AGFA | sensor 500-X | Specifications | AGFA sensor 500-X Specifications

GE
Sensing & Inspection Technologies
X-Ray
Radiographic Film Systems
GE
Sensing & Inspection Technologies
A global leader in
technology-driven
inspection solutions
that deliver productivity,
quality and safety to
our customers.
Industry Focus with Broad Experience
No matter what your inspection or
testing challenge is, we can help.
At GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies, we are proud to continue the long
legacy of leadership and innovation that we inherit as a member of the GE
family of companies. Founded by Thomas Edison in 1878 as the Edison Electric Co.,
GE is known around the world for its excellence, innovation and imagination.
Its rich heritage includes the development of non-destructive testing (NDT) and
inspection technologies.
Our focus covers a broad range of industries and applications. So, whether it’s
simple or highly complex, we are the world’s proven, reliable resource for NDT.
We are setting best practices today and are constantly exploring the next
generation of NDT solutions, all in an effort to keep our customers at the front
edge of quality, safety and inspection productivity.
3
4
End-To-End NDT Solutions
Based On Fully Compatible Components.
Whether you are an inspection
services provider or the manufacturer
of the thousands of products that
undergo non-destructive testing —
and wherever you are in the world —
you can trust GE for advanced NDT
solutions, consistent performance
and unsurpassed service.
Film Systems
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies
is the sole supplier of Structurix industrial
radiographic films from Agfa.
Agfa’s renowned product quality leads the
industry in superior image quality. Their
proven performance ensures reliable,
consistent rugged behavior. Ongoing R&D
ensures the innovation that means you’re
using products at the forefront of the
industry. GE is your guarantee of
compliance to the strictest standards
worldwide.
Processing
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies
offers you a complete line of film
processing solutions including both
manual and automatic options.
Chemicals
Dedicated Structurix chemicals assure
optimal performance in the processing of
the radiographic films. We bring you the
full line of advanced, high quality chemicals
uniquely designed for industrial X-ray
applications.
Processors
These products have a proven record and
are enhanced by the technology,
applications knowledge and global
resources available through GE.
5
6
Structurix Film Systems
GE exclusively offers a solution with all components designed to work
together seamlessly, start to finish.
In bringing you integrated film
systems, we’re assuring you
improved quality and safety, greater
ease, savings in time and costs and
the peace of mind that comes with
a proven, end-to-end solution. In
offering you renowned Structurix film
systems, we’re providing you the
films and solutions most widely used
in industrial radiography.
• IMAGE QUALITY
Agfa was a pioneer in recognizing the importance of monitoring film systems, ensuring
better image quality performance. The result is higher quality and safety of the inspected
equipment and components.
• PROVEN TRACK RECORD
Structurix film systems are proven in the very demanding field of non-destructive testing.
Our customers worldwide are enthusiastic about our extensive assortment of products
featuring superior reliability and guaranteed intrinsic quality.
• COMPLIANCE
Our film systems are fully compliant with standards issued by the independent German
Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, BAM. This designation proves
Structurix capability to not only produce consistently but also to invest in quality
systems which control and measure system parameters. This assures compliance with
the Industrial Film Systems Classification Standards.
• INVESTMENT IN INNOVATION
Due to continuous investments in R&D, Structurix film systems enjoy an excellent
reputation. Improvement of the NDT film Systems meets your economical and
environmental needs better than ever before. An example of our commitment is the
introduction of our Structurix Eco Film Systems, rendering less chemistry consumption,
higher film throughput and lower energy usage. The system has been awarded
certification by BAM.
• Approach TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
The Structurix ECO System combines both economy in use and ecological responsibility.
This advanced film system minimizes its impact on the environment with less chemistry
consumption, higher film throughput and lower energy usage.
7
Structurix Films – Advantages
The Structurix film family has two
key advantages of great importance
in non-destructive testing – image
quality and consistent rugged
behavior. Both result from Agfa’s
advanced emulsion technology and
ultramodern high-tech coating
processes.
Optimum Image Quality
All Structurix films benefit from an Agfa
emulsion breakthrough that provides
increased contrast and maximum detail
perceptibility. In fact, it results in the
highest intrinsic defect recognition for
each speed range. Even the smallest
details can be interpreted with ease. The
finished X-ray film has a high quality with
a brilliant surface, and the image has a
pleasant blue tint.
Protective Coating
An important feature of the Structurix
films is a special protective top coating
resulting directly from Agfa’s Split
Antistress Layer (SAL) technology. This top
coat gives the films unique high resistance
to pressure, scratching and creasing.
Technological Axis of Structurix D family
Optimization of Contrast
Image Quality
Local Contrast
Another advantage of the top coat is that
surface roughness has been optimized for
problem free processing in automatic
feeders such as the FEEDER.
D2
Structurix Quality… Rugged performance
4 Split Anti-stress
3 Layer
2 Emulsion Layer
D2
D3
D3
D4
Theoretical Maximum
for linear detection
D7
D8
Better
D5
D4
Faster
Speed
1 Base
2 Emulsion Layer
4 Split Anti-stress
3 Layer
Cubic Grain Plus
Matting Agent
D5
D7
Better
D8
Faster
Speed
High image quality and perceptibility through
optimization of “the signal to noise ratio” for every
Structurix film.
8
Contrast (signal) of all films is optimized to approach
the maximum contrast for a linear detector (industrial
X-ray Film), thereby optimizing image quality and
perceptibility. An exception to the rule is D2, a super
linear detector, where image quality is optimized
through more than linear (extremely high) contrast in
combination with very low noise.
The emulsion coatings are covered by two separate
antistress layers (3 + 4). To achieve a rugged surface,
the top layer has received the matting agent.
Consistent Production Quality
Structurix films are manufactured
in large quantities. To ensure they meet
the most rigorous worldwide quality
standards, they are produced at a single
facility under tightly controlled conditions
in an ultramodern coating room.
Agfa’s Total Quality Management
approach, certified by the ISO 9001-2000
label, is the foundation of the system
leading to this exceptional performance in
production consistency. People, production
equipment, and organization all become
one system, geared to consistency and
continuous improvement.
It’s what we call the “moving target”
quality philosophy. Moving target means
that to meet the increasing needs of our
customers, quality has to be built into our
products, not by additional testing, but by
design. Agfa’s emulsion technology, for
example, helps to provide a highly
homogeneous emulsion over the total
coating area.
Not only do the Structurix films have
outstanding quality, they also have an
exceptionally high level of batch to batch
uniformity.
Consistent Processing Quality
Structurix films have a reputation for
providing consistent and excellent results
over a wide range of operating conditions.
The Cubic Grain Plus technology is at the
base of this consistent stable behavior. The
extremely narrow grain size distribution, in
combination with the cubic shape, assures
that all exposed grains (latent image) will
simultaneously develop the same density
over a wide range of processing conditions.
Moreover, they will do so rendering the
very high contrast that is responsible for
the high image quality.
Darkroom Light Sensitivity
Structurix films may be exposed to
darkroom safelight conditions longer
without sensitometric fogging (ANSI PH
2.22). This means that brighter safelight
illumination can be used, resulting in more
ergonomic and efficient working
conditions.
5
4
3
2.10
1
0
97%
-1
95%
68%
Film Density
Speed (Rel LogE)
2
2.00
1.90
-2
-3
-4
-5
Film Batches
9
Image Quality and Film System Classifications
Every application and every object require a specific class of industrial radiographic film or film system class which
includes complementary film and film processing.
A New Film System Classification
The introduction of the Industrial Film
Systems Classification Standards
EN 584-1, ASTM E-1815, ISO 11699-1 and
JIS-K7627 provides an important means
to assign film systems to the appropriate
film system class.
These standards identify the various types
of industrial X-ray film systems and
classify them based on objectively
quantified parameters that are the
foundation of film imaging performance.
The standards for control of film
processing EN 584-2 and ISO 11699-2
provide the means to control the
processing at the processor user level. The
objective is to make sure that a classified
system will produce the expected
capabilities in daily use.
The parameters are:
G2 (contrast) Net density: D = 2
G4 (contrast) Net density: D = 4
D (noise) Net density: D = 2
G/σD Net density: D = 2
As a result of being able to objectively
determine the performance of a specific
Film System (Film + Chemistry +
Processing), film radiography remains the
number one and most widely used NDT
technique.
These parameters are selected based on
the insight into imaging theory applied to
the industrial X-ray film systems. G is a
measure of the signal gain factor and σD
indicates the noise, so that G/σd
represents the signal/ noise ratio.
The classification system classifies a film
inclusive of film processing (type and
chemicals). This illustrates the importance
of processing in relation to imaging.
In the context of growing quality
awareness, the new perception of film
system classification, described in EN 584,
ASTM 1815, ISO 11699 and JIS-K7627,
gradually became norm for the industry.
Technical Specifications
Image Quality & Film System Classes
A/Automatic
Film
Type
CEN
ASTM
E 1815-96
11699-1
ISO
JIS-K7627
Chemicals G 135/G 335 - development immersion time : 100 sec.
Developing temperature: 28°C
D2
C1
special
C1
T1
EN 584-1
D3
C2
I
C2
T1
D4
C3
I
C3
T2
D5
C4
I
C4
T2
D7
C5
II
C5
T3
D8
C6
III
C6
T4
Gradient G
σD
G/σd
ISO
SPEED
DOSE
m Gy
Film type
CEN
ISO
ASTM
DENS=2
DENS=4
DENS=2
DENS=2
S
D =2
D2
C1
C1
special
5.5
9.9
0.018
371
32
22.3
D3
C2
C2
I
5.4
9.7
0.020
294
64
14.0
D4
C3
C3
I
4.7
9.0
0.023
232
100
8.7
D5
C4
C4
I
4.6
8.0
0.028
169
200
4.6
D7
C5
C5
II
4.5
7.1
0.032
142
320
3.2
D8
C6
C6
III
4.4
7.0
0.039
114
400
2.2
G/σd
ISO
SPEED
DOSE
m Gy
B/Manual
Chemicals G 128/G 328 - development immersion time : 300 sec.
Developing temperature: 20°C
Gradient G
10
σD
Film type
CEN
ISO
ASTM
DENS=2
DENS=4
DENS=2
DENS=2
S
D=2
D2
C1
C1
special
5.1
9.
0.013
392
32
23.5
D3
C2
C2
I
4.8
8.4
0.016
303
64
14.0
D4
C3
C3
I
4.6
8.0
0.020
232
100
8.7
D5
C4
C4
I
4.
8.0
0.026
177
160
4.4
D7
C5
C5
II
4.6
8.0
0.032
144
320
3.2
D8
C6
C6
III
4.1
6.8
0.035
117
400
2.2
BAM Certification
Agfa was the first company in the world
that can boast certification by BAM, the
German Federal Institute for Materials
Research and Testing.
In addition to semi-annual product testing
(design approval) and round robin tests
recognizing the competence of the Agfa
film lab, the certification process involves
a quarterly production monitoring and an
annual audit at the Agfa plant. The results
are recorded in the corresponding
certificates.
