authorized dealer.
Preface
Preface
Use of This Guide and Other ProCurve Switch
Documentation
This guide describes how to use the command line interface (CLI), menu
interface, and web browser interface for the HP ProCurve Switches 2512 and
2524 - hereafter referred to individually as the “Switch 2512” or “Switch 2524”
and collectively as the “Switches 2512/2524” or “Series 2500 switches”).
■
If you need information on specific parameters in the menu interface,
refer to the online help provided in the interface.
■
If you need information on a specific command in the CLI, type the
command name followed by “help” (<command> help).
■
If you need information on specific features in the HP Web Browser
Interface (hereafter referred to as the “web browser interface”), use the
online help available for the web browser interface. For more information
on web browser Help options, refer to “Online Help for the HP Web
Browser Interface” on page 4-12.
■
If you need further information on Hewlett-Packard switch technology,
refer to HP’s ProCurve Networking website at:
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
iii
Contents
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Use of This Guide and Other ProCurve Switch Documentation . . . . . . iii
1: Selecting a Management Interface
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Understanding Management Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Advantages of Using the Menu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Advantages of Using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
CLI Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Advantages of Using the HP Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Advantages of Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches . . . . . . . . . 1-6
2. Using the Menu Interface
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Starting and Ending a Menu Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
How To Start a Menu Interface Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
How To End a Menu Session and Exit from the Console: . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Main Menu Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Screen Structure and Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Rebooting the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Menu Features List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Where To Go From Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
3. Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
v
Contents
Accessing the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Privilege Levels at Logon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Privilege Level Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Operator Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Manager Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
How To Move Between Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Listing Commands and Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Listing Commands Available at Any Privilege Level . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Command Option Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Displaying CLI "Help" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Configuration Commands and the Context Configuration Modes . . 3-13
CLI Control and Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
4. Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Web Browser Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session with the Switch . . 4-5
Using a Standalone Web Browser in a PC or UNIX Workstation . . . . 4-5
Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Viewing the “First Time Install” Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Creating Usernames and Passwords in the Browser Interface . . . . . . 4-9
Using the Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Using the User Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
If You Lose a Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Online Help for the HP Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Support/Mgmt URLs Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Support URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Help and the Management Server URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Status Reporting Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
The Overview Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
vi
Contents
The Port Utilization and Status Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Port Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Port Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
The Alert Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sorting the Alert Log Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alert Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Detail Views of Alert Log Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-20
4-20
4-21
4-22
The Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Setting Fault Detection Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
5. Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and
System Information
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
IP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Just Want a Quick Start? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
IP Addressing with Multiple VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
IP Addressing in a Stacking Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Menu: Configuring IP Address, Gateway, Time-To-Live (TTL),
and Timep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
CLI: Configuring IP Address, Gateway, Time-To-Live (TTL),
and Timep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Web: Configuring IP Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
How IP Addressing Affects Switch Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
DHCP/Bootp Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Network Preparations for Configuring DHCP/Bootp . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Globally Assigned IP Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
Interface Access: Console/Serial Link, Web, and Inbound Telnet 5-16
Menu: Modifying the Interface Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
CLI: Modifying the Interface Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Menu: Viewing and Configuring System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
CLI: Viewing and Configuring System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Web: Configuring System Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25
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Contents
6. Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and
Port Trunking
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Menu: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters . . . . . . 6-5
CLI: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters . . . . . . . . 6-6
Web: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters . . . . . . . 6-9
Port Trunking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Switch 2512 and 2524 Port Trunk Features and Operation . . . . . . . . 6-11
Trunk Configuration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Menu: Viewing and Configuring a Static Trunk Group . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Check the Event Log (page 11-11) to verify that the trunked
ports are operating properly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
CLI: Viewing and Configuring a Static or Dynamic Port Trunk Group . .
6-18
Using the CLI To View Port Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Using the CLI To Configure a Static or Dynamic Trunk Group . 6-20
Web: Viewing Existing Port Trunk Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-23
Trunk Group Operation Using LACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24
Default Port Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25
LACP Notes and Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26
Trunk Group Operation Using the “Trunk” Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-27
Trunk Operation Using the “FEC” Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-27
How the Switch Lists Trunk Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-28
Outbound Traffic Distribution Across Trunked Links . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-28
7: Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP
Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Using Password Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Menu: Setting Manager and Operator passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
CLI: Setting Manager and Operator Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Web: Configuring User Names and Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
viii
Contents
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Basic Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Blocking Unauthorized Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Trunk Group Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Planning Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
CLI: Port Security Command Options and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
CLI: Displaying Current Port Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
CLI: Configuring Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Web: Displaying and Configuring Port Security Features . . . . . . . . . 7-21
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Notice of Security Violations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
How the Intrusion Log Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Keeping the Intrusion Log Current by Resetting Alert Flags . . . 7-23
Menu: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and
Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-24
CLI: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and Resetting
Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
Using the Event Log To Find Intrusion Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27
Web: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts,
and Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28
Operating Notes for Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28
Using IP Authorized Managers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-30
Access Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31
Defining Authorized Management Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31
Overview of IP Mask Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32
Menu: Viewing and Configuring IP Authorized Managers . . . . . . . . . 7-33
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Authorized IP Managers . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34
Listing the Switch’s Current Authorized IP Manager(s) . . . . . . . 7-34
Configuring IP Authorized Managers for the Switch . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
Web: Configuring IP Authorized Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Building IP Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Configuring One Station Per Authorized Manager IP Entry . . . . 7-36
Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized Manager IP Entry 7-37
Additional Examples for Authorizing Multiple Stations . . . . . . . 7-39
Operating and Troubleshooting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39
8: Configuring for Network Management Applications
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
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Contents
SNMP Management Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Configuring for SNMP Access to the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
SNMP Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Menu: Viewing and Configuring SNMP Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
To View, Edit, or Add SNMP Communities: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Community Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing Current Community Names and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Identity Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Community Names and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
CLI: Configuring and Displaying Trap Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Using the CLI To List Current SNMP Trap Receivers . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Configuring Trap Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Using the CLI To Enable Authentication Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Advanced Management: RMON and HP Extended
RMON Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Extended RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
9: Configuring Advanced Features
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
HP ProCurve Stack Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
Which Devices Support Stacking? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Components of HP ProCurve Stack Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
General Stacking Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
Operating Rules for Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
General Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Specific Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
Overview of Configuring and Bringing Up a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
General Steps for Creating a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
Using the Menu Interface To View Stack Status And
Configure Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Using the Menu Interface To View and Configure a
Commander Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Using the Menu To Manage a Candidate Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
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Contents
Using the Commander To Manage The Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
Using the Commander To Access Member Switches for
Configuration Changes and Monitoring Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26
Converting a Commander or Member to a Member of
Another Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27
Monitoring Stack Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28
Using the CLI To View Stack Status and Configure Stacking . . . . . .
Using the CLI To View Stack Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the CLI To Configure a Commander Switch . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding to a Stack or Moving Switches Between Stacks . . . . . . .
Using the CLI To Remove a Member from a Stack . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the CLI To Access Member Switches for Configuration
Changes and Traffic Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-32
9-34
9-36
9-38
9-43
9-45
SNMP Community Operation in a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-46
Using the CLI To Disable or Re-Enable Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-47
Transmission Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-47
Stacking Operation with Multiple VLANs Configured . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-47
Web: Viewing and Configuring Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-48
Status Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-49
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-50
Overview of Using VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Support and the Default VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Which VLAN Is Primary? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Per-Port Static VLAN Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Steps for Using VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notes on Using VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-53
9-53
9-53
9-54
9-56
9-56
Menu: Configuring VLAN Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Change VLAN Support Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding or Editing VLAN Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding or Changing a VLAN Port Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-57
9-57
9-59
9-60
CLI: Configuring VLAN Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-62
Web: Viewing and Configuring VLAN Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-68
VLAN Tagging Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69
Effect of VLANs on Other Switch Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spanning Tree Protocol Operation with VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IP Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-73
9-73
9-73
9-74
9-74
9-74
xi
Contents
VLAN Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-75
Symptoms of Duplicate MAC Addresses in VLAN Environments 9-76
GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-77
General Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-78
Per-Port Options for Handling GVRP “Unknown VLANs” . . . . . . . . . 9-80
Per-Port Options for Dynamic VLAN Advertising and Joining . . . . . 9-82
GVRP and VLAN Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-83
Port-Leave From a Dynamic VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-83
Planning for GVRP Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-84
Configuring GVRP On a Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu: Viewing and Configuring GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLI: Viewing and Configuring GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web: Viewing and Configuring GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-84
9-84
9-86
9-89
GVRP Operating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-89
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) . . . . . . . . . . 9-91
IGMP Operating Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-92
CLI: Configuring and Displaying IGMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-93
Web: Enabling or Disabling IGMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-97
How IGMP Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-97
Role of the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-98
Number of IP Multicast Addresses Allowed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-101
Interaction with Multicast Traffic/Security Filters. . . . . . . . . . . 9-101
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-102
Menu: Configuring STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-103
CLI: Configuring STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-105
Web: Enabling or Disabling STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-108
How STP Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-108
STP Fast Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-109
STP Operation with 802.1Q VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-110
10: Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Status and Counters Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Menu Access To Status and Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
xii
Contents
General System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Menu Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
CLI Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Switch Management Address Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Menu Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
CLI Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Port Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu: Displaying Port Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLI Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-7
Viewing Port and Trunk Group Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Menu Access to Port and Trunk Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
CLI Access To Port and Trunk Group Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
Web Browser Access To View Port and Trunk Group Statistics 10-10
Viewing the Switch’s MAC Address Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11
Menu Access to the MAC Address Views and Searches . . . . . . 10-12
CLI Access for MAC Address Views and Searches . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
Menu Access to STP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
CLI Access to STP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Status . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17
VLAN Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18
Web Browser Interface Status Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
Port Monitoring Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21
Menu: Configuring Port Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
CLI: Configuring Port Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-24
Web: Configuring Port Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26
11: Troubleshooting
Chapter Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Troubleshooting Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Browser or Console Access Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
xiii
Contents
Unusual Network Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IGMP-Related Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems Related to Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) . . . . . . . . . .
Stacking-Related Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timep or Gateway Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN-Related Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-6
11-6
11-7
11-8
11-8
11-8
11-9
Using the Event Log To Identify Problem Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
Menu: Entering and Navigating in the Event Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
CLI: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Diagnostic Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Ping and Link Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Web: Executing Ping or Link Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15
CLI: Ping or Link Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16
Displaying the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18
CLI: Viewing the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18
Web: Viewing the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18
CLI Administrative and Troubleshooting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19
Restoring the Factory-Default Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
CLI: Resetting to the Factory-Default Configuration . . . . . . . . 11-20
Clear/Reset: Resetting to the Factory-Default Configuration . 11-20
A: Transferring an Operating System or Startup
Configuration File
Appendix Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Downloading an Operating System (OS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Using TFTP To Download the OS File from a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Menu: TFTP Download from a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
CLI: TFTP Download from a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Using the SNMP-Based Software Update Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Series 2500 Switch-to-Switch Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Menu: Switch-to-Switch Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
CLI: Switch-To-Switch Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7
Using Xmodem to Download the OS File From a PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7
Menu: Xmodem Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7
CLI: Xmodem Download from a PC or Unix Workstation . . . . . A-8
Troubleshooting TFTP Downloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9
xiv
Contents
Transferring Switch Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-10
B: MAC Address Management
Appendix B Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Determining MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Menu: Viewing the Switch’s MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
CLI: Viewing the Port and VLAN MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
C: Switch Memory and Configuration
Appendix Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Overview of Configuration File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Using the CLI To Implement Configuration Changes . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
Using the Menu and Web Browser Interfaces To Implement
Configuration Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7
Using the Menu Interface To Implement Configuration Changes . . C-7
Using Save and Cancel in the Menu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-8
Rebooting from the Menu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9
Using the Web Browser Interface To Implement Configuration Changes
C-10
D: Daylight Savings Time on HP ProCurve Switches
xv
Contents
xvi
1
Selecting a Management
Interface
Selecting a Management Interface
Chapter Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Understanding Management Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Advantages of Using the Menu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Advantages of Using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Advantages of Using the HP Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Advantages of Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1-1
Selecting a Management
Interface
Selecting a Management Interface
Overview
Overview
This chapter describes the following:
■
Management interfaces for the Switches 2512/2524
■
Advantages of using each interface
Understanding Management Interfaces
Management interfaces enable you to reconfigure the switch and to monitor
switch status and performance. The HP Switches 2512/2524 offer the following
interfaces:
■
Menu interface—a menu-driven interface offering a subset of switch
commands through the built-in VT-100/ANSI console—page 1-3
■
CLI—a command line interface offering the full set of switch commands
through the VT-100/ANSI console built into the switch—page 1-4
■
Web browser interface --a switch interface offering status information
and a subset of switch commands through a standard web browser (such
as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer)—page 1-5
■
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches--an easy-to-use, browser-based
network management tool that works with HP proactive networking
features built into managed HP hubs and switches
This manual describes how to use the menu interface (chapter 2), the CLI
(chapter 3), the web browser interface (chapter 4), and how to use these
interfaces to configure and monitor the switch.
For information on how to access the web browser interface Help, see “Online
Help for the Web Browser Interface” on page 4-12.
To use HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches, refer to the HP TopTools User’s
Guide and the TopTools online help, which are available electronically with
the TopTools software. (To get a copy of HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
software, see the Read Me First document shipped with your switch.)
1-2
Selecting a Management Interface
Advantages of Using the Menu Interface
Selecting a Management
Interface
Advantages of Using the Menu Interface
Figure 1-1. Example of the Console Interface Display
■
Provides quick, easy management access to a menu-driven subset of
switch configuration and performance features:
•
•
•
•
•
IP addressing
VLANs
Security
Port and Static Trunk Group
Stack Management
•
•
•
•
Spanning Tree
System information
Passwords and other security features
SNMP communities
The menu interface also provides access for:
• Setup screen
• Event Log display
• Switch and port
status displays
• Switch and port statistic and counter
displays
• Reboots
• Software downloads
■
Offers out-of-band access (through the RS-232 connection) to the
switch, so network bottlenecks, crashes, lack of configured or correct IP
address, and network downtime do not slow or prevent access
■
Enables Telnet (in-band) access to the menu functionality.
■
Allows faster navigation, avoiding delays that occur with slower
display of graphical objects over a web browser interface.
■
Provides more security; configuration information and passwords are
not seen on the network.
1-3
Selecting a Management
Interface
Selecting a Management Interface
Advantages of Using the CLI
Advantages of Using the CLI
HP2512>
Operator Level
HP2512#
Manager Level
HP2512(config)#
Global Configuration Level
HP2512(<context>)# Context Configuration Levels (port, VLAN)
Figure 1-2. Example of The Command Prompt
■
Provides access to the complete set of the switch configuration, performance, and diagnostic features.
■
Offers out-of-band access (through the RS-232 connection) or Telnet (inband) access.
■
Enables quick, detailed system configuration and management access to
system operators and administrators experienced in command prompt
interfaces.
■
Provides help at each level for determining available options and variables.
CLI Usage
■
For information on how to use the CLI, refer to chapter 3. "Using the
Command Line Interface (CLI)".
■
To perform specific procedures (such as configuring IP addressing or
VLANs), use the Contents listing at the front of the manual to locate the
information you need.
■
To monitor and analyze switch operation, see chapter 10, "Monitoring and
Analyzing Switch Operation".
■
For information on individual CLI commands, refer to the Index or to the
"Command Line Interface Reference Guide" available on HP’s ProCurve
website at
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
1-4
Selecting a Management Interface
Advantages of Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Selecting a Management
Interface
Advantages of Using the HP Web
Browser Interface
Figure 1-3. Example of the HP Web Browser Interface
■
Easy access to the switch from anywhere on the network
■
Familiar browser interface--locations of window objects consistent
with commonly used browsers, uses mouse clicking for navigation, no
terminal setup
■
Many features have all their fields in one screen so you can view all
values at once
■
More visual cues, using colors, status bars, device icons, and other
graphical objects instead of relying solely on alphanumeric values
■
Display of acceptable ranges of values available in configuration list
boxes
For specific requirements, see “Web Browser Interface Requirements” on page
4-4.
1-5
Selecting a Management
Interface
Selecting a Management Interface
Advantages of Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
Advantages of Using HP TopTools for
Hubs & Switches
You can operate HP TopTools from a PC on the network to monitor traffic,
manage your hubs and switches, and proactively recommend network
changes to increase network uptime and optimize performance. Easy to install
and use, HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches is the answer to your management
challenges.
Figure 1-4. Example of HP TopTools Main Screen
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches enables greater control, uptime, and
performance in your network:
■
1-6
For networked devices
•
Enables fast installation of hubs and switches.
•
Enables you to proactively manage your network by using the Alert
Log to quickly identify problems and suggest solutions, saving valuable time.
Selecting a Management Interface
Advantages of Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
■
Notifies you when HP hubs use “self-healing” features to fix or limit
common network problems.
•
Provides a list of discovered devices, with device type, connectivity
status, the number of new or open alerts for each device, and the type
of management for each device.
•
Provides graphical maps of your networked devices, from which you
can access specific devices.
•
Identifies users by port and lets you assign easy-to-remember names
to any network device.
•
Enables you to configure and monitor HP networked devices from
your network management PC, including identity and status information, port counters, port on/off capability, sensitivity thresholds for
traps, IP and security configuration, device configuration report, and
other device features.
•
Enables policy-based management through the Quality of Service
feature (QoS) to establish traffic priority policies for controlling and
improving throughput across all the HP switches in your network that
support this feature.
For network traffic:
•
Watches the network for problems and displays real-time information
about network status.
•
Shows traffic and “top talker” nodes on screen.
•
Uses traffic monitor diagrams to make bottlenecks easy to see.
•
Improves network reliability through real-time fault isolation.
•
Lets you see your entire network without having to put RMON probes
on every segment (up to 1500 segments).
For network growth:
•
Monitors, stores, and analyzes network traffic to determine where
upgrades are needed.
•
Uses Network Performance Advisor for automatic traffic analysis
and easy-to-understand reports that give clear, easy-to-follow plans
for cost-effectivly upgrading your network.
1-7
Selecting a Management
Interface
■
•
Selecting a Management
Interface
Selecting a Management Interface
Advantages of Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
1-8
2
Using the Menu Interface
Chapter Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Starting and Ending a Menu Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Screen Structure and Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Rebooting the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Menu Features List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Where To Go From Here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
2-1
Using the Menu Interface
Main Menu Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Using the Menu Interface
Overview
Overview
This chapter describes the following features:
■
Overview of the Menu Interface (page 4-1)
■
Starting and ending a Menu session (page 2-3)
■
The Main Menu (page 2-7)
■
Screen structure and navigation (page 2-9)
■
Rebooting the switch (page 2-12)
Using the Menu Interface
The menu interface operates through the switch console to provide you with
a subset of switch commands in an easy-to-use menu format enabling you to:
■
Perform a "quick configuration" of basic parameters, such as the IP
addressing needed to provide management access through your network
■
Configure these features:
•
Manager and Operator passwords
•
A network monitoring port
•
Stack Management
•
System parameters
•
Spanning Tree operation
•
IP addressing
•
SNMP community names
•
Ports
•
IP authorized managers
•
One trunk group
•
VLANs (Virtual LANs)
■
View status, counters, and Event Log information
■
Download new software system
■
Reboot the switch
For a detailed list of menu features, see the "Menu Features List" on page 2-14.
Privilege Levels and Password Security. HP strongly recommends that
you configure a Manager password to help prevent unauthorized access to
your network. A Manager password grants full read-write access to the switch.
An Operator password, if configured, grants access to status and counter,
Event Log, and the Operator level in the CLI. After you configure passwords
on the switch and log off of the interface, access to the menu interface (and
the CLI and web browser interface) will require entry of either the Manager
or Operator password. (If the switch has only a Manager password, then
someone without a password can still gain read-only access.) For more
information on passwords, see "Using Password Security" on .
2-2
Using the Menu Interface
Starting and Ending a Menu Session
Menu Interaction with Other Interfaces.
■
A configuration change made through any switch interface overwrites
earlier changes made through any other interface.
■
The Menu Interface and the CLI (Command Line Interface) both use the
switch console. To enter the menu from the CLI, use the menu command.
To enter the CLI from the Menu interface, select Command Line (CLI) option.)
Starting and Ending a Menu Session
Note
■
A direct serial connection to the switch’s console port, as described in the
installation guide you received with the switch
■
A Telnet connection to the switch console from a networked PC or the
switch’s web browser interface. Telnet requires that an IP address and
subnet mask compatible with your network have already been configured
on the switch.
■
The stack Commander, if the switch is a stack member
This section assumes that either a terminal device is already configured and
connected to the switch (see the Installation Guide shipped with your switch)
or that you have already configured an IP address on the switch (required for
Telnet access).
2-3
Using the Menu Interface
You can access the menu interface using any of the following:
Using the Menu Interface
Starting and Ending a Menu Session
How To Start a Menu Interface Session
In its factory default configuration, the switch console starts with the CLI
prompt. To use the menu interface with Manager privileges, go to the Manager
level prompt and enter the menu command.
1.
Use one of these methods to connect to the switch:
•
A PC terminal emulator or terminal
•
Telnet
(You can also use the stack Commander if the switch is a stack member.
See "HP ProCurve Stack Management" on ).
Using the Menu Interface
2.
3.
Do one of the following:
•
If you are using Telnet, go to step 3.
•
If you are using a PC terminal emulator or a terminal, press [Enter] one
or more times until a prompt appears.
When the switch screen appears, do one of the following:
•
If a password has been configured, the password prompt appears.
Password: _
Type the Manager password and press [Enter]. Entering the Manager
password gives you manager-level access to the switch. (Entering the
Operator password gives you operator-level access to the switch. See
"Using Password Security" on .)
•
4.
If no password has been configured, the CLI prompt appears . Go to
the next step.
When the CLI prompt appears, display the Menu interface by entering the
menu command. For example:
HP2512# menu [Enter]
results in:
2-4
Using the Menu Interface
Starting and Ending a Menu Session
For a description of Main Menu features, see “Main Menu Features” on page
2-7.
Note
To configure the switch to start with the menu interface instead of the CLI, go
to the Manager level prompt, enter the setup command, and in the resulting
desplay, change the Logon Default parameter to Menu. For more information, see
the Installation and Getting Started Guide you received with the switch.
How To End a Menu Session and Exit from the Console:
The method for ending a menu session and exiting from the console depends
on whether, during the session, you made any changes to the switch configuration that require a switch reboot to activate. (Most changes need only a Save,
and do not require a switch reboot.) Configuration changes needing a reboot
are marked with an asterisk (*) next to the configured item in the Configuration menu and also next to the Switch Configuration item in the Main Menu.
2-5
Using the Menu Interface
Figure 2-1. The Main Menu with Manager Privileges
Using the Menu Interface
Starting and Ending a Menu Session
Using the Menu Interface
Asterisk indicates a
configuration change
that requires a reboot
to activate.
Figure 2-2. An Asterisk Indicates a Configuration Change Requiring a Reboot
1.
In the current session, if you have not made configuration changes that
require a switch reboot to activate, return to the Main menu and press [0]
(zero) to log out. Then just exit from the terminal program, turn off the
terminal, or quit the Telnet session.
2.
If you have made configuration changes that require a switch reboot—
that is, if an asterisk (*) appears next to a configured item or next to Switch
Configuration in the Main menu:
a.
Return to the Main menu.
b.
Press [6] to select Reboot Switch and follow the instructions on the
reboot screen.
Rebooting the switch terminates the menu session, and, if you are using
Telnet, disconnects the Telnet session.
(See “Rebooting To Activate Configuration Changes” on page 2-13.)
3.
2-6
Exit from the terminal program, turn off the terminal, or close the Telnet
application program.
Using the Menu Interface
Main Menu Features
Main Menu Features
Using the Menu Interface
Figure 2-3. The Main Menu View with Manager Privileges
The Main Menu gives you access to these Menu interface features:
■
Status and Counters: Provides access to display screens showing
switch information, port status and counters, port and VLAN address
tables, and spanning tree information. (See chapter 10, “Monitoring and
Analyzing Switch Operation”.)
■
Switch Configuration: Provides access to configuration screens for
displaying and changing the current configuration settings. (See the Contents listing at the front of this manual.) For a listing of features and
parameters configurable through the menu interface, see the "Menu Features List" on page 2-14 .
■
Console Passwords: Provides access to the screen used to set or change
Manager-level and Operator-level passwords, and to delete Manager and
Operator password protection. (See "Using Password Security" on page
page 7-4.)
■
Event Log: Enables you to read progress and error messages that are
useful for checking and troubleshooting switch operation. (See “Using the
Event Log To Identify Problem Sources” on page 11-11.)
2-7
Using the Menu Interface
Using the Menu Interface
Main Menu Features
2-8
■
Command Line (CLI): Selects the Command Line Interface at the same
level (Manager or Operator) that you are accessing in the Menu interface.
(See chapter 3, "Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)".)
■
Reboot Switch: Performs a "warm" reboot of the switch, which clears
most temporary error conditions, resets the network activity counters to
zero, and resets the system up time to zero. A reboot is required to activate
a change in the VLAN Support parameter. (See “Rebooting from the Menu
Interface” on page C-9.)
■
Download OS: Enables you to download a new software version to the
switch. (See appendix A, “Transferring an Operating System or Configuration”.)
■
Run Setup: Displays the Switch Setup screen for quickly configuring
basic switch parameters such as IP addressing, default gateway, logon
default interface, spanning tree, and others. (See the Installation and
Getting Started guide shipped with your switch.)
■
Stacking: Enables you to use a single IP address and standard network
cabling to manage a group of up to 16 switches in the same subnet
(broadcast domain). See “HP ProCurve Stack Management” on page 9-5.
■
Logout: Closes the Menu interface and console session, and disconnects
Telnet access to the switch. (See “How to End a Menu Session and Exit
from the Console” on page 2-5.)
Using the Menu Interface
Screen Structure and Navigation
Screen Structure and Navigation
Menu interface screens include these three elements:
■
Parameter fields and/or read-only information such as statistics
■
Navigation and configuration actions, such as Save, Edit, and Cancel
■
Help line to describe navigation options, individual parameters, and readonly data
For example, in the following System Information screen:
System name
Using the Menu Interface
Screen title – identifies
the location within the
menu structure
Parameter fields
Help describing each of the
items in the parameter fields
Actions line
Help line
describing the
selected action
or selected
parameter field
Navigation instructions
Figure 4-1. Elements of the Screen Structure
“Forms” Design. The configuration screens, in particular, operate similarly
to a number of PC applications that use forms for data entry. When you first
enter these screens, you see the current configuration for the item you have
selected. To change the configuration, the basic operation is to:
1.
Press [E] to select the Edit action.
2.
Navigate through the screen making all the necessary configuration
changes. (See Table 4-1 on the next page.)
3.
Press [Enter] to return to the Actions line. From there you can save the
configuration changes or cancel the changes. Cancel returns the configuration to the values you saw when you first entered the screen.
2-9
Using the Menu Interface
Screen Structure and Navigation
Table 4-1.
How To Navigate in the Menu Interface
Actions:
Execute an action
from the “Actions –>”
list at the bottom of
the screen:
Use either of the following methods:
• Use the arrow keys ( [ <] ,or [ >] ) to highlight the action you want
to execute, then press [Enter].
• Press the key corresponding to the capital letter in the action
name. For example, in a configuration menu, press [E] to select
Edit and begin editing parameter values.
Reconfigure (edit) a
parameter setting or a
field:
1. Select a configuration item, such as System Name. (See figure
4-1.)
2. Press [E] (for Edit on the Actions line).
3. Use [Tab] or the arrow keys ([ <] , [ >] , [ ^] , or [ v] ) to highlight the
item or field.
4. Do one of the following:
– If the parameter has preconfigured values, either use the
Space bar to select a new option or type the first part of your
selection and the rest of the selection appears automatically.
(The help line instructs you to “Select” a value.)
– If there are no preconfigured values, type in a value (the Help
line instructs you to “Enter” a value).
5. If you want to change another parameter value, return to step 3.
6. If you are finished editing parameters in the displayed screen,
press [Enter] to return to the Actions line and do one of the
following:
– To save and activate configuration changes, press [S] (for the
Save action). This saves the changes in the startup
configuration and also implements the change in the
currently running configuration. (See appendix C, "Switch
Memory and Configuration.)
– To exit from the screen without saving any changes that you
have made (or if you have not made changes), press [C] (for
the Cancel action).
Note: In the menu interface, executing Save activates most
parameter changes and saves them in the startup configuration
(or flash) memory, and it is therefore not necessary to reboot the
switch after making these changes. But if an asterisk appears
next to any menu item you reconfigure, the switch will not
activate or save the change for that item until you reboot the
switch. In this case, rebooting should be done after you have
made all desired changes and then returned to the Main Menu.
7. When you finish editing parameters, return to the Main Menu.
8. If necessary, reboot the switch by highlighting Reboot Switch in
the Main Menu and pressing [Enter]. (See the Note, above.)
Exit from a read-only
screen.
Press [B] (for the Back action).
Using the Menu Interface
Task:
2-10
Using the Menu Interface
Screen Structure and Navigation
To get Help on individual parameter descriptions. In most screens
there is a Help option in the Actions line. Whenever any of the items in the
Actions line is highlighted, press [H], and a separate help screen is displayed.
For example:
Pressing [H] or highlighting Help and
pressing [Enter] displays Help for the
parameters listed in the upper part of
the screen
Using the Menu Interface
Highlight on any item
in the Actions line
indicates that the
Actions line is active.
The Help line provides
a brief descriptor of
the highlighted Action
item or parameter.
Figure 4-2. Example Showing How To Display Help
To get Help on the actions or data fields in each screen: Use the arrow
keys ( [ <] , [ >] , [ ^] , or [ v] ) to select an action or data field. The help line under
the Actions items describes the currently selected action or data field.
For guidance on how to navigate in a screen: See the instructions provided
at the bottom of the screen, or refer to “Screen Structure and Navigation” on
page 2-9.)
2-11
Using the Menu Interface
Rebooting the Switch
Rebooting the Switch
Rebooting the switch from the menu interface
■
Terminates all current sessions and performs a reset of the operating
system
■
Activates any configuration changes that require a reboot
■
Resets statistical counters to zero
Using the Menu Interface
(Note that statistical counters can be reset to zero without rebooting the
switch.)
To Reboot the switch, use the Reboot Switch option in the Main Menu. (Note
that the Reboot Switch option is not available if you log on in Operator mode;
that is, if you enter an Operator password instead of a manager password at
the password prompt.)
Reboot Switch option
Figure 4-3. The Reboot Switch Option in the Main Menu
2-12
Using the Menu Interface
Rebooting the Switch
Rebooting To Activate Configuration Changes. Configuration changes
for most parameters become effective as soon as you save them. However,
you must reboot the switch in order to implement a change in the Maximum
VLANs to support parameter. (To access this parameter, go to the Main menu and
select 2. Switch Configuration, then 8. VLAN Menu, then 1. VLAN Support.)
If configuration changes requiring a reboot have been made, the switch
displays an asterisk (*) next to the menu item in which the change has been
made. For example, if you change and save the value for the Maximum VLANs to
support parameter, an asterisk appears next to the VLAN Support entry in the
VLAN Menu screen, and also next to the the Switch Configuration . . . entry in the
Main menu, as shown in figure 4-6:
Using the Menu Interface
Asterisk indicates
a configuration
change that
requires a reboot
in order to take
effect.
Reminder to
reboot the switch
to activate
configuration
changes.
Figure 4-4. Indication of a Configuration Change Requiring a Reboot
To activate changes indicated by the asterisk, go to the Main Menu and select
the Reboot Switch option.
Note
Executing the write memory command in the CLI does not affect pending
configuration changes indicated by an asterisk in the menu interface. That is,
only a reboot from the menu interface or a boot or reload command from the
CLI will activate a pending configuration change indicated by an asterisk.
2-13
Using the Menu Interface
Menu Features List
Menu Features List
Using the Menu Interface
Status and Counters
•
General System Information
•
Switch Management Address Information
•
Port Status
•
Port Counters
•
Address Table
•
Port Address Table
•
Spanning Tree Information
Switch Configuration
•
System Information
•
Port/Trunk Settings
•
Network Monitoring Port
•
Spanning Tree Operation
•
IP Configuration
•
SNMP Community Names
•
IP authorized Managers
•
VLAN Menu
Console Passwords
Event Log
Command Line (CLI)
Reboot Switch
Download OS
Run Setup
Stacking
•
Stacking Status (This Switch)
•
Stacking Status (All)
•
Stack Configuration
•
Stack Management (Available in Stack Commander Only)
•
Stack Access (Available in Stack Commander Only)
Logout
2-14
Using the Menu Interface
Where To Go From Here
Where To Go From Here
This chapter provides an overview of the menu interface and how to use it.
The following table indicates where to turn for detailed information on how
to use the individual features available through the menu interface.
Where To Turn
To use the Run Setup option
See the Installation and Getting Started Guide
shipped with the switch.
To use the ProCurve Stack Manager
“HP ProCurve Stack Management” on page 9-5
To view and monitor switch status and Chapter 10, "Monitoring and Analyzing Switch
counters
Operation"
To learn how to configure and use
passwords
"Using Password Security" on page 7-4
To learn how to use the Event Log
"Using the Event Log To Identify Problem Sources"
on page 11-11
To learn how the CLI operates
Chapter 3, "Using the Command Line Interface
(CLI)"
To download software (the OS)
Appendix A, "File Transfers"
For a description of how switch
memory handles configuration
changes
Appendix C, "Switch Memory and Configuration"
For information on other switch
features and how to configure them
See the Table of Contents at the front of this
manual.
2-15
Using the Menu Interface
Option
Using the Menu Interface
Using the Menu Interface
Where To Go From Here
2-16
3
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Chapter Contents
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Accessing the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Privilege Levels at Logon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Privilege Level Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operator Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manager Privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-6
Listing Commands and Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Listing Commands Available at Any Privilege Level . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Type "?" To List Available Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Use [Tab] To Search for or Complete a Command Word . . . . . . . . 3-9
Command Option Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Conventions for Command Option Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Listing Command Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Displaying CLI "Help" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Displaying Command-List Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Displaying Help for an Individual Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Configuration Commands and the Context Configuration Modes . . 3-13
Port or Trunk-Group Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
VLAN Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
CLI Control and Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3-1
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
How To Move Between Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Moving Between the CLI and the Menu Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Changing Parameter Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Overview
Overview
The CLI is a text-based command interface for configuring and monitoring the
switch. The CLI gives you access to the switch’s full set of commands while
providing the same password protection that is used in the web browser
interface and the menu interface.
Accessing the CLI
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
Like the menu interface, the CLI is accessed through the switch console, and,
in the switch’s factory default state, is the default interface when you start a
console session. You can access the console out-of-band by directly
connecting a terminal device to the switch, or in-band by using Telnet either
from a terminal device or through the web browser interface.
Also, if you are using the menu interface, you can access the CLI by selecting
the Command Line (CLI) option in the Main Menu.
Using the CLI
The CLI offers these privilege levels to help protect the switch from unauthorized access:
Note
•
Operator
•
Manager
•
Global Configuration
•
Context Configuration
CLI commands are not case-sensitive.
When you use the CLI to make a configuration change, the switch writes the
change to the Running-Config file in volatile memory. This allows you to test
your configuration changes before making them permanent. to make changes
permanent, you must use the write memory command to save them to the
Startup Config file in non-volatile memory. If you reboot the switch without
3-2
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
first using write memory, all changes made since the last reboot or write memory
(whichever is later) will be lost. For more on switch memory and saving
configuration changes, see appendix C, "Switch Memory and Configuration".
Privilege Levels at Logon
Privilege levels control the type of access to the CLI. To implement this
control, you must set at least a Manager password. Without a Manager
password configured, anyone having serial port, Telnet, or web browser
access to the switch can reach all CLI levels. (For more on setting passwords,
see "Using Password Security" on page 7-4.)
When you use the CLI to log on to the switch, and passwords are set, you will
be prompted to enter a password. For example:
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
Password Prompt
Figure 3-1. Example of CLI Log-On Screen with Password(s) Set
In the above case, you will enter the CLI at the level corresponding to the
password you provide (operator or manager).
If no passwords are set when you log onto the CLI, you will enter at the
Manager level. For example:
HP2512# _
3-3
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
Caution
HP strongly recommends that you configure a Manager password. If a Manager password is not configured, then the Manager level is not passwordprotected, and anyone having in-band or out-of-band access to the switch may
be able to reach the Manager level and compromise switch and network
security. Note that configuring only an Operator password does not prevent
access to the Manager level by intruders who have the Operator password.
Pressing the Clear button on the front of the switch removes password
protection. For this reason, it is recommended that you protect the switch
from physical access by unauthorized persons. If you are concerned about
switch security and operation, you should install the switch in a secure
location, such as a locked wiring closet.
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
Privilege Level Operation
Operator Privileges
Operator Level
Manager Privileges
Manager Level
Global Configuration Level
Context Configuration Level
Figure 3-2. Privilege Level Access Sequence
Operator Privileges
At the Operator level you can examine the current configuration and move
between interfaces without being able to change the configuration. A ">"
character delimits the Operator-level prompt. For example:
HP2512> _
(Example of the Operator prompt.)
When using enable to move to the Manager level, the switch prompts you for
the Manager password if one has already been configured.
3-4
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
Manager Privileges
Manager privileges give you three additional levels of access: Manager, Global
Configuration, and Context Configuration. (See figure .) A "#" character
delimits any Manager prompt. For example:
(Example of the Manager prompt.)
HP2512#_
■
Manager level: Provides all Operator level privileges plus the ability to
perform system-level actions that do not require saving changes to the
system configuration file. The prompt for the Manager level contains only
the system name and the "#" delimiter, as shown above. To select this
level, enter the enable command at the Operator level prompt and enter
the Manager password, when prompted. For example:
HP2512> enable
HP2512# _
■
(Enter config at the Manager prompt.)
(The Global Config prompt.)
Context Configuration level: Provides all Operator and Manager
privileges, and enables you to make configuration changes in a specific
context, such as one or more ports or a VLAN. The prompt for the Context
Configuration level includes the system name and the selected context.
For example:
HP2512(eth-1)#
HP2512(vlan-10)#
The Context level is useful, for example, if you want to execute several
commands directed at the same port or VLAN, or if you want to shorten
the command strings for a specific context area. To select this level, enter
the specific context at the Global Configuration level prompt. For
example, to select the context level for an existing VLAN with the VLAN
ID of 10, you would enter the following command and see the indicated
result:
HP2512(config)# vlan 10
HP2512(vlan-10)#
3-5
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
Global Configuration level: Provides all Operator and Manager level
privileges, and enables you to make configuration changes to any of the
switch’s software features. The prompt for the Global Configuration level
includes the system name and "(config)". To select this level, enter the
config command at the Manager prompt. For example:
HP2512# _
HP2512(config)#_
■
(Enter enable at the Operator prompt.)
(The Manager prompt.)
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
Changing Interfaces. If you change from the CLI to the menu interface, or
the reverse, you will remain at the same privilege level. For example, entering
the menu command from the Operator level of the CLI takes you to the
Operator privilege level in the menu interface.
Table 3-1.
Privilege Level Hierarchy
Privilege Level Example of Prompt and Permitted Operations
Operator Privilege
Operator Level HP2512>
show <command>
setup
View status and configuration information.
Perform connectivity tests.
ping <argument>
link-test <argument>
enable
Move from the Operator level to the Manager level.
Move from the CLI interface to the menu interface.
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
menu
logoff
Exit from the CLI interface and terminate the console
session.
Manager Privilige
Manager Level HP2512#
Perform system-level actions such as system control, monitoring, and diagnostic
commands, plus any of the Operator-level commands. For a list of available
commands, enter ? at the prompt.
Global
Configuration
Level
HP2512(config)#
Execute configuration commands, plus all Operator and Manager commands . For
a list of available commands, enter ? at the prompt.
Context
Configuration
Level
HP2512(eth-5)#
HP2512(vlan-100)#
Execute context-specific configuration commands, such as a particular VLAN or
switch port. This is useful for shortening the command strings you type, and for
entering a series of commands for the same context. For a list of available
commands, enter ? at the prompt.
3-6
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
How To Move Between Levels
Change in Levels
Example of Prompt , Command, and Result
Operator level
to
Manager level
HP2512> enable
Password:_
After you enter enable, the Password prompt
appears. After you enter the Manager
password, this prompt appears:
HP2512#_
Manager level
to
Global configuration
level
HP2512# config
HP2512(config)#
Global configuration HP2512(config)# vlan-10
level
HP2512(vlan-10)#
to a
Context configuration
level
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
Context configuration HP2512(vlan-10)# interface ethernet 3
level
HP2512(int-3)#
to another
Context configuration
level
Move from any level HP2512(int-3)# exit
to the preceding level HP2512(config)# exit
HP2512# exit
HP2512>
Move from any level
to the Manager level
HP2512(int-3)# end
HP2512#
—or—
HP2512(config)# end
HP2512#
Moving Between the CLI and the Menu Interface. When moving
between interfaces, the switch retains the current privilege level (Manager or
Operator). That is, if you are at the Operator level in the menu and select the
Command Line Interface (CLI) option from the Main Menu, the CLI prompt
appears at the Operator level.
Changing Parameter Settings. Regardless of which interface is used (CLI,
menu interface, or web browser interface), the most recently configured
version of a parameter setting overrides any earlier settings for that parameter.
3-7
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
For example, if you use the CLI to set a Manager password, and then later use
the Setup screen (in the menu interface) to set a different Manager password,
then the first password will be replaced by the second one.
Listing Commands and Command Options
At any privilege level you can:
■
List all of the commands available at that level
■
List the options for a specific command
Listing Commands Available at Any Privilege Level
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
At a given privilege level you can execute the commands that level offers, plus
all of the commands available at preceding levels. Similarly, at a given privilege
level, you can list all of that level’s commands plus the commands made
available at preceding levels. For example, at the Operator level, you can list
and execute only the Operator level commands. However, at the Manager
level, you can list and execute the commands available at both the Operator
and Manager levels.
Type "?" To List Available Commands. Typing the ? symbol lists the
commands you can execute at the current privilege level. For example, typing
? at the Operator level produces this listing:
Figure 3-3. Example of the Operator Level Command Listing
3-8
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
Typing ? at the Manager level produces this listing:
Figure 3-4. Example of the Manager-Level Command Listing
When - - MORE - - appears, there are more commands in the listing. To list the
next screenfull of commands, press the Space bar. To list the remaining
commands one-by-one, repeatedly press [Enter].
Typing ? at the Global Configuration level or the Context Configuration level
produces similar results.
Use [Tab] To Search for or Complete a Command Word. You can use [Tab]
to help you find CLI commands or to quickly complete the current word in a
command. To do so, press [Tab] immediately after typing the last letter of the
last keyword in the CLI (with no spaces allowed). For example, at the Global
Configuration level, if you press [Tab] immediately after typing "t", the CLI
displays the available command options that begin with "t". For example:
HP2512(config)# t[Tab]
telnet-server
time
trunk
telnet
HP2512(config)# t
3-9
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
When - - MORE - - appears, use
the Space bar or [Return] to list
additional commands.
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
As mentioned above, if you type part of a command word and press [Tab], the
CLI completes the current word (if you have typed enough of the word for the
CLI to distinguish it from other possibilities), including hyphenated extensions. For example:
HP2512(config)# port[Tab]
HP2512(config)# port-security _
Pressing [Tab] after a completed command word lists the further options for
that command.
HP2512(config)# stack [Tab]
commander <commander-str>
join <mac-addr>
auto-join
transmission-interval <integer>
<cr>
HP2512(config)# stack
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
Command Option Displays
Conventions for Command Option Displays. When you use the CLI to
list options for a particular command, you will see one or more of the following
conventions to help you interpret the command data:
■
Braces ( < > ) indicate a required choice.
■
Square brackets ([ ]) indicate optional elements.
■
Vertical bars ( | ) separate alternative, mutually exclusive options in a
command.
The braces (< >) show that the trunk
command requires all three
parameters.
The vertical bar ( | ) shows that either
trunk or lacp must be included.
The square brackets ([ ]) show that
ethernet is optional.
Figure 3-5.Example of Command Option Conventions
3-10
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
Thus, if you wanted to create a port trunk group using ports 5 - 8, the above
conventions show that you could do so using any of the following forms of
the trunk command:
HP2512(config)# trunk trk1 trunk 5-8
HP2512(config)# trunk trk1 trunk e 5-8
HP2512(config)# trunk trk1 lacp 5-8
HP2512(config)# trunk trk1 lacp e 5-8
Listing Command Options. You can use the CLI to remind you of the
options available for a command by entering command keywords followed by
?. For example, suppose you wanted to see the command options for configuring port 5:
Figure 3-6. Example of How To List the Options for a Specific Command
Displaying CLI "Help"
CLI Help provides two types of context-sensitive information:
■
Command list with a brief summary of each command’s purpose
■
Detailed information on how to use individual commands
Displaying Command-List Help. You can display a listing of command
Help summaries for all commands available at the current privilege level. That
is, when you are at the Operator level, you can display the Help summaries
only for Operator-Level commands. At the Manager level, you can display the
Help summaries for both the Operator and Manager levels, and so on.
Syntax:
help
For example, to list the Operator-Level commands with their purposes:
3-11
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
This example displays the command options
for configuring port 5 on the switch.
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
Figure 3-7. Example of Context-Sensitive Command-List Help
Displaying Help for an Individual Command. You can display Help for
any command that is available at the current context level by entering enough
of the command string to identify the command, along with help.
Syntax:
<command string> help
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
For example, to list the Help for the interface command in the Global
Configuration privilege level:
Figure 3-8. Example of How To Display Help for a Specific Command
A similar action lists the Help showing additional parameter options for a
given command. The following example illustrates how to list the Help for an
interface command acting on a specific port:
3-12
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
Figure 3-9. Example of Help for a Specific Instance of a Command
Note that if you try to list the help for an individual command from a privilege
level that does not include that command, the switch returns an error message.
For example, trying to list the help for the interface command while at the
global configuration level produces this result:
Configuration Commands and the Context
Configuration Modes
You can execute any configuration command in the global configuration mode
or in selected context modes. However, using a context mode enables you to
execute context-specific commands faster, with shorter command strings.
The Switch 2512 and 2524 offer interface (port or trunk group) and VLAN
context configuration modes:
Port or Trunk-Group Context . Includes port- or trunk-specific
commands that apply only to the selected port(s) or trunk group, plus the
global configuration, Manager, and Operator commands. The prompt for this
mode includes the identity of the selected port(s):
HP2512(config)# interface e 5-8
HP2512(config)# interface e trk1
HP2512(eth-5-8)#
HP2512(eth-Trk1)#
Command executed at
configuration level for
entering port or trk1 static
trunk-group context.
Resulting prompt showing
port or static trunk contexts.
3-13
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
HP2512# interface help
Invalid input: interface
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
HP2512(eth-5-8)# ?
HP2512(eth-5-8)# ?
Lists the commands you can
use in the port or static trunk
context, plus the Manager,
Operator, and context
commands you can execute
at this level.
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
In the port context, the first block of commands in the "?"
listing show the context-specific commands that will affect
only ports 5-8.
The remaining commands in the listing are
Manager, Operator, and context commands.
Figure 3-10. Context-Specific Commands Affecting Port Context
3-14
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
Using the CLI
VLAN Context . Includes VLAN-specific commands that apply only to the
selected VLAN, plus Manager and Operator commands. The prompt for this
mode includes the VLAN ID of the selected VLAN. For example, if you had
already configured a VLAN with an ID of 100 in the switch:
HP2512(config)# vlan 100
Command executed at configuration level to enter VLAN 100
context.
HP2512(vlan-100)#
Resulting prompt showing VLAN
100 context.
HP2512(vlan-100)# ?
Lists commands you can use in the
VLAN context, plus Manager, Operator, and context commands you
can execute at this level.
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
In the VLAN
context, the
first block of
commands in
the "?" listing
show the
commands that
will affect only
vlan-100.
The remaining
commands in
the listing are
Manager,
Operator, and
context
commands.
Figure 3-11. Context-Specific Commands Affecting VLAN Context
3-15
Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)
CLI Control and Editing
Using the Command Line
Interface (CLI)
CLI Control and Editing
Keystrokes
Function
[Ctrl] [A]
Jumps to the first character of the command line.
[Ctrl] [B] or [ <]
Moves the cursor back one character.
[Ctrl] [C]
Terminates a task and displays the command prompt.
[Ctrl] [D]
Deletes the character at the cursor.
[Ctrl] [E]
Jumps to the end of the current command line.
[Ctrl] [F] or [ >]
Moves the cursor forward one character.
[Ctrl] [K]
Deletes from the cursor to the end of the command line.
[Ctrl] [L] or [Ctrl] [R]
Repeats current command line on a new line.
[Ctrl] [N] or [ v]
Enters the next command line in the history buffer.
[Ctrl] [P] or [ ^]
Enters the previous command line in the history buffer.
[Ctrl] [U] or [Ctrl] [X]
Deletes from the cursor tothe beginning of the command line.
[Ctrl] [W]
Deletes the last word typed.
[Esc] [B]
Moves the cursor backward one word.
[Esc] [D]
Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word.
[Esc] [F]
Moves the cursor forward one word.
[Delete] or [Backspace] Deletes the first character to the left of the cursor in the command
line.
3-16
4
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Chapter Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Web Browser Interface Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session with the Switch . . . . . . . . . . 5
Using a Standalone Web Browser in a PC or UNIX Workstation . . . . . . 5
Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Viewing the “First Time Install” Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Creating Usernames and Passwords in the Browser Interface . . . . . . . 9
Using the Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Using the User Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
If You Lose a Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Online Help for the HP Web Browser Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Support/Mgmt URLs Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Support URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Status Reporting Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
The Overview Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
The Port Utilization and Status Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Port Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Utilization Guideline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
To change the amount of bandwidth the Port Utilization
bar graph shows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
To display values for each graph bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Port Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
The Alert Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Sorting the Alert Log Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Alert Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Viewing Detail Views of Alert Log Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Setting Fault Detection Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4-1
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Help and the Management Server URL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Providing Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
If Online Help Fails To Operate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Policy Management and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Overview
Overview
The HP web browser interface built into the switch lets you easily access the
switch from a browser-based PC on your network. This lets you do the
following:
■
Optimize your network uptime by using the Alert Log and other diagnostic
tools
■
Make configuration changes to the switch
■
Maintain security by configuring usernames and passwords
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
This chapter covers the following:
■
General features (page 4-3).
■
System requirements for using the web browser interface (page 4-4)
■
Starting a web browser interface session (page 4-5)
■
Tasks for your first web browser interface session (page 4-8):
■
Note
4-2
•
Creating usernames and passwords in the web browser interface
(page 4-9)
•
Selecting the fault detection configuration for the Alert Log operation
(page 4-24)
•
Getting access to online help for the web browser interface (page
4-12)
Description of the web browser interface:
•
Overview window and tabs (page 4-16)
•
Port Utilization and Status displays (page 4-17)
•
Alert Log and Alert types (page 4-20)
•
Setting the Fault Detection Policy (page 4-24)
If you want security beyond that achieved with user names and passwords,
you can disable access to the web browser interface. This is done by either
executing no web-management at the Command Prompt or changing the Web
Agent Enabled parameter setting to No (page 5-22) .
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
General Features
General Features
The Series 2500 switches include these web browser interface features:
Switch Configuration:
•
Ports
•
VLANs and Primary VLAN
•
Fault detection
•
Port monitoring (mirroring)
•
System information
•
Enable/Disable Multicast Filtering (IGMP) and Spanning Tree
•
IP
•
Stacking
•
Support and management URLs
Switch Security:
•
Passwords
•
Authorized IP Managers
•
Port security and Intrusion Log
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Switch Diagnostics:
•
Ping/Link Test
•
Device reset
•
Configuration report
Switch status
•
Port utilization
•
Port counters
•
Port status
•
Alert log
Switch system information listing
4-3
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Web Browser Interface Requirements
Web Browser Interface Requirements
You can use equipment meeting the following requirements to access the web
browser interface on your intranet.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Table 4-1.
4-4
System Requirements for Accessing the HP Web Browser Interface
Platform Entity and OS Version
Minimum
Recommended
PC Platform
90 MHz Pentium
120 MHz Pentium
HP-UX Platform (9.x or 10.x)
100 MHz
120 MHz
RAM
16 Mbytes
32 Mbytes
Screen Resolution
800 X 600
1,024 x 768
Color Count
256
65,536
Internet Browser
(English-language browser only)
PCs:
PCs:
• Netscape®
Communicator 4.x
• Microsoft®Internet
Explorer 4.x
UNIX: Netscape Navigator
4.5 or later
• Netscape
Communicator 4.5 or
later
• Microsoft®Internet
Explorer 5.0 or later
UNIX: Netscape
Navigator 4.5 or later
PC Operating System
Microsoft Windows®95 and Windows NT
UNIX®Operating System
Standard UNIX®OS
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
(Optional)
For the HP ProCurve Switch 2512 and 2524, use
product HP J2569R or later.
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session with the Switch
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface
Session with the Switch
You can start a web browser session in the following ways:
■
■
Using a standalone web browser on a network connection from a PC or
UNIX workstation:
•
Directly connected to your network
•
Connected through remote access to your network
Using a management station running HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
on your network
Using a Standalone Web Browser in a PC or UNIX
Workstation
This procedure assumes that you have a supported web browser (page 4-4)
installed on your PC or workstation, and that an IP address has been configured on the switch. (For more on assigning an IP address, refer to "IP
Configuration" on page 5-3.)
1.
•
In Netscape 4.03, click on Edit, Preferences..., Advanced, then select
Enable Java and Enable JavaScript options.
•
In Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.x, click on View, Internet Options,
Security, Custom, [Settings] and scroll to the Java Permissions. Then refer
to the online Help for specific information on enabling the Java
applets.
4-5
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Make sure the JavaTM applets are enabled for your browser. If they are
not, do one of the following:
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session with the Switch
2.
Type the IP address (or DNS name) of the switch in the browser Location
or Address field and press [Enter]. (It is not necessary to include
http://.)
switch2512 [Enter]
(example of a DNS-type name)
10.11.12.195 [Enter]
(example of an IP address)
If you are using a Domain Name Server (DNS), your device may have a
name associated with it (for example, switch2512) that you can type in the
Location or Address field instead of the IP address. Using DNS names
typically improves browser performance. See your network administrator
for any name associated with the switch.
Using HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches is designed for installation on a network
management workstation. For this reason, the HP TopTools system requirements are different from the system requirements for accessing the switch’s
web browser interface from a non-management PC or workstation. For HP
TopTools requirements, refer to the information provided with HP TopTools
for Hubs & Switches.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
This procedure assumes that:
■
You have installed the recommended web browser on a PC or workstation
that serves as your network management station.
■
The networked device you want to access has been assigned an IP address
and (optionally) a DNS name and has been discovered by HP TopTools
for Hubs & Switches. (For more on assigning an IP address, refer to "IP
Configuration" on page 5-3.)
To establish a web browser session with HP TopTools running, do the
following on the network management station:
4-6
1.
Make sure the JavaTM applets are enabled for your web browser. If they
are not, refer to the web browser online Help for specific information on
enabling the Java applets.
2.
Do one of the following tasks:
•
On the HP TopTools Maps view, double-click on the symbol for the
networking device that you want to access.
•
In HP TopTools, in the Topology Information dialog box, in the device
list, double-click on the entry for the device you want to access (IP
address or DNS name).
