cp 9 2713 2013

cp 9 2713 2013
Climate
of the Past
Open Access
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
www.clim-past.net/9/2713/2013/
doi:10.5194/cp-9-2713-2013
© Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.
A first chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling
(NEEM) ice core
S. O. Rasmussen1 , P. M. Abbott2 , T. Blunier1 , A. J. Bourne2 , E. Brook3 , S. L. Buchardt1 , C. Buizert3 , J. Chappellaz4 ,
H. B. Clausen1,† , E. Cook2 , D. Dahl-Jensen1 , S. M. Davies2 , M. Guillevic1,5 , S. Kipfstuhl6 , T. Laepple6 , I. K. Seierstad1 ,
J. P. Severinghaus7 , J. P. Steffensen1 , C. Stowasser1 , A. Svensson1 , P. Vallelonga1 , B. M. Vinther1 , F. Wilhelms6 , and
M. Winstrup1
1 Centre
for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
of Geography, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
3 College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
4 UJF – Grenoble 1/CNRS, UMR5183, CNRS – Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement (LGGE),
Grenoble, France
5 Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif/Yvette, France
6 Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
7 Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
† deceased
2 Department
Correspondence to: S. O. Rasmussen ([email protected])
Received: 26 April 2013 – Published in Clim. Past Discuss.: 31 May 2013
Revised: 4 October 2013 – Accepted: 25 October 2013 – Published: 5 December 2013
Abstract. A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North
Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core has been
derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland
Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and its model extension (GICC05modelext) from the NGRIP core to the NEEM
core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) and
dielectrical profiling (DEP) records. Tephra horizons found
in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the
matching based on ECM and DEP and provide five additional
horizons used for the timescale transfer.
A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain
along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard–
Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation
rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from
Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age
horizons.
In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice
age–gas age difference (1age) has been reconstructed using
a coupled firn densification-heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the 1age model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to
optimize the fit to timing constraints from δ 15 N of nitrogen
and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onset of
Greenland interstadials.
The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM
core, named GICC05modelext-NEEM-1. Based on both the
flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history
for the NEEM site has been reconstructed. Together, the
timescale and accumulation reconstruction provide the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.
1
Introduction
The 2540 m long North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling
(NEEM) ice core was drilled during 2008–2010 through the
ice sheet in Northwest Greenland (77.45◦ N, 51.07◦ W, surface elevation 2479 m). As for all palaeoclimate sediment
records, a (depth, age) relationship, or timescale, is needed
to fully utilize and interpret the measurements performed on
NEEM ice and gas samples.
Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union.
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
The present-day annual snow accumulation at the NEEM
site is 0.22 m ice equivalent and, therefore, the core has annual layering similar to the GRIP and GISP2 ice cores. Once
high-resolution measurements from the NEEM core become
available, annual layer identification in the NEEM core may
be undertaken either by the manual identification of annual
layers as performed on data from the DYE-3, GRIP, and
NGRIP cores in the construction of the Greenland Ice Core
Chronology 2005, hereafter GICC05, (Vinther et al., 2006;
Rasmussen et al., 2006), or by automated methods (Winstrup
et al., 2012).
At this point, however, data for annual layer identification are not available. Thus, to provide a first timescale for
the NEEM core, the GICC05 timescale and its model extension GICC05modelext is adopted as is from the NGRIP core
using linear interpolation between common reference horizons, or match points, as identified from the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM), dielectrical profiling (DEP),
and tephra records of the two cores.
Analysis of several ice- and gas-based records from the
NEEM core shows that the lower parts of the core, which
contain ice from the Eemian interglacial, have been subject to folding, but no such discontinuities have been identified in the upper 2203.6 m of the core (NEEM community
members, 2013). The GICC05modelext timescale only extends to about 122 ka b2k (thousand years before 2000 CE,
Wolff et al., 2010) – corresponding to the lower limit of the
NGRIP core – and therefore does not cover the entire NEEM
Eemian record. The lower section of the NEEM core below
2203.6 m, having complex stratigraphy, was therefore tied to
the Antarctic EDML1 timescale by NEEM community members (2013) using the methane (CH4 ) and δ 18 Oair records
(Capron et al., 2010).
The work presented here focuses entirely on the stratigraphically uncompromised section of the NEEM core,
where it is reasonable to assume the existence of an unambiguous and continuous mapping between NEEM and
NGRIP depths, which allows us to align common patterns
of peaks in the ECM and DEP records of the two cores.
2
Data
This work is based on the transfer of the existing
GICC05modelext timescale, and on previously unpublished
ECM and DEP data sets as well as a number of tephra horizons. The data used for the 1age calculations in Sect. 3.4
are presented by Chappellaz et al. (2013) and Guillevic et
al. (2013).
2.1
The GICC05 and GICC05modelext timescales
Annual layers can be identified in all deep ice cores from
Greenland, and due to differences in accumulation rates, ice
thickness, temperature, ice flow conditions, and availabilClim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
ity of data in sufficient resolution, different deep ice core
records are best suited for annual layer identification in different age or depth ranges. For example, with a present-day
annual accumulation of 0.56 m of ice equivalent, the DYE-3
ice core is optimal for dating the most recent millennia as the
DYE-3 δ 18 O record contains a well-developed annual signal reflecting the seasonal temperature variation. However,
the high accumulation rates lead to faster thinning of layers
with depth (Vinther et al., 2006). In contrast to DYE-3, the
present-day annual accumulation at the NGRIP site of 0.19 m
of ice equivalent means that the NGRIP δ 18 O record only
marginally resolves the annual layers even at the top of the
core. However, the combination of the availability of highresolution continuous flow analysis (CFA) impurity records
and comparably low thinning rates in the glacial section due
to bottom melting mean that the annual layer thickness remains above 1 cm allowing annual layer identification back
to approximately 60 ka b2k (Svensson et al., 2008).
The idea behind the design of the GICC05 timescale is
to exploit these differences, creating a multi-core timescale
based on layer counting, using those cores and records that
optimally resolve the annual layers at a given time period.
The resulting timescale is based on identification of annual layers in δ 18 O records in the top section, using parallel data from DYE-3 (most recent 8.3 ka), GRIP (most recent
3.8 ka), and NGRIP (most recent 1.8 ka) linked together using common volcanic signatures (Vinther et al., 2006). Between 11.7 ka b2k (the onset of Holocene) and 7.9 ka b2k,
GRIP high-resolution CFA records of ammonium, hydrogen peroxide, and calcium ions were used for annual layer
counting supplemented by short sections of GRIP δ 18 O data.
In the section older than 10.3 ka b2k, the multi-component
NGRIP data set is also available (Rasmussen et al., 2006). In
the Holocene many different data series have been used and
overlaps between the different data series ensure maximum
consistency.
Glacial annual layer thicknesses are much smaller than
Holocene values due to low glacial accumulation rates and
flow-induced thinning and therefore only the NGRIP CFA,
ECM and visual stratigraphy (VS) data can be used for
annual layer identification in the glacial (Andersen et al.,
2006b; Svensson et al., 2006, 2008). Beyond 60 ka b2k, the
counted GICC05 timescale is extended with the modelled
ss09sea06bm timescale (North Greenland Ice Core Project
members, 2004) shifted 705 yr towards younger ages to ensure continuity (Wolff et al., 2010). The combined timescale
has later been named GICC05modelext, and annual layer
counting across Greenland Stadial 22 (GS-22) using new
high-resolution CFA data largely confirms the validity of the
GICC05modelext estimates of the duration of GS-22 (Vallelonga et al., 2012).