ISO Certification
The most commonly used Structurix film
systems based on the film types D4, D5
and D7 combined with G135 developer
and G335 fixer are BAM certified. The
German Federal Institute BAM conducted
a thorough study and awarded the
Structurix Eco Film System (5 min. cycle)
the certificate of compliance to
International Film System Classification
Standards.
GE’s approach to quality control
in the NDT industry
At GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies,
we contend that obtaining an ISO
certificate is only the beginning. Agfa was
the first radiographic film manufacturer to
achieve ISO certification for its
STRUCTURIX films in 1990. Since then, we
have continued the legacy of quality,
assuring you that our entire film system
– films, chemistry and equipment – is
produced under a strict Quality
Management System approved to ISO
9000. It’s your guarantee of the superior
quality of GE Sensing & Inspection
Technologies products.
11
Characteristics and Applications
Structurix D2
Extremely fine grain film with very high contrast. Ideal for
exposures requiring the finest possible detail rendering.
Structurix D3 s.c. & D4 s.c.
Single coated film with very high image quality, accurate
interpretability, high contrast and pleasant image tint. The ideal
film for optical enlargements. The colorless back coating
guarantees a very flat film under all conditions.
Structurix D3
Ultra fine grain film with very high contrast. This film obtains a
very high detail perceptibility, which meets the requirements
of the most critical NDT applications. For exposure with lead
screens, using either X-ray, gamma rays or radiation from
megavolt equipment.
Structurix D4
Extra fine grain film with very high contrast. Suitable for a
wide variety of critical applications. For exposure with lead
screens, using either X-ray, gamma rays or radiation from
megavolt equipment.
Structurix D5
Very fine grain film with high contrast. Excellent for visualization
of discontinuities. This film is intended for use with lead screens,
using either X-ray or gamma rays.
Structurix D7
Fine grain film with high contrast and high speed. Designed for
direct exposure or with lead screens. For exposure with lead
screens, using either X-ray or gamma rays.
Structurix D8
Medium grain film with high contrast and very high speed.
Suitable for a variety of applications. This film can be used for
direct exposure or with lead screens. It gives good image
quality with short exposure times. If even higher speed is
required, fluorescent screens, in combination with F8 (not D8),
should be used.
•
Structurix Wide Latitude films
The wide latitude films are specially designed for in-house
radiography and to inspect wide range thickness objects such
as castings.
•
Structurix D4W
An extra fine grain film with medium contrast and very high
speed. The film can be used for direct exposure techniques
or with lead screens.
•
Structurix D6W
A high contrast, fine grain film with medium contrast combining
good image quality and wide latitude.
12
• Electronic components
• Composite materials
• Castings (light metals and alloys)
• Multiple film techniques
• Electronic components
• Composite materials
• Neutron radiography
• Inspections whereby optical
enlargement is required
• Multiple film techniques
• Electronic components
• Composite materials
• Castings
• Very high quality welds
• Nuclear quality
• Aerospace and aircraft industry
• Multiple film techniques
• Electronic components
• Composite materials
• Castings
• Very high quality welds
• Defense and nuclear industry
• Aerospace and aerospace industry
• Multiple film techniques
• Welding
• Castings
• Shipbuilding
• Aerospace and aircraft industry
• Multiple film techniques
• Welding and casting
• Defense industry
• Aerospace and aircraft industry
• Composite materials
• Multiple film techniques
• Concrete and heavy construction work
• Castings
• Multiple film techniques
•Castings and other multi-thickness
objects.
•Ferrous and non ferrous castings
•Non-critical welds
•All non-classified materials inspection.
Performance Characteristics
Sensitometric Curves
D4 s.c.
D8
D7
D5
D3 s.c.
D3
D4
3.5
D2
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
Density
Blue-base
Log. rel. exp.
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
Structurix D2 D3 s.c. D3 D4 D5 D7 D8 Exposure and processing parameters:
200 kV, Pb screens, autom. proc., 8 min. cycle, devel G 135, 28°C
Technical Specifications
Relative Exposure Factors
Type
STX D2
STX D3sc
STX D3
STX D4sc
STX D4
STX D5
STX D7
STX D8
100kV
9.0
9.5
4.1
5.4
3.0
1.7
1.0
0.6
200kV
7.0
8.0
4,3
4.8
2.7
1.5
1.0
0.65
Se75
6.4
Ir192
8.0
Co 60
9.0
Linac/8MeV
9.0
3.6
5.0
5.0
5.1
2.4
1.4
1.0
0.6
3.0
1.5
1.0
0.6
3.0
1.5
1.0
0.6
3.1
1.5
1.0
0.6
Contrast
6.0
5.3
5.5
4.6
5.4
5.4
5.4
4.3
13
Exposure Diagrams
Steel (Fe)
• Type of X-ray tube: constant potential
• Pb-screens
• Density: 2
Structurix D2
Structurix D5
100
90
80
70
60
50
140
160
180
200
220
kV
240
260
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
mm
1
10
20
30
40
100
120
140
160
180
200
m.A.min
kV
m.A.min
Exposure diagrams can be very
useful for setting the correct
exposure. The diagrams shown here
are meant only as a guide, as the
correct exposure will mainly depend
on the variations of the object,
the exposure equipment used and on
the processing conditions.
220
240
260
mm
1
10
20
30
40
• FFD: 1 m
Structurix D3
Structurix D7
140
160
180
200
kV
220
240
260
40
100
90
80
70
60
50
30
20
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
mm
10
20
30
40
Structurix D4
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
mm
1
10
20
30
40
Structurix D8
100
120
140
160
180
kV
200
220
m.A.min
kV
100
90
80
70
60
50
120
40
30
1
100
40
100
90
80
70
60
50
100
120
140
160
180
m.A.min
100
90
80
70
60
50
120
m.A.min
kV
m.A.min
• Autom. proc.: 8 min. cycle G 135, 28°C
200
40
30
260
30
20
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
220
240
1
14
mm
10
20
30
40
1
260
mm
10
20
30
40
110
kV
130
100
90
80
70
60
50
30
20
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
mm
1
10
20
30
40
Structurix D3
100
90
80
70
60
50
70
90
110
40
30
kV
50
m . A .m i n
90
130
mm
1
10
20
30
40
Structurix D7
50
70
90
kV
110
130
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
50
70
90
m. A .min
• Autom. proc.: 8 min. cycle G 135, 28°C
40
Structurix D5
70
110
130
mm
1
10
20
30
40
Structurix D4
kV
100
90
80
70
60
50
10
20
30
40
Structurix D8
50
70
90
kV
110
130
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
9
8
7
6
5
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
mm
1
mm
10
20
30
40
1
50
70
90
m . A . m in
• FFD: 1 m
100
90
80
70
60
50
50
m . A .m i n
• Density: 2
kV
m. A .min
• Type of X-ray tube: constant potential
Structurix D2
m . A . m in
Aluminum (AI)
110
130
mm
10
20
30
40
15
Ci.h
GBq.h
Exposure Diagrams
1000
10000
100
D2
D3
D4
1000
D5
D8
D7
10
100
Ci.h
1
GBq.h
Pb Screens: Density 2, SFD 1m
Selenium 75
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
mm Fe
1000
100
D3
D2
D4
D5
1000
D8
D7
10
100
Ci.h
1
GBq.h
Iridium 192
Pb Screens: Density 2, SFD 1m
10000
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
mm Fe
1000
Cobalt 60
16
Pb Screens: Density 2, SFD 1m
10000
100
D2
D3
D4
1000
D5
D8
10
D7
100
1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
mm Fe
17
Special Applications
Sensitometric curves with RCF
fluorometallic screens (300 kV)
4.5
Density
Structurix F6
As a result of further improvements in its
core business of radiographic film for all
applications, Agfa introduced a better
product for rapid access radiography.
Structurix F6 is specially designed for
offshore pipelines or similar applications.
Such areas need short exposure time
through the use of fluorometalic screens
and fast processing cycles. This F6 film
type is mainly blue sensitive. All UV and
blue-emitting screens can be used, but for
industrial use, fluorometallic screens (cfr.
Structurix RCF) based on CaWO4 provide
good quality.
4.0
3.5
F6 + RCF*
3.0
D7 with
Pb Screen
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
Manual processing can be used but
without the advantage of consistent rapid
processing. This should only be used as an
emergency solution.
0.5
0.0
0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.5
Relative Log (dose)
Technical Specifications
F6
Film System
STX F6 + RCF Screens
90 sec. Dry to Dry
G 135, 36°C
STX D7 Pb Screens*
8 min. Dry to Dry
G 135, 28°C
Relative Exposure
Image Quality
Wire IQI
Double Wire IQI
(En 462-3)
(EN 462-5)
200 kV
Ir 192
0.1
0.2
13
9
1.0
1.0
13.5
12
*D7 is considered not sensitive for fluorescent screens (no significant gain in exposure time)
F6
Medium speed, high contrast fine grain film, preferably suited for use in combination
with fluorometallic (RCF) or similar fluorescent screens. To be preferably processed in
short cycle (90 sec.). If needed standard 8 min. cycle can be used alternatively for:
• Offshore pipelines
• Fast processing requirements
18
Special Applications
Sensitive to all UV and blue-emitting
screens. Calcium tungstate with lead or
lead oxide backing, so called
fluorometallic screens (Structurix RCF
Screens), are most suited for industrial
applications.
When maximum speed is important the
use of very fast screens such as the
Structurix 1200 screen can further reduce
the exposure time by a factor of three to
six compared to RCF screens.
F8 is the ideal fast, high contrast, high
definition film for fluorescent screen
applications.
Sensitometric curves with RCF
fluorometallic screens ( 200 kV)
Log. rel. exp
Density
Structurix F8
Designed as a high quality film for
fluorometallic (RCF) screen exposure when
the speed obtainable with Pb screen
system is insufficient or radiation safety is
of prime importance.
3.5
F8 + RCF
3.0
D8 + Pb
2.5
2.0
When higher sharpness is required we
advise the use of D8 with Pb sc
1.5
1.0
Blue base
F8 with fluorescent screens is used in a
variety of heavy construction applications,
concrete, on stream examination of
processing piping where X-ray energy has
to be limited, flash radiography and
microfocus enlargement techniques.
0.5
-0.5
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
0
Relative exposure factor with
fluorometallic screens depends on:
• temperature
• radiation energy
• exposure time
F8
High speed, high contrast fine grain film, for exposures in combination with RCF
fluorometallic screens or fluorescent screens.
• High system speed is main requirement
• Concrete and heavy constructions
• On stream corrosion/erosion
radiography
• Low dosage output, e.g. microfocus
19
20
Structurix Intensifying Screens
The Structurix range offers two
intensifying screens: the RCF
fluorometallic screen and the high
speed 1200 fluorescent screen.
Advantages
The Structurix RCF fluorometallic and
fluorescent 1200 screens, based on the
conventional phosphor material calcium
tungsten (CaWO4), diminish radiation
exposure and/or the necessary level of
radiation energy. They enable the
radiographic penetration of thick objects.