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Starting an HP Web Browser Interface Session with the Switch
3.
Note
Alert
Log
The web browser interface automatically starts with the Status Overview
window displayed for the selected device, as shown in figure 4-1.
If the Registration window appears, click on the Status tab.
First-Time
Install Alert
Note
The above screen appears somewhat different if the switch is configured as a
stack Commander. For an example, see figure 1-3 on page 1-5.
4-7
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Figure 4-1. Example of Status Overview Screen
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser
Interface Session
The first time you access the web browser interface, there are three tasks that
you should perform:
■
Review the “First Time Install” window
■
Set Manager and Operator passwords
■
Set access to the web browser interface online help
Viewing the “First Time Install” Window
When you access the switch’s web browser interface for the first time, the
Alert log contains a “First Time Install” alert, as shown in figure 4-2. This gives
you information about first time installations, and provides an immediate
opportunity to set passwords for security and to specify a Fault Detection
policy, which determines the types of messages that will be displayed in the
Alert Log.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Double click on First Time Install in the Alert log (figure 4-1 on page 4-7). The
web browser interface then displays the “First Time Install” window, below.
Figure 4-2. First-Time Install Window
4-8
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
This window is the launching point for the basic configuration you need to
perform to set web browser interface passwords to maintain security and
Fault Detection policy, which determines the types of messages that will be
displayed in the Alert Log.
To set web browser interface passwords, click on secure access to the device
to display the Device Passwords screen, and then go to the next page. (You
can also access the password screen by clicking on the Security tab.)
To set Fault Detection policy, click on select the fault detection configuration in
the second bullet in the window and go to the section, “Setting Fault Detection
Policy” on page 4-24. (You can also access the password screen by clicking on
the Configuration tab, and then [Fault Detection] button.)
Creating Usernames and Passwords in the Browser
Interface
You may want to create both a username and password to create access
security for your switch. There are two levels of access to the interface that
can be controlled by setting user names and passwords:
Operator. An Operator-level user name and password allows read-only
access to most of the web browser interface, but prevents access to the
Security window.
■
Manager. A Manager-level user name and password allows full read/
write access to the web browser interface.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
4-9
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Figure 4-3. The Device Passwords Window
To set the passwords:
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
1.
2.
Access the Device Passwords screen by one of the following methods:
•
If the Alert Log includes a “First Time Install” event entry, double
click on this event, then, in the resulting display, click on the
secure access to the device link.
•
Select the Security tab.
Click in the appropriate box in the Device Passwords window and enter
user names and passwords. You will be required to repeat the password
strings in the confirmation boxes.
Both the user names and passwords can be up to 16 printable ASCII
characters.
3.
Note
4-10
Click on [Apply Changes] to activate the user names and passwords.
Passwords you assign in the web browser interface will overwrite previous
passwords assigned in either the web browser interface, the Command
Prompt, or the switch console. That is, the most recently assigned passwords
are the switch’s passwords, regardless of which interface was used to assign
the string.
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Using the Passwords
Figure 4-4. Example of the Password Window in the Web Browser Interface
The manager and operator passwords are used to control access to all switch
interfaces. Once set, you will be prompted to supply the password every time
you try to access the switch through any of its interfaces. The password you
enter determines the capability you have during that session:
■
Entering the manager password gives you full read/write capabilities
■
Entering the operator password gives you read and limited write capabilities.
Using the User Names
Note that the Command Prompt and switch console interfaces use only the
password, and do not prompt you for the User Name.
If You Lose a Password
If you lose the passwords, you can clear them by pressing the Clear button on
the front of the switch. This action deletes all password and user name
protection from all of the switch’s interfaces.
The Clear button is provided for your convenience, but its presence means
that if you are concerned with the security of the switch configuration and
operation, you should make sure the switch is installed in a secure location,
such as a locked wiring closet.
4-11
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
If you also set user names in the web browser interface screen, you must
supply the correct user name for web browser interface access. If a user name
has not been set, then leave the User Name field in the password window
blank.
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Tasks for Your First HP Web Browser Interface Session
Online Help for the HP Web Browser Interface
Online Help is available for the web browser interface. You can use it by
clicking on the question mark button in the upper right corner of any of the
web browser interface screens.
The Help Button
Figure 4-5. The Help Button
Context-sensitive help is provided for the screen you are on.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Note
If you do not have HP TopTools for Hubs and Switches installed on your
network and do not have an active connection to the World Wide Web, then
Online help for the web browser interface will not be available.
For more on Help access and operation, refer to “Help and the Management
Server URL” on page 4-14.
4-12
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Support/Mgmt URLs Feature
Support/Mgmt URLs Feature
The Support/Mgmt URLs window enables you to change the World Wide Web
Universal Resource Locator (URL) for two functions:
■
Support URL – a support information site for your switch
■
Management Server URL – the site for online help for the web browser
interface, and, if set up, the URL of a network management station running
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches.
1. Click Here
2. Click Here
Figure 4-6.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
3. Enter URLs for:
- the support information source you want the switch to access
when you click on the web browser interface Support tab – the
default is HP’s ProCurve network products World Wide Web
home page
- the URL of the network Management server or other
source of the online help files for this web browser interface. (The default accesses Help on HP’s World Wide Web site.)
4. Click on Apply Changes
The Default Support/Mgmt URLs Window
4-13
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Support/Mgmt URLs Feature
Support URL
This is the site that the switch accesses when you click on the Support tab on
the web browser interface. The default URL is:
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
which is the World Wide Web site for Hewlett-Packard’s networking products.
Click on the [Support] button on that page and you can get to support information
regarding your switch, including white papers, operating system (OS) updates,
and more.
You could instead enter the URL for a local site that you use for entering
reports about network performance, or whatever other function you would
like to be able to easily access by clicking on the [Support] tab.
Help and the Management Server URL
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
This field specifies which of the following two locations the switch will use to
find online Help for the web browser interface:
■
The URL of online Help provided by HP on the world wide web
■
The URL of a network management station running HP TopTools for Hubs
& Switches
Providing Online Help. The Help files are automatically available if you
install HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches on your network or if you already
have Internet access to the World Wide Web. (The Help files are included with
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches, and are also automatically available from
HP via the World Wide Web.)
Retrieval of the Help files is controlled by automatic entries to the Management
Server URL field on the Configuration / Support/Mgmt URLs screen, shown in
figure 4-6. The switch is shipped with the URL set to retrieve online Help from
the HP World Wide Web site. However, if HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches is
installed on a management station on your network and discovers the switch,
the Management Server URL is automatically changed to retrieve the Help
from your TopTools management station.
If Online Help Fails To Operate. Do one of the following:
■
4-14
If HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches is installed and running on your
network, enter the IP address or DNS name of the network management
station in the Management Server URL field shown in figure 4-7 on page
4-15.
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Support/Mgmt URLs Feature
■
If you have World Wide Web access from your PC or workstation, and do
not have HP TopTools installed on your network, enter the following URL
in the Management Server URL field shown in figure 4-7 on page 4-15:
http://www.hp.com/rnd/device_help
Enter IP address of HP TopTools network
management station, or URL of location of
help files on HP’s World Wide Web site here.
Policy Management and Configuration. HP Top Tools for Hubs &
Switches can perform network-wide policy management and configuration of
your switch. The Management Server URL field identifies the management
station that is performing that function. For more information, refer to the
documentation provided on the HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches CD shipped
with the switch.
4-15
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Figure 4-7. How To Access Web Browser Interface Online Help
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
Status Reporting Features
Browser elements covered in this section include:
■
The Overview window (below)
■
Port utilization and status (page )
■
The Alert log (page )
■
The Status bar (page )
The Overview Window
The Overview Window is the home screen for any entry into the web browser
interface.The following figure identifies the various parts of the screen.
Status Bar
(page 4-23)
Active Button
Active Tab
Tab Bar
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Button Bar
Port Utilization Graphs
(page 4-17)
Port Status
Indicators
(page 4-19)
Alert Log
(page 4-20)
Alert Log
Control Bar
Figure 4-8. The Overview Window
4-16
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
The Port Utilization and Status Displays
The Port Utilization and Status displays show an overview of the status of the
switch and the amount of network activity on each port. The following figure
shows a sample reading of the Port Utilization and Port Status.
Port Utilization Bar Graphs
Bandwidth Display Control
Port Status Indicators
Legend
Figure 4-9. The Graphs Area
Port Utilization
■
% Unicast Rx & All Tx: This is all unicast traffic received and all
transmitted traffic of any type. This indicator (a blue color on many
systems) can signify either transmitted or received traffic.
■
% Non-Unicast Pkts Rx: All multicast and broadcast traffic received by
the port. This indicator (a gold color on many systems) enables you to
know “at-a-glance” the source of any non-unicast traffic that is causing
high utilization of the switch. For example, if one port is receiving heavy
broadcast or multicast traffic, all ports will become highly utilized. By
color-coding the received broadcast and multicast utilization, the bar
graph quickly and easily identifies the offending port. This makes it faster
and easier to discover the exact source of the heavy traffic because you
don’t have to examine port counter data from several ports.
■
% Error Pkts Rx: All error packets received by the port. (This indicator
is a reddish color on many systems.) Although errors received on a port
are not propagated to the rest of the network, a consistently high number
of errors on a specific port may indicate a problem on the device or
network segment connected to the indicated port.
4-17
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
The Port Utilization bar graphs show the network traffic on the port with a
breakdown of the packet types that have been detected (unicast packets, nonunicast packets, and error packets). The Legend identifies traffic types and
their associated colors on the bar graph:
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
■
Maximum Activity Indicator: As the bars in the graph area change
height to reflect the level of network activity on the corresponding port,
they leave an outline to identify the maximum activity level that has been
observed on the port.
Utilization Guideline. A network utilization of 40% is considered the
maximum that a typical Ethernet-type network can experience before encountering performance difficulties. If you observe utilization that is consistently
higher than 40% on any port, click on the Port Counters button to get a detailed
set of counters for the port.
To change the amount of bandwidth the Port Utilization bar graph
shows. Click on the bandwidth display control button in the upper left corner
of the graph. (The button shows the current scale setting, such as 40%.) In the
resulting menu, select the bandwidth scale you want the graph to show (3%,
10%, 25%, 40%, 75%, or 100%), as shown in figure 3-7.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Note that when viewing activity on a gigabit port, you may want to select a
lower value (such as 3% or 10%). This is because the bandwidth utilization of
current network applications on gigabit links is typically minimal, and may
not appear on the graph if the scale is set to show high bandwidth utilization.
Figure 4-10. Changing the Graph Area Scale
To display values for each graph bar. Hold the mouse cursor over any of
the bars in the graph, and a pop-up display is activated showing the port
identification and numerical values for each of the sections of the bar, as
shown in figure 4-11 (next).
Figure 4-11. Display of Numerical Values for the Bar
4-18
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
Port Status
Port Status Indicators
Legend
Figure 4-12. The Port Status Indicators and Legend
The Port Status indicators show a symbol for each port that indicates the
general status of the port. There are four possible statuses:
Port Connected – the port is enabled and is properly connected to an
active network device.
■
Port Not Connected – the port is enabled but is not connected to an
active network device. A cable may not be connected to the port, or the
device at the other end may be powered off or inoperable, or the cable or
connected device could be faulty.
■
Port Disabled – the port has been configured as disabled through the
web browser interface, the switch console, or SNMP network management.
■
Port Fault-Disabled – a fault condition has occurred on the port that
has caused it to be auto-disabled. Note that the Port Fault-Disabled
symbol will be displayed in the legend only if one or more of the ports is
in that status. See chapter 7, “Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation”
for more information.
4-19
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
The Alert Log
The web browser interface Alert Log, shown in the lower half of the screen,
shows a list of network occurrences, or alerts, that were detected by the
switch. Typical alerts are Broadcast Storm, indicating an excessive number of
broadcasts received on a port, and Problem Cable, indicating a faulty cable. A
full list of alerts is shown in the table on page 4-21.
Figure 4-13. Example of the Alert Log
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Each alert has the following fields of information:
■
Status – The level of severity of the event generated. Severity levels can
be Information, Normal, Warning, and Critical. If the alert is new (has not
yet been acknowledged), the New symbol is also in the Status column.
■
Alert – The specific event identification.
■
Date/Time – The date and time the event was received by the web
browser interface. This value is shown in the format: DD-MM-YY
HH:MM:SS AM/PM, for example, 16-Sep-99 7:58:44 AM.
■
Description – A short narrative statement that describes the event. For
example, Excessive CRC/Alignment errors on port: 8.
Sorting the Alert Log Entries
The alerts are sorted, by default, by the Date/Time field with the most recent
alert listed at the top of the list. The second most recent alert is displayed
below the top alert and so on. If alerts occurred at the same time, the
simultaneous alerts are sorted by order in which they appear in the MIB.
The alert field that is being used to sort the alert log is indicated by which
column heading is in bold. You can sort by any of the other columns by clicking
on the column heading. The Alert and Description columns are sorted alphabetically, while the Status column is sorted by severity type, with more critical
severity indicators appearing above less critical indicators.
4-20
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
Alert Types
The following table lists the types of alerts that can be generated.
Table 4-2.
Alert Strings and Descriptions
Alert String
Alert Description
First Time Install
Important installation information for your switch.
Too many undersized/
giant packets
A device connected to this port is transmitting packets shorter than 64 bytes or longer than
1518 bytes (longer than 1522 bytes if tagged), with valid CRCs (unlike runts, which have invalid
CRCs).
Excessive jabbering
A device connected to this port is incessantly transmitting packets (“jabbering”), detected as
oversized packets with CRC errors.
Excessive CRC/alignment A high percentage of data errors has been detected on this port. Possible causes include:
errors
• Faulty cabling or invalid topology.
• Duplex mismatch (full-duplex configured on one end of the link, half-duplex configured on
the other)
• A malfunctioning NIC, NIC driver, or transceiver
Excessive late collisions
High collision or drop rate A large number of collisions or packet drops have occurred on the port. Possible causes
include:
• A extremely high level of traffic on the port
• Duplex mismatch
• A misconfigured or malfunctioning NIC or transceiver on a device connected to this port
• A topology loop in the network
Excessive broadcasts
An extremely high percentage of broadcasts was received on this port. This degrades the
performance of all devices connected to the port. Possible causes include:
• A network topology loop—this is the usual cause
• A malfunctioning device, NIC, NIC driver, or software package
Network Loop
Network loop has been detected by the switch.
Loss of Link
Lost connection to one or multiple devices on the port.
Loss of stack member
The Commander has lost the connection to a stack member.
Security violation
A security violation has occurred.
4-21
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Late collisions (collisions detected after transmitting 64 bytes) have been detected on this
port. Possible causes include:
• An overextended LAN topology
• Duplex mismatch (full-duplex configured on one end of the link, half-duplex configured on
the other)
• A misconfigured or faulty device connected to the port
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
Note
When troubleshooting the sources of alerts, it may be helpful to check the
switch’s Port Status and Port Counter windows and the Event Log in the
console interface.
Viewing Detail Views of Alert Log Entries
By double clicking on Alert Entries, the web browser interface displays a
Detail View or separate window detailing information about the events. The
Detail View contains a description of the problem and a possible solution. It
also provides four management buttons:
■
Acknowledge Event – removes the New symbol from the log entry
■
Delete Event – removes the alert from the Alert Log
■
Cancel Button – closes the detail view with no change to the status of
the alert and returns you to the Overview screen.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
A sample Detail View describing an Excessive CRC/Alignment Error alert is
shown here.
Figure 4-14. Example of Alert Log Detail View
4-22
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
The Status Bar
The Status Bar is displayed in the upper left corner of the web browser
interface screen. Figure 4-15 shows an expanded view of the status bar.
Most Critical Alert Description
Status Indicator
Product Name
Figure 4-15. Example of the Status Bar
The Status bar consists of four objects:
■
Status Indicator. Indicates, by icon, the severity of the most critical alert
in the current display of the Alert Log. This indicator can be one of three
shapes and colors as shown in the following table.
Table 4-3.
Status Indicator Key
Switch Status
Status Indicator Shape
Normal Activity; "First time installation"
information available in the Alert log.
Green
Normal Activity
Yellow
Warning
Red
Critical
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Color
Blue
■
System Name. The name you have configured for the switch by using
Identity screen, system name command, or the switch console System
Information screen.
■
Most Critical Alert Description. A brief description of the earliest,
unacknowledged alert with the current highest severity in the Alert Log,
appearing in the right portion of the Status Bar. In instances where
multiple critical alerts have the same severity level, only the earliest
unacknowledged alert is deployed in the Status bar.
4-23
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
■
Product Name. The product name of the switch to which you are
connected in the current web browser interface session.
Setting Fault Detection Policy
One of the powerful features in the web browser interface is the Fault
Detection facility. For your switch, this feature controls the types of alerts
reported to the Alert Log based on their level of severity.
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Set this policy in the Fault Detection window (figure 4-16).
Figure 4-16. The Fault Detection Window
The Fault Detection screen contains a list box for setting fault detection and
response policy. You set the sensitivity level at which a network problem
should generate an alert and send it to the Alert Log.
To provide the most information on network problems in the Alert Log, the
recommended sensitivity level for Log Network Problems is High Sensitivity. The
Fault Detection settings are:
4-24
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
■
High Sensitivity. This policy directs the switch to send all alerts to the
Alert Log. This setting is most effective on networks that have none or
few problems.
■
Medium Sensitivity. This policy directs the switch to send alerts related
to network problems to the Alert Log. If you want to be notified of
problems which cause a noticeable slowdown on the network, use this
setting.
■
Low Sensitivity. This policy directs the switch to send only the most
severe alerts to the Alert Log. This policy is most effective on a network
that normally has a lot of problems and you want to be informed of only
the most severe ones.
■
Never. Disables the Alert Log and transmission of alerts (traps) to the
management server (in cases where a network management tool such as
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches is in use). Use this option when you
don’t want to use the Alert Log.
The Fault Detection Window also contains three Change Control Buttons:
Apply Changes. This button stores the settings you have selected for all
future sessions with the web browser interface until you decide to change
them.
■
Clear Changes. This button removes your settings and returns the
settings for the list box to the level it was at in the last saved detectionsetting session.
■
Reset to Default Settings. This button reverts the policy setting to
Medium Sensitivity for Log Network Problems.
4-25
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
■
Using the HP Web Browser
Interface
Using the HP Web Browser Interface
Status Reporting Features
4-26
5
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access,
and System Information
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
IP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Just Want a Quick Start? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
IP Addressing with Multiple VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
IP Addressing in a Stacking Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 5
Menu: Configuring IP Address, Gateway, Time-To-Live (TTL),
and Timep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 5
CLI: Configuring IP Address, Gateway, Time-To-Live (TTL),
and Timep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Web: Configuring IP Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
How IP Addressing Affects Switch Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
DHCP/Bootp Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Network Preparations for Configuring DHCP/Bootp . . . . . . . . 5-14
Globally Assigned IP Network Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15
Interface Access: Console/Serial Link, Web,
and Inbound Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Menu: Modifying the Interface Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
CLI: Modifying the Interface Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
Menu: Viewing and Configuring System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
CLI: Viewing and Configuring System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 23
Web: Configuring System Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5- 25
5-1
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Chapter Contents
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
Overview
Overview
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
This chapter describes the switch configuration features available in the menu
interface, CLI and web browser interface. For help on how to use these
interfaces, refer to:
■
Chapter 2, “Using the Menu Interface”
■
Chapter 3, “Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)”
■
Chapter 4, Using the HP Web Browser Interface”
Why Configure IP Addressing? In its factory default configuration, the
switch operates as a multiport learning bridge with network connectivity
provided by the ports on the switch. However, to enable specific management
access and control through your network, you will need IP addressing. (See
table 5-1 on page 5-11.)
Why Configure Interface Access and System Information? The interface access features in the switch operate properly by default. However, you
can modify or disable access features to suit your particular needs. Similarly,
you can choose to leave the system information parameters at their default
settings. However, using these features can help you to more easily manage a
group of devices across your network.
5-2
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
IP Configuration
IP Configuration Features
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
IP Address and Subnet Mask DHCP/Bootp
page 5-5
page 5-7
page 5-10
Default Gateway Address
none
page 5-5
page 5-7
page 5-10
Packet Time-To-Live (TTL)
64 seconds
page 5-5
page 5-7
n/a
Time Server (Timep)
DHCP
page 5-5
page 5-7
n/a
IP Address and Subnet Mask. Configuring the switch with an IP address
expands your ability to manage the switch and use its features. By default, the
switch is configured to automatically receive IP addressing on the default
VLAN from a DHCP/Bootp server that has been configured correctly with
information to support the switch. (Refer to “DHCP/Bootp Operation” on page
5-11 for information on setting up automatic configuration from a server.)
However, if you are not using a DHCP/Bootp server to configure IP addressing,
use the menu interface or the CLI to manually configure the initial IP values.
After you have network access to a device, you can use the web browser
interface to modify the initial IP configuration if needed.
For information on how IP addressing affects switch performance, refer to
“How IP Addressing Affects Switch Operation” on page 5-10.
Default Gateway Operation. The default gateway is required when a
router is needed for tasks such as reaching off-subnet destinations or forwarding traffic across multiple VLANs. The gateway value is the IP address of the
next-hop gateway node for the switch, which is used if the requested destination address is not on a local subnet/VLAN. If the switch does not have a
manually-configured default gateway and DHCP/Bootp is configured on the
primary VLAN, then the default gateway value provided by the DHCP or Bootp
server will be used. If the switch has a manually configured default gateway,
then the switch uses this gateway, even if a different gateway is received via
DHCP or Bootp on the primary VLAN. (This is also true for TimeP and a nondefault Time-To-Live and .) See “Notes” on page 5-4 and “Which VLAN Is
Primary?” on page 9-53.
Packet Time-To-Live (TTL) . This parameter specifies how long in seconds an outgoing packet should exist in the network. In most cases, the default
setting (64 seconds) is adequate.
5-3
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Feature
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
Timep Operation. Use this optional parameter if you want the switch to get
its time information from another device operating as a Timep server. In its
default Timep configuration, the switch attempts to get a Timep server address
from a DHCP server. Other configuration options are to manually assign a
Timep server address or to disable the Timep server feature.
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Just Want a Quick Start?
If you just want to give the switch an IP address so that it can communicate
on your network, or if you are not using VLANs, HP recommends that you use
the Switch Setup screen to quickly configure IP addressing. To do so, do one
of the following:
■
Enter setup at the CLI Manager level prompt.
HP2512# setup
■
Select 8. Run Setup in the Main Menu of the menu interface.
For more on using the Switch Setup screen, see the Installation and Getting
Started Guide you received with the switch.
IP Addressing with Multiple VLANs
In the factory-default configuration, the switch has one, permanent default
VLAN (named DEFAULT_VLAN) that includes all ports on the switch. In this
state, when you assign an IP address and subnet mask to the switch, you are
actually assigning the IP addressing to the DEFAULT_VLAN. You can rename
the DEFAULT_VLAN, but you cannot change its VLAN ID number (VID) or
remove it from the switch.
Notes
5-4
■
If multiple VLANs are configured, then each VLAN can have its own IP
address. This is because each VLAN operates as a separate broadcast
domain and requires a unique IP address and subnet mask. A default
gateway (IP) address for the switch is optional, but recommended. The
primary VLAN is the VLAN used for stacking operation, as well as for
determining the default gateway address, (packet) Time-To-Live (TTL),
and Timep via DHCP or Bootp. (Other VLANs can also use DHCP or BootP
to acquire IP addressing. However, the switch’s gateway, TTL, and TimeP
values will be acquired through the primary VLAN only. In the default
configuration, the default VLAN (named DEFAULT_VLAN) is the switch’s
primary VLAN.However, with multiple VLANs assigned to the switch, you
can select another VLAN to function as the primary VLAN. For more on
VLANs, refer to “Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)” on page 9-50.
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
The IP addressing used in the switch should be compatible with your
network. That is, the IP address must be unique and the subnet mask must
be appropriate for the IP network.
■
If you plan to connect to other networks that use globally administered
IP addresses, refer to “Globally Assigned IP Network Addresses” on page
5-15.
■
By default, the switch uses DHCP to acquire the IP address of the TimeP
server. If the switch does not have a manually configured Timep setting,
then it attempts to get its TimeP setting through DHCP or Bootp through
the primary VLAN.
■
The switch searches for the default gateway device through the primary
VLAN. By default, the DEFAULT_VLAN is the switch’s primary VLAN.
However, you can use the CLI to select a different primary VLAN if more
than one VLAN exists on the switch. For more information, see “PortBased Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)” on page 9-50.
■
If you change the IP address through either Telnet access or the web
browser interface, the connection to the switch will be lost. You can
reconnect by either restarting Telnet with the new IP address or entering
the new address as the URL in your web browser.
IP Addressing in a Stacking Environment
If you are installing the switch into an HP ProCurve stack management
environment, entering an IP address may not be required. See “HP ProCurve
Stack Management” on page 9-5 for more information.
Menu: Configuring IP Address, Gateway, Time-To-Live
(TTL), and Timep
Do one of the following:
■
To manually enter an IP address, subnet mask, set the IP Config parameter
to Manual and then manually enter the IP address and subnet mask values
you want for the switch.
■
To use DHCP or Bootp, use the menu interface to ensure that the IP Config
parameter is set to DHCP/Bootp, then refer to “DHCP/Bootp Operation” on
page 5-11.
5-5
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
■
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
To Configure IP Addressing.
1.
From the Main Menu, Select.
2. Switch Configuration ...
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
5. IP Configuration
Note
If multiple VLANs are configured, a screen showing all VLANs appears instead
of the following screen.
The default setting for
TimeP Config is DHCP.
Setting it to Manual,
then pressing [ v] or [Tab]
causes the Server
Address parameter to
appear.
For descriptions of these
parameters, see the
online Help for this
screen.
Before using the DHCP/
Bootp option, refer to
“DHCP/Bootp
Operation” on page 5-11.
Figure 5-1. Example of the IP Service Configuration Screen without Multiple
VLANs Configured
5-6
2.
Press [E] (for Edit).
3.
If the switch needs to access a router, for example, to reach off-subnet
destinations, select the Default Gateway field and enter the IP address of
the gateway router.
4.
If you need to change the packet Time-To-Live (TTL) setting, select Default
TTL and type in a value between 2 and 255 (seconds).
5.
At the TimeP Config field do one of the following:
•
If you want the switch to obtain the IP address of the Timep server
via DHCP server, keep the value as DHCP.
•
If you want to manually specify the IP address of the Timep server,
use the Space bar to select Manual.
•
If you don’t have a Timep server set up, use the Space bar to change
the value to Disabled.
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
6.
If you selected Manual , press [Tab] or [ v] , and additional fields will be
displayed for entering the IP address for the Timep server.
7.
Select the TimeP Poll Interval field if you want to change the value for how
often the switch polls the Timep server for time information.
8.
Do one of the following:
If you want to have the switch retrieve its IP configuration from a
DHCP or Bootp server, at the IP Config field, keep the value as DHCP/
Bootp and go to step 11.
•
If you want to manually configure the IP information, use the Space
bar to select Manual and use the [Tab] key to move to the other IP
configuration fields.
Select the IP Address field and enter the IP address for the switch.
10. Select the Subnet Mask field and enter the subnet mask for the IP address.
11. Press [Enter], then [S] (for Save).
CLI: Configuring IP Address, Gateway, Time-To-Live
(TTL), and Timep
IP Commands Used in This Section
show ip
page 5-8
vlan <vlan-id> ip
address
page 5-9
ip default-gateway
page 5-9
ip ttl
page 5-9
[no] ip timep
page 5-10
For a listing of the full CLI command set, including syntax and options, see
the CLI command reference available on the HP ProCurve website at:
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
5-7
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
9.
•
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Viewing the Current IP Configuration. The following command displays
the IP addressing for each VLAN configured in the switch. If only the
DEFAULT_VLAN exists, then its IP configuration applies to all ports in the
switch. Where multiple VLANs are configured, the IP addressing is listed per
VLAN. The display includes switch-wide packet time-to-live, and (if configured) the switch’s default gateway and Timep configuration.
Syntax: show ip
For example, in the factory-default configuration (no IP addressing assigned),
the switch’s IP addressing appears as:
The Default IP
Configuration on
a Switch 2512 or
2524
Figure 5-2. Example of the Switch’s Default IP Addressing
With multiple VLANs and some other features configured, show ip provides
additional information:
A Switch 2512 or
2524 with IP
Addressing and
VLANs Configured
Figure 5-3. Example of Show IP Listing with Non-Default IP Addressing Configured
(If DHCP/Bootp acquires an IP address and Subnet Mask for VLAN_2, they
will appear in the appropriate columns.)
5-8
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
Configure an IP Address and Subnet Mask. The following command
includes both the IP address and the subnet mask. You must either include the
ID of the VLAN for which you are configuring IP addressing or go to the
context configuration level for that VLAN. (If you are not using VLANs on the
switch—that is, if the only VLAN is the default VLAN—then the VLAN ID is
always “1”.)
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Note
The default IP address setting for the DEFAULT_VLAN is DHCP/Bootp. On
additional VLANs you create, the default IP address setting is Disabled.
Syntax:
vlan <vlan-id> ip address <ip-address/mask-length>
or
vlan <vlan-id> ip address <ip-address> <mask-bits>
or
vlan <vlan-id> ip address dhcp-bootp
This example configures IP addressing on the default VLAN with the subnet
mask specified in mask bits.
HP2512(config)# vlan 1 ip address 10.28.227.103/255.255.255.0
This example configures the same IP addressing as the preceding example,
but specifies the subnet mask by mask length.
HP2512(config)# vlan 1 ip address 10.28.227.103/24
Configure the Optional Default Gateway. You can assign one default
gateway to the switch.
Syntax: ip default-gateway <ip-address>
For example:
HP2512(config)# ip default-gateway 11.28.227.115
You can execute this command only from the global configuration level.
Configure Time-To-Live (TTL). This command sets the time that a packet
outbound from the switch can exist on the network. The default setting is 64
seconds.
Syntax:
ip ttl <number-of-seconds>
HP2512(config)# ip ttl 60
5-9
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
In the CLI, you can execute this command only from the global configuration
level. The TTL range is 2 - 255 seconds.
Configure the Optional Timep Server.
Syntax: [no] ip timep <dhcp | manual <ip-address> > [interval <1-9999>]
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
You can specify whether the address of the Timep server is assigned via DHCP
or manually, and the interval in minutes between Timep queries (1-9999
minutes; default 720 minutes). The following examples show the Timep
command options:
HP2512(config)# ip timep manual 10.28.227.1 interval 60
HP2512(config)# ip timep manual 10.28.227.1
HP2512(config)# ip timep dhcp
HP2512(config)# ip timep dhcp interval 60
HP2512(config)# no ip timep
Web: Configuring IP Addressing
You can use the web browser interface to access IP addressing only if the
switch already has an IP address that is reachable through your network.
1.
Click on the Configuration tab.
2.
Click on [IP Configuration].
3.
If you need further information on using the web browser interface, click
on [?] to access the web-based help available for the Switch 2512/2524.
How IP Addressing Affects Switch Operation
Without an IP address and subnet mask compatible with your network, the
switch can be managed only through a direct terminal device connection to
the Console RS-232 port. You can use direct-connect console access to take
advantage of features that do not depend on IP addressing. However, to realize
the full performance capabilities HP proactive networking offers through the
switch, configure the switch with an IP address and subnet mask compatible
with your network. The following table lists the general features available with
and without a network-compatible IP address configured.
5-10
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
Table 5-1.
Features Available With and Without IP Addressing on the Switch
Additional HP Proactive Networking Features Available
with an IP Address and Subnet Mask
• Direct-connect access to the CLI and the menu
interface.
• Stacking Candidate or Stack Member
• DHCP or Bootp support for automatic IP address
configuration, and DHCP support for automatic Timep
server IP address configuration
• Spanning Tree Protocol
• Port settings and port trunking
• Console-based status and counters information for
monitoring switch operation and diagnosing problems
through the CLI or menu interface.
• VLANs
• GVRP
• Serial downloads of operating system (OS) updates
and configuration files (Xmodem)
• Link test
• Port monitoring
• Security
• HP web browser interface access, with configuration,
security, and diagnostic tools, plus the Alert Log for
discovering problems detected in the switch along
with suggested solutions
• SNMP network management access such as HP
TopTools network configuration, monitoring, problemfinding and reporting, analysis, and recommendations
for changes to increase control and uptime
• Stacking Commander*
• Telnet access to the CLI or the menu interface
• IGMP
• Timep server configuration
• TFTP download of configurations and OS updates
• Ping test
*Although a Commander can operate without an IP address, doing so makes it unavailable for in-band access in an
IP network.
DHCP/Bootp Operation
Overview. DHCP/Bootp is used to provide configuration data from a DHCP
or Bootp server to the switch. This data can be the IP address, subnet mask,
default gateway, Timep Server address, and TFTP server address. If a TFTP
server address is provided, this allows the switch to TFTP a previously saved
configuratin file from the TFTP server to the switch. With either DHCP or
Bootp, the servers must be configured prior to the switch being connected to
the network.
Note
The Switches 2512 and 2524 are compatible with both DHCP and Bootp
servers.
The DHCP/Bootp Process. Whenever the IP Config parameter in the switch
or in an individual VLAN in the switch is configured to DHCP/Bootp (the
default), or when the switch is rebooted with this configuration:
5-11
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Features Available Without an IP Address
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
Note
1.
DHCP/Bootp requests are automatically broadcast on the local network.
(The switch sends one type of request to which either a DHCP or Bootp
server can respond.)
2.
When a DHCP or Bootp server receives the request, it replies with a
previously configured IP address and subnet mask for the switch. The
switch also receives an IP Gateway address if the server has been configured to provide one. In the case of Bootp, the server must first be
configured with an entry that has the MAC address of the switch. (To
determine the switch’s MAC address, see appendix B, “MAC Address
Management”. The switch properly handles replies from either type of
server. If multiple replies are returned, the switch tries to use the first
reply.)
If you manually configure a gateway on the switch, it will ignore any gateway
address received via DHCP or Bootp.
If the switch is initially configured for DHCP/Bootp operation (the default),
or if it is rebooted with this configuration, it immediately begins sending
request packets on the network. If the switch does not receive a reply to its
DHCP/Bootp requests, it continues to periodically send request packets, but
with decreasing frequency. Thus, if a DHCP or Bootp server is not available
or accessible to the switch when DHCP/Bootp is first configured, the switch
may not immediately receive the desired configuration. After verifying that
the server has become accessible to the switch, reboot the switch to re-start
the process immediately.
DHCP Operation. A significant difference between a DHCP configuration
and a Bootp configuration is that an IP address assignment from a DHCP
server is automatic. Depending on how the DHCP server is configured, the
switch may receive an ip address that is temporarily leased. Periodically the
switch may be required to renew its lease of the IP configuration. Thus, the IP
addressing provided by the server may be different each time the switch
reboots or renews its configuration from the server. However, you can fix the
address assignment for the switch by doing either of the following:
■
Configure the server to issue an “infinite” lease.
■
Using the switch’s MAC address as an identifier, configure the server with
a “Reservation” so that it will always assign the same IP address to the
switch. (For MAC address information, refer to appendix B, “MAC
Address Management”.)
For more information on either of these procedures, refer to the documentation provided with the DHCP server.
5-12
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
Bootp Database Record Entries. A minimal entry in the Bootp table file
/etc/bootptab to update an IP address and subnet mask to the switch or a VLAN
configured in the switch would be similar to this entry:
j2512switch:\
ht=ether:\
ha=0030c1123456:\
ip=10.66.77.88:\
sm=255.255.248.0:\
gw=10.66.77.1:\
hn:\
vm=rfc1048
An entry in the Bootp table file /etc/bootptab to tell the switch or VLAN
where to obtain a configuration file download would be similar to this entry:
j2512switch:\
ht=ether:\
ha=0030c1123456:\
ip=10.66.77.88:\
sm=255.255.248.0:\
gw=10.66.77.1:\
lg=10.22.33.44:\
T144=”switch.cfg”:\
vm=rfc1048
where:
j2512switch is a user-defined symbolic name to help you find the correct section of the
bootptab file. If you have multiple switches that will be using Bootp to get their
IP configuration, you should use a unique symbolic name for each switch.
ht
is the “hardware type”. For the Switches 2512 and 2524, set this to ether (for
Ethernet). This tag must precede the ha tag.
ha
is the “hardware address”. Use the switch's (or VLAN's) 12-digit MAC address.
ip
is the IP address to be assigned to the switch (or VLAN).
sm
is the subnet mask of the subnet in which the switch (or VLAN) is installed.
5-13
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Bootp Operation. When a Bootp server receives a request it searches its
Bootp database for a record entry that matches the MAC address in the Bootp
request from the switch. If a match is found, the configuration data in the
associated database record is returned to the switch. For many Unix systems,
the Bootp database is contained in the /etc/bootptab file. In contrast to DHCP
operation, Bootp configurations are always the same for a specific receiving
device. That is, the Bootp server replies to a request with a configuration
previously stored in the server and designated for the requesting device.
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
Note
gw
is the IP address of the default gateway.
lg
TFTP server address (source of final configuration file)
T144
is the vendor-specific “tag” identifying the configuration file to download.
vm
is a required entry that specifies the Bootp report format. For the Switches 2512
and 2524, set this parameter to rfc1048.
The above Bootp table entry is a sample that will work for the Switches 2512
and 2524 when the appropriate addresses and file names are used.
Network Preparations for Configuring DHCP/Bootp
In its default configuration, the switch is configured for DHCP/Bootp operation. However, the DHCP/Bootp feature will not acquire IP addressing for the
switch unless the following tasks have already been completed:
■
■
Note
For Bootp operation:
•
A Bootp database record has already been entered into an appropriate
Bootp server.
•
The necessary network connections are in place
•
The Bootp server is accessible from the switch
For DHCP operation:
•
A DHCP scope has been configured on the appropriate DHCP server.
•
The necessary network connections are in place
•
A DHCP server is accessible from the switch
Designating a primary VLAN other than the default VLAN affects the switch’s
use of information received via DHCP/Bootp. For more on this topic, see
“Which VLAN Is Primary?” on page 9-53.
After you reconfigure or reboot the switch with DHCP/Bootp enabled in a
network providing DHCP/Bootp service, the switch does the following:
5-14
■
Receives an IP address and subnet mask and, if configured in the server,
a gateway IP address and the address of a Timep server.
■
If the DHCP/Bootp reply provides information for downloading a configuration file, the switch uses TFTP to download the file from the designated
source, then reboots itself. (This assumes that the switch or VLAN has
connectivity to the TFTP file server specified in the reply, that the configuration file is correctly named, and that the configuration file exists in the
TFTP directory.)
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
IP Configuration
Globally Assigned IP Network Addresses
Please contact your internet service provider (ISP).
If you need more information than your ISP can provide, contact one of the
following organizations:
Country
Phone Number/E-Mail/URL Company Name/Address
United States/
1-310-823-9358
Countries not in
icann@icann.org
Europe or Asia/Pacific http://www.iana.org
The Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN)
4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 330
Marina Del Rey, CA 90292
USA
Europe
+31 20 535 4444
ncc@ripe.net
http://www.ripe.net
RIPE NCC
Singel 258
1016 AB Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Asia/Pacific
+61-7-3367-0490
info@apnic.net
http://www.apnic.net
Attention: IN-ADDR.ARPA Registration
Asia Pacific Network Information Center
Level 1, 33 Park Road
PO Box 2131
Milton, QLD 4064
Australia
For more information, refer to Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles,
Protocols and Architecture by Douglas E. Comer (Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
publisher).
5-15
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
If you intend to connect your network to other networks that use globally
administered IP addresses, Hewlett-Packard strongly recommends that you
use IP addresses that have a network address assigned to you. There is a
formal process for assigning unique IP addresses to networks worldwide. For
more information:
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
Interface Access: Console/Serial Link, Web, and Inbound Telnet
Interface Access: Console/Serial Link,
Web, and Inbound Telnet
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Interface Access Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Inactivity Time
0 Minutes
(disabled)
page 5-17
page 5-19
—
Inbound Telnet Access
Enabled
page 5-17
page 5-18
—
Web Browser Interface Access
Enabled
page 5-17
page 5-19
—
Terminal type
VT-100
—
page 5-19
—
Event Log event types to list
(Displayed Events)
All
—
page 5-19
—
Baud Rate
Speed Sense
—
page 5-19
—
Flow Control
XON/XOFF
—
page 5-19
—
In most cases, the default configuration is acceptable for standard operation.
Note
5-16
Basic switch security is through passwords. You can gain additional security
using IP authorized managers. However if unauthorized access to the switch
through in-band means (Telnet or the web browser interface), then you can
disallow in-band access (as described in this section) and install the switch in
a locked environment.
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
Interface Access: Console/Serial Link, Web, and Inbound Telnet
Menu: Modifying the Interface Access
The menu interface enables you to modify these parameters:
■
Inactivity Timeout
■
Inbound Telnet Enabled
■
Web Agent Enabled
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
To Access the Interface Access Parameters:
1.
From the Main Menu, Select...
2. Switch Configuration...
1. System Information
Interface Access
Parameters
Figure 5-4. The Default Interface Access Parameters Available in the Menu
Interface
2.
Press [E] (for Edit). The cursor moves to the System Name field.
3.
Use the arrow keys ([ v] , [ ^] , [ <] , [ >] ) to move to the parameters you want
to change.
Refer to the online help provided with this screen for further information
on configuration options for these features.
4.
When you have finished making changes to the above parameters, press
[Enter], then press [S] (for Save).
5-17
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
Interface Access: Console/Serial Link, Web, and Inbound Telnet
CLI: Modifying the Interface Access
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Interface Access Commands Used in This Section
show console
below
[no] telnet-server
below
[no] web-management
page 5-19
console
page 5-19
Listing the Current Console/Serial Link Configuration. This command lists the current interface access parameter settings.
Syntax:
show console
This example shows the switch’s default console/serial configuration.
Interface Access
Enable/Disable
Event Log Event
Types To List
Console Control
Options
Figure 5-5. Listing of Show Console Command
Reconfigure Inbound Telnet Access. In the default configuration,
inbound Telnet access is enabled.
Syntax:[no] telnet-server
To disable inbound Telnet access:
HP2512(config)# no telnet-server
To re-enable inbound Telnet access:
HP2512(config)# telnet-server
5-18
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
Interface Access: Console/Serial Link, Web, and Inbound Telnet
Reconfigure Web Browser Access. In the default configuration, web
browser access is enabled.
Syntax:[no] web-management
To disable web browser access:
To re-enable web browser access:
HP2512(config)# web-management
Reconfigure the Console/Serial Link Settings. You can reconfigure one
or more console parameters with one console command.
Syntax:
Note
console
[terminal <vt100 | ansi>]
[screen-refresh <1 | 3 | 5 | 10 | 20 | 30 | 45 | 60>]
[baud <speed-sense | 1200 | 2400 | 4800 | 9600 | 19200 |38400 | 57600>]
[flow-control <xon/xoff | none>]
[inactivity-timer <0 1 5 10 15 20 30 60 120>]
[events <none | all | non-info | critical | debug]
If you change the Baud Rate or Flow Control settings for the switch, you
should make the corresponding changes in your console access device. Otherwise, you may lose connectivity between the switch and your terminal
emulator due to differences between the terminal and switch settings for these
two parameters.
All console parameter changes except events require that you save the configuration with write memory and then execute boot before the new console
configuration will take effect.
For example, to use one command to configure the switch with the following:
■
VT100 operation
■
19,200 baud
■
No flow control
■
10-minute inactivity time
■
Critical log events
you would use the following command sequence:
5-19
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
HP2512(config)# no web-management
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
Interface Access: Console/Serial Link, Web, and Inbound Telnet
The switch implements the Event Log change immediately. The switch implements
the other console changes after executing write memory and reload.
Figure 5-6. Example of Executing the Console Command with Multiple Parameters
You can also execute a series of console commands and then save the
configuration and boot the switch. For example:
Configure
the
individual
parameters.
Save the
changes.
Boot the
switch.
Figure 5-7. Example of Executing a Series of Console Commands
5-20
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
System Information
System Information
System Information Features
Default
Menu
CLI
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Feature
Web
System Name
switch product
name
page
5-22
page
5-23
page
5-25
System Contact
n/a
page
5-22
page
5-23
page
5-25
System Location
n/a
page
5-22
page
5-23
page
5-25
MAC Age Interval
300 seconds
page
5-22
page
5-24
—
Time Zone
0
page
5-22
page
5-24
—
Daylight Time Rule
None
page
5-22
page
5-24
—
Time
January 1, 1990 at
00:00:00 at last
power reset
—
page
5-25
—
Configuring system information is optional, but recommended.
System Name: Using a unique name helps you to identify individual devices
in stacking environments and where you are using an SNMP network management tool such as HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches.
System Contact and Location: This information is helpful for identifying
the person administratively responsible for the switch and for identifying the
locations of individual switches.
MAC Age Interval: The number of seconds a MAC address the switch has
learned remains in the switch’s address table before being aged out (deleted).
Aging out occurs when there has been no traffic from the device belonging to
that MAC address for the configured interval.
Time Zone: The number of minutes your time zone location is to the West (+)
or East (-) of Coordinated Universal Time (formerly GMT). The default 0
means no time zone is configured.
5-21
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
System Information
Daylight Time Rule: Specifies the daylight savings time rule to apply for your
location. The default is None. (For more on this topic, see appendix D,
“Daylight Savings Time on HP ProCurve Switches.)
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Time: Used in the CLI to specify the time of day, the date, and other system
parameters.
Menu: Viewing and Configuring System Information
To access the system information parameters:
1.
From the Main Menu, Select...
3. Switch Configuration...
1. System Information
System Information
Figure 5-8. The System Information Configuration Screen (Default Values)
Note
5-22
To help simplify administration, it is recommended that you configure
System Name to a character string that is meaningful within your system.
2.
Press [E] (for Edit). The cursor moves to the System Name field.
3.
Refer to the online help provided with this screen for further information
on configuration options for these features.
4.
When you have finished making changes to the above parameters, press
[Enter], then press [S] (for Save) and return to the Main Menu.
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
System Information
CLI: Viewing and Configuring System Information
System Information Commands Used in This Section
below
hostname
below
snmp-server
[contact] [location]
below
mac-age-time
page 5-24
time timezone
page 5-24
time daylight-time-rule
page 5-24
time (date and time)
page 5-25
Listing the Current System Information. This command lists the current
system information settings.
Syntax:
show system-information
This example shows the switch’s default console configuration.
Figure 5-9. Example of CLI System Information Listing
Configure a System Name, Contact, and Location for the Switch. To
help distinguish one switch from another, configure a plain-language identity
for the switch.
Syntax:
hostname <name-string>
snmp-server [contact <system contact>] [location <system location>]
Note that no blank spaces are allowed in the variables for these commands.
For example, to name the switch “Blue” with “Ext-4474” as the system contact,
and “North-Data-Room” as the location:
HP2512(config)# hostname Blue
HP2512(config)# snmp-server contact Ext-4474 location North-Data-Room
HP2512(config)# show system-information
5-23
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
show system-information
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
System Information
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
New hostname,
contact, and
location data from
previous
commands.
Figure 5-10. System Information Listing After Executing the Preceding Commands
Reconfigure the Age Interval for Learned MAC Addresses. This command corresponds to the MAC Age Interval in the menu interface, and is
expressed in seconds.
Syntax:
mac-age-time <10 . . 1000000> (seconds)
For example, to configure the age interval to seven minutes:
HP2512(config)# mac-age-time 420
Configure the Time Zone and Daylight Time Rule. These commands:
■
Set the time zone you want to use
■
Define the daylight time rule for keeping the correct time when daylightsaving-time shifts occur.
Syntax:
time timezone <1440 . . -1440>
time daylight-time-rule <none | alaska | continental-us-and-canada |
middle-europe-and-portugal | southern-hemisphere | western-europe |
user-defined>
For example, this command configures the time zone and daylight time rule
for Vancouver, British Columbia in Canada (time zone 8 = 480 minutes):
HP2512(config)# time timezone 480 daylight-time-rule
continental-us-and-canada
5-24
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
System Information
Configure the Time and Date. The switch uses the time command to configure both the time of day and the date. Also, executing time without parameters lists the switch’s time of day and date. Note that the CLI uses a 24-hour
clock scheme; that is, hour (hh) values from 1 p.m. to midnight are input as
13 - 24, respectively.
Syntax:
time [hh:mm[:ss]] [mm/dd/ [yy]yy]
HP2512(config)# time 15:45 10/01/00
Note
Executing reload or boot resets the time and date to their default startup values.
Web: Configuring System Parameters
In the web browser interface, you can enter the following system information:
■
System Name
■
System Location
■
System Contact
For access to the MAC Age Interval and the Time parameters, use the menu
interface or the CLI.
Configure System Parameters in the Web Browser Interface.
1.
Click on the Configuration tab.
2.
Click on [System Info].
3.
Enter the data you want in the displayed fields.
4.
Implement your new data by clicking on [Apply Changes].
To access the web-based help provided for the switch, click on [?] in the web
browser screen.
5-25
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
For example, to set the switch to 3:45 p.m. on October 1, 2000:
Configuring IP Addressing,
Interface Access, and
Configuring IP Addressing, Interface Access, and System Information
System Information
5-26
6
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic
Control and Port Trunking
Chapter Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
CLI: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters . . . . . . . . . . 6
Web: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters . . . . . . . . . 9
Port Trunking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Switch 2512 and 2524 Port Trunk Features and Operation . . . . . . . . . . 11
Trunk Configuration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Menu: Viewing and Configuring a Static Trunk Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Check the Event Log (page 11-11) to verify that the trunked
ports are operating properly.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
CLI: Viewing and Configuring a Static or Dynamic
Port Trunk Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Using the CLI To View Port Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Using the CLI To Configure a Static or Dynamic Trunk Group . . . 20
Web: Viewing Existing Port Trunk Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Trunk Group Operation Using LACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Default Port Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
LACP Notes and Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Trunk Group Operation Using the “Trunk” Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Trunk Operation Using the “FEC” Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
How the Switch Lists Trunk Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Outbound Traffic Distribution Across Trunked Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6-1
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Menu: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters . . . . . . . . 5
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Overview
Overview
This chapter includes:
■
Configuring ports, including mode (speed and duplex), flow control, and
broadcast control parameters (page 6-2)
■
Creating and modifying a dynamic LACP or static port trunk group (page
6-10)
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Port numbers in the status and configuration screens correspond to the port
numbers on the front of the switch.
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port
Parameters
Port Status and ConfigurationFeatures
6-2
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
viewing port status
n/a
page 6-5
page 6-6
page 6-9
configuring ports
10/100TX,
page 6-5
Enabled, Auto
page 6-8
page 6-9
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters
Table 6-1.
Status or
Parameter
Status and Parameters for Each Port Type
Description
Intrusion Alert Yes: The switch has detected an attempt by an unauthorized device to communicate through the
(read-only)
indicated port.
No: Either no unauthorized devices have been detected on the port, or any detected violations have been
cleared.
For more on intrusions and intrusion alerts, see “Configuring and Monitoring Port Security” on page 7-9.
Yes (default): The port is ready for a network connection.
No: The port will not operate, even if properly connected in a network. Use this setting, for example, if
the port needs to be shut down for diagnostic purposes or while you are making topology changes.
Status
(read-only)
Up: The port senses a linkbeat.
Down: The port is not enabled, has no cables connected, or is experiencing a network error. For
troubleshooting information, see the installation manual you received with the switch. See also chapter
11, “Troubleshooting” (in this manual).
Mode
The port’s speed and duplex (data transfer operation) setting.
10/100Base-T ports:
• Auto (default): Senses speed and negotiates with the port at the other end of the link for data transfer
operation (half-duplex or full-duplex).
Note: Ensure that the device attached to the port is configured for the same setting that you select
here. Also, if “Auto” is used, the device to which the port is connected must operate in compliance
with the IEEE 802.3u “Auto Negotiation” standard for 100Base-T networks. If the other device does
not comply with the 802.3u standard, or is not set to Auto, then the port configuration on the switch
must be manually set to match the port configuration on the other device.
To see what the switch negotiates for the Auto setting, use the CLI show interfaces command or the
“ 3. Port Status” option under “1. Status and Counters” in the menu interface.
• Auto-10: Allows the port to negotiate between half-duplex (HDx) and full-duplex (FDx) while keeping
speed at 10 Mbps. Also negotiates flow control (enabled or disabled). HP recommends Auto-10 for
links between 10/100 autosensing ports connected with Cat 3 cabling. (Cat 5 cabling is required for
100 Mbps links.).
• 10HDx:10 Mbps, Half-Duplex
• 10FDx: 10 Mbps, Full-Duplex
• 100HDx: 100 Mbps, Half-Duplex
• 100FDx: 100 Mbps, Full-Duplex
100FX ports:
• 100HDx (default): 100 Mbps, Half-Duplex
• 100FDx: 100 Mbps, Full-Duplex
6-3
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Enabled
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Status or
Parameter
Description
100/1000Base-T ports:
• Auto (default): Senses speed and negotiates with the port at the other end of the link for port operation
(MDI-X or MDI).
To see what the switch negotiates for the Auto setting, use the CLI show interfaces command or the
“ 3. Port Status” option under “1. Status and Counters” in the menu interface.
• 1000Fdx: 1000 Mbps (1Gbps), Full-Duplex only
• 100Fdx: 100 Mbps, Full-Duplex
Notes:
• Changing the port speed on a transceiver port requires a reboot of the switch.
• Ensure that the device attached to the port is configured for the same setting that you select here.
Also, if “Auto” is used, the device to which the port is connected must also be configured to “Auto”
and operate in compliance with the IEEE 802.3ab “Auto Negotiation” standard for 1000Base-T
networks.
Gigabit fiber-optic ports (Gigabit-SX and Gigabit-LX):
• 1000FDx (default): 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps), Full Duplex only
• Auto: The port operates at 1000FDx and auto-negotiates flow control with the device connected to
the port.
Flow Control
• Disabled (default): The port will not generate flow control packets and drops received flow control
packets.
• Enabled: The port uses 802.3x Link Layer Flow Control, generates flow control packets, and processes
received flow control packets.
With the port mode set to Auto (the default) and Flow Control enabled, the switch negotiates Flow Control
on the indicated port. If the port mode is not set to Auto, or if Flow Control is disabled on the port, then
Flow Control is not used.
Bcast Limit
Specifies the theoretical maximum of network bandwidth percentage that can be used for broadcast and
multicast traffic. Any broadcast or multicast traffic exceeding that limit will be dropped. Zero (0) means
the feature is disabled.
Note: If broadcast limits are configured on a group of ports, and those ports are later configured as
a trunk, then the broadcast limit for the trunk will be the highest limit that was previously configured
on the individual ports in the trunk.
Group (menu) Menu Interface: Specifies the static trunk group, if any, to which a port belongs.
or
Trunk Group
CLI: Appears in the show lacp command output to show the LACP trunk, if any, to which a port belongs.
(CLI)
Note: An LACP trunk requires a full-duplex link. In most cases, HP recommends that you leave the
port Mode setting at Auto (the default). See the LACP Note on page 6-11.
For more on port trunking, see “Port Trunking” on page 6-10.