With the aim of providing a common chronological framework for the Greenland cores, the GICC05 timescale has
been transferred to the Renland and Agassiz ice cores
(Vinther et al., 2008) and to the GRIP and GISP2 ice cores
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
in the interval 32.45–11.7 ka b2k (Rasmussen et al., 2008)
and further extended to 48 ka b2k for GRIP in Blockley et
al. (2012) using an approach similar to the one applied here.
Ongoing work will extend the GICC05modelext to the full
length of the stratigraphically uncompromised sections of
the GRIP and GISP2 cores, and GICC05 ages are also used
in integrated inverse modelling efforts aiming at constructing a common chronological framework for Antarctic and
Greenland ice cores (Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010; Veres et
al., 2012)
Once more data become available, NEEM data can potentially contribute to the refinement of the GICC05modelext
timescale, especially in the section older than approximately
7.5 ka b2k. Here the resolution of the DYE-3 δ 18 O record
becomes increasingly marginal for resolving annual layers,
and even when the GRIP CFA data becomes available in the
section older than 7.9 ka, the robustness of the annual layer
count is adversely influenced by the fact that the GRIP CFA
set consists of only two independent parameters at moderate resolution. The section from about 10.3 ka b2k (deeper
than which NGRIP CFA measurements are available) to
7.5 ka b2k is the weakest section data-wise, and although this
time period is partially overlapping with the brittle zone in
the NEEM core, there is potential for a strengthening of the
annual layer identification across this interval once NEEM
data are available. Another potential addition to the GICC
framework based on NEEM data is semi-automatic and objective annual layer identification using VS and CFA data,
possibly in parallel between the NEEM and NGRIP cores,
for example, using the method developed by Winstrup et
al. (2012).
The uncertainty in GICC05 annual layer identification
is given as the so-called maximum counting error (MCE)
derived from the number of uncertain annual layers, each
counted as 1/2 ± 1/2 yr. Comparisons with other palaeoclimate records indicate that the GICC05 has little or no systematic bias and confirms that the MCE probably is a conservative estimate of the total age uncertainty of the timescale
(Svensson et al., 2008). In this work, we follow the same notation and report all GICC05 ages with corresponding MCE
values. It should be stressed that the MCE is not a Gaussian
uncertainty measure and that MCE values strictly speaking
cannot be compared to Gaussian-style dating uncertainties
of other records. However, in the absence of a more appropriate uncertainty estimate, we recommend that the MCE is
regarded as the 2σ uncertainty of GICC05 in cases where
Gaussian uncertainties are needed (Andersen et al., 2006b).
2.2
Electrical conductivity measurements (ECM)
Electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) were conducted in the field during the NGRIP (Dahl-Jensen et al.,
2002) and NEEM ice core campaigns. For both cores, the
ECM set-up and procedure are similar to the one described
in Hammer (1980): first, a flat surface along the depth axis
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2715
of the ice core is polished with a microtome knife to produce
a level and freshly cleaned surface. The hand-held ECM instrument consists of a pair of brass electrodes spaced ∼ 1 cm
apart, between which a DC voltage difference of 1250 V is
maintained. This device is moved along the ice in a steady
fashion, while maintaining a constant pressure of the electrodes onto the ice surface. The electrical field causes H+
ions in the ice to be displaced resulting in a transient displacement current which is measured. Steady movement of
the ECM instrument over the ice surface prevents the ice
from being polarized leading to a reduced current over time
(Hammer, 1980). Based on comparisons to high-resolution
chemistry measurements, it has been established that the
recorded ECM signal is almost entirely a response to the
acidic components of the ice, even in the presence of large
concentrations of neutral salt (Moore et al., 1992). Hence,
ECM is a fast and non-destructive technique for providing a
high-resolution acidity profile for the ice core.
The ECM technique is often used as one of the primary tools for establishing an event stratigraphy for volcanic
eruptions, which are detectable as high-acidity layers in ice
cores. ECM was recorded continuously along the NGRIP
and NEEM ice cores. For NGRIP, the upper part (down to
1372 m) of the ECM profile was measured on the NGRIP1
core, whereas the lower part (1346–3085 m) is based on data
from the NGRIP2 core. Inaccuracies in the logging of the
NGRIP cores have given rise to a small offset (∼ 0.43 m)
between corresponding volcanic events recorded in the two
cores in the overlapping section, with NGRIP1 data being
assigned the greater depth (Hvidberg et al., 2002).
2.2.1
Calibration
The ECM signal is temperature dependent and was calibrated
to a standard temperature of −14 ◦ C by using an Arrhenius
law with an activation energy of 0.23 eV (Neftel et al., 1985).
The exact conversion between ECM and ice acidity is ambiguous. Even for a specific set of electrodes, the data display
a large amount of scatter, and several calibration curves have
been suggested based on measured H+ ion concentrations.
The initial calibration curve suggested by Hammer (1980)
uses a square-law relationship, but the appropriate parameters in this calibration seem to be ice-core dependent (Moore
et al., 1992). This is partly a result of different ambient conditions and operational differences (e.g. pressure applied to
the electrodes) during measurements. Also, the exact procedures concerning storage and cleaning of the ice core surface
may play a role. For the NGRIP and NEEM cores, many operators have been in charge of the ECM measurements, and
the ice core was subjected to varying conditions. Hence, the
calibration is likely to be variable with depth. Here, the ECM
current i (in µA) has been converted to ice acidity (in µequiv.
H+ kg−1 ) using the relationship [H+ ] = 0.045 × i 1.73 as suggested by Hammer (1980).
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
Fig. 1. Example of DEP data processing. The measured DEP record
is plotted in grey. Below the firn, the relative permittivity remains
just above 3, and sections with permittivity levels below a threshold
(blue) defined as a constant value relative to the 10 m average value
(dashed blue) are excluded from the processed data set (black). In a
second step we manually deal with obviously faulty sections.
For our purposes, however, a further fine-tuning of the
ECM calibration is unnecessary: the synchronization of the
two cores does not rely on absolute values, but solely on the
recognition of similar patterns of peaks in the two ice core
acidity records.
2.2.2
Data quality
The quality of the ECM measurements is generally higher
in ice than in the firn, where the lower density makes it difficult to maintain constant contact area between ice crystals
and electrodes. This leads to generally lower currents and
enhanced scatter in data from the uppermost part of the ice
core.
To ensure the quality of the ECM data, the ECM profile
was measured twice for each core section and the two profiles
were subsequently checked for agreement. In case of major dissimilarities, measurements were repeated until reproducible results were obtained and a representative run could
be selected. In this way, the reproducibility of the ECM data
was continuously checked.
The manually operated ECM device is fast and simple, and
it allows the scientific investigator to take advantage of the
best-preserved section of the ice core surface by manoeuvring the electrodes around cracks or other areas of poorquality ice. Breaks across the entire core diameter cannot be
avoided, and can be recognized as abrupt dips in the ECM
profile. The location of breaks was logged as part of the
ECM measurements, and data from these sections have subsequently been removed from the resulting ECM data sets.
A disadvantage of the handheld electrode approach is that
the depth assignment is only accurate to 1–2 cm, which is
a consequence of the flexibility in the electrode set-up together with the uncertainty of the registration of the moveClim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
ment of the electrodes along the length of the core. The
depth uncertainty of 1–2 cm of the ECM data makes a detailed comparison with, for example, high-resolution chemistry measurements of the ice core challenging. Data have
subsequently been interpolated to a depth resolution of 1 cm
for NGRIP1 and NEEM data and 1 mm for NGRIP2 data,
with the different resolution reflecting changes in the data
post-measurement treatment.
Despite the rather low accuracy of the depth assignment,
the high resolution of the ECM records is important for the
synchronization of the ice cores, as it permits robust pattern
recognition of features found in both cores.