A more productive and effective testing
method, the Structurix RCF and 1200
screens reduce the exposure equipment
load. The flexible screens enable
radiography of curved objects.
Features
When excited by X-rays or gamma-rays,
the Structurix RCF fluorometallic screen
becomes blue emitting. The screen has an
incorporated filter of lead oxide for
scattered radiation. The emission
spectrum is matched to the spectral
sensitivity of the Structurix F type films.
The strong fluorescent RCF screen offers
the ideal compromise between detail
perceptibility and working efficiency.
The extra strong Electron-Beam-Cured
(EBC) protective coating and the polyester
support make the screen particularly
durable.
The blue emitting Structurix 1200
fluorescent screen has an extremely high
absorption and conversion efficiency,
together with acceptable detail
perceptibility. Combined with a Structurix
F8 or even a F6 film, this film-screen
system becomes convenient for
high-energy applications, such as the
non-destructive testing of heavy
construction and the examination of large
concrete structures (bridges and
buildings). The Structurix 1200 screen can
also be a solution for flash radiography in
which exposure times are extremely short
and for microfocus-enlargement
techniques in which radiation doses are
very low.
Treatment of Structurix intensifying screens
The Structurix screens should be protected
from moisture, heat and ultra-violet
radiation. Dust and marks should be
removed from the screen immediately,
using an approved screen cleaner. In
addition to cleaning the screen, the Agfa
Screen Cleaner contains an anti-static
element, which prevents dirt and dust
caused by static electricity from adhering
to the screen.
One of the most important applications of
the Structurix RCF screens lies in the
inspection of offshore pipelines.
Combining the screen sensitivity and rapid
processing of the Structurix F6 film
provides an ideal film-screen system. In
the on-stream as well, the use of the
RCF-screen, in combination with the F8
film, leads to considerable time savings.
21
400
uJ )
S = ( cm
200
Structurix Intensifying Screens
400
uJ )
S = ( cm
200
Relative exposure factor
When making exposures with fluorescent
screens, it is important to understand the
potential impact of variables such as
temperature, exposure energy and
exposure time:
• Intensifying screens fluoresce more
brilliantly at low temperature. Therefore,
the screen efficiency will drop with
increasing temperature
• With increasing energy, the absorption
of fluorescent screens is reduced and,
as a result, the intensifying effect is
diminished
100
80
60
Spectogram
100
80
60
40
40
400
20
20
uJ )
S = ( cm
200
10
8
100
6
80
4
60
40
2
20
20
4
• Due to the “reciprocity effect” with
fluorescent screen systems, the gain in
exposure time compared to lead screen
systems, diminishes with increasing
exposure length
2
350
400
450
500
Spectral sensitivity of
Agfa Structurix F6
(for density 1.0 above fog)
100
80
60
40
40
20
20
10
8
6
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
300
350
of intensifying
screens
350
400
450
500
550
10
8
6
4
2
550
Spectral sensitivity of
Agfa Structurix F6
(for density 1.0 above fog)
Technical Specifications
Relative emission spectrum
of intensifying screens
Relative Exposure
100 kV
300 kV
Ir 192
Co 60
22
NDT 1200
RCF
No screen
NDT 1200 + Pb
RCF
Pb
NDT 1200 + Pb
RCF
Pb
NDT 1200 + Pb
RCF
Pb
F8
0.010
0.030
F6
0.049
0.174
0.008
0.022
0.042
0.132
0.007
0.035
063
0.389
0.006
0.040
0.096
0.562
450
500
Relative emission spectrum
of intensifying screens
Relative emission spectrum
300
400
Spectral sensitivity of
Agfa Structurix F6
(for density 1.0 above fog)
10
8
100
6
80
4
60
40
2
300
10
8
6
100
80
60
D7
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
550
The Right Packaging for Every Structurix Film
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies
offers different forms of packaging,
all in accordance with the ISO 5655
norm. Whatever the application of
industrial radiography, there is a
right Structurix film available, in the
right packaging. No object is too
large or too small. An X-ray film of
the appropriate size is available for
every exposure. Structurix films are
supplied in all standard sheet and
roll sizes (special sizes on demand)
and in darkroom or daylight
packaging.
SHEET FILM IN DAYLIGHT PACKAGING
Pb VACUPAC
PRACTICAL DAYLIGHT PACKAGING
Time saving
Structurix film are packed on ultramodern
packaging machines. This ready-to-use
packaging can be placed directly on the
object to be X-rayed, which saves valuable
time that would otherwise be used to
manually place the film in cassettes in the
darkroom.
Improved quality
To guarantee optimal packaging quality,
all films are packed automatically in an
ISO 9001-2000 environment, using new
lead screens for each. By excluding all
so-called film faults, such as dust in the
packaging and faults caused by the lead,
the need for reshoots is eliminated, saving
you time and money.
Completely light-tight, airtight and
moisture proof Pb VACUPAC is the perfect
daylight packaging. The Structurix X-ray
films with Pb screens have a standard
thickness of 0.027 mm and are
vacuum-packed in a completely light
tight, airtight and moisture proof foil
complex. The foil,
a spin off from space technology, is a
metallic polymer involving the deposition
of vaporized aluminum under vacuum.
The synthetic foil ensures that VACUPAC
can be used under extremely dirty and
damp conditions. Pb VACUPAC is ideal for
applications with energies higher than 100 kV.
Optimal image quality
The vacuum between the Structurix film
and the lead screens guarantees optimal
image definition. Film/screen contact is
retained fully, even when VACUPAC is
placed around a spherical or curved work
piece.
Easy to use
Either side of the wrapper can be placed
on the object to be tested. A center cross
on the envelope allows easy positioning.
In addition, VACUPAC can be opened in
one simple movement, thanks to the easy
peel-off feature.
More economical
Ease of use, both during exposure and in
the darkroom, and the avoidance of
reshoots combine to provide maximum
productivity.
Easy identification
The film type is clearly marked on all
daylight film packages. “Pb” means the
film is sandwiched between lead screens
(0.027 mm). Daylight packed sheets have
a center cross on the envelope to allow for
easy positioning. Sheets are provided in a
strong and easy-to-use, flip-top box. Rolls
come in a rigid dispenser box.
Extra vacuum protection
Each pack of 100 sheets is supplied “in vacuo” to
preserve the vacuum well beyond the expiration date.
23
The Right Packaging for Every Structurix Film
Pb ETE
(Edge-To-Edge)
Edge-to-edge Pb versions are available for
sheet sizes for that lack a VACUPAC
version. A specific advantage of the
edge-to-edge is its double-sided edge.
This feature makes it possible to place the
film against or between elements of a
work piece easily and accurately. Opening
the edge-to-edge packaging is as simple
as tearing open the wrapper using the
thread included for this purpose, then
removing the film via the long side. The Pb
edge-to-edge version is designed for
exposures with energies higher than 100
kV and isotopes.
DW ETE
(Edge-To-Edge)
This light-tight, moisture proof and
greaseproof packaging without Pb screen
is ideal for exposures using radiation
energy lower than 100 kV. The envelopes
can be cut easily and taped for use with
odd-shaped angles and corners. The
envelopes are also easy to tape to the
work piece.
ROLLS IN DAYLIGHT PACKAGING
Pb ROLLPAC
Whether you X-ray pipelines, pressure
vessels, airplanes or storage tanks, with
roll film packaging you can determine
the length of film yourself so that your
radiographs can be made in one piece.
Light-tight, moisture proof and
greaseproof
The film is sandwiched between two
0.027 mm lead screens. ROLLPAC
packaging is completely light-tight. The
packaging is resistant to moisture and
grease.
Easy to use
Cassettes are unnecessary with ROLLPAC
packaging. The film is packed in
accordance with the edge-to-edge
system. ROLLPAC can be placed
accurately on the object to be tested (i.e.,
a long weld) or right into the corner of a
flange. ROLLPAC is placed around the
object and attached with adhesive tape.
Identification of the exposure
needs to occur only once. This time saving
ROLLPAC packaging is supplied in a
practical dispenser box.
Opens quickly and easily
The special design of the ROLLPAC
wrapper allows quick and easy opening.
The film is removed by taking the
non-printed wrapper, together with the
lead screen and the film in one hand and
the printed wrapper and the other lead
screen in the other. In this way, the film
can be stripped easily from the packaging.
ROLLPAC in wider formats (>10cm) has a
tear strip on either side of the wrapper.
This enables the film to be removed from
the packaging easily and quickly.
Length indication on the wrapper
This feature allows you to easily
determine where to cut the film and also
to see how much film is left. The film can
be cut to any length. Cutting should be
done in the darkroom.
24
Optimal image quality
Our unique packaging ROLLPAC ensures
that excellent contact between the film
and lead foil is retained when the media is
applied to spherical or tubular objects,
even those with a small diameter. Because
the screens are only used once, optimal
results are guaranteed.
DW ROLLPAC
DW ROLLPAC packaging is specifically
intended for material testing using low to
very low radiation energy (<100 kV).
Widths up to 35 cm are available.
For testing at higher radiation energy levels (>100 kV),
i.e., welding in boilers, storage tanks and pipelines, Pb
ROLLPAC is used.
ROLLPAC PRECUT
Highly economical
Films in ROLLPAC packaging can be
supplied in precut lengths from 70 cm by
special order only. This exclusive form of
packaging is ideal for pipeline projects,
which generally consist of large series of
pipes of the same diameter. We can
supply ROLLPAC precut in the length
required for your project, saving you a
considerable amount of time and money.
25
The Right Packaging for Every Structurix Film
SHEET FILM IN DARKROOM PACKAGING
These films are for use with reloadable
metal or plastic cassettes and exposure
holders. The high level of darkroom
lighting tolerated by Structurix D films
allows more comfortable loading and
unloading conditions.
Because of its low cost, darkroom
packaging appears to be the most
economical solution for certain
applications. However, the total
radiography cost must be considered. For
example, film handling costs in the
darkroom and the cost of reshoots are
important factors in figuring your
investment. The added expense of
cassettes and screens should also be
taken into consideration. Local conditions
must be considered and, most
importantly, the cost of quality (the “you
get what you pay for” theory). Simply put,
low cost does not always equate to your
best decision or best value. VACUPAC
image quality cannot be obtained with the
standard cassette system.
NIF (Non Interleaved Films)
This is the most economical way to buy
sheet film. The intrinsic film quality is the
same as that of pre-packed film. Sheets of
film are packed per 100 (except extremely
large sizes) in a paalpo bag inside a
cardboard box. The paalpo bags allow for
easy film removal and re-closure.
FW (Folder Wrapped)
Each film is wrapped in a paper folder to
prevent handling faults in the darkroom.
The paper folders make it easy to store
and protect the films after processing.
Folder wrapped packaging is an ideal
solution for boxes that, after opening,
remain in use for a period of time in areas
of high humidity and temperature, as the
folder prevents the films from sticking
together. Sheets of film are packed per
100 in a sealed bag and placed in a strong
cardboard box.