Type
6-4
This parameter appears in the CLI show trunk listing and, for a port in a trunk group, specifies the type
of trunk group. The default Type is passive LACP, which can be displayed by using the CLI show lacp
command.
For more on port trunking, see “Port Trunking” on page 6-10.
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters
Menu: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port
Parameters
From the menu interface, you can configure and view all port parameter
settings and view all port status indicators.
Using the Menu To View Port Status. The menu interface displays the
status for ports and (if configured) a trunk group.
From the Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters . . .
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
3. Port Status
In this example,
ports 5 and 6 have
previously been
configured as a
trunk group.
Figure 6-11. Example of the Port Status Screen
Using the Menu To Configure Ports.
Note
The menu interface uses the same screen for configuring both individual ports
and port trunk groups. For information on port trunk groups, see “Port
Trunking” on page 6-10.
1.
From the Main Menu, Select:
2. Switch Configuration...
2. Port/Trunk Settings
6-5
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters
Figure 6-12. Example of Port/Trunk Settings with a Trunk Group Configured
2.
Press [E] (for Edit). The cursor moves to the Enabled field for the first port.
3.
Refer to the online help provided with this screen for further information
on configuration options for these features.
4.
When you have finished making changes to the above parameters, press
[Enter], then press [S] (for Save).
CLI: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port
Parameters
Port Status and Configuration Commands
show interfaces
below
show interface config
page 6-7
interface
page 6-8
From the CLI, you can configure and view all port parameter settings and view
all port status indicators.
Using the CLI To View Port Status. Use the following commands to display port status and configuration:
6-6
■
show interfaces: Lists the full status and configuration for all ports on the
switch.
■
show interface config: Lists a subset of the data shown by the show
interfaces command (above); that is, only the enabled/disabled, mode, and
flow control status for all ports on the switch.
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters
Syntax:
show interfaces
show interface config
The next two figures list examples of the output of the above two commands
for the same port configuration on a Switch 2512 or 2524.
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Figure 6-1. Example of a Show Interface Command Listing
Figure 6-2. Example of a Show Interface Config Command Listing
6-7
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters
Using the CLI To Configure Ports. You can configure one or more of the
following port parameters. For details on each option, see Table 6-1 on page
6-3.
Syntax:
[no] interface <[ethernet] port-list>
[disable | enable]
[speed-duplex
<auto-10 |10-full | 10-half | 100-full | 100-half |auto|1000-full |>]
[flow-control]
[broadcast-limit <0 - 99>]
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Note that in the above syntax you can subsitute an “int” for “interface” and an
“e” for “ethernet”; that is int e <port-list>.
For example, to configure ports 1 through 4 and port 7 for 100Mbps full-duplex
with a broadcast limit of 20%, you would enter this command:
HP2512(config)# int e 1-4,7
broadcast-limit 20
speed-duplex 100-full
Similarly, to configure a single port with the settings in the above command,
you could either enter the same command with only the one port identified,
or go to the context level for that port and then enter the command. For
example, to enter the context level for port 7 and then configure that port for
100FDx with a broadcast limit of 20%:
HP2512(config)# int e 7
HP2512(eth-7)# speed-duplex 100-full broadcast-limit 20
If port 8 was disabled, and you wanted to enable it and configure it for 100FDx
with a broadcast limit of 20%, with flow-control active and a broadcast limit
of 20%, you could do so with either of the following command sets.
■
This command enables and configures port 8 from the config level:
HP2512(config)# interface e 8 enable speed-duplex
100-full broadcast-limit 20 flow-control
■
These two commands select the context level for port 8 and then apply
all of the configuration commands to port 8:
HP2512(config)# int e 8
HP2512(eth-8)# enable speed-duplex 100-full
flow-control broadcast-limit 20
6-8
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters
Web: Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port
Parameters
In the web browser interface:
1.
Click on the Configuration tab.
2.
Click on [Port Configuration].
3.
Select the ports you want to modify and click on [Modify Selected Ports].
4.
After you make the desired changes, click on [Apply Settings].
6-9
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Note that the web browser interface displays an existing port trunk group.
However, to configure a port trunk group, you must use the CLI or the menu
interface. For more on this topic, see “Port Trunking” on page 6-10.
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Port Status and ConfigurationFeatures
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
viewing port trunks
n/a
page 6-16
page 6-18
page 6-23
configuring a static trunk
group
none
page 6-16
page 6-21
—
configuring a dynamic LACP
trunk group
LACP passive —
page 6-22
—
Port trunking allows you to assign up to four physical links to one logical link
(trunk) that functions as a single, higher-speed link providing dramatically
increased bandwidth. This capability applies to connections between backbone devices as well as to connections in other network areas where traffic
bottlenecks exist. A trunk group is a set of up to four ports configured as
members of the same port trunk. Note that the ports in a trunk group do not
have to be consecutive. For example:
The multiple physical links in a trunk behave as one logical link
Switch 1:
port 1
port 2
port 3
port 4
port 5
port 6
port 7
port 1
port 2
port 3
port 4
port 5
port 6
port 7
Ports 1 - 4
configured
as a port
trunk group.
Switch 2:
Ports 3 - 6
configured
as a port
trunk group
.
.
.
.
.
.
Figure 6-3. Conceptual Example of Port Trunking
With full-duplex operation in a four-port trunk group, trunking enables the
following bandwidth capabilities:
Table 6-2.
Bandwidth Capacity for Trunk Groups Configured for Full-Duplex
10 Mbps Links
100 Mbps Links
1000 Mbps Links
2 Ports
Up to 40 Mbps
Up to 400 Mbps
Up to 4000 Mbps
3 Ports
Up to 60 Mbps
Up to 600 Mbps
n/a*
4 Ports
Up to 80 Mbps
Up to 800 Mbps
n/a*
*The Switches 2512 and 2524 offer a maximum of two gigabit links if optional gigabit
transceivers are installed.
6-10
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Port Connections and Configuration: All port trunk links must be pointto-point connections between the switch 2512 or 2524 and another switch,
router, server, or workstation configured for port trunking. No intervening,
non-trunking devices are allowed. It is important to note that ports on both
ends of a port trunk group must have the same mode (speed and duplex) and
flow control settings.
Note
Link Connections. The switch does not support port trunking through an
intermediate, non-trunking device such as a hub, or using more than one media
type in a port trunk group. Similarly, all links in the same trunk group must
have the same speed, duplex, and flow control.
Caution
To avoid broadcast storms or loops in your network while configuring a
trunk, first disable or disconnect all ports you want to add to or remove from
the trunk. After you finish configuring the trunk, enable or re-connect the
ports.
Switch 2512 and 2524 Port Trunk Features and
Operation
The Series 2500 switches offer these options for port trunking:
■
LACP (IEEE 802.3ad—page 6-24)
■
Trunk (non-protocol—page 6-27)
■
FEC (Fast EtherChannel®—page 6-27)
The Series 2500 switches support one trunk group of up to four ports. (Using
the Link Aggregation Control Protocol—LACP—option, you can include
standby trunked ports in addition to the maximum of four actively trunking
ports.)
LACP Note
LACP operation requires full-duplex (FDx) links. For most installations, HP
recommends that you leave the port Mode settings at Auto (the default). LACP
also operates with Auto-10 (if negotiation selects HDx), 10FDx, 100FDx, and
1000FDx settings.
6-11
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Port Security Restriction. Port security does not operate on a trunk group.
If you configure port security on one or more ports that are later added to a
trunk group, the switch will reset the port security parameters for those ports
to the factory-default configuration.
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Fault Tolerance: If a link in a port trunk fails, the switch redistributes
traffic originally destined for that link to the remaining links in the trunk. The
trunk remains operable as long as there is at least one link in operation. If a
link is restored, that link is automatically included in the traffic distribution
again. The LACP option also offers a standby link capability, which enables
you to keep links in reserve for service if one or more of the original active
links fails. See “Trunk Group Operation Using LACP” on page 6-24.)
Trunk Configuration Methods
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Dynamic LACP Trunk: The switch automatically negotiates trunked links
between LACP-configured ports on separate devices, and offers one dynamic
trunk option: LACP. To configure the switch to initiate a dynamic LACP trunk
with another device, use the interface ethernet command in the CLI to set the
default LACP option to Active on the ports you want to use for the trunk. For
example, the following command sets ports 1-4 to LACP active:
HP2512(config) int e 1-4 lacp active
Note that the above example works if the ports are not already operating in a
trunk. To change the LACP option on ports already operating as a trunk, you
must first remove them from the trunk. For example, if ports 1 - 4 were LACPactive and operating in a trunk with another device, you would do the
following to change them to LACP-passive:
HP2512(config)# no int e 1-4 lacp
HP2512(config)# int e 1-4
lacp passive
Removes the ports from
the trunk.
Configures LACP
passive.
Static Trunk: The switch uses the links you configure with the Port/Trunk
Settings screen in the menu interface or the trunk command in the CLI to create
a static port trunk. The switch offers three types of static trunks: LACP, Trunk,
and FEC.
Table 6-3.
Trunking
Method
6-12
Trunk Types Used in Static and Dynamic Trunk Groups
LACP
Trunk
FEC
Dynamic
Yes
No
No
Static
Yes
Yes
Yes
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Table 6-4.
Trunk Configuration Protocols
Trunking Options
LACP
(802.3ad)
Provides dynamic and static LACP trunking options.
• Dynamic LACP — Use the switch-negotiated dynamic LACP trunk when:
– The port on the other end of the trunk link is configured for Active or Passive LACP.
– You want to achieve fault-tolerance for high-availability applications where you want a four-link trunk
with one or more standby links available in case an active link goes down. (Both ends of the link must
be dynamic LACP.)
• Static LACP — Use the manually configured static LACP trunk when:
– The port on the other end of the trunk link is configured for a static LACP trunk
– You want to configure non-default spanning tree (STP) or IGMP parameters on an LACP trunk group.
– You want an LACP trunk group to operate in a VLAN other than the default VLAN and GVRP is disabled.
– You want to use a monitor port on the switch to monitor an LACP trunk.
See “Trunk Group Operation Using LACP” on page 6-24.
Trunk
(nonprotocol)
Provides manually configured, static-only trunking to:
• Most HP switches and routing switches not running the 802.3ad LACP protocol.
• Windows NT and HP-UX workstations and servers
Use the Trunk option when:
– The device to which you want to create a trunk link is using a non-802.3ad trunking protocol
– You are unsure which type of trunk to use, or the device to which you want to create a trunk link is
using an unknown trunking protocol.
– You want to use a monitor port on the switch to monitor traffic on a trunk.
See “Trunk Group Operation Using the “Trunk” Option” on page 6-27.
FEC
Provides static trunking to forwarding devices that also support FEC (Fast
EtherChannel®), such as some Cisco® switches and routers, and some HP-UX and Windows NT servers.
See “Trunk Operation Using the FEC Option” on page 6-27.
6-13
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Protocol
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Table 6-5.
General Operating Rules for Port Trunks
Media: All ports on both ends of a trunk group must have the same media type and mode (speed and duplex). The switch
blocks any trunked links that do not conform to this rule. (For the Switch 2512 and 2524, HP recommends leaving the port
Mode setting at Auto or, in networks using Cat 3 cabling, Auto-10.)
Port Configuration: The default port configuration on the Switch 2512/2524 is Auto, which enables a port to sense speed
and negotiate duplex with an Auto-enabled port on another device. HP recommends that you use the Auto setting for all
ports you plan to use for trunking. Otherwise, you must manually ensure that the mode setting for each port in a trunk is
compatible with the other ports in the trunk.
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Recommended Port Mode Setting for LACP
All of the following operate on a per-port basis, regardless of trunk membership:
• Enable/Disable
• Flow control (Flow Ctrl)
• Broadcast limit (Bcast Limit) (Note that the switch automatically adjusts the Bcast Limit setting on individual ports in
the trunk to match the trunked port with the highest broadcast limit.) When a broadcast limit is configured on a trunk,
removing a port from the trunk sets the broadcast limit for that port to 0 (the default).
LACP is a full-duplex protocol. See “Trunk Group Operation Using LACP” on page 6-24.
Trunk Configuration: All ports in the same trunk group must be the same trunk type (LACP, Trunk, or FEC). All LACP ports
in the same trunk group must be either all static LACP or all dynamic LACP.
A trunk appears as a single port labeled Dyn1 (for an LACP dynamic trunk) or Trk1 (for a static trunk of any type:
LACP, Trunk, or FEC) on various menu and CLI screens. For a listing of which screens show which trunk types, see “How
the Switch Lists Trunk Data” on page 6-28.
For STP or VLAN operation, configuration for all ports in a trunk is done at the trunk level. (You cannot separately configure
individual ports within a trunk for STP or VLAN operation.)
Traffic Distribution: All of the switch trunk protocols use the SA/DA (Source Address/Destination Address) method of
distributing traffic across the trunked links. See “Outbound Traffic Distribution Across Trunked Links” on page 6-28.
6-14
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP): STP operates as a global setting on the switch (one instance of STP per switch). However,
you can adjust STP parameters on a per-port basis. A static trunk of any type appears in the STP configuration display,
and you can configure STP parameters for a static trunk in the same way that you would configure STP parameters on
a non-trunked port. (Note that the switch lists the trunk by name—Trk1—and does not list the individual ports in the
trunk.) For example, if ports 1 and 2 are configured as a static trunk, they are listed in the STP display as TRK1 and do not
appear as individual ports in the STP displays.
When Spanning Tree forwards on a trunk, all ports in the trunk will be forwarding. Conversely, when Spanning Tree blocks
a trunk, all ports in the trunk are blocked.
Note: A dynamic LACP trunk operates only with the default STP settings and does not appear in the STP configuration
display or show ip igmp listing.
If you remove a port from a static trunk, the port retains the same STP settings that were configured for the trunk.
IP Multicast Protocol (IGMP): A static trunk of any type appears in the IGMP configuration display, and you can configure
IGMP for a static trunk in the same way that you would configure IGMP on a non-trunked port. (Note that the switch lists
the trunk by name—Trk1—and does not list the individual ports in the trunk.) Also, creating a new trunk automatically
places the trunk in IGMP Auto status if IGMP is enabled for the default VLAN. A dynamic LACP trunk operates only with
the default IGMP settings and does not appear in the IGMP configuration display or show ip igmp listing.
VLANs: Creating a new trunk automatically places the trunk in the DEFAULT_VLAN, regardless of whether the ports in
the trunk were in another VLAN. Similarly, removing a port from a trunk group automatically places the port in the default
VLAN. You can configure a static trunk in the same way that you configure a port for membership in any VLAN.
Note: For a dynamic trunk to operate in a VLAN other than the default VLAN (DEFAULT_VLAN), GVRP must be enabled.
See “Trunk Group Operation Using LACP” on page 6-24.
Port Security: Trunk groups (and their individual ports) cannot be configured for port security, and the switch excludes
trunked ports from the show port-security listing. If you configure non-default port security settings for a port, then
subsequently place the port in a trunk, the port security for that port returns to the default settings. If you remove a port
from a trunk, the port security settings for that port are returned to their default values.
Monitor Port:
Note: A trunk cannot be a monitor port. A monitor port can monitor a static trunk but cannot monitor a dynamic LACP
trunk.
6-15
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
In this example showing
part of the show spanningtree listing, ports 1 and 2
are members of TRK1 and
do not appear as individual
ports in the port
configuration part of the
listing.
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Menu: Viewing and Configuring a Static Trunk Group
Important
Configure port trunking before you connect the trunked links to another
switch, routing switch, or server. Otherwise, a broadcast storm could occur.
(If you need to connect the ports before configuring them for trunking, you
can temporarily disable the ports until the trunk is configured. See “Using the
CLI To Configure Ports” on page 6-8.)
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
To View and/or Configure Static Port Trunking: This procedure uses
the Port/Trunk Settings screen to configure a static port trunk group on the
switch.
1.
Follow the procedures in the Important note above.
2.
From the Main Menu, Select:
2. Switch Configuration . . .
2. Port/Trunk Settings
3.
Press [E] (for Edit) and then use the arrow keys to access the port trunk
parameters.
These two columns provide
static trunk control.
Figure 6-4. Example of the Menu Screen for Configuring a Port Trunk Group
4.
In the Group column, move the cursor to the port you want to configure.
5.
Use the Space bar to choose the Trk1 trunk group assignment for the
selected port.
•
6-16
All ports in a trunk must have the same media type and mode (such
as 10/100TX set to 100FDx, or 100FX set to 100FDx). The flow control
settings must also be the same for all ports in a given trunk. (The
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
switch automatically adjusts Broadcast Limit settings to be the same
for all ports in a trunk.) To verify these settings, see “Viewing Port
Status and Configuring Port Parameters” on page 6-2.
•
You can configure the trunk group with one, two, three, or four ports
per trunk. If multiple VLANs are configured, all ports within a trunk
will be assigned to the same VLAN or set of VLANs. (With the 802.1Q
VLAN capability built into the switch, more than one VLAN can be
assigned to a trunk. See “Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)” on
page 9-50.)
(To return a port to a non-trunk status, keep pressing the Space bar
until a blank appears in the highlighted Group value for that port.)
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Figure 6-5. Example of the Configuration for a Two-Port Trunk Group
6.
Move the cursor to the Type column for the selected port and use the
Space bar to select the trunk type:
– LACP
– Trunk (the default type if you do not specify a type)
– FEC (Fast EtherChannel® trunk)
All ports in the same trunk group on the same switch must have the same
Type (LACP, Trunk, or FEC).
7.
When you are finished assigning ports to the trunk group, press [Enter], then
[S] (for Save) and return to the Main Menu. (It is not necessary to reboot
the switch.)
During the Save process, traffic on the ports configured for trunking will
be delayed for several seconds. If the Spanning Tree Protocol is enabled,
the delay may be up to 30 seconds.
6-17
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
8.
Connect the trunked ports on the switch to the corresponding ports on
the opposite device. If you previously disabled any of the trunked ports
on the switch, enable them now. (See “Viewing Port Status and Configuring Port Parameters” on page 6-2.)
Check the Event Log (page 11-11) to verify that the trunked ports are
operating properly.
CLI: Viewing and Configuring a Static or Dynamic Port
Trunk Group
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Trunk Status and Configuration Commands
show trunks
below
show lacp
page 6-19
trunk
page 6-21
interface lacp
page 6-22
Using the CLI To View Port Trunks
You can list the trunk type and group for all ports on the switch or for selected
ports. You can also list LACP-only status information for LACP-configured
ports.
Listing Static Trunk Type and Group for All Ports or Selected Ports.
Syntax:
show trunks [<port-list>]
Omitting the <port-list> parameter results in a static trunk data listing for all
LAN ports in the switch.
This example uses a port list to specify only the switch ports an administrator
wants to view:
Figure 6-6. Example of a Show Trunk Listing for Specific Ports
6-18
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
The show trunk command in this example does not include a port list. As a
result, the listing shows static trunk group information for all switch ports.
Listing Static LACP and Dynamic LACP Trunk Data. This command
lists data for only the LACP-configured ports.
Syntax:
show lacp
In the following example, ports 1, 2, and 3 have been previously configured
for a static LACP trunk. (For more on “Active”, see table 6-7 on page 6-25.)
Figure 6-8. Example of a Show LACP Listing
Dynamic LACP Standby Links. Dynamic LACP trunking enables you to
configure standby links for a trunk by including more than four ports in a
dynamic LACP trunk configuration. When four ports (trunk links) are up, the
remaining link(s) will be held in standby status. If a trunked link that is “Up”
fails, it will be replaced by a standby link, which maintains your intended
6-19
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Figure 6-7. Example of a Show Trunk Listing Without Specifying Ports
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
bandwidth for the trunk. In the next example, ports 1 through 5 have been
configured for the same LACP trunk. Notice that one of the links shows
Standby status, while the remaining four links are “Up”.
“Up” Links
Standby Link
Figure 6-9. Example of a Dynamic LACP Trunk with One Standby Link
Using the CLI To Configure a Static or Dynamic Trunk Group
Important
Configure port trunking before you connect the trunked links between
switches. Otherwise, a broadcast storm could occur. (If you need to connect
the ports before configuring them for trunking, you can temporarily disable
the ports until the trunk is configured. See “Using the CLI To Configure Ports”
on page 6-8.)
On the Switches 2512 and 2524, you can configure one port trunk group having
up to four links (with additional standby links if you’re using LACP). Options
include:
6-20
■
If no trunk group exists, you can create a trunk group on the switch
■
If a trunk group already exists on the switch, you can add ports to the
trunk group or delete ports within the group.
■
You can remove a subset of ports from a trunk group, or delete the trunk
group entirely by removing all ports from the group
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
You can configure trunk group types as follows:
Trunk Type
Trunk Group Membership
Trk1 (Static)
Note
Dyn1 (Dynamic)
LACP
Yes
Yes
Trunk
Yes
No
FEC
Yes
No
The following examples show how to create different types of trunk groups.
However, the Switches 2512 and 2524 allow only one trunk group at any time.
Syntax: trunk trk1 <trunk | fec | lacp> <port-list>
This example uses ports 5-8 to create a non-protocol static trunk group.
HP2512(config)# trunk trk1 trunk 5-8
Removing Ports from a Static Trunk Group. This command removes
one or more ports from an existing Trk1 trunk group.
Caution
Removing a port from a trunk can result in a loop and cause a broadcast storm.
When you remove a port from a trunk where STP is not in use, HP recommends
that you disable the port or disconnect the link on that port.
Syntax: no trunk <port-list>
This example removes ports 7 and 8 from an existing trunk group.
HP2512(config)# no trunk 7-8
6-21
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Configuring a Static Trunk, Static FEC, or Static LACP Trunk Group.
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Enabling a Dynamic LACP Trunk Group. In the default port configuration, all ports on the switch are set to LACP passive. However, to enable the
switch to automatically form a trunk group that is dynamic on both ends of
the link, the ports on one end of a set of links must be LACP active. The ports
on the other end can be either LACP active or LACP passive. This command
enables the switch to automatically establish a (dynamic) LACP trunk group
when the device on the other end of the link is configured for LACP passive.
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Switch “A”
with ports set
to LACP
passive (the
default).
Switch “B”
with ports set
to LACP
passive (the
default).
Dynamic LACP trunk cannot automatically form because both
ends of the links are LACP passive.
(In this case STP blocking is needed to prevent a loop.
Switch “A”
with ports set
to LACP
active.
Switch “B”
with ports set
to LACP
passive (the
default).
Dynamic LACP trunk automatically forms because both
ends of the links are LACP and at least one end is LACP
active. (STP is not needed, and the clear advantages are
increased bandwidth and fault-tolerance.
Figure 6-10. Example of Criteria for Automatically Forming a Dynamic LACP Trunk
Syntax: interface <port-list> lacp active
This example uses ports 5 and 6 to enable a dynamic LACP trunk group.
HP2512(config)# interface 5-6 lacp active
6-22
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Removing Ports from a Dynamic LACP Trunk Group. To remove a port
from dynamic LACP trunk operation, you must turn off LACP on the port. (On
a port in an operating, dynamic LACP trunk, you cannot change between LACP
dynamic and LACP passive without first removing LACP operation from the
port.)
Caution
Unless STP is running on your network, removing a port from a trunk can
result in a loop. To help prevent a broadcast storm when you remove a port
from a trunk where STP is not in use, HP recommends that you first disconnect
the link on that port.
Syntax: no interface <port-list> lacp
HP2512>(config)# no interface 1 lacp
HP2512>(config)# interface 1 lacp passive
Note that in the above example, if the port on the other end of the link is
configured for active LACP or static LACP, the trunked link will be reestablished almost immediately.
Web: Viewing Existing Port Trunk Groups
While the web browser interface does not enable you to configure a port trunk
group, it does provide a view of an existing trunk group.
To view any port trunk groups:
Click on the Status tab.
Click on [Port Status].
6-23
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
In this example, port 1 belongs to an operating, dynamic LACP trunk. To
remove port 1 from the dynamic trunk and return it to passive LACP, you would
do the following:
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Trunk Group Operation Using LACP
The switch can automatically configure a dynamic LACP trunk group or you
can manually configure a static LACP trunk group. The methods for displaying
Note
LACP requires full-duplex (FDx) links of the same media type (10/100Base-T,
100FX, etc.) and speed, and enforces speed and duplex conformance across
a trunk group.
LACP trunk status include:
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Trunk Display Method
Static LACP Trunk
Dynamic LACP Trunk
CLI show lacp command
Included in listing.
Included in listing.
CLI show trunk command
Included in listing.
Not included.
Port/Trunk Settings screen in menu interface
Included in listing.
Not included
In most cases, trunks configured for LACP on the ProCurve 2512/ 2524
switches operate as described in table 6-6:
Table 6-6.
LACP Trunk Types
LACP Port Trunk Operation
Configuration
Dynamic LACP
This option automatically establishes an 802.3ad-compliant trunk group, with Dyn1 for the port Group
name and LACP for the port Type parameter.
Under the following conditions, the switch automatically establishes a dynamic LACP port trunk group:
• The ports on both ends of a link have compatible mode settings (speed and duplex).
• The port on one end of a link must be configured for LACP Active and the port on the other end of
the same link must be configured for either LACP Passive (the default) or LACP Active. For example:
Switch 1
Switch 2
Port X:
LACP Enable: Active
Port A:
Active-to-Active
LACP Enable: Active
LACP Enable: Active
Port B:
Port Y:
Active-to-Passive
LACP Enable: Passive
Either of the above link configurations allow a dynamic LACP trunk link.
Standby Links: A maximum of four operating links are allowed in the trunk, but, with dynamic LACP, you
can configure one or more backup links that the switch automatically activates if a primary link fails.
To configure a link as a standby for an existing four-port dynamic LACP trunk, ensure that both ports
in the standby link are configured the same as either of the above examples.
Displaying Dynamic LACP Trunk Data: To list the configuration and status for a dynamic LACP trunk,
use the CLI show lacp command.
Note: The dynamic trunk is automatically created by the switch, and is not listed in the static trunk
listings available in the menu interface or in the CLI show trunk listing.
6-24
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
LACP Port Trunk Operation
Configuration
Static LACP
Default Port Operation
In the default configuration, all ports are configured for passive LACP. However, if LACP is not configured, the port will not try to detect a trunk configuration and will operate as a standard, untrunked port. The following table
describes the elements of per-port LACP operation. To display this data for a
particular switch, execute the following command in the CLI:
HP2512> show lacp
Table 6-7.
LACP Port Status Data
Status Name
Meaning
Port Numb
Shows the physical port number for each port configured for LACP operation (1, 2, 3 . . .). Unlisted port
numbers indicate that the missing ports are assigned to a static Trunk group, an FEC trunk group, or are
not configured for any trunking.
LACP Enabled
Active: The port automatically sends LACP protocol packets.
Passive: The port does not automatically send LACP protocol packets, and responds only if it receives
LACP protocol packets from the opposite device.
A link having either two active LACP ports or one active port and one passive port can perform dynamic
LACP trunking. A link having two passive LACP ports will not perform LACP trunking because both ports
are waiting for an LACP protocol packet from the opposite device.
Note: In the default switch configuration, all ports are configured for passive LACP operation.
Trunk Group
Trk1: This port has been manually configured into a static LACP trunk.
Trunk Group Same as Port Number: The port is configured for LACP, but is not a member of a port trunk.
6-25
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
The trunk operates if the trunk group on the opposite device is running one of the following trunking
protocols:
• Active LACP
• Passive LACP
• Trunk
• FEC
This option uses Trk1 for the port Group parameter and LACP for the port Type parameter.
Displaying Static LACP Trunk Data: To list the configuration and status for a static LACP trunk, use the
CLI show lacp command. To list a static LACP trunk with its assigned ports, use the CLI show trunk
command or display the menu interface Port/Trunk Settings screen.
Static LACP does not allow standby ports.
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Status Name
Meaning
Port Status
Up: The port has an active LACP link and is not blocked or in Standby mode.
Down: The port is enabled, but an LACP link is not established. This can indicate, for example, a port that
is not connected to the network or a speed mismatch between a pair of linked ports.
Disabled: The port cannot carry traffic.
Blocked: LACP, STP, or FEC has blocked the port. (The port is not in LACP Standby mode.) This may be
due to a trunk negotiation (very brief) or a configuration error such as differing port speeds on the same
link or attempting to connect the Switch 2512/2524 to more than one trunk.
Standby: The port is configured for dynamic LACP trunking, but the maximum number of ports for the
Dyn1 trunk has already been reached on either the Switch 2512/2524 or the device on the other end of
the trunked links. This port will remain in reserve, or “standby” unless LACP detects another, active link
in the trunk becomes disabled, blocked, or down. In this case, LACP automatically assigns a Standby
port, if available, to replace the failed port.
LACP Partner
Yes: LACP is enabled on both ends of the link.
No: LACP is enabled on the Switch 2512/2524, but is not enabled, or LACP has not been detected on the
opposite device.
LACP Status
Success: LACP is enabled on the port, detects and synchronizes with a device on the other end of the
link, and can move traffic across the link.
Failure: LACP is enabled on a port and detects a device on the other end of the link, but is not able to
synchronize with this device, and therefore not able to send LACP packets across the link. This can be
caused, for example, by an intervening device on the link (such as a hub), a bad hardware connection,
or if the LACP operation on the opposite device does not comply with the IEEE 802.3ad standard.
LACP Notes and Restrictions
Changing Trunking Methods. The switch supports one trunk group. Thus,
a port belonging to an LACP dynamic trunk (Dyn1) cannot be configured as a
member of a static trunk (Trk1) without first eliminating the dynamic trunk.
Also, to convert a trunk from static to dynamic, you must first eliminate the
static trunk.
Static LACP Trunks. Where a port is configured for LACP (Active or
Passive), but does not belong to an existing trunk group, you can add that port
to a static trunk. Doing so disables dynamic LACP on that port, which means
you must manually configure both ends of the trunk.
VLANs and Dynamic LACP. A dynamic LACP trunk operates only in the
default VLAN unless you have enabled GVRP on the switch. If you want to use
LACP for a trunk on a non-default VLANand GVRP is disabled, configure the
trunk as a static trunk.
STP and IGMP. If spanning tree (STP) and/or IGMP is enabled in the switch,
a dynamic LACP trunk operates only with the default settings for these
features and does not appear in the port listings for these features.
6-26
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Half-Duplex and/or Different Port Speeds Not Allowed in LACP
Trunks. The ports on both sides of a trunk must be configured for the same
speed and for full-duplex (FDx). In most cases,HP recommends the ing. The
802.3ad LACP standard specifies a full-duplex (FDx) requirement for LACP
trunking.
A port configured as LACP passive and not assigned to a port trunk can be
configured to half-duplex (HDx). However, in any of the following cases, a
port cannot be reconfigured to an HDx setting:
If a port is set to LACP Active, you cannot configure it to HDx.
■
If a port is already a member of a static or dynamic LACP trunk, you cannot
configure it to HDx.
■
If a port is already set to HDx, the switch does not allow you to configure
it for a static or dynamic LACP trunk.
Dynamic/Static LACP Interoperation: A port configured for dynamic
LACP can properly interoperate with a port configured for static (Trk1) LACP,
but any ports configured as standby LACP links will be ignored.
Trunk Group Operation Using the “Trunk” Option
This method creates a trunk group that operates independently of specific
trunking protocols and does not use a protocol exchange with the device on
the other end of the trunk. With this choice, the switch simply uses the SA/DA
method of distributing outbound traffic across the trunked ports without
regard for how that traffic is handled by the device at the other end of the
trunked links. Similarly, the switch handles incoming traffic from the trunked
links as if it were from a trunked source.
Use the Trunk option when you are trying to establish a trunk group between
the Switch 2512 or 2524 and another device, but the other device’s trunking
operation fails to interoperate properly with LACP or FEC trunking configured
on the Switch 2512 or 2524..
Trunk Operation Using the “FEC” Option
This is the most flexible method for distributing traffic over trunked links
when connecting to devices that use the FEC (Fast EtherChannel®) technology. FEC trunks offer the following benefits:
■
Provide trunked connectivity to a FEC-compliant server, switch, or router.
■
Enable quick convergence to remaining links when a failure is detected
on a trunked port link.
6-27
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
■
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
■
Depending on the capabilities of the device on the other end of the trunk,
negotiate the forwarding mechanism on the trunk to the non-protocol
option.
■
When auto-negotiated to the SA/DA forwarding mechanism, provide
higher performance on the trunk for broadcast, multicast, and flooded
traffic through distribution in the same manner as non-protocol trunking.
■
Support FEC automatic trunk configuration mode on other devices. That
is, when connecting FEC trunks to FEC-capable servers, switches, or
routers having FEC automatic trunk configuration mode enabled, the
FEC trunks allow these other devices to automatically form trunk groups.
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
How the Switch Lists Trunk Data
Static Trunk Group: Appears in the menu interface and the output from the
CLI show trunk and show interfaces commands.
Dynamic LACP Trunk Group: Appears in the output from the CLI show lacp
command.
Interface Option
Dynamic LACP
Trunk Group
Static LACP Static Non-Protocol
Trunk Group or FEC Trunk Group
Menu Interface
No
Yes
Yes
CLI show trunk
No
Yes
Yes
CLI show interfaces
No
Yes
Yes
CLI show lacp
Yes
Yes
No
CLI show spanning-tree
No
Yes
Yes
CLI show igmp
No
Yes
Yes
CLI show config
No
Yes
Yes
Outbound Traffic Distribution Across Trunked Links
All three trunk group options (LACP, Trunk, and FEC) use source-destination
address pairs (SA/DA) for distributing outbound traffic over trunked links.
SA/DA (source address/destination address) causes the switch to distribute
outbound traffic to the links within the trunk group on the basis of source/
destination address pairs. That is, the switch sends traffic from the same
source address to the same destination address through the same trunked link,
6-28
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
Broadcasts, multicasts, and floods from different source addresses are distributed evenly across the links. As links are added or deleted, the switch
redistributes traffic across the trunk group. For example, in figure 6-11 showing a three-port trunk, traffic could be assigned as shown in table 6-8.
A
B
C
D
Switch
1
2
3
W
X
Y
Z
Switch
Figure 6-11. Example of Port-Trunked Network
Table 6-8.
Example of Link Assignments in a Trunk Group (SA/DA Distribution)
Source:
Destination:
Link:
Node A
Node W
1
Node B
Node X
2
Node C
Node Y
3
Node D
Node Z
1
Node A
Node Y
2
Node B
Node W
3
6-29
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
and sends traffic from the same source address to a different destination
address through a different link, depending on the rotation of path assignments among the links in the trunk. Likewise, the switch distributes traffic for
the same destination address but from different source addresses through
different links. Because the amount of traffic coming from or going to various
nodes in a network can vary widely, it is possible for one link in a trunk group
to be fully utilized while others in the same trunk have unused bandwidth
capacity even though the address assignments are evenly distributed across
the links in a trunk. In actual networking environments, this is rarely a
problem. However, if it becomes a problem, you can use the HP TopTools for
Hubs & Switches network management software available from HewlettPackard to quickly and easily identify the sources of heavy traffic (top talkers)
and make adjustments to improve performance.
Optimizing Port Usage
Through Traffic Control and
Optimizing Port Usage Through Traffic Control and Port Trunking
Port Trunking
6-30
7
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP
Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Chapter Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Using Password Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Menu: Setting Manager and Operator passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
CLI: Setting Manager and Operator Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
Web: Configuring User Names and Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 8
Basic Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Blocking Unauthorized Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Trunk Group Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Planning Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
CLI: Port Security Command Options and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
CLI: Displaying Current Port Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
CLI: Configuring Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Web: Displaying and Configuring Port Security Features . . . . . . . . . 7- 21
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Notice of Security Violations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
How the Intrusion Log Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 22
Keeping the Intrusion Log Current by Resetting Alert Flags . . . 7-23
Menu: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and
Resetting Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 24
CLI: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and Resetting
Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
Using the Event Log To Find Intrusion Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27
Web: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and Resetting
Alert Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28
Operating Notes for Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28
Using IP Authorized Managers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 30
Access Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31
7-1
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Chapter Contents
Defining Authorized Management Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31
Overview of IP Mask Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32
Menu: Viewing and Configuring IP Authorized Managers . . . . . . . . . 7-33
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Authorized IP Managers . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34
Listing the Switch’s Current Authorized IP Manager(s) . . . . . . . 7-34
Configuring IP Authorized Managers for the Switch . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
Web: Configuring IP Authorized Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Building IP Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Configuring One Station Per Authorized Manager IP Entry . . . . 7-36
Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized
Manager IP Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-37
Additional Examples for Authorizing Multiple Stations . . . . . . . 7- 39
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Operating and Troubleshooting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39
7-2
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Overview
Overview
■
Manager and Operator passwords (page 7-4): Control access and
privileges for the command line and menu interfaces (through either the
console port or Telnet) and the web browser interface through the network. The features described in this chapter enhance security controls
against unauthorized access through the network.
■
Port Security (page 7-9): Enables you to specify on a per-port basis
which device(s) are authorized to access the network.
■
Authorized IP Managers (page 7-30): Enhances security on the switch
by using IP addresses and masks to determine which stations (PCs or
workstations) can access the switch through the network. This covers
access through the following means:
Telnet
•
The switch’s web browser interface
•
SNMP (with a correct community name)
•
File transfers using TFTP (for configurations and software updates)
Thus, with authorized IP managers configured, having the correct passwords
is not sufficient for accessing the switch through the network unless the
station attempting access is also included in the switch’s Authorized IP
Managers configuration.
7-3
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
•
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using Password Security
Using Password Security
Password Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Set a Password
no passwords set
page 7-5
page 7-7
page 7-8
Set User Names
no user names set —
—
page 7-8
Delete Password
Protection
n/a
page 7-7
page 7-8
page 7-6
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Console access includes both the menu interface and the CLI. There are two
levels of console access: Manager and Operator. For security, you can set a
password on each of these levels.
Level
Actions Permitted
Manager:
Access to all console interface areas.
This is the default level. That is, if a Manager password has not been set prior
to starting the current console session, then anyone having access to the
console can access any area of the console interface.
Operator:
Access to the Status and Counters menu, the Event Log, and the CLI*, but no
Configuration capabilities.
On the Operator level, the configuration menus, Download OS, and Reboot
Switch options in the Main Menu are not available.
*Allows use of the ping, link-test, show, menu, exit, and logout commands, plus the enable
command if you can provide the Manager password.
To use password security:
1.
Set a Manager password (and an Operator password, if applicable for your
system).
2.
Exit from the current console session. A Manager password will now be
needed for full access to the console.
If you do steps 1 and 2, above, then the next time a console session is started
for either the menu interface or the CLI, a prompt appears for a password.
Assuming that both a Manager password and an Operator password have been
set, the level of access to the console interface will be determined by which
password is entered in response to the prompt.
7-4
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using Password Security
If you set a Manager password, you may also want to configure the
Inactivity Time parameter (see page 5-16). This causes the console session to
end after the specified period of inactivity, thus giving you added security
against unauthorized console access.
Note
The manager and operator passwords control access to the menu interface,
the CLI, and the web browser interface.
Note
If there is only a Manager password set (with no Operator password), and the
Manager password is not entered correctly when the console session begins,
access to the console will be denied.
If there are both a Manager password and an Operator password, but neither
is entered correctly, access to the console will be denied.
Passwords are case-sensitive.
The rest of this section covers how to:
■
Set Passwords
■
Delete Passwords
■
Recover from a Lost Password
Menu: Setting Manager and Operator passwords
1.
From the Main Menu select:
5. Console Passwords
7-5
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
If the switch has neither a Manager password nor an Operator password,
anyone having access to the console interface can operate the console with
full manager privileges. Also, if only an Operator password is set, entering
the Operator password enables full manager privileges.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using Password Security
Figure 7-1.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
2.
The Set Password Screen
To set a new password:
a.
Select Set Manager Password or Set Operator Password. You will then
be prompted with Enter new password.
b.
Type a password of up to 16 ASCII characters with no spaces and
press [Enter]. (Remember that passwords are case-sensitive.)
c.
When prompted with Enter new password again, retype the new password and press [Enter].
After a password is set, if you subsequently start a new console session, you
will be prompted to enter the password.
To Delete Password Protection (Including Recovery from a Lost
Password): This procedure deletes both passwords (Manager and Operator). If you have physical access to the switch, press and hold the Clear button
(on the front of the switch) for a minimumof one second to clear all password
protection, then enter new passwords as described earlier in this chapter. If
you do not have physical access to the switch, you will need the Manager
access:
1.
Enter the console at the Manager level.
2.
Go to the Set Passwords screen as described above.
3.
Select Delete Password Protection. You will then see the following prompt:
Continue Deletion of password protection? No
7-6
4.
Press the Space bar to select Yes, then press [Enter].
5.
Press [Enter] to clear the Password Protection message.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using Password Security
To Recover from a Lost Manager Password: If you cannot start a console session at the manager level because of a lost Manager password, you
can clear the password by getting physical access to the switch and pressing
and holding the Clear button for a minimum of one second. This action deletes
all passwords and user names (Manager and Operator) used by both the
console and the web browser interface.
CLI: Setting Manager and Operator Passwords
Password Commands Used in This Section
password
below
Configuring Manager and Operator Passwords. This procedure
prompts you to enter a password twice to help verify that you have correctly
entered the desired characters.
Syntax: password <manager | operator>
no password
To Delete Password Protection. This command prompts you to verify that
you want to clear the passwords, then clears both the Manager and the
Operator password.
Press [Y] (for yes) and press [Enter].
Figure 7-2. Clearing the Manager and Operator Passwords
7-7
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
• Password entries
appear as asterisks.
• You must type each
password entry
twice.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using Password Security
Web: Configuring User Names and Passwords
In the web browser interface you can enter both user names and passwords.
Because user names do not apply in the menu interface and the CLI, they affect
only your access to the switch through the web browser interface.
To Configure (or Remove) User Names and Passwords in the Web
Browser Interface.
1.
Click on the Security tab.
Click on [Device Passwords].
2.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
3.
Do one of the following:
•
To set user name and password protection, enter the user names and
passwords you want in the appropriate fields.
•
To remove user name and password protection, leave the fields blank.
Implement the user names and passwords by clicking on [Apply Changes].
To access the web-based help provided for the switch, click on [?] in the web
browser screen.
7-8
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Configuring and Monitoring Port
Security
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Displaying Current Port Security n/a
—
page 7-16
page 7-21
Configuring Port Security
disabled
—
page 7-17
page 7-21
Intrusion Alerts and Alert Flags
n/a
page 7-27
page 7-25
page 7-28
Using Port Security, you can configure each switch port with a unique list of
the MAC addresses of devices that are authorized to access the network
through that port. This enables individual ports to detect, prevent, and log
attempts by unauthorized devices to communicate through the switch.
This feature does not prevent intruders from receiving broadcast and multicast traffic.
Basic Operation
Default Port Security Operation. The default port security setting for
each port is off, or “continuous”. That is, any device can access a port without
causing a security reaction.
Intruder Protection. A port that detects an “intruder” blocks the intruding
device from transmitting to the network through that port.
General Operation for Port Security. On a per-port basis, you can
configure security measures to block unauthorized devices, and to send notice
of security violations. Once you have configured port security, you can then
monitor the network for security violations through one or more of the
following:
■
Alert flags that are captured by network management tools such as
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
■
Alert Log entries in the switch’s web browser interface
■
Event Log entries in the console interface
7-9
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Note
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
■
Intrusion Log entries in either the menu interface, CLI, or web
browser interface
For any port, you can configure the following:
■
Authorized (MAC) Addresses: Specify up to eight devices (MAC
addresses) that are allowed to send inbound traffic through the port.
This feature:
•
Closes the port to inbound traffic from any unauthorized devices that
are connected to the port.
•
Provides the option for sending an SNMP trap notifying of an
attempted security violation to a network management station and,
optionally, disables the port. (For more on configuring the switch for
SNMP management, see “Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps”
on page page 8-10.)
Blocking Unauthorized Traffic
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Unless you configure the switch to disable a port on which a security violation
is detected, the switch security measures block unauthorized traffic without
disabling the port. This implementation enables you to apply the security
configuration to ports on which hubs, switches, or other devices are
connected, and to maintain security while also maintaining network access to
authorized users. For example:
7-10
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Physical Topology
Logical Topology for Access to Switch A
Switch A
Switch A
Port Security
Configured
Port Security
Configured
PC 1
MAC Address
Authorized by Switch A
Switch B
MAC Address
Authorized by
Switch A
PC 1
MAC Address
Authorized by Switch A
PC 2
Switch B
MAC Address NOT
Authorized by Switch A
MAC Address
Authorized by
Switch A
PC 3
MAC Address NOT
Authorized by Switch A
Switch C
MAC Address
NOT Authorized
by Switch A
• PC1 can access Switch A.
• Switch C is not authorized to access Switch A.
Figure 7-3. Example of How Port Security Controls Access
Note
Broadcast and Multicast traffic is not “unauthorized” traffic, and can be read
by intruders connected to a port on which you have configured port security.
Trunk Group Exclusion
Port security does not operate on either a static or dynamic trunk group. If
you configure port security on one or more ports that are later added to a trunk
group, the switch will reset the port security parameters for those ports to the
factory-default configuration. (Ports configured for either Active or Passive
LACP, and which are not members of a trunk, can be configured for port
security.)
Planning Port Security
1.
Plan your port security configuration and monitoring according to the
following:
a.
On which ports do you want to configure port security?
7-11
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
• PCs 2 and 3 can access Switch B and Switch C, but are
blocked from accessing switch A by the port security
settings in switch A.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
2.
7-12
b.
Which devices (MAC addresses) are authorized on each port (up to 8
per port)?
c.
For each port, what security actions do you want? (The switch
automatically blocks intruders detected on that port from transmitting to the network.) You can configure the switch to (1) send intrusion alarms to an SNMP management station and to (2) optionally
disable the port on which the intrusion was detected.
d.
How do you want to learn of the security violation attempts the switch
detects? You can use one or more of these methods:
– Through network management (That is, do you want an SNMP
trap sent to a net management station when a port detects a
security violation attempt?)
– Through the switch’s Intrusion Log, available through the CLI,
menu, and web browser interface
– Through the Event Log (in the menu interface or through the CLI
show log command)
Use the CLI or web browser interface to configure port security operating
and address controls. The following table describes the parameters.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
CLI: Port Security Command Options and Operation
Port Security Commands Used in This Section
show port-security
page 7-16: “CLI: Displaying Current Port Security Settings”
port-security
page 7-17: “CLI: Configuring Port Security”
<[ethernet] port-list>
page 7-17: “CLI: Configuring Port Security”
[learn-mode continuous]
page 7-18: “Adding an Authorized Device to a Port”
[learn-mode static]
page 7-18: “Adding an Authorized Device to a Port”
[address-limit]
page 7-18: “Adding an Authorized Device to a Port”
[mac-address]
page 7-18: “Adding an Authorized Device to a Port”
[action]
page 7-18: “Adding an Authorized Device to a Port”
no port-security
page 7-20: “Removing a Device From the “Authorized” List for
a Port”
[clear-intrusion-flag]
page 7-25: “CLI: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion
Alerts, and Resetting Alert Flags”
Note
Use the global configuration level to execute port-security configuration
commands.
7-13
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
This section describes the CLI port security command and how the switch
acquires and maintains authorized addresses.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Table 7-1.
Port Security Parameters
Parameter Description
Port List
<[ethernet] port-list>
Learn
Mode
learn-mode <static | continuous>
Identifies the port or ports on which to apply a port security command.
Specifies how the port acquires authorized addresses.
Continuous (the Default): Appears in the factory-default setting or when you execute no port-security. Allows
the port to learn addresses from inbound traffic from any device(s) to which it is connected. In this state,
the port accepts traaffic from any device(s) to which it is connected. Addresses learned this way appear
in the switch and port address tables and age out according to the Address Age Interval in the System
Information configuration screen (page 5-22).
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Static: Enables you to use the mac-address parameter to specify the MAC addresses of the devices
authorized for a port, and the address-limit parameter to specify the number of MAC addresses
authorized for the port. You can authorize specific devices for the port, while still allowing the port to
accept other, non-specified devices until the device limit has been reached. That is, if you enter fewer
MAC addresses than you authorized, the port authorizes the remaining addresses in the order in which
it automatically learns them. For example, If you use address-limit to specify three authorized devices,
but use mac-address to specify only one authorized MAC address, the port adds the one specifically
authorized MAC address to its authorized-devices list and the first two additional MAC addresses it
detects. For example, suppose:
– You use mac-address to authorize MAC address 0060b0-880a80 for port 4.
– You use address-limit to allow three devices on port 4 and the port detects a series of MAC addresses
in the following order:
080090-1362f2
00f031-423fc1
080071-0c45a1
0060b0-880a80
(the address you authorized with the mac-address parameter)
In the above case, port four would assume the following list of authorized addresses:
080090-1362f2
(the first address the port detected)
00f031-423fc1
(the second address the port detected)
0060b0-880a80
(the address you authorized with the mac-address parameter)
The remaining MAC address the port detects, 080071-0c45a1, is not allowed in the list of authorized
addresses, and so is handled as an intruder.
Permanence of Authorized Addresses In Static Mode: A MAC address that you specifically
authorize with the mac-address parameter cannot age-out. Instead, it remains in the port’s authorizeddevices list until you take one of the following actions: Remove it with a CLI command; Use the CLI to
disable port security on the port; Reset the switch to its default configuration; Reboot without first
executing write memory.
While in Static mode, if a port adds a MAC address that you have not specifically authorized (see above
example), that address remains in the Authorized list until you take one of the following actions: Remove
it with a CLI command; Remove the link and reboot the switch after device detection; Disable port
security on that port; Reset the switch to its factory-default configuration.
Caution: When you use static with a device limit greater than the number of MAC addresses you specify
with mac-address , an unwanted device can become “authorized”. This can occur because the port,
in order to fulfill the number of devices allowed by the address-limit parameter, automatically adds
devices it detects until the specified limit is reached.
7-14
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Parameter Description
Device
Limit
address-limit <integer>
When Learn Mode is set to Static, specifies how many authorized devices (MAC addresses) to allow. Range:
1 (the default) to 8.
Action
action <none | send-alarm | send-disable>
Specifies whether an SNMP trap is sent to a network management station when Learn Mode is set to static
and the port detects an unauthorized device, or when Learn Mode is set to continuous and there is an address
change on a port.
None (the default): Prevents an SNMP trap from being sent.
Send Alarm: Causes the switch to send an SNMP trap to a network management station.
Send Alarm and Disable: Available only in the static learn-mode. Causes the switch to send an SNMP trap
to a network management station and disable the port.
For information on configuring the switch for SNMP management, see chapter 8.
mac-address <mac-addr>
Available for static learn mode. Allows up to eight authorized devices (MAC addresses) per port, depending
on the value specified in the address-limit parameter.
If you use mac-address with static, but enter fewer devices than you specified in the address-limit field, the
port accepts not only your specified devices, but also as many other devices as it takes to reach the device
limit. For example, if you specify four devices, but enter only two MAC addresses, the port will accept the
first two non-specified devices it detects, along with the two specifically authorized devices.
Clear
Intrusion
Flag
clear-intrusion-flag
Clears the intrusion flag for a specific port. (See “Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags” on page
7-22.)
7-15
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Address
List
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
CLI: Displaying Current Port Security Settings
The CLI uses the same command to provide two types of port security listings:
■
All ports on the switch with their Learn Mode and (alarm) Action
■
Only the specified ports with their Learn Mode, Address Limit, (alarm)
Action, and Authorized Addresses
Using the CLI To Display Port Security Settings.
Syntax:
show port-security
show port-security <port number>
show port-security [<port number>-<port number]. . .[,<port number>]
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Without port parameters, show port-security displays Operating Control settings
for all ports on a switch. For example:
Figure 7-4. Example Port Security Listing (Ports 7 and 8 Show the Default Setting)
With port numbers included in the command, show port-security displays Learn
Mode, Address Limit, (alarm) Action, and Authorized Addresses for the specified ports on a switch. The following example lists the full port security
configuration for a single port:
7-16
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Figure 7-5. Example of the Port Security Configuration Display for a Single Port
The following command example shows the option for entering a range of
ports, including a series of non-contiguous ports. Note that no spaces are
allowed in the port number portion of the command string:
HP2512(config)# show port-security 1-3,6,8
Using the CLI, you can:
■
Configure port security and edit security settings.
■
Add or delete devices from the list of authorized addresses for one or
more ports.
■
Clear the Intrusion flag on specific ports
Syntax:
port-security <port-list>
[learn-mode continuous]
[learn-mode static]
[address-limit <integer>]
[mac-address <mac-addr>] [<mac-addr> . . . <mac-addr>]
[action <none | send-alarm | send-disable>]
[clear-intrusion-flag]
no port-security <port-list> mac-address <mac-addr> [<mac-addr> . . .
<mac-addr>]
For information on the individual control parameters, see the Port Security
Parameter tables on pages 7-14 and 7-15.
7-17
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
CLI: Configuring Port Security
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Specifying Authorized Devices and Intrusion Responses. This example configures port 1 to automatically accept the first device (MAC address)
it detects as the only authorized device for that port. (The default device limit
is 1.) It also configures the port to send an alarm to a network management
station and disable itself if an intruder is detected on the port.
HP2512(config)# port-security 1 learn-mode static
action send-disable
The next example does the same as the preceding example, except that it
specifies a MAC address of 0c0090-123456 as the authorized device instead of
allowing the port to automatically assign the first device it detects as an
authorized device.
HP2512(config)# port-security 1 learn-mode static
mac-address 0c0090-123456 action send-disable
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
This example configures port 5 to:
■
Allow two MAC addresses, 00c100-7fec00 and 0060b0-889e00, as the
authorized devices
■
Send an alarm to a management station if an intruder is detected on the
port
HP2512(config)# port-security 5 learn-mode static
address-limit 2 mac-address 00c100-7fec00 0060b0889e00 action send-alarm
If you manually configure authorized devices (MAC addresses) and/or an
alarm action on a port, those settings remain unless you either manually
change them or the switch is reset to its factory-default configuration. You can
“turn off” authorized devices on a port by configuring the port to continuous
Learn Mode, but subsequently reconfiguring the port to static Learn Mode
restores those authorized devices.
Adding an Authorized Device to a Port. To simply add a device (MAC
address) to a port’s existing Authorized Addresses list, enter the port number
with the mac-address parameter and the device’s MAC address. This assumes
that Learn Mode is set to static and the Authorized Addresses list is not full
(as determined by the current Address Limit value). For example, suppose
port 2 allows two authorized devices, but has only one device in its Authorized
Address list:
7-18
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Although the
Address Limit is set
to 2, only one device
has been authorized
for this port. In this
case you can add
another without
having to also
increase the Address
Limit.
The Address Limit has not
been reached.
With the above configuration for port 1, the following command adds the
0c0090-456456 MAC address as the second authorized address.
HP2512(config)# port-security 1 mac-address 0c0090-456456
After executing the above command, the security configuration for port 1
would be:
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
The Address Limit has been
reached.
(The message Inconsistent value appears if the new MAC address
exceeds the current Address Limit or specifies a device that is already on the
list. Note that if you change a port from static to continuous learn mode, the
port retains in memory any authorized addresses it had while in static mode.