2.3
Dielectrical profiling (DEP)
The dielectrical stratigraphy of the NEEM and NGRIP cores
were recorded in the field with the dielectric profiling (DEP)
technique (Wilhelms et al., 1998). Comparisons with highresolution chemistry measurements suggest that the DEP signal in Greenland mainly reflects the acidity of the ice and the
core’s content of ammonium and salts (Moore et al., 1994).
Ice core sections of 1.65–2.2 m were usually analysed no
more than one day after drilling. The brittle zone ice could
not be handled directly after drilling and was stored and processed during the subsequent season, but all the data used
here comes from below the brittle zone.
At NEEM, approximately every day a free air measurement was recorded for data calibration. For each measurement the cable stray capacitance and conductance – as determined in the corresponding daily free air measurements – are
subtracted from the respective capacitance and conductance
records. These measurements are not available for NGRIP,
and the missing correction for cable stray conductance means
that the NGRIP data set still contains a periodic variation
with amplitude of up to 2 % of the baseline conductivity and
a wavelength of 1.65 m. After multiplying the conductance
with the vacuum permittivity, permittivity and conductivity
are calculated by division with the free air capacitance.
The relative permittivity increases during the initial densification in the upper part of the core and remains just above
three in deeper core sections. Therefore, permittivity values significantly below this threshold are good indicators of
sections with bad core quality influenced, for example, by
breaks or missing pieces. Data from these sections are not
trustworthy, and corrected data sets are created by removing sections where the permittivity drops below a chosen
threshold (see Fig. 1).
The NEEM and NGRIP DEP data sets are provided in
processed form without correction for the temperature variation in the science trench or in the core-buffer. Therefore,
care should be taken when interpreting the absolute levels
between sections. For the identification of patterns of peaks
between different cores, however, this limitation is not important.
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
5.0
4.5
13
TiO2 (wt%)
3.0 3.5 4.0
CaO (wt%)
11
12
2.0
2.5
10
9
48
49
SiO2 (wt%)
50
51
5
4
5
C)
www.clim-past.net/9/2713/2013/
1.5
8
13
6
8
13
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
FeO/MgO (wt%)
4.0
4.5
4.5
TiO2 (wt%)
4.0
3.5
3.0
9.0
– Intervals corresponding to age ranges of known tephra
layers not yet identified in the ice cores.
In the sampled sections, ice strips with a cross section of
approximately 2 cm2 were cut from the 55 cm-long archive
segments of the core stored at the University of Copenhagen.
The sample preparation methodology followed that outlined
in Davies et al. (2008, 2010) and Abbott et al. (2012), and
involves centrifugation of the melted ice sample and preparation of the remaining particulate material onto ground glass
slides. The samples were then embedded in epoxy resin and
high-magnification light microscopy was undertaken to identify the presence of glass-shard particles. Samples found to
contain volcanic material were then ground and polished using different grades of diamond suspension (9, 6 and 1 µm)
to produce a polished surface suitable for analysing single
shards by electron microprobe.
Electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the identified
glass shards took place at the Tephra Analysis Unit based at
the University of Edinburgh. A Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe with five vertical wavelength dispersive spectrometers was used to analyse oxide values for 10 major and minor
elements within individual glass shards. The operating conditions followed those outlined by Hayward (2012).
Fifteen tephras common to the NGRIP and NEEM ice
cores are identified and are outlined in Table 1. These are
Icelandic in origin with 8 of tholeiitic basaltic composition
and 7 of transitional alkali basaltic composition (Fig. 2).
Statistical comparisons testing the major-element correlations provide support for the matching of horizons between
the cores (Table 1). Firstly, the statistical distance SD(D2 )
test of Perkins (1995, 1998) which utilises the mean and
standard deviations for the 10 elements that exceed 0.1 wt%,
demonstrates that none of the correlations being tested are
statistically different at the 99 % confidence interval as the
1.0
6
2.2
– Intervals spanning rapid climatic transitions in the
δ 18 O record.
52
4
5.0
47
3.4
B)
46
2.4
– Ice spanning distinct sulfate peaks in the NGRIP CFA
measurements following the approach of Davies et
al. (2010) and Abbott et al. (2012).
45
3.2
Glacial ice from both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores is
currently being intensively investigated with the aim of developing a high-resolution tephrochronological framework,
linking the cores together and providing a robust template for
correlating the ice-core records with other sediment records
containing tephras (Lowe et al., 2008; Blockley et al., 2012;
Abbott and Davies, 2012). In this work we focus on the identification of cryptotephra horizons (i.e. horizons that contain
a low concentration of volcanic glass particles and are invisible to the naked eye). A sampling strategy was devised based
on three criteria:
Aii)
Ai)
TiO2 (wt%)
2.8
3.0
Tephra horizons
2.6
2.4
2717
9.5
10.0 10.5
CaO (wt%)
11.0
11.5
9
10
11
CaO (wt%)
12
1
9
11
12
14
2
3
7
10
1
9
11
12a
14a
2
3
7a
10
12b
14b
13
7b
Fig. 2. Biplots showing the tephra horizons matched between the
NEEM and NGRIP cores. The tephras are numbered according to
Table 1. Correlative tephra horizons are represented by the same
shape and colour symbols, with NEEM layers represented by open
symbols and NGRIP layers by filled symbols. (A) biplots for the
tephra layers included in the timescale transfer. (Ai) plot of SiO2
vs. CaO and (Aii) plot of FeO/MgO vs. TiO2 . (B) biplot of CaO
vs. TiO2 for the remaining tholeiitic basalt layers and (C) biplot of
CaO vs. TiO2 for the remaining transitional alkali basalt layers.
D2 values do not exceed the critical value of 23.21. Secondly,
the use of the similarity coefficient (SC) function of Borchardt (1972), which compares the average values for the 7
major elements exceeding 1 wt%, highlights the strong similarities between the correlated deposits as SC values all exceed 0.95. This is usually taken as the threshold for defining
an identical geochemical sample (Begét et al., 1992).
3
Methods and results
In the logging and analysis of ice cores, the core length is the
fundamental parameter. The core is retrieved from a slightly
inclined bore hole, and inaccuracies in the logged length accumulate along the core, especially in sections where drilling
difficulties resulted in poor core quality; or in the brittle zone,
where the core quality is often compromised by depressurisation of air bubbles within the ice. However, as all measurements on the core are made relative to the same logged depth
scale, no such inaccuracies are of any relevance to the synchronization of the ice cores or timescale transfer.
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
Table 1. Summary table of tephra horizons identified in the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores. Horizons used for the timescale transfer are marked
by a , while the other horizons are consistent with the synchronization but not used for the timescale transfer as they are located too close
to better-resolved ECM match points. Previously published major element data for NGRIP horizons 1–3 are from Mortensen et al. (2005)
and horizons 5 and 7 are from Davies et al. (2010). Major element results for horizons 11–15 are reported in Bourne et al. (2013) and the
remaining data sets will be available in forthcoming publications. b The tephra at NGRIP 2066.95 m was originally identified by Davies
et al. (2010) and new geochemical data reported by Bourne et al. (2013) and used in this work demonstrate that this horizon correlates to
NEEM 1756.90–1757.10 m. c Major element results for NEEM 1764.05–1764.25 m are indistinguishable from two closely-timed tephras
in NGRIP (2077.90–2078.01 m and 2078.30–2078.37 m) (see Fig. 2) and based solely on the geochemical signatures it is uncertain which
one is the NGRIP correlative. However, only the correlation to NGRIP 2077.90–2078.01 m is consistent with the ECM-based match. The
columns SD(D2 ) and SC provide the statistical distance and similarity coefficient values, respectively (see Sect. 2.4 for further details).