ROLLS IN DARKROOM PACKAGING
BLR (Bulk Load Roll)
BLR is packaging with bare film on a
cardboard core. This film can be cut to
any length and loaded with or without
lead screens in reloadable cassettes in the
darkroom. Available in a standard width of
70 mm and in lengths of 167.75 m (550 ft.)
and 305 m (1,000 ft.).
TAILOR MADE PACKAGING
In addition to our standard products,
special orders are available. These can
include non-standard sheet sizes
and other forms of packaging, such as Bi
and Tri Packs. For special orders, please
contact your Agfa agent. Bipack is an ETE
daylight packaging containing two films.
Tripack contains three films in one
envelope. Combinations with lead screens
are possible. Bipacks can also be supplied
in DW ROLLPAC packaging.
26
Optimal Storage Of
Structurix Films
Handling and storage of X-ray film is an
important aspect of the radiographical
process. Guidelines are given in several
international standards, i.e., ASTM
E1254-97. Following are the
recommendations for unexposed X-ray
film.
First, storage facilities for unexposed
X-ray films should provide adequate
protection from any penetrating radiation.
If the films are stored for longer than three
months, background radiation may not
exceed
90 nGy/h (18 x 10-10 C/Kg/h). Films in
containers sealed by the manufacturer
should be stored with the films on edge,
whenever possible. Storage temperature
should be between 4.4°C and 23.8°C at a
relative humidity range of 30 to 60
percent.
least until the expiration date on the box.
As higher temperatures accelerate certain
physicochemical processes in the
emulsion, Structurix films should always
be stored in a cool place (within the above
mentioned temperature range).
While films in opened packages are also
affected by humidity, it is advisable to
ensure that the relative humidity in the
storage room remains under 60 percent.
It is also recommended that the films are
not stored in the immediate vicinity of
X-ray chemicals.
If Structurix films are handled and stored
in accordance with the directions noted
above, we guarante their good quality at
27
Structurix Processing Equipment
Our systems approach means your film processing options are fully compatible
with Structurix chemicals and equipment.
After being X-rayed, each
radiographic film needs to be
processed before examining the film
results. Depending on the place,
situation and application, processing
of the industrial X-rays films is
carried out by manual or automatic
processing. GE Sensing & Inspection
Technologies provides the full
Structurix Film Systems product line.
Thus, complete solutions are available
to choose the best way of processing
your films in combination with
Structurix chemicals and equipment.
All are perfectly suited to one
another.
AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSING
EQUIPMENT
GE’s processing equipment is renowned
for its unwavering reliability and robust
design. All Structurix film processors
feature:
•
Perfect processing quality
The design of Structurix processors is
based on several decades of experience
and know-how in dedicated industrial
X-ray film processor design and
construction. This, together with the use of
state-of-the-art technology, explains why
we can guarantee high quality film
processing.
•
Minimum processing costs
The precise control of replenishment
ensures accurate chemistry consumption.
A very minimum volume of water (as little
as 13 l/m2 with our eco processors) is
used during processing, creating a low
ecological impact. The consumption of
electricity is also low, due to the infrared
drying system and other design elements
such as the automatic switch to standby.
•
Low heat emission
All GE processors feature infrared drying,
which not only guarantees uniform drying
of films, but also reduces the energy
consumption and helps keep darkroom
temperatures down. As such, a comfortable
working temperature in the darkroom is
more easily maintained.
•
Adjustable film receiving tray
The film receiving tray of all GE processors
can easily be adjusted to suit the kind of
film size being processed, i.e., sheet film,
welding formats or roll film. Processed
films collect in the tray in the order of the
film being inserted.
28
In addition, GE equipment is designed to
meet all required safety regulations and
are EMC compliant. All film processors are
supplied with the CE, TUV GS and NRTL
label as well as the CE Declaration of
Conformity and are manufactured to ISO
9001 standards. These designations are
continued proof of our commitment to
quality and reliability.
Revolutionary ‘Eco’ or Cascade Fixing Processing
Technology
Since fixer replenishment is carried out in
the second fixer tank, the concentration of
silver in this tank remains very low. There
is also very little carry-over of silver into
the water tank, so that the waste water
complies with the most stringent
standards. Fixer replenishment works on
the counter flow principle, with the first
fixer tank being replenished from the
overflow of the second fixer tank. An
added advantage of this is that nearly all
of the silver released in the fixing stage
ends up in the overflow from the first
fixing tank. This ensures optimum silver
recovery.
The “cascade fixing” system ensures that
the amount of silver in the wash water
remains within the limit of <50 mg/m2.
With the Structurix S eco and M eco,
ecology goes hand in hand with economy.
The Structurix S eco and M eco are
the future of ecologically responsible
processing. These processing
machines are designed to meet the
strictest standards for silver content
in wash water. Thanks to the unique
cascade fixing system, the amount of
silver in the wash water is 15 to 25
times lower than in a conventional
processing system.
Cascade fixing
The ‘eco’ or cascade fixing system is an
entirely new concept for processing X-ray
films. The Structurix S eco and M eco
processors are built with two successive
fixing tanks replenished on the counter
flow principle.
The result is nothing less than revolutionary
in terms of the amount of silver in the
wash water. The cascade fixing principle is
very simple: the exposed film is first
developed in the developer tank, then
washed in the intermediate wash tank.
The intermediate washing system ensures
that there is hardly any carry-over of
developer into the fixing tanks, thus
keeping the fixer bath in optimal condition.
The intermediate washing also prevents
development faults occurring on the film.
The film is then 100 percent fixed in the
first fixer tank and rinsed in the second
fixer tank.
D
IW
1
2
3
F1
F2
W
3
D Developer tank
IWIntermediate wash tank
F1 Fixer tank 1
F2 Fixer tank 2
W Final wash tank
1 Overflow F1
2 Transfer of residues
3 Link between F1 and F2 in the
direction of F1
29
Structurix S Eco
In addition to the unique advantages
of the ‘eco’ processing technology,
the Structurix S eco guarantees
several other features. These include
a large capacity, superior image
quality, precise replenishment and
minimum processing costs.
Large capacity
Structurix S eco can be set to either a 5 or
an 8 minute cycle. In both cases, the
throughput of the S eco is sufficient to
meet the needs of large film users or
companies with high production peaks.
When set to the 5 minute cycle, the
Structurix S eco processes no less than
51 cm of film per minute or 78 films per
hour of 35 x 43 cm. In this 5 minute cycle,
the processor forms the basis for the “Eco
Film System”. In such a system, the
Structurix film, chemistry and processor
are all carefully matched to ensure the
best possible ecological results in terms of
silver in the wash water while ensuring the
lowest chemistry consumption and waste.
Superior image quality
Structurix S eco is perfectly suited to
applications that demand the highest
image quality. The technology in terms of
rack construction and roller configurations
has proved its worth in previous processors.
A microprocessor provides “smart” control
of all process functions. This results in
perfect, even drying of your films in all
ambient conditions.
Precise replenishment
The surface area of the film is measured
accurately on entry by 11 detection
rollers. This unique method of scanning
actually controls the replenishment far
more precisely than a length only
measurement, thus keeping
replenishment usage to an efficient
minimum.
Anti-crystallization cycle
The Structurix S eco has a “drive cycle” or
“anti-crystallization’ cycle, which in
stand-by mode activates the roller
transport mechanism sporadically for
short periods of time. This cycle keeps the
energy consumption to an absolute
minimum, while avoiding crystallization of
chemicals on the rollers and, therefore,
increases the life of the processor
considerably.
Processing cycles
The microprocessor has seven
pre-programmed processing cycles,
varying between 1.5 to 12 minutes. These
standard cycles can be set quickly and
easily. Simply select the required cycle
time on the display, and the other
processing parameters such as
development temperature, dryer level,
fixing temperature and replenishment
rates adjust automatically.
Customized processing
This feature allows you to manually adjust
the processing speed from five to 12.5
minutes in steps of 30 seconds. Processing
parameters can be locked and protected
by a special password.
Reliable electronics
The Structurix S eco is equipped with
highly reliable electronics, designed to
give security of operation. All processing
parameters, including temperature, speed,
replenishment quantities and drying
capacity, are controlled by a
microprocessor.
30
User Comfort
a
Multifunctional drainage system
The Structurix S eco is equipped with
threeway drainage valves. This makes it
simple to direct photo-chemicals and
cleaning chemicals to the correct
collection tank. The valves also prevent
the formation of toxic fumes in the waste
chemical collection tank.
b
c
Unique daylight system
When combined with the Structurix
Feeder, the S eco becomes a unique and
practical daylight system. The feeder
automatically follows the film processing
speed of the S eco processor, even when
the speed is altered. In cases where the
Structurix S eco is used without a feeder,
an optional light-tight cover can be
ordered.
2
1
3
4
7
5a
5b
7
7
6
10
7
11
9
8
Easy maintenance
Structurix S eco needs only an absolute
minimum of maintenance. The top parts
of the racks are easily removed and
cleaned without having to take the racks
out of the tanks. The Structurix S ECO is
designed and built to facilitate regural
cleaning of the film sensor rollers on the
feed tray. The rollers can be reached
easily by removing the feed tray. In order
to prevent algae growth, the wash water
is automatically drained when the
machine is switched to “off”.
Intuitive operating panel
The operating panel provides visual
information about the processing
parameters, including the current
processing temperature, cycle time, dryer
setting, replenishment quantities, the OK
indication for film input and the remaining
cycle time. As befits such a universal
machine, there is a choice of 12 languages
for the display messages. The
temperature of the developer and dryer
can be adjusted incrementally on the
control panel to suit the processing
program chosen.
d
16
15
12
14a
14b
13
Accessories
Operating diagram:
• Light-tight cover
1 Film feed table
a LCD display
b Menu selection
c Increase setting
d Decrease setting
2 Film area scanning
3 Developer tank
4 Intermediate wash tank
5 a Fixer tank F1
5 b Fixer tank F2
6 Final wash tank
7 Removable top rack parts
8 Distribution rollers
9 Infrared dryer
10 Film output
11 Film receiving tray
12 Replenishment pump for developer
13 Replenishment pump for fixer
14 a On/off switch
14 b Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB)
15 Three-way valves for draining the
machine tanks
16 Overheating protectors for developer
and fixer
• Darkroom panel
• Two replenishment tanks of 30 litres
with level sensor
• Water filter with cartridge
Peripheral equipment
• Structurix Mixer (50 Hz)
• Structurix Feeder combined with a
Flip-top magazine
The Structurix S eco has been awarded by
DIBT (Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik)
for its overall quality and performance, a
certificate numbered z-77,41-3.
31
Structurix M Eco
Compact and ecological
The Structurix M ECO is the most
compact processor of the Structurix Eco
Film Systems, suited to applications that
demand the highest image quality while
being ecologically responsible. The
secret lies in the double fixing tank, the
cascade fixing system - a unique
concept in the tabletop processors
range.