If you subsequently attempt to convert the port back to static mode with the
same authorized address(es), the Inconsistent value message appears
because the port already has the address(es) in its “Authorized” list.)
If you are adding a device (MAC address) to a port on which the Authorized
Addresses list is already full (as controlled by the port’s current Address Limit
setting), then you must increase the Address Limit in order to add the device,
even if you want to replace one device with another. Using the CLI, you can
simultaneously increase the limit and add the MAC address with a single
command. For example, suppose port 1 allows one authorized device and
already has a device listed:
7-19
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
To add a second authorized device to port 1, execute a port-security command
for for port 1 that raises the address limit to 2 and specifies the additional
device’s MAC address. For example:
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
HP2512(config)# port-security 1 mac-address 0c0090-456456
address-limit 2
Removing a Device From the “Authorized” List for a Port. This command option removes unwanted devices (MAC addresses) from the Authorized Addresses list. (An Authorized Address list is available for each port for
which Learn Mode is currently set to “Static”. See the “Address List” entry in
the table on page 7-15.)
Caution
When learn mode is set to static, the Address Limit (address-limit) parameter
controls how many devices are allowed in the Authorized Addresses (macaddress) for a given port. If you remove a MAC address from the Authorized
Addresses list without also reducing the Address Limit by 1, the port may
subsequently detect and accept as authorized a MAC address that you do not
intend to include in your Authorized Address list. Thus, if you use the CLI to
remove a device that is no longer authorized, it is recommended that you first
reduce the Address Limit (address-limit) integer by 1, as shown below. This
prevents the possibility of the same device or another unauthorized device on
the network from automatically being accepted as “authorized” for that port.
To remove a device (MAC address) from the “Authorized” list and when the
current number of devices equals the Address Limit value, you should first
reduce the Address Limit value by 1, then remove the unwanted device.
Note
7-20
You can reduce the address limit below the number of currently authorized
addresses on a port. This enables you to subsequently remove a device from
the “Authorized” list without opening the possibility for an unwanted device
to automatically become authorized.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
For example, suppose port 1 is configured as shown below and you want to
remove 0c0090-123456 from the Authorized Address list:
When removing 0c0090-123456, first
reduce the Address Limit by 1 to prevent
the port from automatically adding
another device that it detects on the
network.
The following command serves this purpose by removing 0c0090-123456 and
reducing the Address Limit to 1:
The above command sequence results in the following configuration for port 1:
Web: Displaying and Configuring Port Security Features
1.
Click on the Security tab.
2.
Click on [Port Security].
3.
Select the settings you want and, if you are using the Static Learn Mode,
add or edit the Authorized Addresses field.
4.
Implement your new data by clicking on [Apply Changes].
7-21
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
HP2512(config) # port-security 1 address-limit 1
HP2512(config) # no port-security 1 mac-address
0c0090-123456
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
To access the web-based Help provided for the switch, click on [?] in the web
browser screen.
Reading Intrusion Alerts and Resetting Alert Flags
Notice of Security Violations
When the switch detects an intrusion on a port, it sets an “alert flag” for that
port and makes the intrusion information available as described below. While
the switch can detect additional intrusions for the same port, it does not list
the next chronological intrusion for that port in the Intrusion Log until the
alert flag for that port has been reset.
When a security violation occurs on a port configured for Port Security, the
switch responds in the following ways to notify you:
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
■
■
The switch sets an alert flag for that port. This flag remains set until:
•
You use either the CLI, menu interface, or web browser interface to
reset the flag.
•
The switch is reset to its factory default configuration.
The switch enables notification of the intrusion through the following
means:
•
In the CLI:
– The show intrusion-log command displays the Intrusion Log
– The log command displays the Event Log
•
In the menu interface:
– The Port Status screen includes a per-port intrusion alert
– The Event Log includes per-port entries for security violations
•
In the web browser interface:
– The Alert Log’s Status | Overview window includes entries for perport security violations
– The Intrusion Log in the Security | Intrusion Log window lists perport security violation entries
•
In HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches via an SNMP trap sent to a net
management station
How the Intrusion Log Operates
When the switch detects an intrusion attempt on a port, it enters a record of
this event in the Intrusion Log. No further intrusion attempts on that port will
appear in the Log until you acknowledge the earlier intrusion event by resetting the alert flag.
7-22
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
The Intrusion Log lists the 20 most recently detected security violation
attempts, regardless of whether the alert flags for these attempts have been
reset. This gives you a history of past intrusion attempts. Thus, for example,
if there is an intrusion alert for port 1 and the Intrusion Log shows two or more
entries for port 1, only the most recent entry has not been acknowledged (by
resetting the alert flag). The other entries give you a history of past intrusions
detected on port 1.
Figure 7-6. Example of Multiple Intrusion Log Entries for the Same Port
Keeping the Intrusion Log Current by Resetting Alert Flags
When a violation occurs on a port, an alert flag is set for that port and the
violation is entered in the Intrusion Log. The switch can detect and handle
subsequent intrusions on that port, but will not log another intrusion on the
port until you reset the alert flag for either all ports or for the individual port.
7-23
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
The log shows the most recent intrusion at the top of the listing. You cannot
delete Intrusion Log entries (unless you reset the switch to its factory-default
configuration). Instead, if the log is filled when the switch detects a new
intrusion, the oldest entry is dropped off the listing and the newest entry
appears at the top of the listing.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Menu: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and
Resetting Alert Flags
The menu interface indicates per-port intrusions in the Port Status screen, and
provides details and the reset function in the Intrusion Log screen.
1.
From the Main Menu select:
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
1. Status and Counters
3. Port Status
The Intrusion Alert
column shows
“Yes” for any port
on which a security
violation has been
detected.
Figure 7-7. Example of Port Status Screen with Intrusion Alert on Port 3
2.
Type [I] (Intrusion log) to display the Intrusion Log.
MAC Address of
Intruding Device
on Port 3
System Time of Intrusion on Port 3
Indicates this intrusion on port 3
occurred prior to a reset (reboot) at
the indicated time and date.
Figure 7-8. Example of the Intrusion Log Display
7-24
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
The above example shows two intrusions for port 3 and one intrusion for
port 1. In this case, only the most recent intrusion at port 3 has not been
acknowledged (reset). This is indicated by the following:
•
Because the Port Status screen (figure 7-7 on page 7-24) does not
indicate an intrusion for port 1, the alert flag for the intrusion on port
1 has already been reset.
•
Since the switch can show only one uncleared intrusion per port, the
older intrusion for port 3 in this example has also been previously
reset.
(The intrusion log holds up to 20 intrusion records and deletes an
intrusion record only when the log becomes full and a new intrusion
is subsequently detected.)
Note also that the “prior to” text in the record for the earliest intrusion
means that a switch reset occurred at the indicated time and that the
intrusion occurred prior to the reset.
3.
If you then re-display the port status screen, you will see that the Intrusion
Alert entry for port 3 has changed to “No”. That is, your evidence that the
Intrusion Alert flag has been acknowledged (reset) is that the Intrusion Alert
column in the port status display no longer shows “Yes” for the port on which
the intrusion occurred (port 3 in this example). (Because the Intrusion Log
provides a history of the last 20 intrusions detected by the switch, resetting
the alert flags does not change its content. Thus, displaying the Intrusion Log
again will result in the same display as in figure 7-8, above.)
CLI: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and
Resetting Alert Flags
The following commands display port status, including whether there are
intrusion alerts for any port(s), list the last 20 intrusions, and either reset the
alert flag on all ports or for a specific port for which an intrusion was detected.
(The record of the intrusion remains in the log. For more information, see
“Operating Notes for Port Security” on page 7-28.)
7-25
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
To acknowledge the most recent intrusion entry on port 3 and enable the
switch to enter a subsequently detected intrusion on this port, type [R] (for
Reset alert flags). (Note that if there are unacknowledged intrusions on two
or more ports, this step resets the alert flags for all such ports.)
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Syntax:
show interface
show intrusion-log
clear intrusion-log
port-security <port-number>
clear-intrusion-flag
List Intrusion Alert status.
List Intrusion Log content.
Clear Intrusion flags on all ports.
Clear Intrusion flag on a specific port.
In the following example, executing show interface lists the switch’s port status,
which indicates an intrusion alert on port 1.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Intrusion Alert on port 1.
Figure 7-9. Example of an Unacknowledged Intrusion Alert in a Port Status
Display
If you wanted to see the details of the intrusion, you would then enter the show
intrusion-log command. For example:
Dates and Times of
Intrusions
MAC Address of latest
Intruder on Port 1
Earlier intrusions on
port 1 that have already
been cleared (that is,
the Alert Flag has been
reset at least twice
before the most recent
intrusion occurred.
Figure 7-10. Example of the Intrusion Log with Multiple Entries for the Same Port
The above example shows three intrusions for port 1. Since the switch can
show only one uncleared intrusion per port, the older two intrusions in this
example have already been cleared by earlier use of the clear intrusion-log or
the port-security 1 clear-intrusion-flag command. (The intrusion log holds up to
7-26
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
20 intrusion records, and deletes intrusion records only when the log becomes
full and new intrusions are subsequently added.) The “prior to” text in the
record for the third intrusion means that a switch reset occurred at the
indicated time and that the intrusion occurred prior to the reset.
To clear the intrusion from port 1 and enable the switch to enter any subsequent intrusion for port 1 in the Intrusion Log, execute the port-security 1 clearintrusion-flag command. If you then re-display the port status screen, you will
see that the Intrusion Alert entry for port 1 has changed to “No”. That is, your
evidence that the Intrusion Alert flag has been reset is the Intrusion Alert
column in the port status display no longer shows “Yes” for the port on which
the intrusion occurred (port 1 in this example). (Executing show intrusion-log
again will result in the same display as above.)
HP2512(config)# port-security 1 clear-intrusion-flag
HP2512(config)# show interface
Intrusion Alert on port 1 is now cleared.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Figure 7-11. Example of Port Status Screen After Alert Flags Reset
Using the Event Log To Find Intrusion Alerts
The Event Log lists port security intrusions as:
W MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS FFI: port 3 — Security Violation
where “W” is the severity level of the log entry and FFI is the system module
that generated the entry. For further information, view the Intrusion Log.
From the CLI. Type the log command from the Manager or Configuration
level.
Syntax:
log <search-text>
For <search-text>, you can use ffi, security, or violation. For example:
7-27
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Log Command
with
“security” for
Search String
Log Listing with
Security Violation
Detected
Log Listing with No
Security Violation
Detected
Figure 7-12. Example of Log Listing With and Without Detected Security Violation
From the Menu Interface: In the Main Menu, click on 4. Event Log and use
Next page and Prev page to review the Event Log contents.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
For More Event Log Information. See “Using the Event Log To Identify
Problem Sources” on page 11-11.
Web: Checking for Intrusions, Listing Intrusion Alerts, and
Resetting Alert Flags
1.
Check the Alert Log by clicking on the Status tab and the [Overview] button.
If there is a “Security Violation” entry, do the following:
a.
Click on the Security tab.
b.
Click on [Intrusion Log]. “Ports with Intrusion Flag” indicates any ports
for which the alert flag has not been cleared.
c.
To clear the current alert flags, click on [Reset Alert Flags].
To access the web-based Help provided for the switch, click on [?] in the web
browser screen.
Operating Notes for Port Security
Identifying the IP Address of an Intruder. The Intrusion Log lists
detected intruders by MAC address. If you are using HP TopTools for Hubs &
Switches to manage your network, you can use the TopTools inventory reports
to link MAC addresses to their corresponding IP addresses. (Inventory reports
are organized by device type; hubs, switches, servers, etc.)
7-28
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Configuring and Monitoring Port Security
Proxy Web Servers. If you are using the switch’s web browser interface
through a switch port configured for Static port security, and your browser
access is through a proxy web server, then it is necessary to do the following:
■
Enter your PC or workstation MAC address in the port’s Authorized
Addresses list.
■
Enter your PC or workstation’s IP address in the switch’s IP Authorized
Managers list. See “Using IP Authorized Managers” on page 7-30.)
Without both of the above configured, the switch detects only the proxy
server’s MAC address, and not your PC or workstation MAC address, and
interprets your connection as unauthorized.
“Prior To” Entries in the Intrusion Log. If you reset the switch (using
the Reset button, Device Reset, or Reboot Switch), the Intrusion Log will list
the time of all currently logged intrusions as “prior to” the time of the reset.
7-29
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Alert Flag Status for Entries Forced Off of the Intrusion Log. If the
Intrusion Log is full of entries for which the alert flags have not been reset, a
new intrusion will cause the oldest entry to drop off the list, but will not change
the alert flag status for the port referenced in the dropped entry. This means
that, even if an entry is forced off of the Intrusion Log, no new intrusions can
be logged on the port referenced in that entry until you reset the alert flags.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Using IP Authorized Managers
Authorized IP Manager Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
Listing (Showing) Authorized
Managers
n/a
page 7-33
page 7-34
page 7-36
Configuring Authorized IP
Managers
None
page 7-33
page 7-34
page 7-36
Building IP Masks
n/a
page 7-36
page 7-36
page 7-36
Operating and Troubleshooting
Notes
n/a
page 7-39
page 7-39
page 7-39
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
This feature enables you to enhance security on the switch by using IP
addresses to authorize which stations (PCs or workstations) can access the
switch. Thus, having the correct passwords is not sufficient for accessing the
switch through the network unless the station attempting access is also
included in the switch’s Authorized IP Managers configuration. Access controls cover:
■
The switch’s web browser interface
■
Telnet (CLI or menu interface)
■
SNMP (network management)
■
File transfers using TFTP (for configurations and software updates)
You can configure:
Note
7-30
■
Up to 10 authorized manager addresses, where each address applies to
either a single management station or a group of stations
■
Manager or Operator access level
This feature does not protect access to the switch through a modem or direct
connection to the Console (RS-232) port. Also, if the IP address assigned to
an authorized management station is configured in another station, the other
station can gain management access to the switch even though a duplicate IP
address condition exists. For these reasons, you should enhance your network’s security by keeping physical access to the switch restricted to authorized personnel, using the password features built into the switch, and
preventing unauthorized access to data on your management stations.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Access Levels
For each authorized manager address, you can configure either of these access
levels:
■
Manager: Enables full access to all web browser and console interface
screens for viewing, configuration, and all other operations available in
these interfaces.
■
Operator: Allows view-only access from the web browser and console
interfaces. (This is the same access that is allowed by the switch’s operator-level password feature.)
Defining Authorized Management Stations
Authorizing Single Stations: The table entry authorizes a single management station to have IP access to the switch. To use this method, just
enter the IP address of an authorized management station in the Authorized Manager IP column, and leave the IP Mask set to 255.255.255.255. This
is the easiest way to use the Authorized Managers feature. (For more on
this topic, see “Configuring One Station Per Authorized Manager IP Entry”
on page 7-36.)
■
Authorizing Multiple Stations: The table entry uses the IP Mask to
authorize access to the switch from a defined group of stations. This is
useful if you want to easily authorize several stations to have access to
the switch without having to type in an entry for every station. All stations
in the group defined by the one Authorized Manager IP table entry and its
associated IP mask will have the same access level—Manager or Operator.
(For more on this topic, see “Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized
Manager IP Entry” on page 7-37.)
To configure the switch for authorized manager access, enter the appropriate
Authorized Manager IP value, specify an IP Mask, and select either Manager
or Operator for the Access Level. The IP Mask determines how the Authorized
Manager IP value is used to allow or deny access to the switch by a management station.
7-31
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
■
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Overview of IP Mask Operation
The default IP Mask is 255.255.255.255 and allows switch access only to a
station having an IP address that is identical to the Authorized Manager IP
parameter value. (“255” in an octet of the mask means that only the exact value
in the corresponding octet of the Authorized Manager IP parameter is allowed
in the IP address of an authorized management station.) However, you can
alter the mask and the Authorized Manager IP parameter to specify ranges of
authorized IP addresses. For example, a mask of 255.255.255.0 and any value for
the Authorized Manager IP parameter allows a range of 0 through 255 in the
4th octet of the authorized IP address, which enables a block of up to 254 IP
addresses for IP management access (excluding 0 for the network and 255 for
broadcasts). A mask of 255.255.255.252 uses the 4th octet of a given Authorized
Manager IP address to authorize four IP addresses for management station
access. The details on how to use IP masks are provided under “Building IP
Masks” on page 7-36.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Note
7-32
The IP Mask is a method for recognizing whether a given IP address is
authorized for management access to the switch. This mask serves a different
purpose than IP subnet masks and is applied in a different manner.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Menu: Viewing and Configuring IP Authorized
Managers
From the console Main Menu, select:
2. Switch Configuration . . .
7. IP Authorized Managers
1. Select Add to add an authorized manager
to the list.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Figure 7-13. Example of How To Add an Authorized Manager Entry
2. Enter an Authorized Manager IP address here.
3. Use the default mask to allow access by one
management device, or edit the mask to allow
access by a block of management devices. See
“Building IP Masks”on page 7-36.
4. Use the Space bar to select Manager or Operator
access.
5. Press [Enter], then [S] (for Save) to configure the IP
Authorized Manager entry.
Figure 7-14. Example of How To Add an Authorized Manager Entry (Continued)
7-33
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Editing or Deleting an Authorized Manager Entry. Go to the IP Managers List screen (figure 7-13), highlight the desired entry, and press [E] (for Edit)
or [D] (for Delete).
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Authorized IP Managers
Authorized IP Managers Commands Used in This Section
show ip authorized-managers
below
ip authorized-managers
page 7-35: “To Authorize Manager Access”
page 7-35: “To Edit an Existing Manager Access Entry”
page 7-36: “To Delete an Authorized Manager Entry”
<ip-address>
mask <mask-bits>
<operator | manager>
Listing the Switch’s Current Authorized IP Manager(s)
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Use the show ip authorized-managers command to list IP stations authorized to
access the switch. For example:
Figure 7-15. Example of the Show IP Authorized-Manager Display
The above example shows an Authorized IP Manager List that allows stations
to access the switch as shown below:
IP Mask
7-34
Authorized Station IP Address:
Access Mode:
255.255.255.252
10.28.227.100 through 103
Manager
255.255.255.254
10.28.227.104 through 105
Manager
255.255.255.255
10.28.227.125
Manager
255.255.255.0
10.28.227.0 through 255
Operator
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Configuring IP Authorized Managers for the Switch
Syntax:
ip authorized-managers <ip address>
[mask <mask-bits>]
<operator | manager>
To Authorize Manager Access. This command authorizes manager-level
access for any station having an IP address of 10.28.227.0 through
10.28.227.255:
HP2512(config)# ip authorized-managers
10.28.227.101 mask 255.255.255.0 manager
Similarly, the next command authorizes manager-level access for any station
having an IP address of 10.28.227.101 through 103:
HP2512(config)# ip authorized-managers
10.28.227.101 mask 255.255.255.252 manager
HP2512(config)# ip authorized-managers 10.28.227.105
The result of entering the above example is:
•
Authorized Station IP Address: 10.28.227.105
•
IP Mask: 255.255.255.255, which authorizes only the specified station
(10.28.227.105 in this case). (See “Configuring Multiple Stations Per
Authorized Manager IP Entry” on page 7-37.)
•
Access Level: Manager
To Edit an Existing Manager Access Entry. To change the mask or
access level for an existing entry, use the entry’s IP address and enter the new
value(s). (Notice that any parameters not included in the command will be set
to their default.):
HP2512(config)# ip authorized-managers
10.28.227.101 mask 255.255.255.0 operator
The above command replaces the existing mask and access level for IP
address 10.28.227.101 with 255.255.255.0 and operator.
7-35
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
If you omit the mask when adding a new authorized manager, the switch
automatically uses 255.255.255.255 for the mask. If you do not specify
either Manager or Operator access, the switch automatically assigns the
Manager access. For example:
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
The following command replaces the existing mask and access level for IP
address 10.28.227.101 with 255.0.0.0 and manager (the defaults) because
the command does not specify either of these parameters .
HP2512(config)# ip authorized-managers 10.28.227.101
To Delete an Authorized Manager Entry. This command uses the IP
address of the authorized manager you want to delete:
HP2512(config)# no ip authorized-managers 10.28.227.101
Web: Configuring IP Authorized Managers
In the web browser interface you can configure IP Authorized Managers as
described below.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
To Add, Modify, or Delete an IP Authorized Manager address:
1.
Click on the Security tab.
2.
Click on [Authorized Addresses].
3.
Enter the appropriate parameter settings for the operation you want.
4.
Click on [Add], [Replace], or [Delete] to implement the configuration change.
For web-based help on how to use the web browser interface screen, click on
the [?] button provided on the web browser screen.
Building IP Masks
The IP Mask parameter controls how the switch uses an Authorized Manager
IP value to recognize the IP addresses of authorized manager stations on your
network.
Configuring One Station Per Authorized Manager IP Entry
This is the easiest way to apply a mask. If you have ten or fewer management
and/or operator stations, you can configure them quickly by simply adding the
address of each to the Authorized Manager IP list with 255.255.255.255 for the
corresponding mask. For example, as shown in figure 7-15 on page 7-34, if you
configure an IP address of 10.28.227.125 with an IP mask of 255.255.255.255, only a
station having an IP address of 10.28.227.125 has management access to the
switch.
7-36
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Table 7-2.
Analysis of IP Mask for Single-Station Entries
1st
Octet
2nd
Octet
3rd
Octet
4th
Octet
Manager-Level or Operator-Level Device Access
IP Mask
255
255
255
255
Authorized
Manager IP
10
28
227
125
The “255” in each octet of the mask specifies that only the exact value in
that octet of the corresponding IP address is allowed. This mask allows
management access only to a station having an IP address of 10.33.248.5.
Configuring Multiple Stations Per Authorized Manager IP
Entry
The mask determines whether the IP address of a station on the network meets
the criteria you specify. That is, for a given Authorized Manager entry, the
switch applies the IP mask to the IP address you specify to determine a range
of authorized IP addresses for management access. As described above, that
range can be as small as one IP address (if 255 is set for all octets in the mask),
or can include multiple IP addresses (if one or more octets in the mask are set
to less than 255).
7-37
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
If a bit in an octet of the mask is “on” (set to 1), then the corresponding bit in
the IP address of a potentially authorized station must match the same bit in
the IP address you entered in the Authorized Manager IP list. Conversely, if a
bit in an octet of the mask is “off” (set to 0), then the corresponding bit in the
IP address of a potentially authorized station on the network does not have to
match its counterpart in the IP address you entered in the Authorized Manager
IP list. Thus, in the example shown above, a “255” in an IP Mask octet (all bits
in the octet are “on”) means only one value is allowed for that octet—the value
you specify in the corresponding octet of the Authorized Manager IP list. A “0”
(all bits in the octet are “off”) means that any value from 0 to 255 is allowed
in the corresponding octet in the IP address of an authorized station. You can
also specify a series of values that are a subset of the 0-255 range by using a
value that is greater than 0, but less than 255.
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Table 7-3.
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
1st
Octet
2nd
Octet
3rd
Octet
Analysis of IP Mask for Multiple-Station Entries
4th
Octet
Manager-Level or Operator-Level Device Access
The “255” in the first three octets of the mask specify that only the exact
value in the octet of the corresponding IP address is allowed. However,
the zero (0) in the 4th octet of the mask allows any value between 0 and
255 in that octet of the corresponding IP address. This mask allows switch
access to any device having an IP address of 10.28.227.xxx, where xxx is
any value from 0 to 255.
IP Mask
255
255
255
0
Authorized
Manager IP
10
28
227
125
IP Mask
255
255
255
249
Authorized
IP Address
10
28
227
125
In this example (figure 7-16, below), the IP mask allows a group of up to
4 management stations to access the switch. This is useful if the only
devices in the IP address group allowed by the mask are management
stations. The “249” in the 4th octet means that bits 0 and 3 - 7 of the 4th
octet are fixed. Conversely, bits 1 and 2 of the 4th octet are variable. Any
value that matches the authorized IP address settings for the fixed bits is
allowed for the purposes of IP management station access to the switch.
Thus, any management station having an IP address of 10.28.227.121, 123,
125, or 127 can access the switch.
4th Octet of IP Mask:
249
4th Octet of Authorized IP Address: 5
Bit Numbers Bit
7
Bit
6
Bit
5
Bit
4
Bit
3
Bit
2
Bit
1
Bit
0
Bit Values
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
4th Octet of
IP Mask (249)
4th Octet of
IP Authorized
Address (125)
128
Bits 1 and 2 in the mask are “off”, and bits 0 and 3
- 7 are “on”, creating a value of 249 in the 4th octet
of the mask.
Where a mask bit is “on”, the corresponding bit
setting in the address of a potentially authorized
station must match the IP Authorized Address
setting for that same bit. Where a mask bit is “off”
the corresponding bit setting in the address can be
either “on” or “off”. In this example, in order for a
station to be authorized to access the switch:
• The first three octets of the station’s IP address
must match the Authorized IP Address.
• Bit 0 and Bits 3 through 6 of the 4th octet in the
station’s address must be “on” (value = 1).
• Bit 7 of the 4th octet in the station’s address
must be “off” (value = 0).
• Bits 1 and 2 can be either “on” or “off”.
This means that stations with the IP address
13.28.227.X (where X is 121, 123, 125, or 127) are
authorized.
Figure 7-16. Example of How the Bitmap in the IP Mask Defines Authorized
Manager Addresses
7-38
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
Additional Examples for Authorizing Multiple Stations
Entries for Authorized Results
Manager List
IP Mask
255 255 0
Authorized
Manager IP
10
IP Mask
255 238 255 250
Authorized
Manager IP
10
33
255
248 1
This combination specifies an authorized IP address of 10.33.xxx.1. It could be
applied, for example, to a subnetted network where each subnet is defined by the
third octet and includes a management station defined by the value of “1” in the
fourth octet of the station’s IP address.
Allows 230, 231, 246, and 247 in the 2nd octet, and 194, 195, 198, 199 in the 4th octet.
247 100 195
Operating and Troubleshooting Notes
Network Security Precautions: You can enhance your network’s security by keeping physical access to the switch restricted to authorized
personnel, using the password features built into the switch, and preventing unauthorized access to data on your management stations.
■
Modem and Direct Console Access: Configuring authorized IP managers does not protect against access to the switch through a modem or
direct Console (RS-232) port connection.
■
Duplicate IP Addresses: If the IP address configured in an authorized
management station is also configured in another station, the other station
can gain management access to the switch even though a duplicate IP
address condition exists.
■
Web Proxy Servers: If you use the web browser interface to access the
switch from an authorized IP manager station, it is recommended that you
avoid the use of a web proxy server in the path between the station and
the switch. This is because switch access through a web proxy server
requires that you first add the web proxy server to the Authorized Manager
IP list. This reduces security by opening switch access to anyone who
uses the web proxy server. The following two options outline how to
eliminate a web proxy server from the path between a station and the
switch:
•
•
Even if you need proxy server access enabled in order to use
other applications, you can still eliminate proxy service for web
access to the switch. To do so, add the IP address or DNS name
of the switch to the non-proxy, or “Exceptions” list in the web
browser interface you are using on the authorized station.
If you don’t need proxy server access at all on the authorized
station, then just disable the proxy server feature in the station’s
web browser interface.
7-39
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
■
Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized IP
Using Passwords, Port Security, and Authorized IP Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized Access
Using IP Authorized Managers
7-40
8
Configuring for Network Management
Applications
Chapter Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
SNMP Management Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Configuring for SNMP Access to the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
SNMP Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Menu: Viewing and Configuring SNMP Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
To View, Edit, or Add SNMP Communities: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Community Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing Current Community Names and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Identity Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Community Names and Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Using the CLI To Enable Authentication Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Advanced Management: RMON and HP Extended RMON Support . . . . 8-13
RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Extended RMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
8-1
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
CLI: Configuring and Displaying Trap Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Using the CLI To List Current SNMP Trap Receivers . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Configuring Trap Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Configuring for Network Management Applications
Overview
Overview
You can manage the switch via SNMP from a network management station.
For this purpose, HP recommends HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches — an
easy-to-install and use network management application that runs on your
Windows NT- or Windows 2000-based PC. HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches
provides control of your switch through its web browser interface. In addition,
it uses the RMON and Extended RMON agents statistical sampling software
that is included in the switch to provide powerful, but easy-to-use traffic
monitoring and network activity analysis tools. For more on TopTools, see the
"Read Me First" document shipped with your switch and also available on HP’s
ProCurve website at
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
This chapter includes:
■
An overview of SNMP management for the switch
■
Configuring the Series 2500 switches for:
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
■
•
SNMP management
•
SNMP Communities
•
Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps
Information on advanced management through RMON and HP Extended
RMON Support
To implement SNMP management, you must either configure the switch with
an appropriate IP address or, if you are using DHCP/Bootp to configure the
switch, ensure that the DHCP or Bootp process provides the IP address. If
multiple VLANs are configured, each VLAN interface should have its own IP
network address. For DHCP use with multiple VLANs, see “Which VLAN Is
Primary?” on page 9-53.
8-2
Configuring for Network Management Applications
SNMP Management Features
SNMP Management Features
SNMP management features on the switch include:
■
SNMP version 2c over IP
■
Security via configuration of SNMP communities
■
Event reporting via SNMP
•
Version 1 traps
•
RMON: groups 1, 2, 3, and 9
■
Managing the switch with an SNMP network management tool such as HP
TopTools for Hubs & Switches
■
Supported Standard MIBs include:
•
Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
dot1dBase, dot1dTp, dot1dStp
•
Ethernet MAU MIB (RFC 1515)
dot3IfMauBasicGroup
•
Interfaces Evolution MIB (RFC 1573)
ifGeneralGroup, ifRcvAddressGroup, ifStackGroup
•
RMON MIB (RFC 1757)
•
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
etherstats, events, alarms, and history
SNMP MIB-II (RFC 1213)
system, interfaces, at, ip, icmp, tcp, udp, snmp
•
Entity MIB (RFC 2037)
HP Proprietary MIBs include:
•
Statistics for message and packet buffers, tcp, telnet, and timep
(netswtst.mib)
•
Port counters, forwarding table, and CPU statistics (stat.mib)
•
TFTP download (downld.mib)
•
Integrated Communications Facility Authentication Manager and
SNMP communities (icf.mib)
•
HP ProCurve Switch configuration (config.mib)
•
HP VLAN configuration information (vlan.mib) supporting
hpVlanGeneralGroup
•
HP Extended RMON MIB version 4 to allow statistical sampling
8-3
Configuring for Network Management Applications
Configuring for SNMP Access to the Switch
•
HP Entity MIB (entity.mib)
The switch SNMP agent also uses certain variables that are included in a
Hewlett-Packard proprietary MIB file you can add to the SNMP database
in your network management tool. You can copy the MIB file from the HP
TopTools for Hubs & Switches CD, or from following World Wide Web site:
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
For more information, refer to the Read Me First document and the
Customer Support/Warranty booklet included with your switch.
Configuring for SNMP Access to the
Switch
SNMP access requires an IP address and subnet mask configured on the
switch. (See “IP Configuration” on page 5-3.) If you are using DHCP/Bootp to
configure the switch, ensure that the DHCP/Bootp process provides the IP
address. (See “DHCP/Bootp Operation” on page 5-11.)
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
Once an IP address has been configured, the general steps to configuring for
SNMP access to the preceding features are:
1.
From the Main menu, select
2. Switch Configuration . . .
6. SNMP Community Names
2.
Configure the appropriate SNMP communities. (The “public” community
exists by default and is used by HP’s network management applications.)
(For more on configuring SNMP communities, see “Menu: Viewing and
Configuring SNMP Communities” on page 8-6.)
3.
Configure the appropriate trap receivers. (For more on configuring trap
receivers, see “CLI: Configuring and Displaying Trap Receivers” on page
8-11.)
In some networks, authorized IP manager addresses are not used. In this case,
all management stations using the correct community name may access the
switch with the View and Access levels that have been set for that community.
If you want to restrict access to one or more specific nodes, you can use the
switch’s IP Authorized Manager feature. (See “Using IP Authorized Managers”
on page 7-30.)
8-4
Configuring for Network Management Applications
Configuring for SNMP Access to the Switch
Caution
Deleting the community named “public” disables many network management
functions (such as auto-discovery, traffic monitoring, SNMP trap generation,
and threshold setting). If security for network management is a concern, it is
recommended that you change the write access for the “public” community
to “Restricted”.
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
8-5
Configuring for Network Management Applications
SNMP Communities
SNMP Communities
SNMP Community Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
show community name
n/a
page 8-6
page 8-8
—
configure identity information
none
—
page 8-9
page 8-6
"
"
page 8-9
"
"
"
"
configure community names
public
MIB view for a community name
manager
(operator, manager)
write access for default
community name
unrestricted
"
—
Use SNMP communities to restrict access to the switch by SNMP management
stations by adding, editing, or deleting SNMP communities. You can configure
up to five SNMP communities, each with either an operator-level or a managerlevel view, and either restricted or unrestricted write access.
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
Using SNMP requires that the switch have an IP address and subnet mask
compatible with your network.
Caution
Deleting or changing the community named “public” prevents network management applications (such as auto-discovery, traffic monitoring, SNMP trap
generation, and threshold setting) from operating in the switch. (Changing or
deleting the “public” name also generates an Event Log message.) If security
for network management is a concern, it is recommended that you change the
write access for the “public” community to “Restricted”.
Menu: Viewing and Configuring SNMP Communities
To View, Edit, or Add SNMP Communities:
1.
From the Main Menu, Select:
2. Switch Configuration...
6. SNMP Community Names
8-6
Configuring for Network Management Applications
SNMP Communities
Note: This screen gives
an overview of the
SNMP communities
that are currently
configured. All fields in
this screen are readonly.
Add and Edit options are
used to modify the SNMP
options. See figure 8-2.
Figure 8-1. The SNMP Communities Screen (Default Values)
2.
Press [A] (for Add) to display the following screen:
If you are adding a
community, the
fields in this screen
are blank.
If you are editing an
existing community,
the values for the
currently selected
Community appear
in the fields.
Type the value for this field..
Use the Space bar to select
values for other fields
Need Help? If you need information on the options in each field, press
[Enter] to move the cursor to the Actions line, then select the Help option
on the Actions line. When you are finished with Help, press [E] (for Edit)
to return the cursor to the parameter fields.
3.
Enter the name you want in the Community Name field, and use the Space
bar to select the appropriate value in each of the other fields. (Use the [Tab]
key to move from one field to the next.)
4.
Press [Enter], then [S] (for Save).
8-7
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
Figure 8-2. The SNMP Add or Edit Screen
Configuring for Network Management Applications
SNMP Communities
CLI: Viewing and Configuring Community Names
Community Name Commands Used in This Section
show snmp-server [<community-string>]
below
snmp-server
page 8-9
[contact <contact-str>]
page 8-9
[location <location-str>]
page 8-9
[community <community-str>]
page 8-9
[host <community-str> <ip-addr>]
[<none | debug | all | not-info | critical>]
page 8-12
[enable traps <authentication>
page 8-12
Listing Current Community Names and Values
Listing Community Names. This command lists the data forcurrently configured SNMP community names (along with trap receivers and the setting for
authentication traps — see “Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps” on
page 8-10).
Syntax:
show snmp-server [<community-string>]
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
This example lists the data for all communities in a switch; that is, both the
default "public" community name and another community named "red-team"
Default
Community and
Settings
Non-Default
Community and
Settings
Trap Receiver
Data (See page
8-10.)
Figure 8-3. Example of the SNMP Community Listing with Two Communities
To list the data for only one community, such as the "public" community, use
the above command with the community name included. For example:
8-8
Configuring for Network Management Applications
SNMP Communities
HP2512# show snmp-server public
Configuring Identity Information
This command enables you to enter contact-person and location data to help
identify the switch.
Syntax:
snmp-server [contact <contact-str>] [location <location-str>]
Both fields allow up to 48 characters, without spaces.
For example, to configure the switch with "Site-LAN-Ext.449" and a location
of "Level-2-North", you would execute the following command:
HP2512(config)# snmp-server contact Site-LANExt.449 location Level-2-North
Configuring Community Names and Values
If you enter a community name without an operator or manager designation,
the switch automatically assigns the community to Operator for the MIB view.
Also, if you do not specify restricted or unrestricted for the read/write MIB
access, the switch automatically restricts the community to read access for
the MIB.
Syntax:
snmp-server community <community-name>
[operator | manager]
[restricted | unrestricted]
HP2512(config)# snmp-server community red-team
manager unrestricted
HP2512(config)# snmp-server community blue-team
operator restricted
8-9
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
Adding SNMP Communities in the Switch. The following SNMP command examples use add snmp to add new SNMP communities:
Configuring for Network Management Applications
Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps
Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps
Trap Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
snmp-server host (trap receiver)
public
—
page 8-12 —
snmp-server enable (authentication trap)
none
—
page 8-12 —
A trap receiver is a management station designated by the switch to receive
SNMP traps sent from the switch. An authentication trap is a specialized
SNMP trap sent to trap receivers when an unauthorized management station
tries to access the switch.
Note
Fixed or "Well-Known" Traps: The Series 2500 switches automatically send
fixed traps (such as "coldStart", "warmStart", "linkDown", and "linkUp") to trap
receivers using a public community name. These traps cannot be redirected
to other communities. Thus, if you change or delete the default public community name, these traps will be lost.
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
Thresholds: The switch automatically sends all messages resulting from
thresholds to the network management station(s) that set the thresholds,
regardless of the trap receiver configuration.
In the default configuration, there are no trap receivers configured, and the
authentication trap feature is disabled. From the CLI you can configure up to
ten SNMP trap receivers to receive SNMP traps from the switch. The switch
can be configured to also send event log messages as traps if the following
opotions are used with the snmp-server host command:
8-10
Event Level
Description
None (default)
Send no log messages.
All
Send all log messages.
Not INFO
Send the log messages that are not information-only.
Critical
Send critical-level log messages.
Debug
Reserved for HP-internal use.
Configuring for Network Management Applications
Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps
CLI: Configuring and Displaying Trap Receivers
Trap Receiver Commands Used in This Section
show snmp-server
below
snmp-server host
<ip-addr> <community-name>
[none | all | non-info| critical | debug]
page 8-12
snmp-server enable traps authentication
page 8-12
Using the CLI To List Current SNMP Trap Receivers
This command lists the currently configured trap receivers and the setting for
authentication traps (along with the current SNMP community name data —
see “SNMP Communities” on page 8-6).
Syntax:
show snmp-server
In the next example, the show snmp-server command shows that the switch
has been previously configured to send SNMP traps to management stations
belonging to the “public”, “red-team”, and “blue-team” communities.
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
Example of
Community
Name Data (See
page 8-6.)
Authentication
Trap Setting
Example of Trap
Receiver Data
Figure 8-4. Example of Show SNMP-Server Listing
8-11
Configuring for Network Management Applications
Trap Receivers and Authentication Traps
Configuring Trap Receivers
This command specifies trap receivers by community membership, management station IP address, and the type of Event Log messages to send to the
trap receiver.
Note
If you specify a community name that does not exist—that is, has not yet been
configured on the switch—the switch still accepts the trap receiver assignment. However, no traps will be sent to that trap receiver until the community
to which it belongs has been configured on the switch.
Syntax:
snmp-server host
<community-str> <ip-address> [<none | all | non-info | critical | debug>]
For example, to configure a trap receiver in a community named "red-team"
with an IP address of 10.28.227.130 to receive only "critical" log messages:
HP2512(config)# snmp-server trap-receiver red-team
10.28.227.130 critical
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
Note
If you do not specify the event level ([<none | all | non-info | critical | debug>])
then the switchwill not send event log messages as traps. "Well-Known" traps
and threshold traps (if configured) will still be sent..
Using the CLI To Enable Authentication Traps
If this feature is enabled, an authentication trap is sent to the configured trap
receiver(s) if a management station attempts an unauthorized access of the
switch. Check the event log in the console interface to help determine why
the authentication trap was sent. (Refer to “Using the Event Log To Identify
Problem Sources” on page 11-11.)
Note
For this feature to operate, one or more trap receivers must be configured on
the switch. See “CLI: Configuring and Displaying Trap Receivers” on page 8-11.
Using the CLI To Enable Authentication Traps.
Syntax:
snmp-server trap authentication
HP2512(config)# snmp-server trap authentication
8-12
Configuring for Network Management Applications
Advanced Management: RMON and HP Extended RMON Support
Advanced Management: RMON and HP
Extended RMON Support
The switch supports RMON (Remote Monitoring) and HP Extended RMON
on all connected network segments. This allows for troubleshooting and
optimizing your network.
RMON
The following RMON groups are supported:
■
■
■
■
Ethernet Statistics (except the numbers of packets of different frame sizes)
Alarm
History (of the supported Ethernet statistics)
Event
The RMON agent automatically runs in the switch. Use the RMON management station on your network to enable or disable specific RMON traps and
events. Note that you can access the Ethernet statistics, Alarm, and Event
groups from the HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches network management
software. For more on TopTools, see the "Read Me First" document shipped
with your switch and also available on HP’s ProCurve website at
Extended RMON
Extended RMON provides network monitoring and troubleshooting information that analyzes traffic from a network-wide perspective. Extended RMON
notifies you about network problems and identifies the end node at fault. That
information can be used to set up RMON to study the problem more closely,
if desired. Because it is based on detailed statistical sampling, Extended
RMON lessens the load on devices and network bandwidth. The Extended
RMON agent runs automatically on the switch. To use Extended RMON,
simply use Traffic Monitor (included with HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches)
on your network management station to enable sampling on the ports you
want to monitor.
8-13
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
Monitoring and Managing
the Switch
Configuring for Network Management Applications
Advanced Management: RMON and HP Extended RMON Support
8-14
9
Configuring Advanced Features
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
HP ProCurve Stack Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 5
Which Devices Support Stacking? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Components of HP ProCurve Stack Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
General Stacking Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
Operating Rules for Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
General Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Specific Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 9
Overview of Configuring and Bringing Up a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
General Steps for Creating a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
Using the Menu Interface To View Stack Status And
Configure Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Using the Menu Interface To View and Configure a
Commander Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Using the Menu To Manage a Candidate Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Using the Commander To Manage The Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
Using the Commander To Access Member Switches for
Configuration Changes and Monitoring Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26
Converting a Commander or Member to a Member of
Another Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27
Monitoring Stack Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 28
Using the CLI To View Stack Status and Configure Stacking . . . . .
Using the CLI To View Stack Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the CLI To Configure a Commander Switch . . . . . . . . . .
Adding to a Stack or Moving Switches Between Stacks . . . . . .
Using the CLI To Remove a Member from a Stack . . . . . . . . . .
Using the CLI To Access Member Switches for Configuration
Changes and Traffic Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-32
9- 34
9-36
9-38
9-43
9-45
SNMP Community Operation in a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 46
Using the CLI To Disable or Re-Enable Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 47
9-1
Configuring Advanced
Features
Chapter Contents
Configuring Advanced Features
Chapter Contents
Transmission Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 47
Stacking Operation with Multiple VLANs Configured . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 47
Web: Viewing and Configuring Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 48
Status Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 49
Configuring Advanced
Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 50
Overview of Using VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Support and the Default VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Which VLAN Is Primary? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Per-Port Static VLAN Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Steps for Using VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notes on Using VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-53
9-53
9- 53
9- 54
9-56
9-56
Menu: Configuring VLAN Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
To Change VLAN Support Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding or Editing VLAN Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding or Changing a VLAN Port Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9- 57
9- 57
9-59
9-60
CLI: Configuring VLAN Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-62
Web: Viewing and Configuring VLAN Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-68
VLAN Tagging Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-69
Effect of VLANs on Other Switch Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spanning Tree Protocol Operation with VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . .
IP Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-73
9-73
9-73
9-74
9-74
9-74
VLAN Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-75
Symptoms of Duplicate MAC Addresses in
VLAN Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-76
GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-77
General Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-78
Per-Port Options for Handling GVRP “Unknown VLANs” . . . . . . . . 9-80
Per-Port Options for Dynamic VLAN Advertising and Joining . . . . 9- 82
GVRP and VLAN Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 83
Port-Leave From a Dynamic VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-83
Planning for GVRP Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 84
Configuring GVRP On a Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu: Viewing and Configuring GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLI: Viewing and Configuring GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web: Viewing and Configuring GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9- 84
9- 84
9- 86
9- 89
GVRP Operating Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 89
9-2
Configuring Advanced Features
Chapter Contents
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) . . . . . . . . . 9- 91
IGMP Operating Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 92
CLI: Configuring and Displaying IGMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 93
Web: Enabling or Disabling IGMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 97
9-97
9-98
9-101
9-101
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 102
Menu: Configuring STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-103
CLI: Configuring STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-105
Web: Enabling or Disabling STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9- 108
How STP Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-108
STP Fast Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-109
STP Operation with 802.1Q VLANs 9- 110
9-3
Configuring Advanced
Features
How IGMP Operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Role of the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of IP Multicast Addresses Allowed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interaction with Multicast Traffic/Security Filters. . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Advanced Features
Overview
Overview
Configuring Advanced
Features
This chapter describes the following features and how to configure them with
the switch’s built-in interfaces:
■
HP ProCurve Stack Management (Page 9-5): Use your network to
stack switches without the need for any specialized cabling—page 9-5.
■
Port-Based VLANs — Page 9-50:
■
GVRP — Page 9-77:
■
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP) — Page 9-91:
Use the switch to reduce unnecessary bandwidth usage on a per-port basis
by configuring IGMP controls.
■
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) (Page 9-102): Use STP to automatically block loops in your network by ensuring that there is only one active
path at a time between any two nodes on the network.
For general information on how to use the switch’s built-in interfaces, see:
9-4
■
Chapter 2, “Using the Menu Interface”
■
Chapter 3, “Using the Command Line Interface (CLI)”
■
Chapter 4, “Using the HP Web Browser Interface
■
Appendix C, “Switch Memory and Configuration”
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Stacking Features
Feature
Menu
CLI
Web
view status of a single switch
n/a
page 9-29
thru
page 9-31
page 9-34
page 9-48
view candidate status
n/a
page 9-34
view status of commander and its
stack
n/a
page 9-35
view status of all stacking-enabled
switches in the ip subnet
n/a
page 9-35
view stack status
configure stacking
enable/disable candidate Auto-Join
enabled/Yes
page 9-18
page 9-40
“push” a candidate into a stack
n/a
page 9-18
page 9-40
configure a switch to be a commander n/a
page 9-15
page 9-36
“push” a member into another stack
n/a
page 9-27
page 9-42
remove a member from a stack
n/a
page 9-24
page 9-43
or
page 9-44
“pull” a candidate into a stack
n/a
page 9-20
page 9-39
“pull” a member from another stack
n/a
page 9-22
page 9-41
convert a commander or member to a n/a
member of another stack
page 9-27
page 9-42
access member switches for
configuration and traffic monitoring
n/a
page 9-26
page 9-45
disable stacking
enabled
page 9-18
page 9-47
transmission interval
60 seconds
page 9-15
page 9-47
HP ProCurve Stack Management (termed stacking) enables you to use a single
IP address and standard network cabling to manage a group of up to 16 total
switches in the same IP subnet (broadcast domain). Using stacking, you can:
■
Reduce the number of IP addresses needed in your network.
9-5
Configuring Advanced
Features
Default
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
■
Simplify management of small workgroups or wiring closets while
scaling your network to handle increased bandwidth demand.
■
Eliminate any specialized cables for stacking connectivity and
remove the distance barriers that typically limit your topology options
when using other stacking technologies.
■
Add switches to your network without having to first perform IP
addressing tasks.
Which Devices Support Stacking?
As of September, 2000, the following HP devices support stacking:
■
HP ProCurve Switch 2512
■
HP ProCurve Switch 2424M*
■
HP ProCurve Switch 2524
■
HP ProCurve Switch 2400M*
■
HP ProCurve Switch 8000M*
■
HP ProCurve Switch 1600M*
■
HP ProCurve Switch 4000M*
*Requires software release C.08.03 or later, which is included with the 8000M,
4000M, 2424M, and 1600M models as of July, 2000. Release C.08.03 or a later
version is also available on the HP ProCurve website at www.hp.com/go/
procurve. (Click on Free Software Updates.)
9-6
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Components of HP ProCurve Stack Management
Table 9-1. Stacking Definitions
Consists of a Commander switch and any Member switches belonging to that Commander’s stack.
Commander
A switch that has been manually configured as the controlling device for a stack. When this occurs, the
switch’s stacking configuration appears as Commander.
Candidate
A switch that is ready to join (become a Member of) a stack through either automatic or manual methods.
A switch configured as a Candidate is not in a stack.
Member
A switch that has joined a stack and is accessible from the stack Commander.
Before: Stack named
"Engineering" consists
of Commander and
Switch "C". Switch "B" is
a Candidate eligible to
join the stack.
After: Switch "B" joins the stack, thus changing from a
Candidate to a Member of the stack.
Stack
Stack Name:
Engineering
Stack Name:
Engineering
Commander: Switch A
Commander: Switch A
Candidate: Switch B
Member: Switch C
Member: Switch B
Member: Switch C
Figure 9-1. Illustration of a Switch Moving from Candidate to Member
General Stacking Operation
After you configure one switch to operate as the Commander of a stack,
additional switches can join the stack by either automatic or manual methods.
After a switch becomes a Member, you can work through the Commander
switch to further configure the Member switch as necessary for all of the
additional software features available in the switch.
The Commander switch serves as the in-band entry point for access to the
Member switches. For example, the Commander’s IP address becomes the
path to all stack Members and the Commander’s Manager password controls
access to all stack Members.
9-7
Configuring Advanced
Features
Stack
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Use the Commander’s console or web
browser interface to access the user
interface on any Member switch in
the same stack.
Wiring Closet "A"
Configuring Advanced
Features
Network Backbone
Member Switch 1
Candidate Switch
IP Address: None Assigned
IP Address: None Assigned
Manager Password: leader
Manager Password: francois
Wiring Closet "B"
Commander Switch 0
Non-Member Switch
Member Switch 2
IP Address: 14.28.227.100
IP Address: 14.28.227.105
IP Address: None Assigned
Manager Password: leader
Manager Password: donald
Manager Password: leader
Figure 9-2. Example of Stacking with One Commander Controlling Access to
Wiring Closet Switches
Interface Options. You can configure stacking through the switch’s menu
interface, CLI, or the web browser interface. For information on how to use
the web browser interface to configure stacking, see the online Help for the
web browser interface.
Web Browser Interface Window for Commander Switches. The web
browser interface window for a Commander switch differs in appearance
from the same window for non-commander switches. See figure 1-3 on page
1-5.
Operating Rules for Stacking
General Rules
9-8
■
Stacking is an optional feature (enabled in the default configuration)
and can easily be disabled. Stacking has no effect on the normal
operation of the switch in your network.
■
A stack requires one Commander switch. (Only one Commander
allowed per stack.)
■
All switches in a particular stack must be in the same IP subnet
(broadcast domain). A stack cannot cross a router.
■
A stack accepts up to 16 switches (numbered 0-15), including the
Commander (always numbered 0).
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
There is no limit on the number of stacks in the same IP subnet
(broadcast domain), however a switch can belong to only one stack.
■
If multiple VLANs are configured, stacking uses only the primary
VLAN on any switch. In the factory-default configuration, the
DEFAULT_VLAN is the primary VLAN. (See “Stacking Operation with
Multiple VLANs Configured” on page 9-47 and “Which VLAN Is
Primary?” on page 9-53.)
■
Stacking allows intermediate devices that do not support stacking.
This enables you to include switches that are distant from the
Commander.
Switch with Stacking
Disabled or Not Available
Commander Switch
Configuring Advanced
Features
■
Candidate Switch
Member Switch
Figure 9-3. Example of a Non-Stacking Device Used in a Stacking Environment
Specific Rules
Table 9-2 outlines the specific rules for switches operating in a stack.
Table 9-2. Specific Rules for Commander, Candidate, and Member Switches
IP Addressing and
Stack Name
Commander IP Addr: Requires an
assigned IP address
and mask for access
via the network.
Stack Name: Required
Number Allowed
Per Stack
Passwords
SNMP Communities
Only one
Commander
switch is allowed
per stack.
The Commander’s Manager
and Operator passwords are
assigned to any switch
becoming a Member of the
stack.
If you change the
Commander’s passwords, the
Commander propagates the
new passwords to all stack
Members.
Standard SNMP community
operation. The Commander
also operates as an SNMP
proxy to Members for all
SNMP communities configured in the Commander.
9-9
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
IP Addressing and
Stack Name
Configuring Advanced
Features
Candidate
Member
Note
9-10
Number Allowed
Per Stack
Passwords
SNMP Communities
IP Addr: Optional.
n/a
Configuring an IP
address allows access
via Telnet or web
browser interface
while the switch is not
a stack member. In the
factory default configuration the switch automatically acquires an
IP address if your
network includes DHCP
service.
Stack Name: N/A
Passwords optional. If the
Candidate becomes a stack
Member, it assumes the
Commander’s Manager and
Operator passwords.
Uses standard SNMP
community operation if the
Candidate has its own IP
addressing.
Up to 15 Members
IP Addr: Optional.
per stack.
Configuring an IP
address allows access
via Telnet or web
browser interface
without going through
the Commander switch.
This is useful, for
example, if the stack
Commander fails and
you need to convert a
Member switch to
operate as a replacement Commander.
Stack Name: N/A
When the switch joins the
stack, it automatically
assumes the Commander’s
Manager and Operator passwords and discards any passwords it may have had while a
Candidate.
If a candidate has a password,
it cannot be automatically
added to a stack. In this case,
if you want the Candidate in a
stack, you must manually add
it to the stack.
Belongs to the same SNMP
communities as the
Commander (which serves
as an SNMP proxy to the
Member for communities to
which the Commander
belongs). To join other
communities that exclude
the Commander, the
Note: If a Member leaves a
stack for any reason, it retains Member must have its own
the passwords assigned to the IP address. Loss of stack
stack Commander at the time membership means loss of
membership in any commuof departure from the stack.
nity that is configured only
in the Commander. See
"SNMP Community Operation in a Stack" on page 9-46.
In the default stack configuration, the Candidate Auto Join parameter is
enabled, but the Commander Auto Grab parameter is disabled. This prevents
Candidates from automatically joining a stack prematurely or joining the
wrong stack (if more than one stack Commander is configured in a subnet or
broadcast domain). If you plan to install more than one stack in a subnet, HP
recommends that you leave Auto Grab disabled on all Commander switches and
manually add Members to their stacks. Similarly, if you plan to install a stack
in a subnet (broadcast domain) where stacking-capable switches are not
intended for stack membership, you should set the Stack State parameter (in
the Stack Configuration screen) to Disabled on those particular switches.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Overview of Configuring and Bringing Up a Stack
This process assumes that:
All switches you want to include in a stack are connected to the same
subnet (broadcast domain).
■
If VLANs are enabled on the switches you want to include in the stack,
then the ports linking the stacked switches must be on the primary
VLAN in each switch (which, in the default configuration, is the
default VLAN). If the primary VLAN is tagged, then each switch in the
stack must use the same VLAN ID (VID) for the primary VLAN. (See
“Which VLAN Is Primary?” on page 9-53, and “Stacking Operation with
Multiple VLANs Configured” on page 9-47.)