NEEM
depth (m)
NGRIP
depth (m)
1
1363.78–1363.79
1409.83
2
1429.08–1429.13
1506.11–1506.18
3
1472.20–1472.35
1572.90–1573.00
4a
1648.75–1648.90
1881.95–1882.10
5a
1656.45–1656.50
1895.23–1895.24
6a
1664.85–1664.95
1908.50–1908.70
7
1669.10–1669.25
8a
1677.50-1677.60
1915.10–1915.50
1915.50–1915.63
1929.80-1929.95
9
1689.05–1689.25
1950.30–1950.50
10
1690.15–1690.35
1951.95–1952.15
11
1755.45–1755.60
2064.15–2064.35
12b
1756.90–1757.10
2066.93–2066.95
13a
1759.65–1759.85
2071.30–2071.50
14c
1764.05–1764.25
15
1780.00–1780.20
2077.90–2078.01
(2078.3–2078.37)
2103.92–2103.98
Geochemistry
Tephra name if
reported previously
SD(D2 )
SC
Tholeiitic
basalt
Transitional
alkali basalt
Transitional
alkali basalt
Transitional
alkali basalt
Transitional
alkali basalt
Tholeiitic
basalt
Transitional
alkali basalt
Transitional
alkali basalt
Tholeiitic
basalt
Transitional
alkali basalt
Tholeiitic
basalt
Tholeiitic
basalt
Tholeiitic
basalt
Tholeiitic
basalt
Tholeiitic
basalt
Saksunarvatn Ash
7.406
0.963
Vedde Ash
10.12
0.967
NGRIP 1573
5.385
0.971
0.453
0.981
3.569
0.979
1.887
0.985
2.681
0.977
2.771
0.973
0.868
0.985
1.691
0.974
2.014
0.985
4.151
0.982
1.814
0.970
0.870
0.976
6.600
0.954
A potential offset between true depth and logged depth
could be of relevance when records from the ice core are
compared to in-hole measurements or modelled quantities.
We have no direct way of estimating the magnitude of this
offset, but the NEEM drilling and logging procedures are
similar to those employed at NGRIP where the drilling and
logging of two parallel ice cores down to a depth of 1372 m
made it possible to evaluate the NGRIP2 logging precision to
about 0.5 m at 1372 m depth (Hvidberg et al., 2002). As the
estimated uncertainty on the logged depth therefore is small
and varies slowly with depth, the effect on the comparison
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
NGRIP 1895.24 m
NGRIP 1915.5 m
NGRIP 1915.63 m
NGRIP 2066.95 m
of true-depth ice flow modelling results and core-depth measurements is negligible.
3.1
Synchronization of the NEEM and NGRIP cores
To allow for the investigation of differences, including possible leads and lags, between the climate records of the two
cores, the transfer of the timescale is based on reference horizons of non-climatic origin only. Ideally, only horizons that
can be uniquely identified in both cores should be used. Extensive ongoing work on locating tephra in ice cores and
geochemically characterizing these tephras is providing an
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
ever-growing number of such horizons that tie different ice
cores together with high confidence (Mortensen et al., 2005;
Narcisi et al., 2005, 2012; Coulter et al., 2012). However,
the number of available tephra horizons is still far from sufficient to provide the sole basis for the transfer of GICC05
to the NEEM core. Instead, the synchronization is based on
the identification of common patterns in the continuous and
highly resolved ECM and DEP records with the tephra horizons providing an independent check of the synchronization
and five additional match points.
Peaks in the ECM records originate from many sources
with sulfuric acid of volcanic origin being a common source,
while dips in the ECM record often are correlated to high
NH+
4 concentrations, which are thought to be caused, for example, by episodes of high biomass burning activity (Fuhrer
et al., 1996; Taylor et al., 1996). ECM peak heights vary significantly between cores probably due to differences in both
transport and depositional conditions as well as variations in
the background amount of alkaline dust and other impurities. Significant differences are seen even between replicate
cores obtained from the same site (Wolff et al., 2005). However, even when individual peaks in themselves cannot be robustly matched between the cores, characteristic sequences
of peaks and/or dips in the ECM signals can be used for robust climate-independent synchronization of ice cores (Rasmussen et al., 2008). In the section of NEEM below 1757 m
depth, DEP data was used to support the matching.
The matching was performed by several investigators in
parallel using the tool “Matchmaker” (available upon request
from S. O. Rasmussen). All sections were matched independently by at least two investigators or groups of investigators. No significant differences between parallel matches
were observed, although the number of match points differed
markedly among investigators. In the second phase, a consensus set of match points was agreed upon by the investigators, excluding points only supported by one investigator. A
total of 383 match points were identified between the NEEM
and NGRIP1 cores with an additional 423 match points tying together the NEEM and NGRIP2 cores (of which 19 are
in the zone of overlap between NGRIP1 and NGRIP2 measurements, leading to a total of 787 match points). The match
points are provided in the data file accompanying this paper
and a typical sequence of ECM and DEP data with match
points is shown on Fig. 3.
During both phases of match-point identification, the
Matchmaker tool is used to continuously evaluate whether
the proposed match is glaciologically realistic (i.e. compatible with reasonable assumptions about the flow and accumulation regimes of the two core sites). As outlined in Rasmussen et al. (2008), the most useful diagnostic variable is
the ratio rab = (Da − Db ) / (da − db ) of annual layer thicknesses between neighbouring match points a and b found at
depths Da and Db in the NEEM core and da and db in the
NGRIP core. The values of rab depend on both the relative
accumulation rates of the cores and the amount of thinning
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2719
induced by ice flow, and are expected to change only slowly
(especially within a certain climatic state) as long as the spacing between a and b is large enough to eliminate the effect
of short-term accumulation variability, surface redistribution,
and uncertainties in the ECM depth scale (Andersen et al.,
2006a).
The match points and the annual layer thickness ratios rab
are shown on Fig. 4 together with the location of the tephra
horizons described in Sect. 2.4. Long sections without match
points occur during glacial stadial conditions where the relatively high dust levels make the ice alkaline, thus muting the
ECM acidity record (Ruth et al., 2003). As seen in Fig. 4, the
higher NEEM accumulation leads to thicker annual layers in
NEEM than NGRIP down to a depth of about 700 m, after
which the increased flow-induced thinning at NEEM leads
to NGRIP annual layers being thicker by a factor of 1.5–2
during most of the glacial.
The (NGRIP depth, NEEM depth) relation has a small
kink at the 2087.698 m match point and clear kinks at the
2166.449 m and 2195.630 m match points. The first two
kinks probably represent the boundaries between sections
that have undergone different amounts of strain due to complex ice flow patterns that lead to overturned folds deeper
in the ice (NEEM community members, 2013), but we believe that the ice stratigraphy is still undisturbed. Below the
2195.630 m match point, the match between the cores is less
robust, and there is a significant risk that the ice below this
depth is stratigraphically disturbed. However, we do not have
enough data of significant resolution at this point to shed light
on this issue, and we therefore transfer GICC05modelext
to NEEM down to a depth of 2203.597 m (or 108.2 ka b2k)
below which the ice core is known to be stratigraphically
compromised, noting that the section below approx. 2150 m
(93.6 ka b2k) is less certain and that the section below the
2195.630 m match point (107.0 ka b2k) must be considered
tentative.
3.1.1
The relation between tephra horizons and the
ECM synchronization
As described in Sect. 2.4 and Table 1, fifteen tephra horizons
common to the NGRIP and NEEM cores have been located.
All of these are fully consistent with the ECM-based synchronization.