The ease of use and the problemfree
maintenance make the Structurix M ECO
an extremely user-friendly and reliable
processor. It has been designed for
consumers of small and medium
quantity of film.
Ecological Design
The Structurix M ECO lives up to
expectations ecologically with:
• Revolutionary cascade fixing
system which reduces the amount of
silver in the waste water by a factor of
5 to 10.
• Reduction of fixer replenishment
if the Structurix ecoFix is used.
• Economical water and electricity
consumption.
• Infrared drying reducing the amount of
heat produced in the darkroom to a
minimum.
2
3
4
5a
5b
6
8
7
10
9
Exact Replenishment
The surface area of the film is measured
accurately on entry by 5 detector rollers.
This unique film area scanning ensures
a precise economic, ecologic
replenishment operation and reduced
replenishment rates.
Minimal Running Costs
The accurate replenishment, as described
above, implies low chemical consumption.
In addition, during film processing only an
ecologically justified volume of water is
used and the consumption of electricity is
particularly low due to the infrared drying
system.
Accessories
• Optimal replenishment system as a
result of film surface scanning.
• Table support
• Intermediate washing which ensures
that there is hardly any carry-over of
developer, keeping the fixer bath in
optimum condition. This system also
prevents development faults occuring
on the film.
• Water filter with cartridge
• Design for Recycling
Extra attention has been given to the
selection of the materials in order to
improve the recyclability. Materials or
components which can disrupt the
recycling process are easy removable.
A Recycling-Passport (RP) and
Equipment Information Sheet (EIS) are
available.
32
1
• Replenishment tanks of 30 litres
Peripheral equipment
• Structurix Mixer (50 Hz)
Operating diagram:
1 Film feed table
2 Film area scanning
3 Developer tank
4 Intermediate wash area
5 a Fixer tank F1
5 b Fixer tank F2
6 Final wash tank
7 Infrared dryer
8 Film output
9 Film receiving tray
10 Overheating protectors for
developer and fixer
A Smart Choice for Excellent Film Output
The Structurix M ECO is a compact film
processor that occupies a minimal
amount of space in your darkroom. The
M ECO processor is versatile, in the
laboratory or transportable in a mobile
site darkroom. It processes sheet film as
well as roll film up to any length.
This processor appeals to environmentconscious companies of every size and
activity where film image quality is of
prime importance.
The M ECO is ideal for:
• on-site testing even with multiple
processors which are easy to transport
and use
• customers switching from manual
processing to an automated system
• serving as a back-up system to provide
flexibility in film solutions and to
complement digital solutions
• situations where space is limited
Customized Features
• Compact size
Takes up only 0.56 m2 of floor space.
• Well-conceived, lightweight construction
Constructed of stainless steel, aluminum
and PVC to be corrosion resistant
strong, lightweight and durable.
• Easy to use
Built with an automatic start/stop
function. Film detection with five
scanning rollers allow intelligent and
economic replenishment depending on
the processed film surface. The
detachable control display provides
visual reference of all process
parameters (temperature, dryer
settings). An OK light indicates when the
next film can be inserted.
• Easy to service
Lightweight aluminum side covers
enable fast access to the machine.
Circulating pumps and racks are easy to
remove, clean and service. The external
water and chemical connections assure
an efficient and separate drainage of
the liquids.
• Light-tight cover
The standard light-tight cover allows the
operator to perform other tasks while
film feeding into the Structurix M ECO
film processor is ongoing. It also
prevents dust particles from entering
the processor to help avoid scratches
on the film.
• Globally adaptable
Comes with state-of-the-art electronics.
Worldwide “plug and play” feature
allows you to adapt it to any standard
outlet, accommodating all voltages
globally.
33
Structurix U
Universal Reliability
The high reliability of our processors
and years of practical experience led
to the development of this unique
processor. Ease of use, ease of
maintenance and the fact that it is
suitable for almost every application
combine to be the main advantages
of the Structurix U.
Universal use
With the Structurix U, you have at your
disposal the most universal processor
from our selection. Structurix U combines
simplicity, reliability and universal use in
one processor. It is specially designed for
customers who use medium-sized
quantities of film. The Structurix U is very
versatile and processes sheet film as well
as roll film.
Offshore use
In response to conditions and the
demanding requirements with regard to
access time, an offshore version of the U
processor is available. This Structurix U
offshore version suits the specific offshore
conditions and satisfies the demands with
regard to processing time (90 sec.) and
reliability. Easy trouble shooting and
repair make this processor especially
suitable for use on remote sites. Moreover,
the built-in developer cooler allows
operation in warm climates.
Reliable
The Structurix U is a dependable
processor, no matter where installed. Built
with solid components, the construction
uses only simple and modern techniques.
User-friendly
Thanks to its functional design, the
processor operation is easy to control. An
audio and visual signal indicate when the
next film can be fed into the processor.
The dryer level and the developer
temperature level can be set using simple
steps.
Perfect processing quality
Three infrared drying units ensure uniform
drying, in accordance with the principle of
direct heat absorption. The fixer has its
own heater element, which reduces the
fixer warm up time considerably. This
temperature control guarantees the film
archival quality.
Selectable processing cycles
Upon delivery, the Structurix U is set at the
cycle time of 8 minutes. An optional cycle
time from 1.5 to 12 min. can be set quickly
and simply by an approved service
engineer.
Replenishment by area
Forward of the film feed slot five rollers
accurately measure the surface area of
the film. This unique film area scanning
ensures a more precise economic and
ecologic replenishment operation than if
the film were only scanned lengthwise.
Automatic daylight feeding
The Structurix U can easily be fitted with
the Structurix FEEDER. Just remove the
film feeding tray in a few seconds and
connect the film feeding system in its
place. With the FEEDER, you convert the
Structurix U into a practical, automatic
daylight film feeding system.
34
Accessories
• Darkroom panel
• Feed tray cover (light-tight)
• Two replenishment tanks of 30 litres
with level sensor
3
1
• Feeder speed connection adaptor
4
7
5
7
6
7
2
• Water filter with cartridge
8
Peripherals
• Structurix Mixer (50 Hz)
• Structurix Feeder (50/60 Hz) with flip-top
magazine
9
Operating diagram:
1 Film feed table
10
2 Control panel
3 Film area scanning
4 Developer tank
5 Fixer tank
6 Wash tank
7 Removable upper racks
8 Infrared dryer
9 Film receiving tray
10 Processor drain
Features
Advantages
• Mainly electro-mechanical functions
• High functional reliability
• Not sensitive to voltage fluctuations (which
can occur in an industrial environment)
• Processing cycle time:
choice between 5/6/7/8/9/10/11/12
min.
• Choice of development time while
keeping the required image quality
For offshore applications
choice between 1.5/2.5 min.
• Lower liquid level in the processor tanks
• Double liquid overflow (on both sides of
each processing tank)
• Extra floor closing plate and air filter
• Prevents the liquids from overflowing
out of the tank
• Sufficient drainage for abnormal sea
states or large movements
• Optimal protection from the intrusion of
so-called offshore dust in the processor
35
Structurix Nova
Compact Film Processor
The Structurix Nova is a processor
designed and built specifically for the
industrial NDT testing environment.
It is smart, robust, economical and
automatic, and fills the gap in the
market for a compact processor that
can perform rugged NDT testing,
while providing the quality of
Structurix Film Systems and the
features that users need.
36
Compact and portable
The Nova is a tabletop processor that
takes up just 0.40 m2 of space and has
been designed to be extremely light and
transportable. Its stainless steel,
aluminium and PVC construction minimise
weight (80 kg for the basic model) and
maximise corrosion resistance.
Versatile and economical
No matter what your field, the Nova
provides the ideal solution. For inspection
companies which conduct on-site testing
with multiple teams, the Nova’s compact
size and light weight make it the natural
choice. It offers manufacturing or testing
labs a way to automate their manual
processing at an affordable price. It also
offers an excellent solution to companies
which process 10 to 50 films per day.
Finally, for companies who need the
flexibility of a back-up processor which
can complement their digital solutions, the
Nova is an ideal choice. The intelligent
power management system ensures low
power consumption (a maximum of 1,700
watts) and therefore significant cost
savings over the processor’s lifetime.
Adaptable and easy to use
The Nova comes in one standard model
with state-of-the-art electronics, and the
worldwide ‘plug and play’ feature allows
you to adapt it to any conventional outlet
which accommodates any standard
global voltage. The Nova has an
automatic stop/start function. Film
detection with five scanning rollers means
that replenishment can be carried out
economically and intelligently depending
on the amount of film scanned. The
control display gives the operator a visual
reference of the processing parameters
and an ‘OK’ light indicates when the next
film can be inserted. The Nova has been
tested with the full range of Structurix
films and chemicals so you can be
confident of the optimum results in all
conditions. The standard light-tight cover
allows the operator to perform other tasks
while film is being fed into the Nova and
also prevents dust particles from
scratching the film.
Easy to service and upgrade
Lightweight aluminium side covers give
easy access to the machine and the racks
are easy to remove, clean and service. The
circulating pumps are also easy to access
and can be changed easily by the operator.
Remote monitoring and diagnostics allow
the service technician to connect the
Nova to his PC directly or remotely and to
transfer all data quickly and reliably.
The optional package of product add-ons,
the Nova Comfort Kit, allows you to
upgrade its performance quickly and
easily. A water saving solenoid valve and
replenishment pump permits the amount
of wash water supplied to be linked to the
surface area of the film entering the wash
section. A water filter with cartridge filters
particles out of the incoming water, thus
guaranteeing excellent film quality. Two
30-litre replenishment tanks can be sited
under the table, to save darkroom space.
NOVA Comfort Kit
• Water saving solenoid valve
• Water circulation pump
• Water filter with cartridge
• Two Replenishment Tanks of 30 Liters
Accessories
• Table Stand • Two Replenishment Tanks of 30 Liters
• Water Filter with Cartridge
Peripherals
• Structurix Mixer
The Structurix Nova offers you a unique
combination of portability and
performance.
37
Structurix FEEDER
Automatic Film Feeding Daylight System
Compact and time saving, the
Structurix FEEDER converts the
processors S eco and U into a unique
and practical daylight system. With
the Structurix FEEDER, you can save
time and expense in the darkroom.
At the press of a button, you can feed
up to 240 films an hour
automatically!
Complete daylight system
The Structurix FEEDER acts as a perfect
miniature darkroom, so that all further
activities can take place in daylight, while
automatically feeding film into the
processor.
Simple installation
Thanks to the easy detachable film
feeding tables of the Structurix processors
and the simple mounting system of the
FEEDER, the processors S eco and U are
quickly and easily converted.
Reliable
When the FEEDER is switched to “on”, it
carries out a self-diagnosis. While in
operation, built-in electronic checking
functions guarantee high reliability. In this
way, for example, a double film is detected,
returned and fed in again separately,
without intervention from the user.