■
If you are including an HP ProCurve Switch 8000M, 4000M, 2424M,
2400M, or 1600M in a stack, you must first update all such devices to
software version C.08.xx. (You can get a copy of the software from
HP’s ProCurve website and/or copy it from one switch to another. For
downloading instructions, see appendix A, "File Transfers", in the
Management and Configuration Guide you received with these
switch models.)
Configuring Advanced
Features
■
Options for Configuring a Commander and Candidates. Depending on
how Commander and Candidate switches are configured, Candidates can join
a stack either automatically or by a Commander manually adding (“pulling”)
them into the stack. In the default configuration, a Candidate joins only when
manually pulled by a Commander. You can reconfigure a Commander to
automatically pull in Candidates that are in the default stacking configuration. You can also reconfigure a Candidate switch to either “push” itself into
a particular Commander’s stack, convert the Candidate to a Commander (for
a stack that does not already have a Commander), or to operate as a standalone switch without stacking. The following table shows your control options
for adding Members to a stack.
9-11
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Table 9-3. Stacking Configuration Guide
Configuring Advanced
Features
Join Method1
Commander
Candidate
(IP Addressing Required) (IP Addressing Optional)
Auto Grab
Auto Join
Passwords
Automatically add Candidate to Stack
(Causes the first 15 eligible, discovered
switches in the subnet to automatically
join a stack.)
Yes
Yes (default)
No (default)*
Manually add Candidate to Stack
(Prevent automatic joining of switches
you don’t want in the stack)
No (default)
Yes (default)
Optional*
Yes
No
Optional*
Yes
Yes (default) or No
Configured
Disabled
Optional
Prevent a switch from being a Candidate N/A
*
The Commander’s Manager and Operator passwords propagate to the candidate when it joins the stack.
The easiest way to automatically create a stack is to:
1.
Configure a switch as a Commander.
2.
Configure IP addressing and a stack name on the Commander.
3.
Set the Commander’s Auto Grab parameter to Yes.
4.
Connect Candidate switches (in their factory default configuration) to
the network.
This approach automatically creates a stack of up to 16 switches (including
the Commander). However this replaces manual control with an automatic
process that may bring switches into the stack that you did not intend to
include. With the Commander’s Auto Grab parameter set to Yes, any switch
conforming to all four of the following factors automatically becomes a stack
Member:
9-12
■
Default stacking configuration (Stack State set to Candidate, and Auto Join
set to Yes)
■
Same subnet (broadcast domain) and default VLAN as the
Commander (If VLANs are used in the stack environment, see
"Stacking Operation with a Tagged VLAN" on page 9-47.)
■
No Manager password
■
14 or fewer stack members at the moment
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
General Steps for Creating a Stack
This section describes the general stack creation process. For the detailed
configuration processes, see pages 9-15 through 9-39 for the menu interface
and pages 9-32 through 9-44 for the CLI.
1.
For status
descriptions, see the
table on page 9-49.
Stack with unique
system name for each
switch.
Stack named "Online"
with no previously
configured system
names assigned to
individual switches.
Figure 9-4. Use of System Name to Help Identify Individual Switches
2.
Configure the Commander switch. Doing this first helps to establish
consistency in your stack configuration, which can help prevent startup
problems.
•
A stack requires one Commander switch. If you plan to implement
more than one stack in a subnet (broadcast domain), the easiest
way to avoid unintentionally adding a Candidate to the wrong
stack is to manually control the joining process by leaving the
Commander’s Auto Grab parameter set to No (the default).
•
The Commander assigns its Manager and Operator passwords to
any Candidate switch that joins the stack.
•
SNMP community names used in the Commander apply to stack
members.
9-13
Configuring Advanced
Features
Determine the naming conventions for the stack. You will need a stack
name. Also, to help distinguish one switch from another in the stack, you
can configure a unique system name for each switch. Otherwise, the
system name for a switch appearing in the Stacking Status screen appears
as the stack name plus an automatically assigned switch number. For
example:
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
3.
For automatically or manually pulling Candidate switches into a stack,
you can leave such switches in their default stacking configuration. If you
need to access Candidate switches through your network before they
join the stack, assign IP addresses to these devices. Otherwise, IP
addressing is optional for Candidates and Members. (Note that once a
Candidate becomes a member, you can access it through the Commander
to assign IP addressing or make other configuration changes.)
4.
Make a record of any Manager passwords assigned to the switches
(intended for your stack) that are not currently members. (You will have
to use these passwords to enable the protected switches to join the
stack.)
5.
If you are using VLANs in the stacking environment, you must use the
default VLAN for stacking links. For more information, see "Stacking
Operation with a Tagged VLAN" on page 9-47.
6.
Ensure that all switches intended for the stack are connected to the same
subnet (broadcast domain). As soon as you connect the Commander, it
will begin discovering the available Candidates in the subnet.
•
•
If you configured the Commander to automatically add Members
(Auto Grab set to Yes), then the first 15 discovered Candidates
meeting both of the following criteria will automatically become
stack Members:
–
Auto Join parameter set to Yes (the default)
–
Manager password not configured
If you configured the Commander to manually add Members (Auto
Grab set to No—the default), you can begin the process of selecting
and adding the desired Candidates.
9-14
7.
Ensure that all switches intended for the stack have joined.
8.
If you need to perform specific configuration or monitoring tasks on a
Member, use the console interface on the Commander to select and
access the Member.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Using the Menu Interface To View Stack Status And
Configure Stacking
Using the Menu Interface To View and Configure a
Commander Switch
Configure an IP address and subnet mask on the Commander switch.
(See “IP Configuration” on page 5-3.)
2.
Display the Stacking Menu by selecting Stacking in the Main Menu.
Figure 9-5. The Default Stacking Menu
3.
Display the Stack Configuration menu by pressing [3] to select Stack
Configuration.
9-15
Configuring Advanced
Features
1.
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Figure 9-6. The Default Stack Configuration Screen
4.
Move the cursor to the Stack State field by pressing [E] (for Edit). Then
use the Space bar to select the Commander option.
5.
Press the downarrow key to display the Commander configuration fields
in the Stack Configuration screen.
Figure 9-7. The Default Commander Configuration in the Stack Configuration
Screen
9-16
6.
Enter a unique stack name (up to 15 characters; no spaces) and press the
downarrow key.
7.
Ensure that the Commander has the desired Auto Grab setting, then press
the downarrow key:
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
•
No (the default) prevents automatic joining of Candidates that
have their Auto Join set to Yes.
•
Yes enables the Commander to automatically take a Candidate
into the stack as a Member if the Candidate has Auto Join set to Yes
(the default Candidate setting) and does not have a previously
configured password.
Accept or change the transmission interval (default: 60 seconds), then
press [Enter] to return the cursor to the Actions line.
9.
Press [S] (for Save) to save your configuration changes and return to the
Stacking menu.
Your Commander switch should now be ready to automatically or manually
acquire Member switches from the list of discovered Candidates, depending
on your configuration choices.
Using the Menu To Manage a Candidate Switch
Using the menu interface, you can perform these actions on a Candidate
switch:
■
Add (“push”) the Candidate into an existing stack
■
Modify the Candidate’s stacking configuration (Auto Join and Transmission
Interval)
■
Convert the Candidate to a Commander
■
Disable stacking on the Candidate so that it operates as a standalone
switch
In its default stacking configuration, a Candidate switch can either automatically join a stack or be manually added ("pulled") into a stack by a Commander,
depending on the Commander’s Auto Grab setting. The following table lists the
Candidate’s configuration options:
9-17
Configuring Advanced
Features
8.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Configuring Advanced
Features
Table 9-4.Candidate Configuration Options in the Menu Interface
Parameter
Default Setting
Other Settings
Stack State
Candidate
Commander, Member, or Disabled
Auto Join
Yes
No
Transmission Interval 60 Seconds
Range: 1 to 300 seconds
Using the Menu To “Push” a Switch Into a Stack, Modify the Switch’s
Configuration, or Disable Stacking on the Switch. Use Telnet or the
web browser interface to access the Candidate if it has an IP address. Otherwise, use a direct connection from a terminal device to the switch’s console
port. (For information on how to use the web browser interface, see the online
Help provided for the browser.)
1.
2.
Display the Stacking Menu by selecting Stacking in the console Main Menu.
Display the Stack Configuration menu by pressing [3] to select Stack
Configuration.
Figure 9-8. The Default Stack Configuration Screen
3.
9-18
Move the cursor to the Stack State field by pressing [E] (for Edit).
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
4.
Do one of the following:
•
To disable stacking on the Candidate, use the Space bar to select
the Disabled option, then go to step 5.
Note: Using the menu interface to disable stacking on a Candidate
removes the Candidate from all stacking menus.
•
To insert the Candidate into a specific Commander’s stack:
Use the space bar to select Member.
ii. Press [Tab] once to display the Commander MAC Address parameter,
then enter the MAC address of the desired Commander.
•
To change Auto Join or Transmission Interval, use [Tab] to select the
desired parameter, and:
–
To change Auto Join, use the Space bar.
–
To change Transmission Interval, type in the new value in the range
of 1 to 300 seconds.
Note: All switches in the stack must be set to the same transmission interval to help ensure proper stacking operation. HP recommends that you leave this parameter set to the default 60 seconds.
Then go to step 5.
5.
press [Enter] to return the cursor to the Actions line.
6.
Press [S] (for Save) to save your configuration changes and return to the
Stacking menu.
Using the Commander To Manage The Stack
The Commander normally operates as your stack manager and point of entry
into other switches in the stack. This typically includes:
■
Adding new stack members
■
Moving members between stacks
■
Removing members from a stack
■
Accessing stack members for individual configuration changes and traffic
monitoring
The Commander also imposes its passwords on all stack members and provides SNMP community membership to the stack. (See “SNMP Community
Operation in a Stack” on page 9-46.)
9-19
Configuring Advanced
Features
i.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Configuring Advanced
Features
Using the Commander’s Menu To Manually Add a Candidate to a
Stack. In the default configuration, you must manually add stack Members
from the Candidate pool. Reasons for a switch remaining a Candidate instead
of becoming a Member include any of the following:
■
Auto Grab in the Commander is set to No (the default).
■
Auto Join in the Candidate is set to No.
Note: When a switch leaves a stack and returns to Candidate status, its
Auto Join parameter resets to No so that it will not immediately rejoin a
stack from which it has just departed.
■
A Manager password is set in the Candidate.
■
The stack is full.
Unless the stack is already full, you can use the Stack Management screen to
manually convert a Candidate to a Member. If the Candidate has a Manager
password, you will need to use it to make the Candidate a Member of the stack.
1.
To add a Member, start at the Main Menu and select:
9. Stacking...
4. Stack Management
You will then see the Stack Management screen:
For status descriptions,
see the table on page
9-49.
Figure 9-9. Example of the Stack Management Screen
2.
9-20
Press [A] (for Add) to add a Candidate. You will then see this screen listing
the available Candidates:
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
The Commander automatically selects an
available switch number (SN). You have the
option of assigning any other available number.
Configuring Advanced
Features
Candidate List
Figure 9-10. Example of Candidate List in Stack Management Screen
3.
Either accept the displayed switch number or enter another available
number. (The range is 0 - 15, with 0 reserved for the Commander.)
4.
Use the downarrow key to move the cursor to the MAC Address field,
then type the MAC address of the desired Candidate from the Candidate
list in the lower part of the screen.
5.
Do one of the following:
6.
•
If the desired Candidate has a Manager password, press the
downarrow key to move the cursor to the Candidate Password
field, then type the password.
•
If the desired Candidate does not have a password, go to step 6.
Press [Enter] to return to the Actions line, then press [S] (for Save) to
complete the Add process for the selected Candidate. You will then see
a screen similar to the one in figure 9-11, below, with the newly added
Member listed.
Note: If the message Unable to add stack member: Invalid Password appears in
the console menu’s Help line, then you either omitted the Candidate’s
Manager password or incorrectly entered the Manager password.
9-21
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Configuring Advanced
Features
For status descriptions,
see the table on page
9-49.
New Member added in step 6.
Figure 9-11. Example of Stack Management Screen After New Member Added
Using the Commander’s Menu To Move a Member From One Stack to
Another. Where two or more stacks exist in the same subnet (broadcast
domain), you can easily move a Member of one stack to another stack if the
destination stack is not full. (If you are using VLANs in your stack environment, see "Stacking Operation with a Tagged VLAN" on page 9-47.) This
procedure is nearly identical to manually adding a Candidate to a stack (page
9-20). (If the stack from which you want to move the Member has a Manager
password, you will need to know the password to make the move.)
1.
To move a Member from one stack to another, go to the Main Menu of
the Commander in the destination stack and display the Stacking Menu
by selecting
9. Stacking...
2.
To learn or verify the MAC address of the Member you want to move,
display a listing of all Commanders, Members, and Candidates in the
subnet by selecting:
2. Stacking Status (All)
9-22
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
You will then see the Stacking Status (All) screen:
For status descriptions,
see the table on page 49.
Configuring Advanced
Features
This column lists the MAC
Addresses for switches
discovered (in the local
subnet) that are configured
for Stacking.
Using the MAC addresses for these
Members, you can move them between
stacks in the same subnet.
Figure 9-12. Example of How the Stacking Status (All) Screen Helps You Find
Member MAC Addresses
3.
In the Stacking Status (All) screen, find the Member switch that you want
to move and note its MAC address, then press [B] (for Back) to return to
the Stacking Menu.
4.
Display the Commander’s Stack Management screen by selecting
4. Stack Management
(For an example of this screen, see figure 9-9 on page 9-20.)
5.
Press [A] (for Add) to add the Member. You will then see a screen listing
any available candidates. (See figure 9-10 on page 9-21.) Note that you
will not see the switch you want to add because it is a Member of another
stack and not a Candidate.)
6.
Either accept the displayed switch number or enter another available
number. (The range is 0 - 15, with 0 reserved for the Commander.)
7.
Use the downarrow key to move the cursor to the MAC Address field,
then type the MAC address of the desired Member you want to move from
another stack.
9-23
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Configuring Advanced
Features
8.
9.
Note:
Do one of the following:
•
If the stack containing the Member you are moving has a Manager
password, press the downarrow key to select the Candidate
Password field, then type the password.
•
If the stack containing the Member you want to move does not
have a password, go to step 9.
Press [Enter] to return to the Actions line, then press [S] (for Save) to
complete the Add process for the selected Member. You will then see a
screen similar to the one in figure 9-9 on page 9-20, with the newly added
Member listed.
If the message Unable to add stack member: Invalid Password appears in the console
menu’s Help line, then you either omitted the Manager password for the stack
containing the Member or incorrectly entered the Manager password.
You can “push” a Member from one stack to another by going to the Member’s
interface and entering the MAC address of the destination stack Commander
in the Member’s Commander MAC Address field. Using this method moves the
Member to another stack without a need for knowing the Manager password
in that stack, but also blocks access to the Member from the original
Commander.
Using the Commander’s Menu To Remove a Stack Member. These
rules affect removals from a stack:
■
When a Candidate becomes a Member, its Auto Join parameter is
automatically set to No. This prevents the switch from automatically
rejoining a stack as soon as you remove it from the stack.
■
When you use the Commander to remove a switch from a stack, the
switch rejoins the Candidate pool for your IP subnet (broadcast
domain), with Auto Join set to No.
■
When you remove a Member from a stack, it frees the previously
assigned switch number (SN), which then becomes available for
assignment to another switch that you may subsequently add to the
stack. The default switch number used for an add is the lowest
unassigned number in the Member range (1 - 15; 0 is reserved for the
Commander).
To remove a Member from a stack, use the Stack Management screen.
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
9. Stacking...
9-24
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
4. Stack Management
You will then see the Stack Management screen:
For status descriptions,
see the table on page
9-49.
Configuring Advanced
Features
Stack Member List
Figure 9-13. Example of Stack Management Screen with Stack Members Listed
2.
Use the downarrow key to select the Member you want to remove from
the stack.
Figure 9-14. Example of Selecting a Member for Removal from the Stack
3.
Type [D] (for Delete) to remove the selected Member from the stack. You
will then see the following prompt:
Figure 9-15. The Prompt for Completing the Deletion of a Member from the Stack
4.
To continue deleting the selected Member, press the Space bar once to
select Yes for the prompt, then press [Enter] to complete the deletion. The
Stack Management screen updates to show the new stack Member list.
9-25
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Using the Commander To Access Member Switches for
Configuration Changes and Monitoring Traffic
Configuring Advanced
Features
After a Candidate becomes a stack Member, you can use that stack’s
Commander to access the Member’s console interface for the same configuration and monitoring that you would do through a Telnet or direct-connect
access.
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
9. Stacking...
5. Stack Access
You will then see the Stack Access screen:
For status descriptions,
see the table on page
page 9-49.
Figure 9-16. Example of the Stack Access Screen
Use the downarrow key to select the stack Member you want to access, then
press [X] (for eXecute) to display the console interface for the selected Member.
For example, if you selected switch number 1 (system name: Coral Sea) in figure
9-16 and then pressed [X], you would see the Main Menu for the switch named
Coral Sea.
9-26
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Configuring Advanced
Features
Main Menu for stack
Member named "Coral Sea"
(SN = 1 from figure 9-16)
Figure 9-17. The eXecute Command Displays the Console Main Menu for the
Selected Stack Member
2.
You can now make configuration changes and/or view status data for the
selected Member in the same way that you would if you were directly
connected or telnetted into the switch.
3.
When you are finished accessing the selected Member, do the following
to return to the Commander’s Stack Access screen:
a.
Return to the Member’s Main Menu.
b. Press [0] (for Logout), then [Y] (for Yes).
c.
Press [Return].
You should now see the Commander’s Stack Access screen. (For an
example, see figure 9-16 on page 9-26.)
Converting a Commander or Member to a Member of Another
Stack
When moving a commander, the following procedure returns the stack members to Candidate status (with Auto-Join set to “No”) and converts the stack
Commander to a Member of another stack. When moving a member, the
procedure simply pulls a Member out of one stack and pushes it into another.
1.
From the Main Menu of the switch you want to move, select
9. Stacking
2.
To determine the MAC address of the destination Commander, select
2. Stacking Status (All)
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Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
3.
Press [B] (for Back) to return to the Stacking Menu.
4.
To display Stack Configuration menu for the switch you are moving, select
Configuring Advanced
Features
3. Stack Configuration
5.
Press [E] (for Edit) to select the Stack State parameter.
6.
Use the Space bar to select Member, then press [ v] to move to the Commander MAC Address field.
7.
Enter the MAC address of the destination Commander and press [Enter].
8.
Press [S] (for Save).
Monitoring Stack Status
Using the stacking options in the menu interface for any switch in a stack, you
can view stacking data for that switch or for all stacks in the subnet (broadcast
domain). (If you are using VLANs in your stack environment, see "Stacking
Operation with a Tagged VLAN" on page 9-47.) This can help you in such ways
as determining the stacking configuration for individual switches, identifying
stack Members and Candidates, and determining the status of individual
switches in a stack. See table 9-5 on page 9-28.
Table 9-5. Stack Status Environments
Screen Name
Commander
Member
Stack Status (This Switch)
• Commander’s stacking
configuration
• Data on stack Members:
– Switch Number
– MAC Address
– System Name
– Device Type
– Status
• Member’s stacking configuration Candidate’s stacking
configuration
• Member Status
• Data identifying Member’s
Commander:
– Commander Status
– Commander IP Address
– Commander MAC Address
Stack Status (All)
Lists devices by stack name Same as for Commander.
or Candidate status (if device
is not a stack Member).
Includes:
• Stack Name
• MAC Address
• System Name
• Status
9-28
Candidate
Same as for
Commander.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Using Any Stacked Switch To View the Status for All Switches with
Stacking Enabled. This procedure displays the general status of all switches
in the IP subnet (broadcast domain) that have stacking enabled.
1.
Go to the console Main Menu for any switch configured for stacking and
select:
Configuring Advanced
Features
9. Stacking ...
2. Stacking Status (All)
You will then see a Stacking Status screen similar to the following:
For status descriptions,
see the table on page
9-49.
Figure 9-18. Example of Stacking Status for All Detected Switches Configured for
Stacking
Viewing Commander Status. This procedure displays the Commander and
stack configuration, plus information identifying each stack member.
To display the status for a Commander, go to the console Main Menu for the
switch and select:
9. Stacking ...
1. Stacking Status (This Switch)
You will then see the Commander’s Stacking Status screen:
9-29
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Figure 9-19. Example of the Commander’s Stacking Status Screen
Viewing Member Status. This procedure displays the Member’s stacking
information plus the Commander’s status, IP address, and MAC address.
To display the status for a Member:
1.
Go to the console Main Menu of the Commander switch and select
9. Stacking ...
5. Stack Access
2.
Use the downarrow key to select the Member switch whose status you
want to view, then press [X] (for eXecute). You will then see the Main Menu
for the selected Member switch.
3.
In the Member’s Main Menu screen, select
9. Stacking ...
1. Stacking Status (This Switch)
You will then see the Member’s Stacking Status screen:
9-30
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Configuring Advanced
Features
Figure 9-20. Example of a Member’s Stacking Status Screen
Viewing Candidate Status. This procedure displays the Candidate’s
stacking configuration.
To display the status for a Candidate:
1.
Use Telnet (if the Candidate has a valid IP address for your network) or
a direct serial port connection to access the menu interface Main Menu
for the Candidate switch and select
9. Stacking ...
1. Stacking Status (This Switch)
You will then see the Candidate’s Stacking Status screen:
Figure 9-21. Example of a Candidate’s Stacking Screen
9-31
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Using the CLI To View Stack Status and Configure
Stacking
The CLI enables you to do all of the stacking tasks available through the menu
interface.)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Table 9-6. CLI Commands for Configuring Stacking on a Switch
CLI Command
Operation
show stack
[candidates | view | all]
Commander: Shows Commander’s stacking configuration and lists the stack
members and their individual status.
Member: Lists Member’s stacking configuration and status, and the status and the
IP address and subnet mask of the stack Commander.
Options:
candidates: (Commander only) Lists stack Candidates.
view: (Commander only) Lists current stack Members and their individual
status.
all: Lists all stack Commanders, Members and Candidates, with their individual
status.
[no] stack
Any Stacking-Capable Switch: Enables or disables stacking on the switch.
Default: Stacking Enabled
[no] stack commander <stack name> Candidate or Commander: Converts a Candidate to a Commander or changes the
stack name of an existing commander.
“No” form eliminates named stack and returns Commander and stack Members
to Candidate status with Auto Join set to No.
“No” form prevents the switch from being discovered as a stacking-capable
switch.
Default: Switch Configured as a Candidate
[no] stack auto-grab
Commander: Causes Commander to automatically add to its stack any discovered
Candidate in the subnet that does not have a Manager password and has AutoJoin set to Yes.
Default: Disabled
Note: If the Commander’s stack already has 15 members, the Candidate cannot
join until an existing member leaves the stack.
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Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Operation
[no] stack member
<switch-num>
mac-address <mac-addr>
[password <password-str>]
Commander: Adds a Candidate to stack membership. “No” form removes a
Member from stack membership. To easily determine the MAC address of a
Candidate, use the show stack candidates command. To determine the MAC
address of a Member you want to remove, use the show stack view command.The
password (password-str) is required only when adding a Candidate that has a
Manager password.
telnet <1..15>
Commander: Uses the SN (switch number— assigned by the stack Commander)
to access the console interface (menu interface or CLI) of a stack member. To view
the list of SN assignments for a stack, execute the show stack command in the
Commander’s CLI.
Used In: Commander Only
[no] stack join <mac-addr>
Candidate: Causes the Candidate to join the stack whose Commander has the
indicated MAC address. “No” form is used in a Member to remove it from the stack
of the Commander having the specified address.
Member: “Pushes” the member to another stack whose Commander has the
indicated MAC address.
[no] stack auto-join
Candidate: Enables Candidate to automatically join the stack of any Commander
in the IP subnet that has Auto Grab enabled, or disables Auto-Join in the candidate.
Default: Auto Join enabled.
Note: If the Candidate has a Manager password or if the available stack(s) already
have the maximum of 15 Members, the automatic join will not occur.
stack transmission-interval
All Stack Members: specifies the interval in seconds for transmitting stacking
discovery packets.
Default: 60 seconds
9-33
Configuring Advanced
Features
CLI Command
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Using the CLI To View Stack Status
You can list the stack status for an individual switch and for other switches
that have been discovered in the same subnet.
Syntax: show stack [candidates | view | all]
Configuring Advanced
Features
Viewing the Status of an Individual Switch. The following example
illustrates how to use the CLI in a Switch 2524 (or 2512) to display the stack
status for that switch. In this case, the switch is in the default stacking
configuration.
Syntax: show stack
Figure 9-22. Example of Using the Show Stack Command To List the Stacking
Configuration for an Individual Switch
Viewing the Status of Candidates the Commander Has Detected.
This example illustrates how to list stack candidates the Commander has
discovered in the ip subnet (broadcast domain).
Syntax:
show stack candidates
Figure 9-23. Example of Using the Show Stack Candidates Command To List
Candidates
9-34
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Viewing the Status of all Stack-Enabled Switches Discovered in the IP
Subnet. The next example lists all the stack-configured switches discovered
in the IP subnet. Because the Switch 2524 on which the show stack all
command was executed is a candidate, it is included in the “Others” category.
Syntax: show stack all
Configuring Advanced
Features
Figure 9-24. Result of Using the Show Stack All Command To List Discovered
Switches in the IP Subnet
Viewing the Status of the Commander and Current Members of the
Commander’s Stack. The next example lists all switches in the stack of the
selected switch.
Syntax: show stack view
Figure 9-25. Example of the Show Stack View Command To List the Stack Assigned
to the Selected Commander
9-35
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Using the CLI To Configure a Commander Switch
You can configure any stacking-enabled switch to be a Commander as long as
the intended stack name does not already exist on the broadcast domain.
(When you configure a Commander, you automatically create a corresponding
stack.)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Before you begin configuring stacking parameters:
1.
Note
Configure IP addressing on the switch intended for stack commander and,
if not already configured, on the primary VLAN. (For more on configuring
IP addressing, see “IP Configuration” on page 5-3.)
The primary VLAN must have an IP address in order for stacking to operate
properly. For more on the primary VLAN, see “Which VLAN Is Primary?” on
page 9-53.
2.
Configure a Manager password on the switch intended for commander.
(The Commander’s Manager password controls access to stack Members.) For more on passwords, see chapter 7, “Using Passwords, Port
Security, and Authorized Managers To Protect Against Unauthorized
Access”.
Configure the Stack Commander. Assigning a stack name to a switch
makes it a Commander and automatically creates a stack.
Syntax: stack commander <name-str>
This example creates a Commander switch with a stack name of Big_Waters.
(Note that if stacking was previously disabled on the switch, this command
also enables stacking.)
HP2512(config)# stack commander Big_Waters
As the following show stack display shows, the Commander switch is now ready
to add members to the stack.
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Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
The Commander appears in the stack as Switch
Number (SN) 0.
Figure 9-26. Example of the Commander’s Show Stack Screen with Only the
Commander Discovered
Using a Member’s CLI to Convert the Member to the Commander of a
New Stack. This procedure requires that you first remove the Member from
its current stack, then create the new stack. If you do not know the MAC
address for the Commander of the current stack, use show stack to list it.
Syntax: no stack
stack commander <stack name>
Suppose, for example, that a Switch 2512 named “Bering Sea” is a Member of
a stack named “Big_Waters”. To use the switch’s CLI to convert it from a stack
Member to the Commander of a new stack named “Lakes”, you would use the
following commands:
9-37
Configuring Advanced
Features
The stack commander command
configures the Commander and names
the stack.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Configuring Advanced
Features
The output from this command tells you the
MAC address of the current stack Commander.
Removes the Member
from the “Big_Waters”
stack.
Converts the former
Member to the Commander of the new
“Lakes” stack.
Figure 9-27. Example of Using a Member’s CLI To Convert the Member to the
Commander of a New Stack
Adding to a Stack or Moving Switches Between Stacks
You can add switches to a stack by adding discovered Candidates or by moving
switches from other stacks that may exist in the same subnet. (You cannot
add a Candidate that the Commander has not discovered.)
In its default configuration, the Commander’s Auto-Grab parameter is set to
No to give you manual control over which switches join the stack and when
they join. This prevents the Commander from automatically trying to add
every Candidate it finds that has Auto Join set to Yes (the default for the
Candidate).
(If you want any eligible Candidate to automatically join the stack when the
Commander discovers it, configure Auto Grab in the Commander to Yes. When
you do so, any Candidate discovered with Auto Join set to Yes (the default) and
no Manager password will join the stack, up to the limit of 15 Members.)
9-38
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Using the Commander’s CLI To Manually Add a Candidate to the
Stack. To manually add a candidate, you will use:
A switch number (SN) to assign to the new member. Member SNs range
from 1 to 15. To see which SNs are already assigned to Members, use show
stack view. You can use any SN not included in the listing. (SNs are
viewable only on a Commander switch.)
■
The MAC address of the discovered Candidate you are adding to the stack.
To see this data, use the show stack candidates listing .
For example:
In this stack, the only SNs in use are 0 and 1,
so you can use any SN number from 2 through
15 for new Members. (The SN of “0” is always
reserved for the stack Commander.)
Note: When manually adding a switch, you must assign an SN.
However, if the Commander automatically adds a new Member,
it assigns an SN from the available pool of unused SNs.
Figure 9-28. Example of How To Determine Available Switch Numbers (SNs)
To display all discovered Candidates with their MAC addresses, execute show
stack candidates from the Commander’s CLI. For example, to list the discovered candidates for the above Commander:
MAC addresses
of discovered
Candidates.
Figure 9-29. Example of How To Determine MAC Addresses of Discovered
Candidates
Knowing the available switch numbers (SNs) and Candidate MAC addresses,
you can proceed to manually assign a Candidate to be a Member of the stack:
Syntax: stack member <switch-number> mac-address <mac-addr>
[password <password-str>]
9-39
Configuring Advanced
Features
■
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
For example, if the HP 8000M in the above listing did not have a Manager
password and you wanted to make it a stack Member with an SN of 2, you
would execute the following command:
HP2512(config)# stack member 2 mac-address 0060b0-dfla00
Configuring Advanced
Features
The show stack view command then lists the Member added by the above
command:
The new member did not have a System Name
configured prior to joining the stack, and so receives a
System Name composed of the stack name (assigned in
the Commander) with its SN number as a suffix.
SN (Switch Number) 2 is the
new Member added by the
stack member command.
Figure 9-30. Example Showing the Stack After Adding a New Member
Using Auto Join on a Candidate. In the default configuration, a Candidate’s Auto Join parameter is set to “Yes”, meaning that it will automatically
join a stack if the stack’s Commander detects the Candidate and the Commander’s Auto Grab parameter is set to “Yes”. You can disable Auto Join on a
Candidate if you want to prevent automatic joining in this case. There is also
the instance where a Candidate’s Auto Join is disabled, for example, when a
Commander leaves a stack and its members automatically return to Candidate
status, or if you manually remove a Member from a stack. In this case, you
may want to reset Auto Join to “Yes”.
Status:
[no] stack auto-join
HP2512(config)# no
stack auto-join
HP 2512(config)# stack auto-join
Disables Auto Join on a
Candidate.
Enables Auto Join on a
Candidate.
Using a Candidate CLI To Manually “Push” the Candidate Into a
Stack . Use this method if any of the following apply:
9-40
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
■
The Candidate’s Auto Join is set to Yes (and you do not want to enable
Auto Grab on the Commander) or the Candidate’s Auto Join is set to No.
■
Either you know the MAC address of the Commander for the stack into
which you want to insert the Candidate, or the Candidate has a valid IP
address and is operating in your network.
Syntax:
stack join <mac-addr>
Use Telnet (if the Candidate has an IP address valid for your network) or a
direct serial port connection to access the CLI for the Candidate switch. For
example, suppose that a Candidate named “North Sea” with Auto Join off and
a valid IP address of 10.28.227.104 is running on a network. You could Telnet
to the Candidate, use show stack all to determine the Commander’s MAC
address, and then “push” the Candidate into the desired stack.
1. Telnet to the Candidate named “North Sea”.
2. Use show stack all to display the Commander’s
MAC address.
MAC Address for
Stack Commander
3. Set the Candidate CLI to Config mode.
4. Execute stack join with the
Commander’s MAC address to “push”
the Candidate into the stack.
Figure 9-31. Example of “Pushing” a Candidate Into a Stack
To verify that the Candidate successfully joined the stack, execute show stack
all again to view the stacking status.
Using the Destination Commander CLI To “Pull” a Member from
Another Stack. This method uses the Commander in the destination stack
to “pull” the Member from the source stack.
9-41
Configuring Advanced
Features
where: <mac-addr> is the MAC address of the Commander in
the destination stack.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Syntax: stack member <switch-number>
mac-address <mac-addr>
[password<password-str>]
Configuring Advanced
Features
In the destination Commander, use show stack all to find the MAC address of
the Member you want to pull into the destination stack. For example, suppose
you created a new Commander with a stack name of “Cold_Waters” and you
wanted to move a switch named “Bering Sea” into the new stack:
Move this switch into the “Cold Waters” stack.
Figure 9-32. Example of Stack Listing with Two Stacks in the Subnet
You would then execute the following command to pull the desired switch
into the new stack:
HP2524(config)# stack member 1 mac-address 0060b0-df1a00
Where 1 is an unused switch number (SN).
Since a password is not set on the Candidate, a password is not needed in this
example.
You could then use show stack all again to verify that the move took place.
Using a Member CLI To “Push” the Member into Another Stack. You
can use the Member’s CLI to “push” an HP 2512 or 2524 stack Member into a
destination stack if you know the MAC address of the destination Commander.
Syntax: stack join <mac-addr>
where: <mac-addr> is the MAC address of the Commander for the destination stack.
Converting a Commander to a Member of Another Stack. Removing
the Commander from a stack eliminates the stack and returns its Members to
the Candidate pool with Auto Join disabled.
9-42
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Syntax: no stack name <stack name>
stack join <mac-address>
If you don’t know the MAC address of the destination Commander, you can
use show stack all to identify it.
Eliminates the “Test” stack and converts
the Commander to a Candidate.
Helps you to identify the MAC address of the
Commander for the “Big_Waters” stack.
Adds the former “Test” Commander to the
“Big_Waters” stack.
Figure 9-33. Example of Command Sequence for Converting a Commander to a
Member
Using the CLI To Remove a Member from a Stack
You can remove a Member from a stack using the CLI of either the Commander
or the Member.
Note
When you remove a Member from a stack, the Member’s Auto Join parameter
is set to No.
Using the Commander CLI To Remove a Stack Member. This option
requires the switch number (SN) and the MAC address of the switch to
remove. (Because the Commander propagates its Manager password to all
stack members, knowing the Manager password is necessary only for gaining
access to the Commander.)
9-43
Configuring Advanced
Features
For example, suppose you have a Switch 2512 operating as the Commander
for a temporary stack named “Test”. When it is time to eliminate the temporary
“Test” stack and convert the Switch 2512 into a member of an existing stack
named “Big_Waters”, you would execute the following commands in the CLI
of the Switch 2512:
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Syntax: [no] stack member <switch-num> mac-address <mac-addr>
Configuring Advanced
Features
Use show stack view to list the stack Members. For example, suppose that you
wanted to use the Commander to remove the “North Sea” Member from the
following stack:
Remove this Member
from the stack.
Figure 9-34. Example of a Commander and Three Switches in a Stack
You would then execute this command to remove the “North Sea” switch from
the stack:
HP2512(config)# no stack member 3 mac-address 0030c1-7fc700
where:
•
3 is the “North Sea” Member’s switch number (SN)
•
0030c1-7fc700 is the “North Sea” Member’s MAC address
Using the Member’s CLI To Remove the Member from a Stack.
Syntax: no stack join <mac-addr>
To use this method, you need the Commander’s MAC address, which is
available using the show stack command in the Member’s CLI. For example:
CLI for “North Sea”
Stack Member
MAC Address of the
Commander for the
Stack to Which
the“North Sea”
Switch Belongs
Figure 9-35. Example of How To Identify the Commander’s MAC Address from a
Member Switch
9-44
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
You would then execute this command in the “North Sea” switch’s CLI to
remove the switch from the stack:
North Sea(config)# no stack join 0030c1-7fec40
Using the CLI To Access Member Switches for Configuration
Changes and Traffic Monitoring
Syntax: telnet <switch-number>
where: unsigned integer is the switch number (SN) assigned by the Commander to each member (range: 1 - 15).
To find the switch number for the Member you want to access, execute the
show stack view command in the Commander’s CLI. For example, suppose that
you wanted to configure a port trunk on the switch named “North Sea” in the
stack named “Big_Waters”. Do do so you would go to the CLI for the
“Big_Waters” Commander and execute show stack view to find the switch
number for the “North Sea” switch:
The switch number
(SN) for the “North
Sea” switch is “3”.
Figure 9-36. Example of a Stack Showing Switch Number (SN) Assignments
To access the “North Sea” console, you would then execute the following telnet
command:
HP2512(config)# telnet 3
You would then see the CLI prompt for the “North Sea” switch, allowing you
to configure or monitor the switch as if you were directly connected to the
console.
9-45
Configuring Advanced
Features
After a Candidate becomes a Member, you can use the telnet command from
the Commander to access the Member’s CLI or console interface for the same
configuration and monitoring that you would do through a Telnet or directconnect access from a terminal.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
SNMP Community Operation in a Stack
Configuring Advanced
Features
Community Membership
In the default stacking configuration, when a Candidate joins a stack, it
automatically becomes a Member of any SNMP community to which the
Commander belongs, even though any community names configured in the
Commander are not propagated to the Member’s SNMP Communities listing.
However, if a Member has its own (optional) IP addressing, it can belong to
SNMP communities to which other switches in the stack, including the
Commander, do not belong. For example:
Commander Switch
•
The Commander and all Members of the stack
belong to the blue and red communities. Only switch
3 belongs to the gray community. Switches 1, 2, and
3 belong to the public community
•
If Member Switch 1 ceases to be a stack Member, it
still belongs to the public SNMP community because
it has IP addressing of its own. But, with the loss of
stack Membership, Switch 1 loses membership in
the blue and red communities because they are not
specifically configured in the switch.
•
If Member Switch 2 ceases to be a stack Member, it
loses membership in all SNMP communities.
•
If Member Switch 3 ceases to be a stack Member, it
loses membership in the blue and red communities,
but—because it has its own IP addressing—retains
membership in the public and gray communities.
IP Addr: 12.31.29.100
Community Names:
– blue
– red
Member Switch 1
Member Switch 3
IP Addr: 12.31.29.18
Community Names:
IP Addr: 12.31.29.15
Community Names:
– public (the default)
Member Switch 2
IP Addr: None
Community Names:
– none
– public (the default)
– gray
Figure 9-37. Example of SNMP Community Operation with Stacking
SNMP Management Station Access to Members Via the Commander.
To use a management station for SNMP Get or Set access through the
Commander’s IP address to a Member, you must append @sw<switch number>
to the community name. For example, in figure 9-37, you would use the
following command in your management station to access Switch 1’s MIB
using the blue community:
snmpget <MIB variable> 10.31.29.100 blue@sw1
Note that because the gray community is only on switch 3, you could not use
the Commander IP address for gray community access from the management
station. Instead, you would access switch 3 directly using the switch’s own IP
address. For example:
snmpget <MIB variable> 10.31.29.15 gray
9-46
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Note that in the above example (figure 9-37) you cannot use the public
community through the Commander to access any of the Member switches.
For example, you can use the public community to access the MIB in switches
1 and 3 by using their unique IP addresses. However, you must use the red or
blue community to access the MIB for switch 2.
snmpget <MIB variable> 10.31.29.100 blue@sw2
In the default configuration, stacking is enabled on the ProCurve Switch 2512
and 2524. You can use the CLI to disable stacking on these switches at any
time. Disabling stacking has the following effects:
■
Disabling a Commander: Eliminates the stack, returns the stack Members to Candidates with Auto Join disabled, and changes the Commander
to a stand-alone (nonstacking) switch. You must re-enable stacking on the
switch before it can become a Candidate, Member, or Commander.
■
Disabling a Member: Removes the Member from the stack and changes
it to a stand-alone (nonstacking) switch. You must re-enable stacking on
the switch before it can become a Candidate, Member, or Commander.
■
Disabling a Candidate: Changes the Candidate to a stand-alone (nonstacking) switch.
Syntax:
no stack
stack
(Disables stacking on the switch.)
(Enables stacking on the switch.)
Transmission Interval
All switches in the stack must be set to the same transmission interval to help
ensure proper stacking operation. HP recommends that you leave this parameter set to the default 60 seconds.
Syntax:
stack transmission-interval <seconds>
Stacking Operation with Multiple VLANs Configured
Stacking uses the primary VLAN in a switch. In the factory-default configuration, the DEFAULT_VLAN is the primary VLAN. However, you can designate
any VLAN configured in the switch as the primary VLAN. (See “Which VLAN
Is Primary?” on page 9-53.)
When using stacking in a multiple-VLAN environment, the following criteria
applies:
9-47
Configuring Advanced
Features
Using the CLI To Disable or Re-Enable Stacking
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
■
Stacking uses only the primary VLAN on each switch in a stack.
■
The primary VLAN can be tagged or untagged as needed in the
stacking path from switch to switch.
■
The same VLAN ID (VID) must be assigned to the primary VLAN in
each stacked switch.
Web: Viewing and Configuring Stacking
Figure 9-38. Example of the Web Browser Interface for a Commander
The web browser interface for a Commander appears as shown above. The
interface for Members and Candidates appears the same as for a non-stacking
Series 2500 switch.
To view or configure stacking on the web browser interface:
9-48
1.
Click on the Configuration tab.
2.
Click on [Stacking] to display the stackingconfiguration for an individual
switch, and make any configuration changes you want for that switch.
Configuring Advanced Features
HP ProCurve Stack Management
3.
Click on [Apply Changes] to save any configuration changes for the individual
switch.
4.
If the switch is a Commander, use the [Stack Closeup] and [Stack Management]
buttons for viewing and using stack features.
To access the web-based Help provided for the switch, click on [?] in the web
browser screen.
Configuring Advanced
Features
Status Messages
Stacking screens and listings display these status messages:
Message
Condition
Action or Remedy
Candidate Auto-join
Indicates a switch configured with Stack State set to
Candidate, Auto Join set to Yes (the default), and no
Manager password.
None required
Candidate
Candidate cannot automatically join the stack because
one or both of the following conditions apply:
• Candidate has Auto Join set to No.
• Candidate has a Manager password.
Manually add the candidate to the
stack.
Commander Down
Member has lost connectivity to its Commander.
Check connectivity between the
Commander and the Member.
Commander Up
The Member has stacking connectivity with the
Commander.
None required.
Mismatch
This may be a temporary condition while a Candidate is
trying to join a stack. If the Candidate does not join, then
stack configuration is inconsistent.
Initially, wait for an update. If condition persists, reconfigure the
Commander or the Member.
Member Down
A Member has become detached from the stack. A
possible cause is an interruption to the link between the
Member and the Commander.
Check the connectivity between
the Commander and the Member.
Member Up
The Commander has stacking connectivity to the Member. None required.
Rejected
The Candidate has failed to be added to the stack.
The candidate may have a password. In this case, manually add
the candidate. Otherwise, the stack
may already be full. A stack can
hold up to 15 Members (plus the
Commander).
9-49
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
VLAN Features
Configuring Advanced
Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
page 9-57
thru 9-62
page 9-63
page 9-68
default VLAN with page 9-57
VID = 1
thru 9-62
page 9-62
page 9-68
view existing VLANs n/a
configuring static
VLANs
configuring dynamic disabled
VLANs
See “GVRP” on page 9-77.
A VLAN is a group of ports designated by the switch as belonging to the same
broadcast domain. (That is, all ports carrying traffic for a particular subnet
address would normally belong to the same VLAN.)
Note
This section describes static VLANs, which are VLANs you manually configure with a name, VLAN ID (VID), and port assignments. (For information on
dynamic VLANs, see “GVRP” on page 9-77.)
Using a VLAN, you can group users by logical function instead of physical
location. This helps to control bandwidth usage by allowing you to group highbandwidth users on low-traffic segments and to organize users from different
LAN segments according to their need for common resources.
By default, the Series 2500 switches are 802.1Q VLAN enabled and allow up
to 30 port-based VLANs (default: 8). For information on GVRP, see “GVRP” on
page 9-77. (The 802.1Q compatibility enables you to assign each switch port
to multiple VLANs, if needed, and the port-based nature of the configuration
allows interoperation with older switches that require a separate port for each
VLAN.)
General Use and Operation. Port-based VLANs are typically used to
enable broadcast traffic reduction and to increase security. A group of network users assigned to a VLAN form a broadcast domain that is separate from
other VLANs that may be configured on a switch. Packets are forwarded only
between ports that are designated for the same VLAN. Thus, all ports carrying
traffic for a particular subnet address should be configured to the same VLAN.
Cross-domain broadcast traffic in the switch is eliminated and bandwidth is
9-50
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
saved by not allowing packets to flood out all ports. An external router is
required to enable separate VLANs on a switch to communicate with each
other.
Switch with Two
VLANs Configured
VLAN_1
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
External
Router
Port 8
Port 5
Port 6
Port 7
VLAN_2
Figure 9-39. Example of Routing Between VLANs via an External Router
Overlapping (Tagged) VLANs. A port on the Series 2500 switches can be
a member of more than one VLAN if the device to which they are connected
complies with the 802.1Q VLAN standard. For example, a port connected to a
central server using a network interface card (NIC) that complies with the
802.1Q standard can be a member of multiple VLANs, allowing members of
multiple VLANs to use the server. Although these VLANs cannot communicate
with each other through the server, they can all access the server over the
same connection from the switch. Where VLANs overlap in this way, VLAN
“tags” are used to distinguish between traffic from different VLANs.
9-51
Configuring Advanced
Features
For example, referring to figure 9-39, if ports 1 through 4 belong to VLAN_1
and ports 5 through 8 belong to VLAN_2, traffic from end-node stations on
ports 2 through 4 is restricted to only VLAN_1, while traffic from ports 5
through 7 is restricted to only VLAN_2. For nodes on VLAN_1 to communicate
with VLAN_2, their traffic must go through an external router via ports 1 and 8.
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Switch 2512 or 2524
Figure 9-40. Example of Overlapping VLANs Using the Same Server
Similarly, using 802.1Q-compliant switches, you can connect multiple VLANs
through a single switch-to-switch link.
Switch
2524
2512
Switch
2512
Figure 9-41. Example of Connecting Multiple VLANs Through the Same Link
Introducing Tagged VLAN Technology into Networks Running Legacy
(Untagged) VLANs. You can introduce 802.1Q-compliant devices into networks that have built untagged VLANs based on earlier VLAN technology. The
fundamental rule is that legacy/untagged VLANs require a separate link for
each VLAN, while 802.1Q, or tagged VLANs can combine several VLANs in one
link. This means that on the 802.1Q-compliant device, separate ports (configured as untagged) must be used to connect separate VLANs to non-802.1Q
devices.
9-52
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Switch
2524
Switch
2524
Switch
2524
Switch
Switch
2512
2512
Tagged VLAN Link
Configuring Advanced
Features
Untagged
VLAN Links
Non-802.1Qcompliant switch
Figure 9-42. Example of Tagged and Untagged VLAN Technology in the Same
Network
For more information on VLANs, refer to:
■
“Overview of Using VLANs” (page 9-53)
■
“Menu: Configuring VLAN Parameters (page 9-57)
■
“CLI: Configuring VLAN Parameters” ( page 9-57)
■
“Web: Viewing and Configuring VLAN Parameters” (page 9-68)
■
“VLAN Tagging Information” (page 9-69)
■
“Effect of VLANs on Other Switch Features” (page 9-73)
■
“VLAN Restrictions” (page 9-75)
Overview of Using VLANs
VLAN Support and the Default VLAN
In the factory default configuration, VLAN support is enabled and all ports on
the switch belong to the default VLAN (named DEFAULT_VLAN). This places
all ports in the switch into one physical broadcast domain. In the factorydefault state, the default VLAN is the primary VLAN.
You can partition the switch into multiple virtual broadcast domains by adding
one or more additional VLANs and moving ports from the default VLAN to the
new VLANs. (The switch supports up to 30 VLANs.) You can change the name
of the default VLAN, but you cannot change the default VLAN’s VID (which is
always “1”). Although you can remove all ports from the default VLAN, this
VLAN is always present.
Which VLAN Is Primary?
Because certain features and management functions, such as single IPaddress stacking, run on only one VLAN in the switch, and because DHCP and
Bootp can run per-VLAN, there is a need to ensure that multiple instances of
9-53
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Configuring Advanced
Features
DHCP or Bootp on different VLANs do not result in conflicting configuration
values for the switch. The primary VLAN is the VLAN the switch uses to run
and manage these features and data. In the factory-default configuration, the
switch designates the default VLAN (DEFAULT_VLAN) as the primary VLAN.
However, to provide more control in your network, you can designate another
VLAN as primary. To summarize, designating a non-default VLAN as primary
means that:
■
The stacking feature runs on the switch’s designated primary VLAN
instead of the default VLAN
■
The switch reads DHCP responses on the primary VLAN instead of on the
default VLAN.
■
The default VLAN continues to operate as a standard VLAN (except, as
noted above, you cannot delete it or change its VID).
■
Any ports not specifically assigned to another VLAN will remain assigned
to the Default VLAN, regardless of whether it is the primary VLAN.
Candidates for primary VLAN include any static VLAN currently configured
on the switch. To display the current primary VLAN, use the CLI show vlan
command.
Note
If you manually configure a gateway on the switch, it will ignore any gateway
address received via DHCP or Bootp.
Per-Port Static VLAN Configuration Options
The following figure and table show the options you have for assigning
individual ports to a static VLAN. Note that GVRP, if configured, affects these
options and VLAN behaviour on the switch. The display below shows the perport VLAN configuration options. Table 9-7 briefly describes these options.
9-54
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Example of Per-Port
VLAN Configuration
with GVRP Disabled
(the default)
Example of Per-Port
VLAN Configuration
with GVRP Enabled
Configuring Advanced
Features
Enabling GVRP causes “No” to display as “Auto”.
Figure 9-43. Comparing Per-Port VLAN Options With and Without GVRP
Table 9-7. Per-Port VLAN Configuration Options
Parameter
Effect on Port Participation in Designated VLAN
Tagged
Allows the port to join multiple VLANs.
Untagged
Allows VLAN connection to a device that is configured for an untagged
VLAN instead of a tagged VLAN. The switch allows no more than one
untagged VLAN assignment per port.
No
No: Appears when the switch is not GVRP-enabled; prevents the port from
- or -
joining that VLAN.
Auto
Auto: Appears when GVRP is enabled on the switch; allows the port to
Forbid
Prevents the port from joining the VLAN, regardless of whether GVRP is
enabled on the switch.
dynamically join any advertised VLAN that has the same VID
9-55
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
General Steps for Using VLANs
Configuring Advanced
Features
1.
Plan your VLAN strategy and create a map of the logical topology that will
result from configuring VLANs. Include consideration for the interaction
between VLANs and other features such as Spanning Tree Protocol, load
balancing, and IGMP. (Refer to “Effect of VLANs on Other Switch Features” on page 9-73.) If you plan on using dynamic VLANs, include the port
configuration planning necesary to support this feature. (See “GVRP” on
page 9-77.)
By default, VLAN support is enabled and the switch is configured for eight
VLANs.
2.
Configure at least one VLAN in addition to the default VLAN.
3.
Assign the desired switch ports to the new VLAN(s).
4.
If you are managing VLANs with SNMP in an IP network, each VLAN must
have an IP address. Refer to “IP Configuration” on page 5-3.
Notes on Using VLANs
9-56
■
If you are using DHCP/Bootp to acquire the switch’s configuration, packet
time-to-live, and TimeP information, you must designate the VLAN on
which DHCP is configured for this purpose as the primary VLAN. (In the
factory-default configuration, the DEFAULT_VLAN is the primary VLAN.)
■
IGMP, and some other features operate on a “per VLAN” basis. This means
you must configure such features separately for each VLAN in which you
want them to operate.
■
You can rename the default VLAN, but you cannot change its VID (1) or
delete it from the switch.
■
Any ports not specifically assigned to another VLAN will remain assigned
to the DEFAULT_VLAN.
■
To delete a VLAN from the switch, you must first remove from that VLAN
any ports assigned to it.
■
Changing the number of VLANs supported on the switch requires a reboot.
Other VLAN configuration changes are dynamic.
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Menu: Configuring VLAN Parameters
To Change VLAN Support Settings
This section describes:
■
Changing the maximum number of VLANs to support
■
Changing the primary VLAN selection (See “Changing the Primary VLAN”
on page 9-65.)
■
Enabling or disabling dynamic VLANs (See “GVRP” on page 9-77.)
1.
From the Main Menu select:
2. Switch Configuration
8. VLAN Menu . . .
1. VLAN Support
You will then see the following screen:
Figure 9-44. The Default VLAN Support Screen
2.
Press [E] (for Edit), then do one or more of the following:
■
To change the maximum number of VLANs, type the new number (1 - 30
allowed; default 8).
9-57
Configuring Advanced
Features
In the factory default state, VLAN support is enabled. Also, all ports on the
switch belong to the default VLAN (DEFAULT_VLAN) and are in the same
broadcast/multicast domain. (The default VLAN is also the default primary
VLAN—see “Which VLAN Is Primary?” on page 9-53.) You can configure up to
29 additional static VLANs by adding new VLAN names, and then assigning
one or more ports to each VLAN. (The switch accepts a maximum of 30 VLANs,
including the default VLAN and any dynamic VLANs the switch creates if you
enable GVRP—page 9-77.) Note that each port can be assigned to multiple
VLANs by using VLAN tagging. (See “VLAN Tagging Information” on page
9-69.)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Note
■
To select another primary VLAN, select the Primary VLAN field and use the
space bar to select from the existing options.
■
To enable or disable dynamic VLANs, select the GVRP Enabled field and
use the Space bar to toggle between options. (For GVRP information, see
“GVRP” on page 9-77.)
For optimal switch memory utilization, set the number of VLANs at the
number you will likely be using or a few more. If you need more VLANs later,
you can increase this number, but a switch reboot will be required at that time.
3.
Press [Enter] and then [S] to save the VLAN support configuration and return
to the VLAN Menu screen.
If you changed the value for Maximum VLANs to support, you will see an
asterisk next to the VLAN Support option (see below).
An asterisk indicates
you must reboot the
switch to implement
the new Maximum
VLANs setting.
Figure 9-45. VLAN Menu Screen Indicating the Need To Reboot the Switch
–
–
4.
9-58
If you changed the VLAN Support option, you must reboot the
switch before the Maximum VLANs change can take effect. You
can go on to configure other VLAN parameters first, but remember to reboot the switch when you are finished.
If you did not change the VLAN Support option, a reboot is not
necessary.
Press [0] to return to the Main Menu.
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Adding or Editing VLAN Names
Use this procedure to add a new VLAN or to edit the name of an existing VLAN.
1.
From the Main Menu select:
2. Switch Configuration
8. VLAN Menu . . .
2. VLAN Names
Default VLAN
and VLAN ID
Figure 9-46. The Default VLAN Names Screen
2.