The tephra particles are found in ice samples with a typical
length of 15–20 cm, but their precise locations have not been
determined by higher-resolution sampling and the tephra layers are not visible. In contrast, the ECM record has a much
finer depth resolution and precision. More than half of the
tephra horizons sit on top of (or very close to) one or more
ECM-based match points, in which case only the more precise ECM-based match points are used for the timescale
transfer. Five tephra horizons are located in areas without
adjacent ECM-based match points and are included in the
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
2344
2342
2340
2338
NGRIP2 depth (m)
2336
2334
2332
2330
2328
2326
2324
20
10
2
5
0
1
0
20
ECM (μeq kg−1)
15
3
10
5
2
0
1
DEP (cond. μSm−1)
ECM (μeq kg−1)
15
3
DEP (cond. μSm−1)
2346
0
1912
1911
1910
1909
1908
1907
1906
NEEM depth (m)
1905
1904
1903
1902
1901
Fig. 3. Example of ECM and DEP data across a synchronized section of the NEEM and NGRIP cores. The grey bands mark the match points
used for the timescale transfer.
GICC05modelext ice age (ka b2k)
3000
100
80 60
40
20
10
8
6
5
108 104 100 96
2900
2400
2800
3
2
88
1
0.1
6
84
5
Small kink
2087.7 m
5
4
NGRIP1 / NGRIP2 depth (m)
3
2700 Kink
2195.6 m
2600
2100
1800
2200
2
Kink
2166.4 m
2175
4
1
2150
2125
2100
2075
2050
1500
3
GS−2 match
point gap
1200
2
900
600
NGRIP/NEEM annual layer thickness ratio
2700
4
92
1
300
Brittle zone
0
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
NEEM depth (m)
800
600
400
200
0
0
Fig. 4. ECM/DEP-based match points between the NEEM and NGRIP1 (red) and NGRIP2 (blue) ice cores and the tephra horizons (black
squares). In green (right axis), the NGRIP/NEEM annual layer thickness ratio rab is shown. The insert shows the details of the match points
and rab over the lowest 150 m of the core, where kinks in the (NEEM depth, NGRIP depth) relation and corresponding jumps in rab most
likely indicate areas subject to differential strain.
timescale transfer data set using the middle of the tephra sampling intervals (see Table 1 for details).
3.2
Transfer of the GICC05modelext timescale from
NGRIP to NEEM
The transfer of the timescale is based on the ECM and
DEP-based match points and the five tephra horizons located away from ECM-based match points. Using the match
points’ NGRIP depths and the NGRIP GICC05modelext
(depth, age) relationship, the ages of the 787 ECM-based
match points and 5 tephras are calculated. This set of markClim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
ers defines the (depth, age) relation for NEEM, named
GICC05modelext-NEEM-1. The accuracy of the timescale
at these points depends on three factors:
– The NEEM timescale inherits the maximum counting
error (MCE) of the NGRIP GICC05 timescale.
– Differences between the shape of peaks and inaccuracies in the depth registration of the ECM data
set introduce synchronization uncertainty on the order of centimetres. The estimated synchronization uncertainty was estimated to 10 cm (1σ ) by Rasmussen
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
et al. (2008), and here we tentatively estimate its
magnitude by calculating the effect on the (NEEM
depth, NGRIP depth) relation of removing every second match point. The results support the estimated
synchronization uncertainty of 10 cm (1σ ), leading to
timescale transfer uncertainties ranging from a few
years to a maximum of a few decades at the deepest
part of the record.
– Although we believe the set of match points to be robust, there is a risk that some sections have been erroneously matched up, leading to a larger systematic
depth offset. This concern is particularly relevant for
the NEEM ice below 2150 m (93.6 ka b2k).
As the MCE is typically 2 orders of magnitude larger than
the matching uncertainty (when assuming no large systematic errors), we report GICC05modelext-NEEM-1 ages with
the MCE uncertainty estimates only, but stress that observed
phasing differences of up to a decade at the match-point
depths could be artefacts from the timescale transfer.
As seen on Fig. 4, there is a section across parts of the
brittle zone (845–1026 m NEEM depth) with only few match
points and a section of alkaline ice of GS-2 (1511–1595 m
NEEM depth) with no match points at all. In addition, many
shorter periods (mainly in the stadials) do not contain match
points. Even in the absence of match points, we provide for
convenience an interpolated (depth, age) relation for each
0.55 m depth increment, corresponding to the “bag” units
used when cutting and packing the ice core. NEEM bag
depths are first translated to NGRIP depths by linear interpolation using the (NEEM depth, NGRIP depth) relation established by match points and tephra horizons. By using linear interpolation, we assume a slowly varying ratio of annual
layer thicknesses between the cores, which appears to be a
reasonable assumption both from our understanding of accumulation variability and from the smoothness of the (NEEM
depth, NGRIP depth) curve on Fig. 4. From the interpolated NGRIP depths, the ages are obtained from the NGRIP
GICC05modelext (depth, age) relation.
Note that obtaining the bag ages directly from the 792
NEEM (depth, age) match points by interpolating the age linearly between match points gives a different result. This approach corresponds to assuming constant annual layer thicknesses between the NEEM match points, which, especially
in sections with match points in interstadials only, is an unrealistic assumption given the large variations in accumulation
rates across stadial-interstadial boundaries.
3.2.1
The precision of the interpolated timescale
As described in Sect. 3.2, the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores
are precisely aligned at the match points and the accuracy
of the NEEM timescale at the match points is thus essentially quantified by the MCE of GICC05. However, the interpolation applied to provide a continuous NEEM timescale
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2721
may introduce artificial offsets between the NEEM records
and other records on the GICC05 timescale. These offsets
are generally much smaller than the MCE and mainly matter
when discussing the relative timing between events as observed in records from different cores.
As an estimate of the upper bound of the interpolation uncertainty, the effect of leaving out individual match points
has been calculated. The interpolation was repeated using the
entire set of match points except one (the leave-one-out approach). Going through all the match points in turn, interpolation differences of typically a few tens of centimetres or
less are observed, with differences peaking at 95 cm when the
excluded match point is the last point within GI-17 where the
distance to the neighbouring match points is unusually large.
Using linear interpolation between match-point depths
certainly is an approximation and it is not straightforward
to evaluate its uncertainty. However, the smooth shape and
small curvature of the (NEEM depth, NGRIP depth) curve
seen on Fig. 4 illustrates that it is hard to justify more complex interpolation schemes. To test the influence of different
interpolation schemes, interpolation was also performed using cubic spline interpolation. The change in interpolation
method results in differences in the interpolated timescale
of only 0–2 yr for the most recent 16 ka and no more than
20 yr for the period 96–69 and 60–23 ka b2k. These uncertainties are smaller than or equivalent to the synchronization
uncertainty discussed in Sect. 3.2. Exceptions are the long
GS-2 match-point gap spanning 1511–1595 m NEEM depth
and periods of similar duration without match points in GS18 and GS-19. Here the possible offset could be larger, but
we have little data from which to estimate this. Rasmussen
et al. (2008) found unexpected offsets of a few metres in
the (depth, depth) relations of the NGRIP, GRIP, and GISP2
cores across the GS-2 match-point gap interval, and although
these may be related to ice divide migration or lee-side effects near the GRIP and GISP2 drill sites, it cannot be ruled
out that similar issues exist for the NGRIP–NEEM synchronization.
Based on this and on visual inspection of the (NEEM
depth, NGRIP depth) curve, we estimate that the likely maximum depth offset caused by interpolation across the GS-2
match-point gap is 1 m, corresponding to around 80 yr. However, the unusually strong accumulation variability across
GS-2 could potentially introduce an interpolation-based offset significantly larger than this. Similarly, across the ∼ 5 kyr
long GS-18 and GS-19 sections where the synchronization is based on only two match points within GI-18, an
interpolation-based offset of 1 m (here corresponding to
around 200 yr) is conceivable.