Multiple film sizes
Grouped per size and per project or work
piece, our films can be loaded easily in
any darkroom. All film sizes from 6 to 43
cm wide and from 12 to 48 cm long can
be accommodated.
The handy film magazine, in which up to
four film lanes can be set up, makes the
Structurix FEEDER ideal for processing
films of welds. Up to 240 films per
magazine (four times 60 films/lane max.)
can be loaded!
Film magazine
The FLIP-TOP magazine is best for
highvolume processing of the same film
size. Films from 6 x 18 cm up to 43 x 48
cm can be loaded without removing the
FLIP-TOP magazine. This avoids repeated
manipulation of the magazine, prevents
wear and tear of the equipment and
simplifies the operator’s job.
Technical Specifications
Structurix FEEDER
Length
Width
Height
Weight
Power Supply
Magazine Types
Film Sizes
Loading Capacity
Priority Film Loading
Use
38
Without Film Magazine With Film Magazine
32/42 cm
63/78 cm
53.5 cm
53.5 cm
27.4 cm
27.4 cm
22 kg
25 kg
110 V-240 V, 50/60 Hz (Separate Mains Connection)
Flip-top
Min. 6 x 12 cm * (*) from 18 cm Length on,
Max. 43 x 48 cm Loading Without Removing
the Magazine
60 Films/Stack
Max. 4 Lanes
Easy
Fast
Loading on The Feeder
Non Transportable
Structurix MIXER
Timesaving and Standardized Chemical Mixing
The Structurix MIXER is a fully
independent unit that relieves you of
mixing chemicals. To use the
Structurix MIXER, simply place the
bottles on top of the MIXER. The rest
occurs automatically to save you
time.
Compact and solid
The compact design of the Structurix
MIXER means it requires very little space.
The materials used in construction of the
mixer have been chosen for greater
strength and enhanced resistance to
chemicals.
Reliable and user-friendly
With the Structurix MIXER, you can count
on your chemistry being mixed in a
consistent manner, time after time.
The MIXER provides both an audible and
visible signal when the next chemicals
should be prepared. You never come in
contact with the chemicals, thanks to the
bottles of concentrate having a safety
seal which is only pierced when the
bottles are set in position on the mixing
machine.
Easy to clean
The templates are easy to clean with
water. When the bottles of concentrate
are emptied, two covers can be used to
close the tanks.
In brief, the Structurix MIXER is a reliable
and simple mixing unit that ensures
optimal mixing of the developer and fixer
solutions. It is a valuable acquisition for
anyone seeking consistent, high-quality
film processing results.
The Structurix MIXER has a handy
pumping system for transferring the
chemicals from the MIXER into the
processor, for example, to refill the
processor after maintenance.
The Structurix MIXER connects easily to
your processor replenishment system in
order to act as a replenishment tank.
Technical Specifications
Structurix Mixer
Dimensions
Weight
Length
Width
Height
Empty
Developer Tank Capacity
Fixing Fank Capacity
Signal When Tank is Almost Empty
Filling Time
Cold Water Connection
Tap Water
Water Pressure
Power Supply
71 cm
45 cm
73 cm
35 kg
(With Storage Tanks Filled: 88 Kg)
20 l
20 l
Audible and Visual Signal at 6.5 l
(max.) 15 Minutes
Yes
5 - 30°C, Connection
Min. 1.5 bar, Max. 3 bar
230 - 240 V / 50 Hz
39
Structurix DRYER
Fast and efficient film drying
The Structurix Dryer is an
instrument that helps customers
who process films manually. GE
Sensing & Inspection Technologies
now introduces the new optimized
version of the Structurix Dryer.
Fast and efficient film drying
With the new Structurix Dryer, films dry
more rapidly than in conventional drying
cabinets. The drying process immediately
starts with no warm-up time needed.
The unit is compact and takes up little
space in either the stationary darkroom or
mobile lab. The lightweight of the Structurix
Dryer makes it easy to move or
transport.
The new Structurix Dryer consists of
state-of-the-art electronics that makes it
easy to operate and service. The new
dryer carries the CE label, GS and USA/
Canada NRTL sign.
Excellent results
The manually and thoroughly processed
film first passes through the wetting tank.
The water comes from a 2.5 liter water
bottle.
Most water is removed from the film by
means of squeegee rollers prior to the
drying section. The film is then hot air
dried on both sides and collected in the
adjustable film tray.
Easy to operate
The new dryer can be used worldwide. No
matter were you plan your operations,
the “plug and play” feature allows you to
adapt it to any standard outlet,
accomodating all voltages globally.
Drying temperature and processing time
of the Structurix Dryer can easily be set
and adapted to any circumstance. The
introduction of step-less speed control
enables an even better fine-tuning.
Technical Specifications
Structurix Dryer
Dimensions
Weight
Power
Frequency
Consumption
Maximum Film Width
40
Length
Length With Extended Receiving Tray
Width
Height
Height With Bottle
Weight Empty
Weight With Storage Tank Filled
Empty
Full (With Bottle)
Volts
Ampère
Hertz
Watts
60 cm
83 cm
63 cm
35 cm
45,5 cm
35 kg
88 kg
24 kg
27,5 kg
200-240 V / 100-120 V
5,0-6,0 A / 10,0-12,0 A
50 Hz / 60 Hz
1600 W
37 cm
Technical Specifications
Structurix NDT Processors
Si
S Eco
U
M ECO
NOVA
Preprogrammed Cycles
Optional Cycles
7
1.5 up to 12 Min.
(per 30 Sec.)
7
1.5 up to 12 Min.
(per 30 Sec.)
1
1.5 up to 12 Min.
(per 1 Min.)
1
1.5 up to 12 Min.
(per 1 Min.)
Standard Processing Cycle
Developer Immersion Time
Capacity
10 cm x 48 cm
(8 Min. Cycle)
(4 Films Side by Side)
8 Min.
100 Sec.
300 Films/Hour
8 Min.
100 Sec.
148 Films/Hour
1
3 up to 12 Min.
(per 1 Min.)
OS-cycles: 1.5/2/2.5
8 Min.
100 Sec.
106 Films/Hour
8 Min.
100 Sec.
92 Films/Hour
8 Min.
100 Sec.
92 Films/Hour
75 Films/Hour
50 cm/Min.
6 x 12 cm
3.5 cm
43 cm
12 cm
162 cm
111 cm
71 cm
123 cm
0.79 m2
298 Kg
426 Kg
16 A
50 Hz / 60 Hz
208 / 230-240 V
48 Films/Hour
32 cm/Min.
6 x 12 cm
3.5 cm
43 cm
12 cm
162 cm
111 cm
71 cm
123 cm
0.79 m2
285 Kg
426 Kg
16 A
50 Hz / 60 Hz
208 V / 230-240 V
34 Films/Hour
23 cm/Min.
6 x 12 cm
3.5 cm
43 cm
12 cm
120 cm
75 cm
68 cm
105 cm
0.50 m2
160 Kg
250 Kg
16 A
50 Hz / 60 Hz
200 V / 240 V
37 l
37 l
27 l
27 l
900 ml/m2
700 - 1200 ml/m2
13 l/m2
28°C
41.5 l
41.5 l
29 l
29 l
900 ml/m2
1200 ml/m2
13 l/m2
28°C
24 l
20 l
30 Films/Hour
20 cm/Min.
6 x 12 cm
3.5 cm
43 cm
12 cm
142 cm
86 cm
68 cm
59 cm
0.56 m2
104 Kg
134 Kg
16 A
50 Hz / 60 Hz
100 V / 120 V /
200-208 V /
230-240 V
10 l
10 l
9l
9l
900 ml/m2
1200 ml/m2
13 l/m2
28°C
30 Films/Hour
20 cm/Min.
6 x 12 cm
3.5 cm
43 cm
12 cm
119 cm
63 cm
68 cm
57 cm
0.40 m2
80 Kg
110 Kg
8.5 / 7.5 / 6.5 / 7.3 A
50 Hz / 60 Hz
100 V / 120 V /
200-208 V /
230-240 V
10 l
10 l
Transport Speed
Film Sizes
Dimensions
Weight
Power Supply
Format Min.
Width Min.
Width Max.
Length Min.
Length
Bottom
Width
Height
Surface on Floor
Empty
With Chemicals
Amperage
Frequency
Voltage
Tank Capacities
Developer Tank
Fixing Tank F1
Fixing Tank F2
Final Wash Tank
Standard
G135 Developer
Consumption
G335 Fixer
Water
Developing Temperature
Eco Film System at Standard (Eco) Cycle
Eco Cycle
Developer Immersion Time
Capacity
10 cm x 48 cm
(4 Films Side by Side)
35 x 43 cm
Transport Speed
EcoDEV Developer
EcoFIX Fixer
Water
Developing Temperature
20 l
900 ml/m2
1200 ml/m2
13 l/m2
28°C
8 (5) Min.
100 (62.5) Sec.
148 (300) Films/
Hour
48 (75) Films/Hour
32 (50) cm/Min.
900 (550) ml/m2
700 (700) ml/m2
13 l/m2
27 (29)°C
10 l
900 ml/m2
1200 ml/m2
13 l/m2
28°C
8 Min.
100 Sec.
92 Films/Hour
30 Films/Hour
20 cm/Min.
900 ml/m2
700 ml/m2
13 l/m2
27°C
Table above shows standard values at standard processing cycle unless differently indicated (modifications possible)
41
42
Structurix Chemicals
Strategically designed to be compatible with our films and processing
equipment, Structurix chemicals guarantee perfect film development.
The chemistry involved in the
processing of radiographic film is
a crucial part of the total cycle.
Because the goal in processing is to
control all factors that influence the
intrinsic quality of the industrial
X-ray film, the use of optimal
chemicals is essential. GE Sensing
& Inspection Technologies is the
exclusive provider of the complete
line of advanced, high-quality
Structurix processing chemicals.
Specially designed for industrial
X-ray applications, Structurix
chemicals are an integral part of our
total system approach. They are
compatible with Structurix film types
and equipment to guarantee perfect
development every time.
Suited for all processors
All types of processors can be combined
with Structurix chemicals. Best results,
however, are obtained with the dedicated
films and processors as they are designed
to work together.
Handy packaging
Structurix chemicals come in shipping
cartons made from 60 percent recycled
cardboard. Where possible, the cartons
are fitted with handles for easy tilting and
transportation. The use of color is
restricted and used only where the color is
part of the product information. All boxes
are color-coded with colored adhesive
tape so that contents are easily
identifiable. Red is used for boxes
containing developer, blue for boxes
containing fixer and brown for all other
chemicals.
Uniform PE material use for easier
recycling of bottles
Structurix chemicals are supplied in
translucent bottles made from 100
percent polyethylene (PE). Labels on the
bottles are made of polyethylene material
and have a white background to make the
printed text easier to read. To ensure each
bottle is easily PE-recyclable, the colored
components are only the screw cap and a
stripe in the label for identification
purposes (red for developer, blue for fixer
and natural for other chemicals).