Press [A] (for Add). You will then be prompted for a new VLAN name and
VLAN ID:
802.1Q VLAN ID : 1
Name : _
3.
Type in a VID (VLAN ID number). This can be any number from 2 to 4095
that is not already being used by another VLAN.
Remember that a VLAN must have the same VID in every switch in which
you configure that same VLAN. (You can use GVRP to dynamically extend
VLANs with correct VID numbering to other switches. See “GVRP” on
page 9-77.)
4.
Press [ v] to move the cursor to the Name line and type the VLAN name
(up to 12 characters, with no spaces) of a new VLAN that you want to add,
then press [Enter].
5.
Press [S] (for Save). You will then see the VLAN Names screen with the
new VLAN listed.
9-59
Configuring Advanced
Features
If multiple VLANs are not yet configured you will see a screen similar to
figure 9-46:
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Example of a New
VLAN and ID
Figure 9-47. Example of VLAN Names Screen with a New VLAN Added
6.
Repeat steps 2 through 5 to add more VLANs.
Remember that you can add VLANs until you reach the number specified
in the Maximum VLANs to support field on the VLAN Support screen (see
figure 9-44on page 9-57). This includes any VLANs added dynamically due
to GVRP operation.
7.
Return to the VLAN Menu to assign ports to the new VLAN(s) as described
in the next section, “Adding or Changing a VLAN Port Assignment”.
Adding or Changing a VLAN Port Assignment
Use this procedure to add ports to a VLAN or to change the VLAN assignment(s) for any port. (Ports not specifically assigned to a VLAN are automatically in the default VLAN.)
1.
From the Main Menu select:
2. Switch Configuration
8. VLAN Menu . . .
3. VLAN Port Assignment
You will then see a VLAN Port Assignment screen similar to the following:
9-60
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Default: In this example,
the “VLAN-22” has been
defined, but no ports
have yet been assigned
to it. (“No” means the
port is not assigned to
that VLAN.)
Using GVRP? If you plan
on using GVRP, any
ports you don’t want to
join should be changed
to “Forbid”.
A port can be assigned
to several VLANs, but
only one of those
assignments can be
“Untagged”.
Figure 9-48. Example of VLAN Port Assignment Screen
2.
Note
To change a port’s VLAN assignment(s):
a.
Press [E] (for Edit).
b.
Use the arrow keys to select a VLAN assignment you want to change.
c.
Press the Space bar to make your assignment selection (No, Tagged,
Untagged, or Forbid).
For GVRP Operation: If you enable GVRP on the switch, “No”
converts to “Auto”, which allows the VLAN to dynamically join an
advertised VLAN that has the same VID. See “Per-Port Options for
Dynamic VLAN Advertising and Joining” on page 9-82.
Untagged VLANs: Only one untagged VLAN is allowed per port. Also,
there must be at least one VLAN assigned to each port. In the factory
default configuration, all ports are assigned to the default VLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN).
For example, if you want ports 4 and 5 to belong to both DEFAULT_VLAN
and VLAN-22, and ports 6 and 7 to belong only to VLAN-22, you would use
the settings in figure 9-49. (This example assumes the default GVRP
setting—disabled—and that you do not plan to enable GVRP later.)
9-61
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Ports 4 and 5 are
assigned to both
VLANs.
Ports 6 and 7 are
assigned only to
VLAN-22.
All other ports are
assigned only to the
Default VLAN.
Figure 9-49. Example of VLAN Assignments for Specific Ports
For information on VLAN tags (“Untagged” and “Tagged”), refer to
“VLAN Tagging Information” on page 9-69.
d.
3.
If you are finished assigning ports to VLANs, press [Enter] and then [S]
(for Save) to activate the changes you've made and to return to the
Configuration menu. (The console then returns to the VLAN menu.)
Return to the Main menu.
CLI: Configuring VLAN Parameters
In the factory default state, all ports on the switch belong to the default VLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN) and are in the same broadcast/multicast domain. (The
default VLAN is also the default primary VLAN—see “Which VLAN Is Primary?” on page 9-53.) You can configure up to 29 additional static VLANs by
adding new VLAN names, and then assigning one or more ports to each VLAN.
(The switch accepts a maximum of 30 VLANs, including the default VLAN and
any dynamic VLANs the switch creates if you enable GVRP—page 9-77.) Note
that each port can be assigned to multiple VLANs by using VLAN tagging. (See
“VLAN Tagging Information” on page 9-69.)
9-62
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
VLAN Commands Used in this Section
below
show vlan <vlan-id>
page 9-64
max-vlans <1..30>
page 9-65
primary-vlan <vlan-id>
page 9-65
[no] vlan <vlan-id>
page 9-66
name <vlan-name>
page 9-67
[no] tagged <port-list>
page 9-67
[no] untagged <port-list>
page 9-67
[no] forbid
page 9-67
auto <port-list>
page 9-67 (Available if GVRP enabled.)
static-vlan <vlan-id>
page 9-67 (Available if GVRP enabled.)
Configuring Advanced
Features
show vlans
Displaying the Switch’s VLAN Configuration. The next command lists
the VLANs currently running in the switch, with VID, VLAN name, and VLAN
status. Dynamic VLANs appear only if the switch is running with GVRP
enabled and one or more ports has dynamically joined an advertised VLAN.
(In the default configuration, GVRP is disabled. (See “GVRP” on page 9-77.)
Syntax:
show vlan
When GVRP is disabled
(the default), Dynamic
VLANs do not exist on
the switch and do not
appear in this listing.
(See “GVRP” on page
9-77.)
Figure 9-50. Example of “Show VLAN” Listing (GVRP Enabled)
9-63
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Displaying the Configuration for a Particular VLAN . This command
uses the VID to identify and display the data for a specific static or dynamic
VLAN.
show vlan <vlan-id>
Configuring Advanced
Features
Syntax:
Figure 9-51. Example of “Show VLAN” for a Specific Static VLAN
Show VLAN lists this
data when GVRP is
enabled and at least
one port on the switch
has dynamically
joined the designated
VLAN.
Figure 9-52. Example of “Show VLAN” for a Specific Dynamic VLAN
9-64
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Changing the Number of VLANs Allowed on the Switch. By default,
the switch allows a maximum of 8 VLANs. You can specify any value from 1
to 30. (If GVRP is enabled, this setting includes any dynamic VLANs on the
switch.) As part of implementing a new value, you must execute a write
memory command (to save the new value to the startup-config file) and then
reboot the switch.
max-vlans <1 .. 30>
Configuring Advanced
Features
Syntax:
For example, to reconfigure the switch to allow 10 VLANs:
Note that you can
execute these
three steps at
another time.
Figure 9-53. Example of Command Sequence for Changing the Number of VLANs
Changing the Primary VLAN. In the factory-default configuration, the
default VLAN (DEFAULT_VLAN) is the primary VLAN. However, you can
designate any static VLAN on the switch as the primary VLAN. (For more on
the primary VLAN, see “Which VLAN Is Primary?” on page 9-53.) To view the
available VLANs and their respective VIDs, use show vlan.
Syntax:
primary-vlan <vlan-id>
For example, to make VLAN 22 the primary VLAN:
HP2512(config)# primary-vlan 22
9-65
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Creating a New Static VLAN
Changing the VLAN Context Level.
With this command, entering a new VID creates a new static VLAN. Entering
the VID or name of an existing static VLAN places you in the context level for
that VLAN.
Configuring Advanced
Features
Syntax:
vlan <vlan-id> [name <name-str>]Creates a new static VLAN if a
VLAN with that VID does not
already exist, and places you in
that VLAN’s context level. If you
do not use the name option, the
switch uses “VLAN” and the new
VID to automatically name the
VLAN.
If the VLAN already exists, the
switch places you in the context
level for that VLAN.
vlan <vlan-name>
Places you in the context level for
that static VLAN.
For example, to create a new static VLAN with a VID of 100:
Creating the new VLAN.
Showing the result.
To go to a different VLAN context level, such as to the default VLAN:
HP2512(vlan-100)# vlan default_vlan
HP2512(vlan-1) _
9-66
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Converting a Dynamic VLAN to a Static VLAN. If GVRP is running on
the switch and a port dynamically joins a VLAN, you can use the next
command to convert the dynamic VLAN to a static VLAN. (For GVRP and
dynamic VLAN operation, see “GVRP” on page 9-77.) This is necessary if you
want to make the VLAN permanent. Note that after you convert a dynamic
VLAN to static, you must configure the switch’s per-port participation in the
VLAN in the same way that you would for any static VLAN.
static-vlan <vlan-id>
If you need a VID reference, use show vlan to list the switch’s currently existing
VLANs.
For example, suppose a dynamic VLAN with a VID of 125 exists on the switch.
The following command converts the VLAN to a static VLAN.
HP2512(config)# static-vlan 125
Configuring Static VLAN Name and Per-Port Settings. The vlan <vlanid> command, used in conjunction with the options listed below, enables you
to change the name of an existing static VLAN and change the per-port VLAN
membership settings as show below.
Note
You can use these options from the configuration level by beginning the
command with vlan <vlan-id>, or from the context level of the specific VLAN.
Syntax:
name <vlan-name>
Changes the name of the existing
static VLAN. (No spaces allowed in the
<vlan-name> entry.
[no] tagged <port-list>
Configures the indicated port(s) as
Tagged for the specified VLAN. The
“no” version sets the port(s) to
either No or (if GVRP is enabled) to Auto.
[no] untagged <port-list> Configures the indicated port(s) as
Untagged for the specified VLAN. The
“no” version sets the port(s) to
either No or (if GVRP is enabled) to Auto.
[no] forbid <port-list>
Configures the indicated port(s) as
“forbidden” to participate in the
designated VLAN. The “no” version sets
the port(s) to either No or (if GVRP is
enabled) to Auto.
auto <port-list>
Available if GVRP is enabled on the
switch. Returns the per-port settings
for the specified VLAN to Auto
9-67
Configuring Advanced
Features
Syntax:
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
operation. Note that Auto is the default
per-port setting for a static VLAN if
GVRP is runing on the switch.
(For information on dynamic VLAN and GVRP operation, see “GVRP” on page
9-77.)
Configuring Advanced
Features
For example, suppose you have a VLAN named VLAN100 with a VID of 100,
and all ports are set to No for this VLAN. To change the VLAN name to
“Blue_Team” and set ports 1-5 to Tagged, you could do so with these commands:
HP2512(config)# vlan 100 name Blue_Team
HP2512(config)# vlan 100 tagged 1-5
To move to the vlan 100 context level and execute the same commands:
HP2512(config)# vlan 100
HP2512(vlan-100)# name Blue_Team
HP2512(vlan-100)# tagged 1-5
Similarly, to change the tagged ports in the above examples to No (or Auto, if
GVRP is enabled), you could use either of the following commands.
At the config level, use:
HP2512(config)# no vlan 100 tagged 1-5
- or At the VLAN 100 context level, use:
HP2512(vlan-100)# no tagged 1-5
Note
You cannot use these commands with dynamic VLANs. Attempting to do so
results in the message “VLAN already exists.” and no change occurs.
Web: Viewing and Configuring VLAN Parameters
In the web browser interface you can do the following:
9-68
■
Add VLANs
■
Rename VLANs
■
Remove VLANs
■
Configure GVRP security
■
Select a new Primary VLAN
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
To configure static VLAN port parameters, you will need to use the menu
interface (available by Telnet from the web browser interface) or the CLI.
1.
Click on the Configuration tab.
2.
Click on [VLAN Configuration].
3.
Click on [Add/Remove VLANs].
VLAN Tagging Information
VLAN tagging enables traffic from more than one VLAN to use the same port.
(Even when two or more VLANs use the same port they remain as separate
domains and cannot receive traffic from each other without going through an
external router.) As mentioned earlier, a “tag” is simply a unique VLAN
identification number (VLAN ID, or VID) assigned to a VLAN at the time that
you configure the VLAN name in the switch. In the Series 2500 switches the
tag can be any number from 1 to 4095 that is not already assigned to a VLAN.
When you subsequently assign a port to a given VLAN, you must implement
the VLAN tag (VID) if the port will carry traffic for more than one VLAN.
Otherwise, the port VLAN assignment can remain “untagged” because the tag
is not needed. On a given switch, this means you should use the “Untagged”
designation for a port VLAN assignment where the port is connected to non
802.1Q-compliant device or is assigned to only one VLAN. Use the “Tagged”
designation when the port is assigned to more than one VLAN or the port is
connected to a device that does comply with the 802.1Q standard.
For example, if port 7 on an 802.1Q-compliant switch is assigned to only the
Red VLAN, the assignment can remain “untagged” because the port will
forward traffic only for the Red VLAN. However, if both the Red and Green
VLANs are assigned to port 7, then at least one of those VLAN assignments
must be “tagged” so that Red VLAN traffic can be distinguished from Green
VLAN traffic. The following illustration shows this concept:
9-69
Configuring Advanced
Features
For web-based Help on how to use the web browser interface screen, click on
the [?] button provided on the web browser screen.
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Blue
Server
Red
VLAN
Configuring Advanced
Features
Red
Server
5
4
3
Blue
VLAN
2
Green
Server
Red VLAN: Untagged
Green VLAN: Tagged
6
Switch
"X"
White
Server
7
1
Green
VLAN
Ports 1-6: Untagged
Port 7: Red VLAN Untagged
Green VLAN Tagged
4
5
White
VLAN
3
Switch
"Y"
1
Red
VLAN
2
Green
VLAN
Ports 1-4: Untagged
Port 5: Red VLAN Untagged
Green VLAN Tagged
Figure 9-54. Example of Tagged and Untagged VLAN Port Assignments
■
■
■
9-70
In switch X:
•
VLANs assigned to ports X1 - X6 can all be untagged because there is
only one VLAN assignment per port. Red VLAN traffic will go out only
the Red ports; Green VLAN traffic will go out only the Green ports,
and so on. Devices connected to these ports do not have to be 802.1Qcompliant.
•
However, because both the Red VLAN and the Green VLAN are
assigned to port X7, at least one of the VLANs must be tagged for this
port.
In switch Y:
•
VLANs assigned to ports Y1 - Y4 can all be untagged because there is
only one VLAN assignment per port. Devices connected to these ports
do not have to be 802.1Q-compliant.
•
Because both the Red VLAN and the Green VLAN are assigned to port
Y5, at least one of the VLANs must be tagged for this port.
In both switches: The ports on the link between the two switches must be
configured the same. As shown in figure 9-54 (above), the Red VLAN must
be untagged on port X7 and Y5 and the Green VLAN must be tagged on
port X7 and Y5, or vice-versa.
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Note
Each 802.1Q-compliant VLAN must have its own unique VID number, and that
VLAN must be given the same VID in every device in which it is configured.
That is, if the Red VLAN has a VID of 10 in switch X, then 10 must also be used
for the Red VID in switch Y.
Configuring Advanced
Features
VID Numbers
Figure 9-55. Example of VLAN ID Numbers Assigned in the VLAN Names Screen
VLAN tagging gives you several options:
■
Since the purpose of VLAN tagging is to allow multiple VLANs on the same
port, any port that has only one VLAN assigned to it can be configured as
“Untagged” (the default).
■
Any port that has two or more VLANs assigned to it can have one VLAN
assignment for that port as “Untagged”. All other VLANs assigned to the
same port must be configured as “Tagged”. (There can be no more than
one Untagged VLAN on a port.)
■
If all end nodes on a port comply with the 802.1Q standard and are
configured to use the correct VID, then, you can configure all VLAN
assignments on a port as “Tagged” if doing so makes it easier to manage
your VLAN assignments, or for security reasons.
For example, in the following network, switches X and Y and servers S1 and
S2 are 802.1Q-compliant. (Server S3 could also be 802.1Q-compliant, but it
makes no difference for this example.)
9-71
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
Server
S2
Server
S1
Red VLAN: Untagged
Green VLAN: Tagged
X1
Configuring Advanced
Features
Switch
"X"
X4
Red
VLAN
X2
Red VLAN: Untagged
Green VLAN: Tagged
Red VLAN: Untagged
Green VLAN: Tagged
Y1
Y5
Switch
"Y"
Y4
X3
Green
VLAN
Y2
Green VLAN only
Server
S3
Y3
Red
VLAN
Green
VLAN
Figure 9-56. Example of Networked 802.1Q-Compliant Devices with Multiple
VLANs on Some Ports
The VLANs assigned to ports X3, X4, Y2, Y3, and Y4 can all be untagged
because there is only one VLAN assigned per port. Port X1 has multiple VLANs
assigned, which means that one VLAN assigned to this port can be untagged
and any others must be tagged. The same applies to ports X2, Y1, and Y5.
Switch X
Switch Y
Port
Red VLAN
Green VLAN
Port
Red VLAN
Green VLAN
X1
Untagged
Tagged
Y1
Untagged
Tagged
X2
Untagged
Tagged
Y2
No*
Untagged
X3
No*
Untagged
Y3
No*
Untagged
X4
Untagged
No*
Y4
Untagged
No*
Y5
Untagged
Tagged
*”No” means the port is not a member of that VLAN. For example, port X3 is not
a member of the Red VLAN and does not carry Red VLAN traffic. Also, if GVRP
were enabled, “Auto” would appear instead of “No”.
Note
9-72
VLAN configurations on ports connected by the same link must match.
Because ports X2 and Y5 are opposite ends of the same point-to-point connection, both ports must have the same VLAN configuration; that is, both ports
configure the Red VLAN as “Untagged” and the Green VLAN as “Tagged”.
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
To summarize:
Tagging Scheme
1
Untagged or Tagged. If the device connected to the port is 802.1Q-compliant,
then the recommended choice is “Tagged”.
2 or More
1 VLAN Untagged; all others Tagged
or
All VLANs Tagged
A given VLAN must have the same VID on any 802.1Q-compliant device in which the VLAN is
configured.
The ports connecting two 802.1Q devices should have identical VLAN configurations, as
shown for ports X2 and Y5, above.
Effect of VLANs on Other Switch Features
Spanning Tree Protocol Operation with VLANs
Because the Series 2500 switches follow the 802.1Q VLAN recommendation
to use single-instance spanning tree, STP operates across all ports on the
switch (regardless of VLAN assignments) instead of on a per-VLAN basis. This
means that if redundant physical links exist between the switch and another
802.1Q device, all but one link will be blocked, regardless of whether the
redundant links are in separate VLANs. However, you can use port trunking
to prevent STP from unnecessarily blocking ports (and to improve overall
network performance). Refer to “STP Operation with 802.1Q VLANs” on page
9-110.
Note that STP operates differently in different devices. For example, in the
(non-802.1Q) HP Switch 2000 and the HP Switch 800T, STP operates on a perVLAN basis, allowing redundant physical links as long as they are in separate
VLANs.
IP Interfaces
There is a one-to-one relationship between a VLAN and an IP network interface. Since the VLAN is defined by a group of ports, the state (up/down) of
those ports determines the state of the IP network interface associated with
that VLAN. When a VLAN comes up because one or more of its ports is up, the
IP interface for that VLAN is also activated. Likewise, when a VLAN is
deactivated because all of its ports are down, the corresponding IP interface
is also deactivated.
9-73
Configuring Advanced
Features
VLANs Per
Port
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
VLAN MAC Addresses
Configuring Advanced
Features
The switch has one unique MAC address for each of its VLAN interfaces. You
can send an 802.2 test packet to this MAC address to verify connectivity to the
switch. Likewise, you can assign an IP address to the VLAN interface, and
when you Ping that address, ARP will resolve the IP address to this MAC
address. The switch allows up to 30 VLAN MAC addresses (one per possible
VLAN).
Port Trunks
When assigning a port trunk to a VLAN, all ports in the trunk are automatically
assigned to the same VLAN. You cannot split trunk members across multiple
VLANs. Also, a port trunk is tagged, untagged, or excluded from a VLAN in the
same way as for individual, untrunked ports.
Port Monitoring
If you designate a port on the switch for network monitoring, this port will
appear in the Port VLAN Assignment screen and can be configured as a
member of any VLAN. For information on how broadcast, multicast, and
unicast packets are tagged inside and outside of the VLAN to which the
monitor port is assigned, see “VLAN-Related Problems” on page 11-9.
9-74
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
VLAN Restrictions
A port must be a member of at least one VLAN. In the factory default
configuration, all ports are assigned to the default VLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN; VID = 1).
■
A port can be assigned to several VLANs, but only one of those assignments can be untagged. (The “Untagged” designation enables VLAN operation with non 802.1Q-compliant devices.)
■
An external router must be used to communicate between tagged VLANs.
■
Duplicate MAC addresses on different VLANs are not supported and can
cause VLAN operating problems. These duplicates are possible and common in situations involving Sun workstations with multiple network
interface cards, with DECnet routers, and with certain Hewlett-Packard
routers using OS versions earlier than A.09.70 where any of the following
are enabled:
•
IPX
•
IP Host-Only
•
STP
•
XNS
•
DECnet
Currently, the problem of duplicate MAC addresses in IPX and IP HostOnly environments is addressed through the HP router OS version
described under “HP Router Requirements” on page 9-76. However, for
XNS and DECnet environments, a satisfactory solution is not available
from any vendor at this time.
Note
Operating problems associated with duplicate MAC addresses are likely to
occur in VLAN environments where XNS and DECnet are used. For this
reason, using VLANs in XNS and DECnet environments is not currently
supported.
■
Before you can delete a VLAN, you must first re-assign all ports in the
VLAN to another VLAN.
9-75
Configuring Advanced
Features
■
Configuring Advanced Features
Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)
HP Router Requirements. Use the Hewlett-Packard version A.09.70 (or
later) router OS release if any of the following Hewlett-Packard routers are
installed in networks in which you will be using VLANs:
Configuring Advanced
Features
HP Router 440 (formerly Router ER)
HP Router 470 (formerly Router LR)
HP Router 480 (formerly Router BR)
HP Router 650
Release A.09.74 is available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.hp.com/go/procurve
Symptoms of Duplicate MAC Addresses in VLAN
Environments
There are no definitive events or statistics to indicate the presence of duplicate
MAC addresses in a VLAN environment. However, one symptom that may
occur is that the duplicate MAC address can be seen in the Port Address Table
for more than one port. You can do a search for the suspected MAC address
in the switch’s address table and if there is a duplicate MAC address problem,
the address will be found in the table associated with one port at one moment,
and then later associated with a different port.
9-76
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
GVRP
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
n/a
page 9-84
page 9-86
page 9-89
list static and dynamic VLANs
on a GVRP-enabled switch
n/a
—
page 9-88
page 9-89
enable or disable GVRP on the disabled
switch
page 9-84
page 9-87
page 9-89
enable or disable GVRP on
individual ports
page 9-84
page 9-87
—
Learn
control how individual ports
will handle advertisements for
new VLANs
page 9-84
page 9-87
page 9-89
convert a dynamic VLAN to a
static VLAN
n/a
—
page 9-89
—
configure static VLANs
DEFAULT_VLAN
(VID = 1)
page 9-57
page 9-62
page 9-89
enabled
GVRP—GARP VLAN Registration Protocol—is an application of the Generic
Attribute Registration Protocol—GARP. GVRP is defined in the IEEE 802.1Q
standard, and GARP is defined in the IEEE 802.1P standard.
Note
To understand and use GVRP you must have a working knowledge of 802.1Q
VLAN tagging. (See “Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)” on page 9-50.)
GVRP uses “GVRP Bridge Protocol Data Units” (“GVRP BPDUs”) to “advertise” static VLANs. In this manual, a GVRP BPDU is termed an advertisement.
GVRP enables the Switch 2512/2524 to dynamically create 802.1Q-compliant
VLANs on links with other devices running GVRP. This enables the switch to
automatically create VLAN links between GVRP-aware devices. (A GVRP link
can include intermediate devices that are not GVRP-aware.) This operation
reduces the chances for errors in VLAN configuration by automatically providing VLAN ID (VID) consistency across the network. That is, you can use
GVRP to propagate VLANs to other GVRP-aware devices instead of manually
having to set up VLANs across your network. After the switch creates a
dynamic VLAN, you can optionally use the CLI static <vlan-id> command
convert it to a static VLAN or allow it to continue as a dynamic VLAN for as
long as needed. You can also use GVRP to dynamically enable port membership in static VLANs configured on a switch.
9-77
Configuring Advanced
Features
Feature
view GVRP configuration
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
Note
Configuring Advanced
Features
There must be one common VLAN (that is, one common VID) connecting all
of the GVRP-aware devices in the network to carry GVRP packets. HP recommends the default VLAN (DEFAULT_VLAN; VID = 1), which is automatically
enabled and configured as untagged on every port of the Series 2500 switches).
That is, on ports used for GVRP links, leave the default VLAN set to Untagged
and configure other static VLANs on the same ports as either Tagged, Auto, or
Forbid. (Auto and Forbid are described under “Per-Port Options for Dynamic
VLAN Advertising and Joining” on page 9-82.
General Operation
A GVRP-enabled port with a Tagged or Untagged static VLAN sends advertisements (BPDUs, or Bridge Protocol Data Units) advertising the VLAN (actually,
its VID). Another GVRP-aware port receiving the advertisements over a link
can dynamically join the advertised VLAN. All dynamic VLANs operate as
Tagged VLANs. Also, a GVRP-enabled port can forward an advertisement for
a VLAN it learned about from other ports on the same switch. However, the
forwarding port will not itself join that VLAN until an advertisement for that
VLAN is received on that specific port.
Core switch with static
2. Port 1 receives advertiseVLANs (VID= 1, 2, & 3). Port 2 ment of VIDs 1, 2, & 3 AND
is a member of VIDs 1, 2, & 3. becomes a member of VIDs
1, 2, & 3.
1. Port 2 advertises VIDs 1, 2, 3. Port 3 advertises VIDs 1, 2,
& 3.
& 3, but port 3 is NOT a
member of VIDs 1, 2, & 3 at
this point.
4. Port 4 receives advertise-
Switch 1
Switch 2
Switch 3
GVRP On
GVRP On
GVRP On
2
1
11. Port 2 receives
advertisement of VID 3. (Port
2 is already statically
configured for VID 3.
3
9. Port 3 receives advertisement of VID 3 AND becomes
a member of VID 3. (Still not
a member of VIDs 1 & 2.)
10. Port 1 advertises VID 3.
ment of VIDs 1, 2, & 3 AND
becomes a member of VIDs
1, 2, & 3.
5. Port 5 advertises VIDs 1, 2,
& 3, but port 5 is NOT a
member of VIDs 1, 2, & 3 at Port 6 is statically configured
to be a member of VID 3.
this point.
4
Static VLAN configured End Device
(NIC or switch)
with GVRP On
5
6
7. Port 5 receives advertise- 6. Port 6 advertises VID 3.
ment of VID 3 AND becomes
a member of VID 3. (Still not
a member of VIDs 1 & 2.)
8. Port 4 advertises VID 3.
Figure 9-57. Example of Forwarding Advertisements and Dynamic Joining
9-78
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
Note that if a static VLAN is configured on at least one port of a switch, and
that port has established a link with another device, then all other ports of that
switch will send advertisements for that VLAN.
For example, in the following figure, Tagged VLAN ports on switch “A” and
switch “C”, below advertise VLANs 22 and 33 to ports on other GVRP-enabled
switches that can dynamically join the VLANs.
1
5
Configuring Advanced
Features
Switch “C”
GVRP On
Switch “A”
GVRP On
Switch “C”:
Port 5 dynamically joined VLAN 22..
Ports 11 and 12 belong to Tagged VLAN 33.
Dynamic
VLAN 22
Tagged
VLAN 22
11
Tagged
VLAN 33
Switch “B”
(No GVRP)
Switch “D”
GVRP On
Tagged
VLAN 22
Dynamic
VLAN 33
Dynamic
VLAN 22
2
12
3
6
Switch “E”
GVRP On
Dynamic
VLAN 33
7
Dynamic
VLAN 22
Switch “E”:
Port 2 dynamically joined VLAN 33.
Lower port dynamically joined VLAN 22.
Switch “D”:
Port 3 dynamically joined VLAN 33.
Port 6 dynamically joined VLAN 22.
Figure 9-58. Example of GVRP Operation
Note
A port can learn of a dynamic VLAN through devices that are not aware of
GVRP (Switch “B”, above). VLANs must be disabled in GVRP-unaware devices
to allow tagged packets to pass through.
A GVRP-aware port receiving advertisements has these options:
■
If there is not already a static VLAN with the advertised VID on the
receiving port, then dynamically create a VLAN with the same VID as in
the advertisement, and begin moving that VLAN’s traffic.
9-79
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
■
If the switch already has a static VLAN assignment with the same VID as
in the advertisement, and the port is configured to Auto for that VLAN,
then the port will dynamically join the VLAN and begin moving that
VLAN’s traffic. (For more detail on Auto, see “Per-Port Options for
Dynamic VLAN Advertising and Joining” on page 9-82.)
■
Ignore the advertisement for that VID and drop all GVRP traffic with that
VID.
■
Don’t participate in that VLAN.
Note also that a port belonging to a Tagged or Untagged static VLAN has these
configurable options:
■
Send VLAN advertisements, and also receive advertisements for VLANs
on other ports and dynamically join those VLANs.
■
Send VLAN advertisements, but ignore advertisements received from
other ports.
■
Avoid GVRP participation by not sending advertisements and dropping
any advertisements received from other devices.
IP Addressing. A dynamic VLAN does not have an IP address, and moves
traffic on the basis of port membership in VLANs. However, after GVRP
creates a dynamic VLAN, you can convert it to a static VLAN. Note that it is
then necessary to assign ports to the VLAN in the same way that you would
for a static VLAN that you created manually. In the static state you can
configure IP addressing on the VLAN and access it in the same way that you
would any other static (manually created) VLAN.
Per-Port Options for Handling GVRP “Unknown
VLANs”
An “unknown VLAN” is a VLAN that the switch learns of by GVRP. For
example, suppose that in figure 9-58 (page 9-79), port 1 on switch “A” is
connected to port 5 on switch “C”. Because switch “A” has VLAN 22 statically
configured, while switch “C” does not have this VLAN statically configured,
VLAN 22 is handled as an “Unknown VLAN” on port 5 in switch “C”. Conversely, if VLAN 22 was statically configured on switch C, but port 5 was not
a member, port 5 would become a member when advertisements for VLAN 22
were received from switch “A”.
When you enable GVRP on a switch, you have the per-port join-request options
listed in table 9-8:
9-80
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
Table 9-8. Options for Handling “Unknown VLAN” Advertisements:
Unknown VLAN Operation
Mode
Enables the port to dynamically join any VLAN for which it receives an
advertisement, and allows the port to forward advertisements it receives.
Block
Prevents the port from dynamically joining a VLAN that is not statically
configured on the switch. The port will still forward advertisements that
were received by the switch on other ports. Block should typically be used
on ports in unsecure networks, where there is exposure to “attacks”, such
as ports where intruders can connect.
Disable
Causes the port to ignore and drop all advertisements it receives from any
source.
The CLI show gvrp command and the menu interface VLAN Support screen
show a switch’s current GVRP configuration, including the Unknown VLAN
settings.
GVRP Enabled
(Required for Unknown
VLAN operation.)
Unknown VLAN Settings
Default: Learn
Figure 9-59. Example of GVRP Unknown VLAN Settings
The above options also influence GVRP operation on ports where static
VLANs are configured. (See the next section.)
9-81
Configuring Advanced
Features
Learn
(the Default)
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
Per-Port Options for Dynamic VLAN Advertising and
Joining
Configuring Advanced
Features
Initiating Advertisements. As described in the preceding section, to
enable dynamic joins, GVRP must be enabled and a port must be configured
to Learn (the default). However, to send advertisements in your network, one
or more Tagged or Untagged static VLANs must be configured on one or more
switches (with GVRP enabled), depending on your topology.
Enabling a Static VLAN for Dynamic Joins. You can configure a port to
dynamically join a static VLAN (that shares the same VID) if that port subsequently receives an advertisement for the static VLAN. (This is done by using
the Auto and Learn options described in table 9-9, below.
Parameters for Controlling VLAN Propagation Behavior. On an individual port, you can configure an existing static VLAN to actively or passively
participate in dynamic VLAN propagation or to ignore dynamic VLAN (GVRP)
operation. These options are controlled by the GVRP “Unknown VLAN” and
the static VLAN configuration parameters, as described in the following table:
Table 9-9. Controlling VLAN Behavior on Ports with Static VLANs
Per-Port “Unknown VLAN”
(GVRP) Configuration
Per-Port Static VLAN Options 1
Tagged or Untagged2
Auto2
Forbid2
Learn
(the Default)
Generate advertisements.
Forward advertisements for other
VLANs.
Receive advertisements and
dynamically join any advertised
VLAN.
Receive advertisements and
dynamically join any
advertised VLAN that has the
same VID as the static VLAN.
Do not allow the
port to become a
member of this
VLAN.
Block
Generate advertisements.
Forward advertisements received
from other ports for other VLANs.
Do not dynamically join any
advertised VLAN.
Receive advertisements and
dynamically join any
advertised VLAN that has the
same VID.
Do not allow the
VLAN on this port.
Disable
Ignore GVRP and drop all GVRP
advertisements.
Ignore GVRP and drop all GVRP Do not allow the
advertisements.
VLAN on this port.
1
Each port of a Series 2500 switch must be a Tagged or Untagged member of at least one VLAN. Thus, any port configured
for GVRP to Learn or Block will generate and forward advertisements for the static VLAN(s) for which it has been
configured as Tagged or Untagged . By default, all ports are Untagged members of the default VLAN (VID = 1). See the
“Note” on page page 9-78.
2
To configure tagging, Auto, or Forbid, see “Configuring Static VLAN Name and Per-Port Settings” on page 9-67 (for the
CLI) or “Adding or Changing a VLAN Port Assignment” on page 9-60 (for the menu).
9-82
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
As the above table indicates, when you enable GVRP, a port that has a Tagged
or Untagged static VLAN has the option for both generating advertisements
and dynamically joining other VLANs.
Note
In table 9-9, above, the Unknown VLAN parameters are configured on a perinterface basis using the CLI. The Tagged, Untagged, Auto, and Forbid options
are configured in the VLAN context using either the menu interface or the CLI.
GVRP and VLAN Access Control
When you enable GVRP on a switch, the default GVRP parameter settings
allow all of the switch’s ports to transmit and receive dynamic VLAN advertisements (GVRP advertisements) and to dynamically join VLANs. The two
preceding sections describe the per-port features you can use to control and
limit VLAN propagation. To summarize, you can:
■
Allow a port to advertise and/or join dynamic VLANs (the default).
■
Allow a port to send VLAN advertisements, but not receive them from
other devices; that is, the port cannot dynamically join a VLAN but other
devices can dynamically join the VLANs it advertises.
■
Prevent a port from sending dynamic VLAN advertisements for specific
VLANs
■
Prevent a port from participating in GVRP operation.
Port-Leave From a Dynamic VLAN
A dynamic VLAN continues to exist on a port for as long as the port continues
to receive advertisements of that VLAN from another device connected to that
port or until you:
■
Convert the VLAN to a static VLAN (See “Converting a Dynamic VLAN to
a Static VLAN” on page 9-67.)
■
Reconfigure the port to Block or Disable
■
Disable GVRP
■
Reboot the switch
■
The time-to-live for dynamic VLANs is 10 seconds. That is, if a port has
not received an advertisement for an existing dynamic VLAN during the
last 10 seconds, the port removes itself from that dynamic VLAN.
9-83
Configuring Advanced
Features
Because dynamic VLANs operate as Tagged VLANs, and because a tagged port
on one device cannot communicate with an untagged port on another device,
HP recommends that you use Tagged VLANs for the static VLANs you will use
to generate advertisements.
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
Planning for GVRP Operation
Configuring Advanced
Features
These steps outline the procedure for setting up dynamic VLANs for a segment.
1.
Determine the VLAN topology you want for each segment (broadcast
domain) on your network.
2.
Determine the VLANs that must be static and the VLANs that can be
dynamically propagated.
3.
Determine the device or devices on which you must manually create static
VLANs in order to propagate VLANs throughout the segment.
4.
Determine security boundaries and how the individual ports in the segment will handle dynamic VLAN advertisements. (See table 9-8 on page
9-81 and table 9-9 on page 9-82.)
5.
Enable GVRP on all devices you want to use with dynamic VLANs and
configure the appropriate “Unknown VLAN” parameter (Learn, Block, or
Disable) for each port.
6.
Configure the static VLANs on the switch(es) where they are needed,
along with the per-VLAN parameters (Tagged, Untagged, Auto, and Forbid—
see table 9-9 on page 9-82) on the appropriate ports.
7.
Dynamic VLANs will then appear automatically, according to the configuration options you have chosen.
8.
Convert dynamic VLANs to static VLANs where you want dynamic VLANs
to become permanent.
Configuring GVRP On a Switch
The procedures in this section describe how to:
■
View the GVRP configuration on a switch
■
Enable and disable GVRP on a switch
■
Specify how individual ports will handle advertisements
To view or configure static VLANs for GVRP operation, refer to “Port-Based
Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)” on page 9-50.
Menu: Viewing and Configuring GVRP
1.
9-84
From the Main Menu, select:
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
2. Switch Configuration . . .
8. VLAN Menu . . .
1. VLAN Support
Configuring Advanced
Features
Figure 9-60. The VLAN Support Screen (Default Configuration)
2.
Do the following to enable GVRP and display the Unknown VLAN fields:
a.
Press [E] (for Edit).
b.
Use [ v] to move the cursor to the GVRP Enabled field.
c.
Press the Space bar to select Yes.
d.
Press [ v] again to display the Unknown VLAN fields.
The Unknown VLAN
fields enable you to
configure each port to:
– Learn - Dynamically
join any advertised
VLAN and forward all
advertisements the
port receives.
– Block - Do not
dynamically join any
VLAN, but still
forward
advertisements.
– Disable - Ignore and
drop all
advertisements.
Figure 9-61. Example Showing Default Settings for Handling Advertisements
3.
Use the arrow keys to select the port you want, and the Space bar to select
Unknown VLAN option for any ports you want to change.
4.
When you finish making configuration changes, press [Return], then [S] (for
Save) to save your changes to the Startup-Config file.
9-85
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
CLI: Viewing and Configuring GVRP
Configuring Advanced
Features
GVRP Commands Used in This Section
show gvrp
below
gvrp
page 9-87
unknown-vlans
page 9-87
Displaying the Switch’s Current GVRP Configuration. This command
shows whether GVRP is disabled, along with the current settings for the
maximum number of VLANs and the current Primary VLAN. (For more on the
last two parameters, see “Port-Based Virtual LANs (Static VLANs)” on page
9-50.)
Syntax:
show gvrp
Figure 9-62. Example of “Show GVRP” Listing with GVRP Disabled
This example includes
non-default settings for
the Unknown VLAN field
for some ports.
Figure 9-63. Example of Show GVRP Listing with GVRP Enabled
9-86
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
Enabling and Disabling GVRP on the Switch. This command enables
GVRP on the switch.
Syntax:
gvrp
This example enables GVRP:
HP2512(config)# gvrp
HP2512(config)# no gvrp
Enabling and Disabling GVRP On Individual Ports. When GVRP is
enabled on the switch, use the unknown-vlans command to change the
Unknown VLAN field for one or more ports. You can use this command at
either the Manager level or the interface context level for the desired port(s).
Syntax:
show gvrp
interface <port-list> unknown-vlans
<learn | block | disable>
Shows the current settings.
Changes the Unknown VLAN
field setting for the specified
port(s).
For example, to view and change the configuration for ports 1-2 to Block:
HP2512(config)# interface 1-2 unknown-vlans block
9-87
Configuring Advanced
Features
This example disables GVRP operation on the switch:
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
Displaying the Static and Dynamic VLANs Active on the Switch. The
show vlans command lists all VLANs present in the switch.
Syntax:
show vlans
Configuring Advanced
Features
For example, in the following illustration, switch “A” has one static VLAN (the
default VLAN), with GVRP enabled and port 1 configured to Learn for
Unknown VLANs. Switch “B” has GVRP enabled and has three static VLANs:
the default VLAN, VLAN-222, and VLAN-333. In this scenario, switch B will
dynamically join VLAN-222 and VLAN-333:
Switch “A”
Switch “B”
GVRP enabled.
GVRP enabled.
3 Static VLANs:
1 Static VLANs:
– DEFAULT_VLAN
– VLAN-222
– VLAN-33
– DEFAULT_VLAN
The show vlans command lists the dynamic (and static) VLANs in switch “B”.
Dynamic VLANs
Learned from
Switch “A”
through Port 1
Figure 9-64. Example of Listing Showing Dynamic VLANs
9-88
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
Converting a Dynamic VLAN to a Static VLAN. If a port on the switch
has joined a dynamic VLAN, you can use the following command to convert
that dynamic VLAN to a static VLAN:
Syntax:
static <dynamic-vlan-id>
For example, to convert dynamic VLAN 333 (from the previous example) to a
static VLAN:
Configuring Advanced
Features
HP2512(config)# static 333
Web: Viewing and Configuring GVRP
To view, enable, disable, or reconfigure GVRP:
1.
Click on the Configuration tab.
2.
Click on [VLAN Configuration] and do the following:
•
To enable or disable GVRP, click on GVRP Enabled.
•
To change the Unknown VLAN field for any port:
i. Click on [GVRP Security] and make the desired changes.
ii. Click on [Apply] to save and implement your changes to the
Unknown VLAN fields.
For web-based Help on how to use the web browser interface screen, click on
the [?] button provided on the web browser screen.
GVRP Operating Notes
■
A dynamic VLAN must be converted to a static VLAN before it can have
an IP address.
■
Converting a dynamic VLAN to a static VLAN and then executing the write
memory command saves the VLAN in the startup-config file and makes it
a permanent part of the switch’s VLAN configuration.
■
Within the same broadcast domain, a dynamic VLAN can pass through a
device that is not GVRP-aware. This is because a hub or a switch that is
not GVRP-ware will flood the GVRP (multicast) advertisement packets
out all ports.
■
GVRP assigns dynamic VLANs as Tagged VLANs. To configure the VLAN
as Untagged, you must first convert it to a static VLAN.
■
Rebooting a switch on which a dynamic VLAN exists deletes that VLAN.
However, the dynamic VLAN re-appears after the reboot if GVRP is
enabled and the switch again receives advertisements for that VLAN
through a port configured to add dynamic VLANs.
9-89
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
GVRP
9-90
■
By receiving advertisements from other devices running GVRP, the switch
learns of static VLANs on those other devices and dynamically (automatically) creates tagged VLANs on the links to the advertising devices.
Similarly, the switch advertises its static VLANs to other GVRP-aware
devices.
■
A GVRP-enabled switch does not advertise any GVRP-learned VLANs out
of the port(s) on which it originally learned of those VLANs.
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP
Multicast (IGMP)
IGMP Features
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
view igmp configuration
n/a
—
page 9-93
—
show igmp status for multicast
groups used by the selected
VLAN
n/a
—
Yes
—
enabling or disabling IGMP
(Requires VLAN ID Context)
disabled
—
page 9-95
page 9-97
per-port packet control
auto
—
page 9-96
—
IGMP traffic priority
normal
—
page 9-96
—
querier
enabled
—
page 9-97
—
In a network where IP multicast traffic is transmitted for various multimedia
applications, you can use the switch to reduce unnecessary bandwidth usage
on a per-port basis by configuring IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol controls). In the factory default state (IGMP disabled), the switch forwards
all IGMP traffic to all ports, which can cause unnecessary bandwidth usage
on ports not belonging to multicast groups. Enabling IGMP allows the ports
to detect IGMP queries and report packets and manage IP multicast traffic
through the switch.
IGMP is useful in multimedia applications such as LAN TV, desktop conferencing, and collaborative computing, where there is multipoint communication; that is, communication from one to many hosts, or communication
originating from many hosts and destined for many other hosts. In such
multipoint applications, IGMP will be configured on the hosts, and multicast
traffic will be generated by one or more servers (inside or outside of the local
network). Switches in the network (that support IGMP) can then be configured to direct the multicast traffic to only the ports where needed. If multiple
VLANs are configured, you can configure IGMP on a per-VLAN basis.
9-91
Configuring Advanced
Features
Feature
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
Enabling IGMP allows the ports to detect IGMP queries and report packets
and manage IP multicast traffic through the switch. If no other querier is
detected, the switch will then also function as the querier. (If you need to
disable the querier feature, you can do so through the IGMP configuration
MIB. Refer to “Changing the Querier Configuration Setting” on page 9-97.)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Note
IGMP configuration on the Switch 2512/2524 operates at the VLAN context
level. If you are not using VLANs, then configure IGMP in VLAN 1 (the default
VLAN) context. IGMP requires an IP address and subnet mask for any VLAN
used for IGMP traffic. If the switch relies on DHCP or Bootp to acquire an IP
address, ensure that an IP addressing has been assigned to the appropriate
VLANs by using show ip or by viewing the menu interface “Management
Address Information” screen (page 10-6).
In order for IGMP service to take effect, an IP address must be configured and
active on the VLAN in which you want IGMP to operate. If the only VLAN on
the switch is the default VLAN (VLAN ID, or VID, of “1”), then you must
configure an IP address for VLAN 1. If multiple VLANs are configured, you
must configure an IP address for the VLAN(s) in which you want to implement
IGMP. Refer to “IP Configuration” on page 5-3.
IGMP Operating Features
In the factory default configuration, IGMP is disabled. If multiple VLANs are
not configured, you must configure IGMP on the default VLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN; VID = 1). If multiple VLANs are configured, you must
configure IGMP on a per-VLAN basis. When you use either the CLI or the web
browser interface to enable IGMP on the switch or a VLAN, the switch
forwards IGMP traffic only to ports belonging to multicast groups. Using the
console enables these additional options:
■
Forward with High Priority. Disabling this parameter (the default)
causes the switch or VLAN to process IP multicast traffic, along with other
traffic, in the order received (normal priority). Enabling this parameter
causes the switch or VLAN to give a higher priority to IP multicast traffic
than to other traffic.
■
Auto/Blocked/Forward: You can use the console to configure individual
ports to any of the following states:
•
9-92
Auto (the default): Causes the switch to interpret IGMP packets and
to filter IP multicast traffic based on the IGMP packet information for
ports belonging to a multicast group. This means that IGMP traffic
will be forwarded on a specific port only if an IGMP host or multicast
router is connected to the port.
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
■
Blocked: Causes the switch to drop all IGMP transmissions received
from a specific port and to block all outgoing IP Multicast packets for
that port. This has the effect of preventing IGMP traffic from moving
through specific ports.
•
Forward: Causes the switch to forward all IGMP and IP multicast
transmissions through the port.
Querier: In the default state (enabled), eliminates the need for a multicast
router. In most cases, HP recommends that you leave this parameter in
the default “enabled” state even if you have a multicast router performing
the querier function in your multicast group. For more information, see
“How IGMP Operates” on page 9-97.
Whenever IGMP is enabled, the switch generates an Event Log message
indicating whether querier functionality is enabled.
For more information, refer to “How IGMP Operates” on page 9-97.
CLI: Configuring and Displaying IGMP
IGMP Commands Used in This Section
show ip igmp configuration
page 9-94
ip igmp
page 9-95
high-priority-forward
page 9-96
auto <[ethernet] <port-list>
page 9-96
blocked <[ethernet] <port-list>
page 9-96
forward <[ethernet] <port-list>
page 9-96
querier
show ip igmp
page 9-97
See “IP Multicast (IGMP) Status” on page 10-17
For a listing of the full CLI command set, including syntax and options, see
the CLI command reference available on the HP ProCurve website at:
http://www.hp.com
9-93
Configuring Advanced
Features
Note
•
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
Viewing the Current IGMP Configuration. This command lists the IGMP
configuration for all VLANs configured on the switch or for a specific VLAN.
Syntax:
show ip igmp config
Configuring Advanced
Features
show ip igmp <vid> config
IGMP configuration for all
VLANs on the switch
IGMP configuration for a
specific VLAN on the switch,
including per-port data
(For IGMP operating status, see “Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) Status” on page 10-17.)
For example, suppose you have the following VLAN and IGMP configurations
on the switch:
VLAN ID VLAN Name
IGMP
Enabled
Forward with
High Priority
Querier
1
DEFAULT_VLAN
Yes
No
No
22
VLAN-2
Yes
Yes
Yes
33
VLAN-3
No
No
No
You could use the CLI to display this data as follows:
Figure 9-65. Example Listing of IGMP Configuration for All VLANs in the Switch
The following version of the show ip igmp command includes the VLAN ID (vid)
designation, and combines the above data with the IGMP per-port configuration:
9-94
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
IGMP Configuration
for the Selected
VLAN
Configuring Advanced
Features
IGMP Configuration
On the Individual
Ports in the VLAN
Figure 9-66. Example Listing of IGMP Configuration for A Specific VLAN
Enabling or Disabling IGMP on a VLAN. You can enable IGMP on a
VLAN, along with the last-saved or default IGMP configuration (whichever
was most recently set), or you can disable IGMP on a selected VLAN. Note
that this command must be executed in a VLAN context.
Syntax:
[no] ip igmp
For example, here are methods to enable and disable IGMP on the default
VLAN (VID = 1).
Note
HP2512(config)# vlan 1 ip igmp
Enables IGMP on VLAN 1.
HP2512(vlan-1)# ip igmp
Same as above.
HP2512(config)# no vlan 1 ip igmp
Disables IGMP on VLAN 1.
If you disable IGMP on a VLAN and then later re-enable IGMP on that VLAN,
the switch restores the last-saved IGMP configuration for that VLAN. For more
on how switch memory operates, see appendic C, “Switch Memory and
Configuration”.
You can also combine the ip igmp command with other IGMP-related commands, as described in the following sections.
9-95
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
Configuring Per-Port IGMP Packet Control. Use this command in the
VLAN context to specify how each port should handle IGMP traffic.
Syntax:
vlan <vid> ip igmp
[auto <port-list> | blocked <port-list> | forward <port-list>]
Default:
auto
Configuring Advanced
Features
For example, suppose you wanted to configure IGMP as follows for VLAN 1
on the 10/100 ports on the Switch 2512:
Ports 1-7
auto
Filter multicast traffic. Forward IGMP traffic to hosts on these ports
that belong to the multicast group for which the traffic is intended.
(Also forward any multicast traffic through any of these ports that is
connected to a multicast router.)
Port 8
forward
Forward all multicast traffic through this port.
Ports 9-12
blocked
Drop all multicast traffic received from devices on these ports, and
prevent any outgoing multicast traffic from moving through these
ports.
Depending on the privilege level, you could use one of the following commands to configure IGMP on VLAN 1 with the above settings:
HP2512(config)# vlan 1 ip igmp auto 1-7 forward 8 blocked 9-12
HP2512(vlan-1)# ip igmp auto 1-7 forward 8 blocked 9-12
The following command displays the VLAN and per-port configuration resulting from the above commands.
HP2512> show ip igmp 1 config
Configuring IGMP Traffic Priority. This command assigns “high” priority
to IGMP traffic or returns a high-priority setting to “normal” priority.
Syntax:
vlan <vid> ip igmp high-priority-forward
Default:
normal
HP2512(config)# vlan 1 ip igmp
Configures high priority for
high-priority-forward IGMP traffic on VLAN 1.
HP2512(vlan-1)# vlan 1 ip igmp
Same as above command,
high-priority-forward but in the VLAN 1 context
level.
HP2512(vlan 1)# no ip igmp
Returns IGMP traffic to
high-priority-forward “normal” priority.
9-96
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
HP2512> show ip igmp config
Show command to display
results of above high-priority
commands.
Syntax:
[no] vlan <vid> ip igmp querier
Default:
Yes
HP2512(config)# no vlan 1 ip
igmp querier
Disables the querier function
on VLAN 1.
HP2512> show ip igmp config
Show command to display
results of above querier
command.
Web: Enabling or Disabling IGMP
In the web browser interface you can enable or disable IGMP on a per-VLAN
basis. To configure other IGMP features, telnet to the switch console and use
the CLI.
To Enable or Disable IGMP
1.
Click on the Configuration tab.
2.
Click on [Device Features].
3.
If more than one VLAN is configured, use the VLAN pull-down menu to
select the VLAN on which you want to enable or disable IGMP.
4.
Use the Multicast Filtering (IGMP) menu to enable or disable IGMP.
5.
Click on [Apply Changes] to implement the configuration change.
For web-based help on how to use the web browser interface screen, click on
the [?] button provided on the web browser screen.
How IGMP Operates
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is an internal protocol of
the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. IP manages multicast traffic by using
switches, multicast routers, and hosts that support IGMP. (In Hewlett-Packard’s implementation of IGMP, a multicast router is not necessary as long as
9-97
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring the Querier Function. The default querier function is
“enabled”. This command disables or re-enables the querier function.
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
Configuring Advanced
Features
a switch is configured to support IGMP with the querier feature enabled.) A set
of hosts, routers, and/or switches that send or receive multicast data streams
to or from the same source(s) is termed a multicast group, and all devices in
the group use the same multicast group address. The multicast group running
version 2 of IGMP uses three fundamental types of messages to communicate:
■
Query: A message sent from the querier (multicast router or switch)
asking for a response from each host belonging to the multicast group. If
a multicast router supporting IGMP is not present, then the switch must
assume this function in order to elicit group membership information
from the hosts on the network. (If you need to disable the querier feature,
you can do so through the CLI, using the IGMP configuration MIB. See
“Changing the Querier Configuration Setting” on page “Configuring the
Querier Function” on page 9-97.)
■
Report: A message sent by a host to the querier to indicate that the host
wants to be or is a member of a given group indicated in the report
message.
■
Leave Group: A message sent by a host to the querier to indicate that the
host has ceased to be a member of a specific multicast group.
Thus, IGMP identifies members of a multicast group (within a subnet) and
allows IGMP-configured hosts (and routers) to join or leave multicast groups.
IGMP Data. To display data showing active group addresses, reports, queries, querier access port, and active group address data (port, type, and
access), see “IP Multicast (IGMP) Status” on page 7-19.
Role of the Switch
When IGMP is enabled on the switch, it examines the IGMP packets it receives:
■
To learn which of its ports are linked to IGMP hosts and multicast routers/
queriers belonging to any multicast group
■
To become a querier if a multicast router/querier is not discovered on the
network
Once the switch learns the port location of the hosts belonging to any particular multicast group, it can direct group traffic to only those ports, resulting
in bandwidth savings on ports where group members do not reside. The
following example illustrates this operation.
Figure 9-67 on page 9-99 shows a network running IGMP.
■
9-98
PCs 1 and 4, switch 2, and all of the routers are members of an IP multicast
group. (The routers operate as queriers.)
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
■
Switch 1 ignores IGMP traffic and does not distinguish between IP multicast group members and non-members. Thus, it is sending large amounts
of unwanted multicast traffic out the ports to PCs 2 and 3.
■
Switch 2 is recognizing IGMP traffic and learns that PC 4 is in the IP
multicast group receiving multicast data from the video server (PC X).
Switch 2 then sends the multicast data only to the port for PC 4, thus
avoiding unwanted multicast traffic on the ports for PCs 5 and 6.