3.3
Estimating the thinning function
Past accumulation rates can be inferred from the observed
annual layer thicknesses in an ice core if the strain history at
the drilling site is known. A thinning function, reflecting the
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
0
200
400
600
Depth (m)
800
1000
Holocene
1200
1400
1600
Glacial
1800
2000
2200
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
Annual layer thickness (m)
0.25
0.3
Fig. 5. Mean NEEM annual layer thicknesses between the match
points presented in this work (blue dots) and predicted Holocene
annual layer thicknesses calculated from a Dansgaard–Johnsen
model with constant accumulation rate of 0.221 m yr−1 and flow
parameters determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by
observed depth-age horizons back to 85 ka b2k (red line). The green
line shows the predicted annual layer thicknesses from a D–J model
with flow parameter values determined from Monte Carlo analysis
constrained only by depth, age horizons younger than 7.9 ka b2k.
The transition from the glacial to the Holocene (11.7 ka b2k) is
marked with a horizontal grey line. High-frequency variability in
the observed annual layer thicknesses caused by closely spaced
match points in the top part of the core has been removed.
accumulated vertical strain along the NEEM core, has been
calculated using a Dansgaard–Johnsen (D–J) model (Dansgaard and Johnsen, 1969).
As discussed by NEEM community members (2013), the
stratigraphy of the NEEM core has been compromised below 2203.6 m and, therefore, we do not attempt to model the
strain in the deepest part of the core. A D–J model including
basal melt and sliding (Buchardt, 2009) has been fitted to the
(depth, age) relation of Sect. 3.2. The basal melt and sliding
have no straightforward physical interpretation given the disturbed and folded stratigraphy but has been included in the
model in order to properly represent the flow regime of the
NEEM area as reflected in the upper 2203.6 m of core.
The ice flow model is driven by a dynamical accumulation
model, where the accumulation rate is calculated from the
dated δ 18 O record through an exponential relation (Johnsen
et al., 1995). The measured δ 18 O values have been corrected for changes in ocean δ 18 O (Bintanja and van de Wal,
2008), and an extended thickness history based on Vinther et
al. (2009) is used. The inverse problem of determining the
values of the unknown parameters in the ice-flow model and
the accumulation model is solved using Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed (depth, age) relation. Though
match points are identified back to 108 ka b2k, only depthage horizons younger than 85 ka b2k are used to constrain
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
the flow parameters due to the accumulation ratio kinks discussed in Sect. 3.2 and shown in Fig. 4, which cannot be adequately described using a D–J model. As the ice is disturbed
and folded below 2203.6 m, the layers immediately above are
likely to be influenced and adequate dating with the simple
D–J model cannot be expected.
The Monte Carlo analysis reveals an average ice equivalent accumulation rate over the last 3 ka of 0.221 m yr−1
(1σ = 0.003 m yr−1 ), a typical glacial accumulation rate of
0.05 m in the stadials, and about twice this value in interstadials. However, it is not possible with this simple model to obtain a good correspondence between modelled and observed
depth-age horizons in the Holocene. The modelled depths are
too shallow for match points younger than ∼ 8 ka and too
deep for Holocene points older than this. To further investigate this discrepancy, we look at the average annual layer
thicknesses between the match points presented in Sect. 3.1.
These are shown in blue in Fig. 5 together with the annual
layer thicknesses calculated for a constant Holocene accumulation rate of 0.221 m yr−1 using a thinning function calculated from the Monte Carlo estimated parameters (Fig. 5,
red curve). A prominent kink is seen in the observed annual
layer thicknesses around 1200 m depth corresponding to an
age of approximately 7.9 ka b2k. This kink cannot be simulated with the simple D–J model, so in order to obtain a reasonable strain history for the ice above the kink, the Monte
Carlo analysis is carried out constrained only by match points
younger than 7.9 ka b2k. This leads to a better agreement between observed and modelled annual layer thicknesses for
the period back to 7.9 ka b2k (Fig. 5, green curve).
The NGRIP and NEEM annual layer thicknesses show
a parallel behaviour with early Holocene layers being relatively thin compared to what is expected from the model.
Also, annual layer thicknesses from GISP2 seem to be somewhat thinner than expected from the model of Alley et
al. (1993) between 11.7 and 9 ka b2k, whereas no such shift
around 10–8 ka b2k is found in the Holocene annual layer
thicknesses from GRIP (Vinther et al., 2006).
To further pursue the idea of a different early Holocene accumulation pattern, we compare observed mean annual layer
thicknesses between match points with layer thicknesses derived by the fitted D–J model (black curve in Fig. 6). A
large discrepancy is seen in the early Holocene, across GI1, and during the late glacial. If the δ 18 O-inferred accumulation rates are reduced by 30 % during the glacial and the
reduction in accumulation rate is linearly phased out from
30 % at 11.7 ka b2k to zero at 7.9 ka b2k, the match between
the Monte Carlo-tuned D–J model and observed annual layer
thickness improves dramatically (green curve in Fig. 6).
The origin of the changed accumulation–δ 18 O relationship in the early Holocene is unclear, and could be caused
by changes in the accumulation–temperature relationship,
changes in the temperature–δ 18 O relationship, limited ability of the flow model to represent a changing flow regime,
or a combination hereof (Vinther et al., 2009). Possible
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
2723
1000
−38
δ O (‰)
1100
1200
1300
18
Holocene
10 9
8
7
6
5
−40
−42
0.5
−44
1500
Glacial
0.45
1600
1700
0.4
1800
0.35
δ15N (‰)
Depth (m)
1400
11
1900
2100
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
Annual layer thickness (m)
0.1
0.12
Fig. 6. Observed NEEM annual layer thicknesses (blue) and annual layer thicknesses inferred by applying the thinning function
obtained from the D–J model to the accumulation rates calculated
from the δ 18 O record (black). By reducing the calculated accumulation rates by 30 % in the glacial and phasing out the reduction
linearly from 30 % at 11.7 ka b2k to zero at 7.9 kyr b2k, a significantly better fit to the observed annual layer thicknesses is obtained
(green).
explanations include (i) ice ridge movements causing the
need for the flow parameters in the D–J model to be adjusted,
(ii) circulation and accumulation pattern changes caused by
changes in Greenland ice sheet height and geometry and the
gradually diminishing effects of the Laurentide ice sheet, and
(iii) changes in δ 18 O caused by elevation changes and upstream effects.
The reconstructed accumulation history with the abovementioned forced accumulation reduction in the glacial and
early Holocene is presented in Fig. 9.
3.4
Establishing the gas chronology by estimating 1age
Air bubbles are trapped at the firn–ice transition, leading
to an ice age–gas age offset that is commonly referred to
as 1age (Schwander and Stauffer, 1984). To obtain a gas
chronology for the NEEM core, we model the evolution of
1age in the past using a coupled firn densification-heat diffusion model, with additional gas phase data to constrain the
reconstruction (Fig. 7). We use δ 15 N of atmospheric nitrogen
(N2 ) where available as well as methane (CH4 ) data obtained
through a combination of discrete sampling (Mitchell et al.,
2011; Rosen et al., 2013; Guillevic et al., 2013) and continuous flow analysis (Stowasser et al., 2012; Schupbach et al.,
2009; Chappellaz et al., 2013).