Safety seal for easy automatic mixing
All bottles feature a safety seal. This seal
occurs during production. It is welded to
the bottle by induction heating to form a
perfectly airtight closure. When you
remove the screw cap, a skin of
polyethylene remains on the neck of the
bottle. The skin allows the bottle to be
placed upside down on a MIXER. This
feature is also one of our many
environmentally safe practices.
Guaranteed quantity
Structurix chemicals are marked with an
“e” sign on the front label after the
quantity indication. This ‘’e” marking
guarantees that Structurix chemicals are
delivered with the correct, authorized
quantity limits according to EU legislation.
Expiration date
Structurix chemicals are marked with an
“exp. date”, indicating product shelf life.
The “exp date” is inkjet printed and
includes the year and the month of
expiration. The expiration information also
appears on each shipping carton and
each part of the concentrate bottles.
Safety measures
Information relating to safety, health and
environmental aspects of the chemicals
can be found in the Safety Data Sheets
(SDS). We advise your careful adherence
to all safety instructions provided for the
use of our chemicals.
Process room conditions
We advise you ensure a well-ventilated
processing room. An air exchange of 10
times the room volume per hour is
recommended to prevent the build-up of
too high a concentration of chemical
fumes in the air.
A wide range of industrial X-ray
chemicals for every application.
Manual Processing
Automatic Processing
• ‘eco’ chemical range
• Standard chemical range
Cleaning Chemicals for Tanks and Racks
43
Manual Processing Chemicals
Structurix G 128 Developer
G 128 is a single part, liquid developer for
manual processing of industrial X-ray
films.
Its main advantages include:
• Excellent stability during storage as
concentrate
• Robust performance in high
temperature and high humidity
conditions
• Resistance to oxidation in normal use
• Excellent speed
• Exceptional contrast characteristics
The G128 manual developer is available in
boxes containing four sets of 5 litre bottles
of concentrate. Each 4 x 5 litres box will
make four sets of 25 litres of ready-for-use
solution.
The recommended replenishment rate
depends on the manual processing
system used:
• 600 ml/m2 or 90 ml/film of 35 x 43 cm is
the average rate to preserve good
processing condition
(reference: Structurix D7 film with an
average density of 2.50)
The standard developing temperature is
20°C for five minutes developing time.
• 400 ml/m2 with channel type hangers
• 300 ml/m2 with clip type hangers
To obtain best results, the G128 developer
should be used in conjunction with the
Structurix G328 fixer.
Structurix G 328 Fixer
G328 fixer is a single part, liquid fixer for
manual processing of industrial X-ray
films. The G 328 fixer contains no
hardening agent.
It is available in shipping cartons
containing four sets of 5 litres concentrate
for four sets of 25 litres ready-for-use bath.
The recommended replenishment rate is
independent of the used manual
processing system and is applicable for
both clip type hangers and channel type
hangers:
• 600 ml/m2 is the average rate or
90 ml/film of 35 x 43 cm
• Keep the solution level constant and
replace after 1.5 m2 film per litre original
solution has been fixed
44
In the event an automatic dryer such as
the DRYER unit is used, a hardening fixer,
preferably G335 (part A & B) or ecoFIX
(part A & B), is recommended. When using
the Structurix G 328 fixer, we strongly
advise you add a hardening agent to the
G 328 fixer.
Automatic Processing Chemicals
The new Structurix Eco Chemicals are
an important link in the total Structurix
eco Film System.
Thanks to the intelligent composition of the
chemicals, ecoDEV and ecoFIX, it is
possible to reduce chemistry consumption
up to 60 percent, compared to the present
reference levels while maintaining
excellent sensitometric and physical
characteristics. This significant reduction
in chemistry consumption translates into
cost savings, as the smaller volume of
developer and fixer required leads to less
waste volume and lower disposal costs.
The eco chemicals, ecoDEV and ecoFIX,
have the intrinsic qualities and benefits of
standard Structurix chemicals and,
therefore, provide excellent results in
combination with any Structurix
processor.
EcoDEV and ecoFIX have the same dilution
as G135 and G335, allowing use of the
current NDT MIXER without modification.
Structurix ecoDEV
The Structurix ecoDEV is a new two-part
developer suitable for standard processing
in the 8 minute cycle but specifically
designed for super fast 5 minute processing.
EcoDEV is glutaraldehyde-free and
boron-free, reducing its impact on the
environment. This is especially true when
processing is in the 5 minute cycle in
combination with the NDT S eco
processor. This combination has the
lowest possible replenishment rate while
delivering optimal developing capabilities.
EcoDEV is packed in a shipping carton
containing two sets of part A (5 litres) and
part B (0.5 liters) concentrate. One set is
sufficient for preparing 20 litres of
ready-to-use developer. Each carton
contains four bottles.
The ecoDEV developer enables you to
develop your films at a lower temperature
in the standard 8 minute processing cycle,
resulting in less evaporation of the
chemicals.
Structurix ecoSTART
Structurix ecoSTART is a new one-part
starter solution to be added to ecoDEV
ready-for-use solution.
Whenever you replace the ecoDEV
developer, we recommend use of
ecoSTART starter solution to ensure film
images with optimal sensitometric results
right from the start.
EcoSTART is packed in a shipping carton
containing 4 sets of 1 litre bottles.
Structurix ecoFIX
The Structurix ecoFIX is a new two-part
fixer for universal use but specially
designed for super fast processing, with
the lowest possible replenishment rates
while rendering improved archiving
results.
EcoFIX is boron-free. Due to the lower level
of aluminum sulfate, the risk of precipitation
is reduced drastically, ensuring good film
quality and consistent repeatability.
EcoFIX is packed in a shipping carton
containing two sets of part A (5 litres bottle)
and part B (1.25 litre bottle) concentrate.
One set of part A & B is sufficient for
preparing 20 liters of ready-for-use fixer.
Structurix ecoFIX can be used for manual
processing. For manual usage, one set of
concentrate is enough to prepare 25 litres
of ready-for-use solution.
Technical Specifications - Structurix Eco Chemicals
Recommended Use Of ecoSTART
Recommended Use Of ecoDEV
Recommended Use Of ecoFIX
Processing
Time
5 min.
cycle
8 min.
cycle
Processing Immersion Temp.
Time
Time
(°C)
5 min.
62.5 sec.
29° C
cycle
Replenishment Rate
550 ml/m2
Processing
Time
5 min. cycle
Processor
8 min.
cycle
900 ml/m2
8 min. cycle
S eco
M eco
U
NOVA
Immersion Quantity
Time
To Be Added
62.5 sec.
25 ml per Litre Fresh
ecoDEV Solution
100 sec.
20 ml per Litre Fresh
ecoDEV Solution
100 sec.
27° C
8 min. cycle
S eco
Replenishment
Rate
700 ml/m2
700 ml/m2
1200 ml/m2
45
Automatic Processing Chemicals
The standard Structurix chemicals
are recognized worldwide and have
been used successfully in industrial
X-ray labs for years, thanks to their
high quality.
Structurix G 135 Developer
Structurix G 135 is a three-part developer
for use with automatic processing.
Structurix G135 is known for its stability,
long shelf life and self-cleaning
characteristics. The self-cleaning feature
means that rather than leaving solids
floating to the bottom of the processor
tank, they sink through the drains. This
feature keeps the chemistry very clean
and results in better film quality.
Structurix is packed in a shipping carton
containing two sets of part A (5 litres), part
B & C (2x 0.5 litres) concentrate. One set is
sufficient for preparing 20 litres of
ready-for-use developer, if used for
automatic processing.
Structurix G 135 s Starter
Structurix G135 s starter is a one-part,
ready-for-use starter solution to be added
to fresh G135 developer ready-for-use
solution.
G 135 s Starter is supplied in quantities of
four sets of 1 litre bottles per box.
When preparing fresh G 135 developer,
an additional quantity of 25 ml starter
solution per litre ready-for-use developer
is added in the processor tank. Thus, a
bottle of 1 litre G135 s Starter matches
40 litres of G135 ready-for-use developer.
The use of starter solution is recommended
whenever the developer is replaced,
ensuring film images with optimal
sensitometric results right from the start.
46
Structurix G 335 Fixer
The Structurix G 335 Fixer is a two-part
fixer for universal use. The G335 fixer is
universally applicable for automatic and
manual processing.
G335 is known for:
• excellent archival permanence
• low maintenance requirements
• minimal odor level
It is available in a box of two sets of 5 litres
part A and 1.25 litres part B concentrate.
One set of part A & B provides 20 litres of
ready-for-use fixing bath for automatic
processing. When using G335 for manual
processing, one set of concentrate should
be diluted for up to 25 litres of
ready-for-use solution.
Cleaning Products
State-of-the-art film system
technology and regular maintenance
of the film processor are the best
guarantees of outstanding film
image quality.
Two innovative products help assure the
intrinsic quality of the film processing.
They are DEVCLEAN and FIXCLEAN,
components of a universal cleaning
solution for a clean processing system.
The use of DEVCLEAN and FIXLCEAN will:
• extend the useful life of the Structurix
developer and fixer solutions
• improve the developer system
performance and reliability
• ensure consistent, high quality images
• reduce costs by extending your
maintenance interval
Structurix DEVCLEAN
DEVCLEAN is a highly efficient, two-part
maintenance product for the thorough
cleaning of the developing area of both
processors and tanks along with the
accessories used for manual development.
Silver deposits and sludge on all parts
dissolve effortlessly, completely and
rapidly.
DEVCLEAN
• is a one-step maintenance that needs
no neutralizing
• rinses away easily and quickly
DEVCLEAN is offered as a one processor
service set. Each box contains one set of 5
litres part A and 5 litres part B to be diluted
to 30 litres ready-for-use cleaning
solution.
Structurix FIXCLEAN
FIXCLEAN is a one-part, liquid cleaning
product for regular maintenance of fixer,
intermediate rinsing and wash water
areas of processors. It can also be used to
clean fixer tanks of chemical mixers such
as the NDT MIXER, as well as manual film
processing systems.
The FIXCLEAN cleaning compound is
based on sodium hydroxide. It is highly
efficient and contains no chlorine based
substances.
FIXCLEAN advantages include:
• speed and efficiency
• dissolves lime
• cleans all sediment and deposits
FIXCLEAN is conveniently delivered in a
quantity appropriate for one processor
service. Each box contains one cleaning
set or one 5 litre bottle of concentrate to
be diluted to 50 litres of ready-for-use
solution. Most fixer and wash water areas
can be cleaned with one set of FIXCLEAN.
47
Structurix Eco Film System
The Structurix Eco Film System
combines both economy in use and
ecological responsibility. This
advanced film system minimizes its
impact on the environment with less
chemistry consumption, higher film
throughput and lower energy usage.
Choose from the Structurix Film System
in 5 minute cycle (NDT S eco) or the
Structurix Film System in
8 minute cycle (NDT S eco/M eco).