Configuring Advanced
Features
Multicast
Data Stream
Router
Router
PC X
Video
Server
Router
IGMP is NOT
Running Here
Router
Switch 1
IGMP IS
Running Here
Switch 2
PC 1
Video
Client
PC 3
PC 2
PC 4
Video
Client
PC 6
PC 5
Figure 9-67. The Advantage of Using IGMP
The next figure (9-68) shows a network running IP multicasting using IGMP
without a multicast router. In this case, the IGMP-configured switch runs as a
querier.
PCs 2, 5, and 6 are members of the same IP multicast group.
9-99
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
IGMP is configured on switches 3 and 4. Either of these switches can operate
as querier because a multicast router is not present on the network. (If an
IGMP switch does not detect a querier, it automatically assumes this role,
assuming the querier feature is enabled—the default—within IGMP.)
Switch 1
Configuring Advanced
Features
IGMP is NOT
Running Here
IGMP IS
Running Here
Switch 3
Multicast
Data Stream
Switch 2
IGMP IS
Running Here
Switch 4
PC 2
PC 1
PC 5
PC 6
Figure 9-68. Isolating IP Multicast Traffic in a Network
9-100
■
In the above figure, the multicast group traffic does not go to switch 1 and
beyond because either the port on switch 3 that connects to switch 1 has
been configured as blocked or there are no hosts connected to switch 1
or switch 2 that belong to the multicast group.
■
For PC 1 to become a member of the same multicast group without
flooding IP multicast traffic on all ports of switches 1 and 2, IGMP must
be configured on both switches 1 and 2, and the port on Switch 3 that
connects to Switch 1 must be unblocked.
Configuring Advanced Features
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
Note:
Reserved Addresses Excluded from IP Multicast (IGMP) Filtering.
Traffic to IP multicast groups in the IP address range of 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255
will always be flooded because addresses in this range are “well known” or
“reserved” addresses. Thus, if IP Multicast is enabled and there is an IP
multicast group within the reserved address range, traffic to that group will
be flooded instead of filtered by the switch.
Number of IP Multicast Addresses Allowed
Multicast filters and IGMP filters (addresses) together can total up to 255 in
the switch. If multiple VLANs are configured, then each filter is counted once
per VLAN in which it is used.
Interaction with Multicast Traffic/Security Filters.
9-101
Configuring Advanced
Features
IP Multicast Filters. IP multicast addresses occur in the range from
224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255 (which corresponds to the Ethernet multicast address range of 01005e-000000 through 01005e-7fffff). Devices such as
the HP Switch 1600M/2400M/2424M/4000M/8000M having static Traffic/Security filters configured with a “Multicast” filter type and a “Multicast Address”
in this range will continue in effect unless IGMP learns of a multicast group
destination in this range. In that case, IGMP takes over the filtering function
for the multicast destination address(es) for as long as the IGMP group is
active. If the IGMP group subsequently deactivates, the static filter resumes
control over traffic to the multicast address formerly controlled by IGMP.
(Note that the Switch 2512 and 2524 do not have traffic/security filters.)
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Configuring Advanced
Features
STP Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
viewing the STP configuration
n/a
page
9-103
page
9-105
—
enable/disable STP
disabled
page
9-103
page
9-106
page
9-108
reconfiguring general operation priority: 32768 page
max age: 20 s 9-103
hello time: 2 s
fwd. delay: 15 s
page
9-106
reconfiguring per-port STP
path cost: var
priority: 128
mode: norm
page
9-103
page
9-107
monitoring STP
n/a
page
10-15
page
10-15
n/a
The switch uses the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), when
enabled, to ensure that only one path at a time is active between any two nodes
on the network. In networks where there is more than one physical path
between any two nodes, STP ensures a single active path between them by
blocking all redundant paths. Enabling STP is necessary in such networks
because having more than one path between a pair of nodes causes loops in
the network, which can result in duplication of messages, leading to a “broadcast storm” that can bring down the network.
Note
You should enable STP in any switch that is part of a redundant physical link
(loop topology). (It is recommended that you enable STP on all switches
belonging to a loop topology.) This topic is covered in more detail under “How
STP Operates” on page 9-108.
As recommended in the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN standard, the Switches 2512 and
2524 use single-instance STP; a single spanning tree is created to make sure
there are no network loops associated with any of the connections to the
switch, regardless of whether VLANs are configured on the switch. Thus, these
switches do not distinguish between VLANs when identifying redundant
physical links. If VLANs are configured on the switch, see “STP Operation with
802.1Q VLANs” on page 9-110.
9-102
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
STP Fast Mode for Overcoming Server Access Failures. If an end node
is configured to automatically access a server, the duration of the STP startup
sequence can result in a “server access failure”. On ports where this is a
problem, configuring STP Fast Mode can eliminate the failure. For more
information, see “STP Fast Mode” on page 9-109. Also, for more information
on STP, see “How STP Operates” on page 9-108.
Note
STP retains its current parameter settings when disabled. Thus, if you
disable STP, then later re-enable it, the parameter settings will be the same
as before STP was disabled.
Caution
Because the switch automatically gives faster links a higher priority, the
default STP parameter settings are usually adequate for spanning tree
operation. Also because incorrect STP settings can adversely affect network
performance, you should not make changes unless you have a strong understanding of how STP operates. For more on STP, see the IEEE 802.1D standard.
Menu: Configuring STP
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
2. Switch Configuration . . .
4. Spanning Tree Operation
2.
Press [E] (for Edit) to highlight the Spanning Tree Enabled parameter.
3.
Press the Space bar to select Yes . (This enables STP.
9-103
Configuring Advanced
Features
In the factory default configuration, STP is off. If a redundant link (loop) exists
between nodes in your network, you should enable Spanning Tree.
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Read-Only Fields
Figure 9-69. Example of the STP Configuration Screen
4.
If the remaining STP parameter settings are adequate for your network,
go to step 8.
5.
Use [Tab] or the arrow keys to select the next parameter you want to change,
then type in the new value or press the Space Bar to select a value. (If you
need information on STP parameters, press [Enter] to select the Actions
line, then press H to get help.)
6.
Repeat step 5 for each additional parameter you want to change.
For information on the Mode parameter, see “STP Fast Mode” on page
9-109.
9-104
7.
When you are finished editing parameters, press [Enter] to return to the
Actions line.
8.
Press [S] to save the currently displayed STP parameter settings, then
return to the Main Menu.
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
CLI: Configuring STP
STP Commands Used in This Section
show spanning-tree config
Below
spanning-tree
page 9-106
page 9-106
hello-time <1 - 10>
page 9-106
maximum-age <6 - 40>
page 9-106
priority <0 - 65535>
page 9-106
ethernet <port-list>
page 9-107
path-cost <1 - 65535>
page 9-107
priority <0 - 255>
page 9-107
mode <norm | fast>
page 9-107
show spanning tree
Configuring Advanced
Features
forward-delay <4 - 30>
See “Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Information” on page 10-15
Viewing the Current STP Configuration. Regardless of whether STP is
disabled (the default), this command lists the switch’s full STP configuration,
including general settings and port settings.
Syntax:
show spanning-tree configuration
Default:
See figure 9-70, below.
In the default configuration, STP appears as shown here:
Figure 9-70. Example of the Default STP Configuration Listing
9-105
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Enabling or Disabling STP. Enabling STP implements the spanning-tree
protocol for all physical ports on the switch, regardless of whether multiple
VLANs are configured. Disabling STP removes protection against redundant
loops that can significantly slow or halt a network.
Syntax:
[no] spanning-tree
Default:
Disabled
This command enables STP with the current parameter settings or disables
STP withoug losing the most-recently configured parameter settings. (To learn
how the switch handles parameter changes, how to test changes without
losing the previous settings, and how to replace previous settings with new
settings, see appendix C, “Switch Memory and Configuration”.) When
enabling STP, you can also include the STP general and per-port parameters
described in the next two sections. When you use the “no” form of the
command, you can do so only to disable STP. (STP parameter settings are not
changed when you disable STP, and cannot be included with the no spanningtree command.
Caution
Because incorrect STP settings can adversely affect network performance,
HP recommends that you use the default STP parameter settings. You should
not change these settings unless you have a strong understanding of how STP
operates. For more on STP, see the IEEE 802.1D standard.
HP2512(config)# spanning tree
Enables STP on the switch.
Reconfiguring General STP Operation on the Switch. This command
enables STP (if it is not already enabled) and configures one or more of the
following parameters:
Table 9-10.General STP Operating Parameters
Name
Default
Range
Function
priority
32768
0 - 65535 Specifies the priority value used along with the
switch MAC address to determine which device is
root. The lower a priority value, the higher the
priority.
maximum-age 20 seconds 6 - 40
Maximum received message age the switch allows
seconds for STP information before discarding the message,
hello-time
2 seconds
1 - 10
Time between messages transmitted when the
switch is the root.
forward-delay 15 seconds 4 - 30
Time the switch waits before transitioning from the
seconds listening to the learning state, and between the
learning state to the forwarding state.
9-106
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
You can also include one or more of the STP per-port parameters in this
command. See “Reconfiguring Per-Port STP Operation on the Switch” on page
9-107.
spanning-tree
priority <0 - 65355>
maximum-age <6 - 40 seconds>
hello-time <1 - 10 seconds>
forward-delay <4 - 30 seconds>
Default:
See table 9-10, above.
For example, to enable STP with a maximum-age of 30 seconds and a hellotime of 3 seconds:
HP2512(config)# spanning tree maximum-age 30 hello-time 3
Reconfiguring Per-Port STP Operation on the Switch. This command
enables STP (if not already enabled) and configures the following per-port
parameters:
Table 9-11.Per-Port STP Parameters
Name
Default
path-cost Ethernet:
10/100Tx:
100 Fx:
Gigabit:
Range
100
10
10
Function
1 - 65535 Assigns an individual port cost that the switch uses
to determine which ports are the forwarding ports.
5
priority
128
0 - 255
Used by STP to determine the port(s) to use for
forwarding. The port with the lowest number has
the highest priority.
mode
norm
norm
- or fast
Specifies whether a port progresses through the
listening, learning, and forwarding (or blocking)
states (“norm” mode) or transitions directly to the
forwarding state (“fast” mode).
(For information on when to use Fast mode, see
“STP Fast Mode” on page 9-109.)
You can also include STP general parameters in this command. See “Reconfiguring General STP Operation on the Switch” on page 9-106.
Syntax:
spanning-tree ethernet <port-list>
path-cost <1 - 65535>
priority <0 - 255>
mode <norm | fast>
Default:
See table 9-11, above.
9-107
Configuring Advanced
Features
Syntax:
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
For example, the following enables STP (if it is not already enabled) and
configures ports 5 and 6 to a path cost of 15, a priority of 100, and fast mode:
HP2512(config)# spanning-tree ethernet 5-6 path-cost 15
priority 100 mode fast
Configuring Advanced
Features
Web: Enabling or Disabling STP
In the web browser interface you can enable or disable STP on the switch. To
configure other STP features, telnet to the switch console and use the CLI.
To enable or disable STP on the switch:
1.
Click on the Configuration tab
2.
Click on [Device Features].
3.
4.
Click on [Apply Changes] to implement the configuration change.
For web-based help on how to use the web browser interface screen, click on
the [?] button provided on the web browser screen.
How STP Operates
The switch automatically senses port identity and type, and automatically
defines port cost and priority for each type. The console interface allows you
to adjust the Cost and Priority for each port, as well as the Mode for each port
and the global STP parameter values for the switch.
While allowing only one active path through a network at any time, STP retains
any redundant physical path to serve as a backup (blocked) path in case the
existing active path fails. Thus, if an active path fails, STP automatically
activates (unblocks) an available backup to serve as the new active path for
as long as the original active path is down. For example:
9-108
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
• Active path from node A to node B: 1—> 3
• Backup (redundant) path from node A to node B: 4 —> 2 —> 3
switch A
1
path cost:
100
2
3
path cost: 100
path cost: 100
4
switch C
switch D
Configuring Advanced
Features
switch B
path cost:200
node
A
node
B
Figure 9-71. Example of Redundant Paths Between Two Nodes
STP Fast Mode
For standard STP operation, when a network connection is established on a
device that is running STP, the port used for the connection goes through a
sequence of states (Listening and Learning) before getting to its final state
(Forwarding or Blocking, as determined by the STP negotiation). This
sequence takes two times the forward delay value configured for the switch.
The default is 15 seconds on HP switches, per the IEEE 802.1D standard
recommendation, resulting in a total STP negotiation time of 30 seconds. Each
switch port goes through this start-up sequence whenever the network connection is established on the port. This includes, for example, when the switch
or connected device is powered up, or the network cable is connected.
A problem can arise from this long STP start-up sequence because some end
nodes are configured to automatically try to access a network server whenever the end node detects a network connection. Typical server access
includes to Novell servers, DHCP servers, and X terminal servers. If the server
access is attempted during the time that the switch port is negotiating its STP
state, the server access will fail. To provide support for this end node behavior,
the Switches 2512 and 2524 offer a configuration mode, called “Fast Mode”,
that causes the switch port to skip the standard STP start-up sequence and
put the port directly into the “Forwarding” state, thus allowing the server
access request to be forwarded when the end node needs it.
If you encounter end nodes that repeatedly indicate server access failure when
attempting to bring up their network connection, and you have enabled STP
on the switch, try changing the configuration of the switch ports associated
with those end nodes to STP Fast Mode.
9-109
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Configuring Advanced
Features
Caution
The Fast Mode configuration should be used only on switch ports connected
to end nodes. Changing the Mode to Fast on ports connected to hubs, switches,
or routers may cause loops in your network that STP may not be able to
immediately detect, in all cases. This will cause temporary loops in your
network. After the fast start-up sequence, though, the switch ports operate
according to the STP standard, and will adjust their state to eliminate continuing network loops.
To Configure Fast Mode for a Switch Port:
■
In the CLI, use this command: spanning tree mode <port list> fast
For example, to configure Fast mode for ports 1-3 and 5:
HP2512(config)# spanning-tree ethernet 1-3,5 mode fast
■
In the menu interface, go to the Main Menu and follow the steps under
“Menu: Configuring STP” on page 9-103.
STP Operation with 802.1Q VLANs
As recommended in the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN standard, when spanning tree is
enabled on the switch, a single spanning tree is configured for all ports across
the switch, including those in separate VLANs. This means that if redundant
physical links exist in separate VLANs, spanning tree will block all but one of
those links. However, if you need to use STP on the Switch 2512 or Switch
2524 in a VLAN environment with redundant physical links, you can prevent
blocked redundant links by using a port trunk. The following example shows
how you can use a port trunk with 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs and STP without
unnecessarily blocking any links or losing any bandwidth.
9-110
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
Problem:
Solution:
STP enabled with 2
separate (non-trunked)
links blocks a VLAN link.
STP enabled with
one trunked link.
Configuring Advanced
Features
Nodes 1 and 2 cannot
communicate because
STP is blocking the link.
Nodes 1 and 2 can communicate
because STP sees the trunk as a
single link and 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs
enable the use of one (trunked) link
for both VLANs.
Figure 9-72. Example of Using a Trunked Link with STP and VLANs
For more information, refer to “Spanning Tree Protocol Operation with
VLANs” on page 9-73.
9-111
Configuring Advanced
Features
Configuring Advanced Features
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
9-112
10
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Chapter Contents
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Status and Counters Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Menu Access To Status and Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Switch Management Address Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Menu Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
CLI Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Port Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu: Displaying Port Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLI Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-7
10-7
10-7
10-7
Viewing Port and Trunk Group Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Menu Access to Port and Trunk Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
CLI Access To Port and Trunk Group Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
Web Browser Access To View Port and Trunk
Group Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
Viewing the Switch’s MAC Address Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11
Menu Access to the MAC Address Views and Searches . . . . . . 10-12
CLI Access for MAC Address Views and Searches . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
Menu Access to STP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
CLI Access to STP Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Status . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17
VLAN Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18
Web Browser Interface Status Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10- 20
Port Monitoring Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21
Menu: Configuring Port Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
CLI: Configuring Port Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-24
Web: Configuring Port Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26
10-1
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
General System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Menu Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
CLI Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Overview
Overview
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
The Series 2500 switches have several built-in tools for monitoring, analyzing,
and troubleshooting switch and network operation:
Note
10-2
■
Status: Includes options for displaying general switch information, management address data, port status, MAC addresses detected on each port,
and STP, IGMP, and VLAN data.
■
Counters: Display details of traffic volume on individual ports.
■
Event Log: Lists switch operating events.
■
Alert Log: Lists network occurrences detected by the switch (in the
Status | Overview screen of the web browser interface).
■
Configurable trap receivers: Uses SNMP to enable management stations on your network to receive SNMP traps from the switch.
■
Port or VLAN monitoring (mirroring): Copy all traffic from the specified ports or VLAN to a designated monitoring port.
Link test, ping test, browse configuration, and the Command prompt—analysis
tools in troubleshooting situations—are described in chapter 8, “Troubleshooting”. See “Diagnostic Tools” on page 14.
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Status and Counters Data
This section describes the status and counters screens available through the
switch console interface and/or the web browser interface.
Note
Interface
Purpose
Page
Menu Access to Status and Menu
Counters
Access menu interface for status and counter data.
10-4
General System Information Menu, CLI
Lists switch-level operating information.
10-5
Management Address
Information
Menu, CLI
Lists the MAC address, IP address, and IPX network number for
each VLAN or, if no VLANs are configured, for the switch.
10-6
Port Status
Menu, CLI,
Web
Displays the operational status of each port.
10-7
Port and Trunk Statistics
Menu, CLI,
Web
Summarizes port activity.
10-8
Address Table
Menu, CLI
(Address Forwarding Table)
Lists the MAC addresses of nodes the switch has detected on the
network, with the corresponding switch port.
10-11
Port Address Table
Menu, CLI
Lists the MAC addresses that the switch has learned from the
selected port.
10-11
STP Information
Menu, CLI
Lists Spanning Tree Protocol data for the switch and for individual
ports. If VLANs are configured, reports on a per-VLAN basis.
10-15
IGMP Status
Menu, CLI
Lists IGMP groups, reports, queries, and port on which querier is
located.
10-17
VLAN Information
Menu, CLI
For each VLAN configured in the switch, lists 802.1Q VLAN ID and
up/down status.
10-18
Port Status Overview
Web
Shows port utilization and the Alert Log.
10-20
10-3
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Status or Counters Type
You can access all console screens from the web browser interface via Telnet
to the console. Telnet access to the switch is available in the Device View
window under the Configuration tab.
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Menu Access To Status and Counters
Beginning at the Main Menu, display the Status and Counters menu by selecting:
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
1. Status and Counters
Figure 10-1. The Status and Counters Menu
Each of the above menu items accesses the read-only screens described on
the following pages. Refer to the online help for a description of the entries
displayed in these screens.
10-4
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
General System Information
Menu Access
From the console Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters
1. General System Information
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 10-2. Example of General Switch Information
This screen dynamically indicates how individual switch resources are being
used. See the online Help for details.
CLI Access
Syntax:
show system-information
10-5
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Switch Management Address Information
Menu Access
From the Main Menu, select:
1 Status and Counters . . .
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
2. Switch Management Address Information
Figure 10-3. Example of Management Address Information with VLANs Configured
This screen displays addresses that are important for management of the
switch. If multiple VLANs are not configured, this screen displays a single IP
address for the entire switch. See the online Help for details.
CLI Access
Syntax:
10-6
show management
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Port Status
The web browser interface and the console interface show the same port
status data.
Menu: Displaying Port Status
From the Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters . . .3. Port Status
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 10-4. Example of Port Status on the Menu Interface
CLI Access
Syntax:
show interfaces
Web Access
1.
Click on the Status tab.
2.
Click on [Port Status].
10-7
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Viewing Port and Trunk Group Statistics
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
viewing port and trunk statistics n/a
for all ports
page 10-9
page 10-10 page 10-10
viewing a detailed summary for a n/a
particular port or trunk
page 10-9
page 10-10 page 10-10
resetting counters
page 10-9
page 10-10 page 10-10
n/a
Web
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
These features enable you to determine the traffic patterns for each port since
the last reboot or reset of the switch. You can display:
■
A general report of traffic on all LAN ports and trunk groups in the switch
■
A detailed summary of traffic on a selected port or trunk group.
You can also reset the counters for a specific port.
The menu interface and the web browser interface provide a dynamic display
of counters summarizing the traffic on each port. The CLI lets you see a static
“snapshot” of port or trunk group statistics at a particular moment.
As mentioned above, rebooting or resetting the switch resets the counters to
zero. You can also reset the counters to zero for the current session. This is
useful for troubleshooting. See the “Note On Reset”, below.
Note on Reset
10-8
The Reset action resets the counter display to zero for the current session,
but does not affect the cumulative values in the actual hardware counters. (In
compliance with the SNMP standard, the values in the hardware counters are
not reset to zero unless you reboot the switch.) Thus, using the Reset action
resets the displayed counters to zero for the current session only. Exiting from
the console session and starting a new session restores the counter displays
to the accumulated values in the hardware counters.
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Menu Access to Port and Trunk Statistics
To access this screen from the Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters . . .
4. Port Counters
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 10-5. Example of Port Counters on the Menu Interface
To view details about the traffic on a particular port, use the [ v] key to highlight
that port number, then select Show Details. For example, selecting port 2
displays a screen similar to figure 10-6, below.
Figure 10-6. Example of the Display for Show details on a Selected Port
This screen also includes the Reset action for the current session. (See the
“Note on Reset” on page 10-8.)
10-9
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
CLI Access To Port and Trunk Group Statistics
To Display the Port Counter Summary Report. This command provides
an overview of port activity for all ports on the switch.
Syntax:
show statistics
To Display a Detailed Traffic Summary for a Specific Port. This command provides traffic details for the port you specify.
Syntax:
show statistics <port-number>
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
To Reset the Port Counters for a Specific Port. This command resets
the counters for the specified ports to zero for the current session. (See the
“Note on Reset” on page 10-8.)
Syntax:
clear statistics <[ethernet] port-list>
Web Browser Access To View Port and Trunk Group Statistics
10-10
1.
Click on the Status tab.
2.
Click on [Port Counters].
3.
To reset the counters for a specific port, click anywhere in the row for
that port, then click on [Refresh].
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Viewing the Switch’s MAC Address Tables
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
viewing MAC addresses on all
ports
n/a
page 10-12 page 10-14 —
viewing MAC addresses on a
specific port
n/a
page 10-13 page 10-14 —
viewing MAC addresses on a
specific VLAN
n/a
—
searching for a MAC address
n/a
page 10-13 page 10-14 —
page 10-14 —
■
The MAC addresses that the switch has learned from network devices
attached to the switch
■
The port on which each MAC address was learned
10-11
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
These features help you to view:
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Menu Access to the MAC Address Views and Searches
Switch-Level MAC-Address Viewing and Searching. This feature lets
you determine which switch port is being used to communicate with a specific
device on the network. The listing includes:
■
The MAC addresses that the switch has learned from network devices
attached to the switch
■
The port on which each MAC address was learned
From the Main Menu, select:
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
1. Status and Counters
5. Address Table
Figure 10-7. Example of the Address Table (Switch 4000M)
To page through the listing, use Next page and Prev page.
Identifying the Port Connection for a Specific Device. This feature
uses a device’s MAC address that you enter to identify the port used by that
device.
1.
Proceeding from figure 10-10-7, press [S] (for Search), to display the
following prompt:
Enter MAC address: _
10-12
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
2.
Type the MAC address you want to locate and press [Enter]. The address
and port number are highlighted if found. If the switch does not find the
address, it leaves the MAC address listing empty.
Located MAC
Address and
Corresponding
Port Number
Figure 10-8. Example of Menu Indicating Located MAC Address
1.
From the Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters
6. Port Address Table
Prompt for Selecting
the Port To Search
Figure 10-9. Listing MAC Addresses for a Specific Port
2.
Use the Space bar to select the port you want to list or search for MAC
addresses, then press [Enter] to list the MAC addresses detected on that port.
Determining Whether a Specific Device Is Connected to the Selected
Port. Proceeding from step 2, above:
1.
Press [S] (for Search), to display the following prompt:
10-13
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Port-Level MAC Address Viewing and Searching. This feature displays
and searches for MAC addresses on the specified port instead of for all ports
on the switch.
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Enter MAC address: _
2.
Type the MAC address you want to locate and press [Enter]. The address is
highlighted if found. If the switch does not find the address, it leaves the
MAC address listing empty.
CLI Access for MAC Address Views and Searches
Syntax:
show mac-address
[vlan <vlan-id>]
[ethernet]<port-list>]
[<mac-addr>]
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
To List All Learned MAC Addresses on the Switch, with The Port
Number on Which Each MAC Address Was Learned.
HP2512> show mac-address
To List All Learned MAC Addresses on one or more ports, with Their
Corresponding Port Numbers.
For example, to list the learned MAC
address on ports 1 through 5 and port 7:
HP2512> show mac-address 1-5,7
To List All Learned MAC Addresses on a VLAN, with Their Port
Numbers. This command lists the MAC addresses associated with the ports
for a given VLAN. For example:
HP2512> show mac-address vlan 100
Note
The Series 2500 switches have a Single Forwarding Database architecture.
This means the switches have only a single MAC address table, and not a
separate MAC address table per VLAN.
To Find the Port On Which the Switch Learned a Specific MAC
Address. For example, to find the port on which the switch learns a MAC
address of 0060b0-889e00:
HP2512> show mac-address 0060b0-889e00
10-14
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Information
Menu Access to STP Data
From the Main Menu, select:
1. Status and Counters . . .
7. Spanning Tree Information
STP must be enabled on the switch to display the following data:
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 10-10.Example of Spanning Tree Information
Use this screen to determine current switch-level STP parameter settings and
statistics.
You can use the Show ports action at the bottom of the screen to display portlevel information and parameter settings for each port in the switch (including
port type, cost, priority, operating state, and designated bridge) as shown in
figure 10-10-11.
10-15
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Figure 10-11.Example of STP Port Information
CLI Access to STP Data
This option lists the STP configuration, root data, and per-port data (cost,
priority, state, and designated bridge).
Syntax:
show spanning-tree
HP2512> show spanning-tree
10-16
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Status
The switch uses the CLI to display the following IGMP status on a per-VLAN
basis:
Output
show ip igmp
Global command listing IGMP status for all VLANs configured
in the switch:
• VLAN ID (VID) and name
• Active group addresses per VLAN
• Number of report and query packets per group
• Querier access port per VLAN
show ip igmp <vlan-id>
Per-VLAN command listing above IGMP status for specified
VLAN (VID)
show ip igmp group <ip-addr> Lists the ports currently participating in the specified group,
with port type, Access type, Age Timer data and Leave Timer
data.
For example, suppose that show ip igmp listed an IGMP group address of
224.0.1.22. You could get additional data on that group by executing the
following:
Figure 10-12.Example of IGMP Group Data
10-17
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Show Command
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
VLAN Information
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
The switch uses the CLI to display the following VLAN status:
Show Command
Output
show vlan
Lists:
• Maximum number of VLANs to support
• Existing VLANs
• Status (static or dynamic)
• Primary VLAN
show vlan <vlan-id>
For the specified VLAN, lists:
• Name, VID, and status (static/dynamic)
• Per-Port mode (tagged, untagged, forbid, no/auto)
• “Unknown VLAN” setting (Learn, Block, Disable)
• Port status (up/down)
For example, suppose that your switch has the following VLANs:
Ports
VLAN
1 - 12
1, 2
3, 4
DEFAULT_VLAN
VLAN-33
VLAN-44
VID
1
33
44
The next three figures show how you could list data on the above VLANs.
Listing the VLAN ID (VID) and Status for ALL VLANs in the Switch.
Figure 10-13.Example of VLAN Listing for the Entire Switch
10-18
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Listing the VLAN ID (VID) and Status for Specific Ports.
Because ports 1 and
2 are not members of
VLAN-44, it does not
appear in this listing.
Figure 10-14.Example of VLAN Listing for Specific Ports
Listing Individual VLAN Status.
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
10-19
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Status and Counters Data
Web Browser Interface Status Information
The “home” screen for the web browser interface is the Status Overview
screen, as shown below. As the title implies, it provides an overview of the
status of the switch, including summary graphs indicating the network utilization on each of the switch ports, symbolic port status indicators, and the
Alert Log, which informs you of any problems that may have occurred on the
switch.
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
For more information on this screen, see chapter 4, “Using the HP Web
Browser Interface”.
Port
Utilization
Graphs
Port Status
Indicators
Alert Log
Figure 10-15.Example of a Web Browser Interface Status Overview Screen
10-20
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Monitoring Features
Port Monitoring Features
Port Monitoring Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
display monitoring
configuration
disabled
page 10-22 page 10-24 page 10-26
configure the monitor port(s) ports: none
page 10-22 page 10-25 page 10-26
or VLAN
VLANs: DEFAULT_VLAN
none selected
page 10-22 page 10-25 page 10-26
You can designate a port for monitoring traffic of one or more other ports or
of a single VLAN configured on the switch. The switch monitors the network
activity by copying all traffic from the specified monitoring sources (ports or
VLAN) to the designated monitoring port, to which a network analyzer can be
attached.
Note
Port trunk groups cannot be used as a monitoring port.
It is possible, when monitoring multiple ports in networks with high traffic
levels, to copy more traffic to a monitor port than the link can support. In this
case, some packets may not be copied to the monitor port.
10-21
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
selecting or removing ports
or VLANs
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Monitoring Features
Menu: Configuring Port Monitoring
This procedure describes configuring the switch for monitoring when monitoring is disabled. (If monitoring has already been enabled, the screens will
appear differently than shown in this procedure.)
1.
From the Console Main Menu, Select:
2. Switch Configuration...
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
3. Network Monitoring Port
Enable monitoring
by setting this
parameter to “Yes”.
Figure 10-16. The Default Network Monitoring Configuration Screen
10-22
2.
In the Actions menu, press [E] (for Edit).
3.
If monitoring is currently disabled (the default) then enable it by pressing
the Space bar (or [Y]) to select Yes.
4.
Press the downarrow key to display a screen similar to the following and
move the cursor to the Monitoring Port parameter.
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Monitoring Features
Move the cursor to the
Monitoring Port parameter.
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Figure 10-17. How To Select a Monitoring Port
5.
Use the Space bar to select the port to use for monitoring, then press the
downarrow key to select the Monitor parameter. (The default setting is
Ports, which you will use if you want to monitor one or more individual
ports on the switch.)
6.
Do one of the following:
•
To monitor individual ports:
i. Leave the Monitor parameter set to Ports and press the downarrow key to move the cursor to the Action column for the individual ports.
ii. Press the Space bar to select Monitor for each port that you want
monitored. (Use the downarrow key to move from one port to the
next in the Action column.)
iii. Press [Enter], then press [S] (for Save) to save your changes and
exit from the screen.
•
To monitor all ports in a VLAN:
i. Press the Space bar to select VLAN in the Monitor parameter,.
ii. Press the downarrow keyto move to the VLAN parameter (figure
10-18 on page page 10-24).
iii. Press the Space bar again to select the VLAN that you want to
monitor.
10-23
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Monitoring Features
iv. Press [Enter], then press [S] (for Save) to save your changes and
exit from the screen.
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Note: This screen
appears instead of the
one in figure 10-17 if the
Monitor parameter is set
to VLAN
Example of a VLAN
Monitoring Parameter
Figure 10-18.Example of Selecting a VLAN to Monitor
7.
Return to the Main Menu.
CLI: Configuring Port Monitoring
Port Monitoring Commands Used in This Section
show mirror-port
mirror-port
monitor (VLAN)
monitor (Port)
below
page 10-25
page 10-25
page 10-25
You must use the following configuration sequence to configure port monitoring in the CLI:
1.
Assign a monitoring (mirror) port.
2.
Designate the port(s) and/or a VLAN to monitor.
Displaying the Port Monitoring Configuration. This command lists the
port assigned to receive monitored traffic and the ports being monitored.
Syntax:
show mirror-port
For example, if you assign port 12 as the monitoring port and configure the
switch to monitor ports 1 - 3, show mirror-port displays the following:
10-24
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Monitoring Features
Port receiving monitored traffic.
Monitored Ports
Figure 10-19.Example of Monitored Port Listing
Syntax:
[no] mirror-port [<port-num>]
For example, to assign port 12 as the monitoring port:
HP2512(config)# mirror-port 12
To turn off port monitoring:
HP2512(config)# no mirror-port
Selecting or Removing Ports or VLANs As Monitoring Sources. After
you configure a monitor port you can use either the global configuration level
or the interface context level to select ports or VLANs as monitoring sources.
You can also use either level to remove monitoring sources.
Syntax:
[no] monitor [vlan <vlan-id> | interface ethernet <port-list>]
For example, with a monitoring (mirror) port configured (above), you could
select ports 1 and 2 for monitoring:
From the global config level, selects ports
or VLAN as monitoring sources.
From the interface or VLAN context level,
selects the ports or VLAN as monitoring
sources.
Figure 10-20.Examples of Selecting Ports and VLANs as Monitoring Sources
10-25
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
Configuring the Monitor Port. This command assigns or removes a monitoring port, and must be executed from the global configuration level. Removing the monitor port disables port monitoring and resets the monitoring
parameters to their factory-default settings.
Monitoring and Analyzing Switch Operation
Port Monitoring Features
From the global config level, removes
ports or VLAN as monitoring sources.
From the interface or VLAN context level,
removes the ports or VLAN as monitoring
sources.
Figure 10-21.Examples of Removing Ports and VLANs as Monitoring Sources
Web: Configuring Port Monitoring
Monitoring and Analyzing
Switch Operation
To enable port monitoring:
1.
Click on the Configuration tab.
2.
Click on [Monitor Port].
3.
Do either of the following:
4.
•
To monitor a VLAN:
i. Click on the radio button for Monitor 1 VLAN.
ii. Select the VLAN to monitor.
•
To monitor one or more ports.
i. Click on the radio button for Monitor Selected Ports.
ii. Select the port(s) to monitor.
Click on [Apply Changes].
To remove port monitoring:
1.
Click on the Monitoring Off radio button.
2.
Click on [Apply Changes].
For web-based Help on how to use the web browser interface screen, click on
the [?] button provided on the web browser screen.
10-26
11
Troubleshooting
Chapter Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Troubleshooting Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Browser or Console Access Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
Using the Event Log To Identify Problem Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
Menu: Entering and Navigating in the Event Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
CLI: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Diagnostic Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Ping and Link Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Web: Executing Ping or Link Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15
CLI: Ping or Link Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16
Displaying the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18
CLI: Viewing the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18
Web: Viewing the Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18
CLI Administrative and Troubleshooting Commands . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19
Restoring the Factory-Default Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
CLI: Resetting to the Factory-Default Configuration . . . . . . . . 11-20
Clear/Reset: Resetting to the Factory-Default Configuration . 11-20
11-1
Troubleshooting
Unusual Network Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
General Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
IGMP-Related Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
Problems Related to Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) . . . . . . . . . . 11- 8
Stacking-Related Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Timep or Gateway Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
VLAN-Related Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Troubleshooting
Overview
Overview
This chapter addresses performance-related network problems that can be
caused by topology, switch configuration, and the effects of other devices or
their configurations on switch operation. (For switch-specific information on
hardware problems indicated by LED behavior, cabling requirements, and
other potential hardware-related problems, refer to the installation guide you
received with the switch.)
Troubleshooting
This chapter includes:
■
Troubleshooting Approaches (page 11-3)
■
Browser or Console Interface Problems (page 11-4)
■
Unusual Network Activity (page 11-6)
•
General Problems (page 11-6)
•
IGMP-Related Problems (page 11-7)
•
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Related Problems (page 11-8)
•
VLAN-Related Problems (page 11-9)
■
Using the Event Log To Identify Problem Sources (page 11-11)
■
Diagnostics and management tools (page 11-14), including:
•
Link test (page 11-14)
•
Ping test (page 11-15)
•
Browse configuration (page 11-18)
•
Command prompt (page 11-13)
•
Restoring the factory default configuration (page 11-20)
For information on support and warranty provisions, see the Support and
Warranty booklet shipped with the switch.
11-2
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Approaches
Troubleshooting Approaches
Use these approaches to diagnose switch problems:
■
Check the switch LEDs for indications of proper switch operation:
•
Each switch port has a Link LED that should light whenever an active
network device is connected to the port.
•
Problems with the switch hardware and software are indicated by
flashing the Fault and other switch LEDs.
See the Installation Guide shipped with the switch for a description
of the LED behavior and information on using the LEDs for troubleshooting.
Check the network topology/installation. See the Installation Guide
shipped with the switch for topology information.
■
Check cables for damage, correct type, and proper connections. See the
Installation Guide shipped with the switch for correct cable types and
connector pin-outs.
■
Use HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches (if installed on your network) to
help isolate problems and recommend solutions. HP TopTools is shipped
at no extra cost with the switch.
■
Use the Port Utilization Graph and Alert Log in the web browser interface
included in the switch to help isolate problems. See chapter 3, “Using the
HP Web Browser Interface” for operating information. These tools are
available through the web browser interface:
■
•
Port Utilization Graph
•
Alert Log
•
Port Status and Port Counters screens
•
Diagnostic tools (Link test, Ping test, configuration file browser)
For help in isolating problems, use the easy-to-access switch console built
into the switch or Telnet to the switch console. See chapter 4, “Using the
Switch Console Interface” for operating information. These tools are
available through the switch console
•
Status and Counters screens
•
Event Log
•
Diagnostics tools (Link test, Ping test, configuration file browser, and
advanced user commands)
11-3
Troubleshooting
■
Troubleshooting
Browser or Console Access Problems
Browser or Console Access Problems
Cannot access the web browser interface:
■
Access may be disabled by the Web Agent Enabled parameter in the switch
console. Check the setting on this parameter by selecting:
2. Switch Configuration . . .
1. System Information
■
The switch may not have the correct IP address, subnet mask or gateway.
Verify by connecting a console to the switch’s Console port and selecting:
2. Switch Configuration . . .
1. IP Configuration
Note: If DHCP/Bootp is used to configure the switch, the IP addressing
can be verified by selecting:
1. Status and Counters . . .
Troubleshooting
2. Switch Management Address Information
also check the DHCP/Bootp server configuration to verify correct IP
addressing.
11-4
■
If you are using DHCP to acquire the IP address for the switch, the IP
address “lease time” may have expired so that the IP address has changed.
For more information on how to “reserve” an IP address, refer to the
documentation for the DHCP application that you are using.
■
If one or more IP-Authorized managers are configured, the switch allows
web browser access only to a device having an authorized IP address. For
more information on IP Authorized managers, see “Using IP Authorized
Managers” on page 30.
■
Java™ applets may not be running on the web browser. They are required
for the switch web browser interface to operate correctly. See the online
Help on your web browser for how to run the Java applets.
Troubleshooting
Browser or Console Access Problems
Cannot Telnet into the switch console from a station on the network:
■
Telnet access may be disabled by the Inbound Telnet Enabled parameter in
the System Information screen of the menu interface:
2. Switch Configuration
1. System Information
■
The switch may not have the correct IP address, subnet mask, or gateway.
Verify by connecting a console to the switch’s Console port and selecting:
2. Switch Configuration
5. IP Configuration
Note: If DHCP/Bootp is used to configure the switch, see the Note, above.
If you are using DHCP to acquire the IP address for the switch, the IP
address “lease time” may have expired so that the IP address has changed.
For more information on how to “reserve” an IP address, refer to the
documentation for the DHCP application that you are using.
■
If one or more IP-Authorized managers are configured, the switch allows
inbound telnet access only to a device having an authorized IP address.
For more information on IP Authorized managers, see “Enhancing Security By Configuring Authorized IP Managers” on page “Using IP Authorized Managers” on page 30.
11-5
Troubleshooting
■
Troubleshooting
Unusual Network Activity
Unusual Network Activity
Network activity that exceeds accepted norms may indicate a hardware
problem with one or more of the network components, possibly including the
switch. Unusual network activity is usually indicated by the LEDs on the front
of the switch or measured with the switch console interface or with a network
management tool such as the HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches. Refer to the
Installation Guide you received with the switch for information on using
LEDs to identify unusual network activity.
A topology loop can also cause excessive network activity. The event log "FFI"
messages can be indicative of this type of problem.
General Problems
Troubleshooting
The network runs slow; processes fail; users cannot access servers or
other devices. Broadcast storms may be occurring in the network. These
may be due to redundant links between nodes.
•
If you are configuring a port trunk, finish configuring the ports in the
trunk before connecting the related cables. Otherwise you may inadvertently create a number of redundant links (i.e. topology loops)
that will cause broadcast storms.
•
Turn on Spanning Tree Protocol to block redundant links (i.e. topology loops)
•
Check for FFI messages in the Event Log.
Duplicate IP Addresses. This is indicated by this Event Log message:
ip: Invalid ARP source: IP address on IP address
where: both instances of IP address are the same address, indicating the
switch’s IP address has been duplicated somewhere on the network.
Duplicate IP Addresses in a DHCP Network. If you use a DHCP server
to assign IP addresses in your network and you find a device with a valid IP
address that does not appear to communicate properly with the server or other
devices, a duplicate IP address may have been issued by the server. This can
occur if a client has not released a DHCP-assigned IP address after the
intended expiration time and the server “leases” the address to another device.
This can also happen, for example, if the server is first configured to issue IP
addresses with an unlimited duration, then is subsequently configured to issue
11-6
Troubleshooting
Unusual Network Activity
IP addresses that will expire after a limited duration. One solution is to
configure “reservations” in the DHCP server for specific IP addresses to be
assigned to devices having specific MAC addresses. For more information,
refer to the documentation for the DHCP server.
One indication of a duplicate IP address in a DHCP network is this Event Log
message:
ip: Invalid ARP source: IP address on IP address
where: both instances of IP address are the same address, indicating the
IP address that has been duplicated somewhere on the network.
IGMP-Related Problems
IP Multicast (IGMP) Traffic That Is Directed By IGMP Does Not Reach
IGMP Hosts or a Multicast Router Connected to a Port. IGMP must
be enabled on the switch and the affected port must be configured for “Auto”
or “Forward” operation.
IP Multicast Traffic Floods Out All Ports; IGMP Does Not Appear To
Filter Traffic. The IGMP feature does not operate if the switch or VLAN does
not have an IP address configured manually or obtained through DHCP/Bootp.
To verify whether an IP address is configured for the switch or VLAN, do either
of the following:
■
Try Using the Web Browser Interface: If you can access the web
browser interface, then an IP address is configured.
■
Try To Telnet to the Switch Console: If you can Telnet to the switch,
then an IP address is configured.
■
Using the Switch Console Interface: From the Main Menu, check the
Management Address Information screen by clicking on
1. Status and Counters
2. Switch Management Address Information
11-7
Troubleshooting
The Switch Has Been Configured for DHCP/Bootp Operation, But Has
Not Received a DHCP or Bootp Reply. When the switch is first configured for DHCP/Bootp operation, or if it is rebooted with this configuration, it
immediately begins sending request packets on the network. If the switch does
not receive a reply to its DHCP/Bootp requests, it continues to periodically
send request packets, but with decreasing frequency. Thus, if a DHCP or Bootp
server is not available or accessible to the switch when DHCP/Bootp is first
configured, the switch may not immediately receive the desired configuration.
After verifying that the server has become accessible to the switch, reboot the
switch to re-start the process.
Troubleshooting
Unusual Network Activity
Problems Related to Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
Caution
If you enable STP, it is recommended that you leave the remainder of the STP
parameter settings at their default values until you have had an opportunity
to evaluate STP performance in your network. Because incorrect STP settings
can adversely affect network performance, you should avoid making changes
without having a strong understanding of how STP operates. To learn the
details of STP operation, refer to the IEEE 802.1d standard.
Broadcast Storms Appearing in the Network. This can occur when
there are physical loops (redundant links) in the topology.Where this exists,
you should enable STP on all bridging devices in the topology in order for the
loop to be detected.
Troubleshooting
STP Blocks a Link in a VLAN Even Though There Are No Redundant
Links in that VLAN. In 802.1Q-compliant switches such as the Switch 2512
and Switch 2524, STP blocks redundant physical links even if they are in
separate VLANs. A solution is to use only one, multiple-VLAN (tagged) link
between the devices. Also, if ports are available, you can improve the bandwidth in this situation by using a port trunk. See "STP Operation with 802.1Q
VLANs" on page 9-110.
Stacking-Related Problems
The Stack Commander Cannot Locate any Candidates. Stacking operates on the primary VLAN, which in the default configuration is the
DEFAULT_VLAN. However, if another VLAN has been configured as the
primary VLAN, and the Commander is not on the primary VLAN, then the
Commander will not detect Candidates on the primary VLAN.
Timep or Gateway Problems
The Switch Cannot Find the Timep Server or the Configured
Gateway . Timep and Gateway access are through the primary VLAN, which
in the default configuration is the DEFAULT_VLAN. If the primary VLAN has
been moved to another VLAN, it may be disabled or does not have ports
assigned to it.
11-8
Troubleshooting
Unusual Network Activity
VLAN-Related Problems
Monitor Port. When using the monitor port in a multiple VLAN environment, it can be useful to know how broadcast, multicast, and unicast traffic
is tagged. The following table describes the tagging to expect.
Within Same
Within Same
Outside of
Tagged VLAN
Untagged VLAN Tagged Monitor
as Monitor Port as Monitor Port Port VLAN
Outside of
Untagged Monitor
Port VLAN
Broadcast
Tagged
Untagged
Untagged
Untagged
Multicast
Tagged
Untagged
Untagged
Untagged
Unicast Flood Tagged
Untagged
Untagged
Untagged
Unicast Not
to Monitor
Port
Untagged
Untagged
Untagged
Untagged
N/A—Dropped
N/A—Dropped
Untagged
Unicast to
Tagged
Monitor Port
Link Configured for Multiple VLANs Does Not Support Traffic for One
or More VLANs. One or more VLANs may not be properly configured as
“Tagged” or “Untagged”. A VLAN assigned to a port connecting two 802.1Qcompliant devices must be configured the same on both ports. For example,
VLAN_1 and VLAN_2 use the same link between switch “X” and switch “Y”.
Link supporting VLAN_1
and VLAN_2
Switch “X”
Port X-3
Switch “Y”
Port Y- 7
VLAN Port Assignment
VLAN Port Assignment
Port VLAN_1
Port VLAN_1
X-3
VLAN_2
Untagged Tagged
Y-7
VLAN_2
Untagged Tagged
Figure 11-1. Example of Correct VLAN Port Assignments on a Link
11-9
Troubleshooting
None of the devices assigned to one or more VLANs on an 802.1Qcompliant switch are being recognized. If multiple VLANs are being used
on ports connecting 802.1Q-compliant devices, inconsistent VLAN IDs may
have been assigned to one or more VLANs. For a given VLAN, the same VLAN
ID must be used on all connected 802.1Q-compliant devices.
Troubleshooting
Unusual Network Activity
1.
If VLAN_1 (VID=1) is configured as “Untagged” on port 3 on switch “X”,
then it must also be configured as “Untagged” on port 7 on switch “Y”.
Make sure that the VLAN ID (VID) is the same on both switches.
2.
Similarly, if VLAN_2 (VID=2) is configured as “Tagged on the link port on
switch “A”, then it must also be configured as “Tagged” on the link port
on switch “B”. Make sure that the VLAN ID (VID) is the same on both
switches.
Troubleshooting
Duplicate MAC Addresses Across VLANs. Duplicate MAC addresses on
different VLANs are not supported and can cause VLAN operating problems.
There are no explicit events or statistics to indicate the presence of duplicate
MAC addresses in a VLAN environment. However, one symptom that may
occur is that a duplicate MAC address can appear in the Port Address Table
of one port, and then later appear on another port. (This can also occur in a
LAN where there are redundant paths between nodes and Spanning Tree is
turned off.) For more information, refer to “VLAN Restrictions” on page 9-75.
11-10
Troubleshooting
Using the Event Log To Identify Problem Sources
Using the Event Log To Identify Problem
Sources
The Event Log records operating events as single-line entries listed in chronological order, and serves as a tool for isolating problems. Each Event Log entry
is composed of five fields:
Severity
I
Date
08/05/98
Time
System Module
10:52:32
ports:
Event Message
port 1 enabled
Severity is one of the following codes:
I
(information) indicates routine events.
W (warning) indicates that a service has behaved unexpectedly.
(critical) indicates that a severe switch error has occurred.
D
(debug) reserved for HP internal diagnostic information.
Date is the date in mm/dd/yy format that the entry was placed in the log.
Time is the time in hh:mm:ss format that the entry was placed in the log.
System Module is the internal module (such as “ports” for port manager) that
generated the log entry. If VLANs are configured, then a VLAN name also
appears for an event that is specific to an individual VLAN. Table 11-1 on page
11-12 lists the individual modules.
Event Message is a brief description of the operating event.
The event log holds up to 1000 lines in chronological order, from the oldest to
the newest. Each line consists of one complete event message. Once the log
has received 1000 entries, it discards the current oldest line each time a new
line is received. The event log window contains 14 log entry lines and can be
positioned to any location in the log.
The event log will be erased if power to the switch is interrupted.
(The event log is not erased by using the Reboot Switch command in the Main
Menu.)
11-11
Troubleshooting
C
Troubleshooting
Using the Event Log To Identify Problem Sources
Troubleshooting
Table 11-1. Event Log System Modules
Module
Event Description
Module
Event Description
addrMgr
Address table
mgr
Console management
chassis
switch hardware
ports
Change in port status; static trunks
bootp
bootp addressing
snmp
SNMP communications
console
Console interface
stack
Stacking
dhcp
DHCP addressing
stp
Spanning Tree
download
file transfer
sys, system
Switch management
FFI
Find, Fix, and Inform) -- available in the
console event log and web browser
interface alert log
telnet
Telnet activity
garp
GARP/GVRP
tcp
Transmission control
igmp
IP Multicast
tftp
File transfer for new OS or config.
ip
IP-related
timep
Time protocol
ipx
Novell Netware
vlan
VLAN operations
lacp
Dynamic LACP trunks
Xmodem
Xmodem file transfer
Menu: Entering and Navigating in the Event Log
From the Main Menu, select Event Log.
Range of Events in the Log
Range of Log Events Displayed
Log Status Line
Figure 11-2. Example of an Event Log Display
11-12
Troubleshooting
Using the Event Log To Identify Problem Sources
The log status line at the bottom of the display identifies where in the
sequence of event messages the display is currently positioned.
To display various portions of the Event Log, either preceding or following the
currently visible portion, use either the actions listed at the bottom of the
display (Next page, Prev page, or End), or the keys described in the following
table:
Table 11-2. Event Log Control Keys
Key
Action
[N]
Advance the display by one page (next page).
[P]
Roll back the display by one page (previous page).
[ v]
Advance display by one event (down one line).
[ ^]
Roll back display by one event (up one line).
[E]
Advance to the end of the log.
[H]
Display Help for the event log.
Troubleshooting
CLI:
Using the CLI, you can list
■
Events recorded since the last boot of the switch
■
All events recorded
■
Event entries containing a specific keyword, either since the last boot or
all events recorded
Syntax:
show logging [-a] [<search-text>]
HP2512> show logging
Lists recorded log messages since
last reboot.
HP2512> show logging -a
Lists all recorded log messages.
HP2512> show logging -a system Lists all log messages having
"system" in the text or module
name.
HP2512> show logging system
Lists all log messages since the
last reboot that have "system" in
the text or module name.
11-13
Troubleshooting
Diagnostic Tools
Diagnostic Tools
Diagnostic Features
Feature
Default
PingTest
n/a
Link Test
Menu
CLI
Web
—
page 11-16
page 11-15
n/a
—
page 11-16
page 11-15
Display Config File
n/a
—
page 11-18
page 11-18
Admin. and Troubleshooting
Commands
n/a
—
page 11-19
—
Factory-Default Config
page 11-20
(Buttons)
—
page 11-20
—
Troubleshooting
Ping and Link Tests
The Ping test and the Link test are point-to-point tests between your switch
and another IEEE 802.3-compliant device on your network. These tests can
tell you whether the switch is communicating properly with another device.
Note
To respond to a Ping test or a Link test, the device you are trying to reach must
be IEEE 802.3-compliant.
Ping Test. This is a test of the path between the switch and another device
on the same or another IP network that can respond to IP packets (ICMP Echo
Requests).
Link Test. This is a test of the connection between the switch and a designated network device on the same LAN (or VLAN, if configured). During the
link test, IEEE 802.2 test packets are sent to the designated network device
in the same VLAN or broadcast domain. The remote device must be able to
respond with an 802.2 Test Response Packet.
11-14
Troubleshooting
Diagnostic Tools
Web: Executing Ping or Link Tests
1. Click here.
2. Click here.
3. Select Ping Test (the
default) or Link Test
4. For a Ping test, enter
the IP address of the
target device. For a
Link test, enter the
MAC address of the
target device.
Troubleshooting
6. Click on Start to begin the test.
5. Select the number of tries
(packets) and the timeout for
each try from the drop-down
menus.
Figure 11-12.Link and Ping Test Screen on the Web Browser Interface
Successes indicates the number of Ping or Link packets that successfully
completed the most recent test.
Failures indicates the number of Ping or Link packets that were unsuccessful
in the last test. Failures indicate connectivity or network performance problems (such as overloaded links or devices).
Destination IP/MAC Address is the network address of the target, or destination,
device to which you want to test a connection with the switch. An IP address
is in the X.X.X.X format where X is a decimal number between 0 and 255. A
MAC address is made up of 12 hexadecimal digits, for example, 0060b0-080400.
11-15
Troubleshooting
Diagnostic Tools
Number of Packets to Send is the number of times you want the switch to
attempt to test a connection.
Timeout in Seconds is the number of seconds to allow per attempt to test a
connection before determining that the current attempt has failed.
To halt a Link or Ping test before it concludes, click on the Stop button.
To reset the screen to its default settings, click on the Defaults button.
CLI: Ping or Link Tests
Ping Tests. You can issue single or multiple ping tests with varying repititions and timeout periods. The defaults and ranges are:
■
Repetitions: 1 (1 - 999)
■
Timeout: 5 seconds (1 - 256 seconds)
Troubleshooting
Syntax:
ping <ip-address> [repetitions <1 - 999>] [timeout <1 - 256>]
Basic Ping
Operation
Ping with
Repetitions
Ping with
Repetitions
and Timeout
Ping Failure
Figure 11-13.Examples of Ping Tests
To halt a ping test before it concludes, press [Ctrl] [C].
11-16
Troubleshooting
Diagnostic Tools
Link Tests. You can issue single or multiple link tests with varying repititions
and timeout periods. The defaults are:
■
Repetitions: 1 (1 - 9999)
■
Timeout: 5 seconds (1 - 256 seconds)
Syntax:
link <mac-address> [repetitions <1 - 999>] [timeout <1 - 256>]
Basic Link Test
Link Test with
Repetitions
Link Test with
Repetitions and
Timeout
Troubleshooting
Link Test Over a
Specific VLAN
Link Test Over a
Specific VLAN;
Test Fail
Figure 11-14.Example of Link Tests
11-17
Troubleshooting
Diagnostic Tools
Displaying the Configuration File
The complete switch configuration is contained in a file that you can browse
from either the web browser interface or the CLI. It may be useful in some
troubleshooting scenarios to view the switch configuration.