The δ 15 N provides a strong constraint on both the timing
and magnitude of abrupt temperature changes over Greenland through the imprint of thermal isotopic fractionation
(Leuenberger et al., 1999; Severinghaus et al., 1998) and on
past firn column thickness through the imprint of gravitawww.clim-past.net/9/2713/2013/
CH (ppb)
4
550
2000
0.3
500
450
400
44
42
40
38
36
34
32
GICC05modelext age (ka b2k)
Fig. 7. NEEM data used in 1age reconstruction at the onset of interstadials 8–11. (a) δ 18 O of precipitation as a proxy for site temperature with 0.55 m averages in light blue, and a 5-point running
mean in dark blue; (b) δ 15 N of N2 from Guillevic (2013) (black
dots) and model output (green curve); (c) methane data from continuous flow analysis: PICARRO instrument (orange) and SARA
instrument (red) (Chappellaz et al., 2013).
tional isotopic fractionation (Sowers et al., 1992). CH4 variations are in phase with Greenland temperature, with CH4
lagging temperature by 0–70 yr (Huber et al., 2006; Landais
et al., 2004; Severinghaus and Brook, 1999; Vallelonga et al.,
2012). Thus, we obtain additional timing constraints by assuming the midpoint of the CH4 transition to slightly lag the
midpoint in the δ 18 O transition at the abrupt onset of Greenland interstadials (GI); for simplicity we use a constant lag
of 30 yr for most transitions, with the exception of interstadials 9–11 where available δ 15 N data indicate no lag. In several cases abrupt CH4 and δ 18 O features are observed within
an interstadial, providing additional timing constraints. The
CH4 tie points for interstadials 5–11 are indicated by white
circles in Fig. 7.
For the gas chronology presented here, δ 15 N data were
available for the last glacial termination (∼ 15–11 ka b2k)
and for interstadials 8–11 and 21; reliable CH4 constraints
were available for the glacial termination and interstadials 2–
22. The 1depth constraints from the gas data were converted
to 1age constraints through the NEEM ice chronology as
presented in Sect. 3.2. A final constraint is the modern 1age
of 188 yr as derived from firn air measurements (Buizert et
al., 2012).
Due to the many modelling uncertainties, the data-derived
timing constraints must be considered more accurate than
the modelled 1age. Because of the strong variability in
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S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
Greenland temperature and accumulation during the glacial
period, 1age can change by hundreds of years in between
the tie points, precluding the use of simple interpolation
schemes. The philosophy behind our 1age reconstruction is
to use densification models to obtain a realistic, physically
meaningful interpolation between the data-derived tie points.
Past changes in accumulation rate and surface temperature
are the main drivers of 1age variability, but both input functions are poorly known back in time. We adjust the accumulation (A) and temperature (T ) input to minimise the RMS
difference between the modelled ages and the timing constraints.
We use two different firn densification models in this
study, with supporting information given in the Appendix.
The first is the model by Goujon et al. (2003), which is a dynamical version of the 1-D densification model by Arnaud et
al. (2000). The heat diffusion in the ice is calculated across
the entire ice depth using a simplified version of the model
from Ritz (1989). The model uses a time step of one year for
both densification and heat diffusion calculation. The spatial
resolution in the top 150 m is 0.25 m; it decreases with depth
to 25 m at bedrock. The lock-in depth (LID), below which
the air is no longer exchanging with overlaying layers, is defined as the depth where the ratio of closed to total porosity
reaches 0.13. This LID definition based on the porosity of the
ice is in agreement with the LID density threshold proposed
by Schwander et al. (1997). A constant convective zone of
2 m is used. This model is validated for present-day conditions in Greenland and Antarctica (Landais et al., 2006; Arnaud et al., 2000).
The second model is a dynamical version of the Herron–
Langway model (D-HL) (Herron and Langway, 1980). The
model has 0.5 m spatial resolution along the depth axis, with
the model domain extending down to 1000 m. The heat diffusion model uses implicit Crank–Nicolson time stepping,
a zero gradient boundary condition at 1000 m depth and an
advective heat flux based on the 1-D ice flow model presented in Sect. 3.3. The densification and heat diffusion models use 1.0 and 0.2 yr time steps, respectively, with isochrones
tracked downwards every fifth year. Lock-in density is set at
14 kg m−3 below the mean close-off density from Martinerie
et al. (1994) as suggested by Schwander et al. (1997); lock-in
gas ages are calculated using the parameterization of Buizert
et al. (2013). Following recent work by Hörhold et al. (2012),
the model includes an empirical softening of ice that scales
with the logarithm of the Ca2+ concentration, where we use
Ca2+ data from Greenland summit (Fuhrer et al., 1993) as
a measure of the dust content. The softening is achieved
by multiplying the thermal
activation energy by the factor
1 − αln β × [Ca2+ ] (J. Freitag, personal communication,
2012); the fitting factors α = 0.0021 and β = 3 ppb−1 were
calibrated for modern NEEM firn where accurate T , A, 1age
and [Ca2+ ] data are available. Without including this empirical dust softening term, the densification model does not re-
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
produce the present-day 1age of 188 yr correctly (Buizert et
al., 2012). While yielding a more accurate present-day 1age,
including the dust effect does not influence the results in the
deep part where 1age is constrained by δ 15 N and CH4 data.
In Appendix A we model 1age for the last deglaciation (20–
10 ka b2k) using α = 0, α = 0.0021, and α = 0.0042, and find
that the results are identical within the uncertainty (Fig. A2).
The initial estimate for T (t) is based on the δ 18 O palaeothermometer, using a sensitivity of 0.562 ‰ K−1 and a
sea-water δ 18 O correction (Waelbroeck et al., 2002). The
isotope sensitivity used here is found by δ 15 N calibration of the δ 18 O palaeo-thermometer over interstadials 8–
10 at NEEM (Guillevic et al., 2013). The initial estimate
for the accumulation is based on a combination of straincorrected annual layer thicknesses (similar to the red curve
of Fig. 9), and a relationship with δ 18 O for the deeper
core where the strain correction
becomes unreliable: A =
exp 0.144 × δ 18 O + 3.245 . These initial A and T reconstructions are subsequently adjusted to optimize the fit to
the data; this is done manually for the Goujon model, and
with an automated gradient method in the D-HL model. Adjusted A and T profiles, as well as modelled 1age values are
shown for both models in Appendix A, while the final accumulation histories for the D-HL and the Goujon models are
shown on Fig. 9. The D-HL model provides a better fit to
both the δ 15 N and CH4 1age constraints; we attribute this to
the automated calibration routine, rather than differences in
the model physics. The root-mean-square (RMS) offset between model and CH4 tie points is 19 yr (66 yr) for the D-HL
(Goujon) model, while the average tie point uncertainty is
63 yr. The RMS offset to the δ 15 N data is 0.011 ‰ (0.018 ‰)
for the D-HL (Goujon) model, compared to an analytical precision on the order of 0.007 ‰. Consequently we use the DHL model result for periods where we have sufficient timing constraints; while during two periods without constraints
(108–90 and 23–17 ka b2k), output from both models is averaged. The combined 1age curve is shown in Fig. 8 together
with the 1age constraints from CH4 . The 1age uncertainty
σ1age is estimated in two ways. First, at the CH4 tie points we
set σ1age equal to the uncertainty in that tie point (the error
bars shown on Fig. 8) plus the absolute value of the modeltie point mismatch. In between the tie points we set σ1age
to the linearly interpolated uncertainty of the two adjacent
tie points plus 0.05 × 1t, with 1t being the distance to the
nearest tie point in years; after the last tie point at 88 ka b2k
we keep σ1age constant. As a second estimate we use the absolute value of the Goujon minus D-HL model difference.