Both are specially designed to meet the
strictest standards for silver content in the
wash water. The secret lies in the double
fixing tank with which the system is
equipped. This cascade fixing system
ensures that the amount of silver in the
wash water remains within the limit of
<50 mg/m2. Additionally the Structurix
S eco allows significant reduction in the
chemistry replenishment rate.
Structurix Chemicals
Thanks to the intelligent composition of
the chemicals, Structurix ecoDEV and
ecoFIX, it is possible to reduce the chemistry
consumption to less than 60 percent of
the present reference levels while
maintaining excellent sensitometric and
physical characteristics. This drastic
reduction in chemistry consumption
translates into lower purchasing costs,
while the smaller volume of developer and
fixer waste leads to lower disposal costs.
In fact, the higher concentration of silver
in the fixer waste actually turns an
expenditure item to an income item,
thanks to silver recovery.
Structurix ecoDEV
The ecoDEV is a new two-part developer
for universal use but specially designed
for super fast processing, with the lowest
possible replenishment rates while
maintaining optimum developing
capabilities. The hardener-free and
boron-free ecoDEV has a minimal impact
on the environment.
Replenishment rate 5 min. cycle:
550 ml/m2 (S eco)
Replenishment rate 8 min. cycle:
900 ml/m2 (S eco/M eco).
The use of the starter solution, ecoSTART,
is highly recommended when filling the
developer tank. In this way, optimal
sensitometric results are ensured from
the start.
48
Structurix S eco
Structurix films D2 to D8
Structurix M eco
Structurix Eco Chemicals
Structurix ecoFIX
The ecoFIX is a new boron-free, two-part
fixer specially designed for super fast
processing, with the lowest possible
replenishment rates while rendering
improved archiving results.
Replenishment rate: 700 ml/m2 (S eco
and M eco).
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies
provides safety and environment
information on all film System products in
your language and according to the
legislation in your country. Safety Data
Sheets (SDS) contain data about the
composition of chemical substances and
preparations and the relevant health,
safety and environmental information.
Article Information Sheets (AIS) contain
data about Structurix Films. Equipment
Information Sheets (EIS) contain relevant
health, safety and environmental data
about equipment. Recycling Passes (RP)
give information to customers and
specialized waste collectors about
hazardous components and valuable
materials in end-of-life equipment.
49
Structurix Eco Film Systems
The Structurix Eco Film System in
5 minute cycle
The Structurix eco Film System in
8 minute cycle
This Structurix Eco Film System has all
possible economical advantages and
features to minimize its impact on the
environment, including:
Compared to the Structurix Eco Film
System with the S eco installed in a
5 minute cycle, this system operates with
the S eco or M eco in an 8 minute cycle.
• Up to 60 percent higher film throughput
capacity
• Up to 40 percent less chemistry
• Up to 40 percent less chemistry and
packaging waste
• A considerable decrease in wash water
replenishment rates
• Lower silver freights in the wash water
• Reduction of the fixer replenishment
• Reduction of wash water
• Reduction of silver content in the waste
water
• Less packaging waste
• Less energy consumption
• Low energy consumption
A certified system
The Structurix Eco Film System is
perfectly suited to applications that
demand the highest image quality. It is
certified according to the Industrial Film
Systems Classification Standards EN
584-1, ASTM E-1815, ISO 11699-1 and
JIS-K7627. The German Federal Institute,
BAM, awarded the Structurix Eco Film
System in 5 minute cycle the certificate of
compliance to International Classification
Standards.
A certified system
This Structurix Eco Film System is
perfectly suited to applications that
demand the highest image quality. It is
certified according to the Industrial Film
Systems Classification Standards EN
584-1, ASTM E-1815, ISO 11699-1 and
JIS-K7627.
Structurix films
The radiographic films D2, D3, D4, D5,
D7,D8 can be used in this system.
Adaptations have been made to
harmonize the drying characteristics of
this assortment.
Superior performance
The Structurix Eco Film System in
8 minute cycle has a film throughput
capacity of 32 cm/min., or 48 films
(35 x 43 cm) per hour for the S eco and
20 cm/min., or 30 films (35 x 43 cm) per
hour for the M eco.
Outstanding performance
When set to the 5 minute cycle, the
Structurix S eco processes no less than
51 cm of film per minute or 78 films (35 x
43 cm) per hour! ecoDEV immersion time:
62.5 sec. (5 min. cycle) at temperature
29°C.
50
This system also provides important
ecological advantages, including:
Structurix films
The Structurix films D2, D3, D4, D5, D7, D8
can be used in this system.
Technical Specifications
Structurix Eco Film Systems Versus Structurix Standard Film Systems
Structurix Eco Film Systems
8 Minute Cycle
S eco
M eco
All
Structurix Standard Film Systems
8 Minute Cycle
U
NOVA
All
Structurix Equipment
5 Minute Cycle
S eco
Structurix Films
All
Film Throughput
• cm/min.
• 35 x 43 cm Films/Hour
51
78
32 (S eco) / 20 (M eco)
48
/ 30
Depending on Processor Type
Depending on Processor Type
ecoDEV: 550 ml/m2
ecoFIX: 700 ml/m2
ecoSTART: 25 l/l*
62.5
29°
13 l/m2
< 50 mg/m2
ecoDEV: 900 ml/m2
ecoFIX: 700 ml/m2
ecoSTART: 20 ml/l*
100
27°
13 l/m2
< 50 mg/m2
G135: 900 ml/m2
G335: 1200 ml/m2
G135S: 25 ml/l*
100
28°
Depending on Processor Type 13 l/m2 and more
300 - 600 mg/m2
4 ppm
1 ppm
4 ppm
1 ppm
Between 25 & 50 ppm
Structurix Chemistry
• Developer Replenishment
• Fixer Replenishment
• Starter
Developer Immersion Time (sec)
Temperature (°C)
Water Consumption Between
Silver Freight**
Silver Concentration
• At Fixer Rate 700 ml/m2
• At Fixer Rate 1200 ml/m2
* I ready to use.
** Values based on average radiopraphic densities.
51
52
Structurix Quality Assurance Tools
Standard for control of film processing
by means of reference values.
To assist our customers in making sure the
film systems render the expected
capability in daily use, we refer to the
standards for radiographic examination.
EN444, ISO 5579, ASTM E94 and others
specify that the user has to process the
films in accordance with the conditions
recommended by the manufacturer and
pay special attention to monitor and
control developing, fixing and washing.
ASTM E94 states: “To produce a
satisfactory radiograph, the care used in
making the exposure must be followed by
equal care in processing. The most careful
radiographic techniques can be nullified
by incorrect or improper darkroom
procedures.”
Therefore, EN 584 and ISO 11699 consist
of two parts. EN 584-2 and ISO 11699-2
describe how the user should control his
or her processing system. For instance, to
guarantee the designed film system’s
performance, calibrated pre-exposed
strips provided by the film manufacturer
must be used.
We designed the Structurix Quality
Assurance Tools, a set of practical,
dedicated tools for the radiographer to
control and prove compliance of his or her
entire system.
53
Structurix Quality Assurance Tool
Structurix Certified PMC Strip (Process Monitoring Control)
The Structurix Certified PMC strip
is a handy, fast and reliable tool for
monitoring the quality of the film
processing system and for proving
compliance with existing standards
on systems classifications.
X-ray pre-exposed film strips
These X-ray pre-exposed film strips are
produced under Agfa’s Quality
Management System (Q.M.S) conditions
according to ISO 9001-2000.
Contents
Every Structurix Certified PMC pack
contains:
• 25 X-ray exposed, undeveloped PMC
strips in individual daylight packaging.
Each strip bears a unique serial (ID)
number, even after processing
• A PMC chart to record test results
showing compliance with the standards
• Detailed instructions for use
• A certificate for compliance with
EN 584-2 and ISO 11699-2
Purpose
The purpose of these PMC strips is to:
• Demonstrate conformity with the
certified Structurix standard film
system, as defined in European
standard EN 584 part 2 and ISO
11699-2
• Monitor the performance of the
Structurix processing system, in order to
guarantee consistent high quality
• Enable early corrective actions to be
taken in case of deviations
• Be used on a day to day basis to
provide control data as part of a quality
management system (e.g. ISO
9001-2000)
54
THIO-TEST
FOG + BASE
Speed index Sr: average value
of net densities of step X
Contrast index Cr: positive
difference of the average
densities of step X and X + 4
X
X
+
4
Reference
speed step
Reference
contrast step
Contrast
Structurix PMC STRIPS
without certificate that can
be used to monitor the
performance of the Structurix
processing system in order to
guarantee consistent quality.
Every PMC pack contains:
•50 X-ray exposed,
undeveloped PMC strips in
individual daylight packaging
• A PMC chart to record test
results
• Instructions for use
Structurix Certified DENSTEP
Structurix THIO-Test
The Structurix CERTIFIED DENSTEP is
a density step wedge film to verify
the calibration of optical
transmission densitometers used in
the industrial X-ray field.
Archivability check
The archivability of the processed film is
evaluated by measuring the residual
thiosulphate in the emulsion layers. The
Structurix Thio-Test provides the means
for performing the control of fixing and
washing as described in EN 584-2 and ISO
11699-2.
The Structurix Thio-Test kit consists of:
• the Thio-Test Color Stepwedge with four
steps, which relate to the archivability
expressed in number of years
• one dropper bottle of Thio-Test reagent,
of 35 ml (about 1,000 drops)
Each Structurix CERTIFIED DENSTEP is:
• Packed in a light-tight waterproof
package which protects it against
moisture, dust, etc. guaranteeing a shelf
life of at least four years
The Structurix Thio-Test also correlates
perfectly with other international
standards (ISO/ ANSI) for determining the
archival quality of industrial X-ray film. It
is a quick and simple method to determine
the “life expectancy” of processed films
and warns of poorly fixed and/or
washed films.
• Provided with a calibration certificate
and a copy of the NIST certificate S.R.M.
1001
The density values reported, cross
referenced by serial number to the
certificate, are traceable to NIST (the
United States National Institute of
Standards and Technology)
through traceable calibrations of the
instrumentation and procedures in
accordance with our ISO 9001-2000
approved QA system.
55
Regional Contact Information
North America
Japan
+1866 243 2638 (toll free)
+1 717 242 0327
+81 422 67 7067
+81 422 67 7068
Europe
South America
+49 2233 6010
+55 11 3067.8166
50 Industrial Park Road
Lewistown, PA 17044
USA
Robert Bosch Strasse 3
50354 Huerth
Germany
Medie Corp Bldg.8 2-4-14 Kichijoji-honcho,
Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-0004
Japan
Av. das Nações Unidas, 8501 - 1º andar
05425-070, São Paulo, SP
Brazil
Asia
5F, Building 1, No.1 Huatuo Road,
Zhangjiang High-Tech Park,
Shanghai 201203
China
+86 800 915 99668 (toll free)
+86 (0)21-3877 7888
www.geinspectiontechnologies.com
GEIT-50018EN (01/09)
© 2008 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved. We reserve the right to technical modifications without prior notice. GEIT-40007EN (10/08)
56
Download PDF