CLI: Viewing the Configuration File
Using the CLI, you can display either the running configuration or the startup
configuration. (For more on these topics, see appendix C, "Switch Memory
and Configuration".)
Syntax:
write terminal
Displays the running configuration.
show config
Displays the startup configuration.
Web: Viewing the Configuration File
Troubleshooting
To display the running configuration, through the web browser interface:
11-18
1.
Click on the Diagnostics tab.
2.
Click on [Configuration Report]
3.
Use the right-side scroll bar to scroll through the configuration listing.
Troubleshooting
Diagnostic Tools
CLI Administrative and Troubleshooting Commands
These commands provide information or perform actions that you may find
helpful in troubleshooting operating problems with the switch.
Note
For more on the CLI, refer to chapter 3, "Using the Command Line Reference
(CLI).
Syntax:
Shows the software version
currently running on the switch.
show boot-history
Displays the switch shutdown
history.
show history
Displays the current command
history.
[no] page
Toggles the paging mode for
display commands between
continuous listing and per-page
listing.
Setup
Displays the Switch Setup screen
from the menu interface
Repeat
Repeatedly executes the previous
command until a key is pressed.
kill
Terminates all other active
sessions.
11-19
Troubleshooting
show version
Troubleshooting
Restoring the Factory-Default Configuration
Restoring the Factory-Default
Configuration
As part of your troubleshooting process, it may become necessary to return
the switch configuration to the factory default settings. This process momentarily interrupts the switch operation, clears any passwords, clears the console
event log, resets the network counters to zero, performs a complete self test,
and reboots the switch into its factory default configuration including deleting
an IP address. There are two methods for restting to the factory-default
configuration:
Troubleshooting
Note
■
CLI
■
Clear/Reset button combination
HP recommends that you save your configuration to a TFTP server before
resetting the switch to its factory-default configuration. You can also save your
configuration via Xmodem, to a directly connected PC.
CLI: Resetting to the Factory-Default Configuration
This command operates at any level except the Operator level.
Syntax: erase startup-configuration
Deletes the startup-config file in
flash so that the switch will
reboot with its factory-default
configuration.
Clear/Reset: Resetting to the Factory-Default Configuration
To execute the factory default reset, perform these steps:
1.
Using pointed objects, simultaneously press both the Reset and Clear
buttons on the front of the switch.
2.
Continue to press the Clear button while releasing the Reset button.
3.
When the Self Test LED begins to flash, release the Clear button.
The switch will then complete its self test and begin operating with the
configuration restored to the factory default settings.
11-20
A
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
Transferring an Operating System or Startup
Configuration File
Appendix Contents
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Downloading an Operating System (OS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Using TFTP To Download the OS File from a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Menu: TFTP Download from a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
CLI: TFTP Download from a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Using the SNMP-Based Software Update Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Series 2500 Switch-to-Switch Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Menu: Switch-to-Switch Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
CLI: Switch-To-Switch Download. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7
Using Xmodem to Download the OS File From a PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7
Menu: Xmodem Download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7
CLI: Xmodem Download from a PC or Unix Workstation . . . . . . A-8
Troubleshooting TFTP Downloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9
Transferring Switch Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-10
A-1
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Overview
Overview
You can download new switch software (operating system—OS) and upload
or download switch configuration files. These features are useful for acquiring
periodic switch software upgrades and for storing or retrieving a switch
configuration.
This appendix includes the following information:
■
downloading an operating system (this page)
■
transferring switch configurations (page A-10)
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
HP periodically provides switch operating system (OS) updates through the
Network City website (http://www.hp.com/go/network_city) and the HP FTP
Library Service. For more information, see the support and warranty booklet
shipped with the switch. After you acquire the new OS file, you can use one
of the following methods for downloading the operating system (OS) code to
the switch:
Note
A-2
■
The TFTP feature (Download OS) command in the Main Menu of the switch
console interface (page A-3)
■
HP’s SNMP Download Manager included in HP TopTools for Hubs &
Switches
■
A switch-to-switch file transfer
■
Xmodem transfer method
Downloading a new OS does not change the current switch configuration. The
switch configuration is contained in a separate file that can also be transferred,
for example, for archive purposes or to be used in another switch of the same
model. See “Transferring Switch Configurations” on page A-10.
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
Using TFTP To Download the OS File from a Server
■
An OS file for the switch has been stored on a TFTP server accessible to
the switch. (The OS file is typically available from HP’s electronic services—see the support and warranty booklet shipped with the switch.)
■
The switch is properly connected to your network and has already been
configured with a compatible IP address and subnet mask.
■
The TFTP server is accessible to the switch via IP.
Before you use the procedure, do the following:
Note
■
Obtain the IP address of the TFTP server in which the OS file has been
stored.
■
If VLANs are configured on the switch, determine the name of the VLAN
in which the TFTP server is operating.
■
Determine the name of the OS file stored in the TFTP server for the switch
(for example, A_01_01.swi).
If your TFTP server is a Unix workstation, ensure that the case (upper or
lower) that you specify for the filename is the same case as the characters
in the OS filenames on the server.
A-3
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
This procedure assumes that:
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
Menu: TFTP Download from a Server
1.
In the console Main Menu, select Download OS to display this screen:
Figure A-15. Example of the Download OS Screen (Default Values)
2.
Press [E] (for Edit).
3.
Ensure that the Method field is set to TFTP (the default).
4.
In the TFTP Server field, type in the IP address of the TFTP server in which
the OS file has been stored.
5.
In the Remote File Name field, type the name of the OS file. If you are
using a UNIX system, remember that the filename is case-sensitive.
6.
Press [Enter], then [X] (for eXecute) to begin the OS download. The following
screen then appears:
Figure A-16. Example of the Download OS Screen During a Download
A-4
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
After the system flash memory has been updated with the new operating
system, the switch reboots itself and begins running with the new operating system.
7.
To confirm that the operating system downloaded correctly:
a.
From the Main Menu, select 1. Status and Counters, and from the Status
and Counters menu, select 1. General System Information
b.
Check the Firmware revision line.
CLI: TFTP Download from a Server
Syntax:
copy tftp flash <ip-address> <remote-os-file>
For example, to download an OS file named F_01_03.swi from a TFTP server
with the IP address of 10.28.227.103:
1.
Execute the copy command as shown below:
2.
When the switch finishes downloading the OS file from the server, it
displays this progress message:
Validating and Writing System Software to FLASH . . .
3.
After the switch reboots, it displays the CLI or Main Menu, depending on
the Logon Default setting last configured in the menu’s Switch Setup
screen.
A-5
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
A “progress” bar indicates the progress of the download. When the entire
operating system has been received, all activity on the switch halts and
you will see Validating and writing system software to FLASH... followed by
Transfer completed.
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
Using the SNMP-Based Software Update Utility
HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches includes a software update utility for
updating on HP ProCurve switch products such as the Series 2500 switches.
For further information, refer to the HP TopTools for Hubs & Switches User
Guide, provided electronically with the HP TopTools software.
Series 2500 Switch-to-Switch Download
If you have two or more Series 2500 switches networked together, you can
download the OS software from one switch to another by using the Download
OS feature in the switch console interface.
Menu: Switch-to-Switch Download
1.
From the switch console Main Menu in the switch to receive the download, select 7. Download OS screen.
2.
Ensure that the Method parameter is set to TFTP (the default).
3.
In the TFTP Server field, enter the IP address of the remote Series 2500
switch containing the OS you want to download.
4.
Enter “flash” for the Remote File Name. (Type “flash” in lowercase characters.)
5.
Press [Enter], then [X] (for eXecute) to begin the OS download.
6.
A “progress” bar indicates the progress of the download. When the entire
operating system has been received, all activity on the switch halts and
the following messages appear:
Validating and writing system software to FLASH...
Transfer completed
After the system flash memory has been updated with the new operating
system, the switch reboots itself and begins running with the new operating system.
7.
To confirm that the operating system downloaded correctly:
a.
From the Main Menu, select
Status and Counters
General System Information
b.
A-6
Check the Firmware revision line.
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
CLI: Switch-To-Switch Download
copy tftp flash <ip-addr> flash
For example, to download an OS file from a Switch 2512 with an IP address
of 10.28.227.103:
Running Total
of Bytes
Downloaded
Figure 8-17.Switch-To-Switch OS Download Using the CLI
Using Xmodem to Download the OS File From a PC
This procedure assumes that:
■
The switch is connected via the Console RS-232 port on a PC operating as
a terminal. (Refer to the Installation Guide you received with the switch
for information on connecting a PC as a terminal and running the switch
console interface.)
■
The switch operating system (OS) is stored on a disk drive in the PC.
■
The terminal emulator you are using includes the Xmodem binary transfer
feature. (For example, in the Windows NT terminal emulator, you would
use the Send File option in the Transfer dropdown menu.)
Menu: Xmodem Download
1.
From the console Main Menu, select
7. Download OS
2.
Press [E] (for Edit).
3.
Use the Space bar to select XMODEM in the Method field.
4.
Press [Enter], then [X] (for eXecute) to begin the OS download. The following
message then appears:
Press enter and then initiate Xmodem transfer
from the attached computer.....
5.
Execute the terminal emulator command(s) to begin Xmodem binary
transfer.
A-7
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
Syntax:
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Downloading an Operating System (OS)
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
The download can take several minutes, depending on the baud rate used
for the transfer.
6.
When the download finishes, the switch automatically reboots itself and
begins running the new OS version.
7.
To confirm that the operating system downloaded correctly:
a.
From the Main Menu, select
1. Status and Counters
1. General System Information
b.
Check the Firmware revision line.
CLI: Xmodem Download from a PC or Unix Workstation
Syntax:
copy xmodem flash <unix | pc>
For example, to download an OS file named F_01_03.swi from a PC:
1.
Execute the following command in the CLI:
2.
Execute the terminal emulator commands to begin the Xmodem transfer.
The download can take several minutes, depending on the baud rate used
in the transfer.
When the download finishes, the switch automatically reboots itself and
begins running the new OS version.
3.
To confirm that the operating system downloaded correctly:
HP2512> show system
Check the Firmware revision line.
A-8
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Troubleshooting TFTP Downloads
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
Troubleshooting TFTP Downloads
If a TFTP download fails, the Download OS screen indicates the failure.
Message Indicating
cause of TFTP Download
Failure
Figure A-18. Example of Message for Download Failure
To find more information on the cause of a download failure, examine the
messages in the switch’s Event Log by executing this CLI command:
HP2512# show log tftp
(For more on the Event Log, see “Using the Event Log To Identify Problem
Sources” on page 11-11.)
Some of the causes of download failures include:
■
Incorrect or unreachable address specified for the TFTP Server parameter.
This may include network problems.
■
Incorrect VLAN.
■
Incorrect name specified for the Remote File Name parameter, or the
specified file cannot be found on the TFTP server. This can also occur if
the TFTP server is a Unix machine and the case (upper or lower) for the
filename on the server does not match the case for the filename entered
for the Remote File Name parameter in the Download OS screen.
■
One or more of the switch’s IP configuration parameters are incorrect.
■
For a Unix TFTP server, the file permissions for the OS file do not allow
the file to be copied.
A-9
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Transferring Switch Configurations
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
■
Note
Another console session (through either a direct connection to a terminal
device or through Telnet) was already running when you started the
session in which the download was attempted.
If an error occurs in which normal switch operation cannot be restored, the
switch automatically reboots itself. In this case, an appropriate message is
displayed in the copyright screen that appears after the switch reboots.
Transferring Switch Configurations
Transfer Features
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
use TFTP to copy a configuration n/a
from a remote host to the startupconfig file
—
below
use TFTP to copy the startupconfig file to a remote host
n/a
—
page A-11
use Xmodem to copy a
configuration from a serially
connected host to the startupconfig file
n/a
—
page A-11
Use Xmodem to copy the startup- n/a
config file to a serially connected
host
—
page A-12
Web
Using the CLI commands described in this section, you can copy switch
configurations to and from a switch.
TFTP: Retrieving a Configuration from a Remote Host.
Syntax:
copy tftp startup-config <ip-address> <remote-file>
This command copies a configuration from a remote host to the startup-config
file in the switch. (See appendix C, "Switch Memory and Configuration" for
information on the startup-config file.)
For example, to download a configuration file named sw2512 in the configs
directory on drive "d" in a remote host having an IP address of 13.28.227.105:
HP2512# copy tftp startup-config 13.28.227.105
d:\configs\sw2512
A-10
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Transferring Switch Configurations
TFTP: Copying a Configuration to a Remote Host.
copy startup-config tftp <ip-addr> <remote-file>
This command copies the switch’s startup configuration (startup-config file)
to a remote TFTP host.
For example, to upload the current startup configuration to a file named
sw2512 in the configs directory on drive "d" in a remote host having an IP
address of 13.28.227.105:
HP2512# copy startup-config tftp 13.28.227.105
d:\configs\sw2512
Xmodem: Copying a Configuration from the Switch to a Serially
Connected PC or Unix Workstation. To use this method, the switch must
be connected via the serial port to a PC or Unix workstation to which you
want to copy the configuration file. You will need to select a filename, and to
know the drive and directory location where you want to store the configuration file.
Syntax:
copy startup-config xmodem <pc | unix>
For example, to copy a configuration file to a PC serially connected to the
switch:
1.
Execute the following command:
2.
After you see the above prompt, press [Enter].
3.
Execute the terminal emulator commands to begin the file transfer.
A-11
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
Syntax:
Transferring an Operating System or Startup Configuration File
Transferring Switch Configurations
Transferring an Operating
System or Startup
Xmodem: Copying a Configuration from a Serially Connected PC or
Unix Workstation. To use this method, the switch must be connected via
the serial port to a PC or Unix workstation on which is stored the configuration
file you want to copy. To complete the copying, you will need to know the
name of the file to copy, and the drive and directory location of the file.
Syntax:
copy xmodem startup-config <pc | unix>
For example, to copy a configuration file from a PC serially connected to the
switch:
1.
Execute the following command:
2.
After you see the above prompt, press [Enter].
3.
Execute the terminal emulator commands to begin the file transfer.
When the file transfer finishes, the switch automatically reboots itself with the
new configuration.
A-12
B
MAC Address Management
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Determining MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Menu: Viewing the Switch’s MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
CLI: Viewing the Port and VLAN MAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
Overview
The switch assigns MAC addresses in these areas:
■
■
For management functions:
•
One Base MAC address assigned to the default VLAN (VID = 1)
•
Additional MAC address(es) corresponding to additional VLANs you
configure in the switch
For internal switch operations: One MAC address per port (See "CLI:
Viewing the Port and VLAN MAC Addresses" on page B-4.)
MAC addresses are assigned at the factory. The switch automatically
implements these addresses for VLANs and ports as they are added to the
switch.
Note
The switch’s base MAC address is also printed on a label affixed to the back
of the switch.
B-1
MAC Address Management
Appendix B Contents
MAC Address Management
Determining MAC Addresses
Determining MAC Addresses
MAC Address Management
MAC Address Viewing Methods
Feature
Default
Menu
CLI
Web
view switch’s base (default vlan) MAC address n/a
and the addressing for any added VLANs
B-3
B-4
—
view port MAC addresses (hexadecimal format) n/a
—
B-4
—
Use the menu interface to view the switch’s base MAC address and the MAC
address assigned to any non-default VLAN you have configured on the switch.
Note
The switch’s base MAC address is used for the default VLAN (VID = 1) that is
always available on the switch.
Use the CLI to view the switch’s port MAC addresses in hexadecimal format.
B-2
MAC Address Management
Determining MAC Addresses
Menu: Viewing the Switch’s MAC Addresses
The Management Address Information screen lists the MAC addresses for:
■
Base switch (default VLAN; VID = 1)
■
Any additional VLANs configured on the switch.
Note
The Base MAC address is used by the first (default) VLAN in the switch. This
is usually the VLAN named “DEFAULT_VLAN” unless the name has been
changed (by using the VLAN Names screen). On the Switch 2512/2524, the VID
(VLAN identification number) for the default VLAN is always "1", and cannot
be changed.
To View the MAC Address (and IP Address) assignments for VLANs
Configured on the Switch:
1.
From the Main Menu, Select
1. Status and Counters
2. Switch Management Address Information
If the switch has only the default VLAN, the following screen appears. If
the switch has multiple static VLANs, each is listed with its address data.
Switch Base (or Default
VLAN) MAC address
Current IP Address
Assigned to the Switch
Figure B-1. Example of the Management Address Information Screen
B-3
MAC Address Management
Also, the Base MAC address appears on a label on the back of the switch.
MAC Address Management
Determining MAC Addresses
MAC Address Management
CLI: Viewing the Port and VLAN MAC Addresses
The MAC address assigned to each switch port is used internally by such
features as Flow Control and the Spanning Tree Protocol. Determining the
MAC address assignments for individual ports can sometimes be useful when
diagnosing switch operation. To display these addresses, use the walkmib
command at the command prompt:
Note
This procedure displays the MAC addresses for all ports and existing VLANs
in the switch, regardless of which VLAN you select.
1.
If the switch is at the CLI Operator level, use the enable command to enter
the Manager level of the CLI.
2.
Type the following command to display the MAC address for each port on
the switch:
HP2512# walkmib ifPhysAddress
(The above command is not case-sensitive.)
The following figure is an example of the display:
ifPhysAddress.1 - 12:
Fixed Ports 1 - 12
ifPhysAddress.13 - 14: Transceiver Ports
ifPhysAddress.29
Base MAC Address (MAC
Address for default VLAN;
VID = 1)
ifPhysAddress.50 & 61 MAC Addresses for
non-default VLANs.
Figure B-2. Example of Port MAC Address Assignments
B-4
C
Switch Memory and Configuration
Appendix Contents
Appendix Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Using the CLI To Implement Configuration Changes . . . . . . . . . . . C-4
Using the Menu and Web Browser Interfaces To Implement
Configuration Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7
Using the Menu Interface To Implement Configuration Changes . . C-7
Using Save and Cancel in the Menu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-8
Rebooting from the Menu Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9
Using the Web Browser Interface To Implement Configuration
Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C- 10
C-1
Switch Memory and
Configuration
Overview of Configuration File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Switch Memory and Configuration
Overview
Overview
This appendix describes the following:
■
How switch memory manages configuration changes
■
How the CLI implements configuration changes
■
How the menu interfaceand web browser interface implement configuration changes
Switch Memory and
Configuration
Overview of Configuration File
Management
The switch maintains two configuration files, the running-config file and the
startup-config file.
Volatile Memory
Running-Config File
(Controls switch operation. When the switch reboots,
the contents of this file are erased and replaced by the
contents of the startup-config file.)
Flash (Non-Volatile) Memory
Startup-Config File
(Preserves the most recently saved configuration
through any subsequent reboot.)
CLI configuration
changes are written to
this file. To use the CLI to
save the latest version of
this file to the startupconfig file, you must
execute the write
memory command.
Menu interface configuration changes are simultaneously written to both
of these files.
Figure C-10. Conceptual Illustration of Switch Memory Operation
C-2
■
Running Config File: Exists in volatile memory and controls switch
operation. If no configuration changes have been made in the CLI since
the switch was last booted, the running-config file is identical to the
startup-config file.
■
Startup-config File: Exists in flash (non-volatile) memory and is used
to preserve the most recently-saved configuration as the "permanent"
configuration.
Switch Memory and Configuration
Overview of Configuration File Management
Rebooting the switch replaces the current running-config file with a new
running-config file that is an exact copy of the current startup-config file.
Note
Any of the following actions reboots the switch:
•
Executing the boot or the reload command in the CLI
•
Executing the Reboot command in the menu interface
•
Pressing the Reset button on the front of the switch
•
Removing, then restoring power to the switch
■
In the CLI: Use the write memory command. This overwrites the current
startup-config file with the contents of the current running-config file.
■
In the menu interface: Use the Save command. This overwrites both the
running-config file and the startup-config file with the changes you have
specified in the menu interface screen.
■
In the web browser interface: Use the [Apply Changes] button or other
appropriate button. This overwrites both the running-config file and the
startup-config file with the changes you have specified in the web browser
interface window.
Note that using the CLI instead of the menu or web browser interface gives
you the option of changing the running configuration without affecting the
startup configuration. This allows you to test the change without making it
"permanent". When you are satisfied that the change is satisfactory, you can
make it permanent by executing the write memory command. For example,
suppose you use the following command to disable port 5:
HP2512(config)# interface ethernet 5 disable
The above command disables port 5 in the running-config file, but not in the
startup-config file. Port 5 remains disabled only until the switch reboots. If
you want port 5 to remain disabled through the next reboot, use write memory
to save the current running-config file to the startup-config file in flash
memory.
HP2512(config)# write memory
C-3
Switch Memory and
Configuration
Options for Saving a New Configuration. Making one or more changes
to the running-config file creates a new operating configuration. Saving a new
configuration means to overwrite (replace) the current startup-config file with
the current running-config file. This means that if the switch subsequently
reboots for any reason, it will resume operation using the new configuration
instead of the configuration previously defined in the startup-config file. There
are three ways to save a new configuration:
Switch Memory and Configuration
Using the CLI To Implement Configuration Changes
Storing and Retrieving Configuration Files. You can store or retrieve a
backup copy of the startup-config file on another device. For more information, see appendix A, "Transferring an Operating System or Startup-Config
File"
Using the CLI To Implement
Configuration Changes
Switch Memory and
Configuration
The CLI offers these capabilities:
■
Access to the full set of switch configuration features (For a complete
listing, see the Command Line Interface Dictionary.)
■
The option of testing configuration changes before making them permanent
How To Use the CLI To View the Current Configuration Files. Use
show commands to view the configuration for individual features, such as port
status or Spanning Tree Protocol. However, to view either the entire startupconfig file or the entire running-config file, use the following commands:
Note
■
show startup-config: Displays the current startup-config file.
■
write terminal: Displays the current running-config file.
The show startup-config and write terminal commands display the configuration
settings that differ from the switch’s factory-default configuration.
How To Use the CLI To Reconfigure Switch Features. Use this procedure to permanently change the switch configuration (that is, to enter a change
in the startup-config file).
C-4
1.
Use the appropriate CLI commands to reconfigure the desired switch
parameters. This updates the selected parameters in the running-config
file.
2.
Use the appropriate show commands to verify that you have correctly
made the desired changes.
3.
Observe the switch’s performance with the new parameter settings to
verify the effect of your changes.
4.
When you are satisfied that you have the correct parameter settings, use
the write memory command to copy the changes to the startup-config file.
Switch Memory and Configuration
Using the CLI To Implement Configuration Changes
Syntax:
write memory
For example, the default port mode setting is auto. Suppose that your network
uses Cat 3 wiring and you want to connect the switch to another autosensing
device capable of 100 Mbps operation. Because 100 Mbps over Cat 3 wiring
can introduce transmission problems, the recommended port mode is auto-10,
which allows the port to negotiate full- or half-duplex, but restricts speed to
10 Mbps. The following command configures port 5 to auto-10 mode in the
running-config file, allowing you to observe performance on the link without
making the mode change permanent.
HP2512(config)# interface e 5 speed-duplex auto-10
HP2512(config)# write memory
The new mode (auto-10) on port 5 is now saved in the startup-config file, and
the startup-config and running-config files are identical. If you subsequently
reboot the switch, the auto-10 mode configuration on port 5 will remain because
it is included in the startup-config file.
How To Cancel Changes You Have Made to the Running-Config File.
If you use the CLI to change parameter settings in the running-config file, and
then decide that you don’t want those changes to remain, you can use either
of the following methods to remove them:
■
Manually enter the earlier values you had for the changed settings. (This
is recommended if you want to restore a small number of parameter
settings to their previous boot-up values.)
■
Update the running-config file to match the startup-config file by rebooting the switch. (This is recommended if you want to restore a larger
number of parameter settings to their previous boot-up values.)
If you use the CLI to change a parameter setting, and then execute the boot
command without first executing the write memory command to save the
change, the switch prompts you to specify whether to save the changes in the
current running-config file. For example:
C-5
Switch Memory and
Configuration
After you are satisfied that the link is operating properly, you can save the
change to the switch’s permanent configuration (the startup-config file) by
executing the following command:
Switch Memory and Configuration
Using the CLI To Implement Configuration Changes
Disables port 1 in the running configuration, which causes port 1 to block all traffic.
HP2512(config)# interface e 1 disable
HP2512(config)# boot
Device will be rebooted, do you want to continue [y/n]? y
Press [Y] to continue the rebooting process.
You will then see this prompt.
Do you want to save current configuration [y/n]?
Switch Memory and
Configuration
The above prompt means that one or more parameter settings in the runningconfig file differ from their counterparts in the startup-config file and you need
to choose which config file to retain and which to discard.
Note
■
If you want to update the startup-config file to match the running-config
file, press [Y] for "yes". (This means that the changes you entered in the
running-config file will be saved in the startup-config file.)
■
If you want to discard the changes you made to the running-config file so
that it will match the startup-config file, then press [N] for "no". (This means
that the switch will discard the changes you entered in the running-config
file and will update the running-config file to match the startup-config
file.)
If you use the CLI to make a change to the running-config file, you must use
the write memory command to save the change to the startup-config file. That
is, if you use the CLI to change a parameter setting, but then reboot the switch
from either the CLI or the menu interface without first executing the write
memory command in the CLI, the current startup-config file will replace the
running-config file, and any changes in the running-config file will be lost.
Also, where a parameter setting is accessable from both the CLI and the menu
interface, if you change the setting in the CLI, the new value will appear in the
menu interface display for that parameter. However, only the write memory
command in the CLI will actually save the change to the startup-config file.
Using the Save command in the menu interface will not save a change made
to the running config by the CLI.
How To Reset the startup-config and running-config Files to the
Factory Default Configuration. This command reboots the switch,
replacing the contents of the current startup-config and running-config files
with the factory-default startup configuration.
C-6
Switch Memory and Configuration
Using the Menu and Web Browser Interfaces To Implement Configuration Changes
Syntax:
erase startup-config
For example:
HP2512(config)# erase startup-config
Configuration will be deleted and device rebooted, continue [y/n]?
Press [Y] to replace the current configuration with the factory default configuration and reboot the switch. Press [N] to retain the current configuration and
prevent a reboot.
Switch Memory and
Configuration
Using the Menu and Web Browser
Interfaces To Implement Configuration
Changes
The menu and web browser interfaces offer these advantages:
■
Quick, easy menu or window access to a subset of switch configuration
features (See the "Menu Features List" on page 2-14 and the web browser
"General Features" list on page .)
■
Viewing several related configuration parameters in the same screen, with
their default and current settings
■
Immediately changing both the running-config file and the startup-config
file with a single command
Using the Menu Interface To Implement Configuration
Changes
You can use the menu interface to simultaneously save and implement a subset
of switch configuration changes without having to reboot the switch. That is,
when you save a configuration change in the menu interface, you simultaneously change both the running-config file and the startup-config file.
Note
The only exception to this operation are two VLAN-related parameter changes
that require a reboot—described under "Rebooting To Activate Configuration
Changes" on page C-9.
C-7
Switch Memory and Configuration
Using the Menu and Web Browser Interfaces To Implement Configuration Changes
Using Save and Cancel in the Menu Interface
For any configuration screen in the menu interface, the Save command:
1.
Implements the changes in the running-config file
2.
Saves your changes to the startup-config file
Switch Memory and
Configuration
If you decide not to save and implement the changes in the screen, select
Cancel to discard them and continue switch operation with the curent operation. For example, suppose you have made the changes shown below in the
System Information screen:
To save and
implement the
changes for all
parameters in this
screen, press the
[Enter] key, then press
[S] (for Save). To
cancel all changes,
press the [Enter] key,
then press [C] (for
Cancel)
Figure 2-11. Example of Pending Configuration Changes that Can Be Saved or
Cancelled
Note
C-8
If you reconfigure a parameter in the CLI and then go to the menu interface
without executing a write memory command, those changes are stored only in
the running configuration (even if you execute a Save operation in the menu
interface). If you then execute a switch reboot command in the menu interface, the switch discards the configuration changes made while using the CLI.
To ensure that changes made while using the CLI are saved, execute write
memory in the CLI before rebooting the switch.
Switch Memory and Configuration
Using the Menu and Web Browser Interfaces To Implement Configuration Changes
Rebooting from the Menu Interface
■
Terminates the current session and performs a reset of the operating
system
■
Activates any configuration changes that require a reboot
■
Resets statistical counters to zero
(Note that statistical counters can be reset to zero without rebooting the
switch. See “Displaying Port Counters” on page 10-9.)
To Reboot the switch, use the Reboot Switch option in the Main Menu. (Note
that the Reboot Switch option is not available if you log on in Operator mode;
that is, if you enter an Operator password instead of a manager password at
the password prompt.)
Switch Memory and
Configuration
Reboot Switch option
Figure 11-73.The Reboot Switch Option in the Main Menu
Rebooting To Activate Configuration Changes. Configuration changes
for most parameters become effective as soon as you save them. However,
you must reboot the switch in order to implement a change in the Maximum
VLANs to support parameter.
(To access these parameters, go to the Main menu and select 2. Switch
Configuration, then 8. VLAN Menu, then 1. VLAN Support.)
C-9
Switch Memory and Configuration
Using the Menu and Web Browser Interfaces To Implement Configuration Changes
Switch Memory and
Configuration
If configuration changes requiring a reboot have been made, the switch
displays an asterisk (*) next to the menu item in which the change has been
made. For example, if you change and save parameter values for the Maximum
VLANs to support parameter, an asterisk appears next to the VLAN Support entry in
the VLAN Menu screen, and also next to the the Switch Configuration . . . entry in
the Main menu, as shown in figure 4-6:
Asterisk indicates
a configuration
change that
requires a reboot
in order to take
effect.
Reminder to
reboot the switch
to activate
configuration
changes.
Figure 11-74.Indication of a Configuration Change Requiring a Reboot
Using the Web Browser Interface To Implement
Configuration Changes
You can use the web browser interface to simultaneously save and implement
a subset of switch configuration changes without having to reboot the switch.
That is, when you save a configuration change (in most cases, by clicking on
[Apply Changes] or [Apply Settings], you simultaneously change both the runningconfig file and the startup-config file.
Note
C-10
If you reconfigure a parameter in the CLI and then go to the browser interface
without executing a write memory command, those changes will be saved to
the startup-config file if you click on [Apply Changes] or [Apply Settings] in the web
browser interface.
D
Daylight Savings Time on HP ProCurve
Switches
This information applies to the following HP ProCurve switches:
• 2512
• 2524
•
•
•
•
•
1600M
2400M
2424M
4000M
8000M
• 212M
• 224M
• HP AdvanceStack
Switches
• HP AdvanceStack
Routers
■
Alaska
■
Canada and Continental US
■
Middle Europe and Portugal
■
Southern Hemisphere
■
Western Europe
The pre-defined settings follow these rules:
Alaska:
•
Begin DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after April 24th.
•
End DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after October 25th.
Canada and Continental US:
•
Begin DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after April 1st.
•
End DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after October 25th.
D-1
Daylight Savings Time on HP
ProCurve Switches
HP ProCurve switches provide a way to automatically adjust the system clock
for Daylight Savings Time (DST) changes. For the following switches, HP
ProCurve Switch 212M, 224M, 1600M, 2400M, 2424M, 4000M, and 8000M, the
user defines the month and date to begin and end the change from standard
time. In addition to the value "none" (no time changes), there are five predefined settings, named:
Daylight Savings Time on HP ProCurve Switches
Middle Europe and Portugal:
•
Begin DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after March 25th.
•
End DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after September 24th.
Southern Hemisphere:
•
Begin DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after October 25th.
•
End DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after March 1st.
Western Europe:
•
Begin DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after March 23rd.
•
End DST at 2am the first Sunday on or after October 23rd.
Daylight Savings Time on HP
ProCurve Switches
A sixth option named "User defined" allows the user to customize the DST
configuration by entering the beginning month and date plus the ending month
and date for the time change. The menu interface screen looks like this (all
month/date entries are at their default values):
Figure D-1. Menu Interface with "User-Defined" Daylight Time Rule Option
D-2
Daylight Savings Time on HP ProCurve Switches
Before configuring a "User defined" Daylight Time Rule, it is important to
understand how the switch treats the entries. The switch knows which dates
are Sundays, and uses an algorithm to determine on which date to change the
system clock, given the configured "Beginning day" and "Ending day":
■
If the configured day is a Sunday, the time changes at 2am on that day.
■
If the configured day is not a Sunday, the time changes at 2am on the first
Sunday after the configured day.
This is true for both the "Beginning day" and the "Ending day".
With that algorithm, one should use the value "1" to represent "first Sunday of
the month", and a value equal to "number of days in the month minus 6" to
represent "last Sunday of the month". This allows a single configuration for
every year, no matter what date is the appropriate Sunday to change the clock.
Daylight Savings Time on HP
ProCurve Switches
D-3
Index
operating notes … 7-39
overview … 7-30
troubleshooting … 7-39
Numerics
802.1Q VLAN standard … 9-102
802.3u auto negotiation standard … 6-3
A
See GVRP
auto negotiation … 6-4
auto port setting … 9-92
Auto-10 … 6-11, 6-14
auto-discovery … 8-5
auto-negotiation … 6-3
B
bandwidth
displaying utilization … 4-17
bandwidth savings, with IGMP … 9-98
blocked link from STP operation … 9-110
blocked port
from IGMP operation … 9-92
from STP operation … 9-108
Bootp … 5-3, 5-11, 8-2
Bootp table file … 5-13
Bootptab file … 5-13
effect of no reply … 11-6
operation … 5-13
using with Unix systems … 5-13
Bootp/DHCP differences … 5-12
BPDU … 9-77
bridge protocol data unit … 9-77
broadcast domain … 9-50
broadcast limit … 6-4
broadcast storm … 6-11, 9-102, 11-8
browser interface
See web browser interface
browsers … 4-4
Index
A.09.70 router release … 9-76
access
manager … 8-6
operator … 8-6
access levels, authorized IP managers … 7-31
Actions line … 2-9–2-11
location on screen … 2-9
active path … 9-102
address
authorized for port security … 7-10
address table, port … 10-12
address, network manager … 8-4
advertisement … 9-77
alert log … 4-20
alert types … 4-21
disabling … 4-25
setting the sensitivity level … 4-24
sorting the entries … 4-20
analysis, traffic … 8-2
APNIC … 5-15
Asia-Pacific NIC … 5-15
asterisk … 2-10
authentication trap … 8-10, 8-12
authentication trap, configuring … 8-12
authorized addresses
for IP management security … 7-31
for port security … 7-10
authorized IP managers
access levels … 7-31
building IP masks … 7-36
configuring in browser interface … 7-35–7-36
configuring in console … 7-33
definitions of single and multiple … 7-31
effect of duplicate IP addresses … 7-39
IP mask for multiple stations … 7-37
IP mask for single station … 7-36
IP mask operation … 7-32
auto
C
Clear button … 4-11
restoring factory default configuration … 11-20
to delete password protection … 7-7
CLI
context level … 6-8
command line interface
Index – 1
Index
See CLI
communities, SNMP … 8-7
configuration … 2-7, 9-108
Bootp … 5-13
console … 5-16
copying … A-10
download … A-2
factory default … 5-2, 9-57, 9-62, 9-103, C-6
IP … 5-3
network monitoring … 10-21
permanent … C-5
permanent change defined … C-3
port … 6-1
port security … 7-11
port trunk groups … 6-1
quick … 2-8
restoring factory defaults … 11-20
saving from menu interface … 2-10
serial link … 5-16
SNMP … 8-4, 8-6
spanning tree … 9-102
spanning tree protocol … 9-108
startup … 2-10
system … 5-21
Telnet access configuration … 5-16
transferring … A-10
trap receivers … 8-10
viewing … C-4
VLAN … 9-50
web browser access … 5-16
configuration file
browsing for troubleshooting … 11-18
connection inactivity time … 7-5
console … 11-6
configuring … 5-16
ending a session … 2-5
features … 1-3
Main menu … 2-7
navigation … 2-9–2-10
operation … 2-10
starting a session … 2-4
status and counters access … 2-7
troubleshooting access problems … 11-4
console, for configuring
authorized IP managers … 7-33
CPU utilization … 10-5
2 – Index
D
date format … 11-11
date,configure … 5-25
default gateway … 5-3
default trunk type … 6-17
Device Passwords Window … 4-9
DHCP … 5-11
address problems … 11-6
effect of no reply … 11-6
DHCP/Bootp differences … 5-12
DHCP/Bootp process … 5-12
diagnostics tools … 11-14
browsing the configuration file … 11-18
ping and link tests … 11-14
DNS name … 4-6
domain … 9-57, 9-62
Domain Name Server … 4-6
download
SNMP-based … A-6
switch-to-switch … A-6
troubleshooting … A-9
Xmodem … A-7
download OS … A-6
download, TFTP … A-2–A-4
duplicate IP address
effect on authorized IP managers … 7-39
duplicate MAC address … 9-75–9-76, 11-10
Dyn1
See LACP
E
ending a console session … 2-5
event log … 2-7, 11-11
intrusion alerts … 7-27
navigation … 11-12
severity level … 11-11
use during troubleshooting … 11-11
extended RMON … 8-13
F
factory default configuration
restoring … 11-20, C-6
failure, OS download … A-9
Fast EtherChannel
See FEC
fast mode
spanning tree … 9-109
fault detection … 4-9
fault detection policy … 4-9, 4-24
fault detection policy, setting … 4-24
fault detection window … 4-24
fault-tolerance … 6-12
FEC
benefits … 6-27
filters
effect of IGMP … 9-101
IGMP override … 9-101
maximum allowed … 9-101
firmware version … 10-5
flash memory … 2-10
flow control … 6-4
flow control, terminal … 5-16
forbid
See GVRP
format, date … 11-11
format, time … 11-11
forwarding port, IGMP … 9-92
general operation … 9-78
IP addressing … 9-80
learn … 9-81
learn, block, disable … 9-82
menu, configuring … 9-84
non-GVRP aware … 9-89
non-GVRP device … 9-89
operating notes … 9-89
per-port static configuration … 9-78
port control options … 9-83
port-leave from dynamic … 9-83
reboot, switch … 9-83
recommended tagging … 9-83
required VLAN … 9-78
standard … 9-77
tagged, dynamic VLAN … 9-78
unknown VLAN … 9-83
unknown VLAN, options … 9-80
VLAN behavior … 9-54
VLAN, dynamic adds … 9-60
H
G
Help … 2-11, 4-14
Help line, about … 2-9
Help line, location on screens … 2-9
help, online inoperable … 4-14
host-only … 9-75
HP extended RMON … 8-13
HP ProCurve
support URL … 4-14
HP proprietary MIB … 8-3
HP Router 440 … 9-76
HP Router 470 … 9-76
HP Router 480 … 9-76
HP Router 650 … 9-76
HP TopTools
See TopTools
HP web browser interface … 1-5
Index
GARP
See GVRP
gateway … 5-3, 5-5
gateway (IP) address … 5-4, 5-6
GVRP
advertisement … 9-78, 9-90
advertisement, defined … 9-77
advertisement, responses to … 9-79
advertisements, generating … 9-83
auto … 9-82
benefit … 9-77
block … 9-81
BPDU … 9-78
CLI, configuring … 9-86
common VID required … 9-78
configurable port options … 9-80
configuring learn, block, disable … 9-81
convert dynamic to static … 9-80
converting to static VLAN … 9-77
disable … 9-81
dynamic VLAN and reboots … 9-89
dynamic VLANs always tagged … 9-78
forbid … 9-82
GARP … 9-77
I
ICANN … 5-15
IEEE 802.1d … 9-102, 11-8
IEEE 802.3ab … 6-4
IGMP
benefits … 9-91
configuration … 9-97
Index – 3
Index
configure per VLAN … 9-92
effect on filters … 9-101
example … 9-98–9-100
filter override … 9-101
high-priority forwarding … 9-92
host not receiving … 11-7
IP address required … 9-92
IP multicast address range … 9-101
leave group … 9-98
maximum address count … 9-101
multicast group … 9-98, 9-100
multimedia … 9-91
not working … 11-7
operation … 9-97–9-98
port states … 9-92
query … 9-98
report … 9-98
statistics … 10-17
status … 9-98
traffic … 9-92
inactivity timeout … 5-17
Inbound Telnet Enabled parameter … 11-5
inconsistent value, message … 7-19
interfaces listed … 1-2
intrusion alarms
entries dropped from log … 7-29
event log … 7-27
prior to … 7-29
Intrusion Log
prior to … 7-25, 7-27
invalid input … 3-13
IP
address for IGMP … 9-92
authorized IP managers … 7-30
CLI access … 5-7
configuration … 5-3
DHCP/Bootp … 5-3
duplicate address … 11-6
duplicate address, DHCP network … 11-6
effect when address not used … 5-10
gateway … 5-3
gateway (IP) address … 5-4
global assignment … 5-15
globally assigned addressing … 5-15
menu access … 5-5
stacking … 5-5
subnet mask … 5-3, 5-7
using for web browser interface … 4-6
4 – Index
web access … 5-10
IP host-only … 9-75
IP masks
building … 7-36
for multiple authorized manager stations … 7-37
for single authorized manager station … 7-36
operation … 7-32
IP, for SNMP … 8-2
J
Java … 4-5–4-6
L
LACP
active … 6-22, 6-25
CLI access … 6-18
default port operation … 6-25
described … 6-13, 6-24
Dyn1 … 6-14
dynamic … 6-24
enabling dynamic trunk … 6-22
full-duplex required … 6-4, 6-11, 6-24
IGMP … 6-26
no half-duplex … 6-27
outbound traffic distribution … 6-28
overview … 6-12
passive … 6-22, 6-25
removing port from dynamic trunk … 6-23
restrictions … 6-26
standby link … 6-24
status, terms … 6-25
STP … 6-26
VLANs … 6-26
learning bridge … 5-2
leave group
See IGMP
legacy VLAN … 9-52
link speed, port trunk … 6-11
link test … 11-14
for troubleshooting … 11-14
link, serial … 5-16
load balancing
See port trunk
loop, network … 6-11, 9-102, 9-108
lost password … 4-11
M
N
navigation, console interface … 2-9–2-10
navigation, event log … 11-13
Netscape … 4-5
network management functions … 8-5
network manager address … 8-4
O
online help … 4-14
online help location … 4-14
operating notes
authorized IP managers … 7-39
port security … 7-28
operator access … 8-6
operator password … 4-9, 4-11, 7-4, 7-6
OS
version … A-5–A-6, A-8
OS download
failure indication … A-9
switch-to-switch download … A-6
troubleshooting … A-9
using TFTP … A-3
out-of-band … 1-3
P
password … 4-9, 4-11
browser/console access … 7-5
case-sensitive … 7-6
creating … 4-9
delete … 2-7, 4-11, 7-6
deleting with the Clear button … 7-7
if you lose the password … 4-11, 7-7
incorrect … 7-5
length … 7-6
lost … 4-11
manager … 4-9
operator … 4-9
set … 2-7
setting … 4-10, 7-5
using to access browser and console … 4-11
path cost … 9-109
ping test … 11-14
for troubleshooting … 11-14
port
1000 Mbps, full-duplex only … 6-4
address table … 10-12
Index – 5
Index
MAC address … 5-13, 10-5, B-1
duplicate … 9-75–9-76, 11-8, 11-10
learned … 10-11–10-12
port … B-1, B-3
switch … B-1
VLAN … 9-74, B-1
management
interfaces described … 1-2
server URL … 4-13–4-14
server URL default … 4-15
manager access … 8-6
manager password … 4-9, 4-11, 7-4, 7-6
Manual, IP address … 5-7
media type, port trunk … 6-11
memory
flash … 2-10
startup configuration … 2-10
menu interface
configuration changes, saving … 2-10
message
inconsistent value … 7-19
VLAN already exists … 9-68
MIB … 8-4
MIB listing … 8-3
MIB, HP proprietary … 8-3
MIB, standard … 8-3
Microsoft Internet Explorer … 4-5
mirroring
See port monitoring.
Monitor parameter … 10-23
monitoring a VLAN … 10-24
monitoring traffic … 10-21
monitoring, traffic … 8-2
multicast group
See IGMP
multimedia
See IGMP
multiple VLAN … 8-2
multi-port bridge … 5-2
network monitoring
traffic overload … 10-21
VLAN monitoring parameter … 10-24
Network Monitoring Port screen … 10-21
network slow … 11-6
notes on using VLANs … 9-56
Index
Address Table screen … 9-76
auto negotiation … 6-4
auto, IGMP … 9-92
auto-negotiation … 6-3
blocked by STP operation … 9-108
blocked, IGMP … 9-92
CLI access … 6-6
context level … 6-8
cost
See spanning tree protocol.
counters … 10-8
counters, reset … 10-8
fiber-optic … 6-4
forwarding, IGMP … 9-92
full-duplex, LACP … 6-4
MAC address … B-3–B-4
menu access … 6-5
monitoring … 9-74
numbering … 6-2
security configuration … 7-9
See port trunk
speed change, transceiver … 6-4
state, IGMP control … 9-92
traffic patterns … 10-8
utilization … 4-17
web browser interface … 4-17
web browser access … 6-9
Port Configuration … 6-1
port security
authorized address definition … 7-10
basic operation … 7-9
configuring … 7-11
configuring in browser interface … 7-21, 7-28
event log … 7-27
intrusion alert … 6-3
notice of security violations … 7-22
operating notes … 7-28
overview … 7-9
port trunk restriction … 6-11
prior to … 7-29
proxy web server … 7-29
trunk restriction … 6-15
port trunk … 6-10
bandwidth capacity … 6-10
caution … 6-11, 6-16, 6-23
CLI access … 6-18
default trunk type … 6-17
enabling dynamic LACP … 6-22
6 – Index
FEC … 6-13, 6-27
IGMP … 6-15
LACP … 6-4
LACP, full duplex required … 6-11
limit … 6-10
link requirements … 6-11
media requirements … 6-14
media type … 6-11
menu access to static trunk … 6-16
monitor port restrictions … 6-15
nonconsecutive ports … 6-10
port security restriction … 6-15
removing port from static trunk … 6-21
requirements … 6-14
SA/DA … 6-28
spanning tree protocol … 6-15
static trunk … 6-14
static trunk, overview … 6-12
STP … 6-15
STP operation … 6-14
traffic distribution … 6-14
Trk1 … 6-14
trunk (non-protocol) option … 6-13
trunk option described … 6-27
types … 6-13
VLAN … 6-15, 9-74
VLAN operation … 6-14
web browser access … 6-23
port trunk group
interface access … 6-1
power interruption, effect on event log … 11-11
primary VLAN
See VLAN
prior to … 7-25, 7-27, 7-29
priority … 9-92
See spanning tree
proprietary MIB … 8-3
proxy
web server … 7-29
public SNMP community … 8-4–8-5
Q
query
See IGMP
quick configuration … 2-8
quick start … 5-4
R
S
security … 4-11, 5-16
authorized IP managers … 7-30
per port … 7-9
security violations
notices of … 7-22
Self Test LED
behavior during factory default reset … 11-20
serial number … 10-5
server
access failure … 9-103
Timep … 5-6
setting a password … 7-5
setting fault detection policy … 4-24
setup screen … 5-4
Index – 7
Index
reboot … 2-8, 2-10, 2-12, 9-83
reboot, actions causing … C-3
reconfigure … 2-10
redundant path … 9-102, 9-108
spanning tree … 9-103
report
See IGMP
reset … 2-12, C-9
Reset button
restoring factory default configuration … 11-20
reset port counters … 10-8
resetting the switch
factory default reset … 11-20
restricted access … 8-6
restricted write access … 8-6
RFC
See MIB
RFC 1213 … 8-3
RFC 1493 … 8-3
RFC 1515 … 8-3
RFC 1573 … 8-3
RFC 1757 … 8-3
RIPE NCC … 5-15
RMON … 8-3
RMON groups supported … 8-13
RMON, extended … 8-13
router … 9-76, 9-97
gateway … 5-6
router release A.09.70 … 9-76
RS-232 … 1-3
severity code, event log … 11-11
slow network … 11-6
SNMP … 8-2
CLI commands … 8-6
communities … 8-4, 8-6–8-7
Communities screen … 8-6
community
configure … 8-4
IP … 8-2
public community … 8-5–8-6
restricted access … 8-6
traps … 8-3
SNMP-based download … A-6
software version … 10-5
sorting alert log entries … 4-20
spanning tree … 9-102
blocked link … 9-110
blocked port … 9-108
causing duplicate MAC address … 9-75
description of operation … 9-108
enabling from the browser interface … 9-108
fast mode … 9-109
global information … 10-15
information screen … 10-15
link priority … 9-103
port cost … 9-108
port priority automatic setting … 9-108
problems related to … 11-8
statistics … 10-15
using with port trunking … 6-15
VLAN effect on … 9-73
stacking
benefits … 9-5–9-6
minimum software version, other HP
switches … 9-11
primary … 9-48
standard MIB … 8-3
starting a console session … 2-4
static VLAN, convert to … 9-77
statistical sampling … 8-2, 8-13
statistics … 2-7, 10-3
statistics, clear counters … 2-12, C-9
status and counters
access from console … 2-7
status and counters menu … 10-4
status overview screen … 4-7
STP
See spanning tree.spanning tree
server access failure … 9-103
subnet … 9-98
subnet address … 9-50
subnet mask … 5-5, 5-7
See also IP
Sun workstation … 9-75
support
changing default URL … 4-14
URL … 4-13
URL Window … 4-13
switch console
See console
switch setup menu … 2-8
switch-to-switch download … A-6
system configuration screen … 5-21
System Name parameter … 5-22
Index
T
tagged VLAN
See VLAN
TCP/IP reference book … 5-15
Telnet … 2-4
Telnet, enable/disable … 5-17
Telnet, problem … 11-5
terminal access, lose connectivity … 5-19
terminal type … 5-16
TFTP
download … A-2, A-4
OS download … A-3
threshold setting … 8-5
time format … 11-11
Time Protocol parameter … 5-6
time server … 5-3
time, configure … 5-25
TimeP … 5-3–5-5
Timep … 5-4, 5-6
Timep Poll Interval … 5-6
Timep Server … 5-6
Time-To-Live … 5-3, 5-5
top talker … 6-29
TopTools … 1-6
TopTools system requirements … 4-5
TopTools, main screen … 1-6
traffic analysis … 8-2
traffic monitoring … 8-2, 8-5
traffic, monitoring … 10-21
traffic, port … 10-8
8 – Index
transceiver, fiber-optic … 6-4
transceiver, speed change … 6-4
trap … 4-25
authentication … 8-10
authentication trap … 8-12
CLI access … 8-11
event levels … 8-10
limit … 8-10
receiver … 8-10
SNMP … 8-10
Trap Receivers Configuration screen … 8-10
trap receiver … 8-4, 8-10
configuring … 8-12
troubleshooting
approaches … 11-3
authorized IP managers … 7-39
browsing the configuration file … 11-18
console access problems … 11-4
diagnosing unusual network activity … 11-6
diagnostics tools … 11-14
OS download … A-9
ping and link tests … 11-14
restoring factory default configuration … 11-20
unusual network activity … 11-6
using the event log … 11-11
web browser access problems … 11-4
trunk
See port trunk
trunk group
FEC … 6-25
TTL … 5-3, 5-5
types of alert log entries … 4-21
U
unauthorized access … 8-12
Universal Resource Locator
See URL
Unix, Bootp … 5-13
unrestricted write access … 8-6
unusual network activity … 11-6
up time … 10-5
URL … 4-14
browser interface online help location … 4-14
HP ProCurve … 4-14
management … 4-14
management server … 4-13–4-14
support … 4-13–4-14
user name
cleared … 7-7
user name, using for browser or console
access … 4-9, 4-11
using the passwords … 4-11
utilization, port … 4-17
V
W
warranty … ii
web agent enabled … 4-2
web agent,
advantages … 1-5
web browser access configuration … 5-16
web browser enable/disable … 5-17
web browser interface
access parameters … 4-9
alert log … 4-7, 4-20
alert log details … 4-22
alert types … 4-21
bandwidth adjustment … 4-18
bar graph adjustment … 4-18
configuration, support URL … 4-14
disable access … 4-2
enabling … 4-5
error packets … 4-17
fault detection policy … 4-9, 4-24
fault detection window … 4-24
features … 1-5
first-time install … 4-8
first-time tasks … 4-8
Index
value, inconsistent … 7-19
version, OS … A-5–A-6, A-8
VID
See VLAN
virtual stacking
transmission interval range … 9-18–9-19
VLAN … 5-4, 9-50, 9-73–9-76, 10-23–10-24, 11-10, B-1
802.1Q … 9-110
address … 8-2
Bootp … 5-13
configuring Bootp … 5-13
convert dynamic to static … 9-77
DEFAULT_ VLAN … 9-53
deleting … 9-75
device not seen … 11-9
DHCP, primary VLAN … 9-54
duplicate MAC address … 9-75
dynamic … 9-50, 9-56–9-57, 9-62
effect on spanning tree … 9-73
event log entries … 11-11
ID … 3-15
IGMP configuration … 9-92
limit … 9-57, 9-62
link blocked … 11-8
MAC address … 9-74
monitoring … 10-2, 10-24
multiple … 8-2
multiple VLANs on port … 9-71
network monitoring … 10-21
notes on using … 9-56
number allowed, including dynamic … 9-60
OS download … A-3
port assignment … 9-60
port configuration … 9-72, 11-9
port monitoring … 9-74
port restriction … 9-75
port trunk … 9-74
primary … 5-3, 9-11, 9-36, 9-48, 9-54
primary VLAN … 9-53
primary, CLI command … 9-63, 9-65
primary, select in menu … 9-58
primary, web configure … 9-68
primary, with DHCP … 9-56
reboot required … 2-8
restrictions … 9-75
spanning tree operation … 9-110
stacking, primary VLAN … 9-54
static … 9-50, 9-54, 9-57, 9-62
support enable/disable … 2-8
switch capacity … 9-50
tagged … 9-51
tagging … 9-69, 9-71
tagging broadcast, multicast, and unicast
traffic … 11-9
unknown VLAN … 9-83
untagged … 9-52, 9-61
VID … 9-50, 9-71
VID, default VLAN … 9-54
VLAN already exists, message … 9-68
VLAN ID
See VLAN … 3-15
VT-100 terminal … 5-16
Index – 9
Index
help via TopTools … 4-14
main screen … 4-16
management server URL … 4-14
online help … 4-14
online help location specifying … 4-14
online help, inoperable … 4-14
overview … 4-16
Overview window … 4-16
password lost … 4-11
password, setting … 4-10
port status … 4-19
port utilization … 4-17
port utilization and status displays … 4-17
screen elements … 4-16
security … 4-2, 4-9
standalone … 4-5
status bar … 4-23
status indicators … 4-23
status overview screen … 4-7
system requirements … 4-4–4-5
troubleshooting access problems … 11-4
URL default … 4-15
URL, management server … 4-15
URL, support … 4-15
web browser interface, for configuring
port security … 7-28
authorized IP managers … 7-35–7-36
IGMP … 9-97
port security … 7-21
STP … 9-108
web server, proxy … 7-29
web site, HP … 8-4
world wide web site, HP
See HP ProCurve
write access … 8-6
write memory … 9-89
X
Xmodem OS download … A-7
XNS … 9-75
10 – Index
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