For the glacial period (108–11.7 ka b2k) we use the larger of
the above two estimates as the final 1age uncertainty (shaded
area on Fig. 8). In the Holocene we tentatively set σ1age at
9 ka b2k to 30 yr, and again use linear interpolation to find
σ1age at other times.
www.clim-past.net/9/2713/2013/
S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
2725
2000
1800
Δ age (years)
1600
1400
D−HL
Goujon
Combined
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
GICC05modelext ice age (ka b2k)
Fig. 8. Evolution of NEEM 1age with timing constraints from CH4 data (green curve and shaded area indicating the estimated uncertainty).
Also shown are the results from the Goujon (blue) and dynamical Herron–Langway (orange) models and 1age constraints derived from CH4
data (black dots).
3.5
Reconstructing past accumulation rates
From the ice flow and firn modelling, we obtain four different
estimates of past accumulation rates:
– A δ 18 O-based accumulation profile entering the ice
flow model of Sect. 3.3 is determined from the Monte
Carlo analysis.
– Observed annual layer thicknesses (here we use 20 yr
means) from NGRIP can be transferred to NEEM
depths using the match points as described in Sect. 3.2,
and by correcting for the ice-flow-induced thinning using the modelled strain (Sect. 3.3), past accumulation
rates are inferred.
– As outlined in Sect. 3.4, past accumulation rates are
estimated by two different firn models by adjusting accumulation and temperature histories to optimize the
fit to the 1age constraints.
The four different estimates are shown back to 85 ka b2k on
Fig. 9, and it is clear that there is considerable disagreement
between the results especially in the 55–30 ka b2k interval,
with the estimates based on firn modelling being typically
30 % lower than the estimates based on ice flow modelling.
We want to stress that without knowledge of past convective zone thicknesses and surface densities, and in the absence of high resolution δ 15 N data for most of the core, firn
modelling-derived past accumulation rates are fundamentally
under-constrained. Similarly, the ice flow modelling is based
on a simple one-dimensional D–J model at a location where
the basal ice is folded and disturbed. However, we believe
that the combined results provide a realistic range of past
NEEM accumulation rates, and we therefore provide the
mean and 2σ envelope of the estimates (black curve and grey
shaded area in Fig. 9).
www.clim-past.net/9/2713/2013/
4 Summary and perspectives
The GICC05modelext timescale has been applied to the
NEEM ice core by transfer from NGRIP using 787 horizons identified in the ECM and DEP records. Tephra layers
confirm this synchronization and add five additional match
points for the timescale transfer. The gas record has been
dated by determining 1age from firn modelling with constraints from δ 15 N, CH4 and modern-day 1age values, while
the flow-induced strain history is determined from an ice flow
model.
The accumulation reconstructions from the ice flow and
firn models show significant differences, in particular during
the stadials in the middle part of the glacial (55–30 ka b2k).
The firn model reconstruction can be improved when δ 15 N
data becomes available, while the ice flow model based results can be improved with improved ice flow models and
additional knowledge on the evolution of the ice sheet. In
addition, steps should be taken to treat ice flow and firn processes in an integrated way with the use of common accumulation and temperature input profiles.
The presented GICC05modelext-NEEM-1 timescale is intended as a first chronology for the NEEM ice core facilitating the analysis of existing and forthcoming data sets
from the NEEM core. When more tephra horizons and highresolution CFA data from NEEM become available, a more
detailed synchronization will be possible, hopefully also providing more match points within stadial periods and thereby
increasing the precision of the timescale transfer. Future investigations will also show if NEEM data can be used to refine the annual layer identification in ice cores from Greenland, e.g. in the period 10.3–7.9 ka b2k.
5 Data access
The following data sets are made available at www.
iceandclimate.dk/data and WDC Palaeo:
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
2726
S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
δ O
strain
Goujon
60
50
40
30
20
10
D−HL
0.1
Dynamical HL
−35
−40
−45
0.2
−50
−55
0.15
0.05
0.1
15
10
5
0
0.05
0
100
90
80
0.1
60
50
40
30
20
10
Fig. A1. Temperature (T , upper) and accumulation (A, lower) input
into the densification models: results from the Goujon (blue) and
dynamical Herron–Langway (orange) models are shown together
with the grey curves, which show the initial T and A estimates as
described in the text.
0.05
0
50
70
GICC05modelext ice age (ka b2k)
45
40
35
30
25
20
1400
0.15
1200
Δ age (years)
Accumulation (m a−1)
70
Goujon
0.15
0
20
Accumulation (m a−1)
80
Accumulation (m a−1)
18
0.2
90
−30
mean
2σ
Temperature ( oC)
Accumulation (m a−1)
100
0.25
0.1
0.05
0
85
1000
800
600
400
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
GICC05modelext ice age (ka b2k)
200
16
15
14
13
12
11
GICC05modelext ice age (ka b2k)
Fig. 9. Accumulation reconstructions from the two firn models
(Goujon in blue and dynamical Herron–Langway in orange), from
the δ 18 O-based parameterization with 30 % reduction in glacial accumulation that is used in the ice flow model (red), and inferred
by transferring 20 yr mean annual layer thicknesses from NGRIP to
NEEM and taking modelled strain into account (green). The black
curve and grey envelope show the mean and 2σ of the four individual reconstructions.
– ECM data sets from NGRIP and NEEM in 1 cm
resolution.
– NEEM DEP data from 1757 m depth downwards and
NGRIP DEP data.
– The match points (including the five tephra horizons)
used for the timescale transfer.
– The NEEM (depth, age) relation in 0.55 m (“bag”)
resolution for ice and gas.
– 1age CH4 tie points and the GI-8-10 δ 15 N data.
– Modelled total strain and accumulation in 0.55 m
resolution.
Fig. A2. Sensitivity of model results to dust softening of firn for the
D-HL model. Green curve with uncertainty envelope gives 1age
when using dust sensitivity α = 0.0021; blue and red curves use
α = 0 and α = 0.0042, respectively.
Appendix A
Figure A1 shows the temperature T and accumulation rates
A used in the 1age modelling. The densification models are
essentially run as inverse models, where one is looking for
the A and T that optimize the fit to the CH4 tie points and
δ 15 N data. The models start from an initial guess of A and T ,
given by the grey curves. A description of the initial curves
is given in Sect. 3.3. Modifications to the A and T curves are
done manually for the Goujon model and using an automated
gradient method for the D-HL model. For most of the core,
only CH4 tie points are available, which leaves the A and T
under-constrained. Therefore no firm conclusions should be
drawn from these reconstructions.
Figure A2 illustrates the influence of changing the parameter α quantifying the importance of the dust softening term
described in Sect. 3.4.
– Combined accumulation reconstruction (mean of 4 estimates cf. Sect. 3.5).
Clim. Past, 9, 2713–2730, 2013
www.clim-past.net/9/2713/2013/
S. O. Rasmussen et al.: A first chronology for the NEEM ice core
Acknowledgements. We thank the many individuals and organisations involved in logistics, drill development, drilling, as
well as ice-core processing and analysis in the field and in our
laboratories. NEEM is directed and organized by the Centre of Ice
and Climate at the Niels Bohr Institute and US NSF, Office of Polar
Programs. It is supported by funding agencies and institutions
in Belgium (FNRS-CFB and FWO), Canada (NRCan/GSC),
China (CAS), Denmark (FI), France (IPEV, CNRS/INSU, CEA
and ANR), Germany (AWI), Iceland (RannIs), Japan (NIPR),
South Korea (KOPRI), The Netherlands (NWO/ALW), Sweden
(VR), Switzerland (SNF), the United Kingdom (NERC) and the
USA (US NSF, Office of Polar Programs) and the EU Seventh
Framework programmes Past4Future (FP7/2007–2013 grant
agreement no. 243908), WaterundertheIce, and ERC TRACE. This
is Past4Future contribution no. 62 and NEEM publication no. 32.
Edited by: A. N. LeGrande
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